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Quelle:

de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spiegel

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mirror

  

Ein Spiegel (von lat. speculum „Spiegel, Abbild” zu lat. specere „sehen”) ist eine reflektierende Fläche – glatt genug, dass reflektiertes Licht nach dem Reflexionsgesetz seine Parallelität behält und somit ein Abbild entstehen kann. Die Rauheit der Spiegelfläche muss dafür kleiner sein als etwa die halbe Wellenlänge des Lichts. Eine rauere weiße Fläche remittiert ebenfalls alles Licht, jedoch wird dieses hierbei ungeordnet in alle Richtungen gestreut.

  

Auch nicht sichtbare elektromagnetische Wellen und Schallwellen können an geeigneten Flächen gespiegelt werden („Reflexion“).

  

Die Transparenz und Absorption (halbtransparent, nicht-transparent, wellenlängenabhängige Transparenz oder Absorption) des Spiegels hat Einfluss auf Helligkeit und Farbe des Spiegelbildes. Ferner wird niemals die gesamte Energie gespiegelt, es gibt immer einen Verlust – der Reflexionsgrad ist immer kleiner 100 %.

Planspiegel (ebene Spiegel) liefern ein gleich großes virtuelles Spiegelbild. Tripelspiegel liefern seitenverkehrte, auf dem Kopf stehende Bilder.

  

Das Spiegelbild in einem ebenen Spiegel gibt ein wahrheitsgetreues bzw. unverzerrtes Abbild sowohl von Längen als auch von Winkeln. Der Spiegel vertauscht allerdings die ihm zugewandte mit der ihm abgewandten Seite. Dadurch wechselt die ‚Händigkeit‘. Wenn sich der Beobachter in die Lage seines Spiegelbildes versetzen möchte, so erscheint es ihm, als ob rechts und links vertauscht wären – alles erscheint im Wortsinne spiegelbildlich. Es liegt also nahe, die falsche Händigkeit als eine Vertauschung von rechts und links zu interpretieren, was dann zum scheinbaren Widerspruch führt, dass im Gegensatz dazu oben und unten nicht vertauscht wird. Um in diesem Bild zu bleiben, kann man formulieren, dass der Spiegel nicht links und rechts, sondern vielmehr vorn und hinten vertauscht.

  

Fällt der Blick über zwei Spiegel auf das Objekt, erscheint es wieder mit richtiger Händigkeit. Dieses Phänomen machen sich Periskope und Spiegelreflexkameras zunutze. Man kann nur durch Verwendung von zwei Spiegeln sich selbst so betrachten, wie man von anderen gesehen wird.

  

Wenn die Spiegelfläche nicht eben ist, ist das Spiegelbild verzerrt. Bei konvexen Spiegeln (gewölbt wie eine Kugeloberfläche) erscheint das (virtuelle) Spiegelbild immer verkleinert.[1][2] Hingegen kann durch Hohlspiegel ein vergrößertes (reelles) Spiegelbild erzielt werden. Das Abbild entsteht in der entfernungs- und krümmungsabhängigen Fokusebene. Mit welligen Spiegeln können Zerrbilder erzeugt werden, wie man sie in Kuriositäten- oder Lachkabinetten findet.

Spiegel können nach ihrem Aufbau unterteilt werden. Zum einen gibt es Spiegel für alltägliche Zwecke, bei denen ein durchsichtiges Trägermaterial von hinten beschichtet wird. Heute ist eine mit Aluminium beschichtete Glasplatte am häufigsten zu finden, aber auch Silber wird eingesetzt. Die Metallschicht ist hinten durch eine Lackschicht vor Oxidation geschützt. Die Reinigung der Sicht-Seite von Staub, Wasserrändern und anderen Verschmutzungen, z. B. durch Berühren mit Fingern, ist gelegentlich erforderlich, jedoch verhältnismäßig unkritisch. Früher verwendete man Quecksilber und Zinn. Ein Decklack war nicht notwendig, weil das Amalgam chemisch sehr stabil ist.

  

Im Gegensatz dazu sind optische Spiegel (auch Oberflächenspiegel genannt) häufig so aufgebaut, dass die spiegelnde Fläche weitgehend offen vorne auf einem (undurchsichtigen) Trägermaterial aufgebracht ist. Das hat den Vorteil, dass die Grenzfläche vom Glas, die zweifach vom Strahl durchquert wird, entfällt und somit nicht in der Lage ist, Schatten- und Mehrfachbilder zu bewirken. Als Beschichtung wird hier typischerweise Aluminium verwendet, das wesentlich weniger korrodiert als Silber und außerdem einen vergleichsweise flachen Spektralverlauf des Reflexionsvermögens auf hohem Niveau aufweist. Das Trägermaterial für einen solchen Spiegeltyp muss deshalb im Unterschied keineswegs transparent sein und kann damit ein relativ breites Spektrum an weiteren, gewollten Eigenschaften umsetzen, z. B. Bruchsicherheit, Abführung von Verlustenergie. Ein solcher Spiegel kann deshalb sogar aus Vollmaterial hergestellt werden, erfordert also für die Funktion selbst keinerlei Beschichtungen. Verschmutzungen sind hierbei nach Möglichkeit zu vermeiden und für die (seltene) Reinigung ist die verwendete Methode mit Bedacht zu wählen.

  

Eine andere Variante von optischen Spiegeln wird durch Prismenspiegel und Strahlteiler realisiert, bei denen das Licht durch eine plane Glasfläche in den eher großvolumigen Glaskörper fällt und dann an einer Schräge unter Ausnutzung der Totalreflexion in eine andere Richtung teilweise oder vollständig abgelenkt wird, um nach etwas Weg wieder aus dem Glaskörper auszutreten. Ein solcher Spiegel benötigt somit keine reflektierende Schicht, sondern nutzt das Grenzschichtverhalten des Materials, in dem sich das Licht bewegt. Auf der anderen Seite der Grenzschicht ist typischerweise Luft zu finden. Bei diesem Konzept kann z. B. Kondensation, also Feuchtigkeit auf der Grenzfläche, die Funktion vorübergehend beeinträchtigen. Die Ein- und Austrittsflächen dagegen sind nur bedingt kritisch.

  

Die bekanntesten Spiegel sind die Garderoben- und Badezimmerspiegel im Haushalt. Für sie wird meistens Floatglas verwendet, weil es besonders planparallel ist. Optische Planspiegel dienen in Versuchsaufbauten und/oder optischen Bänken der Umleitung von Strahlengängen in andere Richtungen.

  

Planspiegel erzeugen von einem Objekt kein reelles Bild wie beispielsweise eine Sammellinse. Der Spiegel zeigt einen vor dem Spiegel stehenden Gegenstand so, als wenn er im gleichen Abstand hinter dem Spiegel stünde. Dadurch ist der Gegenstand für den Betrachter scheinbar weiter entfernt, so dass er wegen der Perspektive kleiner erscheint. Die eigentliche Abbildung erledigt hierbei aber nicht der Spiegel, sondern die Augenlinse des Betrachters, der Spiegel kehrt lediglich die Lichtstrahlverläufe um.

  

Konvexspiegel stehen als Verkehrsspiegel im Straßenverkehr an unübersichtlichen Kreuzungen und Ausfahrten. Ihre zweiachsig-konvexe Form ermöglicht es, die Straße trotz der geringen Spiegelfläche gut zu überblicken. Ihre Wirkungsweise entspricht der einer konkaven Linse, bildet also das Licht von einem weiten Bild auf ein deutlich kleineres Sichtfeld ab.

  

Rück- und Seitenspiegeln an modernen Fahrzeugen sind oft ab einem bestimmten Punkt einachsig-konvex gekrümmt, um den Blickwinkel zu vergrößern und so den Toten Winkel zu verkleinern.

  

Rasier- und Kosmetikspiegel sind konkave Hohlspiegel. Hier befindet sich der Betrachter innerhalb der Brennweite und sieht deshalb von sich selbst ein vergrößertes virtuelles Bild, ähnlich wie bei einer Lupe.

  

Lichtbündelung durch Parabolspiegel

  

Lichtbündelung durch halb-zylindrischen Spiegel

Konkave Spiegel oder Hohlspiegel werden auch für Spiegelteleskope verwendet. Sie erzeugen von weit entfernten Objekten in ihrer Brennebene ein reelles Bild, ähnlich wie konvexe Linsen. Gegenüber Linsenteleskopen besteht aber der Vorteil, dass keinerlei chromatische Aberration auftritt. Zudem verformen sich große Linsen durch ihr Eigengewicht, sodass für große Teleskope ausschließlich große oder unterteilte Spiegel verwendet werden – nur sie können ganzflächig gelagert, ausreichend dick und somit steif sein. Sehr große Spiegelteleskope besitzen rückseitige Stellelemente, um mögliche Verformungen und Abbildungsfehler zu kompensieren. Die Formgenauigkeit eines Spiegels muss jedoch etwa viermal höher sein, als dies bei Linsenteleskopen der Fall ist (vgl. Brechungsgesetz, Reflexionsgesetz).

  

Die Abbildung von sphärischen Hohlspiegeln, das heißt von Spiegeln in der Form einer Kugelfläche, ist prinzipiell fehlerbehaftet, außer wenn ein Objekt auf sich selbst abgebildet wird. Sollen dagegen parallel eintreffende Strahlen von der gesamten Spiegeloberfläche in einem Punkt fokussiert werden, so muss ein Parabolspiegel verwendet werden. Eine weitere Möglichkeit zur Beseitigung des Abbildungsfehlers bei sphärischen Spiegeln ist eine Korrekturplatte nach Bernhard Schmidt (siehe Schmidt-Teleskop).

  

Zur Fokussierung einer Punktlichtquelle in einem zweiten Punkt muss die Spiegelfläche die Form eines Ellipsoids haben (Beispiel: Lichtquellen mit Höchstdruck-Quecksilberdampflampen für die Fotolithografie).

  

Parabolspiegel werden auch in solarthermischen Kraftwerken verwendet, um das Sonnenlicht auf den Dampferzeuger zu konzentrieren und so möglichst hohe Temperaturen zu erreichen. Auch Autoscheinwerfer (außer den sogenannten Projektionsscheinwerfern) enthalten Parabolspiegel. Bei Projektionsscheinwerfern (Auto, Bühne) erzeugt ein sphärischer Spiegel ein Abbild neben der Glühwendel. Das Licht der Wendel und des Abbildes werden mit einer davor befindlichen asphärischen Linse parallel gerichtet.

  

Die Zauberkunst verwendet bei optischen Tricks auf der Bühne Spiegel, um Gegenstände scheinbar verschwinden zu lassen (Bild unten). Unterhaltsame Beispiele dazu: siehe Unsichtbarkeit.

  

Zerrspiegel sind verformte Spiegel. Durch gewellte Spiegelflächen entstehen vielfache Verzerrungen. Die teilweise bizarren Effekte wurden früher in Wunderkammern und auf Jahrmärkten zur Belustigung der Betrachter eingesetzt, heute noch findet man solche Spiegel in Lachkabinetten. Konvexspiegel (Wölbspiegel) und Hohlspiegel wirken verkleinernd bzw. vergrößernd. Teilweise werden in Kleidergeschäften Zerrspiegel verwendet, welche das Abbild schlanker erscheinen lassen: „Der Spiegel lügt.“

  

Die medizinische Diagnostik verwendet Spiegel beispielsweise in Endoskopen (daher der Begriff Magenspiegelung) und zur Inspektion unzugänglicher Hohlräume.

  

Spiegel in Lasern und zu deren Strahlführung und -fokussierung haben besonders hohe Leistungsdichten zu ertragen. Daher müssen sie entweder besonders verlustarm reflektieren oder sie müssen die entstehende Wärme ableiten bzw. gekühlt werden. Man verwendet Interferenz- und Metallspiegel. Erforderlich sind voll reflektierende Spiegel (Endspiegel, Fokussierspiegel) und teiltransparente Spiegel (10 bis 99,9 % Reflexionsgrad, etwa für Auskoppelspiegel und Strahlteiler).

  

Durch die Art der Beschichtung kann man den gewünschten Wellenlängenbereich mit hohem Reflexionsfaktor vorgeben:

  

Metallbeschichtungen reflektieren im sichtbaren Bereich gut (≈ 95 %), versagen aber bei Silber und Gold im UV-Bereich, wie im nebenstehenden Bild zu sehen ist.

Dichroitische dielektrische Spiegel (Interferenzspiegel) bestehen aus mehreren transparenten Schichten mit abwechselnd jeweils unterschiedlichem Brechungsindex auf einem Glassubstrat. Sie reflektieren nur in einem begrenzten Wellenlängenbereich sowie in einem begrenzten Einfallswinkel. Man kann sie so aufbauen, dass sie entweder nur in einem sehr schmalen Wellenlängenbereich sehr gut reflektieren (≈ 99,9 %) oder beispielsweise den gesamten IR-Bereich durchlassen (Kaltlichtspiegel bei Halogenlampen).

Als Substrat kommen auch Metalle, Kunststoffe und sogar einkristalline Stoffe zum Einsatz. Kriterien für die Substratwahl sind dessen Bearbeitbarkeit, Wärmeausdehnungskoeffizient, Preis und – besonders bei hohen Leistungen – die Wärmeleitfähigkeit. Zur Materialbearbeitung mit Kohlendioxidlasern werden oft Ganzmetallspiegel aus Kupfer eingesetzt.

  

Haushaltspiegel und Spiegel an KFZ (Außenspiegel, Scheinwerfer) bestehen aus einer Aluminiumschicht hinter Glas oder auf Kunststoffen. Früher verwendete man für Haushaltspiegel Silberschichten, diese neigten jedoch zum Anlaufen und liefern ein leicht gelbstichiges Bild.

  

Silber- und Goldschichten, aber auch Kupfer sind jedoch für Infrarot gut geeignet. Die Reflexion im Mittleren und Fernen Infrarot korreliert mit der spezifischen elektrischen Leitfähigkeit des verwendeten Metalls.

  

Für Ultraviolett werden Aluminium oder dielektrische Schichten verwendet.

  

Röntgenstrahlung kann nur in einem sehr flachen Winkel zur Oberfläche (Einfallswinkel ≈ 90°) von Metallen reflektiert werden. Ursachen sind die sehr geringe Kohärenzlänge und der Abstand der Atome, der etwa genauso groß ist wie Wellenlänge. Durch den flachen Auftreffwinkel wird der scheinbare Atomabstand verringert.

  

Für gute Abbildungseigenschaften muss ein Spiegel (z. B. in Spiegelreflexkameras, Spiegelgalvanometern und Spiegelteleskopen) im Gegensatz zu Haushaltspiegeln die Spiegelschicht vorn tragen (Oberflächenspiegel). Die Spiegelschicht muss in diesem Fall meist durch eine dünne, möglichst harte transparente Deckschicht vor Oxidation und mechanischer Beschädigung geschützt werden.

  

Als Interferenzspiegel werden oft auch als Spiegel ausgebildete Reflexionsgitter bezeichnet, sie bestehen aus einer mit mikroskopischen Rillen versehenen Spiegelschicht. Sie werden in Spektrometern und Monochromatoren verwendet, um einzelne Wellenlängen zu separieren.

  

Teildurchlässige Metallschicht-Spiegel beruhen auf einer Eigenschaft, die bereits auch unbeschichtete Glasoberflächen besitzen: Sie sind in einem breiten Wellenlängenbereich teilreflektierend.

  

Solche teiltransparenten Spiegel haben auf einer Glasscheibe eine reflektierende Schicht (Silber, Gold oder andere Metalle), die wesentlich dünner (einige 10 nm) ist als bei einem normalen Spiegel, so dass nur noch ein Teil des auftreffenden Lichts reflektiert wird und ein weiterer Teil absorbiert wird oder ungehindert hindurchtritt.

  

Halbdurchlässige Spiegel sind auch als „Spionspiegel“ oder Teilerspiegel bekannt und dienen als Strahlteiler: Ein Teil des einfallenden Lichtes wird reflektiert, der Rest durchgelassen (eine Absorption werde hier vernachlässigt). Die jeweiligen Anteile lassen sich durch Wahl einer geeigneten Zusammensetzung der aufgetragenen Reflexionsschicht bestimmen.

  

Dünne Goldschichten reflektieren vorrangig im Infrarot, sind jedoch im sichtbaren Licht bläulich transparent.

  

In der Verhaltensforschung gilt das Erkennen des eigenen Spiegelbildes, das mittels Spiegeltest experimentell untersucht werden kann, als ein Zeichen von Intelligenz und Abstraktionsvermögen. Kleinkinder müssen für diese Fähigkeit erst elementare Entwicklungsstufen durchlaufen, während die meisten Tiere gar nicht in der Lage sind, die Bildinformation eines Spiegels auf sich selbst zu beziehen.

Der Spiegel ist ein äußerst zweideutiges Symbol. Einerseits gilt er als Zeichen der Eitelkeit und der Wollust. Andererseits symbolisiert er auch Selbsterkenntnis, Klugheit und Wahrheit: Ursprung für die heute noch gebräuchliche Redensart „Jemandem einen Spiegel vorhalten“ bzw. „Spiegelbild der Seele“. In den Augen mancher Christen ist der Spiegel auch ein Attribut Marias, weil sich in ihr gewissermaßen das Ebenbild Gottes, nämlich Jesus, spiegelt.

  

In antiken Kulturen stand der Spiegel als Abbild der Seele einer Person, in dem – je nach mythologischer Vorstellung – die Seele auch eingefangen und festgehalten werden konnte. Im Alten Ägypten waren die Worte „Spiegel“ und „Leben“ identisch. Keltinnen wurden aus demselben Grund mit ihrem Spiegel begraben. In der griechischen Mythologie wird Dionysos' Seele von den Titanen in einem Spiegel gefangen. Die Reflexion seines Selbstbildes hielt Narziss auf dem Wasser fest. Auch im Buddhismus wird die Existenz des Menschen mit der Reflexion in einem Spiegel verglichen.

  

In der jüdischen Überlieferung dient der Spiegel zur Erläuterung der überragenden Rolle von Moses als Prophet. Maimonides vergleicht die göttliche Offenbarung mit der Erhellung einer Nacht durch den Blitz. Einigen Propheten wurde nur ein einziges Mal die Gnade eines solch blitzartigen Aufleuchtens gewährt, anderen wiederum des Öfteren, während Moses einer dauernden, ununterbrochenen Erleuchtung teilhaftig war. Die Rabbiner erklären, dass seine Seele die göttliche Botschaft wie von einem klaren Spiegel zurückwarf.

  

Im Neuen Testament wird der Spiegel von Paulus zum einen in Anknüpfung an die rabbinische Deutung als Bild für die dem Mose allerdings überlegene christliche Gotteserkenntnis benutzt (2 Kor 3,18 EU). Zum anderen dient der Spiegel (der damals als blank geputzte Metallplatte nur dunkel und verschwommen spiegeln konnte) als Bild für die (im Vergleich zur Liebe) unvollkommene irdische Erkenntnis:

  

„Jetzt schauen wir in einen Spiegel und sehen nur rätselhafte Umrisse, dann aber schauen wir von Angesicht zu Angesicht. Jetzt erkenne ich unvollkommen, dann aber werde ich durch und durch erkennen, so wie ich auch durch und durch erkannt worden bin.(1 Kor 13,12 EU).“

  

In vielen Kulturen, so auch in der mitteleuropäischen Sagenwelt, gehören Spiegel und übersinnliche Erkenntnis (Weissagen, Wahrsagen) zusammen. Laut dem Volkskundler Trachtenberg haben noch im Mittelalter jüdische Gelehrte geglaubt, dass Spiegel beim Hineinsehen die Kraft der Augen wiedergeben und sie auf diese Weise stärkten. Gelehrte hätten deshalb während des Schreibens einen Spiegel vor sich hingestellt. Spiegelnde Oberflächen herzustellen hatte auch noch etwas Magisches an sich.

  

In Klöstern waren Spiegel zum Teil verboten, um die Eitelkeit nicht zu fördern. In der chinesischen Tradition sah man den Spiegel als Verbanner des Bösen, denn wenn das Böse in den Spiegel sieht und seine Missbildung sieht, überkommt es der Schreck. In der sozialen Umgebung bedeutete dies Loyalität und in der geistlichen Sichtweise sah man es als Attribut des weisen Mannes, der seinen Verstand dem Spiegel ähnlich äußert.

  

In Japan spielte der Spiegel eine herausragende Rolle; er war eine der kaiserlichen Kostbarkeiten neben dem Thron und dem Schwert. Die shintoistische Tradition assoziiert einen achtkantigen Spiegel mit der Symbolik des Elements Metall und des kosmischen Epos über die Sonnengöttin Amaterasu. Der Legende nach war es der Spiegel, der sie dazu gebracht hat, aus ihrem Versteck herauszukommen und der Welt das Licht zurückzubringen. Der Spiegel, der die Göttin reflektiert und sie erweckt, ist damit das Symbol der Welt, des Raums, in dem die Erscheinung entsteht. Der Spiegel wird mit der Zahl „8“ assoziiert und mit dem Symbol der göttlichen Vollendung. Der Spiegel ist ein Mondsymbol, denn er ist wie der Mond eine Reflexion der Erscheinung. Der Spiegel wird mit dem Wasser verglichen und dient dem Wahrsagen und zu magischen Ritualen bei den Völkern von Kongo, Bambara und Asien. In einer Schale mit Wasser oder in einem Spiegel sieht der Wahrsager die Geister. In Altrussland haben junge Frauen magische Rituale mit Spiegeln durchgeführt: An Heiligabend stellte man einen großen Spiegel gegenüber einem kleineren, dazwischen stand eine Kerze. Dann bat man den Spiegel, seinen zukünftigen Mann zu zeigen, und wenn dieser sichtbar wurde, musste man schnell „Gott stehe mir bei“ rufen, sonst würde der Doppelgänger des Gezeigten aus dem Spiegel treten und der Frau viel Übel bringen, die ihn gerufen hat.

  

Im Mittelalter wurde der Spiegel als die Reflexion des Gotteswortes und als Mittel seiner Deutung aufgefasst. Sich Gedanken machen bedeutete, einen Spiegel zu besitzen, der die göttlichen Gesetze widerspiegelt und diese dadurch erkennen zu können. Er ist ein Mittel, Himmelskörper und den Kosmos zu beobachten.

  

In E. T. A. Hoffmanns Sammlung Phantasiestücke in Callots Manier, Unterkapitel: Die Abenteuer der Sylvesternacht, verkauft in der Erzählung Die Geschichte vom verlorenen Spiegelbild der Protagonist Erasmus Spikher seiner im Bund mit dem Teufel stehenden Geliebten Giulietta sein Spiegelbild und damit seine Seele. (In der Oper Hoffmanns Erzählungen von Jacques Offenbach tut dieses Hoffmann selbst.)

In einer Erzählung mit dem Titel Spiegelgeschichte erzählt Ilse Aichinger das Leben einer Frau rückwärts, beginnend mit dem Tod bis hin zur Geburt.

Ein autobiographisch-poetischer Film von Regisseur Andrei Tarkowski trägt den Titel Der Spiegel (1975), und diese nahmen in seiner Filmsprache immer eine gewichtige Rolle ein. (Tarkowski plante auch, über E. T. A. Hoffmann und unter anderem Die Geschichte vom verlorenen Spiegelbild zu filmen.)

Der Film Orpheus (Orphée) von Jean Cocteau zeigt das Motiv des Dichters, der durch einen Spiegel ins Jenseits schreitet.

Das Buch Alice im Wunderland von Lewis Carroll zeigt den Spiegel als Tür zum Wunderland.

Herta Müller nennt ein Buch mit Essays zu ihrer Poetik Der Teufel sitzt im Spiegel. Das Sprichwort stammt von der Großmutter, schreibt sie, es soll vor Hoffart warnen.

Die Verbindung Tod/Teufel mit einem Spiegel ist seit dem Spätmittelalter, verstärkt seit dem Barock ein Vanitas-Symbol. In Daniel Hoffers (* 1470, † 1536) Holzschnitt erscheinen Tod und Teufel der eitlen Schönen im Spiegel. Ein Holzschnitt Der Teufel im Spiegel des eitlen Mädchens stammt aus dem Ritter von Turn, Verlag Johann Bergmann von Olpe, Basel 1493;

Grimms Märchen Schneewittchen; ferner bei Rainer Maria Rilke, Nikolaus Lenau und Annette von Droste-Hülshoff im Motiv des Doppelgängers.

Giovanni Segantini zeichnet die Vanitá als Schöne, die sich eitel im spiegelnden Wasser betrachtet.[3]

Aberglauben[Bearbeiten]

Spiegel sind schon seit langem häufige Elemente des Aberglaubens. Beispiele hierfür:

  

Wenn man einen Spiegel zerbricht, würde man sieben Jahre lang von Unglück heimgesucht, denn im Spiegel befände sich ein Doppelgänger. Sollte man diesen verletzen, würde er sich rächen. Man könne das Unglück auch abwenden, wenn man die Splitter schwarz färbt oder sie in fließendes Wasser eintaucht.

Sollte man einem kleinen Kind den Spiegel zeigen, könne es ängstlich oder oft krank werden.

Wenn man aus dem Haus geht und feststellt, dass man etwas vergessen hat, solle man in seine Widerspiegelung schauen, sonst würde man auf seinem Weg auf viele Hindernisse treffen.

Im Hause eines Toten solle man alle Spiegel zuhängen, damit sich seine Seele dort nicht ansiedeln kann und die Lebenden erschreckt.

Eine Frau dürfe nicht in den Spiegel schauen, wenn sie menstruiert, schwanger ist oder gerade geboren hat, denn in dieser Zeit sehe sie ihr offenes Grab.

Man solle vor dem Spiegel nichts Böses sagen und auch sich selbst nicht kritisieren, denn er spiegle das Gesagte.

Man solle sich jeden Morgen vor den Spiegel stellen und ihn darum bitten, alles Böse im Haus zurückzuwerfen und alle, die in dem Haus wohnen, zu beschützen.

Man könne seine Energie mit Hilfe des Spiegels aufladen, wenn man einige Minuten in seine Augen schaut, und zwar morgens vor Sonnenaufgang oder abends nach Sonnenuntergang. Die Erklärung hierfür ist, dass die Sonne die Energie wie ein Magnet anziehe.

Im Schlafzimmer solle der Spiegel den Schlafenden möglichst nicht widerspiegeln, sonst würde man unruhig schlafen. Man könne die Spiegel auch während der Nacht zuhängen. Wenn man unruhig schläft, solle man einen großen Spiegel unter das Bett mit der Spiegelseite nach unten legen; er würde alle Einflüsse auf den Schlafenden in die Erde zurückwerfen.

Vampire (die selbst ein Aberglaube sind) haben kein Spiegelbild.

  

A mirror is an object that reflects light in a way that preserves much of its original quality subsequent to its contact with the mirror.

  

Some mirrors also filter out some wavelengths, while preserving other wavelengths in the reflection. This is different from other light-reflecting objects that do not preserve much of the original wave signal other than color and diffuse reflected light. The most familiar type of mirror is the plane mirror, which has a flat surface. Curved mirrors are also used, to produce magnified or diminished images or focus light or simply distort the reflected image.

  

Mirrors are commonly used for personal grooming or admiring oneself (in which case the archaic term looking-glass is sometimes still used[clarification needed]), decoration, and architecture. Mirrors are also used in scientific apparatus such as telescopes and lasers, cameras, and industrial machinery. Most mirrors are designed for visible light; however, mirrors designed for other types of waves or other wavelengths of electromagnetic radiation are also used, especially in non-optical instruments.

  

The first mirrors used by people were most likely pools of dark, still water, or water collected in a primitive vessel of some sort. The earliest manufactured mirrors were pieces of polished stone such as obsidian, a naturally occurring volcanic glass. Examples of obsidian mirrors found in Anatolia (modern-day Turkey) have been dated to around 6000 BC.[1] Polished stone mirrors from Central and South America date from around 2000 BC onwards.[1] Mirrors of polished copper were crafted in Mesopotamia from 4000 BC,[1] and in ancient Egypt from around 3000 BC.[2] In China, bronze mirrors were manufactured from around 2000 BC,[3] some of the earliest bronze and copper examples being produced by the Qijia culture. Mirrors made of other metal mixtures (alloys) such as copper and tin speculum metal may have also been produced in China and India.[4] Mirrors of speculum metal or any precious metal were hard to produce and were only owned by the wealthy.[5]

  

Metal-coated glass mirrors are said to have been invented in Sidon (modern-day Lebanon) in the first century AD,[6] and glass mirrors backed with gold leaf are mentioned by the Roman author Pliny in his Natural History, written in about 77 AD.[7] The Romans also developed a technique for creating crude mirrors by coating blown glass with molten lead.[8]

  

Parabolic mirrors were described and studied in classical antiquity by the mathematician Diocles in his work On Burning Mirrors.[9] Ptolemy conducted a number of experiments with curved polished iron mirrors,[10] and discussed plane, convex spherical, and concave spherical mirrors in his Optics.[11] Parabolic mirrors were also described by the physicist Ibn Sahl in the 10th century,[12] and Ibn al-Haytham discussed concave and convex mirrors in both cylindrical and spherical geometries,[13] carried out a number of experiments with mirrors, and solved the problem of finding the point on a convex mirror at which a ray coming from one point is reflected to another point.[14] By the 11th century, clear glass mirrors were being produced in Moorish Spain.[15][verification needed]

  

In China, people began making mirrors with the use of silver-mercury amalgams as early as 500 AD.[16] Some time during the early Renaissance, European manufacturers perfected a superior method of coating glass with a tin-mercury amalgam. The exact date and location of the discovery is unknown, but in the 16th century, Venice, a city famed for its glass-making expertise, became a centre of mirror production using this new technique. Glass mirrors from this period were extremely expensive luxuries.[17] The Saint-Gobain factory, founded by royal initiative in France, was an important manufacturer, and Bohemian and German glass, often rather cheaper, was also important.

  

The invention of the silvered-glass mirror is credited to German chemist Justus von Liebig in 1835.[18] His process involved the deposition of a thin layer of metallic silver onto glass through the chemical reduction of silver nitrate. This silvering process was adapted for mass manufacturing and led to the greater availability of affordable mirrors. Nowadays, mirrors are often produced by the wet deposition of silver (or sometimes aluminum via vacuum deposition)[19] directly onto the glass substrate.

Mirrors are manufactured by applying a reflective coating to a suitable substrate. The most common substrate is glass, due to its transparency, ease of fabrication, rigidity, hardness, and ability to take a smooth finish. The reflective coating is typically applied to the back surface of the glass, so that the reflecting side of the coating is protected from corrosion and accidental damage by the glass on one side and the coating itself and optional paint for further protection on the other.

  

In classical antiquity, mirrors were made of solid metal (bronze, later silver) and were too expensive for widespread use by common people; they were also prone to corrosion. Due to the low reflectivity of polished metal, these mirrors also gave a darker image than modern ones, making them unsuitable for indoor use with the artificial lighting of the time (candles or lanterns).[citation needed]

  

The method of making mirrors out of plate glass was invented by 16th-century Venetian glassmakers on the island of Murano, who covered the back of the glass with mercury, obtaining near-perfect and undistorted reflection. For over one hundred years, Venetian mirrors installed in richly decorated frames served as luxury decorations for palaces throughout Europe, but the secret of the mercury process eventually arrived in London and Paris during the 17th century, due to industrial espionage. French workshops succeeded in large scale industrialization of the process, eventually making mirrors affordable to the masses, although mercury's toxicity remained a problem[citation needed].

  

In modern times, the mirror substrate is shaped, polished and cleaned, and is then coated. Glass mirrors are most often coated with silver[20] or aluminium, implemented by a series of coatings:[citation needed]

  

Tin(II) chloride

Silver

Chemical activator

Copper

Paint

The tin(II) chloride is applied because silver will not bond with the glass. The activator causes the tin/silver to harden. Copper is added for long-term durability.[21] The paint protects the coating on the back of the mirror from scratches and other accidental damage.[citation needed]

  

In some applications, generally those that are cost-sensitive or that require great durability, mirrors are made from a single, bulk material such as polished metal.[citation needed] For technical applications such as laser mirrors, the reflective coating is typically applied by vacuum deposition on the front surface of the substrate. This eliminates refraction and double reflections (a weak reflection from the surface of the glass, and a stronger one from the reflecting metal) and reduces absorption of light by the mirror. Technical mirrors may use a silver, aluminium, or gold coating (the latter typically for infrared mirrors), and achieve reflectivities of 90–95% when new. A protective transparent overcoat may be applied to prevent oxidation of the reflective layer. Applications requiring higher reflectivity or greater durability, where wide bandwidth is not essential, use dielectric coatings, which can achieve reflectivities as high as 99.999% over a narrow range of wavelengths.

  

There are many types of glass mirrors, each representing a different manufacturing process and reflection type.

  

An aluminium glass mirror is made of a float glass manufactured using vacuum coating, i.e. aluminium powder is evaporated (or "sputtered") onto the exposed surface of the glass in a vacuum chamber and then coated with two or more layers of waterproof protective paint.

  

A low aluminium glass mirror is manufactured by coating silver and two layers of protective paint on the back surface of glass. A low aluminium glass mirror is very clear, light transmissive, smooth, and reflects accurate natural colors. This type of glass is widely used for framing presentations and exhibitions in which a precise color representation of the artwork is truly essential or when the background color of the frame is predominantly white.[citation needed]

  

A safety glass mirror is made by adhering a special protective film to the back surface of a silver glass mirror, which prevents injuries in case the mirror is broken. This kind of mirror is used for furniture, doors, glass walls, commercial shelves, or public areas.[citation needed]

  

A silkscreen printed glass mirror is produced using inorganic color ink that prints patterns through a special screen onto glass. Various colors, patterns, and glass shapes are available. Such a glass mirror is durable and more moisture resistant than ordinary printed glass and can serve for over 20 years. This type of glass is widely used for decorative purposes (e.g., on mirrors, table tops, doors, windows, kitchen chop boards, etc.).[citation needed]

  

A silver glass mirror is an ordinary mirror, coated on its back surface with silver, which produces images by reflection. This kind of glass mirror is produced by coating a silver, copper film and two or more layers of waterproof paint on the back surface of float glass, which perfectly resists acid and moisture. A silver glass mirror provides clear and actual images, is quite durable, and is widely used for furniture, bathroom and other decorative purposes.[citation needed]

  

Decorative glass mirrors are usually handcrafted. A variety of shades, shapes and glass thickness are often available.

A beam of light reflects off a mirror at an angle of reflection equal to its angle of incidence (if the size of a mirror is much larger than the wavelength of light). That is, if the beam of light is shining on a mirror's surface at a \theta° angle vertically, then it reflects from the point of incidence at a \theta° angle from vertically in the opposite direction. This law mathematically follows from the interference of a plane wave on a flat boundary (of much larger size than the wavelength).

  

In a plane mirror, a parallel beam of light changes its direction as a whole, while still remaining parallel; the images formed by a plane mirror are virtual images, of the same size as the original object (see mirror image).

In a concave mirror, parallel beams of light become a convergent beam, whose rays intersect in the focus of the mirror. Also known as converging mirror

In a convex mirror, parallel beams become divergent, with the rays appearing to diverge from a common point of intersection "behind" the mirror.

Spherical concave and convex mirrors do not focus parallel rays to a single point due to spherical aberration. However, the ideal of focusing to a point is a commonly-used approximation. Parabolic reflectors resolve this, allowing incoming parallel rays (for example, light from a distant star) to be focused to a small spot; almost an ideal point. Parabolic reflectors are not suitable for imaging nearby objects because the light rays are not parallel.

  

If one looks in a mirror, one's image reverses (e.g., if one raises one's right hand, one's left hand will appear to go up in the mirror). However, a mirror does not "swap" left and right, any more than it swaps top and bottom. A mirror reverses the forward/backward axis, and we define left and right relative to front and back. Flipping front/back and left/right is equivalent to a rotation of 180 degrees about the vertical axis (in the same way that text which is back-to-front and upside-down simply looks like it has been rotated 180 degrees on the page). Therefore, looking at an image of oneself with the front/back axis flipped is the same as looking at an image with the left/right axis flipped and the whole figure rotated 180 degrees about the vertical axis, which is exactly what one sees when standing in front of a mirror.

Convex mirrors

Convex mirrors provide a wider field of view than flat mirrors, and are often used on vehicles, especially large trucks, to minimize blind spots. They are sometimes placed at road junctions, and corners of sites such as parking lots to allow people to see around corners to avoid crashing into other vehicles or shopping carts. They are also sometimes used as part of security systems, so that a single video camera can show more than one angle at a time.[citation needed]

Mouth mirrors or "dental mirrors"

Mouth mirrors or "dental mirrors" are used by dentists to allow indirect vision and lighting within the mouth. Their reflective surfaces may be either flat or curved. Mouth mirrors are also commonly used by mechanics to allow vision in tight spaces and around corners in equipment.

Rear-view mirrors

Rear-view mirrors are widely used in and on vehicles (such as automobiles, or bicycles), to allow drivers to see other vehicles coming up behind them. On rear-view sunglasses, the left end of the left glass and the right end of the right glass work as mirrors.

  

One-way mirrors (also called two-way mirrors) work by overwhelming dim transmitted light with bright reflected light. A true one-way mirror that actually allows light to be transmitted in one direction only without requiring external energy is not possible as it violates the second law of thermodynamics: if one placed a cold object on the transmitting side and a hot one on the blocked side, radiant energy would be transferred from the cold to the hot object. Thus, though a one-way mirror can be made to appear to work in only one direction at a time, it is actually reflective from either side.

One-way windows

One-way windows can be made to work with polarized light in the laboratory without violating the second law. This is an apparent paradox that stumped some great physicists, although it does not allow a practical one-way mirror for use in the real world.[22][23] Optical isolators are one-way devices that are commonly used with lasers.

  

With the sun as light source, a mirror can be used to signal by variations in the orientation of the mirror. The signal can be used over long distances, possibly up to 60 kilometres on a clear day. This technique was used by Native American tribes and numerous militaries to transmit information between distant outposts.

  

Mirrors can also be used for search to attract the attention of search and rescue helicopters. Specialized signalling mirrors are available and are often included in military survival kits.

  

Microscopic mirrors are a core element of many of the largest high-definition televisions and video projectors. A common technology of this type is Texas Instruments' DLP. A DLP chip is a postage stamp-sized microchip whose surface is an array of millions of microscopic mirrors. The picture is created as the individual mirrors move to either reflect light toward the projection surface (pixel on), or toward a light absorbing surface (pixel off).

  

Other projection technologies involving mirrors include LCoS. Like a DLP chip, LCoS is a microchip of similar size, but rather than millions of individual mirrors, there is a single mirror that is actively shielded by a liquid crystal matrix with up to millions of pixels. The picture, formed as light, is either reflected toward the projection surface (pixel on), or absorbed by the activated LCD pixels (pixel off). LCoS-based televisions and projectors often use 3 chips, one for each primary color.

  

Large mirrors are used in rear projection televisions. Light (for example from a DLP as mentioned above) is "folded" by one or more mirrors so that the television set is compact.

  

Mirrors are integral parts of a solar power plant. The one shown in the picture to the right uses concentrated solar power from an array of parabolic troughs.

  

Telescopes and other precision instruments use front silvered or first surface mirrors, where the reflecting surface is placed on the front (or first) surface of the glass (this eliminates reflection from glass surface ordinary back mirrors have). Some of them use silver, but most are aluminium, which is more reflective at short wavelengths than silver. All of these coatings are easily damaged and require special handling. They reflect 90% to 95% of the incident light when new. The coatings are typically applied by vacuum deposition. A protective overcoat is usually applied before the mirror is removed from the vacuum, because the coating otherwise begins to corrode as soon as it is exposed to oxygen and humidity in the air. Front silvered mirrors have to be resurfaced occasionally to keep their quality. There are optical mirrors such as mangin mirrors that are second surface mirrors (reflective coating on the rear surface) as part of their optical designs, usually to correct optical aberrations.

The reflectivity of the mirror coating can be measured using a reflectometer and for a particular metal it will be different for different wavelengths of light. This is exploited in some optical work to make cold mirrors and hot mirrors. A cold mirror is made by using a transparent substrate and choosing a coating material that is more reflective to visible light and more transmissive to infrared light.

  

A hot mirror is the opposite, the coating preferentially reflects infrared. Mirror surfaces are sometimes given thin film overcoatings both to retard degradation of the surface and to increase their reflectivity in parts of the spectrum where they will be used. For instance, aluminum mirrors are commonly coated with silicon dioxide or magnesium fluoride. The reflectivity as a function of wavelength depends on both the thickness of the coating and on how it is applied.

  

For scientific optical work, dielectric mirrors are often used. These are glass (or sometimes other material) substrates on which one or more layers of dielectric material are deposited, to form an optical coating. By careful choice of the type and thickness of the dielectric layers, the range of wavelengths and amount of light reflected from the mirror can be specified. The best mirrors of this type can reflect >99.999% of the light (in a narrow range of wavelengths) which is incident on the mirror. Such mirrors are often used in lasers.

  

In astronomy, adaptive optics is a technique to measure variable image distortions and adapt a deformable mirror accordingly on a timescale of milliseconds, to compensate for the distortions.

  

Although most mirrors are designed to reflect visible light, surfaces reflecting other forms of electromagnetic radiation are also called "mirrors". The mirrors for other ranges of electromagnetic waves are used in optics and astronomy. Mirrors for radio waves (sometimes known as reflectors) are important elements of radio telescopes.

  

Two or more mirrors aligned exactly parallel and facing each other can give an infinite regress of reflections, called an infinity mirror effect. Some devices use this to generate multiple reflections:

  

Fabry–Pérot interferometer

Laser (which contains an optical cavity)

3D Kaleidoscope to concentrate light

momentum-enhanced solar sail

  

It has been said that Archimedes used a large array of mirrors to burn Roman ships during an attack on Syracuse. This has never been proven or disproved; however, it has been put to the test. Recently, on a popular Discovery Channel show, MythBusters, a team from MIT tried to recreate the famous "Archimedes Death Ray". They were unsuccessful at starting a fire on the ship. Previous attempts to light the boat on fire using only the bronze mirrors available in Archimedes' time were unsuccessful, and the time taken to ignite the craft would have made its use impractical, resulting in the MythBusters team deeming the myth "busted". It was however found that the mirrors made it very difficult for the passengers of the targeted boat to see, likely helping to cause their defeat, which may have been the origin of the myth. (See solar power tower for a practical use of this technique.)

  

Due to its location in a steep-sided valley, the Italian town of Viganella gets no direct sunlight for seven weeks each winter. In 2006 a €100,000 computer-controlled mirror, 8×5 m, was installed to reflect sunlight into the town's piazza. In early 2007 the similarly situated village of Bondo, Switzerland, was considering applying this solution as well.[28][29] In 2013, mirrors were installed to reflect sunlight into the town square in the Norwegian town of Rjukan.[30] Mirrors can be used to produce enhanced lighting effects in greenhouses or conservatories.

Mirrors are a popular design theme in architecture, particularly with late modern and post-modernist high-rise buildings in major cities. Early examples include the Campbell Center in Dallas, which opened in 1972,[31] and the John Hancock Tower in Boston.

  

More recently, two skyscrapers designed by architect Rafael Viñoly, the Vdara in Las Vegas and 20 Fenchurch Street in London, have experienced unusual problems due to their concave curved glass exteriors acting as respectively cylindrical and spherical reflectors for sunlight. In 2010, the Las Vegas Review Journal reported that sunlight reflected off the Vdara's south-facing tower could singe swimmers in the hotel pool, as well as melting plastic cups and shopping bags; employees of the hotel referred to the phenomenon as the "Vdara death ray".[32] In 2013, sunlight reflecting off 20 Fenchurch Street melted parts of a Jaguar car parked nearby and scorching the carpet of a nearby barber shop.

Painters depicting someone gazing into a mirror often also show the person's reflection. This is a kind of abstraction—in most cases the angle of view is such that the person's reflection should not be visible. Similarly, in movies and still photography an actor or actress is often shown ostensibly looking at him- or herself in the mirror, and yet the reflection faces the camera. In reality, the actor or actress sees only the camera and its operator in this case, not their own reflection.[citation needed]

  

The mirror is the central device in some of the greatest of European paintings:[citation needed]

  

Édouard Manet's A Bar at the Folies-Bergère

Titian's Venus with a Mirror

Jan van Eyck's Arnolfini Portrait

Pablo Picasso's Girl before a Mirror (1932)

Diego Velázquez's Las Meninas, wherein the viewer is both the watcher (of a self-portrait in progress) and the watched, and the many adaptations of that painting in various media

Veronese's Venus with a Mirror

Mirrors have been used by artists to create works and hone their craft:

  

Filippo Brunelleschi discovered linear perspective with the help of the mirror.[citation needed]

Leonardo da Vinci called the mirror the "master of painters". He recommended, "When you wish to see whether your whole picture accords with what you have portrayed from nature take a mirror and reflect the actual object in it. Compare what is reflected with your painting and carefully consider whether both likenesses of the subject correspond, particularly in regard to the mirror."[citation needed]

Many self-portraits are made possible through the use of mirrors:

Without a mirror, the great self-portraits by Dürer, Frida Kahlo, Rembrandt, and Van Gogh could not have been painted.[citation needed]

M. C. Escher used special shapes of mirrors in order to achieve a much more complete view of his surroundings than by direct observation in Hand with Reflecting Sphere (also known as Self-Portrait in Spherical Mirror).

Mirrors are sometimes necessary to fully appreciate art work:

  

István Orosz's anamorphic works are images distorted such that they only become clearly visible when reflected in a suitably shaped and positioned mirror.

  

Some other contemporary artists use mirrors as the material of art:

  

A Chinese magic mirror is an art in which the face of the bronze mirror projects the same image that was cast on its back. This is due to minute curvatures on its front.[34]

Specular holography uses a large number of curved mirrors embedded in a surface to produce three-dimensional imagery.

Paintings on mirror surfaces (such as silkscreen printed glass mirrors)

Sculptures comprised entirely or in part of mirrors

Infinity Also Hurts is a mirror, glass and silicone sculpture by artist, Seth Wulsin

Sky Mirror is a public sculpture by artist, Anish Kapoor

Special mirror installations

Follow Me mirror labyrinth by artist, Jeppe Hein (see also, Entertainment: Mirror mazes, below)

Mirror Neon Cube by artist, Jeppe Hein

  

Mirrors are frequently used in interior decoration and as ornaments:

  

Mirrors, typically large and unframed, are frequently used in interior decoration to create an illusion of space and amplify the apparent size of a room.[citation needed] They come also framed in a variety of forms, such as the pier glass and the overmantle mirror.

Mirrors are used also in some schools of feng shui, an ancient Chinese practice of placement and arrangement of space, to achieve harmony with the environment.

The softness of old mirrors is sometimes replicated by contemporary artisans for use in interior design. These reproduction antiqued mirrors are works of art and can bring color and texture to an otherwise hard, cold reflective surface. It is an artistic process that has been attempted by many and perfected by few.[citation needed]

A decorative reflecting sphere of thin metal-coated glass, working as a reducing wide-angle mirror, is sold as a Christmas ornament called a bauble.

Illuminated rotating disco balls covered with small mirrors are used to cast moving spots of light around a dance floor.

The hall of mirrors, commonly found in amusement parks, is an attraction in which a number of distorting mirrors are used to produce unusual reflections of the visitor.

Mirrors are employed in kaleidoscopes, personal entertainment devices invented in Scotland by Sir David Brewster.

Mirrors are often used in magic to create an illusion. One effect is called Pepper's ghost.

Mirror mazes, often found in amusement parks as well, contain large numbers of mirrors and sheets of glass. The idea is to navigate the disorientating array without bumping into the walls. Mirrors in attractions like this are often made of Plexiglas as to assure that they do not break.

Candyman is a horror film about a malevolent spirit summoned by speaking its name in front of a mirror.

Mirrors is a horror film about haunted mirrors that reflect different scenes than those in front of them.

Poltergeist III features mirrors that do not reflect reality and which can be used as portals to the afterlife.

The 10th Kingdom miniseries requires the characters to use a magic mirror to travel between New York City (the 10th Kingdom) and the Nine Kingdoms of fairy tale.

Mirrors play a powerful role in cultural literature.

  

Christian Bible passage, 1 Corinthians 13:12 ("Through a Glass Darkly"), references a dim mirror image or poor mirror reflection.

Narcissus of Greek mythology wastes away while gazing, self-admiringly, at his reflection in water.

In the European fairy tale, "Snow White" (collected by the Brothers Grimm in 1812), the evil queen asks, "Mirror, mirror, on the wall... who's the fairest of them all?"

In Alfred, Lord Tennyson's famous poem "The Lady of Shalott" (1833, revised in 1842), the titular character possesses a mirror that enables her to look out on the people of Camelot, as she is under a curse that prevents her from seeing Camelot directly.

Lewis Carroll's Through the Looking-Glass and What Alice Found There (1871) is one of the best-loved uses of mirrors in literature. The text itself utilizes a narrative that mirrors that of its predecessor, Alice's Adventures in Wonderland.[citation needed]

In Oscar Wilde's novel, The Picture of Dorian Gray (1890), a portrait serves as a magical mirror that reflects the true visage of the perpetually youthful protagonist, as well as the effect on his soul of each sinful act.[35][36]

The short story "Tlön, Uqbar, Orbis Tertius" by Jorge Luis Borges begins with the phrase "I owe the discovery of Uqbar to the conjunction of a mirror and an encyclopedia" and contains other references to mirrors.

The magical objects in the Harry Potter series (1997-2011) include the Mirror of Erised and two-way mirrors.

Under "Appendix: Variant Planes & Cosmologies" of the Dungeons & Dragons Manual Of The Planes (2000), is The Plane of Mirrors (page 204).[37] It describes the Plane of Mirrors as a space existing behind reflective surfaces, and experienced by visitors as a long corridor. The greatest danger to visitors upon entering the plane is the instant creation of a mirror-self with the opposite alignment of the original visitor.

  

Only a few animal species have been shown to have the ability to recognize themselves in a mirror, most of them mammals. Experiments have found that the following animals can pass the mirror test:

  

All great apes:

Humans. Humans tend to fail the mirror test until they are about 18 months old, or what psychoanalysts call the "mirror stage".

Bonobos[41]

Chimpanzees

Orangutans

Gorillas. Initially, it was thought that gorillas did not pass the test, but there are now several well-documented reports of gorillas (such as Koko[44]) passing the test.

Bottlenose dolphins

Orcas

Elephants

European Magpies

  

Other types of reflecting device are also called "mirrors".

  

Acoustic mirrors are passive devices used to reflect and perhaps to focus sound waves. Acoustic mirrors were used for selective detection of sound waves, especially during World War II. They were used for detection of enemy aircraft prior to the development of radar. Acoustic mirrors are used for remote probing of the atmosphere; they can be used to form a narrow diffraction-limited beam.[49] They can also be used for underwater imaging.

Active mirrors are mirrors that amplify the light they reflect. They are used to make disk lasers.[50] The amplification is typically over a narrow range of wavelengths, and requires an external source of power.

Atomic mirrors are devices which reflect matter waves. Usually, atomic mirrors work at grazing incidence. Such mirrors can be used for atomic interferometry and atomic holography. It has been proposed that they can be used for non-destructive imaging systems with nanometer resolution.[51]

Cold mirrors are dielectric mirrors that reflect the entire visible light spectrum, while efficiently transmitting infrared wavelengths. These are the converse of hot mirrors.

Corner reflectors use three flat mirrors to reflect light back towards its source, they may also be implemented with prisms that reflect using total internal reflection that have no mirror surfaces. They are used for emergency location, and even laser ranging to the Moon.

Hot mirrors reflect infrared light while allowing visible light to pass. These can be used to separate useful light from unneeded infrared to reduce heating of components in an optical device. They can also be used as dichroic beamsplitters. (Hot mirrors are the converse of cold mirrors.)

Metallic reflectors are used to reflect infrared light (such as in space heaters or microwaves).

Non-reversing mirrors are mirrors that provide a non-reversed image of their subjects.

X-ray mirrors produce specular reflection of X-rays. All known types work only at angles near grazing incidence, and only a small fraction of the rays are reflected.[52] See also X-ray optics.

   

Maila Nurmi was the original Queen of the Modern Gothic. Vampira, her iconic macabre creation, influenced generations of filmmakers, musicians, artists and lifestylers. Sadly, she shuffled off her mortal coil on January 10th, 2008. She was aged 86.

 

A Finnish-born model and actress, Maila had posed for Man Ray, Vargas and Bernard of Hollywood before being discovered at a masquerade ball by a TV producer. Her pale-skin and tight black dress complete with black wig and long, haemorrhage-red fingernails were quite unique in 1953. A year later, she became the eponymous star of The Vampira Show bringing a distinctive mix of sex, horror and death.

 

As the world’s first TV horror host, Vampira’s sardonic wit and eye-popping hourglass-figure made her the ghoulish fantasy of guys and ghouls across the globe, despite appearing on a show that was only broadcast in LA. Every week the voluptuous vamp would unleash blood-curdling screams and utter puns in an exotic and alluring Marlene Dietrich-like drawl – ‘I am…Vampira. I hope you all had the good fortune to have had a terrible week.’

 

After her show was cancelled, Maila accepted a tiny fee to appear as the reanimated corpse bride in Plan 9 From Outer Space, a role in the unfairly dubbed ‘Worst Film of all Time’, but it was one that would ensure Vampira’s immortality in popular culture.

 

As a star in the Golden Age of Tinsletown, Maila gigged with Liberace, dated Orson Welles, was friends with Marlon Brando and formed a tremendous kinship with James Dean, whose spirit, she claimed, haunted her for six months after his death.

 

Even as lady in her eighties, she was an incredible bright spark, a feisty old dame and a terrific raconteur, recalling stories from the old days with childlike glee. Like her icons-in-crime Bela Lugosi and Ed Wood, Maila Nurmi died nearly penniless, but she left behind a legacy that will endure forever.

     

Here's the article I wrote for Bizarre Magazine...

 

The Lady is a Vamp

 

I’m sat in Pioneer Chicken, a fast-food joint off Sunset Boulevard, deep in discussion with Vampira, the world’s first TV horror host. Maila Nurmi, the Finnish-born performer beneath the famous black wig and nails was a phenomenon in the nineteen-fifties. Her iconic gothic style, sardonic wit and eye-popping hourglass-figure made her the ghoulish fantasy of guys and ghouls across the globe, despite appearing on a show that was only broadcast to the Los Angeles area. Every week the voluptuous vamp would emerge from dry-ice studio fog to the sound of creepy organ music. She would unleash a blood-curdling scream and utter puns in an exotic, sexual, Marlene Dietrich-like drawl - “I am…Vampira. I hope you all had the good fortune to have had a terrible week."

 

But this is not simply an interview with a vampire. Conversing with Naila Nurmi means taking a voyeuristic journey through the lives of mythological cult icons of fifties Hollywood. It seems that Vampira’s finger was firmly on the jugular pulse of the tinsletown scene during the beat generation. Captivating tales with James Dean, Marlon Brando, and Elvis Presley pour from her octogenarian lips, memories recalled with intensity and insight.

 

Since Maila claims psychic capabilities, one can also add a touch of the paranormal to this Hollyweird concoction. She speaks of clairaudience, strange premonitions and visions. Most sensationally, it was such psychic sensitivity that found her haunted by the spirit of James Dean, whose death profoundly affected her.

 

She’s certainly one tough cookie though, that’s for sure - strongly opinionated and gutsy. Before international fame, back when she was modeling for the likes of Bernard of Hollywood, Vargas and a young Man Ray, she still wasn’t taking any crap from studio big shots. Even movie mogul Howard Hawks - who discovered Maila performing a skeleton striptease in a New York show - suffered the wrath of Vampira’s razor-witted tongue, despite having just turned Lauren Bacall into a household name.

 

“I thought he was stupid, so I tore up my contract,” she giggles, tucking into her rice. “I told him to kindly find a place for it in one of his numerous waste baskets.”

 

Yet in 1956, her outspoken manner caused her blacklisting from the system. Broke, she accepted a measly $200 to play the reanimated corpse-bride of Bela Lugosi in the trash sci-fi epic Plan 9 From Outer Space. Irony, for this movie cemented her position in popular culture and led to Tim Burton’s marvelous biopic of director Ed Wood, one that cast model Lisa Marie as Maila.

 

At eighty-three, she’s still hip and sharp like Vampira’s fingernails.

 

So how did your famous horror host role come about?

 

I decided I wanted to become an evangelist. I had to sponsor myself and I thought I needed $20,000. How could I do it? Well, television was just warping people’s minds, so I thought could do that - and they paid big. I thought I’d satirise soap operas, I’d take improbable people and make them do all these bourgeois things. Since Charles Addams had already done it in comic form, I wanted it to bring it to television. So that is why I made the dress, went to a masquerade ball and won first prize. They discovered me and that was the end of it. But Vampira wasn’t really acting. It was television, just a lot of hogwash.

 

What went wrong with the revival of Vampira in the early eighties and the subsequent launch of the Elvira character?

 

Well I was dealing with KTTV for three months and then they suddenly didn’t want me to come to the studio anymore. They eventually called me in to sign a contract and she was there (Cassandra Peterson). They had hired her without asking me.

 

So it was going to be the Vampira name?

 

It’s Vampira all together. She did the whole thing with the Rocky Horror people. They stole it. They stole $100 million dollars. She was in 51 markets at one time with 350 kinds of merchandise; milked my cupboard bare.

 

Did you successfully sue?

 

I sued for eight years but not successfully. Finally I ran out of money. To continue would have cost $60,000. I wrote to the judge and said, “I’m sorry, I have no money. I have to close the case.” So he charged them to pay all the expenses. That money was meant for animal welfare and she spent it on cocaine and red limousines. Boy has the devil got that bitch—it’s the devil in her blood. That slut was a big player in porno movies - she was trying to hide her background. They deemed it unwise to reveal that fact so they told her to make up stuff if she was asked. But she said, “Why make it up when it is written here?” She was pretending to be me. How dare she? She’s such a low-life, such a no talent. She’s so stupid and she has no sense of timing. No sense of humor; such a common slut that speaks Americanese. Nasal. Phlegmatic. You know, the limousines and the lovers and the houses—they can take all that. Initially they wanted me. I wouldn’t do it because I didn’t want Vampira to be anything but perfect. I certainly didn’t want it to be a streetwalker-slut like that. Angelina Jolie would be a good Vampira.

 

Didn’t Vampira lead you to James Dean?

 

With the character I had been handed the keys to the city. I wanted to see who’s who and so I attended a movie premiere. But all I could find was vapid identities, people of whom I had no interest, except for one fellow who was with Terry Moore. I thought “him, that’s the one with the tuxedo and the collar, the farm boy hair that wouldn’t stay down.” Twelve hours after, I was sitting in Googies, and Jimmy rode up on his motorcycle, the windows rattled and the rest was history. We were never apart again. We were best friends instantly, like psychic Siamese twins.

 

Was he openly gay to his friends?

 

No. As he said, “do I look like someone who would go through life with one hand tied behind my back?” That was a courageous statement in those days. Jimmy was primarily heterosexual but he used men sexually to get ahead, and if he saw someone he liked, he liked them. More often it was women, but maybe that was because he had never got the really pretty girls before. He had always got the ugly leftovers that nobody else wanted.

 

How much time did you spend with him?

 

Seventeen-hundred hours, every moment to treasure. But he was just a little boy in search of his mother. Everyone must have seen it, maybe not known what it was, not how to read it, but they saw the feeling. I was a little more psychic so I knew what it was. He had the impression she had abandoned him. But after, I found out she died of cancer and hadn’t abandoned him at all, but she did go away and leave him all alone in the world. He was an only child and it was impossible for him to relate to his father. The father had probably married his mother for her boobs or something and had nothing in common with her. She raised a boy whom she named after a poet, James Byron. And the father didn’t know poetry from a hole in the ground. He was a nice, practical, and sensible dentist.

 

Do you remember when you heard that James Dean had died?

 

Yeah I was at home with Tony Perkins (Psycho). Jack Simmons (actor in Rebel Without A Cause and friend of Dean) had just left to visit some lesbian whores that lived a block away. We knew we had to tell Jack before someone else did, but then we had to go tell Ursula (Andress), Jimmy’s ladylove. We drove up and I waited in the car because I didn’t really know her very well. It was in a dead end street, and now dark. Then suddenly, Marlon (Brando) appeared at the car - he had been hiding in the bushes. Ursula had called him in hysterics screaming, “They are trying to kill me. They’re threatening me. They think he killed himself because of me. I’m frightened! You have to come. I’m alone.” She would have used any device to get to Marlon at that time, even though she was trying to break up John Derek’s marriage. She wanted Marlon above all; she even bought the same car that he had. So he went, but looked in the windows first to be sure that she wasn’t putting him on and that she was really upset. Then Jack found him in the bushes. “Maila’s over there, in the hearse,” he said.(laughs) So he came over to offer condolences.

 

I heard that the spirit of James Dean visited you.

 

He visited a lot of people. He was very active. Now a lot of people made it up too I’m sure, but even people who weren’t psychic had experiences. He was that strong. Jimmy was following me around and was with me a lot of the time for the first six months. There would be an ashtray, I’d look and say “don’t anybody touch the ashtray, it’s gonna go up. That’s Jimmy’s sign that he’s here.” And it would go up!

 

Did you have psychic tendencies early on?

 

Yeah, I was very psychic in those days. My first husband Dean Eisner (writer of Dirty Harry and Play Misty For Me) and I lived in Laurel Canyon. He came home from work one day and said a story editor was writing a TV series about us. TV was very new and it was very easy to get anything you wanted done. He said they called it “Laurel Canyon”, but apparently sold it under the working title Bewitched. That was written about Dean Eisner and I. You see my mother was a witch. She wasn’t practicing, but she couldn’t help but be a witch. It was natural. It exuded from her, the very essence of her. And I was very psychic too.

 

Didn’t you share some strange, paranormal experiences with Marlon Brando?

 

We were sitting around and chatting in the dining room and Einstein had died just three weeks before. Marlon always had a wonderful portrait of Einstein on his headboard and sometimes he would just shove it in your face. Suddenly Marlon says, “There’s someone here. It’s Einstein. He has a message for us.” I was included in the message. “You young ones have to hurry up,” That’s what Einstein told Marlon, who wasn’t inventing it - he believed it. He may have seen it or heard it. The point is that Marlon really wanted to believe that he was a humanitarian, and Einstein was urging him to hurry up with his duties. Marlon was a very humane human being, though he didn’t know how to be humane with his own children. Some of his best friends despised him and said he was a brute and a beast and nothing in-between. He’s either the gentlest, noble of human beings or the coarsest and grossest. How do you like them apples?

 

What was your first introduction to any of the Ed Wood clan?

 

I was a young girl window-shopping on Hollywood Boulevard. I was bending low to see the detail of some shoes and someone whizzed around the corner on roller skates, almost bumped my fanny and crashed into me. “Pardon me,” said he, and “Pardon me,” said I. He was wearing an ascot and a beret. It was Bela Lugosi on roller skates. He was on his way to a cigar store.

 

Had you heard of Ed Wood before you met him?

 

Yes, because there had been an article in a newspaper, saying that he wanted to make a movie with Vampira. The nerve of him! This was before I was blacklisted. After, I had no money and I couldn’t get a job. A guy came and visited me and offered $200 to make this Ed Wood movie called Grave Robbers From Outer Space (later changed to Plan 9). I thought it was a good title at least. Oh boy! So I did it, and he came into my life right after then.

 

Did you find Ed Wood to be an intelligent guy?

 

No. But anyone who has become a phenomenon has a karmic current carrying them there. Nobody who is normal has such drive. That’s got to be driven by something larger than life. There was something there that I didn’t understand or respect because I was an intellectual snob, but it was there alright.

 

How did Ed Wood react when he heard you didn’t want to speak his words?

 

Paul Marco told him, so I don’t know. I didn’t want to hurt his feelings, but my God, I could not say those words. I wish I had them today because I threw them away. Do you know what jewels those lines must have been? I tried to say them, but I curdled my own blood. (laughs) They were awful!

 

Did you go to the premiere of Plan 9 From Outer Space?

 

Yeah. The theatre was full of people. I was backstage and I could see the images behind the screen. People were in the wings, dictating to me when to walk out, so that I was there on screen at the same time as I walked across stage. The audience booed, whistled and threw popcorn – they loved it! But I never actually got to see the film as I had to leave, then the film was banned in Los Angeles for 26 years. It never played here and Ed Wood never knew why. They hated him I guess or maybe it was because of me. But Criswell told me that the film played in a small theatre in New York for over a year and a half, with just standing room only all the time. When it was on the road in Indianapolis, even though it was pouring with rain, people queued around the block with newspapers over their heads. It was very popular. People knew it was Lugosi’s last film.

 

What kind of state of mind do you think Ed Wood have when he later made porn films?

 

He loved the porn. He was in his element. He would have been very unhappy if he had known he couldn’t have done porn again. He just kept writing them so fast. He’d write a whole pornographic book in just two days.

 

Did Tim Burton talk to you before he filmed the movie Ed Wood?

 

Yes. He introduced me to his stuffed bat. The film was accurate in some way but he wasn’t really trying to be accurate. It was a docu-drama. He was taking liberties, which he was entitled to do, but he got some of the essences correct—the ones that he should have retained. And then he embroidered a little. Johnny Depp is such a good actor and was believable as Ed Wood. Although it wasn’t exactly the same persona, his essence was there. The enthusiasm was so believable - such gung-ho enthusiasm.

 

Finally, is it right you had an encounter with Elvis before he became famous?

 

I went to Las Vegas with Liberace and met a19 year-old Elvis. I was there eating breakfast in the hotel and across the huge dining room in backlight - because the sun was shining through the windows - I could see three older men, smoking cigars, looking plump and eating. A tall, young, graceful man came in, and sat with them. Then on the intercom it said that somebody was wanted on the telephone. This young guy got up, and walked like Robert Mitchum. All I saw was his silhouette, that was it. So I paid my bill and walked past the men and said, “well congratulations, he’s going to be the biggest movie star in the world. I see he has tremendous magnetism.” “Ah,” they said, “thank you.” (laughs). And I hadn’t yet seen Elvis’ face. But the next night when he opened, I went with Liberace and his whole family. A side curtain parted and this kid comes out alone. I had never seen someone boldly standing on a stage – supposedly a heterosexual male – wearing turquoise eye shadow and grinding his hips like that. I thought, “oh-my-god. What am I seeing? This music is great.” The orchestra, one by one put down their instruments. They crossed their arms and refused to play. The audience started booing, and they booed him off the stage. Then a voice said to me – and I wasn’t on any drugs – “go around the side of the hotel and in the back, there’s a swimming pool and you’ll find someone in a canary yellow jacket.” Now I hadn’t seen a jacket like that anywhere. But I went around and in the dark moonless night, far away I could see the double doors of the casino, golden with light. They opened and a figure came into the doorway. It was Elvis, wearing a canary yellow jacket. He looked confusedly into the darkness, so I said, “I’m over here.” We walked towards each other, sat down and talked. I told him that I was a performer and that what happened was absolutely awful. He said, “every night before I go on, I talk to God and he always answers me. But tonight he didn’t answer. When them curtains opened and I saw all those white heads and them glasses, I knew why.“ I told him I admired his courage and that they only did that because they’re sheep and they do as they think they are supposed to do. One person booed and so then they all did. They’ve never, ever seen anything like you and it frightened them. But, Life Magazine are going to discover you (because that’s what they did in those days) and they will kiss your shoes.” He said, “it’s coming out Thursday” and it did. I was thirty-three and he said to me, “I know you’re getting old and all, but if you’d like to come back after the show, I’d be proud to take you back to my bungalow.” (laughs) His hallowed words! And so Elvis went back to do a second show.

 

Many thanks to Joe Moe and Forry for their assistance with this interview.

 

(Photos and Words Copyright - Mark Berry)

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

THANK YOU everyone for your visits, comments and faves!

I appreciate your invites and awards very much!

 

:copyright: ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Use without permission is illegal.

 

~ Gillian Jacobs ~ Gillian MacLaren Jacobs (born October 19, 1982) is an American actress. She is known for portraying Britta Perry on the NBC/Yahoo! Screen comedy series "Community" and stars as Mickey Dobbs on the Netflix series "Love." Jacobs has also had a recurring role as Mimi-Rose Howards on the HBO series "Girls" and has appeared in films such as "Gardens of the Night" (2008), "The Lookalike" (2014), "Life Partners" (2014), "Hot Tub Time Machine 2" (2015), "Don't Think Twice" (2016) and "Brother Nature" (2016).

 

I think zebras are so cool and saw this Hartmann's Mountain Zebra kicking up some dust at the Lowry Park Zoo in Tampa ~

 

Hartmann's mountain zebra

 

Wikipedia

 

Hartmann's mountain zebra (Equus zebra hartmannae) is a subspecies of the mountain zebra found in far south-western Angola and western Namibia. Hartmann's mountain zebras prefer to live in small groups of 7-12 individuals. They are agile climbers and are able to live in arid conditions and steep mountainous country.

 

It has been argued that Hartmann's mountain zebra should be considered a separate species from the Cape mountain zebra, but this is not supported by genetic evidence. Consequently, it is no longer considered a subspecies in Mammal Species of the World. 2005.

RULES OF THE TAGGY:

-Copy these questions.

-When you get 2 favorites, answer the questions below.

 

200: My middle name is: Nun.Ya.Beez.Wax.

199: I was born in: A hospital

198: I am really: A flying purple people eater.

197: My cellphone company is: Boost Mobile

196: My eye color is: Brown

195: My shoe size is: ...4...AND I'M IN 9TH GRADE O.-

194: My ring size is: No clue

193: My height is: ..ehhh...4'7 I think...

192: I am allergic to: nothing

191: My 1st car was: A tricycle.

190: My 1st job was: None yet

189: Last book you read: The Summer I Turned Pretty

188: My bed is: FLUFFEH *.*

187: My pet: Is turtly enough for the turtle club.

186: My best friend: Well, real life wise: Ange, Amber, and Kyle :3

185: My favorite shampoo is: ..this question is awkward..

184: AIM name: Don't have one

183: Piggy banks are: Always bashed apart in t.v. shows

182: In my pockets: A quarter, a gum wrapper, and a doll shoe o.o..

181: On my calendar: Don;t have one in my room xD

180: Marriage is: Neh.

179: Spongebob is: VERY SPONGEY.

178: My mom: Is epic

177: The last three cd's I bought were?: Goodwill.

176: Last YouTube video watched: www.youtube.com/watch?v=LE-5sYqKbFY&list=PL74062CEF3A... x""D

175: How many cousins do you have?: 50 something?

174: Do you have any siblings?: Nope

173: Are your parents divorced?: Nope

172: Are you taller than your mom?: Nope :c

171: Do you play an instrument?: the guitar and mayonaise.

170: What did you do yesterday?: Climbed up my hill

 

[ I Believe In ]

169: Love at first sight: Yes

168: Luck: Sometimes

167: Fate: YUSH.

166: Yourself: Kinda

165: Aliens: I am one. So DUH.

164: Heaven: Mhm

163: Hell: Mhm

162: God: 99%

161: Horoscopes: Nope, but there fun to read :3

160: Soul mates: Yep

159: Ghosts: HELL YES.

158: Gay Marriage: Mhm

157: War: Nope. MAKE TACOS NOT WAR.

156: Orbs: The floating lint balls? Nope.

155: Magic: Ehh kinda

 

[ This or That ]

154: Hugs or Kisses: Huggles ^-^

153: Drunk or High: Dru- I MEAN NEITHER. (Jk, I don't drink, or get high.)

152: Phone or Online: Online

151: Red heads or Black haired: Gingers FTW.

150: Blondes or Brunettes: Brunettes (although I have a crush on a blonde :p)

149: Hot or cold: Cold

148: Summer or winter: Summer

147: Autumn or Spring: Both

146: Chocolate or vanilla: Vanilla

145: Night or Day: Night

144: Oranges or Apples: Apples

143: Curly or Straight hair: Straight

142: McDonalds or Burger King: DA DA DA D-DA I'M LOVIN' IT

141: White Chocolate or Milk Chocolate: Milk chocolate

140: Mac or PC: I honestly don;t know :o

139: Flip flops or high heels: Flip flops

138: Ugly and rich OR Sexy and poor: sexy and poor

137: Coke or Pepsi: Coke

136: Hillary or Obama: Obama

135: Burried or cremated: Not sure o.O

134: Singing or Dancing: Singing

133: Coach or Chanel: Eww. Neither.

132: Kat McPhee or Taylor Hicks: Who?

131: Small town or Big city: Love them both <33

130: Wal-Mart or Target: Target

129: Ben Stiller or Adam Sandler: Adam Sandler

128: Manicure or Pedicure: Manicure

127: East Coast or West Coast: East Coast baby <333333333

126: Your Birthday or Christmas: Birfday :3 (No offense to Jesus O.O)

125: Chocolate or Flowers: Flowers

124: Disney or Six Flags: Six Flags

123: Yankees or Red Sox: Red Sox

 

[ Here's What I Think About ]

122: War: Shouldn't exsist.

121: George Bush: BWHAHAHAHHAAHA. Joke.

120: Gay Marriage: Support it :)

119: The presidential election: Don't care.

118: Abortion: Well, it depends on how bad your situation is.

117: MySpace: Ghost town

116: Reality TV: Stupid people doing stupid things= entertaining.

115: Parents: a lil nagging but cool people xD

114: Back stabbers: Ahem, FUCK YA'LL STUPID HOES. I feel better.

113: Ebay: Correction: Evilbay.

112: Soccer: Blech.

111: Work: Referring to schoolwork: Ehh, not that bad.

110: My Neighbors:..Interesting..

109: Gas Prices: Too high D:

108: Designer Clothes: Don't need them. I like my damn Wal-Mart pants.

107: College: I'm a freshman. Not too concerned yet.

106: Sports: Eww.

105: My family: Loving their oddness :)

104: The future: PHIL OF THE FUTURE.

  

[ Last time I ]

103: Hugged someone: Yesterday (March 3rd, 2012)

102: Last time you ate: About 10 minutes ago

101: Saw someone I haven't seen in awhile: A friend that I thought I lost forever.

100: Cried in front of someone: 2 weeks ago?

99: Went to a movie theater: Freaking last summer xD

98: Took a vacation: Last July (referring to 2011 when I say last)

97: Swam in a pool: Last September

96: Changed a diaper: ...Last May..At a friends sleepover...Don't question it.

95: Got my nails done: 4 years ago.

94: Went to a wedding: Last October

93: Broke a bone: Never

92: Got a piercing: Never

91: Broke the law: ...Does not playing gym count?

90: Texted: 15 minutes ago.

 

[ MISC ]

89: Who makes you laugh the most: My friends

88: Something I will really miss when I leave home is: Just that homey feeling

87: The last movie I saw: Uhmm..I saw Scooby Doo Two: Monsters Unleashed on t.v. today :D

86: The thing that I'm looking forward to the most: Hanging with my crush soon :3

85: The thing im not looking forward to: Staying after Wed. for help in Algebra -.-

84: People call me:...I can't list all my nicknames xD

83: The most difficult thing to do is: Letting go of someone that you never had a hold of.

82: I have gotten a speeding ticket: Never

81: My zodiac sign is: Capricorn

80: The first person I talked to today was: My friend Amber over text

79: First time you had a crush: Kindergarten O.o

78: The one person who I can't hide things from: My friends Kyle and Ange

77: Last time someone said something you were thinking: On a schooltrip to boston last November

76: Right now I am talking to: No one

75: What are you going to do when you grow up: Hopefully be a director

74: I have/will get a job: Will

73: Tomorrow: Will be boring

72: Today: Was fun

71: Next Summer: Will hopefully be an amazing summer

70: Next Weekend: Better be fun

69: I have these pets: A turtle

68: The worst sound in the world: This teacher's voice that's in my school *twitch twitch*

67: The person that makes me cry the most is: Someone.

66: People that make you happy: My friends, family

65: Last time I cried: Didn't I answer this already?

64: My friends are: Crazy-ass mofo's.

63: My computer is: My child

62: My School: Is filled with whores.

61: My Car: I don't have one

60: I lose all respect for people who: hurt me in ways a friend should never do.

59: The movie I cried at was: None...I'm so heartless Dx

58: Your hair color is: Ginger red

57: TV shows you watch: Walking Dead, Dance Moms, Adventure Time, and many others

56: Favorite web site: Flickr and Twitter

55: Your dream vacation: Going on a world wide trip :)

54: The worst pain I was ever in was: When I twisted my ankle o.o

53: How do you like your steak cooked: I'm a vegitarian.

52: My room is: A lil messy but oh so cozy ^_^

51: My favorite celebrity is: Idk...o.p

50: Where would you like to be: Narnia.

49: Do you want children: Maybeee

48: Ever been in love: Yes

47: Whos your best friend: Ange and Kyle (I swear I don't have any friends in my real life xD)

46: More guy friends or girl friends: Girls..But it's a lot of drama x.x

45: One thing that makes you feel great is: Getting an answer right in Algebra xD

44: One person that you wish you could see right now: My crush :c

43: Do you have a 5 year plan: Psh..nuu...

42: Have you made a list of things to do before you die: Sorta

41: Have you pre-named your children: Yep! Girl: Haley or Aubrey Boy: Chase or Leo

40: Last person I got mad at: My dad

39: I would like to move to: Maine

38: I wish I was a professional: Hooker. LOL jk, I have no clue

 

[ My Favorites ]

37: Candy: Skittles

36: Vehicle: PUNCH BUGGY YELLOW SAFETY!

35: President: Idk

34: State visited: New York

33: Cellphone provider: Idk xD

32: Athlete: Don't care

31: Actor: Not sure O.O

30: Actress: Jennifer Aniston I guess

29: Singer: Hmm...Taylor Swift

28: Band: Asking Alexandria

27: Clothing store: Hot Topic

26: Grocery store: Does it matter?

25: TV show: Walking Dead

24: Movie: TWILIGHT. Lol jk, dumb sparkly faries aren't my cup of tea. It's the Smurfs :3

23: Website: I swear I answered this too....

22: Animal: Wolf

21: Theme park: SDoes the Big E count as one?

20: Holiday: Easter or Halloween

19: Sport to watch: Don;t watch them

18: Sport to play: Bowling

17: Magazine: Seventeen or MAD

16: Book: I'd Tell You I Love You But Then I'd Have To Kill You, The Summer I Turned Pretty, and Cut

15: Day of the week: Friday

14: Beach: I hate beaches xD

13: Concert attended: Blood On The Dance Floor local concert..( I got to meet Dahvie <33333333333333333333333333)

12: Thing to cook: Toast. The only thing I can cook without getting the fire department called on me.

11: Food: Stuffed peppers without meat

10: Restaurant: A local diner right near me

9: Radio station: No clue o.o

8: Yankee candle scent: I don;t remember the name, but it was purple and it had to deal with bad weather.

7: cologne: For guys? Axe <33 For me? I like Dark Kiss from Bath And Body Works

6: Flower: White Tulip

5: Color: Neon green

4: Talk show host: Dr. Phil (Mr. Mustache as my friend calls him xD)

3: Comedian: Jeff Dunham or Gabriel Ingecies (sp)

2: Dog breed: Tiny lil yorkie

1: Are you ready for this survey to be over?: Yush. I've had to pee. xD

I tag everyone who hasn't done this!!

Live in concert @ Fabrique, Milano (Italy) - 7 Feb 2017

 

Facebook: www.facebook.com/seemehearme

Twitter: www.twitter.com/PieroPrv

 

:copyright: Piero Paravidino - All rights reserved - Tutti i diritti riservati

 

No unauthorised use is permitted

DO share, DO NOT reuse, copy or download

PUOI condividere, NON PUOI usare, copiare o scaricare

------------------------------------

The Pretty Reckless is an American rock band from New York City composed of Taylor Momsen (lead vocals, rhythm guitar), Ben Phillips (lead guitar, backing vocals), Mark Damon (bass) and Jamie Perkins (drums).

 

The band was formed in 2009 and released their first studio album, Light Me Up, on August 31, 2010. The album spawned three moderately successful singles, most notably, "Make Me Wanna Die". The band released the Hit Me Like a Man EP in early 2012. These releases coincided with their second tour. In 2014, the band released their second studio album, Going to Hell that included the singles "Heaven Knows" and "Messed Up World" which topped the US and UK rock charts.[3]

 

The band embarked on a worldwide tour in 2010 in support of their debut album, the Light Me Up Tour, which concluded in March 2012. They also featured as support for Marilyn Manson, Evanescence and Nickelback.

 

In early September 2015, frontwoman Taylor Momsen confirmed that the band was working on new material in the studio.[4] The band's third studio album, Who You Selling For, was released on October 21, 2016 by Razor & Tie

(en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pretty_Reckless)

  

Angelina Jolie is an American actress. She has received an Academy Award, two Screen Actors Guild Awards, and three Golden Globe Awards. Jolie promotes humanitarian causes, and is noted for her work with refugees as a Goodwill Ambassador for the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). She has been cited as one of the world's most attractive people, as well as the world's "most beautiful" woman, titles for which she has received substantial media attention.

srilankaactressmodel.blogspot.com/2010/12/srilankan-hotte...

 

Judy Muller is one of the hottest, promising Sri Lankan Model aspiring to make it big in the glamour fashion world. She has a very long way to go in the glamour world and we wish her the best. Here are the High Quality (HQ) collection of images of Judy...

The most beautiful women in TV and Movie History now become Barbie Collector Dolls created by acclaimed re-paint Artist Donna Brinkley.

 

Farrah Leni Fawcett is known as the world's Sexiest Star of all time... she will forever be one of Hollywood's greatest Icons. She was born in Corpus Christi, Texas, the younger of two daughters.[3] Her mother, Pauline Alice January 30, 1914 – March 4, 2005), was a homemaker, and her father, James William Fawcett (October 14, 1917 – August 23, 2010), was an oil field contractor. Her sister was Diane Fawcett Walls (October 27, 1938 – October 16, 2001), a graphic artist. She was of Irish, French, English, and Choctaw Native American ancestry. Fawcett once said the name Ferrah was made up by her mother because it went well with their last name.

 

A Roman Catholic, Fawcett's early education was at the parish school of the church her family attended, St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church in Corpus Christi. She graduated from W. B. Ray High School in Corpus Christi, where she was voted Most Beautiful by her classmates her Freshman, Sophomore, Junior and Senior years of High School. For three years, 1965–68, Fawcett attended the University of Texas at Austin, living one semester in Jester Center, and she became a sister of Delta Delta Delta Sorority. During her Freshman year, she was named one of the Ten Most Beautiful Coeds on Campus, the first time a Freshman had been chosen. Their photos were sent to various agencies in Hollywood. David Mirsch, a Hollywood agent called her and urged her to come to Los Angeles. She turned him down but he called her for the next two years. Finally, in 1968, the summer following her junior year, with her parents' permission to try her luck in Hollywood, Farrah moved to Hollywood. She did not return.

 

Upon arriving in Hollywood in 1968 she was signed to a $350 a week contract with Screen Gems. She began to appear in commercials for UltraBrite toothpaste, Noxema, Max Factor, Wella Balsam shampoo and conditioner, Mercury Cougar automobiles and Beauty Rest matresses. Fawcett's earliest acting appearances were guest spots on The Flying Nun and I Dream of Jeannie. She made numerous other TV appearances including Owen Marshall: Counselor at Law, [Mayberry RFD]] and The Partridge Family. She appeared in four episodes of The Six Million Dollar Man with husband Lee Majors, The Dating Game, S.W.A.T and a recurring role on Harry O alongside David Janssen. She also appeared in the Made for TV movies, The Feminist and the Fuzz, The Great American Beauty Contest, The Girl Who Came Giftwrapped, and Murder of Flight 502.

 

She had a sizable part in the 1969 French romantic-drama, Love Is a Funny Thing. She played opposite Raquel Welch and Mae West in the film version of, Myra Breckinridge (1970). The film earned negative reviews and was a box office flop. However, much has been written and said about the scene where Farrah and Raquel share a bed, and a near sexual experience. Fawcett co-starred with Michael York and Richard Jordan in the well-received science-fiction film, Logan's Run in 1976.

 

In 1976, Pro Arts Inc., pitched the idea of a poster of Fawcett to her agent, and a photo shoot was arranged with photographer Bruce McBroom, who was hired by the poster company. According to friend Nels Van Patten, Fawcett styled her own hair and did her make-up without the aid of a mirror. Her blonde highlights were further heightened by a squeeze of lemon juice. From 40 rolls of film, Fawcett herself selected her six favorite pictures, eventually narrowing her choice to the one that made her famous. The resulting poster, of Fawcett in a one-piece red bathing suit, was a best-seller; sales estimates ranged from over 5 million[12] to 8 million to as high as 12 million copies.

 

On March 21, 1976, the first appearance of Fawcett playing the character Jill Munroe in Charlie's Angels was aired as a movie of the week. Fawcett and her husband were frequent tennis partners of producer Aaron Spelling, and he and his producing partner thought of casting Fawcett as the golden girl Jill because of his friendship with the couple. The movie starred Kate Jackson, Jaclyn Smith and Fawcett (then billed as Farrah Fawcett-Majors) as private investigators for Townsend Associates, a detective agency run by a reclusive multi-millionaire whom the women had never met. Voiced by John Forsythe, the Charles Townsend character presented cases and dispensed advice via a speakerphone to his core team of three female employees, whom he referred to as Angels. They were aided in the office and occasionally in the field by two male associates, played by character actors David Doyle and David Ogden Stiers. The program quickly earned a huge following, leading the network to air it a second time and approve production for a series, with the pilot's principal cast except David Ogden Stiers.

Fawcett's record-breaking poster that sold 12 million copies.

 

The Charlie's Angels series formally debuted on September 22, 1976. Fawcett emerged as a fan favorite in the show, and the actress won a People's Choice Award for Favorite Performer in a New TV Program. In a 1977 interview with TV Guide, Fawcett said: When the show was number three, I thought it was our acting. When we got to be number one, I decided it could only be because none of us wears a bra.

 

Fawcett's appearance in the television show boosted sales of her poster, and she earned far more in royalties from poster sales than from her salary for appearing in Charlie's Angels. Her hairstyle went on to become an international trend, with women sporting a Farrah-do a Farrah-flip, or simply Farrah hair Iterations of her hair style predominated American women's hair styles well into the 1980s.

 

Fawcett left Charlie's Angels after only one season and Cheryl Ladd replaced her on the show, portraying Jill Munroe's younger sister Kris Munroe. Numerous explanations for Fawcett's precipitous withdrawal from the show were offered over the years. The strain on her marriage due to her long absences most days due to filming, as her then-husband Lee Majors was star of an established television show himself, was frequently cited, but Fawcett's ambitions to broaden her acting abilities with opportunities in films have also been given. Fawcett never officially signed her series contract with Spelling due to protracted negotiations over royalties from her image's use in peripheral products, which led to an even more protracted lawsuit filed by Spelling and his company when she quit the show.

 

The show was a major success throughout the world, maintaining its appeal in syndication, spawning a cottage industry of peripheral products, particularly in the show's first three seasons, including several series of bubble gum cards, two sets of fashion dolls, numerous posters, puzzles, and school supplies, novelizations of episodes, toy vans, and a board game, all featuring Fawcett's likeness. The Angels also appeared on the covers of magazines around the world, from countless fan magazines to TV Guide (four times) to Time Magazine.

 

The series ultimately ran for five seasons. As part of a settlement to a lawsuit over her early departure, Fawcett returned for six guest appearances over seasons three and four of the series.

 

In 2004, the television movie Behind the Camera: The Unauthorized Story of Charlie's Angels dramatized the events from the show with supermodel and actress Tricia Helfer portraying Fawcett and Ben Browder portraying Lee Majors, Fawcett's then-husband.

 

In 1983, Fawcett won critical acclaim for her role in the Off-Broadway stage production of the controversial play Extremities, written by William Mastrosimone. Replacing Susan Sarandon, she was a would-be rape victim who turns the tables on her attacker. She described the role as the most grueling, the most intense, the most physically demanding and emotionally exhausting of her career. During one performance, a stalker in the audience disrupted the show by asking Fawcett if she had received the photos and letters he had mailed her. Police removed the man and were able only to issue a summons for disorderly conduct.

 

The following year, her role as a battered wife in the fact-based television movie The Burning Bed (1984) earned her the first of her four Emmy Award nominations. The project is noted as being the first television movie to provide a nationwide 800 number that offered help for others in the situation, in this case victims of domestic abuse. It was the highest-rated television movie of the season.

 

In 1986, Fawcett appeared in the movie version of Extremities, which was also well received by critics, and for which she received a Golden Globe nomination for Best Performance by an Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama.

 

She appeared in Jon Avnet's Between Two Women with Colleen Dewhurst, and took several more dramatic roles as infamous or renowned women. She was nominated for Golden Globe awards for roles as Beate Klarsfeld in Nazi Hunter: The Beate Klarsfeld Story and troubled Woolworth heiress Barbara Hutton in Poor Little Rich Girl: The Barbara Hutton Story, and won a CableACE Award for her 1989 portrayal of groundbreaking LIFE magazine photojournalist Margaret Bourke-White in Double Exposure: The Story of Margaret Bourke-White. Her 1989 portrayal of convicted murderer Diane Downs in the miniseries Small Sacrifices earned her a second Emmy nomination[20] and her sixth Golden Globe Award nomination. The miniseries won a Peabody Award for excellence in television, with Fawcett's performance singled out by the organization, which stated Ms. Fawcett brings a sense of realism rarely seen in television miniseries (to) a drama of unusual power Art meets life.

 

Fawcett, who had steadfastly resisted appearing nude in magazines throughout the 1970s and 1980s (although she appeared topless in the 1980 film Saturn 3), caused a major stir by posing semi-nude in the December 1995 issue of Playboy.[citation needed] At the age of 50, she returned to Playboy with a pictorial for the July 1997 issue, which also became a top seller. The issue and its accompanying video featured Fawcett painting on canvas using her body, which had been an ambition of hers for years.

 

That same year, Fawcett was chosen by Robert Duvall to play his wife in an independent feature film he was producing, The Apostle. Fawcett received an Independent Spirit Award nomination as Best Actress for the film, which was highly critically acclaimed.

 

In 2000, she worked with director Robert Altman and an all-star cast in the feature film Dr. T the Women, playing the wife of Richard Gere (her character has a mental breakdown, leading to her first fully nude appearance). Also that year, Fawcett's collaboration with sculptor Keith Edmier was exhibited at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, later traveling to The Andy Warhol Museum. The sculpture was also presented in a series of photographs and a book by Rizzoli.

 

In November 2003, Fawcett prepared for her return to Broadway in a production of Bobbi Boland, the tragicomic tale of a former Miss Florida. However, the show never officially opened, closing before preview performances. Fawcett was described as vibrating with frustration at the producer's extraordinary decision to cancel the production. Only days earlier the same producer closed an Off-Broadway show she had been backing.

 

Fawcett continued to work in television, with well-regarded appearances in made-for-television movies and on popular television series including Ally McBeal and four episodes each of Spin City and The Guardian, her work on the latter show earning her a third Emmy nomination in 2004.

 

Fawcett was married to Lee Majors, star of television's The Six Million Dollar Man, from 1973 to 1982, although the couple separated in 1979. During her marriage, she was known and credited in her roles as Farrah Fawcett-Majors.

 

From 1979 until 1997 Fawcett was involved romantically with actor Ryan O'Neal. The relationship produced a son, Redmond James Fawcett O'Neal, born January 30, 1985 in Los Angeles.[26] In April 2009, on probation for driving under the influence, Redmond was arrested for possession of narcotics while Fawcett was in the hospital.[citation needed] On June 22, 2009, The Los Angeles Times and Reuters reported that Ryan O'Neal had said that Fawcett had agreed to marry him as soon as she felt strong enough.

 

From 1997 to 1998, Fawcett had a relationship with Canadian filmmaker James Orr, writer and producer of the Disney feature film in which she co-starred with Chevy Chase and Jonathan Taylor Thomas, Man of the House. The relationship ended when Orr was charged with and later convicted of beating Fawcett during a 1998 fight between the two.

 

On June 5, 1997, Fawcett received negative commentary after giving a rambling interview and appearing distracted on Late Show with David Letterman. Months later, she told the host of The Howard Stern Show her behavior was just her way of joking around with the television host, partly in the guise of promoting her Playboy pictoral and video, explaining what appeared to be random looks across the theater was just her looking and reacting to fans in the audience. Though the Letterman appearance spawned speculation and several jokes at her expense, she returned to the show a week later, with success, and several years later, after Joaquin Phoenix's mumbling act on a February 2009 appearance on The Late Show, Letterman wrapped up the interview by saying, I'm sorry you couldn't be here tonight and recalled Fawcett's earlier appearance by noting we owe an apology to Farrah Fawcett.

 

Fawcett's elder sister, Diane Fawcett Walls, died from lung cancer just before her 63rd birthday, on October 16, 2001.[33] The fifth episode of her 2005 Chasing Farrah series followed the actress home to Texas to visit with her father, James, and mother, Pauline. Pauline Fawcett died soon after, on March 4, 2005, at the age of 91.

 

Fawcett was diagnosed with anal cancer in 2006, and began treatment, including chemotherapy and surgery. Four months later, on her 60th birthday, the Associated Press wire service reported that Fawcett was, at that point, cancer free.

 

Less than four months later, in May 2007, Fawcett brought a small digital video camera to document a doctor's office visit. There, she was told a malignant polyp was found where she had been treated for the initial cancer. Doctors contemplated whether to implant a radiation seeder (which differs from conventional radiation and is used to treat other types of cancer). Fawcett's U.S. doctors told her that she would require a colostomy. Instead, Fawcett traveled to Germany for treatments described variously in the press as holistic aggressive and alternative. There, Dr. Ursula Jacob prescribed a treatment including surgery to remove the anal tumor, and a course of perfusion and embolization for her liver cancer by Doctors Claus Kiehling and Thomas Vogl in Germany, and chemotherapy back in Fawcett's home town of Los Angeles. Although initially the tumors were regressing, their reappearance a few months later necessitated a new course, this time including laser ablation therapy and chemoembolization. Aided by friend Alana Stewart, Fawcett documented her battle with the disease.

 

In early April 2009, Fawcett, back in the United States, was hospitalized, with media reports declaring her unconscious and in critical condition, although subsequent reports indicated her condition was not so dire. On April 6, the Associated Press reported that her cancer had metastasized to her liver, a development Fawcett had learned of in May 2007 and which her subsequent treatments in Germany had targeted. The report denied that she was unconscious, and explained that the hospitalization was due not to her cancer but a painful abdominal hematoma that had been the result of a minor procedure. Her spokesperson emphasized she was not at death's door adding - She remains in good spirits with her usual sense of humor ... She's been in great shape her whole life and has an incredible resolve and an incredible resilience. Fawcett was released from the hospital on April 9, picked up by longtime companion O'Neal, and, according to her doctor, was walking and in great spirits and looking forward to celebrating Easter at home.

 

A month later, on May 7, Fawcett was reported as critically ill, with Ryan O'Neal quoted as saying she now spends her days at home, on an IV, often asleep. The Los Angeles Times reported Fawcett was in the last stages of her cancer and had the chance to see her son Redmond in April 2009, although shackled and under supervision, as he was then incarcerated. Her 91-year-old father, James Fawcett, flew out to Los Angeles to visit.

 

The cancer specialist that was treating Fawcett in L.A., Dr. Lawrence Piro, and Fawcett's friend and Angels co-star Kate Jackson – a breast cancer survivor – appeared together on The Today Show dispelling tabloid-fueled rumors, including suggestions Fawcett had ever been in a coma, had ever reached 86 pounds, and had ever given up her fight against the disease or lost the will to live. Jackson decried such fabrications, saying they really do hurt a human being and a person like Farrah. Piro recalled when it became necessary for Fawcett to undergo treatments that would cause her to lose her hair, acknowledging Farrah probably has the most famous hair in the world but also that it is not a trivial matter for any cancer patient, whose hair affects [one's] whole sense of who [they] are. Of the documentary, Jackson averred Fawcett didn't do this to show that 'she' is unique, she did it to show that we are all unique ... This was ... meant to be a gift to others to help and inspire them.

 

The two-hour documentary Farrah's Story, which was filmed by Fawcett and friend Alana Stewart, aired on NBC on May 15, 2009.[47] The documentary was watched by nearly nine million people at its premiere airing, and it was re-aired on the broadcast network's cable stations MSNBC, Bravo and Oxygen. Fawcett earned her fourth Emmy nomination posthumously on July 16, 2009, as producer of Farrah's Story.

 

Controversy surrounded the aired version of the documentary, with her initial producing partner, who had worked with her four years earlier on her reality series Chasing Farrah, alleging O'Neal's and Stewart's editing of the program was not in keeping with Fawcett's wishes to more thoroughly explore rare types of cancers such as her own and alternative methods of treatment. He was especially critical of scenes showing Fawcett's son visiting her for the last time, in shackles, while she was nearly unconscious in bed. Fawcett had generally kept her son out of the media, and his appearances were minimal in Chasing Farrah.

 

Fawcett died at approximately 9:28 am, PDT on June 25, 2009, in the intensive care unit of Saint John's Health Center in Santa Monica, California, with O'Neal and Stewart by her side. A private funeral was held in Los Angeles on June 30. Fawcett's son Redmond was permitted to leave his California detention center to attend his mother's funeral, where he gave the first reading.

 

The night of her death, ABC aired an hour-long special episode of 20/20 featuring clips from several of Barbara Walters' past interviews with Fawcett as well as new interviews with Ryan O'Neal, Jaclyn Smith, Alana Stewart, and Dr. Lawrence Piro. Walters followed up on the story on Friday's episode of 20/20. CNN's Larry King Live planned a show exclusively about Fawcett that evening until the death of Michael Jackson several hours later caused the program to shift to cover both stories. Cher, a longtime friend of Fawcett, and Suzanne de Passe, executive producer of Fawcett's Small Sacrifices mini-series, both paid tribute to Fawcett on the program. NBC aired a Dateline NBC special Farrah Fawcett: The Life and Death of an Angel; the following evening, June 26, preceded by a rebroadcast of Farrah's Story in prime time. That weekend and the following week, television tributes continued. MSNBC aired back-to-back episodes of its Headliners and Legends episodes featuring Fawcett and Jackson. TV Land aired a mini-marathon of Charlie's Angels and Chasing Farrah episodes. E! aired Michael and Farrah: Lost Icons and the The Biography Channel aired Bio Remembers: Farrah Fawcett. The documentary Farrah's Story re-aired on the Oxygen Network and MSNBC.

 

Larry King said of the Fawcett phenomenon,

TV had much more impact back in the '70s than it does today. Charlie's Angels got huge numbers every week – nothing really dominates the television landscape like that today. Maybe American Idol comes close, but now there are so many channels and so many more shows it's hard for anything to get the audience, or amount of attention, that Charlie's Angels got. Farrah was a major TV star when the medium was clearly dominant.

 

Playboy founder Hugh Hefner said Farrah was one of the iconic beauties of our time. Her girl-next-door charm combined with stunning looks made her a star on film, TV and the printed page.

 

Kate Jackson said,

She was a selfless person who loved her family and friends with all her heart, and what a big heart it was. Farrah showed immense courage and grace throughout her illness and was an inspiration to those around her... I will remember her kindness, her cutting dry wit and, of course, her beautiful smile...when you think of Farrah, remember her smiling because that is exactly how she wanted to be remembered: smiling.

 

She is buried at the Westwood Village Memorial Park in Los Angeles.

 

The red one-piece bathing suit worn by Farrah in her famous 1976 poster was donated to the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History (NMAH) on February 2, 2011.[65] Said to have been purchased at a Saks Fifth Avenue store, the red Lycra suit made by the leading Australian swimsuit company Speedo, was donated to the Smithsonian by her executors and was formally presented to NMAH in Washington D.C. by her longtime companion Ryan O'Neal.[66] The suit and the poster are expected to go on temporary display sometime in 2011–12. They will be made additions to the Smithsonian's popular culture department.

 

The famous poster of Farrah in a red swimsuit has been produced as a Barbie doll. The limited edition dolls, complete with a gold chain and the girl-next-door locks, have been snapped up by Barbie fans.

 

In 2011, Men's Health named her one of the 100 Hottest Women of All-Time ranking her at No. 31

I was tagged by no less than FOUR PEOPLE to do the 16 Things meme! I guess I'm kinda popular. It boggles the mind. I never know how to start these things, so we might as well start with the mask....

 

1. During spring 2004 I had recurring dreams (well, nightmares) about a donkey-headed man...not long afterwards I saw this mask in a costume shop and figured that if I bought it, it just might exorcise the dream from my head...it worked! And now I'm rather fond of donkeys, ironically.

 

2. I'm 23 years old and I've never been kissed, never been on a date, never been no nuttin'. Sometimes this really bugs me, especially since I'm a hopeless romantic. In any case, I have learned the fine art of solitude.

 

3. ...Speaking of being a hopeless romantic, I cry at sad movies. When I first saw "The Fellowship of the Ring" I bawled so hard people gave me dirty looks. :^| Insensitive peons. :^P

 

4. And speaking of MOVIES, I adore classic, old-timey, black-and-white movies. AY-DORS THEM. I live and breathe them and study camera angles and buy movie soundtrack albums and obsess over actors and actresses long since dead. I tape their pictures on my walls. I've tried to trace the reasons for my complete love of classic movies, and I think it was because I was homeschooled by a ever-so-slightly fundamentalist Christian family, and we didn't have cable when I was a kid (or friends, but that's another story). Instead of Rugrats cartoons and MTV, I was raised on old Laurel & Hardy and Three Stooges tapes. Not to mention Gene Kelly movies. Turner Classic Movies has practically saved my life....

 

5. My first crush was on Frank Sinatra, when I was 8 years old. I was sure that I was going to marry him, thanks to my poor sense of time (see #6 below). My mom had to break the news to me that he was, in fact, much older than I was, practically an old man even. I think she even dropped the word 'fat'. I cried all day. :^(

 

6. I have no sense of time. At all. When I say something will take me five minutes, it could mean two seconds, 45 minutes, or three hours. I also had no sense of time in terms of ages and years until I was about 10 years old...before that time I thought *every* movie was recently made (which is why I thought I had a chance with Frank Sinatra) and anything your grandparents had or experienced was still widely available. I have two typewriters, I say words like 'hot-cha' and 'palooka', and when somebody my age doesn't know who Groucho Marx is, I get violent.

 

7. My maternal grandfather is a Methodist reverend, and during my childhood church was MANDATORY. I now find sermons dull as can be, and am usually daydreaming through them. Though I still consider myself a Christian, I find much of the religion to be too dogmatic and filled with shaky unspoken rules. The superior attitude concerning the 'unsaved' also sticks in my craw. My spiritual leanings tend to be rather pantheistic...Nature is about as purely holy as things can get. Dogs can convey pure love much better than humans. (We have a mini poodle named Betsy. She's a sweetheart.) I also think 'Reality' is a very, very loose term...Reality is what you believe it to be. If you think you're the King of the Netherlands *just* hard enough, than you will be the King of the Netherlands (in your own mind, at the very least). We all know people who we think are crazy, right? How do you know what they believe is or isn't real? How do you know they're just not believing in a reality different than yours? THAT'S RIGHT, YOU DON'T. I think the secret to world peace is just to accept that we all see different realities, just as we all perceive the colors of the spectrum in a slightly different way. (Or we're all just crazy, it depends on how you want to define it).

 

8. I was not the popular kid. When you're homeschooled and don't have cable tv, to other kids you might as well be a deaf-mute from Mars. In one church we went to when I was about 11, my youth group had three rich yuppie girls who teased me mercilessly because I was unattractive, quiet, and slightly-lower-middle-class. I now hate all rich people.

 

9. I'm terribly, terribly creative. :^P I started drawing when I was about 4 and I haven't stopped. I've never taken an art class in my life, and I won't start now, as I don't wish to lose my uber-cool 'Outsider Artist' status. ;^P Everything I know about art I learned from stacks and stacks of books from the library. When I was 9 I played the violin, then dropped it to play the trombone...then dropped *that*, didn't play anything for years, and then when I was 19 I started taking violin lessons again. :^) When I was 11 years old I decided I wanted to be a writer. I have stories I've silently been working on for years and years...this April my science fiction epic, "Anomaly", will be ten years in the making. 0_0 That's kind of amazing. Somehow I want to be able to combine all this artistic spiffyness into something big...my dream job to is to be a filmmaker or a graphic novelist. (Read: Maker of comic books.) My brain won't stop thinking of ideas, and when I was 8 years old I started keeping a journal. Last week I finished my 30th.

 

10. My favorite movies are The Invisible Man, The Petrified Forest, and Amélie. My favorite TV show is Mystery Science Theater 3000. My favorite books are the The Wizard of Oz series. My favorite song is Sarah Vaughan's version of "Darn That Dream", and my favorite cartoon character is Snidely Whiplash. My favorite animals are the hedgehog, the fox, the tiger, and yes, the donkey. My favorite color is always changing.

 

11. I also love toys. The comic artist Lynda Barry said that toys are "outfits for innerspace creatures", and I think that's very true and profound. I project personalities into my toys, make them have epic adventures and soap operas, and yes, take pictures of them! I think it helps my own personality keep stabilized. :^)

 

12. I LOVE clothes and fashion, but I am too poor to be fashionable. :^( I've developed my own style, a mix of Goodwill couture and homemade stuff (I knit, crochet, make jewelry, and sew a tiny bit of a little)...you'd be surprised how well it works. I don't have a lot of clothes, per se, but I have LOTS of accessories...tons of purses and shoes. Mix-and-match is a genius concept. On very rare, special occasions, I even put on makeup. My skin's extremely sensitive and I can't wear it very often. This makes me sad, because I want to be glamorous and beautiful more than anything else in the world. Unfortunately, I fit into many categories but 'beauty queen' is not one of them. :^(

 

13. I only have one sibling, a sister two years older than me. She is both my best friend and my mortal enemy. She is the stupidest, most embarrassing person I know, and is also filled with such words of wisdom as (my personal favorite): "No matter how bad your situation gets, it could always be worse. You could be Hitler." We are always bickering, but we have very few friends outside of ourselves so we have to take what we can get. We're too similar anyway.

 

14. From July 2005 to March 2008 I lived in Nebraska, the state where I was born, and I hated every minute of it. I'm never going back. The people are closed-minded and provincial. The endless fields of corn will drive you mad. Your relatives will want you over for dinner every week. I speak from experience. Though it proved to be the location of my own personal coming of age, it was also the most depressing experience of my life. And THAT is how Turner Classic Movies saved my life...watching old movies kept me distanced from a truly horrible situation. God Bless Robert Osborne.

 

15. Do you remember when all children were forced to learn to play the piano? And they had to practice for an hour every day? I wish The Law Of Pianos was still in effect. EVERYBODY should learn to play some sort of music. Learning to *play* music, not just listening to it, will open up whole areas of your mind you didn't know existed...making music makes you smarter. It makes you a better person. It just might also get you dates. Win-win.

 

16. I'm pro-life and pro-Gay Marriage. I believe that everybody deserves to live and be loved.

 

...Except for Hitler.

This portrait of madonna has Pop Art and Warhol influences, especialy his use of the iconic image of Marilyn Munrow. (And thanks to Tina for reminding me i had not stated this!

 

"Madonna Louise Ciccone Ritchie (born August 16, 1958) is an American pop singer-songwriter, musician, dancer, record producer, film producer, actress, film director and author. She is known for the use of sexual, social and religious themes in her work and has been nicknamed the "Material Girl" and "Queen Of Pop" by the media. Since her debut in 1982, Madonna has released many chart-topping albums and singles, and has sold more than 200 million albums worldwide. Billboard reported that her 2006 Confessions Tour holds the record for the highest grossing concert tour by a female artist. According to both the 2007 Guinness Book of Records, and Forbes, she is the top earning female singer in the world with an estimated net worth of over $325 million. In 2001, the Guinness Book of World Records listed Madonna as the "World’s Most-successful Female Musician". She is the 2nd most successful top selling female artist in the US according to the RIAA, and 15th biggest selling artist overall. In the United Kingdom, she is the most successful female in the UK album chart history, having sold 3.9 million copies of her compilation The Immaculate Collection there alone. In 2005, she tied with Elvis Presley's record of 36 top 10 hits, the most for any artist in the history of the Billboard Hot 100 charts. RIAA named Madonna the Best Selling Female Rock Artist of the twentieth century.

 

Madonna opposes United States President George W. Bush. She endorsed Wesley Clark's Democratic nomination for the 2004 United States presidential election in an impassioned letter to her fans, saying at the time that "the future I wish for my children is at risk." In the autumn of 2006, she expressed her support for Hillary Clinton in the 2008 election. Most recently, she stated that she would be behind Al Gore if he decided to run for the 2008 elections after seeing his documentary on global warming, An Inconvenient Truth. She also urged her fans to see Michael Moore's Fahrenheit 9/11.

 

Since the late 1990s, Madonna has been a devotee of the Kabbalah Centre and a disciple of its head Rabbi Philip Berg and his wife Karen. Madonna and husband Guy Ritchie attend Kabbalah classes and have been reported to have adopted a number of aspects of the movement associated with Judaism.

 

On August 11, 2000, Madonna gave birth to a son, Rocco John Ritchie in Los Angeles, California, with Guy Ritchie, whom she had met in 1999 through mutual friends Sting and his wife, Trudie Styler. On December 22, 2000, Madonna and Ritchie were married in Scotland. As of 2007, Madonna resides in Marylebone, London and her country estate in Wiltshire, with Ritchie and their 3 children.

 

Update: Madonna and Guy Richie are divorced. She took over in their London House and he their Wiltshire mansion. I assume that she will move back to the USA now.

 

Adapted from: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Madonna_(entertainer)

  

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German postcard by Film und Bild, Berlin-Charlottenburg, no. A 1799. Photo: J. Arthur Rank Film.

 

English actress Hayley Mills (1946) began her acting career as a popular child star and was hailed as a promising newcomer for Tiger Bay (1959), and Pollyanna (1960). During the late 1960s she played in more mature roles. Although she has not maintained the box office success she experienced as a child actress, she has always continued to make films.

 

Hayley Catherine Rose Vivien Mills was born in London, England in 1946. She was the daughter of actor Sir John Mills and playwright Mary Hayley Bell, and the younger sister of actress Juliet Mills. As an infant she made her first film appearance in her father’s So Well Remembered (1947). At 12 she was noticed playing at her parent's home by director J. Lee Thompson. He was looking for a boy to play the lead role of a murder witness in his thriller Tiger Bay (1959) opposite Horst Buchholz and John Mills, but immediately cast Mills’ tomboy daughter. For her role she won the BAFTA Award for Most Promising Newcomer and a Silver Bear at the Berlin Film Festival. Walt Disney's wife, Lillian Disney, saw her performance and suggested that Mills be given the lead role in Pollyanna (1960, David Swift). The role of the orphaned but infectiously optimistic girl who moves in with her crusty aunt Polly (Jane Wyman) made Mills a superstar in the USA. She earned a special Juvenile Oscar and a Golden Globe. Disney subsequently cast Mills as twins Sharon and Susan who reunite their divorced parents (Brian Keith and Maureen O’Hara) in the charming and highly entertaining The Parent Trap (1961, David Swift), based on the classic book by Erich Kästner. In the film, Mills sings the song Let's Get Together, which reached no. 8 on the Billboard Hot 100. The success led to the album Let's Get Together with Hayley Mills, which also included her only other hit song, Johnny Jingo (1962). She made four additional films for Disney in a four-year span, including In Search of the Castaways (1962, Robert Stevenson) with Maurice Chevalier, and Summer Magic (1963, James Neilson). Her final two Disney films, The Moon-Spinners (1964, James Neilson) with Pola Negri, and the suspense comedy That Darn Cat! (1965, Robert Stevenson), did well at the box office. During her six-year run at Disney, Mills was arguably the most popular child actress of the era. In addition to her Disney movies, Mills starred in several British films. Opposite Alan Bates she appeared in Whistle Down the Wind (1961, Bryan Forbes), based on the book of the same title written by her mother Mary Hayley Bell. The Chalk Garden (1964, Ronald Neame) with Deborah Kerr was based on a play by Enid Bagnold, and in The Truth About Spring (1965, Richard Thorpe) her real father, John Mills, was cast as her father. The 16-year-old Mills was considered for the role of Lolita Haze in Stanley Kubrick's film version of Lolita (1962). However, Walt Disney discouraged the casting, feeling the role was not up to Disney's wholesome standard, and the part eventually went to Sue Lyon. In later years, Mills admitted that she regretted not taking the part.

 

After her contract with Disney expired in 1965, Hayley Mills starred in the comedy The Trouble with Angels (1966, Ida Lupino), opposite Rosalind Russell. Looking to break from her sunny, innocent Pollyanna image, Mills returned to England to appear as a mentally challenged teenager in the film Sky West and Crooked (1966), which was directed by her father and written by her mother. She made her stage debut in a West End revival of Peter Pan (1966). Shortly thereafter, Mills starred with Hywell Bennett in the comedy The Family Way (1966, Roy Boulting) as a couple of newlyweds having difficulty consummating their marriage. The film, in which she played a brief nude scene, featured a score by Paul McCartney and arrangements by Beatles producer George Martin. She then starred as the protagonist of Pretty Polly (1967, Guy Green) , opposite famous Indian film actor Shashi Kapoor in Singapore, and another film for director Roy Boulting, the thriller Twisted Nerve (1968) again opposite Hywell Bennett. While filming The Family Way, the 20-year-old Mills had fallen in love with Boulting, who was 53-year-old and married. After his divorce, they married in 1971. Boulting took control of his young wife’s career, and, as a result, she made bad film choices that left critics and audiences cold, such as the Agatha Christie adaptation Endless Night (1972, Sidney Gilliat) co-starring Britt Ekland and George Sanders. After the even worse drama The Kingfisher Caper (1975, Dirk de Villiers) and the comedy What Changed Charley Farthing? (1976, Sidney Hayers), Mills dropped out of the film industry for a few years. In 1977 she divorced Boulting. And as Tommy Peter at IMDb observes: “her film career had pretty much tanked”.

 

In 1981 Hayley Mulls made a come-back in a starring role in the TV Mini-series The Flame Trees of Thika (1981, Roy Ward Baker), based on Elspeth Huxley's memoir of her childhood in East Africa. The series was well-received, prompting Mills to accept more acting roles. She returned to the US, and hosted for TV an episode of Disneyland (1981), sparking renewed interest in her Disney work. In 1986 she reprised her roles as twins Sharon and Susan for a trio of Parent Trap television movies: The Parent Trap II (1986, Ronald F. Maxwell), The Parent Trap III (1989, Mollie Miller), and The Parent Trap IV: Hawaiian Honeymoon (1989, Mollie Miller). Mills also starred as the title character in the Disney Channel-produced television series Good Morning, Miss Bliss (1987-1989). The show was cancelled after 14 episodes, and the rights were acquired by NBC, which reformatted Good Morning, Miss Bliss into Saved by the Bell (without Mills). Hayley Mills was involved with the ‘Hare Krishna’ movement, and wrote the preface to The Hare Krishna Book of Vegetarian Cooking (1984). In 1988 she co-edited, with Marcus Maclaine, the book My God, which consisted of brief letters from celebrities on their beliefs (or lack thereof) regarding God and the life to come. She then concentrated on a stage career and had success as Anna in The King and I, which she played in touring stage productions throughout the 1990's. In 2000 she made her Off Broadway debut in Sir Noël Coward's Suite in Two Keys, for which she won a Theatre World Award. In recognition for her work with The Walt Disney Company, Mills was awarded the prestigious Disney Legends award in 1998. Mills recalled her childhood in the documentary film Sir John Mills' Moving Memories (2000) which was written by her brother Jonathan. Later she appeared in the acclaimed short film, Stricken (2005, Jayce Bartok), the ITV1 African vet drama Wild at Heart (2007-) with her sister Juliet Mills, and in the family adventure Mandie and the Cherokee Treasure (2010, Joy Chapman), based on one of the popular Mandie novels of Lois Gladys Leppard. Most recently she was seen in Foster (2011, Jonathan Newman) with Toni Colette. In 2008, Mills was diagnosed with breast cancer. She had surgery and chemotherapy and told Good Housekeeping Magazine in January 2012 that she had recovered. Hayley Mills currently lives in New York City. Her son, Crispian Mills (1973), is known as the lead singer and guitarist of the psychedelic rock band Kula Shaker. He is now part of The Jeevas. She has a second son, Jason Lawson, from British actor Leigh Lawson, with whom she had a relationship between 1976 and 1984.

 

Sources: Tommy Peter (IMDb), Reel Classics, Wikipedia, and IMDb.

Midtown, Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States

 

240 Central Park South Apartments, built in 1939-40 to the design of Mayer & Whittlesey, is a significant and innovative complex that represents the transition between 1930s Art Deco style apartment towers with courtyards (characteristic of Central Park West) and post-World War II “modernist" apartment houses. It is notable for its modernist near-lack of applied ornament and sophisticated planning. As stated by Architectural Forum in 1941, “the architectural character of these buildings stems directly from the plans... and the fenestration.’' Constructed by the Mayer family's J.H. Taylor Construction Co. for the J.H. Taylor Management Corp.. it was one of Manhattan’s largest luxury apartment projects of its day.

 

The architects were particularly skillful in adapting their plan to a highly prominent and complex site, with frontages along Central Park South. Columbus Circle. Broadway and West 58th Street. The complex consists of a 20-story. C-shaped-in-plan building (with an 8-story tower), facing Central Park, connected by ground-story lobbies and rounded shopfronts (following the diagonal of Broadway) to a 15-story building to the south. Covering only about half of the lot. the buildings provided a maximum amount of light, air. quiet, and corner apartments, which featured cantilevered balconies and views (many of Central Park). Landscaped open space included the entrance court, centra! courtyard and adjacent shops' rooftops, and roof terraces atop both buildings. Clad in an orangish-coiored brick, the buildings were detailed with broad steel-casement windows and the contrasting concrete of the balcony slabs. Amedee Ozenfanf s mosaic “The Quiet City" decorates the front entrance, while rooftop vertical architectural elements enliven the skyline. 240 Central Park South Apartments was marketed with an explicit suburban appeal, and the slogan "Where the Park is Part of the Plan." at a time when Manhattan was losing population to the outer boroughs and suburbs.

 

Lewis Mumford. in The New Yorker in 1940. praised its “ingenious” planning solution, while Architectural Forum called it "one of the best apartment buildings vet produced." Mayer & Whittlesey, founded in 1935 (Mayer, Whittlesey & Glass after 1945). was noted for planning and apartment housing, such as Manhattan Housed 950-51, with Skidmore, Owings& Merrill).

 

DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS

 

The Mavcr Family and J.H. Tavlor Construction Co./J.H Taylor Management Corp. 1

 

By the late 1930s, the J.H Taylor Construction Co. and J.H. Taylor Management Corp. had built, owned, and managed a number of large apartment buildings in New York City. Associated with these firms were members of the prominent German-Jewish Mayer family, who individually and collectively had a long involvement in New York real estate through their activities in architecture, engineering, construction, management, investment, and ownership through various corporate entities. Bernhard Mayer (1852-1929), son of Mayer and Fannie Mayer, was bom in Altdorf, Germany, and immigrated to the United States in 1872. He became a principal in the real estate firm of [LazarusJ Weil & Mayer, with his brother-in-law. Mayer left an estate worth over $2.5 million which, after charitable donations, was left to family members, principally his widow' Sophia Buttenwieser Mayer (1860-1945) and their six children.

 

All three male Mayer siblings were active in real estate and construction, while two sisters also achieved prominence.2 Joseph L.B. Mayer (1885-1939), a real estate agent specializing in Park Avenue properties, w'as an officer and director of the Gruenstein & Mayer Corp., and an officer of the corporations for 875. 1040, and 1069 Park Avenue and 205 East 69lh Street.3 Charles Mayer (1888-1980). a graduate of Columbia University with a degree in civil engineering and a master's degree in engineering (1909). became chief engineer in the construction of apartment and office buildings through his J.H. Taylor Construction Co. (founded 1913),4 as well as a consulting engineer on such projects as Lewisohn Stadium (1915. Arnold W. Brunner; demolished). City College. He also served as president of the J.H Taylor Management Corp. (formed in 1931). Albert Mayer (1897-1981) received a degree in civil engineering from M.I.T. (1919), worked for Charles (1919-35) and was a principal partner in the J.H. Taylor Construction Co. He was one of the architects of the 240 Central Park South Apartments [see belowl. Their sister. Fannie Mayer, married William Kom (1884-1972). who became president of the J.H Taylor Management Corp. and J.H. Taylor Construction Co. Among the J.H. Taylor Construction Co.'s projects were the Jewish Hospital addition (1922-23). Brooklyn; 40 Central Park South Apartments (1941); Lebanon Hospital (1942), the Bronx; and the office building at 1407 Broadway (1950. Kahn & Jacobs).

 

Clara Woollie Mayer (1895-1988). a graduate of Barnard College (1915). did graduate work at Columbia University in 1915-19. and became a student at the New School for Social Research in 1919. She helped to organize a student committee in 1922 to raise funds to assist the school’s then precarious financial situation. A

 

history of the New School states that she Urecruited her mother and several brothers and sisters to the school’s cause. Over the next fifty years only [director] Alvin Johnson played a more important part in the life of the New School.Clara Mayer was appointed a trustee on the school’s board of directors (1924-30), was secretary to the board (1931-46), assistant director of the New School (1931-36), associate director (1937-43), dean of the School of Philosophy and Liberal Arts (1943-60), vice president (1950-62), and dean of the New School (1960-62). The Mayer family contributed $100,000 towards the new building for the New School (1929-31, Joseph Urban). Her brothers’ J.H. Taylor Construction Co. was recruited to construct the building at low cost, and Charles and Albert have been credited with recommending Urban as architect.6 The famous New School auditorium was originally dedicated to the memory of their father. Bernhard Mayer.7 In 1956-59. the Mayer family contributed to the expansion of the New' School, which was designed by Albert Mayer's firm.8

 

Mayer & Whittlesey. Architects

 

Albert Mayer, after working for his brother Charles in construction and engineering, became a registered architect and in 1935 established the firm of Mayer & [Julian H.J Whittlesey, which specialized in the design of apartment buildings. Mayer was well known as a planner and housing consultant in the United States and abroad from the 1930s on. He was a member of the Regional Planning Association of America (1930-33) which influenced the creation of the Greenbelt towns project, and was a founder, with Henry Wright and Lewis Mumford. of the Housing Study Guild (1933) which made recommendations on public housing and advocated large, planned projects, leading to the creation of the U.S. Housing Authonty in 1937. Mayer received the apartment house award from the New York Chapter, American Institute of Architects (A.I.A) in 1941 for Thomeycroft Homes, Forest Hills, Queens, and participated in the design of the Ft. Greene Houses (1942-44. w'ith Clarence Stein, Rosario Candela, Wallace K. Harrison, Ely Jacques Kahn, Andre Fouilhoux, etc.), Brooklyn, for the New York City Housing Authonty. During World War 11, Mayer served in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the construction of airfields, and his meeting of Jawaharlal Nehru led to a number of commissions in India, including a pilot development project for rural villages (1947 on) and the original master plan for Chandigarh, India (1950, with Matthew Nowicki).10 Mayer was an advocate for the rational planning of new towns, which included Kitimat, British Columbia (1951-56, with Clarence Stein). He retired from active architectural practice in 1961, but continued work as a housing consultant and as a professor, and was author of The Urgent Future (1967), in which he discussed his planning philosophies.

 

Julian Hill Whittlesey (1905-1995), bom in Greenwich, Connecticut, was educated in architecture and civil engineering at Yale University, and studied at the Fontainebleau School of Fine Arts, France, and the American School of Classical Studies. Athens. Like Mayer, he was interested in housing issues, and he worked as a consultant to the Resettlement Administration in the 1930s, as an advisor to the U.S. Public Housing Administration, and during World War II designed offices and housing for the military. Whittlesey participated in the design of the James Weldon Johnson Houses (1947-48, with Harry M. Prince and Robert J. Reiley), Park Avenue and East 112,h-1151’' Streets, and the Colonial Park Houses (1951. with Prince and Reiley). He also served as a consultant to the Baltimore and Yonkers Housing Authorities. In the 1960s. he worked as an archaeologist.

 

Mayer & Whittlesey and its successor firms were responsible for the design of a number of notable New York City apartment houses. The innovative 240 Central Park South Apartments (1939-40), an early commission, was built by the J.H. Taylor Construction Co. for the J.H. Taylor Management Corp. It was followed by the 22-story 40 Central Park South Apartments (1941), built by J.H. Taylor Construction Co. for Mayer family relative L. V ictor Weil. In 1945, Mayer & Whittlesey became Mayer, Whittlesey & IM. Milton] Glass. Glass (1906-1993), educated at City College, Columbia and New York Universities, and the Beaux-Arts Institute of Design, worked as a draftsman in a number of architectural offices prior to joining Mayer & Whittlesey, where he was head draftsman in 1940-45. Mayer. Whittlesey & Glass designed the noted 20-story Manhattan House (1950-51, with Skidmore, Owings & Merrill), 200 East 66tM Street, lor the New York Life Insurance Co., which employed the innovations and amenities of 240 Central Park South Apartments on a full-block scale. William J. Conklin (b. 1923) joined Mayer, Whittlesey & Glass in 1951 and became associate partner in charge of design in 1958. The firm was also joined by James S. Rossant. Mayer, Whittlesey & Glass received the medal of honor for large-scale housing and city planning, and an apartment house award, from the New York Chapter, A.I.A. in 1952. The firm designed 220 Central Park South Apartments (1954); New School for Social Research additions (Kaplan and List Buildings)( 1956-59, Conklin in charge of design), 66 West 12lh Street; Butterfield House (1959-62. Conklin and Rossant in charge of design), 37 West 12lh Street;11 Painting Industry Welfare Building (1960. Conklin in charge of design), 45 West 14"’ Street, featunng a glass curtain wall overlaid with a bronze screen; Gala East Harlem Plaza (1960) at the Jefferson Houses. First Avenue and 112th-115U| Streets; and the Premier (1960-63, Conklin in charge of design), 333 East 69th Street. Mayer. Whittlesey & Glass was dissolved in 1961.

 

The firm of Whittlesey & Conklin was formed in 1961 (Whittlesey, Conklin & Rossant after 1965); it developed the master plan for the new town of Reston, Virginia (1962-69). Conklin & Rossant, its successor firm, was established in 1967. Milton Glass began his own firm in 1961 that became Glass & (Elliott M.] Glass in 1966.

 

Columbus Circle and Central Park South

 

Columbus Circle was created at junction of Broadway, Eighth Avenue/Central Park West and West 59th Street (Central Park South). In 1868-71. Broadway had been widened and planted north of 59th Street, becoming known as “the Boulevard,” and by 1870, land was acquired for grander southern comer entrances to Central Park (designed in 1858 by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux).n The Plaza was created at Fifth Avenue and “the Circle" was established at Eighth Avenue. Maps of Central Park from this period indicate that the Circle was intended to have a sculptural focus. The Ladies Pavilion (1871, Vaux & Mould) was originally located at the park's southwest comer at the Circle. “Columbus Circle” came into being in 1892 w>hen the Columbus monument (Gaetano Russo, sculptor) was installed. The Ladies Pavilion was moved into the park and the comer came to be dominated by the Maine Monument (1901-13, Attilio Piccirilli, sculptor; A. Van Buren Magonigle, architect).

 

Central Park South has someli mes been referred to as a “gold coast" of Manhattan due to its advantageous location, facing the south end of Central Park, and the presence of luxurious hotels and apartment houses. In the early 1870s, town houses and mansions for New York's elite began to be constructed along Fifth Avenue and the adjacent blocks of the West 50s. Nearby West 57th Street, between Sixth Avenue and Broadway, has had a distinguished history as a center of the arts and music for over a century. Central Park South, first fully developed in the 1870s-80s, has from the beginning attracted a mix of hotels, residential structures, and institutions, as indicated on Robinson’s A tlas of the City of New York of 1885. Among the more notable were the Fifth Avenue Plaza Hotel (begun by Fife & Campbell; 1888-91, McKim, Mead & White), No. 2; the Hawthorne (1883, Hubert & Pirsson), No. 128; and Central Park Apartments (“Spanish Flats” or “the Navarro”) (1881-83, Hubert & Pirsson), a complex of eight buildings at Nos. 150-180 (all now demolished).

 

In 1885, a law was enacted to limit the height of all new residential construction in New York City to a height of 80 feet (six stones), but hotels and residential hotels were exempted because they were considered commercial properties. Central Park South thus continued to attract such structures. New buildings and institutions along the street at the turn of the century, some by prestigious architects, included the Plaza Hotel (1905-07, Henry J. Hardenbergh), No. 2, one of the world’s great luxury hotels; New York Athletic Club (1899, William A. Cable; demolished), No. 56; Deutscher Verein (German Club)( 1839-91. McKim, Mead & White; demolis' i), No. 112; Catholic Club (1891-92, William Schickt i Co.; demolished), No. 120; and Gainsborough Studios (1907-08, Charles W. Buckham), No. 222, which provided studios and apartments for artists.

 

During the period between the two world wars, many new hotels and apartments were constructed: No. 100 (1916-18, Schwartz & Gross); Plaza Hotel addition (1921, Warren & Wetmore); No. 126-130(1924-25, Schwartz & Gross); the Navarro (1925, J.E.R. Carpenter), No. 112; New York Athletic Club (1927-29, York & Sawyer), No. 180; Barbizon Plaza (1928-30, Lawrence Emmons, with Murgatroyd & Ogden), No. 106; Hampshire House (1927-29; 1931-38. Caughey & Evans), No. 150; Essex House (1929-30, Frank Grad). No. 160-170; Hotel St. Moritz (1929-30. Emery Roth), No. 56; No. 226-230 (1937-38, J.M. Felson); 240 Central Park South Apartments (1939-40); No. 40 (1941); and No. 120 (1941. H.l. Feldman).

 

240 Central Park South Apartments

 

In May 1939, a nearly one-acre site at one of the most visible locations in Manhattan, the entire blockfront along Broadway and Columbus Circle between West 58th and 59"' Streets (across from the southwest comer of Central Park), was purchased by 240 Central Park South. Inc., an entity of the J.H Taylor Management Corp. This site, once seventeen lots, had been assembled between 1881 and 1908 by George Ehret (1835-1927), a German-born brewer. An immigrant to the United States in 1857, Ehret had worked in the Roemelt & Co. (later Hupfel's) Brewery, becoming foreman, prior to establishing his own Hell Gate Brewery in 186 His enormous profits, which were invested in real estate led the New York Times to comment at his death that he “was said at one time to be the largest holder of real estate in New York City” after the Estate of John Jacob Astor. This property, one of only two vacant blockfronts along Broadway between Times Square and Columbus Circle.17 was transferred to the George Ehret Columbus Circle Corp. in April 1927. Apparently initially intended for a roadhouse or hotel it was developed with a large U-shaped, two-story Mission Revival style building that was used for used for automobile-related businesses (with large advertising signs on top).19 The building that had formerly housed Fire Engine Co. No. 23 (by 1885). 233 West 58"' Street, was next-door and aiso part of the assembled site.

 

Mayer & Whittlesey filed plans for an apartment building, expected to cost $1.6 million, in July 1939. According to the Real Estate Record & Guide. 240 Central Park South Apartments was intended as “a permanent headliner of the J.H Taylor Management Corporation's service, and not as a speculative venture.”20 Construction began in September and was completed, in just over a year, in September 1940. The final cost was $4.5 million.21 As built, the project, culled by the New York Herald Tribune “the largest [apartment house] now in construction in Manhattan.”22 was actually two buildings, joined at the ground story, that overlooked a central landscaped courtyard and covered only about half the site. The Real Estate Record commented that “this is probably the lowest land coverage in the city for an apartment project of this size. By sacrificing ground coverage, the builders have been able to incorporate a maximum number of comer suites.”23 The northern building facing Central Park is twenty stories in height, with an eight-story (plus tank house) tower, and is roughly C-shaped in plan around an entrance court. The southern building is fifteen stories. The architects were particularly skillful in adapting their plan to the highly prominent and complex site, and incorporated shops along Columbus Circle/Broadway into the project.

 

The architects said of the design process, “We had what amounted to a design board consisting of the architects, the owner, operating manager, the rental agent and the builder, together with such engineers as might have to be called in from time to time,”24 whose viewpoints and expertise were merged into “agreed decisions" which aimed to take into account factors of economy, progressive planning, and civic-minded architecture. After several schemes were proposed, the two-building solution was adopted and the building heights determined in large part due to elevator requirements. The Multiple Dwelling Law of 1929 had permitted the mechanical venting of public spaces, bathrooms, and kitchens in apartment buildings, resulting in the creation of a new apartment house type in Manhattan that combined the planning aspects of earlier mid-rise courtyard apartment buildings with tall towers. Examples of this type are the San Remo (1929-30, Emery Roth), the Majestic (1930-31. Irwin S. Chanin). and the Century (1931. Chanin). at 145-146. 115. and 25 Central Park West,25 and River House (1931-32. Bottomley, Wagner & White), 435 East 52nd Street. Architect-historian Robert A.M. Stem has stated that “after the collapse of the real-estate market in the Depression, the type was never again seriously pursued, except at 240 Central Park South, which despite the limitations of its courtyard remains a paradigm of the contextually responsible high-rise apartment in Manhattan.”

 

The buildings, clad in an orangish-colored brick, were constructed with steel-skeleton framing (produced by the Bethlehem Steel Corp.) set on reinforced concrete footings, with concrete-slab floors set between fireproofed steel beams. The open space of the complex, called by Buildings & Building Management “one of the most ingenious landscaping programs ever seen in New York.” was done under the supervision of landscape architects Cynthia Wiley and Eleanor Robertson Paepcke. Included in the overall landscaped open space scheme were the northern entrance court; off-street loading area and planting bed along 58th Street; gardens on the ground-story shops’ roofs and central court; a ground-floor conservatory, with a curved glass wall, connecting the lobbies of the two buildings and overlooking the interior gardens; a roof garden on the purposely-lower southern building; and roof terraces on the 2011' story of the northern building.

 

In terms of exterior architectural expression, 240 Central Park South Apartments represents a transition between the usage of the Art Deco, Art Modeme, and Modem Classical styles for New York apartments houses throughout the 1930s and post-World War II “modernism.” According to the New York Herald Tribune, “the architects conceived the idea while studying architecture in Stockholm, Amsterdam, and Vienna.”29 Albert Mayer was quoted on the project's modernist and functionalist aspects:

 

This building will introduce the philosophy of modern architecture, allowing the purpose of the structure and its location to dictate its style. New York has seen great strides in the design of business buildings, where such requirements as entire floors of space have dictated broad bands of windows, but until now little progress has been made in letting the comforts and requirements of the private home guide us in planning large apartment buildings. 30 Architectural Forum further stated on its modernism that The architectural character of these buildings stems directly from the plans as developed on different levels, and the fenestration. There is no applied “architecture. ” The exterior walls are flush, of a brick somewhat darker than the white concrete balcony slabs, whose sharp alternation of light and shadow constitutes the main decorative element of the exterior. 31 While there had been examples of fully modernist apartment buildings in Manhattan, such as the Beaux-Arts Apartments (1929-30. Kenneth M. Murchison and Raymond Hood), 307 and 310 East 44m Street, and Rockefeller Apartments (1935-37, Harrison & Fouilhoux). 17 West 54’" Street and 24 West 55"' Street,32 the modernist architectural approach was more typically seen during this period in public housing projects, garden apartments, and larger planned developments throughout the city.33 240 Central Park South Apartments is an unusual and innovative highrise luxury apartment complex in Manhattan, notable for its architecture, planning, and response to its urban site.

 

The retail shops along the Columbus Circle/Broadway side of the complcx include rounded storefronts staggered along the diagonal property line, adding a nearly Art Moderne style touch to the complex. According to Mayer “in this manner a new maximum in display value will be achieved through architectural beauty instead of at the expense of it. Each shop will enjoy many of the advantages of a comer location.” The main entrance court and Central Park South facade were embellished by a number of features: a glass-fronted lobby and entrance; a blue-grey extruded terra-cotta-block wall along the western side of the court: and the work of “collaborating artists,” according to Architectural Forum,35 apparently a reference to both the abstract mosaic mural entitled “The Quiet City” by Amedee Ozenfant3{l and ceramic plaques (no longer extant) on the Central Park South restaurant facade to the east of the court. An orange extruded terra-cotta-block entrance enframement and green tile inset planter decorate the 58U| Street facade of the southern building. Rooftop vertical architectural elements, such as water tower enclosure, chimneys, and wing walls, enliven the skyline.

 

240 Central Park South Apartments was planned with 326 apartments, ranging in size from one to four rooms. A large number of the apartments face Central Park, while the rest also have views due to the overall layout of the complex. The amenities offered were a mixture of those found in a traditional apartment house with those of an apartment hotel. A restaurant was located on the ground floor facing onto the entrance court. There was interior lobby access to the shops. An off-street loading area along 58Ul Street, partially covered by a roof, allowed for the transfer of goods by a hand truck ramp leading directly into the basement.

 

There were four passenger and two service elevators. Cantilevered balconies (averaging eight feet square) were provided for about 100 apartments above the seventh story facing Central Park and above the tenth or twelfth story in the southern sections of the project. Cantilevered comer windows and wide steel casement windows (in many locations the width of the room) allowed for a maximum of light and air. Most apartments above the sixth story had wood-burning fireplaces. Maid service was available and servants’ lavatories and separate service halls were located on each floor; workrooms, storage rooms, and laundry facilities were provided in the basement. A solarium/recreation room was located on the 20dl story of the northern building. Construction included special sound insulation (including elevators) and insulation against heat from boilers, etc. An independent generating plant provided power for the complex, while a hot water heating system was “the first plant of this type ever introduced in a tower apartment house.”37

 

The marketing appeal of 240 Central Park South Apartments was explicitly suburban. Buildings & Building Management pointed out that the J.H. Taylor Management Corp. was well aware that Manhattan had lost a population of 650,000 over the preceding two-and-a-half decades to the outer boroughs and suburbs.38 In its prospectus and advertising, J.H. Taylor used the slogan “Where the Park is Part of the Plan” in recognition of its site facing Central Park, the project’s own landscaped open space, and the prospective residents’ “wide-spread enthusiasm for out-of-doors life, fresh air, sunshine and vistas of green lawns and trees.”39 Architectural Forum commented that

 

The architects... had formulated certain ideas -and actual plans — as to how people might live and would want to live, if they preferred to live in the inner city, rather than in the suburbs, or if they could be convinced that the city had something less stony and court-yardy to offer than the inner cores of our cities have generally known. Their ideas... included the romantic vistas that our cities afford, but usually give only to the top few floors of their tallest buildings. They included a pattern of gardens, of open-air dining, of solariums, not only for the few fantastically pricedpent-houses and terraces, but for all who decided to live in their buildings. And also an intimation of these, a sense of greenery and openness and refreshment even to passers-by. 40

 

A special mail campaign and newspaper advertisements were particularly successful in attracting tenants. The building was over twenty-five percent rented by May 1940, and was seventy percent rented by August. Starting rents were about $550 a room.

 

Critical Response

 

240 Central Park South Apartments, though not widely noted in the architectural press at the time of its construction (possibly due to the timing between the end of the Depression and World War II), was featured in three notable publications. Lewis Mumford, in The New Yorker in December 1940, opined that

 

The new apartment house... shows that in single projects... the architectural imagination has not gone stale. This one seems to me, at least in form, the finest in its class that has been put up since the Rockefeller apartments, and its interior plan is, I think, superior to theirs. ... The architects... had a very teasing problem. The plot is irregular... Their solution was an ingenious one, which gives the living quarters of their buildings the maximum possible light, air, and quiet. ... the ingenuity of the solution lies in the fact that only the western flanks of these two buildings abut on noisy, raucous Broadway. 41 Mumford additionally admired the “very pleasant orangey back” of the buildings, the breadth of the apartment windows, the extensive use of balconies, the openness of the glass-fronted main entrance, and the Broadway shopfronts, and wrote that “in the difficult matter of terminating a high building, the architects again, by the simplest means, have scored a real success.” The apartment complex was included in the Museum of Modem Art’s Guide to Modern Architecture of 1940 which called it “a conscientious restudying of the apartment house problem, with particular attention to light, air, and view.”43 It was also praised in May 1941 in Architectural Forum:

 

It show s a host of improvements which taken together add up to one of the best apartment buildings yet produced. ... the plan... shows an admirably worked out scheme fora difficult site.

 

The solution is notable for the skill with which a maximum number of rooms have been given a view of the park, and for the flexibility with which various types of living units have been fitted into a standardized structural layout. 44 The complex has been singled out in more recent criticism. Architectural critic Paul Goldberger in the New York Times in 1977 listed the building among “The City's Top 10 [Luxury] Apartment Buildings,” stating that this often-overlooked building at the edge of Columbus Circle contains not only good apartments, but also some splendid urban lessons. ... The apartment house is thoughtful, intelligent, and unpretentious throughout - one of the last pieces of luxury housing in New York about which that can be said. 45 Goldberger further lauded the building in The City Observed: New York (1979):

 

[Central Park South’s j last building is one of its very finest, No. 240... Here, urbanistic concerns were paramount... a complex form consisting of a pair of towers atop a zigzag, garden-topped base was used. The base brings variety to storefronts and rhythm to the building's Columbus Circle facade; the overall massing emphasizes park views and brings individuality to apartment layouts. It is a remarkably sophisticated design, substantially ahead of its time in its knowing response to a difficult urban site. 4(1

 

Robert A.M. Stem wrote in an article in 1980 that 240 Central Park South comes at the point when the transition between traditional and modernist styles strongly affected American practice and produced a number of interesting buildings which, because of the ideological positions the shift forced architects and critics alike to take, have been largely overlooked. 47 Stem later observed in New York 1930 (1987) that It was not its bland facades that lent 240 Central Park South distinction but rather the shaping of the two towers, particularly the northern one, in response to the complex perimeter of the site. Aspects of the courtyard apartment building were combined with those of the skyscraper apartment building to establish both a horizontal and vertical reflection of the city's composition. Terraces began only above the

 

level of the trees in Central Park (high enough to be free of the fumes of the street); roofs were set back not only to conform to zoning requirements but also in consideration of solar orientation and views; and chimneys and mechanical equipment combined with the penthouse suites to produce a lively skyline. At the street level the building respected the varied nature of its locale: a deep, planted courtyard on Central Park South created an elegant pocket of shade, while a vigorous one-story commercial strip along Broadway used curved corners to define the diagonal of the street. The building succeeded... as an exemplar of humane values applied to the problem of high-density city living and as a finely tuned instrument of urbanism. 4S

 

Later History' of 240 Central Park South 49

 

240 Central Park South. Inc., original owner of the property, sold it in May 1976 to Central Park South Associates, an entity of Sarah Korein, a New York real estate mogul known for choice Manhattan properties. Sarah Rabinowitz (c. 1905-1998). born in Germany and raised in Palestine, married Isidor Korein, a Hungarian engineer, and immigrated to New York City in 1923. After the purchase of two apartment buildings in Brooklyn in 1931 and 1941, she entered the Manhattan real estate market after the war with the purchase of 715 Park Avenue. She later bought and sold the Osborne Apartments, the Beresford. Croyden Hotel, Fifth Avenue Hotel, and Schwab House Apartments, and owned the land and/or buildings at Lever House, Equitable Building. 1 Penn Plaza. Delmonico Hotel, Swiss Center, and 220 and 240 Central Park South Apartments.

 

Among the building’s many residents over the years have been Antoine de Saint-Exupery {1941-). later author of The Little Prince (1943); actress Sylvia Miles (since 1968); Albert Mayer (c. 1975 to his death in 1981); Claru Mayer (c. 1975-86); and the fictive Lois Lane in the movie Superman (1978). Directories list an office of the J.H. Taylor Management Corp. here from 1940 to the 1980s.

 

Description

 

240 Central Park South Apartments consists of two buildings, connected at the ground story, overlooking a central landscaped courtyard. The northern building along Centra! Park South is roughly C-shaped in plan around a planted entrance court and is twenty stones in height with an eight-story (plus tank house) lower. The southern building along West 58th Street is fifteen stories. Both buildings are steel-skeleton-framed and faced in orangish Belden Stark brick, with slate sills and concrete cantilevered balconies with original metal railings. A restaurant has been located in the ground-story space east of the entrance court. Retail shops are located on the west

 

side of the entrance court and on the Columbus Circle/Broadway side of the buildings, some with rounded storefronts staggered along the diagonal of the property line. The shops' roofs comprise part of the central courtyard and entrance court. The majority of the original Fenwrought steel casement windows (cantilevered at the comers) survive, mainly in two configurations: 1) central fixed single pane, flanked by casements with upper and lower fixed panes 2) casements with upper and lower fixed panes. Some windows have been replaced. There are also some smaller one- and two-pane windows. Brick replacement, repair, and coating in recent years has resulted in a variety of brick colors.

 

Central Park South Building The northern building of the complex is twenty stones in height, with an eight* story (plus tank house) tower, and is roughly C-shaped in plan around an entrance court [see below'], with a southern wing. A restaurant has been located in the ground-story space cast of the entrance court. Histonc bnck window enframements (with slightly recessed brick) survive, though original ceramic decorative plaques have been removed from the piers. There were originally four bays of windows along Central Park South (with tripartite windows with tripartite transoms, except that at the eastern end. which was bipartite); the comer by the entrance court was originally a glass-fronted inset restaurant entrance with a terra-cotta comer column supporting a slightly projecting shelf canopy. There are currently four large non-historic, single-pane windows with metal surrounds set within the historic enframements and altered former restaurant entrance comer; an entrance with non-historic revolving door and metal-and-glass door was inserted in the second bay from the eastern end (it has a non-histonc canopy). The windows have non-historic awnings. The retail shops located on the west side of the building begin at the west side of the entrance court [see below].

 

There is brick patterning on the lower portions (second to fourth stories) of the northern facades of the two wings. An abstract mosaic mural (“The Quiet City.” by Amedee Ozenfant) is located over the entrance, in two panels above and below the third story. Cantilevered balconies are placed above the seventh story on comers facing Central Park, and above the twelfth story on comers of the southern facade. There are comer windows where there are not balconies, except on the southern wing. The eastern wall of the building is set back from the side lot line above the ground story (which is surmounted by a terrace with its original metal railing); the wall is pierced by window's.

 

The 20“' story has penthouses, the original solan urn/recreation room, and three roof terraces (including one to the south), the eastern one having a pergola. The tower (2P‘ to 28"‘ stones plus tank house) has balconies on the 22"d to 26ll‘ stones of the northern

 

facade; comer terraces on the 27th story of the northern facade; and tank house surmounted by a roofed terrace (now enclosed). The northern facade of the tank house portion of the lower has windows divided by pilasters clad in blue-gray extruded terra-cotta blocks (the lower portion of the east pilaster has been replaced by bntt.). Roofs have chimneys, wing walls, bulkheads, and stairs. Entrance Court The entrance court has a concrete sidewalk leading to the entrance with low retaining walls with aggregate concrete coping, one stone-clad entrance post, tile and flagstone paving to the east with a tree pit and small planting beds, and a planting bed to the west. The original iron railing (lined on the interior with a planting strip) borders the court along the Central Park South sidewalk and is set on a base (now clad in flagstone); the railing originally ended at the entrance area leading to the restaurant, but now extends to the east. A long non-historic entrance canopy extending to the Central Park South sidewalk and non-historic lamp standards have been placed in the court.

 

The original curved one-story bnck-clad entrance pavilion has large fixed panes with transoms and an inset entrance with non-historic double aluminum and glass doors, surmounted by a projecting roof that extends to the east as a canopy, which is supported by a pole. The west wall of the entrance court is clad in blue-gray extruded terra-cotta blocks ( by Atlantic Terra Cotta Co.); this wall was later pierced by two windows. This wall enclosed a one-story shop to the west; the shop is surmounted by a terrace that is bordered on the east and north by the original metal railing. The east wall of the court currently has three non-historic single-pane windows with awnings and an historic three-pane window with tripartite transom at the southeast comer of the court.

 

Shopfronts: Central Park South and Columbus Circle/Broadway Retail shops are located on the western side of the complex, beginning at the comer of Central Park South and continuing along the Columbus Circle/Broadway side of the buildings. Four one-story bays have rounded storefronts staggered along the diagonal of the property line. All of the shopfronts originally had a continuous black signband above a continuous metal band above black-painted glass signbands in the transoms of the shopfronts. The shops' roofs comprised part of the landscaped central courtyard. From north to south:

 

1)The shop on the west side of the entrance court was originally entered through the lobby interior. It was later combined with two shops to the west. The shop at the comer of Central Park South and Columbus Circle has a recessed inset comer entrance (with the building cantilevered over it). Recent shopfront alterations include new brick facing and (in bays east to west on Central Park South): a louver and a metal door with parged transom area: two double-pane windows with anodized aluminum framing; and two triple-pane windows with anodized

 

aluminum framing. The comer entrance has anodized aluminum and glass double doors with a transom and sidelights. The recent brick facing continues on the staggered Columbus Circle/Broadway side, which has multi-pane winaows with anodized aluminum framing. A non-historic awning extends around the comer.

 

2)The shop in the center of the Central Park South building has an inset entrance with a painted metal and glass door and transom, flanked on the north by a glass comer shopfront window and on the south by a projecting glass shopfront window with painted metal framing (both without transoms) set above a brick-and-glassblock bulkhead, and a black glass signband,.

 

3)The shop in the south end of the Central Park South building has an inset entrance with an aluminum and glass door and transom, flanked by projecting glass shopfronts with aluminum framing (without transoms) set above a granite bulkhead. It has a non-historic awning.

 

4)The rounded shopfront has metal window framing (in its original configuration but without a transom) set above its historic brick bulkhead (now painted) with its original openings (formerly windows, now vents), and a non-histonc aluminum door and awning. The shopfront originally had a metal railing above slate coping; there is currently a metal-spike security fence.

 

5)The rounded shopfront has later metal window frami ng (without a transom) set above its historic brick bulkhead with original openings (formerly windows, now vents; the southern one is covered), and a non-histonc aluminum and glass door, awning, and rolldown gates. The shopfront originally had a metal railing above slate coping; there is currently a metal-spike security fence.

 

6)The two northern bays of the southernmost shop are rounded shopfronts with original metal window framing with transoms set above their historic brick bulkheads with original openings (formerly windows, now vents and covered by signs). The portion of the shop in the 58Ul Street building has an angled shopfront with metal framing in its original configuration with transoms set above its historic bnck bulkhead with signs placed in original window openings, and has anodized aluminum and glass entrance doors and transom. The southern piers are covered with painted sheet metal. The rounded bays originally had a metal railing above slate coping; there is currently a metal-spike security fence. The entire shopfront has a continuous non-historic awning.

 

West 58th Street Building The southern building of the complex is fifteen stories in height and is a slightly irregular slab in form. The lobby entrance on 58lh Street has an enframement of orange extruded terra-cotta blocks (by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Co.) (a portion to the east of the entrance has been pierced by an air conditioner, with a brick surround); original signage “235 W 58" and “240 CPS”; and non-historic anodized aluminum and glass doors and box awning. To the west of the lobby entrance is an original glazed green tile inset planter; a doctors’ sign plaque above the planter (in its historic location); and a row of small single-pane windows. To the east of the lobby entrance, multi-pane windows flank an inset office entrance, with a wood and glass door, brick steps, and non-historic iron gate. The ground story is capped by brick patterning.

 

Cantilevered balconies are placed above the tenth story. There are comer windows where there are not balconies. The roof has a garden, a pergola at the west end, and bulkheads.

 

Central Courtyard The central courtyard consists of the area between the Central Park South and 58th Street buildings, as well as the roofs of the one-story shops along Columbus Circle/Broadway. Atop the shops there were originally three raised planting beds, with brick retaining walls. The curved glass wall of the ground-story conservatory (connecting the lobbies of the two buildings) overlooks the courtyard on the west side. The eastern portion of the courtyard is divided by the submerged (zigzag in plan) hand truck ramp (bordered by brick walls) leading to the basement from the off-street loading area on 58"’ Street. To the east of the ramp is a planting bed. and to the west was originally a roughly T-shaped planting bed and two small circular planting beds, both raised with bnck retaining walls. Paths had gravel paving. Portions of the original landscaping scheme survive.

 

58th Street Off-Street Loading Area, Service Entrance, and Planting Bed Off of 58lh Street are a number of original features: a loading area for two trucks, paved with concrete and partially covered by a canopy roof enclosed on the north by a brick wall with metal gates; a brick post at the east end of the loading area at the sidewalk; a service entrance sidewalk with two brick entrance posts of different heights at the street end; and an L-shaped raised planting bed bordered by a brick retaining wall. There was originally a planting strip between the retaining wall and the street sidewalk. Original sidewalk and loading area gates have been removed. This entire area is currently enclosed by non-historic rolldown gates and chainlink fencing; there is also chainlink fencing along the east side of the service entrance sidewalk and above the loading area canopy roof.

 

- From the 2002 NYCLPC Landmark Designation Report

Spadina Avenue Looking North

 

Oh, thanks for taking the video link down (WMG I suppose...) - Mike

 

*****

 

"Disco is a French movie directed by Fabien Onteniente, which was released on 2 April 2008, with Franck Dubosc as 'Didier Travolta' in the main role.

 

The main subject of this movie is the rebirth of disco music at the mid-2000s in a town of France. The film is at first humorous, with a lot of clichés about Saturday Night Fever, but it doesn't disparage the disco culture at any time. In fact, all the people involved in this film are fans of disco, dance and funk music.

 

The soundtrack to the film contains a cover version of the Bee Gees' 'Night Fever' performed by Australian singer and songwriter Tina Arena." en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disco_(film)

 

*****

 

"'Night Fever', is a disco song, written and performed by The Bee Gees. It first appeared on the soundtrack to Saturday Night Fever. Producer Robert Stigwood wanted to call the film Saturday Night, but singer Robin Gibb expressed hesitation at the title. Stigwood liked the title Night Fever but was wary of marketing a movie with that name. He combined the two suggestions and the idea for Saturday Night Fever as a motion picture was born.

 

'Night Fever' remained the number one Billboard Hot 100 single for over two months in 1978. It also replaced Andy Gibb's 'Love Is Thicker Than Water' at number one, and was in turn replaced by Yvonne Elliman's 'If I Can't Have You' - all of which were written and produced by the Gibb brothers.

 

After the success of 'Night Fever,' the Governor of Florida, Reubin O'Donovan Askew, made the three men 'honorary citizens' of the state, due to the amount of time they spent each year recording singles in Miami.

 

In addition to Saturday Night Fever, the song has also appeared in the movie and on the soundtrack for Mystery Men.

 

A rare music video was made for the song, however it wasn't shown to the public until 2004 despite the fact the video didn't contain any uncensored content. An interesting note, in the video Barry Gibb was shown without his trademark beard.

 

The song lists at #33 on Billboard's All Time Top 100." en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Night_Fever

 

*****

 

"The Bee Gees were a singing trio of brothers — Barry, Robin, and Maurice Gibb. The multiple award-winning group was successful for most of its forty years of recording music, but the trio had two distinct periods of exceptional success: as a harmonic 'soft rock' act in the late 1960s and early 1970s, and as the foremost stars of the disco music era in the late 1970s. The group sang three-part tight harmonies that were instantly recognizable; brother Robin's clear vibrato lead was a hallmark of their earlier hits, while Barry's R&B falsetto became a signature sound during the disco years. The three brothers co-wrote most of their own hits, as well as writing and producing several major hits for other artists.

 

Born on the Isle of Man to English parents, the family lived in various locales that included Chorlton-cum-Hardy, Manchester, England, United Kingdom and Brisbane, Queensland, Australia, where they began their musical careers. After early chart success in Australia, they returned to the United Kingdom where producer Robert Stigwood promoted them to a worldwide audience. It has been estimated that the Bee Gees' record sales total more than 200 million, making them one of the best-selling music artists of all time. They were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1997; fittingly, the presenter of the award to 'Britain's first family of harmony' was Brian Wilson, historical leader of the Beach Boys, America's first family of rock harmony. Their Hall of Fame citation says 'Only Elvis Presley, The Beatles, Michael Jackson, Garth Brooks and Paul McCartney have outsold the Bee Gees'.

 

Barry and Robin Gibb ended the group after forty-five years of activity, when Maurice suddenly died on January 12, 2003." en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bee_Gees

 

*****

 

"Tina Arena is an Australian singer, songwriter and musical theatre actress. Over her long career in the entertainment industry she has won numerous awards, most notably 5 ARIA Awards and in both 1996 and 2000 she received the World Music Award for the world's best selling Australian artist. She has sold over 7.5 million albums worldwide to date." en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tina_Arena

 

Listen to the ground:

there is movement all around.

There is something goin' down

and I can feel it.

 

On the waves of the air,

there is dancin' out there.

If it's somethin' we can share,

we can steal it.

 

And that sweet city woman,

She moves through the light,

Controlling my mind and my soul.

When you reach out for me

Yeah, and the feelin' is bright,

 

Then I get night fever, night fever.

We know how to do it.

Gimme that night fever, night fever.

We know how to show it.

 

Here I am,

Prayin' for this moment to last,

Livin' on the music so fine,

Borne on the wind,

Makin' it mine.

 

Night fever, night fever.

We know how to do it.

Gimme that night fever, night fever.

We know how to show it.

 

In the heat of our love,

Don't need no help for us to make it.

Gimme just enough to take us to the mornin'.

I got fire in my mind.

I got higher in my walkin'.

And I'm glowin' in the dark;

I give you warnin'.

 

And that sweet city woman,

She moves through the light,

Controlling my mind and my soul.

When you reach out for me

Yeah, and the feelin' is bright,

 

Then I get night fever, night fever.

We know how to do it.

Gimme that night fever, night fever.

We know how to show it.

 

Here I am,

Prayin' for this moment to last,

Livin' on the music so fine,

Borne on the wind,

Makin' it mine.

 

Night fever, night fever.

We know how to do it.

Gimme that night fever, night fever.

We know how to show it.

 

www.flickr.com/photos/97667017@N05/albums/72157664987244096

 

Jayne Mansfield (born Vera Jayne Palmer; April 19, 1933 – June 29, 1967) was an American actress in film, theatre, and television. She was also a nightclub entertainer, a singer, and one of the early Playboy Playmates. She was a major Hollywood sex symbol of the 1950s and early 1960s and 20th Century Fox's alternative to Marilyn Monroe who came to be known as the "Working Man's Monroe".[1][2] She was also known for her well-publicized personal life and publicity stunts, such as wardrobe malfunctions.[3][4] She was one of Hollywood's original blonde bombshells,[5] and, although many people have never seen her movies,[6] Mansfield remains one of the most recognizable icons of 1950s celebrity culture.[6]

 

Mansfield became a major Broadway star in 1955, a major Hollywood star in 1956, and a leading celebrity in 1957.[7] While Mansfield's film career was short-lived, she had several box office successes and won a Theatre World Award and a Golden Globe. She enjoyed success in the role of fictional actress Rita Marlowe, both in the 1955–56 Broadway version and the 1957 Hollywood film version of Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter?. Her other major movie performances were for The Girl Can't Help It (1956), The Wayward Bus (1957), and Too Hot to Handle (1960).

 

With decreased demand for big-breasted blonde bombshells and an increased negative backlash against her over-publicity, she became a box-office has-been by the early 1960s,[7] but she remained a popular celebrity, continuing to attract large crowds outside the United States and in lucrative and successful nightclub acts. In the sexploitation film Promises! Promises! (1963), she became the first major American actress to have a nude starring role in a Hollywood motion picture.

 

Mansfield's professional name came from her first husband, public relations professional Paul Mansfield, with whom she had a daughter. She was the mother of three children from her second marriage to actor–bodybuilder Mickey Hargitay. She had a son with her third husband film director Matt Cimber. In 1967, Mansfield died in a car accident at the age of 34

srilankaactressmodel.blogspot.com/2010/12/srilankan-modls...

 

She’s bold. She’s beautiful. She’s intelligent. She is everything in one package. She is Sarah Stephani Walker – a new generation model who is blessed with all the right features.

 

You are just 19…but you appear to be more mature then your age?

“Well, I don’t think maturity comes with age, it comes with experience and attitude towards life.

   

Are you happy about your journey so far in the glamour world?

“Of course, there’s nothing to grumble about. I have posed for magazines as a model and have also done a couple of popular visuals. I believe I have a long journey to make in this field.

  

Are you happy with the feedback you are getting now?

“It’s so flattering to know that you are recognized by the people. However I make it a point to change my outlook quite regularly and that makes people wonder who this new girl is. I like to be different at all times. I love changes in life and my looks. Looking different is so lovely, I should say.

   

Any links to glamour in your family?

“No, not in my immediate family circle but I had a cousin called Tissa who really supported and motivated me into this field. I am also grateful to Rozanne Diasz who helped m a lot.

   

What kind of person is this ‘Sarah’?

“Oh she is a shy reserved type of person who comes out of her shell when the camera is switched on. I respect people and their views. I hate people who try to show off. I always want to have my feet firmly placed on the ground.

   

Was it your dream to become a model some day?

“Not really, but these thoughts were playing up in my mind from my schooldays as well. I was also dreaming of becoming a teacher, just like any other girl. I will be following a pre school teacher training course soon. Whatever I do, I want to do them in a professional manner. I must thank my director Rasika who helps me maintain this standard in the field.

   

Are you happy about your journey so far in the glamour world?

“Of course, there’s nothing to grumble about. I have posed for magazines as a model and have also done a couple of popular visuals. I believe I have a long journey to make in this field.

  

Are you happy with the feedback you are getting now?

“It’s so flattering to know that you are recognized by the people. However I make it a point to change my outlook quite regularly and that makes people wonder who this new girl is. I like to be different at all times. I love changes in life and my looks. Looking different is so lovely, I should say.

   

Any links to glamour in your family?

“No, not in my immediate family circle but I had a cousin called Tissa who really supported and motivated me into this field. I am also grateful to Rozanne Diasz who helped m a lot.

   

What kind of person is this ‘Sarah’?

“Oh she is a shy reserved type of person who comes out of her shell when the camera is switched on. I respect people and their views. I hate people who try to show off. I always want to have my feet firmly placed on the ground.

   

Was it your dream to become a model some day?

“Not really, but these thoughts were playing up in my mind from my schooldays as well. I was also dreaming of becoming a teacher, just like any other girl. I will be following a pre school teacher training course soon. Whatever I do, I want to do them in a professional manner. I must thank my director Rasika who helps me maintain this standard in the field.

Live in concert @ Fabrique, Milano (Italy) - 7 Feb 2017

 

Facebook: www.facebook.com/seemehearme

Twitter: www.twitter.com/PieroPrv

 

:copyright: Piero Paravidino - All rights reserved - Tutti i diritti riservati

 

No unauthorised use is permitted

DO share, DO NOT reuse, copy or download

PUOI condividere, NON PUOI usare, copiare o scaricare

------------------------------------

The Pretty Reckless is an American rock band from New York City composed of Taylor Momsen (lead vocals, rhythm guitar), Ben Phillips (lead guitar, backing vocals), Mark Damon (bass) and Jamie Perkins (drums).

 

The band was formed in 2009 and released their first studio album, Light Me Up, on August 31, 2010. The album spawned three moderately successful singles, most notably, "Make Me Wanna Die". The band released the Hit Me Like a Man EP in early 2012. These releases coincided with their second tour. In 2014, the band released their second studio album, Going to Hell that included the singles "Heaven Knows" and "Messed Up World" which topped the US and UK rock charts.[3]

 

The band embarked on a worldwide tour in 2010 in support of their debut album, the Light Me Up Tour, which concluded in March 2012. They also featured as support for Marilyn Manson, Evanescence and Nickelback.

 

In early September 2015, frontwoman Taylor Momsen confirmed that the band was working on new material in the studio.[4] The band's third studio album, Who You Selling For, was released on October 21, 2016 by Razor & Tie

(en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pretty_Reckless)

  

*********************

The Avengers is a spy-fi British television series created in the 1960s. The Avengers initially focused on Dr. David Keel (Ian Hendry) and his assistant John Steed (Patrick Macnee). Hendry left after the first series and Steed became the main character, partnered with a succession of assistants. Steed's most famous assistants were intelligent, stylish and assertive women: Cathy Gale (Honor Blackman), Emma Peel (Diana Rigg), and later Tara King (Linda Thorson). Later episodes increasingly incorporated elements of science fiction and fantasy, parody and British eccentricity. The Avengers ran from 1961 until 1969, screening as one hour episodes its entire run.

 

The pilot episode, "Hot Snow", aired on 7 January 1961.

The final episode, "Bizarre", aired on 21 May 1969.

 

The Avengers was produced by ABC Television, a contractor within the ITV network. After a merger in July 1968 ABC Television became Thames Television, which continued production of the series although it was still broadcast under the ABC name. By 1969 The Avengers was shown in more than 90 countries. ITV produced a sequel series The New Avengers (1976–1977) with Patrick Macnee returning as John Steed, and two new partners.

 

In 2007 The Avengers was ranked #20 on TV Guide's Top Cult Shows Ever

 

1961: With Dr David Keel (Ian Hendry)

 

The Avengers began in the episode Hot Snow, with medical doctor, Dr David Keel (Ian Hendry), investigating the murder of his fiancée and office receptionist Peggy by a drug ring. A stranger named John Steed, who was investigating the ring, appeared and together they set out to avenge her death in the first two episodes. Afterwards, Steed asked Keel to partner him as needed to solve crimes.

 

The Avengers followed Hendry's Police Surgeon, in which he played police surgeon Geoffrey Brent.[3] While Police Surgeon did not last long, viewers praised Hendry. Hendry was considered the star of the new series, receiving top billing over Macnee, and Steed did not appear in two episodes.

 

As the series progressed, Steed's importance increased, and he carried the final episode solo. While Steed and Keel used wit while discussing crimes and dangers, the series also depicted the interplay—and often tension—between Keel's idealism and Steed's professionalism. As seen in one of the two surviving episodes from the first series, "The Frighteners", Steed also had helpers among the population who provided information, similar to the "Baker Street Irregulars" of Sherlock Holmes.

 

The other regular in the first series was Carol Wilson (Ingrid Hafner), the nurse and receptionist who replaced the slain Peggy. Carol assisted Keel and Steed in cases, without being part of Steed's inner circle. Hafner had played opposite Hendry as a nurse in Police Surgeon.[3]

 

The series was shot on 405-line videotape using a multicamera setup. There was little provision for editing and virtually no location footage (although the very first shot of the first episode consisted of location footage). As was standard practice at the time, videotapes of early episodes of The Avengers were reused. Of the first series, two complete episodes still exist, as 16 mm film telerecordings. One of the episodes remaining does not feature Steed. The first 15 minutes of the first episode also exists as a telerecording; the extant footage ends at the conclusion of the first act, prior to the introduction of John Steed.

 

The missing television episodes are currently being re-created for audio by Big Finish Productions under the title of The Avengers - The Lost Episodes[4] and star Julian Wadham as Steed, Anthony Howell as Dr. Keel and Lucy Briggs-Owen as Carol Wilson.

 

1962–64: With Cathy Gale (Honor Blackman), Venus Smith (Julie Stevens) and Dr Martin King (Jon Rollason)

  

Patrick Macnee as John Steed and Honor Blackman as Cathy Gale

Production of the first series was cut short by a strike. By the time production could begin on the second series, Hendry had quit to pursue a film career. Macnee was promoted to star and Steed became the focus of the series, initially working with a rotation of three different partners. Dr Martin King (Jon Rollason), a thinly disguised rewriting of Keel, saw action in only three episodes produced from scripts written for the first series. King was intended to be a transitional character between Keel and Steed's two new female partners, but while the Dr. King episodes were shot first, they were shown out of production order in the middle of the season. The character was thereafter quickly and quietly dropped.

 

Nightclub singer Venus Smith (Julie Stevens) appeared in six episodes. She was a complete "amateur", meaning that she did not have any professional crime-fighting skills as did the two doctors. She was excited to be participating in a "spy" adventure alongside secret agent Steed (although at least one episode—"The Removal Men"—indicates she is not always enthusiastic). Nonetheless, she appears to be attracted to him and their relationship appears similar to that later displayed between Steed and Tara King. Her episodes featured musical interludes showcasing her singing performances. The character of Venus underwent some revision during her run, adopting more youthful demeanour and dress.

 

The first episode broadcast in the second series had introduced the partner who would change the show into the format for which it is most remembered. Honor Blackman played Dr Cathy Gale, a self-assured, quick-witted anthropologist who was skilled in judo and had a passion for wearing leather clothes.[5] Widowed during the Mau Mau years in Kenya, she was the "talented amateur" who saw her aid to Steed's cases as a service to her nation. Gale was said to have been born 5 October 1930 at midnight, and was raised in Africa. Gale was early-to-mid 30s during her tenure, in contrast to female characters in similar series who tended to be younger.

 

Gale was unlike any female character seen before on British TV and became a household name. Reportedly, part of her charm came from the fact that her earliest appearances were episodes in which dialogue written for Keel was simply transferred to her. Said series script writer Dennis Spooner "there's the famous story of how Honor Blackman played Ian Hendry's part, which is why they stuck her in leather and such—it was so much cheaper than changing the lines!"[6]

 

Venus Smith did not return for the third series and Cathy Gale became Steed's only regular partner. The series established a level of sexual tension between Steed and Gale, but the writers were not allowed to go beyond flirting and innuendo. Despite this the relationship between Steed and Gale was progressive for 1962–63. In "The Golden Eggs" it is revealed that Gale lived in Steed's flat; her rent according to Steed was to keep the refrigerator well-stocked and to cook for him (she appears to do neither). However, this was said to be a temporary arrangement while Gale looked for a new home, and Steed was sleeping at a hotel.

 

During the first series there were hints Steed worked for a branch of British Intelligence, and this was expanded in the second series. Steed initially received orders from different superiors, including someone referred to as "Charles", and "One-Ten" (Douglas Muir). By the third series the delivery of Steed's orders was not depicted on screen or explained. In "The Nutshell" the secret organisation to which Steed belongs is shown, and it is Gale's first visit to their HQ.

 

Small references to Steed's background were occasionally made. In series three's "Death of a Batman" it was said that Steed was with I Corps in World War II, and in Munich in 1945. In series four episode "The Hour That Never Was" Steed goes to a reunion of his RAF regiment.

 

A film version of the series was in its initial planning stages by late 1963 after series three was completed. An early story proposal paired Steed and Gale with a male and female duo of American agents, to make the movie appeal to the American market. Before the project could gain momentum Blackman was cast opposite Sean Connery in Goldfinger, requiring her to leave the series.

 

Series transformation

 

During the Gale era, Steed was transformed from a rugged trenchcoat-wearing agent into the stereotypical English gentleman (he had first donned bowler and carried his distinctive umbrella part way through the first season as 'The Frighteners' depicts), complete with Savile Row suit, bowler hat and umbrella with clothes later designed by Pierre Cardin. (The bowler and umbrella were soon changed to be full of tricks, including a sword hidden within the umbrella handle and a steel plate concealed in the hat.) These items were referred to in the French, German and Polish titles of the series, Chapeau melon et bottes de cuir ("Bowler hat and leather boots"), Mit Schirm, Charme und Melone ("With Umbrella, Charm and Bowler Hat") and Rewolwer i melonik ("A Revolver and a Bowler Hat"), respectively. With his impeccable manners, old world sophistication, and vintage automobiles, Steed came to represent the traditional Englishman of an earlier era.

 

By contrast his partners were youthful, forward-looking, and always dressed in the latest mod fashions. Gale's innovative leather outfits suited her many athletic fight scenes. Honor Blackman became a star in Britain with her black leather outfits and boots (nicknamed "kinky boots") and her judo-based fighting style. Macnee and Blackman even released a novelty song called "Kinky Boots". Some of the clothes seen in The Avengers were designed at the studio of John Sutcliffe who published the AtomAge fetish magazine.

 

Series script writer Dennis Spooner said that the series would frequently feature Steed visiting busy public places such as the main airport in London, without anyone else present in the scene. "'Can't you afford extras?' they'd ask. Well it wasn't like that; it's just that Steed had to be alone to be accepted. Put him in a crowd and he sticks out like a sore thumb! Let's face it, with normal people he's weird. The trick to making him acceptable is never to show him in a normal world, just fighting villains who are odder than he is!"[6]

 

1965–68: With Emma Peel (Diana Rigg)

 

In 1965 the show was sold to United States network, the American Broadcasting Company (ABC). The Avengers became one of the first British series to be aired on prime time U.S. television. The ABC network paid the then-unheard of sum of $2 million for the first 26 episodes. The average budget for each episode was reportedly £56,000, high for the British industry. The fourth series aired in the U.S. from March to December 1966.

 

Previously The Avengers had been shot on 405-line videotape using a multicamera setup, with very little provision for editing and virtually no location footage. The U.S. deal meant that the producers could afford to start shooting the series on 35mm film. The use of film rather than videotape was essential, as British 405-line video was technically incompatible with the U.S. NTSC videotape format. Filmed productions were standard on U.S. prime time television at that time. The Avengers continued to be produced in black and white.

 

The transfer to film meant that episodes would be shot using the single camera setup, giving the production greater flexibility. The use of film production and the single camera production style allowed more sophisticated visuals and camera angles and more outdoor location shots, all of which greatly improved the look of the series. As was standard on British television filmed production through the 1960s, all location work on series four was shot mute with the soundtrack created in post production. Dialogue scenes were filmed in the studio, leading to some jumps between location and studio footage.

     

Diana Rigg as Mrs Emma Peel

New female partner Mrs Emma Peel (Diana Rigg) debuted in this series, in October 1965. The name of the character derived from a comment by writers, during development, that they wanted a character with "man appeal". In an early attempt to incorporate this concept into the character's name, she was called "Samantha Peel", shortened to the awkward "Mantha Peel".[7] Eventually the writers began referring to the idea by the verbal shorthand, "M. Appeal",[8] which gave rise to the character's ultimate name. Emma Peel, whose husband went missing while flying over the Amazon, retained the self-assuredness of Gale, combined with superior fighting skills, intelligence, and a contemporary fashion sense.

 

After more than 60 actresses had been auditioned, the first choice to play the role was Elizabeth Shepherd. However, after filming one and a half episodes (the pilot; 'The Town of No Return' and part of 'The Murder Market'), Shepherd was released. Her on-screen personality was deemed less interesting than that of Blackman's Gale and it was decided she was not right for the role. Another 20 actresses were auditioned before the show's casting director suggested that producers Brian Clemens and Albert Fennell check out a televised drama featuring the relatively unknown Rigg (she had earlier guested in an episode of the TV show; 'The Sentimental Agent' that Clemens had written). Her screen test with Macnee showed that the two immediately worked well together, and a new era in Avengers history began.

 

A prologue was added to the beginning of all the fourth series episodes for the American transmissions. This was to clarify some initial confusion audiences had regarding the characters and their mission. In the opener, a waiter holding a champagne bottle falls dead onto a human-sized chessboard; a dagger protruding from a target on his back. Steed and Mrs. Peel (dressed in her trademark leather catsuit) walk up to the body as the voice over explains: "Extraordinary crimes against the people, and the state, have to be avenged by agents extraordinary. Two such people are John Steed, top professional, and his partner Emma Peel, talented amateur. Otherwise known as The Avengers." During this voice over, Steed pours two drinks from the wine bottle and Mrs Peel replaces her gun in her boot. They clink glasses and depart together. Fade to black and then the opening titles proper begin.

     

Film location plate presented by ABC TV to the Stapleford Miniature Railway, which is still in use today

In contrast to the Gale episodes, there was a lighter, comic touch in Steed and Peel's interactions with each other and their reactions to other characters and situations. Earlier series had a harder tone, with the Gale era including some quite serious espionage dramas. This almost completely disappeared as Steed and Peel visibly enjoyed topping each other's witticisms. The layer of conflict with Gale – who on occasion openly resented being used by Steed, often without her permission – was absent from Steed's interaction with Peel. Also the sexual tension between Steed and Gale was not present with Peel. In both cases, the exact relationship between the partners was left ambiguous, although they seemed to have carte blanche to visit each other's homes whenever they pleased and it was not uncommon for scenes to suggest Steed had spent the night at Gale's or Peel's home, or vice-versa. Although nothing "improper" was displayed, the obviously much closer chemistry between Steed and Peel constantly suggests intimacy between the two.

 

Science fiction fantasy elements (a style later known as Spy-fi) emerged in stories. The duo encountered killer robots ("The Cybernauts") and giant alien carnivorous plants ("The Man-Eater of Surrey Green").

 

In her fourth episode, "Death at Bargain Prices", Mrs Peel takes an undercover job at a department store. Her uniform for promoting space-age toys is an elaborate leather catsuit plus silver boots, sash, and welder's gloves. The suit minus the silver accessories became her signature outfit, which she wore primarily for fight scenes, in early episodes, and in the titles. There was a fetishistic undercurrent in some episodes. In "A Touch of Brimstone" Mrs Peel dressed in a dominatrix outfit of corset, laced boots and spiked collar to become the "Queen of Sin".

 

Peel's avant-garde fashions, featuring bold accents and high-contrast geometric patterns, emphasized her youthful, contemporary personality. She represented the modern England of the Sixties – just as Steed, with his vintage style and mannerisms, personified Edwardian era nostalgia. According to Macnee in his book The Avengers and Me, Rigg disliked wearing leather and insisted on a new line of fabric athletic wear for the fifth series. Alun Hughes, who had designed clothing for Diana Rigg's personal wardrobe, was suggested by the actress to design Emma Peel's "softer" new wardrobe. Pierre Cardin was brought in to design a new wardrobe for Macnee. In America, TV Guide ran a four-page photospread on Rigg's new "Emmapeeler" outfits (10–16 June 1967). Eight tight-fitting jumpsuits in a variety of bright colors were created using the stretch fabric crimplene.

 

Another memorable feature of the show from this point onwards was its automobiles. Steed's signature cars were vintage 1926–1928 Bentley racing or town cars, including Blower Bentleys and Bentley Speed Sixes (although, uniquely, in "The Thirteenth Hole" he drives a Vauxhall 30/98), while Peel drove a sporty Lotus Elan convertible which, like her clothes, emphasized her independence and vitality. During the first Peel series, each episode ended with a short, comedic scene of the duo leaving the scene of their most recent adventure in some unusual vehicle.

 

For this series Diana Rigg's stunt double was stuntman Billy Westley, Patrick Macnee's stunt double was Peter Clay.

 

Fifth series

 

After one filmed series (of 26 episodes) in black and white, The Avengers began filming in colour for the fifth series in 1966. It was three years before Britain's ITV network began full colour broadcasting.

 

This series was broadcast in the U.S. from January to May 1967. The American prologue of the previous series was rejigged for the colour episodes. It opened with the caption The Avengers In Color (required by ABC for colour series at that time). This was followed by Steed unwrapping the foil from a champagne bottle and Peel shooting the cork away. (Unlike the "chessboard" opening of the previous series, this new prologue was also included in UK broadcasts of the series.)

 

The first 16 episodes of the fifth series begin with Peel receiving a call-to-duty message from Steed: "Mrs Peel, we're needed." Peel was conducting her normal activities when she unexpectedly received a message on a calling card or within a delivered gift, at which point Steed suddenly appeared (usually in her apartment). The messages were delivered by Steed in increasingly bizarre ways as the series progressed: in a newspaper Peel had just bought, or on traffic lights while she was out driving. On one occasion Steed appeared on her television set, interrupting an old science-fiction movie (actually clips from their Year Four episode "The Cybernauts") to call her to work. Another way Steed contacted her was in the beginning of episode 13, "A Funny Thing Happened On The Way To The Station" when she enters her flat and sees a Meccano Percy the Small Engine going around a circular track with a note on one of the train cars that says "Mrs. Peel" in bold letters, she then walks over to Steed who says "you're needed". At the start of "The Hidden Tiger" Peel is redecorating her apartment (wearing a jumpsuit and drinking champagne); she peels off a strip of wallpaper, revealing the words "Mrs Peel" painted on the wall beneath. She turns to see Steed in the apartment removing another strip of wallpaper, revealing "We're needed" painted underneath on another wall. In another instance Emma enters Steed's flat to find he has just fallen down the stairs, and he painfully gasps, "Mrs Peel, you're needed." Often the episode's tag scene returned to the situation of the "Mrs Peel, we're needed" scene. "The Hidden Tiger" returns to the partially redecorated apartment where Steed begins painting a love heart and arrow and the initials of two people on the wall, but paints over the initials when Peel sees his graffito. In "The Superlative Seven" the call to duty and the tag both involve a duck shooting situation where unexpected items fall from the sky after shots are fired.

 

The series also introduced a comic tag line caption to the episode title, using the format of "Steed [does this], Emma [does that]." For example "The Joker" had the opening caption: "Steed trumps an ace, Emma plays a lone hand".('The Joker' was to a large extent a re-write colour episode of the earlier Cathy Gale b/w era story; 'Don't Look Behind You' as were a few other later episodes re-writes in colour of b/w era tales.)

 

The "Mrs Peel, we're needed" scenes and the alternate tag lines were dropped after the first 16 episodes, after a break in production, for financial reasons. They were deemed by the U.K. networks as disposable if The Avengers was to return to ITV screens. (Dave Rogers' book The Avengers Anew lists a set for every Steed/Peel episode except "The Forget-Me-Knot".)

 

Stories were increasingly characterised by a futuristic, science fiction bent, with mad scientists and their creations wreaking havoc. The duo dealt with being shrunk to doll size ("Mission... Highly Improbable"), pet cats being electrically altered into ferocious and lethal "miniature tigers" ("The Hidden Tiger"), killer automata ("Return of The Cybernauts"), mind-transferring machines ("Who's Who???"), and invisible foes ("The See-Through Man").

 

The series parodied its American contemporaries with episodes such as "The Girl From AUNTIE", "Mission... Highly Improbable" and "The Winged Avenger" (spoofing The Man from U.N.C.L.E., Mission: Impossible and Batman, respectively). The show still carried the basic format – Steed and his associate were charged with solving the problem in the space of a 50-minute episode, thus preserving the safety of 1960s Britain.

 

Comedy was evident in the names and acronyms of the organizations. For example, in "The Living Dead", two rival groups examine reported ghost sightings: FOG (Friends Of Ghosts) and SMOG (Scientific Measurement Of Ghosts). "The Hidden Tiger" features the Philanthropic Union for Rescue, Relief and Recuperation of Cats—PURRR—led by characters named Cheshire, Manx, and Angora.

 

The series also occasionally adopted a metafictional tone, coming close to breaking the fourth wall. In the series 5 episode "Something Nasty in the Nursery" Peel directly references the series' storytelling convention of having potentially helpful sources of information killed off just before she or Steed arrive. This then occurs a few minutes later. In the tag scene for the same episode, Steed and Peel tell viewers – indirectly – to tune in next week.

 

For this series Diana Rigg's stunt double was stuntwoman Cyd Child, though stuntman Peter Elliot doubled for Rigg in a stunt dive in "The Bird Who Knew Too Much".

 

Rigg's departure

 

Rigg was initially unhappy with the way she was treated by the show's producers. During her first series she learned she was being paid less than the camera man. She demanded a raise, to put her more on a par with her co-star, or she would leave the show. The producers gave in, thanks to the show's great popularity in the US.

 

At the end of the fifth series in 1967, Rigg left to pursue other projects. This included following Honor Blackman to play a leading role in a James Bond film, in this case On Her Majesty's Secret Service.

 

Rigg and Macnee have remained lifelong friends.

 

1968–69: With Tara King (Linda Thorson)

  

Thorson and Macnee

When Diana Rigg left the series in October 1967, the British network executives decided that the current series formula, despite resulting in popular success, could not be pursued further. Thus they decided that a "return to realism" was appropriate for the sixth series (1968–69). Brian Clemens and Albert Fennel were replaced by John Bryce, producer of most of the Cathy Gale-era episodes.

 

Bryce had a difficult situation in hand. He had to find a replacement for Diana Rigg and shoot the first seven episodes of the new series, which were supposed to be shipped to America together with the last eight Emma Peel colour episodes.

 

Bryce signed his then-girlfriend, 20-year-old newcomer Linda Thorson, as the new female costar and chose the name "Tara King" for her character. Thorson played the role with more innocence in mind and at heart; and unlike the previous partnerships with Cathy and Emma, the writers allowed subtle hints of romance to blossom between Steed and King. King also differed from Steed's previous partners in that she was a fully fledged (albeit initially inexperienced) agent working for Steed's organisation; his previous partners had all been (in the words of the prologue used for American broadcasts of the first Rigg series) talented amateurs. Bryce wanted Tara to be blonde, so Thorson's brown hair was bleached. However the process badly damaged Thorson's hair, so she had to wear wigs for the first third of her episodes, until her own hair grew back. Her natural brown hair was not seen until the episode "All Done with Mirrors".

 

Production of the first seven episodes of the sixth series began. However financial problems and internal difficulties undermined Bryce's effort. He only managed to complete three episodes: "Invitation to a Killing" (a 90-minute episode introducing Tara King), "The Great, Great Britain Crime" (some of its original footage was reused in the 1969 episode "Homicide and Old Lace") and "Invasion of the Earthmen" (which survived relatively intact except for the scenes in which Tara wears a brown wig.)

 

After a rough cut screening of these episodes to studio executives, Bryce was fired and Clemens and Fennel were summoned back. At their return, a fourth episode called "The Murderous Connection" was in its second day of production. After revising the script, it was renamed as "The Curious Case of the Countless Clues" and production was resumed. Production of the episode "Split!", a leftover script from the Emma Peel colour series, proceeded. Two completely new episodes were also shot: "Get-A-Way", and "Look (Stop Me If You've Heard This One) But There Were These Two Fellers".

 

Dennis Spooner said of the event that "Brian left The Avengers for about three episodes, someone took over, and when Brian came back, it was in a terrible state. He was faced with doing a rewrite on a film they'd already shot." The episode had a story error where Steed leaves for a destination. The villains then realise this and pursue him – yet arrive there before Steed does. It was fixed by having a character ask Steed 'What took you so long?', to which he replies 'I came the pretty way'. "You can only do that on The Avengers you see. It was just my favourite show to work on."[10]

 

Clemens and Fennel decided to film a new episode to introduce Tara King. This, the third episode filmed for the sixth series, was titled "The Forget-Me-Knot" and bade farewell to Emma Peel and introduced her successor, a trained but inexperienced agent named Tara King. It would be broadcast as the first episode of the sixth series. Tara debuts in dynamic style: when Steed is called to Headquarters, he is attacked and knocked down by trainee agent King who mistakes him for her training partner.

 

No farewell scenes for Emma Peel had been shot when Diana Rigg left the series. Rigg was recalled for "The Forget-Me-Knot", through which Emma acts as Steed's partner as usual. Rigg also filmed a farewell scene for Emma which appeared as the tag scene of the episode. It was explained that Emma's husband, Peter Peel, was found alive and rescued, and she left the British secret service to be with him. Emma visits Steed to say goodbye, and while leaving she passes Tara on the stairway giving the advice that "He likes his tea stirred anti-clockwise." Steed looks out the window as a departing Emma enters the Bentley driven by Peter – who from a distance seems to resemble Steed (and was played by Patrick Macnee, wearing a bowler hat and umbrella).

 

Bryce's original episode introducing Tara, "Invitation to a Killing", was revised as a regular 60-minute episode named "Have Guns Will Haggle". These episodes, together with "Invasion of the Earthmen" and the last eight Peel colour episodes, were shipped to America in February 1968.

 

For this series the government official who gave Steed his orders was depicted on screen. Mother, introduced in "The Forget-Me-Knot", is a man in a wheelchair. The role was taken by Patrick Newell who had played different roles in two earlier episodes, most recently in series five. Mother's headquarters would shift from place to place, including one episode where his complete office was on the top level of a double-decker bus. (Several James Bond films of the 1970s would make use of a similar gimmick for Bond's briefings.)

 

Added later as a regular was Mother's mute Amazonian assistant, Rhonda (Rhonda Parker). There was one appearance by an agency official code-named "Father", a blind older woman played by Iris Russell. (Russell had appeared in the series several times previously in other roles.) In one episode, "Killer", Steed is paired with Lady Diana Forbes Blakeney (Jennifer Croxton) while King is on holiday.

 

Scriptwriter Dennis Spooner later reflected on this series. "When I wrote "Look (Stop Me If You've Heard This One) But There Were These Two Fellers", that was definitely the last series. They were going to make no more, so in that series we went right over the top; we went really weird, because they knew there weren't going to be any more."[11]

 

Spooner said the series "worked because it became a parody on itself, almost. You can only do that so long." Overall he attributes the success of the show to its light approach. "We spoofed everything, we took Mission: Impossible, Bad Day at Black Rock, High Noon, The Dirty Dozen, The Birds... we took them all. The film buffs used to love it. There were always lines in it that people knew what we were talking about."[11]

 

Vehicle wise, Steed continued to drive vintage green Bentleys in the first seven episodes in production. His regular transport for the remainder of the series were two yellow Rolls-Royce cars. Mother also occasionally appeared in silver Rolls-Royces. Tara King drove an AC 428 and a Lotus Europa. Lady Diana Forbes Blakeney drove an MGC Roadster.

 

The revised series continued to be broadcast in America. The episodes with Linda Thorson as King proved to be highly rated in Europe and the UK. In the United States however, the ABC network that carried the series chose to air it opposite the number one show in the country at the time, Rowan and Martin's Laugh-In. Steed and King could not compete, and the show was cancelled in the US. Without this vital commercial backing, production could not continue in Britain either, and the series ended in May 1969. The final scene of the final episode ("Bizarre") has Steed and King, champagne glasses in hand, accidentally launching themselves into orbit aboard a rocket, as Mother breaks the fourth wall and says to the audience, "They'll be back!" before adding in shock, "They're unchaperoned up there!"

 

************************************************************************************

Courtesy of Chatwick University Archives, 1960

 

so now that the universalizing powers of network TELEVISION have cast our nation into the pit of disparity — exploiting immigration issues of relationshipping; exploiting homosexual issues of relationshipping; exploiting abortion issues of relationshipping; exploiting cop issues of relationshipping; MASSIVELY exploiting the transgendered/surgical revolution and of course, legalized weed — i guess all the writers are ready to move on to INCEST relationshipping.

 

oh dear.

 

but the topic is starting to pop up in shows.

when it showed up on "the mick", i figured it was a writing trend and i better write about that kind of thought process.

 

why?

because i study tv U.S. broadcast media programming and the posse gangs that are forming around the untold wealth accruement and washing that takes place. you see, media armies are TODAY'S real businesses and tomorrow's lawyers' employers.

 

these people are solidifying the PRIVATIZATION of intellectual property more than any other CULT on the planet.

  

so, while i work, i can listen to the abstract invisible world background programming instead of listening to fictional stories on books or just another pop song in music.

 

brightly, TV tells a fascinating story because TV is a self-grafting concept. like rome, it assimilates its own success and swallows it failures like an escort who got paid more for acting like a physical bank.

 

sooooo ONCE AGAIN, instead of our attention being directed toward CULPRIT ECONOMICS, we are going to be SHOVEFACED with incest?

 

and by incest, particularly the BROTHERSISTER ANGLE.

 

amazon is hosting a series called FLESH AND BONE which is an enticing and intellectually sexmodern drama about ballet dancers in a company. in the first episode, there is anal sex, vagina sex, and right at the very last minute of the episode — the “tease you back” segue — a man masturbates while telling his “sister” (a real actress) that he misses her.

 

and the thing about incest taboos is that they are social.

 

that is, INCEST, like RAPE, is a SOCIAL CONTRACT OFFENSE.

 

in “real life” rape and incest and murder don’t really have a “reality”. it is merely LAWS AND ORDER which give their realities a flavor, a protection, a stain, a stigma.

 

in the past, i have written about FALSE INFINITIVES. a false infinitive is a NON-ACTIVE information stain that complexifies a verb. the complexification is a tint or a shade on an actual verb.

 

for example, to borrow or to loan or to give, are just complexifications of an exchange-based motion.

you can't "literally" borrow something unless some one "owns" something. and in a world without "private property", everything isn't "free", it's just there.

 

WE give these things basic actions and gestures their more complicated flavors. that's the fking point of a SOCIETY.

 

and for a very long time, based on the reality of WOMEN AS PROPERTY, the notion of rape and the protected OBJECT have been contractually skirted in civil societies.

 

when camille paglia first wrote about this, people hit the fan. i was in school at the time and everyone was freaking out. they had never really seen the underbelly of their perceived construct.

 

they had never really questioned these things to a point of engagement.

 

and most people don’t.

 

for most people, abortion, rape and incest and homosexuality and transgender issues are things that get avoided, pushed away. more often then not, they are happening to “others”, someone else.

 

which is strange when you live in a country where the REPORTED statistics indicate that almost 90% of the citizens in this country have been PERSONALLY affected by one of these EXACT issues or know someone FIRSTHAND who has been affected.

 

and the same can be said about abortions and miscarriages. these become SECRETS that people carry like a shame.

 

ADD PHARMACEUTICALs as a general SOLVE and the soup gets suppppper thick.

 

thick enough to float the INCEST conversation to the surface.

 

the president of the united states mentioned that his daughter was hot enough that he might bang her.

 

"Yeah, she's really something, and what a beauty, that one. If I weren't happily married and, ya know, her father …"

 

— to Rolling Stone in September 2015

  

but let’s get away from the TOPICAL issues that burn like sick oil fires.

  

let’s look at the invisible part of this.

  

there is a POWER STRUCTURE that is realizing itself by distracting and maiming the UNITED STATES citizen body.

  

the use of electronics and TOYS, fking TOYS!!!!!

  

and we, the people are falling for it.

 

so ask yourself this:

  

what will the BROTHERSISTER INCEST topic do for our culture and civilization?

  

at the onset it is scary as all get out.

 

but that’s what tv does — they fake stuff so that people will do it for real. THAT’S the whole point of TV!!!!

 

at last let me add a good quote paraphrase by sir philip sydney:

 

"don't be the first in line.

don't be the last.

fit somewhere in the middle for comfort."

 

but FURTHER, anyone who has ever been through a painful breakup with a FKING stranger that they were sexually involved with, wouldn't do the same thing to their own family members. that's just fking messy stupidity that hurts EVERY member of the family.

 

end of story.

A Photographic Digital Art Composition. This image is available to purchase as a greeting card, print, poster, framed or canvass artwork via my RedBubble web site.

www.redbubble.com/people/davidelder/works/8774892-rihanna...

 

Robyn Rihanna Fenty ( born February 20, 1988), known mononymously as Rihanna, is a Barbadian recording artist and actress. Born in Saint Michael, Barbados, Rihanna moved to the United States at the age of 16 to pursue a recording career under the guidance of record producer Evan Rogers. She subsequently signed a contract with Def Jam Recordings.

 

In 2005, Rihanna released her debut studio album, Music of the Sun, which peaked in the top ten of the Billboard 200 chart and features the Billboard Hot 100 top five hit single "Pon de Replay". In less than a year, she released her second studio album, A Girl Like Me (2006), which peaked within the top-five in the United States, and produced her first Hot 100 number one single, "SOS". Rihanna's third studio album, Good Girl Gone Bad released in May 2007, spawned the international hit singles "Umbrella", "Don't Stop the Music", "Take a Bow" and "Disturbia", with an additional four singles being released. The album was nominated for nine Grammy Awards, winning Best Rap/Sung Collaboration for "Umbrella". Her fourth studio album Rated R (2009), produced the top-ten singles "Russian Roulette", "Hard" and "Rude Boy", with the latter achieving the number-one spot on the Billboard Hot 100. Loud (2010), Rihanna's fifth studio album, spawned the number-one hits "Only Girl (In the World)", "What's My Name?" and "S&M". "We Found Love" served as the lead single from Rihanna's sixth studio album, Talk That Talk (2011). The song was an international success, topping the charts in eighteen countries.

 

Rihanna's work has earned her numerous awards and accolades, including five American Music Awards, eighteen Billboard Music Awards, two BRIT Awards and six Grammy Awards. She has achieved a total of eleven number one singles on the Billboard Hot 100 chart, becoming the youngest solo artist to achieve the feat. Billboard named Rihanna the Digital Songs Artist of the 2000s decade, and ranked her as the seventeenth artist of the same decade. She is the highest-selling digital artist in US history, having sold 47,571,000 singles as of 2012. Furthermore, she has also shipped 7.3 million album units in the United States as of September 2011. Some of her singles have earned their place on the list of best-selling singles worldwide. Rihanna has sold more than 25 million albums and 60 million singles worldwide since the beginning of her career in 2005, which makes her one of the best selling artists of all time. In June 2011, Forbes reported that Rihanna had earned $29 million between May 2010 and May 2011. In 2012, American magazine Time named Rihanna one of the most influential people in the world.

Theme Borrowed from the mystery novel:

Tread softly into the Darkness.

Subtit“Folle est la brebis qui au loup se confesse!”le:

*************************************

 

He had just walked out of the Gentlemen’s smoking lounge, when he felt a hand placed upon his shoulder, and a whiff of perfume. From behind his back came a soft feminine voice with a slight Yank drawl.

 

Excuse me sir, can I ask you do me the kindness of a favor? He turned, looking down into the most enchanting pair of smiling blue eyes. He beamed into her worried face, watching with pleasure as she gave him a timid smile back. If I am able mi-lady he honestly answered, deciding in a split second that this damsel was indeed was in a bit of distress, as his sharp grey eyes wolfishly drank her image in.

 

Her long blond hair was held up in back held in back, secured by a pair of twin diamond clips that erupted out expensive glitters in a fierce storm of intense colours as she moved her head. Her ears were home to a set of dangling diamond earrings that sparkled expensively, beckoningly, as they attracted interest to her face. She was quite nice-looking, in a mousey sort of way, her appearance helped by the flattering longish hunters green gown she wore: a long soft velvet skirt with a tight glossy satin bodice. Her gloveless hands and wrists were bare of any jewel to take away notice from her face. She had a black satin cape draped over one arm, along with a pair of green velvet gloves held tightly in one hand, along with a rhinestone clasped clutch matching her gown. As a movie producer, the man had learned that first impressions mean everything, and that for one as busy as himself, he needed to garner as much info as he could from them. He could tell this one wanted to ask him something, and seemed nervous about the proposal.

 

This is rather awkward she said, her eyes becoming large like a frightened kitten, but my date sort of left with someone else, and I realized that I have to walk to my car alone. I tried to ask one of the staff, but he just laughed in my face. Her lips drooped at this last part. Then I saw you leaving, and was hoping…. Her voice trailed off meekly.

 

He was surprised, he had just thought she had recognized him and was going to ask for an autograph, so much for his ego he reasoned. And his heart was touched by the wretchedness of this poor creature too scared to venture out into the parking lot alone, albeit, it did have very poor lighting he reasoned as he spoke in answer to her plea. He studied her for a few seconds, the look of hope in her face reaching out to him. No, he thought in a fatherly manner, as his eyes watched her dangling diamond earrings, A timid creature like this should not be out walking alone. Any thief in the area would zero in on her and her expensive finery like a honey drone to the flower. This is what he thought, what he said was:

  

Well, I wasn’t leaving, rather actually just heading upstairs to meet up with my wife, but with a smile, added that he would be most honored to escort the young lady out. Taking her arm and he lead her towards the main lobby. American he asked? Montana she admitted sweetly, the nasally lisping twang of her western accent endearingly gripped the producer, who had a well-known fondness for American westerns.

  

At the door he helped her on with her wrap, she faced him, her eyes brimming with gratitude. She reached up and stroked the side of his face; you’re a dear for doing this! You really are! She hugged him tightly, her warm figure feeling quite nice against his, as he felt her beating heart. As she started to slowly put on her long soft gloves, He made the mistake of asking how she ended up here in England? Ten minutes later she was still going strong in her story, standing on the spot and showing no sign of moving. He finally had to gently take her by the arm guide her out the door to her destination, as the talkative enchantress kept on with her story, never missing a beat.

 

He led her happily across the roundabout and along the path to the lot. Her car, a red roadster, was parked at the very furthest end. They reached it, and he opened the door for her, she threw her satin cape in the back, and Just before getting in she reached out, and with a gleam in her eyes, gave him another all-encompassing embrace. Ohh thank you, kind sir she cried happily, and breaking away, entered the car and started the engine roaring to life. He closed the door and watched as she drove away, giving him a wave as she turned the corner going out onto the road that bordered the park that surrounded the civic center-hotel complex.

 

He turned and walked back towards the lobby. Whistling to himself as he thought about his good deed completed for the rather charming damsel in distress. Out of habit he started to check his W &D Rolex Timepiece. Damn he said, missing it as he felt his silk vest pockets, damn It ! , I must have lost it in the lounge. He headed back there immediately, losing all thought of the charming young lady from Montana he had just left.

 

20 minutes earlier

 

In the bar of the Ballroom located 2 floors below the Gentlemen’s smoking lounge where a certain well-known movie producer was just finishing his cigar and brandy before venturing out and running into a certain petite Blonde form Montana.

 

A man outfitted as a waiter, coming out of a side corridor, enters the massive Ballroom. For a second, as he leaves the darkened corridor, he is blinded by the bright lights and dazzling displays laid out ever so appealingly before him.

 

A lady clad in a flowing, glittering gown, her neck, ears , wrist, and fingers laden with brite rubies, swayed past him, eyeing him indignantly as she did so. “Folle est la brebis qui au loup se confesse”, he thought to himself as he watched her swish away.

 

Then he continued looking around, letting it all soak in for a few tantalizing seconds, before spying the rather regal looking lady, holding herself every bit as the film star she was. Wearing a long satin strapless number that looked as though it had been poured over her figure, it fitted her that tightly. She was drinking by a long oak bar that took up one whole end of the mammoth, brightly lit room.

  

He walked up to her; thankfully she was alone, although it really would not have made any difference, only less likely for her to become hysterical without an audience to watch. He laid a hand upon her bare shoulder; she looked contemptuously at him, with the red bloodshot eyes of one who had been to freely imbibing of the house liquor. Pardon my interruption miss ( she liked being called that, he could see) but I’m afraid your husband has met with a small mishap. She looked into his eyes with her deep grey ones, he sensed she was possibly not all that alarmed by his statement. If you will come with me, I will take you to the ambulance that has been called for him. With a small flourish she sat her glass down. She picked up a shimmering jeweled purse that matched her gown up from the finely polished oak bar. He watched as her multiple rings flashing brilliantly as they rippled in the light. One ring in particular captured his notice, a large egg shaped diamond that emitted a peculiarly yellow light as it flashed from her ring finger. In a swirl of satin, the lady turned and followed him willingly enough to the back corridor. Only upon reaching it did she start to question him as to what on earth had happened, hiding her concern incredibly well he thought, wondering if indeed she was hiding anything.

  

Stopping to collect her wrap, a long Russian mink, he led her downstairs and to a side exit. This is a short cut he explained, as he held the door opened for him. She passed him, her hells clicking, gown whisper along the stone pathway outside. Just through these woods and around the corner he directed her as she headed off, with him keeping pace closely behind.

  

20 minutes later

 

The red roadster jarred to a stop along the, deserted, dark wooded road: causing the dangling earrings of the female driver to sparkle dimly in the moons light. She killed the round head lights and waited patiently, all sign of the worry and helplessness she had displayed earlier replaced by a coolly calm demeanor.

 

She looked around, her green gown shimmering in the bright moons light. Vie ne est pas d'attendre que la tempête , mais d'apprendre à danser sous la pluie , she whispered to herself, her voice losing its western drawl completely.

 

Reaching up she undid the expensive clips, and pulled off the wind swept yellow wig. Undoing her long , naturally flaming blood red coloured hair, she let it down, spilling down ever so like hot molten lava over the backside of her green satin gown, and along her well defined breasts, tightly outlined by the hunter’s green satin bodice in front. She then popped out the blue tinted contacts, her naturally green eyes shining with wicked pleasures in the moon lit car. She tossed both the wig and the contacts into the woods. She sat back in her seat with a contented little sigh, and prepared to wait it out.

  

She reached down and opened a man’s alligator billfold and casually started leafing through it. Then she heard it, her head raised up as her ears perked…. an owl’s hoot came from off in the distance inside the black woods. She unceremoniously threw the wallet down and restarted the engine. From those woods emerged the shadowy form of a male, wearing the white shirt, white tux and black pants of a staff servant for the nearby posh complex. He opened the passenger door, threw a heavy shiny bundle into the rumble seat and jumping over the door, climbed into the seat next to her. He leaned over and happily, deeply kissed the lady driver, and settled back contentedly as she gave gas to the motor, sending the engine racing before driving leisurely off.

  

He turned to her, wolfishly eyeballing the pretty lady driving the roadster. How did you make out my love, he asked his sweet wife. The red headed siren in green satin began speaking in her native dialect, decidedly not an American one. Her deep Irish brogue rolled the words along her tongue as she related how her part of the scheme had carried out.

  

Well Husband of mine ; after stalling him as long as He let me, I relieved him of both his fancy watch, and a wallet with over three hundred pounds she remarked triumphantly. Adding happily as she looked into his grinning face, it looks like you did pretty well yourself lover! She glanced at the bundle in the seat behind her, lying on top of a blanket, which concealed a pair of suitcases.

  

The mink and gown was a bonus he admitted. But I relieved the lady of her purse and jewels as planned stated wryly. All of her jewels she asked, licking her lips as if savoring some recent memory of the lady in question; which she in reality was, have had the opportunity to scope her out in the ballroom before attending the movie star’s husband.

  

All of them, right down to the last diamond pinky ring. Any troubles she asked, knowing full well what the answer would be. None he smirked, snaking a hand around her silky waist. He broke into an impersonation of the American actor Bogart: Darling, the dame never knew what hit her! He reached in the back and started to hide the bundle away out of obvious site.

  

But why her gown, she enquired, why chance taking the time?. It was your size he stated. Not hardly she snorted at him, but thank you for the compliment my love. So, did you have a reason other than wanting to get kicks from seeing a half-naked movie star, she teased poking him in the side.

  

Actually, my love, there was a method to my madness, he retorted. I knew that with her vanity, she will wait to find a way to somehow clothe herself before going into public to scream bloody murder about losing her jewels. And, we have the beacon for our efforts he said, grinning wickedly.

  

Excited by his words, she started to speed up a little. He squeezed his arm around her slippery slick waist, no need to hurry love, he told her in a comfortingly reassuring manner. We have plenty of time to make the morning ferry to the city of Douglas.

  

Once there, would they have time to freshen up before meeting with the mysterious dark skinned man with the heavy accent who was the acting intermediary willing to pay them the balance of the 25,000 pounds upon receipt of the yellowish looking , vulgarly large, diamond ring that a certain actress had been displaying for a time that evening.

  

Postscript:

In the early years of the Nazi regime, the Wellesley’s, a well-known Jewish family , possessed a Large yellow tinted diamond known as the Harwicke Beacon. It was the center stone of a magnificent necklace. The jewel was said to bring fortune to whomever had it in their possession. Although it had not been living up to its reputation for the family, once wealthy, had fallen upon hard times. Then to compound their misfortunes, the had to leave the family manor and flee to Switzerland under pressure from the Nazi political machine. They were caught, and the necklace was taken just as the border to freedom was in sight. They had been betrayed by a mysterious dark skinned informant from another country.

 

the Harwicke Beacon was believed to have been one of the occult relics sought by the Nazis to test and see if the mysterious powers could be harnessed for the good of the war effort.

 

Its whereabouts currently unknown, the Harwicke Beacon’s reappearance in today’s world may prove a vital clue to the treasure trove of similar occult related items( both religious and non) that were hidden by the Himmler during the collapse of Nazi Germany…..

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“Folle est la brebis qui au loup se confesse!”

(Silly is the sheep who to the wolf confesses)

 

Répétrer dans les ténèbres.

Tread softly into the Darkness.

 

Vie ne est pas d'attendre que la tempête , mais d'apprendre à danser sous la pluie .

Life is not about waiting out the storm, but about learning to dance in the rain.

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The purpose of these chronological photos and accompanying stories, articles is to educate, teach, instruct, and generally increase the awareness level of the general public as to the nature and intent of the underlying criminal elements that have historically plagued humankind.

 

No Part of this can reprinted, duplicated, or copied be without the express written permission and approval of Chatwick University.

These photos and stories are works of fiction. Any resemblance to people, living or deceased, is purely coincidental.

As with any work of fiction or fantasy the purpose is for entertainment and/or educational purposes only, and should never be attempted in real life.

We accept no responsibility for any events occurring outside this website..

 

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Angelina Jolie is an American actress. She has received an Academy Award, two Screen Actors Guild Awards, and three Golden Globe Awards. Jolie promotes humanitarian causes, and is noted for her work with refugees as a Goodwill Ambassador for the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR). She has been cited as one of the world's most attractive people, as well as the world's "most beautiful" woman, titles for which she has received substantial media attention.

Romanian postcard by Casa Filmului Acin.

 

Beautiful Swiss actress Marthe Keller (1945) appeared in several French, Italian and German films but she became a star when she played a beautiful princess in the TV series La demoiselle d'Avignon/The lady of Avignon (1972). She then seemed to make it big in Hollywood with an award winning role in Marathon Man (1976) and a much-publicized affair with Al Pacino. But the failure of Fedora (1978) halted a major international film career. She continued to act in European productions, and since 1999 she has a new career as an opera director.

 

Marthe Keller was born on a horse farm located near Basel, Switzerland in 1945. She studied ballet as a child, but stopped after a skiing accident at age 16 and changed to acting. She studied three years at the Stanislavsky School in Munich, and meanwhile modeled to pay the rent. She worked in Berlin at the Schiller Theatre and the Berliner Ensemble. From 1964 on, Keller appeared in German TV films like Der trojanische Krieg findet nicht statt/The Trojan war will not take place (1964, Franz Josef Wild) and Corinne und der Seebär/Corinne and the Fur Seal (1966, Thomas Engel). Keller's film debut was an uncredited bit part in the spy thriller Funeral in Berlin (1966, Guy Hamilton) starring Michael Caine. She had a bigger role in the German film comedy Wilder Reiter GmbH/Wild Rider Ltd. (1967, Franz-Josef Spieker). In 1968 she moved to Paris. In France she appeared in the comedy Le diable par la queue/The Devil by the Tail (1969, Philippe de Broca) starring Yves Montand. She and director Philippe de Broca started a relationship. She played the title role in his romantic comedy Les caprices de Marie/Give Her the Moon (1970, Philippe de Broca), and in 1971 their son, Alexandre was born. In Paris she also played on stage as Sheila in Peter Nichols' Un jour dans la mort de Joe Egg/A Day in the Death of Joe Egg (1970). For this part she was awarded the French Critics' Award for the best stage performance. In the following years she appeared in a series of French films, including Un cave/A Loser (1971, Gilles Grangier) opposite Claude Brasseur, and the comedy La vieille fille/The Old Maid (1972, Jean-Pierre Blanc) starring Annie Girardot. Another medium made her a star though. She won the hearts of millions of European TV viewers as Princess Kristina of Kurland aka Koba Lye-Lye in the popular series La demoiselle d'Avignon/The lady of Avignon (1972, Michel Wyn). Nicholas Rhodes reviews it at IMDb: “This series is a piece of pure magic (...) and captivated the whole of France (99.4 percent of satisfied viewers at the time!). Although the picture quality is pretty bad, the story itself and the sets are absolutely magnificent. It's all about a love affair between a Frenchman whose mother owns a chateau near Avignon and a princess from the imaginary country of ‘Kurland'” She followed it with a leading role in the romance Toute une vie/And Now My Love (1974, Claude Lelouch), and a part opposite Marcello Mastroianni in the Italian-French drama Per le antiche scale/Down the Ancient Staircase (1975, Mauro Bolognini).

 

In the mid-1970’s Marthe Keller made the cross-over to Hollywood. She played Dustin Hoffman's girlfriend in the thriller Marathon Man (1976, John Schlesinger). The film became a huge hit and Keller was nominated for a Golden Globe for Best Supporting Actress. She played a femme fatale Arab terrorist who leads an attack on the Super Bowl in the suspense thriller Black Sunday (1977, John Frankenheimer). Next she appeared alongside Al Pacino in the auto racing film Bobby Deerfield (1977, Sydney Pollack), and subsequently the two stars were involved in a relationship. She garnered a great deal of publicity from these movies and from her love affair with Pacino. Keller’s next film was expected to make her a major star. Hollywood legend Billy Wilder was making Fedora (1978), based on Tom Tryon’s best seller Crowned Heads about Old Hollywood and the Old Star System and offered her the title role opposite William Holden. Jon C Hopwood in his IMDB bio describes what went wrong: “Wilder had wanted to cast Faye Dunaway as ‘Fedora’, a pastiche of Greta Garbo and Marlene Dietrich (...) He expected the actress to play the fictional movie queen both in her youthful incarnation and as an older woman (now known as ‘Countess Sobryanski’). When Dunaway passed on the part, the red-hot Keller was cast in the movie. However, Wilder was dismayed when the makeup prepared to transform Keller into the older Fedora (as Countess Sobryanski) aggravated a large scar on her forehead and caused so much pain that she couldn't act under those conditions. Wilder was forced to cast an older actress (Hildegard Knef) as the Countess. Wilder and Keller never established a good working relationship, with the result that her poor performance essentially was blamed for the failure of the film both artistically and at the box office.” She appeared in another Hollywiood production, the thriller The Formula (1980, John G. Avilssen) with George C. Scott and Marlon Brando, and in 1982 she returned to Europe.

 

Since then, Marthe Keller mainly worked in the European cinema and for TV. Mauro Bolognini directed her again in the Mini-series La certosa di Parma/The Charterhouse of Parma (1982), based on the novel by Stendhal and co-starring Gian Maria Volonté. She reunited with Marcello Mastroianni in Oci Cionie/Dark Eyes (1987, Nikita Mikhalkov), which was nominated for the Oscar for Best Foreign Language Film, and in Sostiene Pereira/According to Pereira (1995, Roberto Faenza). Interesting is also the Yukio Mishima adaptation L'école de la chair/The School of Flesh (1998, Benoit Jacquot) in which she appeared with Isabelle Huppert. In 2001, Keller appeared in a Broadway adaptation of Abby Mann's play Judgment at Nuremberg as Mrs. Bertholt (the role played by Marlene Dietrich in the 1961 film version). She was nominated for a Tony Award as Best Featured Actress for this performance. In addition to her work in film and theatre, Keller has developed a career in classical music as a speaker and opera director. She has performed the speaking role of Joan of Arc in the oratorio Jeanne d'Arc au Bûcher of Arthur Honegger on several occasions, with conductors such as Seiji Ozawa and Kurt Masur. She has recorded the role for Deutsche Grammophon with Ozawa. Keller has also recited the spoken part in Igor Stravinsky's Perséphone. She has performed classical music melodramas for speaker and piano in recital. The Swiss composer Michael Jarrell wrote the melodrama Cassandre, after the novel of Christa Wolf, for Keller, who gave the world premiere in 1994. Keller's first production as an opera director was Dialogues des Carmélites, for Opéra National du Rhin, in 1999. This production subsequently received a semi-staged performance in London that year. She has also directed Lucia di Lammermoor for Washington National Opera and for Los Angeles Opera. Her directorial debut at the Metropolitan Opera was in a 2004 production of Don Giovanni. More recently she was seen in a small role in Clint Eastwood’s fantasy drama Hereafter (2010) starring Cécile de France and Matt Damon. It was followed by a bigger role in the German WW II comedy Mein bester Feind/My Best Enemy (2011, Wolfgang Murnberger) starring Moritz Bleibtreu, the Belgian drama Les géants/The Giants (2011, Bouli Lanners), and the BBC TV thriller Page Eight (2011, David Hare) starring Bill Nighy. In 2012 the French government named her Chevalier de la Légion d'honneur.

 

Sources: Jon C. Hopwood (IMDb), Sandra Brennan (AllMovie), Wikipedia and IMDb.

www.flickr.com/photos/97667017@N05/albums/72157664987244096

 

Jayne Mansfield (born Vera Jayne Palmer; April 19, 1933 – June 29, 1967) was an American actress in film, theatre, and television. She was also a nightclub entertainer, a singer, and one of the early Playboy Playmates. She was a major Hollywood sex symbol of the 1950s and early 1960s and 20th Century Fox's alternative to Marilyn Monroe who came to be known as the "Working Man's Monroe".[1][2] She was also known for her well-publicized personal life and publicity stunts, such as wardrobe malfunctions.[3][4] She was one of Hollywood's original blonde bombshells,[5] and, although many people have never seen her movies,[6] Mansfield remains one of the most recognizable icons of 1950s celebrity culture.[6]

 

Mansfield became a major Broadway star in 1955, a major Hollywood star in 1956, and a leading celebrity in 1957.[7] While Mansfield's film career was short-lived, she had several box office successes and won a Theatre World Award and a Golden Globe. She enjoyed success in the role of fictional actress Rita Marlowe, both in the 1955–56 Broadway version and the 1957 Hollywood film version of Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter?. Her other major movie performances were for The Girl Can't Help It (1956), The Wayward Bus (1957), and Too Hot to Handle (1960).

 

With decreased demand for big-breasted blonde bombshells and an increased negative backlash against her over-publicity, she became a box-office has-been by the early 1960s,[7] but she remained a popular celebrity, continuing to attract large crowds outside the United States and in lucrative and successful nightclub acts. In the sexploitation film Promises! Promises! (1963), she became the first major American actress to have a nude starring role in a Hollywood motion picture.

 

Mansfield's professional name came from her first husband, public relations professional Paul Mansfield, with whom she had a daughter. She was the mother of three children from her second marriage to actor–bodybuilder Mickey Hargitay. She had a son with her third husband film director Matt Cimber. In 1967, Mansfield died in a car accident at the age of 34

Here is a list of world’s top 14 lingerie models of 2015. Have fun!

 

1. Dita Von Teese

  

Dita is an American burlesque dancer, model, costume designer, entrepreneur and occasional actress.As we all know, Dita has her own unique style. She also has here lingerie collection that is more...

 

masalainfo.com/worlds-top-14-lingerie-models-for-2015/

German postcard by Krüger, no. 902/357. Photo: Georg Michalke.

 

French brunette Dominique Boschero (1934) is famous among cult film fans for her roles in dozens of Italian giallos and spaghetti westerns. The gorgeous actress appeared in a surprisingly large amount of films from the mid-1950’s to the mid 1980’s.

 

Dominique Boschero was born in Paris, France in 1934. She is the sister of actor-producer Martial Boschero. Their parents were Italian and when World War II broke out, the 5-year old Dominique was trusted in the hands of her grandparents in Frassino, a small Italian mountain village with a few hundred of inhabitants. There she grew up. At 15, she returned to Paris and started to work as a janitor in a hospital and later as a seamstress. With her tall length and her dark beauty she found work as a model. Soon her beautiful face was on the covers of Paris’ premiere fashion magazines. At the age of 18, she made her stage debut as a showgirl at the Paris music-hall La Nouvelle Eve (The New Eve). She also played small or uncredited roles in French films, such as Club de Femmes/Club of Women (1956, Ralph Habib) with Nicole Courcel and Dany Carrel, but a year later she had a bigger part in Printemps a Paris/Springtime in Paris (1957, Jean-Claude Roy) with Christine Carère and Philippe Nicaud. She got another bigger role in Delannoy's Le baron de l'ecluse/The Baron of the Locks (1960, Jean Delannoy) starring Jean Gabin and Micheline Presle. Following an interview with the Italian magazine Epoca she was noticed by an Italian producer, who invited her to come to the capital of the European cinema at the time, Rome.

 

Dominique Boschero headed off to Italy, beginning her Italian career with the western comedy Un dollaro di fifa/A Dollar of Funk (1960, Giorgio Simonelli), a spoof of Rio Bravo (1959, Howard Hawks), which also starred Ugo Tognazzi and Walter Chiari. She then appeared in a few peplums (sword and sandal films). Most notably was her winning performance as 'Queen of the Bird Men' in Ulisse contro Ercole/Ulysses Against Hercules (1962, Mario Caiano) starring Georges Marchal. Then she made a major impact as femme fatale in several spy films. She appeared in early German/Italian examples of the genre such as Heißer Hafen Hong Kong/Hong Kong Hot Harbor (1962, Jürgen Roland) with Marianne Koch, and Das geheimnis der chinesischen Nelke/The Secret of the Chinese Carnation (1964, Rudolf Zehetgruber) starring Paul Dahlke. In the latter she appeared as a voluptuous vamp in a deadly plot of three different groups of plotting agents. They all chase after a microfilm with a secret formula for a new rocket fuel. Then, she appeared opposite Giancarlo Giannini in his film debut, the interesting thriller Libido (1965, Ernesto Gastaldi, Vittorio Salerno). Boschero played another leading role in Furia in Marakech/Fury at Marrakesh (1966, Mino Loy, Luciano Martino). According to Tom Lisanti and Louis Paul, authors of the study Film Fatales, her ‘ultimate screen appearance’, was “her screen-stealing turn in the bizarre uninhibited wacky, wild and completely unbelievable secret agent-super hero hybrid” Come Rubare la Corona d’Inghilterra/Argoman the Fantastic Superman (1967, Sergio Grieco). Boschero at first appears as a seemingly lost and helpless woman who seduces Argoman (Roger Browne) and then turns out to be a mastermind villain. At the climax of the film, she sadistically tortures Argoman and tries to remove his magic powers permanently. At IMDb, reviewer Gulaq-2 writes: “A CAMP classic of maximum proportions, which ruled the world in the late sixties, conquering all the known B-movies markets”.

 

In the 1970’s, Dominique Boschero continued popping up in a few giallos, e.g. Chi l'ha vista morire?/Who Saw Her Die (1972, Aldo Lado) starring former James Bond George Lazenby, and Tutti i colori del buio/All the Colors of the Dark (1972, Sergio Martino) with George Hilton and Edwige Fenech. She also appeared in the spaghetti western Los buitres cavarán tu fosa/And the Crows Will Dig Your Grave (1972, Juan Bosch), the Italian-Belgian sex comedy Je suis une call-girl/I am a call-girl (1973, Jack Guy), and the horror film Il prato macchiato di rosso/The Bloodstained Lawn (1973, Riccardo Ghione) with Nino Castelnuovo. IMDb reviewer Babycarrot67 calls this horror film a guilty pleasure: “An obvious commentary on the rich and powerful exploiting the more unfortunate members of society, this film does not take itself very seriously, and most of the cast, especially Marina Malfatti as one of the aristocrats, appears to be having a good time. The film's claustrophobic atmosphere gives it just enough feeling of unease to make it a credible horror film, and the film's overall weirdness and eccentricity help it cross over the finish line of viewer satisfaction. This film could be the definition of a motion picture "guilty pleasure" although one should not feel guilty during the viewing.” . Boschero had a romance with Claudio Camaso (Claudio Volonté), the brother of actor Gianmaria Volonté. Camaso was involved with an alleged bomb in the Vatican. This scandal and her cursed relationship with the actor who eventually committed suicide in jail in 1977, slowed down her career. In 1974 Boschero retired from the cinema and withdrew to Frassino. She later would have a relation with the singer Franco Califano. In 1986 she returned on television in the soap series Passioni/Passions (1986, Riccardo Donna). Dominique Boschero lives in Frassino, North-West Italy, where she is involved in the investigation and preservation of the occitan language. From the end of the 1960’s she is interested in this subject after meeting François Fontan, founder of the Parti nationaliste occitan, and the poet Antonio Bodrero (Barba Toni Baudrier).

 

Sources: Tom Lisanti and Louis Paul (Film Fatales: women in espionage films and television, 1962-1973), European Film Review, Wikipedia (French and Italian) and IMDb.

www.flickr.com/photos/97667017@N05/albums/72157664987244096

 

Jayne Mansfield (born Vera Jayne Palmer; April 19, 1933 – June 29, 1967) was an American actress in film, theatre, and television. She was also a nightclub entertainer, a singer, and one of the early Playboy Playmates. She was a major Hollywood sex symbol of the 1950s and early 1960s and 20th Century Fox's alternative to Marilyn Monroe who came to be known as the "Working Man's Monroe".[1][2] She was also known for her well-publicized personal life and publicity stunts, such as wardrobe malfunctions.[3][4] She was one of Hollywood's original blonde bombshells,[5] and, although many people have never seen her movies,[6] Mansfield remains one of the most recognizable icons of 1950s celebrity culture.[6]

 

Mansfield became a major Broadway star in 1955, a major Hollywood star in 1956, and a leading celebrity in 1957.[7] While Mansfield's film career was short-lived, she had several box office successes and won a Theatre World Award and a Golden Globe. She enjoyed success in the role of fictional actress Rita Marlowe, both in the 1955–56 Broadway version and the 1957 Hollywood film version of Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter?. Her other major movie performances were for The Girl Can't Help It (1956), The Wayward Bus (1957), and Too Hot to Handle (1960).

 

With decreased demand for big-breasted blonde bombshells and an increased negative backlash against her over-publicity, she became a box-office has-been by the early 1960s,[7] but she remained a popular celebrity, continuing to attract large crowds outside the United States and in lucrative and successful nightclub acts. In the sexploitation film Promises! Promises! (1963), she became the first major American actress to have a nude starring role in a Hollywood motion picture.

 

Mansfield's professional name came from her first husband, public relations professional Paul Mansfield, with whom she had a daughter. She was the mother of three children from her second marriage to actor–bodybuilder Mickey Hargitay. She had a son with her third husband film director Matt Cimber. In 1967, Mansfield died in a car accident at the age of 34.

- Please view large -

" The classic stars - particularly the glamorous ladies- of the motion pictures of Hollywood's Golden Age have been an enduring passion of mine since my early teens in the late1970s; and lead to much biographical research and inspiration for both my paintings and cartoon tributes.

 

This is the latest of several group cartoon tributes (many to be viewed on this site) that I have created; over several months - and through much research.

 

Here, on the sun-kissed contours of Mount Lee, crowned with the famous Hollywood Sign, high above Hollywood, California, USA, I have gathered together an eclectic group of actresses (most prominently active in Hollywood from the 1930s-1960s)- a vibrant mixture of well-known stars, from famous feature films and lesser-known players from B-movies (or second features).

 

Through extensive research I have depicted them - a group that undoubtably were never photographed together-as they appeared in various years during the 1970s - a decade that I remember with much affection. As with most of my cartoon tributes, the illustration features such details as my passion for birds. There follows some biographical trivia about each lady: I hope thay you enjoy viewing as much as I enjoyed creating..."

 

BARBARA NICHOLS (American, 1928-1976): in films from 1953-1975; including Sweet Smell of Success (US 1957) & Where The Boys Are (US 1960)- a blonde bombshell with talent- the actress was last on screen for less than a minute, reclining as Victure Mature's gangster moll in the all-star comedy Won Ton Ton The Dog Who Saved Hollywood (US 1975). She never married and died of a liver disease at 47.

 

AVA GARDNER (American, 1922-1990): in films from 1941-1986 - including The Barefoot Contessa (US 1954) & The Night of The Iguana (US 1964) - this star was named 'The world's most beautiful animal' by the publicity machine in the 1950s; and ended her days living quietly in Kensington, London, UK. The cartoon portrait was inspired by Ms Gardner's role in Earthquake (US 1974); in which she played a hard drinker - as she was in real life.

 

NATALIE WOOD (American/French/Russian, 1938-1981): in films from 1943-1981, driven by a stage-mother, this sensitive beauty made the successful transition from child star to adult star roles - Rebel Without A Cause (US 1954) , West Side Story (US 1961)- and ominously (considering her tragic death) played a woman who is saved from drowning in The Memory of Eva Ryker (US- TV, 1980). Her two daughters were the focus of her heart.

 

JEAN SEBERG (American/Swedish 1938-1979); In films from 1957-1976, this enigmatic beauty spent the last 20 years of her life living in Paris, France; the city in which she starred in A Bout de Souffle (Breathless) (FR 1959) - and for which she is most remembered; while her depth of talent especially shone in Lilith (US 1964). It was her heartfelt devotion to the welfare of people and animals and subsequent involvement in left-wing activism that led to the decline of her mental health and ultimate tragic death - which is shrouded in as much mystery as that of MARILYN MONROE (American, 1926-1962). Her son, Diego (1962-), by French author Romain Gary lives today in Spain.

 

EVE ARDEN (American, 1908-1990): In films from 1929-1982, this wonderful character actress played with great ease the wise-cracking dame with a heart of gold in such classics as Ziegfeld Girl (US 1941) & Mildred Pierce (US 1945); and later appeared in both Grease (US 1978) and Grease 2 (US 1982).

 

JOAN CRAWFORD (American, 1906-1977): In films from 1929-1970, a top box office star over nearly five decades- in which she shimmered in such diverse films as Mildred Pierce (US 1945)- for which she won an Academy Award- and later, Whatever Happened To Baby Jane ?(US 1964). The cartoon portrait was inspired by the star's last public appearance at a tribute evening to actress ROSALIND RUSSELL (1907-1976).

 

MARLENE DIETRICH (German, 1901-1992). In Films from 1928-1978; including Der Blaue Engel(The Blue Angel)(GER 1930) and A Foreign Affair (US 1948). This legendary actress and singer lived her last years in Paris, France, in seclusion; and while she rejected all enquiries from the press, she always answered her fan mail.

 

RITA HAYWORTH (American/Spanish, 1918-1987). In films from 1934-1972, this glorious (but privately shy) beauty lit up the screen in such features as Gilda (US 1946) and Miss Sadie Thompson (US 1954); and it was in the mid-1970s that she sadly began her decline into the tragic mists of Alzeimer's Disease - firstly mistaken as alcoholism- which claimed her life.

 

THE GABOR SISTERS (Hungarian: ZSA ZSA , 1917-; MAGDA, 1915-1997 & EVA, 1919-1995). Frivolously glamorous trio most remembered for their sparkling appearances in public and witty contributions to talk shows. Although Magda entertained on stage with her sisters, she never appeared in motion pictures; and went on to live many years after suffering a stroke in the late 1960s. Eva is most well-known for her star role in the US TV series Green Acres (1965-1970), than for any of her film roles. Feisty Zsa Zsa appeared in the most films- including Moulin Rouge (US 1952) & Queen of Outer Space (US 1958)- and lives today in Bel Air, CA, USA with her 8th husband. She was the only Gabor to deny ever having a face-lift.

 

VALDA HANSEN (American 1932-1993). In low budget films from 1958- 1975. Blonde beauty known in cult circles for her starring role in Edward D Wood Jr's Night of The Ghouls (US 1958); a film not released - & then on video tape- until 1981; as the broken film director could not afford to pay the laboratory develpoment bill. Ms Hansen went on to play in largely unseen B-movies. A deeply spiritual lady, she lost a battle with cancer and was afforded a Hindu ceremony.

 

ESTHER WILLIAMS (American, 1921-). In films from 1946-1963, including Million Dollar Mermaid (US 1952) & Dangerous When Wet (US 1953), this swimming star retired to become a successful business woman, aptly lending her name to swim wear and swimming pools. In 1974, she was arrested on the Hollywood Freeway for drink-driving; and 20 years later made a surprise screen comeback talking about her career in the celebration of MGM, That's Entertainment.

 

BETTY GRABLE (American, 1916-1973). In films from 1930-1955; including The Dolly Sisters (US 1945) & How To Marry A Millionaire (US 1953). A heavy smoker all her life she lost a battle with lung cancer at 56; and the cartoon portrait was inspired by her last public appearance in Hollywood, CA, USA.

 

LANA TURNER (American, 1921-1995). In films from 1937-1978; the archetypal 'movie star' - the epitome of Hollywood beauty and glamour - Ms Turner was inaccurately underrated as an actress; but her talent in such melodramas as The Postman Always Rings Twice (US 1946), Peyton Place (US 1957)- for which she was Oscar nominated as Best Actress- and Madame X (US 1966) proved otherwise. Married 8 times to 7 husbands, she had a turbulent private life, took to drink; before abstaining in 1980 and declaring her deep faith in God.

 

HEDY LAMARR (Austrian, 1914-2000). In films from 1933-1957; including Ziegfeld Girl (US 1941) & Samson & Delilah (US 1949). Aside from her raven-haired beauty, she was highly intelligent; and was credited with the invention of a radio guiding system for torpedoes which was used in World War II. In the cartoon portrait she takes the pose she held on stage in the film Ziegfeld Girl.

 

KARIN DOR (German, 1936-). In films from 1953-2006 , and most internationally known as the beautiful but deadly Helga Brandt in the James Bond classic, You Only Live Twice (UK 1967). She was married to the late Hollywood stuntman George Robotham , living in Los Angeles, USA until his death; and is still active in the theatre in Germany.

 

VIRGINIA MAYO (American, 1920-2005). In films from 1943-1990; including The secret Life of Walter Mitty (US 1947) and White Heat (US 1949). In the late1940s her blonde 'peaches and cream' beauty was described by the Sultan of Morocco as 'tangible proof for the existence of God'.

 

LORETTA KING (American, 1917-2007). In films from 1940-1976, this actress of beauty and talent worked mostly on stage and in television in the 1950s; before achieving cult fame as the lead in Edward D Wood Jr's low budget classic, Bride of The Monster (US 1955). She then retired from acting in 1960; before making a comeback in two 1970s films, including Johnny Tough (US 1973); which inspired this cartoon tribute.

 

DOLORES FULLER (American, 1923-) In films from 1934-2000, this actress appeared in minor roles during the 1950s; but by the 1980s achieved fame as the one time lover of cult film director, Edward D Wood Jr (1924-1978), when the director achieved postumous attention. She starred in his autobiographical film Glen or Glenda (US 1953); and in Ron Ormond's B-classic Mesa of Lost Women (US 1952). This was ironic, as her real talent lay in song writing - and she went on to write hit songs for Elvis Presley films; and to manage such singers as Tanya Tucker.

 

Ink & coloured pencil on paper, 11 x 17in

www.stephenbwhatley.com

   

Live in concert @ Fabrique, Milano (Italy) - 7 Feb 2017

 

Facebook: www.facebook.com/seemehearme

Twitter: www.twitter.com/PieroPrv

 

:copyright: Piero Paravidino - All rights reserved - Tutti i diritti riservati

 

No unauthorised use is permitted

DO share, DO NOT reuse, copy or download

PUOI condividere, NON PUOI usare, copiare o scaricare

------------------------------------

The Pretty Reckless is an American rock band from New York City composed of Taylor Momsen (lead vocals, rhythm guitar), Ben Phillips (lead guitar, backing vocals), Mark Damon (bass) and Jamie Perkins (drums).

 

The band was formed in 2009 and released their first studio album, Light Me Up, on August 31, 2010. The album spawned three moderately successful singles, most notably, "Make Me Wanna Die". The band released the Hit Me Like a Man EP in early 2012. These releases coincided with their second tour. In 2014, the band released their second studio album, Going to Hell that included the singles "Heaven Knows" and "Messed Up World" which topped the US and UK rock charts.[3]

 

The band embarked on a worldwide tour in 2010 in support of their debut album, the Light Me Up Tour, which concluded in March 2012. They also featured as support for Marilyn Manson, Evanescence and Nickelback.

 

In early September 2015, frontwoman Taylor Momsen confirmed that the band was working on new material in the studio.[4] The band's third studio album, Who You Selling For, was released on October 21, 2016 by Razor & Tie

(en.wikipedia.org/wiki/The_Pretty_Reckless)

  

Oh my gosh, I really adore my Vans. I mean I wear them 5 days in a week. :D

Sneakers, I love you.<3

 

SOOC

 

______

Tagged!

 

3 Things that have changed about you this year:

1. I know who are my real friends.

2. I found my real me.

3. I am more organized.

 

10 wishes:

1. That it's HOT and not like now-.-

2. Everyone should be happy. Even people I hate.

3. That my bedroom is more my bedroom and not a garbage heap like always. :s

4. That I meet all my awesome friends from vacations again!

5. That we all have sooooooo much fun!

6. Getting a Nikon D5000 !

7. That my first roll of film turns out well!

8. Getting an own telephone for my room!

9. That my little bunnies don't die because I can't live without them even when I don't do something with them so often. :(

10. That I can watch all Harry Potter films I haven't seen yet quickly and then go to the cinema and cry.

 

5 goals for this summer:

1. Take soooooo many pictures!

2. Visit my best friends in Hamburg!

3. Dance in the rain (done)

4. Swim at 6 am in the cold lake with some friends.

5. Have some awesome photoshoots!

 

3 things that make me happy:

1. SUN (where are you?!)

2. Friends and Family!

3. Photography!!!!

3 things that make me sad:

1. Some people.

2. The weather.

3. War.

3 things I need to stop doing:

1. Talk bad about some 'friends'.

2. Hang at my laptop the whole day.

3. Cry about stupid things.

3 favorite disney movies:

1. Ratatouille!

2. Arielle

3. Up

 

Name: Ariane

Age: 13

Country: Germany

Ethnicity: German

Dreams: to travel the whole world and be a better photographer

Fears: Bees!

Favorite Movie: Angus, Thongs and perfect snogging.

Favorite color: yellow (:

favorite show: mhhh....

Favorite song: Neopolitan Dreams

Favorite actor/actress: don't have one

Favorite band/singer: OneRepublic, Sunrise Avenue

Dislikes: people who lie and try to destroy a friendship.

Favorite qoute: have too many.

  

Tagged people I really look up to. (:

American postcard by Classico San Francisco, no. 233/007. Photo: Universal Pictures. Publicity still for The Bride of Frankenstein (James Whale, 1935).

 

British actor Boris Karloff (1887-1969) is one of the true icons of the Horror cinema. He portrayed Frankenstein's monster in Frankenstein (1931), Bride of Frankenstein (1935), and Son of Frankenstein (1939), which resulted in his immense popularity. In the following decades he worked in countless Horror films, but also in other genres, both in Europe and Hollywood.

 

Boris Karloff was born as William Henry Pratt in 1887 in London, England. Pratt himself stated that he was born in Dulwich, which is nearby in London. His parents were Edward John Pratt, Jr. and his third wife Eliza Sarah Millard. ‘Billy’never knew his father. Edward Pratt had worked for the Indian Salt Revenue Service, and had virtually abandoned his family in far off England. Edward died when his son was still an infant and so Billy was raised by his mother. He was the youngest of nine children, and following his mother's death was brought up by his elder brothers and sisters. As a child, Billy performed each Christmas in plays staged by St. Mary Magdalene's Church. His first role was that of The Demon King in the pantomime Cinderella. Billy was bow-legged, had a lisp, and stuttered. He conquered his stutter, but not his lisp, which was noticeable throughout his career in the film industry. After his education at private schools, he attended King's College London where he took studies aimed at a career with the British Government's Consular Service. However, in 1909, the 22-years-old left university without graduating and sailed from Liverpool to Canada, where he worked as a farm labourer and did various odd itinerant jobs. In Canada, he began appearing in theatrical performances, and chose the stage name Boris Karloff. Later, he claimed he chose ‘Boris’ because it sounded foreign and exotic, and that ‘Karloff’ was a family name. However, his daughter Sara Karloff publicly denied any knowledge of Slavic forebears, Karloff or otherwise. One reason for the name change was to prevent embarrassment to his family. He did not reunite with his family until he returned to Britain to make The Ghoul (T. Hayes Hunter, 1933), opposite Cedric Hardwicke. Karloff was extremely worried that his family would disapprove of his new, macabre claim to world fame. Instead, his brothers jostled for position around him and happily posed for publicity photographs. In 1911, Karloff joined the Jeanne Russell Company and later joined the Harry St. Clair Co. that performed in Minot, North Dakota, for a year in an opera house above a hardware store. Whilst he was trying to establish his acting career, Karloff had to perform years of difficult manual labour in Canada and the U.S. in order to make ends meet. He was left with back problems from which he suffered for the rest of his life. In 1917, he arrived in Hollywood, where he went on to make dozens of silent films. Some of his first roles were in film serials, such as The Masked Rider (Aubrey M. Kennedy, 1919), in Chapter 2 of which he can be glimpsed onscreen for the first time, and The Hope Diamond Mystery (Stuart Paton, 1920). In these early roles, he was often cast as an exotic Arabian or Indian villain. Other silent films were The Deadlier Sex (Robert Thornby, 1920) with Blanche Sweet, Omar the Tentmaker (James Young, 1922), Dynamite Dan (Bruce Mitchell, 1924) and Tarzan and the Golden Lion (J.P. McGowan, 1927) in which James Pierce played Tarzan. In 1926 Karloff found a provocative role in The Bells (James Young, 1926), in which he played a sinister hypnotist opposite Lionel Barrymore. He worked with Barrymore again in his first sound film, the thriller The Unholy Night (Lionel Barrymore, 1929).

 

A key film which brought Boris Karloff recognition was The Criminal Code (Howard Hawks, 1931), a prison drama in which he reprised a dramatic part he had played on stage. With his characteristic short-cropped hair and menacing features, Karloff was a frightening sight to behold. Opposite Edward G. Robinson, Karloff played a key supporting part as an unethical newspaper reporter in Five Star Final (Mervyn LeRoy, 1931), a film about tabloid journalism which was nominated for the Oscar for Best Picture. Karloff's role as Frankenstein's monster in Frankenstein (James Whale, 1931), based on the classic Mary Shelley book, propelled him to stardom. Wikipedia: “The bulky costume with four-inch platform boots made it an arduous role but the costume and extensive makeup produced the classic image. The costume was a job in itself for Karloff with the shoes weighing 11 pounds (5 kg) each.” The aura of mystery surrounding Karloff was highlighted in the opening credits, as he was listed as simply "?." The film was a commercial and critical success for Universal, and Karloff was instantly established as a hot property in Hollywood. Universal Studios was quick to acquire ownership of the copyright to the makeup format for the Frankenstein monster that Jack P. Pierce had designed. A year later, Karloff played another iconic character, Imhotep in The Mummy (Karl Freund, 1932). The Old Dark House (James Whale, 1932) with Charles Laughton, and the starring role in MGM’s The Mask of Fu Manchu (Charles Brabin, 1932) quickly followed. Steve Vertlieb at The Thunder Child: “Wonderfully kinky, the film co-starred young Myrna Loy as the intoxicating, yet sadistic Fah Lo See, Fu Manchu's sexually perverse daughter. Filmed prior to Hollywood's infamous production code, the film joyously escaped the later scrutiny of The Hayes Office, and remains a fascinating example of pre-code extravagance.” These films all confirmed Karloff's new-found stardom. Horror had become his primary genre, and he gave a string of lauded performances in 1930s Universal Horror films. Karloff reprised the role of Frankenstein's monster in two other films, the sensational Bride of Frankenstein (James Whale, 1935) and the less thrilling Son of Frankenstein (Rowland V. Lee, 1939), the latter also featuring Bela Lugosi. Steve Vertlieb about Bride oif Frankenstein: “Whale delivered perhaps the greatest horror film of the decade and easily the most critically acclaimed rendition of Mary Shelley's novel ever released. The Bride of Frankenstein remains a work of sheer genius, a brilliantly conceived and realized take on loneliness, vanity, and madness. The cast of British character actors is simply superb.” While the long, creative partnership between Karloff and Lugosi never led to a close friendship, it produced some of the actors' most revered and enduring productions, beginning with The Black Cat (Edgar G. Ullmer, 1934). Follow-ups included The Raven (Lew Landers, 1935), the rarely seen, imaginative science fiction melodrama The Invisible Ray (Lambert Hillyer, 1936), and The Body Snatcher (Robert Wise, 1945). Karloff played a wide variety of roles in other genres besides Horror. He was memorably gunned down in a bowling alley in Howard Hawks' classic Scarface (1932) starring Paul Muni.. He played a religious First World War soldier in John Ford’s epic The Lost Patrol (1934) opposite Victor McLaglen. Between 1938 and 1940, Karloff starred in five films for Monogram Pictures, including Mr. Wong, Detective (William Nigh, 1938). During this period, he also starred with Basil Rathbone in Tower of London (Rowland V. Lee, 1939) as the murderous henchman of King Richard III, and with Margaret Lindsay in British Intelligence (Terry O. Morse, 1940). In 1944, he underwent a spinal operation to relieve his chronic arthritic condition.

 

Boris Karloff revisited the Frankenstein mythos in several later films, taking the starring role of the villainous Dr. Niemann in House of Frankenstein (Erle C. Kenton, 1944), in which the monster was played by Glenn Strange. He reprised the role of the ‘mad scientist’ in Frankenstein 1970 (Howard W. Koch, 1958) as Baron Victor von Frankenstein II, the grandson of the original creator. The finale reveals that the crippled Baron has given his own face (i.e., Karloff's) to the monster. From 1945 to 1946, Boris Karloff appeared in three films for RKO produced by Val Lewton: Isle of the Dead (Mark Robson, 1945), The Body Snatcher (Robert Wise, 1945), and Bedlam (Mark Robson, 1946). Karloff had left Universal because he thought the Frankenstein franchise had run its course. Karloff was a frequent guest on radio programs. In 1949, he was the host and star of the radio and television anthology series Starring Boris Karloff. In 1950, he had his own weekly children's radio show in New York. He played children's music and told stories and riddles, and attracted many adult listeners as well. An enthusiastic performer, he returned to the Broadway stage in the original production of Arsenic and Old Lace (1941), in which he played a homicidal gangster enraged to be frequently mistaken for Karloff. In 1962, he reprised the role on television with Tony Randall and Tom Bosley. He also appeared as Captain Hook in the play Peter Pan with Jean Arthur. In 1955, he returned to the Broadway stage to portray the sympathetic Bishop Cauchon in Jean Anouilh's The Lark. Karloff regarded the production as the highlight of his long career. Julie Harris was his co-star as Joan of Arc in the celebrated play, recreated for live television in 1957 with Karloff, Harris and much of the original New York company intact. For his role, Karloff was nominated for a Tony Award. Karloff donned the monster make-up for the last time for a Halloween episode of the TV series Route 66 (1962), which also featured Peter Lorre and Lon Chaney, Jr. In the 1960s, Karloff appeared in several films for American International Pictures, including The Comedy of Terrors (Jacques Tourneur, 1963) with Vincent Price and Peter Lorre, The Raven (Roger Corman, 1963), The Terror (Roger Corman, 1963) with Jack Nicholson, and Die, Monster, Die! (Daniel Haller, 1965). Another project for American International release was the frightening Italian horror classic, I tre volti della paura/Black Sabbath (Mario Bava, 1963), in which Karloff played a vampire with bone chilling intensity. He also starred in British cult director Michael Reeves's second feature film, The Sorcerers (1966). He gained new popularity among a young generation when he narrated the animated TV film Dr. Seuss' How the Grinch Stole Christmas (Chuck Jones, Ben Washam. 1966), and provided the voice of the Grinch. Karloff later received a Grammy Award for Best Recording For Children after the story was released as a record. Then he starred as a retired horror film actor in Targets (Peter Bogdanovich, 1968), Steve Vertlieb: “Targets was a profoundly disturbing study of a young sniper holding a small Midwestern community, deep in the bible belt, terrifyingly at bay. The celebrated subplot concerned the philosophical dilemma of creating fanciful horrors on the screen, while graphic, troubling reality was eclipsing the superficiality so tiredly repeated by Hollywood. Karloff co-starred, essentially as himself, an aged horror star named Byron Orlok, who wants simply to retire from the imagined horrors of a faded genre, only to come shockingly to grips with the depravity and genuine terror found on America's streets. Bogdanovich's first film as a director won praise from critics and audiences throughout the world community, and won its elder star the best, most respectful notices of his later career.”. In 1968, he played occult expert Professor Marsh in the British production Curse of the Crimson Altar (Vernon Sewell, 1968), which was the last Karloff film to be released during his lifetime. He ended his career by appearing in four low-budget Mexican horror films, which were released posthumously. While shooting his final films, Karloff suffered from emphysema. Only half of one lung was still functioning and he required oxygen between takes. he contracted bronchitis in 1968 and was hospitalized. Early 1969, he died of pneumonia at the King Edward VII Hospital, Midhurst, in Sussex, at the age of 81. Boris Karloff married five times and had one child, daughter Sara Karloff, by his fourth wife.

 

Sources: Steve Vertlieb (The Thunder Child), Wikipedia, and IMDb.

www.flickr.com/photos/97667017@N05/albums/72157664987244096

 

Jayne Mansfield (born Vera Jayne Palmer; April 19, 1933 – June 29, 1967) was an American actress in film, theatre, and television. She was also a nightclub entertainer, a singer, and one of the early Playboy Playmates. She was a major Hollywood sex symbol of the 1950s and early 1960s and 20th Century Fox's alternative to Marilyn Monroe who came to be known as the "Working Man's Monroe".[1][2] She was also known for her well-publicized personal life and publicity stunts, such as wardrobe malfunctions.[3][4] She was one of Hollywood's original blonde bombshells,[5] and, although many people have never seen her movies,[6] Mansfield remains one of the most recognizable icons of 1950s celebrity culture.[6]

 

Mansfield became a major Broadway star in 1955, a major Hollywood star in 1956, and a leading celebrity in 1957.[7] While Mansfield's film career was short-lived, she had several box office successes and won a Theatre World Award and a Golden Globe. She enjoyed success in the role of fictional actress Rita Marlowe, both in the 1955–56 Broadway version and the 1957 Hollywood film version of Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter?. Her other major movie performances were for The Girl Can't Help It (1956), The Wayward Bus (1957), and Too Hot to Handle (1960).

 

With decreased demand for big-breasted blonde bombshells and an increased negative backlash against her over-publicity, she became a box-office has-been by the early 1960s,[7] but she remained a popular celebrity, continuing to attract large crowds outside the United States and in lucrative and successful nightclub acts. In the sexploitation film Promises! Promises! (1963), she became the first major American actress to have a nude starring role in a Hollywood motion picture.

 

Mansfield's professional name came from her first husband, public relations professional Paul Mansfield, with whom she had a daughter. She was the mother of three children from her second marriage to actor–bodybuilder Mickey Hargitay. She had a son with her third husband film director Matt Cimber. In 1967, Mansfield died in a car accident at the age of 34

www.flickr.com/photos/97667017@N05/albums/72157664987244096

 

Jayne Mansfield (born Vera Jayne Palmer; April 19, 1933 – June 29, 1967) was an American actress in film, theatre, and television. She was also a nightclub entertainer, a singer, and one of the early Playboy Playmates. She was a major Hollywood sex symbol of the 1950s and early 1960s and 20th Century Fox's alternative to Marilyn Monroe who came to be known as the "Working Man's Monroe".[1][2] She was also known for her well-publicized personal life and publicity stunts, such as wardrobe malfunctions.[3][4] She was one of Hollywood's original blonde bombshells,[5] and, although many people have never seen her movies,[6] Mansfield remains one of the most recognizable icons of 1950s celebrity culture.[6]

 

Mansfield became a major Broadway star in 1955, a major Hollywood star in 1956, and a leading celebrity in 1957.[7] While Mansfield's film career was short-lived, she had several box office successes and won a Theatre World Award and a Golden Globe. She enjoyed success in the role of fictional actress Rita Marlowe, both in the 1955–56 Broadway version and the 1957 Hollywood film version of Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter?. Her other major movie performances were for The Girl Can't Help It (1956), The Wayward Bus (1957), and Too Hot to Handle (1960).

 

With decreased demand for big-breasted blonde bombshells and an increased negative backlash against her over-publicity, she became a box-office has-been by the early 1960s,[7] but she remained a popular celebrity, continuing to attract large crowds outside the United States and in lucrative and successful nightclub acts. In the sexploitation film Promises! Promises! (1963), she became the first major American actress to have a nude starring role in a Hollywood motion picture.

 

Mansfield's professional name came from her first husband, public relations professional Paul Mansfield, with whom she had a daughter. She was the mother of three children from her second marriage to actor–bodybuilder Mickey Hargitay. She had a son with her third husband film director Matt Cimber. In 1967, Mansfield died in a car accident at the age of 34

worldcutegirl.blogspot.com/p/american-television-and-film...

 

Jessica Marie Alba (born April 28, 1981) is an American television and film actress. She began her television and movie appearances at age 13 in Camp Nowhere and The Secret World of Alex Mack (1994). Alba rose to prominence as the lead actress in the television series Dark Angel (2000–2002). Alba later appeared in various films including Honey (2003), Sin City (2005), Fantastic Four (2005), Into the Blue (2005), Fantastic Four: Rise of the Silver Surfer and Good Luck Chuck both in 2007.

 

Alba is considered a sex symbol and often generates media attention for her looks. She appears frequently on the "Hot 100" section of Maxim and was voted number one on AskMen.com's list of "99 Most Desirable Women" in 2006, as well as "Sexiest Woman in the World" by FHM in 2007. The use of her image on the cover of the March 2006 Playboy sparked a lawsuit by her, which was later dropped.[9] She has also won various awards for her acting, including the Choice Actress Teen Choice Award and Saturn Award for Best Actress on Television, and a Golden Globe nomination for her lead role in the television series Dark Angel.

"What's Wrong With Cinderella?"

 

I finally came unhinged in the dentist's office -- one of those ritzy pediatric practices tricked out with comic books, DVDs and arcade games -- where I'd taken my 3-year-old daughter for her first exam. Until then, I'd held my tongue. I'd smiled politely every time the supermarket-checkout clerk greeted her with ''Hi, Princess''; ignored the waitress at our local breakfast joint who called the funny-face pancakes she ordered her ''princess meal''; made no comment when the lady at Longs Drugs said, ''I bet I know your favorite color'' and handed her a pink balloon rather than letting her choose for herself. Maybe it was the dentist's Betty Boop inflection that got to me, but when she pointed to the exam chair and said, ''Would you like to sit in my special princess throne so I can sparkle your teeth?'' I lost it.

 

''Oh, for God's sake,'' I snapped. ''Do you have a princess drill, too?''

 

She stared at me as if I were an evil stepmother.

 

''Come on!'' I continued, my voice rising. ''It's 2006, not 1950. This is Berkeley, Calif. Does every little girl really have to be a princess?''

 

My daughter, who was reaching for a Cinderella sticker, looked back and forth between us. ''Why are you so mad, Mama?'' she asked. ''What's wrong with princesses?''

 

Diana may be dead and Masako disgraced, but here in America, we are in the midst of a royal moment. To call princesses a ''trend'' among girls is like calling Harry Potter a book. Sales at Disney Consumer Products, which started the craze six years ago by packaging nine of its female characters under one royal rubric, have shot up to $3 billion, globally, this year, from $300 million in 2001. There are now more than 25,000 Disney Princess items. ''Princess,'' as some Disney execs call it, is not only the fastest-growing brand the company has ever created; they say it is on its way to becoming the largest girls' franchise on the planet.

 

Meanwhile in 2001, Mattel brought out its own ''world of girl'' line of princess Barbie dolls, DVDs, toys, clothing, home décor and myriad other products. At a time when Barbie sales were declining domestically, they became instant best sellers. Shortly before that, Mary Drolet, a Chicago-area mother and former Claire's and Montgomery Ward executive, opened Club Libby Lu, now a chain of mall stores based largely in the suburbs in which girls ages 4 to 12 can shop for ''Princess Phones'' covered in faux fur and attend ''Princess-Makeover Birthday Parties.'' Saks bought Club Libby Lu in 2003 for $12 million and has since expanded it to 87 outlets; by 2005, with only scant local advertising, revenues hovered around the $46 million mark, a 53 percent jump from the previous year. Pink, it seems, is the new gold.

 

Even Dora the Explorer, the intrepid, dirty-kneed adventurer, has ascended to the throne: in 2004, after a two-part episode in which she turns into a ''true princess,'' the Nickelodeon and Viacom consumer-products division released a satin-gowned ''Magic Hair Fairytale Dora,'' with hair that grows or shortens when her crown is touched. Among other phrases the bilingual doll utters: ''Vámonos! Let's go to fairy-tale land!'' and ''Will you brush my hair?''

 

As a feminist mother -- not to mention a nostalgic product of the Grranimals era -- I have been taken by surprise by the princess craze and the girlie-girl culture that has risen around it. What happened to William wanting a doll and not dressing your cat in an apron? Whither Marlo Thomas? I watch my fellow mothers, women who once swore they'd never be dependent on a man, smile indulgently at daughters who warble ''So This Is Love'' or insist on being called Snow White. I wonder if they'd concede so readily to sons who begged for combat fatigues and mock AK-47s.

 

More to the point, when my own girl makes her daily beeline for the dress-up corner of her preschool classroom -- something I'm convinced she does largely to torture me -- I worry about what playing Little Mermaid is teaching her. I've spent much of my career writing about experiences that undermine girls' well-being, warning parents that a preoccupation with body and beauty (encouraged by films, TV, magazines and, yes, toys) is perilous to their daughters' mental and physical health. Am I now supposed to shrug and forget all that? If trafficking in stereotypes doesn't matter at 3, when does it matter? At 6? Eight? Thirteen?

 

On the other hand, maybe I'm still surfing a washed-out second wave of feminism in a third-wave world. Maybe princesses are in fact a sign of progress, an indication that girls can embrace their predilection for pink without compromising strength or ambition; that, at long last, they can ''have it all.'' Or maybe it is even less complex than that: to mangle Freud, maybe a princess is sometimes just a princess. And, as my daughter wants to know, what's wrong with that?

 

The rise of the Disney princesses reads like a fairy tale itself, with Andy Mooney, a former Nike executive, playing the part of prince, riding into the company on a metaphoric white horse in January 2000 to save a consumer-products division whose sales were dropping by as much as 30 percent a year. Both overstretched and underfocused, the division had triggered price wars by granting multiple licenses for core products (say, Winnie-the-Pooh undies) while ignoring the potential of new media. What's more, Disney films like ''A Bug's Life'' in 1998 had yielded few merchandising opportunities -- what child wants to snuggle up with an ant?

 

It was about a month after Mooney's arrival that the magic struck. That's when he flew to Phoenix to check out his first ''Disney on Ice'' show. ''Standing in line in the arena, I was surrounded by little girls dressed head to toe as princesses,'' he told me last summer in his palatial office, then located in Burbank, and speaking in a rolling Scottish burr. ''They weren't even Disney products. They were generic princess products they'd appended to a Halloween costume. And the light bulb went off. Clearly there was latent demand here. So the next morning I said to my team, 'O.K., let's establish standards and a color palette and talk to licensees and get as much product out there as we possibly can that allows these girls to do what they're doing anyway: projecting themselves into the characters from the classic movies.' ''

 

Mooney picked a mix of old and new heroines to wear the Pantone pink No. 241 corona: Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty, Snow White, Ariel, Belle, Jasmine, Mulan and Pocahontas. It was the first time Disney marketed characters separately from a film's release, let alone lumped together those from different stories. To ensure the sanctity of what Mooney called their individual ''mythologies,'' the princesses never make eye contact when they're grouped: each stares off in a slightly different direction as if unaware of the others' presence.

 

It is also worth noting that not all of the ladies are of royal extraction. Part of the genius of ''Princess'' is that its meaning is so broadly constructed that it actually has no meaning. Even Tinker Bell was originally a Princess, though her reign didn't last. ''We'd always debate over whether she was really a part of the Princess mythology,'' Mooney recalled. ''She really wasn't.'' Likewise, Mulan and Pocahontas, arguably the most resourceful of the bunch, are rarely depicted on Princess merchandise, though for a different reason. Their rustic garb has less bling potential than that of old-school heroines like Sleeping Beauty. (When Mulan does appear, she is typically in the kimonolike hanfu, which makes her miserable in the movie, rather than her liberated warrior's gear.)

 

The first Princess items, released with no marketing plan, no focus groups, no advertising, sold as if blessed by a fairy godmother. To this day, Disney conducts little market research on the Princess line, relying instead on the power of its legacy among mothers as well as the instant-read sales barometer of the theme parks and Disney Stores. ''We simply gave girls what they wanted,'' Mooney said of the line's success, ''although I don't think any of us grasped how much they wanted this. I wish I could sit here and take credit for having some grand scheme to develop this, but all we did was envision a little girl's room and think about how she could live out the princess fantasy. The counsel we gave to licensees was: What type of bedding would a princess want to sleep in? What kind of alarm clock would a princess want to wake up to? What type of television would a princess like to see? It's a rare case where you find a girl who has every aspect of her room bedecked in Princess, but if she ends up with three or four of these items, well, then you have a very healthy business.''

 

Every reporter Mooney talks to asks some version of my next question: Aren't the Princesses, who are interested only in clothes, jewelry and cadging the handsome prince, somewhat retrograde role models?

 

''Look,'' he said, ''I have friends whose son went through the Power Rangers phase who castigated themselves over what they must've done wrong. Then they talked to other parents whose kids had gone through it. The boy passes through. The girl passes through. I see girls expanding their imagination through visualizing themselves as princesses, and then they pass through that phase and end up becoming lawyers, doctors, mothers or princesses, whatever the case may be.''

 

Mooney has a point: There are no studies proving that playing princess directly damages girls' self-esteem or dampens other aspirations. On the other hand, there is evidence that young women who hold the most conventionally feminine beliefs -- who avoid conflict and think they should be perpetually nice and pretty -- are more likely to be depressed than others and less likely to use contraception. What's more, the 23 percent decline in girls' participation in sports and other vigorous activity between middle and high school has been linked to their sense that athletics is unfeminine. And in a survey released last October by Girls Inc., school-age girls overwhelmingly reported a paralyzing pressure to be ''perfect'': not only to get straight A's and be the student-body president, editor of the newspaper and captain of the swim team but also to be ''kind and caring,'' ''please everyone, be very thin and dress right.'' Give those girls a pumpkin and a glass slipper and they'd be in business.

 

At the grocery store one day, my daughter noticed a little girl sporting a Cinderella backpack. ''There's that princess you don't like, Mama!'' she shouted.

 

''Um, yeah,'' I said, trying not to meet the other mother's hostile gaze.

 

''Don't you like her blue dress, Mama?''

 

I had to admit, I did.

 

She thought about this. ''Then don't you like her face?''

 

''Her face is all right,'' I said, noncommittally, though I'm not thrilled to have my Japanese-Jewish child in thrall to those Aryan features. (And what the heck are those blue things covering her ears?) ''It's just, honey, Cinderella doesn't really do anything.''

 

Over the next 45 minutes, we ran through that conversation, verbatim, approximately 37 million times, as my daughter pointed out Disney Princess Band-Aids, Disney Princess paper cups, Disney Princess lip balm, Disney Princess pens, Disney Princess crayons and Disney Princess notebooks -- all cleverly displayed at the eye level of a 3-year-old trapped in a shopping cart -- as well as a bouquet of Disney Princess balloons bobbing over the checkout line. The repetition was excessive, even for a preschooler. What was it about my answers that confounded her? What if, instead of realizing: Aha! Cinderella is a symbol of the patriarchal oppression of all women, another example of corporate mind control and power-to-the-people! my 3-year-old was thinking, Mommy doesn't want me to be a girl?

 

According to theories of gender constancy, until they're about 6 or 7, children don't realize that the sex they were born with is immutable. They believe that they have a choice: they can grow up to be either a mommy or a daddy. Some psychologists say that until permanency sets in kids embrace whatever stereotypes our culture presents, whether it's piling on the most spangles or attacking one another with light sabers. What better way to assure that they'll always remain themselves? If that's the case, score one for Mooney. By not buying the Princess Pull-Ups, I may be inadvertently communicating that being female (to the extent that my daughter is able to understand it) is a bad thing.

 

Anyway, you have to give girls some credit. It's true that, according to Mattel, one of the most popular games young girls play is ''bride,'' but Disney found that a groom or prince is incidental to that fantasy, a regrettable necessity at best. Although they keep him around for the climactic kiss, he is otherwise relegated to the bottom of the toy box, which is why you don't see him prominently displayed in stores.

 

What's more, just because they wear the tulle doesn't mean they've drunk the Kool-Aid. Plenty of girls stray from the script, say, by playing basketball in their finery, or casting themselves as the powerful evil stepsister bossing around the sniveling Cinderella. I recall a headline-grabbing 2005 British study that revealed that girls enjoy torturing, decapitating and microwaving their Barbies nearly as much as they like to dress them up for dates. There is spice along with that sugar after all, though why this was news is beyond me: anyone who ever played with the doll knows there's nothing more satisfying than hacking off all her hair and holding her underwater in the bathtub. Princesses can even be a boon to exasperated parents: in our house, for instance, royalty never whines and uses the potty every single time.

 

''Playing princess is not the issue,'' argues Lyn Mikel Brown, an author, with Sharon Lamb, of ''Packaging Girlhood: Rescuing Our Daughters From Marketers' Schemes.'' ''The issue is 25,000 Princess products,'' says Brown, a professor of education and human development at Colby College. ''When one thing is so dominant, then it's no longer a choice: it's a mandate, cannibalizing all other forms of play. There's the illusion of more choices out there for girls, but if you look around, you'll see their choices are steadily narrowing.''

 

It's hard to imagine that girls' options could truly be shrinking when they dominate the honor roll and outnumber boys in college. Then again, have you taken a stroll through a children's store lately? A year ago, when we shopped for ''big girl'' bedding at Pottery Barn Kids, we found the ''girls'' side awash in flowers, hearts and hula dancers; not a soccer player or sailboat in sight. Across the no-fly zone, the ''boys'' territory was all about sports, trains, planes and automobiles. Meanwhile, Baby GAP's boys' onesies were emblazoned with ''Big Man on Campus'' and the girls' with ''Social Butterfly''; guess whose matching shoes were decorated on the soles with hearts and whose sported a ''No. 1'' logo? And at Toys ''R'' Us, aisles of pink baby dolls, kitchens, shopping carts and princesses unfurl a safe distance from the ''Star Wars'' figures, GeoTrax and tool chests. The relentless resegregation of childhood appears to have sneaked up without any further discussion about sex roles, about what it now means to be a boy or to be a girl. Or maybe it has happened in lieu of such discussion because it's easier this way.

 

Easier, that is, unless you want to buy your daughter something that isn't pink. Girls' obsession with that color may seem like something they're born with, like the ability to breathe or talk on the phone for hours on end. But according to Jo Paoletti, an associate professor of American studies at the University of Maryland, it ain't so. When colors were first introduced to the nursery in the early part of the 20th century, pink was considered the more masculine hue, a pastel version of red. Blue, with its intimations of the Virgin Mary, constancy and faithfulness, was thought to be dainty. Why or when that switched is not clear, but as late as the 1930s a significant percentage of adults in one national survey held to that split. Perhaps that's why so many early Disney heroines -- Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty, Wendy, Alice-in-Wonderland -- are swathed in varying shades of azure. (Purple, incidentally, may be the next color to swap teams: once the realm of kings and N.F.L. players, it is fast becoming the bolder girl's version of pink.)

 

It wasn't until the mid-1980s, when amplifying age and sex differences became a key strategy of children's marketing (recall the emergence of '' 'tween''), that pink became seemingly innate to girls, part of what defined them as female, at least for the first few years. That was also the time that the first of the generation raised during the unisex phase of feminism -- ah, hither Marlo! -- became parents. ''The kids who grew up in the 1970s wanted sharp definitions for their own kids,'' Paoletti told me. ''I can understand that, because the unisex thing denied everything -- you couldn't be this, you couldn't be that, you had to be a neutral nothing.''

 

The infatuation with the girlie girl certainly could, at least in part, be a reaction against the so-called second wave of the women's movement of the 1960s and '70s (the first wave was the fight for suffrage), which fought for reproductive rights and economic, social and legal equality. If nothing else, pink and Princess have resuscitated the fantasy of romance that that era of feminism threatened, the privileges that traditional femininity conferred on women despite its costs -- doors magically opened, dinner checks picked up, Manolo Blahniks. Frippery. Fun. Why should we give up the perks of our sex until we're sure of what we'll get in exchange? Why should we give them up at all? Or maybe it's deeper than that: the freedoms feminism bestowed came with an undercurrent of fear among women themselves -- flowing through ''Ally McBeal,'' ''Bridget Jones's Diary,'' ''Sex and the City'' -- of losing male love, of never marrying, of not having children, of being deprived of something that felt essentially and exclusively female.

 

I mulled that over while flipping through ''The Paper Bag Princess,'' a 1980 picture book hailed as an antidote to Disney. The heroine outwits a dragon who has kidnapped her prince, but not before the beast's fiery breath frizzles her hair and destroys her dress, forcing her to don a paper bag. The ungrateful prince rejects her, telling her to come back when she is ''dressed like a real princess.'' She dumps him and skips off into the sunset, happily ever after, alone.

 

There you have it, ''Thelma and Louise'' all over again. Step out of line, and you end up solo or, worse, sailing crazily over a cliff to your doom. Alternatives like those might send you skittering right back to the castle. And I get that: the fact is, though I want my daughter to do and be whatever she wants as an adult, I still hope she'll find her Prince Charming and have babies, just as I have. I don't want her to be a fish without a bicycle; I want her to be a fish with another fish. Preferably, one who loves and respects her and also does the dishes and half the child care.

 

There had to be a middle ground between compliant and defiant, between petticoats and paper bags. I remembered a video on YouTube, an ad for a Nintendo game called Super Princess Peach. It showed a pack of girls in tiaras, gowns and elbow-length white gloves sliding down a zip line on parasols, navigating an obstacle course of tires in their stilettos, slithering on their bellies under barbed wire, then using their telekinetic powers to make a climbing wall burst into flames. ''If you can stand up to really mean people,'' an announcer intoned, ''maybe you have what it takes to be a princess.''

 

Now here were some girls who had grit as well as grace. I loved Princess Peach even as I recognized that there was no way she could run in those heels, that her peachiness did nothing to upset the apple cart of expectation: she may have been athletic, smart and strong, but she was also adorable. Maybe she's what those once-unisex, postfeminist parents are shooting for: the melding of old and new standards. And perhaps that's a good thing, the ideal solution. But what to make, then, of the young women in the Girls Inc. survey? It doesn't seem to be ''having it all'' that's getting to them; it's the pressure to be it all. In telling our girls they can be anything, we have inadvertently demanded that they be everything. To everyone. All the time. No wonder the report was titled ''The Supergirl Dilemma.''

 

The princess as superhero is not irrelevant. Some scholars I spoke with say that given its post-9/11 timing, princess mania is a response to a newly dangerous world. ''Historically, princess worship has emerged during periods of uncertainty and profound social change,'' observes Miriam Forman-Brunell, a historian at the University of Missouri-Kansas City. Francis Hodgson Burnett's original''Little Princess'' was published at a time of rapid urbanization, immigration and poverty; Shirley Temple's film version was a hit during the Great Depression. ''The original folk tales themselves,'' Forman-Brunell says, ''spring from medieval and early modern European culture that faced all kinds of economic and demographic and social upheaval -- famine, war, disease, terror of wolves. Girls play savior during times of economic crisis and instability.'' That's a heavy burden for little shoulders. Perhaps that's why the magic wand has become an essential part of the princess get-up. In the original stories -- even the Disney versions of them -- it's not the girl herself who's magic; it's the fairy godmother. Now if Forman-Brunell is right, we adults have become the cursed creatures whom girls have the thaumaturgic power to transform.

 

In the 1990s, third-wave feminists rebelled against their dour big sisters, ''reclaiming'' sexual objectification as a woman's right -- provided, of course, that it was on her own terms, that she was the one choosing to strip or wear a shirt that said ''Porn Star'' or make out with her best friend at a frat-house bash. They embraced words like ''bitch'' and ''slut'' as terms of affection and empowerment. That is, when used by the right people, with the right dash of playful irony. But how can you assure that? As Madonna gave way to Britney, whatever self-determination that message contained was watered down and commodified until all that was left was a gaggle of 6-year-old girls in belly-baring T-shirts (which I'm guessing they don't wear as cultural critique). It is no wonder that parents, faced with thongs for 8-year-olds and Bratz dolls' ''passion for fashion,'' fill their daughters' closets with pink sateen; the innocence of Princess feels like a reprieve.

 

''But what does that mean?'' asks Sharon Lamb, a psychology professor at Saint Michael's College. ''There are other ways to express 'innocence' -- girls could play ladybug or caterpillar. What you're really talking about is sexual purity. And there's a trap at the end of that rainbow, because the natural progression from pale, innocent pink is not to other colors. It's to hot, sexy pink -- exactly the kind of sexualization parents are trying to avoid.''

 

Lamb suggested that to see for myself how ''Someday My Prince Will Come'' morphs into ''Oops! I Did It Again,'' I visit Club Libby Lu, the mall shop dedicated to the ''Very Important Princess.''

 

Walking into one of the newest links in the store's chain, in Natick, Mass., last summer, I had to tip my tiara to the founder, Mary Drolet: Libby Lu's design was flawless. Unlike Disney, Drolet depended on focus groups to choose the logo (a crown-topped heart) and the colors (pink, pink, purple and more pink). The displays were scaled to the size of a 10-year-old, though most of the shoppers I saw were several years younger than that. The decals on the walls and dressing rooms -- ''I Love Your Hair,'' ''Hip Chick,'' ''Spoiled'' -- were written in ''girlfriend language.'' The young sales clerks at this ''special secret club for superfabulous girls'' are called ''club counselors'' and come off like your coolest baby sitter, the one who used to let you brush her hair. The malls themselves are chosen based on a company formula called the G.P.I., or ''Girl Power Index,'' which predicts potential sales revenues. Talk about newspeak: ''Girl Power'' has gone from a riot grrrrl anthem to ''I Am Woman, Watch Me Shop.''

 

Inside, the store was divided into several glittery ''shopping zones'' called ''experiences'': Libby's Laboratory, now called Sparkle Spa, where girls concoct their own cosmetics and bath products; Libby's Room; Ear Piercing; Pooch Parlor (where divas in training can pamper stuffed poodles, pugs and Chihuahuas); and the Style Studio, offering ''Libby Du'' makeover choices, including 'Tween Idol, Rock Star, Pop Star and, of course, Priceless Princess. Each look includes hairstyle, makeup, nail polish and sparkly tattoos.

 

As I browsed, I noticed a mother standing in the center of the store holding a price list for makeover birthday parties -- $22.50 to $35 per child. Her name was Anne McAuliffe; her daughters -- Stephanie, 4, and 7-year-old twins Rory and Sarah -- were dashing giddily up and down the aisles.

 

''They've been begging to come to this store for three weeks,'' McAuliffe said. ''I'd never heard of it. So I said they could, but they'd have to spend their own money if they bought anything.'' She looked around. ''Some of this stuff is innocuous,'' she observed, then leaned toward me, eyes wide and stage-whispered: ''But ... a lot of it is horrible. It makes them look like little prostitutes. It's crazy. They're babies!''

 

As we debated the line between frivolous fun and JonBenét, McAuliffe's daughter Rory came dashing up, pigtails haphazard, glasses askew. ''They have the best pocketbooks here,'' she said breathlessly, brandishing a clutch with the words ''Girlie Girl'' stamped on it. ''Please, can I have one? It has sequins!''

 

''You see that?'' McAuliffe asked, gesturing at the bag. ''What am I supposed to say?''

 

On my way out of the mall, I popped into the '' 'tween'' mecca Hot Topic, where a display of Tinker Bell items caught my eye. Tinker Bell, whose image racks up an annual $400 million in retail sales with no particular effort on Disney's part, is poised to wreak vengeance on the Princess line that once expelled her. Last winter, the first chapter book designed to introduce girls to Tink and her Pixie Hollow pals spent 18 weeks on The New York Times children's best-seller list. In a direct-to-DVD now under production, she will speak for the first time, voiced by the actress Brittany Murphy. Next year, Disney Fairies will be rolled out in earnest. Aimed at 6- to 9-year-old girls, the line will catch them just as they outgrow Princess. Their colors will be lavender, green, turquoise -- anything but the Princess's soon-to-be-babyish pink.

 

To appeal to that older child, Disney executives said, the Fairies will have more ''attitude'' and ''sass'' than the Princesses. What, I wondered, did that entail? I'd seen some of the Tinker Bell merchandise that Disney sells at its theme parks: T-shirts reading, ''Spoiled to Perfection,'' ''Mood Subject to Change Without Notice'' and ''Tinker Bell: Prettier Than a Princess.'' At Hot Topic, that edge was even sharper: magnets, clocks, light-switch plates and panties featured ''Dark Tink,'' described as ''the bad girl side of Miss Bell that Walt never saw.''

 

Girl power, indeed.

 

A few days later, I picked my daughter up from preschool. She came tearing over in a full-skirted frock with a gold bodice, a beaded crown perched sideways on her head. ''Look, Mommy, I'm Ariel!'' she crowed. referring to Disney's Little Mermaid. Then she stopped and furrowed her brow. ''Mommy, do you like Ariel?''

 

I considered her for a moment. Maybe Princess is the first salvo in what will become a lifelong struggle over her body image, a Hundred Years' War of dieting, plucking, painting and perpetual dissatisfaction with the results. Or maybe it isn't. I'll never really know. In the end, it's not the Princesses that really bother me anyway. They're just a trigger for the bigger question of how, over the years, I can help my daughter with the contradictions she will inevitably face as a girl, the dissonance that is as endemic as ever to growing up female. Maybe the best I can hope for is that her generation will get a little further with the solutions than we did.

 

For now, I kneeled down on the floor and gave my daughter a hug.

 

She smiled happily. ''But, Mommy?'' she added. ''When I grow up, I'm still going to be a fireman.''

 

- by Peggy Orenstein, for the New York Times Magazine (December 2006)

INSPIRATION~ R.I.P DAME ELIZABETH ROSEMOND TAYLOR(February 27, 1932 – March 23, 2011)

 

25 Things You did not Know About Liz Taylor's"Cleopatra"

 

1. "Cleopatra" is infamous for marking the beginning of the heated love affair between Burton and Taylor, which lasted until his death in 1984. However, Liz and Dick had met long before the Queen of Egypt and Marc Antony arrived on set. It is said that Taylor previously found Burton to be brutish and boorish. Yet when Burton showed up to shoot the film on his first day with such a severe hangover that Taylor had to help him drink a cup of coffee, she apparently found him to be very endearing.

 

2. Early on in production, Taylor became ill with what has been called both "Asian Flu" and "Malta Fever." She was rushed to the hospital in London and soon fell into a coma. Eventually, Taylor underwent an emergency tracheotomy that saved her life. The scar from the procedure can be seen in various shots in the film.

 

3. Due to Taylor's illness, production had to be shut down for six months and eventually relocated from London to Rome because the English weather was so detrimental to Taylor's health.

 

4. The film is known as one of the most expensive movies ever made and nearly caused 20th Century Fox to go bankrupt. Its budget of $44 million is equivalent to $334 million in 2013 dollars.

 

5. While the epic had an original budget of $2 million, costs increased to $44 million mainly because the original elaborate sets and costumes that were used in London had to be completely reconstructed in Rome.

 

6. The sets that were abandoned at the Pinewood Studios in London were used for the 1964 comedy film "Carry On Cleo."

 

7. Another reason for the increase in production costs was the loss of actors Stephen Boyd and Peter Finch, who left the film due to the elongated delays and their commitment to other projects. They were replaced by Richard Burton and Rex Harrison in the roles of Marc Antony and Julius Caesar.

 

8. When filming began in 1960 in London, Rouben Mamoulian was attached as the director. However, he ended up leaving the project in 1961. Since Taylor's contract gave her director approval, she only gave the studio two choices for Mamoulian's replacement: George Stevens and "All About Eve" director Joseph L. Mankiewicz. At the time, Stevens was busy filming "The Greatest Story Ever Told" so Mankiewicz was hired as director.

 

9. In fact, Mankiewicz was fired during post-production. Since there was no actual shooting script because there was no time for a rewrite, Mankiewicz wrote as he shot. However, 20th Century Fox realized that only Mankiewicz could properly edit the film, so they rehired him to complete it.

 

10. Joan Collins, Audrey Hepburn, and Susan Hayward were at first considered to play Cleopatra. After various issues, producer Walter Wanger called Taylor on the set of her latest film, "Suddenly, Last Summer" to offer her the role through her then husband Eddie Fisher. Joking, Taylor replied "Sure, tell him I'll do it for a million dollars." While such an offer was unheard of at the time, it was accepted, and in 1959 Taylor became the first Hollywood actor to receive $1 million for a single movie.

 

11. Taylor's contract stipulated that her $1 million salary be paid out as follows: $125,000 for 16 weeks work plus $50,000 a week afterwards plus 10 percent of the gross (with no break-even point). By the time production was restarted in Rome in 1961 she had earned over $2 million. After a lengthy $50 million lawsuit brought against Taylor and Burton by the studio in 1963 and a countersuit filed by Taylor, the studio finally settled with the actress in 1966. Her ultimate take for the film was $7 million.

 

12. Among Taylor's demands were the requirement that the film be shot in the large format Todd-AO system. She owned the rights to the system as she was the widow of Michael Todd, meaning she would be paid even more money.

 

13. Rex Harrison, who played Julius Caesar, had a clause in his contract stipulating that whenever a picture of Richard Burton appeared in an ad his would as well. After a large sign was put up on Broadway showing only Burton and Taylor, Harrison's lawyers complained and the studio placed a picture of Harrison on one corner of the billboard.

 

14. The first cut of "Cleopatra" was six hours long and Mankiewicz proposed that it be released as two separate three-hour films, "Caesar and Cleopatra" followed by "Antony and Cleopatra." Twentieth Century Fox objected to this, believing that they wouldn't be able to capitalize on the hot publicity surrounding Burton and Taylor's affair since Burton's character wouldn't appear until the second film. Instead, "Cleopatra" was released as we know it today, at four hours and 11 minutes long -- although 49 pages of reshoots were required to make sense of all the cuts. Apparently, efforts are underway to uncover the missing footage to release a 'director's cut' of the full six-hour film.

 

15. Although the film is widely regarded as one of the biggest box office failures of all time, it was still the highest grossing film of the 1960s. It eventually made back its money in part from worldwide box office sales and from selling two TV spots of the film to ABC-TV for $5 million in 1966. After the film finally broke even in 1973, the studio kept all future profits secret to avoid paying those who might have been promised a percentage of the net profits.

 

16. Alfred Hitchcock was contacted twice for "Cleopatra," once by producer Wagner asking him to direct after Mamoulian left and another time by Mankiewicz asking him if Martin Landau, who was in "North By Northwest," could act. In regards to the first inquiry, Hitchcock turned down the offer and went on to make "The Birds."

 

17. Out of the film's 26,000 costumes, 65 were made for Taylor which alone cost $194,800, the highest ever for a movie actor at the time. One of her character's dresses was even made from 24-carat gold cloth.

 

18. The famous scene of Cleopatra's entrance into Rome, which required thousands of extras and the transportation of a huge barge carrying her, had to be cut and reshot because one of the Panavision cameras had caught an extra selling gelato on set. Another take of the scene almost had to be reshot again when extras accidentally started shouting "Liz! Liz!" instead of "Cleopatra! Cleopatra!" when she entered.

 

19. A group of female extras who played Cleopatra's various servants and slave girls went on strike to demand protection from the Italian extras who were continually pinching their butts. The studio eventually hired a special guard to protect the female extras.

 

20. John Hoyt, who plays Cassius, the chief conspirator against Julius Caesar, played the role of Decius Brutus, another of the conspirators, in both Orson Welles's 1937 stage production of William Shakespeare's "Julius Caesar" and in MGM's traditional 1953 film version of the play.

 

21. Taylor reportedly threw up the first time she saw the completed film.

 

22. Production designer John Decuir had to rebuild the Alexandria set at Anzio three times. During one of the rebuilds, a couple of construction workers were killed by an unexploded mine left over from World War II.

 

23. In total, 79 sets were built for the film. So much lumber and raw material were needed that building materials became scarce throughout the rest of Italy.

 

24. According to Rex Harrison in his autobiography, the studio custom-made his Julius Caesar boots while Richard Burton's boots were recycled from when Stephen Boyd was cast in his part. Apparently, Harrison was amazed that Burton did not complain about this.

 

25. Due to a mistake by the studio, Roddy McDowall missed a likely Academy Award nomination for Best Supporting Actor for his role as Caesar Augustus Octavian. The studio accidentally listed him as a leading player rather than a supporting one, and by the time they asked the Academy to correct it the ballots had already been printed. As an apology to McDowall, Fox published an open letter in the trade papers saying:

 

"We feel that it is important that the industry realize that your electric performance as Octavian in 'Cleopatra,' which was unanimously singled out by the critics as one of the best supporting performances by an actor this year, is not eligible for an Academy Award nomination in that category . . . due to a regrettable error on the part of 20th Century-Fox."

  

(1932-2011)....British-American actress, Ms Taylor became one of the great screen actresses of Hollywood's golden age. As one of the world's most famous film stars, Elizabeth Taylor was recognized for her acting ability & her glamorous lifestyle, beauty & distinctive violet eyes. A champion activist for HIV/AIDS research, winner of two Academy Awards for best actress (Butterfield 8 & Who's Afraid Of Virginia Woolf?) .... KEY FILMS "National Velvet"-1944 "A Place In The Sun"-1951 "Elephant Walk"-1954 "Giant"-1955 "Cat On A Hot Tin Roof"-1958 "Butterfield 8"-1960 "Cleopatra"-1963 "Who's Afraid Of Virginia Woolf?"-1966 "The Flintstones"-1994

www.flickr.com/photos/97667017@N05/albums/72157664987244096

 

Jayne Mansfield (born Vera Jayne Palmer; April 19, 1933 – June 29, 1967) was an American actress in film, theatre, and television. She was also a nightclub entertainer, a singer, and one of the early Playboy Playmates. She was a major Hollywood sex symbol of the 1950s and early 1960s and 20th Century Fox's alternative to Marilyn Monroe who came to be known as the "Working Man's Monroe".[1][2] She was also known for her well-publicized personal life and publicity stunts, such as wardrobe malfunctions.[3][4] She was one of Hollywood's original blonde bombshells,[5] and, although many people have never seen her movies,[6] Mansfield remains one of the most recognizable icons of 1950s celebrity culture.[6]

 

Mansfield became a major Broadway star in 1955, a major Hollywood star in 1956, and a leading celebrity in 1957.[7] While Mansfield's film career was short-lived, she had several box office successes and won a Theatre World Award and a Golden Globe. She enjoyed success in the role of fictional actress Rita Marlowe, both in the 1955–56 Broadway version and the 1957 Hollywood film version of Will Success Spoil Rock Hunter?. Her other major movie performances were for The Girl Can't Help It (1956), The Wayward Bus (1957), and Too Hot to Handle (1960).

 

With decreased demand for big-breasted blonde bombshells and an increased negative backlash against her over-publicity, she became a box-office has-been by the early 1960s,[7] but she remained a popular celebrity, continuing to attract large crowds outside the United States and in lucrative and successful nightclub acts. In the sexploitation film Promises! Promises! (1963), she became the first major American actress to have a nude starring role in a Hollywood motion picture.

 

Mansfield's professional name came from her first husband, public relations professional Paul Mansfield, with whom she had a daughter. She was the mother of three children from her second marriage to actor–bodybuilder Mickey Hargitay. She had a son with her third husband film director Matt Cimber. In 1967, Mansfield died in a car accident at the age of 34

ApnaCafe is a social networking tool that helps Desi people to connect with other Desi's around the world and share information with them. Communicate in Hindi, Tamil, Telugu, Malayalam, and Kannada. Create profiles to connect with friends, share interest

German postcard by Kolibri-Verlag, no. 2169. Photo: Rapid / Gloria / Marhoffer. Publicity still for Die Flusspiraten vom Mississippi/Pirates of the Mississippi (1963, Jürgen Roland).

 

American stuntman Brad Harris (1933) became one of the muscular action heroes of the European genre films in the 1960’s and 1970’s.

 

Brad Harris was born Bradford Harris in St. Anthony, a small town in eastern Idaho, USA in 1933. His family moved to California where he attended Burbank High School. He came from a family in the banking business and intended to make a career in the same area. In the early 1950’s, he received an athletic scholarship to UCLA where he studied economics. When he injured his knee playing football he was advised to take up weight lifting to strengthen the injury. This developed his interest in bodybuilding. His studies may have been intended as the groundwork for a career in his family's banking business, but Harris instead drifted into the fringes of Los Angeles' movie industry, and secured employment as a stunt man. He also played a small role in Monkey on My Back (1957, André De Toth) starring Cameron Mitchell as a World War II hero and champion professional boxer, who became addicted to morphine. He also appeared in the western 13 Fighting Men (1960, Harry W. Gerstad) with Grant Williams. Harris travelled to Rome to watch the 1960 Summer Olympics and perform stunts as a gladiator in Stanley Kubrick's Spartacus (1960) starring Kirk Douglas. He stayed in Europe and found himself working as a second-unit director for the short film Eco nel villaggio/Echo in the village (1961, Themistocles Hoetis). Harris was invited to join the ranks of American actors and body-builders in the peplum genre (sword and sandal films) - following in the wake of Steve Reeves' successful portrayal of Hercules. Harris first starring role was as Goliath in the peplum Goliath contro i giganti/Goliath Against the Giants (1961, Guido Malatesta) opposite Fernando Rey. He then played Samson in Sansone/Samson (1961, Gianfranco Parolini), and Hercules in La furia di Ercole/The Fury of Hercules (1962, Gianfranco Parolini), both with bodybuilder Sergio Ciani a.k.a. Alan Steel and French musician Serge Gainsbourg. His good looks and muscular build kept Harris in demand. Of the muscular peplum heroes, Brad Harris was the first to branch out into other film genres. When the genre began to fade away, he moved into a spate of action films. In Germany he appeared in Heißer Hafen Hong Kong/Hong Kong Hot Harbor (1962, Jürgen Roland) with Marianne Koch, and Weiße Fracht für Hongkong/Operation Hong Kong (1964, Helmut Ashley, Giorgio Stegani) featuring Maria Perschi. Harris discovered that stunt coordinators were nonexistent in Germany and he often did extra duties as a stuntman, stunt coordinator, and second unit director. During the shooting of Das Geheimnis der chinesischen Nelke/Secret of the Chinese Carnation (1964 Rudolf Zehetgruber), he fell in love with his co-star, Czech actress Olga Schoberová. They married in 1967, but divorced already two years later.

 

In 1963, Brad Harris co-starred with Hansjörg Felmy in the early Euro-western Die Flusspiraten vom Mississippi/Pirates of the Mississippi (1963, Jürgen Roland). It lead to more parts in westerns like the West-German-Italian-French coproduction Die Goldsucher von Arkansas/Massacre at Marble City (1964, Paul Martin) with Mario Adorf, another West-German-Italian-French coproduction Die schwarzen Adler von Santa Fe/Black Eagle of Santa Fe (1965, Ernst Hofbauer) with Tony Kendall, the Spanish-Italian Un hombre vino a matar/Rattler Kid (1967, León Klimovsky) and the Italian Wanted Sabata (1970, Roberto Mauri). Another popular European genre in which he often starred was the Euro-spy-thriller. Examples are A 001, operazione Giamaica/Our Man in Jamaica (1965, Ernst R. von Theumer, Mel Welles) starring Larry Pennell and Barbara Valentin, and the Kommissar X film series (1966-1971), six films featuring Tony Kendall. By 1970, Harris was writing and producing films and headed his own production company, Three Star Films, including distribution and foreign sales in Rome, Italy. In addition, he acted as creative consultant for various German film companies. He also continued to work in genre films like the Giallo La casa della paura/The Girl in 2A (1974, William Rose) with Raf Vallone, and the horror comedy Lady Dracula (1978, Franz Josef Gottlieb), for which he had also written the story. He also served as executive producer on several of his films such as the sci-fi horror The Mutations (1974, Jack Cardiff) starring Donald Pleasence. In the following decades he guest starred in popular series as the German Krimi series Derrick (1979) and the American soap operas Dallas (1984-1989) and Falcon Crest (1984-1989). He also appeared in a new version of Hercules (1983, Luigi Cozzi), now starring TV Hulk Lou Ferrigno. At the 4th Golden Raspberry Awards, Hercules was nominated for five awards: worst screenplay, worst supporting actress (Sybil Danning), worst actor (Lou Ferrigno), worst new star (Ferrigno), and worst picture. It won Raspberries for worst supporting actress and worst new star. Since then Harris only incidentally returned for the cameras. He invented an exercise machine called AB-OrigOnals, and owns a fitness products company called Modern Body Design. At the Muscle Beach Bodybuilding Championship in 2001, Harris received a special achievement award along with other ‘Legends of Hercules’ - Mark Forest, Ed Fury, Mickey Hargitay, Richard Harrison, Reg Lewis, Peter Lupus and Gordon Mitchell. Recently he returned to the screen in the American thriller Shiver (2012, Julian Richards) starring Caspar van Dien, for which he also served as executive producer, and in the German comedy Die X-Männer schlagen zurück/The X-Men Strike Back (2012, Reginald Ginster), for which he was reunited with Tony Kendall. Brad Harris is a member of the Stuntman's Hall of Fame. He and his ex-wife Olga Schoberová have a daughter, Sabrina (Babrinka) Harris.

 

Sources: Bruce Eder (AllMovie), Brian J. Walker (Brian’s Drive-In Theater), Wikipedia, and IMDb.

Rory:

Age: 42

Occupation: Lead Singer of the Stingers (80's Rock Band)

Status: Married to Candice

 

Candice:

Age: 38

Occupation: Adult Films Star "Black Canary"

St