North Wales. Edward 1’s mighty Conwy Castle, part of a series of castles he had built to form “an iron ring of castles” by which he kept the conquered Welsh under control. Construction began in 1382 under the direction of Edward’s master builder, James of St. George, and took only seven years to complete.
Conwy has eight towers, seven of which have narrow stairways that spiral in the direction that favours a right handed defender (more room to swing a sword) but one tower with a stairway the favours a left handed defender. Seven out of eight of the population is right handed. Did they know that in 1382?
Sitting on a solid rock outcrop Conwy was in no danger of being under-mined by attacking forces. The nature of the rock gives rise to another Conwy oddity. The castle has no foundations; it is sitting on that rock by the weight of its massive masonry.