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Vista dalla costa ricorda il profilo di un volto femminile.

E'l'isola di Gorgona che si trova di fronte a Livorno, a 37 km dalla costa.

E'un'isola selvaggia e affascinante, Lunga 3 chilometri e larga circa 2,la più piccola dell'Arcipelago Toscano.

Gorgona è un'isola meravigliosa, le sue coste incontaminate, rimaste al riparo dal turismo di massa, ne fanno un piccolo paradiso terrestre. L'isola ospita una colonia penale, perciò non si può soggiornare, ma solo sbarcare per visite guidate di una giornata.

L'ho fotografata nell'ora Blu, il sole era sotto l'orizzonte, zummando al massimo...si vedono le luci del paese degli antichi pescatori che conta oggi appena 50 abitanti.

 

Seen from the coast, it recalls the profile of a female face.

It is the island of Gorgona which is located in front of Livorno, 37 km from the coast.

It is a wild and fascinating island, 3 kilometers long and about 2 wide, the smallest of the Tuscan Archipelago.

Gorgona is a wonderful island, its uncontaminated coasts, which have remained sheltered from mass tourism, make it a small paradise on earth. The island is home to a penal colony, so it is not possible to stay, but only to disembark for one-day guided tours.

I photographed it in the Blue hour, the sun was below the horizon, zooming to the maximum ... you can see the lights of the ancient fishermen's village that today has just 50 inhabitants.

 

f00285

さくらまつり

maps.secondlife.com/secondlife/Ryukyu/33/37/27

 

桜の髪飾り Chubee Monster

アウトフィット -Paradiso-

桜のおだんご KREAMY.

ネイル(見えてないけどw) ::SnowWhite::

Okinawa Sakura Matsuri

 

開催期間➡2021年3月3日0時から4月5日16時まで

 

Event Date➡ March 2nd, 7am ----- April 5th, 0am (SLT)

maps.secondlife.com/secondlife/Ryukyu/33/37/27

ryukyusim.wixsite.com/osm2021

ふーこ&ばにぃ

 

-Paradiso-さんより【 Early spring gacha Dress】

 

ANC LTD.さんより – Anemone

 

Insomnia Angelさんより  .Heart mini hair clips & Pose etc ♡

  

桜まつり

maps.secondlife.com/secondlife/Ryukyu/33/37/28

Detalles del Vehiculo.-

 

.~/Carroceria :Marcopolo Paradiso G7 1800DD.-

.~/Chassis :Volvo B420R.-

.~/Empresa :Anidmar Vip.-

.~/Asientos de bus :Salón Cama / Semi Cama.-

.~/N° Orden Interno :334.-

.~/Placa Patente Unica :HJ-GG 37

.-

.~/Fecha de la Imagen :6 de Noviembre 2015.-

 

#Imagen :1.124

 

"Copyright Daniel Lizama Hernandez 2016©"

  

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Si desea la Imagen original sin marcas o alguna consulta a: daniel.lizama134@gmail.com

  

Gracias por visitar mi galeria!

  

Derechos Reservados y Creditos Daniel Lizama H. © 2016

  

Flickr 2016

 

Completing the 1001 book version wouldn't be possible for me, but movies, well, maybe, but don't know if i wanted to.

 

This book's listing doesn't reach 1001 titles, but goes up to about 974, dated from 1902 up until 2003. I think its about time they update. I've marked the one I saw with an Astrix (*), two for the one I like. It looks like i've got a long way to go.

 

So far I'm not that impressed with all the movie in the list, so I'll check internet reviews before i add them to my viewing list.

 

"1001 Movies You Must See Before You Die"

 

1. A Trip to the Moon (1902)

2. The Great Train Robbery (1903)

3. The Birth of a Nation (1915)

4. Les Vampires (1915)

5. Intolerance (1916)

6. The Cabinet of Dr. Caligari (1919)

7. Broken Blossoms (1919)

8. Way Down East (1920)

9. Within Our Gates (1920)

10. The Phantom Carriage (1921)

11. Orphans of the Storm (1921)

12. The Smiling Madame Beudet (1922)

13. Dr. Mabuse, Parts 1 and 2 (1922)

14. Nanook of the North (1922)

15. Nosferatu, A Symphony of Terror(1922)

16. Haxan (1923)

17. Foolish Wives (1922)

18. Our Hospitality (1923)

19. The Wheel (1923)

20. The Thief of Bagdad (1924)

21. Strike (1924)

22. Greed (1924)

23. Sherlock, Jr. (1924)

24. The Last Laugh (1924)

25. Seven Chances (1925)

26. The Phantom of the Opera (1925)*

27. The Battleship Potemkin (1925)

28. The Gold Rush (1925)

29. The Big Parade (1925)

30. Metropolis (1927)

31. Sunrise (1927)

32. The General (1927)

33. The Unknown (1927)

34. October (1927)

35. The Jazz Singer (1927)

36. Napoleon (1927)

37. The Kid Brother (1927)

38. The Crowd (1928)

39. The Docks of New York (1928)

40. An Andalusian Dog (1928)

41. The Passion of Joan of Arc (1928)

42. Steamboat Bill, Jr. (1928)

43. Storm over Asia (1928)

44. Blackmail (1929)

45. The Man with the Movie Camera (1929)

46. Pandora's Box (1929)

47. The Blue Angel (1930)

48. The Age Of Gold (1930)

49. Earth (1930)

50. Little Caesar (1930)

51. All Quiet on the Western Front (1930)

52. Freedom For Us (1931)

53. The Million (1931)

54. Tabu (1931)

55. Dracula (1931)

56. Frankenstein (1931)

57. City Lights (1931)

58. The Public Enemy (1931)

59. M (1931)

60. The Bitch (1931)

61. The Vampire (1932)

62. Love Me Tonight (1932)

63. Boudu Saved from Drowning (1932)

64. I Am a Fugitive from a Chain Gang (1932)

65. Trouble in Paradise (1932)

66. Scarface: The Shame Of A Nation (1932)

67. Shanghai Express (1932)

68. Freaks (1932)

69. Me and My Gal (1932)

70. Zero for Conduct (1933)

71. 42nd Street (1933)

72. Footlight Parade (1933)

73. Gold Diggers of 1933 (1933)

74. She Done Him Wrong (1933)

75. Duck Soup (1933)

76. Queen Christina (1933)

77. Land Without Bread (1933)

78. King Kong (1933)

79. The Bitter Tea of General Yen (1933)

80. Sons of the Desert (1933)

81. It's a Gift (1934)

82. Triumph of the Will (1934)

83. L'Atalante (1934)

84. The Black Cat (1934)

85. Judge Priest (1934)

86. It Happened One Night (1934)

87. The Thin Man (1934)

88. Captain Blood (1935)

89. Mutiny on the Bounty (1935)

90. A Night at the Opera (1935)

91. The 39 Steps (1935)

92. Bride of Frankenstein (1935)

93. Top Hat (1935)

94. A Day in the Country (1936)

95. Modern Times (1936)

96. Swing Time (1936)

97. My Man Godfrey (1936)

98. Mr. Deeds Goes to Town (1936)

99. Camille (1936)

100. Sabotage (1936)

101. Dodsworth (1936)

102. Things to Come (1936)

103. The Story of a Cheat (1936)

104. Captains Courageous (1937)

105. Midnight Song (1937)

106. Grand Illusion (1937)

107. Stella Dallas (1937)

108. The Life of Emile Zola (1937)

109. Make Way for Tomorrow (1937)

110. Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs (1937)

111. The Awful Truth (1937)

112. Pepe Le Moko (1937)

113. Jezebel (1938)

114. The Adventures of Robin Hood (1938)*

115. Angels with Dirty Faces (1938)

116. Olympia (1938)

117. The Baker's Wife (1938)

118. Bringing Up Baby (1938)

119. Stagecoach (1939)

120. The Story of the Late Chrysanthemums (1939)

121. Babes in Arms (1939)

122. Mr. Smith Goes to Washington (1939)

123. The Wizard of Oz (1939)

124. Destry Rides Again (1939)

125. Only Angels Have Wings (1939)

126. Gone With the Wind (1939)

127. Daybreak (1939)

128. Gunga Din (1939)

129. Ninotchka (1939)

130. The Rules of the Game (1939)

131. Wuthering Heights (1939)

132. His Girl Friday (1940)

133. Rebecca (1940)

134. Fantasia (1940)

135. The Philadelphia Story (1940)

136. The Grapes of Wrath (1940)

137. Dance, Girl, Dance (1940)

137. Pinocchio (1940)

138. The Mortal Storm (1940)

139. The Bank Dick (1940)

140. Citizen Kane (1941)

141. The Lady Eve (1941)

142. The Wolf Man (1941)

143. The Maltese Falcon (1941)*

144. Sergeant York (1941)

145. Dumbo (1941)

146. High Sierra (1941)

147. Sullivan's Travels (1941)

148. How Green Was My Valley (1941)

149. The Palm Beach Story (1942)

150. Now, Voyager (1942)

151. Casablanca (1942)

152. To Be or Not to Be (1942)

153. Cat People (1942)

154. The Magnificent Ambersons (1942)

155. Yankee Doodle Dandy (1942)

156. Meshes of the Afternoon (1943)

157. Fires Were Started (1943)

158. The Man in Grey (1943)

158. The Life and Death of Colonel Blimp (1943)

159. I Walked with a Zombie (1943)

160. The Seventh Victim (1943)

161. The Ox-Bow Incident (1943)

162. Shadow of a Doubt (1943)

163. Ossessione (1943)

164. Meet Me in St. Louis (1944)

165. To Have and Have Not (1944)

166. Laura (1944)

167. Gaslight (1944)

168. Henry V (1944)

169. Ivan the Terrible, Parts One and Two (1944)

170. Double Indemnity (1944)

171. Murder, My Sweet (1944)

172. The Battle of San Pietro (1945)

173. Spellbound (1945)

174. Mildred Pierce (1945)

175. The Children of Paradise (1945)

176. Open City (1945)

177. The Lost Weekend (1945)

178. Detour (1945)

179. I Know Where I'm Going! (1945)

180. The Best Years of Our Lives (1946)

181. Brief Encounter (1946)

182. Paisan (1946)

183. The Postman Always Rings Twice (1946)

184. My Darling Clementine (1946)

185. The Stranger (1946)

186. Beauty and the Beast (1946)

187. The Big Sleep (1946)

188. The Killers (1946)

189. A Matter of Life and Death (1946)

190. Great Expectations (1946)**

191. Notorious (1946)

192. Black Narcissus (1946)

193. It's a Wonderful Life (1946)

194. Gilda (1946)

195. Monsieur Verdoux (1947)

196. Out of the Past (1947)

197. The Ghost and Mrs. Muir (1947)

198. Odd Man Out (1947)

199. The Bicycle Thief (1948)

200. Letter from an Unknown Woman (1948)

201. Secret Beyond the Door (1948)

202. Force of Evil (1948)

203. Spring in a Small Town (1948)

204. Red River (1948)

205. Rope (1948)

206. The Snake Pit (1948)

207. The Lady from Shanghai (1948)

208. The Paleface (1948)

209. The Red Shoes (1948)

210. The Treasure of the Sierra Madre (1948)

211. Louisiana Story (1948)

212. The Heiress (1949)

213. Kind Hearts and Coronets (1949)

214. Gun Crazy (1949)

215. Adam's Rib (1949)

216. Whiskey Galore! (1949)

217. White Heat (1949)

218. The Reckless Moment (1949)

219. The Third Man (1949)

220. On the Town (1949)

221. Orpheus (1949)

222. The Asphalt Jungle (1950)

223. Rashomon (1950)

224. Winchester '73 (1950)

225. Rio Grande (1950)

226. All About Eve (1950)

227. Sunset Blvd. (1950)

228. Los Olvidados (1950)

229. In a Lonely Place (1950)

230. The Big Carnival (1951)

231. A Streetcar Named Desire (1951)

232. Strangers on a Train (1951)

233. The Lavender Hill Mob (1951)

234. Pandora and the Flying Dutchman (1951)

235. The African Queen (1951)

236. Diary of a Country Priest (1951)

237. An American in Paris (1951)

238. A Place in the Sun (1951)

239. The Day the Earth Stood Still (1951)

240. The Quiet Man (1952)

241. Forbidden Games (1952)

242. Angel Face (1952)

243. Singin' in the Rain (1952)

244. To Live (1952)

245. Europa '51 (1952)

246. The Bad and the Beautiful (1952)

247. The Big Sky (1952)

248. High Noon (1952)

249. Umberto D (1952)

250. The Golden Coach (1952)

251. The Bigamist (1953)

252. The Band Wagon (1953)

253. Madame De… (1953)

254. From Here to Eternity (1953)

255. Tokyo Story (1953)

256. Roman Holiday (1953)

257. Wages of Fear (1953)

258. The Naked Spur (1953)

259. Pickup on South Street (1953)

260. Gentlemen Prefer Blondes (1953)

261. The Big Heat (1953)

262. M. Hulot's Holiday (1953)

263. Voyage in Italy (1953)

264. Tales of Ugetsu (1953)

265. Shane (1953)

266. Beat the Devil (1953)

267. Johnny Guitar (1954)

268. On the Waterfront (1954)

269. Seven Brides for Seven Brothers (1954)

270. Les Diaboliques (1954)

271. Animal Farm (1954)

272. Rear Window (1954)

273. A Star Is Born (1954)

274. The Barefoot Contessa (1954)

275. The Road (1954)

276. The Seven Samurai (1954)

277. The Wanton Countess (1954)

278. Silver Lode (1954)

279. Carmen Jones (1954)

280. Sansho the Baliff (1954)

281. Salt of the Earth (1954)

282. Artists and Models (1955)

283. Guys and Dolls (1955)

284. Pather Panchali (1955)

285. Bad Day at Black Rock (1955)

286. The Mad Masters (1955)

287. Hill 24 Doesn't Answer (1955)

287. The Ladykillers (1955)

288. Marty (1955)

289. Ordet (1955)

290. Bob the Gambler (1955)

291. Kiss Me Deadly (1955)

292. The Man from Laramie (1955)

293. Rebel Without a Cause (1955)

294. The Phenix City Story (1955)

295. Smiles of a Summer Night (1955)

296. Night and Fog (1955)

297. The Night of the Hunter (1955)

298. The Sins of Lola Montes (1955)

299. Forbidden Planet (1956)

300. The Burmese Harp (1956)

301. The Searchers (1956)

302. A Man Escaped (1956)

303. Written on the Wind (1956)

304. The Man Who Knew Too Much (1956)

305. Giant (1956)

306. All That Heaven Allows (1956)

307. Invasion of the Body Snatchers (1956)

308. The Wrong Man (1956)

309. Bigger Than Life (1956)

310. High Society (1956)

311. The Ten Commandments (1956)

312. 12 Angry Men (1957)

313. The Seventh Seal (1957)

314. An Affair to Remember (1957)

315. Wild Strawberries (1957)

316. The Nights of Cabiria (1957)

317. Throne of Blood (1957)

318. The Incredible Shrinking Man (1957)

319. The Unvanquished (1957)

320. Gunfight at the O.K. Corral (1957)

321. The Bridge on the River Kwai (1957)

322. Mother India (1957)

323. The Cranes Are Flying (1957)

324. Paths of Glory (1957)

325. Sweet Smell of Success (1957)

326. Man of the West (1958)

327. Touch of Evil (1958)

328. Cairo Station (1958)

328. Gigi (1958)

329. The Defiant Ones (1958)

330. Vertigo (1958)

331. Ashes and Diamonds (1958)

332. Horror of Dracula (1958)

333. My Uncle (1958)

334. The Music Room (1958)

335. The 400 Blows (1959)

336. North by Northwest (1959)

337. Some Like It Hot (1959)

338. Anatomy of a Murder (1959)

339. Eyes without a Face (1959)

340. Ride Lonesome (1959)

341. Black Orpheus (1959)

342. Shadows (1959)

343. The World of Apu (1959)

344. Breathless (1959)

345. Ben-Hur (1959)**

346. Pickpocket (1959)

347. Hiroshima Mon Amour (1959)

348. Rio Bravo (1959)

349. The Hole (1959)

350. Floating Weeds (1959)

351. Rocco and His Brothers (1960)

352. La Dolce Vita (1960)

353. Saturday Night and Sunday Morning (1960)

354. Shoot the Piano Player (1960)

355. The Adventure (1960)

356. The Young One (1960)

357. The Cloud-Capped Star (1960)

358. The Housemaid (1960)

358. Psycho (1960)

359. Revenge of the Vampire / Black Sunday (1960)

360. Peeping Tom (1960)

361. The Apartment (1960)

362. Spartacus (1960)

363. Splendor in the Grass (1961)

364. Last Year at Marienbad (1961)

365. The Pier (1961)

366. One-Eyed Jacks (1961)

367. Lola (1961)

368. Breakfast at Tiffany's (1961)

369. The Night (1961)

370. Jules and Jim (1961)

371. Viridiana (1961)

372. The Ladies Man (1961)

373. Through a Glass Darkly (1961)

374. Chronicle of a Summer (1961)

375. The Hustler (1961)

376. West Side Story (1961)

377. A Dog's Life (1962)

378. Cleo from 5 to 7 (1962)

379. Dog Star Man (1962)

380. An Autumn Afternoon (1962)

381. The Eclipse (1962)

382. Lawrence of Arabia (1962)

383. To Kill a Mockingbird (1962)

384. The Manchurian Candidate (1962)

385. Lolita (1962)

386. Keeper of Promises (1962)

387. The Man Who Shot Liberty Valance (1962)

388. What Ever Happened to Baby Jane? (1962)

389. My Life to Live (1962)

390. Heaven and Earth Magic (1962)

390. The Birds (1963)

391. The Nutty Professor (1963)

392. Blonde Cobra (1963)

393. The Cool World (1963)

393. 8 1/2 (1963)

394. Passenger (1963)

395. Contempt (1963)

396. Hud (1963)

397. Winter Light (1963)

398. Flaming Creatures (1963)

399. The Great Escape (1963)

400. Shock Corridor (1963)

401. The Leopard (1963)

402. Barren Lives (1963)

403. Mediteranee (1963)

403. The House is Black (1963)

404. The Haunting (1963)

405. An Actor's Revenge (1963)

406. The Servant (1963)

407. Goldfinger (1964)**

408. Scorpio Rising (1964)

409. The Umbrellas of Cherbourg (1964)

410. Marnie (1964)

411. My Fair Lady (1964)

412. Woman in the Dunes (1964)

413. Dr. Strangelove (1964)

414. A Hard Day's Night (1964)

415. The Red Desert (1964)

416. Shadows of Forgotten Ancestors (1964)

417. The Masque of the Red Death (1964)

418. Before the Revolution (1964)

419. Gertrud (1964)

420. The Gospel According to St. Matthew (1964)

421. Black God, White Devil (1964)

422. The Demon (1964)

423. Vinyl (1965)

424. The Shop on Main Street (1965)

425. Doctor Zhivago (1965)

426. The War Game (1965)

427. Tokyo Olympiad (1965)

428. The Battle of Algiers (1965)

429. The Sound of Music (1965)

430. The Saragossa Manuscript (1965)

431. Alphaville (1965)

432. Chimes at Midnight (1965)

433. Repulsion (1965)

434. Juliet of the Spirits (1965)

435. Pierrot Goes Wild (1965)

436. Faster, Pussy Cat! Kill! Kill! (1965)

437. Golden River (1965)

438. The Man Who Had His Hair Cut Short (1965)

439. Hold Me While I'm Naked (1966)

440. Blowup (1966)

441. The Good, the Bad, and the Ugly (1966)

442. Daisies (1966)

443. Come Drink with Me (1966)

444. Seconds (1966)

445. Who's Afraid of Virginia Woolf? (1966)

446. Persona (1966)

447. Masculine-Feminine (1966)

448. Balthazar (1966)

449. In the Heat of the Night (1967)

450. Two or Three Things I Know About Her (1967)

451. The Graduate (1967)

452. Playtime (1967)

453. Report (1967)

453. Hombre (1967)

454. Belle de Jour (1967)

455. The Young Girls of Rochefort (1967)

456. Week End (1967)

457. The Godson (1967)

458. Cool Hand Luke (1967)

459. Point Blank (1967)

460. Wavelength (1967)

461. Bonnie and Clyde (1967)

462. The Red and the White (1967)

463. Marketa Lazarova (1967)

464. The Jungle Book (1967)

465. The Fireman's Ball (1967)

466. Earth Entranced (1967)

467. Closely Watched Trains (1967)

468. Vij (1967)

469. The Cow (1968)

470. Once Upon a Time in the West (1968)

471. Planet of the Apes (1968)

472. Faces (1968)

473. Rosemary's Baby (1968)

474. If… (1968)

475. Memories of Underdevelopment (1968)

476. The Producers (1968)

477. David Holzman's Diary (1968)

477. Shame (1968)

478. 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968)**

479. Hour of the Wolf (1968)

480. Targets (1968)

481. Night of the Living Dead (1968)

482. My Night with Maud (1969)

483. Lucia (1969)

483. A Touch of Zen (1969)

484. Butch Cassidy and the Sundance Kid (1969)

485. Midnight Cowboy (1969)

486. Satyricon (1969)

487. Z (1969)

488. The Conformist (1969)

489. Easy Rider (1969)

490. High School (1969)

491. In the Year of the Pig (1969)

492. The Wild Bunch (1969)

493. Andrei Rublev (1969)

494. The Butcher (1969)

495. The Color of Pomegranates (1969)

496. Kes (1969)

497. Tristana (1970)

498. Five Easy Pieces (1970)

499. El Topo (1970)

500. Woodstock (1970)

501. Deep End (1970)

502. The Spider's Stratagem (1970)

503. Little Big Man (1970)

504. The Ear (1970)

505. Patton (1970)

506. M*A*S*H (1970)

507. Performance (1970)

508. Gimme Shelter (1970)

509. Zabriskie Point (1970)

510. The Bird with The Crystal Plumage (1970)

511. The Garden of the Finzi-Continis (1970)

512. Wanda (1971)

512. W.R.: Mysteries of the Organism (1971)

513. A Clockwork Orange (1971)

514. The Sorrow and the Pity (1971)

515. Willy Wonka and the Chocolate Factory (1971)

516. McCabe and Mrs. Miller (1971)

517. Walkabout (1971)

518. Klute (1971)

519. Harold and Maude (1971)

520. Red Psalm (1971)

521. Get Carter (1971)

522. The French Connection (1971)

523. Shaft (1971)

524. Dirty Harry (1971)

525. Murmur of the Heart (1971)

526. Sweet Sweetback's Baadasssss Song (1971)

527. The Last Picture Show (1971)

528. Straw Dogs (1971)

529. Two-Lane Blacktop (1971)

530. The Heartbreak Kid (1972)

531. Aguirre, the Wrath of God (1972)

532. Cabaret (1972)

533. Last Tango in Paris (1972)

534. High Plains Drifter (1972)

535. Sleuth (1972)

536. Deliverance (1972)

537. Solaris (1972)

538. The Godfather (1972)

539. Cries and Whispers (1972)

540. Fat City (1972)

541. The Discreet Charm of the Bourgeoisie (1972)

542. The Bitter Tears of Petra Von Kant (1972)

543. Frenzy (1972)

544. Pink Flamingos (1972)

545. Superfly (1972)

546. The Sting (1973)

547. The Mother and the Whore (1973)

548. Badlands (1973)

549. American Graffiti (1973)

550. Papillon (1973)

551. Enter the Dragon (1973)

552. Mean Streets (1973)

553. The Long Goodbye (1973)

554. The Wicker Man (1973)

555. Day for Night (1973)

556. Don't Look Now (1973)

557. Sleeper (1973)

558. Serpico (1973)

559. The Exorcist (1973)

560. Turkish Delight (1973)

561. The Spirit of the Beehive (1973)

562. Fantastic Planet (1973)

563. Amarcord (1973)

564. The Harder They Come (1973)

565. Pat Garrett and Billy the Kid (1973)

566. Dersu Uzala (1974)

567. The Conversation (1974)

568. The Texas Chainsaw Massacre (1974)*

569. The Mirror (1974)

570. A Woman Under the Influence (1974)

571. Young Frankenstein (1974)

572. Chinatown (1974)

573. Celine and Julie Go Boating (1974)

574. Blazing Saddles (1974)

575. The Godfather Part II (1974)**

576. Ali: Fear Eats the Soul (1974)

577. Bring Me the Head of Alfredo Garcia (1974)

578. Dog Day Afternoon (1975)

579. One Flew over the Cuckoo's Nest (1975)

580. Jeanne Dielman, 23 Quai Du Commerce, 1080 Bruxelles (1975)

581. The Rocky Horror Picture Show (1975)

582. The Wall (1975)

583. Monty Python and the Holy Grail (1975)

584. Barry Lyndon (1975)

585. Fox and His Friends (1975)

586. India Song (1975)

586. Picnic at Hanging Rock (1975)

587. Manila in the Claws of Brightness (1975)

588. Salo, or the 120 Days of Sodom (1975)

589. Nashville (1975)

590. Cria! (1975)

591. The Travelling Players (1975)

592. Jaws (1975)*

593. The Killing of a Chinese Bookie (1976)

594. Carrie (1976)*

595. The Outlaw Josey Wales (1976)

596. All the President's Men (1976)

597. Rocky (1976)**

598. Taxi Driver (1976)

599. Network (1976)

600. Ascent (1976)

601. In the Realm of the Senses (1976)

602. 1900 (1976)

603. The Man Who Fell to Earth (1976)

604. Star Wars (1977)*

605. Close Encounters of the Third Kind (1977)

606. The Last Wave (1977)

607. Annie Hall (1977)

608. Last Chants for a Slow Dance (1977)

608. Stroszek (1977)

609. Man of Marble (1977)

610. Saturday Night Fever (1977)

611. Killer of Sheep (1977)

612. Eraserhead (1977)

613. Ceddo (1977)

613. The American Friend (1977)

614. The Hills Have Eyes (1977)

615. Soldier of Orange (1977)

616. Suspiria (1977)

617. The Chant of Jimmie Blacksmith (1978)

618. Five Deadly Venoms (1978)

619. The Tree of Wooden Clogs (1978)

620. The Deer Hunter (1978)

621. Grease (1978)**

622. Days of Heaven (1978)

623. Dawn of the Dead (1978)

624. Shaolin Master Killer (1978)

625. Up in Smoke (1978)

626. Halloween (1978)

627. The Marriage of Maria Braun (1979)

628. Real Life (1979)

628. My Brilliant Career (1979)

629. Stalker (1979)

630. Alien (1979)*

631. Breaking Away (1979)

632. The Tin Drum (1979)

633. All That Jazz (1979)

634. Being There (1979)

635. Kramer vs. Kramer (1979)

636. Life of Brian (1979)

637. Apocalypse Now (1979)

638. The Jerk (1979)

639. The Muppet Movie (1979)

640. Manhattan (1979)

641. Mad Max (1979)

642. Nosferatu: Phantom Of The Night (1979)

643. Ordinary People (1980)

644. Atlantic City (1980)

645. The Last Metro (1980)

646. The Shining (1980)*

647. Star Wars: Episode V - The Empire Strikes Back (1980)**

648. The Elephant Man (1980)

649. The Big Red One (1980)

650. Loulou (1980)

651. Airplane! (1980)

652. Raging Bull (1980)

653. Raiders of the Lost Ark (1981)*

654. The Boat (1981)

655. Gallipoli (1981)

656. Chariots of Fire (1981)*

657. Body Heat (1981)

658. Reds (1981)

659. An American Werewolf in London (1981)*

660. Three Brothers (1981)

660. Man of Iron (1981)

661. Too Early, Too Late (1981)

661. Fast Times at Ridgemont High (1981)

662. E.T.: The Extra-Terestrial (1982)**

663. The Thing (1982)

664. Poltergeist (1982)

665. Blade Runner (1982)

666. The Evil Dead (1982)

667. Tootsie (1982)**

668. Yol (1982)

669. Diner (1982)

670. Fitzcaraldo (1982)

671. Gandhi (1982)***

672. The Night of the Shooting Stars (1982)

673. A Question of Silence (1982)

673. Fanny and Alexander (1982)

674. A Christmas Story (1983)

675. El Norte (1983)

676. Videodrome (1983)

677. Star Wars: Episode VI - Return of the Jedi (1983)*

678. The Big Chill (1983)

679. Sunless (1983)

680. The Last Battle (1983)

681. Money (1983)

682. Utu (1983)

683. Terms of Endearment (1983)

684. The Fourth Man (1983)

685. The King of Comedy (1983)

686. The Right Stuff (1983)*

687. Koyaanisqatsi (1983)

688. Once Upon a Time in America (1983)

689. Scarface (1983)**

690. The Ballad of Narayama (1983)

691. Amadeus (1984)

692. The Terminator (1984)

693. Paris, Texas (1984)

694. A Nightmare on Elm Street (1984)

695. This Is Spinal Tap (1984)

696. Beverly Hills Cop (1984)*

697. Ghostbusters (1984)**

698. A Passage to India (1984)

699. Stranger Than Paradise (1984)

700. The Killing Fields (1984)

701. The Natural (1984)

702. The Breakfast Club (1985)

703. Ran (1985)

704. Come and See (1985)

705. The Official Story (1985)

706. Out of Africa (1985)

707. The Purple Rose of Cairo (1985)

708. Back to the Future (1985)**

709. The Time to Live and the Time to Die (1985)

710. Brazil (1985)

711. Kiss of the Spider Woman (1985)

712. The Quiet Earth (1985)

713. Mishima: A Life in Four Chapters (1985)

714. Prizzi's Honor (1985)

715. Vagabond (1985)

716. Shoah (1985)

717. The Color Purple (1985)

718. Manhunter (1986)

719. Stand By Me (1986)***

720. Blue Velvet (1986)

721. Hannah and Her Sisters (1986)

722. She's Gotta Have It (1986)

723. The Decline of the American Empire (1986)

724. The Fly (1986)**

725. Aliens (1986)

726. Ferris Bueller's Day Off (1986)

727. Down by Law (1986)

728. A Room with a View (1986)

729. Children of a Lesser God (1986)

730. Platoon (1986)*

731. Caravaggio (1986)

732. Tampopo (1986)

733. Peking Opera Blues (1986)

734. Salvador (1986)

735. Top Gun (1986)**

736. Sherman's March (1986)

736. The Horse Thief (1986)

737. Brightness (1987)

738. Wings of Desire (1987)

739. Project A, Part II (1987)

740. Babette's Feast (1987)

741. Raising Arizona (1987)

742. Full Metal Jacket (1987)

743. Withnail and I (1987)

744. Good Morning, Vietnam (1987)

745. Goodbye Children (1987)

746. Broadcast News (1987)

747. Housekeeping (1987)

747. The Princess Bride (1987)

748. Moonstruck (1987)

749. The Untouchables (1987)**

750. Red Sorghum (1987)

751. The Dead (1987)

752. Fatal Attraction (1987)*

753. A Chinese Ghost Story (1987)

754. Women on the Verge of a Nervous Breakdown (1988)

755. The Vanishing (1988)

756. Bull Durham (1988)

757. Ariel (1988)

758. The Thin Blue Line (1988)

759. Akira (1988)

760. Cinema Paradiso (1988)

761. Hotel Terminus: The Life and Times of Klaus Barbie (1988)

761. A Fish Called Wanda (1988)*

762. The Naked Gun (1988)*

763. Big (1988)*

764. Dangerous Liaisons (1988)

765. Grave of the Fireflies (1988)

766. Landscape in the Mist (1988)

767. The Decalogue (1988)

768. Die Hard (1988)**

769. A Tale of the Wind (1988)

770. Who Framed Roger Rabbit (1988)**

771. Rain Man (1988)**

772. The Story of Women (1988)

773. The Accidental Tourist (1988)

774. Alice (1988)

775. Batman (1989)*

776. When Harry Met Sally (1989)**

777. Crimes and Misdemeanors (1989)

778. The Cook, the Thief, His Wife and Her Lover (1989)

779. Drugstore Cowboy (1989)

780. My Left Foot (1989)

781. The Killer (1989)

782. Do the Right Thing (1989)

783. Roger & Me (1989)

784. Glory (1989)

785. The Asthenic Syndrome (1989)

786. Sex, Lies and Videotape (1989)

787. Say Anything (1989)

788. The Unbelievable Truth (1989)

789. A City of Sadness (1989)

790. No Fear, No Die (1990)

790. Reversal of Fortune (1990)

791. Goodfellas (1990)

792. Jacob's Ladder (1990)

793. King of New York (1990)

794. Dances with Wolves (1990)**

795. Europa Europa (1990)

796. Pretty Woman (1990)*

797. Archangel (1990)

798. Trust (1990)

799. Close-Up (1990)

800. Edward Scissorhands (1990)**

801. Henry: Portrait of a Serial Killer (1990)

802. Total Recall (1990)*

803. Once Upon a Time in China (1991)

804. Boyz 'n the Hood (1991)

805. Raise the Red Lantern (1991)

806. Delicatessen (1991)

807. A Brighter Summer Day (1991)

808. Naked Lunch (1991)

809. The Beautiful Troublemaker (1991)**

810. The Rapture (1991)

811. My Own Private Idaho (1991)

812. Thelma & Louise (1991)

813. Terminator 2: Judgment Day (1991)**

814. The Silence of the Lambs (1991)**

815. JFK (1991)

816. Slacker (1991)

817. Tongues Untied (1991)

818. Hearts of Darkness: A Filmmaker's Apocalypse (1991)

819. The Double Life of Veronique (1991)

820. Strictly Ballroom (1992)

821. The Player (1992)

822. Reservoir Dogs (1992)

823. Romper Stomper (1992)

824. Glengarry Glen Ross (1992)

825. Unforgiven (1992)**

826. Bram Stoker's Dracula (1992)

827. Candy Man (1992)

828. A Tale of Winter (1992)

829. Aileen Wuornos: The Selling of a Serial Killer (1992)

830. The Crying Game (1992)**

831. Man Bites Dog (1992)

832. The Actress (1992)

833. Farewell My Concubine (1993)

834. Thirty Two Films about Glenn Gould (1993)

835. Groundhog Day (1993)

836. Short Cuts (1993)

837. Philadelphia (1993)**

838. Jurassic Park (1993)**

839. The Age of Innocence (1993)

840. The Puppetmaster (1993)

841. Schindler's List (1993)**

842. Three Colors: Blue (1993)

843. The Piano (1993)

844. The Blue Kite (1993)

845. The Wedding Banquet (1993)

846. Three Colors: Red (1994)

847. Hoop Dreams (1994)

848. Forrest Gump (1994)**

849. Clerks (1994)

850. Four Weddings and a Funeral (1994)**

851. The Lion King (1994)*

852. Satantango (1994)

853. Natural Born Killers (1994)*

854. The Last Seduction (1994)

855. Pulp Fiction (1994)***

856. The Shawshank Redemption (1994)**

857. The Wild Reeds (1994)

858. Chungking Express (1994)

859. Crumb (1994)

860. Heavenly Creatures (1994)

861. Through the Olive Trees (1994)

862. Riget (1994)

863. Dear Diary (1994)

864. Casino (1995)

865. Deseret (1995)

865. Babe (1995)*

866. Toy Story (1995)**

867. Strange Days (1995)

868. Braveheart (1995)**

869. Safe (1995)

870. Clueless (1995)*

871. Heat (1995)*

872. Zero Kelvin (1995)

872. Seven (1995)

873. Smoke (1995)

874. The White Balloon (1995)

875. Cyclo (1995)

876. Underground (1995)

877. The Brave Heart Will Take the Bride (1995)

878. Dead Man (1995)

879. The Usual Suspects (1995)

880. The Pillow Book (1996)

881. Three Lives and Only One Death (1996)

882. Fargo (1996)

883. Independence Day (1996)*

884. Secrets and Lies (1996)

885. Breaking the Waves (1996)

886. The English Patient (1996)**

887. Gabbeh (1996)

888. Lone Star (1996)

889. Trainspotting (1996)

890. Scream (1996)

891. Deconstructing Harry (1997)

892. L.A. Confidential (1997)

893. Happy Together (1997)

894. Princess Mononoke (1997)

895. Fast, Cheap, and Out of Control (1997)

896. The Butcher Boy (1997)

897. The Ice Storm (1997)

898. Boogie Nights (1997)

899. Kundun (1997)

900. The Sweet Hereafter (1997)

901. Funny Games (1997)

902. Taste of Cherry (1997)

903. Open Your Eyes (1997)

904. Mother and Son (1997)

905. Titanic (1997)*

906. Tetsuo (1998)

907. The Celebration (1998)

908. Saving Private Ryan (1998)*

909. Buffalo 66 (1998)

910. Lock, Stock and Two Smoking Barrels (1998)

911. Run Lola Run (1998)

912. Rushmore (1998)

913. Pi (1998)

914. Happiness (1998)

915. The Thin Red Line (1998)

916. The Idiots (1998)

917. Sombre (1998)

917. Ring (1998)

918. There's Something About Mary (1998)**

919. Magnolia (1999)*

920. Beau Travail (1999)

921. The Blair Witch Project (1999)*

922. Taboo (1999)

923. Rosetta (1999)

924. All About My Mother (1999)

925. Three Kings (1999)**

926. The Wind Will Carry Us (1999)

927. The Audition (1999)

928. Time Regained (1999)

929. Fight Club (1999)**

930. Being John Malkovich (1999)*

931. American Beauty (1999)***

932. Attack the Gas Station! (1999)

933. Eyes Wide Shut (1999)*

934. The Sixth Sense (1999)**

935. The Matrix (1999)***

936. Nine Queens (2000)

937. The Captive (2000)

938. In the Mood for Love (2000)

939. Ali Zaoua, Prince of the Streets (2000)

940. Gladiator (2000)**

941. Kippur (2000)

942. A One and a Two (2000)

943. Requiem for a Dream (2000)

944. Amores Perros (2000)

945. Meet the Parents (2000)**

946. Signs & Wonders (2000)

946. Crouching Tiger, Hidden Dragon (2000)**

947. Traffic (2000)**

948. The Gleaners and I (2000)

949. Memento (2000)

950. Dancer in the Dark (2000)

951. O Brother, Where Art Thou? (2000)

952. Amelie (2001)

953. What Time Is It There? (2001)

954. And Your Mother Too (2001)

955. Kandahar (2001)

956. Spirited Away (2001)

957. The Piano Teacher (2001)**

958. The Son's Room (2001)

959. No Man's Land (2001)

960. Moulin Rouge (2001)**

961. Monsoon Wedding (2001)

962. Fat Girl (2001)

963. Mulholland Dr. (2001)

964. The Royal Tenenbaums (2001)

965. The Lord of the Rings: The Fellowship of the Ring (2001)

966. A.I.: Artificial Intelligence (2001)

967. Gangs of New York (2002)

968. The Pianist (2002)*

969. Talk to Her (2002)

970. City of God (2002)

971. Russian Ark (2002)

972. Chicago (2002)**

973. The Barbarian Invasions (2003)

974. Kill Bill: Vol. 1 (2003)***

 

I am going to try and go after the older films done back in the 80s, 70s and earlier, at the time didn't get appreciate (way too young / havn't been born) I 'm also interested to see which of these are your favorites, maybe i'll chase after them too.

 

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It was only later readers of Milton, says Appelbaum, who thought of "apple" as "apple" and not any seed-bearing fruit. For them, the forbidden fruit became synonymous with the malus pumila. As a widely read canonical work, Paradise Lost was influential in cementing the role of apple in the Fall story.

 

This month marks 350 years since John Milton sold his publisher the copyright of Paradise Lost for the sum of five pounds.

 

His great work dramatizes the oldest story in the Bible, whose principal characters we know only too well: God, Adam, Eve, Satan in the form of a talking snake — and an apple.

 

Except, of course, that Genesis never names the apple but simply refers to "the fruit." To quote from the King James Bible:

 

And the woman said to the serpent, "We may eat the fruit of the trees of the garden; but of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God has said, 'You shall not eat it, nor shall you touch it, lest you die.'"

"Fruit" is also the word Milton employs in the poem's sonorous opening lines:

 

Of Mans First Disobedience, and the Fruit

Of that Forbidden Tree, whose mortal taste

Brought Death into the World, and all our woe

But in the course of his over-10,000-line poem, Milton names the fruit twice, explicitly calling it an apple. So how did the apple become the guilty fruit that brought death into this world and all our woe?

 

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The short and unexpected answer is: a Latin pun.

 

In order to explain, we have to go all the way back to the fourth century A.D., when Pope Damasus ordered his leading scholar of scripture, Jerome, to translate the Hebrew Bible into Latin. Jerome's path-breaking, 15-year project, which resulted in the canonical Vulgate, used the Latin spoken by the common man. As it turned out, the Latin words for evil and apple are the same: malus.

 

In the Hebrew Bible, a generic term, peri, is used for the fruit hanging from the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil, explains Robert Appelbaum, who discusses the biblical provenance of the apple in his book Aguecheek's Beef, Belch's Hiccup, and Other Gastronomic Interjections.

 

"Peri could be absolutely any fruit," he says. "Rabbinic commentators variously characterized it as a fig, a pomegranate, a grape, an apricot, a citron, or even wheat. Some commentators even thought of the forbidden fruit as a kind of wine, intoxicating to drink."

  

A detail of Michelangelo's fresco in the Vatican's Sistine Chapel depicting the Fall of Man and expulsion from the Garden of Eden

Wikipedia

When Jerome was translating the "Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil," the word malus snaked in. A brilliant but controversial theologian, Jerome was known for his hot temper, but he obviously also had a rather cool sense of humor.

 

"Jerome had several options," says Appelbaum, a professor of English literature at Sweden's Uppsala University. "But he hit upon the idea of translating peri as malus, which in Latin has two very different meanings. As an adjective, malus means bad or evil. As a noun it seems to mean an apple, in our own sense of the word, coming from the very common tree now known officially as the Malus pumila. So Jerome came up with a very good pun."

 

The story doesn't end there. "To complicate things even more," says Appelbaum, "the word malus in Jerome's time, and for a long time after, could refer to any fleshy seed-bearing fruit. A pear was a kind of malus. So was the fig, the peach, and so forth."

 

Which explains why Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel fresco features a serpent coiled around a fig tree. But the apple began to dominate Fall artworks in Europe after the German artist Albrecht Dürer's famous 1504 engraving depicted the First Couple counterpoised beside an apple tree. It became a template for future artists such as Lucas Cranach the Elder, whose luminous Adam and Eve painting is hung with apples that glow like rubies.

  

Enlarge this image

Eve giving Adam the forbidden fruit, by Lucas Cranach the Elder.

Wikipedia

Milton, then, was only following cultural tradition. But he was a renowned Cambridge intellectual fluent in Latin, Greek and Hebrew, who served as secretary for foreign tongues to Oliver Cromwell during the Commonwealth. If anyone was aware of the malus pun, it would be him. And yet he chose to run it with it. Why?

 

Appelbaum says that Milton's use of the term "apple" was ambiguous. "Even in Milton's time the word had two meanings: either what was our common apple, or, again, any fleshy seed-bearing fruit. Milton probably had in mind an ambiguously named object with a variety of connotations as well as denotations, most but not all of them associating the idea of the apple with a kind of innocence, though also with a kind of intoxication, since hard apple cider was a common English drink."

 

It was only later readers of Milton, says Appelbaum, who thought of "apple" as "apple" and not any seed-bearing fruit. For them, the forbidden fruit became synonymous with the malus pumila. As a widely read canonical work, Paradise Lost was influential in cementing the role of apple in the Fall story.

 

But whether the forbidden fruit was an apple, fig, peach, pomegranate or something completely different, it is worth revisiting the temptation scene in Book 9 of Paradise Lost, both as an homage to Milton (who composed his masterpiece when he was blind, impoverished and in the doghouse for his regicidal politics) and simply to savor the sublime beauty of the language. Thomas Jefferson loved this poem. With its superfood dietary advice, celebration of the 'self-help is the best help' ideal, and presence of a snake-oil salesman, Paradise Lost is a quintessentially American story, although composed more than a century before the United States was founded.

 

What makes the temptation scene so absorbing and enjoyable is that, although written in archaic English, it is speckled with mundane details that make the reader stop in surprise.

 

Take, for instance, the serpent's impeccably timed gustatory seduction. It takes place not at any old time of the day but at lunchtime:

 

"Mean while the hour of Noon drew on, and wak'd/ An eager appetite."

What a canny and charmingly human detail. Milton builds on it by lingeringly conjuring the aroma of apples, knowing full well that an "ambrosial smell" can madden an empty stomach to action. The fruit's "savorie odour," rhapsodizes the snake, is more pleasing to the senses than the scent of the teats of an ewe or goat dropping with unsuckled milk at evening. Today's Food Network impresarios, with their overblown praise and frantic similes, couldn't dream up anything close to that peculiarly sensuous comparison.

 

It is easy to imagine the scene. Eve, curious, credulous and peckish, gazes longingly at the contraband "Ruddie and Gold" fruit while the unctuous snake-oil salesman murmurs his encouragement. Initially, she hangs back, suspicious of his "overpraising." But soon she begins to cave: How can a fruit so "Fair to the Eye, inviting to the Taste," be evil? Surely it is the opposite, its "sciental sap" must be the source of divine knowledge. The serpent must speak true.

 

So saying, her rash hand in evil hour

Forth reaching to the Fruit, she pluck'd, she eat:

Earth felt the wound, and Nature from her seat

Sighing through all her Works gave signs of woe,

That all was lost.

But Eve is insensible to the cosmic disappointment her lunch has caused. Sated and intoxicated as if with wine, she bows low before "O Sovran, vertuous, precious of all Trees," and hurries forth with "a bough of fairest fruit" to her beloved Adam, that he too might eat and aspire to godhead. Their shared meal, foreshadowed as it is by expulsion and doom, is a moving and poignant tableau of marital bliss.

 

Meanwhile, the serpent, its mission accomplished, slinks into the gloom. Satan heads eagerly toward a gathering of fellow devils, where he boasts that the Fall of Man has been wrought by something as ridiculous as "an apple."

 

Except that it was a fig or a peach or a pear. An ancient Roman punned – and the apple myth was born.

 

The first tale in the Bible tells of the expulsion of Adam and Eve from the garden of Eden. This was in consequence for having tasted the “forbidden fruit” of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Christian iconography and popular culture represent the fruit as an apple. But a careful reading of the passage leads one to the conclusion that, in fact, the actual fruit is never mentioned in the book. How, then, did the apple become this symbol of temptation and sin?

 

A standard version of Genesis 3:3-5 says:

 

But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die. And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die: For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil.

 

According to Robert Appelbaum’s book Aguecheek’s Beef, Belch’s Hiccup, and Other Gastronomic Interjections, the confusion may be due to a sort of joke of St. Jerome, who first translated the Bible into the vulgar Latin. (This version is still known as “The Vulgate” even today.) It turns out that the Latin words for apple, and for evil, are the same: malus. According to Appelbaum, the Hebrew word, peri, which was used to refer to the fruit in the Bible, can refer to any type of fruit, a fig, a pomegranate, a grape, or even a peach or a lemon. Some Bible commentators even believe that the forbidden fruit may have been a drink that produced an intoxication in those who drank it. Hence they gained “knowledge of good and evil.”

 

St. Jerome translated “peri” with the word “malus.” It’s an adjective meaning “evil,” though as a noun, it means “apple,” from trees known even today as Malus pumila. However, as Appelbaum points out, malus may refer not only to the apple, but to any fruit with seeds: pears are a species of malus, as are figs, peaches, and others.In religious iconography, there was no clear consensus for several centuries on exactly what type of fruit it was from this tree of which humanity’s first parents couldn’t eat. Michelangelo painted a fig tree in the Sistine Chapel. Durer depicted an apple tree, as did Lucas Cranach, the Elder. But another Appelbaum hypothesis in explaining the apple’s preeminence over other seeded fruits comes from the English poet, John Milton. His Paradise Lost was published in 1667. For Milton, the semantic ambiguity of the malus should not have been a mystery, versed as he was in ancient languages like Latin and Hebrew. Appelbaum notes that it’s possible Milton appreciated St. Jerome’s joke as a reference to intoxication or drunkenness from apple cider, popular in his own time. Paradise Lost refers on a couple of occasions to the fruit of this problematic tree and refers to it as an apple.

Another possible explanation may come from the Golden Apple of Discord. In Greek mythology, this was the work of the goddess Eris, (a temptress, as Satan had been for the Hebrews). According to the myth, Eris was angry at having not been invited to the wedding of Peleus and Tetis (parents of the great warrior Achilles). She presented the wedding guests with a golden apple which would reveal who among them was “the most beautiful of all.” Three goddesses fought amongst themselves: Aphrodite, the goddess of love and beauty; Hera, the guardian of the home and childbearing and wife of the great Zeus; and Aphrodite, daughter of Zeus and goddess of wisdom. To settle the dispute, Zeus consulted a Trojan shepherd and mortal, Paris, to choose from among the three goddesses which was the most beautiful. The three goddesses tried to bribe him in turn with new gifts. Finally, Paris decided for Aphrodite, who had promised him the love of the most beautiful woman of all. This was none other than Helena. Helena’s abduction by Paris is the mythical origin of the Trojan War. And thus the apple is also at the center of the most epic dispute in Greek civilization.

  

The Apple and the Heart

 

16

Romanesque iconography more frequently used the apple as the forbidden fruit. The lengthy list of images in the three studied countries represents a significant part of our corpus. Among them, one can cite in Spain, Amandi, Añes, Avilés, the Bible of Burgos, the Bible of San Isidoro, Covet, Estany, Estibaliz, Frómista, Loarre, Mahamud, Peralada (figure 6), Porqueras, Rebolledo de la Torre, San Pablo del Campo, Sangüesa, Santillana del Mar, and Uncastillo. In France, Airvault, Andlau, Arles, Aulnay, the Bible of Corbie, the Bible of Marchiennes, the Bible of Souvigny, Cahors, Chalon-sur-Saône, Chauvigny (Figure 3), Cluny, Courpiac, Esclottes, Guarbecque, Hastingues-Arthous, the Hortus Deliciarum, Lescure, Mauriac (in the Auvergne), Melay, Moirax, Montpezat, Neuilly-en-Donjon, Nîmes, Poitiers (Sainte-Radegonde Church), Provins, Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire, Saint-Gaudens, the Sauve-Majeure, Targon, Tavant, Thuret, Toirac, Varax, Verdun, and Vézelay. In Italy, Galliano, Modena (figure 4), Parma, Pisa, Sant’Angelo in Formis, and Sovana.

17

Over subsequent centuries, the apple was continually present in the iconography of the original sin. [45] For illustrative purposes, note that in the Gothic...[45] It was frequently used as the forbidden fruit in literature, particularly in the twelfth century by Marie de France, [46] Marie de France, Yonec, v. 152, in Les Lais de Marie...[46] in the thirteenth century by Robert de Boron, [47] Le Roman du Graal: manuscrit de Modène, ed. Bernard...[47] and in the fifteenth century by Sebastian Brandt. [48] Sebastian Brandt, La Nef des fous [Das Narrenschiff],...[48] In paroemiology, this seems to be the meaning of a proverb from the beginning of the thirteenth century: “mieux vaut pomme donnée que mangée” (better an apple given than eaten). [49] Joseph Morawski, ed., Proverbes français antérieurs...[49] In hagiography, the apple is the forbidden fruit in, for example, the Cantigas de Santa María. [50] Alfonso X of Castile, Cantigas de Santa María, 353,...[50] An interesting case also appears in the breviary: the Hail Mary—appearing in the twelfth century from a passage in the New Testament [51] Luke, I, 28, 42. Henri Leclercq, “Marie, mère de Dieu,”...[51]—refers only to a “fruit,” but an anonymous commentator from Northern France specifies at the end of the thirteenth or beginning of the fourteenth century that it concerns the “fruit of the apple tree.” [52] Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Cod. Gall. 34,...[52] Anchored in Western imaginations ever since, the apple has even replaced the fig among modern scholars, in parallel to the cultural process that saw the heart where previously there had been the liver. [53] See Hasenohr, Prier au Moyen Âge: n. 38. Regarding...[53]

Figure 3. - Capital at the entranceway to the choir of the church

18

The reasons behind this almost unanimous choice are unclear, however. We may allude to the more or less widespread presence of the apple throughout all of Western Europe. We may observe the old Celtic symbolism of the apple as the fruit of knowledge. We may recall its symbolic capital as a sign of power, wealth, lies, lust, discord, and transgression. [54] Michel Pastoureau, “Bonum, malum, pomum. Une histoire...[54] We may suppose that just as the garden of Hesperides recalls the Garden of Eden (both sheltering a snake that defends the sacred tree), the apple tree “with fruits of gold” in the Greek myth influenced the medieval interpretation of the biblical account. We may thus argue the ancient association between this tree and Eden, which led to naming the carob the “apple of Paradise” in Hebrew. [55] L. Ginzberg, Les Légendes des juifs, 219, n. 70.[55] We may also consider the authority of Saint Augustine, who hesitantly accepted the possibility of the apple being the fruit of sin, perhaps influenced by the existence of thirty different varieties of apples in the Roman world at the time. [56] Augustine, La Genèse au sens littéral en douze livres...[56] We may wonder especially whether in popular medieval etymology there was not certain confusion between the words malum “badly” and malum “apple” as well as between malus “malicious” and malus “apple tree;” these phonetic identities may have had semantic implications indicating the evil character of the fruit. [57] Among the transformations affecting the Roman world...[57]

19

The increasing popularity of the apple in this role was perhaps also related to its round shape and red color, which drew it closer to the heart, being the organ that was linked to the blood of Christ and that Christianity and its doctrine perceived as the center of the human being. In this sense, the precedents were strong; the doubt surrounding the identity of the forbidden fruit reflected another, more ancient doubt regarding the central organ of the body in the diverse cultures that, in a more or less direct way, provided the foundations for medieval Christian culture. Whereas the Egyptians perceived the heart as the center of the human being, [58] The Book of the Dead, ed. and trans. E. A. Wallis Budge,...[58] the Hebrews attributed sacred powers to the liver, while regarding the heart as the seat of feelings and wisdom, and the source of life. [59] See, for example, Genesis, 20:5; Job, 9:4; Proverbs,...[59] The two organs fought for the role of the principle of life among the Babylonians [60] Alexandre Piankoff, Le “Cœur” dans les textes égyptiens...[60] and Greeks. [61] In mythology, the liver is the central element in the...[61]

20

In the third century BC, the medical school in Alexandria established the physiological model that went on to prevail throughout the following two millennia: the brain was attributed with neurological sensitivity, movement, and functions, the heart with enthusiasm and the vital spirit. [62] Mary J. Carruthers, The Book of Memory: A Study of...[62]

21

Isidore of Seville affirmed that in the heart “lies all concern and the source of knowledge, [as] with the heart we understand, and with the liver we love.” [63] Isidore of Seville, Seville’s Etymologies: The complete...[63] Sharing his opinion, more than five centuries later, Hildegard of Bingen considered the attribute of the heart to be knowledge and that of the liver to be sensitivity. [64] Hildegard of Bingen, Causae et curae, II, 1–12, ed....[64] For her, the heart was the point of contact between the body and the soul, the terrestrial and the divine; it was “almost the essence of the body [since it] governs it,” being the residence of the soul. [65] Hildegard of Bingen, Scivias, I, 4, 16, ed. A. Führkötten...[65] It is thus not by chance that she imagined the forbidden fruit to be an apple. [66] Hildegard of Bingen, Scivias, III, 2, 21, ed. Führkötten...[66] For Saint Bernard, the heart was the seat of faith. [67] Bernard of Clairvaux, In Nativitate Beatae Mariae,...[67] For his adversary, Pierre Abélard, when God wants to examine the feelings of men, he probes their hearts. [68] Pierre Abélard, Ethics, ed. and trans. D. E. Luscombe...[68] Chrétien de Troyes considered the heart to be the place where mystical union occurs with our purest self, [69] Chrétien de Troyes, Cligès, vv. 708–716, trans. Micha,...[69] since this organ is the seat of love, [70] Chrétien de Troyes, vv. 4302–4306, trans. Micha, 1...[70] memory, [71] Chrétien de Troyes, Le Conte du Graal ou le Roman de...[71] and life. [72] Chrétien de Troyes, Cligès, vv. 3668–3673, trans. Micha,...[72] Vincent of Beauvais regarded the heart as the principal “spiritual organ.” [73] Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum historiale, I, 32 (Graz:...[73] The evolution in the hierarchy of meanings did not affect the importance attributed to the heart: while troubadours and courtly love previously spoke of “the hearing of the heart,” the eye and the heart were later associated. [74] Guy Paoli, “La relation œil-cœur. Recherches sur la...[74] At the start of the thirteenth century, a poem established the relationship between the heart and the phallus, between feeling and sexuality, by telling the story of a character killed by the husbands of his mistresses, who tore off these two organs and gave them to their adulterous wives to eat. [75] Lai d’Ignauré, trans. Danielle Régnier-Bohler, in Le...[75]

22

The new collective feeling in relation to the heart was present in the idioms that were forming. From the Classical Latin cor, synonymous with “memory” (also with “thought,” “intelligence,” and “heart” [76] This is still the meaning of the word for Saint Augustine...[76]) were derived “recorder” in French, ricordari in Italian, and recordar in Castilian and Portuguese. Although the heart as the center of memory appears in the root of the Castilian and Portuguese words decorar, this link is even more explicit in the phrases par cœur in French (appearing in around 1200), de cor in Portuguese (dating to the thirteenth century), and by heart in English (attested around 1374 and based on the acceptance of herte as “memory,” which existed from the start of the twelfth century [77] Rey, Dictionnaire historique, 1:442; José Pedro Machado,...[77]). However, the heart was not only regarded as the seat of memory. In English, it was associated with courage (towards 825), emotions (1050), love (about 1175), and character (1225). [78] The Oxford English Dictionary, 5:159.[78] In medieval Italian, the heart (core prior to 1250, then cuore) was reputed as being the center of feelings, emotions, and thoughts. [79] Manlio Cortelazzo and Paolo Zolli, Dizionario etimologico...[79]

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Most often, the association occurred between the organ and a feeling, thought to derive from it directly, as attested in various Western languages: curage in French (appearing in 1080, then written as courage and used as a synonym of cœur “heart” until the seventeenth century), coraggio (prior to 1257) in Italian, coraje in Castilian and coragem in Portuguese (both from the fourteenth century), herzhaftigleit in German (from the fifteenth century derived from herz “heart,” written herza in the eighth century), and courage in English (around 1500, written as corage in around 1300). English presents an interesting case, showing the psychocultural hesitation between the liver and heart as the seat of positive feelings: the compound liver-heartedness, literally “without liver or heart,” designates the idea of “cowardly.” Further evidence of the moral importance attached to this organ is found in the word cordial, which initially carried the neutral meaning of “relative to the heart” and later acquired the positive sense of “nice” and “pleasant,” not only in French, English, Castilian, and Portuguese, but also in Italian (cordial) and in German (herzlich).

24

The symbolic value of the heart in the twelfth century was also seen in Jewish culture. Whereas the Pirkei Rabbi Nathan, a text predating the tenth century, establishes several comparisons between the parts of the universe and parts of the human body without even citing the heart, in the second half of the twelfth century, Maimonides considered it the center of the human body. [80] Samuel S. Kottek, “Microcosm and Macrocosm According...[80] He was probably influenced by Aristotle, for whom the human body developed from the heart, which was a very influential idea after the Christian rediscovery of the Stagirite. Thus, some Romanesque representations of the creation of Adam depict him coming to life not by a “breath on the face” (in faciem eius spiraculum vitae) as the Bible states, [81] Genesis, 2:7.[81] but by the hand of God touching his heart. This is the case, for example, in a manuscript from the abbey of Saint-Martial de Limoges, [82] Breviarium ad usum S. Martialis Lemovicensis (Paris:...[82] which was illuminated in around the year 1100, as well as in a relief carved a few years later on the northern facade of the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela.

25

The importance of the heart in Romanesque culture also transpires in its growing metaphorical use. On the political level, it became the “king” of the human body in the same way as the king is the “heart” of the social body. [83] Jacques Le Goff, “Head or Heart? The Political Use...[83] On the literary level, the rhetorical figure of the heart spread like a book in which an ordinary individual, saint, or even Christ could write their amorous (including erotic) and spiritual emotions. [84] On the evolution of this metaphor, see Ernst Robert...[84] On the architectural level, the cruciform design of churches situated the altar—the place where the mystery of the incarnation was reproduced—in the position occupied by the heart. [85] It is no coincidence that in Medieval French, the same...[85] On the liturgical level, the Christianization of the Holy Grail rendered it the receptacle holding the blood of Christ, symbolically transforming it into a heart. [86] Begoña Aguiriano, “Le cœur dans Chrétien,” Senefiance...[86] On the geographical level, in the same way as the heart was the center of the human body, the sepulcher of the Lord was the heart of the world, according to a sermon by Peter the Venerable. [87] Peter the Venerable, In laudem sepulcri Domini, PL,...[87] On the linguistic level, from the thirteenth century, the word designated the center of something in French and Italian, as it did later in English (beginning of the fourteenth century) and Castilian (sixteenth century). [88] This meaning was applied to the city by Aristotle in...[88] In this cultural context, when the Abbess of Bingen declared that Adam made of clay was merely an empty body before being filled with a heart, liver, lungs, stomach, and internal organs by God, [89] Hildegard of Bingen, Causae et curae, II, 20, ed. Kaiser,...[89] she seemingly established a hierarchy of organs. Thus, the growing importance of the Sacred Heart of Jesus in spirituality from the twelfth century seems to have been the conclusion of a long process in which this organ gained in medical and symbolic value. [90] Jean-Vincent Bainvel, “Cœur sacré de Jésus (dévotion...[90]

Exegetical Doubt

 

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An interesting example of the rivalry between the fig and the apple in terms of the symbolic function of forbidden fruit is seen in the sculptures on the western facade of the small rural Castilian church of San Quirce, close to Burgos, which was completed in 1147. Here, eleven modillions illustrate several episodes of the myth of Adam, from the creation of protoplasm to the judgment of Cain, while in between them, ten metopes depict scenes that are sometimes difficult to relate to those of the modillions, although each stage of the cycle is identified by inscriptions. [91] These inscriptions are now almost illegible, but they...[91] The ensemble forms an iconographic discourse with two aspects: the subject is evil, as much at its origin (original sin) as in some of its manifestations (sex, death, and bodily impurity).

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This latter topic is visible on the two metopes at each end, where the artist depicts a man defecating. This was not a simple curiosity or obscenity, as the placement of these scenes is significant: the first being compared with the sin of Adam and the second with that of Cain. In fact, an inscription close to the representation of the original sin illuminates the link between the events depicted on the metope and modillion: MALA CAGO. No doubt, the man who speaks and acts in this way is both the paradisiacal Adam who has just eaten the forbidden fruits as well as the symbol of all human beings, his “posthumous sons,” as defined in a contemporaneous sermon. [92] Julien of Vézelay, Sermons, XV, ed. and trans. Damien...[92] However, the exact interpretation of the inscription poses an important problem.

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A few decades ago, historiography considered this a pun, as the individual excretes both “apples” and “evils.” [93] Pérez de Urbel and Whitehill, “La iglesia románica...[93] This interpretation is based on three elements: the facade’s inscription, a capital inside the church on the same subject that undoubtedly depicts an apple, and finally, the ancient roots of the tradition perceiving the forbidden food of Paradise in this fruit. However, on the modillion’s scene, the forbidden fruits rather resemble figs, an impression reinforced by a nonformalistic reasoning. Indeed, the fig traditionally had an explicitly sexual character, while the apple, though related to Aphrodite, the goddess of love, had a more sensual, rather than explicitly sexual connotation. This is shown, for example, in an Icelandic saga from the thirteenth century in which the love philter is an apple, or even in some mythologies, where the rejuvenating and beautifying virtues attributed to the fruit remain in the etymology of “pomade,” a scented, cosmetic, and curative substance with apple. [94] See Pastoureau, “Bonum, malum, pomum;” Rey, Dictionnaire...[94]

29

The fig’s association with sexuality is seemingly expressed during the third quarter of the twelfth century in the iconographic design of the doorway of Barret Church in Poitou. Here, the three capitals on each side establish a spatial and symbolic relationship, which was very common in the Romanesque imagination. Looking at them, starting with the capital closest to the entry on the left-hand side, the first represents the original sin with the fig as the fruit, the second depicts a character in a very obscene pose, and the third, which is double, shows an eagle on one side and a monster devouring a sheep on the other. Symmetrically, on the right-hand side, the first capital depicts lions leaning against each other, the second, two doves embracing, and the final one, a centaur and a dove. The message seems rather evident: sin (that is to say, the fig and sex) leads to unnatural and erotic acts, thus to the death of the soul, which is devoured by the demon (eagle and monster); on the other hand, those who join Christ (the lion) will be innocent (doves), embracing peace and purity, thus calming the animal that exists in every human being (centaurs).

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Indeed, the sexual meaning of the fig was accepted within traditional culture and did not disappear with its Christianization. Throughout the centuries, the fig tree was associated with Dionysus, and, at least in its Roman version, Bacchus. The image of the god was always carved in the wood of the fig tree, with a basket of figs being the most sacred object at the festivals that celebrated him, the Bacchanalia. As the protector of orchards, particularly of the fig tree, Dionysus was confused with his son, Priapus, born of Aphrodite. In the processions paying homage to this god of fertility, who was endowed with a disproportionately large penis, there was a large phallus carved in the wood of the fig tree, the leaves of which were also seen as an ithyphallic symbol. [95] Brosse, Mythologie des arbres, 290–291. The fig’s sexual...[95] This notion of sexual exuberance is also found in a version of an episode of the Dionysus myth by the Christian apologist Clement of Alexandria (around 150–250). [96] Clement of Alexandria, Protreptique, II, 34, 3–4, ed....[96] In a similar manner, although he calls the liver iecur and not ficatum, Isidore of Seville implicitly makes this link by affirming that in this organ “lies pleasure and concupiscence. [97] Isidore of Seville, Seville’s Etymologies, XI, I, 125,...[97]

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The popular gesture of “making the fig” should also be mentioned here, associated with the fruit through its name and shape. This association is observed in Castilian, in which two words (higo/higa) appeared at the same time, in around 1140. [98] Joan Corominas, Diccionario critico etimológico de...[98] This gesture assumed “an obvious sexual connotation” [99] Jean-Claude Schmitt, La Raison des gestes dans l’Occident...[99] in the popular tradition of several societies, and even in the medieval West, where it can either denote the female sex organ (predominant meaning), its state of excitation (in this case, the tip of the thumb between the index and middle fingers imitates a swollen clitoris), copulation (the thumb is the penis between the vaginal lips), or a phallus (rarer meaning). [100] Desmond Morris et al., Os gestos: suas origens e significado...[100] It is probably with this latter meaning that formerly, in Bavaria, a young man confirmed his intention to marry by sending a silver or gold fig to his lover, who could refuse the demand by returning the gift or accept it by returning a silver heart. [101] José Leite de Vasconcelos, A figa (Porto: Araújo e...[101] The far la fica was an aggressive and derogatory gesture frequently used by Italians in the Middle Ages, not only on a daily basis, but also in emotionally charged situations. In 1162, angry with the Milanese who had forced his wife to mount a mule backwards, thus facing the tail of the animal—a very ancient position signifying contempt—Frederick I Barbarossa seized the city and, on penalty of death, forced the prisoners to remove a fig from the anus of a mule with their teeth. [102] Quoted by Leite de Vasconcelos, A figa, 80; by Jerome...[102] The inhabitants of Pistoia had carved into their castle of Carmignano two large arms with hands making the sign of the fig towards the enemy city of Florence—which, humiliated, went on to conquer the place in 1228. [103] Giovanni Villani, Cronica, VI, 5, ed. Ignazio Moutier...[103] In Dante, a robber condemned to Hell makes the sign of the fig against God Himself. [104] Dante Alighieri, Divina Commedia, Inferno, XXV, 1–3,...[104] The gesture and expression ficha facere are found, with the same derisory meaning, in all Romanesque cultures, and even outside of them. [105] Leite de Vasconcelos, A figa, 42–56, 72, 76–81, and...[105] Although this gesture has a talismanic function, that of casting off the evil eye and other dangers, this seems to be precisely due to its sexual connotation, that of warding off sterility in life. [106] Leite de Vasconcelos, A figa, 27–41, 57–59, and 91...[106]

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In this sense, the scene of the paramount sin depicted on the third modillion at San Quirce, in addition to adopting the ancient interpretation of the original sin as a sexual sin, [107] See Martin Elze, Tatian und seine Theologie (Göttingen:...[107] prepared the observer to encounter, three metopes along and just after the expulsion from Paradise, a representation of the carnal relationship of protoplasm. [108] Pérez de Urbel and Whitehill (“La iglesia románica...[108] Thus, according to our hypothesis, the word malum would not have been used here with its specific meaning of “apple,” but rather in the broader sense of “fruit with pulp” (as opposed to nux, “fruit with hard skin”), [109] Although the former meaning was eventually enforced...[109] so that the pun of the inscription would signify “to expel evils and fruits.” Whether conscious or not of the inscription’s ambiguity, the sculptor at San Quirce thus revealed the interesting coexistence of two exegetical traditions, that of the apple, present in the representation of the original sin inside the church, and that of the fig, visible on its facade. An even more meaningful coexistence if it is accepted that a single artist carved both the capital and the modillion. [110] A situation that de Lojendio (Castilla 1) regards as...[110]

33

This exegetical doubt is not an isolated case appearing in a monastic community in the center of Castile. The formation of the French word “pomme” provides an interesting indication in this context. Although, from the beginning of the fifth century, the Latin word pomum (“fruit” in a generic sense) gained the specific meaning of “fruit of the apple tree” in Northern Italy and the majority of the Ibero-Romance area—a meaning preserved in the Provençal and Catalan poma—Italian, Castilian, Portuguese, and Galician eventually favored the traditional form malum, from which they derived mela, manzana, maçã and mazá, respectively. [111] Both the Spanish word manzana (attested in 1112 as...[111] Pomum preserved its broad sense in these four languages in the form pomo (poma in the case of Galician). By the same evolution, the collective forms pomario in Italian and pomar in Castilian, Portuguese, Provençal, and Galician derived from the Classical Latin pomarium.

34

In contrast, the medieval Latin of Gaul had used, from the end of the eighth century, the word pomarius to denote the apple tree, from which derived the vernacular name of this specific fruit (pume) from the generic term (pomum) in 1080. [112] The word appeared in the Chanson de Roland as pume;...[112] At the same date appeared the French word verger (orchard), denoting land planted with various fruit trees, taken from the Latin viridiarum (from viridis, “green”). Faced with these facts, it is not absurd to assume that the French linguistic evolution unconsciously avoided the supposedly negative character of this fruit, as expressed through the word malum. Furthermore, the apple is a positive symbol in Celtic culture, [113] Françoise Le Roux and Christian-Joseph Guyonvarc’h,...[113] which was heavily present in the territory of the future France, particularly in the context of the “folkloric reaction” of the twelfth century. [114] Jacques Le Goff, “Culture cléricale et traditions folkloriques...[114]

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In accordance with its archetypical character as the fruit par excellence, the word was used in the formation of many syntagms, and even, around 1256, in the curious expression “pomme de paradis” (apple of paradise) denoting the banana. [115] Rey, Dictionnaire historique. It is interesting to...[115] Although in terms of vocabulary, we note a French resistance to the association of the apple with the fruit of sin, in terms of iconography, as seen above, such identification was established without problem. This was also the case in popular literary works, such as the first French theatrical text from the middle of the twelfth century or a sermon from the same time. [116] Respectively Le Mystère Adam: Ordo representationis...[116] Similarly, in this and the subsequent century, there were various love stories generally beginning with a betrayal (hearts metaphorically devoured) and ending with the death of the two protagonists (one of them literally devouring the other’s heart without realizing it [117] Accounts collected in Régnier-Bohler, ed., Le Cœur...[117]). To a certain extent, these stories consciously or unconsciously rewrote the drama of the original demise: betraying the confidence of the Creator (“from the tree . . . you will not eat”) by eating the apple/heart (“the knowledge of good and evil”), the human being was the cause of his own perdition (“the day you eat of it, you will surely die”), as Adam and Eve had hearts full of arrogance (“you will be like gods” [118] Genesis, 2:17; 3:5. On the close relationship between...[118]).

The Tree and Androgyny

 

36

This search for the identity of the Romanesque forbidden fruit must still consider the tree in relation to the primordial couple. The position of these three elements provides some important information. One of the symbolic and physical solutions used was to portray the primi parentes on the same side of the tree, with Eve always being closer to it (figure 4). The most common composition placed the tree between Adam and Eve, as already found on the sarcophagus of San Justo de la Vega in Leon, dated to the end of third century or the beginning of the fourth century and currently held in the archaeological museum of Madrid. It would be simplistic to think that this position on both sides of the tree simply responded to the desire for symmetry in Romanesque art, [119] As considered Guerra, Simbología románica, 107.[119] because the form is almost always a fragment of the contents that emerged. [120] Gerardus Van Der Leeuw, La Religion dans son essence...[120] In the eleventh to thirteenth centuries, this scheme probably referred to two very pressing questions related to the contemporary phenomenon of the sacralization of marriage.

Figure 4. - Relief on the western façade of Modena Cathedral (Emilia-Romagna), circa 1100.

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On the one hand, by placing Adam and Eve at an equal distance from the tree, the iconography referred to a certain social egalitarianism and moral leveling between man and woman, even if the snake is almost always turned towards the woman. The side occupied by each character varied. We have already considered the position of Eve on the right-hand side of the tree as an “iconographic tradition,” a scheme with only three exceptions, in Saint-Antonin, Bruniquel, and Lescure. [121] Jean-Claude Fau, “Découverte à Saint-Antonin (Tarn-et-Garonne)...[121] In fact, the woman appears on the left in several other cases: for example on the sculptures in Anzy-le-Duc, Airvault, Butrera, Cergy, Cervatos, Covet, Embrun, Gémil, Girona, Lavaudieu, Lescar, Loarre, Luc-de-Béarn, Mahamud, Manresa, Moirax, Montcaret, Peralada (figure 6), Saint-Étienne-de-Grès, Saint-Gaudens, Sangüesa, San Juan de la Peña, Toirac, Verona, and Vézelay. Similarly, on the frescos in Aimé, Fossa, and San Justo in Segovia, on the illuminations of the Bible of Burgos, the Exultet 3 of Troia, and the Hortus Deliciarum, on a metal medallion from the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, and on the mosaics in Monreale and Trani.

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In addition, the central position of the tree, separating Adam and Eve, insinuated a rupture of the initial unity, at least on the psychological level. The tree, that is to say knowledge, revealed the existence of contradictory traits in human beings, made in the image and resemblance of God, the androgyne par excellence. “God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female created he them:” [122] Genesis, 1:27.[122] this is why the human being was initially double, and thus, inherently complete and microcosmic. [123] There were several types of microcosmic man in the...[123] Removing Eve from the rib of Adam was a surgery of separation, because they were formed from the same bones, they were “one flesh.” [124] Genesis, 2:23–24.[124] In this manner, the sacred text was interpreted from first half of the first century, initially by the Jew, Philo of Alexandria, and subsequently by Ambroise, Augustine, Gregory the Great, Isidore, the pseudo-Remigius of Auxerre, Guibert of Nogent, Pierre Lombard, Bernard, and others, who all regarded Eve as the image of the woman from within man. [125] Michel Planque, “Ève,” in Dictionnaire de spiritualité...[125]

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Augustine, in particular, implicitly recognized the androgyny of the first man when he said that the devil “cannot tempt us only by the means of this animal part, which appears in a single man as an image or a model of woman.” [126] Augustine, Del Genesis contra los maniqueos [De Genesi...[126] Following a reasoning based on that of Saint Paul, he saw Adam-Eve as the complementarity of spirit and flesh, a comparison that was adopted by many thinkers in the Romanesque period. Since in the Bible, “Adam” was originally the generic name denoting a human being (Genesis, 1:19) and only later became the name of a person (Genesis, 3:17), Augustine interpreted the word “man” (Genesis, 1:26) as “human nature.” [127] Augustine, De Trinitate, I, 7, PL, vol. 42, col. 8...[127] Saint Anselme, who was very influential in the twelfth century, agreed that “Adam” should initially include Adam and Eve. [128] Anselm of Canterbury, La Conception virginale et le...[128] While trying to explain how Adam’s prohibition of the fruit also implied Eve, Petrus Comestor stated that it was transmitted to the woman through man; [129] Petrus Comestor, Historia scholastica, 15, PL, vol....[129] thus implicitly suggesting the unity of the two individuals, and the androgyny of the being to whom it was forbidden to eat the fruit.

40

While the medieval Church did not formally accept the divine and the androgyny of Adam, it was still familiar with it. It is thus found in a text from the New Testament: “There is neither male nor female: for you are all one in Jesus Christ.” [130] Galatians, 3:28.[130] This appeared in an apocryphal text: “When you make the two one, and when you make the inside like the outside and the outside like the inside, and the above like the below, and when you make the male and the female one and the same, so that the male not be male nor female . . . then will you enter the kingdom [of God].” [131] Il Vangelo di Tommaso, 22, trans. Mario Erbetta (Casale...[131] This was a noncontemptible part of the thought of Clement of Alexandria [132] In a piece of literature that is today lost, Hypotyposes,...[132] (around 150–215), Origen [133] According to him, based on Luke, 20:36, there will...[133] (185–254), Gregory of Nyssa [134] Gregory of Nyssa, La Création de l’homme [De opificio...[134] (around 330–390) and, through them, of Johannes Scotus Eriugena [135] Johannes Scotus Eriugena, Periphyseon, IV, PL, vol....[135] (around 810–870). It undoubtedly belonged to the cultural and psychological milieu of the first Christian centuries. [136] Wayne A. Meeks, “The Image of the Androgyne: Some Uses...[136]

41

While the androgyne of Eden had disappeared, it was because of sin. For some thinkers, the human being henceforth became aware of its duplicity, since that time it was broken and characterized by the genitals, which was visible proof of the original sin: sexus comes from sectio (“cut,” “separation”), a term derived from secare “to cross,” which only assumed a specifically sexual meaning in the Middle Ages. [137] Du Cange, Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis,...[137] It is thus not by chance that Adam said “me” for the first time after the sin. [138] “Mulier, quam dedisti mihi sociam, dedit mihi de ligno,...[138] Although, undeniably, the original sin and sex were closely linked, the way in which events had transpired was the subject of debate. [139] Emmanuele Testa, Il peccato di Adamo nella Patristica...[139] One stream of thought interpreted the sin as a sexual offence: for example, the Jew Philon and some Church fathers, including Clement of Alexandria and Saint Ambrose. [140] Philo of Alexandria, De opificio mundi, 151–152, trans....[140] In the Romance period, the majority of theologists from the school of William of Champeaux (1070–1121) also considered that this sin involved concupiscence, although Guillaume himself saw it as an act of disobedience in which sensualitas managed to dominate ratio. [141] Odon Lottin, “Les théories du péché originel au XIIe...[141]

42

Another group reversed the question, seeing sex rather as a consequence of the sin. The Physiologus, an influential allegorical, zoological treatise translated into Latin in the fifth century, stated that the elephant and its partner, which “personified” Adam and Eve, were unaware of intercourse until the female had eaten the fruit of the Mandragora officinarum and given it to the male: “because of that, they had to leave Paradise.” [142] El Fisiólogo: bestiário medieval, 20, ed. Francis J....[142] The main proponent of this train of thought was Saint Augustine, according to whom the human being before the sin practiced sex without concupiscence. [143] Augustine, La Genèse au sens littéral [De Genesi ad...[143] The error of the first couple would then have been one of pride, which led to the error of disobedience and then to carnal error. [144] In the first part of his interpretation, Augustine...[144] Another proponent of this idea was Johannes Scotus Eriugena in the eighth century, who considered that before the sin, the human being was only one, and that the resulting division of the sexes would cease in the eternal life. [145] Johannes Scotus Eriugena, Periphyseon, V, 20, PL, vol....[145] His thought continued to exert a certain influence; in the fourteenth century, it led Meister Eckhart to regard “any division” to be “bad as such,” thus perceiving the number two as the sign of the fall. [146] Meister Eckhart, Commentaire de la Genèse, 88 and 90,...[146] The Romanesque representations of the initial sin hesitated in choosing between these theological positions. Showing a preference for the second, several images accorded sexual attributes to Adam and Eve just after the ingestion of the fruit: for Adam, generally a beard [147] For Hildegard of Bingen, Causae et curae, II, 5–7,...[147] (figures 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5), seldom a penis (figure 5), and for Eve, usually breasts (figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6). A minority of images seem to attribute the initial sin to a sexual act, an iconographic and theological concept that was perhaps expressed for the first time on the bronze door of Hildesheim Cathedral in Germany between 1011 and 1015. [148] William Tronzo, “The Hildesheim Doors: An Iconographic...[148] Here, Adam appears to the left of the tree and behind him is another tree on which a small dragon is standing. Eve is to the right, close to another tree with the snake. The fruit is the apple, one in right hand of Adam and the other in the right hand of Eve, being stretched out towards Adam. There is another apple in the left hand of Eve, whose folded arm merges with her vagina. A similar illustration was used in Rebolledo de la Torre in 1186. In the Alardus Bible, the snake that gives the fruit to Eve is at the height of her vagina, recalling a male sexual organ about to penetrate her. The southernmost façade of the Church of Santa María in Sangüesa in Navarre, which dates from the second half of the twelfth century, seems to portray the same design. Here, the scene of sin is situated immediately below the personification of Lust, showing a woman whose naked breasts are attacked by toads and snakes. [149] Despite the great diversity of iconographical material...[149] This association between lust and the original sin was not uncommon; as Sangüesa was on St. James’s Way, the most travelled road by Occitans and Italians, we may hypothesize that its iconographic message expressed the opinion of many pilgrims on the subject. In this sense, this image from Navarre ratified at least two other images known to these pilgrims.

43

The first image from Provence, dated to the second quarter of the twelfth century, is located a few kilometers from Tarascon in Saint-Etienne-du-Grès, on the tympanum of Saint-Gabriel’s chapel, where Daniel appears next to the original sin (prefiguration of Christ, the new Adam) with lions (a common symbol of lust): an opposition of scenes suggesting the sexual signification of the sin. As already mentioned, it is true that the contrast between the two scenes did not necessarily mean that the artist interpreted the sin “as a vulgar sin of lust, but its consequence was to introduce turmoil and even shame into a domain that had emerged wholly pure from the hands of the Creator.” [150] Gérard de Champeaux and Sébastien Sterckx, Introduction...[150] However, the authors of this comment—a longstanding phenomenon in medieval art studies—seem inclined towards adapting the intentions of the Romanesque artist to the theologically correct reading, rather than considering other interpretative possibilities beyond the domain of ecclesiastical culture. It is significant, for example, that on the same area of the tympanum, the two scenes are chronologically inversed, first portraying Daniel and then the sin.

44

The second image from Italy figures on the mosaic of Otranto (1163–1165). The branches of the forbidden tree pass between the legs of the characters, insinuating the sexual nature of the sin. This seems all the more evident given that Adam and Eve are each situated in a circle, rendering the characters isolated, separated, and autonomous entities in their respective domains, domains most certainly resulting from the primordial androgyne being cut in two. This assumption is reinforced by the fact that the forbidden fruit is represented as the fig (with its strong sexual connotation, as already seen) and illustrated in a suggestive way by the mosaic artist, the priest Pantaleon: the thinner part of the fig held by Eve is facing downwards and placed between her breasts, as though forming a third breast; the fig in Adam’s hand is in the inverse position, reminding us of the male genitals. [151] The same sexual presentation appeared towards the end...[151]

Figure 5. - Illumination from the in Troia (Puglia), Archivio Capitulario, middle of the eleventh century.

 

Figure 6. - Capital in the western gallery of the monastery cloister

45

Taking the geographical distribution of the Romanesque images into account, we see that the function attributed to the fig as the forbidden fruit was mainly expressed in the cultural milieu related to the Greco-Judaic world, while the apple appeared in association with the Romano-Christian world. This is perhaps due the specific links established in these cultural areas between each fruit and a bodily organ. In the images where the fig is used, Eve is often portrayed with the fruit on the right-hand side of the tree, like the liver in the human body. [152] In this regard, I evidently mean a statistical trend,...[152] In the images with the apple, the tendency is for Eve and the fruit to appear on the left-hand side, just like the heart in the body (figures 3 and 6). In both instances, the forbidden fruit was the symbol of the rupture of the unity of Eden and the birth of the disjointed humanity that characterizes history.

Notes

 

[1]

On the methodological issues affecting the construction and analysis of an iconographic corpus, some good comments have been made by Jérôme Baschet in “Inventivité et sérialité des images médiévales. Pour une approche iconographique élargie,” Annales HSS 51 (1996): 93–133.

 

[2]

Genesis, 2:16–17; 3:1–12.

 

[3]

Jeremiah, 1:14. Jerome, Expositio quattuor Evangeliorum, Patrologia Latina (PL), vol. 30, col. 549d–550a.

 

[4]

Midrash Rabbah, Genesis, XV, 7, trans. Bernard Maruani and Albert Cohen-Arazi (Paris: Verdier, 1987), 1:183 [Midrash Rabbah, Genesis trans. Harry Freedman and Maurice Simon, 2 vols. (London: Soncino Press, 1939)]; Genesis Rabbah I (Genesis 1–11), trans. Luis Vegas Montaner (Estella: Verbo Divino, 1994), 188–189 [Genesis Rabbah I, trans. Samuel Rapaport (London: Routledge, 1907)].

 

[5]

Following the interpretation of Marcel Durliat, Pyrénées romanes (La-Pierre-Qui-Vire: Zodiaque, 1978), 42.

 

[6]

Vita Adae, 36–42: “The ‘Vita Adae’,” ed. J. H. Mozley, The Journal of Theological Studies (1929): 121–149 (English manuscripts); “La Vie latine d’Adam et Ève,” ed. Jean-Pierre Pettorelli, Archivum latinitatis Medii Aevi (1998): 5–104 (German manuscripts); 2 Henoc 22:8: Slavonic Apocalypse of Enoch, trans. Francis I. Andersen, in The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, ed. James H. Charlesworth, 2 vols. (London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1983–1985), 1:92–221; L’Évangile de Nicodème, 19, ed. André Vaillant (Geneva, Paris: Droz, 1968), 59–61.

 

[7]

In this instance, the capital over the door of Miègeville, dated to around 1100–1118, does not depict the scene of the sin, but rather that of the expulsion from Paradise, where the fruit behind Adam and Eve (the couple being situated between God on one side and an angel on the other) is the grapevine.

 

[8]

Midrash Rabbah, Genesis, XV, 7 and XIX, 5, trans. Maruani and Cohen-Arazi, [trans. Freedman and Simon], 184 and 217; Genesis Rabbah I, trans. Vegas Montaner, 190–225. Ethiopic Apocalypse of Enoch, XXXII, 3–6, trans. Ephraim Isaac, in The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 1:28. Greek Apocalypse of Baruch, 4–8, trans. Harry E. Gaylord, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 1:667; Apocalypse of Abraham, XXXIII, 7, trans. Ryszard Rubinkiewicz and Horace G. Lunt, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 1:700. In the first century AD, Eliezer ben Hurcanus’s Chapters only specifies that “Noah found a grapevine coming from the Garden of Eden:” Los Capítulos de Rabbí Eliezer, XXIII, 4, trans. Miguel Pérez Fernandez, (Valencia: Institución San Jerónimo, 1984), 174. Louis Ginzberg nevertheless believes that this text probably alludes to a fragment from the tree of knowledge: Les Légendes des juifs [1909], trans. Gabrielle Sed-Rajna (Paris: Éd. du Cerf, 1997), 1:302, n. 59. According to the same author (Les Légendes des juifs, 219, n. 70), “the oldest and widespread opinion identifies the forbidden fruit with the grape, which traces back to an ancient mythological idea considering wine to be the beverage of the gods.”

 

[9]

David Romano, “Jueus a la Catalunya carolingia i dels primers comtes (876–1100),” in Exposiciò dins la formació de l’Europa medieval (Girona: Ajuntament de Girona, 1985), 113–119. Hilário Franco Júnior, “Le pouvoir de la parole: Adam et les animaux dans la tapisserie de Gérone,” Médiévales 25 (1993): 113–128.

 

[10]

Arturo Graf, Il Mito del Paradiso terrestre (1892; reprint, Rome: Edizioni del Graal, 1982), 65; Gioacchino Volpe, Movimenti religiosi e sette ereticali nella società medievale italiana: secoli XI–XIV fourth ed. (Florence: Sansoni, 1972), 17–40; Cinzio Violante, La Società milanese nell’età precomunale (Bari: Laterza, 1974), 220–231. Priests in Spain in the seventh century offered a bunch of grapes to believers during the Eucharist, which could also be a reaction against the idea of the grapevine as the forbidden fruit (third Council of Braga [675], prologue and canon 1: Concílios visigóticos e hispano-romanos, ed. and trans. José Vives (Barcelona and Madrid: CSIC, Instituto Enrique Florez, 1963), 371–373).

 

[11]

Michel Tardieu, Trois Mythes gnostiques: Adam, Éros et les animaux d’Égypte dans un écrit de Nag Hammadi (II, 5) (Paris: Études augustiniennes, 1974), particularly 88–89, 142–144, and 166–169.

 

[12]

Paul Deschamps, “Notes sur la sculpture romane en Bourgogne,” Gazette des Beaux-Arts (1922): 61–80.

 

[13]

Deschamps, “Notes sur la sculpture.”

 

[14]

Joseph de Ghellinck, “L’eucharistie au XIIe siècle en Occident,” in Dictionnaire de théologie catholique (Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 1913), vol. 5, col. 1233–1302. Iconography was also influenced by the phenomenon in which the Crucified was depicted as a bunch of grapes, as seen on the thirteenth-century metal relief on the door of the Church of Sion in Switzerland. This was reproduced by Erich Neumann, The Great Mother: An Analysis of the Archetype, trans. Ralph Mannheim (1955; reprint, Princeton (N. J.): Princeton University Press, 1972), pl. 114.

 

[15]

Roger Dion, Histoire de la vigne et du vin en France des origines au XIXe siècle (Paris: author publication, 1959), 245–247.

 

[16]

Auguste Gaudel, “Péché originel,” in Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, vol. XII-1, col. 441 [quotation back-translated from the French].

 

[17]

Jacques Brosse, Mythologie des arbres (Paris: Plon, 1989), 299–300. The purity attributed to the olive rendered the olive tree the tree of life par excellence, as seen above, n.5.

 

[18]

Robert Saint-Jean and Jean Nougaret, Vivarais-Gévaudan romans (La Pierre-Qui-Vire: Zodiaque, 1991), 157–158. La Nuit des temps, 75.

 

[19]

Genesis, 3:7.

 

[20]

John, 1:48. This relationship between the fig and knowledge can be traced back to classical paganism: Plato, for example, called this fruit “the friend of philosophers,” according to Éloïse Mozzani, Le Livre des superstitions: mythes, croyances et légendes (Paris: Robert Laffont, 1995), 746.

 

[21]

Matthew, 21:19. Paul Sébillot, Le Folklore de France, vol. 6, La Flore (1906; reprint, Paris: Imago, 1985), 21; Mozzani, Le Livre des superstitions, 746.

 

[22]

Stuttgart Psalter, around 810 (Stuttgart: Württembergische Landes-bibliothek, Cod. Bibl. 172o 23, fol. 8).

 

[23]

Midrash Rabbah, Genesis XV, 7, trans. Maruani and Cohen-Arazi, 185; Génesis Rabbah I, trans. Vegas Montaner, 190–191.

 

[24]

Life of Adam and Eve (Apocalypse), xx, 4–5, trans. M. D. Johnson, in The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 2:281; Apocalisse di Mosè, trans. Liliana Rosso Ubigli, in Apocrifi dell’Antico Testa-mento, ed. Paolo Sacchi (Turin: UTET, 1989), 2:429; Vida de Adán y Eva (Apocalipsis de Moises), trans. Natalio Fernández Marcos, in Apocrifos del Antiguo Testamento, ed. Alejandro Diez Macho (Madrid: Cristiandad, 1982), 2:330.

 

[25]

Testament of Adam 3c, trans. Stephen E. Robinson, in The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 1:994; Testamento de Adán III, 4 (R II), trans. F. J. Martínez Fernández, in Apocrifos del Antiguo Testamento, 5:433.

 

[26]

Il Combattimento di Adamo, 40, ed. and trans. A. Battista and B. Bagatti (Jerusalem: Franciscan Printing Press, 1982), 110.

 

[27]

Theodoret of Cyrus, Quaestiones in Genesim, II, 28, Patrologia Graeca (PG), vol. LXXX, col. 125 c.

 

[28]

Tertullian, Adversus Marcionem, I, 2, 2, ed. Ernst Kroymann (Turnhout: Brepols, 1954), 443. Corpus christianorum. Series latina, 1; Hugh of Saint Victor, Adnotationes elucidatoriae in Pentateuchon, Patrologia Latina (PL), vol. CLXXV, col. 42 a-b; Pierre Comestor, Historia scholastica, 23, PL, vol. CXCVIII, col. 1073 b-c. Even at the end of the Middles Ages, several authors still thought in this manner: Meister Eckhart, Commentaire de la Genèse, 97 and 205, ed. and trans. Fernand Brunner et al. (Paris: Éd. du Cerf, 1984), 360 and 518. L’Œuvre latine de Maître Eckhart, 1.

 

[29]

Das Tristan-Epos Gottfrieds von Strassburg, v. 17944, ed. Wolfgang Spiewok (Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1989), 251. Deutsche Texte des Mittelalters, 75.

 

[30]

Beryl Smalley, “Andrew of Saint-Victor, Abbot of Wigmore: A Twelfth-Century Hebraist,” Recherches de théologie ancienne et médiévale 10 (1938): 358–373; Beryl Smalley, The Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1983), 149–172 and 179–180; Esra Shereshevsky, “Hebrew Traditions in Peter Comestor’s Historia Scholastica,” The Jewish Quarterly Review 59 (1968–1969): 268–289.

 

[31]

Brosse, Mythologie des arbres, 285–286.

 

[32]

Jean Beleth, Summa de ecclesiasticis officiis, 125, ed. Herbert Douteil (Turnhout: Brepols, 1976), 239–241; Gervase of Tilbury, Otia Imperialia: Recreation for an Emperor, trans. S. E. Banks and J. W. Binns (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002). In the thirteenth century, the theme appeared in several well-known texts, such as La Queste del Saint Graal, ed. Albert Pauphilet (Paris: Honoré Champion, 1980), 210ff. and Jacobus de Voragine’s Golden Legend: Legenda aurea, vulgo Historia Lombardica dicta, LXVIII, ed. Theodor Graesse (1846; reprint, Osnabrück: Otto Zeller, 1969), 303–304.

 

[33]

Exodus, 29:13, 22; Leviticus, 3:4, 10, 15; 4:9; 7:4; 8:16, 25; 9:10, 19.

 

[34]

Tobit, VI, 7.

 

[35]

Hesiod, Théogonie, v. 524, ed. and trans. Paul Mazon, thirteenth reprint (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1996), 51. Coll. des Universités de France [Theogony, trans Hugh G. Evelyn-White (Cambridge, MA: Loeb Classics, 1914)].

 

[36]

Anacreon, “Fragment 33,” vv. 28, 32, in Carmina Anacreontea, ed. Martin L. West (Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1984), 25.

 

[37]

Horace, Odes, IV, 1, 12, ed. and trans. François Villeneuve (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1927), 152 [The Complete Odes and Satires of Horace, trans. Sidney Alexander (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999)].

 

[38]

Plato, Timée, 71 a, d, ed. and trans. Albert Rivaud (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1985), 198 [Timaeus and Critias, ed. Thomas K. Johansen, trans. Desmond Lee (London: Penguin, 1977)].

 

[39]

In the Romanesque period, there was at least one allusion to the Latin Cupid (called only Amores) sending an arrow to the heart: Chrétien de Troyes, Cligès, v. 455, trans. Alexandre Micha (Paris: Honoré Champion, 1982) [Cliges, trans. W. W. Comfort (London: Everyman’s Library, 1914)]. A medieval collection of classical mythology, written between 875 and 1075, says that the gods sent an eagle to punish Prometheus by attacking his heart (not the liver, as Hesiod declared): Premier Mythographe du Vatican, I, 1, 3, ed. Nevio Zorzetti, trans. Jacques Berlioz (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1995), 2. The transposition of the symbolic role of the liver to the heart became so ingrained that modern scholars have more than once taken one for the other, as, for example, the translator of Horace, Odes, ed. and trans. Villeneuve, n.36 or that of Anacreon, Odes, trans. Frédéric Matthews (Paris: Presses Universitaires, 1927), 91.

 

[40]

Jacobus de Voragine, Legenda aurea, XXV, ed. Graesse, 120. Eve

NR. CAT.INTERPRETTITLUL PIESEI

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32 ROXETTE - DRESSED FOR SUCCES - www.youtube.com/watch?v=6FwVD6BQApA

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34 MICHAEL JACKSON BAD - www.youtube.com/watch?v=g9VHQcLKW3c

35 SCORPIONS - BIELIVE IN LOVE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=9d62dWjUDMA

36 SANDRA - LOREEN - www.youtube.com/watch?v=2mLN4ngsZQo

37 FRANCESCO NAPOLI - BALLA, BALLA - www.youtube.com/watch?v=JSl-8Pev_Xo&feature=related

38 QUEEN - RADIO GAGA - www.youtube.com/watch?v=ArbARCeam3I

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40ABBAHAPPY NEW YEAR

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44BLUE SISTEM TESTAMENT D'AMELIA

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48 QUEEN - THE MIRACLE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=XrADb7CHDsc

49 MIDGE URE - IF I WAS - www.youtube.com/watch?v=LtFZlwzVEj8

50 LONDON BOYS - ELLA

51 DEPECHE MODE - ENJOY THE SILENCE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=ncvx8OVWaqg

52MADONNAMATERIAL GIRL

53SKID ROWI REMEMBER YOU

54GINA T.GOOD BYE MY LOVE, GOOD BYE

55 MC HAMMER - PRAY

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57 CINDY LAUPER - TIME AFTER TIME - www.youtube.com/watch?v=3C6AXnnjgqI

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61 PHILL COLLINS - ANOTHER DAY IN PARADISE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=ftlYLcEW_I4

62 ROXETTE - CHANGES

63 TINA TURNER - I DON'T WANNA LOSE YOU - www.youtube.com/watch?v=-FkdIKc7sYw

64 SAMANTHA FOX - NOTHING GONNA STOP ME NOW - www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ow8rsycBQ54

65 NKOTB - STEP BY STEP - www.youtube.com/watch?v=oqWgSKgIDR4

66 FRANCESCO NAPOLI - MONDO MAGICO - www.youtube.com/watch?v=TCL-zcFAOSs

67 GINA T. - IN MY FANTASY - www.youtube.com/watch?v=cPkXZ-P2zAE

68 SONIA - LISTEN TO YOUR HEART - www.youtube.com/watch?v=iaUE-4Qc0P8

69 JASON DONOVAN - TOO MANY BROCKEN HEARTS - www.youtube.com/watch?v=CR3pQpqeqSc

70 JOHN LENNON - IMAGINE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=jEOkxRLzBf0

71 MICHAEL JACKSON - THRILLER - www.youtube.com/watch?v=AtyJbIOZjS8

72 ALPHAVILLE - SOUNDS LIKE A MELODY - www.youtube.com/watch?v=uxUJPry5CTE

73 FRANCE GALL - ELLA, ELLA L'A - www.youtube.com/watch?v=bQkB-WWzsbg

74 GEORGE MICHAEL - TONIGHT - www.youtube.com/watch?v=6a9q7gsIAYQ

75 EUROPE - SUPERSTITION - www.youtube.com/watch?v=E-T_xXOuIbs

76 MC HAMMER - U CAN'T TOUCH THIS - www.youtube.com/watch?v=b9nptjUs9FM

77 ABBA - HONEY, HONEY - www.youtube.com/watch?v=U-mVcS4TYhM

78 SPACE MONKEY - ONE MORE SHUT - www.youtube.com/watch?v=kt__nbs02wg

79 BELINDA CARLISLE - SUMMER RAIN - www.youtube.com/watch?v=s67FEby4pE8

80 PET SHOP BOYS - WHERE THE STRAITS HAVE NO NAME - www.youtube.com/watch?v=bCSjWyvZIjI

81 DEPECHE MODE - BLACK CELEBRATION - www.youtube.com/watch?v=dQ5ZiMqy_ek

82 SCORPIONS - WHEN THE SMOKE IS GOING DAWN

83 GRACE JONES - LA VIE EN ROSE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=modA9aa_ihA

84 BEE GEES - SECRET LOVE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=q7ncGENPJFg

85 GOOMBAY DANCE BAND - IKO

86 BORIS GARDINER - I WANNA WAKE UP WITH YOU - www.youtube.com/watch?v=4AuHibzE0aY

87 BAD BOYS BLUE - HUNGRY FOR LOVE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=8lTNVGzf1E0

88 SAMANTHA FOX - TOUCH ME - www.youtube.com/watch?v=MiuimDNlyuQ

89 TINA TURNER - TWO PEOPLE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=bJNklB8moQ4

90 ROXETTE - HALF A WOMAN HALF A SHADOW - www.youtube.com/watch?v=8fTKIDuW1Dc

91 CHRIS REA - AUBERGE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=JKxnB_DkeU0

92 BONEY M. - SUNNY - www.youtube.com/watch?v=QWYMlzifiBo

93 JENNIFER RUSH - THE POWER OF LOVE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=xEI2rXVcUh8

94 GIPSY KINGS - ALL MY LOVING

95 JOHNNY LOGAN HOLD MY NOW -http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0k11lChNQqU

96 SANDRA - LITTLE GIRL - www.youtube.com/watch?v=Y58pDM2edgk

97 AC/DC - THUNDERSTRUCK - www.youtube.com/watch?v=zvoeeq-BH4w

98 EROS RAMAZZOTTI - ADESSO TU - www.youtube.com/watch?v=VoLyZELpmws

99 DIRE STRAITS - WALK OF LIFE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=HrjBddCTCmk

100 PET SHOP BOYS - IT'S A SIN - www.youtube.com/watch?v=8-3jf3Vj850

101 PHILL COLLINS - ONE MORE NIGHT - www.youtube.com/watch?v=5S8hpGRvYIY

102 SPANDAU BALLET - TRUE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=UYb83KM4at4

103 ABBA - SUMMER NIGHT CITY - www.youtube.com/watch?v=IJTIKsz3iTc

104 ALPHAVILLE - SUMMER IN BERLIN - www.youtube.com/watch?v=hpIBYO88n38

105 CATALIN CRISAN - VORBESTE MAREA

106 WHITNEY HOUSTON - ALL THE MAN THAT I WANT

107 UB40 - WEDDING DAY - www.youtube.com/watch?v=oI_RpevK4qw

108 WHAM - WAKE ME UP BEFORE YOU GO GO - www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hksil-KkebQ

109 GINA T. - BIRDS OF PARADISE

110 LONDON BOYS - IS IT LOVE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=yU5IZrjNyTk

111 VAYA CON DIOS - WHAT'S A WOMAN - www.youtube.com/watch?v=zNRvI_PXWHg

112 TOTO CUTUGNO - SOLO NOI - www.youtube.com/watch?v=_5KBypdKoAU

113 AL BANO&ROMINA POWER - CARA TERRA MIA

114 EURYTHMICS - THERE MUST BE AN ANGEL - www.youtube.com/watch?v=VeI9c9Uvlrs

115 DEPECHE MODE - JUST CAN'T GET ENOUGH - www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bhg8D8MVYxQ

116 QUEEN - IT'S A KIND OF MAGIC - www.youtube.com/watch?v=NLxN0wpFoP8

117 SMOKIE - LIVING NEXT DOOR TO ALICE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=wcVLeUFW-AM

118 SABRINA - KISS

119 MODERN TALKING - YOU CAN WIN IF YOU WANT - www.youtube.com/watch?v=oxM8Kf5SeiA

120 BAD BOYS BLUE - I NEED A WOMAN

121 MARKY MARK&F.B. - WILDSIDE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=DCUrSF-fBIM

122 KYLIE MINOGUE - I SHOULD BE SO LUCKY - www.youtube.com/watch?v=girkbXtjILg

123 MICHAEL JACKSON - BILLY JEAN - www.youtube.com/watch?v=jRZ5d9evWUg

124 SONY&CHER - I GOT YOU BABY - www.youtube.com/watch?v=9hGlYT38DZY

125 SAMANTHA FOX - HOLD ON TIGHT - www.youtube.com/watch?v=mDqLMaWuXug

126 BEE GEES - MASSACHUSSETS - www.youtube.com/watch?v=Iyog5mgvRK8

127 ABBA - GIMME, GIMME, GIMME - www.youtube.com/watch?v=ibtOshtX7T0

128 GIPSY KINGS - BEM, BEM, MARIA - www.youtube.com/watch?v=G4ywf7ipeCM

129 BONEY M. - MA BAKER - www.youtube.com/watch?v=Dt77ZqE1bCA

130 GEORGE MICHAEL - FREEDOM - www.youtube.com/watch?v=jTugeLRZ6GI

131 ALAN SORENTI - TU SEI L'UNICCA DONNA PER ME - www.youtube.com/watch?v=0SWGPHuZ4x0

132 SAM BROWN - STOP - www.youtube.com/watch?v=muDZD3wgoHI

133 EURYTHMICS - LOVE IS STRANGE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=jLwy2QuVOUE

134 COMPACT - UN ALT INCEPUT - www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZCbxeMbR_vw

135 AL BANO&ROMINA POWER - LIBERTA - www.youtube.com/watch?v=_0uP4kSCS6I

136 BEATLES - HELP! - www.youtube.com/watch?v=9ibX3TejlZE

137 KIM WILDE - STONE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=CtQINb3pEyE

138 STATUS QUO - FINE, FINE, FINE

139 SANDRA - WE'LL BE TOGETHER - www.youtube.com/watch?v=iygeiYo6smQ

140 SABRINA - SEXY GIRL - www.youtube.com/watch?v=FtiTJ9nS1Vg

141 QUEEN - BREAKTHRU - www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q22oGInO-uo

142 CHICAGO - HARD TO SAY I'M SORRY - www.youtube.com/watch?v=HLFg-FQy9Xk

143 CONNIE FRANCIS - PARADISO - www.youtube.com/watch?v=dlaXMh20Rxw

144 SMOKIE - MEXICAN GIRL - www.youtube.com/watch?v=UZcnM_hWkRA

145 MODERN TALKING - DIAMONDS NEVER MIND A LADY - www.youtube.com/watch?v=G9iQYPwo7oc

146 WHAM - LAST CHRISTMAS - www.youtube.com/watch?v=hUJeUAmfr6w

147 JOY - CHRISTMAS MIX

148 PRINCE - NOTHING COMPARES TO YOU - www.youtube.com/watch?v=Fi7LT-YnQYo

149 DAVID HOLLYDAY - HIGH - www.youtube.com/watch?v=yGSxtMCU5NM

150 SOPHIA GEORGE- GIRLIE, GIRLIE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=7hNH2b05oGA

151JANE BIRKIN&SERGE GAINSBURG - JE T'AIME...MOI NON PLUS - www.youtube.com/watch?v=sHiMDB19Dyc

152 TINA TURNER - WAY OF THE WORLD - www.youtube.com/watch?v=6AzWdpWi1HA

153 GIPSY KINGS - SOPA DE CORASOL

154 JOHN NASH - ROCK YOUR BABY - www.youtube.com/watch?v=aGTtu3mLacE

155 FRANCESCO NAPOLI - SIMPHONY OF LOVE

156 ALPHAVILLE - BIG IN JAPAN - www.youtube.com/watch?v=mXPUkrz7Uow

157 BAD BOYS BLUE - PRETTY YOUNG GIRL - www.youtube.com/watch?v=3P07U-eOYWU

158 EROS RAMAZZOTTI - SE BASTASSE UNA CANZONE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZHMHEXHOkFc

159 CHRIS DE BURGH - LADY IN RED - www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vt2YIpZWBqA

160 LIONEL RITCHIE - SAY YOU, SAY ME - www.youtube.com/watch?v=we0mk_J0zyc

161 NAZARETH - LOVE HURTS - www.youtube.com/watch?v=KrSs7gfLDjc

162 EROS RAMAZZOTTI - UNA STORIA IMPORTANTE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=8470byw8hkY

163 BEE GEES - WORDS - www.youtube.com/watch?v=dn9cHegvcFI

164 SANDRA - EVERLASTING LOVE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=dpkk3NInYe4

165 DEPECHE MODE - CLEAN - www.youtube.com/watch?v=V5mgZavF4dg

166 BONEY M. - PAINTER MAN - www.youtube.com/watch?v=KgevV4tpXVE

167 LEO SAYERS - WHEN I NEED YOU - www.youtube.com/watch?v=2Lq4in_4PfM

168 ABBA - FERNANDO - www.youtube.com/watch?v=TK06tbNFiEU

169 KIM WILDE - FOUR LETTER WORLD - www.youtube.com/watch?v=UYYqIArWYu0

170 STATUS QUO - LATE LAST NIGHT

171 TOTO CUTUGNO - NAPOLI - www.youtube.com/watch?v=JITX_ar8Lrs

172 SMOKIE - I'LL MEET YOU MIDNIGHT - www.youtube.com/watch?v=J37fUj7NEl4

173 CUTTING CREW - I'VE BEEN IN LOVE BEFORE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=b75LKJLqI5o

174 BONNIE TYLER - BITTERBLUE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=w8v-hIr-Q9E

175 TEARS FOR FEARS - SHUT - www.youtube.com/watch?v=k1OduoZAUeM

176 C.C. CATCH - SOUL SURVIVOR - www.youtube.com/watch?v=UdlWdlfsLpU

177 BEATLES - LET IT BE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=67J_66hdN-I

178 ALICE COOPER - POISON - www.youtube.com/watch?v=1RRY0R0Xgl0

179 GINA T. - STILL IN LOVE

180 JENNIFER RUSH - HEART OVER MIND - www.youtube.com/watch?v=q7aKKZM_acY

181CHER - IF I COULD TURN BACK TIME - www.youtube.com/watch?v=5G4O5AMSevc

182 BAD BOYS BLUE - QUEEN OF HEARTS - www.youtube.com/watch?v=kkbtAuPzcD4

183 GARY MOORE - MIDNIGHT BLUES - www.youtube.com/watch?v=9-9jJUr9S0Q

184 EUROPE - PRISONIERS IN PARADISE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=SXatVNtQlgM

185 SIMON&GARFUNKEL - (IF I COULD) EL CONDOR PASSA - www.youtube.com/watch?v=T6i8HHrz2BI

186 MODERN TALKING - CHERRY, CHERRY LADY - www.youtube.com/watch?v=lWtN2_7EdLU

187 ABBA - MAMMA MIA - www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-zKYl7w0G0

188 U2 - PRIDE (IN THE NAME OF LOVE) - www.youtube.com/watch?v=k04KzgYRKrE

189 ROD STEWARD - SAILLING - www.youtube.com/watch?v=34jZePnMQNQ

190 BILL HALEY&HIS COMETS - ROCK AROUD THE CLOCK - www.youtube.com/watch?v=Kes6jahveVg

191 ROXETTE - LISTEN TO YOUR HEART - www.youtube.com/watch?v=3sJPUTTfNbg

192 METALICA - ONE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=H5BoQ1qPPRs

193 SCOTT MCKENZIE - SAN FRANCISCO - www.youtube.com/watch?v=RKWiwfOhI6U

194 PAT BOONE - SPEEDY GONZALES - www.youtube.com/watch?v=szQ-KKekprY

195 MR BIG - JUST TAKE MY HEART - www.youtube.com/watch?v=igpxZvh5Ei8

196 BONEY M. - EL LUTE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=kifhJlfu4EA

197 INX'S - NEED YOU TONIGHT - www.youtube.com/watch?v=sUZhUjS630E

198 BELINDA CARLISLE - HALF THE WORLD - www.youtube.com/watch?v=2nLPJdeXAdI

199 ROLLING STONES - ANGIE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=bbZcslc9M78

200 NKOTB - HAPPY BIRTHDAY TO YOU - www.youtube.com/watch?v=nW9QT99OKT8

201 SANDRA - LA VISTA DE LUNA

202 QUEEN - FRIENDS WILL BE FRIENDS - www.youtube.com/watch?v=NoKmWrQb2Gw

203GIPSY KINGSSOY

204PEABO BRYSON &ROBERTA FLACKTONIGHT I CELEBRATE MY LOVE

205 BONEY M. - GOTTA TO HOME - www.youtube.com/watch?v=0EjLWh2150I

206 MORIS ALBERT - FEELINGS - www.youtube.com/watch?v=tYgfXZuVNV0

207 GEORGE MICHAEL - FAITH - www.youtube.com/watch?v=XesXjkDLImg

208 ABBA - THE DAY BEFORE YOU CAME - www.youtube.com/watch?v=SYqYYnxhtgo

209 JASON DONOVAN - COMEBACK TO ME - www.youtube.com/watch?v=NbZSBP5CgpI

210 ROY ORBINSON - CALIFORNIA BLUE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=tmuhPFHEbJo

211 BEATLES - LOVE ME DO - www.youtube.com/watch?v=ouzndIEbEsc

212 DSCHINGHIS KHAN - HUN, HAN, DSCHINGHIS KHAN - www.youtube.com/watch?v=W_esCf2GSTI

213 GAZEBO - I LIKE CHOPIN - www.youtube.com/watch?v=p-_6J03UCxs

214 SAMANTHA FOX - I ONLY WANNA BE WITH YOU - www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yd-Ez00WJ9U

215 VIXEN - LOVE IS A KILLER - www.youtube.com/watch?v=1my4mYH5C90

216 SHEENA EASTON - FOR YOUR EYES ONLY - www.youtube.com/watch?v=8BOWrm4xzQ0

217 JOHN WAITE - MISSING YOU - www.youtube.com/watch?v=KuR9_kWJZgU

218 MICHAEL JACKSON - KEEP THE FAITH - www.youtube.com/watch?v=lSLQand-AiQ

219 U2 - ONE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=JFWPeVfWB9o

220 INXS - SUCCIDE BLONDE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=j-zRFrm0HEM

221 HEART - ALL I WANNA DO IS MAKE LOVE TO YOU - www.youtube.com/watch?v=mT7qBNpplUc

222 ABBA - ANGELEYES - www.youtube.com/watch?v=0AGe995z3Fk

223 CURE - FRIDAY I'M IN LOVE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=TSmfNxmaQHc

224 EROS RAMAZZOTTI - MUSICA E - www.youtube.com/watch?v=nb4fN4bNNBg

225 LIONEL RITCHIE - DEEP RIVER WOMAN

226NAT KING COLEMONA LISA

227MADONNAEN VOGUE

228 PATRICK SWAYZE - SHE'S LIKE THE WIND - www.youtube.com/watch?v=kO4I7i2mSAI

229GINA T.TOGETHER AGAIN

230 SIMON&GARFUNKEL - CECILIA - www.youtube.com/watch?v=f0hdSfCSFn0

231 NEIL SEDAKA - ONE WAY TICKET - www.youtube.com/watch?v=utHd6SQn9Uk

232 TOTO CUTUGNO - MI PIACERE...BE ANDARE = www.youtube.com/watch?v=A4WFlJzEBd0

233 JON BON JOVI - BLAZE OF GLORY - www.youtube.com/watch?v=upenR6n7xWY

234 BLACK - WONDERFUL LIFE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=iyfu_mU-dmo

235 POLICE - DE, DU, DU, DU, DE, DA, DA, DA

236 CAT STEVENS - MORNING HAS BROKEN - www.youtube.com/watch?v=1TWd3skb-Rw

237 MOODY BLUES - NIGHTS IN WHITE SATIN - www.youtube.com/watch?v=13uWfr_EY1o

238 NKOTB - TONIGHT - www.youtube.com/watch?v=8B_ZOGuV5c4

239 C.C. CATCH - HEARTBREACK HOTEL - www.youtube.com/watch?v=DteIcZ1A-VM

240 NEIL SEDAKA - OH!, CAROL - www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ux49UBie-w8

241 SMOKIE - OH, CAROL - www.youtube.com/watch?v=Xdozj_FuoqU

242 VAYA CON DIOS - NAH, NEH, NAH - www.youtube.com/watch?v=7LUm-E4GPU8

243 RICHARD MARX - ANGELIA - www.youtube.com/watch?v=FujIQkKH15w

244 CHRIS ISAAK - WICKED GAME - www.youtube.com/watch?v=tT8JJXoVNRs

245 DEEP PURPLE - SOLDIER OF FORTUNE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=Aiy3yHaIE0o

246 BUDDY HOLLY&THE CRICKETS - PEGGY SUE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=XccBx9rp4eo

247 BYRDS - MR. TAMBOURINE MAN LOVE

248NATALIE COLEMISS YOU LIKE CRAZY

249 ROY ORBINSON - YOU GOT IT - www.youtube.com/watch?v=xTuhx_Kof9w

250 JOSE FELICIANO - CHE SERA - www.youtube.com/watch?v=cfiPKNyEvaY

251 LONDON BOYS - LONDON NIGHT

252 CLINT EASTWOOD - STOP THAT TRAIN - www.youtube.com/watch?v=vt-8B6MkRM8

253 BEATLES - O-BLA-DI, O-BLA-DA - www.youtube.com/watch?v=pJhcGepfG04

254 A-HA - CRYING IN THE RAIN - www.youtube.com/watch?v=K9bWsh8dsbI

255 ABBA - ARRIVAL - www.youtube.com/watch?v=vD9QJvkBDCc

256 STEVIE WONDER I JUST CALLED TO SAY I LOVE YOU - www.youtube.com/watch?v=PY45DkaP9Ls

257ELTON JOHN&GEORGE MICHAELDON'T LET GO THE SUN

258WAINE WADE LADY

259PAUL YOUNGDON'T DREAM IT'S OVER

260AARON NEVILLEEVERYBODY PLAYS THE FOOL

261FOREIGNERWAITING FOR A GIRL LIKE YOU

262 IRIS - CINE MA STRIGA IN NOAPTE? - www.youtube.com/watch?v=WS6ixT5Yxf4

263 FIREHOUSE - WHEN I LOOK INTO YOUR EYES - www.youtube.com/watch?v=wZRQlqH4flk

264 CARS - DRIVE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=uBLGlb-MOGg

265 JOAN JET&THE BLACK HEARTS - I LOVE ROCK AND ROLL - www.youtube.com/watch?v=M3T_xeoGES8

266 RIGHTEOUS BROTHERS - UNCHAINED MELODY - www.youtube.com/watch?v=t-idDbIfGvw

267 SUZI QUATRO - IF YOU CAN'T GIVE ME YOUR LOVE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=YA4ATHmWhGA

268 BETTE MIDLER - FROM A DISTANCE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=aDSh5wUtXt4

269 NEIL SEDAKA - CALENDAR GIRL - www.youtube.com/watch?v=zgDZOhQbmRs

270 U2 - LOVE RESQUE ME - www.youtube.com/watch?v=GxXdq1gSk9o

271 ERASURE - OH L'AMOUR - www.youtube.com/watch?v=psH7lpJllg4

272 DSCHINGHIS KHAN - MEXICO - www.youtube.com/watch?v=5s6ey7Whq6A

273 UMBERTO TOZZI - GLORIA - www.youtube.com/watch?v=WzDLHcY9nW4

274 JERRY LEE LEWIS - GREAT BALS OF FIRE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=yQMYtUB2Y_k

275 HEART - ALONE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=jxfdDrKO8uM

276 SANTANA - EUROPA - www.youtube.com/watch?v=hBDLQZgntYE

277 ABBA - RING, RING - www.youtube.com/watch?v=N6ArZoApdvI

278 ASWAD - DON'T TURN AROUND - www.youtube.com/watch?v=Jd2qdsC17qs

279 BAD BOYS BLUE - CHAINS OF LOVE

280 BONNIE TYLER - AGAINS THE WIND - www.youtube.com/watch?v=fBDsVZHehSo

281 GINA T. - THE WINDOW OF MY HEART

282 STATUS QUO - CAROLINE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=MY96gAVjz_c

283 DOROTHY MORE - IF YOU GIVE ME YOUR HEART - www.youtube.com/watch?v=EAz-HamGx6A

284 BUGGLES - VIDEO KILLED IN THE RADIO STARR - www.youtube.com/watch?v=sKXtkgfJ4iU

285 CRISTIANS - WORDS - www.youtube.com/watch?v=u_CzZhm-RrY

286 BEE GEES - WORLD - www.youtube.com/watch?v=aIEc14p9WNc

287 BONNIE TYLER - TOTAL ECLIPSE OF THE HEART - www.youtube.com/watch?v=55nTwg5NIPM

288 EDDY GRANT& EQUALS - I DON'T WANNA DANCE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=KQGspqWqUyI

289 CULTURE CLUB - DON'T YOU REALLY WANT TO HURT ME - www.youtube.com/watch?v=gvddcQ9b5pw

290 SIMON&GARFUNKEL - THE SOUND OF SILENCE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=eZGWQauQOAQ

291 BONEY M. - BROWN GIRL IN THE RING - www.youtube.com/watch?v=6qJTyGmZeLo

292 ELVIS PRESLEY - JAILHOUSE ROCK - www.youtube.com/watch?v=zRu3tw9fYxE

293 ABBA - MONEY, MONEY - www.youtube.com/watch?v=m3MHptWvC-s

294 VAYA CON DIOS - I DON'T WANT TO KNOW

295 ALPHAVILLE - A VICTORY OF LOVE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=bpb4I6sSj80

296 ALICE COOPER - HOUSE OF FIRE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=0LuKSnhPgQk

297 MICHAEL JACKSON - DIRTY DIANA - www.youtube.com/watch?v=7Hg-IRZk4D0

298 JOHN LENNON - JEALOUS GUY - www.youtube.com/watch?v=6lLs2dC9NaE

299 SCORPIONS - COMING HOME - www.youtube.com/watch?v=i6IBaEObY_o

300 PET SHOP BOYS - SUBURBIA - www.youtube.com/watch?v=CEbikoW0Fn4

301 C.C. CATCH - HOUSE OF MYSTIC LIGHTS - www.youtube.com/watch?v=gx89gZFqmVs

302 SINEAD O'CONNOR - NOTHING COMPARES TO YOU - www.youtube.com/watch?v=KiTM6PaXHHg

303 KYLIE MINOGUE - I GUESS I LIKE IT - www.youtube.com/watch?v=DC-g_T-3opc

304 ERIC CLAPTON - WONDERFUL TONIGHT - www.youtube.com/watch?v=Yekz__cCci0

305 CURE - CLOSE TO ME - www.youtube.com/watch?v=p3hdytcAUjI

306 AMERICA - THE LAST UNICORN - www.youtube.com/watch?v=TdsmqwCRoM8

307 PM SAMPSON&DOUBLE KEY - WE LOVE TO LOVE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=lqP8aum6cpo

308 BRIAN FERRY&ROXY MUSIC - SLAVE TO LOVE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=OYdF1qjMNks

309 FRANCESCO NAPOLI - PIANO, PIANO

310 ROY ORBINSON - HEARTBREACK RADIO

311 BOBBY HEBB - SUNNY - www.youtube.com/watch?v=KjZaXn18kKY

312 BRIAN ADAMS - HEAVEN - www.youtube.com/watch?v=aSdKxtbtwxc

313 LONDON BOYS - MY LOVE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=yU5IZrjNyTk

314 BAD ENGLISH - THE TIME ALONE WITH YOU - www.youtube.com/watch?v=KcaQtyaeufg

315 REO SPEEDWAGON - KEEP ON LOVING YOU - www.youtube.com/watch?v=FgT_mJXbvCQ

316 RICCHI E POVERI - SARA PERCHE TI AMO - www.youtube.com/watch?v=yCvUOBGpk6Y

317 FREDDIE MERCURY - THE GREAT PRETENDER - www.youtube.com/watch?v=q3L29U_8c9U

318 FALCO - ROCK ME AMADEUS - www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wrd7capPKaw

319 LED ZEPPELIN - STAIRWAY TO HEAVEN - www.youtube.com/watch?v=ayzhJKy8H_A

320 AL BANO&ROMINA POWER - SHARAZAM - ROMINA POWER - SHARAZAM

321 COMPACT - FATA DIN VIS - www.youtube.com/watch?v=cTJqIkSuf6s

322 ABBA - KNOWING ME, KNOWING TOU - www.youtube.com/watch?v=wKDdaVRNGwE

323 BRUCE SPRINGSTEEN - BORN IN USA - www.youtube.com/watch?v=tIekamBDiAw

324 KAOMA - LAMBADA - www.youtube.com/watch?v=5AfTl5Vg73A

325 PINK FLOYD - WISH YOU WERE HERE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=IXdNnw99-Ic

326 PHIL COLLINS - ALL OF MY LIFE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=k2hnw22MZwg

327 BON JOVI - YOU GIVE LOVE IN A BAD NAME - www.youtube.com/watch?v=QvfnrNOe3gA

328 EUROPE - CARRIE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tj1JXL-zvyw

329 GARY MOORE - EMPTY ROOMS - www.youtube.com/watch?v=KFUW621lgXY

330 JOHN LENNON - X-MAS - www.youtube.com/watch?v=s8jw-ifqwkM

331 BZN - WE ALL WE DANCE

332 JENNIFER RUSH - COME UNDONE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=nNbe637XSmU

333 EDDY GRANT& EQUALS - GIMME HOPE, JO'ANNA - www.youtube.com/watch?v=bNNfAuMq-M0

334 KYLIE MINOGUE - TEARS IN MY PILLOW - www.youtube.com/watch?v=QE5YreJFS-U

335 KENNY ROGERS&SHEENA EASTON - WE'VE GOT TONIGHT - www.youtube.com/watch?v=ogWcJeV7r4Y

336 ADRIANO CELENTANO - SUZANNA - www.youtube.com/watch?v=Tj32jEBLCIA

337 JOE COCKER - DON'T YOU LOVE ME ANYMORE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=KxOmusS4fFI

338 MUSICAL YOUTH - PASS THE DUTCHIE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=rG3Nsz8tOqo

339 JUNE LODGE - SOMEONE LOVES YOU HONEY - www.youtube.com/watch?v=ujaDdFxPygs

340 GEORGE MICHAEL - CARELEES WHISPER - www.youtube.com/watch?v=8VqHorjSMA8

341 DEEP PURPLE - SMOKE ON THE WATER - www.youtube.com/watch?v=3Zz1gOIxHPE

342 PRETENDERS - DON'T GET ME WRONG - www.youtube.com/watch?v=D_Bj8wrXslk

343 JIMMY CLIFF - REGGAE NIGHT - www.youtube.com/watch?v=9dujSAhnEsk

344 ZIGGY MARLEY - TOMORROW PEOPLE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=vWxvdbJ2Pbs

345 BOB MARLEY&THE WAILERS - ONE LOVE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=D4fqqUQhx6k

346 ROBIN BECK - THE FIRST TIME - www.youtube.com/watch?v=C7nrrLzNpv0

347 PUPO - SU DI NOI - www.youtube.com/watch?v=6_au6L0k41Y

348 ROXETTE - SPENDING MY TIME - www.youtube.com/watch?v=QrD1hjjex5Y

349 DSCHINGHIS KHAN - LORELEI - www.youtube.com/watch?v=R9XgVR_Hs28

350 KOREEANA - HAND IN HAND - www.youtube.com/watch?v=YBscXKsD1x8

351 CULTURE CLUB - YOU'RE MY SUNSHINE

352 GEORGE MICHAEL - ONE MORE TRY - www.youtube.com/watch?v=O7Iiz1g1WLk

353 NICK KAMEN - I PROMISED MYSELF - www.youtube.com/watch?v=OiC5BdIVfm8

354 MIREILLE MATHIEU - LA PALOMA ADIEU - www.youtube.com/watch?v=7SXi4U-0My8

355 BONEY M. - HOARAY...IT'S A HOLIDAY - www.youtube.com/watch?v=K-s4wWXTNRc

356 SANTANA - SAMBA PA TI - www.youtube.com/watch?v=WzSayxVM_E0

357 MARCO MASSINI - VAI CON LUI - www.youtube.com/watch?v=TkVh_SNTfQg

358 CLIFF RICHARD - CONGRATULATIONS - www.youtube.com/watch?v=us3dQ0nnlHY

359 AL BANO&ROMINA POWER - SEMPRE, SEMPRE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=TyGqvJKjiDE

360 ABBA - CASSANDRA - www.youtube.com/watch?v=Pp3uvtXa0GY

361 GINA T. - ONE OF US

362 COMPACT - CANTEC PENTRU PRIETENI - www.youtube.com/watch?v=tX9fsQRoviQ

363 RAF TARIF - YOUR BABY TONIGHT

364 P.J. PROBY - HOLD ME - www.youtube.com/watch?v=KwWxhB-j3rk

365 LITTLE RICHARD - GOOD GOLLY MISS MOLLY - www.youtube.com/watch?v=MhybWFjuN2g

366 TERRY JACKS - SEASONS IN THE SUN - www.youtube.com/watch?v=pfm-17pu6SQ

367 MARY HOPKIN - THOSE WERE THE DAYS - www.youtube.com/watch?v=X5pkkAhETYg

368 SANDIE SHAW - PUPPETS IN THE STRING - www.youtube.com/watch?v=HRgAZL2Oz44

369 M - POPMUSIK - www.youtube.com/watch?v=R-7WawS48xE

370 SKEETER DAVIS - THE END OF THE WORLD - www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qgcy-V6YIuI

371 HARRY NILLSON - EVERYBODY'S TALKING - www.youtube.com/watch?v=2AzEY6ZqkuE

372 GARY PUCKET - LADY WILLPOWER - www.youtube.com/watch?v=oAzdZh2j0YA

373 JOHN PAUL - YOUNGLOVE IS IN THE AIR - www.youtube.com/watch?v=NNC0kIzM1Fo

374 SARAGOSA BAND - ZABADAK - www.youtube.com/watch?v=fNQV0mboKg8

375 RAFAELLA CARRA - LOLA - www.youtube.com/watch?v=-GCye_wsoBU

376 FANCY - BOLERO - www.youtube.com/watch?v=0bs66fVgrG8

377 AUDREY LANDERS - MANUEL GOOD-BYE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=sUG6roxf1ZU

378JAY&THE AMARICANSCOME A LITTLE BIT CLOSER

379SEARCHERSSUGAR AND SPICE

380 LITTLE PEGGY MARCH - I WILL FOLLOW HIM - www.youtube.com/watch?v=MlzarnEKYVs

381 SHAKIN' STEVENS - YOU DRIVE ME CRAZY - www.youtube.com/watch?v=sNR3ZaV43t8

382 P.P. ARNOLD - ANGEL IN THE MORNING - www.youtube.com/watch?v=GDLmfAkaXw4

383 DAWN - KNOCK THREE TIMES - www.youtube.com/watch?v=WLMtWPT2OLI

384 RINGO STARR - PHOTOGRAPH - www.youtube.com/watch?v=o-k_3csLKjE

385ALVIN STRADUSTPRETEND

386POLICEEVERY BREATH YOU TAKE

387GEORGE BAKER SELECTIONPALOMA BLANCA

388SIMON&GARFUNKELI'M A ROCK

389JIM DIAMONDI SHOULD HAVE KNOWN BETTER

390SIR DOUGLAS QUINTETMENDOCINO

391GERRY & PACEMAKERSHOW DO YOU DO IT

392FREEALL RIGHT NOW

393ELECTRIC LIGHT ORCHESTRAROCK AND ROLL IS KING

394GIBSON BROTHERSMARIANA

395AGNETHA FALTSKOG& CHRIS NORMANONCE BURNED TWICE SKY

396PLATTERSONLY YOU

397DR. HOOKSILVIA'S MOTHER

398RUBETTESSUGAR BABY LOVE

399CLOUTSUBSTITUTE

400GLEN MEDEIROSNOTHING'S GONNA CHANGE MY LOVE

401JOHNNY LOGAN WHAT'S ANOTHER YEAR

402KEN LASZLOTONIGHT

403DRIFTERSSAVE THE LAST DANCE FOR ME

404LESLEY GOREIT'S MY PARTY

405SECRET SERVICEOH SUSIE

406QUEEN&DAVID BOWIEUNDER PRESURE

407KIM WILDEKIDS OF AMERICA

408ROY ORBINSON ONLY THE LONELY

409SHIRELLESWILL YOU STILL LOVE ME TOMORROW

410SARAGOSA BANDAGADOU

411MUNGO JERRYIN THE SUMMERTIME

412MAMAS & PAPASDEDICATED TO THE ONE I LOVE

413BROTHERHOOD OF MANSAVE ALL YOUR KISSED FOR ME

414KEITH MARSHALLONLY CRYING

415BEACH BOYSSURFIN' USA

416CHAMPSTEQUILA

417JAN&DEANSURF CITY

418STEVE ROWLANDSIMPATHY

419JACKIE DE SHANNONWHEN YOU WALK IN THE ROOM

420ELVIS PRESLEYALWAYS ON MY MIND

421PHOENIXMICA TIGANIADA

422BLONDIEHEART OF GLASS

423ADRIANO CELENTANO IL TEMPO SE NE VA

424CREAMWHITE ROOM

425BEATLESROCK AND ROLL OR MUSIC

426GENE PITNEYI'M GONNA BE STRONG

427MONKEESLAST TRAIN TO CLARSKVILLE

428BILLY BLANDLET THE LITTLE GIRL DANCE

429BOBETTESMR. LEE

430TONY CHRISTIEIN THIS THE WAY TO AMARILLO

431MADNESSOUR HOUSE

432ELTON JOHNBLUE EYES

433ULTRAVOXVIENNA

434PEGGY LEE FEVER

435PAUL ANKADIANA

436OLIVIA NEWTON JOHN&E.L.O.XANADU

437PETER GABRIELGAMES WITHOUT FRONTIERS

438KYU SAKAMOTOSUKIAKY

439MARILYN MONROEKISS

440LA COSTANUESTRA NOCE

441LYNN ANDERSONROSE GARDEN

442BYRDSTURN, TURN, TURN

443 RUTH BROWN - MAMA, HE TREATS YOUR DAUGHTER MEAN - www.youtube.com/watch?v=FEy4CS7Frac

444 DEPECHE MODE - MASTER OR SERVANTS - www.youtube.com/watch?v=7jVuKt3VhMs

445RICK ASTLEYNEVER GONNA GIVE YOU UP

446 RITCHIE VALENS - LA BAMBA - www.youtube.com/watch?v=Coy8Hoa1DNw

447 FOUR SEASONS - DECEMBER '63 - www.youtube.com/watch?v=_o7-3pe9uns

448BRIAN FERRY&ROXY MUSICTHE PRICE OF LOVE

449CONNIE FRANCISDON'T BREACK THE HEART THAT LOVE

450OTTWANYOU'RE O.K.

451HOT CHOCOLATEYOU SEXY THING

452HOLLIESSORRY SUZANE

453COASTERSALONG CAME JONES

454DAVE DAVIESDEATH OF A CLOWN

455HALL&OATESMENEATER

456JOE COCKERWITH THE LITTLE HELP OF MY FRIEND

457DONNA SUMMERMcARTHUR PARK

458CLOVERSDEVIL OR ANGEL

459LITTLE RICHARDTUTTI FRUTTI

460ABBACHIQUIQUITA

461CREEDENCE CLEARWATER REVIVALHEY TONIGHT

462DEAN MARTINEVERYBODY LOVES SOMEBODY

463L.U.V.CASSANOVA

464SAM COOKEWHAT A WONDERFUL WORLD

465SHIRELLESSOLDIER BOY

466BRIAN ADAMSSUMMER '69

467CLYDE McPHATTERTRESURE OF LOVE

468EDDIE COCHRANSUMMERTIME BLUES

469PAUL SIMON LATE IN THE EVENING

470DESIRELLESVOYAGE, VOYAGE

471DAVID BOWIESORROW

472PETULA CLARKSAILOR

473KINGLOVE AND PRIDE

474BOBBY DARINDREAMLOVER

475CAT STEVENSWILD WORLD

476DIRE STRAITSTWISTING BY THE POOL

477VAN MORRISONBROWN EYED GIRL

478SHAKIN' STEVENSOH, JULIE

479KENNY ROGERSLADY

480TOM JONESDELILAH

481COMMODORESNIGHT SHIFT

482 RAY CHARLES - I CAN'T STOP LOVING YOU

483 BELINDA CARLISLE - CIRCLE IN THE SAND - www.youtube.com/watch?v=XDcC9bnRciQ

484 STATUS QUO - DOWN, DOWN - www.youtube.com/watch?v=oWvGlPf-z7I

485 BOBBY VEE - TAKE GOOD CARE OF MY BABY - www.youtube.com/watch?v=mutxi_HNv3w

486 SANTANA - BLACK MAGIC WOMAN - www.youtube.com/watch?v=y_b3LMoQUJ0

487SECRET SERVICEYE-SI-CA

488 SEARCHERS - TAKE IT OR LEAVE IT - www.youtube.com/watch?v=0HaaJSmqezo

489ROMANTICSTALKING IN YOUR SLEEP

490C. JEROMEKISS ME

491SMOKEY ROBINSONBEIGH WITH YOU

492ENRICO MACIASZINGARELLA

493CASCADESRHYTMN OF THE RAIN

494OVERLANDERSMICHELLE

495STINGENGLISHMAN IN NEW YORK

496FRANKIE AVALONVENUS

497BANANARAMAVENUS

498JIMMY CLANTONVENUS IN BLUE JEANS

499RICKY NELSONHELLO, MARY LOU

500BOBBY SOLOUNA LACRIMA SUR VISO

501FATS DOMINOBLUEBERRY HILL

502LEAPY LEELITTLE ARROW

503RUFUS THOMASWALKING THE DOG

504GODLEY&CREMECRY

505HOTLEGSNEANDHERTHAL MAN

506LOVIN' SPOONFULDAYDREAM

507CRYSTALSDA DOO RON RON

508SHANGRI-LASTHE LEADER OF THE PACK

509STEPENWOLFBORN TO BE WILD

510BANGLESMANIC MONDAY

511BLACKEVERYTHING'S COMING UP ROSES

512MR. BLOEGROOVING WITH MR. BLOE

513PUSSYCATMISSISSIPPI

514JEANNIE C. RYLEYHARPER VALEY P.T.A

515CHICAGOI'M A MAN

516RITCHIE VALENSOH, DONNA

517B.J. THOMASRAINDROPS KEEP FALLING ON MY HEAD

518DIAMONDSLITTLE DARLING

519JACKSON FIVEI WAN'T YOUR BACK

520KINKSLOLA

521Z.Z. TOPLEGS

522NEIL SEDAKA KING OF CLOWNS

523RICKY KINGRIO GRANDE

524JOE DOLANMAKE ME AN ISLAND

525SUPERTRAMPIT RAINING AGAIN

526BZNMR. DAN

527GARY GLITTERROCK AND ROLL (PART 1)

528ANIMALSDON'T LET ME BE MISUNDERSTUD

529BACCARATHE DEVIL SEND YOU TO LORADO

530PATTY RYANYOU'RE MY LOVE, YOU'RE MY LIFE

531SISTER SLEDGEFRANKIE

532CHRIS MONTEZLET'S DANCE

533MELANIELAY DOWN

534FRANK SINATRASINGIN' IN THE RAIN

535GOOMBAY DANCE BANDMONKEY

536ENGELBERT HUMPERDINKLES BYCICLETTES DE BELSIZE

537FANCYFLAMES OF LOVE

538QUEEN SOMEBODY TO LOVE

539TROGGSLOVE IS ALL AROUND

540RAFAELLA CARRAFIESTA

541MAMMA CASSDREAM A LITTLE DREAM OF ME

542DON McLEANAMERICAN PIE

543DELLA REESEDON'T YOU KNOW

544STEPHAN REMLERSTELL DIS VOS OF GEHT

545SPINNERSCOULD IT BE I'M FALLING IN LOVE

546 SUZI QUATRO& CHRIS NORMAN - STUMBLIN IN' - www.youtube.com/watch?v=qbt_FEAUVU4

547 DON GIBSON - OH, LONESOME ME - www.youtube.com/watch?v=0RDxTe7FHpo

548 JULIO IGLESIAS - QUERERO - www.youtube.com/watch?v=qoJ0_qMzQkU

549 DR. HOOK - WHEN YOU ARE IN LOVE WITH A BEAUTIFUL WOMAN - www.youtube.com/watch?v=-oNZyMVTVCE

550 DIANA ROSS&THE SUPREMES - SOMEDAY WE'LL BE TOGETHER - www.youtube.com/watch?v=8Ll-bm28UfA

551 CLYDE McPHATTER&THE DRIFTERS - WHITE CHRISTMAS - www.youtube.com/watch?v=UgGcrvApljY

552BEACH BOYSCHRISTMAS DAY

553DSCHINGHIS KHANOLE

554HOT BUTTERPOPCORN

555BING CROSBYJINGLE BELS

556GERARD JOLLINGSPANISH HEART

557C.C. CATCHBACK SEAT OF YOUR CADILLAC

558KAOMADANCANDO LAMBADA

559CANNED HEATON THE ROAD AGAIN

560LAVERN BAKERSOUL ON FIRE

561BAD COMPANYCAN'T GET ENOUGH

562BILLY PAULME&MRS. JONES

563ERIC CLAPTONLAY DOWN SALLY

564JIM CROCEBAD, BAD LEROY BROWN

565JOE TURNERFLIP, FLOP AND FLY

566THEMHERE COMES THE NIGHT

567HERMAN'S HERMITSNO MILK TODAY

568BILL HALEY&HIS COMETSSHAKE, RATTL AND ROLL

569PLATTERSSMOKE GETS IN YOUR EYES

570CHUBBY CHECKERLET'S TWIST AGAIN

571T'REXGET IT ON

572ARCHIESSUGAR, SUGAR

573FOUR TOPSBABY I NEED YOUR LOVING

574 GIGLIOLA CINQUETTI - NON NO L'ETA - www.youtube.com/watch?v=gAJj4dZjIYY

575TOM JONESWHAT'S NEW PUSSYCAT

576JANIS JOPLIN TRY (JUST A LITTLE BIT HARDER)

577ROLLING STONESYOU BETTER MOVE ON

578GENE PITNEYIT'S HURT TO BE IN LOVE

579HOLLIESCARRIE-ANNE

580OMDSO IN LOVE

581MARY McGREGORTHORN BETWEEN TWO LOVERS

582CREEDENCE CLEARWATER REVIVALPROUD MARY

583MAMAS & PAPASMONDAY, MONDAY

584VILLAGE PEOPLEY. M. C.A.

585FATS DOMINOTHERE GOES MY HEART

586CHERBANG, BANG

587EVERLY BROTHERSBYE, BYE LOVE

588NEIL DIAMONDBEAUTIFUL NOISE

589NAT KING COLEWHEN I FALL IN LOVE

590CHUCK BERRYSWEET LITTLE SIXTEEN

591KINKSYOU REALLY GOT ME?

592BEATLESCOME TOGETHER

593AL MARTINOSPANISH EYES

594TOMMY ROEDIZZY

595PAUL ANKAPUT YOUR HEAD ON MY SHOULDER

596KENNY LOGGINSFOODLOOSE

597KATE BUSHRUNNING UP THAT HILL

598DIRE STRAITSBROTHERS IN ARMS

599ROGER MILLERKING OF THE ROAD

600EAGLESHOTEL CALIFORNIA

601CARDINALSTHE DOOR IS STILL OPEN

602DIAMONDSA BEGGAR FOR YOUR KISSED

603BUDDY HOLLYBECAUSE I LOVE YOU

604FALCOVIENNA CALLING

605GEORGE McRAEROCK YOUR BABY

606DUSTY SPRINGFIELDYOU DON'T HAVE TO SEE YOU LOVE ME

607DOUBLETHE CAPTAIN OF YOUR HEART

608FLEETWOOD MACGIPSY

609JOE DASSINSI TU T'APPELLE MELANCOLIE

610RONETTESBE MY BABY

611CRYSTAL GAYLLEDON'T IT MAKE MY BROWN EYES BLUE

612BRENDA LEEI'M SORRY

613ELVIS PRESLEYLOVE ME TENDER

614T'NT PARTY ZONEONE NIGHT IN BANGKOK

615PAT BOONELOVE LETTERS IN THE SAND

616DURAN DURANGIRLS ON FILM

617CHUCK WILLISC.C. RIDER

618MANFRED MANN EARTH BANDDO WHAH DIDDY DIDDY

619ROD STEWARDBABY JANE

620CLOVERSLOVE, LOVE, LOVE

621JOHNNY CYMBALMR. BASEMAN

622WILSON PICKETLAND OF 1000 DANCES

623BEE GEESHOW DEEP IT'S YOUR LOVE

624TOKENSTHE LION SLEEPS TONIGHT

625 PAUL ANKA - YOU ARE MY DESTINY - www.youtube.com/watch?v=m6dbacqbp90

626DEL SHANONHATS OFF TO LARY

627MARVIN GAYESEXUAL HEALLING

628MIDDLE OF THE ROADSACRAMENTO

629HUMAN LEAGUEDON'Y YOU WAN'T ME

630DEAN MARTINTHAT'S AMORE

631HELEN SHAPIROYOU DON'T KNOW

632EURYTHMICSRIGHT BY YOUR SIDE

633MOODY BLUESQUESTIONS

634OMDLOCCOMOTION

635EDDY GRANT& EQUALSELECTRIC AVENUE

636SUPERTRAMPGOOD-BYE STRANGER

637KISSGOD GIVE ROCK AND ROLL TO YOU

638DION THE WANDERER

639SLADEMY OH MY

640DALIDALA DANZA DI ZORBA

641NEIL DIAMONDGIRL, YOU'LL BE A WOMAN SOON

642JIMI HENDRIXCASTLES MIND OF SAND

643FEARGHAL SHARKEYA GOOD HEART

644VAN HALENJUMP

645FOREIGNERI WAN'T TO KNOW TO LOVE IS

646ABCALL OF MY HEART

647ORIOLESCRYINGIN THE CHAPEL

648A FLOCK OF SEAQULLSWISHING (IF I HAD A PHOTOGRAPH)

649BOB DYLANBLOWING IN THE WIND

650UB40RED RED WINE

651DONOVANATLANTIS

652DAVID BOWIEASHES TO ASHES

653JEFFERSON AIRPLANESOMEBODY TO LOVE

654THREE FUN BOYS&BANANARAMAIT AIN'T THAT YOU DO IT

655PAUL McCARTNEYNO MORE LONELY NIGHT

656SURVIVOREYE OF THE TIGER

657JIMMY CLIFFWONDERFUL WORLD BEAUTIFUL PEOPLE

658HERDFROM THE UNDERWOOD

659SPENCER DAVIS GROUPI'M A MAN

660FRANK SINATRASTRANGERS IN THE NIGHT

661JOHNNY RIVERSMENPHIS

662CRESTSSIXTEEN CANDLES

663DRIFTERSSWEETS FOR MY SWEET

664PERCY SLEDGEWHEN A MAN LOVES A WOMAN

665RUBETTESI CAN DO IT

666TREMLOESSILENCE IS GOLDEN

667EDITH PIAFMYLORD

668BLOOD, SWEAT AND TEARSSPEENING WHEEL

669FORTUNESHERE COMES THAT RAINY DAY FEELING AGAIN

670EMERSON LIKE&PALMERC'EST LA VIE

671EDDIE FLOYDKNOCK ON WOOD

672BZNMAY WE ALWAYS BE TOGETHER?

673JEFF BACKHY HO SILVER LYNING

674YAZOODON'T GO

675FATS DOMINOAIN'T THAT A SHAME

676GILBERT MONTAGNETHE FOOL

677SAME&DAVEYOU DON'T KNOW LIKE I KNOW

678ELVIS PRESLEYDON'T

679SONY&CHERTHE BEAT GOES ON

680BACCARASORY, I'M A LADY

681EVERLY BROTHERSWAKE UP LITTLE SUZZY

682PINK FLOYDSEE EMILY PLAY

683FIVE YOUNG CANNIBALSSHE'S DRIVE ME CRAZY

684AGNETHA FALTSKOGI WAN'T LET YOU GO

685MIKE OLDFIELD&MAGGIE REILLYMOONLIGHT SHADOW

686BUDDY HOLLYRAVE ON

687PRINCEWHEN DOVES CRY

688BOBBY VEERUBBER BALL

689ANIMALSHOUSE OF THE RISING SUN

690 SOULFEEL DYNAMICS - MADEMOISELLE NINETTE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=dOICpWSavSs

691 PATTY LABELLE - LADY MARMELADE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=3lxL6lijQfI

692 KID CREOL&THE COCONUTS - ANY, I'M NOT YOUR DADY - www.youtube.com/watch?v=ZdFHeOkQ1iU

693 BARRY WHITE - I'M GONNA LOVE YOU - www.youtube.com/watch?v=xN38uI2oKkA

694 CREW CUTS - S'D BOOM - www.youtube.com/watch?v=VmEGEmUBJUI

695 FLORIN BOGARDO - SA IUBIM TRANDAFIRII - www.youtube.com/watch?v=c9_ylQruaiU

696 JERRY LEE LEWIS - WHOLE LOTTA SHAKIN - www.youtube.com/watch?v=8yRdDnrB5kM

697 DOLLY PARTON - I WILL ALWAYS LOVE YOU - www.youtube.com/watch?v=_utP1mGoutQ

698 JAMES BROWN - SEXMACHINE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=WUgIQej9SMg

699 DANNY&THE JUNIORS - ALL THE HOOP

700 HARRY NILLSON - WITHOUT YOU - www.youtube.com/watch?v=P6C_Q-_RTS8

701 SWEET - COCO - www.youtube.com/watch?v=hpzKlmJFrKw

702 MICHEL SARDOU - LA MALADIE D'AMOUR - www.youtube.com/watch?v=mzSUNRvEiUM

703VENTURESWALK DON'T RUN

704ISLEY BROTHERSTWIST AND SHOUT

705M.A.A.R.S.PUMP UP THE JAM

706GENE PITNEYTHE MAN WHO SHUT LIBERY VALENCE

707SALVATORE ADAMOA DEMAIN SUR LA LUNE

708GENE VINCENTPISTOL PAKIN MAMA

709SARAH VAUGHANSUMMERTIME

710PROCOL HARUMA WHITER SHADE OF PALE

711INDEEPLAST NIGHT A DJ SAD MY LIFE

712EDDY GRANT& EQUALSBABY, COMEBACK

713LED ZEPPELINSINCE I'VE BEEN LOVING YOU

714GOOMBAY DANCE BANDSUN OF JAMAICA

715IRENE CARAWHAT A FEELING

716SOUL TO SOULBACK TO LIFE

717JULIO IGLESIASMANUELA

718BEE GEESSPICKS AND SPECKS

719DIANA ROSS&THE SUPREMESCAN HURRY LOVE

720FIRST CLASSBEACH BABY

721ROLLING STONESI CAN'T GET KNOW SATISFACTION

722AC/DCTOUCH TOO MUTCH

723JOHNNY TILLOTSONPOETRY IN MOTION

724SARAGOSA BANDCOCO

725OTIS REDDINGTHIS ARMS OF MINE

726DAWNTIE A YELLOW RIBBON ROUND OAK TREE

727CHARLES AZNAVOURSHE

728MICHAEL ZAGGER BANDLET'S ALL CHANT

729LULU & THE LUVVERSHOUT

730BOB MARLEY&THE WAILERSNO WOMAN NO CRY

731TOM JONESTHE GREEN GREEN GRAAS OF HOME

732CARLY SIMONYOU'RE SO VAIN

733CLIFF RICHARDTHE YOUNG ONES

734CAMEOWORD UP

735CARL DOUGLASKUNG FU FIGHTING

736JOE DASSINCHAMP D'ELISEE

737ELECTRIC LIGHT ORCHESTRATWILIGHT

738BLONDIETHE TIDE IS HIGH

739BERNIE PAULATTENTIONE

740ABBAWHEN ALL IS SIDE AND DONE

741BILLY IDOLEYES WITHOUT A FACE

742FOUR SEASONSSHERRY

743RICKY NELSONPOOR LITTLE FOOL

744KALIN TWINSWHEN

745TOMMY ROEEVERYBODY

746JIMMY JAMES & THE VAGABONDSNOW IT'S THE TIME

747SABRINABOYS

748BARRY BLUEDANCING IN THE SATURDAY NIGHT

749ERIC CLAPTONI SHOT THE SHERIFF

750SMOKIEWHAT CAN I DO?

751JOE COCKERDELTA LADY

752LOVIN' SPOONFULSUMMER IN THE CITY

753TOKLETSROZALIA CARNAVAL

754POLICEROXANE

755SEX PISTOLSGOD SAVE THE QUEEN

756TONY CHRISTIEKISSIN' THE NIGHT

757CARL PERKINSBLUE SUEDE SHOES

758ENGELBERT HUMPERDINKRELEASE ME

759CHRIS MONTEZTHE MORE I SEE YOU

760ERUPTIONONE WAY TICKITS

761ALISON MOYETTHAT OLD DEVIL CALED LOVE

762SMALL FACESLTCHYCOO PARK

763CONNIE FRANCISEVERYBODY SOMEBODY'S FOOL

764WALKER BROTHERSMAKE IT EASY ON YOURSELF

765GLORIA GAYNORI WILL SURVIVE

766GERRY & PACEMAKERSFERRY CROSS A MERCEY

767LOS BRAVOSBLACK IS BLACK

768AL BANO&ROMINA POWERPRIMA NOTTE D'AMORE

769DUANE EDDYPEPE

770BEN E. KINGSTAND BY ME

771 NEIL SEDAKA - BREATHING UP IT'S HARD TO DO

772 DOMENICO MODUGNO - VOLARE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=_iLSKqekLHY

773 IMAGINATION - JUST AN ILUSION

774 MIHAI CONSTANTINESCU - UN ZIMBET O FLOARE

775 ALLISONS - ARE YOU SURE? - www.youtube.com/watch?v=kVY4vSvQbn0

776 GENESIS - MAMA - www.youtube.com/watch?v=SuXhMaCD4zI

777 DANA - ALL KINDS OF EVERYTHING - www.youtube.com/watch?v=Web7izwZJFo

778 YES - OVER OF A LONELY NIGHT

779 NEIL DIAMOND - SEPTEMBER MORN' - www.youtube.com/watch?v=V6SuqSrbfIw

780 DUSTY SPRINGFIELD - I ONLY WANNA BE WITH YOU - www.youtube.com/watch?v=MczZzJ-jy5c

781 PETER & GORDON - WORLD WITHOUT LOVE - www.youtube.com/watch?v=BwE1_me5Qzg

782 FLEETWOOD MAC - LOOKING FROM SOMEBODY

783WHAMCLUB TROPICANA

784TEDDY BEARTO KNOW HIM IS TO LOVE HIM

785DONOVANCOLOUR

786MARSHALL&HAINDANCING IN THE CITY

787TELLY SAVALASSOME BROCKEN HEART NEVER MIND

788LITTLE EVALOCCOMOTION

789BEATLESSHE LOVES YOU

790SHAKIN' STEVENSGIVE ME YOUR HEART TONIGHT

791JOAN BAEZIMAGINE

792COASTERSPOISSON IVY

793DURAN DURANNOTORIUS

794Z.Z. TOPGIVE ME ALL YOUR LOVING

795BEACH BOYSCOTTONFIELDS

796ANDREW SISTERSDON'T SIT ON THE APPLE TREE

797HELEN SHAPIROWALKING BACK TO HAPPYNESS

798CLIFFONSHE'S SO FINE

799K.C.&SUNSHINE BANDPLEASE, DON'T GO

800CILLA BLACKYOU'RE MY WORLD

801OMDENOLA GAY

802GENE KELLY&PETE MOORE ORCHESTRASINGIN' IN THE RAIN

803TRINI LOPEZIF I HAD A HAMMER

804BZNA LA CAMPAGNE

805ELTON JOHNCANDLE IN THE WIND

806VISAGEFADE TO GRAY

807JOE SOUTHGAMES PEOPLE PLAY

808HARRY BELAFONTETRY TO REMEMBER

809ANIMALSWE GOTTA GET OUT IN THIS PLACE

810LES BAXTERUNCHAINED MELODY

811PAT BOONEI ALMOST LOST MY HEAD

812BOBBY VEEDANCE HAS 1000 EYES

813TALKING HEADSROAD TO NOWHERE

814CRYSTALSHE'S A REBEL

815ELVIS PRESLEYNOW OR NEVER

816BRIAN FERRY&ROXY MUSICDANCE AWAY

817PINK FLOYDANOTHER BRICK IN THE WALL

818BILLY FURRYI WAS MADE FOR LOVE

819ROD STEWARDYOU'RE IN MY HEART

820PAUL ANKACRAZY LOVE

821C. JEROMEC. JEROME

822BRUCE CHANELHEY BABY

823SAVAGEONLY YOU

824JOHN TRAVOLTA&OLIVIA NEWTON JOHNYOU'RE THE ONE THAT I WANT

825BETTY EVERETIT'S IN HIS KISS

826DIXIE CUPSCHAPEL OF LOVE

827NICK KERSHAWWOULDN'T BE GOOD

828SOFT CELLTAINTED LOVE

829FREDERIC FRANCOISMOM COEUR TE DITTE JE T'AIME

830BUDDY HOLLYTRUE LOVE WAYS

831BAD COMPANYFEELS LIKE MAKING LOVE

832JULIEN LENNONIT'S TOOLATE FOR GOOD BYE

833TURLETSHAPPY TOGETHER

834PETULA CLARKDOWNTOWN

835ACEHOW LONG

836BOB MARLEY&THE WAILERSACCIDES

837HERMAN'S HERMITSI'M INTO SOMETHING GOOD

838LAURA BRANIGANSELF CONTROL

839QUEEN LOVE OF MY LIFE

840TIMI YUROHURT

841KATE BUSHBABOOSKA

842LITTLE RICHARDJENNY, JENNY

843JOYTOUCH BY TOUCH

844SHAKIN' STEVENSMERRY CHRISTMAS EVERYONE

845ANGELSMY BOYFRIEND BACK

846PAUL McCARTNEYMULL OF KYNTARE

847SAM THE SHAM&THE PHARAOHSWOOLY BOOLY

848CARPENTERSPLEASE MR. POSTMAN

849DR. HOOK ONLY SIXTEEN

850CHUBBY CHECKERLIMBO ROCK

851GARY PUCKET&UNIONS GAPYOUNG GIRL

852NINA SIMONEMY BABY JUST CARES FOR ME

853TEMPTATIONSMY GIRL

854JACKIE WILSONRET PETITE

855PAUL&PAULAHEY PAULA

856WANDA JACKSONLET'S HAVE A PARTY TONIGHT

857DAVE DEE, DOZY, BEAKY, MICK&TICHTHE LEGEND OF XANADU

858JIMI HENDRIXHEY JOE

859FRANCOISE HARDYTOUS LES GARCONS ET LES FILES

860DEMIS ROUSSOSFROM SOUVENIRS TO SOUVENIRS

861DORIS DAYQUE SERA SERA

862WILSON PICKETI'M IN LOVE

863MARTY ROBBINSEL PASO

864AMANDA LEARFOLLOW ME

865CLOUTSAVE ME

866SEARCHERSNIEDLES AND PIN

867KENNY ROGERSRUBY

868ALISON MOYETALL CRIED OUT

869CHRIS ANDREWSYESTERDAY MAN

870SYLVIE VARTANLA PLUE BELLE POUR ALLER DANCER

871ELTON JOHN CROCODILE ROCK

872ELVIS PRESLEYDON'T BE CRUEL

873JOHNNY RAYJUST WAKING IN THE RAIN

874BUDDY KNOXPARTY DOLL

875MONKEESI'M A BIELIVER

876FOUR SEASONSBIG GIRL DON'T CRY

877BOBBY DAYLITTLE BETTY PRETTY ONE

878MONDIALATIT DE FRAGEDA

879MARY WELLSMY GUY

880RUBETTESTONIGHT

881VANDELLASJIMMY MACK

882BOB LUMANLET'S TALK ABOUT LIVING

883DEE CLARKRAINDROPS

884DIANA ROSS&THE SUPREMESBABY LOVE

885JERRY LEE LEWISMY GIRL JOSEPHINE

886KATHY YOUNG&THE INNOCENTSA THOUSEND STARR

887CARL MANN PRETEND

888DION RONAROUND SUE

889CHORDETTESLOLLIPOP

890SHANGRI-LASI CAN NEVER GO HOME ANYMORE

891GLITTER BANDANGEL FACE

892JOHNNY&THE HURRICANESRED RIVER ROCK

893JEAN MICHEL JARREORIENT EXPRES

894CHUCK BERRYROLL OVER BEETHOVEN

895WAYNE FONTANATHE GAME OF LOVE

896NEIL SEDAKA HAPPY BIRTHDAY SWEET SIXTEEN

897EVERLY BROTHERS(ALL I HAVE TO DO IS) DREAM

898BYRDSCHIMES OF FREEDOM

899ROLLING STONESNOT FADE AWAY

900PLATTERSTHE GREAT PRETENDER

901CHRIS DE BURGHTHE LOST TIME I CRIED

902FLEETWOODSMR. BLUE

903JOHNNY CASHI WALK OF LINE

904HONEYCOMBSHAVE I RIGHT

905CHARLES AZNAVOURFOR ME FORMIDABLE

906BEE GEESDON'T FORGET TO REMEMBER

907SKIP&FLIPCHERRY PIE

908BILL HALEY&HIS COMETSSEE YOU LETTER ALIGATOR

909PAT BOONE APRIL LOVE

910ROY ORBINSON PRETTY WOMAN

911DRIFTERSDANCE WITH ME

912GLADY'S KNIGHT & THE PIPSLETTER FULL OF TEARS

913FRANCE GALLL'AMERIQUE

914SAME&DAVESOUL MAN

915HOLLIESHE AIN'T HEAVY, HE'S MY BROTHER

916MIKE BERRYTRIBUTE TO BUDDY HOLLY

917DOORSLIGHT MY FIRE

918GENE CHANDLERDUKE ON EARL

919MAXINE BROWNALL IN MY MIND

920SMOKIEIT'S YOUR LIFE

921CHRISTIEYELLOW RIVER

922CHICORY TIPSON OF MY FATHER

923BAD BOYS BLUEA WORLD WITHOUT YOU

924BONEY M.BELFAST

925MARILYN MONROEI WANNA BE LOVED BY YOU

926YARDBIRDSFOR YOUR LOVE

927EDDIE HODGESI'M GONNA KNOCK ON YOUR DOOR

928ROSEMARY CLOONEYTHIS OLD HOUSE

929TOM JONESIT'S NOT UNUSUAL

930BEATLESALL MY LOVING

931PERRY COMOMOON RIVER

932SUPERTRAMPBREACKFAST IN AMERICA

933BARRY&EILLENIF YOU GO

934MIDDLE OF THE ROADSAMSON&DELILAH

935ZOMBEESSHE'S NOT THERE

936BINOMAMA LEONE

937GEORGIE FAMEBALLAD OF BONNIE AND CLYDE

938KENNY BALL&HIS JAZZMENMIDNIGHT IN MOSCOW

939SEARCHERSDON'T THROW YOUR LOVE AWAY

940JIMMY JUSTICESPANISH HARLEM

941BLUE DIAMONDSRAMONA

942FORTUNESFREEDOM COME FREEDOM GO

943LIONEL RITCHIEHELLO

944MIKE OLDFIELDTO FRANCE

945BACCARAYES SIR I CAN BOOGIE

946TREMLOESEVEN THE BAD TIME ARE GOOD

947MICHAEL JACKSONWANNA BE STARTIN' SOMETHING

948JOHNNY CASHRING OF FIRE

949LOVIN' SPOONFULDO YOU BIELIVE IN MAGIC?

950DAVE DEE, DOZY, BEAKY, MICK&TICHOKAY

951EDDY GRANT& EQUALSSOFTLY, SOFTLY

952GENE VINCENTBE BOP A LULA

953DELLSOH WHAT A NIGHT

954PATTY PAGEHOW MUCH IS THAT DOOGIE IN THE WINDOW

955STU STEVENSLET'S GO JOHNNY

956MINDBENDERSGROOVY KIND OF LOVE

957BEATLESAND I LOV

Saint Peter's Square (Italian: Piazza San Pietro) is located directly in front of St. Peter's Basilica in Vatican City, the papal enclave within Rome (the Piazza borders to the East the rione of Borgo).

The open space which lies before the basilica was redesigned by Gian Lorenzo Bernini from 1656 to 1667, under the direction of Pope Alexander VII, as an appropriate forecourt, designed "so that the greatest number of people could see the Pope give his blessing, either from the middle of the façade of the church or from a window in the Vatican Palace" (Norwich 1975 p 175). Bernini had been working on the interior of St. Peter's for decades; now he gave order to the space with his renowned colonnades, using the Tuscan form of Doric, the simplest order in the classical vocabulary, not to compete with the palace-like façade by Carlo Maderno, but he employed it on an unprecedented colossal scale to suit the space and evoke emotions of awe.

The site's possibilities were under many constraints from existing structures (illustration, right). The massed accretions of the Vatican Palace crowded the space to the right of the basilica's façade; the structures needed to be masked without obscuring the papal apartments. The obelisk marked a center, and a granite fountain by Carlo Maderno stood to one side: Bernini made the fountain appear to be one of the foci of the ellipse embraced by his colonnades and eventually matched it on the other side, in 1675, just five years before his death. The trapezoidal shape of the piazza, which creates a heightened perspective for a visitor leaving the basilica and has been praised as a masterstroke of Baroque theater (illustration, below right), is largely a product of site constraints.

The colossal Tuscan colonnades, four columns deep,frame the trapezoidal entrance to the basilica and the massive elliptical area which precedes it. The ellipse's long axis, parallel to the basilica's façade, creates a pause in the sequence of forward movements that is characteristic of a Baroque monumental approach. The colonnades define the piazza. The elliptical center of the piazza, which contrasts with the trapezoidal entrance, encloses the visitor with "the maternal arms of Mother Church" in Bernini's expression. On the south side, the colonnades define and formalize the space, with the Barberini Gardens still rising to a skyline of umbrella pines. On the north side, the colonnade masks an assortment of Vatican structures; the upper stories of the Vatican Palace rise above.

At the center of the ellipse stands an Egyptian obelisk of red granite, 25.5 meters tall, supported on bronze lions and surmounted by the Chigi arms in bronze, in all 41 meters to the cross on its top. The obelisk, of the 13th century BC, was moved to Rome in AD 37 by the Emperor Caligula to stand in the central spina of the Circus Gai et Neronis, which lay to the left of the present basilica. It was moved to its current site in 1586 by the engineer-architect Domenico Fontana under the direction of Pope Sixtus V; the engineering feat of re-erecting its vast weight was memorialized in a suite of engravings (illustrated right). The Vatican Obelisk is the only obelisk in Rome that has not toppled since ancient Roman times. During the Middle Ages, the gilt ball on top of the obelisk was believed to contain the ashes of Julius Caesar. Fontana later removed the ancient metal ball, now in a Rome museum, that stood atop the obelisk and found only dust. Though Bernini had no influence in the erection of the obelisk, he did use it as the centerpiece of his magnificent piazza.

The paving is varied by radiating lines in travertine, to relieve what might otherwise be a sea of cobblestones. In 1817 circular stones were set to mark the tip of the obelisk's shadow at noon as the sun entered each of the signs of the zodiac, making the obelisk a gigantic sundial's gnomon. Below is a fabulous view of St. Peter's Square from the cupola (the top of the dome) which was taken in June, 2007.

St. Peter's Square today can be reached from the Ponte Sant'Angelo along the grand approach of the Via della Conciliazione (in honor of the Lateran Treaty of 1929). The spina which once occupied this grand avenue leading to the square was demolished ceremonially by Benito Mussolini himself on October 23, 1936 and was completely demolished by October 8, 1937. St. Peter's Basilica was now freely visible from the Castel Sant Angelo. The effect of its demolition, however, was to destroy the characteristic Baroque "surprise". The Via della Conciliazione was completed in time for the Great Jubilee of 1950.

 

Piazza San Pietro è la piazza antistante la Basilica di San Pietro. Inserita a margine del centro storico di Roma, la piazza si trova nella Città del Vaticano; confina ad est con il rione Borgo ed è raggiungibile dal territorio della Repubblica Italiana da via di Porta Angelica o da via della Conciliazione.

La celeberrima piazza, notevole esempio di architettura ed urbanista barocca, è dedicata all'omonimo santo ed è luogo di pellegrinaggio quotidiano per migliaia di fedeli cattolici provenienti da tutto il mondo.

Essa è la piazza più vicina, in un certo senso, al cuore del cattolicesimo; inoltre, il grande colonnato ovale è sempre stato considerato la figura di due grandi braccia che avvolgono maternamente i fedeli.

Data la sempre maggiore affluenza, la piazza è diventata (almeno nella bella stagione) la sede abituale di grandi cerimonie liturgiche presiedute dal papa, come le canonizzazioni, il corteo di insediamento dei pontefici neo-eletti, ma anche le esequie del papa, come avvenne nel 2005 per Giovanni Paolo II, di fronte ad una numerosa folla.

È diventato abituale l'appuntamento dell'Angelus Domini, la domenica alle 12.00, quando il papa si affaccia dalla finestra del suo studio, saluta la folla radunata, fa un breve discorso, recita la preghiera dell'Angelus ed impartisce la benedizione.

La piazza fa parte del territorio vaticano, ma è affidata alla pubblica sicurezza dello Stato Italiano. Essendo un palcoscenico d'immenso prestigio mondiale, per evitarne la perenne occupazione abusiva, in essa sono proibite tutte le manifestazioni pubbliche diverse da quelle religiose.Durante la seconda guerra mondiale, i soldati tedeschi occupanti Roma ne presidiavano il perimetro, senza potervi entrare. Il 13 maggio 1981, durante un'udienza pubblica, il papa Giovanni Paolo II fu colpito dalla pistola di un attentatore, che fu arrestato dalla polizia italiana.

All'inizio del '500 la piazza (platea Sancti Petri) era all'incirca rettangolare, con un dislivello di circa dieci metri tra il Borgo Nuovo e il piede della scalinata che conduceva alla basilica.

Papa Alessandro VI per il Giubileo del 1500 fece aprire la prima strada nuova rettilinea di Roma, fra il ponte Sant'Angelo e il portone del Palazzo vaticano, traversando la platea con una striscia lastricata, inclinata di circa 6 gradi rispetto all'asse dell'antica basilica. Borgo Nuovo crea davanti al grande portale di ingresso ai palazzi una prospettiva di circa 800 metri (il Borgo più l'attraversamento lastricato della platea): si tratta della conferma che Alessandro VI non assegnava alcun ruolo prioritario alla basilica di San Pietro nel quadro della creazione della cittadella pontificia; egli propone invece come riferimento per questa operazione il palazzo, la curia, la residenza del papa.

La Via Recta, o via Alessandrina o via Borgo Nuovo, è dunque il primo rettifilo centrato sul portone di un palazzo, come una lunga passatoia che dall'androne di questo entra nella città. Il prototipo alessandrino nasce nell'ambito di un programma che non è architettonico: non si prevedeva, in quegli anni, di ricostruire né San Pietro, né i Palazzi Vaticani secondo un disegno unitario.

Mentre tutto verrà demolito e ricostruito attorno a quel portale, quell'asse non verrà più cancellato: il portone diventa il Portone di bronzo, e la sua immagine rimane impressa già molto prima di arrivarvi; l'atrio retrostante diventa il lungo corridore del Bernini, allineato in fondo con la Scala regia che conduce alla Sala omonima, da cui si entra nella Sistina da una parte, nell'alloggio del pontefice dall'altra. Si conferma, dunque, come un asse cerimoniale.

È solo dal Seicento che i papi guardano dal Quirinale a San Pietro in una prospettiva – formale e ideologica – ben diversa da quella che avevano dal Vaticano; forse solo adesso San Pietro cessa di essere la dilatata cappella del palazzo papale e ritorna ad essere una delle basiliche di Roma.

È in questa situazione che si passa dalle questioni dentro la chiesa, alle questioni fuori dalla chiesa. Il problema è quello di trasformare uno spazio abbastanza indifferenziato, quale era la platea Sancti Petri, in uno spazio direttamente funzionale alla basilica. Mentre si distrugge l'antico quadriportico del Paradiso, si ripropone il problema di soddisfare alle sue funzioni di anticamera di san Pietro, ma più avanti, più all'esterno.

 

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1. Madre Terra - Mother Earth, 2. Fratello Sole - Brother Sun, 3. Nirano: la prima riserva regionale dell'Emilia Romagna - Nirano: the first reserve of Emilia Romagna, 4. Al Passo - At Pass, 5. Zoom sul Gran Sasso - Zoom on the Gran Sasso, 6. Oggi mi sento di tutti i colori!!! - Today I feel like all the colors!!!, 7. Oggi mi sento di tutti i colori!!! - Today I feel like all the colors!!!, 8. flickr.com/photos/24387716@N08/7157282940/,

 

9. Giornata Mondiale dell'Acqua 2012 - World Water Day 2012, 10. Colore e devozione - Color and devotion, 11. Verso l'ignoto - Into the unknown, 12. In mezzo scorre il fiume - A River Runs Through It, 13. Dove nuotano gli angeli... - Where the angels swim..., 14. L'incantevole Isola Bella - The enchanting Isola Bella, 15. L'incantevole Isola Bella - The enchanting Isola Bella, 16. Sei il mio sole anche di notte - You are my sunshine even at night,

 

17. Contrasto - Contrast, 18. E lucean le stelle... - When the stars were brightly shining..., 19. Buone Feste - Season's Greetings, 20. Giorni d'Avvento - Days of Advent, 21. Per una vacanza da sogno... - For a dream vacation ..., 22. Un piccolo pezzo di Paradiso... - A little piece of paradise ..., 23. Belle in rosa 2 - Pretty in pink 2, 24. Aspettando Natale - Waiting for Christmas,

 

25. Calano le ombre della sera... - The evening shadows fall, 26. Come il sole che mi illumina in cucina - As the sun illuminates me in the kitchen, 27. Rialto: cuore di Venezia - Rialto: Venice's heart, 28. Italia 150: arrivederci al 200°! - Italy 150: Farewell to 200th!, 29. Sassolungo - Langkofel, 30. I cigni dell'Adda - Swans in the river Adda, 31. Appuntamento alle 10 - Meet at 10 am, 32. Addio, papà Bonelli! - Goodbye, Dad Bonelli!,

 

33. La prima neve sul Latemar - The first snow of the Latemar, 34. L'alcova della Madama Reale - The alcove of the Royal Madam, 35. Un "pieno" di sole - A "full tank" of sun, 36. L'antica fontana della Reggia - The ancient fountain of the Royal Palace, 37. Ancora le Torri del Vajolet - Again the Vajolet Towers, 38. Scendendo in città - Going down in the city, 39. Cra cra, 40. Di nuovo a testa in su - To head up again,

 

41. Un, due, tre, quattro, cinque... via! - One, two, three, four, five ... go!, 42. Ortensia - Hydrangea, 43. Le "torri" del Latemar - The Latemar's "towers", 44. Ho il mondo nel mio obiettivo! - I have the world in my camera lens!, 45. Concerto per soli fiati - Concert for wind instruments alone, 46. Cartolina da Torino - Postcard from Turin, 47. Colore e freschezza - Color and freshness, 48. Un'estate al mare... - A summer at sea ...,

 

49. Giornata Mondiale della Terra 2011 - Earth Day 2011, 50. Il cuore della Reggia - The heart of the Royal Palace, 51. Cime Tempestose - Wuthering Heights, 52. Benvenuta Primavera! - Welcome Spring!, 53. Giornata Nazionale della Lettura - National Day of Reading, 54. Ho 18 anni da 30! - I'm 18 years old from 30!, 55. Giorno della Memoria 2011 - Holocaust Memorial Day 2011, 56. Provviste per l'inverno - Provisions for the winter,

 

57. E luce sia! - Let there be light!, 58. Cristalli di luce - Crystal light, 59. "Spirito Nomade" in Piazza San Carlo - "Nomad Spirit" in San Carlo Square, 60. A Sara - To Sara, 61. Rosengarten, 62. Bougainvillea, 63. Il cielo - The sky, 64. Il Ponte del Diavolo - The Devil's Bridge,

 

65. Musica in costume tradizionale - Music in traditional costume, 66. Tramonto rosso sulle Dolomiti - Red Sunset over the Dolomites, 67. Altri mille papaveri rossi - Another thousand poppies, 68. I putti fra i tulipani - The cherubs among the tulips, 69. Ma l'inverno non ci vuole lasciare... - But Winter does not want us to leave ..., 70. L'Aquila: un anno dopo il terremoto... - L'Aquila: one year after the earthquake ..., 71. Salice piangente - Willow, 72. Colori e pace - Colors and peace

 

Created with fd's Flickr Toys

Night shot, exposure 37 minutes (yes, more than half an hour), taken on September 22nd 2012 at the shores of lake Rosset (2.709 m), Nivolet plateau, Gran Paradiso National Park (Italy).

 

Geometry has been paramount in conceiving this photo:

1) bottom rectangular shape: the waters of the lake

2) center triangular areas: Col Rosset (3.025 m), Col Leynir (3.084 m), Taou Blanc (3.438 m)

3) summit semicircular area of the sky: concentric star trails toward the Polaris

 

shot started when the moon (phase 43%) was setting behind me and my camera, in order to get still some shades on the mountains, at least during the very first minutes of the long exposure, just to give body and three-dimensionality to the landscape.

_____________________

©Roberto Bertero, All Rights Reserved. This image is not available for use on websites, blogs or other media without the explicit written permission of the photographer.

berteroroberto.pixu.com/

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34de52paraules: cel

 

"Excuse me while I kiss the sky." - Jimi Hendrix

 

El setè cel

 

Història certa dels set cels.

Set paradisos màgics i encantats.

Història certa dels set cels.

Set nius de pau, de glòria i de felicitat.

 

El primer cel és inventat:

el primer gran invent de la terrestritat.

El segon cel, imaginat

en una nit d'estiu a la vora del mar.

El tercer cel, dins d'un mirall

perfila les imatges d'un món ignorat.

I el quart cel és irreal,

com un oasi verd en un desert estrany.

Del cinquè cel res no se'n sap.

No hi ha notícies d'aquest cel tan amagat.

I el sisè cel està copiat

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Benvenuti nel paradiso di Koh Phi Phi Islands in Thailandia.

Situato nell'incontaminato Andaman Sea, l'arcipelago delle Phi Phi Islands è uno tra

i più belli al mondo...

A circa 50 km da Phuket, Ko Phi Phi, rappresenta una delle località più belle del mare thailandese. È formata dalle isole Phi Phi Don e Phi Phi Leh: la prima è abitata, Ko Phi Phi Don ("ko" ( Thai : เกาะ ) che significa "isola" inlingua thai ) è l'isola più grande del gruppo mentre la seconda, è visitabile in giornata in barca. A nord, sulle spiagge, vive una popolazione seminomade, che viene chiamata Chao Nam (Zingari del Mare).

Un luogo dove è facile sentirsi circondati dai sorrisi della gente, da un mare verde-azzurrro, da palme, spiagge bianche, pesci coloratissimi e non dalle auto perchè non ce ne sono.

Il 26 dicembre 2004, gran parte della parte abitata di Phi Phi Don è stata devastata dalle tsunami nell'Oceano Indiano . il principale villaggio dell'isola Ton Sai , è principalmente costruito su una sabbia istmo tra l'isola di due lunghe creste di calcare alti. Su entrambi i lati di Ton Sai sono baie semicircolari allineate con le spiagge.L'istmo sorge a meno di due metri (due metri) sul livello del mare.

Poco dopo le ore 10 del mattino del 26 dicembre, l'acqua da entrambe le baie si allontanava. Quando lo tsunami, alle 10:37, lo ha fatto da entrambe le baie, e si è incontrato in mezzo dell'istmo. L'onda che è entrato in Ton Sai Bay è stato di 3 metri (10 piedi) di altezza. L'onda che è entrato in Loh Dalum Bay è stata di 6,5 metri (18 piedi) di altezza.

  

Welcome to paradise of Koh Phi Phi Islands in Thailand.

Located in the uncontaminated Andaman Sea, the archipelago of the Phi Phi Islands is one of

the most beautiful in the world ...

At about 50 km from Phuket, Ko Phi Phi, is one of the most beautiful beach in Thailand. It is formed by the islands Phi Phi Don and Phi Phi Leh, the first is inhabited, Ko Phi Phi Don ("ko" (Thai: เกาะ) meaning "island" inlingua Thai) is the largest island of the group while the second, You can visit it during the day. To the north, the beaches, living a semi-nomadic population, which is called Nam Chao (Sea Gypsies).

A place where you can feel surrounded by the smiles of the people, a sea-green azzurrro, palm trees, white beaches, colorful fish and not the car because there are none.

On 26 December 2004, most of the inhabited part of Phi Phi Don was devastated by the tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Ton Sai village's main island, is mainly built on a sandy isthmus between the island's two long ridges of high kicks. On both sides of Ton Sai are semicircular bays lined with spiagge.L 'isthmus rises to less than two meters (six feet) above sea level.

Shortly after 10 am on the morning of December 26, the water receded from both bays. When the tsunami, at 10:37, he did both bays, and met in the middle of the isthmus. The wave that came into Ton Sai Bay was 3 meters (10 feet) high. The wave that came in Loh Dalum Bay was 6.5 meters (18 feet) high.

Imagen 2.435.-

 

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Tipo de Servicio: Turismo Internacional.-

Placa Patente: AXZ·2751 [Pr-Entre Rios Do Oeste].-

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Today's photo tour sends us back to Disney Springs for a shot of Paradiso 37. I have never actually eaten here, so if anybody can tell me a little bit about your experience, I would greatly appreciate it. I'm very impressed on how Disney Springs has transformed over the past year. There are a lot of new restaurants and shops to choose from creating a lot more options for guests to see. What's your opinion of the new Disney Springs? Have a magical day!

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-> Chasis : Scania K-400.-

-> Año de Fabricación del Bus : 2015.-

-> Placa Patente del Bus : GS*TJ*37.-

 

¡GRACIAS POR TU VISITA Y FAVORITO!

 

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Benvenuti nel paradiso di Koh Phi Phi Islands in Thailandia.

Situato nell'incontaminato Andaman Sea, l'arcipelago delle Phi Phi Islands è uno tra

i più belli al mondo...

A circa 50 km da Phuket, Ko Phi Phi, rappresenta una delle località più belle del mare thailandese. È formata dalle isole Phi Phi Don e Phi Phi Leh: la prima è abitata, Ko Phi Phi Don ("ko" ( Thai : เกาะ ) che significa "isola" inlingua thai ) è l'isola più grande del gruppo mentre la seconda, è visitabile in giornata in barca. A nord, sulle spiagge, vive una popolazione seminomade, che viene chiamata Chao Nam (Zingari del Mare).

Un luogo dove è facile sentirsi circondati dai sorrisi della gente, da un mare verde-azzurrro, da palme, spiagge bianche, pesci coloratissimi e non dalle auto perchè non ce ne sono.

Il 26 dicembre 2004, gran parte della parte abitata di Phi Phi Don è stata devastata dalle tsunami nell'Oceano Indiano . il principale villaggio dell'isola Ton Sai , è principalmente costruito su una sabbia istmo tra l'isola di due lunghe creste di calcare alti. Su entrambi i lati di Ton Sai sono baie semicircolari allineate con le spiagge.L'istmo sorge a meno di due metri (due metri) sul livello del mare.

Poco dopo le ore 10 del mattino del 26 dicembre, l'acqua da entrambe le baie si allontanava. Quando lo tsunami, alle 10:37, lo ha fatto da entrambe le baie, e si è incontrato in mezzo dell'istmo. L'onda che è entrato in Ton Sai Bay è stato di 3 metri (10 piedi) di altezza. L'onda che è entrato in Loh Dalum Bay è stata di 6,5 metri (18 piedi) di altezza.

  

Welcome to paradise of Koh Phi Phi Islands in Thailand.

Located in the uncontaminated Andaman Sea, the archipelago of the Phi Phi Islands is one of

the most beautiful in the world ...

At about 50 km from Phuket, Ko Phi Phi, is one of the most beautiful beach in Thailand. It is formed by the islands Phi Phi Don and Phi Phi Leh, the first is inhabited, Ko Phi Phi Don ("ko" (Thai: เกาะ) meaning "island" inlingua Thai) is the largest island of the group while the second, You can visit it during the day. To the north, the beaches, living a semi-nomadic population, which is called Nam Chao (Sea Gypsies).

A place where you can feel surrounded by the smiles of the people, a sea-green azzurrro, palm trees, white beaches, colorful fish and not the car because there are none.

On 26 December 2004, most of the inhabited part of Phi Phi Don was devastated by the tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Ton Sai village's main island, is mainly built on a sandy isthmus between the island's two long ridges of high kicks. On both sides of Ton Sai are semicircular bays lined with spiagge.L 'isthmus rises to less than two meters (six feet) above sea level.

Shortly after 10 am on the morning of December 26, the water receded from both bays. When the tsunami, at 10:37, he did both bays, and met in the middle of the isthmus. The wave that came into Ton Sai Bay was 3 meters (10 feet) high. The wave that came in Loh Dalum Bay was 6.5 meters (18 feet) high.

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Imagen 2.060.-

 

»Marcopolo Paradiso G71800 DD // Scania K-400

  

Tipo de Servicio: Interprovincial || Salón Cama Premium.-

Placa Patente: FY·WS*74.-

Número de Orden Interno: 125.-

  

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Lugar: Estación Central, Región Metropolitana.-

Fecha | Hora: 04.Enero.2014 || 09:37 hrs.-

  

═════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════════

Si desea la imagen original y sin marcas, favor enviar una solicitud a:

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Detalles del Vehiculo.-

 

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Gracias por visitar mi galeria!

  

Derechos Reservados y Creditos Daniel Lizama H. © 2013

  

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Tipo de Servicio: Interprovincial.-

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Número de Orden Interno: 280.-

  

Datos de Fotografía:

 

Lugar: Concepción, Región del Bio Bio.-

Fecha / Hora: 23.Agosto.2013 || 08:37 hrs.-

  

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Si desea la imagen original y sin marcas, favor enviar una solicitud a:

→ e.navarretevelasquez@gmail.com

 

»||вυsєs-dє-cнιlє||« Esteban Navarrete ©

Benvenuti nel paradiso di Koh Phi Phi Islands in Thailandia.

Situato nell'incontaminato Andaman Sea, l'arcipelago delle Phi Phi Islands è uno tra

i più belli al mondo...

A circa 50 km da Phuket, Ko Phi Phi, rappresenta una delle località più belle del mare thailandese. È formata dalle isole Phi Phi Don e Phi Phi Leh: la prima è abitata, Ko Phi Phi Don ("ko" ( Thai : เกาะ ) che significa "isola" inlingua thai ) è l'isola più grande del gruppo mentre la seconda, è visitabile in giornata in barca. A nord, sulle spiagge, vive una popolazione seminomade, che viene chiamata Chao Nam (Zingari del Mare).

Un luogo dove è facile sentirsi circondati dai sorrisi della gente, da un mare verde-azzurrro, da palme, spiagge bianche, pesci coloratissimi e non dalle auto perchè non ce ne sono.

Il 26 dicembre 2004, gran parte della parte abitata di Phi Phi Don è stata devastata dalle tsunami nell'Oceano Indiano . il principale villaggio dell'isola Ton Sai , è principalmente costruito su una sabbia istmo tra l'isola di due lunghe creste di calcare alti. Su entrambi i lati di Ton Sai sono baie semicircolari allineate con le spiagge.L'istmo sorge a meno di due metri (due metri) sul livello del mare.

Poco dopo le ore 10 del mattino del 26 dicembre, l'acqua da entrambe le baie si allontanava. Quando lo tsunami, alle 10:37, lo ha fatto da entrambe le baie, e si è incontrato in mezzo dell'istmo. L'onda che è entrato in Ton Sai Bay è stato di 3 metri (10 piedi) di altezza. L'onda che è entrato in Loh Dalum Bay è stata di 6,5 metri (18 piedi) di altezza.

  

Welcome to paradise of Koh Phi Phi Islands in Thailand.

Located in the uncontaminated Andaman Sea, the archipelago of the Phi Phi Islands is one of

the most beautiful in the world ...

At about 50 km from Phuket, Ko Phi Phi, is one of the most beautiful beach in Thailand. It is formed by the islands Phi Phi Don and Phi Phi Leh, the first is inhabited, Ko Phi Phi Don ("ko" (Thai: เกาะ) meaning "island" inlingua Thai) is the largest island of the group while the second, You can visit it during the day. To the north, the beaches, living a semi-nomadic population, which is called Nam Chao (Sea Gypsies).

A place where you can feel surrounded by the smiles of the people, a sea-green azzurrro, palm trees, white beaches, colorful fish and not the car because there are none.

On 26 December 2004, most of the inhabited part of Phi Phi Don was devastated by the tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Ton Sai village's main island, is mainly built on a sandy isthmus between the island's two long ridges of high kicks. On both sides of Ton Sai are semicircular bays lined with spiagge.L 'isthmus rises to less than two meters (six feet) above sea level.

Shortly after 10 am on the morning of December 26, the water receded from both bays. When the tsunami, at 10:37, he did both bays, and met in the middle of the isthmus. The wave that came into Ton Sai Bay was 3 meters (10 feet) high. The wave that came in Loh Dalum Bay was 6.5 meters (18 feet) high.

 

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Benvenuti nel paradiso di Koh Phi Phi Islands in Thailandia.

Situato nell'incontaminato Andaman Sea, l'arcipelago delle Phi Phi Islands è uno tra

i più belli al mondo...

A circa 50 km da Phuket, Ko Phi Phi, rappresenta una delle località più belle del mare thailandese. È formata dalle isole Phi Phi Don e Phi Phi Leh: la prima è abitata, Ko Phi Phi Don ("ko" ( Thai : เกาะ ) che significa "isola" inlingua thai ) è l'isola più grande del gruppo mentre la seconda, è visitabile in giornata in barca. A nord, sulle spiagge, vive una popolazione seminomade, che viene chiamata Chao Nam (Zingari del Mare).

Un luogo dove è facile sentirsi circondati dai sorrisi della gente, da un mare verde-azzurrro, da palme, spiagge bianche, pesci coloratissimi e non dalle auto perchè non ce ne sono.

Il 26 dicembre 2004, gran parte della parte abitata di Phi Phi Don è stata devastata dalle tsunami nell'Oceano Indiano . il principale villaggio dell'isola Ton Sai , è principalmente costruito su una sabbia istmo tra l'isola di due lunghe creste di calcare alti. Su entrambi i lati di Ton Sai sono baie semicircolari allineate con le spiagge.L'istmo sorge a meno di due metri (due metri) sul livello del mare.

Poco dopo le ore 10 del mattino del 26 dicembre, l'acqua da entrambe le baie si allontanava. Quando lo tsunami, alle 10:37, lo ha fatto da entrambe le baie, e si è incontrato in mezzo dell'istmo. L'onda che è entrato in Ton Sai Bay è stato di 3 metri (10 piedi) di altezza. L'onda che è entrato in Loh Dalum Bay è stata di 6,5 metri (18 piedi) di altezza.

 

Welcome to paradise of Koh Phi Phi Islands in Thailand.

Located in the uncontaminated Andaman Sea, the archipelago of the Phi Phi Islands is one of

the most beautiful in the world ...

At about 50 km from Phuket, Ko Phi Phi, is one of the most beautiful beach in Thailand. It is formed by the islands Phi Phi Don and Phi Phi Leh, the first is inhabited, Ko Phi Phi Don ("ko" (Thai: เกาะ) meaning "island" inlingua Thai) is the largest island of the group while the second, You can visit it during the day. To the north, the beaches, living a semi-nomadic population, which is called Nam Chao (Sea Gypsies).

A place where you can feel surrounded by the smiles of the people, a sea-green azzurrro, palm trees, white beaches, colorful fish and not the car because there are none.

On 26 December 2004, most of the inhabited part of Phi Phi Don was devastated by the tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Ton Sai village's main island, is mainly built on a sandy isthmus between the island's two long ridges of high kicks. On both sides of Ton Sai are semicircular bays lined with spiagge.L 'isthmus rises to less than two meters (six feet) above sea level.

Shortly after 10 am on the morning of December 26, the water receded from both bays. When the tsunami, at 10:37, he did both bays, and met in the middle of the isthmus. The wave that came into Ton Sai Bay was 3 meters (10 feet) high. The wave that came in Loh Dalum Bay was 6.5 meters (18 feet) high.

 

Benvenuti nel paradiso di Koh Phi Phi Islands in Thailandia.

Situato nell'incontaminato Andaman Sea, l'arcipelago delle Phi Phi Islands è uno tra

i più belli al mondo...

A circa 50 km da Phuket, Ko Phi Phi, rappresenta una delle località più belle del mare thailandese. È formata dalle isole Phi Phi Don e Phi Phi Leh: la prima è abitata, Ko Phi Phi Don ("ko" ( Thai : เกาะ ) che significa "isola" inlingua thai ) è l'isola più grande del gruppo mentre la seconda, è visitabile in giornata in barca. A nord, sulle spiagge, vive una popolazione seminomade, che viene chiamata Chao Nam (Zingari del Mare).

Un luogo dove è facile sentirsi circondati dai sorrisi della gente, da un mare verde-azzurrro, da palme, spiagge bianche, pesci coloratissimi e non dalle auto perchè non ce ne sono.

Il 26 dicembre 2004, gran parte della parte abitata di Phi Phi Don è stata devastata dalle tsunami nell'Oceano Indiano . il principale villaggio dell'isola Ton Sai , è principalmente costruito su una sabbia istmo tra l'isola di due lunghe creste di calcare alti. Su entrambi i lati di Ton Sai sono baie semicircolari allineate con le spiagge.L'istmo sorge a meno di due metri (due metri) sul livello del mare.

Poco dopo le ore 10 del mattino del 26 dicembre, l'acqua da entrambe le baie si allontanava. Quando lo tsunami, alle 10:37, lo ha fatto da entrambe le baie, e si è incontrato in mezzo dell'istmo. L'onda che è entrato in Ton Sai Bay è stato di 3 metri (10 piedi) di altezza. L'onda che è entrato in Loh Dalum Bay è stata di 6,5 metri (18 piedi) di altezza.

 

Welcome to paradise of Koh Phi Phi Islands in Thailand.

Located in the uncontaminated Andaman Sea, the archipelago of the Phi Phi Islands is one of

the most beautiful in the world ...

At about 50 km from Phuket, Ko Phi Phi, is one of the most beautiful beach in Thailand. It is formed by the islands Phi Phi Don and Phi Phi Leh, the first is inhabited, Ko Phi Phi Don ("ko" (Thai: เกาะ) meaning "island" inlingua Thai) is the largest island of the group while the second, You can visit it during the day. To the north, the beaches, living a semi-nomadic population, which is called Nam Chao (Sea Gypsies).

A place where you can feel surrounded by the smiles of the people, a sea-green azzurrro, palm trees, white beaches, colorful fish and not the car because there are none.

On 26 December 2004, most of the inhabited part of Phi Phi Don was devastated by the tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Ton Sai village's main island, is mainly built on a sandy isthmus between the island's two long ridges of high kicks. On both sides of Ton Sai are semicircular bays lined with spiagge.L 'isthmus rises to less than two meters (six feet) above sea level.

Shortly after 10 am on the morning of December 26, the water receded from both bays. When the tsunami, at 10:37, he did both bays, and met in the middle of the isthmus. The wave that came into Ton Sai Bay was 3 meters (10 feet) high. The wave that came in Loh Dalum Bay was 6.5 meters (18 feet) high.

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===============================

Cualquier pedido De Foto Por favor De Envía UN correo pinilla_andino@hotmail.com

Benvenuti nel paradiso di Koh Phi Phi Islands in Thailandia.

Situato nell'incontaminato Andaman Sea, l'arcipelago delle Phi Phi Islands è uno tra

i più belli al mondo...

A circa 50 km da Phuket, Ko Phi Phi, rappresenta una delle località più belle del mare thailandese. È formata dalle isole Phi Phi Don e Phi Phi Leh: la prima è abitata, Ko Phi Phi Don ("ko" ( Thai : เกาะ ) che significa "isola" inlingua thai ) è l'isola più grande del gruppo mentre la seconda, è visitabile in giornata in barca. A nord, sulle spiagge, vive una popolazione seminomade, che viene chiamata Chao Nam (Zingari del Mare).

Un luogo dove è facile sentirsi circondati dai sorrisi della gente, da un mare verde-azzurrro, da palme, spiagge bianche, pesci coloratissimi e non dalle auto perchè non ce ne sono.

Il 26 dicembre 2004, gran parte della parte abitata di Phi Phi Don è stata devastata dalle tsunami nell'Oceano Indiano . il principale villaggio dell'isola Ton Sai , è principalmente costruito su una sabbia istmo tra l'isola di due lunghe creste di calcare alti. Su entrambi i lati di Ton Sai sono baie semicircolari allineate con le spiagge.L'istmo sorge a meno di due metri (due metri) sul livello del mare.

Poco dopo le ore 10 del mattino del 26 dicembre, l'acqua da entrambe le baie si allontanava. Quando lo tsunami, alle 10:37, lo ha fatto da entrambe le baie, e si è incontrato in mezzo dell'istmo. L'onda che è entrato in Ton Sai Bay è stato di 3 metri (10 piedi) di altezza. L'onda che è entrato in Loh Dalum Bay è stata di 6,5 metri (18 piedi) di altezza.

  

Welcome to paradise of Koh Phi Phi Islands in Thailand.

Located in the uncontaminated Andaman Sea, the archipelago of the Phi Phi Islands is one of

the most beautiful in the world ...

At about 50 km from Phuket, Ko Phi Phi, is one of the most beautiful beach in Thailand. It is formed by the islands Phi Phi Don and Phi Phi Leh, the first is inhabited, Ko Phi Phi Don ("ko" (Thai: เกาะ) meaning "island" inlingua Thai) is the largest island of the group while the second, You can visit it during the day. To the north, the beaches, living a semi-nomadic population, which is called Nam Chao (Sea Gypsies).

A place where you can feel surrounded by the smiles of the people, a sea-green azzurrro, palm trees, white beaches, colorful fish and not the car because there are none.

On 26 December 2004, most of the inhabited part of Phi Phi Don was devastated by the tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Ton Sai village's main island, is mainly built on a sandy isthmus between the island's two long ridges of high kicks. On both sides of Ton Sai are semicircular bays lined with spiagge.L 'isthmus rises to less than two meters (six feet) above sea level.

Shortly after 10 am on the morning of December 26, the water receded from both bays. When the tsunami, at 10:37, he did both bays, and met in the middle of the isthmus. The wave that came into Ton Sai Bay was 3 meters (10 feet) high. The wave that came in Loh Dalum Bay was 6.5 meters (18 feet) high.

Benvenuti nel paradiso di Koh Phi Phi Islands in Thailandia.

Situato nell'incontaminato Andaman Sea, l'arcipelago delle Phi Phi Islands è uno tra

i più belli al mondo...

A circa 50 km da Phuket, Ko Phi Phi, rappresenta una delle località più belle del mare thailandese. È formata dalle isole Phi Phi Don e Phi Phi Leh: la prima è abitata, Ko Phi Phi Don ("ko" ( Thai : เกาะ ) che significa "isola" inlingua thai ) è l'isola più grande del gruppo mentre la seconda, è visitabile in giornata in barca. A nord, sulle spiagge, vive una popolazione seminomade, che viene chiamata Chao Nam (Zingari del Mare).

Un luogo dove è facile sentirsi circondati dai sorrisi della gente, da un mare verde-azzurrro, da palme, spiagge bianche, pesci coloratissimi e non dalle auto perchè non ce ne sono.

Il 26 dicembre 2004, gran parte della parte abitata di Phi Phi Don è stata devastata dalle tsunami nell'Oceano Indiano . il principale villaggio dell'isola Ton Sai , è principalmente costruito su una sabbia istmo tra l'isola di due lunghe creste di calcare alti. Su entrambi i lati di Ton Sai sono baie semicircolari allineate con le spiagge.L'istmo sorge a meno di due metri (due metri) sul livello del mare.

Poco dopo le ore 10 del mattino del 26 dicembre, l'acqua da entrambe le baie si allontanava. Quando lo tsunami, alle 10:37, lo ha fatto da entrambe le baie, e si è incontrato in mezzo dell'istmo. L'onda che è entrato in Ton Sai Bay è stato di 3 metri (10 piedi) di altezza. L'onda che è entrato in Loh Dalum Bay è stata di 6,5 metri (18 piedi) di altezza.

  

Welcome to paradise of Koh Phi Phi Islands in Thailand.

Located in the uncontaminated Andaman Sea, the archipelago of the Phi Phi Islands is one of

the most beautiful in the world ...

At about 50 km from Phuket, Ko Phi Phi, is one of the most beautiful beach in Thailand. It is formed by the islands Phi Phi Don and Phi Phi Leh, the first is inhabited, Ko Phi Phi Don ("ko" (Thai: เกาะ) meaning "island" inlingua Thai) is the largest island of the group while the second, You can visit it during the day. To the north, the beaches, living a semi-nomadic population, which is called Nam Chao (Sea Gypsies).

A place where you can feel surrounded by the smiles of the people, a sea-green azzurrro, palm trees, white beaches, colorful fish and not the car because there are none.

On 26 December 2004, most of the inhabited part of Phi Phi Don was devastated by the tsunami in the Indian Ocean. Ton Sai village's main island, is mainly built on a sandy isthmus between the island's two long ridges of high kicks. On both sides of Ton Sai are semicircular bays lined with spiagge.L 'isthmus rises to less than two meters (six feet) above sea level.

Shortly after 10 am on the morning of December 26, the water receded from both bays. When the tsunami, at 10:37, he did both bays, and met in the middle of the isthmus. The wave that came into Ton Sai Bay was 3 meters (10 feet) high. The wave that came in Loh Dalum Bay was 6.5 meters (18 feet) high.

El fenómeno Explore en Flickr ha sido motivo de obsesión para muchos compañeros de esta red social dedicada a la fotografía.

 

He visto gente a la que solo le valen comentarios como: impresionante, espectacular, grandioso ... y si intentas hacer una crítica constructiva, directamente borran tu comentario. Penosamente se dedican a hacer un "copy paste" para ser vanagloriados.

 

Flickr es un arma potente, si se sabe utilizar. Yo, he conseguido contratos con importantes con empresas internacionales, así como la cesión de imágenes en importantes medios de presa y comunicación, e incluso reportajes sociales (bodas, bautizos... que gustosamente he hecho a compañeros ( RafaDD el último, gracias Rafa).

 

Sigan su sueño, sigan con la fotografía, y sobre todo; sean humildes .. y aprendan desde el más profesional, hasta del más amateur.

 

Un millón de gracias a todos ...

     

ENGLISH

     

Flickr Explore The phenomenon has been the subject of obsession for many colleagues in this social network dedicated to photography.

 

I've seen people who are worth it alone comments like: awesome, amazing, great ... and if you try to make constructive criticism directly to delete your comment. Sadly are dedicated to making a "copy paste" for vainglory.

 

Flickr is a powerful weapon, if you know how to use. I've got contracts with major international companies, as well as the transfer of important media images of prey and communication, and even social stories (weddings, christenings ... would gladly have made friends (RafaDD the past, thanks Rafa) .

 

Follow your dream, still photography, and above all, be humble .. and learn from the most professional, even the most amateur.

 

A million thanks to all ...

        

1. ¿Moriremos en la orilla?, 2. Camino a la vida, 3. Smile, and live, 4. Passion window, 5. Kid soul, 6. Walking around ..., 7. Quid pro cuo, 8. Sunshine,

 

9. Is dead analog photography?, 10. Help Us, 11. Fly away ..., 12. Be water, my friend ..., 13. Eternal Spring ..., 14. Eros, Philia, Agape ..., 15. Camino, 16. La alternativa ...,

 

17. Decálogo de la picardía ..., 18. The last minutes ..., 19. Angular ..., 20. Alas de colores ..., 21. La prisa mata ...., 22. Where the streets has no name, 23. Door to Hell, 24. Aquarius Bokeh,

 

25. Peace for Them ..., 26. Gold: Rozando el Dorado ...., 27. Música para todos: y a pesar de todo, era feliz ..., 28. I Was Born, to Love You ..., 29. Otro, y van ..., 30. Salto al vacío, 31. Colombaires, 32. I can fly ...,

 

33. Poker face, 34. Angels, 35. Somos levedad ..., 36. Ve hacia la luz, Caroline ..., 37. Cinema Paradiso, 38. Requiem por el Hambre, 39. Sunday Afternoon, 40. Sentado frente al Mar, mientras el Mundo gira ...,

 

41. La memoria del Cabanyal ..., 42. Campos de Petanca en Marxalenes ... Ya ¡¡¡, 43. Petanca en Marxalenes, 44. The day that you arrived ..., 45. Sometimes, 46. De cosas que nos arrebata el tiempo ..., 47. Smoke Kills, 48. Hay cosas, que no son lo que parecen ...,

 

49. En busca de "El Dorado", 50. Los amantes del circulo polar, 51. Indispensables, para algunos ..., 52. Donde el cielo sangra ..., 53. United Colors of Valencia, 54. Mis neuronas no perdonan ..., 55. ¿Tanto os cuesta dar la mano?, 56. Fragile,

 

57. Un cruce en el camino ..., 58. 2009: El Fotógrafo ha muerto ... / Photographer has died ..., 59. Doble fila, 60. Así estoy yo, sin tí, 61. Bokeh y golazo por la escuadra ¡¡¡, 62. Bon Nadal - Feliz Navidad - Zorionak eta Urte Berri On - Merry Christmas - Froehliche Weihnachten - Buon Natale, 63. Cuando los tiempos cambian ..., 64. Play,

 

65. De recuerdos amontonados ..., 66. La levedad ..., 67. El Faro sin Tierra, 68. Te juzgaran sólo por tus errores (Yo, no), 69. Catch, 70. Basic Autumn, 71. Un final feliz / A happy end, 72. El fotógrafo, nace; o se hace?

 

1. Run, Baby, run ..., 2. ... y a veces, se pierde, 3. I'll be there for you ..., 4. La familia crece ..., 5. Feel, 6. Live Forever, 7. Walking on Valencia streets, 8. La última vinoteca del Mundo ...,

 

9. Life Bokeh, 10. Speed Down, 11. Volver ..., 12. Mare Nostrum ... Terra est, 13. L'horta, 14. Sweet Dreams, 15. Lo prohibido ... nos seduce tanto ..., 16. Peligro, "L'horta de València",

 

17. Lucas ha llegado ... y lo ha hecho para quedarse, 18. Dame pan, y dime tonto, 19. El paso del tiempo es irrefutable, 20. Los corazones dulces ... (Sweet Hearts), 21. Serenity, 22. Hay tantas perspectivas ..., 23. Sin City ..., 24. Yes, we can (Jump),

 

25. Arts, ciencies i ... presupost ..., 26. Cuando fuimos los mejores ... (Spain: European Basketball Champion 2009), 27. Bokeh & Tears, 28. In your face ¡¡¡, 29. La soledad, no está tan sóla ..., 30. Semper fidelis, 31. Empezamos siempre en pie ..., 32. La levedad ...,

 

33. In Memoriam : Daniel Jarque (1983-2009), 34. Crazy ... and you?, 35. El Ángel Ángel ..., 36. Die .. or skate, 37. La conciencia del cielo, 38. Hay noches en las que mataría por verte ..., 39. Mosquean ... sestean ... duermen ..., 40. Me cuesta tanto ...,

 

41. Principio ..., 42. Ellos tienen el "Empire State" ... nosotros L'Albufera, 43. Arroceros de Valencia, 44. La soledad del fotógrafo ... / Photographer solitude ..., 45. In Memoriam, Mario Benedetti (1920-2009), 46. Nothing ..., 47. Báilame el agua ..., 48. Con las manos "levantás",

 

49. Ella me pidió colores ..., 50. Qué ha quedado de mi Valencia ..., 51. Why does it always rain on me? Again ..., 52. Despabílate, 53. La inocencia descalza, 54. Mi antojo, 55. Alas de colores (Color wings), 56. Vintage Bokeh from Nikon,

 

57. Mi mente, demente, no tiene candados ..., 58. Seis versos al Mar, 59. La soledad del fotógrafo ..., 60. Por cada rail ... una vida, 61. Se le escapó el último tren ..., 62. La esperanza tendida al Sol ..., 63. Viviendo en silencio ..., 64. Cierra esa bocaza ¡¡¡¡,

 

65. Las luces de la ciudad ..., 66. In Memoriam (Corny, 1994-2009), 67. Historia de un salto ..., 68. ¿Jugamos?, 69. Hasta el final ..., 70. Malos tiempos para la Lírica #1, 71. La casa de tus sueños ..., 72. Cuando eramos niños...

 

1. Imagina un Mundo sin Música ..., 2. Mare Nostrum ..., 3. Se empieza por los pies ..., 4. Silencio ... sssssh, 5. Los amantes del Circulo Polar, 6. Lara, 7. Gypsy Queen, 8. The World Window,

 

9. Inlove, 10. Gael, 11. Red sunshine, 12. Enrique Beltran, 13. Green winter, 14. Abandono, 15. La sombra de la farola, 16. Yellow Green,

 

17. Clouds #3, 18. Yacer ..., 19. Arts i ciències, 20. Photo Orton #1, 21. Tórtola, 22. La Albufera de Valencia, 23. Photos no, please, 24. El mar en un cubo,

 

25. Clouds on heaven, 26. Oxygene, 27. Friends Forever #2, 28. Juega para mí, 29. So ... kiss me #1, 30. Piedra a Piedra / Stone by Stone, 31. Xavi #1, 32. Walking around,

 

33. The falling leaves, 34. Live forever, 35. Me huele a Granada / Me, 36. All the sea for you, 37. Soledad, 38. Eye in the Sky, 39. Cierra la vida / Close the life, 40. Renovar o morir / Renove or die,

 

41. Maria " in crecendo ", 42. Del Amor al Abismo / Inlove to the Abyss, 43. El equilibrio / The Balance, 44. El Camino / Eye in the Sky, 45. Helena, 46. El Gato en la Basura / Cat in sweepings, 47. Pequeña Maria / Little Marie, 48. Al Mar / To the Sea,

 

49. Grande entre las grandes ..., 50. Quien espera a quien, 51. Sot de Chera nocturna, 52. Creciendo, 53. Albufera cae, 54. Remanso, 55. Albufera, 56. Chipri

 

Marcopolo Paradiso G7 1800DD

Volvo B-420R

Recorrido: Est. Central - San Fernando - Curico (Por ByPass)

Asiento: Salon Cama - Semi Cama

N° Interno: 032

Patente del Bus: GKYT-37

Fecha: 16 de Enero de 2017

Saludos y Gracias Por Sus Visitas.

Marcopolo Paradiso 1800 DD G7 Scania K-420.-

 

Placa Patente Única: :*DS*SY*26*.-

 

Empresa Asociada: Transportes Eme Bus .-

 

Número de orden: ¿?-

  

Lugar de Fotografía: Viña del Mar. V Región De Valparaiso .Chile.-

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www.flickr.com/photos/turisexprexx/ Fecha y Hora de la Actualización : Miércoles/10/2012 Hora:01:37 PM.-

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Cualquier pedido De Foto Por favor De Envía UN correo pinilla_andino@hotmail.com

Empresa Asociada: Cruz Del Sur

Placa Única: CRVR 37

Carrocería: Marcopolo

Chasis: Mercedes Benz

Modelo: Paradiso 1200 G7

Orden Interna: 739

Tipo de asiento: Semi Cama

Lugar de la Fotografía: Terminal de Buses Collao, Concepción, Chile

 

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