Consequently, the (British) colonial and (Ethiopian) imperial authorities launched a vast campaign of 'pacification'. In fact, the so-called pacification campaigns were a disguised form of slave-raids. Then, started a cycle of pacification, punitive, moralizing expeditions on the Gambella region which became the main source of slaves in South-western Ethiopia.
The people of Gambella, therefore, first, experienced the integration to Ethiopia and the arrival of the modern state as a loss of political autonomy, economic marginalization and assumption of stigmatized identity. Anuak and Nuer in Ethiopia or in Sudan are still called 'slaves'.