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Eco systems functions:

Shoreline protection and sediment accretion; mangroves buffer the shoreline from the erosive impact of storms and waves, preventing erosion by stabilizing sediments with tangled root systems

Trap and bind sediments; reducing coastal turbidity and making cleaner waters

Major source of primary productivity in the form of plant materials; supporting many important trophic pathways by providing a source for food chains that support many terrestrial and marine organisms

Provide habitat for both marine and terrestrial organisms; a home for both plants and animals, including threatened and endangered species. For example, more than 230 species of birds have been recorded from Australian mangroves and, while only 8 or 9 species are restricted to mangroves in the Wet Tropics, the many other species visit and depend upon the mangroves for food, nesting or shelter

This shot near Port Wakefield, approx 100k's north of Adelaide

  

Thanks so much for looking and/ or commenting, I really appreciate it and will always try to reciprocate with a visit back to your stream :-)

 

Uncropped image.

Uploaded for 7DWF: Sunday - Fauna

 

The lion is one of the big cats in the genus Panthera and a member of the family Felidae. The commonly used term African lion collectively denotes the several subspecies found in Africa.

 

Scientific name: Panthera leo

Lifespan: 10 – 14 years (Adult, In the wild)

Conservation status: Vulnerable (Population decreasing)

Trophic level: Carnivorous

Mass: Male: 190 kg (Adult), Female: 130 kg (Adult)

Height: Male: 1.2 m (Adult, At Shoulder), Female: 1.1 m (Adult, At Shoulder)

 

(Wikipedia)

 

Kruger National Park

Near Lower Sabie next to the H4-1 to Skukuza

Mpunalanga

South Africa

Cascade

·A waterfall or series of waterfalls

·Biochemical cascade, a consecutive series of chemical reactions

Coagulation cascade, the process by which the body clots blood

Complement cascade or Complement system, a biochemical cascade in the immune system

MAPK cascade, a process in the action of cancer genes

·Cascade reaction, a consecutive series of chemical reactions within a molecule

·A Collision cascade of subatomic particles

·Electron cascade or Electron avalanche, a process in physics

·Kemble's Cascade, a pattern of stars

·Trophic cascade, when predators in a food web suppress their prey, releasing the next lower trophic level from predation

·Cascade effect (ecology), the triggering of series of secondary extinctions

 

FRANCAIS

Le mot cascade peut désigner :

·un événement spectaculaire planifié et réalisé par un cascadeur,

·une chute d'eau,

·les cascades atmosphériques sont des "avalanches" de rayons cosmiques pouvant engendrer un nombre considérable de particules s'étalant sur une grande surface,

·Cascade, une ville imaginaire de la série télévisée The Sentinel,

·la cascade, la figure jonglable avec un nombre d’objet impair,

·la cascade de glace est un sport dérivé de l'escalade et de l'alpinisme qui consiste à escalader des cascades gelées à l'aide de piolets et crampons,

·la Cascade, un monument d'Erevan (Arménie),

·un phénomène qui se produit par saccades, par rebonds successifs (évènements en cascade),

·Open CASCADE, une plateforme de génie logiciel.

·Cascade, un quartier de Seattle dans l'État de Washington (États-Unis),

·Cascade, ville dans l'Idaho (États-Unis),

·Cascade Locks, ville du comté de Hood River, dans l'Oregon (États-Unis),

·Boise Cascade, papetière américaine.

 

Scissortail Dartfish (Ptereleotris evides)

 

The Scissortail Goby, also known as the Scissortail Dartfish, has a white head and blue body with large dorsal and anal fins.

 

It will rarely become aggressive towards other fish, but is territorial, and will fight with its own kind unless they are a mated pair.

  

Biology

 

Occurs in outer reef slopes, also inhabits lagoons and bays. Usually in pairs as adults and in small aggregations as juveniles. Monogamous.

 

Feeds on zooplankton while hovering 1 to 2 m above the bottom.

 

Swims away from danger rather than retreat to its burrow.

  

Distribution

 

Indo-Pacific: Red Sea and East Africa to the Line and Society islands, north to the Ryukyu and Ogasawara islands, south to New South Wales, Lord Howe Island, and Rapa.

  

Habitat

 

Reef-associated; marine; depth range 2 - 15 m. Adults generally swim together in pairs about coral heads.

  

Trophic Strategy

 

Adults usually in pairs, juveniles in small aggregations. Usually hover in small schools of up to ten or more individuals over the reefs.

   

Michael Chambers talks about the Integrated Multi-trophic aquaculture raft he designed and his work as an extension agent helping to advance shellfish and seaweed aquaculture in the region.

Large Warthog in the Golden Hour of light

The common warthog is a wild member of the pig family found in grassland, savanna, and woodland in sub-Saharan Africa. Wikipedia

Scientific name: Phacochoerus africanus

Trophic level: Herbivorous

Height: 64 – 85 cm (Adult, At Shoulder)

Conservation status: Least Concern (Population stable)

Higher classification: Phacochoerus

Mass: Male: 60 – 150 kg (Adult), Female: 45 – 75 kg (Adult)

He was old and silent. He didn't say nothing, he was just silent and played his violin. He is a man who certainly has a lot of trouble, but I felt that he was so free, laid-back. I do not know if something is bothering him or not, but all I know is that he is not so rushed and crazy as today's people.

 

▪Street Violinist

▪Prague, Czech Republic

 

More info and photos on www.denisakadlecova.blog.cz

Michael Chambers talks about the Integrated Multi-trophic aquaculture raft he designed and his work as an extension agent helping to advance shellfish and seaweed aquaculture in the region.

Identifier: textbookofnervou1901dana

Title: Text-book of nervous diseases; being a compendium for the use of students and practitioners of medicine

Year: 1901 (1900s)

Authors: Dana, Charles Loomis, 1852-1935

Subjects: Nervous system

Publisher: New York, W. Wood and Company

Contributing Library: Columbia University Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: Open Knowledge Commons

  

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rd: Length of hand,Length of foot,Cranial circumference, .Circumference of thorax, 7.6 to 8f inches.11.7 to 13i 24 to 261 44 The vision is sometimes impaired and there may be hemianopsia.The muscles may be at first hypertrophied, later atrophied. Thereare no paralyses and rarely any anaesthesias. The disease runs a very chronic course, lasting ten or twentyyears. Pathology.—There has been found an enlargement of the pitu- TROPHIC AND VASOMOTOR DISORDERS. 571 itary body in nearly all cases, and it is probable that the disease isdue to disorder of its function. The attempts to place the diseasein relation with a persistent thymus, sclerotic changes of the sym-pathetic, and disease of the thyroid, all of which conditions have beenfound, are unsuccessful. The disease must be regarded as a perver-sion of nutrition due to defective action of the pituitary gland. The diagnosis must be made from congenital enlargements, fromso-called giant growth which affects single members, and from oste-

 

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Fig. 238.— Normal Hand and Hand in Acromegaly. itis deformans. In the latter disease it is the shafts of the longbones and the cranium, not the face, which are involved. Pneumogenic osteo-arthropathy is the name given by Marie to adisease associated with pulmonary and pleuritic disease, and charac-terized by enlargement of the extremities and peculiar deformitiesof the terminal phalanges. The enlargements are not uniform.The tongue is not affected. The wrist and ankle bones are hyper-trophied, the finger-tips are bulbous and spade shaped. Prognosis.—Acromegaly is incurable, but it has been arrested,or at least has ceased to progress, and it may not greatly shortenlife. Treatment.—Cases have been reported in which iodide of potas-sium and arsenic have arrested the disease. In general, the treat-ment is only symptomatic, but feeding with pituitary gland inlarge doses (gr. xl.) should be tried. 572 DISEASES OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM. Myxcedema. Myxoedema is a disease of the thyroid gla

  

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1. What renewable natural resources are visible in this artwork?

The renewable resource of sunlight is visible in the painting.

 

2. What intermediate-renewable resources are visible in the piece?

The intermediate-renawble resources of fresh water, forest products, agricultural crops and soils are depicted in the piece.

 

3. In your opinion, which fields of study might be represented in the piece?

The fields of study that might be represented include more natural science based disciplines, including ecology, earth science, chemistry, biology and geography.

 

4. Interpreting your piece, where on the continuum from ecocentric to anthropocentric would you consider the artist’s viewpoint?

The painting is definately based on an ecocentric viewpoint; it depicts an undisturbed nature scene in which all the living and nonliving components are in harmony.

 

5. Interpreting the artwork in terms of the “Human Influence Index”, approximately what is the level of human influence is depicted in your piece?

The painting shows the valley of the Yosemite as an undisturbed, clearly thriving natural environment. There is no sign of human presence or products that occur due to human presence (e.g. roads, lights, pollution). Because of this we can see that the human influence is very low.

 

6. How would you interpret energy flow in the depiction shown in the artwork?

The energy flow in the painting is fueled by light energy from the sun which triggers photosynthesis in producers. This then begins the transfer of chemical energy within trophic levels (although no consumers are actually depicted). Energy will eventually exit the system through respiration in the form of heat.

 

7. Approximately which ecosystem/biome is depicted in the artwork you observe?

The biome of the valley of the Yosemite is Chaparral.

 

8. Describe one of the biogeochemical cycles for the landscape you observe.

One of the biogeochemical cycles as shown in the picture is the hydrologic cycle. The water (river valley, in the painting) transports sediments and pollutants from the continents to the oceans. The ocean currents then transports the nutrients for thousands of miles.

 

9. Sketch the food web that is depicted in the landscape you are studying

No consumers are depicted in this painting.

 

10. Describe examples of succession and/or human disturbance in the landscape.

The painting is purely ecocentric and does not take into consideration human effects. It can even be called a climax community because it seems the artist is showing us a place that is thriving and will continue to do so with little modification unless disturbed.

Sugar kelp grown on the Integrated Multi-trophic aquaculture raft.

Sugar kelp grown on the Integrated Multi-trophic aquaculture raft.

Successfully reintroduced to Yellowstone in 1995, after a 70-year absence.

 

This grand ecological experiment triggered a trophic cascade, resulting in more ducks.

 

Wolves thin the elk population, allowing more saplings to grow to maturity, providing more wood for the beavers, making more wetland for the ducks, and shading the river for trout populations.

 

The wolves are a keystone species in this ecosystem.

Scientists constructed a food web model using data from published studies and their field experiences to understand how specific Louisiana salt marsh organisms influenced ecosystem response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill. The researchers found that carnivorous fishes were “critically resilient” and likely enhanced food web resilience. Gulls, terns, omnivorous snails, and wading birds were “critically sensitive” and potentially destabilized the food web. The framework for assessing how individual species influence food web responses to stressors is applicable to other marsh threats and to habitats beyond Louisiana marshes. The researchers published their findings in Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment: Key taxa in food web responses to stressors: the Deepwater Horizon oil spill.

 

Photo Caption: The authors created a salt marsh food web with oil sensitivity ratings for each species or node. Clear circles indicate no data available. Blue, yellow, and red circles depict sensitivity scores of 0, 1, and 2, respectively. Nodes are arranged so that trophic level increases vertically.

 

Provided by Michael McCann.

 

Read More: gulfresearchinitiative.org/study-identifies-key-species-i...

Sugar kelp grown on the Integrated Multi-trophic aquaculture raft.

Integrated Multi-trophic aquaculture raft. This system is designed to raise seaweed, mussels, oysters and steelhead trout in the same space.

This is the female (mating) partner of the male lion posted on 2016/06/05. (Click on the blue words Male Lion to view.)

They were mating behind the bush in front of her and she took a nap when she got an opportunity.......

 

Uncropped image.

Uploaded for 7DWF: Sunday - Fauna

 

The lion is one of the big cats in the genus Panthera and a member of the family Felidae. The commonly used term African lion collectively denotes the several subspecies found in Africa.

 

Scientific name: Panthera leo

Lifespan: 10 – 14 years (Adult, In the wild)

Conservation status: Vulnerable (Population decreasing)

Trophic level: Carnivorous

Mass: Male: 190 kg (Adult), Female: 130 kg (Adult)

Height: Male: 1.2 m (Adult, At Shoulder), Female: 1.1 m (Adult, At Shoulder)

 

(Wikipedia)

 

Kruger National Park

Near Lower Sabie next to the H4-1 to Skukuza

Mpunalanga

South Africa

Mimic Poison Frog (Ranitomeya imitator) - San Martin Department, Peru

 

These are the reason that I am here in Peru, I am working with this species and Ranitomeya variabilis. Ranitomeya imitator is truly an amazing little frog, it utilizes tiny little pools of water as deposition sites for its tadpoles which gives them an advantage as these tiny little pools of water are devoid of competitors and predators, however they also don't contain enough nutrients for the tadpoles to survive to metamorphosis so the male frequently checks up on them. He will then lead the female back to the sites where the tadpoles are located and she will lay an unfertilized egg for the tadpoles to feed on in a behavior called trophic egg feeding. So far these are the only frogs that have been shown to be genetically monogomous, likely evolved due to the need for high levels of biparental care. This is the first individual I have photographed of this species but certainly not the last, more photos to come as I take them!

Duckweed covers portions of the water in clusters.

 

TROPHIC INTERACTION QUESTION: This duckweed according to the article would be limited by light.

Michael Chambers talks about the Integrated Multi-trophic aquaculture raft he designed and his work as an extension agent helping to advance shellfish and seaweed aquaculture in the region.

Although cannibalism of eggs by Coccinellid larva (in fact amongst and between all hungry Coccinellid life stages) is well-recognized and researched (this occurs typically when prey sources are limited in quality and quantity, or as an intentional means of boosting survival probability for first hatchings where egg clustering occurs), less is known about egg cannibalism and predation by adult Coccinellidae. What is apparent (maybe because they are an easier genus to study and very common), is that the Harmonia genus seems to be very adept at cannibalism at all stages of life both intra-specifically and inter-specifically. Cannibalism of other Coccinellid species is significant where Harmonia occur as an invasive species (i.e. everywhere outside of Asia) and where they are overwhelming native species.

 

Certainly, nutritional stress and interspecies competition are logical reasons for egg cannibalism by adult beetles, but it is also proposed that females lay fertile and trophic (infertile) eggs. The purpose of the unviable trophic eggs is purely for the nutritional benefit of the female and not a failure of the reproductive process, and not a phenomenon restricted to lady beetles. So, in fact, the consumption of Coccinellid eggs by adult beetles is not an act of cannibalism in these circumstances, but an intentional behavior aimed at supplementing nutrition.

 

Pu'er, Yunnan, China

Food Chain (from wikipedia): Food chains, also called food webs, food networks and/or trophic networks, describe the feeding relationships between species within an ecosystem. Organisms are connected to the organisms they consume by arrows representing the direction of biomass transfer. It also shows you how the energy from the producer is given to the consumer.Typically a food chain or food web refers to a graph where only connections are recorded, and a food network or ecosystem network refers to a network where the connections are given weights representing the quantity of nutrients or energy being transferred.

 

Hey, wait a minute dude, that was wayyyyyy over 140 characters!!!!

One of my daughter's shell collection. I think this is from our 2009 trip to Australia. Note the hole at the top of the shell is from a predatory snail drilling through to eat the hapless mollusc. Strobist - 430EXII at 1/16 with a gridded snoot to camera right - on the same level as the shell. White Reflector directly opposite the strobe, about 2" from the shell.

Ecosystem services - demonstrates regulation of lower trophic levels!

Identifier: internalmedicine02wils

Title: Internal medicine; a work for the practicing physician on diagnosis and treatment, with a complete Desk index

Year: 1920 (1920s)

Authors: Wilson, J. C. (James Cornelius), 1847-1934 Potter, Nathaniel Bowditch, 1869-1919

Subjects: Medicine Diagnosis

Publisher: Philadelphia, London, J. B. Lippincott Company

Contributing Library: Columbia University Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: Open Knowledge Commons

  

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ensi-bility, such as have been described;second, of perversions of sensation,which consist of dyssesthesias, formi-cation, numbness, and delayed sensa-tion; and third, abolition of sensation, which is more or less complete.The trophic changes involve the conjunctiva? and the mucous membranesof the nose, mouth, and throat, which may become dry and red and theseat of areas of superficial ulceration. The ulcers which form in the anes-thetic patches developing jn the hands and feet may be very destructive,giving rise to contracture and necrosis, which produce distressing deformi-ties, the loss of fingers and toes, and the development of perforating ulcers.Spontaneous resorption of bone may take place. In favorable cases the disease may last for a long periotl withoutthe development of marked trophoneurotic changes. The average dura-tion of life in this form of leprosy is about tw^enty years. In someinstances the progress of the disease is arrested and the patient mayreach an advanced age.

 

Text Appearing After Image:

Fi<;. 2712.—An 180 MEDICAL DIAGNOSIS. (c) ]\IiXED OR Complete Leprosy.—The lesions peculiar to the tuber-cular and the anoBsthetic forms develop simultaneously, or in succession. Whilethe distinction between the two main forms is in well-marked cases sharplydefined, there are many cases which must be referred to the mixed form. Diagnosis.—The direct diagnosis of leprosy in the early stage ma} bedifficult. The erythematous macules with hypersesthesia, pain, and pig-mentation, and the subsequent development of tuberculous nodules arecharacteristic. In the nervous form the areas of persistent anaesthesia,with bullae, ulceration, deformities, and necrosis of the hands and feet, areimportant. A history of residence in a country in which leprosy prevails,even without actual association with known lepers, justifies the suspicionof contagion. The bacteriological examination of the nasal discharge, theserum of a blister, or of an excised nodule may settle a doubtful case. The differen

  

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: : 2009 Paulo Henrique Zioli

 

<<<

 

Para vencer a batalha com essas pragas só mesmo a própria natureza.

 

A joaninha é a predadora natural do pulgão.

 

Flagrei a chegada desta aqui em um pequeno grupo de pulgões jovens, aparentemente. Um a um ela devorou o grupo todo. Capturava um e levava para o outro lado da folha para come-lo.

 

Há um tempo atrás jamais imaginaria a joaninha como essa terrível predadora.

 

Grande aliada da agricultura orgânica.

  

>>>

  

Mado are the native mice of the seas of SE Australia. They form the critical link between primary producers and higher trophic levels as they feed primarily on plankton (phyto- and zoo-). They have become ubiquitous and abundant as their predators have all but gone from our waters - not their fault though! Like noisy miners in our skies, they have benefited from human impacts on their environment..

Shark Point, Clovelly

 

Identifier: minorsurgeryband00whar

Title: Minor surgery and bandaging; including the treatment of fractures and dislocations, the ligation of arteries, amputations, excisions and resections, intestinal anastomosis, operations upon nerves and tendons, tracheotomy, intubation of the larynx, etc.

Year: 1902 (1900s)

Authors: Wharton, Henry R. (Henry Redwood), 1853-1925

Subjects: Surgery, Minor Bandages

Publisher: Philadelphia, New York, Lea brothers & co.

Contributing Library: Columbia University Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: Open Knowledge Commons

  

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Skiagraph of fracture of both bones of the forearm. through any intercepted substance to be studied are re-fleeted directly upon it. If the body is more or less re-sistant, the observer can see it clearly through the skinand subcutaneous tissue. The time of exposure to the rays varies with the strength 230 MINOR SURGERY. of the current and the thickness of the tissues. The ex-posure is usually from three to fifteen minutes. The tubeshould not be placed too near the surface of the body, andthe exposures should be as short as possible. Fig. 163.

 

Text Appearing After Image:

Skiagraph of bullet in knee-joint. (Willard.) There occasionally develops after the use of the #-raysa peculiar disturbance of the tissues, probably trophic innature, which is known as an .T-ray burn. The skin,several weeks after exposure to the rays, may becomeulcerated, the nails may be lost, and a very intractableform of ulceration or gangrene develop. SKIAGRAPHY. 231 The awraysare of great value in locating foreign bodies,such as needles, pins, bullets, and pieces of glass. Theyare employed also with advantage in locating mineral cal-culi in the Madder, ureter, and kidney. They are also Fig. 164

  

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Identifier: journalofnervous48ameruoft

Title: The Journal of nervous and mental disease

Year: 1874 (1870s)

Authors: American Neurological Association

Subjects: Nervous system Psychology, Pathological

Publisher: Baltimore [etc.] Williams & Wilkins [etc.]

Contributing Library: Internet Archive

Digitizing Sponsor: Internet Archive

  

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ne of body masculine in type; voice heavy and coarse:Hypertrichosis with male distribution. Some obesity. ment of the secondary sex characters. Pluriglandular syndromehirsute ; masculine type of adiposity. Voice heavy and quite mas-culine in quality. Whole appearance shows positive maleness. Case 10. Obesity; general maleness in outline of the body;hypertrichosis. M. B. Colored; age 50 when admitted in 1899; married. Nothing known of family or personal history. Physical Examination.—A very well-developed, well-nourishedlight-brown colored woman. Eyes: Right pupil widely dilated andinactive. Irides light brown. Hair gray, streaked with black, curledclose to head. Muscles poor tone. Glands, bones and joints showno abnormalities. PLURIGLANDULAR ANOMALOUS FUNCTIONS 27 Digestive System and Abdominal Organs.—Mouth: Not allowedto be examined. Appetite, digestion and bowels normal. Liver out-line normal. Spleen and kidneys not palpable. Genito-iirinary System.—Examination not permitted.

 

Text Appearing After Image:

Case 10. Hypertrichosis, masculine type, deep voice. Respiratory System.—\N\\o\e right side anteriorly shows slightlyhigh-pitched note. Left side hyperresonant. No rales heard. Circulatory System.—Heart outlines normal. x\uscultation notsatisfactory because patient talks constantly. Nervous System.—Eye movements apparently normal. Vision, 28 MARY OMALLEY smell, taste and hearing cannot be tested. Point of pin can be thrustdeeply with very little response. No tenderness of muscles ornerves elicited. No vasomotor or trophic disturbances. No tremorsor twitchings. Gait normal. No Romberg. Reflexes.—Pupillary: Right pupil inactive. Left responds slowlyto light and accommodation. Knee jerks and tendo-/\chilles reflexescannot be elicited. Other reflexes normal. Laboratory Findings.—Urinalysis negative ; Wassermann withblood serum negative. She manifested the following symptoms of pseudo-hermaphro-ditism: Hypertrichosis over malar surfaces, chin and upper lip.Her general appearance

  

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An "exclosure" is a fence around a patch of land to see what happens when you keep something out. Here, if you keep elk out, you get aspen.

 

Most of the aspen you see in Yellowstone is behind a fence. Critics of park management point to this as evidence of elk overpopulation, at least until wolf reintroduction.

 

The park denied there was a problem. Local communities like a large elk herd, which spills out of the park where it can be hunted. Many locals also don't like the wolves.

 

Politics in action.

 

HFF !

What an amazing system! For three days in a row (perhaps a fourth today) I have been photographing these parasitoids of the pollinating fig wasp (I assume). The green ones (sp. 1) seem more numerous and more active earlier on in the day, while the yellow ones (sp. 2) are fewer, and more active as the day goes on. What is truly amazing is that they will follow a green parasitoid and wait for it to finish ovipositing, before ovipositing in the same spot itself.

 

I'm not certain if this is because they are a hyperparasitoid of sp. 1, or if they find this an easier way of locating a likely place to oviposit (making sp. 1 do all the work). Regardless this is a truly amazing system, with so many trophic levels already at play, before you even get into predators, herbivores and other pests! Figs really are keystone species.

This was NOT taken by me , though represents a Celtic legend. Which one?

 

[added later, Fionn (Ireland) /Gwion (Wales)... the variant stories around the salmon of knowledge / wisdom]

 

Now unsure where I found it the talented photographers signature is on the lower right side corner.

 

as an aside ....The Egyptian god Horus symbol was a falcon .

For understanding different processes governing peatland landscape it is crucial to devide the area on parts at different scales. According to Ivanov (1981), the peatland may be considered from three different scales: macrotop, mesotop and microtop. The largest category embraces all confluent together smaller areas (such as the whole Chistoe bog). Mesotop describes areas with common hydrological history, and there are three mesotops different in trophic regime and water catchment (1 and 3 mesotops has ombrotrophic status and 2 - mesotrophic). Finally, at smaller scale in peatland mapping lays microtop, which have uniform plant cover. In the boundary of mesotop 1 we separated three different microtops (a - pine - dwarfshrubs - sphagnum with rare tree layer; b - the same with dense tree cover; c - graminoid - sphagnum lawns intermittent by ridges complex microtop).

The 2 photos are related in that neither are producers. They are in different trophic levels. A moth is a primary consumer while a squirrel can be both a primary or secondary because it eats both nut and bugs. A difference in the abiotic environment is a moth is in wood. A squirrel also lives in wood but in a tree versus in the wood of a building.

My friend doing a hardflip.

 

Photo taken by Josh

Michael Chambers talks about the Integrated Multi-trophic aquaculture raft he designed and his work as an extension agent helping to advance shellfish and seaweed aquaculture in the region.

This is a photo of toad scat(poop) behind my house. It could possibly belong to the American Toad (Anaxyrus[Bufo] americanus) or the Fowler's Toad (Anaxyrus fowleri), considering those are the species I have at least seen, there could be more. Regardless, this is a sample of an individual toads scat. This toad seems to have consumed quite a bit of prey, at least a majority being June Bugs (Phyllophaga spp). I see at least two, possibly three trophic levels of a food chain here. Like the "Stream of Oklahoma" (M. Power) that Dr. Borrett mentioned in his Ecology lecture, the toads may be indirectly interacting with various trees, shrubs, vines and grasses in the area. If an adult June Bug population's density is allowed to get too large, they could possibly devour mass quantities of plant biomass. Also, during the larval stage they live in soil to eat the plant roots. Having eaten the June Bugs this toad has prevented them from consuming some plants and reproducing. If I were to observe toad scat, the June Bug population and a particular plant's biomass(that's especially yummy to the June Bug) in this area during a certain span of time, there may be evidence showing this indirect interaction or trophic cascade.

 

nature.mdc.mo.gov/discover-nature/field-guide/may-beetles...

The red panda, also called the lesser panda, the red bear-cat, and the red cat-bear, is a mammal native to the eastern Himalayas and southwestern China. Wikipedia

Scientific name: Ailurus fulgens

Trophic level: Herbivorous Encyclopedia of Life

Gestation period: 132 days Encyclopedia of Life

Rank: Species

Mass: 5.2 kg (Adult) Encyclopedia of Life

Higher classification: Ailurus

I've been quite a long time w/o being active in Flickr. Due to several things:

 

exams [which I failed]

work[from 6 am till 22 pm]

 

Apart from that I fucked the other camera I had. Thankfully I found a great place to repair my 2 cameras and soon I'll do more shots.

  

ps: hyesterday I went to see Trophic Thunder by Ben Stiller and I couldnt stop laughing during the whole movie. I highly recommend it.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=X2azd2KTpMw

Identifier: physicaldiagnosi12cabo

Title: Physical diagnosis

Year: 1912 (1910s)

Authors: Cabot, Richard C. (Richard Clarke), 1868-1939

Subjects: Diagnosis Chest Diagnosis

Publisher: New York : William Wood and Company

Contributing Library: Francis A. Countway Library of Medicine

Digitizing Sponsor: Open Knowledge Commons and Harvard Medical School

  

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Fig. 258.—Atrophic Arthritis. (Goldthwait.) 30 466 PHYSICAL DIAGNOSIS (b) The primary polyarticular form usually begins in the fingers,and is very apt to occur symmetrically, i.e., in corresponding joints ofboth hands at the same time (see Fig. 257). The joints are enlarged,boggy, spindle shaped (owing to the rapid atrophy of the interossei),often abnormally white, apparently fluctuant, and show trophic skinlesions (glossy skin, sweating, mottling) (see Fig. 258). The terminalfinger-joints are rarely swollen. Late in the course of the disease aring of constriction often marks the line of articulation (see Fig. 259),Pain is not severe until motion is attempted or unless the joint isjarred and stirred up by some traumatism.

 

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Fig. 259.—Atrophic Arthritis. Late stage with constriction ring at the joint line. (Goldthwait.) The changes progress slowly and attack new and larger joints,moving centrally from the periphery. At any stage the process maybecome arrested, but usually not until ankylosis or contractures haveoccurred in one or many joints. Some of the ossified men of dimemuseums are in the ankylosed stage of this terrible malady. Flexionof fingers with hyperextension of the terminal joints and deflection tothe ulnar side are common deformities. IV. Hypertrophic Arthritis.—This is a degenerative type of diseasein which bony enlargement and osteophytic spurs are the distinguish-ing feature. The new bone is oftenest deposited round the edges ofthe articular cartilage, forming an irregular fungoid ring (ring bonein horses) or lip near the joint. The attachments of the ligaments THE JOINTS 467 (e.g., the anterior lateral ligament of the spine or the cotyloid ligamentin the hip-joint) furnish another fav

  

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Rosa Damascena

so called by the Greeks in the ancient writings, it was spread to the world throughout the invasions happened to Levant, in Syria the story started in the mountains of al-Qalamoon and al-Haramoon, also it was planted in quantities in al-Marah -60km east Damascsus being a wild rain-fed plant that can survive the hot, cold, dry weather planting this rose was an opportunity to the fallow lands owners, Damascene rose grow in 600-2000m above sea level and the higher you go the better it grows, this rose has taken its importance from the implementation of its extracts in the medical, trophic, and cosmetics applications.

 

Products of the Damascus Rose:

 

1- Natural Damascus Rose Syrup: well-known drink in Damascus and all over Syria, distillation of the petals of the rose with sugar for sweetening, can be taken cold or hot, contains Vitamin C, digesting facilitator, Soothing to the irritation of mucous membranes

2- Damascus Rose as herbs: dried roses used as herb (hot drink) useful for flue, purifier of the throat, pharynx, organizer of the digestive system and urine

3- Natural roses water: distillation of the roses is rich with acid omen, Vitamin C, essential oil, which can be great use for the skin, as cleansing and within the skin restoration process, dry skin treatment, cleanser for sensitive skin.

  

We know five kinds of this rose with different names:

Quatre Saison (very old)

M.me Hardy (1932)

Leda (before 1827)

Kazalink (very old)

Yourk and Lancaster (before 1551)

Racoon from Mexico .

  

The raccoon, sometimes spelled racoon, also known as the common raccoon, North American raccoon, northern raccoon and colloquially as coon, is a medium-sized mammal native to North America. Wikipedia

Scientific name: Procyon lotor

Lifespan: 2 – 3 years (In the wild)

Trophic level: Omnivorous Encyclopedia of Life

Mass: 7.7 – 20 lbs (Adult)

Height: 9.1 – 12 in. (At Shoulder)

Did you know: Raccoons are found across southern Canada, throughout most of the United States, and into northern South America. naturemappingfoundation.org

The coyote is a canid native to North America. It is a smaller, more basal animal than its close relative, the gray wolf, being roughly the North American equivalent to the Old World golden jackal, though it is larger and more predatory in nature. Wikipedia

 

Scientific name: Canis latrans

Height: 58 – 66 cm (Adult, At Shoulder)

Trophic level: Carnivorous

Mass: 6.8 – 21 kg (Adult)

Speed: 69 km/h (Maximum, Adult, In Pursuit)

Higher classification: Canis

Identifier: 39002086410850.med.yale.edu

Title: The practice of pediatrics

Year: 1914 (1910s)

Authors: Kerley, Charles Gilmore,1863-

Subjects: Children Pediatrics

Publisher: Philadelphia and London : W. B. Saunders company

Contributing Library: Yale University, Cushing/Whitney Medical Library

Digitizing Sponsor: Open Knowledge Commons and Yale University, Cushing/Whitney Medical Library

  

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roy the tips of the nerve processes, so to speak,without involving the nerve-cell body itself. The next part attackedis the anterior cornual cell (Dana). Under these conditions the pro-gressive amyotrophy assumes a spastic form and is called amyotrophiclateral sclerosis. 508 THE PRACTICE OF PEDIATRICS Until the complex pathology which has just been briefly traced isfurther elucidated, the following neurologic conditions may be classifiedunder the general heading, progressive spinal muscular atrophy: 1. Progressive amyotrophy of the hand type {or Duchenne-Aran type). 2. Progressive bulbar paralysis. 3. Progressive muscular atrophy of the leg type (peroneal type or Char-cot-Marie-Tooth type). 4. Progressive spinal muscular atrophy of the spastic type (or amyo-trophic lateral sclerosis). Symptomatology.—1. Progressive amyotrophy of the hand typetypically begins as a wasting of the muscles of one thumb. The adduc-tor pollicis, deep thenar, hypothenar, and the interossei muscles are pro-

 

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Fig. 70.—Pseudomuscular hypertrophy. (Early case.) gressively involved; and as the paralysis extends, it may affect theflexors and extensors of the forearm, and eventually the triceps and del-toid and other shoulder muscles. The claw-hand deformity is com-mon. After several months the paralysis may become bilateral, involv-ing the trunk and rarely the leg muscles, or it may even develop intoa bulbar palsy. The paralysis in the hand type of atrophy is usuallyatonic and flaccid, but may assume a spastic character, with exaggeratedreflexes, thus simulating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The varyingdegrees of atony and spasticity are many. In most cases fibrillarycontractions occur. Electric responses are diminished and partialor complete reactions of degeneration may be elicited. Complete re-actions of degeneration belong, as a rule, to cases of rapid course. Oc-casionally rheumatoid pains and local paresthesias occur, but sensorydisturbances are for the most part lacking. THE PROGRESS

  

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