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Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon, Portugal

 

Material: Oil on canvas

Collection: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Modern Collection

Inv.: PE211

 

BIOGRAPHY

 

Nasceu em Maymyo, Myanmar. Teve aulas privadas com o naturalista Stanhope Forbes em Newlyn (1938), e prosseguiu os estudos na Slade School of Art (1939 e 1945-7).

  

Ao serviço da R.A.F., durante a Segunda Guerra, foi feito prisioneiro no Stalag 383, onde conheceu e ensinou Terry Frost. Ao regressar, e após ter vivido um ano em Carcassone, está plenamente envolvido com o núcleo de artistas abstractos britânicos. Vai a St Ives, onde reencontra Frost e conhece Ben Nicholson, estabelecendo um elo importante entre esta colónia e o grupo Construcionista de Londres, sobretudo em torno de Victor Pasmore, Anthony Hill, Kenneth e Mary Martin.

 

As suas pinturas, inicialmente associadas ao estilo Euston Road, evoluíram por uma abstracção muito colorida, de formas severas e camadas espessas de tinta, cuja idealização geométrica tomava como ponto de partida o corpo feminino ou a paisagem. Apesar de ser o mais novo deste grupo, era o mais activo na sua promoção. Organiza a primeira exposição abstracta do pós-guerra na A.I.A. Gallery (1951), expõe durante dois anos as obras dos colegas no seu estúdio de Londres, e publica um influente ensaio sobre Abstract Art: Its Origins and Meaning (1953). Apesar de ter criado algumas construções e relevos nesta época, foi o artista que utilizou a pintura de modo mais sistemático, atribuindo progressivamente maior dinamismo e fluidez às composições rígidas dos anos 50.

   

A partir dos anos 60, dedicou-se sobretudo ao Ensino das Artes, como Professor na Bath Academy of Art (1955-1976), na University of Reading (1980-1985), e como senior fellow no Glamorgan Institute of Higher Education (1977-1980). Foi ainda artista residente da University of Sussex (1969) e pertenceu ao advisory art panel do Arts Council (1964-1967).

 

Afonso Ramos

 

SOURCE: gulbenkian.pt/museu/artist/adrian-heath/

  

Stalag Zehn B

 

Der Feldwebel ist General geworden,

 

Der Arzt des Lagers, Professor,

 

und wir , die Juden - es ist banal -

 

wir sind jüdisch geblieben - kein Zweifel !

 

© by Jan Theuninck

Pictured here, my father L.G. McCollom as a WW ll fighter pilot in the Army Air Corps, 8th AF (56th & 353rd Fighter Groups.) His P-47 was shot down over France and he was a POW in Stalag Luft One for 16 months. A career Air Force officer, he was stationed all over the world and our family, while I was at home, moved 11 times in 18 years, including Japan and Germany. He was also deployed away from family for year in Korea and 6 months in Alaska. Retirement ceremony as a Maj. General included an air show by the Thunderbirds. Proud of you Dad. Miss you.

All present and correct in Stalag Luft 13...

This was my favorite thing that I saw and read today, on Memorial Day, posted by someone I know:

 

"WW 2 changed my father in ways I'll never know. As a captain of a B17 he and his crew dropped bombs in and all over the Deutschland, something that I can't get out of my head when I'm touring through the cities and towns of Germany.

Today I commemorate my father... and his crew who were shot down on Oct 8,1943 during the historic bombing of Bremen, Germany."

He posted two photos...one of his father and his crew, and a second, and a head shot of his Dad, which he described...

 

"The second picture was taken by my father's captors before he was imprisoned in Stalag Luft 3 for 16 months. Toward the end of the war he escaped from the prison camp, but I don't think he ever escaped from the war.

We love you dad.

Remember."

 

After work, I went out to take my typical photo in one of my windows. Just before I left, I reached into my sweatshirt pocket and pulled out this little vintage American flag stick pin. It is an old advertising piece. I had totally forgotten that I had put it into my pocket... just in case I needed it for something. And as my props have a way of doing, the little flag kind of orchestrated the shot ... and as I put it in the broken window, I thought immediately of this man's words "He escaped from the prison camp, but I don't think he ever escaped from the war." So, this one is for the brave American heroes that didn't escape the war and never came back... and for this man, and his Dad, and the other soldiers that were fortunate enough to return home, but were never quite the same. We owe them all a debt of gratitude. Thank you. We remember. Happy Memorial Day.

In 1939, a large POW camp (Stalag X B Sandbostel) was established in Sandbostel near Bremervörde. This camp was a transit station for hundreds of thousands of prisoners from many different nations.

 

In April 1945, the SS housed prisoners from the Neuengamme concentration camp in a separate part of this POW camp. Around 9,000 men, many of them from the satellite camps in Bremen, Wilhelmshaven and the Emsland region, spent the last weeks of their imprisonment in Sandbostel. There were insufficient provisions, and a typhus epidemic broke out as well, so many prisoners died in Sandbostel.

 

During an air-raid alarm on the night of 19 April 1945, several hundred prisoners stormed a kitchen hut to find food. During the same night, the SS left the camp and headed in the direction of Flensburg with several hundred prisoners who were still “able to march”.

Until the British army arrived on 29 April, the remaining concentration camp prisoners were largely left to their own devices and were given emergency rations by the POWs in the neighbouring camp.

 

More than 40,000 Russian soldiers and soldiers from other nations tortured to death in Nazi imprisonment!

 

Mamiya 7 / Mamiya N 50mm/4.5 L / Washi W 25 at 25 ASA / Eukobrom/1+1/20°/3min

Sowjetische Kriegsgefangene auf dem Weg in das Stalag II A Neubrandenburg - Fünfeichen im Herbst 1941 auf der Bergstrasse.

Sie wurden vom Bahnhof durch das Zentrum Neubrandenburg getrieben. Kamen aus einem Lager in Polen, wo sie wochenlang unter freien Himmel kampieren mussten. Sie waren völlig entkräftet. Auf dem Foto ist links ein Rotarmist vor Entkräftung hingefallen. Sie wurden von Hitlerdeutschland als Untermenschen behandelt. Im Stalag II A Neubrandenburg ging das Martyrium weiter. Sie starben vor Entkräftung, Unterernährung und Flecktyphus wie die Fliegen. Nur wenige überlebten ( Foto: Staatsarchiv Hamburg )

 

Sie wollten Leben und haben ihre Heimat verteidigt.

Nie wieder Krieg !!!!!

 

Soviet prisoners of war on their way to the Stalag II A Neubrandenburg - Fünfeichen in autumn 1941 on the mountain road.

They were driven from the station through the center Neubrandenburg. They came from a camp in Poland, where they had to camp for weeks under the open sky. They were completely exhausted. In the picture on the left side, a Red Armist has fallen from exhaustion. They were treated by Hitler's Germany as a subhuman. The martyrdom continued in Stalag II A Neubrandenburg. They died of exhaustion, malnutrition and typhus like flies. Only a few survived (Photo: Staatsarchiv Hamburg)

 

They wanted life and defended their homeland.

Never again war !!!!!

Well the title comes from the 1977 Michael Palin comedy series "Ripping Yarns" but there is a WWII connection as Black Redstart first colonised Britain around 1940 and initially they nested on bomb sites in inner city areas. Numbers rose steadily until c1990 but have always been low. They reached a peak of 120 pairs but usually only about half that number breed, and to date they have not nested in Ireland. They usually nest in crevices in buildings and forage on bare areas with sparse vegetation, such as waste ground. Black Redstart was probably the first rare breeding bird that I saw when a pair nested on an old gas works site in Bolton in the mid 1970s. I have long wanted a photograph of a Black Redstart in an obviously urban setting and I think this fits the bill. This was taken on the security fence surrounding Holme Moss TV transmitter (West Yorkshire) which is 1719 feet above sea level. This is a female but she had a male with her too. Unfotunately you cannot quite see her diagnostic orange rump and tail. She is very similar to female Common Redstart but her plumage is a touch greyer, but most importantly there is no contrast between the upperpart and underpart colouration. Almost every other songbird has paler underparts compared with the back. I took this on 5th October but below (in comments) I have added a female Common Redstart taken on 9th October showing the subtle difference in colouration between upper and underparts.

Stalag X B Sandbostel -

In September 1939 the Wehrmacht set up a main POW camp (Kriegsgefangenen-Mannschafts-Stammlager, or Stalag) in Sandbostel. Up to 30,000 POWs were to be held at Stalag X B, a 35-hectare site with over 150 dormitory huts, utility buildings and administration buildings. By the end of the war, more than 300,000 POWs, civilian prisoners and military internees from over 55 countries had passed through Stalag X B. Most were assigned to one of the camp's more than 1,100 work details in north-west Germany, where they worked primarily in agriculture but also in industry and armaments production.

Soviet POWs in particular were denied the protection of the law of war by the Wehrmacht, so thousands of them died of exhaustion, starvation and disease in Stalag XB and its work details. In April 1945 around 9,500 prisoners from the Neuengamme concentration camp and its satellite camps arrived at Sandbostel. More than 3,000 of them died during the transport, in the camp and in the first weeks after the liberation.

The use of the site since 1945

After the liberation of Stalag X B on 29 April 1945, the British Army set up an internment camp for members of the Waffen-SS. In 1948 the Lower Saxony Ministry of Justice turned the site into the Camp Sandbostel Prison. From 1952 to 1960 the Lower Saxony Ministry for Displaced Persons used the site as the ‘Sandbostel emergency transit camp’ for young male refugees from East Germany. From 1963 the German federal armed forces used the grounds mainly as a depot. The Sandbostel council took over the site in 1973 and turned it into the Immenhain industrial estate.

The Sandbostel Camp Memorial

In 2005 and 2008 the Sandbostel Camp Foundation acquired part of the former camp and established the Sandbostel Camp Memorial. The memorial incorporates eleven historical huts and other buildings from the former POW camp and a few buildings from the post-war period. Five wooden dormitory huts, one latrine and one kitchen building have been restored following accepted conservation practices.

www.stiftung-lager-sandbostel.de/

 

Stalag X B Sandbostel -

In September 1939 the Wehrmacht set up a main POW camp (Kriegsgefangenen-Mannschafts-Stammlager, or Stalag) in Sandbostel. Up to 30,000 POWs were to be held at Stalag X B, a 35-hectare site with over 150 dormitory huts, utility buildings and administration buildings. By the end of the war, more than 300,000 POWs, civilian prisoners and military internees from over 55 countries had passed through Stalag X B. Most were assigned to one of the camp's more than 1,100 work details in north-west Germany, where they worked primarily in agriculture but also in industry and armaments production.

Soviet POWs in particular were denied the protection of the law of war by the Wehrmacht, so thousands of them died of exhaustion, starvation and disease in Stalag XB and its work details. In April 1945 around 9,500 prisoners from the Neuengamme concentration camp and its satellite camps arrived at Sandbostel. More than 3,000 of them died during the transport, in the camp and in the first weeks after the liberation.

The use of the site since 1945

After the liberation of Stalag X B on 29 April 1945, the British Army set up an internment camp for members of the Waffen-SS. In 1948 the Lower Saxony Ministry of Justice turned the site into the Camp Sandbostel Prison. From 1952 to 1960 the Lower Saxony Ministry for Displaced Persons used the site as the ‘Sandbostel emergency transit camp’ for young male refugees from East Germany. From 1963 the German federal armed forces used the grounds mainly as a depot. The Sandbostel council took over the site in 1973 and turned it into the Immenhain industrial estate.

The Sandbostel Camp Memorial

In 2005 and 2008 the Sandbostel Camp Foundation acquired part of the former camp and established the Sandbostel Camp Memorial. The memorial incorporates eleven historical huts and other buildings from the former POW camp and a few buildings from the post-war period. Five wooden dormitory huts, one latrine and one kitchen building have been restored following accepted conservation practices.

www.stiftung-lager-sandbostel.de/

 

In 1939, a large POW camp (Stalag X B Sandbostel) was established in Sandbostel near Bremervörde. This camp was a transit station for hundreds of thousands of prisoners from many different nations.

 

In April 1945, the SS housed prisoners from the Neuengamme concentration camp in a separate part of this POW camp. Around 9,000 men, many of them from the satellite camps in Bremen, Wilhelmshaven and the Emsland region, spent the last weeks of their imprisonment in Sandbostel. There were insufficient provisions, and a typhus epidemic broke out as well, so many prisoners died in Sandbostel.

 

During an air-raid alarm on the night of 19 April 1945, several hundred prisoners stormed a kitchen hut to find food. During the same night, the SS left the camp and headed in the direction of Flensburg with several hundred prisoners who were still “able to march”.

Until the British army arrived on 29 April, the remaining concentration camp prisoners were largely left to their own devices and were given emergency rations by the POWs in the neighbouring camp.

 

More than 40,000 Russian soldiers and soldiers from other nations tortured to death in Nazi imprisonment!

 

Mamiya 7 / Mamiya N 50mm/4.5 L / Washi W 25 at 25 ASA / Eukobrom/1+1/20°/3min

Baldric the Red-bellied Woodpecker has a 'cunning plan' to escape over the wire by flapping his arms. Not sure he'll be able to find a turnip field in which to hide though ;0)

Startrails in der Perseiden Nacht am 13. August 2015 von 2:55 - 3:44 mit 98 Aufnahme a 26 sek, f4.5, ISO 2000., Canon EF 8-15mm @8mm.

 

Der Vordergrund wurde mit einer Fenix TK41 LED Taschenlampe ausgeleuchtet.

 

Location: Stalag XVII B Krems-Gneixendorf

 

Zum Stacken der Aufnahmen wurde startrails.de eingesetzt.

Startrails in der Perseiden Nacht am 13. August 2015 von 0:13 - 2:45 mit 303 Aufnahme a 26 sek, f4.5, ISO 2000 + 1 Darkframe, Canon EF 8-15mm @8mm.

 

Der Vordergrund wurde mit einer Fenix TK41 LED Taschenlampe ausgeleuchtet.

 

Location: Stalag XVII B Krems-Gneixendorf

 

Zum Stacken der Aufnahmen wurde startrails.de eingesetzt.

Stalag X B Sandbostel -

In September 1939 the Wehrmacht set up a main POW camp (Kriegsgefangenen-Mannschafts-Stammlager, or Stalag) in Sandbostel. Up to 30,000 POWs were to be held at Stalag X B, a 35-hectare site with over 150 dormitory huts, utility buildings and administration buildings. By the end of the war, more than 300,000 POWs, civilian prisoners and military internees from over 55 countries had passed through Stalag X B. Most were assigned to one of the camp's more than 1,100 work details in north-west Germany, where they worked primarily in agriculture but also in industry and armaments production.

Soviet POWs in particular were denied the protection of the law of war by the Wehrmacht, so thousands of them died of exhaustion, starvation and disease in Stalag XB and its work details. In April 1945 around 9,500 prisoners from the Neuengamme concentration camp and its satellite camps arrived at Sandbostel. More than 3,000 of them died during the transport, in the camp and in the first weeks after the liberation.

The use of the site since 1945

After the liberation of Stalag X B on 29 April 1945, the British Army set up an internment camp for members of the Waffen-SS. In 1948 the Lower Saxony Ministry of Justice turned the site into the Camp Sandbostel Prison. From 1952 to 1960 the Lower Saxony Ministry for Displaced Persons used the site as the ‘Sandbostel emergency transit camp’ for young male refugees from East Germany. From 1963 the German federal armed forces used the grounds mainly as a depot. The Sandbostel council took over the site in 1973 and turned it into the Immenhain industrial estate.

The Sandbostel Camp Memorial

In 2005 and 2008 the Sandbostel Camp Foundation acquired part of the former camp and established the Sandbostel Camp Memorial. The memorial incorporates eleven historical huts and other buildings from the former POW camp and a few buildings from the post-war period. Five wooden dormitory huts, one latrine and one kitchen building have been restored following accepted conservation practices.

www.stiftung-lager-sandbostel.de/

 

Hans-Jürgen Massaquoi (born January 19, 1926) is an American journalist and author. He was born in Hamburg, Germany to a German mother and the son of Liberia's consul general to GermanyIn his autobiography, Destined to Witness, Massaquoi describes his childhood and youth in Hamburg during the Nazi rise to power. His biography provides a unique point of view: he was one of very few German-born mulattoes in all of Nazi Germany, shunned, but not persecuted by the Nazis. This dichotomy remained a key theme throughout his whole life.

 

Massaquoi lived a simple, but happy childhood with his mother, Bertha Nikodijevic. His father, Al-Haj Massaquoi, was a law student in Dublin who only occasionally lived with the family at the consul general home in Hamburg. Eventually, the consul general was recalled to Liberia, and Hans Massaquoi and his mother remained in Germany.

    

In 1947 Massaquoi was able to visit Liberia, and was fascinated and shocked by its raw, rural nature. He grew estranged from his father Al-Haj, who left his mother and who came across as arrogant and tyrannical.

 

After that, Massaquoi emigrated to the United States. He served two years in the army as a paratrooper in the 82nd Airborne Division. With his GI bill he studied journalism at the University of Illinois followed by a career at Jet magazine and then Ebony magazine, where he became managing editor.

 

Over the years he has visited Germany many times. He states Germany is still his homeland.

 

In Germany Massaquoi had avoided the tragic fate of many blacks during the Nazi era, but it was usually more difficult for adult blacks. The luckier ones were forcibly sterilized but allowed to live. Others were sent to concentration camps. Some Allied prisoners of war, including black French colonial soldiers and African Americans, were interned in Stalag-III-A at Luckenwalde near Berlin. In the summer of 1940 about 4,000 black POWs were sent to Luckenwalde. In 1941 300 of them were forced to act as extras in the German film Germanin (1943). Other black POWs also appeared in Quax in Afrika (1943, with Heinz Rühmann).

   

Dzień Wszystkich Świętych na Cmentarzu Rakowickim w Krakowie - kwatera żołnierzy Wspólnoty Brytyjskiej.

W tej części cmentarza znajdują się groby niemal 500 poległych podczas II wojny światowej żołnierzy Wspólnoty Brytyjskej. Większość pochowanych to zmarli jeńcy, którzy przetrzymywani byli podczas wojny w obozie jenieckim Stalag VIIIB w Łambinowicach (Lamsdorf).

W 168 mogiłach spoczywają lotnicy, którzy zginęli zestrzeleni podczas lotów z zaopatrzeniem dla Armii Krajowej. Leżą tu żołnierze sił powietrznych Wielkiej Brytanii (RAF), Kanady (RCAF), Południowej Afryki (SAAF), Australii (RAAF) oraz Polski (PSP).

 

* * *

 

The All Saints' Day in the Commonwealth Section of the Rakowicki Cemetery in Kraków.

There are now almost five hundred Commonwealth casualties of the Second World War buried in the Krakow Rakowicki Cemetery. Those buried here died while prisoners of war during the German occupation, most of the graves coming from the cemetery at the large camp at Lamsdorf, Stalag VIIIB (after 1943 known as Stalag 344).

Other graves brought into the cemetery were those of 168 South African (SAAF), British (RAF), Polish (PSP), Canadian (RCAF) and Australian (RAAF) airmen who lost their lives during the Warsaw supply drop.

Anlässlich des 70. Jahrestages des Endes des II. Weltkrieges

erfolgte auf dem Friedhof des Kriegsgefangenenlagers StalagIIA

in Neubrandenburg/Fünfeichen eine Kranzniederlegung und Ehrung der Toten.

Mehr als 120.000 Kriegsgefangene aus 11 Ländern durchliefen in den Jahren 1939 bis 1945 das Kriegsgefangenenlager der Wehrmacht, das Stammlager IIa (Stalag IIa). 6.000 von ihnen, darunter allein 5.200 sowjetische Soldaten, starben in dieser Zeit in Fünfeichen an Hunger, Krankheiten und Misshandlungen und wurden unwürdig in Massengräbern verscharrt. Mit der Neugestaltung des Friedhofs wurden auch den Toten wieder ihre Namen zurückgegeben.

  

a 24, km long karst cave system near Postojna, southwestern Slovenia. It is the second-longest cave system in the country and it's absolutely incredible, stunning and beautifully preserved. Postojna is the only cave in the world with a double-track railway line inside!

Excerpt from the plaque:

 

TOP Left to Right:

 

Fleet 21K – Fleet Aircraft Company built eleven Consolidated Model 21 aeroplanes for its parent company, Consolidated, in 1936 and 1937. Ten of these were exported to Mexico as basic trainers for the Mexican Air Force. The eleventh was produced in 1937 as a demonstrator for Fleet, which tried to interest the RCAF in this large biplane. Unfortunately, the days of the biplane were already numbered, and monoplanes were emerging from the world’s aircraft factories in greater quantities.

 

This aircraft was used by Fleet’s chief test pilot, the famous Tommy Williams, to test the parachutes made by Irvin Industries Canada (Fort Erie, Ontario) for the RCAF. Williams simply threw dummies out of the aeroplane. When the 21K became surplus to Fleet’s requirements, Williams bought it and continued to fly it as a private aircraft. He did not give up his pilot’s licence until he was the age of 82.

 

Fairchild PT-26 Cornell – The PT-26 Cornell was a canopied version of the rugged PT-19 primary trainer, designed in 1938 by Fairchild Aircraft Co. of Hagerstown, Maryland. In early 1942, an agreement was signed between the Canadian Government and Fairchild, which licenced Fleet Aircraft of Fort Erie, Ontario to construct the PT-26 Cornell in Canada. The first 800 or so Cornells flown by the RCAF were supplied from Fairchild in the U.S., until Canadian production began at Fort Erie in November 1942. By the following year, production soared to 160 aircraft per month, which became one of the highest North American aircraft manufacturing rate of WW II. Eventually 1565 PT-26 Cornells were built by Fleet Aircraft for the RCAF and another 1288 for the RAF.

 

PT-26 Cornells were used at many of the Elementary Flying Training Schools (EFTS) of the British Commonwealth Air Training Plan (BCATP), where they replaced the Fleet Finch and the de Havilland Tiger Moth. The RCAF found the Cornell was able to fill the roles of both a primary and a basic trainer and this made a pilot’s transition to advanced aircraft, such as the Harvard or Anson, easier and less hazardous.

 

After the Second World War, many Cornells were sold to the civilian market, but some were retained by the RCAF, until they were finally retired in 1948.

 

Fleet 60K Fort – The Fleet 60K Fort was designed by Fleet Aircraft in Fort Erie, Ontario in 1938-1939 and was the only aircraft designed and built by Canadians in World War II. The rest of the airplanes produced in this country were constructed under licence. Construction of the prototype commenced in late 1939 and the first flight took place on March 21, 1940. RCAF evaluation at the Central Flying School in Trenton, showed it to be a stable aircraft that would make a suitable intermediate trainer with the addition of guns and bomb racks.

 

It was decided to use the Fort as a wireless operator trainer, with the rear cockpit filled with radio equipment. Construction was carried out during late 1941 and in early 1942 the aircraft was issued to No. 2 Wireless School (Calgary) and No. 3 Wireless School (Winnipeg). This type of aircraft was used to train many thousands of wireless operators during the period of 1942-44. However, RAF demands for training on the more powerful T1154 radio could not be met using the Fort. Its electrical generator was not powerful enough and the rear cockpit was too small. Other aircraft were found that were suitable for this new radio, gradually phasing out the Fort.

 

#3643 is displayed in a semi-finished state to give visitors some idea of the task faced by CWH volunteers in restoring an old aircraft.

 

BOTTOM

 

De Havilland DHC 1 Chipmunk – The Chipmunk was the first primary trainer manufactured by De Havilland Canada, of Downsview (North York) Canada, as a successor to the Tiger Moth. The first prototype flew in 1946 and the design proved most successful. Approximately 1000 were built, including some were made under licence in England and Portugal.

 

The RCAF accepted its first DHC 1 Chipmunks in 1948 and did not retire the last one until 1972, three years after unification in 1968 had let to the demise of the RCAF. The Chipmunk’s long service was due, in part, to its fully aerobatic capabilities and superb flying characteristics, similar to the Spifire’s, that made it a delight to fly. It is also a mechanically sound aeroplane and, consequently, many Chipmunks are still operational around the world.

 

The CWH Chipmunk was one of the early trainers built as a DHC1B 2 S5 and was designated a Chipmunk II. It went into service with RCAF Training Command in 1956 and remained on strength until 1972. The Chipmunk belonged to John Weir, a former Canadian fighter pilot who had been a prisoner of war (POW) in Stalag Luft III, the POW camp made famous by the escape of 76 Allied aircrews in 1944, and by the movie, “The Great Escape”. The former “Kriegie” (from the German Kriegsgefangener POW) donated the Chipmunk to the museum in 1973.

 

Stalag X B Sandbostel -

In September 1939 the Wehrmacht set up a main POW camp (Kriegsgefangenen-Mannschafts-Stammlager, or Stalag) in Sandbostel. Up to 30,000 POWs were to be held at Stalag X B, a 35-hectare site with over 150 dormitory huts, utility buildings and administration buildings. By the end of the war, more than 300,000 POWs, civilian prisoners and military internees from over 55 countries had passed through Stalag X B. Most were assigned to one of the camp's more than 1,100 work details in north-west Germany, where they worked primarily in agriculture but also in industry and armaments production.

Soviet POWs in particular were denied the protection of the law of war by the Wehrmacht, so thousands of them died of exhaustion, starvation and disease in Stalag XB and its work details. In April 1945 around 9,500 prisoners from the Neuengamme concentration camp and its satellite camps arrived at Sandbostel. More than 3,000 of them died during the transport, in the camp and in the first weeks after the liberation.

The use of the site since 1945

After the liberation of Stalag X B on 29 April 1945, the British Army set up an internment camp for members of the Waffen-SS. In 1948 the Lower Saxony Ministry of Justice turned the site into the Camp Sandbostel Prison. From 1952 to 1960 the Lower Saxony Ministry for Displaced Persons used the site as the ‘Sandbostel emergency transit camp’ for young male refugees from East Germany. From 1963 the German federal armed forces used the grounds mainly as a depot. The Sandbostel council took over the site in 1973 and turned it into the Immenhain industrial estate.

The Sandbostel Camp Memorial

In 2005 and 2008 the Sandbostel Camp Foundation acquired part of the former camp and established the Sandbostel Camp Memorial. The memorial incorporates eleven historical huts and other buildings from the former POW camp and a few buildings from the post-war period. Five wooden dormitory huts, one latrine and one kitchen building have been restored following accepted conservation practices.

www.stiftung-lager-sandbostel.de/

 

Stalag X B Sandbostel -

In September 1939 the Wehrmacht set up a main POW camp (Kriegsgefangenen-Mannschafts-Stammlager, or Stalag) in Sandbostel. Up to 30,000 POWs were to be held at Stalag X B, a 35-hectare site with over 150 dormitory huts, utility buildings and administration buildings. By the end of the war, more than 300,000 POWs, civilian prisoners and military internees from over 55 countries had passed through Stalag X B. Most were assigned to one of the camp's more than 1,100 work details in north-west Germany, where they worked primarily in agriculture but also in industry and armaments production.

Soviet POWs in particular were denied the protection of the law of war by the Wehrmacht, so thousands of them died of exhaustion, starvation and disease in Stalag XB and its work details. In April 1945 around 9,500 prisoners from the Neuengamme concentration camp and its satellite camps arrived at Sandbostel. More than 3,000 of them died during the transport, in the camp and in the first weeks after the liberation.

The use of the site since 1945

After the liberation of Stalag X B on 29 April 1945, the British Army set up an internment camp for members of the Waffen-SS. In 1948 the Lower Saxony Ministry of Justice turned the site into the Camp Sandbostel Prison. From 1952 to 1960 the Lower Saxony Ministry for Displaced Persons used the site as the ‘Sandbostel emergency transit camp’ for young male refugees from East Germany. From 1963 the German federal armed forces used the grounds mainly as a depot. The Sandbostel council took over the site in 1973 and turned it into the Immenhain industrial estate.

The Sandbostel Camp Memorial

In 2005 and 2008 the Sandbostel Camp Foundation acquired part of the former camp and established the Sandbostel Camp Memorial. The memorial incorporates eleven historical huts and other buildings from the former POW camp and a few buildings from the post-war period. Five wooden dormitory huts, one latrine and one kitchen building have been restored following accepted conservation practices.

www.stiftung-lager-sandbostel.de/

 

Link to Quad View Scene Index (hover over each room): www.flickr.com/photos/brian_williams/9274031732/

 

Ripe with political satire, Hogan's Heroes ran for six popular seasons on CBS 1965-1971 following the hilarious exploits of a group of Allied soldiers operating a secret intelligence operation behind enemy lines in a German POW camp during World War II. This MOC depicts a section of Stalag 13 from the show complete with German and Allied offices/living quarters, along with the extensive tunnel network built underneath the camp. 11 fully equipped rooms are modeled in detail depicting how these POWs operated. Included are numerous elements from the show's episodes.

 

This diorama won "Best Vignette" at Brickworld Chicago 2014. It also won "First Place for Small Dioramas" in the 2013 Lego Military Annual Build on Flicker: www.flickr.com/groups/legomilitaryannualbuildcompetition/...

It was also chosen as the "Brickarms Model Of the Month" for July 2013:

www.brickarmsforums.com/viewtopic.php?f=30&t=13829

 

The extensive lighting (see www.flickr.com/photos/brian_williams/9270781157/) is by Brickstuff. Their system of thin wires and LED panels is well-suited for interior lighting and a lot of fun to install.

Ausblick von einem der gemauerten Waschräume auf die Baracken. Diese bestanden lediglich aus dünnen Holzwänden und einem Bretterboden. Darunter 20 cm Luft und dann blanke Erde. Die Gefangenen verheizten ihre Betten, um im Winter nicht zu erfrieren und schliefen auf dem blanken Holzboden.

Mahn- und Gedenkstätte

 

Grabplatte mit Namen sowjetischer Rotarmisten, die in Fünfeichen gestorben sind. Viele starben 1941 und 1942.

Sie gerieten vorallem bei den großen Kesselschlachten beim Vormarsch der Wehrmacht auf sowjetischen Boden in Gefangenschaft. Stalin hätte sie lieber Tot als lebendig in Gefangenschaft gesehen.

In Neubrandenburg mussten sie schwere Erdabeiten beim Bau der Torpedo-Versuchs-Anstalt 1941 im Stargarder Bruch leisten.

 

cave sounds - geräusch in einer höhle, grotte (youtube)

 

About half an hour after the previous picture.

Making of, exposition, tutorial, notes, previous pictures - do it yourself: see comment.

 

Ungefähr eine halbe Stunde nach dem vorherigen Bild. Workshop: Vorbereitung, Anleitung, Erläuterung, Notizen, Durchführung Aktion, Ergebnise: siehe Kommentar.

 

Part of: "aquarius water wasser" aggregate states solid liquid gaseous // Esoterik Entlarvung : kein Schrein keine verborgene Zukunft // Aleatorik // Pareidolia - Pareidolie

 

DMC-G2 - P1890752 - 2015-04-06

#eselsbrücke #höhle #tropfstein #sinter #grotte #grottenschlecht #underground #untergrund #aquarium #pareidolia #pareidolie #milch #milk #metapher #analogie #mythos #mythologie #orakel #oracle #ei #egg #entlarven #thema #themenkreis #würfel #cube #note #notiz

LATO EST della RISIERA

 

La Risiera di San Sabba (in sloveno Rižarna pri Sveti Soboti) è stato un lager nazista, situato nella città di Trieste. È stato l'unico campo di concentramento in Italia ad avere un forno crematorio. In esso le autorità tedesche compirono uccisioni, in un primo momento mediante gas (usando i motori diesel degli autocarri), in seguito per fucilazione o con colpo di mazza alla nuca.

In seguito all'armistizio di Cassibile dell' 8 settembre 1943, le province italiane di Udine, Trieste, Gorizia, Pola, Fiume e Lubiana vennero sottoposte al diretto controllo del Terzo Reich con il nome di Zona di operazione dell'Adriatisches Küstenland (Litorale Adriatico).

Tale zona faceva parte formalmente della Repubblica sociale italiana, ma l'amministrazione del territorio - considerato come zona d'operazione bellica - fu però affidata e sottomessa al controllo dell'Alto Commissario Friedrich Rainer, già Gauleiter della Carinzia.

Il complesso di edifici che costituivano lo stabilimento per la pilatura del riso era stato costruito nel 1913 nel rione di San Sabba, alla periferia della città e fu trasformato inizialmente in un campo di prigionia provvisorio per i militari italiani catturati dopo l'8 settembre: venne denominato Stalag 339.

Successivamente, al termine dell'ottobre 1943, il complesso diviene un Polizeihaftlager (Campo di detenzione di polizia), utilizzato come centro di raccolta di detenuti in attesa di essere deportati in Germania ed in Polonia e come deposito dei beni razziati e sequestrati ai deportati ed ai condannati a morte.

I nazisti, dopo aver utilizzato per le esecuzioni i più svariati metodi, come la morte per gassazione utilizzando automezzi appositamente attrezzati, si servirono all'inizio del 1944 dell'essiccatoio della risiera, prima di trasformarlo definitivamente in un forno crematorio

L'impianto venne utilizzato per lo smaltimento dei cadaveri e la sua prima utilizzazione si ebbe il 4 aprile 1944 con la cremazione di una settantina di cadaveri di ostaggi fucilati il giorno precedente in località limitrofe Villa Opicina (Trieste).

Questo luogo è di assoluta importanza in quanto fu l'unico campo di deportazione dell'Europa meridionale. Il forno crematorio e la connessa ciminiera furono abbattuti con esplosivi dai nazisti in fuga nella notte tra il 29 e il30 aprile 1945, nel tentativo di eliminare le prove dei loro crimini. Tra le rovine furono ritrovate ossa e ceneri umane. Sul medesimo luogo, a ricordo, sorge oggi una struttura commemorativa costituita da una piastra metallica sul posto dove sorgeva il forno crematorio e da una stele che ricorda la presenza della ciminiera.

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Risiera di San Sabba (Slovene: Rižarna pri Sveti Soboti) was a Nazi concentration camp for the detention and killing of jewish and politic prisoners during World War II, located in Trieste, northern Italy.

 

The edifice was built in 1913 and first used as a rice-husking facility (hence the name "Risiera"). During World War II Nazi occupation forces in Trieste used the building to transport, detain and exterminate prisoners. Many occupants of Risiera di San Sabba were transported to the Nazi concentration camp at Auschwitz-Birkenau in Poland. Historians estimate that over 3.000 people were killed at the camp and thousands more imprisoned and transported elsewhere. The majority of prisoners came from Friuli, the Julian March, and the Province of Ljubljana.

 

SS members Odilo Globocnik, and Karl Frenzel, and Ivan Marchenko are all said to have participated in the killings at this camp.

 

Today the former concentration camp is dedicated as a civic museum.

 

Mahn- und Gedenkstätte

 

Sie alle hatten eine schöne Kindheit wuchsen mit der Gewissheit

auf, in ihrem Land den Sozialismus aufzubauen. Die Zukunft sah rosarot aus.

Dann brach Hitlerdeutschland den Nichtangriffspakt und der Große Vaterländische Krieg zog in ihr Leben ein. Niemand wusste, wie die Zukunft sein wird. Sie starben in Deutschland, in Neubrandenburg im Kriegsgefangenenlager. Viele noch sehr jung an Jahren 21 ´, 22 Jahre alt.

Niemand kannte in ihrer Heimat ihr Schicksal. Erst jetzt mit der Veröffentlichung der Namen ( die auch im Internet veröffentlicht werden sollen) haben die Angehörigen, die Möglichkeit den letzten Ort aufzusuchen, um ihrer Trauer nachzugehen.

Macro Mondays: "Oldest object you can find."

My grandfather was captured in North Africa in the second world war, marched across Europe and placed in a prisoner of war camp (Stalag IV B) for the duration. This is a button from his uniform.

Particolare dell'ingresso a una cella della Risiera

 

La Risiera di San Sabba (in sloveno Rižarna pri Sveti Soboti) è stato un lager nazista, situato nella città di Trieste. È stato l'unico campo di concentramento in Italia ad avere un forno crematorio. In esso le autorità tedesche compirono uccisioni, in un primo momento mediante gas (usando i motori diesel degli autocarri), in seguito per fucilazione o con colpo di mazza alla nuca.

In seguito all'armistizio di Cassibile dell' 8 settembre 1943, le province italiane di Udine, Trieste, Gorizia, Pola, Fiume e Lubiana vennero sottoposte al diretto controllo del Terzo Reich con il nome di Zona di operazione dell'Adriatisches Küstenland (Litorale Adriatico).

Tale zona faceva parte formalmente della Repubblica sociale italiana, ma l'amministrazione del territorio - considerato come zona d'operazione bellica - fu però affidata e sottomessa al controllo dell'Alto Commissario Friedrich Rainer, già Gauleiter della Carinzia.

Il complesso di edifici che costituivano lo stabilimento per la pilatura del riso era stato costruito nel 1913 nel rione di San Sabba, alla periferia della città e fu trasformato inizialmente in un campo di prigionia provvisorio per i militari italiani catturati dopo l'8 settembre: venne denominato Stalag 339.

Successivamente, al termine dell'ottobre 1943, il complesso diviene un Polizeihaftlager (Campo di detenzione di polizia), utilizzato come centro di raccolta di detenuti in attesa di essere deportati in Germania ed in Polonia e come deposito dei beni razziati e sequestrati ai deportati ed ai condannati a morte.

I nazisti, dopo aver utilizzato per le esecuzioni i più svariati metodi, come la morte per gassazione utilizzando automezzi appositamente attrezzati, si servirono all'inizio del 1944 dell'essiccatoio della risiera, prima di trasformarlo definitivamente in un forno crematorio

L'impianto venne utilizzato per lo smaltimento dei cadaveri e la sua prima utilizzazione si ebbe il 4 aprile 1944 con la cremazione di una settantina di cadaveri di ostaggi fucilati il giorno precedente in località limitrofe Villa Opicina (Trieste).

Questo luogo è di assoluta importanza in quanto fu l'unico campo di deportazione dell'Europa meridionale. Il forno crematorio e la connessa ciminiera furono abbattuti con esplosivi dai nazisti in fuga nella notte tra il 29 e il30 aprile 1945, nel tentativo di eliminare le prove dei loro crimini. Tra le rovine furono ritrovate ossa e ceneri umane. Sul medesimo luogo, a ricordo, sorge oggi una struttura commemorativa costituita da una piastra metallica sul posto dove sorgeva il forno crematorio e da una stele che ricorda la presenza della ciminiera.

( Da Wikipedia )

 

In diesem Friedhofsteil befinden sich 100 Einzelgräber. Teilweise handelt es sich um identifizierte jugoslawische Kriegsgefangene aber auch um Unbekannte.

Calouste Gulbenkian Museum, Lisbon, Portugal

 

Material: Oil on canvas

Collection: Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, Modern Collection

Inv.: PE212

 

BIOGRAPHY

 

Nasceu em Maymyo, Myanmar. Teve aulas privadas com o naturalista Stanhope Forbes em Newlyn (1938), e prosseguiu os estudos na Slade School of Art (1939 e 1945-7).

  

Ao serviço da R.A.F., durante a Segunda Guerra, foi feito prisioneiro no Stalag 383, onde conheceu e ensinou Terry Frost. Ao regressar, e após ter vivido um ano em Carcassone, está plenamente envolvido com o núcleo de artistas abstractos britânicos. Vai a St Ives, onde reencontra Frost e conhece Ben Nicholson, estabelecendo um elo importante entre esta colónia e o grupo Construcionista de Londres, sobretudo em torno de Victor Pasmore, Anthony Hill, Kenneth e Mary Martin.

 

As suas pinturas, inicialmente associadas ao estilo Euston Road, evoluíram por uma abstracção muito colorida, de formas severas e camadas espessas de tinta, cuja idealização geométrica tomava como ponto de partida o corpo feminino ou a paisagem. Apesar de ser o mais novo deste grupo, era o mais activo na sua promoção. Organiza a primeira exposição abstracta do pós-guerra na A.I.A. Gallery (1951), expõe durante dois anos as obras dos colegas no seu estúdio de Londres, e publica um influente ensaio sobre Abstract Art: Its Origins and Meaning (1953). Apesar de ter criado algumas construções e relevos nesta época, foi o artista que utilizou a pintura de modo mais sistemático, atribuindo progressivamente maior dinamismo e fluidez às composições rígidas dos anos 50.

   

A partir dos anos 60, dedicou-se sobretudo ao Ensino das Artes, como Professor na Bath Academy of Art (1955-1976), na University of Reading (1980-1985), e como senior fellow no Glamorgan Institute of Higher Education (1977-1980). Foi ainda artista residente da University of Sussex (1969) e pertenceu ao advisory art panel do Arts Council (1964-1967).

 

Afonso Ramos

 

SOURCE: gulbenkian.pt/museu/artist/adrian-heath/

Stalag X B Sandbostel -

In September 1939 the Wehrmacht set up a main POW camp (Kriegsgefangenen-Mannschafts-Stammlager, or Stalag) in Sandbostel. Up to 30,000 POWs were to be held at Stalag X B, a 35-hectare site with over 150 dormitory huts, utility buildings and administration buildings. By the end of the war, more than 300,000 POWs, civilian prisoners and military internees from over 55 countries had passed through Stalag X B. Most were assigned to one of the camp's more than 1,100 work details in north-west Germany, where they worked primarily in agriculture but also in industry and armaments production.

Soviet POWs in particular were denied the protection of the law of war by the Wehrmacht, so thousands of them died of exhaustion, starvation and disease in Stalag XB and its work details. In April 1945 around 9,500 prisoners from the Neuengamme concentration camp and its satellite camps arrived at Sandbostel. More than 3,000 of them died during the transport, in the camp and in the first weeks after the liberation.

The use of the site since 1945

After the liberation of Stalag X B on 29 April 1945, the British Army set up an internment camp for members of the Waffen-SS. In 1948 the Lower Saxony Ministry of Justice turned the site into the Camp Sandbostel Prison. From 1952 to 1960 the Lower Saxony Ministry for Displaced Persons used the site as the ‘Sandbostel emergency transit camp’ for young male refugees from East Germany. From 1963 the German federal armed forces used the grounds mainly as a depot. The Sandbostel council took over the site in 1973 and turned it into the Immenhain industrial estate.

The Sandbostel Camp Memorial

In 2005 and 2008 the Sandbostel Camp Foundation acquired part of the former camp and established the Sandbostel Camp Memorial. The memorial incorporates eleven historical huts and other buildings from the former POW camp and a few buildings from the post-war period. Five wooden dormitory huts, one latrine and one kitchen building have been restored following accepted conservation practices.

www.stiftung-lager-sandbostel.de/

 

Stalag X B Sandbostel -

In September 1939 the Wehrmacht set up a main POW camp (Kriegsgefangenen-Mannschafts-Stammlager, or Stalag) in Sandbostel. Up to 30,000 POWs were to be held at Stalag X B, a 35-hectare site with over 150 dormitory huts, utility buildings and administration buildings. By the end of the war, more than 300,000 POWs, civilian prisoners and military internees from over 55 countries had passed through Stalag X B. Most were assigned to one of the camp's more than 1,100 work details in north-west Germany, where they worked primarily in agriculture but also in industry and armaments production.

Soviet POWs in particular were denied the protection of the law of war by the Wehrmacht, so thousands of them died of exhaustion, starvation and disease in Stalag XB and its work details. In April 1945 around 9,500 prisoners from the Neuengamme concentration camp and its satellite camps arrived at Sandbostel. More than 3,000 of them died during the transport, in the camp and in the first weeks after the liberation.

The use of the site since 1945

After the liberation of Stalag X B on 29 April 1945, the British Army set up an internment camp for members of the Waffen-SS. In 1948 the Lower Saxony Ministry of Justice turned the site into the Camp Sandbostel Prison. From 1952 to 1960 the Lower Saxony Ministry for Displaced Persons used the site as the ‘Sandbostel emergency transit camp’ for young male refugees from East Germany. From 1963 the German federal armed forces used the grounds mainly as a depot. The Sandbostel council took over the site in 1973 and turned it into the Immenhain industrial estate.

The Sandbostel Camp Memorial

In 2005 and 2008 the Sandbostel Camp Foundation acquired part of the former camp and established the Sandbostel Camp Memorial. The memorial incorporates eleven historical huts and other buildings from the former POW camp and a few buildings from the post-war period. Five wooden dormitory huts, one latrine and one kitchen building have been restored following accepted conservation practices.

www.stiftung-lager-sandbostel.de/

 

Basil Gerald Stapme Stapleton, Battle of Britain Spitfire pilot. Born Durban 12th May 1920. Joined the RAF in January 1939 and began training at White Waltham then moved to 13 FTS Drem. Converted to Bristol Blenheims and joined 219 Squadron at RAF Catterick on October 21st 1939 and posted to 603 Squadron on Spitfires at RAF Prestwick in the November.

On April 22nd 1940 at the age of 19 he bailed out of a Spitfire at night due to a jammed undercarriage and on July 3rd took a share in a Junkers Ju 88 followed by a share of a Dornier Do 17 on the 20th. During August he claimed 3 Me 109's as probables. September saw him claim another Me 109 and Do 17 as destroyed and another 109 as a probable. September 7th saw him forced down at Sutton Valance in front of a family having a picnick in the same field. After exiting his Spitfire, N3196, which he had left on top of a wall he joined the family to watch the rest of the battle above. A while later another airman parachuted down from the battle and joined the family, who later dropped the pair off at a public house, where they both got drunk and returned to their airfields around 11pm and returned to the fight the next day. Further claims for Me 109's, Me 110's and Do 17's followed and his final claim came on November 11th when he was awarded the DFC.

Now tour expired he was posted to No 4 Aircraft Delivery Flight until he took command of 257 Squadron, RAF Honiley on January 14th 1942. At the end of this tour he went to 2 ADU and various other units until posted to 247 Squadron in France on August 26th 1944. December 23rd 1944, while flying a Typhoon he attacked a train which exploded underneath him and damaged the aircraft which he then had to force land behind enemy lines and became a POW at Stalag Luft 1 Barth for the rest of the War.

He returned to the UK and was released from the RAF on January 31st 1946 as a Squadron Leader and then returned home to South Africa. He returned to the UK in 1994 to live, has released his book, Stapme and can usually be found at Duxford on show days and is occasionally on the TV, ask him about the Paul O'Grady show, and he always wears that tie!

Silhouette of a safety platform at the Port of Belfast. I thought it looked more like a watch tower from a P.O.W camp.

Stalag X B Sandbostel -

In September 1939 the Wehrmacht set up a main POW camp (Kriegsgefangenen-Mannschafts-Stammlager, or Stalag) in Sandbostel. Up to 30,000 POWs were to be held at Stalag X B, a 35-hectare site with over 150 dormitory huts, utility buildings and administration buildings. By the end of the war, more than 300,000 POWs, civilian prisoners and military internees from over 55 countries had passed through Stalag X B. Most were assigned to one of the camp's more than 1,100 work details in north-west Germany, where they worked primarily in agriculture but also in industry and armaments production.

Soviet POWs in particular were denied the protection of the law of war by the Wehrmacht, so thousands of them died of exhaustion, starvation and disease in Stalag XB and its work details. In April 1945 around 9,500 prisoners from the Neuengamme concentration camp and its satellite camps arrived at Sandbostel. More than 3,000 of them died during the transport, in the camp and in the first weeks after the liberation.

The use of the site since 1945

After the liberation of Stalag X B on 29 April 1945, the British Army set up an internment camp for members of the Waffen-SS. In 1948 the Lower Saxony Ministry of Justice turned the site into the Camp Sandbostel Prison. From 1952 to 1960 the Lower Saxony Ministry for Displaced Persons used the site as the ‘Sandbostel emergency transit camp’ for young male refugees from East Germany. From 1963 the German federal armed forces used the grounds mainly as a depot. The Sandbostel council took over the site in 1973 and turned it into the Immenhain industrial estate.

The Sandbostel Camp Memorial

In 2005 and 2008 the Sandbostel Camp Foundation acquired part of the former camp and established the Sandbostel Camp Memorial. The memorial incorporates eleven historical huts and other buildings from the former POW camp and a few buildings from the post-war period. Five wooden dormitory huts, one latrine and one kitchen building have been restored following accepted conservation practices.

www.stiftung-lager-sandbostel.de/

 

Stalag X B Sandbostel -

In September 1939 the Wehrmacht set up a main POW camp (Kriegsgefangenen-Mannschafts-Stammlager, or Stalag) in Sandbostel. Up to 30,000 POWs were to be held at Stalag X B, a 35-hectare site with over 150 dormitory huts, utility buildings and administration buildings. By the end of the war, more than 300,000 POWs, civilian prisoners and military internees from over 55 countries had passed through Stalag X B. Most were assigned to one of the camp's more than 1,100 work details in north-west Germany, where they worked primarily in agriculture but also in industry and armaments production.

Soviet POWs in particular were denied the protection of the law of war by the Wehrmacht, so thousands of them died of exhaustion, starvation and disease in Stalag XB and its work details. In April 1945 around 9,500 prisoners from the Neuengamme concentration camp and its satellite camps arrived at Sandbostel. More than 3,000 of them died during the transport, in the camp and in the first weeks after the liberation.

The use of the site since 1945

After the liberation of Stalag X B on 29 April 1945, the British Army set up an internment camp for members of the Waffen-SS. In 1948 the Lower Saxony Ministry of Justice turned the site into the Camp Sandbostel Prison. From 1952 to 1960 the Lower Saxony Ministry for Displaced Persons used the site as the ‘Sandbostel emergency transit camp’ for young male refugees from East Germany. From 1963 the German federal armed forces used the grounds mainly as a depot. The Sandbostel council took over the site in 1973 and turned it into the Immenhain industrial estate.

The Sandbostel Camp Memorial

In 2005 and 2008 the Sandbostel Camp Foundation acquired part of the former camp and established the Sandbostel Camp Memorial. The memorial incorporates eleven historical huts and other buildings from the former POW camp and a few buildings from the post-war period. Five wooden dormitory huts, one latrine and one kitchen building have been restored following accepted conservation practices.

www.stiftung-lager-sandbostel.de/

 

Stalag X B Sandbostel -

In September 1939 the Wehrmacht set up a main POW camp (Kriegsgefangenen-Mannschafts-Stammlager, or Stalag) in Sandbostel. Up to 30,000 POWs were to be held at Stalag X B, a 35-hectare site with over 150 dormitory huts, utility buildings and administration buildings. By the end of the war, more than 300,000 POWs, civilian prisoners and military internees from over 55 countries had passed through Stalag X B. Most were assigned to one of the camp's more than 1,100 work details in north-west Germany, where they worked primarily in agriculture but also in industry and armaments production.

Soviet POWs in particular were denied the protection of the law of war by the Wehrmacht, so thousands of them died of exhaustion, starvation and disease in Stalag XB and its work details. In April 1945 around 9,500 prisoners from the Neuengamme concentration camp and its satellite camps arrived at Sandbostel. More than 3,000 of them died during the transport, in the camp and in the first weeks after the liberation.

The use of the site since 1945

After the liberation of Stalag X B on 29 April 1945, the British Army set up an internment camp for members of the Waffen-SS. In 1948 the Lower Saxony Ministry of Justice turned the site into the Camp Sandbostel Prison. From 1952 to 1960 the Lower Saxony Ministry for Displaced Persons used the site as the ‘Sandbostel emergency transit camp’ for young male refugees from East Germany. From 1963 the German federal armed forces used the grounds mainly as a depot. The Sandbostel council took over the site in 1973 and turned it into the Immenhain industrial estate.

The Sandbostel Camp Memorial

In 2005 and 2008 the Sandbostel Camp Foundation acquired part of the former camp and established the Sandbostel Camp Memorial. The memorial incorporates eleven historical huts and other buildings from the former POW camp and a few buildings from the post-war period. Five wooden dormitory huts, one latrine and one kitchen building have been restored following accepted conservation practices.

www.stiftung-lager-sandbostel.de/

 

La Risiera di San Sabba, a Trieste, costruita nel 1913 per la pilatura del riso, divenne un lager nazista ( Stalag 339 ) tra il 1943 e il 30 aprile 1945. Dotato di un forno crematorio ( unico in Italia )

il lager fu luogo di internamento, tortura, uccisione e cremazione per diverse migliaia di ebrei, detenuti politici, slavi, cattolici, tra uomini, donne e bambini. La notte tra il 29 e il 30 aprile '45 la ciminiera del forno crematorio fu fatta saltare dai nazisti in fuga, nel tentativo di cancellarne le tracce.

Tra le macerie furono rinvenute considerevoli quantità di resti umani.

 

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In questa occasione desidero segnalare qui un libro recente, scritto da mia moglie ( il suo terzo romanzo ) e , per ora, pubblicato on-line presso 'il mio libro' della Feltrinelli, dal titolo 'Siamo ancora tutti vivi'. Qui una breve presentazione:

 

Dolfi Abrham è un ebreo triestino costretto a scappare dalla sua città nel 1943. Si rifugia, aiutato da amici, presso San Gimignano dove viene ospitato da tre donne. Da lì cominciano le sue peregrinazioni, attraverso una fitta trama di incontri, avventure, travestimenti che lo faranno sfuggire ai fascisti e ai nazisti miracolosamente, fino alla sua collaborazione con i partigiani e, poi, con il Governo militare alleato nelle città dell'Italia appena liberata.

Nel '46 riuscirà a tornare a Trieste, in una città lacerata e, un po' come lui, in cerca di un'identità perduta. Qui, tra incertezze e aspirazioni accarezzate da lunghi anni, maturerà il suo sogno di raggiungere, quasi una Terra promessa, lo Stato di Israele che si sta costituendo. Ma niente sarà facile e niente sarà scontato. Un destino irrisolto caratterizzerà la sua vicenda.

Una storia che, pur toccando un tema non nuovo: quello di tanti ebrei perseguitati e in perpetua fuga, tuttavia si concentra su un uomo che, da sempre, è in cerca di un suo posto nella vita, in uno slancio sempre frustrato dagli eventi, ma, anche, dalla sua indole sensibile e indecisa. Amori e amicizie, radici remote e profonde, condivise con il fratello Amos e la lontana sorella Emma, accompagnano la storia di Dolfi. Una trama che attrae per gli spunti ironici e, talvolta, umoristici, insieme a quelli toccanti e dolorosi. Ma ciò che prevale è sempre una narrazione rapida e leggera, fino a esiti del tutto inaspettati che colgono di sorpresa il lettore e che toccano senza retorica il senso di un'esistenza sempre in attesa di un suo compimento.

 

e qui, per chi lo desiderasse vedere o acquistare, il link:

 

ilmiolibro.kataweb.it/schedalibro.asp?id=657327

Stalag X B Sandbostel -

In September 1939 the Wehrmacht set up a main POW camp (Kriegsgefangenen-Mannschafts-Stammlager, or Stalag) in Sandbostel. Up to 30,000 POWs were to be held at Stalag X B, a 35-hectare site with over 150 dormitory huts, utility buildings and administration buildings. By the end of the war, more than 300,000 POWs, civilian prisoners and military internees from over 55 countries had passed through Stalag X B. Most were assigned to one of the camp's more than 1,100 work details in north-west Germany, where they worked primarily in agriculture but also in industry and armaments production.

Soviet POWs in particular were denied the protection of the law of war by the Wehrmacht, so thousands of them died of exhaustion, starvation and disease in Stalag XB and its work details. In April 1945 around 9,500 prisoners from the Neuengamme concentration camp and its satellite camps arrived at Sandbostel. More than 3,000 of them died during the transport, in the camp and in the first weeks after the liberation.

The use of the site since 1945

After the liberation of Stalag X B on 29 April 1945, the British Army set up an internment camp for members of the Waffen-SS. In 1948 the Lower Saxony Ministry of Justice turned the site into the Camp Sandbostel Prison. From 1952 to 1960 the Lower Saxony Ministry for Displaced Persons used the site as the ‘Sandbostel emergency transit camp’ for young male refugees from East Germany. From 1963 the German federal armed forces used the grounds mainly as a depot. The Sandbostel council took over the site in 1973 and turned it into the Immenhain industrial estate.

The Sandbostel Camp Memorial

In 2005 and 2008 the Sandbostel Camp Foundation acquired part of the former camp and established the Sandbostel Camp Memorial. The memorial incorporates eleven historical huts and other buildings from the former POW camp and a few buildings from the post-war period. Five wooden dormitory huts, one latrine and one kitchen building have been restored following accepted conservation practices.

www.stiftung-lager-sandbostel.de/

 

Stalag X B Sandbostel -

In September 1939 the Wehrmacht set up a main POW camp (Kriegsgefangenen-Mannschafts-Stammlager, or Stalag) in Sandbostel. Up to 30,000 POWs were to be held at Stalag X B, a 35-hectare site with over 150 dormitory huts, utility buildings and administration buildings. By the end of the war, more than 300,000 POWs, civilian prisoners and military internees from over 55 countries had passed through Stalag X B. Most were assigned to one of the camp's more than 1,100 work details in north-west Germany, where they worked primarily in agriculture but also in industry and armaments production.

Soviet POWs in particular were denied the protection of the law of war by the Wehrmacht, so thousands of them died of exhaustion, starvation and disease in Stalag XB and its work details. In April 1945 around 9,500 prisoners from the Neuengamme concentration camp and its satellite camps arrived at Sandbostel. More than 3,000 of them died during the transport, in the camp and in the first weeks after the liberation.

The use of the site since 1945

After the liberation of Stalag X B on 29 April 1945, the British Army set up an internment camp for members of the Waffen-SS. In 1948 the Lower Saxony Ministry of Justice turned the site into the Camp Sandbostel Prison. From 1952 to 1960 the Lower Saxony Ministry for Displaced Persons used the site as the ‘Sandbostel emergency transit camp’ for young male refugees from East Germany. From 1963 the German federal armed forces used the grounds mainly as a depot. The Sandbostel council took over the site in 1973 and turned it into the Immenhain industrial estate.

The Sandbostel Camp Memorial

In 2005 and 2008 the Sandbostel Camp Foundation acquired part of the former camp and established the Sandbostel Camp Memorial. The memorial incorporates eleven historical huts and other buildings from the former POW camp and a few buildings from the post-war period. Five wooden dormitory huts, one latrine and one kitchen building have been restored following accepted conservation practices.

www.stiftung-lager-sandbostel.de/

 

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