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On the beach located north of Puerto Madryn 15 ships are stranded and abandoned. These accumulated due to several events in the last two decades. Some foreign fishing vessels were captured by the Argentine Naval Prefecture after being caught in illegal fishing. Some of those ships with unfinished legal proceedings. In 1991 a strong storm hit the coast of Chubut. The sudestada caused several ships moored to the dock, cut ends and drift, hitting the Admiral Storni dock and each other, then beached on the coast. Due to the damages of great magnitude, their owners decided to leave them abandoned, happening to the Argentine Naval Prefecture. A “ship graveyard” was formed and it was decided to scrap them, given the negative visual impact to be remedied.

_________________________________

En la playa ubicada al norte de Puerto Madryn, 15 barcos están varados y abandonados. Estos se acumularon debido a varios eventos en las últimas dos décadas. Algunos buques pesqueros extranjeros fueron capturados por la Prefectura Naval Argentina después de ser atrapados en la pesca ilegal. Algunos de esos barcos con procedimientos legales inacabados. En 1991, una fuerte tormenta azotó la costa de Chubut. La sudestada provocó que varios barcos atracaran en el muelle, cortaran extremos y se desviaran, golpeando el muelle del Almirante Storni y entre ellos, y luego se dirigieron hacia la costa. Debido a los daños de gran magnitud, sus dueños decidieron dejarlos abandonados, pasando a la Prefectura Naval Argentina. Se formó un "cementerio de barcos" y se decidió eliminarlos, dado el impacto visual negativo a remediar.

Umbralejo,

 

is an uninhabited town of the province of Guadalajara (Spain), located in the Eastern slope of the mountain range of Ayllón, annexed from the first half of the 19th century to the municipality of La Huerce, autonomous community of Castilla-La Mancha.

 

In 1971, the Institute for the Conservation of Nature (ICONA) expropriated its buildings and lands from its inhabitants. Since 1984, together with Búbal (Huesca) and Granadilla (Cáceres), it forms part of the Program for the Recovery and Educational Use of Abandoned Peoples (PRUEPA), promoted by the Ministries of Agriculture and Fisheries, Food and Environment, Education, Culture and Sports and Promotion, which has meant the arrival of groups of young people, mostly from the urban world, whose objectives include their physical and cultural recovery, which has prevented their complete deterioration. This work has made possible the conservation and maintenance of the buildings that make up the urban area of ​​the town, traditionally built with mud and slate, according to the technical procedures of the so-called black architecture, "characteristic of this region and consisting of dark masses of slate stones with roofs of the same, narrow doors and windows and auxiliary elements such as ovens, tainas, washrooms and cemeteries, all made with the same materials, so that they give an appearance of homogeneity and purity to this unique constructive modality in Castilla.

 

Umbralejo,

 

es un pueblo deshabitado de la provincia de Guadalajara (España), situado en la vertiente oriental de la sierra de Ayllón, anexionado desde la primera mitad del siglo XIX al municipio de La Huerce, comunidad autónoma de Castilla-La Mancha.

 

En 1971, el Instituto para la Conservación de la Naturaleza (ICONA) expropió a sus habitantes sus edificios y terrenos. Desde 1984, forma parte junto con Búbal (Huesca) y Granadilla (Cáceres) del Programa de Recuperación y Utilización Educativa de Pueblos Abandonados (PRUEPA), promovido por los ministerios de Agricultura y Pesca, Alimentación y Medio Ambiente, Educación, Cultura y Deporte y Fomento, lo que ha supuesto la llegada de grupos de jóvenes procedentes, en su mayoría, del mundo urbano, entre cuyos objetivos cabe destacar su recuperación física y cultural, que ha evitado su completo deterioro. Este trabajo ha hecho posible la conservación y mantenimiento de las edificaciones que conforman el casco urbano de la población, levantadas tradicionalmente a base de barro y pizarra, según los procedimientos técnicos de la llamada arquitectura negra, «característica de esta comarca y que se compone de oscuras masas de piedras de pizarra con tejados de lo mismo, estrechas puertas y ventanas y elementos auxiliares como los hornos, las tainas, los lavaderos y cementerios, todos ellos realizados con los mismos materiales, de modo que dan un aspecto de homogeneidad y pureza a esta modalidad constructiva única en Castilla.

Macro extremo 5X

2016-04-07 11-57-48 (B,R6,S2)

 

Seguimos probando técnicas de Macro Extremo. Esta fotografía se ha realizado instalando delante de la óptica 105 macro de la cámara una óptica de microscopio 5X y gestionando el apilamiento de foco mediante el control del anillo de enfoque por USB desde Helicon Remote.

 

El procedimiento completo lo he descrito en anteriores fotos, en esta solo se ha añadido al macro una óptica 5X (Mitutoyo), acoplada mediante un accesorio de alineamiento fabricado con una impresora 3D.

 

En principio no debía haber funcionado ya que cuando las ópticas se acoplan, el macro debería enfocarse a infinito según la literatura (a modo de tubo de extensión), pero en este caso con el enfoque del macro se ha barrido, para hacer el apilamiento de foco, desde 0.3m hasta casi infinito, el resultado ha sido este, para tomar nota...

 

Resumiendo, el sistema consiste en una cámara Nikon D600 (ff), objetivo macro 105mm, objetivo micro 5X, cable USB y Helicon Remote, simple y económico, al alcance de cualquiera, no se ha utilizado motor para movimiento micrométrico de la cámara.

 

NOW IN MY POOR ENGLISH:

 

I am testing the different techinics for Extreme Macro. This shot has been done attaching a microscopy 5X lens to the macro lens of the camera, and making the stack shot with movement of the focus ring controling it through USB and Helicon Remote soft.

 

The full procedure was descrived in previous Macro Extreme shots, this shot only have as news the Mitutoyo 5X micro optic attached to the 105 macro means an adapter builded by 3D printing.

 

Really the first idea was "it can not work" because when optics are attached, the camera macro lens need to be focused to infinite (as a tube lens), but oposite to this, I was connected the camera by USB and tested moving the focus from 0.3m (mínimum) to near infinite, and the result was this.

 

As resume, the system is so easy as: Nikon D600 + macro 105mm + mitutoyo 5X + USB + Helicon Remote for controlling the stack of focus. All of you can do it economically and easily.

 

I wait my Spainglish can be traslated by you...

Talgo II in Railway Museum, Madrid. The panoramic coach.

 

You can see the exterior of the coach:

www.flickr.com/photos/ramonoria/35605160504/in/photolist-...

www.flickr.com/photos/ramonoria/35605172754/in/photolist-...

  

The Museo del Ferrocarril (Railway Museum) in Madrid, Spain, is one of the largest historic railroad collections in Europe. It is housed in a redundant railway station called Madrid-Delicias in the barrio of Delicias. The location is near the centre of Madrid.

 

Talgo is a Spanish manufacturer of intercity, standard, and high speed passenger trains, founded in 1942

Talgo trains are divided into a number of generations. They come in both locomotive hauled and self-propelled versions.

The Talgo I was built in 1942 in Spain.

 

Talgo II coaches and locomotives were first built in 1950 and were successfully operated until 1972.

 

The maximum speed was 120 kms/h. The design of some details were art deco.

 

Talgo trains are best known for their unconventional articulated railway passenger car that uses a type similar to the Jacobs bogie that Talgo patented in 1941, similar to the Robert Stephenson and Company trains. The wheels are mounted in pairs but not joined by an axle and the bogies are shared between coaches rather than underneath individual coaches.

 

----

 

El Museo del Ferrocarril es una de las mayores colecciones ferroviarias de Europa. Está situado en la antigua estación de las Delicias, cerca del centro de la ciudad.

 

El Talgo es un tipo de tren formado principalmente por una composición articulada de coches cortos, de aluminio y más bajos que los tradicionales, diseñado y construido por la empresa española Patentes Talgo. Su nombre son las siglas de Tren Articulado Ligero Goicoechea Oriol, en atención a su diseñador Alejandro Goicoechea y al financiero que apoyó sus investigaciones y la fabricación de los primeros trenes construidos con ese sistema, José Luis Oriol Urigüen; fundadores de la empresa en 1942.

 

Las composiciones Talgo se caracterizan principalmente por tener un sistema de rodadura completamente diferente al de los coches de trenes convencionales. Esto les permite una serie de ventajas, pero a cambio, solo se pueden construir convoyes fijos cuyas cajas solo se pueden acoplar y desacoplar en un complejo procedimiento en taller.

La generación Talgo I comenzó a construirse en 1942.

La Talgo II se inició en 1950, y se retiró en 1972, después de una exitosa carrera.

 

(Extracto de wikipedia)

Italia - Florencia - Catedral de Santa Maria del Fiore

 

***

 

ENGLISH

 

By the beginning of the 15th century, after a hundred years of construction, the structure was still missing its dome. The basic features of the dome had been designed by Arnolfo di Cambio in 1296. His brick model, 4.6 metres (15.1 feet) high, 9.2 metres (30.2 feet) long, was standing in a side aisle of the unfinished building, and had long been sacrosanct. It called for an octagonal dome higher and wider than any that had ever been built, with no external buttresses to keep it from spreading and falling under its own weight.

 

The commitment to reject traditional Gothic buttresses had been made when Neri di Fioravanti's model was chosen over a competing one by Giovanni di Lapo Ghini. That architectural choice, in 1367, was one of the first events of the Italian Renaissance, marking a break with the Medieval Gothic style and a return to the classic Mediterranean dome. Italian architects regarded Gothic flying buttresses as ugly makeshifts. Furthermore, the use of buttresses was forbidden in Florence, as the style was favored by central Italy's traditional enemies to the north. Neri's model depicted a massive inner dome, open at the top to admit light, like Rome's Pantheon, but enclosed in a thinner outer shell, partly supported by the inner dome, to keep out the weather. It was to stand on an unbuttressed octagonal drum. Neri's dome would need an internal defense against spreading (hoop stress), but none had yet been designed.

 

The building of such a masonry dome posed many technical problems. Brunelleschi looked to the great dome of the Pantheon in Rome for solutions. The dome of the Pantheon is a single shell of concrete, the formula for which had long since been forgotten. The Pantheon had employed structural centring to support the concrete dome while it cured. This could not be the solution in the case of a dome this size and would put the church out of use. For the height and breadth of the dome designed by Neri, starting 52 metres (171 ft) above the floor and spanning 44 metres (144 ft), there was not enough timber in Tuscany to build the scaffolding and forms. Brunelleschi chose to follow such design and employed a double shell, made of sandstone and marble. Brunelleschi would have to build the dome out of brick, due to its light weight compared to stone and being easier to form, and with nothing under it during construction. To illustrate his proposed structural plan, he constructed a wooden and brick model with the help of Donatello and Nanni di Banco, a model which is still displayed in the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo. The model served as a guide for the craftsmen, but was intentionally incomplete, so as to ensure Brunelleschi's control over the construction.

 

Brunelleschi's solutions were ingenious, such as his use of the catenary arch for support. The spreading problem was solved by a set of four internal horizontal stone and iron chains, serving as barrel hoops, embedded within the inner dome: one at the top, one at the bottom, with the remaining two evenly spaced between them. A fifth chain, made of wood, was placed between the first and second of the stone chains. Since the dome was octagonal rather than round, a simple chain, squeezing the dome like a barrel hoop, would have put all its pressure on the eight corners of the dome. The chains needed to be rigid octagons, stiff enough to hold their shape, so as not to deform the dome as they held it together.

 

Each of Brunelleschi's stone chains was built like an octagonal railroad track with parallel rails and cross ties, all made of sandstone beams 43 centimetres (17 in) in diameter and no more than 2.3 metres (7.5 ft) long. The rails were connected end-to-end with lead-glazed iron splices. The cross ties and rails were notched together and then covered with the bricks and mortar of the inner dome. The cross ties of the bottom chain can be seen protruding from the drum at the base of the dome. The others are hidden. Each stone chain was supposed to be reinforced with a standard iron chain made of interlocking links, but a magnetic survey conducted in the 1970s failed to detect any evidence of iron chains, which if they exist are deeply embedded in the thick masonry walls. Brunelleschi also included vertical "ribs" set on the corners of the octagon, curving towards the center point. The ribs, 4 metres (13 ft) deep, are supported by 16 concealed ribs radiating from center. The ribs had slits to take beams that supported platforms, thus allowing the work to progress upward without the need for scaffolding.

 

A circular masonry dome can be built without supports, called centering, because each course of bricks is a horizontal arch that resists compression. In Florence, the octagonal inner dome was thick enough for an imaginary circle to be embedded in it at each level, a feature that would hold the dome up eventually, but could not hold the bricks in place while the mortar was still wet. Brunelleschi used a herringbone brick pattern to transfer the weight of the freshly laid bricks to the nearest vertical ribs of the non-circular dome.

 

The outer dome was not thick enough to contain embedded horizontal circles, being only 60 centimetres (2 ft) thick at the base and 30 centimetres (1 ft) thick at the top. To create such circles, Brunelleschi thickened the outer dome at the inside of its corners at nine different elevations, creating nine masonry rings, which can be observed today from the space between the two domes. To counteract hoop stress, the outer dome relies entirely on its attachment to the inner dome and has no embedded chains.

 

A modern understanding of physical laws and the mathematical tools for calculating stresses were centuries in the future. Brunelleschi, like all cathedral builders, had to rely on intuition and whatever he could learn from the large scale models he built. To lift 37,000 tons of material, including over 4 million bricks, he invented hoisting machines and lewissons for hoisting large stones. These specially designed machines and his structural innovations were Brunelleschi's chief contribution to architecture. Although he was executing an aesthetic plan made half a century earlier, it is his name, rather than Neri's, that is commonly associated with the dome.

 

Brunelleschi's ability to crown the dome with a lantern was questioned and he had to undergo another competition, even though there had been evidence that Brunelleschi had been working on a design for a lantern for the upper part of the dome. The evidence is shown in the curvature, which was made steeper than the original model.[30] He was declared the winner over his competitors Lorenzo Ghiberti and Antonio Ciaccheri. His design (now on display in the Museum Opera del Duomo) was for an octagonal lantern with eight radiating buttresses and eight high arched windows. Construction of the lantern was begun a few months before his death in 1446. Then, for 15 years, little progress was possible, due to alterations by several architects. The lantern was finally completed by Brunelleschi's friend Michelozzo in 1461. The conical roof was crowned with a gilt copper ball and cross, containing holy relics, by Verrocchio in 1469. This brings the total height of the dome and lantern to 114.5 metres (376 ft). This copper ball was struck by lightning on 17 July 1600 and fell down. It was replaced by an even larger one two years later.

 

The commission for this gilt copper ball [atop the lantern] went to the sculptor Andrea del Verrocchio, in whose workshop there was at this time a young apprentice named Leonardo da Vinci. Fascinated by Filippo's [Brunelleschi's] machines, which Verrocchio used to hoist the ball, Leonardo made a series of sketches of them and, as a result, is often given credit for their invention.

 

Leonardo might have also participated in the design of the bronze ball, as stated in the G manuscript of Paris "Remember the way we soldered the ball of Santa Maria del Fiore".

 

The decorations of the drum gallery by Baccio d'Agnolo were never finished after being disapproved by no one less than Michelangelo.

 

A huge statue of Brunelleschi now sits outside the Palazzo dei Canonici in the Piazza del Duomo, looking thoughtfully up towards his greatest achievement, the dome that would forever dominate the panorama of Florence. It is still the largest masonry dome in the world.

 

The building of the cathedral had started in 1296 with the design of Arnolfo di Cambio and was completed in 1469 with the placing of Verrochio's copper ball atop the lantern. But the façade was still unfinished and would remain so until the 19th century.

 

***

 

ESPAÑOL

 

La cúpula de Santa María del Fiore o cúpula de Santa María de la Flor, también conocida como cúpula de Brunelleschi o cúpula del Duomo de Florencia, constituye la cubierta del crucero de la catedral de Santa María del Fiore de Florencia. Fue la cúpula más grande del mundo tras la caída del imperio romano ​y se considera todavía la mayor jamás realizada en albañilería. Fue ideada, proyectada y construida por Filippo Brunelleschi, quien inició con esta obra el Renacimiento italiano y florentino en arquitectura. ​Está considerada como la construcción más importante edificada en Europa desde la época romana, debido a la relevancia fundamental que ha desempeñado para el desarrollo posterior de la arquitectura y de la concepción moderna de la construcción.

 

La cúpula tiene una forma apuntada y está formada por ocho caras o paños ojivales, cubiertos con teja de barro rojo y bordeados por ocho nervios de piedra blanca. Toda la estructura descansa sobre un tambor también octogonal, perforado por ocho óculos para la iluminación del interior. Los nervios convergen en un anillo octogonal superior, coronado por una linterna, elemento que también colabora en la entrada de luz. El interior está constituido por dos casquetes o domos, uno interior y otro exterior, construidos con ladrillo dispuesto en forma de espina de pez. Están conectados entre sí por medio de una retícula interior formada por costillas y nervaduras, que sostiene la cúpula y colabora en su estabilidad. El hueco que queda entre ambos casquetes forma un espacio por el que se asciende hasta la linterna. ​El exterior del tambor está revestido con mármoles polícromos y con una balaustrada incompleta que solo se construyó en una de sus caras. La cara interna de la cúpula está decorada con pinturas al fresco y al temple que representan el Juicio Final.

 

Las proporciones del conjunto son monumentales. La altura máxima de la cúpula es de 116.50 metros, el diámetro máximo del casquete interior es de 45.5 metros y el del exterior, de 54.8 metros. La base de las impostas se encuentra a 55 metros del suelo. El tambor, de 13 metros de altura y 43 de anchura, se sitúa a 54 metros del suelo. ​El casquete interior tiene un espesor en su base de 2.20 metros, que disminuye hasta los 2 metros en la cúspide, mientras que el casquete exterior tiene un espesor que pasa de un metro a 0.40 metros. El anillo superior de cierre de la cúpula se encuentra a 86.70 metros del suelo. ​La linterna tiene 6 metros de diámetro y 21 de altura. Los paños trapezoidales miden 17.50 metros de longitud y tienen una altura de 32.65 metros. ​El peso estimado total de la cúpula es de unas 30 000 toneladas y se calcula que se necesitaron para su construcción más de 4 millones de ladrillos.

 

Sus enormes dimensiones hicieron inviable el empleo de los métodos constructivos tradicionales mediante cimbras, lo cual ha favorecido la especulación de diversas teorías sobre la técnica constructiva empleada. Brunelleschi no dejó registro de ningún dibujo, maqueta o esbozo que indicara el procedimiento utilizado en la edificación de la cúpula.

 

Las obras de construcción de la cúpula tuvieron una duración de 16 años, desde 1420 hasta 1436. ​En 1446 se inició la construcción de la linterna, ​que fue terminada en 1461. ​El revestimiento exterior del tambor se ejecutó entre 1512 y 1515, ​y la decoración pictórica del interior de la cúpula se prolongó desde 1572 hasta 1579.

 

Italia - Florencia - Catedral - Cúpula de Brunelleschi

 

***

 

ENGLISH

 

By the beginning of the 15th century, after a hundred years of construction, the structure was still missing its dome. The basic features of the dome had been designed by Arnolfo di Cambio in 1296. His brick model, 4.6 metres (15.1 feet) high, 9.2 metres (30.2 feet) long, was standing in a side aisle of the unfinished building, and had long been sacrosanct. It called for an octagonal dome higher and wider than any that had ever been built, with no external buttresses to keep it from spreading and falling under its own weight.

 

The commitment to reject traditional Gothic buttresses had been made when Neri di Fioravanti's model was chosen over a competing one by Giovanni di Lapo Ghini. That architectural choice, in 1367, was one of the first events of the Italian Renaissance, marking a break with the Medieval Gothic style and a return to the classic Mediterranean dome. Italian architects regarded Gothic flying buttresses as ugly makeshifts. Furthermore, the use of buttresses was forbidden in Florence, as the style was favored by central Italy's traditional enemies to the north. Neri's model depicted a massive inner dome, open at the top to admit light, like Rome's Pantheon, but enclosed in a thinner outer shell, partly supported by the inner dome, to keep out the weather. It was to stand on an unbuttressed octagonal drum. Neri's dome would need an internal defense against spreading (hoop stress), but none had yet been designed.

 

The building of such a masonry dome posed many technical problems. Brunelleschi looked to the great dome of the Pantheon in Rome for solutions. The dome of the Pantheon is a single shell of concrete, the formula for which had long since been forgotten. The Pantheon had employed structural centring to support the concrete dome while it cured. This could not be the solution in the case of a dome this size and would put the church out of use. For the height and breadth of the dome designed by Neri, starting 52 metres (171 ft) above the floor and spanning 44 metres (144 ft), there was not enough timber in Tuscany to build the scaffolding and forms. Brunelleschi chose to follow such design and employed a double shell, made of sandstone and marble. Brunelleschi would have to build the dome out of brick, due to its light weight compared to stone and being easier to form, and with nothing under it during construction. To illustrate his proposed structural plan, he constructed a wooden and brick model with the help of Donatello and Nanni di Banco, a model which is still displayed in the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo. The model served as a guide for the craftsmen, but was intentionally incomplete, so as to ensure Brunelleschi's control over the construction.

 

Brunelleschi's solutions were ingenious, such as his use of the catenary arch for support. The spreading problem was solved by a set of four internal horizontal stone and iron chains, serving as barrel hoops, embedded within the inner dome: one at the top, one at the bottom, with the remaining two evenly spaced between them. A fifth chain, made of wood, was placed between the first and second of the stone chains. Since the dome was octagonal rather than round, a simple chain, squeezing the dome like a barrel hoop, would have put all its pressure on the eight corners of the dome. The chains needed to be rigid octagons, stiff enough to hold their shape, so as not to deform the dome as they held it together.

 

Each of Brunelleschi's stone chains was built like an octagonal railroad track with parallel rails and cross ties, all made of sandstone beams 43 centimetres (17 in) in diameter and no more than 2.3 metres (7.5 ft) long. The rails were connected end-to-end with lead-glazed iron splices. The cross ties and rails were notched together and then covered with the bricks and mortar of the inner dome. The cross ties of the bottom chain can be seen protruding from the drum at the base of the dome. The others are hidden. Each stone chain was supposed to be reinforced with a standard iron chain made of interlocking links, but a magnetic survey conducted in the 1970s failed to detect any evidence of iron chains, which if they exist are deeply embedded in the thick masonry walls. Brunelleschi also included vertical "ribs" set on the corners of the octagon, curving towards the center point. The ribs, 4 metres (13 ft) deep, are supported by 16 concealed ribs radiating from center. The ribs had slits to take beams that supported platforms, thus allowing the work to progress upward without the need for scaffolding.

 

A circular masonry dome can be built without supports, called centering, because each course of bricks is a horizontal arch that resists compression. In Florence, the octagonal inner dome was thick enough for an imaginary circle to be embedded in it at each level, a feature that would hold the dome up eventually, but could not hold the bricks in place while the mortar was still wet. Brunelleschi used a herringbone brick pattern to transfer the weight of the freshly laid bricks to the nearest vertical ribs of the non-circular dome.

 

The outer dome was not thick enough to contain embedded horizontal circles, being only 60 centimetres (2 ft) thick at the base and 30 centimetres (1 ft) thick at the top. To create such circles, Brunelleschi thickened the outer dome at the inside of its corners at nine different elevations, creating nine masonry rings, which can be observed today from the space between the two domes. To counteract hoop stress, the outer dome relies entirely on its attachment to the inner dome and has no embedded chains.

 

A modern understanding of physical laws and the mathematical tools for calculating stresses were centuries in the future. Brunelleschi, like all cathedral builders, had to rely on intuition and whatever he could learn from the large scale models he built. To lift 37,000 tons of material, including over 4 million bricks, he invented hoisting machines and lewissons for hoisting large stones. These specially designed machines and his structural innovations were Brunelleschi's chief contribution to architecture. Although he was executing an aesthetic plan made half a century earlier, it is his name, rather than Neri's, that is commonly associated with the dome.

 

Brunelleschi's ability to crown the dome with a lantern was questioned and he had to undergo another competition, even though there had been evidence that Brunelleschi had been working on a design for a lantern for the upper part of the dome. The evidence is shown in the curvature, which was made steeper than the original model.[30] He was declared the winner over his competitors Lorenzo Ghiberti and Antonio Ciaccheri. His design (now on display in the Museum Opera del Duomo) was for an octagonal lantern with eight radiating buttresses and eight high arched windows. Construction of the lantern was begun a few months before his death in 1446. Then, for 15 years, little progress was possible, due to alterations by several architects. The lantern was finally completed by Brunelleschi's friend Michelozzo in 1461. The conical roof was crowned with a gilt copper ball and cross, containing holy relics, by Verrocchio in 1469. This brings the total height of the dome and lantern to 114.5 metres (376 ft). This copper ball was struck by lightning on 17 July 1600 and fell down. It was replaced by an even larger one two years later.

  

The commission for this gilt copper ball [atop the lantern] went to the sculptor Andrea del Verrocchio, in whose workshop there was at this time a young apprentice named Leonardo da Vinci. Fascinated by Filippo's [Brunelleschi's] machines, which Verrocchio used to hoist the ball, Leonardo made a series of sketches of them and, as a result, is often given credit for their invention.

 

Leonardo might have also participated in the design of the bronze ball, as stated in the G manuscript of Paris "Remember the way we soldered the ball of Santa Maria del Fiore".

 

The decorations of the drum gallery by Baccio d'Agnolo were never finished after being disapproved by no one less than Michelangelo.

 

A huge statue of Brunelleschi now sits outside the Palazzo dei Canonici in the Piazza del Duomo, looking thoughtfully up towards his greatest achievement, the dome that would forever dominate the panorama of Florence. It is still the largest masonry dome in the world.

 

The building of the cathedral had started in 1296 with the design of Arnolfo di Cambio and was completed in 1469 with the placing of Verrochio's copper ball atop the lantern. But the façade was still unfinished and would remain so until the 19th century.

 

***

 

ESPAÑOL

 

La cúpula de Santa María del Fiore o cúpula de Santa María de la Flor, también conocida como cúpula de Brunelleschi o cúpula del Duomo de Florencia, constituye la cubierta del crucero de la catedral de Santa María del Fiore de Florencia. Fue la cúpula más grande del mundo tras la caída del imperio romano ​y se considera todavía la mayor jamás realizada en albañilería. Fue ideada, proyectada y construida por Filippo Brunelleschi, quien inició con esta obra el Renacimiento italiano y florentino en arquitectura. ​Está considerada como la construcción más importante edificada en Europa desde la época romana, debido a la relevancia fundamental que ha desempeñado para el desarrollo posterior de la arquitectura y de la concepción moderna de la construcción.

 

La cúpula tiene una forma apuntada y está formada por ocho caras o paños ojivales, cubiertos con teja de barro rojo y bordeados por ocho nervios de piedra blanca. Toda la estructura descansa sobre un tambor también octogonal, perforado por ocho óculos para la iluminación del interior. Los nervios convergen en un anillo octogonal superior, coronado por una linterna, elemento que también colabora en la entrada de luz. El interior está constituido por dos casquetes o domos, uno interior y otro exterior, construidos con ladrillo dispuesto en forma de espina de pez. Están conectados entre sí por medio de una retícula interior formada por costillas y nervaduras, que sostiene la cúpula y colabora en su estabilidad. El hueco que queda entre ambos casquetes forma un espacio por el que se asciende hasta la linterna. ​El exterior del tambor está revestido con mármoles polícromos y con una balaustrada incompleta que solo se construyó en una de sus caras. La cara interna de la cúpula está decorada con pinturas al fresco y al temple que representan el Juicio Final.

 

Las proporciones del conjunto son monumentales. La altura máxima de la cúpula es de 116.50 metros, el diámetro máximo del casquete interior es de 45.5 metros y el del exterior, de 54.8 metros. La base de las impostas se encuentra a 55 metros del suelo. El tambor, de 13 metros de altura y 43 de anchura, se sitúa a 54 metros del suelo. ​El casquete interior tiene un espesor en su base de 2.20 metros, que disminuye hasta los 2 metros en la cúspide, mientras que el casquete exterior tiene un espesor que pasa de un metro a 0.40 metros. El anillo superior de cierre de la cúpula se encuentra a 86.70 metros del suelo. ​La linterna tiene 6 metros de diámetro y 21 de altura. Los paños trapezoidales miden 17.50 metros de longitud y tienen una altura de 32.65 metros. ​El peso estimado total de la cúpula es de unas 30 000 toneladas y se calcula que se necesitaron para su construcción más de 4 millones de ladrillos.

 

Sus enormes dimensiones hicieron inviable el empleo de los métodos constructivos tradicionales mediante cimbras, lo cual ha favorecido la especulación de diversas teorías sobre la técnica constructiva empleada. Brunelleschi no dejó registro de ningún dibujo, maqueta o esbozo que indicara el procedimiento utilizado en la edificación de la cúpula.

 

Las obras de construcción de la cúpula tuvieron una duración de 16 años, desde 1420 hasta 1436. ​En 1446 se inició la construcción de la linterna, ​que fue terminada en 1461. ​El revestimiento exterior del tambor se ejecutó entre 1512 y 1515, ​y la decoración pictórica del interior de la cúpula se prolongó desde 1572 hasta 1579.

 

Italia - Florencia - Catedral de Santa Maria del Fiore

 

***

 

ENGLISH

 

By the beginning of the 15th century, after a hundred years of construction, the structure was still missing its dome. The basic features of the dome had been designed by Arnolfo di Cambio in 1296. His brick model, 4.6 metres (15.1 feet) high, 9.2 metres (30.2 feet) long, was standing in a side aisle of the unfinished building, and had long been sacrosanct. It called for an octagonal dome higher and wider than any that had ever been built, with no external buttresses to keep it from spreading and falling under its own weight.

 

The commitment to reject traditional Gothic buttresses had been made when Neri di Fioravanti's model was chosen over a competing one by Giovanni di Lapo Ghini. That architectural choice, in 1367, was one of the first events of the Italian Renaissance, marking a break with the Medieval Gothic style and a return to the classic Mediterranean dome. Italian architects regarded Gothic flying buttresses as ugly makeshifts. Furthermore, the use of buttresses was forbidden in Florence, as the style was favored by central Italy's traditional enemies to the north. Neri's model depicted a massive inner dome, open at the top to admit light, like Rome's Pantheon, but enclosed in a thinner outer shell, partly supported by the inner dome, to keep out the weather. It was to stand on an unbuttressed octagonal drum. Neri's dome would need an internal defense against spreading (hoop stress), but none had yet been designed.

 

The building of such a masonry dome posed many technical problems. Brunelleschi looked to the great dome of the Pantheon in Rome for solutions. The dome of the Pantheon is a single shell of concrete, the formula for which had long since been forgotten. The Pantheon had employed structural centring to support the concrete dome while it cured. This could not be the solution in the case of a dome this size and would put the church out of use. For the height and breadth of the dome designed by Neri, starting 52 metres (171 ft) above the floor and spanning 44 metres (144 ft), there was not enough timber in Tuscany to build the scaffolding and forms. Brunelleschi chose to follow such design and employed a double shell, made of sandstone and marble. Brunelleschi would have to build the dome out of brick, due to its light weight compared to stone and being easier to form, and with nothing under it during construction. To illustrate his proposed structural plan, he constructed a wooden and brick model with the help of Donatello and Nanni di Banco, a model which is still displayed in the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo. The model served as a guide for the craftsmen, but was intentionally incomplete, so as to ensure Brunelleschi's control over the construction.

 

Brunelleschi's solutions were ingenious, such as his use of the catenary arch for support. The spreading problem was solved by a set of four internal horizontal stone and iron chains, serving as barrel hoops, embedded within the inner dome: one at the top, one at the bottom, with the remaining two evenly spaced between them. A fifth chain, made of wood, was placed between the first and second of the stone chains. Since the dome was octagonal rather than round, a simple chain, squeezing the dome like a barrel hoop, would have put all its pressure on the eight corners of the dome. The chains needed to be rigid octagons, stiff enough to hold their shape, so as not to deform the dome as they held it together.

 

Each of Brunelleschi's stone chains was built like an octagonal railroad track with parallel rails and cross ties, all made of sandstone beams 43 centimetres (17 in) in diameter and no more than 2.3 metres (7.5 ft) long. The rails were connected end-to-end with lead-glazed iron splices. The cross ties and rails were notched together and then covered with the bricks and mortar of the inner dome. The cross ties of the bottom chain can be seen protruding from the drum at the base of the dome. The others are hidden. Each stone chain was supposed to be reinforced with a standard iron chain made of interlocking links, but a magnetic survey conducted in the 1970s failed to detect any evidence of iron chains, which if they exist are deeply embedded in the thick masonry walls. Brunelleschi also included vertical "ribs" set on the corners of the octagon, curving towards the center point. The ribs, 4 metres (13 ft) deep, are supported by 16 concealed ribs radiating from center. The ribs had slits to take beams that supported platforms, thus allowing the work to progress upward without the need for scaffolding.

 

A circular masonry dome can be built without supports, called centering, because each course of bricks is a horizontal arch that resists compression. In Florence, the octagonal inner dome was thick enough for an imaginary circle to be embedded in it at each level, a feature that would hold the dome up eventually, but could not hold the bricks in place while the mortar was still wet. Brunelleschi used a herringbone brick pattern to transfer the weight of the freshly laid bricks to the nearest vertical ribs of the non-circular dome.

 

The outer dome was not thick enough to contain embedded horizontal circles, being only 60 centimetres (2 ft) thick at the base and 30 centimetres (1 ft) thick at the top. To create such circles, Brunelleschi thickened the outer dome at the inside of its corners at nine different elevations, creating nine masonry rings, which can be observed today from the space between the two domes. To counteract hoop stress, the outer dome relies entirely on its attachment to the inner dome and has no embedded chains.

 

A modern understanding of physical laws and the mathematical tools for calculating stresses were centuries in the future. Brunelleschi, like all cathedral builders, had to rely on intuition and whatever he could learn from the large scale models he built. To lift 37,000 tons of material, including over 4 million bricks, he invented hoisting machines and lewissons for hoisting large stones. These specially designed machines and his structural innovations were Brunelleschi's chief contribution to architecture. Although he was executing an aesthetic plan made half a century earlier, it is his name, rather than Neri's, that is commonly associated with the dome.

 

Brunelleschi's ability to crown the dome with a lantern was questioned and he had to undergo another competition, even though there had been evidence that Brunelleschi had been working on a design for a lantern for the upper part of the dome. The evidence is shown in the curvature, which was made steeper than the original model.[30] He was declared the winner over his competitors Lorenzo Ghiberti and Antonio Ciaccheri. His design (now on display in the Museum Opera del Duomo) was for an octagonal lantern with eight radiating buttresses and eight high arched windows. Construction of the lantern was begun a few months before his death in 1446. Then, for 15 years, little progress was possible, due to alterations by several architects. The lantern was finally completed by Brunelleschi's friend Michelozzo in 1461. The conical roof was crowned with a gilt copper ball and cross, containing holy relics, by Verrocchio in 1469. This brings the total height of the dome and lantern to 114.5 metres (376 ft). This copper ball was struck by lightning on 17 July 1600 and fell down. It was replaced by an even larger one two years later.

  

The commission for this gilt copper ball [atop the lantern] went to the sculptor Andrea del Verrocchio, in whose workshop there was at this time a young apprentice named Leonardo da Vinci. Fascinated by Filippo's [Brunelleschi's] machines, which Verrocchio used to hoist the ball, Leonardo made a series of sketches of them and, as a result, is often given credit for their invention.

 

Leonardo might have also participated in the design of the bronze ball, as stated in the G manuscript of Paris "Remember the way we soldered the ball of Santa Maria del Fiore".

 

The decorations of the drum gallery by Baccio d'Agnolo were never finished after being disapproved by no one less than Michelangelo.

 

A huge statue of Brunelleschi now sits outside the Palazzo dei Canonici in the Piazza del Duomo, looking thoughtfully up towards his greatest achievement, the dome that would forever dominate the panorama of Florence. It is still the largest masonry dome in the world.

 

The building of the cathedral had started in 1296 with the design of Arnolfo di Cambio and was completed in 1469 with the placing of Verrochio's copper ball atop the lantern. But the façade was still unfinished and would remain so until the 19th century.

 

***

 

ESPAÑOL

 

La cúpula de Santa María del Fiore o cúpula de Santa María de la Flor, también conocida como cúpula de Brunelleschi o cúpula del Duomo de Florencia, constituye la cubierta del crucero de la catedral de Santa María del Fiore de Florencia. Fue la cúpula más grande del mundo tras la caída del imperio romano ​y se considera todavía la mayor jamás realizada en albañilería. Fue ideada, proyectada y construida por Filippo Brunelleschi, quien inició con esta obra el Renacimiento italiano y florentino en arquitectura. ​Está considerada como la construcción más importante edificada en Europa desde la época romana, debido a la relevancia fundamental que ha desempeñado para el desarrollo posterior de la arquitectura y de la concepción moderna de la construcción.

 

La cúpula tiene una forma apuntada y está formada por ocho caras o paños ojivales, cubiertos con teja de barro rojo y bordeados por ocho nervios de piedra blanca. Toda la estructura descansa sobre un tambor también octogonal, perforado por ocho óculos para la iluminación del interior. Los nervios convergen en un anillo octogonal superior, coronado por una linterna, elemento que también colabora en la entrada de luz. El interior está constituido por dos casquetes o domos, uno interior y otro exterior, construidos con ladrillo dispuesto en forma de espina de pez. Están conectados entre sí por medio de una retícula interior formada por costillas y nervaduras, que sostiene la cúpula y colabora en su estabilidad. El hueco que queda entre ambos casquetes forma un espacio por el que se asciende hasta la linterna. ​El exterior del tambor está revestido con mármoles polícromos y con una balaustrada incompleta que solo se construyó en una de sus caras. La cara interna de la cúpula está decorada con pinturas al fresco y al temple que representan el Juicio Final.

 

Las proporciones del conjunto son monumentales. La altura máxima de la cúpula es de 116.50 metros, el diámetro máximo del casquete interior es de 45.5 metros y el del exterior, de 54.8 metros. La base de las impostas se encuentra a 55 metros del suelo. El tambor, de 13 metros de altura y 43 de anchura, se sitúa a 54 metros del suelo. ​El casquete interior tiene un espesor en su base de 2.20 metros, que disminuye hasta los 2 metros en la cúspide, mientras que el casquete exterior tiene un espesor que pasa de un metro a 0.40 metros. El anillo superior de cierre de la cúpula se encuentra a 86.70 metros del suelo. ​La linterna tiene 6 metros de diámetro y 21 de altura. Los paños trapezoidales miden 17.50 metros de longitud y tienen una altura de 32.65 metros. ​El peso estimado total de la cúpula es de unas 30 000 toneladas y se calcula que se necesitaron para su construcción más de 4 millones de ladrillos.

 

Sus enormes dimensiones hicieron inviable el empleo de los métodos constructivos tradicionales mediante cimbras, lo cual ha favorecido la especulación de diversas teorías sobre la técnica constructiva empleada. Brunelleschi no dejó registro de ningún dibujo, maqueta o esbozo que indicara el procedimiento utilizado en la edificación de la cúpula.

 

Las obras de construcción de la cúpula tuvieron una duración de 16 años, desde 1420 hasta 1436. ​En 1446 se inició la construcción de la linterna, ​que fue terminada en 1461. ​El revestimiento exterior del tambor se ejecutó entre 1512 y 1515, ​y la decoración pictórica del interior de la cúpula se prolongó desde 1572 hasta 1579.

 

Italia - Florencia - Catedral de Santa Maria del Fiore

 

***

 

ENGLISH

 

By the beginning of the 15th century, after a hundred years of construction, the structure was still missing its dome. The basic features of the dome had been designed by Arnolfo di Cambio in 1296. His brick model, 4.6 metres (15.1 feet) high, 9.2 metres (30.2 feet) long, was standing in a side aisle of the unfinished building, and had long been sacrosanct. It called for an octagonal dome higher and wider than any that had ever been built, with no external buttresses to keep it from spreading and falling under its own weight.

 

The commitment to reject traditional Gothic buttresses had been made when Neri di Fioravanti's model was chosen over a competing one by Giovanni di Lapo Ghini. That architectural choice, in 1367, was one of the first events of the Italian Renaissance, marking a break with the Medieval Gothic style and a return to the classic Mediterranean dome. Italian architects regarded Gothic flying buttresses as ugly makeshifts. Furthermore, the use of buttresses was forbidden in Florence, as the style was favored by central Italy's traditional enemies to the north. Neri's model depicted a massive inner dome, open at the top to admit light, like Rome's Pantheon, but enclosed in a thinner outer shell, partly supported by the inner dome, to keep out the weather. It was to stand on an unbuttressed octagonal drum. Neri's dome would need an internal defense against spreading (hoop stress), but none had yet been designed.

 

The building of such a masonry dome posed many technical problems. Brunelleschi looked to the great dome of the Pantheon in Rome for solutions. The dome of the Pantheon is a single shell of concrete, the formula for which had long since been forgotten. The Pantheon had employed structural centring to support the concrete dome while it cured. This could not be the solution in the case of a dome this size and would put the church out of use. For the height and breadth of the dome designed by Neri, starting 52 metres (171 ft) above the floor and spanning 44 metres (144 ft), there was not enough timber in Tuscany to build the scaffolding and forms. Brunelleschi chose to follow such design and employed a double shell, made of sandstone and marble. Brunelleschi would have to build the dome out of brick, due to its light weight compared to stone and being easier to form, and with nothing under it during construction. To illustrate his proposed structural plan, he constructed a wooden and brick model with the help of Donatello and Nanni di Banco, a model which is still displayed in the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo. The model served as a guide for the craftsmen, but was intentionally incomplete, so as to ensure Brunelleschi's control over the construction.

 

Brunelleschi's solutions were ingenious, such as his use of the catenary arch for support. The spreading problem was solved by a set of four internal horizontal stone and iron chains, serving as barrel hoops, embedded within the inner dome: one at the top, one at the bottom, with the remaining two evenly spaced between them. A fifth chain, made of wood, was placed between the first and second of the stone chains. Since the dome was octagonal rather than round, a simple chain, squeezing the dome like a barrel hoop, would have put all its pressure on the eight corners of the dome. The chains needed to be rigid octagons, stiff enough to hold their shape, so as not to deform the dome as they held it together.

 

Each of Brunelleschi's stone chains was built like an octagonal railroad track with parallel rails and cross ties, all made of sandstone beams 43 centimetres (17 in) in diameter and no more than 2.3 metres (7.5 ft) long. The rails were connected end-to-end with lead-glazed iron splices. The cross ties and rails were notched together and then covered with the bricks and mortar of the inner dome. The cross ties of the bottom chain can be seen protruding from the drum at the base of the dome. The others are hidden. Each stone chain was supposed to be reinforced with a standard iron chain made of interlocking links, but a magnetic survey conducted in the 1970s failed to detect any evidence of iron chains, which if they exist are deeply embedded in the thick masonry walls. Brunelleschi also included vertical "ribs" set on the corners of the octagon, curving towards the center point. The ribs, 4 metres (13 ft) deep, are supported by 16 concealed ribs radiating from center. The ribs had slits to take beams that supported platforms, thus allowing the work to progress upward without the need for scaffolding.

 

A circular masonry dome can be built without supports, called centering, because each course of bricks is a horizontal arch that resists compression. In Florence, the octagonal inner dome was thick enough for an imaginary circle to be embedded in it at each level, a feature that would hold the dome up eventually, but could not hold the bricks in place while the mortar was still wet. Brunelleschi used a herringbone brick pattern to transfer the weight of the freshly laid bricks to the nearest vertical ribs of the non-circular dome.

 

The outer dome was not thick enough to contain embedded horizontal circles, being only 60 centimetres (2 ft) thick at the base and 30 centimetres (1 ft) thick at the top. To create such circles, Brunelleschi thickened the outer dome at the inside of its corners at nine different elevations, creating nine masonry rings, which can be observed today from the space between the two domes. To counteract hoop stress, the outer dome relies entirely on its attachment to the inner dome and has no embedded chains.

 

A modern understanding of physical laws and the mathematical tools for calculating stresses were centuries in the future. Brunelleschi, like all cathedral builders, had to rely on intuition and whatever he could learn from the large scale models he built. To lift 37,000 tons of material, including over 4 million bricks, he invented hoisting machines and lewissons for hoisting large stones. These specially designed machines and his structural innovations were Brunelleschi's chief contribution to architecture. Although he was executing an aesthetic plan made half a century earlier, it is his name, rather than Neri's, that is commonly associated with the dome.

 

Brunelleschi's ability to crown the dome with a lantern was questioned and he had to undergo another competition, even though there had been evidence that Brunelleschi had been working on a design for a lantern for the upper part of the dome. The evidence is shown in the curvature, which was made steeper than the original model.[30] He was declared the winner over his competitors Lorenzo Ghiberti and Antonio Ciaccheri. His design (now on display in the Museum Opera del Duomo) was for an octagonal lantern with eight radiating buttresses and eight high arched windows. Construction of the lantern was begun a few months before his death in 1446. Then, for 15 years, little progress was possible, due to alterations by several architects. The lantern was finally completed by Brunelleschi's friend Michelozzo in 1461. The conical roof was crowned with a gilt copper ball and cross, containing holy relics, by Verrocchio in 1469. This brings the total height of the dome and lantern to 114.5 metres (376 ft). This copper ball was struck by lightning on 17 July 1600 and fell down. It was replaced by an even larger one two years later.

  

The commission for this gilt copper ball [atop the lantern] went to the sculptor Andrea del Verrocchio, in whose workshop there was at this time a young apprentice named Leonardo da Vinci. Fascinated by Filippo's [Brunelleschi's] machines, which Verrocchio used to hoist the ball, Leonardo made a series of sketches of them and, as a result, is often given credit for their invention.

 

Leonardo might have also participated in the design of the bronze ball, as stated in the G manuscript of Paris "Remember the way we soldered the ball of Santa Maria del Fiore".

 

The decorations of the drum gallery by Baccio d'Agnolo were never finished after being disapproved by no one less than Michelangelo.

 

A huge statue of Brunelleschi now sits outside the Palazzo dei Canonici in the Piazza del Duomo, looking thoughtfully up towards his greatest achievement, the dome that would forever dominate the panorama of Florence. It is still the largest masonry dome in the world.

 

The building of the cathedral had started in 1296 with the design of Arnolfo di Cambio and was completed in 1469 with the placing of Verrochio's copper ball atop the lantern. But the façade was still unfinished and would remain so until the 19th century.

 

***

 

ESPAÑOL

 

La cúpula de Santa María del Fiore o cúpula de Santa María de la Flor, también conocida como cúpula de Brunelleschi o cúpula del Duomo de Florencia, constituye la cubierta del crucero de la catedral de Santa María del Fiore de Florencia. Fue la cúpula más grande del mundo tras la caída del imperio romano ​y se considera todavía la mayor jamás realizada en albañilería. Fue ideada, proyectada y construida por Filippo Brunelleschi, quien inició con esta obra el Renacimiento italiano y florentino en arquitectura. ​Está considerada como la construcción más importante edificada en Europa desde la época romana, debido a la relevancia fundamental que ha desempeñado para el desarrollo posterior de la arquitectura y de la concepción moderna de la construcción.

 

La cúpula tiene una forma apuntada y está formada por ocho caras o paños ojivales, cubiertos con teja de barro rojo y bordeados por ocho nervios de piedra blanca. Toda la estructura descansa sobre un tambor también octogonal, perforado por ocho óculos para la iluminación del interior. Los nervios convergen en un anillo octogonal superior, coronado por una linterna, elemento que también colabora en la entrada de luz. El interior está constituido por dos casquetes o domos, uno interior y otro exterior, construidos con ladrillo dispuesto en forma de espina de pez. Están conectados entre sí por medio de una retícula interior formada por costillas y nervaduras, que sostiene la cúpula y colabora en su estabilidad. El hueco que queda entre ambos casquetes forma un espacio por el que se asciende hasta la linterna. ​El exterior del tambor está revestido con mármoles polícromos y con una balaustrada incompleta que solo se construyó en una de sus caras. La cara interna de la cúpula está decorada con pinturas al fresco y al temple que representan el Juicio Final.

 

Las proporciones del conjunto son monumentales. La altura máxima de la cúpula es de 116.50 metros, el diámetro máximo del casquete interior es de 45.5 metros y el del exterior, de 54.8 metros. La base de las impostas se encuentra a 55 metros del suelo. El tambor, de 13 metros de altura y 43 de anchura, se sitúa a 54 metros del suelo. ​El casquete interior tiene un espesor en su base de 2.20 metros, que disminuye hasta los 2 metros en la cúspide, mientras que el casquete exterior tiene un espesor que pasa de un metro a 0.40 metros. El anillo superior de cierre de la cúpula se encuentra a 86.70 metros del suelo. ​La linterna tiene 6 metros de diámetro y 21 de altura. Los paños trapezoidales miden 17.50 metros de longitud y tienen una altura de 32.65 metros. ​El peso estimado total de la cúpula es de unas 30 000 toneladas y se calcula que se necesitaron para su construcción más de 4 millones de ladrillos.

 

Sus enormes dimensiones hicieron inviable el empleo de los métodos constructivos tradicionales mediante cimbras, lo cual ha favorecido la especulación de diversas teorías sobre la técnica constructiva empleada. Brunelleschi no dejó registro de ningún dibujo, maqueta o esbozo que indicara el procedimiento utilizado en la edificación de la cúpula.

 

Las obras de construcción de la cúpula tuvieron una duración de 16 años, desde 1420 hasta 1436. ​En 1446 se inició la construcción de la linterna, ​que fue terminada en 1461. ​El revestimiento exterior del tambor se ejecutó entre 1512 y 1515, ​y la decoración pictórica del interior de la cúpula se prolongó desde 1572 hasta 1579.

 

Italia - Florencia - Catedral de Santa María del Fiore

 

***

 

ENGLISH

 

By the beginning of the 15th century, after a hundred years of construction, the structure was still missing its dome. The basic features of the dome had been designed by Arnolfo di Cambio in 1296. His brick model, 4.6 metres (15.1 feet) high, 9.2 metres (30.2 feet) long, was standing in a side aisle of the unfinished building, and had long been sacrosanct. It called for an octagonal dome higher and wider than any that had ever been built, with no external buttresses to keep it from spreading and falling under its own weight.

 

The commitment to reject traditional Gothic buttresses had been made when Neri di Fioravanti's model was chosen over a competing one by Giovanni di Lapo Ghini. That architectural choice, in 1367, was one of the first events of the Italian Renaissance, marking a break with the Medieval Gothic style and a return to the classic Mediterranean dome. Italian architects regarded Gothic flying buttresses as ugly makeshifts. Furthermore, the use of buttresses was forbidden in Florence, as the style was favored by central Italy's traditional enemies to the north. Neri's model depicted a massive inner dome, open at the top to admit light, like Rome's Pantheon, but enclosed in a thinner outer shell, partly supported by the inner dome, to keep out the weather. It was to stand on an unbuttressed octagonal drum. Neri's dome would need an internal defense against spreading (hoop stress), but none had yet been designed.

 

The building of such a masonry dome posed many technical problems. Brunelleschi looked to the great dome of the Pantheon in Rome for solutions. The dome of the Pantheon is a single shell of concrete, the formula for which had long since been forgotten. The Pantheon had employed structural centring to support the concrete dome while it cured. This could not be the solution in the case of a dome this size and would put the church out of use. For the height and breadth of the dome designed by Neri, starting 52 metres (171 ft) above the floor and spanning 44 metres (144 ft), there was not enough timber in Tuscany to build the scaffolding and forms. Brunelleschi chose to follow such design and employed a double shell, made of sandstone and marble. Brunelleschi would have to build the dome out of brick, due to its light weight compared to stone and being easier to form, and with nothing under it during construction. To illustrate his proposed structural plan, he constructed a wooden and brick model with the help of Donatello and Nanni di Banco, a model which is still displayed in the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo. The model served as a guide for the craftsmen, but was intentionally incomplete, so as to ensure Brunelleschi's control over the construction.

 

Brunelleschi's solutions were ingenious, such as his use of the catenary arch for support. The spreading problem was solved by a set of four internal horizontal stone and iron chains, serving as barrel hoops, embedded within the inner dome: one at the top, one at the bottom, with the remaining two evenly spaced between them. A fifth chain, made of wood, was placed between the first and second of the stone chains. Since the dome was octagonal rather than round, a simple chain, squeezing the dome like a barrel hoop, would have put all its pressure on the eight corners of the dome. The chains needed to be rigid octagons, stiff enough to hold their shape, so as not to deform the dome as they held it together.

 

Each of Brunelleschi's stone chains was built like an octagonal railroad track with parallel rails and cross ties, all made of sandstone beams 43 centimetres (17 in) in diameter and no more than 2.3 metres (7.5 ft) long. The rails were connected end-to-end with lead-glazed iron splices. The cross ties and rails were notched together and then covered with the bricks and mortar of the inner dome. The cross ties of the bottom chain can be seen protruding from the drum at the base of the dome. The others are hidden. Each stone chain was supposed to be reinforced with a standard iron chain made of interlocking links, but a magnetic survey conducted in the 1970s failed to detect any evidence of iron chains, which if they exist are deeply embedded in the thick masonry walls. Brunelleschi also included vertical "ribs" set on the corners of the octagon, curving towards the center point. The ribs, 4 metres (13 ft) deep, are supported by 16 concealed ribs radiating from center. The ribs had slits to take beams that supported platforms, thus allowing the work to progress upward without the need for scaffolding.

 

A circular masonry dome can be built without supports, called centering, because each course of bricks is a horizontal arch that resists compression. In Florence, the octagonal inner dome was thick enough for an imaginary circle to be embedded in it at each level, a feature that would hold the dome up eventually, but could not hold the bricks in place while the mortar was still wet. Brunelleschi used a herringbone brick pattern to transfer the weight of the freshly laid bricks to the nearest vertical ribs of the non-circular dome.

 

The outer dome was not thick enough to contain embedded horizontal circles, being only 60 centimetres (2 ft) thick at the base and 30 centimetres (1 ft) thick at the top. To create such circles, Brunelleschi thickened the outer dome at the inside of its corners at nine different elevations, creating nine masonry rings, which can be observed today from the space between the two domes. To counteract hoop stress, the outer dome relies entirely on its attachment to the inner dome and has no embedded chains.

 

A modern understanding of physical laws and the mathematical tools for calculating stresses were centuries in the future. Brunelleschi, like all cathedral builders, had to rely on intuition and whatever he could learn from the large scale models he built. To lift 37,000 tons of material, including over 4 million bricks, he invented hoisting machines and lewissons for hoisting large stones. These specially designed machines and his structural innovations were Brunelleschi's chief contribution to architecture. Although he was executing an aesthetic plan made half a century earlier, it is his name, rather than Neri's, that is commonly associated with the dome.

 

Brunelleschi's ability to crown the dome with a lantern was questioned and he had to undergo another competition, even though there had been evidence that Brunelleschi had been working on a design for a lantern for the upper part of the dome. The evidence is shown in the curvature, which was made steeper than the original model.[30] He was declared the winner over his competitors Lorenzo Ghiberti and Antonio Ciaccheri. His design (now on display in the Museum Opera del Duomo) was for an octagonal lantern with eight radiating buttresses and eight high arched windows. Construction of the lantern was begun a few months before his death in 1446. Then, for 15 years, little progress was possible, due to alterations by several architects. The lantern was finally completed by Brunelleschi's friend Michelozzo in 1461. The conical roof was crowned with a gilt copper ball and cross, containing holy relics, by Verrocchio in 1469. This brings the total height of the dome and lantern to 114.5 metres (376 ft). This copper ball was struck by lightning on 17 July 1600 and fell down. It was replaced by an even larger one two years later.

  

The commission for this gilt copper ball [atop the lantern] went to the sculptor Andrea del Verrocchio, in whose workshop there was at this time a young apprentice named Leonardo da Vinci. Fascinated by Filippo's [Brunelleschi's] machines, which Verrocchio used to hoist the ball, Leonardo made a series of sketches of them and, as a result, is often given credit for their invention.

 

Leonardo might have also participated in the design of the bronze ball, as stated in the G manuscript of Paris "Remember the way we soldered the ball of Santa Maria del Fiore".

 

The decorations of the drum gallery by Baccio d'Agnolo were never finished after being disapproved by no one less than Michelangelo.

 

A huge statue of Brunelleschi now sits outside the Palazzo dei Canonici in the Piazza del Duomo, looking thoughtfully up towards his greatest achievement, the dome that would forever dominate the panorama of Florence. It is still the largest masonry dome in the world.

 

The building of the cathedral had started in 1296 with the design of Arnolfo di Cambio and was completed in 1469 with the placing of Verrochio's copper ball atop the lantern. But the façade was still unfinished and would remain so until the 19th century.

 

***

 

ESPAÑOL

 

La cúpula de Santa María del Fiore o cúpula de Santa María de la Flor, también conocida como cúpula de Brunelleschi o cúpula del Duomo de Florencia, constituye la cubierta del crucero de la catedral de Santa María del Fiore de Florencia. Fue la cúpula más grande del mundo tras la caída del imperio romano ​y se considera todavía la mayor jamás realizada en albañilería. Fue ideada, proyectada y construida por Filippo Brunelleschi, quien inició con esta obra el Renacimiento italiano y florentino en arquitectura. ​Está considerada como la construcción más importante edificada en Europa desde la época romana, debido a la relevancia fundamental que ha desempeñado para el desarrollo posterior de la arquitectura y de la concepción moderna de la construcción.

 

La cúpula tiene una forma apuntada y está formada por ocho caras o paños ojivales, cubiertos con teja de barro rojo y bordeados por ocho nervios de piedra blanca. Toda la estructura descansa sobre un tambor también octogonal, perforado por ocho óculos para la iluminación del interior. Los nervios convergen en un anillo octogonal superior, coronado por una linterna, elemento que también colabora en la entrada de luz. El interior está constituido por dos casquetes o domos, uno interior y otro exterior, construidos con ladrillo dispuesto en forma de espina de pez. Están conectados entre sí por medio de una retícula interior formada por costillas y nervaduras, que sostiene la cúpula y colabora en su estabilidad. El hueco que queda entre ambos casquetes forma un espacio por el que se asciende hasta la linterna. ​El exterior del tambor está revestido con mármoles polícromos y con una balaustrada incompleta que solo se construyó en una de sus caras. La cara interna de la cúpula está decorada con pinturas al fresco y al temple que representan el Juicio Final.

 

Las proporciones del conjunto son monumentales. La altura máxima de la cúpula es de 116.50 metros, el diámetro máximo del casquete interior es de 45.5 metros y el del exterior, de 54.8 metros. La base de las impostas se encuentra a 55 metros del suelo. El tambor, de 13 metros de altura y 43 de anchura, se sitúa a 54 metros del suelo. ​El casquete interior tiene un espesor en su base de 2.20 metros, que disminuye hasta los 2 metros en la cúspide, mientras que el casquete exterior tiene un espesor que pasa de un metro a 0.40 metros. El anillo superior de cierre de la cúpula se encuentra a 86.70 metros del suelo. ​La linterna tiene 6 metros de diámetro y 21 de altura. Los paños trapezoidales miden 17.50 metros de longitud y tienen una altura de 32.65 metros. ​El peso estimado total de la cúpula es de unas 30 000 toneladas y se calcula que se necesitaron para su construcción más de 4 millones de ladrillos.

 

Sus enormes dimensiones hicieron inviable el empleo de los métodos constructivos tradicionales mediante cimbras, lo cual ha favorecido la especulación de diversas teorías sobre la técnica constructiva empleada. Brunelleschi no dejó registro de ningún dibujo, maqueta o esbozo que indicara el procedimiento utilizado en la edificación de la cúpula.

 

Las obras de construcción de la cúpula tuvieron una duración de 16 años, desde 1420 hasta 1436. ​En 1446 se inició la construcción de la linterna, ​que fue terminada en 1461. ​El revestimiento exterior del tambor se ejecutó entre 1512 y 1515, ​y la decoración pictórica del interior de la cúpula se prolongó desde 1572 hasta 1579.

 

Italia - Florencia - Catedral de Santa Maria del Fiore

 

***

 

ENGLISH

 

By the beginning of the 15th century, after a hundred years of construction, the structure was still missing its dome. The basic features of the dome had been designed by Arnolfo di Cambio in 1296. His brick model, 4.6 metres (15.1 feet) high, 9.2 metres (30.2 feet) long, was standing in a side aisle of the unfinished building, and had long been sacrosanct. It called for an octagonal dome higher and wider than any that had ever been built, with no external buttresses to keep it from spreading and falling under its own weight.

 

The commitment to reject traditional Gothic buttresses had been made when Neri di Fioravanti's model was chosen over a competing one by Giovanni di Lapo Ghini. That architectural choice, in 1367, was one of the first events of the Italian Renaissance, marking a break with the Medieval Gothic style and a return to the classic Mediterranean dome. Italian architects regarded Gothic flying buttresses as ugly makeshifts. Furthermore, the use of buttresses was forbidden in Florence, as the style was favored by central Italy's traditional enemies to the north. Neri's model depicted a massive inner dome, open at the top to admit light, like Rome's Pantheon, but enclosed in a thinner outer shell, partly supported by the inner dome, to keep out the weather. It was to stand on an unbuttressed octagonal drum. Neri's dome would need an internal defense against spreading (hoop stress), but none had yet been designed.

 

The building of such a masonry dome posed many technical problems. Brunelleschi looked to the great dome of the Pantheon in Rome for solutions. The dome of the Pantheon is a single shell of concrete, the formula for which had long since been forgotten. The Pantheon had employed structural centring to support the concrete dome while it cured. This could not be the solution in the case of a dome this size and would put the church out of use. For the height and breadth of the dome designed by Neri, starting 52 metres (171 ft) above the floor and spanning 44 metres (144 ft), there was not enough timber in Tuscany to build the scaffolding and forms. Brunelleschi chose to follow such design and employed a double shell, made of sandstone and marble. Brunelleschi would have to build the dome out of brick, due to its light weight compared to stone and being easier to form, and with nothing under it during construction. To illustrate his proposed structural plan, he constructed a wooden and brick model with the help of Donatello and Nanni di Banco, a model which is still displayed in the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo. The model served as a guide for the craftsmen, but was intentionally incomplete, so as to ensure Brunelleschi's control over the construction.

 

Brunelleschi's solutions were ingenious, such as his use of the catenary arch for support. The spreading problem was solved by a set of four internal horizontal stone and iron chains, serving as barrel hoops, embedded within the inner dome: one at the top, one at the bottom, with the remaining two evenly spaced between them. A fifth chain, made of wood, was placed between the first and second of the stone chains. Since the dome was octagonal rather than round, a simple chain, squeezing the dome like a barrel hoop, would have put all its pressure on the eight corners of the dome. The chains needed to be rigid octagons, stiff enough to hold their shape, so as not to deform the dome as they held it together.

 

Each of Brunelleschi's stone chains was built like an octagonal railroad track with parallel rails and cross ties, all made of sandstone beams 43 centimetres (17 in) in diameter and no more than 2.3 metres (7.5 ft) long. The rails were connected end-to-end with lead-glazed iron splices. The cross ties and rails were notched together and then covered with the bricks and mortar of the inner dome. The cross ties of the bottom chain can be seen protruding from the drum at the base of the dome. The others are hidden. Each stone chain was supposed to be reinforced with a standard iron chain made of interlocking links, but a magnetic survey conducted in the 1970s failed to detect any evidence of iron chains, which if they exist are deeply embedded in the thick masonry walls. Brunelleschi also included vertical "ribs" set on the corners of the octagon, curving towards the center point. The ribs, 4 metres (13 ft) deep, are supported by 16 concealed ribs radiating from center. The ribs had slits to take beams that supported platforms, thus allowing the work to progress upward without the need for scaffolding.

 

A circular masonry dome can be built without supports, called centering, because each course of bricks is a horizontal arch that resists compression. In Florence, the octagonal inner dome was thick enough for an imaginary circle to be embedded in it at each level, a feature that would hold the dome up eventually, but could not hold the bricks in place while the mortar was still wet. Brunelleschi used a herringbone brick pattern to transfer the weight of the freshly laid bricks to the nearest vertical ribs of the non-circular dome.

 

The outer dome was not thick enough to contain embedded horizontal circles, being only 60 centimetres (2 ft) thick at the base and 30 centimetres (1 ft) thick at the top. To create such circles, Brunelleschi thickened the outer dome at the inside of its corners at nine different elevations, creating nine masonry rings, which can be observed today from the space between the two domes. To counteract hoop stress, the outer dome relies entirely on its attachment to the inner dome and has no embedded chains.

 

A modern understanding of physical laws and the mathematical tools for calculating stresses were centuries in the future. Brunelleschi, like all cathedral builders, had to rely on intuition and whatever he could learn from the large scale models he built. To lift 37,000 tons of material, including over 4 million bricks, he invented hoisting machines and lewissons for hoisting large stones. These specially designed machines and his structural innovations were Brunelleschi's chief contribution to architecture. Although he was executing an aesthetic plan made half a century earlier, it is his name, rather than Neri's, that is commonly associated with the dome.

 

Brunelleschi's ability to crown the dome with a lantern was questioned and he had to undergo another competition, even though there had been evidence that Brunelleschi had been working on a design for a lantern for the upper part of the dome. The evidence is shown in the curvature, which was made steeper than the original model.[30] He was declared the winner over his competitors Lorenzo Ghiberti and Antonio Ciaccheri. His design (now on display in the Museum Opera del Duomo) was for an octagonal lantern with eight radiating buttresses and eight high arched windows. Construction of the lantern was begun a few months before his death in 1446. Then, for 15 years, little progress was possible, due to alterations by several architects. The lantern was finally completed by Brunelleschi's friend Michelozzo in 1461. The conical roof was crowned with a gilt copper ball and cross, containing holy relics, by Verrocchio in 1469. This brings the total height of the dome and lantern to 114.5 metres (376 ft). This copper ball was struck by lightning on 17 July 1600 and fell down. It was replaced by an even larger one two years later.

  

The commission for this gilt copper ball [atop the lantern] went to the sculptor Andrea del Verrocchio, in whose workshop there was at this time a young apprentice named Leonardo da Vinci. Fascinated by Filippo's [Brunelleschi's] machines, which Verrocchio used to hoist the ball, Leonardo made a series of sketches of them and, as a result, is often given credit for their invention.

 

Leonardo might have also participated in the design of the bronze ball, as stated in the G manuscript of Paris "Remember the way we soldered the ball of Santa Maria del Fiore".

 

The decorations of the drum gallery by Baccio d'Agnolo were never finished after being disapproved by no one less than Michelangelo.

 

A huge statue of Brunelleschi now sits outside the Palazzo dei Canonici in the Piazza del Duomo, looking thoughtfully up towards his greatest achievement, the dome that would forever dominate the panorama of Florence. It is still the largest masonry dome in the world.

 

The building of the cathedral had started in 1296 with the design of Arnolfo di Cambio and was completed in 1469 with the placing of Verrochio's copper ball atop the lantern. But the façade was still unfinished and would remain so until the 19th century.

 

***

 

ESPAÑOL

 

La cúpula de Santa María del Fiore o cúpula de Santa María de la Flor, también conocida como cúpula de Brunelleschi o cúpula del Duomo de Florencia, constituye la cubierta del crucero de la catedral de Santa María del Fiore de Florencia. Fue la cúpula más grande del mundo tras la caída del imperio romano ​y se considera todavía la mayor jamás realizada en albañilería. Fue ideada, proyectada y construida por Filippo Brunelleschi, quien inició con esta obra el Renacimiento italiano y florentino en arquitectura. ​Está considerada como la construcción más importante edificada en Europa desde la época romana, debido a la relevancia fundamental que ha desempeñado para el desarrollo posterior de la arquitectura y de la concepción moderna de la construcción.

 

La cúpula tiene una forma apuntada y está formada por ocho caras o paños ojivales, cubiertos con teja de barro rojo y bordeados por ocho nervios de piedra blanca. Toda la estructura descansa sobre un tambor también octogonal, perforado por ocho óculos para la iluminación del interior. Los nervios convergen en un anillo octogonal superior, coronado por una linterna, elemento que también colabora en la entrada de luz. El interior está constituido por dos casquetes o domos, uno interior y otro exterior, construidos con ladrillo dispuesto en forma de espina de pez. Están conectados entre sí por medio de una retícula interior formada por costillas y nervaduras, que sostiene la cúpula y colabora en su estabilidad. El hueco que queda entre ambos casquetes forma un espacio por el que se asciende hasta la linterna. ​El exterior del tambor está revestido con mármoles polícromos y con una balaustrada incompleta que solo se construyó en una de sus caras. La cara interna de la cúpula está decorada con pinturas al fresco y al temple que representan el Juicio Final.

 

Las proporciones del conjunto son monumentales. La altura máxima de la cúpula es de 116.50 metros, el diámetro máximo del casquete interior es de 45.5 metros y el del exterior, de 54.8 metros. La base de las impostas se encuentra a 55 metros del suelo. El tambor, de 13 metros de altura y 43 de anchura, se sitúa a 54 metros del suelo. ​El casquete interior tiene un espesor en su base de 2.20 metros, que disminuye hasta los 2 metros en la cúspide, mientras que el casquete exterior tiene un espesor que pasa de un metro a 0.40 metros. El anillo superior de cierre de la cúpula se encuentra a 86.70 metros del suelo. ​La linterna tiene 6 metros de diámetro y 21 de altura. Los paños trapezoidales miden 17.50 metros de longitud y tienen una altura de 32.65 metros. ​El peso estimado total de la cúpula es de unas 30 000 toneladas y se calcula que se necesitaron para su construcción más de 4 millones de ladrillos.

 

Sus enormes dimensiones hicieron inviable el empleo de los métodos constructivos tradicionales mediante cimbras, lo cual ha favorecido la especulación de diversas teorías sobre la técnica constructiva empleada. Brunelleschi no dejó registro de ningún dibujo, maqueta o esbozo que indicara el procedimiento utilizado en la edificación de la cúpula.

 

Las obras de construcción de la cúpula tuvieron una duración de 16 años, desde 1420 hasta 1436. ​En 1446 se inició la construcción de la linterna, ​que fue terminada en 1461. ​El revestimiento exterior del tambor se ejecutó entre 1512 y 1515, ​y la decoración pictórica del interior de la cúpula se prolongó desde 1572 hasta 1579.

 

Italia - Florencia - Catedral de Santa María del Fiore

 

***

 

ENGLISH

 

By the beginning of the 15th century, after a hundred years of construction, the structure was still missing its dome. The basic features of the dome had been designed by Arnolfo di Cambio in 1296. His brick model, 4.6 metres (15.1 feet) high, 9.2 metres (30.2 feet) long, was standing in a side aisle of the unfinished building, and had long been sacrosanct. It called for an octagonal dome higher and wider than any that had ever been built, with no external buttresses to keep it from spreading and falling under its own weight.

 

The commitment to reject traditional Gothic buttresses had been made when Neri di Fioravanti's model was chosen over a competing one by Giovanni di Lapo Ghini. That architectural choice, in 1367, was one of the first events of the Italian Renaissance, marking a break with the Medieval Gothic style and a return to the classic Mediterranean dome. Italian architects regarded Gothic flying buttresses as ugly makeshifts. Furthermore, the use of buttresses was forbidden in Florence, as the style was favored by central Italy's traditional enemies to the north. Neri's model depicted a massive inner dome, open at the top to admit light, like Rome's Pantheon, but enclosed in a thinner outer shell, partly supported by the inner dome, to keep out the weather. It was to stand on an unbuttressed octagonal drum. Neri's dome would need an internal defense against spreading (hoop stress), but none had yet been designed.

 

The building of such a masonry dome posed many technical problems. Brunelleschi looked to the great dome of the Pantheon in Rome for solutions. The dome of the Pantheon is a single shell of concrete, the formula for which had long since been forgotten. The Pantheon had employed structural centring to support the concrete dome while it cured. This could not be the solution in the case of a dome this size and would put the church out of use. For the height and breadth of the dome designed by Neri, starting 52 metres (171 ft) above the floor and spanning 44 metres (144 ft), there was not enough timber in Tuscany to build the scaffolding and forms. Brunelleschi chose to follow such design and employed a double shell, made of sandstone and marble. Brunelleschi would have to build the dome out of brick, due to its light weight compared to stone and being easier to form, and with nothing under it during construction. To illustrate his proposed structural plan, he constructed a wooden and brick model with the help of Donatello and Nanni di Banco, a model which is still displayed in the Museo dell'Opera del Duomo. The model served as a guide for the craftsmen, but was intentionally incomplete, so as to ensure Brunelleschi's control over the construction.

 

Brunelleschi's solutions were ingenious, such as his use of the catenary arch for support. The spreading problem was solved by a set of four internal horizontal stone and iron chains, serving as barrel hoops, embedded within the inner dome: one at the top, one at the bottom, with the remaining two evenly spaced between them. A fifth chain, made of wood, was placed between the first and second of the stone chains. Since the dome was octagonal rather than round, a simple chain, squeezing the dome like a barrel hoop, would have put all its pressure on the eight corners of the dome. The chains needed to be rigid octagons, stiff enough to hold their shape, so as not to deform the dome as they held it together.

 

Each of Brunelleschi's stone chains was built like an octagonal railroad track with parallel rails and cross ties, all made of sandstone beams 43 centimetres (17 in) in diameter and no more than 2.3 metres (7.5 ft) long. The rails were connected end-to-end with lead-glazed iron splices. The cross ties and rails were notched together and then covered with the bricks and mortar of the inner dome. The cross ties of the bottom chain can be seen protruding from the drum at the base of the dome. The others are hidden. Each stone chain was supposed to be reinforced with a standard iron chain made of interlocking links, but a magnetic survey conducted in the 1970s failed to detect any evidence of iron chains, which if they exist are deeply embedded in the thick masonry walls. Brunelleschi also included vertical "ribs" set on the corners of the octagon, curving towards the center point. The ribs, 4 metres (13 ft) deep, are supported by 16 concealed ribs radiating from center. The ribs had slits to take beams that supported platforms, thus allowing the work to progress upward without the need for scaffolding.

 

A circular masonry dome can be built without supports, called centering, because each course of bricks is a horizontal arch that resists compression. In Florence, the octagonal inner dome was thick enough for an imaginary circle to be embedded in it at each level, a feature that would hold the dome up eventually, but could not hold the bricks in place while the mortar was still wet. Brunelleschi used a herringbone brick pattern to transfer the weight of the freshly laid bricks to the nearest vertical ribs of the non-circular dome.

 

The outer dome was not thick enough to contain embedded horizontal circles, being only 60 centimetres (2 ft) thick at the base and 30 centimetres (1 ft) thick at the top. To create such circles, Brunelleschi thickened the outer dome at the inside of its corners at nine different elevations, creating nine masonry rings, which can be observed today from the space between the two domes. To counteract hoop stress, the outer dome relies entirely on its attachment to the inner dome and has no embedded chains.

 

A modern understanding of physical laws and the mathematical tools for calculating stresses were centuries in the future. Brunelleschi, like all cathedral builders, had to rely on intuition and whatever he could learn from the large scale models he built. To lift 37,000 tons of material, including over 4 million bricks, he invented hoisting machines and lewissons for hoisting large stones. These specially designed machines and his structural innovations were Brunelleschi's chief contribution to architecture. Although he was executing an aesthetic plan made half a century earlier, it is his name, rather than Neri's, that is commonly associated with the dome.

 

Brunelleschi's ability to crown the dome with a lantern was questioned and he had to undergo another competition, even though there had been evidence that Brunelleschi had been working on a design for a lantern for the upper part of the dome. The evidence is shown in the curvature, which was made steeper than the original model.[30] He was declared the winner over his competitors Lorenzo Ghiberti and Antonio Ciaccheri. His design (now on display in the Museum Opera del Duomo) was for an octagonal lantern with eight radiating buttresses and eight high arched windows. Construction of the lantern was begun a few months before his death in 1446. Then, for 15 years, little progress was possible, due to alterations by several architects. The lantern was finally completed by Brunelleschi's friend Michelozzo in 1461. The conical roof was crowned with a gilt copper ball and cross, containing holy relics, by Verrocchio in 1469. This brings the total height of the dome and lantern to 114.5 metres (376 ft). This copper ball was struck by lightning on 17 July 1600 and fell down. It was replaced by an even larger one two years later.

  

The commission for this gilt copper ball [atop the lantern] went to the sculptor Andrea del Verrocchio, in whose workshop there was at this time a young apprentice named Leonardo da Vinci. Fascinated by Filippo's [Brunelleschi's] machines, which Verrocchio used to hoist the ball, Leonardo made a series of sketches of them and, as a result, is often given credit for their invention.

 

Leonardo might have also participated in the design of the bronze ball, as stated in the G manuscript of Paris "Remember the way we soldered the ball of Santa Maria del Fiore".

 

The decorations of the drum gallery by Baccio d'Agnolo were never finished after being disapproved by no one less than Michelangelo.

 

A huge statue of Brunelleschi now sits outside the Palazzo dei Canonici in the Piazza del Duomo, looking thoughtfully up towards his greatest achievement, the dome that would forever dominate the panorama of Florence. It is still the largest masonry dome in the world.

 

The building of the cathedral had started in 1296 with the design of Arnolfo di Cambio and was completed in 1469 with the placing of Verrochio's copper ball atop the lantern. But the façade was still unfinished and would remain so until the 19th century.

 

***

 

ESPAÑOL

 

La cúpula de Santa María del Fiore o cúpula de Santa María de la Flor, también conocida como cúpula de Brunelleschi o cúpula del Duomo de Florencia, constituye la cubierta del crucero de la catedral de Santa María del Fiore de Florencia. Fue la cúpula más grande del mundo tras la caída del imperio romano ​y se considera todavía la mayor jamás realizada en albañilería. Fue ideada, proyectada y construida por Filippo Brunelleschi, quien inició con esta obra el Renacimiento italiano y florentino en arquitectura. ​Está considerada como la construcción más importante edificada en Europa desde la época romana, debido a la relevancia fundamental que ha desempeñado para el desarrollo posterior de la arquitectura y de la concepción moderna de la construcción.

 

La cúpula tiene una forma apuntada y está formada por ocho caras o paños ojivales, cubiertos con teja de barro rojo y bordeados por ocho nervios de piedra blanca. Toda la estructura descansa sobre un tambor también octogonal, perforado por ocho óculos para la iluminación del interior. Los nervios convergen en un anillo octogonal superior, coronado por una linterna, elemento que también colabora en la entrada de luz. El interior está constituido por dos casquetes o domos, uno interior y otro exterior, construidos con ladrillo dispuesto en forma de espina de pez. Están conectados entre sí por medio de una retícula interior formada por costillas y nervaduras, que sostiene la cúpula y colabora en su estabilidad. El hueco que queda entre ambos casquetes forma un espacio por el que se asciende hasta la linterna. ​El exterior del tambor está revestido con mármoles polícromos y con una balaustrada incompleta que solo se construyó en una de sus caras. La cara interna de la cúpula está decorada con pinturas al fresco y al temple que representan el Juicio Final.

 

Las proporciones del conjunto son monumentales. La altura máxima de la cúpula es de 116.50 metros, el diámetro máximo del casquete interior es de 45.5 metros y el del exterior, de 54.8 metros. La base de las impostas se encuentra a 55 metros del suelo. El tambor, de 13 metros de altura y 43 de anchura, se sitúa a 54 metros del suelo. ​El casquete interior tiene un espesor en su base de 2.20 metros, que disminuye hasta los 2 metros en la cúspide, mientras que el casquete exterior tiene un espesor que pasa de un metro a 0.40 metros. El anillo superior de cierre de la cúpula se encuentra a 86.70 metros del suelo. ​La linterna tiene 6 metros de diámetro y 21 de altura. Los paños trapezoidales miden 17.50 metros de longitud y tienen una altura de 32.65 metros. ​El peso estimado total de la cúpula es de unas 30 000 toneladas y se calcula que se necesitaron para su construcción más de 4 millones de ladrillos.

 

Sus enormes dimensiones hicieron inviable el empleo de los métodos constructivos tradicionales mediante cimbras, lo cual ha favorecido la especulación de diversas teorías sobre la técnica constructiva empleada. Brunelleschi no dejó registro de ningún dibujo, maqueta o esbozo que indicara el procedimiento utilizado en la edificación de la cúpula.

 

Las obras de construcción de la cúpula tuvieron una duración de 16 años, desde 1420 hasta 1436. ​En 1446 se inició la construcción de la linterna, ​que fue terminada en 1461. ​El revestimiento exterior del tambor se ejecutó entre 1512 y 1515, ​y la decoración pictórica del interior de la cúpula se prolongó desde 1572 hasta 1579.

 

El Collegium Maius (original en latín que significa 'Gran Colegio') es el edificio más antiguo de la Universidad Jagellónica de Cracovia, en Polonia. Se encuentra en la esquina de las calles ulica Jagiellońska y ulica Świętej Anny.(Wikipedia)

La Universidad Jaguelónica (en polaco, Uniwersytet Jagielloński, UJ; en latín, Universitas Jagellonica Cracoviensis) es una universidad de Polonia que está en Cracovia, y tiene el primer lugar del Times Higher Education Supplement como la mejor universidad en Polonia.

Fue fundada en 1364 por el rey Casimiro III el Grande con el nombre de Academia de Cracovia, nombre que perduró durante siglos. En 1817 fue renombrada a su actual denominación (Uniwersytet Jagielloński) para conmemorar a la dinastía de los Jagellón, cuyo primer rey fue Jogaila, gran duque de Lituania. Bajo el mecenazgo de esta dinastía se destacó entre las grandes universidades del Renacimiento y el humanismo.

Es una de las mayores universidades europeas. En ella estudiaron Copérnico y JUAN PABLO II.

Profesores eminentes

Durante el siglo XIX, se pueden destacar el químico Karol Olszewski (1846-1915) y el físico Zygmunt Wroblewski (1845-1888), que fueron los primeros en licuar el oxígeno y el nitrógeno del aire en 1883, y más tarde también otros gases; el fisiólogo Napoleón Cybulski (1854-1919), quien explicó el funcionamiento de la adrenalina; el anatomopatólogo Tadeusz Browicz (1847-1928), que identificó el microbio tifoideo; el físico Marian Smoluchowski (1872-1917), autor de importantes trabajos sobre la teoría cinética de la materia; el químico Leon Marchlewski (1869-1946), que llevó a cabo la investigación sobre la clorofila; Paulin Kazimierz Zurawski (1866-1953) y Stanislaw Zaremba (1863-1942), cuya investigación excepcional dio origen a una nueva escuela de matemáticas; su trabajo fue desarrollado por sus discípulos eminentes.

La conciencia de los polacos de su propia historia fue formada en gran parte por las obras de los ilustres historiadores de Cracovia, en particular por Michal Bobrzynski (1849-1935) y Jozef Szujski (1835-1883). Otros eruditos famosos fueron Kazimierz Morawski (1852-1925), que se especializó en estudios clásicos, y Leon Sternbach (1864-1940), especialista en estudios bizantinos.

La Facultad de Derecho desempeñó un papel importante en el desarrollo de los procedimientos legales, y sus miembros más destacados fueron: Edmund Krzymuski (1852-1928), profesor de derecho penal; Fryderyk Zoll (1865-1948), profesor de derecho civil; Stanislaw Wroblewski (1868-1938), profesor de derecho romano y civil. (Wikipedia).

 

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© Copyright : 你不能用我的照片!

© Copyright : あなたは私の写真を使用することはできません!

© Copyright : तुम मेरे फ़ोटो का उपयोग नहीं कर सकते हैं!

© Copyright : Вы не можете использовать мои фотографии!

www.flickriver.com/photos/29469501@N03/popular-interesting/

 

Obwohl viele Flugzeuge in der Lage sind, sich am Boden durch Umkehrschub (ein Verfahren, das als Powerback bezeichnet wird) rückwärts zu bewegen, kann der daraus resultierende Jet Blast oder Prop Wash Schäden am Terminalgebäude oder der Ausrüstung verursachen.

Motoren in Bodennähe können auch Sand und Schmutz nach vorne blasen und dann in den Motor saugen, was zu Schäden am Motor führen kann.

Ein Pushback ist daher die bevorzugte Methode, um das Flugzeug vom Gate wegzubewegen.

Der Vorgang des Zurücksetzens des Flugzeugs vor dem Abflug mit Hilfe eines Flugzeugschleppers wird Pushback genannt.

Während des Pushback können dann bereits die Triebwerke gestartet werden, was von dem mitlaufenden Mechaniker, Ramp Agent oder vom Walk-out-Assistenten überwacht wird. (Auszug Wikipedia)

Link:

de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Flugzeugschlepper

 

In aviation, pushback is an airport procedure during which an aircraft is pushed backwards away from an airport gate by external power.

Pushbacks are carried out by special, low-profile vehicles called pushback tractors or tugs.

Although many aircraft are capable of moving themselves backwards on the ground using reverse thrust (a procedure referred to as a powerback), the resulting jet blast or prop wash may cause damage to the terminal building or equipment.

Engines close to the ground may also blow sand and debris forward and then suck it into the engine, causing damage to the engine.

A pushback is therefore the preferred method to move the aircraft away from the gate. (From Wikipedia)

Link English:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pushback

 

En la aviación, el retroceso es un procedimiento aeroportuario durante el cual una aeronave es empujada hacia atrás lejos de la puerta de un aeropuerto por la energía externa.

Los retrocesos son llevados a cabo por vehículos especiales de bajo perfil llamados tractores de retroceso o remolcadores.

Aunque muchas aeronaves son capaces de retroceder en el suelo utilizando empuje inverso (un procedimiento conocido como powerback), la explosión de chorro o el lavado de puntales resultantes pueden causar daños en el edificio terminal o en el equipo.

Los motores cercanos al suelo también pueden arrastrar arena y escombros hacia delante y luego succionarlos hacia el motor, causando daños al motor.

Por lo tanto, el método preferido para alejar la aeronave de la puerta es el de retroceso.

  

Bitte respektiere mein Copyright. Keine Verwendung des Fotos ohne meine ausdrückliche Genehmigung.

Please respect my copyright. No use of the photo without my expressly permission.

Por favor, respete mis derechos de autor. Ningún uso de la foto sin mi permiso explícito.

Talgo II in Railway Museum, Madrid.

 

This train in a then-now photo (1968-2012):

www.flickr.com/photos/ramonoria/8087517586/

 

And the panoramic coach:

www.flickr.com/photos/ramonoria/42317324441

  

The Museo del Ferrocarril (Railway Museum) in Madrid, Spain, is one of the largest historic railroad collections in Europe. It is housed in a redundant railway station called Madrid-Delicias in the barrio of Delicias. The location is near the centre of Madrid.

 

Talgo is a Spanish manufacturer of intercity, standard, and high speed passenger trains, founded in 1942

Talgo trains are divided into a number of generations. They come in both locomotive hauled and self-propelled versions.

The Talgo I was built in 1942 in Spain.

 

Talgo II coaches and locomotives were first built in 1950 and were successfully operated until 1972.

 

The maximum speed was 120 kms/h. The design of some details were art deco.

 

Talgo trains are best known for their unconventional articulated railway passenger car that uses a type similar to the Jacobs bogie that Talgo patented in 1941, similar to the Robert Stephenson and Company trains. The wheels are mounted in pairs but not joined by an axle and the bogies are shared between coaches rather than underneath individual coaches.

 

----

 

El Museo del Ferrocarril es una de las mayores colecciones ferroviarias de Europa. Está situado en la antigua estación de las Delicias, cerca del centro de la ciudad.

 

El Talgo es un tipo de tren formado principalmente por una composición articulada de coches cortos, de aluminio y más bajos que los tradicionales, diseñado y construido por la empresa española Patentes Talgo. Su nombre son las siglas de Tren Articulado Ligero Goicoechea Oriol, en atención a su diseñador Alejandro Goicoechea y al financiero que apoyó sus investigaciones y la fabricación de los primeros trenes construidos con ese sistema, José Luis Oriol Urigüen; fundadores de la empresa en 1942.

 

Las composiciones Talgo se caracterizan principalmente por tener un sistema de rodadura completamente diferente al de los coches de trenes convencionales. Esto les permite una serie de ventajas, pero a cambio, solo se pueden construir convoyes fijos cuyas cajas solo se pueden acoplar y desacoplar en un complejo procedimiento en taller.

La generación Talgo I comenzó a construirse en 1942.

La Talgo II se inició en 1950, y se retiró en 1972, después de una exitosa carrera.

 

(Extracto de wikipedia)

In my wire sculptures I use a combination of very different techniques and processes.

They are, for example, interlacing and rolling in a single thread directly, by interweaving the threads leaving the negative space as dominant, sometimes the modeling is combined with pliers.

 

I will be pleased to present a summary of both concrete examples of these sculptures as well as a summary of procedure and associations to the varied traditions of contemporary trends that nurture and inspire this extraordinary art where hands with few complements are the main tool of course The capacity of one's creation.

 

I also invite you if you have the opportunity to visit Mojácar pueblo or the privileged to live here or in this extraordinary region to visit my art studio, a place open to true dialogue and cultural exchange.

From April there will be frequent open days but can also be visited by appointment.Ideal to leave the daily or forced visits to the dentist and other 'more necessary' but certainly less original chores.

not edited

============

esp

En mis esculturas de alambre utilizo una combinación de técnicas y procesos muy variados.

Van, por ejemplo, del entrelazado y el enrollar en un solo hilo de manera directa, al entretejer los hilos dejando como dominante el espacio negativo en algunas ocasiones se combina el modelar con alicates .

 

Tendré el placer de ir presentando un resumen tanto de ejemplos concretos de estas esculturas así como un resumen de procedimiento y asociaciones a las variadas tradiciones tendencias contemporáneas que nutren e inspiran este extraordinario arte donde las manos con pocos complementos son la principal herramienta unidos por supuesto a la capacidad de la propia creación .

 

Les invito también si tienen la oportunidad de visitar Mojácar pueblo o el privilegiado de vivir aquí o en esta extraordinaria región a visitar mi Estudio de arte, un lugar abierto al verdadero dialogo e intercambio cultural .

A partir del mes de abril habrá frecuentes jornadas puertas abiertas pero también se puede visitar con cita previa.Ideal para salir de lo cotidiano o de las visitas obligadas al dentista y otro menesteres 'mas necesarios" pero por seguro, menos originales .

 

============

Collection of the artist

For Commissions, HD Image,Reproductions,editorials and other uses

Please contact the artist:

www.ffmendoza.com/

 

Atelier Art Polifacetico ffmendoza

www.facebook.com/artffmendoza/

========

Estudio de Arte / Atelier Studio ff mendoza

Mojacar /04638/ Almeria

=====Eng

 

Si te gusta este trabajo, apoyarlo, gracias:

If you like this work, support it, thank :

Like ✔ Favorite ✔ Comment ✔ Share ✔ Follow ✔

As fotografias não deverão ser utilizadas para fins comerciais, agradece-se que na sua utilização, que carece de autorização, se faça referência ao seu autor.

 

Paulo Pereira Pinto

rop80206@gmail.com

 

Greenfinch

The photos should not be used for commercial purposes, Thank that in its use, it lacks authorization, reference is made to the author.

 

Verderón común

Estas imágenes están protegidas por el Copyright. La descarga de estas imágenes y su posesión en formato digital, no implica la adquisición de ningún derecho de uso sobre las mismas. Por lo tanto, no está permitida su reproducción total ó parcial por ningún medio ó procedimiento sin la autorización del autor.

Moscú - Moscow - Москва

 

TsUM — Central Universal Department Store (Russian: ЦУМ – Центральный Универсальный Магазин, tr. TsUM – Tsentralʹnyĭ Universalʹnyĭ Magazin) is a high end department stores in Moscow.

The store is in a six-story historical Gothic Revival style building on Petrovka Street at Theatre Square (Teatralnaya Square) in the Tverskoy District of central Moscow. The TsUM interiors have been refurbished many times, most recently in 2007. TsUM is a part of the Mercury Group.

TsUM is the largest fashion department store in Eastern Europe. It carries more than 1000 brands of apparel, a perfumery and jewelry, as well as “TsUM Globus Gourmet”, a fusion restaurant, a cigar room, a café, and champagne bar “Veuve Clicquot”.

TsUM seasonal collections have been supported by advertising campaigns featuring fashion stars Cindy Crawford, Milla Jovovich, Naomi Campbell, Daria Werbowy, Malgosia Bela, and Mathias Lauridsen.

Notable couturiers Roland Mouret, Ralph Rucci, Carolina Herrera, Dennis Basso, Michael Kors and Victoria Beckham have participated in TsUM events, introducing their newest collections to TsUM clients in person.

TsUM offers clients additional services, including VIP shopping and professional stylists’ advice, cosmetic procedures and lectures on modern art.

In 1857 merchants Andrew Muir (1817–1899) and Archibald Mirrielees (1797–1877), who had arrived in St. Petersburg separately, founded the “Muir and Mirrielees” Trading Company.[1] Archibald Mirrielees was resident in St. Petersburg from 1822. In 1843 he established his own company, one of the most significant Anglo-Russian merchant houses.

In the 1880s the company transferred from St. Petersburg to Moscow and acquired a building for their haberdashery shop in Theatre Square. Their new building was erected there in 1908 in the Gothic Revival style with some modern elements. The project was designed by the famous Russian architect Roman Klein. “Muir and Mirrielees” was the first and the largest department store in the last days of the Russian Empire (one could buy clothes, shoes, jewelry, perfumery and toys there). The store attracted the highest public interest: “In the eyes of the Muscovites “Muir and Mirrielees” is a kind of exhibition of everything that was on sale in the capital, be it for the rich and the high society, or for the middle-class customers" wrote one of the contemporaries. The store delivered throughout the Russian empire.

The company established a furniture factory and other stores (Торговый дом Хомякова (in Russian), Маросейка (in Russian)). The company was nationalised during the Russian Revolution and the assets confiscated in 1918 by the Bolsheviks, who renamed "Muir & Mirrielees", first to "MosTorg" in 1922 and later to TsUM.

In 2013 the European Capital Investment Fund, owner of the majority of TsUM's shares, forced a buyout from minority shareholders; the company was subsequently delisted from the Moscow Exchange.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TsUM_(Moscow)

www.tsum.ru/english/

 

TsUM — central universal Department Store (en ruso: ЦУМ – Центральный Универсальный магазин, TR. TsUM – Tsentralʹnyĭ Universalʹnyĭ Magazin) es una de las tiendas departamentales de alta gama en Moscú.

La tienda se encuentra en un edificio de seis pisos de estilo gótico renacimiento histórico en la calle Petrovka en la Plaza del teatro (Plaza Teatralnaya) en el distrito de Tverskoy del centro de Moscú. Los interiores de TsUM han sido restaurados muchas veces, más recientemente en 2007. TsUM forma parte del grupo Mercury.

TsUM es la tienda de moda más grande de Europa del este. Lleva más de 1000 marcas de ropa, una perfumería y joyería, así como "TsUM Globus gourmet", un restaurante de fusión, una sala de puros, un café, y Champagne Bar "Veuve Clicquot".

Las colecciones estacionales de TsUM han sido apoyadas por campañas publicitarias con las estrellas de la moda Cindy Crawford, Milla Jovovich, Naomi Campbell, Daria Werbowy, Malgosia Bela y Mathias Lauridsen.

Los notables modistos Roland Mouret, Ralph Rucci, Carolina Herrera, Dennis Basso, Michael Kors y Victoria Beckham han participado en eventos de TSUM, presentando sus nuevas colecciones a clientes de TSUM en persona.

TsUM ofrece a sus clientes servicios adicionales, incluyendo compras VIP y consejos de estilistas profesionales, procedimientos cosméticos y conferencias sobre arte moderno.

 

The wonder step of wire arts process /Rhinoceros

In my wire sculptures I use a combination of very different techniques and processes.

They are, for example, interlacing and rolling in a single thread directly, by interweaving the threads leaving the negative space as dominant, sometimes the modeling is combined with pliers.

I will be pleased to present a summary of both concrete examples of these sculptures as well as a summary of procedure and associations to the varied traditions of contemporary trends that nurture and inspire this extraordinary art where hands with few complements are the main tool of course The capacity of one's creation.

 

I also invite you if you have the opportunity to visit Mojácar pueblo or the privileged to live here or in this extraordinary region to visit my art studio, a place open to true dialogue and cultural exchange.

From April there will be frequent open days but can also be visited by appointment.Ideal to leave the daily or forced visits to the dentist and other 'more necessary' but certainly less original chores.

not edited

============

esp

En mis esculturas de alambre utilizo una combinación de técnicas y procesos muy variados.

Van, por ejemplo, del entrelazado y el enrollar en un solo hilo de manera directa, al entretejer los hilos dejando como dominante el espacio negativo en algunas ocasiones se combina el modelar con alicates .

Tendré el placer de ir presentando un resumen tanto de ejemplos concretos de estas esculturas así como un resumen de procedimiento y asociaciones a las variadas tradiciones tendencias contemporáneas que nutren e inspiran este extraordinario arte donde las manos con pocos complementos son la principal herramienta unidos por supuesto a la capacidad de la propia creación .

Les invito también si tienen la oportunidad de visitar Mojácar pueblo o el privilegiado de vivir aquí o en esta extraordinaria región a visitar mi Estudio de arte, un lugar abierto al verdadero dialogo e intercambio cultural .

A partir del mes de abril habrá frecuentes jornadas puertas abiertas pero también se puede visitar con cita previa.Ideal para salir de lo cotidiano o de las visitas obligadas al dentista y otro menesteres 'mas necesarios" pero por seguro, menos originales .

============

Collection of the artist

For Commissions, HD Image,Reproductions,editorials and other uses

Please contact the artist:

www.ffmendoza.com/

========

Estudio de Arte / Atelier Studio ff mendoza

Mojacar /04638/ Almeria

 

Si te gusta este trabajo, apoyarlo, gracias:

If you like this work, support it, thank :

Like ✔ Favorite ✔ Comment ✔ Share ✔ Follow ✔

 

As fotografias não deverão ser utilizadas para fins comerciais, agradece-se que na sua utilização, que carece de autorização, se faça referência ao seu autor.

 

Paulo Pereira Pinto

rop80206@gmail.com

 

Hoopoe

The photos should not be used for commercial purposes, Thank that in its use, it lacks authorization, reference is made to the author.

 

Abubilla

Estas imágenes están protegidas por el Copyright. La descarga de estas imágenes y su posesión en formato digital, no implica la adquisición de ningún derecho de uso sobre las mismas. Por lo tanto, no está permitida su reproducción total ó parcial por ningún medio ó procedimiento sin la autorización del autor.

Moscú - Moscow - Москва

 

TsUM — Central Universal Department Store (Russian: ЦУМ – Центральный Универсальный Магазин, tr. TsUM – Tsentralʹnyĭ Universalʹnyĭ Magazin) is a high end department stores in Moscow.

The store is in a six-story historical Gothic Revival style building on Petrovka Street at Theatre Square (Teatralnaya Square) in the Tverskoy District of central Moscow. The TsUM interiors have been refurbished many times, most recently in 2007. TsUM is a part of the Mercury Group.

TsUM is the largest fashion department store in Eastern Europe. It carries more than 1000 brands of apparel, a perfumery and jewelry, as well as “TsUM Globus Gourmet”, a fusion restaurant, a cigar room, a café, and champagne bar “Veuve Clicquot”.

TsUM seasonal collections have been supported by advertising campaigns featuring fashion stars Cindy Crawford, Milla Jovovich, Naomi Campbell, Daria Werbowy, Malgosia Bela, and Mathias Lauridsen.

Notable couturiers Roland Mouret, Ralph Rucci, Carolina Herrera, Dennis Basso, Michael Kors and Victoria Beckham have participated in TsUM events, introducing their newest collections to TsUM clients in person.

TsUM offers clients additional services, including VIP shopping and professional stylists’ advice, cosmetic procedures and lectures on modern art.

In 1857 merchants Andrew Muir (1817–1899) and Archibald Mirrielees (1797–1877), who had arrived in St. Petersburg separately, founded the “Muir and Mirrielees” Trading Company.[1] Archibald Mirrielees was resident in St. Petersburg from 1822. In 1843 he established his own company, one of the most significant Anglo-Russian merchant houses.

In the 1880s the company transferred from St. Petersburg to Moscow and acquired a building for their haberdashery shop in Theatre Square. Their new building was erected there in 1908 in the Gothic Revival style with some modern elements. The project was designed by the famous Russian architect Roman Klein. “Muir and Mirrielees” was the first and the largest department store in the last days of the Russian Empire (one could buy clothes, shoes, jewelry, perfumery and toys there). The store attracted the highest public interest: “In the eyes of the Muscovites “Muir and Mirrielees” is a kind of exhibition of everything that was on sale in the capital, be it for the rich and the high society, or for the middle-class customers" wrote one of the contemporaries. The store delivered throughout the Russian empire.

The company established a furniture factory and other stores (Торговый дом Хомякова (in Russian), Маросейка (in Russian)). The company was nationalised during the Russian Revolution and the assets confiscated in 1918 by the Bolsheviks, who renamed "Muir & Mirrielees", first to "MosTorg" in 1922 and later to TsUM.

In 2013 the European Capital Investment Fund, owner of the majority of TsUM's shares, forced a buyout from minority shareholders; the company was subsequently delisted from the Moscow Exchange.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/TsUM_(Moscow)

www.tsum.ru/english/

 

TsUM — central universal Department Store (en ruso: ЦУМ – Центральный Универсальный магазин, TR. TsUM – Tsentralʹnyĭ Universalʹnyĭ Magazin) es una de las tiendas departamentales de alta gama en Moscú.

La tienda se encuentra en un edificio de seis pisos de estilo gótico renacimiento histórico en la calle Petrovka en la Plaza del teatro (Plaza Teatralnaya) en el distrito de Tverskoy del centro de Moscú. Los interiores de TsUM han sido restaurados muchas veces, más recientemente en 2007. TsUM forma parte del grupo Mercury.

TsUM es la tienda de moda más grande de Europa del este. Lleva más de 1000 marcas de ropa, una perfumería y joyería, así como "TsUM Globus gourmet", un restaurante de fusión, una sala de puros, un café, y Champagne Bar "Veuve Clicquot".

Las colecciones estacionales de TsUM han sido apoyadas por campañas publicitarias con las estrellas de la moda Cindy Crawford, Milla Jovovich, Naomi Campbell, Daria Werbowy, Malgosia Bela y Mathias Lauridsen.

Los notables modistos Roland Mouret, Ralph Rucci, Carolina Herrera, Dennis Basso, Michael Kors y Victoria Beckham han participado en eventos de TSUM, presentando sus nuevas colecciones a clientes de TSUM en persona.

TsUM ofrece a sus clientes servicios adicionales, incluyendo compras VIP y consejos de estilistas profesionales, procedimientos cosméticos y conferencias sobre arte moderno.

 

As fotografias não deverão ser utilizadas para fins comerciais, agradece-se que na sua utilização, que carece de autorização, se faça referência ao seu autor.

 

Paulo Pereira Pinto

rop80206@mail.telepac.pt

 

Orphean Warbler

The photos should not be used for commercial purposes, Thank that in its use, it lacks authorization, reference is made to the author.

 

Curruca mirlona

Estas imágenes están protegidas por el Copyright. La descarga de estas imágenes y su posesión en formato digital, no implica la adquisición de ningún derecho de uso sobre las mismas. Por lo tanto, no está permitida su reproducción total ó parcial por ningún medio ó procedimiento sin la autorización del autor.

lax'n'busto - tinc fam de tu

 

CATALÀ

 

La calçotada és la manera més tradicional de menjar els calçots, amb fortes connotacions de festa i trobada. A Valls, la ciutat d'on és originària la calçotada se celebra a finals de gener, des de l'any 1982 la calçotada popular de més renom. Les calçotades se solen fer des de finals de l'hivern fins al març o principis d'abril, segons la temporada.

 

El primer plat del menú típic de calçotada són els calçots (normalment entre 10 i 20 per persona), servits en teules per mantenir-ne la temperatura, amb la salsa típica que els acompanya, la salvitxada o bé el romesco. Després se sol menjar carn a la brasa amb torrades, acompanyada de vi negre o cava.

 

Com que els calçots se serveixen tal com surten de la graella i cal pelar-los i sucar-los a la salsa, és habitual posar-se un pitet per evitar tacar-se la roba.

 

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SPANISH

 

La calçotada es una comida típica de la región occidental de Cataluña; originaria de Valls, en la comarca del Alt Camp, en las últimas décadas se ha extendido y puede degustarse en casi cualquier parte de la comunidad durante el final del invierno y comienzos de la primavera; los calçots, una variedad de cebolletas especialmente cultivada para este propósito, se asan directamente sobre brasas de sarmientos y se comen con la mano, aderezados con una salsa especial, la salvitxada, similar a la romesco. Mientras tanto, las brasas se aprovechan para asar carnes o embutidos para el segundo plato.

 

Cocidos en su punto, la capa exterior de los calçots se calcina, dejando el interior tierno y cremoso. Tradicionalmente se llevan a la mesa sobre una teja de barro o se empaquetan con papel de periódico, que ayudan a conservarlos calientes.

El procedimiento de ingesta — arrancando la capa carbonizada con las manos — hace inevitable mancharse, por lo que es tradicional ponerse un enorme babero que llega del cuello hasta las rodillas.

Las fechas típicas para degustar esta especie de cebolla dulce es durante los meses de invierno y primavera.

Es costumbre acompañarlos con un buen cava catalán (para los calçots) y con los excelentes vinos de la zona (con el segundo plato, para el que algunos puristas dicen preferir la "botifarra amb mongetes").

Hereford bovine and crosses , Hereford cattle , Hereford cow , Hereford Breed .....................

BOVINO HEREFORD y sus CRUZAS ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

ganado Hereford , vaca Hereford , vacuno Hereford , raza Hereford

Gado raça bovina Hereford é cruzamentos , gado Hereford , raça Hereford ,

raça de bovino Hereford - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

Bos taurus taurus Linnaeus, 1758

Orden: Artiodactyla Owen, 1848 (Artiodáctilos) ....

Familia: Bovidae Gray, 1821 (Bóvidos = Bovinos) ..... subfamilia: Bovinae Gray, 1821

 

Esta es la raza bovina productora de carne más importante del mundo, seleccionada desde sus orígenes, hace más de 200 años, por reunir todas las condiciones que los criadores de ganado de carne desean y buscan.

Ya en 1627 se menciona su existencia.

Al parecer, el ganado Groningen, traído desde Holanda, le confirió su tamaño, y el color en sus partes blancas.

Genéticamente, el Hereford está más relacionado al ganado actual de Holanda, que a las otras razas británicas.

 

Los bovinos de carne Hereford modernos tuvieron su origen en 1742 en el condado de Herefordshire, Inglaterra, como consecuencia de trabajos realizados por Benjamín Tomkins, con ganado de su propiedad.

Fue él uno de los primeros en dedicarse a mejorar animales exclusivamente para carne.

Desde ese condado, pasó a los vecinos, luego a Irlanda, no tardando en extenderse por todo el mundo.

Este ganado llamó desde un principio la atención por poseer características distintivas de color, conformación, constitución, mansedumbre, tendencia carnicera y temperamento.

Ya en 1788 era la raza más abundante de las Islas Británicas.

Para el año 1800 los toros Hereford tenían un tamaño muy superior al actual.

Muchos animales pesaban más de 1.350 kg.

Cotmore, un toro ganador de varias exposiciones, pesó 1.770 kg en 1839.

Gradualmente, el tipo y la conformación maduraron hacia un peso y tamaño menos extremo, para conseguir más calidad y eficiencia.

 

Al Brasil, el primer ejemplar llegó en 1906; el primer toro registrado en el "Herd Book" local fue un toro argentino en 1907.

En 1910 se importaron desde Uruguay las primeras hembras.

 

La raza es famosa por su carne de alta calidad y las excelentes características maternales de las hembras.

Son de temperamento dócil, lo que permite un manejo más fácil comparado con el de otras razas de ganado.

La calidad de su carne rivaliza con la de la raza Angus que es algo más agresiva.

 

El consejo mundial de la raza Hereford (WORLD HEREFORD COUNCIL) tiene su sede en Gran Bretaña.

Los países miembros son: Argentina, Uruguay, Nueva Zelandia, Australia, Estados Unidos, Canadá, Dinamarca, Estonia, Finlandia, Noruega, Suecia, Alemania, Holanda, Hungría, Irlanda, Sudáfrica, y el Reino Unido.

Los países no miembros pero con Asociaciones Hereford son:

México, República Checa, Francia, Japón, Zambia, Zimbabwe, Chile, Brasil, y Paraguay (el que también tiene otra que nuclea a los criadores de Polled Hereford).

 

La raza es muy popular en zonas templadas de Australia, sudoeste de Estados Unidos, la Argentina, Uruguay, Nueva Zelandia, etc.

Es muy resistente y adaptable, ya que si bien se origina en una zona fría y húmeda, ha prosperado con gran éxito en climas mucho más hostiles en casi todo el mundo.

 

DESCRIPCIÓN GENERAL:

El color dominante es el rojo cereza al rojo abayado.

Su cara es blanca, extendiéndose el blanco al pecho, vientre, ingle y extremidades, desde garrón y rodilla hacia abajo.

El penacho de la cola es blanco, y las mucosas son rosadas.

 

Raza única e inconfundible con marcas de genética inglesa presentes en el producto final.

Garantiza un producto terminado consistente.

Su cara blanca es un sello de calidad

La raza Hereford consolidó su fertilidad a través de siglos de selección.

Esta fertilidad inherente se transfiere a las hembras F1 y al resto de su "fábrica" de vacas.

Un toro cubre más vacas

Son excelentes convertidores de pasto y granos; esta eficiencia biológica genera ganancias en todas las etapas de producción.

La vaca Hereford es sumamente confiable en su habilidad de lograr un ternero al año, quedar nuevamente preñada y criar su ternero con un peso óptimo para su venta.

Es una raza dócil y fácil de manejar.

Ofrece un adecuado tamaño para los mercados internos y externos, crecimiento y músculo, amén del beneficio extra de su longevidad.

Puede progresar tanto en campos desérticos y zonas muy frías como en campos húmedos y subtropicales.

Terneza certificada y producto sabroso y de alta calidad.

Musculatura adecuada, pero no extrema, con niveles de carne roja consistentes.

La influencia Hereford se adecua a todos los programas de carne con marca.

Excelente nivel de marmóreo.

Su cuero más pesado aumenta el valor del animal.

 

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DESARROLLO EN LA ARGENTINA:

En este país llegó en 1858, la primera importación de ganado HEREFORD de Pedigree.

El primer toro fue "Niágara 2131", de la cabaña San Juan, en Quilmes.

A este período corresponden las fundaciones de cabañas (algunas de las cuales aún perduran), las cuales introdujeron los primeros reproductores de Pedigree, para primero emplearlos en la mestización con el ganado criollo local, y tiempo después para la cría de la raza pura.

Por su parte el primer POLLED HEREFORD de pedigree llega a la Argentina importado por la cabaña Las Hermanas, de Rafael Herrera Vegas e Hijos, en 1917, al adquirir a "King Reyburn".

Ambas se difundieron primero por la pampa húmeda, pero rápidamente comenzaron a ocupar zonas más difíciles.

Hoy están establecidos en cada una de las provincias del territorio argentino, desde el norte de Jujuy y Formosa, hasta la precordillera, y las riberas e islas del Canal de Beagle, en Tierra del Fuego.

 

El 3 de noviembre de 1924 se fundó la:

Asociación Argentina Criadores de Hereford (A.A.C.H.).

Su sede se encuentra en la calle Manuel Obarrio 2948, de la Ciudad de Buenos Aires.

Organiza exposiciones propias como son Otoño y Nacional, participando en la tradicional exposición de Palermo, como una de las razas fundadoras. Patrocina y auspicia mas de 30 exposiciones rurales del interior y mas de 40 remates anuales.

Cuenta con una importante masa de asociados de diversas zonas del país, representados por invernadores, criadores y cabañeros, lo que representa una fecunda integración al sistema de producción.

Las 420 cabañas que la integran, forman un plantel de más de 150.000 vientres Puros Registrados, los que sumados a la importante base de animales de pedigree, conforman un núcleo destacado de donde seleccionar y multiplicar la mejor genética.

En el año 2000 forma la primera empresa integrada para producción de carne Hereford con marca, a través de "Carne Hereford S.A.", exporta su Cuota Hilton anual con certificación de calidad, origen y racial a los mercados más importantes.

Hoy, Carne Hereford se encuentra no solo en las góndolas argentinas, también en los mercados de Brasil, Chile, Holanda, Alemania, Inglaterra, España e Italia entre otros.

La Asociación es también Certificadora de Alimentos, para su producto final la carne, bajo el logo de "Argentine Hereford Beef".

 

+++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++

 

POLLED HEREFORD (Hereford mocho):

Los Polled Hereford son Hereford a los que naturalmente no les crecen cuernos, producto de una mutación genética.

Esta variedad tuvo su origen en trabajos realizados por los señores Warren Gamond de Des Moines, Iowa (EE.UU.) y Messen M. Loyd dree Bobcaineon, Ontario, Canadá a fines del siglo pasado.

La misma constituye una alternativa al procedimiento de corte de cuernos, el cual causa estres y pérdida de peso en los animales.

 

(4 de septiembre de 2009)

municipio de Esquina, Departamento Esquina,

provincia de Corrientes, ARGENTINA

 

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fotografía fotografías foto fotos photo photos imaje imajes imágenes imagen imajenes imajen picture pictures , Mammalia , Artiodactyla , Mamíferos domésticos , Animales domésticos , Кухороги , Чифтокопитни , tuři , turovití , sudokopytníci , 偶蹄目 , 牛科 , 牛亚科 , ウシ目 , ウシ亜科 , ウシ科 , ウシ亜目 , Partåiga hovdjur , Idisslare , Slidhornsdjur , Çift toynaklılar , Boynuzlugiller , Porakanopiai , Atrajotojai , Dykaraginiai , Jaučiai , Rinder , Holhoornigen , Evenhoevigen , Parrettåede hovdyr , Skedehornede , mammiferos , artiodattilos , Wiederkäuer , Ruminantia , Hornträger , domesticated animals , breeds of cattle , Cattle breeds , races bovines , razze bovine , Razze da carne , Beef Cattle breeds , Razas vacunas , Razas vacunas argentinas , Razas bovinas argentinas , race bovine britannique , race bovine Hereford , race Hereford cattle , Herefordföreningen , Hereford Breeders , Herefords cattle , Beef Cattle , Herd cattle ,

As fotografias não deverão ser utilizadas para fins comerciais, agradece-se que na sua utilização, que carece de autorização, se faça referência ao seu autor.

 

Paulo Pereira Pinto

rop80206@gmail.com

 

Greenfinch

The photos should not be used for commercial purposes, Thank that in its use, it lacks authorization, reference is made to the author.

 

Verderón común

Estas imágenes están protegidas por el Copyright. La descarga de estas imágenes y su posesión en formato digital, no implica la adquisición de ningún derecho de uso sobre las mismas. Por lo tanto, no está permitida su reproducción total ó parcial por ningún medio ó procedimiento sin la autorización del autor.

Ayer tomé esta fotografía a distancia. Una vez elegidos los ajustes, me situé a unos 20 metros del posible aterrizaje con el disparador en la mano y un receptor de radio-frecuencia en la zapata de la cámara. La ventaja de este procedimiento es el gran nivel de acercamiento al sujeto, al punto de poder utilizar un 90 mm; radicando la dificultad en el poco control que se tiene sobre la toma. Espero que os guste el pequeñito.

 

Yesterday I took this picture from a distance. Once the settings were chosen, I positioned myself about 20 meters from the possible landing with the trigger in my hand and a radio-frequency receiver in the camera's shoe. The advantage of this procedure is the high level of approach to the subject, to the point of being able to use a 90 mm; being the difficulty in the little control that is had on the taking. I hope you like the little Blue Tit.

 

f/7.1, ISO-800, 1/2000 seg (-1 paso), 90 mm

As fotografias não deverão ser utilizadas para fins comerciais, agradece-se que na sua utilização, que carece de autorização, se faça referência ao seu autor.

 

Paulo Pereira Pinto

rop80206@gmail.com

 

Blackbird

The photos should not be used for commercial purposes, Thank that in its use, it lacks authorization, reference is made to the author.

 

Mirlo común

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The Holy Cathedral Church of the Assumption of the Virgin is the cathedral of Jaén, episcopal seat of the diocese of Jaén, in the autonomous community of Andalusia, Spain. It is located in the Plaza de Santa María, in front of the Municipal Palace and the Episcopal Palace.

 

The current cathedral was conceived in the sixteenth century to replace the previous Gothic temple of the fifteenth century. The construction lasted for several centuries, despite which the original idea remained. They emphasize the chapter house and the sacristy, which are the masterpiece of Andrés de Vandelvira, and one of the most important works of the Spanish Renaissance. It is also outstanding its main facade, one of the main works of Spanish Baroque, built after the consecration of the temple in 1660 from the design of Eufrasio López de Rojas. Also, highlights the neoclassical choir because of its beauty and the large number of seats that make it one of the largest in Spain. Once the building works were completed, they continued in the following centuries mainly in the interior decoration and the chapels. In addition, as a consequence of the Lisbon earthquake of 1755, consolidation works were necessary on the north façade, as well as the construction of the church of El Sagrario.

 

It is dedicated to the Assumption of the Virgin since the consecration, in 1246, of the old Mosque of the Muslim city, after the conquest of it by the Holy King Ferdinand III of Castile. Inside, among other works of art and religious objects, the relic of the Holy Face or "La Veronica", considered the true face of Jesus Christ, which would have been captured in the canvas with which Veronica dried his face during your passion It is stored in the Main Chapel, and is exposed to public veneration of the faithful every Friday.

 

In 2008, the procedure for the cathedral of Jaén to be declared a World Heritage Site was initiated, 1 considering that it served as a model for the construction of other cathedrals in Spain and America. January 27, 2012 the «Cathedral of Jaén (extension of the Renaissance monumental complex of Úbeda and Baeza)» was inscribed in the Indicative List of Spain of the World Heritage, in the category of cultural property

 

La Santa Iglesia Catedral de la Asunción de la Virgen es la catedral de Jaén, sede episcopal de la diócesis de Jaén, en la comunidad autónoma de Andalucía, España. Se ubica en la plaza de Santa María, frente al Palacio Municipal y el Palacio Episcopal.

 

La catedral actual fue concebida en el siglo XVI para sustituir al anterior templo gótico del siglo XV. La construcción se prolongó durante varios siglos, a pesar de lo cual la idea original se mantuvo. Destacan la sala capitular y la sacristía, que son la obra cumbre de Andrés de Vandelvira, y una de las obras más importantes del renacimiento español. También es sobresaliente su fachada principal, una de las principales obras del barroco español, construida tras la consagración del templo en 1660 a partir del diseño de Eufrasio López de Rojas. Igualmente, destaca el coro neoclásico debido a su belleza y al gran número de sitiales que lo convierten en uno de los más grandes de España. Una vez finalizadas las obras del edificio, las mismas continuaron en los siglos siguientes principalmente en la decoración interior y de las capillas. Además, a consecuencia del terremoto de Lisboa de 1755 fueron necesarias obras de consolidación en la fachada norte, así como la construcción de la iglesia del Sagrario.

 

Está dedicada a la Asunción de la Virgen desde la consagración, en 1246, de la antigua Mezquita Mayor de la ciudad musulmana, tras la conquista de la misma por el rey santo Fernando III de Castilla. En su interior se custodia, entre otras obras de arte y objetos religiosos, la reliquia del Santo Rostro o «La Verónica», considerada el auténtico rostro de Jesucristo, que habría quedado plasmado en el lienzo con el que la Verónica le secó la cara durante su pasión. Está guardada en la Capilla Mayor, y se expone a veneración pública de los fieles todos los viernes.

 

En 2008 se inició el procedimiento para que la catedral de Jaén fuese declarada Patrimonio de la Humanidad,1​ al considerarse que sirvió de modelo para la construcción de otras catedrales de España y América.​ El 27 de enero de 2012 la «Catedral de Jaén (extensión del conjunto monumental renacentista de Úbeda y Baeza)» fue inscrita en la Lista Indicativa de España del Patrimonio de la Humanidad, en la categoría de bien cultural

Nombre: La caja del tiempo

Autor: Gonzalo Benavente

Técnica y materiales : Origami / tetraseda

Dimensiones: 24 cm. de alto x 11 cm. de ancho x 11 cm. de profundidad

 

Si gustan ver el procedimiento, por favor visiten mi blog

If you want to see the process please visit my blog

 

gonzalo-benavente.blogspot.com

Materiales:

1 vaso de cristal

1 vaso de plástico

1 portapapeles

Agua

Hilo

Alfiler

Trípode (recomendable)

 

Procedimiento:

1º Abrir el portapapeles y colocar dentro el vaso (que el portapapeles no tape el vaso)

2º Llenar hasta el borde el vaso con agua (también valen otros líquidos)

3º Colgar de un sitio el vaso de plástico con un hilo (tienen que quedar paralelos)

4º Agugerear el vaso de plástico con un alfiler

5º Vertir dentro del vaso de plástico agua (el agua goteará continuamente hasta que se acabe)

6º Coloca un trípode sobre una mesa o alguna superficie.

7º No lo pienses y utiliza la cámara como una metralleta (es la única manera de sacar algo interesante!!

www.flickr.com/photos/gallego2/2207077646/

www.flickr.com/photos/hiskinho/2190511960/

Materials:

1 cup glass

1 cup plastic

1 clipboard

Water

Thread

Alfiler

Tripod (recommended)

 

Procedure:

1 º Open clipboard and placed inside the glass (which the clipboard not tape the glass)

2 º Fill the glass to the brim with water (also worth other liquids)

3º eighth of a site the glass with a plastic thread (have to be parallel)

4º Agugerear the plastic cup with a pin

5ºPour into the plastic cup water (water goteará continuously until it is finished)

6º Place a tripod on a table or any surface.

7º shot a lot of photos!

The instruccions are bad, sorry

Editada con un procedimiento de watercolor.

Aunque pueda parecer un HDR no lo es. Se trata de un procedimiento de procesado diferente con la que estoy experimentando, y los resultados prometen.

 

Although it may seem a HDR what is not. It is a different processing method with which I am experiencing, and the results promise.

 

NIkon D7000

Nikkor 18-108 a 18mm

ISO 100

Just testing a workaround for Black and White conversion with some analogic flavor.

 

Probando una conversión a Blanco y Negro con un toque analógico.

 

Estoy tratando de hacer un sencillo manual, procedimiento (llamalo X), asi que me gustaría saber si os gusta el puntillo analogico que se obtiene o si cambiariais algo:

 

-mas ruido (o menos)

- mas viñeta (o menos)

- contraste..

 

lo que sea

 

Por cierto.. manuales y demás en:

 

www.light4magic.com

 

Tutorial:

www.light4magic.com/?p=340

As fotografias não deverão ser utilizadas para fins comerciais, agradece-se que na sua utilização, que carece de autorização, se faça referência ao seu autor.

 

Paulo Pereira Pinto

rop80206@gmail.com

 

Bluethroat

The photos should not be used for commercial purposes, Thank that in its use, it lacks authorization, reference is made to the author.

 

Pechiazul

Estas imágenes están protegidas por el Copyright. La descarga de estas imágenes y su posesión en formato digital, no implica la adquisición de ningún derecho de uso sobre las mismas. Por lo tanto, no está permitida su reproducción total ó parcial por ningún medio ó procedimiento sin la autorización del autor.

También llamada Temizuya. Lugar con una fuente dedicado a la purificación en los Templos japoneses. El procedimiento de purificación (Temizu) es bastante simple:

Se debe coger el cucharón que se encuentra en la fuente con la mano derecha, se recoge el agua y se vierte sobre la mano izquierda dejando que caiga en la base de la fuente.

Repetir el mismo proceso con la otra mano.

Se vuelve a coger agua con el brazo derecho y se recoge el agua con la mano izquierda, ser lleva a la boca y, sin tragar, se escupe en la base de la fuente (dentro seria una cochinada).

Una vez purificado solo queda acercarse al altar hacer dos reverencias mirando hacia el altar, realizar la oración y hacer otra reverencia más.

 

Also called Temizuya. Place with a fountain dedicated to purification in the Japanese Temples. The purification procedure (Temizu) is quite simple:

You must take the bucket found in the source with the right hand, water is collected and poured over the left hand letting fall into the base of the fountain.

Repeat the same process with the other hand.

He turns to fetch water with his right arm and left hand water is collected, be brought to the mouth and without swallowing, spitting on the basis of the source (inside would be a filth ).

Once one is purified approach the altar to make two bows facing the altar, performing prayer and make another bow more.

   

Foto propia.

Procedimientos Especiales (QUEBEC).

Catchy colours isn't it? I saw a picture of it and said to myself: I want to be there. Flickr didn't had too much cover of the place actually, that is why this long comment. The water was very hot in this room, you can see the steam going out of the water and in the door. Needless to say that I had to be very careful with the camera.

 

Termas de San Joaquin, a 70 kms. de Monterrey, entre Icamole y Paredon, aunque geograficamente estan en Coahuila.

 

Alguien decido que era buena idea meter unos milloncitos de pesos en medio del desierto cerca de Mina, y que bueno que lo hizo, el lugar en verdad vale la pena, a pesar de los 120 pesos de entrada, el agua esta a unos 45C y lo recomendado es meterse 15 minutos y salirse... normalmente sales con sueño del agua asi que no hay de otra que tomar una siesta en las bancas que estan a los lados. Se repite el procedimiento cuantas veces sea necesario.

 

Tenia tiempo queriendo ir, el papa de un amigo me lo recomendo, pero siempre busque en internet como "La Azufrosa" y no encontre mucho, hasta que hace poco me tope una pagina con una descripcion mas detallada.

 

My most watched picture, it crossed the 1000 views milestone =) and reached #133 on Explorer

  

Here are more pictures of the same place:

www.flickr.com/photos/cesar_ramos/511865464/

www.flickr.com/photos/cesar_ramos/517334832/

 

Oh my god! Me estoy volviendo pocho!

As fotografias não deverão ser utilizadas para fins comerciais, agradece-se que na sua utilização, que carece de autorização, se faça referência ao seu autor.

 

Paulo Pereira Pinto

rop80206@gmail.com

 

Bluethroat

The photos should not be used for commercial purposes, Thank that in its use, it lacks authorization, reference is made to the author.

 

Pechiazul

Estas imágenes están protegidas por el Copyright. La descarga de estas imágenes y su posesión en formato digital, no implica la adquisición de ningún derecho de uso sobre las mismas. Por lo tanto, no está permitida su reproducción total ó parcial por ningún medio ó procedimiento sin la autorización del autor.

As fotografias não deverão ser utilizadas para fins comerciais, agradece-se que na sua utilização, que carece de autorização, se faça referência ao seu autor.

 

Paulo Pereira Pinto

rop80206@gmail.com

 

Bluethroat

The photos should not be used for commercial purposes, Thank that in its use, it lacks authorization, reference is made to the author.

 

Pechiazul

Estas imágenes están protegidas por el Copyright. La descarga de estas imágenes y su posesión en formato digital, no implica la adquisición de ningún derecho de uso sobre las mismas. Por lo tanto, no está permitida su reproducción total ó parcial por ningún medio ó procedimiento sin la autorización del autor.

Me dá que no le van a aplicar el procedimiento

As fotografias não deverão ser utilizadas para fins comerciais, agradece-se que na sua utilização, que carece de autorização, se faça referência ao seu autor.

 

Paulo Pereira Pinto

rop80206@gmail.com

 

Bluethroat

The photos should not be used for commercial purposes, Thank that in its use, it lacks authorization, reference is made to the author.

 

Pechiazul

Estas imágenes están protegidas por el Copyright. La descarga de estas imágenes y su posesión en formato digital, no implica la adquisición de ningún derecho de uso sobre las mismas. Por lo tanto, no está permitida su reproducción total ó parcial por ningún medio ó procedimiento sin la autorización del autor.

As fotografias não deverão ser utilizadas para fins comerciais, agradece-se que na sua utilização, que carece de autorização, se faça referência ao seu autor.

 

Paulo Pereira Pinto

rop80206@mail.telepac.pt

 

Corn Bunting

The photos should not be used for commercial purposes, Thank that in its use, it lacks authorization, reference is made to the author.

 

Triguero

Estas imágenes están protegidas por el Copyright. La descarga de estas imágenes y su posesión en formato digital, no implica la adquisición de ningún derecho de uso sobre las mismas. Por lo tanto, no está permitida su reproducción total ó parcial por ningún medio ó procedimiento sin la autorización del autor.

Grandes Molinos Vascos elkarteak sei solairuko eraikin ikusgarria eraiki zuen 1924an, austro-hungariar ehotze-sistema modernoaren arabera irina industrialki ekoizteko. Bilboko itsasadarretik eta trenbidetik hurbil kokatuta zegoenez, aleak zuzenean husten ziren itsasontzitik siloetara prozedura pneumatikoen bidez, eta bertan ekoitzitako gaiak trenbidez garraiatzen ziren.

 

La sociedad de Grandes Molinos Vascos construyó en 1924 un imponente edificio de seis plantas para producir industrialmente harinas según el moderno sistema de molienda austro-húngaro. Su emplazamiento, cercano a la ría de Bilbao y la vía del ferrocarril, le permitía descargar el grano, directamente desde el buque a los silos, por procedimientos neumáticos y transportar sus productos a través de los ferrocarriles de vía estrecha.

As fotografias não deverão ser utilizadas para fins comerciais, agradece-se que na sua utilização, que carece de autorização, se faça referência ao seu autor.

 

Paulo Pereira Pinto

rop80206@gmail.com

 

Jack Snipe

The photos should not be used for commercial purposes, Thank that in its use, it lacks authorization, reference is made to the author.

 

Agachadiza chica

Estas imágenes están protegidas por el Copyright. La descarga de estas imágenes y su posesión en formato digital, no implica la adquisición de ningún derecho de uso sobre las mismas. Por lo tanto, no está permitida su reproducción total ó parcial por ningún medio ó procedimiento sin la autorización del autor.

As fotografias não deverão ser utilizadas para fins comerciais, agradece-se que na sua utilização, que carece de autorização, se faça referência ao seu autor.

 

Paulo Pereira Pinto

rop80206@gmail.com

 

Bluethroat

The photos should not be used for commercial purposes, Thank that in its use, it lacks authorization, reference is made to the author.

 

Pechiazul

Estas imágenes están protegidas por el Copyright. La descarga de estas imágenes y su posesión en formato digital, no implica la adquisición de ningún derecho de uso sobre las mismas. Por lo tanto, no está permitida su reproducción total ó parcial por ningún medio ó procedimiento sin la autorización del autor.

Eduard Hugo Heusch creó la empresa a finales del siglo XIX en la localidad de Manacor, en la isla de Mallorca,

Las perlas de Majorica, de fama internacional, se elaboran siguiendo un procedimiento secreto que no ha transcendido a día de hoy. Majorica es el fabricante de perlas más antiguo de la historia.

Wikipedia.

 

Eduard Hugo Heusch created the company in the late nineteenth century in the town of Manacor on the island of Mallorca,

Majorica pearls, of international fame, is produced using a secret process that has transcended today. Majorica pearl is the oldest manufacturer in history.

Wikipedia. Translation

As fotografias não deverão ser utilizadas para fins comerciais, agradece-se que na sua utilização, que carece de autorização, se faça referência ao seu autor.

 

Paulo Pereira Pinto

rop80206@mail.telepac.pt

 

Ring Ouzel

The photos should not be used for commercial purposes, Thank that in its use, it lacks authorization, reference is made to the author.

 

Mirlo capiblanco

Estas imágenes están protegidas por el Copyright. La descarga de estas imágenes y su posesión en formato digital, no implica la adquisición de ningún derecho de uso sobre las mismas. Por lo tanto, no está permitida su reproducción total ó parcial por ningún medio ó procedimiento sin la autorización del autor.

Fotografia original amb col·lodió humit: Alexandre David (Molitg-les-Bains)

 

RETORN AL PASSAT

RETORNO AL PASADO

OUT OF THE PAST

 

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El col·lodió humit és un procediment fotogràfic usat comunament fins a finals del s. XIX, consistent en unes plaques sobre les quals es dipositava una emulsió fotogràfica de nitrat de plata en una suspensió de gelatina. La gelatina tenia la característica de sensibilitzar de manera considerablement ràpida el nitrat de plata, de forma que n'escurçava el temps d'exposició a la llum.

El mètode suposa la utilització del col·lodió, una espècie de vernís que s'aboca en forma líquida a les plaques. El col·lodió se sensibilitzava en nitrat de plata. Les plaques de vidre havien d'estar molt netes, per poder obtenir imatges nítides i sense taques.

Es diu col·lodió humit perquè la placa ha de romandre humida durant tot el procediment de presa i revelat de les imatges.

 

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El colodión húmedo es un procedimiento fotográfico usado comúnmente hasta finales del s. XIX, consistente en unas placas sobre las que se depositaba una emulsión fotográfica de nitrato de plata en una suspensión de gelatina. La gelatina tenía la característica de sensibilizar de manera considerablemente rápida el nitrato de plata, de forma que acorta el tiempo de exposición a la luz.

El método supone la utilización del colodión, una especie de barniz que se vierte líquido a las placas. El colodión se sensibilizaba en nitrato de plata. Las placas de vidrio tenían que estar muy limpias, para poder obtener imágenes nítidas y sin manchas.

Se llama colodión húmedo porque la placa ha de permanecer húmeda durante todo el procedimiento de toma y revelado de las imágenes.

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The collodion process is an early photographic process commonly used until the end of the century XIX, During the 1880s the collodion process, in turn, was largely replaced by gelatin dry plates—glass plates with a photographic emulsion of silver halides suspended in gelatin. The dry gelatin emulsion was not only more convenient but could be made much more sensitive, greatly reducing exposure times.

"Collodion process" is usually taken to be synonymous with the "collodion wet plate process", a very inconvenient form which required the photographic material to be coated, sensitized, exposed and developed within the span of about fifteen minutes, necessitating a portable darkroom for use in the field.

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