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(B. Wagemakers, 17 June 2009) The pool of L.48/L49 nowadays. In comparison with photo 8 one can see that the layer of plaster has been much damaged.

(P. Pennarts, 31 December 1953) A Bedouin man is posing in pool L.48/49, and note channel on right. This picture has been taken a few seconds after Leo Boer took photo 1; see Humbert and Chambon 1994: Fig. 161-165 and www1.ku-eichstaett.de/KTF/qumran/bilder/loc48so.jpg. This pool shows evidence of earthquake damage; de Vaux believed that the earthquake was that of 31 BCE, meaning that it was not used in Periods II and III.

(B. Wagemakers, 17 June 2009) The spot where Jan Glissenaar and the shepherd were talking in 1953 (photo 6). The most striking differences are the presence of a visitor centre and palm trees at the entrance of the National Park.

(P. Pennarts, 31 December 1953) Photo looking to the west from the aqueduct. Journalist Jan Glissenaar is talking to a shepherd at the aqueduct located between the hills and the ruins (Humbert and Chambon 1994: Fig. 402 – aqueduct at the left – and 411). They are pointing to the settlement. The black ‘spot’ at the right of the south-west corner of the ruins (L.1) is Leo Boer. The wall between L.10 and L.11 is visible in the tower.

(P. Pennarts, 31 December 1953) This picture is taken from the north-west corner of L.18 and shows the southern part of L.18, L. 25, L.24 and L.22, through to a glimpse of L.22, with L. 37 to the left, and L.33 and L.35 behind. The photo most clearly relates to Periods II and III, see Humbert and Chambon 1994: Fig. 42, 44, 45-50.

(L. Boer, 26 March 1954) The man with the beret – see also photo 22 and 48 – standing outside the lower opening of cave 1Q. An additional entrance had been created below the small top opening.

(L. Boer, 26 March 1954) Three persons – probably students of the Ecole Biblique – posing around cave 1Q. The man in front of the cave is also portrayed in photo 40, standing in the middle and looking at de Vaux. The man lying in the cave above is posing again at photos 22 and 49. The third man is standing inside the cave behind the first man and can be seen at photo 22 in the middle.

(B. Wagemakers, 17 June 2009) Sight of Qumran, the Dead Sea, and the mountains of TransJordan in 2009. When you compare it with photo 46 it becomes clear that the north-western area of the settlement has been excavated later than 1954.

(L. Boer, 26 March 1954) View to the east of the tower of Qumran, the Dead Sea, and the mountains of TransJordan. Compare with Humbert and Chambon 1994: Fig. 6.

(L. Boer, 25 March 1954) Tea break. From right to left: Roland de Vaux; Józef Tadeusz Milik; Ernest-Marie Laperrousaz (?); a student possibly named L. Sirand, unknown (also portrayed on photos 22 and 48) and Leo Boer;

(L. Boer, 25 March 1954) Pay-day. De Vaux is sitting in front of a tent paying a local worker. Presumably the recipient is signing for receipt.

(B. Wagemakers, 17 June 2009) The open courtyard of L.96 in 2009.

(L. Boer, 25 March 1954) De Vaux and a colleague are surveying L.96 (compare with photograph 40). In his Field Notes de Vaux would write that day: “We found traces of a western wall up to a turn towards the east. Then, further north, upon an east west wall exactly in the line of the north wall of locus 97. It is poorly preserved. All of locus 96 was an open courtyard.” View towards the south-east.

(B. Wagemakers, 17 June 2009) L.96 and 91 nowadays.

(B. Wagemakers, 17 June 2009) The tower in 2009; the breach has been filled by a stairway, which was not yet the case in www1.ku-eichstaett.de/KTF/qumran/bilder/loc140.jpg.

(L. Boer, 25 March 1954) Roland de Vaux, accompanied by two students of the Ecole Biblique, is surveying at L.96. Number 96 can be read on the light coloured rock on the left of de Vaux’s instrument. The men are standing next to the cistern (L.91) that was being excavated that week. Behind the cistern, the tents, the Dead Sea, and the mountains of TransJordan are visible.

(L. Boer, 23 March 1954) The place to sleep for the Bedouin men during the excavation. Presumably, the men are working on the same spot as them at photo 32, in Trenches A and B

(L. Boer, 22 March 1954) This photo has been given the title ‘Dead Sea, direction Transjordan’. Here the presence of rails for transporting material is shown. For rails at Qumran see also Humbert and Chambon 1994: Fig. 10. The tent may be the most southern of those indicated in the northern encampment in Humbert and Chambon 1994, Fig. 5.

(L. Boer, 22 March 1954) In his diary Boer gives this picture the title ‘Dead Sea, direction Jericho’. Part of a tent flap on the left and a tent rope on the right indicate this is where Boer camped. The photo gives the illusion that it is flat land at the foot of Qumran but there is a route up to the site from below, which has been edged with stone markers to guide visitors. The curve in the shore of the Dead Sea is beautifully photographed along with excavation tents in Humbert and Chambon 1994: Fig. 5

(B. Wagemakers, 17 June 2009) The plateau and the ravine of Qumran.

(L. Boer, 21 March 1954) Throwing away debris coming from inter alia L.91 en 93 (see caption photo 26) down the ravine.

(L. Boer, 21 March 1954) Throwing away debris coming from inter alia L.91 en 93 (see caption photo 26) down the ravine.

(L. Boer, 21 March 1954) A view to the north from the areas of Trench A and B, located to the north of the site (see location on Humbert and Chambon 1994, Fig. II).

(B. Wagemakers, 17 June 2009) A view of L.54 and 54 in 2009.

(P. Pennarts, 31 December 1953) The north-side of the tower, L.9 and 10, and in front of the tower L. 134 (on right) and L.152 (on left). De Vaux took an identical picture about seven months earlier than Pennarts’ (Humbert and Chambon 1994: Fig. 12; see also www1.ku-eichstaett.de/KTF/qumran/bilder/loc140.jpg).

(L. Boer, 21 March 1954) The Bedouin man is working in L.54-55. Behind the worker there is a column and, far left, a hill of sand. From a comparison of this picture with Humbert and Chambon 1994: Fig. 303 it follows that this man is working in the surroundings of L.54. The descending row of rocks next to his left leg can be spotted on Humbert and Chambon 1994: Fig. 184 and 185. Now it is obvious he is standing on the border of L.54-55, working in the level of Period III. The long wall of the plateau is visible behind.

(L. Boer, 21 March 1954) The man would appear to be sitting in L.6 – as this number is written on the plaster to the right of his face – located on the north-east side of the settlement. However, the visible remains and also the wall behind do not match this location at all. Instead, this locus seems to be the northern end of L.30, after the wall that separated L.17 has been removed (a year earlier).

(B. Wagemakers, 17 June 2009) L.91 in 2009

(L. Boer, 21 March 1954) The pool of L.91 during its excavation 9 (see photo 18). The photo has been taken from the western edge of L.91 in a south-eastern direction (compare with photo 40) to the southern edge of the pool and to the wall running east-west that bounds L.92 and 88, and adjoins L.89. Number 91 is written on a stone above the man with black hair on the left side of the picture. In the centre men are carrying debris out of the locus. The men behind L.91 are carrying debris in baskets, coming to and from L.93. The debris is going to be thrown into the ravine to the south-east of L.91 (see photos 34 and 35 that were taken on the same day as this picture). This pool was located on 18 March and excavated from 20 till 29 March. Compare with Humbert and Chambon 1994: Fig. 302 and

www1.ku-eichstaett.de/KTF/qumran/bilder/loc91s.jpg.

 

(B. Wagemakers, 17 June 2009) The eastern wall of L.86 in 2009. The layer of plaster on the wall has vanished.

(L. Boer, 21 March 1954) A Bedouin man is posing while he is exposing wooden remains which lie against the eastern wall of L.86. At the same time others next to him are uncovering wooden remains in front of a block (photo 22). In his Field Notes de Vaux wrote a day after Boer took this picture: "Upon this floor in locus 86 were remnants of charred beams". The mass of wood in situ – carbonised palm logs – contains pieces of plaster. The palm logs could be the remains of a cupboard, as suggested by Bart Wagemakers and Joan E. Taylor, ‘New Photographs of the Qumran Excavations from 1954 and Interpretations of L.77 and L.86’, Palestine Exploration Quarterly vol. 143 no. 2 (July 2011). See Humbert and Chambon 1994: Fig. 331.

(B. Wagemakers, 17 June 2009) The block of L.86 on this picture is seriously damaged when compared with its condition in photo 22. It is clear that this block, after its restoration in 1954, has been restored again after October 1960 (http://www1.ku-eichstaett.de/KTF/qumran/bilder/loc86so.jpg). However, both the stone marker as well as the steps seem to have withstood the ravages of time.

(L. Boer, 21 March 1954) View from L.86 to the north. Two students of the Ecole Biblique are laying bare wooden remains in front of a block in L.86-87, 89, known as the ‘pantry’. The close-up recording of the block’s condition before its restoration during the excavation campaign of 1954 is unique (cf. Humbert and Chambon 1994: Fig. 331, 336, and 338). Against the eastern wall a Bedouin man – seen from behind – is also uncovering wooden remnants, as photo 24 shows. Behind the door opening the round stone marker of L.77 is visible (cf. Humbert and Chambon 1994: Fig. 328) followed by a few steps up from L.77 to L.79. About the function of this room, see Bart Wagemakers and Joan E. Taylor, ‘New Photographs of the Qumran Excavations from 1954 and Interpretations of L.77 and L.86’, Palestine Exploration Quarterly vol. 143 no. 2 (July 2011)

(B. Wagemakers, 17 June 2009) The site seen from L.90, now with palm trees.

(L. Boer, 21 March 1954) The photograph is taken in L.94, with the reinforcement wall of L.90 (the back of L.89) on the right. The view is looking north over L.92, L.88 and L.81, towards the tower. When this picture is compared with Fig. 347 (Humbert and Chambon 1994; taken in 1992) we can notice that in Boer's photo the first wall in sight is covered with exterior cobb. In 1992 this has vanished.

(B. Wagemakers, 17 June 2009) Picture is taken from almost the same spot as number 1, fifty-six years later. At the back of the ruins a modern gangway is visible.

(B. Wagemakers, 26 January 2011) Picture is taken from the same spot as number 18.

(L. Boer, 21 March 1954) This picture is taken from L.89 (as in Period II, written on the wall) to the west. It looks over the top of a basin on the exterior western wall of this locus to where men are excavating pool L.91 and walking in L.96 to tip out their baskets into the ravine. This picture shows the very large number of workmen employed by de Vaux, enabling extremely rapid excavation of areas of the site.

(L. Boer, 21 March 1954) A Bedouin man uncovering a vessel. The Field Notes of de Vaux (Humbert and Chambon 1994: 320-321) make clear that there was activity at L.91, 93, and 94 that day. The artefact in the picture is therefore most likely the ‘cylindrical vessel’ (1627) of L.91.

(L. Boer, 31 December 1953) This photograph was taken after Leo Boer entered cave 4Qa (photo 15). This is the southern window of cave 4Qa, which looks out on a ledge. The western side of this ledge protrudes to the right. The view is to the south-east, and the dirt road to Feshkha, where a building can be seen. Compare with Humbert and Chambon 1994: Fig. 427.

(P. Pennarts, 31 December 1953) View looking west in Cave 4Qa. A Bedouin is helping Leo Boer to enter the cave. Today, this cave is not accessible to visitors. See Humbert and Chambon 1994: Fig. 429. The opening at the back of the cave in Fig. 429 was still filled with rocks in 1953.

(B. Wagemakers, 17 June 2009) Cave 4Q.

(P. Pennarts, 31 December 1953) Cave 4Qa and b from the same location. In contrast with today this cave complex was accessible to visitors in the 1950s, as is shown in photo 15.

(B. Wagemakers, 17 June 2009) Wadi Qumran in 2009.

(P. Pennarts, 31 December 1953) Wadi Qumran with the jeep of the travelling party Jeep Express in the centre. The duo – Peter Pennarts (photographer) and Jan Glissenaar (journalist) – travelled seventeen months across the Middle East in this jeep. From 28 December 1953 till 26 January 1954 they visited Israel . The view is looking west along the wadi to the dirt road towards Ain Feshkha through the region de Vaux calls Irnah, and the western side of the Dead Sea . The photo is taken from a small promontory into the wadi to the west of caves 4Qa and b, 5 and 10.

(P. Pennarts, 31 December 1953) The same Bedouin is showing Leo Boer (left) and Jan Glissenaar (right) the mouth of a jar buried in the rubble. Exact location is unknown.

(L. Boer, 31 December 1953) The photograph has been taken from the north-west corner of L.41/L.38 (standing on the wall), as can be concluded from the number on the rock in the wall in front, looking south towards the doorway, with the north-east corner of L.25 on the far right. It is looking over L.37 and the Period III wall separating L.24/25 and L.37. The photo also takes in the pool L.48/49, and L.50-53 at the back. The photo most clearly relates to Periods II and III. At the right side Peter Pennarts (standing on a high wall on the south of L.34) is taking a picture of a Bedouin man (see photograph 8) who has descended a few steps in the pool of L.48/49. Together with Dutch journalist Jan Glissenaar, Pennarts travelled seventeen months across the Middle East in a jeep (visible at the left of the ruins). The day this picture was taken they were shown around by Leo Boer. Compare with Humbert and Chambon 1994: Fig. 42, but their figure is incorrectly marked; www1.ku-eichstaett.de/KTF/qumran/bilder/loc37.jpg.