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Noted psychologists Kenneth Clark and Mamie Phipps Clark: 1945 ca. | by Washington Area Spark
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Noted psychologists Kenneth Clark and Mamie Phipps Clark: 1945 ca.

Kenneth Clark and Mamie Phipps Clark are shown in a photograph circa 1945 during the period they were conducting research into the effects of Jim Crow on African American children.


The couple were African-American psychologists who as a married team conducted important research among children and were active in the Civil Rights Movement.


They founded the Northside Center for Child Development in Harlem and the organization Harlem Youth Opportunities Unlimited (HARYOU).


Kenneth Clark also was an educator and professor at City College of New York, and first black president of the American Psychological Association.


They were known for their 1940s experiments using dolls to study children's attitudes about race. The Clarks testified as expert witnesses in Briggs v. Elliott (1952), one of five cases combined into Brown v. Board of Education (1954).


The Clarks' work contributed to the ruling of the U.S. Supreme Court in which it determined that de jure racial segregation in public education was unconstitutional.


Chief Justice Earl Warren wrote in the Brown v. Board of Education opinion, "To separate them from others of similar age and qualifications solely because of their race generates a feeling of inferiority as to their status in the community that may affect their hearts and minds in a way unlikely to ever be undone.”


Clark became a life long civil rights activist and practitioner while a student at Howard University.


In 1934 Clark and several others led 30 Howard University students to conduct direct action at the U.S. Capitol attempting to desegregate the House and Senate public restaurants.


The demonstrations were prompted by the barring of Morris Lewis, an aide to the only African American U.S. representative Oscar DePriest, from the public House restaurant in January and the subsequent forcible removal of Mabel Byrd, a civil rights activist, from the Senate restaurant in February of 1934.


DePriest sought a resolution in the House that barred discrimination.


The students acted after a number of small interracial groups organized by the Women’s International League for Peace and Freedom began taking seats in the restaurants and demanding to be served after the Lewis and Byrd incidents. This campaign marked the first ongoing, organized sit-ins in the city.


After an interracial group was barred from service at the House restaurant, Afro American reporter Frederick Weaver was invited by waiter Harold Covington into the restaurant where Weaver was served a bowl of soup. Both were also Howard University students.


Covington was fired for the incident and word spread quickly to the Howard campus.


Clark wrote an editorial for The Hilltop, Howard’s student newspaper.


The next day Clark, Weaver and a few others organized thirty students, most dressed in suits, to attempt to obtain service at the House restaurant, but were barred by police. The Senate closed the restaurant in anticipation of the demonstration before the students arrived.


A second attempt to enter the House restaurant resulted in a scuffle between Covington and a doorman and Covington was arrested.


When the students went to the police station, four of their leaders, including Clark, were arrested for blocking the sidewalk.


The precinct captain quickly dismissed the charges against the four and expunged their records.


Newspapers ran sensational headlines about the demonstration and DePriest distanced himself from the ongoing protests


There were calls from Congress to expel the students and university president Mordecai Johnson followed up by asking for expulsions or suspensions for the participants.


However faculty disciplinary committee chair Ralph Bunche, a future Nobel Prize winner, argued that the students should be given medals and not discipline. The decision was no discipline


The charges against Covington were ultimately dropped with the prosecutor determining that Covington had not struck the doorman first. While the students’ versions of events were vindicated, the protests were effectively ended at that point.


DePriest attempted almost from the beginning to run an inside legislative game to end Jim Crow in the building, but was easily defeated by Democratic Speaker of the House Thomas Rainey.


DePriest was defeated in the next election and his successor, Arthur Mitchell, was not interested in the cause. The restaurants remained Jim Crow until the early 1950s.


However, the ten days of sit-ins and demonstrations in 1934 won some small victories in getting some of the interracial groups waited on at the restaurants and served as a tactical model to be refined later.


Howard students would conduct sit-ins at Washington, D.C. restaurants again in 1942 and 1943 with the Howard administration again threatening to discipline the students effectively ending the movement.


The use of the tactic would not become widespread until the Greensboro, N.C. sit-in of 1960. Within months of the Greensboro sit-ins, Howard University students utilized the tactic to desegregate restaurants in Arlington, Va., Montgomery County, Md. and Prince George’s County, Md.


For a detailed account of the campaign against Jim Crow in the Capitol, see


For related photos, see


The photographer is unknown. The image is from the website “Vintage everyday.”

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Taken circa 1945