Norman Sicily
The Normans of Northern France conquered Sicily in the years 1061 to 1091 and made Palermo their capital. The Normans ruled Sicily until 1189 when King William II died childless. The Norman King Roger II founded the Kingdom of Sicily which existed in some form from 1130 to 1816. The German Hohenstaufen dynasty subsequently ruled Sicily until 1268.

In the late 11th and 12th centuries, the Normans created a unique Mediterranean culture that is commonly referred to as Norman-Arab or Norman-Arab-Byzantine. This civilization resulted from the interaction between the Greek-speaking population, Arab settlers who had dominated the island before the arrival of the Normans, and of course Romanesque Northern European culture imported by the Normans. As a result, Sicily became the crossroads of Mediterranean cultures under Norman rule, and a hybrid culture arose that integrated Norman-Catholic, Byzantine-Orthodox and Arab-Islamic elements.
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