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Roman Aqueducts

Aqueducts of Antioch Pisidia are one of the most beautiful examples of water supply around. The emerged with the Roman Empire urban planning concept and form the basis for the water supply system seen in almost every ancient city in Anatolia.

 

Increasing water demand in the Roman Period due to the development and expansion of Antioch Pisidia was met by a 10km water supply system running from the water source 1465m above sea level along the north of the city. Water from the source was brough to the Nympheum with terra cotta and stone pipes sometimes through channels, sometimes tunnels, and sometimes through single or double-storer arches. When the level difference is compared with the distance, and average slope of 2.6% was used. As it is known, water would exert great pressure at this slope, gradually slowed flux pressure was taken under control with a 0.2% slope with it reached the siphon part at the end of the system which was composed of arches.

 

The height of the arches varies between 5m and 7m and the width reaches to 2.5m. The arch piers are 4m high and made of rectangular stone blocks. Keystones are sometimes monolithic and sometimes composed of several stones. Although the workmanship of semicircular raised arches varies, an integrity is seen throughout the building.

 

The span of the arch piers carrying the arches varies between 4.7m and 3.8m. The base, which the piers rest on, lies either over arches or foundations made of 2-3m high block stones depending on the condition of the land. 200m sections of the aqueduct is intact. The collapsed parts under the soil can be traced until the Nympheum. Trances of the channels (specs canalis) on the arches that carry water with drain holes with a diameter of 25m are seen among the fragments amid the ruins.

 

The aqueducts are dated to 1st century AD and they were built into the historical development of the city.

Augustus’ Temple

The temple is built on the sacred area that is located at the highest point of the city after Emperor Augustus and was dedicated to him. The foundation of the building is carved from natural rock. The temple rests on a 2.5m podium and is accessed from the west facade through a flight of stairs with twelve steps.

 

The podium of the temple measures 26m x 15m. The construction is a prostyles with four columns in front and Corinthian capitals are used. The ante of the pronaos are not in the form of a wall and there is a column at each side. The pronaos is 7.7m long. The cella measures 12m x 10.10m and is nearly a square in form. The thickness of the cella walls changes between 1.10m and 7.70m long. The cella wall encircled by a frieze of scrolled leafs. A garland frieze measuring 0.5m x 10m, which is supported with bucrania, lies over the three-fascia architrave resting on the columns. In the pediment, the gesso is plain; the sigma is decorated with palmetto motifs and in the central part, there is a window surrounded with egg and bead rows (epiphany). Between the scrolls of the apex acroterium Nike; on the sides acanthus leaves are depicted in the high relief.

 

Behind the temple, there is a two-story gallery formed by carving the natural rock in a semi-circular shape. Doric columns are used in the downstairs while Ionic columns are used in the upper floor. In front of the temple, an area named after the Emperor and measuring 63m x 85m is created. The foundations of the porticos taking place in the north and south of the area are approximately 5m wide and can be partially seen. The finds from the inscriptions and decorative works of the structure indicate that the construction activities continued in the period spanning from the times of the Roman Emperor Tiberius to the time of Claudius.

St. Paul Church (Great Basilica)

The building reflects all the elements of basilica plan and consists of three naves and a semicircular apse. The exterior surface of the apse is encircled with a hexagonal wall. The apse has a diameter of 10.8m and a depth of 9.2m. The central nave is operated from the narrow naves on the sides by two rows of columns each having 13 columns and these columns rest on hexagonal bases. The 27 x 13m narthex (entrance) on the west of the building, which measures 70 x 27m, lies in the east west direction and leans on the city walls.

 

The ground of the central navies composed of red, yellow, white and black tesserae and is covered with a mosaic decorated with geometric and floral motifs. The name of Archbishop Optimus, represented Antiochia in the Council of Constantinople in 381AD and one of the founders of Orthodoxy takes place in an inscription on the mosaic on front of the apse. This name forms a basis for dating the building construction to the 4th century AD. This date is the beginning date for the monumental churches in Anatolia. The Great Basilica of Antiocheia is on elf the two earliest examples of Early Christian churches. The church visible today is the 5th-6th century AD church, which was retired in the 4th century AD and placed on the 1st flood of the church of Optimus.

 

St. Paul, regarded as the most famous and efficient missionary of Early Christianity together with St. Pierre, had three visits to Antiocheia between the years 46-62 AD and preached in the synagogue under the foundation of the current church. He announced Christianity to the world from here. In his preaching in the synagogue on the Sabbath, he read texts from the Holy Law (Torah) and the writings of the prophets. This is considered as St. Paul’s first sermon as a missionary.

Augustus’ Temple

The temple is built on the sacred area that is located at the highest point of the city after Emperor Augustus and was dedicated to him. The foundation of the building is carved from natural rock. The temple rests on a 2.5m podium and is accessed from the west facade through a flight of stairs with twelve steps.

 

The podium of the temple measures 26m x 15m. The construction is a prostyles with four columns in front and Corinthian capitals are used. The ante of the pronaos are not in the form of a wall and there is a column at each side. The pronaos is 7.7m long. The cella measures 12m x 10.10m and is nearly a square in form. The thickness of the cella walls changes between 1.10m and 7.70m long. The cella wall encircled by a frieze of scrolled leafs. A garland frieze measuring 0.5m x 10m, which is supported with bucrania, lies over the three-fascia architrave resting on the columns. In the pediment, the gesso is plain; the sigma is decorated with palmetto motifs and in the central part, there is a window surrounded with egg and bead rows (epiphany). Between the scrolls of the apex acroterium Nike; on the sides acanthus leaves are depicted in the high relief.

 

Behind the temple, there is a two-story gallery formed by carving the natural rock in a semi-circular shape. Doric columns are used in the downstairs while Ionic columns are used in the upper floor. In front of the temple, an area named after the Emperor and measuring 63m x 85m is created. The foundations of the porticos taking place in the north and south of the area are approximately 5m wide and can be partially seen. The finds from the inscriptions and decorative works of the structure indicate that the construction activities continued in the period spanning from the times of the Roman Emperor Tiberius to the time of Claudius.

The area to the right was dug out of the side of a rock face in order to make Augustus' Temple flat. Augustus’ Temple

The temple is built on the sacred area that is located at the highest point of the city after Emperor Augustus and was dedicated to him. The foundation of the building is carved from natural rock. The temple rests on a 2.5m podium and is accessed from the west facade through a flight of stairs with twelve steps.

 

The podium of the temple measures 26m x 15m. The construction is a prostyles with four columns in front and Corinthian capitals are used. The ante of the pronaos are not in the form of a wall and there is a column at each side. The pronaos is 7.7m long. The cella measures 12m x 10.10m and is nearly a square in form. The thickness of the cella walls changes between 1.10m and 7.70m long. The cella wall encircled by a frieze of scrolled leafs. A garland frieze measuring 0.5m x 10m, which is supported with bucrania, lies over the three-fascia architrave resting on the columns. In the pediment, the gesso is plain; the sigma is decorated with palmetto motifs and in the central part, there is a window surrounded with egg and bead rows (epiphany). Between the scrolls of the apex acroterium Nike; on the sides acanthus leaves are depicted in the high relief.

 

Behind the temple, there is a two-story gallery formed by carving the natural rock in a semi-circular shape. Doric columns are used in the downstairs while Ionic columns are used in the upper floor. In front of the temple, an area named after the Emperor and measuring 63m x 85m is created. The foundations of the porticos taking place in the north and south of the area are approximately 5m wide and can be partially seen. The finds from the inscriptions and decorative works of the structure indicate that the construction activities continued in the period spanning from the times of the Roman Emperor Tiberius to the time of Claudius.

St. Paul Church (Great Basilica)

The building reflects all the elements of basilica plan and consists of three naves and a semicircular apse. The exterior surface of the apse is encircled with a hexagonal wall. The apse has a diameter of 10.8m and a depth of 9.2m. The central nave is operated from the narrow naves on the sides by two rows of columns each having 13 columns and these columns rest on hexagonal bases. The 27 x 13m narthex (entrance) on the west of the building, which measures 70 x 27m, lies in the east west direction and leans on the city walls.

 

The ground of the central navies composed of red, yellow, white and black tesserae and is covered with a mosaic decorated with geometric and floral motifs. The name of Archbishop Optimus, represented Antiochia in the Council of Constantinople in 381AD and one of the founders of Orthodoxy takes place in an inscription on the mosaic on front of the apse. This name forms a basis for dating the building construction to the 4th century AD. This date is the beginning date for the monumental churches in Anatolia. The Great Basilica of Antiocheia is on elf the two earliest examples of Early Christian churches. The church visible today is the 5th-6th century AD church, which was retired in the 4th century AD and placed on the 1st flood of the church of Optimus.

 

St. Paul, regarded as the most famous and efficient missionary of Early Christianity together with St. Pierre, had three visits to Antiocheia between the years 46-62 AD and preached in the synagogue under the foundation of the current church. He announced Christianity to the world from here. In his preaching in the synagogue on the Sabbath, he read texts from the Holy Law (Torah) and the writings of the prophets. This is considered as St. Paul’s first sermon as a missionary.

St. Paul Church (Great Basilica)

The building reflects all the elements of basilica plan and consists of three naves and a semicircular apse. The exterior surface of the apse is encircled with a hexagonal wall. The apse has a diameter of 10.8m and a depth of 9.2m. The central nave is operated from the narrow naves on the sides by two rows of columns each having 13 columns and these columns rest on hexagonal bases. The 27 x 13m narthex (entrance) on the west of the building, which measures 70 x 27m, lies in the east west direction and leans on the city walls.

 

The ground of the central navies composed of red, yellow, white and black tesserae and is covered with a mosaic decorated with geometric and floral motifs. The name of Archbishop Optimus, represented Antiochia in the Council of Constantinople in 381AD and one of the founders of Orthodoxy takes place in an inscription on the mosaic on front of the apse. This name forms a basis for dating the building construction to the 4th century AD. This date is the beginning date for the monumental churches in Anatolia. The Great Basilica of Antiocheia is on elf the two earliest examples of Early Christian churches. The church visible today is the 5th-6th century AD church, which was retired in the 4th century AD and placed on the 1st flood of the church of Optimus.

 

St. Paul, regarded as the most famous and efficient missionary of Early Christianity together with St. Pierre, had three visits to Antiocheia between the years 46-62 AD and preached in the synagogue under the foundation of the current church. He announced Christianity to the world from here. In his preaching in the synagogue on the Sabbath, he read texts from the Holy Law (Torah) and the writings of the prophets. This is considered as St. Paul’s first sermon as a missionary.

St. Paul Church (Great Basilica)

The building reflects all the elements of basilica plan and consists of three naves and a semicircular apse. The exterior surface of the apse is encircled with a hexagonal wall. The apse has a diameter of 10.8m and a depth of 9.2m. The central nave is operated from the narrow naves on the sides by two rows of columns each having 13 columns and these columns rest on hexagonal bases. The 27 x 13m narthex (entrance) on the west of the building, which measures 70 x 27m, lies in the east west direction and leans on the city walls.

 

The ground of the central navies composed of red, yellow, white and black tesserae and is covered with a mosaic decorated with geometric and floral motifs. The name of Archbishop Optimus, represented Antiochia in the Council of Constantinople in 381AD and one of the founders of Orthodoxy takes place in an inscription on the mosaic on front of the apse. This name forms a basis for dating the building construction to the 4th century AD. This date is the beginning date for the monumental churches in Anatolia. The Great Basilica of Antiocheia is on elf the two earliest examples of Early Christian churches. The church visible today is the 5th-6th century AD church, which was retired in the 4th century AD and placed on the 1st flood of the church of Optimus.

 

St. Paul, regarded as the most famous and efficient missionary of Early Christianity together with St. Pierre, had three visits to Antiocheia between the years 46-62 AD and preached in the synagogue under the foundation of the current church. He announced Christianity to the world from here. In his preaching in the synagogue on the Sabbath, he read texts from the Holy Law (Torah) and the writings of the prophets. This is considered as St. Paul’s first sermon as a missionary.

Statuette of the Goddess Aphrodite- Made from Marble - 2nd-3rd Century AD

Northern Church

The basilica plan is on the east-west direction and measures 42 x 23.5m including the narthex (entrance). The church is divided into three naves, and the side naves are 4.05m and the central nave is 10.10m wide. The main apse has a triple facade on the exterior, and semicircle on the interior. The structure is damaged to the level of stylobate. The most intact part is the main apse. In the construction of the church, collected blocks are used as well as local grey stones. The brick paved ground in the north nave is partly, and a very small part of the mosaic floor in the south nave is conserved. The superstructure of the church cannot be determined. In addition to the door giving access from the north, there is another door obtaining passage from the south nave to the apse. In the west of the church, the narthex that is disassembled to the level of foundation and annexed spaces take place.

 

In the church at least two phases are determined. The annexes built in the north of the church indicate the 2nd phase. However, the column capitals must have been carried to the Northern Church from another building. The church is smaller than the Great Basilica in terms of dimensions; however, it is larger than the Central church. When the construction date of the other two churches, the date of the column capitals, and the architecture of Early Christianity in Antiocheia are considered, the construction date of the Northern Church is the late 6th century AD at the earliest.

Roman Aqueducts

Aqueducts of Antioch Pisidia are one of the most beautiful examples of water supply around. The emerged with the Roman Empire urban planning concept and form the basis for the water supply system seen in almost every ancient city in Anatolia.

 

Increasing water demand in the Roman Period due to the development and expansion of Antioch Pisidia was met by a 10km water supply system running from the water source 1465m above sea level along the north of the city. Water from the source was brough to the Nympheum with terra cotta and stone pipes sometimes through channels, sometimes tunnels, and sometimes through single or double-storer arches. When the level difference is compared with the distance, and average slope of 2.6% was used. As it is known, water would exert great pressure at this slope, gradually slowed flux pressure was taken under control with a 0.2% slope with it reached the siphon part at the end of the system which was composed of arches.

 

The height of the arches varies between 5m and 7m and the width reaches to 2.5m. The arch piers are 4m high and made of rectangular stone blocks. Keystones are sometimes monolithic and sometimes composed of several stones. Although the workmanship of semicircular raised arches varies, an integrity is seen throughout the building.

 

The span of the arch piers carrying the arches varies between 4.7m and 3.8m. The base, which the piers rest on, lies either over arches or foundations made of 2-3m high block stones depending on the condition of the land. 200m sections of the aqueduct is intact. The collapsed parts under the soil can be traced until the Nympheum. Trances of the channels (specs canalis) on the arches that carry water with drain holes with a diameter of 25m are seen among the fragments amid the ruins.

 

The aqueducts are dated to 1st century AD and they were built into the historical development of the city.

Roman Aqueducts

Aqueducts of Antioch Pisidia are one of the most beautiful examples of water supply around. The emerged with the Roman Empire urban planning concept and form the basis for the water supply system seen in almost every ancient city in Anatolia.

 

Increasing water demand in the Roman Period due to the development and expansion of Antioch Pisidia was met by a 10km water supply system running from the water source 1465m above sea level along the north of the city. Water from the source was brough to the Nympheum with terra cotta and stone pipes sometimes through channels, sometimes tunnels, and sometimes through single or double-storer arches. When the level difference is compared with the distance, and average slope of 2.6% was used. As it is known, water would exert great pressure at this slope, gradually slowed flux pressure was taken under control with a 0.2% slope with it reached the siphon part at the end of the system which was composed of arches.

 

The height of the arches varies between 5m and 7m and the width reaches to 2.5m. The arch piers are 4m high and made of rectangular stone blocks. Keystones are sometimes monolithic and sometimes composed of several stones. Although the workmanship of semicircular raised arches varies, an integrity is seen throughout the building.

 

The span of the arch piers carrying the arches varies between 4.7m and 3.8m. The base, which the piers rest on, lies either over arches or foundations made of 2-3m high block stones depending on the condition of the land. 200m sections of the aqueduct is intact. The collapsed parts under the soil can be traced until the Nympheum. Trances of the channels (specs canalis) on the arches that carry water with drain holes with a diameter of 25m are seen among the fragments amid the ruins.

 

The aqueducts are dated to 1st century AD and they were built into the historical development of the city.

Snow Capped Mountains in the Distance from Antioch Pisidia

The entrance and exit for Antioch Pisidia

Pisidian Antioch

 

Western Gate

 

One of the two known city gates is on the south and the other is the Western Gate. The monumental structure, which is also the main entrance, is on the west, measures 12m x 24m, and it is triple-arched. It is supported by city walls on each side. On the pediment that rests over the arches, the relief of two kneeling Persians carrying flags and standard form the focal point of the facade. Nike, who is carrying garlands, in depicted on the plasters. On the architrave of the exterior surface of the gate, the following is written with bronze letters:

“To the Emperor Caesar Trajan Hadrian Augustus; grandson of deified Nerva, son of deified Trajan, Pontifex Maximus, tribunes for the 13th time, consul for the 3rd time, father of the land and to Sabina Augusta….. colony”

Pisidian Antioch / Antioch Pisidia. Small excavated stalls as you walk into the city

The main street leading up to Antioch Pisidia // Pisidian Antioch

Colonnaded Road in Antioch Pisidia looking south

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