NYC: Holland Tunnel
Begun in 1920 and completed in 1927, it is named after Clifford Milburn Holland, Chief Engineer on the project, who died before it was completed. The tunnel is one of the earliest examples of a ventilated design, having 80 ft diameter fans blowing air in one series of ducts and out another series. Ventilation was required by the advent of the automobile and associated carbon monoxide exhaust.
The tunnel consists of a pair of tubes, each providing two lanes in a twenty foot roadway width. The north tube is 8,558 ft from end to end, while the south tube is slightly shorter at just 8,371 ft. Both tubes are situated in the mud beneath the river, with the lowest point of the roadway approximately 93 feet below mean high water. According to the Port Authority of New York and New Jersey, which controls the tunnel, traffic for 2002 totalled 15,764,000 vehicles, 33,926,000 vehicles in 2004, and 33,964,000 vehicles in 2005. The Tunnel is part of Interstate 78.
New Jersey State Register (1995)
National Register #93001619 (1993)