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Shunters moving around passenger coaches are still a common sight at Zürich's main station, even though with the increased use of EMUs, such movements are on the decline here, too. "Popemobile" Ee 922 003 is leaving the main hall with a coach left behind by IC4 187 (Stuttgart Hbf - Zürich HB) after it had left again for Singen as train 484. Shortly behind it, the locomotive that had brought in train 187 is leaving for the sidings as well. Zürich HB, 25-06-2020.

I was one of about 25 reporters and photographers covering the arrival of Pope John Paul ii in Edmonton in September, 1984. Before getting in the Popemobile, he made a stunning turn and walked to the media line. He stopped in front of me and I snapped a couple of close-up images. He walked to the end of the line and then returned to me. The Archbishop could be saying "be careful with this one". Moments later the Pope shook my hand and asked "get any good pictures?" Can't make up stuff like this.

The crowd had been cleared from the drive-way , so that the Pope could be driven past. However, he never arrived and we were told that there was not enough time. It was either extremely bad planning, or there never had been an intention for him to go there. Very disappointing, when I should think most people there were hoping to get reasonably close to him.

I spent about 4 hours in the same spot yesterday and I did not take one photo of the Pope as it was already dark when he passed by.

This afternoon I nearly decided to stay home but my wife encouraged me to go and take some photos for her. I'm glad I did.

The popemobile had already passed me but stopped a little further on as a baby was handed to the pontiff, I nearly knocked the barricade over taking this shot!

 

Here is the result of my hard work!

I took this today, just before the Papal Mass on the Benjamin Franklin Parkway in Philadelphia, Pa.

Does Hawaii Five-O really exist? This badge would indicate it must be a real agency. The simple answer is, No. The primary reason that it does not, there are no state wide roads. Each Island has its own police force that can use some state resources while doing the police work. Even when a local place, Like Honolulu, has its name on a vehicle, the authority is Island wide. One morning while I was on Maui, the local radio host announced that a car went missing. He requested that the driver just park the car and call the radio station to report where it was parked. The listeners also were reminded that if anyone needs a ride, call the station and a driver could be found to provide transportation. This is so much better than a high speed chase.

 

I guess the next question would be, Where did I get this Badge? A Maui gift store had two in a display case, no prices and no descriptions. He claimed that they were given to him one day while he was watching the filming of the Television show. He told me to watch carefully when the show is on the TV and I will spot these "props". As a badge collector I had to have one, even if it is not a badge. It is a badge, perhaps the most recognized one I have. When I show the collection, this one is the most noticed. It makes me want to get a Batmobile The second most recognized vehicle in the world. It is right behind the Popemobile!

Oct. 30, 2015

"The President and First Lady react to a child in a pope costume and mini popemobile as they welcomed children during a Halloween event on the South Lawn of the White House." (Official White House Photo by Pete Souza)

This official White House photograph is being made available only for publication by news organizations and/or for personal use printing by the subject(s) of the photograph. The photograph may not be manipulated in any way and may not be used in commercial or political materials, advertisements, emails, products, promotions that in any way suggests approval or endorsement of the President, the First Family, or the White House.

Dublin city centre during the papal visit

 

Along the Pavement

 

Dame Street - Dublin - Ireland

Pope Francis tours central Dublin

 

Along the Pavement

 

Dame Street - Dublin - Ireland

The Peugeot 504 as used used by pope John Paul II during his visit to Lyon in 1981.

W460

 

The popemobile is perhaps the most famous Mercedes belonging to a VIP. It was built in 1980 for the visit of Johannes Paul II to Germany, to protect the pope from wind and rain. Following the assassination attempt in May 1981, the bodywork was furnished with bulletproof glazing. The custom-built unit based on the Mercedes cross-country vehicle subsequently accompanied the Holy Father on many of his journeys.

 

2.307 cc

4 in-line

100 PS @ 5.200 rpm

Vmax : 131 km/h

2 ex.

 

Mercedes-Benz Museum

Mercedesstraße 100

Stuttgart

Deutschland - Germany

December 2013 / July 2014

Pope Francis during his visit to Naples, Italy.

Pope Frances rides by happy crowds on the streets of Washington DC, September 23, 2015.

 

Don't miss the album Pope Francis in DC. Like!

 

"Do we really want to travel in hermetically sealed popemobiles through the rural provinces of France, Mexico and the Far East, eating only in Hard Rock Cafes and McDonald's? Or do we want to eat without fear, tearing into the local stew, the humble taqueria's mystery meat, the sincerely offered gift of a lightly grilled fish head?"

 

Anthony Bourdain

Ladies Palanquin

_____________________________________________

 

The Palaquin or litter is a class of wheelless vehicles, a type of human-powered transport, for the transport of persons. Examples of litter vehicles include lectica (ancient Rome), kiệu [轎] (Vietnam), sedan chair (Britain), litera (Spain), palanquin (France, India, Ghana), jiao (China), liteira (Portugal), wo (วอ, Chinese style known as kiao เกี้ยว) (Thailand), gama (Korea), koshi, ren and kago [駕籠] (Japan) and tahtırevan (Turkey).

 

Smaller litters may take the form of open chairs or beds carried by two or more carriers, some being enclosed for protection from the elements. Larger litters, for example those of the Chinese emperors, may resemble small rooms upon a platform borne upon the shoulders of a dozen or more people. To most efficiently carry a litter, porters will attempt to transfer the load to their shoulders, either by placing the carrying poles upon their shoulders, or the use of a yoke to transfer the load from the carrying poles to the shoulder.

 

DEFINITIONS

A simple litter, often called a king carrier, consists of a sling attached along its length to poles or stretched inside a frame. The poles or frame are carried by porters in front and behind. Such simple litters are common on battlefields and emergency situations, where terrain prohibits wheeled vehicles from carrying away the dead and wounded.

 

Litters can also be created by the expedient of the lashing of poles to a chair. Such litters, consisting of a simple cane chair with maybe an umbrella to ward off the elements and two stout bamboo poles, may still be found in Chinese mountain resorts such as the Huangshan Mountains to carry tourists along scenic paths and to viewing positions inaccessible by other means of transport.

 

A more luxurious version consists of a bed or couch, sometimes enclosed by curtains, for the passenger or passengers to lie on. These are carried by at least two porters in equal numbers in front and behind, using wooden rails that pass through brackets on the sides of the couch. The largest and heaviest types would be carried by draught animals.

 

Another form, commonly called a sedan chair, consists of a chair or windowed cabin suitable for a single occupant, also carried by at least two porters in front and behind, using wooden rails that pass through brackets on the sides of the chair. These porters were known in London as "chairmen". These have been very rare since the 19th century, but such enclosed portable litters have been used as an elite form of transport for centuries, especially in cultures where women are kept secluded.

 

Sedan chairs, in use until the 19th century, were accompanied at night by link-boys who carried torches. Where possible, the link boys escorted the fares to the chairmen, the passengers then being delivered to the door of their lodgings. Several houses in Bath, Somerset, England still have the link extinguishers on the exteriors, shaped like outsized candle snuffers. In the 1970s, entrepreneur and Bathwick resident, John Cuningham, revived the sedan chair service business for a brief amount of time.

 

ANTIQUITY

In pharaonic Egypt and many oriental realms such as China, the ruler and divinities (in the form of an idol) were often transported in a litter in public, frequently in procession, as during state ceremonial or religious festivals.

 

The ancient Hebrews fashioned the Ark of the Covenant to resemble and function as a litter for the ten commandments and presence of God.

 

In Ancient Rome, a litter called lectica or "sella" often carried members of the imperial family, as well as other dignitaries and other members of the rich elite, when not mounted on horseback.

 

The habit must have proven quite persistent, for the Third Council of Braga in 675 AD saw the need to order that bishops, when carrying the relics of martyrs in procession, must walk to the church, and not be carried in a chair, or litter, by deacons clothed in white.

 

In the Catholic Church, Popes were carried the same way in Sedia gestatoria, which was replaced later by the Popemobile.

 

IN ASIA

CHINA

In Han China the elite travelled in light bamboo seats supported on a carrier's back like a backpack. In the Northern Wei Dynasty and the Northern and Southern Song Dynasties, wooden carriages on poles appear in painted landscape scrolls.

 

A commoner used a wooden or bamboo civil litter (Chinese: 民轎; pinyin: min2 jiao4), while the mandarin class used an official litter (Chinese: 官轎; pinyin: guan1 jiao4) enclosed in silk curtains.

 

The chair with perhaps the greatest importance was the bridal chair. A traditional bride is carried to her wedding ceremony by a "shoulder carriage" (Chinese: 肩輿; pinyin: jiān yú), usually hired. These were lacquered in an auspicious shade of red, richly ornamented and gilded, and were equipped with red silk curtains to screen the bride from onlookers.

 

Sedan chairs were once the only public conveyance in Hong Kong, filling the role of cabs. Chair stands were found at all hotels, wharves, and major crossroads. Public chairs were licensed, and charged according to tariffs which would be displayed inside. Private chairs were an important marker of a person's status. Civil officers' status was denoted by the number of bearers attached to his chair. Before Hong Kong's Peak Tram went into service in 1888, wealthy residents of The Peak were carried on sedan chairs by coolies up the steep paths to their residence including Sir Richard MacDonnell's (former Governor of Hong Kong) summer home, where they could take advantage of the cooler climate. Since 1975 an annual sedan chair race has been held to benefit the Matilda International Hospital and commemorate the practice of earlier days.

 

KOREA

In Korea, royalty and aristocrats were carried in wooden litters called gama. Gamas were primarily used by royalty and government officials. There were six types of gama, each assigned to different government official rankings. In traditional weddings, the bride and groom are carried to the ceremony in separate gamas. Because of the difficulties posed by the mountainous terrain of the Korean peninsula and the lack of paved roads, gamas were preferred over wheeled vehicles.

 

JAPAN

As the population of Japan increased, less and less land was available as grazing for the upkeep of horses. With the availability of horses restricted to martial uses, human powered transport became more important and prevalent.

 

Kago (Kanji: 駕籠, Hiragana: かご) were often used in Japan to transport the non-samurai citizen. Norimono were used by the warrior class and nobility, most famously during the Tokugawa period when regional samurai were required to spend a part of the year in Edo (Tokyo) with their families, resulting in yearly migrations of the rich and powerful (Sankin-kōtai) to and from the capital along the central backbone road of Japan.

 

Somewhat similar in appearance to kago are the portable shrines that are used to carry the "god-body" (goshintai), the central totemic core normally found in the most sacred area of Shinto Shrines, on a tour to and from a shrine during some religious festivals.

 

THAILAND

In Thailand, the royalty were also carried in wooden litters called wo ("พระวอ" Phra Wo, literally, "Royal Sedan") for large ceremonies. Wos were elaborately decorated litters that were delicately carved and colored by gold leaves. Stained glass is also used to decorate the litters. Presently, Royal Wos and carriages are only used for royal ceremonies in Thailand. They are exhibited in the Bangkok National Museum.

 

INDONESIA

In traditional Javanese society, the generic palanquin or joli was a wicker chair with a canopy, attached to two poles, and borne on men's shoulders, and was available for hire to any paying customer. As a status marker, gilded throne-like palanquins, or jempana, were originally reserved solely for royalty, and later co-opted by the Dutch, as a status marker: the more elaborate the palanquin, the higher the status of the owner. The joli was transported either by hired help, by nobles' peasants, or by slaves.

 

Historically, the palanquin of a Javanese king (raja), prince (pangeran), lord (raden mas) or other noble (bangsawan) was known as a jempana; a more throne-like version was called a pangkem. It was always part of a large military procession, with a yellow (the Javanese colour for royalty) square canopy. The ceremonial parasol (payung) was held above the palanquin, which was carried by a bearer behind and flanked by the most loyal bodyguards, usually about 12 men, with pikes, sabres, lances, muskets, keris and a variety of disguised blades. In contrast, the canopy of the Sumatran palanquin was oval-shaped and draped in white cloth; this was reflective of greater cultural permeation by Islam.[4] Occasionally, a weapon or heirloom, such as an important keris or tombak, was given its own palanquin. In Hindu culture in Bali today, the tradition of using palanquins for auspicious statues, weapons or heirlooms continues, for funerals especially; in more elaborate rituals, a palanquin is used to bear the body, and is subsequently cremated along with the departed.

 

INDIA

A palanquin, also known as palkhi, is a covered sedan chair (or litter) carried on four poles. It derives from the Sanskrit word for a bed or couch, pa:lanka.

 

Palanquins are mentioned in literature as early as the Ramayana (c. 250BC).

 

Palanquins began to fall out of use after rickshaws (on wheels, more practical) were introduced in the 1930s.

 

The doli (also transliterated from Hindi as dhooly or dhoolie) is a cot or frame, suspended by the four corners from a bamboo pole. Two or four men would carry it. In the time of the British in India, dhooly-bearers were used to carry the wounded from the battlefield and transport them.

 

Today in numerous areas of India including at the Hindu pilgrimage site of Amarnath Temple in Kashmir, palanquins can be hired to carry the customer up steep hills.

 

IN AFRICA

GHANA

In Southern Ghana the Akan and the Ga-Dangme carry their chiefs and kings in palanquins when they appear in their state durbars. When used in such occasions these palanquins may be seen as a substitutes of a state coach in Europe or a horse used in Northern Ghana. The chiefs of the Ga (mantsemei) in the Greater Accra Region (Ghana) use also figurative palanquins which are built after a chief's family symbol or totem. But these day the figurative palanquins are very seldom used. They are related with the figurative coffins which have become very popular among the Ga in the last 50 years. Since these figurative coffins were shown 1989 in the exhibition "Les magicians de la terre" in the Centre Pompidou in Paris they were shown in many art museums around the world.

 

ANGOLA

From at least the 15th century until the 19th century, litters of varying types known as tipoye were used in the Kingdom of Kongo as a mode of transportation for the elites. Seat-style litters with a single pole along the back of the chair carried by two men (usually slaves) were topped with an umbrella. Lounge-style litters in the shape of a bed were used to move one to two people with porter at each corner. Due to the tropical climate, horse were not native to the area nor could they survive very ong once introduced by the Portuguese. Human portage was the only mode of transportation in the region and became highly adept with missionary accounts claiming the litter transporters could move at speeds 'as fast as post horses at the gallop'

 

IN THE WEST

EUROPE

Portuguese and Spanish navigators and colonistics encountered litters of various sorts in India, Mexico, and Peru. They were imported into Spain and spread into France and then Britain. All the names for these devices are ultimately derived from the root sed- in Latin sedere, "sit," which gave rise to seda ("seat") and its diminutive sedula ("little seat"), the latter of which was contracted to sella, the traditional Latin name for a carried chair.The carried chair met instant success in Europe, whose city streets were often a literal mess of mud and refuse: Where cities and towns did not enjoy the presence of sewage systems left over from Imperial Roman days, it was common to empty chamber pots and discard kitchen refuse from windows down into the adjacent streets. Affluent and well-to-do citizens often found it hazardous and impractical to negotiate those avenues, and sedan chairs allowed them to remain prim and spotless while the carrying valets had to contend with the mud and the filth.

 

In Europe, Henry VIII of England was carried around in a sedan chair — it took four strong chairmen to carry him towards the end of his life — but the expression "sedan chair" was not used in print until 1615. It does not seem to take its name from the city of Sedan. Trevor Fawcett notes (see link) that British travellers Fynes Moryson (in 1594) and John Evelyn (in 1644-5) remarked on the seggioli of Naples and Genoa, which were chairs for public hire slung from poles and carried on the shoulders of two porters.

 

From the mid-17th century, visitors taking the waters at Bath would be conveyed in a chair enclosed in baize curtains, especially if they had taken a heated bath and were going straight to bed to sweat. The curtains kept off a possibly fatal draft. These were not the proper sedan chairs "to carry the better sort of people in visits, or if sick or infirmed" (Celia Fiennes). In the 17th and 18th centuries, the chairs stood in the main hall of a well-appointed city residence, where a lady could enter and be carried to her destination without setting foot in a filthy street. The neoclassical sedan chair made for Queen Charlotte remains at Buckingham Palace.

 

By the mid-17th century, sedans for hire were a common mode of transportation. In London, "chairs" were available for hire in 1634, each assigned a number and the chairmen licensed because the operation was a monopoly of a courtier of Charles I. Sedan chairs could pass in streets too narrow for a carriage and were meant to alleviate the crush of coaches in London streets, an early instance of traffic congestion. A similar system was later used in Scotland. In 1738, a fare system was established for Scottish sedans, and the regulations covering chairmen in Bath are reminiscent of the modern Taxi Commission's rules. A trip within a city cost six pence and a day's rental was four shillings. A sedan was even used as an ambulance in Scotland's Royal Infirmary.

 

Chairmen moved at a good clip. In Bath they had the right-of-way and pedestrians hearing "By your leave" behind them knew to flatten themselves against walls or railings as the chairmen hustled through. There were often disastrous accidents, upset chairs, and broken glass-paned windows.

 

Sedan chairs were also used by the wealthy in the cities of colonial America. Benjamin Franklin used a sedan chair late in the 18th century.

 

COLONIAL PRACTICE

In various colonies, litters of various types were maintained under native traditions, but often adopted by the white colonials as a new ruling and/or socio-economic elite, either for practical reasons (often comfortable modern transport was unavailable, e.g. for lack of decent roads) and/or as a status symbol. During the 17-18th centuries, palanquins (see above) were very popular among European traders in Bengal, so much so that in 1758 an order was issued prohibiting their purchase by certain lower-ranking employees.

 

THE END OF A TRADITION

In Great Britain, in the early 19th century, the public sedan chair began to fall out of use, perhaps because streets were better paved or perhaps because of the rise of the more comfortable, companionable and affordable hackney carriage. In Glasgow, the decline of the sedan chair is illustrated by licensing records which show twenty-seven sedan chairs in 1800, eighteen in 1817, and ten in 1828. During that same period the number of registered hackney carriages in Glasgow rose to one hundred and fifty.

 

THE TRAVELING "SILLA" OF LATIN AMERICA

A similar but simpler palanquin was used by the elite in parts of 18th- and 19th-century Latin America. Often simply called a silla (Spanish for seat or chair), it consisted of a simple wooden chair with an attached tumpline. The occupant sat in the chair, which was then affixed to the back of a single porter, with the tumpline supported by his head. The occupant thus faced backwards during travel. This style of palanquin was probably due to the steep terrain and rough or narrow roads unsuitable to European-style sedan chairs. Travellers by silla usually employed a number of porters, who would alternate carrying the occupant.A chair borne on the back of a porter, almost identical to the silla, is used in the mountains of China for ferrying older tourists and visitors up and down the mountain paths. One of these mountains where the silla is still used is the Huangshan Mountains of Anhui province in Eastern China.

 

WIKIPEDIA

Pope Francis visited Dublin 2018-08-25

The Palaquin or litter is a class of wheelless vehicles, a type of human-powered transport, for the transport of persons. Examples of litter vehicles include lectica (ancient Rome), kiệu [轎] (Vietnam), sedan chair (Britain), litera (Spain), palanquin (France, India, Ghana), jiao (China), liteira (Portugal), wo (วอ, Chinese style known as kiao เกี้ยว) (Thailand), gama (Korea), koshi, ren and kago [駕籠] (Japan) and tahtırevan (Turkey).

 

Smaller litters may take the form of open chairs or beds carried by two or more carriers, some being enclosed for protection from the elements. Larger litters, for example those of the Chinese emperors, may resemble small rooms upon a platform borne upon the shoulders of a dozen or more people. To most efficiently carry a litter, porters will attempt to transfer the load to their shoulders, either by placing the carrying poles upon their shoulders, or the use of a yoke to transfer the load from the carrying poles to the shoulder.

 

DEFINITIONS

A simple litter, often called a king carrier, consists of a sling attached along its length to poles or stretched inside a frame. The poles or frame are carried by porters in front and behind. Such simple litters are common on battlefields and emergency situations, where terrain prohibits wheeled vehicles from carrying away the dead and wounded.

 

Litters can also be created by the expedient of the lashing of poles to a chair. Such litters, consisting of a simple cane chair with maybe an umbrella to ward off the elements and two stout bamboo poles, may still be found in Chinese mountain resorts such as the Huangshan Mountains to carry tourists along scenic paths and to viewing positions inaccessible by other means of transport.

 

A more luxurious version consists of a bed or couch, sometimes enclosed by curtains, for the passenger or passengers to lie on. These are carried by at least two porters in equal numbers in front and behind, using wooden rails that pass through brackets on the sides of the couch. The largest and heaviest types would be carried by draught animals.

 

Another form, commonly called a sedan chair, consists of a chair or windowed cabin suitable for a single occupant, also carried by at least two porters in front and behind, using wooden rails that pass through brackets on the sides of the chair. These porters were known in London as "chairmen". These have been very rare since the 19th century, but such enclosed portable litters have been used as an elite form of transport for centuries, especially in cultures where women are kept secluded.

 

Sedan chairs, in use until the 19th century, were accompanied at night by link-boys who carried torches. Where possible, the link boys escorted the fares to the chairmen, the passengers then being delivered to the door of their lodgings. Several houses in Bath, Somerset, England still have the link extinguishers on the exteriors, shaped like outsized candle snuffers. In the 1970s, entrepreneur and Bathwick resident, John Cuningham, revived the sedan chair service business for a brief amount of time.

 

ANTIQUITY

In pharaonic Egypt and many oriental realms such as China, the ruler and divinities (in the form of an idol) were often transported in a litter in public, frequently in procession, as during state ceremonial or religious festivals.

 

The ancient Hebrews fashioned the Ark of the Covenant to resemble and function as a litter for the ten commandments and presence of God.

 

In Ancient Rome, a litter called lectica or "sella" often carried members of the imperial family, as well as other dignitaries and other members of the rich elite, when not mounted on horseback.

 

The habit must have proven quite persistent, for the Third Council of Braga in 675 AD saw the need to order that bishops, when carrying the relics of martyrs in procession, must walk to the church, and not be carried in a chair, or litter, by deacons clothed in white.

 

In the Catholic Church, Popes were carried the same way in Sedia gestatoria, which was replaced later by the Popemobile.

 

IN ASIA

CHINA

In Han China the elite travelled in light bamboo seats supported on a carrier's back like a backpack. In the Northern Wei Dynasty and the Northern and Southern Song Dynasties, wooden carriages on poles appear in painted landscape scrolls.

 

A commoner used a wooden or bamboo civil litter (Chinese: 民轎; pinyin: min2 jiao4), while the mandarin class used an official litter (Chinese: 官轎; pinyin: guan1 jiao4) enclosed in silk curtains.

 

The chair with perhaps the greatest importance was the bridal chair. A traditional bride is carried to her wedding ceremony by a "shoulder carriage" (Chinese: 肩輿; pinyin: jiān yú), usually hired. These were lacquered in an auspicious shade of red, richly ornamented and gilded, and were equipped with red silk curtains to screen the bride from onlookers.

 

Sedan chairs were once the only public conveyance in Hong Kong, filling the role of cabs. Chair stands were found at all hotels, wharves, and major crossroads. Public chairs were licensed, and charged according to tariffs which would be displayed inside. Private chairs were an important marker of a person's status. Civil officers' status was denoted by the number of bearers attached to his chair. Before Hong Kong's Peak Tram went into service in 1888, wealthy residents of The Peak were carried on sedan chairs by coolies up the steep paths to their residence including Sir Richard MacDonnell's (former Governor of Hong Kong) summer home, where they could take advantage of the cooler climate. Since 1975 an annual sedan chair race has been held to benefit the Matilda International Hospital and commemorate the practice of earlier days.

 

KOREA

In Korea, royalty and aristocrats were carried in wooden litters called gama. Gamas were primarily used by royalty and government officials. There were six types of gama, each assigned to different government official rankings. In traditional weddings, the bride and groom are carried to the ceremony in separate gamas. Because of the difficulties posed by the mountainous terrain of the Korean peninsula and the lack of paved roads, gamas were preferred over wheeled vehicles.

 

JAPAN

As the population of Japan increased, less and less land was available as grazing for the upkeep of horses. With the availability of horses restricted to martial uses, human powered transport became more important and prevalent.

 

Kago (Kanji: 駕籠, Hiragana: かご) were often used in Japan to transport the non-samurai citizen. Norimono were used by the warrior class and nobility, most famously during the Tokugawa period when regional samurai were required to spend a part of the year in Edo (Tokyo) with their families, resulting in yearly migrations of the rich and powerful (Sankin-kōtai) to and from the capital along the central backbone road of Japan.

 

Somewhat similar in appearance to kago are the portable shrines that are used to carry the "god-body" (goshintai), the central totemic core normally found in the most sacred area of Shinto Shrines, on a tour to and from a shrine during some religious festivals.

 

THAILAND

In Thailand, the royalty were also carried in wooden litters called wo ("พระวอ" Phra Wo, literally, "Royal Sedan") for large ceremonies. Wos were elaborately decorated litters that were delicately carved and colored by gold leaves. Stained glass is also used to decorate the litters. Presently, Royal Wos and carriages are only used for royal ceremonies in Thailand. They are exhibited in the Bangkok National Museum.

 

INDONESIA

In traditional Javanese society, the generic palanquin or joli was a wicker chair with a canopy, attached to two poles, and borne on men's shoulders, and was available for hire to any paying customer. As a status marker, gilded throne-like palanquins, or jempana, were originally reserved solely for royalty, and later co-opted by the Dutch, as a status marker: the more elaborate the palanquin, the higher the status of the owner. The joli was transported either by hired help, by nobles' peasants, or by slaves.

 

Historically, the palanquin of a Javanese king (raja), prince (pangeran), lord (raden mas) or other noble (bangsawan) was known as a jempana; a more throne-like version was called a pangkem. It was always part of a large military procession, with a yellow (the Javanese colour for royalty) square canopy. The ceremonial parasol (payung) was held above the palanquin, which was carried by a bearer behind and flanked by the most loyal bodyguards, usually about 12 men, with pikes, sabres, lances, muskets, keris and a variety of disguised blades. In contrast, the canopy of the Sumatran palanquin was oval-shaped and draped in white cloth; this was reflective of greater cultural permeation by Islam.[4] Occasionally, a weapon or heirloom, such as an important keris or tombak, was given its own palanquin. In Hindu culture in Bali today, the tradition of using palanquins for auspicious statues, weapons or heirlooms continues, for funerals especially; in more elaborate rituals, a palanquin is used to bear the body, and is subsequently cremated along with the departed.

 

INDIA

A palanquin, also known as palkhi, is a covered sedan chair (or litter) carried on four poles. It derives from the Sanskrit word for a bed or couch, pa:lanka.

 

Palanquins are mentioned in literature as early as the Ramayana (c. 250BC).

 

Palanquins began to fall out of use after rickshaws (on wheels, more practical) were introduced in the 1930s.

 

The doli (also transliterated from Hindi as dhooly or dhoolie) is a cot or frame, suspended by the four corners from a bamboo pole. Two or four men would carry it. In the time of the British in India, dhooly-bearers were used to carry the wounded from the battlefield and transport them.

 

Today in numerous areas of India including at the Hindu pilgrimage site of Amarnath Temple in Kashmir, palanquins can be hired to carry the customer up steep hills.

 

IN AFRICA

GHANA

In Southern Ghana the Akan and the Ga-Dangme carry their chiefs and kings in palanquins when they appear in their state durbars. When used in such occasions these palanquins may be seen as a substitutes of a state coach in Europe or a horse used in Northern Ghana. The chiefs of the Ga (mantsemei) in the Greater Accra Region (Ghana) use also figurative palanquins which are built after a chief's family symbol or totem. But these day the figurative palanquins are very seldom used. They are related with the figurative coffins which have become very popular among the Ga in the last 50 years. Since these figurative coffins were shown 1989 in the exhibition "Les magicians de la terre" in the Centre Pompidou in Paris they were shown in many art museums around the world.

 

ANGOLA

From at least the 15th century until the 19th century, litters of varying types known as tipoye were used in the Kingdom of Kongo as a mode of transportation for the elites. Seat-style litters with a single pole along the back of the chair carried by two men (usually slaves) were topped with an umbrella. Lounge-style litters in the shape of a bed were used to move one to two people with porter at each corner. Due to the tropical climate, horse were not native to the area nor could they survive very ong once introduced by the Portuguese. Human portage was the only mode of transportation in the region and became highly adept with missionary accounts claiming the litter transporters could move at speeds 'as fast as post horses at the gallop'

 

IN THE WEST

EUROPE

Portuguese and Spanish navigators and colonistics encountered litters of various sorts in India, Mexico, and Peru. They were imported into Spain and spread into France and then Britain. All the names for these devices are ultimately derived from the root sed- in Latin sedere, "sit," which gave rise to seda ("seat") and its diminutive sedula ("little seat"), the latter of which was contracted to sella, the traditional Latin name for a carried chair.The carried chair met instant success in Europe, whose city streets were often a literal mess of mud and refuse: Where cities and towns did not enjoy the presence of sewage systems left over from Imperial Roman days, it was common to empty chamber pots and discard kitchen refuse from windows down into the adjacent streets. Affluent and well-to-do citizens often found it hazardous and impractical to negotiate those avenues, and sedan chairs allowed them to remain prim and spotless while the carrying valets had to contend with the mud and the filth.

 

In Europe, Henry VIII of England was carried around in a sedan chair — it took four strong chairmen to carry him towards the end of his life — but the expression "sedan chair" was not used in print until 1615. It does not seem to take its name from the city of Sedan. Trevor Fawcett notes (see link) that British travellers Fynes Moryson (in 1594) and John Evelyn (in 1644-5) remarked on the seggioli of Naples and Genoa, which were chairs for public hire slung from poles and carried on the shoulders of two porters.

 

From the mid-17th century, visitors taking the waters at Bath would be conveyed in a chair enclosed in baize curtains, especially if they had taken a heated bath and were going straight to bed to sweat. The curtains kept off a possibly fatal draft. These were not the proper sedan chairs "to carry the better sort of people in visits, or if sick or infirmed" (Celia Fiennes). In the 17th and 18th centuries, the chairs stood in the main hall of a well-appointed city residence, where a lady could enter and be carried to her destination without setting foot in a filthy street. The neoclassical sedan chair made for Queen Charlotte remains at Buckingham Palace.

 

By the mid-17th century, sedans for hire were a common mode of transportation. In London, "chairs" were available for hire in 1634, each assigned a number and the chairmen licensed because the operation was a monopoly of a courtier of Charles I. Sedan chairs could pass in streets too narrow for a carriage and were meant to alleviate the crush of coaches in London streets, an early instance of traffic congestion. A similar system was later used in Scotland. In 1738, a fare system was established for Scottish sedans, and the regulations covering chairmen in Bath are reminiscent of the modern Taxi Commission's rules. A trip within a city cost six pence and a day's rental was four shillings. A sedan was even used as an ambulance in Scotland's Royal Infirmary.

 

Chairmen moved at a good clip. In Bath they had the right-of-way and pedestrians hearing "By your leave" behind them knew to flatten themselves against walls or railings as the chairmen hustled through. There were often disastrous accidents, upset chairs, and broken glass-paned windows.

 

Sedan chairs were also used by the wealthy in the cities of colonial America. Benjamin Franklin used a sedan chair late in the 18th century.

 

COLONIAL PRACTICE

In various colonies, litters of various types were maintained under native traditions, but often adopted by the white colonials as a new ruling and/or socio-economic elite, either for practical reasons (often comfortable modern transport was unavailable, e.g. for lack of decent roads) and/or as a status symbol. During the 17-18th centuries, palanquins (see above) were very popular among European traders in Bengal, so much so that in 1758 an order was issued prohibiting their purchase by certain lower-ranking employees.

 

THE END OF A TRADITION

In Great Britain, in the early 19th century, the public sedan chair began to fall out of use, perhaps because streets were better paved or perhaps because of the rise of the more comfortable, companionable and affordable hackney carriage. In Glasgow, the decline of the sedan chair is illustrated by licensing records which show twenty-seven sedan chairs in 1800, eighteen in 1817, and ten in 1828. During that same period the number of registered hackney carriages in Glasgow rose to one hundred and fifty.

 

THE TRAVELING "SILLA" OF LATIN AMERICA

A similar but simpler palanquin was used by the elite in parts of 18th- and 19th-century Latin America. Often simply called a silla (Spanish for seat or chair), it consisted of a simple wooden chair with an attached tumpline. The occupant sat in the chair, which was then affixed to the back of a single porter, with the tumpline supported by his head. The occupant thus faced backwards during travel. This style of palanquin was probably due to the steep terrain and rough or narrow roads unsuitable to European-style sedan chairs. Travellers by silla usually employed a number of porters, who would alternate carrying the occupant.A chair borne on the back of a porter, almost identical to the silla, is used in the mountains of China for ferrying older tourists and visitors up and down the mountain paths. One of these mountains where the silla is still used is the Huangshan Mountains of Anhui province in Eastern China.

 

WIKIPEDIA

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Shea Stadium

Shea Stadium is located in New York City

 

Location 123-01 Roosevelt Avenue

Flushing, Queens, New York City, New York 11368-1699

Coordinates 40°45′20″N 73°50′53″WCoordinates: 40°45′20″N 73°50′53″W

Owner City of New York

Operator New York City Department of Parks and Recreation (1964–1981)

New York Mets (1981–2008)

Capacity Baseball: 57,333[1]

Football: 60,372[2]

Field size

Left Field 338 ft (103 m)

Left Field ('64-'77) 341 (104)

Medium Left-Center 358 (109)

Left-Center 371 (113)

Left-Center (deep) 396 (121)

Center 410 (125)

Right-Center (deep) 396 (121)

Right-Center 371 (113)

Medium Right-Center 358 (109)

Right Field 338 (103)

Right Field ('64-'77) 341 (104)

Surface Kentucky Bluegrass

Construction

Broke ground October 28, 1961

Opened April 17, 1964

Closed September 28, 2008 (Final game)

Demolished October 14, 2008–February 18, 2009

Construction cost US$28.5 million

($220 million in 2016 dollars[3])

Architect Praeger-Kavanagh-Waterbury[4]

General contractor Carlin–Crimmins J.V.[5]

Tenants

New York Mets (MLB) (1964–2008)

New York Jets (AFL / NFL) (1964–1983)

New York Yankees (MLB) (1974–1975)

New York Giants (NFL) (1975)

 

Shea Stadium (formally known as William A. Shea Municipal Stadium) /ˈʃeɪ/) was a stadium in Flushing Meadows–Corona Park, Queens, New York City.[6] Built as a multi-purpose stadium, it was the home park of Major League Baseball's New York Mets from 1964 to 2008, as well as the New York Jets football team from 1964 to 1983.

 

Shea Stadium was named in honor of William A. Shea, the man who was most responsible for bringing National League baseball back to New York. It was demolished in 2009 to create additional parking for the adjacent Citi Field, the current home of the Mets.

 

History

Planning and construction

 

The origins of Shea Stadium go way back to the Brooklyn Dodgers' and the New York Giants' relocations to the U.S. west coast, which left New York without a National League baseball team. New York City official Robert Moses tried to interest Dodgers owner Walter O'Malley in the site as the location for a new stadium, but O'Malley refused, unable to agree on location, ownership, and lease terms. O'Malley preferred to pay construction costs himself so he could own the stadium outright. He wanted total control over revenue from parking, concessions, and other events. New York City, in contrast, wanted to build the stadium, rent it, and retain the ancillary revenue rights to pay off its construction bonds.[7] Additionally, O'Malley wanted to build his new stadium in Brooklyn, while Moses insisted on Flushing Meadows. When Los Angeles offered O'Malley what the City of New York wouldn't—complete ownership of the facility—he left for southern California in a preemptive bid to install the Dodgers there before a new or existing major league franchise could beat him to it. At the same time, Horace Stoneham moved his New York Giants to the San Francisco Bay Area, ensuring that there would be two National League West Coast teams, and preserving the longstanding rivalry with the Dodgers that continues to this day.

 

In 1960, the National League agreed to grant an expansion franchise to the owners of the New York franchise in the abortive Continental League, provided that a new stadium be built. Mayor Robert Wagner, Jr. had to personally wire all National League owners and assure them that the city would build a stadium.

 

On October 6, 1961, the Mets signed a 30-year stadium lease,[8] with an option for a 10-year renewal. Rent for what was originally budgeted as a $9 million facility was set at $450,000 annually, with a reduction of $20,000 each year until it reached $300,000 annually.

 

The Mets' inaugural season (1962) was played in the Polo Grounds, with original plans calling for the team to move to a new stadium in 1963. In October 1962, Mets official Tom Meany said, "Only a series of blizzards or some other unforeseen trouble might hamper construction."[citation needed] That unforeseen trouble surfaced in a number of ways: the severe winter of 1962–1963, along with the bankruptcies of two subcontractors and labor issues. The end result was that both the Mets and Jets played at the Polo Grounds for one more year.

 

It was originally to be called "Flushing Meadow Park Municipal Stadium"[9] – the name of the public park on which it was built – but a movement was launched to name it in honor of William A. Shea, the man who brought National League baseball back to New York.

Opening

 

After 29 months and $28.5 million, Shea Stadium opened on April 17, 1964, with the Pittsburgh Pirates beating the Mets 4–3 before a crowd of 50,312.[10] The stadium opened five days before the 1964-65 New York World's Fair, across Roosevelt Avenue. Although not officially part of the fair grounds, the stadium sported steel panels on its exterior in the blue-and-orange colors of the Fair. The panels were removed in 1980.

Demolition

 

In accordance with New York City law, Shea Stadium was dismantled, rather than imploded.[11] The company with the rights to sell memorabilia was given two weeks after the final game to remove seats, signage and other potentially saleable and collectable items before demolition was to begin. The seats were the first ($869 per pair plus tax, a combination of '86 and '69),[12] followed by other memorabilia such as the foul poles, dugouts, stadium signage, and the giant letters that spelled out "SHEA" at the front of the building.

Demolition in progress. Top photo: close-up view of the stadium during demolition. Bottom photo: demolition as viewed from the IRT Flushing Line.

 

After salvaging operations concluded, demolition of the ballpark began on October 14, 2008. On October 18, the scoreboard in right field was demolished, with the bleachers, batter's eye and bullpens shortly thereafter.[13]

 

By November 10, the field, dugouts and the rest of the field level seats had been demolished.[14]

 

By mid-December, all of the Loge level seats and a good portion of the Mezzanine level seating were gone as well, leaving only the outer shell remaining.

Plaque commemorating the location of Shea Stadium's home plate, now in Citi Field's parking lot.

 

Demolition work on the upper deck began by January 1, 2009. The next day, all that remained of sections 26–48 of the upper deck was the steel framework. By January 8, the steel framework for sections 36–48 of the upper deck had been completely removed; all that remained of the "Live & In Person" advertising banner at the top above Gate A was the extreme right portion with the Shea Stadium Final Season logo. As of January 15, the far left field portion of Shea was completely demolished and the left field upper deck (sections 25–47) was stripped to its steel framework. The remaining letters at the top of the ballpark behind home plate were taken down on January 21. Approximately two-thirds of the stadium's outer superstructure was gone by January 24.

 

On January 31, Mets fans all over New York came to Shea Stadium for one final farewell. Fans took a tour of the site, told stories, and sang songs.[15] The last remaining section of seats was demolished on February 18. Fans stood in awe as the remaining structure of Shea Stadium (one section of ramps) was torn down at 11:22 that morning.[16][17]

 

The locations of Shea's home plate, pitcher's mound, and bases are marked in Citi Field's parking lot. The plaques feature engravings of the neon baseball players that once graced the exterior of the stadium.[18]

Redevelopment

 

On October 9, 2013, the New York City Council approved a plan to build a mall and entertainment center called Willets West in the Citi Field parking lot where Shea Stadium stood, as part of an effort by the city to redevelop the nearby neighborhood of Willets Point.[19][20] However, in 2015, the Appellate Division of the New York State Supreme Court ruled that the site, considered parkland, could not be used for commercial development without permission from New York State.[21]

 

Shea Stadium was the home of the New York Mets starting in 1964, and hosted the Major League Baseball All-Star Game that year, with Johnny Callison of the Philadelphia Phillies hitting a home run in the ninth inning to win the only Mid-Summer Classic held in the Queens ballpark. A month earlier, on Father's Day, Callison's teammate, future Hall of Fame member and United States Senator Jim Bunning, pitched a perfect game against the Mets.[22]

 

The stadium was often criticized by baseball purists for many reasons, even though it was retrofitted to be a baseball-only stadium after the Jets left. The upper deck was one of the highest in the majors. The lower boxes were farther from the field than similar seats in other parks because they were still on the rails that swiveled the boxes into position for football.[23] Outfield seating was sparse, in part because the stadium was designed to be fully enclosed.

 

At one time, Shea's foul territory was one of the most expansive in the majors. This was very common for ballparks built during the 1960s, in part due to the need to accommodate the larger football field.[23] However, seats added over the years in the lower level greatly reduced the size of foul territory by the dawn of the 21st century. On the plus side, Shea always used a natural grass surface, in contrast to other multi-purpose stadiums such as Three Rivers Stadium, Veterans Stadium, and Riverfront Stadium, which were built in the same era and style and used artificial turf instead of natural grass.

 

Shea Stadium hosted postseason baseball in 1969, 1973, 1986, 1988, 1999, 2000, and 2006; it hosted the World Series in 1969, 1973, 1986, and 2000. It had the distinction of being the home of the 1969 "Miracle Mets"—a team led by former Brooklyn Dodger Gil Hodges that defied 100–1 odds and won the World Series, after seven straight seasons in last or next-to-last place. Shea became famous for the bedlam that took place after the Mets won the decisive Game 5 of the 1969 World Series, as fans stormed the field in celebration. Similar scenes took place a few weeks earlier after the Mets clinched the National League East title, and then defeated the Atlanta Braves in the first National League Championship Series to win the pennant.

 

Tommie Agee, Lenny Dykstra, Todd Pratt, Robin Ventura, and Benny Agbayani hit post-season, game-winning home runs at Shea.

 

Tommie Agee was the only player in the history of the ballpark to hit a home run into the upper deck in left field. The spot was marked with a sign featuring Agee's number, and the date, which was April 10, 1969. Teammate Cleon Jones said the ball was still rising when it hit the seats, so it very likely could have been the longest home run ever hit at Shea Stadium.[citation needed]

 

In 1971, Dave Kingman – then with the San Francisco Giants and later to play for the Mets on two occasions – hit a home run that smashed off the windshield of the Giants' team bus, parked behind the left field bullpen.

 

For many years, the Mets' theme song, "Meet the Mets", was played at Shea before every home game. Jane Jarvis, a local jazz artist, played the popular songs on the Thomas organ at Mets games for many years at the stadium.[24]

 

On October 3, 2004, the stadium was the venue for the last game in the history of the Montreal Expos when the Mets defeated the Expos 8–1.[25] Their story ended where it had started 35 years earlier: at Shea Stadium.[26] The following year, the Expos relocated to Washington, D.C., where they were renamed the Nationals.

 

As of June 10, 2005, the Mets had played more games at Shea Stadium than the Brooklyn Dodgers did at Ebbets Field.[citation needed]

 

The last game played at Shea Stadium was a loss to the Florida Marlins on September 28, 2008. However, the Mets were in the thick of the playoff chase until the last day. A win would have meant another game for Shea as the Mets were scheduled to play the Milwaukee Brewers in a one-game playoff for the National League Wild Card had they won. Following the game, there was a "Shea Goodbye" tribute in which many players from the Mets' glory years entered the stadium and touched home plate one final time so that fans could pay their last respects to the players and the stadium the Mets called home for 45 years. The ceremony ended with Tom Seaver throwing a final pitch to Mike Piazza, then, as the Beatles "In My Life" played on the stadium speakers the two former Met stars walked out of the centerfield gate and closed it behind them, followed by a display of blue and orange fireworks.[27][28]

 

Three National League Division Series were played at Shea Stadium. The Mets won all three, and never lost a Division Series game at Shea.

 

1999 against the Arizona Diamondbacks – Mets won 3 games to 1

2000 against the San Francisco Giants – Mets won 3 games to 1

2006 against the Los Angeles Dodgers – Mets won 3 games to 0

 

Seven National League Championship Series were played at Shea Stadium.

 

1969 against the Atlanta Braves – Mets won 3 games to 0

1973 against the Cincinnati Reds – Mets won 3 games to 2

1986 against the Houston Astros – Mets won 4 games to 2

1988 against the Los Angeles Dodgers – Dodgers won 4 games to 3

1999 against the Atlanta Braves – Braves won 4 games to 2

2000 against the St. Louis Cardinals – Mets won 4 games to 1

2006 against the St. Louis Cardinals – Cardinals won 4 games to 3[3]

 

^ The decisive seventh game of this series was played at Shea Stadium, marking the only time that the Mets ever lost the deciding game of a National League Championship Series at Shea.

 

Four World Series were played in Shea Stadium.

 

1969 against the Baltimore Orioles – Mets won 4 games to 1

1973 against the Oakland Athletics – A's won 4 games to 3

1986 against the Boston Red Sox – Mets won 4 games to 3

2000 against the New York Yankees – Yankees won 4 games to 1

 

The Yankees' World Series win in 2000 was the only time that visiting teams won a World Series at Shea Stadium. The Mets won both their World Series titles at Shea Stadium (in Game 5 in 1969, and Game 7 in 1986).

Shea Stadium prior to the start of a New York Mets game in 2008. Shea had the best attendance in the National League that year, averaging over 51,000 fans per game.

 

The New York Yankees played their home games in Shea Stadium during the 1974 and 1975 seasons while Yankee Stadium was being renovated. The move to Shea had been proposed earlier in the decade, but the Mets, as Shea's primary tenants, refused to sign off on the deal. However, when the city stepped in to pay for renovating Yankee Stadium, the Mets had little choice but to agree to share Shea with the Yankees.[citation needed]

 

On the afternoon of April 15, 1998, the Yankees also played one home game at Shea, against the Anaheim Angels after a beam collapsed at Yankee Stadium two days before, destroying several rows of seats.[29][30] With the Mets playing a game at Shea that evening against the Chicago Cubs, the Yankees used the visitor's locker room and dugout and the Angels used the home dugout and old locker room of the New York Jets.[31] Former Mets star Darryl Strawberry, then playing for the Yankees, hit a home run during the game. Stadium operators partially raised the Mets' home run apple signal before lowering it back down, to the delight of the crowd.[32]

 

Shea Stadium also hosted the first extra-inning regular season baseball opener ever played in New York, on March 31, 1998,[33] when the Mets opened their season against their rival Philadelphia Phillies, playing the longest scoreless opening day game in the National League and the longest one in Major League Baseball since 1926.[34][35] The Mets won the game 1–0 in the bottom of the 14th inning.[35]

 

During the 1977 New York City blackout the stadium was plunged into darkness at approximately 9:30 p.m. during a game between the Mets and the Chicago Cubs. It occurred during the bottom of the sixth inning, with the Mets losing 2–1 and Lenny Randle at bat. Jane Jarvis, Shea's organist (affectionately known as Shea's "Queen of Melody") played "Jingle Bells" and "White Christmas".[36] The game was eventually completed on September 16, with the Cubs winning 5–2.[37]

Football

 

The New York Jets of the American Football League and later, the National Football League played at Shea for 20 seasons, from 1964 to 1983 (excluding their first home game in 1977 played at Giants Stadium). The stadium hosted three Jets playoff games: the American Football League Championship in 1968 (beat the Oakland Raiders, 27–23), an AFL Divisional Playoff in 1969 (lost 13–6 to the Kansas City Chiefs) and the 1981 AFC Wild Card Playoff game (lost 31–27 to the Buffalo Bills).

 

For most of the Jets' tenure at Shea, they were burdened by onerous lease terms imposed at the insistence of the Mets. Until 1978, the Jets could not play their first home game until the Mets' season was finished. For instance, in 1969, the defending Super Bowl champion Jets didn't play a home game until October 20 due to the Mets advancing to (and winning) the World Series. As a result, the 1969 Jets opened with five consecutive road games, and then played all seven home games in consecutive weeks before closing with two road games. Even after 1978, the Mets' status as Shea's primary tenants would require the Jets to go on long road trips (switching Shea from baseball to football configuration was a complex process involving electrical, plumbing, field and other similar work). The stadium was also not well maintained in the 1970s. The Jets moved to Giants Stadium for the 1984 season, enticed by the more than 15,000 additional seats there. Fans ripped apart Shea after the last game of the 1983 season, which also was the last game for Pro Football Hall of Fame quarterback Terry Bradshaw, who threw two touchdown passes to lead the Pittsburgh Steelers to a 34–7 victory.[38] Even the scoreboard operator had a field day, displaying the home team as the "N.J. Jets".[39]

O.J. Simpson pictured breaking the NFL's single-season rushing record at Shea Stadium.

 

It was at Shea Stadium on December 16, 1973 that O.J. Simpson became the first running back to gain 2,000 yards in a single season[40] (and, to date, the only player to do it in 14 games or fewer). In the 1983 season, a Jets game against the Los Angeles Rams featured an 85-yard touchdown run by rookie Eric Dickerson, as well as a brawl between Rams offensive tackle Jackie Slater and Jets defensive end Mark Gastineau when Slater blindsided Gastineau after the Jet performed his infamous "Sack Dance" over fallen Rams quarterback Vince Ferragamo.

 

The NFL's New York Giants played their 1975 season at Shea while Giants Stadium was being built. The Giants were 5–9 that year (2–5 at Shea). Their coach was Bill Arnsparger and their quarterback was Craig Morton. The Giants played their final five home games of 1973 and all seven in 1974 at the Yale Bowl in New Haven, Connecticut after Yankee Stadium was closed on October 1, 1973 for a massive rebuilding, which was completed in time for the 1976 baseball season.

 

On the night of October 9, 1965, Shea Stadium hosted the football rivalry between Army and Notre Dame for the first and only time. The Fighting Irish blanked the Cadets, 17-0, beginning a 15-game winning streak for Notre Dame in the storied series.

 

The football field at Shea extended from around home plate to centerfield, with the baseline seating rotating out to fill left and right fields.

Soccer

 

The first soccer game at Shea Stadium occurred during International Soccer League tournament play on June 17, 1965.[41] New York United of the American Soccer League called Shea home in 1980.[42]

Other events

 

On Sunday, August 15, 1965, the Beatles opened their 1965 North American tour there to a record audience of 55,600.[43] "Beatlemania" was at one of its peaks at their Shea concert. Film footage shows many teenagers and women crying, screaming, and even fainting. The crowd noise was such that security guards can be seen covering their ears as the Beatles entered the field. The sound of the crowd was so deafening that none of the Beatles (or anyone else) could hear what they were playing. Nevertheless, it was the first concert to be held at a major stadium and set records for attendance and revenue generation, demonstrating that outdoor concerts on a large scale could be successful and profitable, and led the Beatles to return to Shea for a successful encore on August 23, 1966. In the television serial drama, Mad Men, the main character, Don Draper, has his secretary buy a pair of tickets for the Beatles' concert at Shea Stadium in 1965.[44] The attendance record stood until 1973 when it was broken by Led Zeppelin with 56,800 fans at Tampa Stadium.[45]

 

The next major music event to play Shea Stadium after the Beatles successful appearances was the Summer Festival for Peace on August 6, 1970.[36] It was a day-long fundraiser, which featured many of the era's biggest selling and seminal rock, folk, blues and jazz performers including: Janis Joplin, Paul Simon, Creedence Clearwater Revival, Steppenwolf, The James Gang, Miles Davis, Tom Paxton, John Sebastian, and others.

 

The next music show at Shea Stadium was the historic 1971 concert by Grand Funk Railroad in 1971, which broke the Beatles' then-record for fastest ticket sales. Humble Pie was the opening band. The same filmmakers for the documentary of the Rolling Stones concert at Altamont were commissioned to film it, but to date, a final film has not been released.

 

The stadium hosted numerous concerts since then, including Jethro Tull with opening act Robin Trower in July 1976 (billed as Tull v. Boeing because of the proximity to LaGuardia Airport), The Who with opening act The Clash in October 1982, and Simon & Garfunkel in August 1983. On August 18, 1983, The Police played in front of 70,000 fans at Shea, a concert that the band's singer and bassist Sting described as "like playing the top of Everest", and announced near the end of the concert: "We'd like to thank the Beatles for lending us their stadium."[46] The Rolling Stones performed at Shea for a six-night run in October 1989, and Elton John & Eric Clapton played a concert in August 1992. Bruce Springsteen and the E Street Band performed at Shea in early October 2003.[36]

 

The last concert event was a two-night engagement by Billy Joel on July 16 and July 18, 2008. The concert was dubbed The Last Play at Shea, and featured many special guest appearances, including former Beatle Paul McCartney who closed the second show with an emotional rendition of the Beatles classic "Let It Be". Other artists that joined Joel on stage for the shows were former Shea performer Roger Daltrey of The Who, Tony Bennett, Don Henley, John Mayer, John Mellencamp, Garth Brooks, and Steven Tyler of Aerosmith. The concert was the subject of a documentary film of the same name, which is used along with Shea's history to tell the story of changes in American suburban life.[47]

 

The 1978 International Convention of Jehovah's Witnesses was held at Shea Stadium from July 12 to July 16, 1978.[36]

 

Shea Stadium was parodied as "Che Stadium" for The Rutles film All You Need is Cash for a sequence that spoofed the Beatles' concert at the stadium.

 

During his tour of America in October 1979, Pope John Paul II was also among those hosted by Shea Stadium.[48] On the morning of the Pontiff's visit, Shea Stadium was awash in torrential rain, causing ankle-deep mud puddles, and threatened to ruin the event. But as the Popemobile entered the stadium, the rain stopped although the deep mud remained.

 

On December 9, 1979, as part of the halftime show of a National Football League game between the New York Jets and New England Patriots, a model airplane group put on a remote control airplane display. The grand finale was a remote control airplane, weighing 40 lbs, made to look like a red flying lawnmower. The pilot lost control of the airplane, and it crashed into the stands and hit John Bowen of Nashua, New Hampshire. Bowen died six days later.[49]

 

Between 1972 and 1980, Shea also hosted 3 wrestling events held by the then World Wrestling Federation. In 1980, it hosted a simulcast of the first fight between Roberto Duran and Sugar Ray Leonard, won by Duran.

 

In 1987, Marvel Comics rented Shea Stadium to re-enact the wedding of Spider-Man/Peter Parker and Mary Jane Watson.[50]

 

Recently on VH1's documentary series 7 Ages of Rock, Shea Stadium was named the most hallowed venue in all of rock music.

 

In Godzilla: The Series the stadium was destroyed in a fight between Godzilla and Crackler.

 

Shea Stadium was used in the 1970s for filming the 1973 movie Bang The Drum Slowly starring Robert De Niro and Michael Moriarty and the 1978 film The Wiz. In the latter film, the exterior pedestrian ramps were used for a motorcycle chase scene with Michael Jackson & Diana Ross.

 

In Men in Black, a Mets game at Shea was featured in the film, with outfielder Bernard Gilkey dropping a fly ball after being distracted by an alien spacecraft in the sky. Shea was also featured in Men in Black 3 which is where K and J intercept Griffin and the ArcNet in 1969 before Boris the Animal can capture it.

 

In the aftermath of the September 11 attacks, the stadium became a staging area for rescuers, its parking lots filled with food, water, medical supplies, even makeshift shelters where relief workers could sleep. Ten days later Shea reopened for the first post-attack sporting event in New York where the Mets beat the Braves, behind a dramatic home run by Mets catcher Mike Piazza.[51]

1975: Four teams, one stadium

 

The Mets, Yankees, Jets and Giants all called Shea home in 1975, the only time in professional sports history that two baseball teams and two football teams shared the same facility in the same year.[4] As Yankee Stadium was being renovated and Giants Stadium was nearing completion, there were scheduling clashes between the New York teams in baseball from April through September and both football teams from October through December. Even though Shibe Park housed the Phillies, A's, and Eagles collectively from 1940 to 1954 (excluding 1941), the 1975 sports calendar in Shea Stadium was unrivaled. The Jets and also the Giants could not play "home" games at Shea Stadium until the baseball season ended for the main tenant Mets and the temporary incumbent Yankees. In 1975, there was only a two-week overlap between the baseball and football seasons (the NFL season started on Sunday, September 21 that year, and the Major League Baseball season ended on Sunday, September 28). This meant the Jets opened at home on Sunday, October 5, the third week of the season, and the Giants on Sunday, October 12, the season's fourth week. It also meant that the Giants and Jets had to play a combined 14 home games in the final 12 weeks of the 14-week NFL season. To do so, the Giants played two Saturday afternoon home games, neither of which were televised, and both of which were played the day before a Jets' Sunday home game. Either the Jets or the Giants had a Sunday home game every weekend from October 5 through December 21.[52]

 

The Mets attracted 1,730,566 and the Yankees attracted 1,288,048 to their respective home games at Shea. Having both the Giants and Jets share Shea Stadium for one season foreshadowed what was to come in the future with the Meadowlands (a.k.a. Giants Stadium) after the Jets left Flushing Meadows for New Jersey following the 1983 NFL season.

Features

Design

 

Shea was a circular stadium, with the grandstand forming about two-thirds of a circle around the field and ending a short distance beyond the foul lines. The remainder of the perimeter was mostly empty space beyond the outfield fences. This space was occupied by the bullpens, scoreboards, and a section of bleachers beyond the left field fence. The stadium boasted 54 restrooms, 21 escalators, seats for 57,343 fans, and a massive 86' x 175' scoreboard. Also, rather than the standard light towers, Shea featured lamps along its upper reaches. Some deemed Shea a showplace, praised for its convenience, even its "elegance".[51]

 

The stadium was located close to LaGuardia Airport. For many years, interruptions for planes flying overhead were common at Shea, and the noise was so loud that radio and television broadcasts couldn't be heard. Later, flight plans were altered to alleviate the noise problem.

 

Shea was originally designed with two motor-operated stands that allow the field level seats to rotate on underground tracks, allowing the stadium to be converted between a baseball and an American football/soccer configuration. After the New York Jets football team moved to Giants Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey in 1984, the Mets took over operation of the stadium and retrofitted it for exclusive baseball use. As part of the refitting, Shea Stadium's exterior was painted blue and neon signs of baseball player silhouettes were added to the windscreens prior to the 1988 season. The original scoreboard was removed, and a new one installed in its place (fitting into the shell left behind by the old one), in 1988. The original (wooden) outfield wall was removed also removed at that time, and replaced by a padded fence.[4]

 

Banks of ramps that provided access from the ground to the upper levels were built around the outside circumference of the stadium. The ramps were not walled in and were visible from outside the stadium. The ramps were originally partly covered with many rectangular panels in blue and orange, the Mets' colors. These panels can be seen in the 1970s movie The Wiz, which used the exterior pedestrian ramps for a motorcycle chase scene with Michael Jackson and Diana Ross. The 1960s-style decorations were removed in 1980.[4] The banks of ramps resulted in the outer wall of the stadium jutting out where the banks existed.

 

The design also allowed for Shea Stadium to be expandable to 90,000 seats, simply by completely enclosing the grandstand. It was also designed to be later enclosed by a dome if warranted. In March 1965, a plan was formally announced to add a glass dome and add 15,000 seats.[23][53] The Mets strongly objected to the proposal.[54] The idea was later dropped after engineering studies concluded that the stadium's foundation would be unable to support the weight of the dome.[23]

 

The distances to the right and left field foul poles were initially both 341 feet (104 m). There was a horizontal orange line that determined where a batted ball was a home run or still in play. In 1978, Manager Joe Torre suggested moving in the fences to 338 feet (103 m) in the corners with a wall in front of the original brick wall, to decrease the number of disputed calls.[55]

 

Originally, all of the seats were wooden, with each level having a different color. The field boxes were yellow, the loge level seats were brown, the mezzanine seats were blue, and the upper deck seats were green. Each level above the field level was divided into box seats below the entrance/exit portals and reserved seats above the portals. The box seats were a darker shade than the reserved seats. The game ticket was the same color as the seat that it represented, and the signs in the lobby for that section were the same color as the seat and the ticket. Before the 1980 baseball season, they were replaced with red (upper deck), green (mezzanine), blue (loge), and orange (field level) plastic seats.

Shea Stadium from the air, 2005. Citi Field was later built in the parking area to the right (east) of the stadium.

 

Unlike Yankee Stadium, Shea was built on an open field, so there was no need to have it conform to the surrounding streets.

 

Before Shea Stadium closed in 2008, it was the only stadium in the major leagues with orange foul poles. This tradition is carried on at Citi Field as the foul poles there are the same color.

 

After the Jets left Shea, the exterior of the stadium was painted blue and white, two of the Mets' team colors.

 

In 2003, large murals celebrating the Mets' two world championships were added, covering the two ends of the grandstand. The 1986 mural was removed after the 2006 season because of deterioration (the wall was re-painted solid blue, and a window was opened on the mezzanine level where fans could view the progress of Citi Field), but the 1969 mural survived until the final game at the end of 2008.

 

The scoreboard was topped by a representation of the New York Skyline, a prominent part of the team logo. After the September 11 terrorist attacks, the Twin Towers of the World Trade Center were kept unlit, with a red-white-and-blue ribbon placed over them. The scoreboard was demolished in October 2008, but the skyline was preserved and is now located on the Shake Shack in Citi Field's "Taste Of The City" food court behind the giant scoreboard in center field.[56]

 

During the 2007 and 2008 seasons, the construction of Citi Field was visible beyond the left and center field walls of Shea.

 

From 1973 to 1979, fans could estimate the distance of home run balls, since there were several signs beyond the outfield wall giving the distance in feet from home plate, in addition to the nine markers within the field.[4]

Home Run Apple

 

The Home Run Apple came out of a magic hat after every Mets home run at Shea Stadium. It was first installed in May 1980 as a symbol of the Mets' advertising slogan "The Magic Is Back!" (the hat originally said "Mets Magic" in script but was changed in the mid-1980s to a simple "Home Run" in block capital letters).[57] A bigger apple was placed in center field at Citi Field. The original apple was installed inside Citi Field's bullpen gate and was visible from outside, on 126th Street. In 2010, the original Shea apple was relocated outside the Citi Field, in front of the Jackie Robinson Rotunda.[58]

Seating capacity

Baseball Years Capacity

1964–1984 55,300[59]

1985–1993 55,601[60]

1994–2001 55,777[61]

2002–2003 56,749[62]

2004 57,405[63]

2005 57,369[64]

2006–2008 57,333[65]

 

Football Years Capacity

1964–1983 60,372[66]

 

Homages

 

Four players in the National League named their children after Shea Stadium.[67]

 

Former Atlanta Braves third baseman Chipper Jones named his second son Shea after Jones' success in Shea Stadium against the Mets; he hit 19 home runs there, more than any other road park.[67]

Former Cincinnati Reds shortstop Barry Larkin named his eldest daughter Brielle D'Shea, as he enjoyed playing at Shea Stadium.[67]

Former Houston Astros third baseman Gary Cooper named his youngest daughter Shea after Shea Stadium. He also named his son Camden after Camden Yards in Baltimore.

Current New York Mets third baseman David Wright named his first daughter Olivia Shea. Wright began his career playing everyday in Shea Stadium for the Mets.

 

Actor Kevin James, who is a devoted Mets fan named his youngest daughter, Shea Joelle after the ballpark.[68]

The original Popemobile? I had read about and seen pictures of this car, but this was the first time I ever saw one in person. Very impressive, big car. The owner saw the attention I was paying to it and asked me if I wanted to hear it run. HELL YEAH! So he fired it up for me. Love the sounds. But, he wouldn't let me take it for a spin. No biggie, I don't blame him. It was enough to see it and hear that marvelous engine. San Jose Antique Auto Show at History Park, San Jose, California.

Looked this up and this was the Popes car when Pope Francis he came to Visit!! it was then donated to Foyle Search and Rescue.

It's a Small World!

 

A selection of my new work is now available to buy directly via my online shop:

 

www.davidgilliver.com/photography/shop/

 

Thanks for looking.

David

Roadblocks forced me to take an eight-block detour to get to an appointment on the other side of M Street, and by the time I crossed the bridge over the parkway, there he was.

Pope Francis tours central Dublin

 

Along the Pavement

 

Dame Street - Dublin - Ireland

Pope Francis tours central Dublin

 

Along the Pavement

 

Dame Street - Dublin - Ireland

Dublin city centre during the papal visit

 

The black ball-shaped object is a gimballed HDTV camera (shooting live) clamped to a vehicle ahead of the pontiff's Popemobile.

 

Along the Pavement

 

Dame Street - Dublin - Ireland

Vendor sells wooden crosses carved with prayers.

 

Don't miss the album Pope Francis in DC. Like!

 

Coachwork by Carrozzeria Lombardi

 

This one-off "Woodie" based on the Lancia Aprilia was built by the Carrozzeria Francis Lombardi, founded in 1947 by pilot Carlo "Francis" Lombardi as aeronautical designers : car production started in 1947. Noted for having built a glass-roofed "Popemobile" for Pope John-Paul VI in 1963, Carrozzeria Francis Lombardi, which built cars mostly based on Fiat mechanical, survived until 1973, Lombardi died 0 years later. This particular car was built fro Graaf Aluffi, a viticulturalist from Siena.

 

Class XI : Little Gems

 

Zoute Concours d'Elegance

The Royal Zoute Golf Club

 

Zoute Grand Prix 2017

Knokke - Zoute

België - Belgium

October 2017

i would like to end this series by going back to the Vatican City during our Papal Audience vist at St. Peter's Square...we were able to go early that morning and got front row seats in the square and had to wait for 2 hours for the Pope's scheduled mass at the square...the place was packed with pilgrims and visitors from all over the world and when the Pope, riding on the Popemobile showed, there was this really loud celebratory and joyous cheer that erupted in the square...some were crying, some laughed, some were screaming, some waved, some were singing to the Pope...it was a totally fulfilling experience to see him this close...i just got up on my chair and started calling him and waving, yelling Hi Pope! Hi Pope! Hi Pope!!!!...i don't know why those words came out but that was what i was yelling...and i was shooting that camera non stop at the same time...it was for us both one of the highlights of this wonderful trip...hope you guys enjoyed the miniscule amount of images that i've shared with you...i would definitely be posting some more in the future but this would be the last in this series for now...GRAZIE!!!!!

 

Pls View On White and receive the blessings of our Pope!!!

Pope Francis tours central Dublin

 

The Pope is a controversial figure. Several protests took place in Dublin during the pontiff's Saturday itinerary. The #stand4truth event was held at Dublin's Garden of Remembrance on the following Sunday.

 

www.irishtimes.com/news/social-affairs/papal-visit-to-ire...

 

Along the Pavement

 

Dame Street - Dublin - Ireland

During a tour of St. Peters Basilica and Vatican City, in May 1999, my son, Brian, attended a weekly, outdoor Mass by Pope John Paul II.

 

As John Paul circled the crowd in the "Popemobile", he past just feet from Brain.

 

The photo was not taken with a zoom lens!

Mercedes-Benz 230 GE - Papamobile of John Paul II

Spectating the London to Brighton Veteran Car Run

Horley, Surrey

5th November 2017

Coachwork by Carrozzeria Lombardi

 

This one-off "Woodie" based on the Lancia Aprilia was built by the Carrozzeria Francis Lombardi, founded in 1947 by pilot Carlo "Francis" Lombardi as aeronautical designers : car production started in 1947. Noted for having built a glass-roofed "Popemobile" for Pope John-Paul VI in 1963, Carrozzeria Francis Lombardi, which built cars mostly based on Fiat mechanical, survived until 1973, Lombardi died 0 years later. This particular car was built fro Graaf Aluffi, a viticulturalist from Siena.

 

Class XI : Little Gems

 

Zoute Concours d'Elegance

The Royal Zoute Golf Club

 

Zoute Grand Prix 2017

Knokke - Zoute

België - Belgium

October 2017

Leyland Popemobile (1982) Enginge Leyland 150bhp

Base Leyland Costructor

Leyland Set

www.flickr.com/photos/45676495@N05

  

A Popemobile is a specially designed vehicle used by His Holliness the Pope during outdoor public appearances.

 

Leyland actually built two identical vehicles for the Pope John Paul II 1982 five day Pastoral Visit to the UK. The Popemobile was purpose built by Leyland Trucks, and designed by Ogle Design of Letchworth. Built to a tight timescale over a period of six weeks by a dedicated team working on a 24 hour shift pattern.

Based on a Leyland Constructor chosen for its off road capabilities and for its acceleration in case of emergency. The vehicles weighed 24 tons, and have bullet proof glass and under floor armour with a body of low ballistic material to repel any danger from small arms fire.. The cost of the project remains unknown.

 

During the Holy Fathers visit, the Special branch were for the vehicles operation, but they were tranported between venues by Leyland staff.

 

This is by far the best preserved of the two vehicles and is housed at the British Commercial Vehicle Museum, the second vehicle was sold at auction by its private owner in 2006 for £ 37,000 and had a very checkered history, travelling to Africa, and being sold and resold, and repaired.

 

During the Pontif 1982 visit he held five large open masses in London, Coventry, Manchester, Glasgow and Cardiff. Pope John Paul II died in April 2005 aged 84 and has subsequently been declared a Saint.

 

Many Thanks for a fan'dabi'dozi 26,505,300 views

 

Shot 30:06:2014 At the Commercial Motor Museum, Leyland Lancashire 102-837

   

Had to hold this way over my head so could not see what I was doing, but zone focus worked well.

With a wooden model of the Lancia Thesis Giubileo given to Pope John-Paul II in 1999. And a model of an Popemobile he used during one of his many trips.

O'Connell Street

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