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sim: Anduril

slurl: maps.secondlife.com/secondlife/Anduril/105/145/22

 

With Twain's Very Special Guest:

Lam Erin

 

Twain: So good of you to drop by my little studio .. !

Lam: Of course. I did make you a member of my sim if you recall ?

Twain: [Tamping down his Bento pipe and slowly exhales]

Twain: Yes. I do remember that day when I landed. If I remember correctly you had your LumiPro out and .....

Lam: [smiles] .. I was shooting a spot for one of my many sponsors.

Lam: [Takes out his Bento pipe and lights up]

Twain: You are quite wealthy

Lam: [Puffing on the pipe as the flame gets it started]

Lam: Yes. Quite wealthy

Twain: [nods] How wealthy .?

Lam: Well ....... ?

Twain: Wealthy like .. moderately rich .. like a stock broker ? Or Oprah Winfrey wealthy ?

Lam: Is this going into your interview ?

Twain: Absolutely not .. !

Lam: Hm .. well then. Oprah wealthy. Yes.

Twain: I see. And what is your secret ?

Lam: I do many things in life. You know my personal motto don't you ?

Twain: [shakes his head no]

Lam: 'Every Day Is A Journey' .

Twain: Hm ? Are you quite certain of that ? Most days if I make it from my bedroom to the kitchen it's a journey ....

Lam: [big sigh]

Lam: You must make your life much larger ..

Twain: Hm .. ? How'd you get so many followers ?

Lam: Hard work and proper vigilance !

Twain: You follow over Five Thousand people .. how can you do that ? I can barely follow Three Hundred effectively ?

Lam: I just do. I can look at my photo stream and my eyes go straight to the photo Art that is ripe and ready for a 'click' ..

Twain: That is many a photo to gaze through each and every day

Lam: [nods] Yes. It does require a steady hand and a skillful eye

Twain: What is the secret to your Photo Art .. ?

Lam: ...........

Twain: You won't say ?

Lam: No one gives away their special technique do they ?

Twain: The rumor is you go beyond any program. No photoshop .. you have a seven hundred dollar program. Hit a button and it does all the work for you ! Is this true ! ... ?

Lam: [smiles and nods]

Lam: I've heard that one before so many times .. you have no idea.

Lam: No .. no. It isn't that at all.

Twain: What then ?! How do you get that very special classic look of Gold Flake on your beautiful photos ?! Our Audience must know .. !

Lam: I'll tell you how I do it .. but you must promise to redact it before you post your photo. Understand me ?

Twain: I swear it ... !

Lam: [nods]

Lam: Remember that old toy from the 1960's ... the 'Etch A Sketch'

Twain: Yes. Of course I do. I've seen the old commercials for it on youtube. It has those round dials and you draw a picture, turn it over, and the silver dust inside the little box shape covers the drawing up again so you can start all over. What about it ?

Lam: [nods] .. Precisely ... No one really knows what that silver power is made of. If you ever broke that toy and got some on your skin .. good luck getting it off ! ...

Lam: I made a deal with the company to make that special dust for my use only. Except . instead of silver. They make it in the color of Gold for me.

Twain: They what ?!

Lam: [nods] .. I take each of my photos and wearing very protective gear .. As a last step in the process of my photo finishing .. I dip each photo into the Gold dust mixture that is provided to me exclusively by that company.

Twain: .......and that is what makes your photos so special and unique .. !

Lam: [smiles] .. Exactly !

Lam: [blows out a large puff of smoke from his Bento pipe ... a large hand forms out of the smoke and waves to Twain .. then from the hand .. two small fingers come forward, make a 'peace sign' . wave and quickly dissipate]

Twain: Holy shit .. ! You must have the newest model of the Bento pipe that isn't even out yet ! .. The Bento 4.3.7 with 37 new structures in it !

Lam: [smiles wide] Well .. I am very wealthy and I do have connections.

Twain: Damn ! .. Where can I get the newest pipe ?

Lam: Hm .. so sorry. Only people like me can .. and we are very few and far between.

Twain: May I have your autograph ?

Lam: [ponders Twain's request]

Lam: No

Twain: Will you fav this new photo ?

Lam: Hm .. It's a bit dark ..

Twain: Yeh .. true. [sighs]

Lam: [stands up]

Lam: Well .. it's been a pleasure ! Thank you for having me to your rather small and insignificant studio.

Twain: Sure. .. Anytime .. ! Thank you for coming ....

Lam: The pleasure was all mine

Twain: You are nothing if very polite

Lam: I do try to be. Goodbye now

Twain: Bye ........ Oh . Enjoy

your 1962 Ferrari 250 GTO

Lam: [Hops into his car]

Lam: I do ... every day ! .. Bye now ! [speeds away]

 

[FIN]

 

See the beautiful Photo Art of

Lam Erin here:

www.flickr.com/photos/lamerin

I spotted this old sign down some of the back streets of the City. Pater & Co have long since ceased trading.

Explored 6-23-2016

 

Rhyolite, Nevada, located in the Bullfrog Mining District, sprang to life in 1906.By 1908,it was home to 4000 people, 50 saloons, 12 barbers, and a daily newspaper, among other things. By 1910,the largest mine was found to be overvalued, and along with the financial panic of 1907-08,caused the towns fortunes to decline...rapidly. By 1920, the town was abandoned, it's buildings scavenged for use in nearby Beatty. This is a shot of the Cook Bank Building,the vault remains in the back.The town even had its own stock exchange, where 125 brokers were said to work.

 

As always, all your feedback is much appreciated and thanks for looking!

PRESS PLAY

 

i love you, i know

yello (1983)

  

an essay that cites TONS of quotes and incidents from the recent congressional meeting regarding FACEBOOK taking over the world and why you should have invested when i told you to invest... i did. just so proof would equal pudding.

 

(FYI the stock went up to 208 from 164 two weeks after this essay was written. it's back down to what it was at that time again. facebook is spreading its profits into subsids now, so it's not on my BUY NOW list. but if you can smell out the little geniuses facebook intends to buy, you might be able to find some juicy investments. i still believe that tesla will produce some kind of design innovation that will be purchasable for worldwide distribution...)

  

"CONGRESS MAN, YES" & several of the reasons why USURER'S LOGIC makes FACEBOOK the future press darlings of 2018 and beyond based on the CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS + transcript notes and observations by scott richard

  

usury sucks for everyone. even those who profit.

  

and we don't FIGHT USURY.

  

we fk it until it destroys everything around us.

  

FB means fk buddy, literally, not facebook...

   

anyway, i know from great and long experience that americans graft their identity concepts from the products and services they use and abuse.

   

you can't go broke betting on the fall.

   

to not buy FACEBOOK stock would be like turning down a 50% off willy wonka chocolate bar that ALSO comes with a free golden ticket to the chocolate factory.

   

so while i listened and periodically watched the 5 hours of boring and often JUVENILE hearings, i couldn't help thinking how clever deception really is. FACEBOOK does soooo many things that you have no idea about.

   

where did you think all that FAKE money was going?

   

and it was sooooo touching when a couple of the congress people dared to ask when mark would stop selling OPIOID DRUGS off FACEBOOK. he conveniently said, never.

   

but don't worry, the u.s. sent it's least qualified people to talk to FACEBOOK about this, lol.

   

i mean, the vast majority of these congresspeople were like children who have no clue about adult concepts.

   

for example, not one congressperson asked if those "privacy settings" weren't hackable -- as in something so FKING SIMPLE like "well, a hacker can hack past those infantile settings." instead, they gave zuckerberg the legal opportunity to talk-stall his way out of their four minutes. it was EMBARRASSING to see how stupid most of these congresspeople really are and how unlearned about important tech philosophy. most of them had no idea even what "privacy settings" were, so many spent their four minutes being "schooled". fking waste. that's like sending me to the olympics for weightlifting...

   

so the first problem is that congresspeople don't really know a lot about anything. in general, they are "OUT OF THE GD LOOP" when it comes to understanding worldwide things like the fking INTERNET!!??! they know a little about a lot.

   

anyway, each congressperson was given four minutes to ask zuckerberg questions about what happened.

   

the LARGE majority wasted these minutes with grandstanding. only a handful seemed to have an inkling of what the real reach and danger and anti-American stance that FACEBOOK has against the united states.

   

so instead of gathering relevant testimony and commitment from FACEBOOK on super important legal issues regarding citizenship protection and unethical information exchange, they paraded themselves for THEIR fake american constituent's votes. it was DISGUSTING. how fking shallow bipartisan azzhoes really are.

   

instead of REPRESENTING AMERICA, they represented their own careers.

   

and honestly, every single person on MEDZ or overeating or over drinking these days is acting like an ANTI-AMERICAN. supremacy is also a form of ANTI-AMERICANISM.

   

we've reached a point where our daily choices are becoming ANTI-AMERICAN and in violation of other citizens' rights to be free. but i guess we don't see it clearly, mostly.

   

in the city, it is much more obvious. especially a FAKE SANCTUARY city like san francisco, the sanctuary is REALLY being given to the monied and the foreign investors, not the locals. it's a FAKE moniker for investors, not a representation of anything more. but most people are like these congresspeople -- out to get more votes from their base. but that's not AMERICAN. that's just regional self-interest.

   

thankfully, there were a few exceptions and those ones were AWESOME to hear. they were incredibly revealing. and it is clear that their voices are being thrown out. so that's a drag, but you can't really stop FACEBOOK. they are not a social platform. they are the world's largest company and they fund TONS of stuff around the globe.

   

for example, FACEBOOK is going to have the largest WORLDWIDE "counterterrorism" team. already there team is competitive with world powers. soon, they will be larger than any nation's.

   

now, those of us who are in the know, well, we KNOW that the COUNTERTERRORISTS are the real terrorists.

   

if you listen to the 9/11 commission report you would know this, too. or, if you listened to anything the islamic world is saying you'd know this, too. but i already know you don't listen to those people.

   

doesn't change the truth -- the COUNTERRERRORISTS are the real terrorists.

   

so now FACEBOOK will be the leading force in this deception.

   

already they have over 200 people working full time in 30 different languages in counterterrorism.

   

if you don't get what this means, you should go read my facebook farewell that i wrote about two years ago when i stopped contributing to the largest surveillance system ever built and used against humanity.

   

i had written a similar program concept in the 90s. it was called CYBERBUDDY.

   

the idea was you would input your info into a program (we call them apps now) that tracked your emotional and physical world by remembering everything you input and being able to remind you of things -- how you felt about others, what had happened and what others had done to you.

   

and, as all the social media programs do, it would have a backside that was constantly selling your information to buyers.

   

but the user never knew this.

   

anyway, that's exactly what FACEBOOK did. and let's be honest, FACEBOOK was CHOSEN.

   

it's not that great.

  

there were way better platform possibilities. but the world cartels needed something legit, so they chose the HARVARD-based platform. and it worked. they inserted the most deviant and self-revealing and WORSE betraying platform known to humans.

   

this congressperson is holding up a chart. it shows FACEBOOK's profits.

   

they are escalating exponentially. from 1 billion in 2006 to 26 billion in 2016 and then WATCH THE FKING LEAP!!!!

   

40 BILLION dollars in 2017.

   

buy now. you won't be crying later.

   

anyway, zuckerberg intends to have more than 20,000 people working on counterterrorism within a year or so. they are also building an endless array of surveillance and algorithmic tools that will affect ALL world trade. they are also deeply involved in ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE development.

   

basically, if you wanted an anti christ of jewish origins, you are looking at the rise of the kingship. but if you're not scared and don't go that way right away, dip into OVERHEAD STUDIES to see just how amazingly controlling all of this is when you also have KILL DRONES and security enforcement.

   

already OVERHEAD STUDIES are being used against the u.s. population to imprison us.

   

anyway, for most people this will seem crazy and like a new gibberish. so be it.

   

i started to take notes about a third of the way into process when i started to get a feel for how the "hearings" work. it was new for me, but i'll post the transcript of my notes which are a lot of actual transcriptting.

   

the republicans are all for it and that's why you should bet on FACEBOOK. especially since the majority of FACEBOOK's users are and will be NOT from america. so our "opinion" of this is just that.

   

FACEBOOK is bigger than the u.s. government and for the record, the whole counterterrorism surveillance team works from outside the u.s.

   

where there are different laws...

   

okay, so here's the transcript which i LAUGHINGLY call:

   

CONGRESS MAN, YES

  

because this is the tactic zuckerberg and his lawyers realized was the WINNING COMBO.

   

who knew congresspeople were so fking stupid? especially from the stupid states. geez.

   

no wonder so many extra-foreigners are making a bid at stealing so much of the united states' property.

  

it must be fking easy with so many dum fks.

   

and to those congress people who used this momentous occasion to further their careers instead of protecting the american public, FKU!!!!!

   

*********************************

   

PRESS PLAY

  

no stars

  

figures on a beach

   

the partial notes:

   

CONGRESSMAN, YES

   

i would love to be a congressperson, but to be one, i would have to not understand any of this. so why are they “representing” us??!?!?!

   

zuckerbergs tactics.

   

agree with the person.

  

deflect away from the topic by using their weakness and lack of knowledge.

  

obscure the truth. pretend you’re not a MASSIVE CONGLOMERATE but a calendar site for connecting people’s lives HALLMARK.

   

once zuckerberg figures out how to run the clock down, he takes over everytime.

   

some senators (usually republican) have long winded and meaningless monologues followed by easy to answer questions of no importance except to wind the four minute clock down.

   

20K employees for content control.

   

some senators (usually democratic) try to get him to answer YES OR NO questions. his tactic for stalling in this case is deflect back to their misunderstanding of the precise language or meaning. it makes them look dumb (a lot of the are and don’t understand why FACEBOOK is such a walking/talking front for a secret information and collection agency as well as worldwide product mouthpiece)

   

the best questions take all four minutes and then zuckerberg can deflect easily. fk that!!!

   

NOT A SINGLE CONGRESS PERSON (well, maybe one, but he petered out oddly) got through their questions. most had MANY left and were forced to “submit” them for consideration. BULLSHIT!!!!

   

SMASHFACE his “prank” site.

   

"we’re getting ready to overreact”

  

we do nothing or we overreact!

  

you need to save your ship?

   

diamond and silk. african american women.

  

what is unsafe about two women supporting donald trump?

   

mr. schrader from oregon.

   

do you delete and save.

  

yes.. all things saved.

  

document retention policy.

  

preserve mails/conversations

  

testified that you don’t sell information.

  

but others do. aren’t you complicit?

  

"complaint only” enforcement.

   

kennedy democrat

   

wasted the whole time trying to explain himself.

  

“i’m sorry, i don’t understand your question.”

  

targeting options are shared likes. shared by facebook.

  

ad ranking. meta data. behaviors. newsfeed. relevancy vs. GIVING to advertisers.

  

how do people then “own” their own data?

  

then gets lost in the process and time runs out.

  

part of the rub

  

second you focus the individual instead of societal impact… you’re out of time.

  

but news and media. blah blah blah

   

mr flores. texas

   

large oil company monopoly 1800s 1900s

  

telecom company monopoly in the70s

  

thanks for being good.

  

wasted the whole time with a bizarre lecture.

  

conservatives are mad about BIAS.

  

they can’t see past their stupidity.

   

policy responses.

  

ideological agnosticism regarding their users public facing activities

  

finally, some questions. do you believe FACEBOOK SHOULD BE IDEOLOGICALLY NEUTRAL?

   

i agree we should be a platform for all ideas. [cuts him off and moves to next question. bam! yeah!!

   

with respect to privacy we need a baseline when we talk about a virtual person, name address websites visited, picture, etc. ownership issue is the individual’s creation.

   

they own it.

  

do you agree.

  

yes.

   

use of data issue and full disclosure for unlimited time.

  

easy understand.

   

runs out of time.

   

california

  

mr cardenas

  

biggest business model and totally unregulated.

  

shows shareholder revenues table

  

2009 net revenue less than a billion dollars

  

26 billion for 2016

  

40 billion dollars for 2017

  

CEO of cambridge analytica stepped down during the meeting.

  

does that solve the issue around the controversy.

  

no, two issues. how were they able to buy data from a developer that people chose to share it with? but some of the info originated on facebook.

  

people had it on facebook and CHOSE to share their AND their friend’s information…

  

question:

  

buy information to add or augment to build around them their profile.

   

we just recently announced that we’ve stopped working with data brokers as part of the ad system.

  

yes, standard practice.

  

you did engage in it.

  

yes. until we announced we were shutting it did.

   

facebook threatened to sue the guardian if it revelaed the cambridge analytica story.

  

hey maybe you don’t want to do that.

   

“there may have been an specific factual inaccuracy.”

  

however they did go through with it regardless.

  

then ONLY then did facebook apologize for 89 million users info ending up in other people’s hands.

  

  

it’s time that you FACEBOOK want to be a leader and american you can be a leader.

  

are you committed to being a leader. you can in fact do right by users of facebook.

   

time’s out. two second answer?

   

"i am definitely committed to taking a broader review of our responsibility. not so that we don’t just give people tools but so they are used for good.”

   

first five or ten minute , ten minute recess.

  

5;40

   

TWENTY FUCKING MINUTES LATER…

   

mre. brooks indiana

  

platform of facebook and other platforms help keep us safe from terrorists and recruitment of women and children to join terrorist organizations.

  

facebook didn’t exist before 9/11

  

isis and al acaida use these platforms.

  

terrorism recruitment.

  

now terrorists use social media.

  

then you talked about dangerous or objectionable content needing to be reported but what if they don’t? what if people just assume that someone else is reporting.

  

what is the leadership role of facebook, our role in stopping recruitment.

  

thank you for the question. there is no place for that in our network.

  

we’ve developed a number of tools so that 99% of isis and al acaida is flagged before we even see it.

  

we’re proud of it as a model for removing "harmful content".

  

as of march 29th there were ISIS videos, executions,

  

april 9th five pages of hezbollah content

  

what is the mechanism?

  

is it AI

  

2-0K people?

  

what are you using.

   

this is just within a week.

   

counter terrorism team at facebook with 200 people.

  

other content reviewers not in the 200.

   

NCTC produces analysis, maintains the authoritative database of known and suspected terrorists, shares information, and conducts strategic operational planning. NCTC is staffed by more than 1,000 personnel from across the IC, the Federal government, and Federal contractors. NCTC’s workforce represents approximately 20 different departments and agencies—a tribute to the recognition by the intelligence, homeland security, and law enforcement communities of NCTC’s role in protecting the Nation against terrorist threats.

   

just focused on counter terrorism.

  

30 languages.

  

AI tools in development

  

proactively flag content and sources

   

owns wassap? .

   

how are they helping the to stop the recruiting.

   

WOW BACK TO THE ORIGINAL POINTS : WHAT THE FUCK IS FACEBOOK?!?!?

   

cue WILD WILD COUNTRY

   

correction plea: whether web blogs would be able to download your info. they are not we only store them temporarily. we convert them into ad interests. which can be controlled.

   

mr. ruiz

  

D california

  

“i’m also taking a ‘broad’ view…”

  

what went wrong here and what can be better to protect users?

  

why did facebook NOT notify the FTC in 2015 when you first discovered this happened and did your legal company say you were under no responsibility?

  

didn’t believe it was a legal obligation.

  

does facebook need the trust of its users.

  

is this a weakness that you are not required to report a violation.

  

broader view of responsibilities of responsibility.

  

what about other CEOs.

  

two days of head the fTc doesn’t have the correct tools and we can’t rely on companies.

   

would it be helpful if there is an entity to oversee?

  

details matter. agency or law

   

we’re realizing there’s a lot of holes in the system.

  

no one can monitor.

   

both look forward to following up.

   

mr. mullin oklahoma

   

i prefer you use the term congress man or woman.

  

commend zuckerberg for seeing things through its growth period.

  

very talented.

  

and hiring the right people who “get the job done”.

  

isn’t it the consumer’s responsibility to control the content they release.

   

i agree with what you’re saying.

  

do the device settings really protect the information?

  

as a user of facebook how can someone control content in a realm without it being collected.

  

you collect info for that purpose

  

yes we do that so the “ad experience” can be more useful the advertisers and the users.

  

value base.

  

but if i’m a customer how do i keep that from happening.

  

yes there is a setting.

  

you can turn that off and we won’t do it.

  

we offer a lot of settings in every way from content to interests to search results, sign ins to alternate apps.

  

we try to make the controls easy.. it’s a broad service.

  

so they can contersfigure it the way they want.

   

TIME

   

california

  

mr.peters E

  

technology has outpaced the law.

  

iwant to take you at your word that you value personal privacy.

  

know that pirvacy protection is not a bottom line issue.

  

shareholders. it doesn’t drive profits and it may interfere with profits.

  

would it not be appropriate when we define this duty to assess financial penalties to the company.

  

it’s something we could consider, but i’d push back on the idea that their’s a conflict between what people want and business interests.

  

i think a lot of these hard decisions come down to different people with different interests. people want to bring their AND friends info. others want it locked down. it’s not a business question it’s which interests do you weigh more.

  

what did the europeans get right about regulations?

  

they’re a lot of things the europeans do.

  

the gdpr is a positive step for the internet and codifies many things.

  

making them visible and affirmative consent is good and more should be done.

  

what did they get wrong.

  

i need to thank about that more.

  

submit it in writing.

  

might have actually finished his questions before 4 minutes. either way, he doesn’t appear to pursue his time until its end.

   

mr. hudson north carolina

  

ft bragg

  

thanks for dropping by.

  

men are prohibited from having social media profiles.

  

we learned each one was hacked.

  

almost asking to be hacked.

  

are you aware of the security concerns that creates.

  

i’m not specifically aware of that threat.

  

there are many issues we focus on and try to take a broad view of that.

  

collusion with the intelligence community would be good.

  

i’d love to follow up on that.

  

you say facebook is a platform for all ideas.

  

but it doesn’t seem like christian beliefs and conservative beliefs.

  

diamond and silk come up again.

  

this is a very serious concern.

  

i asked my constituents on facebook today and they all wanted to know about personal privacy. i think there is an issue you need to deal with and you recognize this based on your testimony today.

  

what is the standard that facebook uses to determine what is offensive or controversial

  

a couple of standards.

  

strongest one is physical harm or threats are first.

  

but then there is a broader form of hate speech or broadly uncomfortable speech.

  

isn’t that difficult to define? what standards does facebook use to try to determine what is hate speech vs. speech you may just disagree with?

   

time runs out.

   

new york

  

mister collins R

  

thank you coming.

  

you don’t know what you know until you know it.

  

facebook doesn’t sell data.

  

now we all know you don’t sell data.

  

we’re all here because a third party app developer broke the rules.

  

it’s hard to anticipate a bad actor.

  

clearly you took actions after 2014.

  

what did change?

  

before the change someone could share info about their friends.

  

then we said you can’t.

  

more praises.

  

who is going to protect us from facebook?

  

i thought it was an out of bounds kind of comment.

  

you’re doing good and i sincerely know in my heart you believe in keeping things equal.

  

you have 27K employees.

  

operating under a consent decree.

  

so when someone said do we need more legislation.

  

i said no.

  

he’s doing the best he can with 27K people.

  

i think it was beneficial.

  

we don’t need legislation.

  

we now know things we didn’t know beforehand.

   

mr Wahlberg

  

michigan R

   

thank you mister zuckerberg.

  

listened to both sides of the aisle.

  

three starter questions.

  

who were the bad actors?

  

i don’t remember the specifics of early on.

  

we saw app developers who asked for permission to see stuff.

  

content.

  

we should review these apps and they should only have a reason to access it.

  

stopped bringing friends’ info.

  

secondly, can facebook insure that every single app is not misusing their data?

  

it would be difficult to ever guaranty to say there are no bad actors.

  

every problem around security is an arms’ race where people abuse systems.

  

our responsibility is to make that as hard as possible for a company of our scale and it is growing with our scale.

  

that’s a good answer. it’s honest. LOL FKING LOUD you stoopid fk. your brain is childish. how can you be a congress person?!?!?

  

thirdly, can you assure me that ads and content are not being denied based on particular views.

  

congressman yes, politically.

  

i hear political speech.

  

we certainly won’t be advertising terrorists.

  

screeengrab of an ad that contained shocking or distasteful + violence.

  

it was an “algorithm” problem.

  

it was pro-life.

  

that causes us some concerns.

  

light touch in regulation.

  

time.

   

mrs walters

  

california R

  

misuse of consumer data and what controls users have over their info.

  

you have indicated they have granular control over their own content.

  

she asks the most basic question.

  

it’s a time waster. she doesn’t understand the app.

  

but sadly, she’s so serious. so dum.

  

her second question doesn’t even seem like a question of relevance. she says that california has been heralded by many on this committee for its privacy initiatives and yet given that you and tech companies are in california and we’re still experiencing privacy issues how do you square the two?

  

i think privacy is not something that you can ever...

  

it’s it’s our understanding of the issues and people as the interact online only grows over time and we’ll adjust to social norms or we’ll put rules into place…

   

TIME

   

merl dingell

  

michigan

   

married to the king o twitter.

  

four hours.

  

some striking things.

  

you didn’t know key facts for a CEO

  

you didn’t know about major court cases regarding your privacy policies against your company.

  

you didn’t know that the FTC doesn’t have fining authority and that facebook couldn’t have recieved fines for the 2011 consent order .

  

you didn’t know what a shadow profile was.

  

you didn’t know how many apps you need to audit.

  

you didn’t know how many firms had been sold data by dr. culgan other than cambridge analytica.

  

and yes we were all paying attention yesterday.

  

you don’t even know all the information facebook is collecting from its users.

  

you have trackers all over the world.

  

on most of the sites we see the facebook like and share buttons.

  

and with the facebook pixel people may not even see the logo.

  

it doesn’t matter if you have those tools facebook is able to collect info from all of us.

   

so i want to ask you:

  

how many facebook buttons are on non-facebook pages?

  

congresswoman i don’t know the answer off the top of my head but we’ll get back to you.

  

is the number over one hundred million?

  

i believe we have served the like button on more pages than that. but i don’t know the number that have the like buttons on actively.

  

how many chunks of non pixel code are there on non-facebook pages?

  

congress woman you are asking for specific stats that i don’t have off the top of my head but we can follow up.

  

could we get that back in 72 hours.

  

transparency.

  

do you know now whether there were fourth parties involved?

  

are you hiding the truth that has taken three years to appear.

  

i am convinced there are others out there.

  

we are going to try to find the fourth parties.

  

we will ban them from the platform and take action that they delete the data.

  

and you will make it public.

  

yes.

  

like water and air we need clear rules.

   

mr. costello

  

pennsylvania R

   

echoes the idiot’s comments — dumshit collins from ny.

  

they probably get kickback from the same tong.

  

we americans have a non codified idea about our privacy rights.

  

how do we make them understandable?

  

first, if you look at gdpr what pieces do you feel would fit in american juris prudence.

  

not just you but smaller companies as well.

  

well, making sure people have control over what they are sharing. and to be able to delete it. second, people should have the tools to make decisions. third piece is that some sensitive technolidies like face recognition that your get special consent for. if we make it too hard we will lose to innovative countries. like china.

  

do you believe that you should be able to use AI with a non facebook user?

  

that’s a good question and we should probably have control over it and we’re going to ask people around the world in our upcoming push.

  

in general for sensitive technologies you do want consent.

  

is facebook EVER a publisher in your mind as the term is legally used.

  

how is the term leagally used?

  

would you ever be responsible for the content you put onto your platform?

  

yes. but the vast majority of content on facebook isn’t commissioned or posted by facebook.

  

runs out of time while asking how the data might be slighted .

   

georgiaR

  

mister carter

   

did you know that 91 people die every day from opioid addiction.

  

2 and half million addicted.

  

it’s bringing the life expectancy down.

  

i ask you this because you have ads for illicit drugs and your responsibility.

  

will you help.

  

yes i will.

  

did you know there are groups that have provided evidence that ivory is traded on facebook.

  

i was not aware of that

  

some conservation groups claim that facebook is contributing to the extinction of the elephant.

  

did you know that piracy of movies is challenging their profits.

  

i believe that has been an issue for a long time.

  

so you did know.

  

hate speech may be difficult but these things are not.

  

i don’t want to legislate morality but we need a commitment from you that you will help us.

  

you want to see a mess, let the federal government into this!

  

more than 20, 000 people will be working on security and content review and we need to build more tools, too.

   

duncan carolinaR

   

been on facebook since 2007

  

it’s like a downhill in real time.

  

great staff.

  

so i asked my facebook crowd and they want to know about being discriminated.

   

user privacy and censorship.

  

first amendment is cited.

  

why not have a community standard for the community that is a mirror of the first amendment without algorithms that have a viewpoint that is neutral.

  

well we don’t want to spread allowed hate. if you care about safety we don’t want people to spread info that can cause harm. allow the broadest spectrum

  

pontificating congress man continues to please and confuse himself.

  

ends with what will you do to assure the user that they are treated equally.

  

well, i think we make a lot of mistakes in content review that don’t focus on one political persuasion. i think it’s unfortunate when that happens because the people think it’s focused on them.

  

thanks facebook and concludes.

   

mr, cramer

  

north dakota R

   

we need to make sure we don’t overreact.

  

this is an important national discussion.

  

the consumer and industry or other companies share a responsibility.

  

but your answer weren’t reassuring about drug sites.

  

can’t you give it your best?

  

can’t you make taking down drugs more important?

  

its certainly far more dangerous than a couple of xian women being discriminated against.

  

yes congressman, we are making efforts.

  

unfortunately the enforcement isn’t perfect.

  

i don’t expect it to be perfect but i expect it to be a higher thought.

  

you need to have less liberal content reviewers.

  

you should look in the middle of the north american continent.

  

come to bismarck north dakota.

  

we’re common sensical and more diverse than maybe even facebook.

  

maybe we could have a nice big center somewhere?

  

we republicans don’t want the web hyper regulated.

  

don’ you think you should have privacy protection.

  

well, first, the majority of our content reviewers are not in silicon valley they are around the world in different places.

  

for net neutrality i think there is a big difference between internet providers and the platforms on top of them.

  

the big reason that well, i think about my own experience.

  

i only had one provider.

  

platforms there are just many more.

  

the average american uses 8 apps.

  

there are more choices.

  

they can reach large scale.

   

they close saying that they wan to look into more of the topics.

  

like they’ve all had their first internet class in social media platforms.

  

they thank him.

  

they appreciate his answers.

  

they will submit more questions in writing.

  

the aclu submits a letter and so do a bunch of other groups.

  

it’s a long list.

   

answer them within ten days of receipt.

  

ten days for questions to be submitted.

...is having a good day

 

© 2008 Steve Kelley

 

9exp hdr

 

Please view on black and large:

bighugelabs.com/flickr/onblack.php?id=2899996407&size...

From the days they looked like palaces or cathedrals...

After hearing about the latest Ponzi scheme, the blood drained from his face as he raced down the street, screaming into his cell phone at his trusty stock-broker.

Feb 29, Mumbai, India: Brokers at the Bombay Stock Exchange (BSE) stay glued to the TV screen as the Finance Minister P Chidambaram reads out the Union budget 2008 at the Parliament in New Delhi.

Mumbai, India.

 

The Rajabai Clock Tower is a clock tower in South Mumbai India. It is located in the confines of the Fort campus of the University of Mumbai. It stands at a height of 85 m (280 ft or 25 storeys). The tower is part of The Victorian and Art Deco Ensemble of Mumbai, which was added to the list of World Heritage Sites in 2018.

 

The Clock Tower was designed by Sir George Gilbert Scott, an English architect. He modeled it on Big Ben in London.The foundation stone was laid on 1 March 1869 and construction was completed in November 1878. The total cost of construction came to 550,000, a princely sum in those days. A portion of the total cost of construction was donated by Premchand Roychand, a prosperous broker who founded the Bombay Stock Exchange on the condition that the tower be named after his mother Rajabai.

 

The tower was closed to the public after it became a frequent spot for those attempting to commit suicide.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indus_River

 

The Indus River (Sanskrit सिन्धु Sindhu,; Urdu: سندھ Sindh; Sindhi: سندھو Sindhu; Punjabi سندھ Sindh; Hindko سندھ Sindh; Avestan: حندو Harahauvati; Pashto: ّآباسن Abasin "Father of Rivers"; Persian: Nilou (رود سند) "Hindu"; Arabic: السند‎ "Al-Sind"; Tibetan: Sênggê Zangbo (སེང་གེ།་གཙང་པོ་) "Lion River"; Chinese: 森格藏布/狮泉河/印度河, Sēngé Zàngbù/Shīquán Hé/Yìndù Hé; Greek: Ινδός Indos;Turki: Nilab) is the longest river in Pakistan and the twenty-first largest river in the world in terms of annual flow. It is often considered the life-line of Pakistan. The Europeans used the name "India" for the entire South Asian subcontinent based on Indos, the Greek appellation of this river. Historically significant, the river is at the crux of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization.

Originating in the Tibetan plateau in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar in Tibet Autonomous Region, the National River runs a course through the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir and then enters Northern Areas (Gilgit-Baltistan), flowing through the North in a southerly direction along the entire length of the country, to merge into the Arabian Sea near Pakistan's port city of Karachi in Sindh. The total length of the river is 3,180 kilometers (1,976 miles). The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1,165,000 square kilometers (450,000 square miles). The river's estimated annual flow stands at around 207 cubic kilometers. Beginning at the heights of the world with glaciers, the river feeds the ecosystem of temperate forests, plains and arid countryside. Together with the rivers Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, Jhelum, Beas and two tributaries from the North West Frontier and Afghanistan, the Indus forms the Sapta Sindhu (Seven Rivers) delta of Pakistan.

 

Description

 

The Indus provides the key water resources for the economy of Pakistan - especially the Breadbasket of Punjab province, which accounts for most of the nation's agricultural production, and Sindh. The word Punjab is a combination of the Sanskrit words panj meaning Five, and āb meaning Water, giving the literal meaning of the Land of the Five Rivers. The Five rivers after which Punjab is named are the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and the Sutlej. The river also supports many heavy industries and provides the main supply of potable water in Pakistan.

The ultimate source of the Indus is in Tibet; it begins at the confluence of the Sengge and Gar rivers that drain the Nganglong Kangri and Gangdise Shan mountain ranges. The Indus then flows northwest through Ladakh and Baltistan into Gilgit, just south of the Karakoram range. The Shyok River, Shigar and Gilgit streams carry glacial waters into the main river. It gradually bends to the south, coming out of the hills between Peshawar and Rawalpindi. The Indus passes gigantic gorges 4,500-5,200 metres (15,000-17,000 feet) high near the Nanga Parbat massif. It flows swiftly across Hazara, and is dammed at the Tarbela Reservoir. The Kabul River joins it near Attock. The remainder of its route to the sea is in plains of the Punjab and Sindh, and the river becomes slow-flowing and highly braided. It is joined by Panjnad River at Mithankot. Beyond this confluence, the river, at one time, was named Satnad River (Sat = seven, Nadi = river), as the river was now carrying the waters of the Kabul River, the Indus River and the five Punjab rivers. Passing by Jamshoro, it ends in a large delta to the east of Thatta.

The Indus is one of the few rivers in the world that exhibit a tidal bore. The Indus system is largely fed by the snows and glaciers of the Himalayas, Karakoram and the Hindu Kush ranges of Tibet, the state of Jammu and Kashmir and the Northern Areas of Pakistan respectively. The flow of the river is also determined by the seasons - it diminishes greatly in the winter, while flooding its banks in the monsoon months from July to September. There is also evidence of a steady shift in the course of the river since prehistoric times - it deviated westwards from flowing into the Rann of Kutch and adjoining Banni grasslands after the 1816 earthquake[1][2].

Effects of climate change on the river

The Tibetan Plateau contains the world's third-largest store of ice. Qin Dahe, the former head of the China Meteorological Administration, said that the recent fast pace of melting and warmer temperatures will be good for agriculture and tourism in the short term; but issued a strong warning:

"Temperatures are rising four times faster than elsewhere in China, and the Tibetan glaciers are retreating at a higher speed than in any other part of the world.... In the short term, this will cause lakes to expand and bring floods and mudflows. . . . In the long run, the glaciers are vital lifelines for Asian rivers, including the Indus and the Ganges. Once they vanish, water supplies in those regions will be in peril."[3]

“There is insufficient data to say what will happen to the Indus,” says David Grey, the World Bank’s senior water advisor in South Asia. “But we all have very nasty fears that the flows of the Indus could be severely, severely affected by glacier melt as a consequence of climate change,” and reduced by perhaps as much as 50 percent. “Now what does that mean to a population that lives in a desert [where], without the river, there would be no life? I don’t know the answer to that question,” he says. “But we need to be concerned about that. Deeply, deeply concerned.” [4]

 

History

 

Paleolithic sites have been discovered in Pothohar near Pakistan's capital Islamabad, with the stone tools of the Soan Culture. In ancient Gandhara, near Islamabad, evidence of cave dwellers dated 15,000 years ago has been discovered at Mardan.

The major cities of the Indus Valley Civilization, such as Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, date back to around 3300 BC, and represent some of the largest human habitations of the ancient world. The Indus Valley Civilization extended from Balochistan to Gujarat, with an upward reach from east of Jhelum River to Ropar on the upper Sutlej. The coastal settlements extended from Sutkagan Dor at the Iranian border to Lothal in Gujarat. There is an Indus site on the Amu Darya at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan, and the Indus site Alamgirpur at the Hindon River is located only 28 km from Delhi. To date, over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and its tributaries. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal, Dholavira, Ganeriwala, and Rakhigarhi. Only 90-96 of the over-800 known Indus Valley sites have been discovered on the Indus and its tributaries. The Sutlej, now a tributary of the Indus, in Harappan times flowed into the Ghaggar-Hakra River, in the watershed of which were more Harappan sites than along the Indus.

Most scholars believe that settlements of Gandhara grave culture of the early Indo-Aryans flourished in Gandhara from 1700 BC to 600 BC, when Mohenjo-daro and Harappa had already been abandoned.

The name Indus is a Latinization of Hindu, in turn the Iranian variant of Sindhu, the name of the Indus in the Rigveda. The Sanskrit Sindhu generically means river, stream, ocean, probably from a root sidh meaning to keep off; Sindhu is attested 176 times in the Rigveda, 95 times in the plural, more often used in the generic meaning. Already in the Rigveda, notably in the later hymns, the meaning of the word is narrowed to refer to the Indus river in particular, for example in the list of rivers of the Nadistuti sukta. This resulted in the anomaly of a river with masculine gender: all other Rigvedic rivers are female, not just grammatically, being imagined as goddesses and compared to cows and mares yielding milk and butter.

The Indus has formed a natural boundary between the Indian Subcontinent hinterland and its frontier with the Iranian Plateau, a region which includes Pakistan's Balochistan, North West Frontier Province as well as Afghanistan, Tajikistan and Iran. It has been crossed by the armies of Alexander the Great - His Macedonian forces retreated along the southern course of the river at the end of the Asian campaign after conquering what is now Pakistan and joining it to the Hellenic Empire. The Indus plains have also been under the domination of the Persian empire and the Kushan empire. The Muslim armies of Muhammad bin Qasim, Mahmud of Ghazni, Mohammed Ghori, Tamerlane and Babur also crossed the river to strike into the inner regions of Punjab , Rajasthan and Gujarat.

The word "India" is derived from the Indus River. In ancient times, "India" initially referred to the region of modern-day Pakistan along the Indus river, but by 300 BC, Greek writers like Megasthenes applied the term to the entire subcontinent.[5] :)

 

Geography

 

Tributaries

 

•Astor River

•Balram River

•Gar River

•Ghizar River

•Gilgit River

•Gumal River

•Kabul River

•Panjnad

•Shigar River

•Shyok River

•Suru River

•Swaan River

•Tanubal River

•Zanskar River

Geology

 

The Indus River feeds the Indus submarine fan located in the Indian Ocean, which is the second largest sediment body on the Earth at around 5 million cubic kilometres of material eroded from the mountains. Studies of the sediment in the modern river indicate that the Karakoram Mountains in northern Pakistan are the single most important source of material, with the Himalayas providing the next largest contribution, mostly via the large rivers of the Punjab (i.e., the Jhelum, Ravi, Chenab, Beas and the Sutlej). Analysis of sediments from the Arabian Sea has demonstrated that prior to five million years ago the Indus was not connected to these Punjab rivers which instead flowed east into the Ganga and were captured after that time[6]. Earlier work showed that sand and silt from western Tibet was reaching the Arabian Sea by 45 million years ago, implying the existence of an ancient Indus River by that time[7]. The delta of this proto-Indus river has subsequently been found in the Katawaz Basin, on the Afghan-Pakistan border. Most recently the Indus was paralleled by the ancient Saraswati River, which the Rigveda suggests flowed from the Himalayas between the Sutlej and the Yamuna Rivers, close to modern day Chandigarh.

In the Nanga Parbat region, the massive amounts of erosion due to the Indus river following the capture and rerouting through that area is thought to bring middle and lower crustal rocks to the surface[8].

 

Wildlife

 

Accounts of the Indus valley from the times of Alexander's campaign indicate a healthy forest cover in the region, which has now considerably receded. The Mughal Emperor Babur writes of encountering rhinoceroses along its bank in his memoirs (the Baburnama). Extensive deforestation and human interference in the ecology of the Shivalik Hills has led to a marked deterioration in vegetation and growing conditions. The Indus valley regions are arid with poor vegetation. Agriculture is sustained largely due to irrigation works.

The Blind Indus River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor) is a sub-species of Dolphins found only in the Indus River. It formerly also occurred in the tributaries of the Indus river. Palla fish (Hilsa) of the river is a delicacy for people living along the river. The population of fishes in the river is moderately high, with Sukkur, Thatta and Kotri being the major fishing centres - all in the lower Sindh course. But damming and irrigation has made fish farming an important economic activity. Located southeast of Karachi, the large delta has been recognised by conservationists as one of the world's most important ecological regions. Here the river turns into many marshes, streams and creeks and meets the sea at shallow levels. Here marine fishes are found in abundance, including Pomfret and Prawns

 

Economy

 

The Indus is the most important supplier of water resources to the Punjab and Sindh plains - it forms the backbone of agriculture and food production in Pakistan. The river is especially critical as rainfall is meagre in the lower Indus valley. Irrigation canals were first built by the people of the Indus valley civilization, and later by the engineers of the Kushan Empire and the Mughal Empire. Modern irrigation was introduced by the British East India Company in 1850 - the construction of modern canals accompanied with the restoration of old canals. The British supervised the construction of one of the most complex irrigation networks in the world. The Guddu Barrage is 1,350 metres (4,450 ft) long - irrigating Sukkur, Jacobabad, Larkana and Kalat. The Sukkur Barrage serves over 20,000 square kilometres (5,000,000 acres).

After the independence of Pakistan, a water control treaty signed between India and Pakistan in 1960 guaranteed that Pakistan would receive water from the Indus River and its two western tributaries, the Jhelum River & the Chenab River independent of upstream control by India.[9] The project, Indus Basin Project, consisted primarily of the construction of two main dams, the Mangla Dam built on the Jhelum River and the Tarbela Dam constructed on the Indus River, together with their subsidiary dams.[10] The Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority undertook the construction of the Chashma-Jhelum link canal - linking the waters of the Indus and Jhelum rivers - extending water supplies to the regions of Bahawalpur and Multan. Pakistan constructed the Tarbela Dam near Rawalpindi - standing 2743 metres (9,000 ft) long and 143 metres (470 ft) high, with an 80 kilometre (50 mile) long reservoir. The Kotri Barrage near Hyderabad is 915 metres (3,000 ft) long and provides additional supplies for Karachi. The Taunsa Barrage near Dera Ghazi Khan produces 100,000 kilowatts of electricity. The extensive linking of tributaries with the Indus has helped spread water resources to the valley of Peshawar, in the North-West Frontier Province. The extensive irrigation and dam projects provide the basis for Pakistan's large production of crops such as cotton, sugarcane and wheat. The dams also generate electricity for heavy industries and urban centres.

 

People

 

The inhabitants of the regions through whom the Indus river passes and forms a major natural feature and resource are diverse in ethnicity, religion, national and linguistic backgrounds. On the northern course of the river in the state of Jammu and Kashmir live the Buddhist people of Ladakh, of Tibetan stock, and the Dards of Indo-Aryan or Dardic stock and practising Buddhism and Islam. Then it descends into Baltistan, northern Pakistan passing the main Balti city of Skardu. As it continues through Pakistan, the Indus river forms a distinctive boundary of ethnicity and cultures - upon the western banks the population is largely Pashtun, Baloch, and of other Iranian stock, with close cultural, economic and ethnic ties to Afghanistan and Iran. The eastern banks are largely populated by peoples of Indo-Aryan stock, such as the Punjabis, the Sindhis and the Seraikis. In northern Punjab and the North-West Frontier Province, ethnic Pashtun tribes live alongside Dardic people in the hills (Khowar, Kalash, Shina, etc.), Burushos (in Hunza), and Punjabi people. In the southern portion of the Punjab province, the Saraiki peoples speak a distinctive tongue and practise distinctive traditions. In the province of Sindh, peoples of Sindhi backgrounds form the local populations. Upon the western banks of the river live the Baloch and Pashtun peoples of Balochistan.

  

Modern issues

 

The Indus is a strategically vital resource for Pakistan's economy and society. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the use of the waters of the Indus and its five eastern tributaries became a major dispute between India and Pakistan. The irrigation canals of the Sutlej valley and the Bari Doab were split - with the canals lying primarily in Pakistan and the headwork dams in India disrupting supply in some parts of Pakistan. The concern over India building large dams over various Punjab rivers that could undercut the supply flowing to Pakistan, as well as the possibility that India could divert rivers in the time of war, caused political consternation in Pakistan. Holding diplomatic talks brokered by the World Bank, India and Pakistan signed the Indus Waters Treaty in 1960. The treaty gave India control of the three easternmost rivers of the Punjab, the Sutlej, the Beas and the Ravi, while Pakistan gained control of the three western rivers, the Jhelum, the Chenab and the Indus. India retained the right to use of the western rivers for non irrigation projects. (See discussion regarding a recent dispute about a hydroelectric project on the Chenab (not Indus) known as the Baglihar Project).

Hindu pilgrimage to holy sites alongside the river has been a source of conflict between the two nations. Pakistan and India do not generally allow each others' citizens to cross borders for religious pilgrimages, other than Sikhs who travel to Pakistan for their annual pilgrimage.

There are concerns that extensive deforestation, industrial pollution and global warming are affecting the vegetation and wildlife of the Indus delta, while affecting agricultural production as well. There are also concerns that the Indus river may be shifting its course westwards - although the progression spans centuries. On numerous occasions, sediment clogging owing to poor maintenance of canals has affected agricultural production and vegetation. In addition, extreme heat has caused water to evaporate, leaving salt deposits that render lands useless for cultivation.

More recently and within Pakistan, the province of Punjab is seeking to cut off the flow of the river downstream to Sindh by building dams within its provincial limits in the face of opposition from the people of Sindh, storage reservoirs used to produce the bulk of food consumed by millions of Pakistanis nationwide as well as providing cheap hydel power to the country's national electric grid system.

  

The American Stock Exchange Building, formerly known as the New York Curb Exchange Building, is the former headquarters of the American Stock Exchange. It is located on Trinity Place in the Financial District of Lower Manhattan, New York City. Built in 1921 and enlarged in 1929–1931, the building represents a link to the historical practices of stock trading outside the strictures of the New York Stock Exchange, which took place outside ("on the curb") prior to the construction of this building. It was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1978. The building presently stands vacant, the stock exchange having moved out after merging with the NYSE in 2008.

 

The American Stock Exchange Building stands in Lower Manhattan's Wall Street area, occupying a parcel that extends from Trinity Place to Greenwich Street, just south of Thames Street. It is a fourteen-story steel-framed structure, with its formal facade, finished in limestone, facing Trinity Place. Both the original 1921 structure and its later enlargement were designed by the New York firm Starrett and Van Vleck. The facade facing Greenwich Street is of gray brick, with five large round-arch windows overlooking the trading floor. The trading floor was trimmed in a Renaissance Revival style, but the main structure is distinctly Art Deco, a product of the 1929-31 addition.

 

New York's stock trading activity historically took place in outdoor spaces until 1792, when a predecessor to the New York Stock Exchange was founded, and some trading moved indoors. Trading continued to take place "on the curb" outside the NYSE. The outside traders benefited from the NYSE's refusal to allow trade in some types of securities, and became a leading marketplace for non-listed securities. This market had no fixed location, moving around as traffic and other conditions dictated.

 

In 1908, the New York Curb Market Agency was established, to codify trading practices. In 1911, the curbstone brokers came to be known as the New York Curb Market, with a formal constitution and brokerage and listing standards. After several years of outdoor trading, the curbstone brokers moved indoors in 1921 to a building on Greenwich Street in Lower Manhattan. In 1929, the New York Curb Market changed its name to the New York Curb Exchange. The Curb Exchange soon became the leading international stock market, listing more foreign issues than all other U.S. securities markets combined. In 1953, the Curb Exchange was renamed the American Stock Exchange. The building currently has a building area of 181,725 sq. ft.

 

On December 1, 2008, the Curb Exchange building at 86 Trinity Place was closed, and both the Amex Equities and Amex Options trading floors were moved to the NYSE Trading floor at 11 Wall Street.

 

Information from: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/American_Stock_Exchange_Building

historywillabsolvemike.blogspot.com/

EAST SIDE CONFIDENTIAL

part two: Confusion on the Heels of Chaos

 

"I was once, if I remember correctly, present at a gathering of madmen."

- Roberto Bolaño

 

Conjoined twins sharing a vital organ are destined to die simultaneously. Frank "Turk" Jaworski and the Open Kitchen took the same exit. Their departure marked the end of an era, one that was an anachronism by the time of its disappearance. The Open Kitchen was a small space unaffected by linear time. Within the confines of its walls, time sputtered and stalled somewhere in the mid-fifties due to a defect in the time/space continuum. The Open Kitchen was a unique experience. It could never be duplicated. No one in their right mind would even attempt such a folly. The bar was the three dimensional manifestation of Turk's personality. Bill Curry opened the Copabanana not long after the Open Kitchen closed. Change was inevitable after so many years of stasis. Only one element remained the same. All hell continued to break loose at the same address.

 

The Copabanana was entirely different from the Open Kitchen. It featured a fully stocked bar, not just cans of Schmidt's and cheap booze. Every element of Turk's bar was completely erased by the new owner. The Copa yanked the clock violently into the present. Unlike the dictatorial reign of Turk, Bill Curry preferred a laissez faire approach toward running his bar. As long as the behavior of his clientele didn't jeopardize his liquor license, he was quite tolerant of borderline behavior. It was easier and more profitable to ignore everything but major transgressions. All Curry required from his customers was a modicum of discretion and no blatant acts of lawlessness. Considering the clientele and the staff, even this small concession was a challenge. Society was changing in the late seventies and early eighties. These changes were responsible for a more open sexual atmosphere. The birth control pill was in widespread use and sexually transmitted diseases were not yet identified as being permanent or fatal As a result the sexual revolution was in full swing. South Street swung a bit further than other neighborhoods. The area had a reputation for embracing creative, eccentric and marginal behavior. It consequently attracted a diverse range of humanity, all bent in some fashion. Styles that attracted attention uptown or in the suburbs were met with a jaundiced eye on South Street. The bizarre was not only accepted, it was embraced on South Street. Normal became weird. In the words of Hunter S. Thompson, "When the going gets weird, the weird turn pro." If we weren't professionals, we were damn good amateurs.

 

No one went to the Open Kitchen to meet women. There were none. Turk didn't ban them, he just did nothing to encourage their patronage. He didn't really encourage anyone to frequent the place. He was more interested in making sure that irritating people stayed out. If they irked him he kicked them out with alacrity. These exclusions had nothing at all to do with race. Most of his clientele was black. He banished people from all walks of life with equanimity. The limited drink selections offered, Turk's brusque manner and the fact that the kitchen was never open at the Open Kitchen discouraged errant tourists. It attracted a loyal clientele of cynical and grizzled veterans, all male. Anyone that frequented the place played by Turk's rules or went elsewhere. It is only logical that women would avoid a bar owned by a proprietor with a reputation for jamming a chrome-plated 45 in someone's face on a fairly regular basis. The Open Kitchen was an acquired taste. It was Turk's personal fiefdom and he didn't seem to be interested in profit. Bill Curry was primarily interested in running a profitable business. He realized that tolerance was profitable in this fringe neighborhood.

 

This specific evening exceeded the standards of chaos in a chaotic time period. A large group of us attended an art opening that night. I forget the exhibition and the name of the gallery but it doesn't matter. We all agreed to meet at the Copabanana afterwards. In hindsight it was a questionable decision. Some of us had to work the next day, me for example, but immediate gratification almost always overruled good sense. The entire crew was on the charming side of drunk by the time we left the gallery. That state would prove impossible to maintain as the night wore on. Collectively we lacked basic impulse control on a good day. The odds were against this unfolding as an evening of quiet reflection considering the cast of characters and the quantity of alcohol consumed. Although we operated in the shadows of the culture industry, this was not a group of gentile aesthetes and dilettantes. Drunk, our behavior was reminiscent of orangutans on unauthorized leave from the zoo. Any gains we made within the art system were immediately erased by transgressive acts. We repeatedly snatched defeat out of the jaws of victory. If good behavior was the price of success, it was much too high a price to pay given our disinterest in the game and our contempt for rules.

 

Our tactics were more street than salon. One night in the Khyber I was at the urinal taking a piss and some fucking idiot said to me, "Oh, you're Michael Macfeat, the guy who paints the crazy things and does the crazy things." I punched him in the mouth, zipped up and returned to the bar.

 

Most of the exhibiting artists and our friends went to the Copabanana that evening. My father and his friend Rocco were at the exhibition and they decided to join us for cocktails. It was not unusual for Al to socialize with us. He was always up for a few drinks and the pursuit of pleasure. In fact pleasure was his sole motivation in life. To their credit, none of my friends' fathers behaved like Al. He was a unique individual and often not in a good way.

 

My father was fun to go out with although growing up with him was a nightmare. He was good company and charming. It made it easier to forgive his faults. On the other hand he was also a larcenous bastard. If it wasn't screwed down he would steal it. If it was he brought a screwdriver. He could be quite entertaining and he was generous when he had the means. Al would never let any of us pay for anything when we went out. Considering the limited funds at my disposal it would have been self-defeating to refuse his largesse. He wouldn't come around if he didn't have cash. As is often the case with gamblers, his finances were tied to his luck so he wasn't around much. His absences lasted long enough to ensure he would be welcomed back.

 

His friend Rocco was no stranger. Rocco always carried a pistol with him although I was never sure why he felt the need. He was a rather large man and quite capable of handling himself without it. He made no display of the weapon but the gun sometimes created an unmistakable bulge under his clothing. Hanging around with Rocco taught me to look for signals that a man was armed. Despite the firearm, Rocco was gregarious and a fun to be around. His gun was an accepted fact, like his size. Certainly no one had the balls to question him about the pistol.

 

Once inside the Copa, Rocco and my father insisted on paying for everyone's drinks. It became an expensive night for those two spendthrifts. A rather large entourage followed us to the bar and took full advantage of the offer. From experience, I knew that these displays of wild extravagance usually meant that a scam or a bet had born fruit. Apparently they both reaped the benefits of some lucrative caper since they were squandering money like drunken stock brokers with expense accounts. I knew that these windfall profits often came at some else's expense. Some unseen loser was probably back in New Jersey, licking his wounds and cursing his bad luck. Fuck it. Free drinks were free drinks. I learned to ignore the source of Al's funds. It wasn't worth wasting time thinking about it.

 

Funded by their (presumably) ill gotten gains, multiple cocktails began piling up on both floors for our pleasure. Free cocktails might sound lovely in the abstract but in reality they almost always prove to be a mistake. Paying for drinks sometimes helps one keep excessive spending in perspective; not always but sometimes. Considering the Rogues Gallery in the Copa that night, excess was preordained. The drinks were free but they certainly did nothing to promote good behavior in this group of errant primates.

 

Fueled by the seemingly endless flow of alcohol, the evening began its slow descent into anarchy. People went between floors in search of some anticipated but indefinable amusement. Both floors had multiple cocktails at our disposal so these migrations weren't for entertainment purposes only. Fortunately I had a good relationship with the manager of the bar so she left us to our own devices. She had incredible eyes, large and mesmerizing. Granted, I was easily mesmerized back then.

 

One of the women from our group took umbrage to something or another (either real or imagined) and noisily stormed out of the bar. She had a reputation for pulling a Houdini when drunk. We had all seen this routine before and knew that pursuit was an exercise in futility. I wish I could forget who she was. She later claimed to walk back to New Jersey over the Ben Franklin Bridge. An attractive woman surviving an evening stroll through the city of Camden was unimaginable. Camden led the nation in per capita murders. At the time it was one of the most lawless cities in America and it remains so. Whether this trek actually happened or not was irrelevant. Fact and fiction blurred on evenings such as these. At any rate, no one batted an eye about the sudden departure. It was old hat and it meant more free alcohol for the rest of us.

 

My father, quite inebriated by this time, got it into his thick skull that one of our friends was pregnant. Unfortunately that wasn't the case. She was just a big-boned girl. Understandably, my father's comments horrified her. At an early age men are trained to avoid asking about a woman's weight and age. It wasn't as if Al didn't have extensive experience with the opposite sex. His success with women was legendary. Unfortunately his common sense and discretion went south this particular evening. Either he forgot or he just didn't give a fuck, I am not sure which. Al didn't stop at one comment about her perceived delicate condition. Oh no, he went on and on about it. If only he made these comments behind her back it would have been less embarrassing for everyone. He was quite direct in his interrogation and he was relentless. Al spent an excruciating amount of time trying to get her to confess to being pregnant. It was the height of absurdity for a man who would confess to nothing, even when caught red handed, would have the audacity to demand a confession from anyone else. Whatever his motivation, he was tenacious. With the singularity of mind that drunks often exhibit he was fixated on the subject. This horror-show went on for what felt like an eternity. Graced with the attention span of a two year old, Al tired of the game and moved on to the other equally absurd delusions.

 

To deflect the poor girl's attention away from my father's abuse, a close friend asked the girl for her telephone number. Her mood brightened at the prospect of potential romance with this handsome rake. I knew that this bastard had no intention of ever calling her (in fact he never did) but she felt a bit better about herself, however fleetingly.

 

Cocktails flowed without end, an alcoholic version of the nearby Delaware River. Whatever decorum we could muster was simply to ensure that it continued unabated. Kevin, our friend Mike and I retired to the upstairs bar. It was less crowded up there and I needed a break from my father's lunacy. It was obvious that our luck couldn't hold out forever. As inevitable and unwelcome as my hangover the next day, my father and Rocco were bound to notice our absence. In much too short a time they did.

 

At the opposite end of the bar was an attractive woman sitting by herself and wearing a white fur coat. She was a few years older than Kevin and I but that was irrelevant. Her style wasn't right, it was much too flashy. Her wardrobe was all shiny and sparkly, like a human disco ball. Her clothes identified her as a South Philadelphia native. Their style signified a certain attitude and told us that we couldn't get there from here. From across the bar it was obvious that it was a clash of sensibilities. The stylistic soundtrack was the Clash's White Riot at our end of the bar and It's Raining Men at the other. She looked like a materialistic pain in the ass. Never one to fight battles that I couldn't win I settled into my Tanqueray and tonics and let sleeping dogs lie.

 

Unfortunately not everyone followed my prudent example. Rocco and Al gravitated to her. They still lived some low rent Rat Pack version of the past. Contemporary clues held little meaning to them. Even if they understood the clues, as far as they were concerned they were free to ignore them. In that sense they were anarchists. They did whatever they wanted, whenever they wanted as long as their funds held out. They began chatting her up as if either of them had a chance with her. The fucked up thing is that from a cursory glance it appeared that they might. Either she enjoyed the company which was hard to imagine or she was plying them for drinks, a more likely scenario. It was impossible for me to care. These two clowns were on a mission and it was best to leave it alone. I kept one eye on the conversation as one does passing an accident on the other side of the highway. I didn't really want to see the carnage but it was fascinating on some morbid level. I was disinterested in hearing the actual conversation. It was bound to be all lies and I had heard enough of the sound of my father's voice for one evening. She was physically fit so at least Al wouldn't ask her if she was pregnant. That provided me some small comfort.

 

My father could be exceptionally charming when he saw fit to make the effort. His guile with women was legendary and taken for granted. It was unthinkable to leave my girlfriends with him for any length of time. Even if he didn't snake me it was in the realm of the possible. He was that charming, that devious and his wiles with women were unaffected by any wide age discrepancy. The woman had as much chance as a wounded zebra run to ground by a hyena. Al could never be trusted with women or money. He was treacherous on both fronts.

 

Kevin, our friend Mike and I were at the near end of the bar still practicing our drinking. It was going pretty well if oblivion was the goal. We were regulars at the bar so we were familiar with the bartender. He and I had a mutual interest in Soldier of Fortune magazine. We had little else in common so the discussion usually began and ended on that topic. He wasn't a bad guy but he was wound a bit too tight. If I remember correctly he was also in a twelve step program, which at the time I perceived as a symptom of insanity. His interest in the magazine far exceeded my own, however. He was short but he actually aspired to become a mercenary. That seemed nuts to me but it didn't matter. He took care of us, we took care of him and if the conversation lagged we could always discuss the engineering merits and dependability of the AK47. Even drinks on the house have a price. My curiosity about Soldier of Fortune concerned the international politics that kept mercenaries employed. I also used the magazine as source material in my artwork. Occasionally an article about the Irish Republican Army would appear but I had no fucking desire to join them. It never hurt to have a friendly bartender in your corner so I finessed the conversations as best I could. I did suspect that he was nuts and that one day he might explode into a one man orgy of violence so I kept a respectful distance.

 

He came over to our end of the bar but not to bring us drinks or talk about Soldier of Fortune. As an avid gun enthusiast he probably noticed the tell-tale lump under Rocco's shirt. He said quietly, "You know the woman that those two older guys are talking to? She isn't what they think she is." We weren't entirely sure what he meant. In my case I was drunk and my powers of deduction were as impaired as the rest of me. She looked presentable from a distance if you could ignore her sense of style. If the implication was that she was a prostitute, I doubted that either Rocco or my dad would perceive that as a negative. Perhaps things would be less complicated for the three of them if they had crime in common. "Is she a working girl?" He replied in a whisper, "No, she's a transvestite." Kevin and I swiveled our heads to our right in unison. A more critical analysis of this changeling confirmed his assessment. Curiously, these two drunken reprobates seemed completely oblivious to the situation at hand, despite having a closer view of her. This could not end well. As was often the case with Mike, he was in the Men's Room at the crucial moment and missed the bartender's warning.

 

In the process of writing this, I considered the possibility that Kevin and I had overreacted and had misread the threat assessment. That doesn't explain the two pirates chatted her up but God knows what the fuck they were talking about. It didn't look to us like they knew the score but maybe they did. Perhaps Al and Rocco found the conversation comical. It seemed plausible. I am so often wrong that I never discount the possibility. The situation seemed to us to have all of the ingredients of a perfect storm.

 

I brought the subject up with Kevin recently for the first time in years. I asked him for his general impression of the evening. He said, "Fuck, I was just glad that no one got shot." My later and more benevolent analysis of the situation began to crumble with his answer but I pressed on. "Kevin, is it possible that we were overreacting and that Al and Rocco knew that they were talking to a transvestite?" "No man" he said, "not a fucking chance." I asked him a question that I knew, if answered contrary to my revisionist theory, would collapse the whole theoretical house of cards that I hoped to construct. "You don't really think that they would have shot her, do you?" "As drunk as those two idiots were that night? I'm certain of it. There is plenty about that evening I don't remember but I do remember being relieved that no one got shot." His view reinforced my original fear that we had been staring into the dark abyss of violence.

 

Despite being hedonists, both Al and Rocco were old school and ignorant of the subtler developments in contemporary social mores. We decided that it would be wrong to withhold the truth. There was a possibility that nothing would happen if we left them to their own devices but we didn't trust fate. I hoped that no one would get shot but on the other hand they were quite drunk. Getting hit over the head with a gun or thrown down a flight of stairs would be enough of a disaster. Rocco was always sociable but an underlying violence lurked beneath his affable demeanor. He was a criminal, after all, or he would not have been running around with my father. He was also quite large, drunk and armed. If the shit hit the fan with Rocco there was fuck-all Kevin and I could do about it. We were experienced at fighting in tandem but there was nothing two hyenas could do against a drunk and armed mastodon.

 

Our friend Mike was useless in violent situations. He had a quick tongue, a bad attitude and nothing to back either quality up. He was also a functional junkie. His indiscretions may have been the result of his habit or an inability to maintain it at times. It wasn't unusual to get drawn into fights due to Mike's rapier wit and his inability or unwillingness to fight. Just a few weeks before he stood idly by and watched a close friend of ours take a hellacious beating at the hands of four men. Michael could watch his friends get pummeled but his friends couldn't, even knowing that he was wrong and deserved a severe ass kicking. It ran contrary to code, whether he ascribed to it or not. Although he was smart and funny, he was a liability at worst and no help at his best. He couldn't be trusted so our only option was to leave him out of it.

 

My father's temper was inescapable growing up. He never hit me until I was sixteen and I returned the favor by hitting him over the head with a lamp. He did act violently toward others, however. He was 6' 1" tall and rangy. Once he dove across the bar at Hannigan's (at 69th and Ludlow, across from the Tower Theater) and strangled a customer until the man croaked an apology. Al was in his fifties at the time. His speed and brutality amazed me. I never heard what precipitated the attack but it may have been a gambling debt. The poor bastard had no chance. He was probably as shocked as I was. I couldn't trust Al not to be violent if he felt provoked.

 

Kevin and I were aware that our intervention might have a negative effect. They were behaving themselves at present but the truth could potentially upset this convivial equilibrium. Al and Rocco were very drunk and past the point of reason. Two drunken reprobates, a pistol and a transvestite seemed a recipe for disaster.

 

We got a lucky break. Rocco and my father lacked focus in their drunken state. They eventually headed downstairs in pursuit of new and improved entertainment. Had the transvestite had lost her luster? There was no way of knowing. Kevin and I weighed our options and we decided that they all sucked. We felt that the situation needed to be addressed before they reversed field. With any luck they would be too drunk, too complacent and too lazy to go back upstairs after getting the news. By the time we located the two bastards their condition had noticeably deteriorated. They were talking and laughing loudly and it was hard to get a word in edgewise. We eventually found an opening and explained the situation as diplomatically as possible. To our horror they rebuffed us. They acted like we were nuts! They told us to fuck off and dismissed us like insolent children. Is it possible that they knew that they were dealing with a shape-shifter? These two hooligans were inscrutable at the best of times so it was difficult to determine what they knew or didn't know. People whose professions demand deception learn to present a blank expression.

 

We truly had no qualms concerning the sexual predilection of the transvestite. We lacked morals ourselves so her morality was not in question. No one faulted her for running her game for free drinks if that's what she was doing. Each to their own. Live and let live. The problem was that these two drunks were capable of losing their minds and we were unable to influence them. The other problem was my own inebriated state. It made my threat analysis (and everything else) a bit suspect.

 

After our failed attempt at disaster control we returned to the upstairs bar. Perhaps we would have better luck with the third party in this bizarre triangle. Once upstairs, the first thing that we noticed was that our buddy Mike had changed seats. He was now at the far end of the bar and engaged in witty repartee with the transvestite. We did not fucking need another complication at that moment. Now we had to explain the situation to this ass-clown before we approached Miss Thing with a plan. We went to the far end of the bar and shoehorned ourselves into their conversation. At close quarters her artifice of deception paled considerably, maybe it was the Adam's apple. One of us distracted the transvestite while the other debriefed Mike. He took the news surprisingly well. He took it too well in fact. He said he didn't care what she was, he was having fun and that we should leave him the fuck alone. That was the third person to tell us to fuck off in ten minutes and it was getting a bit tedious. Imparting the truth to these three fools was a thankless job. It was not unusual for a quiet evening on the town to turn into a three ring circus. This night had no hopes of being a quiet evening from jump street considering the personnel. Kevin and I were not very experienced at calming situations down. We were much better at escalation. Everyone else in the equation had by this time made it very clear that they thought we were assholes. Of course they were right. We were assholes, just not for the reasons that they thought we were assholes. We had good intentions even if our analysis and strategy sucked ass.

 

With Mike (somewhat) sorted or at least informed, we turned our attention to this obscure object of desire. We explained that her lifestyle choices were of no concern to us. We applauded her courage to pursue her dreams. We had no issues with transvestites whatsoever. Our only concern was that the two mature gents might not act so maturely if push came to shove. All we wanted was to avoid trouble, trouble that could result in the expulsion from a favored watering hole and/or arrest. She smiled slyly and cooed, "I can take care of myself." We retorted, "Uh…no you fucking can't." We explained that these two old gents were not exactly docile and at least one of them had a concealed weapon. They were much too drunk to expect even semi-rational behavior from them. Rocco and Al weren't exactly enlightened individuals. We strongly advised her a change of venue, at least temporarily. After a brief period of resistance she agreed to leave after we offered her cash. How much cash it took to get rid of her is lost in the black hole of memory. She exited through the door on the first floor, still resplendent in fur and glitter. She was a spectacle, an artificial Christmas tree walking in high heels. Despite the small size of the bar, Al and Rocco were too plastered to even notice her flamboyant exit.

 

We had no further contact with the Al and Rocco that night and the subject was too bizarre to bring up later. They were so drunk that it is possible that they forgot by morning. I am surprised that I remember as much as I do about the incident. After our objective was reached I lost interest in the matter. Problem solved. It was as if she never existed. At least we thought that was true until we spoke to Mike again.

 

He berated us for causing her to leave. "I liked her," he whined about his loss like a Catholic school girl with skinned knees. Kevin and I just looked at each other in disbelief, shook our heads and walked away. Actually, we didn't give a fuck if Mike left with her or not. That was his business. He was an odd bird anyway. We were simply trying to protect her from the other two fools. Their breed of dinosaur was nearly extinct but they were still dangerous. Neither of them were particularly forward thinking in the realm of sexual politics or any other politics for that matter. We solved the problem by paying her off but now Mike was bitching. Fuck him. I fought enough fights for that little bastard that he should have been more appreciative of our efforts, even if he disagreed with the results or our approach. I repressed the urge to backhand him.

 

There was nothing left for us to do now but resume our cocktail consumption. Memory abandons me beyond this point. The trip home is a complete mystery. I am quite sure that I didn't walk. It was enough of a challenge to remain upright in that state. I was so drunk that I had as much chance of flying as I did driving home. I would have crashed the car before I ever got in it.

 

Defying even my own optimistic and delusional expectations I reported for work the next day, late and hungover as fuck. If I wasn't still drunk I might have called out sick. I was usually in trouble on this job for various serial indiscretions. It must have been pretty damn important for me to show up or I doubt I would have made it. Although drunk on the morning drive I negotiated it without incident.

 

When I got near the job I stopped at a roadside stand for a bacon, egg and cheese sandwich on a long roll. It was my Saturday morning ritual. My boss always brought his shit-bag dog to work, an untrained an intact male Vizsla. It was red and it had a pronounced knot on the top of its head that made it look as stupid as it actually was. I love dogs but I couldn't stand this fucking cur. If you didn't protect yourself it would jump up on you and smack you right in the balls. I spent the majority of every working day with my hand covering my crotch. It isn't a good look and it makes a lousy first impression. People familiar with the dog understood. Most of our regular customers came in holding their packages as a defensive tactic. It must have looked weird seeing everyone standing around clutching their yarbles. The dog was relentless and would jump up if you made eye contact. It happened all day long. I smacked it on multiple occasions. With no one else reinforcing the discipline and partly due to the dog's sub-par intelligence it had no affect. Training the useless piece of shit would have helped but my boss felt that training and spaying a dog violated its freedom. He preferred his dogs in a near feral state. I can only think of one other dog that I hated this much. I preferred dogs that bit me to dogs that punched me in the testicles on the regular. But the dog was the least of my problems that morning. I was hungover and insanely hungry. I proceeded to unwrap my sandwich and attack it voraciously. While taking an order from a customer, I foolishly dropped the hand holding the sandwich to my side. The Vizsla swiped it right out of my hand! I lost it!

 

I am not proud of it now but I punched the dog as hard as I could, right on its bumpy noggin. It fell to the floor as if shot. It remained unconscious for a few seconds. Until that moment I had no idea that it was possible to knock a dog out. Fortunately my boss was in his office when this happened. He eventually came out to investigate the clamor but he was on the phone with a customer at the time of the incident. When he finally got to the counter the dog had recovered enough to stand up but it was wobbling on its long, skinny legs. Although vertical it was still on queer street. I admitted that I smacked the dog but I didn't tell him that I knocked it out. He knew that my version of the story lacked credibility but, to the Visla's credit, the dog never ratted me out and I did not get fired. Not two minutes after things had calmed down the dog jumped up and tried to smack me in the nuts. I was beginning to feel besieged. As the day droned on the hangover escalated. It was unbearable. I was too hungover to even eat lunch. Unlike large chunks the previous twenty-four hours, the memory of the hangover remains quite vivid.

 

Around 11:00 the business phone rang and I reluctantly answered it. I had no interest in speaking to anyone, let alone our bone-head customers. It wasn't a customer though, it was a collect call from a jail in Atlantic City. I accepted the charges. It was difficult to predict the morning getting any worse but it did. My father was on the phone. He was still so fucked up that it was impossible to understand a word he said. It literally sounded to me like he was speaking Chinese. Al was laughing maniacally through the entire unintelligible conversation. There was no laughing on my end of the phone at all. I was hungover, irritable, hungry and I had just knocked a fucking dog out. I didn't need any more challenges to my patience. These two clowns were a pain in the ass. The old man really pissed me off by speaking in tongues. Gibberish was totally unacceptable in my fragile condition. Without pointing out his linguistic failure, I asked him if Rocco was available to speak. Fortunately Rocco got on the phone and was slightly more coherent than my father. He said that they had been arrested in Atlantic City. I shuddered to imagine their long drive there. They were both post-verbal before they left the bar! How could either of them have driven for an hour in that condition? Now they had a plan and to my horror the plan involved me. They wanted me to leave work, drive to Atlantic City and post bail for them. The idea was ludicrous. I had no desire to see either them anytime soon let alone be responsible for their release from jail. I felt sick. I also had no ready cash after the previous night of debauchery, despite the fact that the drinks were free. Either I was a very sporty tipper the night before or I gave all of my money away in tips and bribes or I lost all of it on the barroom floor. The reason for my poverty was a moot point. It didn't matter why. I was flat broke. I spent my last few dollars on a sandwich that had been scarfed up by a dog as useless as tits on a bull.

 

There was only one option as far as I was concerned. I told them to go fuck themselves, sleep it off in the drunk tank and come up with a plan that did not involve me. I had neither the desire nor the wherewithal to pick them up. I had no compassion for them whatsoever. I was penniless. They got arrested on their own merits. They could get themselves bailed out the same way. Jail seemed like a swell place for those two jerk-offs. Fuck you. No.

 

Later I asked my father about the arrest. Neither he nor Rocco would talk about it. To this day I don't know what happened. It didn't make sense that they would stonewall me over a simple DUI. They were quite open about far more scandalous matters. The only thing they volunteered was that Rocco's uncle bailed them out. Whatever the reason for their incarceration, there was never any talk of a court appearance and neither of them ever became long term guests of the state of New Jersey. Perhaps Rocco's uncle had connections. It is useless to speculate. They are both dead and the truth died with them.

 

Every once in a while I would ask Al about it, just to see if he if he would let his guard down and come clean. Sometimes I brought it up just to break his balls. My father discussed the events preceding the arrest but never directly about the arrest itself. It amazed me that he had any memories of the night at all. Over a period of years he steadfastly refused to give me a straight answer. This was no surprise, Getting the truth out of my father was like collecting rain water with a sieve. It was an act of abject futility.

 

Obfuscation and evasiveness were my father's forte. He was impossible to pin down. It was useless to pursue a topic with him once the nonsense started. He would give you irrelevant answers as long as you had the stamina to ask pertinent questions. Lying was a tool to him, like a weed-whacker or a hammer. I am sure that the Atlantic City police quickly tired of his machinations and found his bullshit annoying but their contact with him was relatively brief compared to mine. I grew up with him and share his DNA. Both of these concepts are sobering.

 

Michael Macfeat 12/24/12

 

Heritage Photography- Old Stock Exchange Building , Ahmedabad.

 

The stock exchange was established as a Public Charitable Trust in 1894 following the establishment of the Bombay Stock Exchange in 1875. Earlier the stock exchange functioned under the framework of the Bombay Securities Contracts Act, 1925. Following the passage of The Securities Contract Regulations Act, 1956 the Gujarat Share & Stock Exchange, Indian Share and General Exchange Association and Bombay Share and Stock Exchange, Share and Stock Brokers Association merged with the Ahmedabad Share and Stock Brokers Association and gave rise to ASE as it stands today.

The iconic Leadenhall market in the heart of the City - a fragment.

Palais Coburg

At the site of today's Palais Coburg were in the 18th Century several buildings, which like almost all buildings that were built on the city walls or leaning on these, were of a military nature. So here was situated the Stadt-Schultheissen Office (Wikipedia: In medieval Germany, the Schultheiß (Middle High German schultheize, from Old High German sculdheizo; Latinised as scultetus or sculteus; in Switzerland: Schultheiss, also: Schultheis, Schulte or Schulze; in Italian the two offices Scoltetto and Sculdascio, Medieval Latin sculdasius and Polish Sołtys) was the head of a municipality (akin to today's office of mayor), a Vogt or an executive official of the ruler), which was the seat of the respective city commander. Here lived and died in 1766 Field Marshal Leopold Josef Graf Daun. His successor as resident, Field Marshal Franz Moritz Graf Lacy, succeeded to acquire the building of the Imperial Court Chamber. He changed the city commandant's house into the Palais Lacy and inhabited this until his death in 1801. His nephew and heir sold the building in the same year to the Hungarian Count Franz Joseph Koháry. This one could in 1812 also acquire a neighboring house. The Kohárys were among the wealthiest landowners in Hungary. Franz Joseph's daughter Gabriele Maria Antonia married in 1816 Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. Since the marriage between a prince and a countess was not befitting one's social status, much trouble and especially money had to be expended in order to raise the family Koháry, 1817, but retroactive to 1815 in the rank of prince. To document this rise in rank, they began with measures to develop the still modest palace. Prince Franz Joseph Koháry inhabited it hardly, however, since he lived mainly in Oroszvár south of Bratislava. When he died in 1826, his Viennese palace was still not very representative .

His daughter inherited it and rented it for the moment to Countess Cordelia Potocki. Through the Kohárysche heritage, to which belonged ore mines and steel plants and large agricultural estates in Hungary and the Slovakia of today, the family Coburg, which called itself since 1825 Dukes of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, could finally think of the construction of a befitting palace. She lived then in later Palais Archduke Karl Ludwig in the Favoritenstraße. The appreciation of the family through Victoria's accession to the throne in England made a representative place to stay of the Viennese branch of the family appear urgent. Duke Ferdinand had in the years 1843 to 1847 instead of the existing buildings, that ist, at the access of the side facing the city to Braunbastei, built a great palace. His son August Ludwig had 1843 married Princess Clementine of Orleans Bourbon, daughter of the French citizen king Louis-Philippe, and determined the building to his Viennese home. The architect was Karl Schleps. For the execution of his plans responsible was Adolf Korompay. Karl Schleps had the plans yet submitted in 1839, but he passed away as early as next year. He was succeeded by his former assistant Franz Neumann. With Philip Menning another architect was hired, so it is not clear today which architect what share of the palace has. To extend the construction site, some adjacent properties, as the Croats Dörfl (Kroatendörfl) were purchased. The architecture is a blend of classicism and historicism and clearly reflects those change in the architecture, which took place at this time. But for the moment followed no interior expansion, because Louis-Philippe demanded that his grandson in France should enter this world and the ducal couple moved to Paris. In 1849 that part of the palace, which is on the Seilerstaette, was largely transformed into an apartment building, designed by Franz Neumann. Yet three years earlier, Baron Sina wanted it to acquire and here housing the stock exchange and the Wechselgericht (competend in exchange disputes), but those plans had dashed.

Resided in 1851 the English ambassador to Austria, Lieutenant General John Fane, as a tenant here. Johann Strauss served him for its festivals as music director. 1852 the Palais was also inside ready to move in and Herzog August Ludwig was able to return to Vienna. After the Braunbastei 1863 was demolished, arose the classicist garden facade. Just before the turn of the century resided Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria, who stemmed from the family of Coburg, in his Vienna stays in the palace. During World War II, the right part of the portico was hit by a bomb. Thereby also two figures of the Attica went lost. During occupation time Russian soldiers were intitially quartered in the palace. Plans to demolish the palace and build in its place a hotel, were fortunately not realized. After this for a long the Directorate General of Austrian Federal Railways was occupying the building as tenant. 1978 sold Princess Sarah Aurelia of Saxe-Coburg the Palais to a real estate broker. Restoration plans came to a nothing for the moment again and again for financial reasons. Currently, the building belongs to a private foundation under German investor Peter Pühringer. Since 2000 it was subjected to a comprehensive refurbishment. Here two years ago one of the finest luxury hotels in the city with excellent restaurants was put into operation. In addition, there are a number of homes and offices in the vast complex of buildings. The originally planned shopping mall was not realized.

Casemates. But although the palace does not just lie at the ring road, the owner has for himself the free outlook in the city park by a servitude secured, that has been preserved until today. While the Bastion side remembers aristocratic country houses such as Castle Liechtenstein at Maria Enzersdorf or the former Weilburg in Baden, the Seilerstaette-front is more as a bourgeois apartment building designed. Attractive visual appearance is the to the ring turned 21-axis garden facade. It is characterized by the two-storey columns order which has the Palais soon led in common parlance to the name "asparagus Castle" after its establishment. The facades of the palace namely does not show the with Viennese palais common colossal order in which multiple floors are aggregated by giant pilasters or giant pillars. Here the walls are structured by Ionic columns. On whose entablature have been put Corinthian columns. Behind the pillars of the seven-axis central risalit lie open loggias in the two upper floors. They were originally connected by staircases on both sides of the garden. As this had to be re-created in 1864 due to the razing of the bastions, the Attica area has been redesigned. Franz Neumann and Leopold Mayer placed here figures, representing the personifications of music, hunting, strength, history, science, agriculture and flower care. It's due to the construction of the palace on the Braunbastei that parts of the Renaissance fortifications of Vienna have been preserved, most of all, the of brick masonry consisting casemates. They are located directly below the palace and were made available again in the last renovation in 2003. In this case , however, the ramp leading to the bastion was destroyed.

Ball room. The late classicist road tract at the Seilerstaette is the a little older part of the building. Since we have got to deal was a narrow downtown alley, the facade at the Seilerstaette is relatively flat structured. Due to the level difference to the bastion it has a considerable height. In the two-story base zone three large banded arched portals are inserted. The windows of the upper floors are designed differently (round arch pediment, not crowns). The central projection is superimposed a shallow three-storey loggia. Franz Neumann Younger created about 1880 the strict historical front building at the Coburggasse. It is organized by risalits and presents an attic parapet. The here located portal is provided with seashell decor. From the Seilerstaette one enters the palace through a two-story vestibule that leads to the magnificent staircase. It is supported by Ionic columns. Large decorative vases stand on pedestals. The piano nobile is a remarkable space ensemble of late Classicism and early-Baroque. Of its equipment only the to the wall fixed parts remained preserved because after the Second World War much of the furniture was sold. The inlaid parquet floors have been replaced for the most part in 2001. The in the center located ballroom is a with stucco marble overlayed room decorated with stuccoed volutes. Gilded mirror frames and wall lights complete the equipment. It is lit by a glass ceiling. Interesting is the family room or Green Salon. Here hang numerous portraits of members of the Coburg family, including those in the 19th Century as kings or dukes reigning different European countries (Belgium, Portugal, Bulgaria, England). The Blue Salon is decorated with full-length pictures of the inner family circle of the palace residents. They stem from Franz Xaver Winterhalter and from those workshop. Neo-Baroque is also the Yellow Salon Over the three doors hold stucco figures the coat of arms of Coburg and Orleans.

www.burgen-austria.com/archive.php?id=756

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indus_River

 

The Indus River (Sanskrit सिन्धु Sindhu,; Urdu: سندھ Sindh; Sindhi: سندھو Sindhu; Punjabi سندھ Sindh; Hindko سندھ Sindh; Avestan: حندو Harahauvati; Pashto: ّآباسن Abasin "Father of Rivers"; Persian: Nilou (رود سند) "Hindu"; Arabic: السند‎ "Al-Sind"; Tibetan: Sênggê Zangbo (སེང་གེ།་གཙང་པོ་) "Lion River"; Chinese: 森格藏布/狮泉河/印度河, Sēngé Zàngbù/Shīquán Hé/Yìndù Hé; Greek: Ινδός Indos;Turki: Nilab) is the longest river in Pakistan and the twenty-first largest river in the world in terms of annual flow. It is often considered the life-line of Pakistan. The Europeans used the name "India" for the entire South Asian subcontinent based on Indos, the Greek appellation of this river. Historically significant, the river is at the crux of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization.

Originating in the Tibetan plateau in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar in Tibet Autonomous Region, the National River runs a course through the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir and then enters Northern Areas (Gilgit-Baltistan), flowing through the North in a southerly direction along the entire length of the country, to merge into the Arabian Sea near Pakistan's port city of Karachi in Sindh. The total length of the river is 3,180 kilometers (1,976 miles). The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1,165,000 square kilometers (450,000 square miles). The river's estimated annual flow stands at around 207 cubic kilometers. Beginning at the heights of the world with glaciers, the river feeds the ecosystem of temperate forests, plains and arid countryside. Together with the rivers Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, Jhelum, Beas and two tributaries from the North West Frontier and Afghanistan, the Indus forms the Sapta Sindhu (Seven Rivers) delta of Pakistan.

 

Description

 

The Indus provides the key water resources for the economy of Pakistan - especially the Breadbasket of Punjab province, which accounts for most of the nation's agricultural production, and Sindh. The word Punjab is a combination of the Sanskrit words panj meaning Five, and āb meaning Water, giving the literal meaning of the Land of the Five Rivers. The Five rivers after which Punjab is named are the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and the Sutlej. The river also supports many heavy industries and provides the main supply of potable water in Pakistan.

The ultimate source of the Indus is in Tibet; it begins at the confluence of the Sengge and Gar rivers that drain the Nganglong Kangri and Gangdise Shan mountain ranges. The Indus then flows northwest through Ladakh and Baltistan into Gilgit, just south of the Karakoram range. The Shyok River, Shigar and Gilgit streams carry glacial waters into the main river. It gradually bends to the south, coming out of the hills between Peshawar and Rawalpindi. The Indus passes gigantic gorges 4,500-5,200 metres (15,000-17,000 feet) high near the Nanga Parbat massif. It flows swiftly across Hazara, and is dammed at the Tarbela Reservoir. The Kabul River joins it near Attock. The remainder of its route to the sea is in plains of the Punjab and Sindh, and the river becomes slow-flowing and highly braided. It is joined by Panjnad River at Mithankot. Beyond this confluence, the river, at one time, was named Satnad River (Sat = seven, Nadi = river), as the river was now carrying the waters of the Kabul River, the Indus River and the five Punjab rivers. Passing by Jamshoro, it ends in a large delta to the east of Thatta.

The Indus is one of the few rivers in the world that exhibit a tidal bore. The Indus system is largely fed by the snows and glaciers of the Himalayas, Karakoram and the Hindu Kush ranges of Tibet, the state of Jammu and Kashmir and the Northern Areas of Pakistan respectively. The flow of the river is also determined by the seasons - it diminishes greatly in the winter, while flooding its banks in the monsoon months from July to September. There is also evidence of a steady shift in the course of the river since prehistoric times - it deviated westwards from flowing into the Rann of Kutch and adjoining Banni grasslands after the 1816 earthquake[1][2].

Effects of climate change on the river

The Tibetan Plateau contains the world's third-largest store of ice. Qin Dahe, the former head of the China Meteorological Administration, said that the recent fast pace of melting and warmer temperatures will be good for agriculture and tourism in the short term; but issued a strong warning:

"Temperatures are rising four times faster than elsewhere in China, and the Tibetan glaciers are retreating at a higher speed than in any other part of the world.... In the short term, this will cause lakes to expand and bring floods and mudflows. . . . In the long run, the glaciers are vital lifelines for Asian rivers, including the Indus and the Ganges. Once they vanish, water supplies in those regions will be in peril."[3]

“There is insufficient data to say what will happen to the Indus,” says David Grey, the World Bank’s senior water advisor in South Asia. “But we all have very nasty fears that the flows of the Indus could be severely, severely affected by glacier melt as a consequence of climate change,” and reduced by perhaps as much as 50 percent. “Now what does that mean to a population that lives in a desert [where], without the river, there would be no life? I don’t know the answer to that question,” he says. “But we need to be concerned about that. Deeply, deeply concerned.” [4]

 

History

 

Paleolithic sites have been discovered in Pothohar near Pakistan's capital Islamabad, with the stone tools of the Soan Culture. In ancient Gandhara, near Islamabad, evidence of cave dwellers dated 15,000 years ago has been discovered at Mardan.

The major cities of the Indus Valley Civilization, such as Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, date back to around 3300 BC, and represent some of the largest human habitations of the ancient world. The Indus Valley Civilization extended from Balochistan to Gujarat, with an upward reach from east of Jhelum River to Ropar on the upper Sutlej. The coastal settlements extended from Sutkagan Dor at the Iranian border to Lothal in Gujarat. There is an Indus site on the Amu Darya at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan, and the Indus site Alamgirpur at the Hindon River is located only 28 km from Delhi. To date, over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and its tributaries. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal, Dholavira, Ganeriwala, and Rakhigarhi. Only 90-96 of the over-800 known Indus Valley sites have been discovered on the Indus and its tributaries. The Sutlej, now a tributary of the Indus, in Harappan times flowed into the Ghaggar-Hakra River, in the watershed of which were more Harappan sites than along the Indus.

Most scholars believe that settlements of Gandhara grave culture of the early Indo-Aryans flourished in Gandhara from 1700 BC to 600 BC, when Mohenjo-daro and Harappa had already been abandoned.

The name Indus is a Latinization of Hindu, in turn the Iranian variant of Sindhu, the name of the Indus in the Rigveda. The Sanskrit Sindhu generically means river, stream, ocean, probably from a root sidh meaning to keep off; Sindhu is attested 176 times in the Rigveda, 95 times in the plural, more often used in the generic meaning. Already in the Rigveda, notably in the later hymns, the meaning of the word is narrowed to refer to the Indus river in particular, for example in the list of rivers of the Nadistuti sukta. This resulted in the anomaly of a river with masculine gender: all other Rigvedic rivers are female, not just grammatically, being imagined as goddesses and compared to cows and mares yielding milk and butter.

The Indus has formed a natural boundary between the Indian Subcontinent hinterland and its frontier with the Iranian Plateau, a region which includes Pakistan's Balochistan, North West Frontier Province as well as Afghanistan, Tajikistan and Iran. It has been crossed by the armies of Alexander the Great - His Macedonian forces retreated along the southern course of the river at the end of the Asian campaign after conquering what is now Pakistan and joining it to the Hellenic Empire. The Indus plains have also been under the domination of the Persian empire and the Kushan empire. The Muslim armies of Muhammad bin Qasim, Mahmud of Ghazni, Mohammed Ghori, Tamerlane and Babur also crossed the river to strike into the inner regions of Punjab , Rajasthan and Gujarat.

The word "India" is derived from the Indus River. In ancient times, "India" initially referred to the region of modern-day Pakistan along the Indus river, but by 300 BC, Greek writers like Megasthenes applied the term to the entire subcontinent.[5] :)

 

Geography

 

Tributaries

 

•Astor River

•Balram River

•Gar River

•Ghizar River

•Gilgit River

•Gumal River

•Kabul River

•Panjnad

•Shigar River

•Shyok River

•Suru River

•Swaan River

•Tanubal River

•Zanskar River

Geology

 

The Indus River feeds the Indus submarine fan located in the Indian Ocean, which is the second largest sediment body on the Earth at around 5 million cubic kilometres of material eroded from the mountains. Studies of the sediment in the modern river indicate that the Karakoram Mountains in northern Pakistan are the single most important source of material, with the Himalayas providing the next largest contribution, mostly via the large rivers of the Punjab (i.e., the Jhelum, Ravi, Chenab, Beas and the Sutlej). Analysis of sediments from the Arabian Sea has demonstrated that prior to five million years ago the Indus was not connected to these Punjab rivers which instead flowed east into the Ganga and were captured after that time[6]. Earlier work showed that sand and silt from western Tibet was reaching the Arabian Sea by 45 million years ago, implying the existence of an ancient Indus River by that time[7]. The delta of this proto-Indus river has subsequently been found in the Katawaz Basin, on the Afghan-Pakistan border. Most recently the Indus was paralleled by the ancient Saraswati River, which the Rigveda suggests flowed from the Himalayas between the Sutlej and the Yamuna Rivers, close to modern day Chandigarh.

In the Nanga Parbat region, the massive amounts of erosion due to the Indus river following the capture and rerouting through that area is thought to bring middle and lower crustal rocks to the surface[8].

 

Wildlife

 

Accounts of the Indus valley from the times of Alexander's campaign indicate a healthy forest cover in the region, which has now considerably receded. The Mughal Emperor Babur writes of encountering rhinoceroses along its bank in his memoirs (the Baburnama). Extensive deforestation and human interference in the ecology of the Shivalik Hills has led to a marked deterioration in vegetation and growing conditions. The Indus valley regions are arid with poor vegetation. Agriculture is sustained largely due to irrigation works.

The Blind Indus River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor) is a sub-species of Dolphins found only in the Indus River. It formerly also occurred in the tributaries of the Indus river. Palla fish (Hilsa) of the river is a delicacy for people living along the river. The population of fishes in the river is moderately high, with Sukkur, Thatta and Kotri being the major fishing centres - all in the lower Sindh course. But damming and irrigation has made fish farming an important economic activity. Located southeast of Karachi, the large delta has been recognised by conservationists as one of the world's most important ecological regions. Here the river turns into many marshes, streams and creeks and meets the sea at shallow levels. Here marine fishes are found in abundance, including Pomfret and Prawns

 

Economy

 

The Indus is the most important supplier of water resources to the Punjab and Sindh plains - it forms the backbone of agriculture and food production in Pakistan. The river is especially critical as rainfall is meagre in the lower Indus valley. Irrigation canals were first built by the people of the Indus valley civilization, and later by the engineers of the Kushan Empire and the Mughal Empire. Modern irrigation was introduced by the British East India Company in 1850 - the construction of modern canals accompanied with the restoration of old canals. The British supervised the construction of one of the most complex irrigation networks in the world. The Guddu Barrage is 1,350 metres (4,450 ft) long - irrigating Sukkur, Jacobabad, Larkana and Kalat. The Sukkur Barrage serves over 20,000 square kilometres (5,000,000 acres).

After the independence of Pakistan, a water control treaty signed between India and Pakistan in 1960 guaranteed that Pakistan would receive water from the Indus River and its two western tributaries, the Jhelum River & the Chenab River independent of upstream control by India.[9] The project, Indus Basin Project, consisted primarily of the construction of two main dams, the Mangla Dam built on the Jhelum River and the Tarbela Dam constructed on the Indus River, together with their subsidiary dams.[10] The Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority undertook the construction of the Chashma-Jhelum link canal - linking the waters of the Indus and Jhelum rivers - extending water supplies to the regions of Bahawalpur and Multan. Pakistan constructed the Tarbela Dam near Rawalpindi - standing 2743 metres (9,000 ft) long and 143 metres (470 ft) high, with an 80 kilometre (50 mile) long reservoir. The Kotri Barrage near Hyderabad is 915 metres (3,000 ft) long and provides additional supplies for Karachi. The Taunsa Barrage near Dera Ghazi Khan produces 100,000 kilowatts of electricity. The extensive linking of tributaries with the Indus has helped spread water resources to the valley of Peshawar, in the North-West Frontier Province. The extensive irrigation and dam projects provide the basis for Pakistan's large production of crops such as cotton, sugarcane and wheat. The dams also generate electricity for heavy industries and urban centres.

 

People

 

The inhabitants of the regions through whom the Indus river passes and forms a major natural feature and resource are diverse in ethnicity, religion, national and linguistic backgrounds. On the northern course of the river in the state of Jammu and Kashmir live the Buddhist people of Ladakh, of Tibetan stock, and the Dards of Indo-Aryan or Dardic stock and practising Buddhism and Islam. Then it descends into Baltistan, northern Pakistan passing the main Balti city of Skardu. As it continues through Pakistan, the Indus river forms a distinctive boundary of ethnicity and cultures - upon the western banks the population is largely Pashtun, Baloch, and of other Iranian stock, with close cultural, economic and ethnic ties to Afghanistan and Iran. The eastern banks are largely populated by peoples of Indo-Aryan stock, such as the Punjabis, the Sindhis and the Seraikis. In northern Punjab and the North-West Frontier Province, ethnic Pashtun tribes live alongside Dardic people in the hills (Khowar, Kalash, Shina, etc.), Burushos (in Hunza), and Punjabi people. In the southern portion of the Punjab province, the Saraiki peoples speak a distinctive tongue and practise distinctive traditions. In the province of Sindh, peoples of Sindhi backgrounds form the local populations. Upon the western banks of the river live the Baloch and Pashtun peoples of Balochistan.

  

Modern issues

 

The Indus is a strategically vital resource for Pakistan's economy and society. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the use of the waters of the Indus and its five eastern tributaries became a major dispute between India and Pakistan. The irrigation canals of the Sutlej valley and the Bari Doab were split - with the canals lying primarily in Pakistan and the headwork dams in India disrupting supply in some parts of Pakistan. The concern over India building large dams over various Punjab rivers that could undercut the supply flowing to Pakistan, as well as the possibility that India could divert rivers in the time of war, caused political consternation in Pakistan. Holding diplomatic talks brokered by the World Bank, India and Pakistan signed the Indus Waters Treaty in 1960. The treaty gave India control of the three easternmost rivers of the Punjab, the Sutlej, the Beas and the Ravi, while Pakistan gained control of the three western rivers, the Jhelum, the Chenab and the Indus. India retained the right to use of the western rivers for non irrigation projects. (See discussion regarding a recent dispute about a hydroelectric project on the Chenab (not Indus) known as the Baglihar Project).

Hindu pilgrimage to holy sites alongside the river has been a source of conflict between the two nations. Pakistan and India do not generally allow each others' citizens to cross borders for religious pilgrimages, other than Sikhs who travel to Pakistan for their annual pilgrimage.

There are concerns that extensive deforestation, industrial pollution and global warming are affecting the vegetation and wildlife of the Indus delta, while affecting agricultural production as well. There are also concerns that the Indus river may be shifting its course westwards - although the progression spans centuries. On numerous occasions, sediment clogging owing to poor maintenance of canals has affected agricultural production and vegetation. In addition, extreme heat has caused water to evaporate, leaving salt deposits that render lands useless for cultivation.

More recently and within Pakistan, the province of Punjab is seeking to cut off the flow of the river downstream to Sindh by building dams within its provincial limits in the face of opposition from the people of Sindh, storage reservoirs used to produce the bulk of food consumed by millions of Pakistanis nationwide as well as providing cheap hydel power to the country's national electric grid system.

  

French postcard by PSG for Corvisart, Epinal, nr. 437. Photo: Sam Lévin.

 

Original and versatile Monica Vitti (1931) is one of Italy's most famous actresses of the 20th century. She is most widely noted in the early 1960’s for her starring roles in four classic avant-garde films directed by Michelangelo Antonioni. Later the glamorous blonde became the queen of the commedia all’italiana, a film genre previously restricted to men.

 

Monica Vitti was born Maria Luisa Ceciarelli in Rome, in 1931. She studied at Pittman's College, where she played as a teen in a charity performance of Dario Niccodemi's La nemica. She then trained as an actor at the Accademia Nazionale d'Arte Drammatica (Rome's National Academy of Dramatic Arts) where she graduated in 1953. She toured Germany with an Italian acting troupe and her first stage appearance in Rome was for a production of Niccolò Machiavelli's La Mandragola. Vitti's film debut was an uncredited bit part in the comedy Ridere! Ridere! Ridere!/Laugh! Laugh! Laugh! (1954, Edoardo Anton) with Tino Scotti and Ugo Tognazzi. Her first widely noted performance was at the age of 26 in the comedy Le dritte/ Smart Girls (1958, Mario Amendola) starring Franco Fabrizi. A turning point in her career came in 1957 when she joined Michelangelo Antonioni's Teatro Nuovo di Milano. Three years later she played a leading role in his internationally praised and award winning film L'avventura/The Adventure (1960, Michelangelo Antonioni). In L’avventura a group of rich Italians head out on a yachting trip to a deserted volcanic island in the Mediterranean. When they are about to leave the island, they find Anna (Lea Massari), the main character up to this point, has gone missing. Sandro, Anna's boyfriend, and Claudia (Monica Vitti), Anna's friend, try without success to find her. While looking Anna, Claudia and Sandro develop an attraction for each other. They proceed to become lovers, and all but forget about the missing Anna. Vitti as the detached and cool Claudia gave a screen presence which has been described as ‘stunning’. She also helped Antonioni raise money for the production and stuck with him through daunting location shooting. L'avventura made Vitti an international star and one of Italy's most famous actresses of the 20th century. Her image later appeared on an Italian postage stamp commemorating the film.

 

Monica Vitti received more critical praise for her starring roles in the following three Antonioni films La notte/The Night (1961, Michelangelo Antonioni), L'eclisse/The Eclipse (1962, Michelangelo Antonioni) and Il deserto rosso/The Red Desert (1964, Michelangelo Antonioni), which are often cited with L'avventura as a series. In the four films Antonioni explores modernist consciousness in the 1960’s. In her portrayal of deeply troubled middle-class women, unable to establish satisfying relationships and incapable of connecting with their environment, the beautiful Vitti came to embody the modernist dilemma in all its complexity and angst. Hal Erickson at AllMovie even calls her ‘The high priestess of frosty sensuality’. In La Notte she plays the daughter of a wealthy industrialist who tries to inaugurate an empty affair with a married author, played by Marcello Mastroianni. In L’eclisse she plays Vittoria, a young translator who meets the vital broker Piero (Alain Delon) during a crash in the Stock Market but the love affair is doomed because of Piero’s materialistic nature. In Il deserto rosso she was Guiliana, a housewife married to a factory manager. She is mentally ill, but hides it from her husband as best she can. She meets the engineer Zeller (Richard Harris) who takes advantage of her distress, and then she is again alone and ill. She also starred in films by other directors, such as Château en Suède/Nutty Naughty Chateau (1963, Roger Vadim) with Jean-Claude Brialy, and the comedy Il disco volante/The Flying Saucer (1964, Tinto Brass) with Alberto Sordi and Silvana Mangano. Vitti appeared in only two English language films. She starred in the title role in Joseph Losey's Modesty Blaise (1966), a mod James Bond spy spoof with Terence Stamp and Dirk Bogarde which had only mixed success and received harsh critical reviews. Her second English language film was An Almost Perfect Affair (1979, Michael Ritchie) with Keith Carradine, which takes place during the Cannes Film Festival.

 

In the mid 1960’s Monica Vitti decided to switch genre, and returned to the light comedy that was clearly her forte. After a few uncertain performances, she gained enormous public recognition with La ragazza con la pistol/The Girl with a Pistol (1968, Mario Monicelli), in which she plays the unlikely role of a Sicilian woman seeking revenge in London. She achieved ever greater success in Amore mio, aiutami/Help Me My Love (1969, Alberto Sordi), on the theme of marital infidelity, and Scola's romantic comedy Dramma della gelosia/The Pizza Triangle (1970, Ettore Scola) about a working-class love triangle with Marcello Mastroianni and Giancarlo Giannini. Throughout the 1970’s Monica Vitti appeared mostly in Italian films which did not have international distribution. There were a few exceptions. She starred in Buñuel's innovative Le Fantôme de la liberté/The Phantom of Liberty (1974, Luis Buñuel) and the political thriller La raison d'état/State Reasons (1978, André Cayatte) with Jean Yanne. In 1974 she won the David di Donatello award for Best Actress in Polvere di stelle/Stardust (1973, Alberto Sordi), an emotional recreation of the world of variety. She won this Italian award five times. In 1980 after 15 years she reunited with Antonioni for his Il mistero di Oberwald/The Mystery of Oberwald (1980, Michelangelo Antonioni) which was one of the first major international feature films to be shot on video. Based on a screenplay by Jean Cocteau it tells the story of Sebastian (Franco Branciaroli), who breaks into the castle at Oberwald to kill the Queen (Monica Vitti), but faints before doing so. He is the spitting image of the King who was assassinated on his wedding day. The Queen discovers that Sebastian once wrote a subversive poem that she liked, even though it was attacking her. The Queen dares Sebastian to kill her, otherwise she vows to kill him. During the 1980’s Monica Vitti did much less screen work. By 1986 Vitti had returned to the theatre as an actress and teacher. In 1989 Vitti wrote, directed and starred in Scandalo Segreto/Secret Scandal (1989) with Elliot Gould. The film was well received critically but met with limited box-office success. She then retired from the cinema. During the 1990’s she did television work, both acting and directing. In 1993 she was awarded the Festival Tribute at the Créteil International Women's Film Festival in France. In 2000 Monica Vitti married photographer Roberto Russo, with whom she had lived since 1975.

 

Sources: Hal Erickson (AllMovie), MonicaVitti.com, Lenin Imports, Film Reference, Wikipedia and IMDb.

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I took this photo of the New York Stock Exchange, draped with the American Flag, on Wall Street, on my first trip to New York City in October 2004.

 

After the tragic events of September 11, 2001, the NYSE building is well protected. Not only is the entrance guarded 24/7, it is surrounded by an iron fence and concrete barriers (the planters), AND there was a big pickup truck parked across the entrance to Wall Street here, and since Wall Street is so narrow, it blocked all vehicular traffic on the street.

 

MORE INFORMATION OF THE NYSE:

 

The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the "Big Board", is a New York City-based stock exchange. It is the largest stock exchange in the world by dollar volume and, with 2,764 listed securities, has the second most securities of all stock exchanges. Its share volume was exceeded by that of NASDAQ during the 1990s. As of December 31, 2006, the combined capitalization of all New York Stock Exchange listed companies was $25.0 trillion.

 

The NYSE is operated by NYSE Euronext, which was formed by its merger with the fully electronic stock exchange Archipelago Holdings and Euronext. The New York Stock Exchange trading floor is located at 11 Wall Street, and is composed of four rooms used for the facilitation of trading. The main building, located at 18 Broad Street between the corners of Wall Street and Exchange Place, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1978.

 

The origin of the NYSE can be traced to May 17, 1792, when the Buttonwood Agreement was signed by twenty-four stock brokers outside of 68 Wall Street in New York under a buttonwood tree. On March 8, 1817, the organization drafted a constitution and renamed itself the "New York Stock & Exchange Board". (This name was shortened to its current form in 1863.) Anthony Stockholm was elected the Exchange's first president.In 1922, a building designed by Trowbridge & Livingston was added at 11 Broad Street for offices, and a new trading floor called "the garage". Additional trading floor space was added in 1969 and 1988 (the "blue room") with the latest technology for information display and communication.

 

(Source: Wikipedia)

Exploitation of many by few.

 

The following is an extract from "Cross of Gold Speech" by William Jennings Bryan, from his campaign speech in 1896. I have included this speech extract because it can be applied in many ways to the on-going 2007/08/09/10/.... economic crisis brought on by the cancer on society known as Bankers who through their actions are 90% responsible for decimating the lives, hopes and dreams of thousands and thousands of people and families around the world. Unscrupulous Bankers with their shady business practices, 'cheap money' lending have knowingly plundered global economies around the world for their own financial gain, they have been allowed to bring economies to their knees without fear of repercussion because of lax Government controls (The other 10%). They not only capitalised on the failing economies they had created, they had little compunction in returning to the ‘trough’ like 'PIGS' to plunder from the struggling masses once again during the economic recovery.

 

"Cross of Gold Speech" from William Jennings Bryan, campaign speech, 1896.

 

Mr. Carlisle said in 1878 that this was a struggle between "the idle holders of capital" and "the struggling masses, who produce the wealth and pay the taxes of the country," and my friends, the question we are to decide is: Upon which side will the Democratic party fight: upon the side of the "idle holders of idle capital" or upon the side of "the struggling masses?" That is the question, which the party must answer first, and then it must be answered by each individual hereafter. The sympathies of the Democratic Party, as shown by the platform, are on the side of the struggling masses who have ever been the foundation of the Democratic Party. There are two ideas of government. There are those who believe that, if you will only legislate to make the well-to-do prosperous, their prosperity will leak through on those below. The Democratic idea, however, has been that if you legislate to make the masses prosperous, their prosperity will find its way up through every class, which rests upon them.

 

You come to us and tell us that the great cities are in favour of the gold standard; we reply that the great cities rest upon our broad and fertile prairies. Burn down your cities and leave our farms and your cities will spring up again as if by magic; but destroy our farms and the grass will grow in the streets of every city in the country.

  

Metaire Cemetery, New Orleans, LA

 

One of the most photographed and talked about statues in Metairie Cementary is inside the mausoleum of Chapman H. Hymans. The interior of the mausoleum, modeled after the mausoleum of Queen Louise of Prussia, is lit by 2 blue stained glass windows that cast a soft light on the statue of a young woman angel with her head down on her arm overcome with sadness. The beautiful marble statue, Grief, was made in Carara, Italy,. It is a replica of Angel of Grief, a 1894 sculpture by William Wetmore Story, which serves as the grave stone of the artist and his wife at the Protestant Cemetery in Rome, Italy. The intensity of the blue light in the mausoleum changes during the day and with cloud cover but "the blues" never leaves this sad but beautiful tomb.

 

The mausoleum was built in 1915 by Chapman H. Hymans after his wife died. Sara Lavinia Todd Hyams, wife of Chapman Hyams, died in New York in September 1914 of undisclosed causes. She and her husband were traveling in Europe when World War I broke out, and they were able to make their way to Liverpool and return to America. Ms. Hyams had been in poor health since leaving Europe, and three weeks later she died in New York and was temporarily interred there.

 

The broken-hearted Chapman Hymans hired Favrot & Livaudais, one of the leading architectural firms in the US at turn of the 20th Century, to design the mausoleum. It is a Greek temple with free-standing Ionic columns on all four sides, made of granite from the quarries of Stone Mountain, Ga. After the mausoleum was finished Mrs. Hymans' remains were re-entombed in it at the Metairie Cemetery.

  

Chapman Hymans was a millionaire stock broker in New Orleans and an art collector. He had many business interests, including holdings in the St. Charles Hotel Company, the Louisiana Jockey Club, and The Times-Picayune Publishing Company. He was also a member of the New Orleans Cotton Exchange, the Stock Exchange, the New Orleans Club, the Boston Club and the Southern Yacht Club. He died in April 1923, and he, too, was entombed in the mausoleum.

 

PRESS PLAY

 

i love you, i know

yello (1983)

  

an essay that cites TONS of quotes and incidents from the recent congressional meeting regarding FACEBOOK taking over the world and why you should have invested when i told you to invest... i did. just so proof would equal pudding.

 

(FYI the stock went up to 208 from 164 two weeks after this essay was written. it's back down to what it was at that time again. facebook is spreading its profits into subsids now, so it's not on my BUY NOW list. but if you can smell out the little geniuses facebook intends to buy, you might be able to find some juicy investments. i still believe that tesla will produce some kind of design innovation that will me purchasable for worldwide distribution...)

  

"CONGRESS MAN, YES" & several of the reasons why USURER'S LOGIC makes FACEBOOK the future press darlings of 2018 and beyond based on the CONGRESSIONAL HEARINGS + transcript notes and observations by scott richard

  

usury sucks for everyone. even those who profit.

  

and we don't FIGHT USURY.

  

we fk it until it destroys everything around us.

  

FB means fk buddy, literally, not facebook...

   

anyway, i know from great and long experience that americans graft their identity concepts from the products and services they use and abuse.

   

you can't go broke betting on the fall.

   

to not buy FACEBOOK stock would be like turning down a 50% off willy wonka chocolate bar that ALSO comes with a free golden ticket to the chocolate factory.

   

so while i listened and periodically watched the 5 hours of boring and often JUVENILE hearings, i couldn't help thinking how clever deception really is. FACEBOOK does soooo many things that you have no idea about.

   

where did you think all that FAKE money was going?

   

and it was sooooo touching when a couple of the congress people dared to ask when mark would stop selling OPIOID DRUGS off FACEBOOK. he conveniently said, never.

   

but don't worry, the u.s. sent it's least qualified people to talk to FACEBOOK about this, lol.

   

i mean, the vast majority of these congresspeople were like children who have no clue about adult concepts.

   

for example, not one congressperson asked if those "privacy settings" weren't hackable -- as in something so FKING SIMPLE like "well, a hacker can hack past those infantile settings." instead, they gave zuckerberg the legal opportunity to talk-stall his way out of their four minutes. it was EMBARRASSING to see how stupid most of these congresspeople really are and how unlearned about important tech philosophy. most of them had no idea even what "privacy settings" were, so many spent their four minutes being "schooled". fking waste. that's like sending me to the olympics for weightlifting...

   

so the first problem is that congresspeople don't really know a lot about anything. in general, they are "OUT OF THE GD LOOP" when it comes to understanding worldwide things like the fking INTERNET!!??! they know a little about a lot.

   

anyway, each congressperson was given four minutes to ask zuckerberg questions about what happened.

   

the LARGE majority wasted these minutes with grandstanding. only a handful seemed to have an inkling of what the real reach and danger and anti-American stance that FACEBOOK has against the united states.

   

so instead of gathering relevant testimony and commitment from FACEBOOK on super important legal issues regarding citizenship protection and unethical information exchange, they paraded themselves for THEIR fake american constituent's votes. it was DISGUSTING. how fking shallow bipartisan azzhoes really are.

   

instead of REPRESENTING AMERICA, they represented their own careers.

   

and honestly, every single person on MEDZ or overeating or over drinking these days is acting like an ANTI-AMERICAN. supremacy is also a form of ANTI-AMERICANISM.

   

we've reached a point where our daily choices are becoming ANTI-AMERICAN and in violation of other citizens' rights to be free. but i guess we don't see it clearly, mostly.

   

in the city, it is much more obvious. especially a FAKE SANCTUARY city like san francisco, the sanctuary is REALLY being given to the monied and the foreign investors, not the locals. it's a FAKE moniker for investors, not a representation of anything more. but most people are like these congresspeople -- out to get more votes from their base. but that's not AMERICAN. that's just regional self-interest.

   

thankfully, there were a few exceptions and those ones were AWESOME to hear. they were incredibly revealing. and it is clear that their voices are being thrown out. so that's a drag, but you can't really stop FACEBOOK. they are not a social platform. they are the world's largest company and they fund TONS of stuff around the globe.

   

for example, FACEBOOK is going to have the largest WORLDWIDE "counterterrorism" team. already there team is competitive with world powers. soon, they will be larger than any nation's.

   

now, those of us who are in the know, well, we KNOW that the COUNTERTERRORISTS are the real terrorists.

   

if you listen to the 9/11 commission report you would know this, too. or, if you listened to anything the islamic world is saying you'd know this, too. but i already know you don't listen to those people.

   

doesn't change the truth -- the COUNTERRERRORISTS are the real terrorists.

   

so now FACEBOOK will be the leading force in this deception.

   

already they have over 200 people working full time in 30 different languages in counterterrorism.

   

if you don't get what this means, you should go read my facebook farewell that i wrote about two years ago when i stopped contributing to the largest surveillance system ever built and used against humanity.

   

i had written a similar program concept in the 90s. it was called CYBERBUDDY.

   

the idea was you would input your info into a program (we call them apps now) that tracked your emotional and physical world by remembering everything you input and being able to remind you of things -- how you felt about others, what had happened and what others had done to you.

   

and, as all the social media programs do, it would have a backside that was constantly selling your information to buyers.

   

but the user never knew this.

   

anyway, that's exactly what FACEBOOK did. and let's be honest, FACEBOOK was CHOSEN.

   

it's not that great.

  

there were way better platform possibilities. but the world cartels needed something legit, so they chose the HARVARD-based platform. and it worked. they inserted the most deviant and self-revealing and WORSE betraying platform known to humans.

   

this congressperson is holding up a chart. it shows FACEBOOK's profits.

   

they are escalating exponentially. from 1 billion in 2006 to 26 billion in 2016 and then WATCH THE FKING LEAP!!!!

   

40 BILLION dollars in 2017.

   

buy now. you won't be crying later.

   

anyway, zuckerberg intends to have more than 20,000 people working on counterterrorism within a year or so. they are also building an endless array of surveillance and algorithmic tools that will affect ALL world trade. they are also deeply involved in ARTIFICIAL INTELLIGENCE development.

   

basically, if you wanted an anti christ of jewish origins, you are looking at the rise of the kingship. but if you're not scared and don't go that way right away, dip into OVERHEAD STUDIES to see just how amazingly controlling all of this is when you also have KILL DRONES and security enforcement.

   

already OVERHEAD STUDIES are being used against the u.s. population to imprison us.

   

anyway, for most people this will seem crazy and like a new gibberish. so be it.

   

i started to take notes about a third of the way into process when i started to get a feel for how the "hearings" work. it was new for me, but i'll post the transcript of my notes which are a lot of actual transcriptting.

   

the republicans are all for it and that's why you should bet on FACEBOOK. especially since the majority of FACEBOOK's users are and will be NOT from america. so our "opinion" of this is just that.

   

FACEBOOK is bigger than the u.s. government and for the record, the whole counterterrorism surveillance team works from outside the u.s.

   

where there are different laws...

   

okay, so here's the transcript which i LAUGHINGLY call:

   

CONGRESS MAN, YES

  

because this is the tactic zuckerberg and his lawyers realized was the WINNING COMBO.

   

who knew congresspeople were so fking stupid? especially from the stupid states. geez.

   

no wonder so many extra-foreigners are making a bid at stealing so much of the united states' property.

  

it must be fking easy with so many dum fks.

   

and to those congress people who used this momentous occasion to further their careers instead of protecting the american public, FKU!!!!!

   

*********************************

   

PRESS PLAY

  

no stars

  

figures on a beach

   

the partial notes:

   

CONGRESSMAN, YES

   

i would love to be a congressperson, but to be one, i would have to not understand any of this. so why are they “representing” us??!?!?!

   

zuckerbergs tactics.

   

agree with the person.

  

deflect away from the topic by using their weakness and lack of knowledge.

  

obscure the truth. pretend you’re not a MASSIVE CONGLOMERATE but a calendar site for connecting people’s lives HALLMARK.

   

once zuckerberg figures out how to run the clock down, he takes over everytime.

   

some senators (usually republican) have long winded and meaningless monologues followed by easy to answer questions of no importance except to wind the four minute clock down.

   

20K employees for content control.

   

some senators (usually democratic) try to get him to answer YES OR NO questions. his tactic for stalling in this case is deflect back to their misunderstanding of the precise language or meaning. it makes them look dumb (a lot of the are and don’t understand why FACEBOOK is such a walking/talking front for a secret information and collection agency as well as worldwide product mouthpiece)

   

the best questions take all four minutes and then zuckerberg can deflect easily. fk that!!!

   

NOT A SINGLE CONGRESS PERSON (well, maybe one, but he petered out oddly) got through their questions. most had MANY left and were forced to “submit” them for consideration. BULLSHIT!!!!

   

SMASHFACE his “prank” site.

   

"we’re getting ready to overreact”

  

we do nothing or we overreact!

  

you need to save your ship?

   

diamond and silk. african american women.

  

what is unsafe about two women supporting donald trump?

   

mr. schrader from oregon.

   

do you delete and save.

  

yes.. all things saved.

  

document retention policy.

  

preserve mails/conversations

  

testified that you don’t sell information.

  

but others do. aren’t you complicit?

  

"complaint only” enforcement.

   

kennedy democrat

   

wasted the whole time trying to explain himself.

  

“i’m sorry, i don’t understand your question.”

  

targeting options are shared likes. shared by facebook.

  

ad ranking. meta data. behaviors. newsfeed. relevancy vs. GIVING to advertisers.

  

how do people then “own” their own data?

  

then gets lost in the process and time runs out.

  

part of the rub

  

second you focus the individual instead of societal impact… you’re out of time.

  

but news and media. blah blah blah

   

mr flores. texas

   

large oil company monopoly 1800s 1900s

  

telecom company monopoly in the70s

  

thanks for being good.

  

wasted the whole time with a bizarre lecture.

  

conservatives are mad about BIAS.

  

they can’t see past their stupidity.

   

policy responses.

  

ideological agnosticism regarding their users public facing activities

  

finally, some questions. do you believe FACEBOOK SHOULD BE IDEOLOGICALLY NEUTRAL?

   

i agree we should be a platform for all ideas. [cuts him off and moves to next question. bam! yeah!!

   

with respect to privacy we need a baseline when we talk about a virtual person, name address websites visited, picture, etc. ownership issue is the individual’s creation.

   

they own it.

  

do you agree.

  

yes.

   

use of data issue and full disclosure for unlimited time.

  

easy understand.

   

runs out of time.

   

california

  

mr cardenas

  

biggest business model and totally unregulated.

  

shows shareholder revenues table

  

2009 net revenue less than a billion dollars

  

26 billion for 2016

  

40 billion dollars for 2017

  

CEO of cambridge analytica stepped down during the meeting.

  

does that solve the issue around the controversy.

  

no, two issues. how were they able to buy data from a developer that people chose to share it with? but some of the info originated on facebook.

  

people had it on facebook and CHOSE to share their AND their friend’s information…

  

question:

  

buy information to add or augment to build around them their profile.

   

we just recently announced that we’ve stopped working with data brokers as part of the ad system.

  

yes, standard practice.

  

you did engage in it.

  

yes. until we announced we were shutting it did.

   

facebook threatened to sue the guardian if it revelaed the cambridge analytica story.

  

hey maybe you don’t want to do that.

   

“there may have been an specific factual inaccuracy.”

  

however they did go through with it regardless.

  

then ONLY then did facebook apologize for 89 million users info ending up in other people’s hands.

  

  

it’s time that you FACEBOOK want to be a leader and american you can be a leader.

  

are you committed to being a leader. you can in fact do right by users of facebook.

   

time’s out. two second answer?

   

"i am definitely committed to taking a broader review of our responsibility. not so that we don’t just give people tools but so they are used for good.”

   

first five or ten minute , ten minute recess.

  

5;40

   

TWENTY FUCKING MINUTES LATER…

   

mre. brooks indiana

  

platform of facebook and other platforms help keep us safe from terrorists and recruitment of women and children to join terrorist organizations.

  

facebook didn’t exist before 9/11

  

isis and al acaida use these platforms.

  

terrorism recruitment.

  

now terrorists use social media.

  

then you talked about dangerous or objectionable content needing to be reported but what if they don’t? what if people just assume that someone else is reporting.

  

what is the leadership role of facebook, our role in stopping recruitment.

  

thank you for the question. there is no place for that in our network.

  

we’ve developed a number of tools so that 99% of isis and al acaida is flagged before we even see it.

  

we’re proud of it as a model for removing "harmful content".

  

as of march 29th there were ISIS videos, executions,

  

april 9th five pages of hezbollah content

  

what is the mechanism?

  

is it AI

  

2-0K people?

  

what are you using.

   

this is just within a week.

   

counter terrorism team at facebook with 200 people.

  

other content reviewers not in the 200.

   

NCTC produces analysis, maintains the authoritative database of known and suspected terrorists, shares information, and conducts strategic operational planning. NCTC is staffed by more than 1,000 personnel from across the IC, the Federal government, and Federal contractors. NCTC’s workforce represents approximately 20 different departments and agencies—a tribute to the recognition by the intelligence, homeland security, and law enforcement communities of NCTC’s role in protecting the Nation against terrorist threats.

   

just focused on counter terrorism.

  

30 languages.

  

AI tools in development

  

proactively flag content and sources

   

owns wassap? .

   

how are they helping the to stop the recruiting.

   

WOW BACK TO THE ORIGINAL POINTS : WHAT THE FUCK IS FACEBOOK?!?!?

   

cue WILD WILD COUNTRY

   

correction plea: whether web blogs would be able to download your info. they are not we only store them temporarily. we convert them into ad interests. which can be controlled.

   

mr. ruiz

  

D california

  

“i’m also taking a ‘broad’ view…”

  

what went wrong here and what can be better to protect users?

  

why did facebook NOT notify the FTC in 2015 when you first discovered this happened and did your legal company say you were under no responsibility?

  

didn’t believe it was a legal obligation.

  

does facebook need the trust of its users.

  

is this a weakness that you are not required to report a violation.

  

broader view of responsibilities of responsibility.

  

what about other CEOs.

  

two days of head the fTc doesn’t have the correct tools and we can’t rely on companies.

   

would it be helpful if there is an entity to oversee?

  

details matter. agency or law

   

we’re realizing there’s a lot of holes in the system.

  

no one can monitor.

   

both look forward to following up.

   

mr. mullin oklahoma

   

i prefer you use the term congress man or woman.

  

commend zuckerberg for seeing things through its growth period.

  

very talented.

  

and hiring the right people who “get the job done”.

  

isn’t it the consumer’s responsibility to control the content they release.

   

i agree with what you’re saying.

  

do the device settings really protect the information?

  

as a user of facebook how can someone control content in a realm without it being collected.

  

you collect info for that purpose

  

yes we do that so the “ad experience” can be more useful the advertisers and the users.

  

value base.

  

but if i’m a customer how do i keep that from happening.

  

yes there is a setting.

  

you can turn that off and we won’t do it.

  

we offer a lot of settings in every way from content to interests to search results, sign ins to alternate apps.

  

we try to make the controls easy.. it’s a broad service.

  

so they can contersfigure it the way they want.

   

TIME

   

california

  

mr.peters E

  

technology has outpaced the law.

  

iwant to take you at your word that you value personal privacy.

  

know that pirvacy protection is not a bottom line issue.

  

shareholders. it doesn’t drive profits and it may interfere with profits.

  

would it not be appropriate when we define this duty to assess financial penalties to the company.

  

it’s something we could consider, but i’d push back on the idea that their’s a conflict between what people want and business interests.

  

i think a lot of these hard decisions come down to different people with different interests. people want to bring their AND friends info. others want it locked down. it’s not a business question it’s which interests do you weigh more.

  

what did the europeans get right about regulations?

  

they’re a lot of things the europeans do.

  

the gdpr is a positive step for the internet and codifies many things.

  

making them visible and affirmative consent is good and more should be done.

  

what did they get wrong.

  

i need to thank about that more.

  

submit it in writing.

  

might have actually finished his questions before 4 minutes. either way, he doesn’t appear to pursue his time until its end.

   

mr. hudson north carolina

  

ft bragg

  

thanks for dropping by.

  

men are prohibited from having social media profiles.

  

we learned each one was hacked.

  

almost asking to be hacked.

  

are you aware of the security concerns that creates.

  

i’m not specifically aware of that threat.

  

there are many issues we focus on and try to take a broad view of that.

  

collusion with the intelligence community would be good.

  

i’d love to follow up on that.

  

you say facebook is a platform for all ideas.

  

but it doesn’t seem like christian beliefs and conservative beliefs.

  

diamond and silk come up again.

  

this is a very serious concern.

  

i asked my constituents on facebook today and they all wanted to know about personal privacy. i think there is an issue you need to deal with and you recognize this based on your testimony today.

  

what is the standard that facebook uses to determine what is offensive or controversial

  

a couple of standards.

  

strongest one is physical harm or threats are first.

  

but then there is a broader form of hate speech or broadly uncomfortable speech.

  

isn’t that difficult to define? what standards does facebook use to try to determine what is hate speech vs. speech you may just disagree with?

   

time runs out.

   

new york

  

mister collins R

  

thank you coming.

  

you don’t know what you know until you know it.

  

facebook doesn’t sell data.

  

now we all know you don’t sell data.

  

we’re all here because a third party app developer broke the rules.

  

it’s hard to anticipate a bad actor.

  

clearly you took actions after 2014.

  

what did change?

  

before the change someone could share info about their friends.

  

then we said you can’t.

  

more praises.

  

who is going to protect us from facebook?

  

i thought it was an out of bounds kind of comment.

  

you’re doing good and i sincerely know in my heart you believe in keeping things equal.

  

you have 27K employees.

  

operating under a consent decree.

  

so when someone said do we need more legislation.

  

i said no.

  

he’s doing the best he can with 27K people.

  

i think it was beneficial.

  

we don’t need legislation.

  

we now know things we didn’t know beforehand.

   

mr Wahlberg

  

michigan R

   

thank you mister zuckerberg.

  

listened to both sides of the aisle.

  

three starter questions.

  

who were the bad actors?

  

i don’t remember the specifics of early on.

  

we saw app developers who asked for permission to see stuff.

  

content.

  

we should review these apps and they should only have a reason to access it.

  

stopped bringing friends’ info.

  

secondly, can facebook insure that every single app is not misusing their data?

  

it would be difficult to ever guaranty to say there are no bad actors.

  

every problem around security is an arms’ race where people abuse systems.

  

our responsibility is to make that as hard as possible for a company of our scale and it is growing with our scale.

  

that’s a good answer. it’s honest. LOL FKING LOUD you stoopid fk. your brain is childish. how can you be a congress person?!?!?

  

thirdly, can you assure me that ads and content are not being denied based on particular views.

  

congressman yes, politically.

  

i hear political speech.

  

we certainly won’t be advertising terrorists.

  

screeengrab of an ad that contained shocking or distasteful + violence.

  

it was an “algorithm” problem.

  

it was pro-life.

  

that causes us some concerns.

  

light touch in regulation.

  

time.

   

mrs walters

  

california R

  

misuse of consumer data and what controls users have over their info.

  

you have indicated they have granular control over their own content.

  

she asks the most basic question.

  

it’s a time waster. she doesn’t understand the app.

  

but sadly, she’s so serious. so dum.

  

her second question doesn’t even seem like a question of relevance. she says that california has been heralded by many on this committee for its privacy initiatives and yet given that you and tech companies are in california and we’re still experiencing privacy issues how do you square the two?

  

i think privacy is not something that you can ever...

  

it’s it’s our understanding of the issues and people as the interact online only grows over time and we’ll adjust to social norms or we’ll put rules into place…

   

TIME

   

merl dingell

  

michigan

   

married to the king o twitter.

  

four hours.

  

some striking things.

  

you didn’t know key facts for a CEO

  

you didn’t know about major court cases regarding your privacy policies against your company.

  

you didn’t know that the FTC doesn’t have fining authority and that facebook couldn’t have recieved fines for the 2011 consent order .

  

you didn’t know what a shadow profile was.

  

you didn’t know how many apps you need to audit.

  

you didn’t know how many firms had been sold data by dr. culgan other than cambridge analytica.

  

and yes we were all paying attention yesterday.

  

you don’t even know all the information facebook is collecting from its users.

  

you have trackers all over the world.

  

on most of the sites we see the facebook like and share buttons.

  

and with the facebook pixel people may not even see the logo.

  

it doesn’t matter if you have those tools facebook is able to collect info from all of us.

   

so i want to ask you:

  

how many facebook buttons are on non-facebook pages?

  

congresswoman i don’t know the answer off the top of my head but we’ll get back to you.

  

is the number over one hundred million?

  

i believe we have served the like button on more pages than that. but i don’t know the number that have the like buttons on actively.

  

how many chunks of non pixel code are there on non-facebook pages?

  

congress woman you are asking for specific stats that i don’t have off the top of my head but we can follow up.

  

could we get that back in 72 hours.

  

transparency.

  

do you know now whether there were fourth parties involved?

  

are you hiding the truth that has taken three years to appear.

  

i am convinced there are others out there.

  

we are going to try to find the fourth parties.

  

we will ban them from the platform and take action that they delete the data.

  

and you will make it public.

  

yes.

  

like water and air we need clear rules.

   

mr. costello

  

pennsylvania R

   

echoes the idiot’s comments — dumshit collins from ny.

  

they probably get kickback from the same tong.

  

we americans have a non codified idea about our privacy rights.

  

how do we make them understandable?

  

first, if you look at gdpr what pieces do you feel would fit in american juris prudence.

  

not just you but smaller companies as well.

  

well, making sure people have control over what they are sharing. and to be able to delete it. second, people should have the tools to make decisions. third piece is that some sensitive technolidies like face recognition that your get special consent for. if we make it too hard we will lose to innovative countries. like china.

  

do you believe that you should be able to use AI with a non facebook user?

  

that’s a good question and we should probably have control over it and we’re going to ask people around the world in our upcoming push.

  

in general for sensitive technologies you do want consent.

  

is facebook EVER a publisher in your mind as the term is legally used.

  

how is the term leagally used?

  

would you ever be responsible for the content you put onto your platform?

  

yes. but the vast majority of content on facebook isn’t commissioned or posted by facebook.

  

runs out of time while asking how the data might be slighted .

   

georgiaR

  

mister carter

   

did you know that 91 people die every day from opioid addiction.

  

2 and half million addicted.

  

it’s bringing the life expectancy down.

  

i ask you this because you have ads for illicit drugs and your responsibility.

  

will you help.

  

yes i will.

  

did you know there are groups that have provided evidence that ivory is traded on facebook.

  

i was not aware of that

  

some conservation groups claim that facebook is contributing to the extinction of the elephant.

  

did you know that piracy of movies is challenging their profits.

  

i believe that has been an issue for a long time.

  

so you did know.

  

hate speech may be difficult but these things are not.

  

i don’t want to legislate morality but we need a commitment from you that you will help us.

  

you want to see a mess, let the federal government into this!

  

more than 20, 000 people will be working on security and content review and we need to build more tools, too.

   

duncan carolinaR

   

been on facebook since 2007

  

it’s like a downhill in real time.

  

great staff.

  

so i asked my facebook crowd and they want to know about being discriminated.

   

user privacy and censorship.

  

first amendment is cited.

  

why not have a community standard for the community that is a mirror of the first amendment without algorithms that have a viewpoint that is neutral.

  

well we don’t want to spread allowed hate. if you care about safety we don’t want people to spread info that can cause harm. allow the broadest spectrum

  

pontificating congress man continues to please and confuse himself.

  

ends with what will you do to assure the user that they are treated equally.

  

well, i think we make a lot of mistakes in content review that don’t focus on one political persuasion. i think it’s unfortunate when that happens because the people think it’s focused on them.

  

thanks facebook and concludes.

   

mr, cramer

  

north dakota R

   

we need to make sure we don’t overreact.

  

this is an important national discussion.

  

the consumer and industry or other companies share a responsibility.

  

but your answer weren’t reassuring about drug sites.

  

can’t you give it your best?

  

can’t you make taking down drugs more important?

  

its certainly far more dangerous than a couple of xian women being discriminated against.

  

yes congressman, we are making efforts.

  

unfortunately the enforcement isn’t perfect.

  

i don’t expect it to be perfect but i expect it to be a higher thought.

  

you need to have less liberal content reviewers.

  

you should look in the middle of the north american continent.

  

come to bismarck north dakota.

  

we’re common sensical and more diverse than maybe even facebook.

  

maybe we could have a nice big center somewhere?

  

we republicans don’t want the web hyper regulated.

  

don’ you think you should have privacy protection.

  

well, first, the majority of our content reviewers are not in silicon valley they are around the world in different places.

  

for net neutrality i think there is a big difference between internet providers and the platforms on top of them.

  

the big reason that well, i think about my own experience.

  

i only had one provider.

  

platforms there are just many more.

  

the average american uses 8 apps.

  

there are more choices.

  

they can reach large scale.

   

they close saying that they wan to look into more of the topics.

  

like they’ve all had their first internet class in social media platforms.

  

they thank him.

  

they appreciate his answers.

  

they will submit more questions in writing.

  

the aclu submits a letter and so do a bunch of other groups.

  

it’s a long list.

   

answer them within ten days of receipt.

  

ten days for questions to be submitted.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indus_River

 

The Indus River (Sanskrit सिन्धु Sindhu,; Urdu: سندھ Sindh; Sindhi: سندھو Sindhu; Punjabi سندھ Sindh; Hindko سندھ Sindh; Avestan: حندو Harahauvati; Pashto: ّآباسن Abasin "Father of Rivers"; Persian: Nilou (رود سند) "Hindu"; Arabic: السند‎ "Al-Sind"; Tibetan: Sênggê Zangbo (སེང་གེ།་གཙང་པོ་) "Lion River"; Chinese: 森格藏布/狮泉河/印度河, Sēngé Zàngbù/Shīquán Hé/Yìndù Hé; Greek: Ινδός Indos;Turki: Nilab) is the longest river in Pakistan and the twenty-first largest river in the world in terms of annual flow. It is often considered the life-line of Pakistan. The Europeans used the name "India" for the entire South Asian subcontinent based on Indos, the Greek appellation of this river. Historically significant, the river is at the crux of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization.

Originating in the Tibetan plateau in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar in Tibet Autonomous Region, the National River runs a course through the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir and then enters Northern Areas (Gilgit-Baltistan), flowing through the North in a southerly direction along the entire length of the country, to merge into the Arabian Sea near Pakistan's port city of Karachi in Sindh. The total length of the river is 3,180 kilometers (1,976 miles). The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1,165,000 square kilometers (450,000 square miles). The river's estimated annual flow stands at around 207 cubic kilometers. Beginning at the heights of the world with glaciers, the river feeds the ecosystem of temperate forests, plains and arid countryside. Together with the rivers Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, Jhelum, Beas and two tributaries from the North West Frontier and Afghanistan, the Indus forms the Sapta Sindhu (Seven Rivers) delta of Pakistan.

 

Description

 

The Indus provides the key water resources for the economy of Pakistan - especially the Breadbasket of Punjab province, which accounts for most of the nation's agricultural production, and Sindh. The word Punjab is a combination of the Sanskrit words panj meaning Five, and āb meaning Water, giving the literal meaning of the Land of the Five Rivers. The Five rivers after which Punjab is named are the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and the Sutlej. The river also supports many heavy industries and provides the main supply of potable water in Pakistan.

The ultimate source of the Indus is in Tibet; it begins at the confluence of the Sengge and Gar rivers that drain the Nganglong Kangri and Gangdise Shan mountain ranges. The Indus then flows northwest through Ladakh and Baltistan into Gilgit, just south of the Karakoram range. The Shyok River, Shigar and Gilgit streams carry glacial waters into the main river. It gradually bends to the south, coming out of the hills between Peshawar and Rawalpindi. The Indus passes gigantic gorges 4,500-5,200 metres (15,000-17,000 feet) high near the Nanga Parbat massif. It flows swiftly across Hazara, and is dammed at the Tarbela Reservoir. The Kabul River joins it near Attock. The remainder of its route to the sea is in plains of the Punjab and Sindh, and the river becomes slow-flowing and highly braided. It is joined by Panjnad River at Mithankot. Beyond this confluence, the river, at one time, was named Satnad River (Sat = seven, Nadi = river), as the river was now carrying the waters of the Kabul River, the Indus River and the five Punjab rivers. Passing by Jamshoro, it ends in a large delta to the east of Thatta.

The Indus is one of the few rivers in the world that exhibit a tidal bore. The Indus system is largely fed by the snows and glaciers of the Himalayas, Karakoram and the Hindu Kush ranges of Tibet, the state of Jammu and Kashmir and the Northern Areas of Pakistan respectively. The flow of the river is also determined by the seasons - it diminishes greatly in the winter, while flooding its banks in the monsoon months from July to September. There is also evidence of a steady shift in the course of the river since prehistoric times - it deviated westwards from flowing into the Rann of Kutch and adjoining Banni grasslands after the 1816 earthquake[1][2].

Effects of climate change on the river

The Tibetan Plateau contains the world's third-largest store of ice. Qin Dahe, the former head of the China Meteorological Administration, said that the recent fast pace of melting and warmer temperatures will be good for agriculture and tourism in the short term; but issued a strong warning:

"Temperatures are rising four times faster than elsewhere in China, and the Tibetan glaciers are retreating at a higher speed than in any other part of the world.... In the short term, this will cause lakes to expand and bring floods and mudflows. . . . In the long run, the glaciers are vital lifelines for Asian rivers, including the Indus and the Ganges. Once they vanish, water supplies in those regions will be in peril."[3]

“There is insufficient data to say what will happen to the Indus,” says David Grey, the World Bank’s senior water advisor in South Asia. “But we all have very nasty fears that the flows of the Indus could be severely, severely affected by glacier melt as a consequence of climate change,” and reduced by perhaps as much as 50 percent. “Now what does that mean to a population that lives in a desert [where], without the river, there would be no life? I don’t know the answer to that question,” he says. “But we need to be concerned about that. Deeply, deeply concerned.” [4]

 

History

 

Paleolithic sites have been discovered in Pothohar near Pakistan's capital Islamabad, with the stone tools of the Soan Culture. In ancient Gandhara, near Islamabad, evidence of cave dwellers dated 15,000 years ago has been discovered at Mardan.

The major cities of the Indus Valley Civilization, such as Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, date back to around 3300 BC, and represent some of the largest human habitations of the ancient world. The Indus Valley Civilization extended from Balochistan to Gujarat, with an upward reach from east of Jhelum River to Ropar on the upper Sutlej. The coastal settlements extended from Sutkagan Dor at the Iranian border to Lothal in Gujarat. There is an Indus site on the Amu Darya at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan, and the Indus site Alamgirpur at the Hindon River is located only 28 km from Delhi. To date, over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and its tributaries. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal, Dholavira, Ganeriwala, and Rakhigarhi. Only 90-96 of the over-800 known Indus Valley sites have been discovered on the Indus and its tributaries. The Sutlej, now a tributary of the Indus, in Harappan times flowed into the Ghaggar-Hakra River, in the watershed of which were more Harappan sites than along the Indus.

Most scholars believe that settlements of Gandhara grave culture of the early Indo-Aryans flourished in Gandhara from 1700 BC to 600 BC, when Mohenjo-daro and Harappa had already been abandoned.

The name Indus is a Latinization of Hindu, in turn the Iranian variant of Sindhu, the name of the Indus in the Rigveda. The Sanskrit Sindhu generically means river, stream, ocean, probably from a root sidh meaning to keep off; Sindhu is attested 176 times in the Rigveda, 95 times in the plural, more often used in the generic meaning. Already in the Rigveda, notably in the later hymns, the meaning of the word is narrowed to refer to the Indus river in particular, for example in the list of rivers of the Nadistuti sukta. This resulted in the anomaly of a river with masculine gender: all other Rigvedic rivers are female, not just grammatically, being imagined as goddesses and compared to cows and mares yielding milk and butter.

The Indus has formed a natural boundary between the Indian Subcontinent hinterland and its frontier with the Iranian Plateau, a region which includes Pakistan's Balochistan, North West Frontier Province as well as Afghanistan, Tajikistan and Iran. It has been crossed by the armies of Alexander the Great - His Macedonian forces retreated along the southern course of the river at the end of the Asian campaign after conquering what is now Pakistan and joining it to the Hellenic Empire. The Indus plains have also been under the domination of the Persian empire and the Kushan empire. The Muslim armies of Muhammad bin Qasim, Mahmud of Ghazni, Mohammed Ghori, Tamerlane and Babur also crossed the river to strike into the inner regions of Punjab , Rajasthan and Gujarat.

The word "India" is derived from the Indus River. In ancient times, "India" initially referred to the region of modern-day Pakistan along the Indus river, but by 300 BC, Greek writers like Megasthenes applied the term to the entire subcontinent.[5] :)

 

Geography

 

Tributaries

 

•Astor River

•Balram River

•Gar River

•Ghizar River

•Gilgit River

•Gumal River

•Kabul River

•Panjnad

•Shigar River

•Shyok River

•Suru River

•Swaan River

•Tanubal River

•Zanskar River

Geology

 

The Indus River feeds the Indus submarine fan located in the Indian Ocean, which is the second largest sediment body on the Earth at around 5 million cubic kilometres of material eroded from the mountains. Studies of the sediment in the modern river indicate that the Karakoram Mountains in northern Pakistan are the single most important source of material, with the Himalayas providing the next largest contribution, mostly via the large rivers of the Punjab (i.e., the Jhelum, Ravi, Chenab, Beas and the Sutlej). Analysis of sediments from the Arabian Sea has demonstrated that prior to five million years ago the Indus was not connected to these Punjab rivers which instead flowed east into the Ganga and were captured after that time[6]. Earlier work showed that sand and silt from western Tibet was reaching the Arabian Sea by 45 million years ago, implying the existence of an ancient Indus River by that time[7]. The delta of this proto-Indus river has subsequently been found in the Katawaz Basin, on the Afghan-Pakistan border. Most recently the Indus was paralleled by the ancient Saraswati River, which the Rigveda suggests flowed from the Himalayas between the Sutlej and the Yamuna Rivers, close to modern day Chandigarh.

In the Nanga Parbat region, the massive amounts of erosion due to the Indus river following the capture and rerouting through that area is thought to bring middle and lower crustal rocks to the surface[8].

 

Wildlife

 

Accounts of the Indus valley from the times of Alexander's campaign indicate a healthy forest cover in the region, which has now considerably receded. The Mughal Emperor Babur writes of encountering rhinoceroses along its bank in his memoirs (the Baburnama). Extensive deforestation and human interference in the ecology of the Shivalik Hills has led to a marked deterioration in vegetation and growing conditions. The Indus valley regions are arid with poor vegetation. Agriculture is sustained largely due to irrigation works.

The Blind Indus River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor) is a sub-species of Dolphins found only in the Indus River. It formerly also occurred in the tributaries of the Indus river. Palla fish (Hilsa) of the river is a delicacy for people living along the river. The population of fishes in the river is moderately high, with Sukkur, Thatta and Kotri being the major fishing centres - all in the lower Sindh course. But damming and irrigation has made fish farming an important economic activity. Located southeast of Karachi, the large delta has been recognised by conservationists as one of the world's most important ecological regions. Here the river turns into many marshes, streams and creeks and meets the sea at shallow levels. Here marine fishes are found in abundance, including Pomfret and Prawns

 

Economy

 

The Indus is the most important supplier of water resources to the Punjab and Sindh plains - it forms the backbone of agriculture and food production in Pakistan. The river is especially critical as rainfall is meagre in the lower Indus valley. Irrigation canals were first built by the people of the Indus valley civilization, and later by the engineers of the Kushan Empire and the Mughal Empire. Modern irrigation was introduced by the British East India Company in 1850 - the construction of modern canals accompanied with the restoration of old canals. The British supervised the construction of one of the most complex irrigation networks in the world. The Guddu Barrage is 1,350 metres (4,450 ft) long - irrigating Sukkur, Jacobabad, Larkana and Kalat. The Sukkur Barrage serves over 20,000 square kilometres (5,000,000 acres).

After the independence of Pakistan, a water control treaty signed between India and Pakistan in 1960 guaranteed that Pakistan would receive water from the Indus River and its two western tributaries, the Jhelum River & the Chenab River independent of upstream control by India.[9] The project, Indus Basin Project, consisted primarily of the construction of two main dams, the Mangla Dam built on the Jhelum River and the Tarbela Dam constructed on the Indus River, together with their subsidiary dams.[10] The Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority undertook the construction of the Chashma-Jhelum link canal - linking the waters of the Indus and Jhelum rivers - extending water supplies to the regions of Bahawalpur and Multan. Pakistan constructed the Tarbela Dam near Rawalpindi - standing 2743 metres (9,000 ft) long and 143 metres (470 ft) high, with an 80 kilometre (50 mile) long reservoir. The Kotri Barrage near Hyderabad is 915 metres (3,000 ft) long and provides additional supplies for Karachi. The Taunsa Barrage near Dera Ghazi Khan produces 100,000 kilowatts of electricity. The extensive linking of tributaries with the Indus has helped spread water resources to the valley of Peshawar, in the North-West Frontier Province. The extensive irrigation and dam projects provide the basis for Pakistan's large production of crops such as cotton, sugarcane and wheat. The dams also generate electricity for heavy industries and urban centres.

 

People

 

The inhabitants of the regions through whom the Indus river passes and forms a major natural feature and resource are diverse in ethnicity, religion, national and linguistic backgrounds. On the northern course of the river in the state of Jammu and Kashmir live the Buddhist people of Ladakh, of Tibetan stock, and the Dards of Indo-Aryan or Dardic stock and practising Buddhism and Islam. Then it descends into Baltistan, northern Pakistan passing the main Balti city of Skardu. As it continues through Pakistan, the Indus river forms a distinctive boundary of ethnicity and cultures - upon the western banks the population is largely Pashtun, Baloch, and of other Iranian stock, with close cultural, economic and ethnic ties to Afghanistan and Iran. The eastern banks are largely populated by peoples of Indo-Aryan stock, such as the Punjabis, the Sindhis and the Seraikis. In northern Punjab and the North-West Frontier Province, ethnic Pashtun tribes live alongside Dardic people in the hills (Khowar, Kalash, Shina, etc.), Burushos (in Hunza), and Punjabi people. In the southern portion of the Punjab province, the Saraiki peoples speak a distinctive tongue and practise distinctive traditions. In the province of Sindh, peoples of Sindhi backgrounds form the local populations. Upon the western banks of the river live the Baloch and Pashtun peoples of Balochistan.

  

Modern issues

 

The Indus is a strategically vital resource for Pakistan's economy and society. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the use of the waters of the Indus and its five eastern tributaries became a major dispute between India and Pakistan. The irrigation canals of the Sutlej valley and the Bari Doab were split - with the canals lying primarily in Pakistan and the headwork dams in India disrupting supply in some parts of Pakistan. The concern over India building large dams over various Punjab rivers that could undercut the supply flowing to Pakistan, as well as the possibility that India could divert rivers in the time of war, caused political consternation in Pakistan. Holding diplomatic talks brokered by the World Bank, India and Pakistan signed the Indus Waters Treaty in 1960. The treaty gave India control of the three easternmost rivers of the Punjab, the Sutlej, the Beas and the Ravi, while Pakistan gained control of the three western rivers, the Jhelum, the Chenab and the Indus. India retained the right to use of the western rivers for non irrigation projects. (See discussion regarding a recent dispute about a hydroelectric project on the Chenab (not Indus) known as the Baglihar Project).

Hindu pilgrimage to holy sites alongside the river has been a source of conflict between the two nations. Pakistan and India do not generally allow each others' citizens to cross borders for religious pilgrimages, other than Sikhs who travel to Pakistan for their annual pilgrimage.

There are concerns that extensive deforestation, industrial pollution and global warming are affecting the vegetation and wildlife of the Indus delta, while affecting agricultural production as well. There are also concerns that the Indus river may be shifting its course westwards - although the progression spans centuries. On numerous occasions, sediment clogging owing to poor maintenance of canals has affected agricultural production and vegetation. In addition, extreme heat has caused water to evaporate, leaving salt deposits that render lands useless for cultivation.

More recently and within Pakistan, the province of Punjab is seeking to cut off the flow of the river downstream to Sindh by building dams within its provincial limits in the face of opposition from the people of Sindh, storage reservoirs used to produce the bulk of food consumed by millions of Pakistanis nationwide as well as providing cheap hydel power to the country's national electric grid system.

 

White Night Ballarat 2018 - Mining Exchange Ballarat, Australia

 

The Mining Exchange building was constructed in Lydiard Street, Ballarat in 1887-9. Foundation stones for this building, the Fine Art Gallery and the Old Colonists Association building, all in this section of Lydiard Street, were laid on 21 June 1887, Queen Victoria's Jubilee Day. It was designed by the local architect C. D. Figgis, and replaced an earlier stock exchange established at the corner of Sturt and Lydiard Streets. As early as 1857, the buying and selling of shares took place as a result of the formation of mining companies, necessary to finance the costly deep sinking of mines. Groups combined to provide funds and shares were made available to the general public. As a result a new class of person arose whose livelihood was in the dealing of shares.

 

The Mining Exchange building comprises a two storey block of shops at the front and a large single storey exchange hall at the rear. A central entrance in the symmetrical front facade leads to the main exchange hall, which is itself flanked internally by arcaded brokers' booths with arched clerestorey windows above, and a call room at the rear.

 

431A1253

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Indus_River

 

The Indus River (Sanskrit सिन्धु Sindhu,; Urdu: سندھ Sindh; Sindhi: سندھو Sindhu; Punjabi سندھ Sindh; Hindko سندھ Sindh; Avestan: حندو Harahauvati; Pashto: ّآباسن Abasin "Father of Rivers"; Persian: Nilou (رود سند) "Hindu"; Arabic: السند‎ "Al-Sind"; Tibetan: Sênggê Zangbo (སེང་གེ།་གཙང་པོ་) "Lion River"; Chinese: 森格藏布/狮泉河/印度河, Sēngé Zàngbù/Shīquán Hé/Yìndù Hé; Greek: Ινδός Indos;Turki: Nilab) is the longest river in Pakistan and the twenty-first largest river in the world in terms of annual flow. It is often considered the life-line of Pakistan. The Europeans used the name "India" for the entire South Asian subcontinent based on Indos, the Greek appellation of this river. Historically significant, the river is at the crux of the ancient Indus Valley Civilization.

Originating in the Tibetan plateau in the vicinity of Lake Mansarovar in Tibet Autonomous Region, the National River runs a course through the Ladakh district of Jammu and Kashmir and then enters Northern Areas (Gilgit-Baltistan), flowing through the North in a southerly direction along the entire length of the country, to merge into the Arabian Sea near Pakistan's port city of Karachi in Sindh. The total length of the river is 3,180 kilometers (1,976 miles). The river has a total drainage area exceeding 1,165,000 square kilometers (450,000 square miles). The river's estimated annual flow stands at around 207 cubic kilometers. Beginning at the heights of the world with glaciers, the river feeds the ecosystem of temperate forests, plains and arid countryside. Together with the rivers Chenab, Ravi, Sutlej, Jhelum, Beas and two tributaries from the North West Frontier and Afghanistan, the Indus forms the Sapta Sindhu (Seven Rivers) delta of Pakistan.

Description

The Indus provides the key water resources for the economy of Pakistan - especially the Breadbasket of Punjab province, which accounts for most of the nation's agricultural production, and Sindh. The word Punjab is a combination of the Sanskrit words panj meaning Five, and āb meaning Water, giving the literal meaning of the Land of the Five Rivers. The Five rivers after which Punjab is named are the Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and the Sutlej. The river also supports many heavy industries and provides the main supply of potable water in Pakistan.

The ultimate source of the Indus is in Tibet; it begins at the confluence of the Sengge and Gar rivers that drain the Nganglong Kangri and Gangdise Shan mountain ranges. The Indus then flows northwest through Ladakh and Baltistan into Gilgit, just south of the Karakoram range. The Shyok River, Shigar and Gilgit streams carry glacial waters into the main river. It gradually bends to the south, coming out of the hills between Peshawar and Rawalpindi. The Indus passes gigantic gorges 4,500-5,200 metres (15,000-17,000 feet) high near the Nanga Parbat massif. It flows swiftly across Hazara, and is dammed at the Tarbela Reservoir. The Kabul River joins it near Attock. The remainder of its route to the sea is in plains of the Punjab and Sindh, and the river becomes slow-flowing and highly braided. It is joined by Panjnad River at Mithankot. Beyond this confluence, the river, at one time, was named Satnad River (Sat = seven, Nadi = river), as the river was now carrying the waters of the Kabul River, the Indus River and the five Punjab rivers. Passing by Jamshoro, it ends in a large delta to the east of Thatta.

The Indus is one of the few rivers in the world that exhibit a tidal bore. The Indus system is largely fed by the snows and glaciers of the Himalayas, Karakoram and the Hindu Kush ranges of Tibet, the state of Jammu and Kashmir and the Northern Areas of Pakistan respectively. The flow of the river is also determined by the seasons - it diminishes greatly in the winter, while flooding its banks in the monsoon months from July to September. There is also evidence of a steady shift in the course of the river since prehistoric times - it deviated westwards from flowing into the Rann of Kutch and adjoining Banni grasslands after the 1816 earthquake[1][2].

Effects of climate change on the river

The Tibetan Plateau contains the world's third-largest store of ice. Qin Dahe, the former head of the China Meteorological Administration, said that the recent fast pace of melting and warmer temperatures will be good for agriculture and tourism in the short term; but issued a strong warning:

"Temperatures are rising four times faster than elsewhere in China, and the Tibetan glaciers are retreating at a higher speed than in any other part of the world.... In the short term, this will cause lakes to expand and bring floods and mudflows. . . . In the long run, the glaciers are vital lifelines for Asian rivers, including the Indus and the Ganges. Once they vanish, water supplies in those regions will be in peril."[3]

“There is insufficient data to say what will happen to the Indus,” says David Grey, the World Bank’s senior water advisor in South Asia. “But we all have very nasty fears that the flows of the Indus could be severely, severely affected by glacier melt as a consequence of climate change,” and reduced by perhaps as much as 50 percent. “Now what does that mean to a population that lives in a desert [where], without the river, there would be no life? I don’t know the answer to that question,” he says. “But we need to be concerned about that. Deeply, deeply concerned.” [4]

History

Paleolithic sites have been discovered in Pothohar near Pakistan's capital Islamabad, with the stone tools of the Soan Culture. In ancient Gandhara, near Islamabad, evidence of cave dwellers dated 15,000 years ago has been discovered at Mardan.

The major cities of the Indus Valley Civilization, such as Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, date back to around 3300 BC, and represent some of the largest human habitations of the ancient world. The Indus Valley Civilization extended from Balochistan to Gujarat, with an upward reach from east of Jhelum River to Ropar on the upper Sutlej. The coastal settlements extended from Sutkagan Dor at the Iranian border to Lothal in Gujarat. There is an Indus site on the Amu Darya at Shortughai in northern Afghanistan, and the Indus site Alamgirpur at the Hindon River is located only 28 km from Delhi. To date, over 1,052 cities and settlements have been found, mainly in the general region of the Ghaggar-Hakra River and its tributaries. Among the settlements were the major urban centers of Harappa and Mohenjo-daro, as well as Lothal, Dholavira, Ganeriwala, and Rakhigarhi. Only 90-96 of the over-800 known Indus Valley sites have been discovered on the Indus and its tributaries. The Sutlej, now a tributary of the Indus, in Harappan times flowed into the Ghaggar-Hakra River, in the watershed of which were more Harappan sites than along the Indus.

Most scholars believe that settlements of Gandhara grave culture of the early Indo-Aryans flourished in Gandhara from 1700 BC to 600 BC, when Mohenjo-daro and Harappa had already been abandoned.

The name Indus is a Latinization of Hindu, in turn the Iranian variant of Sindhu, the name of the Indus in the Rigveda. The Sanskrit Sindhu generically means river, stream, ocean, probably from a root sidh meaning to keep off; Sindhu is attested 176 times in the Rigveda, 95 times in the plural, more often used in the generic meaning. Already in the Rigveda, notably in the later hymns, the meaning of the word is narrowed to refer to the Indus river in particular, for example in the list of rivers of the Nadistuti sukta. This resulted in the anomaly of a river with masculine gender: all other Rigvedic rivers are female, not just grammatically, being imagined as goddesses and compared to cows and mares yielding milk and butter.

The Indus has formed a natural boundary between the Indian Subcontinent hinterland and its frontier with the Iranian Plateau, a region which includes Pakistan's Balochistan, North West Frontier Province as well as Afghanistan, Tajikistan and Iran. It has been crossed by the armies of Alexander the Great - His Macedonian forces retreated along the southern course of the river at the end of the Asian campaign after conquering what is now Pakistan and joining it to the Hellenic Empire. The Indus plains have also been under the domination of the Persian empire and the Kushan empire. The Muslim armies of Muhammad bin Qasim, Mahmud of Ghazni, Mohammed Ghori, Tamerlane and Babur also crossed the river to strike into the inner regions of Punjab , Rajasthan and Gujarat.

The word "India" is derived from the Indus River. In ancient times, "India" initially referred to the region of modern-day Pakistan along the Indus river, but by 300 BC, Greek writers like Megasthenes applied the term to the entire subcontinent.[5] :)

Geography

Tributaries

•Astor River

•Balram River

•Gar River

•Ghizar River

•Gilgit River

•Gumal River

•Kabul River

•Panjnad

•Shigar River

•Shyok River

•Suru River

•Swaan River

•Tanubal River

•Zanskar River

Geology

The Indus River feeds the Indus submarine fan located in the Indian Ocean, which is the second largest sediment body on the Earth at around 5 million cubic kilometres of material eroded from the mountains. Studies of the sediment in the modern river indicate that the Karakoram Mountains in northern Pakistan are the single most important source of material, with the Himalayas providing the next largest contribution, mostly via the large rivers of the Punjab (i.e., the Jhelum, Ravi, Chenab, Beas and the Sutlej). Analysis of sediments from the Arabian Sea has demonstrated that prior to five million years ago the Indus was not connected to these Punjab rivers which instead flowed east into the Ganga and were captured after that time[6]. Earlier work showed that sand and silt from western Tibet was reaching the Arabian Sea by 45 million years ago, implying the existence of an ancient Indus River by that time[7]. The delta of this proto-Indus river has subsequently been found in the Katawaz Basin, on the Afghan-Pakistan border. Most recently the Indus was paralleled by the ancient Saraswati River, which the Rigveda suggests flowed from the Himalayas between the Sutlej and the Yamuna Rivers, close to modern day Chandigarh.

In the Nanga Parbat region, the massive amounts of erosion due to the Indus river following the capture and rerouting through that area is thought to bring middle and lower crustal rocks to the surface[8].

Wildlife

Accounts of the Indus valley from the times of Alexander's campaign indicate a healthy forest cover in the region, which has now considerably receded. The Mughal Emperor Babur writes of encountering rhinoceroses along its bank in his memoirs (the Baburnama). Extensive deforestation and human interference in the ecology of the Shivalik Hills has led to a marked deterioration in vegetation and growing conditions. The Indus valley regions are arid with poor vegetation. Agriculture is sustained largely due to irrigation works.

The Blind Indus River Dolphin (Platanista gangetica minor) is a sub-species of Dolphins found only in the Indus River. It formerly also occurred in the tributaries of the Indus river. Palla fish (Hilsa) of the river is a delicacy for people living along the river. The population of fishes in the river is moderately high, with Sukkur, Thatta and Kotri being the major fishing centres - all in the lower Sindh course. But damming and irrigation has made fish farming an important economic activity. Located southeast of Karachi, the large delta has been recognised by conservationists as one of the world's most important ecological regions. Here the river turns into many marshes, streams and creeks and meets the sea at shallow levels. Here marine fishes are found in abundance, including Pomfret and Prawns

Economy

The Indus is the most important supplier of water resources to the Punjab and Sindh plains - it forms the backbone of agriculture and food production in Pakistan. The river is especially critical as rainfall is meagre in the lower Indus valley. Irrigation canals were first built by the people of the Indus valley civilization, and later by the engineers of the Kushan Empire and the Mughal Empire. Modern irrigation was introduced by the British East India Company in 1850 - the construction of modern canals accompanied with the restoration of old canals. The British supervised the construction of one of the most complex irrigation networks in the world. The Guddu Barrage is 1,350 metres (4,450 ft) long - irrigating Sukkur, Jacobabad, Larkana and Kalat. The Sukkur Barrage serves over 20,000 square kilometres (5,000,000 acres).

After the independence of Pakistan, a water control treaty signed between India and Pakistan in 1960 guaranteed that Pakistan would receive water from the Indus River and its two western tributaries, the Jhelum River & the Chenab River independent of upstream control by India.[9] The project, Indus Basin Project, consisted primarily of the construction of two main dams, the Mangla Dam built on the Jhelum River and the Tarbela Dam constructed on the Indus River, together with their subsidiary dams.[10] The Pakistan Water and Power Development Authority undertook the construction of the Chashma-Jhelum link canal - linking the waters of the Indus and Jhelum rivers - extending water supplies to the regions of Bahawalpur and Multan. Pakistan constructed the Tarbela Dam near Rawalpindi - standing 2743 metres (9,000 ft) long and 143 metres (470 ft) high, with an 80 kilometre (50 mile) long reservoir. The Kotri Barrage near Hyderabad is 915 metres (3,000 ft) long and provides additional supplies for Karachi. The Taunsa Barrage near Dera Ghazi Khan produces 100,000 kilowatts of electricity. The extensive linking of tributaries with the Indus has helped spread water resources to the valley of Peshawar, in the North-West Frontier Province. The extensive irrigation and dam projects provide the basis for Pakistan's large production of crops such as cotton, sugarcane and wheat. The dams also generate electricity for heavy industries and urban centres.

People

The inhabitants of the regions through whom the Indus river passes and forms a major natural feature and resource are diverse in ethnicity, religion, national and linguistic backgrounds. On the northern course of the river in the state of Jammu and Kashmir live the Buddhist people of Ladakh, of Tibetan stock, and the Dards of Indo-Aryan or Dardic stock and practising Buddhism and Islam. Then it descends into Baltistan, northern Pakistan passing the main Balti city of Skardu. As it continues through Pakistan, the Indus river forms a distinctive boundary of ethnicity and cultures - upon the western banks the population is largely Pashtun, Baloch, and of other Iranian stock, with close cultural, economic and ethnic ties to Afghanistan and Iran. The eastern banks are largely populated by peoples of Indo-Aryan stock, such as the Punjabis, the Sindhis and the Seraikis. In northern Punjab and the North-West Frontier Province, ethnic Pashtun tribes live alongside Dardic people in the hills (Khowar, Kalash, Shina, etc.), Burushos (in Hunza), and Punjabi people. In the southern portion of the Punjab province, the Saraiki peoples speak a distinctive tongue and practise distinctive traditions. In the province of Sindh, peoples of Sindhi backgrounds form the local populations. Upon the western banks of the river live the Baloch and Pashtun peoples of Balochistan.

Modern issues

The Indus is a strategically vital resource for Pakistan's economy and society. After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, the use of the waters of the Indus and its five eastern tributaries became a major dispute between India and Pakistan. The irrigation canals of the Sutlej valley and the Bari Doab were split - with the canals lying primarily in Pakistan and the headwork dams in India disrupting supply in some parts of Pakistan. The concern over India building large dams over various Punjab rivers that could undercut the supply flowing to Pakistan, as well as the possibility that India could divert rivers in the time of war, caused political consternation in Pakistan. Holding diplomatic talks brokered by the World Bank, India and Pakistan signed the Indus Waters Treaty in 1960. The treaty gave India control of the three easternmost rivers of the Punjab, the Sutlej, the Beas and the Ravi, while Pakistan gained control of the three western rivers, the Jhelum, the Chenab and the Indus. India retained the right to use of the western rivers for non irrigation projects. (See discussion regarding a recent dispute about a hydroelectric project on the Chenab (not Indus) known as the Baglihar Project).

Hindu pilgrimage to holy sites alongside the river has been a source of conflict between the two nations. Pakistan and India do not generally allow each others' citizens to cross borders for religious pilgrimages, other than Sikhs who travel to Pakistan for their annual pilgrimage.

There are concerns that extensive deforestation, industrial pollution and global warming are affecting the vegetation and wildlife of the Indus delta, while affecting agricultural production as well. There are also concerns that the Indus river may be shifting its course westwards - although the progression spans centuries. On numerous occasions, sediment clogging owing to poor maintenance of canals has affected agricultural production and vegetation. In addition, extreme heat has caused water to evaporate, leaving salt deposits that render lands useless for cultivation.

More recently and within Pakistan, the province of Punjab is seeking to cut off the flow of the river downstream to Sindh by building dams within its provincial limits in the face of opposition from the people of Sindh, storage reservoirs used to produce the bulk of food consumed by millions of Pakistanis nationwide as well as providing cheap hydel power to the country's national electric grid system.

  

Palais Coburg

At the site of today's Palais Coburg were in the 18th Century several buildings, which like almost all buildings that were built on the city walls or leaning on these, were of a military nature. So here was situated the Stadt-Schultheissen Office (Wikipedia: In medieval Germany, the Schultheiß (Middle High German schultheize, from Old High German sculdheizo; Latinised as scultetus or sculteus; in Switzerland: Schultheiss, also: Schultheis, Schulte or Schulze; in Italian the two offices Scoltetto and Sculdascio, Medieval Latin sculdasius and Polish Sołtys) was the head of a municipality (akin to today's office of mayor), a Vogt or an executive official of the ruler), which was the seat of the respective city commander. Here lived and died in 1766 Field Marshal Leopold Josef Graf Daun. His successor as resident, Field Marshal Franz Moritz Graf Lacy, succeeded to acquire the building of the Imperial Court Chamber. He changed the city commandant's house into the Palais Lacy and inhabited this until his death in 1801. His nephew and heir sold the building in the same year to the Hungarian Count Franz Joseph Koháry. This one could in 1812 also acquire a neighboring house. The Kohárys were among the wealthiest landowners in Hungary. Franz Joseph's daughter Gabriele Maria Antonia married in 1816 Prince Ferdinand of Saxe-Coburg-Saalfeld. Since the marriage between a prince and a countess was not befitting one's social status, much trouble and especially money had to be expended in order to raise the family Koháry, 1817, but retroactive to 1815 in the rank of prince. To document this rise in rank, they began with measures to develop the still modest palace. Prince Franz Joseph Koháry inhabited it hardly, however, since he lived mainly in Oroszvár south of Bratislava. When he died in 1826, his Viennese palace was still not very representative .

His daughter inherited it and rented it for the moment to Countess Cordelia Potocki. Through the Kohárysche heritage, to which belonged ore mines and steel plants and large agricultural estates in Hungary and the Slovakia of today, the family Coburg, which called itself since 1825 Dukes of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, could finally think of the construction of a befitting palace. She lived then in later Palais Archduke Karl Ludwig in the Favoritenstraße. The appreciation of the family through Victoria's accession to the throne in England made a representative place to stay of the Viennese branch of the family appear urgent. Duke Ferdinand had in the years 1843 to 1847 instead of the existing buildings, that ist, at the access of the side facing the city to Braunbastei, built a great palace. His son August Ludwig had 1843 married Princess Clementine of Orleans Bourbon, daughter of the French citizen king Louis-Philippe, and determined the building to his Viennese home. The architect was Karl Schleps. For the execution of his plans responsible was Adolf Korompay. Karl Schleps had the plans yet submitted in 1839, but he passed away as early as next year. He was succeeded by his former assistant Franz Neumann. With Philip Menning another architect was hired, so it is not clear today which architect what share of the palace has. To extend the construction site, some adjacent properties, as the Croats Dörfl (Kroatendörfl) were purchased. The architecture is a blend of classicism and historicism and clearly reflects those change in the architecture, which took place at this time. But for the moment followed no interior expansion, because Louis-Philippe demanded that his grandson in France should enter this world and the ducal couple moved to Paris. In 1849 that part of the palace, which is on the Seilerstaette, was largely transformed into an apartment building, designed by Franz Neumann. Yet three years earlier, Baron Sina wanted it to acquire and here housing the stock exchange and the Wechselgericht (competend in exchange disputes), but those plans had dashed.

Resided in 1851 the English ambassador to Austria, Lieutenant General John Fane, as a tenant here. Johann Strauss served him for its festivals as music director. 1852 the Palais was also inside ready to move in and Herzog August Ludwig was able to return to Vienna. After the Braunbastei 1863 was demolished, arose the classicist garden facade. Just before the turn of the century resided Prince Ferdinand of Bulgaria, who stemmed from the family of Coburg, in his Vienna stays in the palace. During World War II, the right part of the portico was hit by a bomb. Thereby also two figures of the Attica went lost. During occupation time Russian soldiers were intitially quartered in the palace. Plans to demolish the palace and build in its place a hotel, were fortunately not realized. After this for a long the Directorate General of Austrian Federal Railways was occupying the building as tenant. 1978 sold Princess Sarah Aurelia of Saxe-Coburg the Palais to a real estate broker. Restoration plans came to a nothing for the moment again and again for financial reasons. Currently, the building belongs to a private foundation under German investor Peter Pühringer. Since 2000 it was subjected to a comprehensive refurbishment. Here two years ago one of the finest luxury hotels in the city with excellent restaurants was put into operation. In addition, there are a number of homes and offices in the vast complex of buildings. The originally planned shopping mall was not realized.

Casemates. But although the palace does not just lie at the ring road, the owner has for himself the free outlook in the city park by a servitude secured, that has been preserved until today. While the Bastion side remembers aristocratic country houses such as Castle Liechtenstein at Maria Enzersdorf or the former Weilburg in Baden, the Seilerstaette-front is more as a bourgeois apartment building designed. Attractive visual appearance is the to the ring turned 21-axis garden facade. It is characterized by the two-storey columns order which has the Palais soon led in common parlance to the name "asparagus Castle" after its establishment. The facades of the palace namely does not show the with Viennese palais common colossal order in which multiple floors are aggregated by giant pilasters or giant pillars. Here the walls are structured by Ionic columns. On whose entablature have been put Corinthian columns. Behind the pillars of the seven-axis central risalit lie open loggias in the two upper floors. They were originally connected by staircases on both sides of the garden. As this had to be re-created in 1864 due to the razing of the bastions, the Attica area has been redesigned. Franz Neumann and Leopold Mayer placed here figures, representing the personifications of music, hunting, strength, history, science, agriculture and flower care. It's due to the construction of the palace on the Braunbastei that parts of the Renaissance fortifications of Vienna have been preserved, most of all, the of brick masonry consisting casemates. They are located directly below the palace and were made available again in the last renovation in 2003. In this case , however, the ramp leading to the bastion was destroyed.

Ball room. The late classicist road tract at the Seilerstaette is the a little older part of the building. Since we have got to deal was a narrow downtown alley, the facade at the Seilerstaette is relatively flat structured. Due to the level difference to the bastion it has a considerable height. In the two-story base zone three large banded arched portals are inserted. The windows of the upper floors are designed differently (round arch pediment, not crowns). The central projection is superimposed a shallow three-storey loggia. Franz Neumann Younger created about 1880 the strict historical front building at the Coburggasse. It is organized by risalits and presents an attic parapet. The here located portal is provided with seashell decor. From the Seilerstaette one enters the palace through a two-story vestibule that leads to the magnificent staircase. It is supported by Ionic columns. Large decorative vases stand on pedestals. The piano nobile is a remarkable space ensemble of late Classicism and early-Baroque. Of its equipment only the to the wall fixed parts remained preserved because after the Second World War much of the furniture was sold. The inlaid parquet floors have been replaced for the most part in 2001. The in the center located ballroom is a with stucco marble overlayed room decorated with stuccoed volutes. Gilded mirror frames and wall lights complete the equipment. It is lit by a glass ceiling. Interesting is the family room or Green Salon. Here hang numerous portraits of members of the Coburg family, including those in the 19th Century as kings or dukes reigning different European countries (Belgium, Portugal, Bulgaria, England). The Blue Salon is decorated with full-length pictures of the inner family circle of the palace residents. They stem from Franz Xaver Winterhalter and from those workshop. Neo-Baroque is also the Yellow Salon Over the three doors hold stucco figures the coat of arms of Coburg and Orleans.

www.burgen-austria.com/archive.php?id=756

The sculpture is called REQUIEM FOR A REPROBATE. It is made of plaster, steel and newspaper. The newspaper contains my father's obituary. The image was posted previously. The description is new.

 

In the late 80's to early 90's I produced a great number of plaster sculptures. I was provided a large working space and I spent a lot of time there. The man that owned the gallery where I exhibited my work had an enormous empty house on Portico Row on Spruce Street in Philadelphia. He provided the second floor for me to work in. When he made the offer I was carving small polychromed sculptures. They were finished with an obsessiveness that led certain critics to erroneously refer to them in reviews as ceramics. Their mistakes delighted me.

The work sold quite well and exhibited I had galleries in Philadelphia and Los Angeles. I had a fairly large clientele of in New York that consisted almost entirely of stockbrokers. One scene in the film American Psycho shows men sitting around comparing their expensive business cards in an attempt to out-do each other. This competitive and materialistic behavior of the stock brokers that bought my work was exactly like that scene in American Psycho. It was fascinating and horrifying simultaneously. Their materialism was almost a joke. If one of them owned the work of a contemporary artist they all had to, which explains why I knew so many stockbrokers. One of them in particular was in Philadelphia quite frequently. He was a close friend of the owner of the gallery that showed my work and he was one of the few people in that crowd that I could bear talking to. Most of them were intolerable. His bookie (the son-in-law of the former mayor of Philadelphia Frank Rizzo) was was also located in Philadelphia which may explain the frequency of his visits.

Because my work was selling well I had an impetus to spend a great deal of time in the studio. Much to the horror of the gallery owner and not long after I moved my studio to Spruce Street, I changed my style of work. I went from highly polished wooden wall sculptures to funky, nasty looking plaster, rubber and steel sculptures that were very weird looking and much more difficult for the average person to deal with. They also created a great deal of dust that I tracked all over this enormous house. This work was much more difficult to comprehend and it alienated my dealer and the collectors that regularly bought my work. On one level I really didn't care. I was fed up with the gallery systems, I was sick of dealers trying to control what types of work I made, I couldn't bear the attitudes and greed of collectors and I was tired of talking to people that I found reprehensible, mendacious, materialistic and covetous. In addition to my irritation with the culture industry, the bottom fell out of the art market. The bubble burst. I was now in the position that the system that I hated and that used to pay my rent suddenly wasn't. Peers who had the year before appeared on the covers of Artforum were now working in Manhattan as plumber's assistants. Literally.

I continued making the plaster sculptures. I loved the change and I enjoyed working with the materials. I was producing them at the same rate that I banged out the earlier wooden sculptures but the new work was considerably larger, heavier and more difficult to store. My sales screeched to a halt but my production continued unabated. I saw what was happening but I couldn't care less about it. Despite my financial situation, I felt weightless.

After several years on the market my dealer finally sold the building. I packed everything up and stored half the sculpture in my small home in South Philadelphia and the other half in the basement of the house that my friend Kevin Madden was renting down the street. The work remained in Kevin's basement for the better part of a decade.

I was conscious of monopolizing most of Kevin's space once I moved all of the works down there. It was imperative that something needed to be done about this situation. I realized that some of the transitional work was instrumental in working out some technical and aesthetic issues that would later appear in the more successful pieces. When I looked at these seminal works objectively, it was apparent that they were not as strong as the later work and ultimately not worth storing. On the average, the better work was the result of issues worked out during the process of making two or three lesser works.

The solution to the storage problem was a sixteen ounce framing hammer. Once every six months or so I would go to Kevin's house and cull the weaker work from the herd. It was a lot easier to dispose of the work in pieces than in their heavier and bulkier form. I enjoyed the act of destruction almost as much as I did their creation. The violence of the act appealed to me and the activity was cathartic.

The result of a day of destruction left me with only the best examples of the work from that time period. The weaker sculptures no longer existed. After a decade of destruction, Kevin was moving to another apartment and the remaining works, few in number, needed to be relocated. I was left with a manageable amount of best works of that decade. The destruction of the work was an editing process in its most physical form. The experience gained through the process of making the sculpture was all that remained. The process of creation without physical form could not be commodified, co-opted or sold. It taught me to make dispassionate decisions based solely on the quality of the work with no consideration of the cost of the materials or its commercial value. Destruction disavowed the romantic notion of the preciousness of the art object. The work was forever spared the indignity of being used as decorations in the homes of the wealthy. The process was irreversible. It discouraged hoarding which is ultimately an act of greed. I taught myself to make decisions without the luxury of regret. Because of these decisions I am free from envisioning an alternative past. The process of destruction improved the quality of my entire oeuvre. The act of destruction became a positive and creative act. Ultimately it is a discipline and an act of liberation. No regrets.

 

www.radicalart.info/destruction/metzger.html

 

Please visit my blog at:

historywillabsolvemike.blogspot.com/

 

Charging Bull, sometimes called the Wall Street Bull or the Bowling Green Bull, is a 16-foot long, 3,200 kg (7,000 pound) bronze sculpture by Arturo Di Modica, depicting a (what else) bull, leaning back on its haunches with lowered head as if prepared to charge. The bull is symbolic of a prolonged period of prosperity in financial markets, in contrast to the bear, symbolic of a downswing. The etymology of the terms is somewhat ambigious. The most common theory points to "jobbers", London bearskin brokers who would sell bearskins before the bear had actually been caught in anticipation of falling prices. A far more obvious origin points to the method by which the animals attack—bulls charging at a high speed with its horns up from the bottom; bears moving slowly and pouncing from above. Other theories relate to two old merchant families—the Barings and Bulstrodes, hibernation habits, and posture.

 

Di Modica created the sculpture following the 1987 stock market at a personal cost of $300,000. Not commissioned by the city as a work of public art, he and a group of friends loaded it on a flatbed truck on the night of December 15, 1989 and unloaded it next to the NYSE's 60-foot Christmas tree. In a flyer distributed that day, Di Modica proclaimed it to be a symbol of "strength, power and hope of the American people for the future." The police seized the illegal sculpture, placing it into an impound lot. In response to great public outcry, the New York City Department of Parks and Recreation re-installed it several blocks away at its current location at the north end of Bowling Green. One of the most photographed pieces of art in the city (go ahead, try to get a standalone shot without a throng of posing tourists), it has come to be an unofficial symbol of the Financial District itself.

 

In 1993, hoping to recoup some of the cost, Di Modica announced that the bull sculpture was for sale but the City refused to purchase it. The only interested party was a Las Vegas hotel, but a campaign led by the former Parks Dept. Commissioner, Henry Stern, prevented its relocation. Di Modica continues to own the copyright to the statue and has sued Wal-Mart, North Fork Bancorporation Inc. and eight other companies for selling replicas of the bull and using it in advertising campaigns.

  

Bowling Green is New York City’s oldest park. According to tradition, this spot served as the council ground for Native American tribes and was the site of the legendary sale of Manhattan to Peter Minuit in 1626. Bowling Green was first designated as a park in 1733 and its famed iron fence was installed in 1771.

 

By the late 18th century, Bowling Green marked the center of New York’s most fashionable residential area, surrounded by rows of Federal-style townhouses. By mid-century, shipping offices inhabited the old townhouses, and the park was returned to more public use.

 

A 1976-77 capital renovation restored Bowling Green to its 18th-century appearance. Publisher and philanthropist George Delacorte donated the park’s central fountain, which was designed by M. Paul Friedberg and Partners.

 

Bowling Green Fence and Park National Historic Register #80002673 (1980)

 

This might be a bit hard to visualise. It is shot from the floor in the foyer of Brisbanes Riverside Centre building which is the heart of the finacial district.

 

The stock exchange is located in this building, and there is a more than generous population of brokers and financial institutions sharing this elegant office space.

 

Surprisingly for some perhaps, our company has a rather large communications facility here, and I had to visit it recently for work, and naturally I had my camera handy, so the ceiling beckoned.

 

I was at the base of a large sculpture in the ground floor foyer. The ceiling is actually about 2 stories high here, and the outstrectched arms of the sculpture go nowhere near ceiling height, which isn't so obvious from this shot.

 

This 40 story skyscraper was designed by Harry Seidler and was completed in 1986.

 

View The Twist to the story on black.

 

Angles Theme

 

Jim at Mere Mailbox

The Makati Stock Exchange building started in 1969, and was completed in 1971, The building housed the Makati Stock Exchange, the offices of Makati brokers, CCP Security Corporation, Philsec Investment Corporation, and Ayala Corporation.

I shot this using a Ricoh GRD4.

 

If I had bought this before the crash

I'd have both beauty and a private stash

but as I told a bemused stock broker once

"I don't care much for money"

so lake it remains not bartered for cash

 

all photos handheld and unaltered

The village looks somewhat down at heel in this (I'd guess) late 50s/early 60s view. It's due to the fact that this was before houses in Shieldaig became uber-desirable to retired stock brokers as second homes. When this photo was taken, you probably couldn't give away any of these houses. Now they all command 6 figure sums and I wouldn't be surprised if the first figure wouldn't be a 1.

"Buy low, sell high;

take your pills; tell your lies;

Fake your tan; wear a tie;

Go to the gym - you'll never die!

(Rogue Trader, 'Way to Go!)

 

And, yeah, photoshopped background. I'm closer to the Nikkei than the NYSE right now. I visited the stock exchange several years ago (a college buddy is a trader) and it is a true temple to capitalism, both in a good and bad sense.

 

Personally I leave all my investments to my broker; he's a darn sight smarter than I am. The last time he gave in and let me decide one of my own investments was when I wanted to buy a bunch of shares in an energy company back in early 2001. Heck it was one of the major players in the gas industry, a multi-billion dollar company, and based in my home state of Texas as well. What could possibly go wrong?

  

Better Viewed Large On Black

 

I took this photo of the New York Stock Exchange, draped with the American Flag, on Wall Street, on my first trip to New York City in October 2004.

 

After the tragic events of September 11, 2001, the NYSE building is well protected. Not only is the entrance guarded 24/7, it is surrounded by an iron fence and concrete barriers (the planters), AND there was a big pickup truck parked across the entrance to Wall Street here, and since Wall Street is so narrow, it blocked all vehicular traffic on the street.

 

MORE INFORMATION OF THE NYSE:

 

The New York Stock Exchange (NYSE), nicknamed the "Big Board", is a New York City-based stock exchange. It is the largest stock exchange in the world by dollar volume and, with 2,764 listed securities, has the second most securities of all stock exchanges. Its share volume was exceeded by that of NASDAQ during the 1990s. As of December 31, 2006, the combined capitalization of all New York Stock Exchange listed companies was $25.0 trillion.

 

The NYSE is operated by NYSE Euronext, which was formed by its merger with the fully electronic stock exchange Archipelago Holdings and Euronext. The New York Stock Exchange trading floor is located at 11 Wall Street, and is composed of four rooms used for the facilitation of trading. The main building, located at 18 Broad Street between the corners of Wall Street and Exchange Place, was designated a National Historic Landmark in 1978.

 

The origin of the NYSE can be traced to May 17, 1792, when the Buttonwood Agreement was signed by twenty-four stock brokers outside of 68 Wall Street in New York under a buttonwood tree. On March 8, 1817, the organization drafted a constitution and renamed itself the "New York Stock & Exchange Board". (This name was shortened to its current form in 1863.) Anthony Stockholm was elected the Exchange's first president.In 1922, a building designed by Trowbridge & Livingston was added at 11 Broad Street for offices, and a new trading floor called "the garage". Additional trading floor space was added in 1969 and 1988 (the "blue room") with the latest technology for information display and communication.

 

(Source: Wikipedia)

Thomas W. Lawson was a seven-masted, steel-hulled schooner built for the Pacific trade, but used primarily to haul coal and oil along the East Coast of the United States. Named for copper baron Thomas W. Lawson, a Boston millionaire, stock-broker, book author, and President of the Boston Bay State Gas Co. she was launched in 1902 as the largest schooner and largest sailing vessel without an auxiliary engine ever built.

Thomas W. Lawson was destroyed off the uninhabited island of Annet, in the Isles of Scilly, in a storm on December 14, 1907, killing all but two of her eighteen crew and a harbour pilot already aboard. Her cargo of 58,000 barrels of light paraffin oil caused perhaps the first large marine oil spill.

 

This auxiliary anchor has been placed in the wall of Bleak House (formerly Fort House) holiday home of Charles Dickens and it is many miles from the wreck site. I can't find out why it is there, the picture is straight it is a rather steep hill !!

  

My Thanks to all who visit and comment it is appreciated

 

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