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Norway spruce regeneration under Sitka spruce

Sometimes one has to take a longer perspective.

First, in naivete, I used to think large areas of forestry covering the landscape were beautiful, like a fir coat draped over the hills.

Accordingly, nobody likes to see hillsides denuded of their cover.

Now I know much better: monoculture is the enemy of biodiversity.

Those thoughts stuck in the brain for a few years until I discovered this area, the first place where I saw a noticeboard explaining that the hillside was going to be left for natural regeneration of native species instead of sitka spruce.

So this waste landscape is just the start of hopefully good things.

 

Creag an Fhaoraich and Innerwick from Dubh Chnochan, Camusvrachan, Glen Lyon.

 

Prints and things are available from the website: www.shinyphoto.co.uk/photo/Forestry-in-Action-3cdd8a9b4c3...

Paysage des palmiers á cire (Ceroxylon quindiuense), arbre national de Colombie, menacé par le déboisement et par l'élevage empêchant sa régenération naturelle. Cordilleère centrale, département du Tolima, Colombie.

 

Paisaje de Palma de cera (Ceroxylon quindiuense), árbol nacional de Colombia, amenazado por la deforestación y por la ganadería impidiendo su regeneración natural. Andes centrales, departamento del Tolima, Colombia.

Edith Rimmington, Leicester 1802 - Bexhill 1986

Falle - Decoy (1948)

National Galleries of Scotland

 

A Dichotomy between attraction and repulsion is created in this complex, multi-layered, illustrative, and anatomical painting. The decomposing hand points down, palm facing out, whilst skin is peeling off from the arm towards the hand, almost like a glove (which, interestingly is a recurring motif for Surrealist artists, particularly André Breton). Human veins are at once plant tendrils, while caterpillars and larvae are revealed nestling beneath flesh. Cocoons elegantly hang from the blood red fingertips; they are in various stages of hatching and some are already fully fledged, dazzling, and exquisitely painted butterflies.

 

The painting is testament to the marriage between birth and death, and how one state cannot exist without the other. Indeed, Rimmington documents the life cycle of the butterfly from birth to full maturity with careful scientific attention to detail here; all the species depicted are British butterflies, including the Ringlet, Peacock, Wall Brown, and Red Admiral.

 

The painting demonstrates Rimmington's ongoing fascination with the natural process of metamorphosis, a popular subject with many Surrealists, with some having read the research of the French intellectual Roger Caillois on the subject of mimicry. By including a human element to the insect life cycle, Rimmington creates a macabre sense of discomfort. She reminds the viewer that human life is by no means eternal and that the natural, regenerative life cycle runs constantly and applies to all living things. The title, The Decoy, implies a victim has been lured into a trap. The trap here is perhaps the exquisite beauty of the image, whilst by contrast the overall message of the artwork is death and decay.

 

Source: The Art Story (www.theartstory.org)

   

Alfred establishes contact with Jason not too long after I ask him to do so and I assign him and his 'outlaws' as he likes to call them their task. With Lazarus in play I need to be able to neutralise it depending on the dosage the Crimson Knight has had to the substance. I've tasked Jason and his team with retrieving the anti-Lazarus agent from one Jay Greene, a man I haven't encountered in over a decade since my first few months sporting the cowl. He was one of the first people to use the alias of the Red Hood in Gotham and he certainly wasn't the last, but he's also regarded as the most successful of the Red Hoods. If only because he was the one of the few that I couldn't expose as being a Red Hood with sufficient evidence for law enforcement to detain him.

 

During his time as a Red Hood he acquired a rare artefact, one containing a compound known to catalyse the natural decomposition of Lazarus in the human body. Usually Lazarus takes over a decade to naturally decompose after initial ingestion into the body and thanks to it the user retains some of the compounds natural regenerative properties. Not something serious such as reverting your body back to its prime state as it has been known to do for Ra's, but enough to repair damaged parts of the body. I suspect it was partially responsible for Jason awakening from his coma so soon after he shot that bullet into his mouth.

 

In a private discussion with Jason after briefing his 'outlaws' I ask for Jason to send him a blood sample. His exposure to the Lazarus pit used by Ra's means he has a quantity of Lazarus in his blood stream equal to a single exposure. Using the sample of Jason's blood as a reference I should be able to calculate the approximate number of dosages the Crimson Knight has had of Lazarus. Given the advantages this compound gives him I need to know exactly what I'm dealing with before I prepare to engage him again.

 

Tim will bring the blood sample back with him once he returns from Carthage in the meantime I inspect the blade that the Crimson Knight used. It's one of the sharpest blades I've ever seen especially given how easily it was able to cut through the Knight's armour with relative ease. It's certainly an uncommon item and not one you'd find in Gotham. I end up deciding to send all the information I can acquire from the blade to Dick to investigate in Bludhaven. Given the frequency of knife crime in Bludhaven it's possible Dick and Barbra may have come across a similar blade.

 

In the meantime as I have Dick follow up on any leads concerning the blade and wait on Tim to return and Jason to secure the artefact I decide to try and pick up the Crimson Knight's trail. The analysis table is proving faulty and unable to identify any matches to the blood sample, I'll need to have Lucius take a look at it tomorrow. Until then I'll just have to make do with my own skills and try to track down this elusive Knight myself.

 

But if there's one thing I can say after over thirty years living in Gotham, it's that nothing is ever so simple...

 

The squirrel

Sciurus vulgaris

Like mice and rats, squirrels are rodents, but thanks to their cute appearance, they have a higher cuddly. Yet they are not as innocent as they look because they have sharp teeth which they can bite firmly. Let the animals so mostly alone: ââthey are wild animals that belong in our nature.

 

The squirrel species living in Flanders, is also called red squirrel. In the rest of Europe, this is the most common type. He does not appear in southern Spain and some Mediterranean islands. In the UK, the gray squirrel is ever introduced. The latter now has red squirrel driven back to the north of the islands. In parts of Italy displaces the gray squirrel, the red squirrel. The gray squirrel is larger, heavier and less shy than the red squirrel.

 

You recognize the squirrel:

large bushy tail

ear tufts in the winter

color of the coat can vary from red to brown, sandy, gray or black, with a white belly

4 toes on the front and five on the hind legs, with sharp nails to climb well

lower jaw halves that can move independently from each other, so they can easily crack open nuts

 

His big bushy tail squirrel used to give signals. If he feels threatened or insecure, he is waving and undulating movements with his tail. He also used to keep the balance when jumping and to regulate his body temperature.

  

Big eater

Squirrels live in both coniferous, deciduous and mixed forests, parks and gardens. In autumn and winter squirrels eat mainly seeds of trees, hazelnuts, beechnuts, chestnuts, seeds of pine, spruce and lorkenappels, ... He is a big eater: he can the seeds of more than 100 pine cones a day eat! Squirrels make the greatest possible supply of winter, each time burying the seeds alone or with several together in a shallow well. The 'wintervoorraadjes' be found on smell, but often overlooked or not found.

 

In spring, when the trees lose their seeds, squirrels switch to previously constructed food stocks and buds and shoots and galls and later flowers of trees, berries, insects, worms, fungi and occasionally even a bird egg or young bird. From July, the proportion of seeds in their diet increased again. The squirrel is often labeled as a "notorious nest robbers, but the proportion of eggs in his diet is so small that the impact on bird populations is negligible.

No hibernation

Contrary to what many people think, keep squirrels do not hibernate. They will be less long active in the winter to lose too much energy: especially in the morning and early afternoon dives on them. By prolonged cold squirrels stay sometimes several days in their nest. The rest of the year they are active from dawn to dusk.

 

Squirrels use a half years about 12 nests. This involves both resting and sleeping nests. They make their nest in a natural tree cavity or an abandoned spechtenhol or build yourself a sphere nest of branches with leaves or needles, lined with stripped bark, moss, ferns, grass, ... There is a solidly built main nest often and longer used (eg during the winter and as a maternity nest).

  

Different fathers

Squirrels have two distinct reproductive peaks in January and in May-June During mating, the female 2-4 males are chasing. The most dominant male - or the male that can last the longest - may eventually pairs. Sometimes the dominant male can a week in advance to sleep with the female, but after mating both partners go their separate ways again. Females also mate with multiple males sometimes. Genetic research has shown already that boy from the same litter can have. Different fathers sometimes

 

After a gestation period of 36-42 days (ie from early February), 2-6 young are born. The reproductive success is greatest in large, heavy females with nutrient-rich habitats and favorable food and weather conditions. At the age of 8 weeks the boy first come out, and at 3 months the mother chases them away and they have to go searching. Private residential At 9-10 months, the boy sexually mature.

Many enemies

Squirrels are hunted by various birds of prey, the hawk probably has the greatest impact. Also captures the hawk and buzzard even the squirrels. Crows sometimes rob young squirrels out of the nest. Besides raptors mustelids are important predators. Many squirrels in the spring, when they forage on the ground, caught by a polecat. Also weasels, stoats and martens rob nests and even kill adult squirrels. Even foxes already put a squirrel on the menu. In gardens, young squirrels often slain by dogs or cats. In addition, also the traffic a major killer, especially around small bushes, where the squirrels have to cross to the surrounding gardens to gather enough food. Almost daily road

 

Because the squirrel with us not in high quantities, usually does not cause stripping bark and bark and eating buds and shoots for major damage to trees and shrubs. Be able squirrels in gardens full stock hazelnuts or walnuts eat. Fortunately, most people do not mind.

 

Squirrels are often accused of sabotage. The natural regeneration of forests However, it is very unlikely that the squirrels eat all the seeds. She has buried seeds indeed a positive effect on the germination and spread of the species, because the squirrels certainly not find all the seeds from their winter stock.

 

Lover of large forests

Between 1960 and 1970 plunged the population of the red squirrel in Western Europe in a disease. The population has since largely recovered. The probability of the presence of red squirrels is always very high in large forests, independent of the nutrient. However, in small forest quality is very important. The likelihood of their presence also decreases strongly with increasing isolation of the forest. As a result, the provinces of Antwerp and Limburg North, with their large coniferous forests, the most suitable for red squirrels. In South Limburg, Flemish Brabant and East Flanders (except the northern forest belt of East Flanders and the great forests to the east and southeast of the Brussels Region) knows the red squirrel a low presence, by the very humid or low quality forests (eg . poplar). In West Flanders, a province with very few forests, red squirrels are only for local, mainly in the area of ââBruges. In the woods of southern West Flanders there are sporadic sightings of red squirrel.

 

De eekhoorn

Sciurus vulgaris

Net als muizen en ratten zijn eekhoorns knaagdieren, maar dankzij hun schattige uiterlijk hebben ze een hogere aaibaarheidsfactor. Toch zijn ze niet zo onschuldig als ze eruitzien want ze beschikken over vlijmscherpe tandjes waarmee ze stevig kunnen bijten. Laat de diertjes dus vooral met rust: het zijn wilde dieren die thuis horen in onze natuur.

 

De eekhoornsoort die in Vlaanderen leeft, wordt ook wel eens rode eekhoorn genoemd. Ook in de rest van Europa is dit de meest voorkomende soort. Hij komt niet voor in Zuid-Spanje en enkele Mediterrane eilanden. In het Verenigd Koninkrijk is ooit de grijze eekhoorn geïntroduceerd. Die laatste heeft er nu rode eekhoorn teruggedreven tot het noorden van de eilanden. Ook in delen van Italië verdringt de grijze eekhoorn de rode eekhoorn. De grijze eekhoorn is groter, zwaarder en minder schuw dan de rode eekhoorn.

 

Je herkent de eekhoorn aan:

 

grote pluimstaart

oorpluimen in de winter

kleur van de pels kan variëren van rood tot bruin, zandkleurig, grijs of zwart, met een witte buik

4 tenen aan de voor- en 5 aan de achterpoten, met scherpe nageltjes om goed te kunnen klimmen

onderkaakshelften die los van elkaar kunnen bewegen, waardoor ze gemakkelijk noten kunnen openkraken

 

Zijn grote pluimstaart gebruikt de eekhoorn om signalen te geven. Als hij zich bedreigd of onzeker voelt, maakt hij zwaaiende en golvende bewegingen met zijn staart. Hij gebruikt die ook om het evenwicht te bewaren bij het springen en om zijn lichaamstemperatuur te regelen.

  

Flinke eter

Eekhoorns leven zowel in naald-, loof- als gemengde bossen, parken en tuinen. In herfst en winter eten eekhoorns vooral zaden van bomen: hazelnoten, beukennootjes, kastanjes, zaadjes van dennen-, spar- en lorkenappels, ... Hij is een flinke eter: hij kan de zaadjes van meer dan 100 dennenappels per dag opeten! Eekhoorns leggen een zo groot mogelijke wintervoorraad aan, waarbij ze de zaden telkens alleen of met enkele samen in een ondiep putje begraven. De ‘wintervoorraadjes’ worden teruggevonden op geur, maar vaak ook vergeten of niet teruggevonden.

 

In de lente, wanneer de bomen hun zaden verliezen, schakelen eekhoorns over op voordien aangelegde voedselvoorraden en op knoppen en scheuten en later ook op bloempjes van bomen, bessen, insecten en -gallen, rupsen, zwammen en af en toe zelfs een vogeleitje of jonge vogel. Vanaf juli neemt het aandeel zaden in hun dieet opnieuw toe. De eekhoorn wordt vaak bestempeld als een ‘beruchte nestrover’, maar het aandeel van vogeleieren in zijn dieet is zo klein, dat de impact op vogelpopulaties verwaarloosbaar is.

 

Geen winterslaap

In tegenstelling tot wat veel mensen denken, houden eekhoorns geen winterslaap. Ze zijn in de winter wel minder lang actief, om niet teveel energie te verliezen: vooral in de voormiddag en de vroege namiddag duiken ze dan op. Bij langdurige koude blijven eekhoorns wel eens enkele dagen in hun nest. De rest van het jaar zijn ze actief van zonsopgang tot zonsondergang.

 

Eekhoorns gebruiken op een half jaar tijd ongeveer 12 nesten. Het gaat zowel om rust- als slaapnesten. Ze maken hun nest in een natuurlijke boomholte of een verlaten spechtenhol of bouwen zelf een bol nest van takken met bladeren of naalden, met een binnenbekleding van afgestripte bast, mos, varens, gras, ... Er is een steviger gebouwd hoofdnest dat vaker en langer gebruikt wordt (o.a. tijdens de winter en als kraamnest).

  

Verschillende vaders

Eekhoorns hebben 2 duidelijke voortplantingspieken: in januari en in mei-juni. Tijdens de paring zitten 2-4 mannetjes het vrouwtje achterna. Het meest dominante mannetje - of het mannetje dat het het langst volhoudt - mag uiteindelijk paren. Soms mag het dominante mannetje al een week op voorhand bij het vrouwtje slapen, maar na de paring gaan beide partners weer elk hun eigen weg. Wijfjes paren ook soms met meerdere mannetjes. Genetisch onderzoek toonde reeds aan dat jongen van eenzelfde nest soms verschillende vaders kunnen hebben.

 

Na een draagtijd van 36-42 dagen (dus vanaf begin februari) worden 2-6 jongen geboren. Het voortplantingssucces is het grootst bij grote, zware vrouwtjes met voedselrijke leefgebieden en bij gunstige voedsel- en weersomstandigheden. Op een leeftijd van 8 weken komen de jongen voor het eerst naar buiten, en op 3 maand jaagt de moeder hen weg en moeten ze een eigen woongebied gaan zoeken. Op 9-10 maand zijn de jongen geslachtsrijp.

 

Veel vijanden

Eekhoorns worden bejaagd door allerlei roofvogels, waarvan de havik waarschijnlijk de grootste impact heeft. Daarnaast vangt ook de sperwer en zelfs de buizerd eekhoorns. Kraaien roven soms jonge eekhoorns uit het nest. Naast roofvogels zijn marterachtigen belangrijke predators. Veel eekhoorns worden in het voorjaar, wanneer ze op de grond foerageren, gevangen door een bunzing. Ook wezels, hermelijnen en steenmarters roven nesten en doden zelfs volwassen eekhoorns. Ook vossen zetten al eens een eekhoorn op het menu. In tuinen worden jonge eekhoorns vaak door honden of katten gedood. Daarnaast kan ook het verkeer een belangrijke doodsoorzaak zijn, vooral rond kleine bosjes, waar de eekhoorns bijna dagelijks de weg moeten oversteken naar de omliggende tuinen om voldoende voedsel te vergaren.

 

Doordat de eekhoorn bij ons niet in hoge aantallen voorkomt, zorgt het afstrippen van bast en schors en het opeten van knoppen en scheuten meestal niet voor grote schade aan bomen en struiken. Wel kunnen eekhoorns in tuinen de volledige voorraad hazel- of okkernoten opeten. Gelukkig vinden de meeste mensen dat niet erg.

 

Eekhoorns worden er vaak van beschuldigd de natuurlijke verjonging van bossen te saboteren. Het is echter zeer onwaarschijnlijk dat de eekhoorns alle zaden opeten. Dat ze zaden begraven heeft trouwens ook een positieve invloed op de kieming en verspreiding van de boomsoorten, omdat de eekhoorns zeker niet alle zaden van hun wintervoorraad terugvinden.

  

Liefhebber van grote bossen

Tussen 1960 en 1970 stortte de populatie van de rode eekhoorn in West-Europa in een door een ziekte. De populatie is sindsdien grotendeels hersteld. De kans op de aanwezigheid van rode eekhoorns is altijd zeer hoog in grote bossen, onafhankelijk van de voedselrijkdom. In kleine bossen echter wordt de kwaliteit zeer belangrijk. De kans op hun aanwezigheid daalt ook sterk met een stijgende isolatie van het bos. Hierdoor zijn de provincies Antwerpen en Noord-Limburg, met hun grote naaldbossen, het meest geschikt voor rode eekhoorns. In Zuid-Limburg, Vlaams-Brabant en Oost-Vlaanderen (uitgezonderd de noordelijke bosgordel van Oost-Vlaanderen en de grote bossen ten oosten en zuidoosten van het Brussels Gewest) kent de rode eekhoorn een lage aanwezigheid, door de zeer vochtige of lagekwaliteitsbossen (bv. populier). In West-Vlaanderen, een provincie met zeer weinig bossen, komen rode eekhoorns enkel lokaal voor, hoofdzakelijk in de omgeving van Brugge. In de bossen van zuidelijk West-Vlaanderen zijn er sporadische zichtwaarnemingen van rode eekhoorn.

 

The squirrel

Sciurus vulgaris

Like mice and rats, squirrels are rodents, but thanks to their cute appearance, they have a higher cuddly. Yet they are not as innocent as they look because they have sharp teeth which they can bite firmly. Let the animals so mostly alone: ââthey are wild animals that belong in our nature.

 

The squirrel species living in Flanders, is also called red squirrel. In the rest of Europe, this is the most common type. He does not appear in southern Spain and some Mediterranean islands. In the UK, the gray squirrel is ever introduced. The latter now has red squirrel driven back to the north of the islands. In parts of Italy displaces the gray squirrel, the red squirrel. The gray squirrel is larger, heavier and less shy than the red squirrel.

 

You recognize the squirrel:

large bushy tail

ear tufts in the winter

color of the coat can vary from red to brown, sandy, gray or black, with a white belly

4 toes on the front and five on the hind legs, with sharp nails to climb well

lower jaw halves that can move independently from each other, so they can easily crack open nuts

 

His big bushy tail squirrel used to give signals. If he feels threatened or insecure, he is waving and undulating movements with his tail. He also used to keep the balance when jumping and to regulate his body temperature.

  

Big eater

Squirrels live in both coniferous, deciduous and mixed forests, parks and gardens. In autumn and winter squirrels eat mainly seeds of trees, hazelnuts, beechnuts, chestnuts, seeds of pine, spruce and lorkenappels, ... He is a big eater: he can the seeds of more than 100 pine cones a day eat! Squirrels make the greatest possible supply of winter, each time burying the seeds alone or with several together in a shallow well. The 'wintervoorraadjes' be found on smell, but often overlooked or not found.

 

In spring, when the trees lose their seeds, squirrels switch to previously constructed food stocks and buds and shoots and galls and later flowers of trees, berries, insects, worms, fungi and occasionally even a bird egg or young bird. From July, the proportion of seeds in their diet increased again. The squirrel is often labeled as a "notorious nest robbers, but the proportion of eggs in his diet is so small that the impact on bird populations is negligible.

No hibernation

Contrary to what many people think, keep squirrels do not hibernate. They will be less long active in the winter to lose too much energy: especially in the morning and early afternoon dives on them. By prolonged cold squirrels stay sometimes several days in their nest. The rest of the year they are active from dawn to dusk.

 

Squirrels use a half years about 12 nests. This involves both resting and sleeping nests. They make their nest in a natural tree cavity or an abandoned spechtenhol or build yourself a sphere nest of branches with leaves or needles, lined with stripped bark, moss, ferns, grass, ... There is a solidly built main nest often and longer used (eg during the winter and as a maternity nest).

  

Different fathers

Squirrels have two distinct reproductive peaks in January and in May-June During mating, the female 2-4 males are chasing. The most dominant male - or the male that can last the longest - may eventually pairs. Sometimes the dominant male can a week in advance to sleep with the female, but after mating both partners go their separate ways again. Females also mate with multiple males sometimes. Genetic research has shown already that boy from the same litter can have. Different fathers sometimes

 

After a gestation period of 36-42 days (ie from early February), 2-6 young are born. The reproductive success is greatest in large, heavy females with nutrient-rich habitats and favorable food and weather conditions. At the age of 8 weeks the boy first come out, and at 3 months the mother chases them away and they have to go searching. Private residential At 9-10 months, the boy sexually mature.

Many enemies

Squirrels are hunted by various birds of prey, the hawk probably has the greatest impact. Also captures the hawk and buzzard even the squirrels. Crows sometimes rob young squirrels out of the nest. Besides raptors mustelids are important predators. Many squirrels in the spring, when they forage on the ground, caught by a polecat. Also weasels, stoats and martens rob nests and even kill adult squirrels. Even foxes already put a squirrel on the menu. In gardens, young squirrels often slain by dogs or cats. In addition, also the traffic a major killer, especially around small bushes, where the squirrels have to cross to the surrounding gardens to gather enough food. Almost daily road

 

Because the squirrel with us not in high quantities, usually does not cause stripping bark and bark and eating buds and shoots for major damage to trees and shrubs. Be able squirrels in gardens full stock hazelnuts or walnuts eat. Fortunately, most people do not mind.

 

Squirrels are often accused of sabotage. The natural regeneration of forests However, it is very unlikely that the squirrels eat all the seeds. She has buried seeds indeed a positive effect on the germination and spread of the species, because the squirrels certainly not find all the seeds from their winter stock.

 

Lover of large forests

Between 1960 and 1970 plunged the population of the red squirrel in Western Europe in a disease. The population has since largely recovered. The probability of the presence of red squirrels is always very high in large forests, independent of the nutrient. However, in small forest quality is very important. The likelihood of their presence also decreases strongly with increasing isolation of the forest. As a result, the provinces of Antwerp and Limburg North, with their large coniferous forests, the most suitable for red squirrels. In South Limburg, Flemish Brabant and East Flanders (except the northern forest belt of East Flanders and the great forests to the east and southeast of the Brussels Region) knows the red squirrel a low presence, by the very humid or low quality forests (eg . poplar). In West Flanders, a province with very few forests, red squirrels are only for local, mainly in the area of ââBruges. In the woods of southern West Flanders there are sporadic sightings of red squirrel.

Numbers 32:13 And the LORD'S anger was kindled against Israel, and he made them wander in the wilderness forty years, until all the generation, that had done evil in the sight of the LORD, was consumed.

 

You can see the cells in this macro shot as the sun shines thru it. I used a 5x magnifier handheld at the end of my camera lens. This Wandering Jew plant was one my mother had over 45 years ago. I have propagated this vine and kept it going all these years! I keep it as a hanging plant and it will grow to the floor. In the Spring I take it outside and give it a 'haircut' by trimming it back and letting it grow in it's hanging pot from a tree branch in the shade all Summer. I let the cuttings fall to the sand and they root themselves and form a mat but are killed by frost. Sometimes it gets a white stripe and tiny white flowers. I have given new plants or cuttings to everyone who wants one. This prolific and tenacious plant has more babies than I can imagine! I think this is a good example of the characteristics of the Jewish people. They have had to be strong, vigorous, tenacious, persistant and blessed by God in order to survive the holocaust atrocities!

   

"Tradescantia fluminensis is a species of spiderwort native to South America more commonly known as Wandering Jew, a name it shares with closely related varieties T. pallida and T. zebrina.

 

Though often grown in the United States as a garden plant or houseplant, in many places T. fluminensis is considered an invasive species, noxious weed, or pest plant and is consequently targeted for eradication. Seriously affected areas include the southeastern United States[1], Australia,[2] and New Zealand[3].

 

The seriously invasive qualities of T. fluminensis result from a combination of attributes. Forming a dense mat underneath forest tree cover (facilitated by a remarkable shade tolerance), it smothers ground-level plants and prevents the natural regeneration of taller species; if left unchecked, it can lead to the destruction of native forests. Even where the climate does not permit T. fluminensis to take root, it still can spread rapidly from being transported by animals and humans. The succulent stems break easily at the nodes and establish themselves wherever they land on moist soil. While T. fluminensis does respond to herbicides and other applied weed controls, each segment has the ability to regenerate, so it is able to make a rapid comeback, especially in soft soils where stems may remain underneath the surface. " Wikipedia

 

After reading how some view this plant as a weed and want to eradicate it totally, I see how it even more typifies the Jew and Israel! Actually, this blows me away!"

Pennington Flash .Leigh. NW England.

 

Pennington Flash Country Park is a 200 hectares (494 acres) country park located between Lowton and Pennington, Leigh in Greater Manchester, England.

 

The flash is a 70 hectares (173 acres) lake created at the turn of the 20th century by coal mining subsidence, mainly from Bickershaw Colliery, and flooding.[1] Now an extensive nature reserve with several bird hides and a network of tracks and footpaths, Pennington Flash Country Park is nationally renowned for its birdlife and is a classic example of natural regeneration. A variety of well-maintained paths cater for walkers, cyclists and horse riders. Ideal for disabled persons, the Flash's hides have ramps for wheelchair access.

 

One of the premier birdwatching sites in North West England, over 230 bird species have been recorded on site including: Black-faced Bunting, Nightingale, Marsh Harrier, Spoonbill and Leach's Storm-petrel. Additionally, a wide variety of butterflies, dragonflies and damselflies can be spotted in the area.

 

Facilities include a small information centre, a nine-hole municipal golf course, a pay and display car park, a children’s play area, picnic and recreation areas, bird watching facilities, fishing on certain shores, sailing, windsurfing and rowing through Leigh and Lowton Sailing Club, a mobile café and toilets

Landowner Larry Brown has been working with U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) District Conservationist John Wagoner (cowboy hat) to create a site-specific conservation plan that includes a pollinator habitat enhancement plan to address the improvement, restoration, enhancement, or expansion of flower-rich habitat that supports native and/or managed pollinators with the use of tree/shrub establishment and fence practices at his property just south of Ennis, Montana, on August 29, 2019. Mr. Brown saw a local newspaper announcement that informed him how USDA could help. USDA Photo by Lance Cheung.

 

For more information, please see:

Pollinator Habitat Enhancement Plan, Practice Activity Code 146, is a site-specific conservation plan developed for a client that addresses the improvement, restoration, enhancement, or expansion of flower-rich habitat that supports native and/or managed pollinators.

efotg.sc.egov.usda.gov/references/public/CO/COCAP_146_2014-11.pdf

 

Tree/Shrub Establishment, Practice Activity Code 612, involves planting seedlings or cuttings, seeding, or creating conditions that promote natural regeneration.

nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/national/soils/health/?cid=nrcs144p2_027187

 

Fence, Conservation Practice Standard 382, is a constructed barrier to animals or people.

nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprdb1144464.pdf

  

Conservation Practices - usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detailfull/national/technical/cp/ncps/?cid=nrcs143_026849

 

NRCS – NRCS - nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/site/national/home/

 

FPAC - Farm Production and Conservation - usda.gov/our-agency/about-usda/mission-areas

 

USDA - USDA.gov

   

Regeneration of a Caledonian Pinewood in Wester Ross. On the left is an area to which sheep and deer have open access, on the right is an exclosure which keeps all the ungulates out. Some of the young trees within the exclosure are planted from seed harvested from the local "Grannie Pines", as well as natural regeneration. On the left of the fence there are no young trees at all, and the forest is effectively dying as when the old trees die, there are no new ones to replace them. There are Birch, Alder, Hazel, Aspen, Juniper and the odd Oak growing in this Glen, and they have also been planted within the exclosures to increase the diversity of tree species.

Pennington Flash .Leigh. NW England.

 

Pennington Flash Country Park is a 200 hectares (494 acres) country park located between Lowton and Pennington, Leigh in Greater Manchester, England.

 

The flash is a 70 hectares (173 acres) lake created at the turn of the 20th century by coal mining subsidence, mainly from Bickershaw Colliery, and flooding.[1] Now an extensive nature reserve with several bird hides and a network of tracks and footpaths, Pennington Flash Country Park is nationally renowned for its birdlife and is a classic example of natural regeneration. A variety of well-maintained paths cater for walkers, cyclists and horse riders. Ideal for disabled persons, the Flash's hides have ramps for wheelchair access.

 

One of the premier birdwatching sites in North West England, over 230 bird species have been recorded on site including: Black-faced Bunting, Nightingale, Marsh Harrier, Spoonbill and Leach's Storm-petrel. Additionally, a wide variety of butterflies, dragonflies and damselflies can be spotted in the area.

 

Facilities include a small information centre, a nine-hole municipal golf course, a pay and display car park, a children’s play area, picnic and recreation areas, bird watching facilities, fishing on certain shores, sailing, windsurfing and rowing through Leigh and Lowton Sailing Club, a mobile café and toilets

Photo taken from a paddock in private property. The dark green canopy is unmistakable and easily noticed. Hence the alternative name "Negrohead beech".

 

An unusually low altitude stand of trees at around 600 metres above sea level. Until fairly recently, this Comboyne population was considered "extinct" by scientists. However, the local farmers knew better.

 

The land owner said that this hill had been entirely cleared a hundred years ago, and this is all natural regeneration. The Antarctic Beech is common here. Colin, the local farmer was remarkably friendly, helpful and knowledgeable.

 

The soils here are on colluvium derived from basalt. The rounded conglomerate stones were likely to be from an alluvial origin. Derived from Triassic sediments from around two kilometres upstream. "Colluvium" is loose earth material that has accumulated downhill, through the action of gravity.

 

All sites we visited were basalt influenced, making a reasonably high soil quality. Thanks to Michael for this soil information. At the first site, the tree there was 17 metres tall. It's unlikely any in shot in this photo would exceed 25 metres tall. The largest I've seen of this species is in excess of 50 metres tall at the Barrington Tops.

 

This rainforest may be classified as "warm temperate". As the other trees nearby were almost all of that variety. Such as Native Crabapple, Lilly Pilly, Coachwood, Common Sassafras, White Aspen, Jackwood, Bonewood, Pittosporum, Callicoma, Bonewood, Guioa & Watergum*.

 

* Scientific names; Schizomeria ovata, Acmena smithii, Ceratopetalum apetalum, Doryphora sassafras, Aconychia oblongifolia, Pittosporum undulatum, Callicoma serratifolia, Acradenia euodiiformis, Guioa semiglauca, Tristaniopsis collina.

 

It was interesting to see the Antarctic Beech growing next to Bangalow Palms. As well as more common warmer species such as birds nest ferns. Cool temperate associates include Dicksonia antarctica, Lomatia arborescens, Quintinia sieberi, Orites excelsus and Vesselowskya rubifolia.

 

We noted several Trochocarpa plants, and identified them as the lowland T. laurina, rather than the beech associate, T. montana. Others, however, say that T. montana is present. We searched without success for the Beech orchid. It was recorded in the past at Comboyne, but perhaps now is locally extinct. (Dendrobium falcorostrum).

 

Can't quite figure out why the rainforest is mostly of warm temperate species, as the good quality soils are better suited to sub tropical rainforest trees. Such as the Rosewood, Red Cedar, Pigeonberry Ash, Booyong, Carabeen and dozens and dozens more.

 

At this photographed site, we parked the cars near a grove of original rainforest trees. They were all warm temperate species; (Cryptocarya glaucescens & Doryphora sassafras). Soils were typical red/brown kraznozem types derived from basalt. The streams on the Comboyne plateau are often subject to unusually cold winters, which would assist the Antarctic Beech. Perhaps this rainforest is cool temperate, type 49 as described by Alexander Floyd.

 

Michael E's soil analysis is at odds with Bale & Williams. I reckon Michael is correct, though. My theory is that the Comboyne plateau was covered in warm temperate & sub tropical rainforest. And the warm temperate rainforest is not confined to the Triassic sedimentary soils. (as we saw).

 

I suspected there is an agent in the red/brown kraznozem soils which hinders the development sub tropical species and supports the warm temperate species. It also favours the cool temperate species, the Antarctic Beech. That soil agent may be aluminium or another which renders the soils less fertile in a practical way. (This theory is now discarded).

 

The warm temperate species out-competed the sub tropical types. That missing factor when absent promotes sub tropical rainforest remnants at other farm areas at Comboyne. The sub tropical species out compete the warm temperate species in the richer soils. Temperature, soil degradation after clearing and aspect are factors too. But minor ones, perhaps. I've asked Colin Bale about this, waiting for a reply.

 

The answer is that it's too cold for sub tropical rainforests. The cold air drains down by the creek lines. The rainforest is properly classified as "cool temperate".

 

Although our soils scientist says that the ph is 4 to 5, which could mobilize toxins such as aluminium which could encourage warm temperate species and hinder the growth of sub tropical species.

 

The Comboyne plateau is a scarp-bounded paleoplain located between the central north coast of New South Wales and the Great Escarpment. Location: -31.605, 152.468. Miocene basalts overlie much of the plateau, creating red/brown kraznozem soils. However, exposed in the southern third of the plateau are underlying Triassic sediments of the Lorne basin.

 

The two major streams are the Thone River flowing north and Mumfords Creek, flowing west. The beech trees are found near these streams. The altitudes at the north of the plateau are 450 metres and 700 at the southern rim.

 

The plateau is mostly used for agriculture. The rainfall at nearby Boorganna Nature Reserve is 1930 mm per year. Mists and fog are common, being exposed to orographic influences from the east.

 

Dairy farms and vegetable plantations are often seen on the plateau. It is a rich farming community with high land prices. On Monday we noted a healthy avocado plantation next to Boorganna Nature Reserve.

 

Within these farms are the occasional original sub tropical rainforest tree. Sometimes a small patch of between five and a hundred trees. Cattle enjoy the shade underneath these original rainforest trees. One of the most common farm trees is the Rosewood (Dysoxylum fraserianum). It's possible that some Comboyne farm trees may be Antarctic Beech, as yet undiscovered.

 

In 1925 the botanist E.C. Chisholm surveyed the remains of the Comboyne rainforests. He wrote that the beech was "extremely rare, although many trees were undoubtedly destroyed during clearing." However, on Monday, our wonderful guide Colin suggests that he has evidence that the beech was common or abundant on the Comboyne plateau in the 19th century.

 

Chisholm's text was read by contemporary botanists and used as evidence for the species' supposed extinction in the Comboyne area. However, the rainforest botanist A.G. Floyd has the species listed at Comboyne in his 1989 publication: Rainforest Trees of Mainland South-eastern Australia, Inkata Press 1989, ISBN 0-909605-57-2

 

The Antarctic Beech at Comboyne show strong regeneration from seed. Here the beech seems mostly confined to stream-side locations. Though there did appear to be a number of trees up the hill (see notes on the photo). As with the population at east Dorrigo, the species grows at unusually low altitudes.

 

These Comboyne populations show the resilience of the species after the plateau was almost entirely cleared in the first quarter of the twentieth century. It is clearly "vagile", that is able to move and distribute in disturbed areas through "mast" seeding. The trees we saw included relic plants of considerable age, as well as mature, young, sapling and seedlings.

 

The Antarctic Beech group (Nothofagaceae) is an ancient type of plant, of great significance to southern hemisphere botanical distribution. This group is often associated with the breakup of the ancient super continent Gondwana.

 

They are currently found in southern South America (Chile, Argentina) and Australasia (east and southeast Australia, New Zealand, New Guinea and New Caledonia).

 

This particular species is found between the Barrington Tops in the south (-32.052, 151.493). To the Lamington Plateau to the north (just over the border of New South Wales in Queensland). (-28.142, 153.115)

 

Now known as Lophozonia moorei. It was previously known for many years as Nothofagus moorei and other names including Fagus moorei. Fagus being the genus of the European Beech (Fagus sylvatica).

 

The Antarctic Beech is usually seen between altitudes of 900 to 1550 metres above sea level. At Comboyne they are found as low as 570 metres. There is a Facebook report of the beech growing on the upper Nymboida river at 520 metres above sea level. Though I've not seen this published anywhere. I've seen them nearby at Mobong Creek at 605 metres altitude.

 

It is not limited to the better quality basaltic soils, such as at Werrikimbe national park. At nearby Mount Banda Banda it grows on soils derived from porphyry, a type of granite. There associate species include the sub tropical Yellow Carabeen and Walking Stick palms. Near Dorrigo it grows beside the Hoop pine.

 

Further north at Cathedral Rock, it grows on adamellite, another granite which produces even less fertile soils. The cool temperate rainforests there are dominated by an expected associate, the Black Olive Berry (Elaeocarpus holopetalus). The Antarctic Beech can become a competitive and viable species in unexpected places within its range.

 

North at the Border Ranges/Lamington National park, the Antarctic Beech grows alongside sub tropical trees like the Bangalow Palm and Black Booyong. (Archontophoenix cunninghamiana & Argyrodendron actinophyllum). Here at Comboyne it also grows next to the Bangalow Palm.

 

There is a record of this species in the Blue Mountains west of Sydney. However, this is considered a "blow-in" from Mount Tomah Botanic Gardens, several kilometres away. There's another record of it from Mount Kaputar on the western plains near Narrabri. I've yet to hear if this 1911 record is accepted by the scientific community.

 

There is a record in New South Wales of the related Lophozonia cunninghamii. However, this is a fossilized stump, some thirty thousand years old. Located in Kościuszko National Park. It's unlikely that it occurs alive in New South Wales. But you never know!

 

The documentation by Bale & Williams of these refugial stands at Comboyne is another interesting chapter of the story of the Nothofagaceae. It gives extra clues regarding paleoclimatic and paleobiogeographic inferences.

 

As these stands of Antarctic Beech are at such low altitudes and in a warmer climate as one might expect. Their potential deterioration in more hot weather in situ may signify further evidence of climate change.

 

Thanks to the botanist Colin Bale for his e-mails, advice and support.

Aerial view of landowner Larry Brown who has been working with U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) District Conservationist John Wagoner (cowboy hat) to create a site-specific conservation plan that includes a pollinator habitat enhancement plan to address the improvement, restoration, enhancement, or expansion of flower-rich habitat that supports native and/or managed pollinators with the use of tree/shrub establishment and fence practices at his property just south of Ennis, Montana, on August 29, 2019. Mr. Brown saw a local newspaper announcement that informed him how USDA could help. USDA Photo by Lance Cheung.

 

For more information, please see:

Pollinator Habitat Enhancement Plan, Practice Activity Code 146, is a site-specific conservation plan developed for a client that addresses the improvement, restoration, enhancement, or expansion of flower-rich habitat that supports native and/or managed pollinators.

efotg.sc.egov.usda.gov/references/public/CO/COCAP_146_2014-11.pdf

 

Tree/Shrub Establishment, Practice Activity Code 612, involves planting seedlings or cuttings, seeding, or creating conditions that promote natural regeneration.

nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/national/soils/health/?cid=nrcs144p2_027187

 

Fence, Conservation Practice Standard 382, is a constructed barrier to animals or people.

nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprdb1144464.pdf

  

Conservation Practices - usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detailfull/national/technical/cp/ncps/?cid=nrcs143_026849

 

NRCS – NRCS - nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/site/national/home/

 

FPAC - Farm Production and Conservation - usda.gov/our-agency/about-usda/mission-areas

 

USDA - USDA.gov

   

Camera: Canon PowerShot SX1 IS

Exposure: sec (1/200)

windy

Aperture: f/2.8

super-macro

Focal Length: 5 mm ~ 28 mm

ISO Speed: 80

Exposure Bias: -1/3 EV

Name:

Gemeine Felsenbirne

bot. Name Amelanchier ovalis

 

Der botanische Gattungsname Amelanchier leitet sich ab von der französisch-provencalischen Bezeichnung „amelanche“ für die Früchte der dort heimischen Amelanchier ovalis.

Das Wort „amelanche“ ist keltisch-gallischen Ursprungs und bedeutet nichts anderes als „Äpfelchen“.

Die erste schriftliche Erwähnung von Amelanchier datiert aus dem Jahre 1549.

 

alternative Bezeichnungen

 

Gewöhnliche Felsenbirne

"Edelweißstrauch " - blüht weiß

Fruchtart Apfelfrüchte

 

Wurzelsystem Flachwurzler

 

Geschlecht : zwittrig

 

Häusigkeit : einhäusig

 

Bestäubung Fremdbestäubung:

Tierbestäubung

 

---------------------------------------------------View On Black

 

_____________________>>>>>

 

________________

closer macro canonmacro

enyoy my show:

 

show/

  

______________

Amelanchier, also known as

shadbush, serviceberry, sarvisberry, juneberry, Saskatoon, shadblow, shadwood, sugarplum, and wild-plum, is a genus of about 20 species of shrubs and small deciduous trees in the Rosaceae (Rose family).

-

Amelanchier are preferred browse for deer and rabbits, and heavy browsing pressure can suppress natural regeneration.

Caterpillars of Lepidoptera such as Brimstone Moth, Brown-tail, Grey Dagger, Mottled Umber, Rough Prominent, The Satellite, Winter Moth, Limenitis arthemis and other herbivorous insects also have a taste for serviceberry.

 

Many insects and diseases that attack orchard trees also affect this genus, in particular trunk borers and Gymnosporangium rust. In years when late flowers overlap those of wild roses and brambles, bees may spread bacterial fireblight.

Landowner Larry Brown has been working with U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) District Conservationist John Wagoner (cowboy hat) to create a site-specific conservation plan that includes a pollinator habitat enhancement plan to address the improvement, restoration, enhancement, or expansion of flower-rich habitat that supports native and/or managed pollinators with the use of tree/shrub establishment and fence practices at his property just south of Ennis, Montana, on August 29, 2019. Mr. Brown saw a local newspaper announcement that informed him how USDA could help. USDA Photo by Lance Cheung.

 

For more information, please see:

Pollinator Habitat Enhancement Plan, Practice Activity Code 146, is a site-specific conservation plan developed for a client that addresses the improvement, restoration, enhancement, or expansion of flower-rich habitat that supports native and/or managed pollinators.

efotg.sc.egov.usda.gov/references/public/CO/COCAP_146_2014-11.pdf

 

Tree/Shrub Establishment, Practice Activity Code 612, involves planting seedlings or cuttings, seeding, or creating conditions that promote natural regeneration.

nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detail/national/soils/health/?cid=nrcs144p2_027187

 

Fence, Conservation Practice Standard 382, is a constructed barrier to animals or people.

nrcs.usda.gov/Internet/FSE_DOCUMENTS/stelprdb1144464.pdf

  

Conservation Practices - usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/detailfull/national/technical/cp/ncps/?cid=nrcs143_026849

 

NRCS – NRCS - nrcs.usda.gov/wps/portal/nrcs/site/national/home/

 

FPAC - Farm Production and Conservation - usda.gov/our-agency/about-usda/mission-areas

 

USDA - USDA.gov

   

Nature and the Regeneration of London working side by side. A Madame Tussauds moment naturally in Walthamstow E17.

Which bit is real? Both unfortunately.

Shot with the sun behind the rock. The mixed woodland at Hardcastle Crags is managed to encourage natural regeneration of native broadleaved species. Fallen trees and standing deadwood are left to provide habitats for invertebrates, birds and bats. This is ancient semi-natural woodland.

The mixed woodland at Hardcastle Crags is managed to encourage natural regeneration of native broadleaved species. Fallen trees and standing deadwood are left to provide habitats for invertebrates, birds, and bats. This is ancient semi-natural woodland.

The mixed woodland at Hardcastle Crags is managed to encourage natural regeneration of native broadleaved species. Fallen trees and standing deadwood are left to provide habitats for invertebrates, birds and bats. This is ancient semi-natural woodland..

The mixed woodland at Hardcastle Crags is managed to encourage natural regeneration of native broadleaved species. Fallen trees and standing deadwood are left to provide habitats for invertebrates, birds and bats. This is ancient semi-natural woodland.

Fungi growing on a fallen tree. The mixed woodland at Hardcastle Crags is managed to encourage natural regeneration of native broadleaved species. Fallen trees and standing deadwood are left to provide habitats for invertebrates, birds, and bats. This is ancient semi-natural woodland

View from Gibson Mill The mixed woodland at Hardcastle Crags is managed to encourage natural regeneration of native broadleaved species. Fallen trees and standing deadwood are left to provide habitats for invertebrates, birds, and bats. This is ancient semi-natural woodland.

In Vanuatu, Merremia peltata is a vigorous creeping vine that may have been introduced to the islands during World War II, by the American army, for camouflage purposes. It is a real threat to forests because it strangles vegetation. Merremia peltata kills forests on sites disturbed by man, and where the canopy is naturally opened as a result of factors like dying trees and the impacts of cyclones. It is one of the most important weeds of plantation forestry and is also found in natural and semi-natural environments. This vine is one of two major species threatening natural regeneration in logged or disturbed areas. It prefers disturbed habitats and openings, including forest gaps and margins.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Merremia_peltata

The mixed woodland at Hardcastle Crags is managed to encourage natural regeneration of native broadleaved species. Fallen trees and standing deadwood are left to provide habitats for invertebrates, birds and bats. This is ancient semi-natural woodland.

While this might look like a photo of a nicely-lit (uphill) path through a natural indigenous forest... it's actually not. This is an indigenous plantation... not a natural indigenous forest.

 

This photo was taken in the Diepwalle arboretum... which was established by the South African Department of Forestry in 1926... as part of a forest regeneration experiment. It was established on a site which was completely destroyed by a fire some 60 years prior. First they removed all the dead wood and any other vegetation that had re-established itself in the meantime... and then they divided it into two sections... a cultivated and an un-cultivated section. In the un-cultivated section they planted a variety of different indigenous species (some in mixed and others in pure stands)... and then they just left them to grow unmanaged. The cultivated section was further divided into 23 pure stands... each filled with a single species of indigenous tree. The undergrowth was regularly slashed and removed until around 1969... after which natural regeneration was again allowed.

 

So was the experiment a success? Not really. Most of the indigenous trees that you'll find in the forests of the Southern Cape have evolved to grow up in the shade of their mothers. Many of these species don't tolerate the full-sun very well... so most of those trees died long before they could properly establish themselves. Those species that did survive grew very slowly... much slower than everyone had anticipated. The last time that the growth of these trees was measured was in 2013. Then they calculated that the average diameter of the trunks of the surviving trees in the entire arboretum was less than 25 cm... which is not very impressive after nearly a century of growth.

 

The experiment wasn't a complete failure though. Although they weren't able to find a single species which could be planted and regularly harvested in a sustainable way... they did discover three very interesting things.

 

Firstly they discovered that the variety and abundance of the regenerated undergrowth in the uncultivated section was very similar to what happens in a natural forest. They also discovered that the species diversity of the undergrowth is greatest in the most recently disturbed (cultivated) stands. Then lastly (and most interestingly) they discovered that somehow the trees in the pure stands are able to suppress the regeneration of their own species... while seedlings of other species are "allowed" to grow. How fascinating is that? It's almost as if these trees know that they are reliant on other species for their success!

 

Oh... and in case you were wondering... this photo was taken in one of the mixed, uncultivated stands.

 

Stream under an old footbridge. The mixed woodland at Hardcastle Crags is managed to encourage natural regeneration of native broadleaved species. Fallen trees and standing deadwood are left to provide habitats for invertebrates, birds, and bats. This is ancient semi-natural woodland.

The mixed woodland at Hardcastle Crags is managed to encourage natural regeneration of native broadleaved species. Fallen trees and standing deadwood are left to provide habitats for invertebrates, birds, and bats. This is ancient semi-natural woodland.

Old Clune Wood. Lovely tree left in an area of clear felling of a stand of Sitka Spruce, with an amazing mix of trees in the background. Some is natural regeneration from previous seed, some historical remnants of previous plantation (larches,pines, Sitka Spruce) and some are relics of the great wood of Caledon (Caledonian Pine, Birch, Holly, Rowan, Juniper). To the left is an eclosure, to the right an old mill pond with traces of a couple of ancient buildings. Behind me is the remnant of an old boundary dyke that can be traced from the village of Dores, on the shore of Loch Ness, out through the woods and onto the moorland. There are a couple of hill-forts in the area and a large erratic by the roadside with the intriguing name of the Merchant's Stone. It looks like pockets of alien trees are being systematically removed and the natives left alone. Dotted through this area are some pretty big pines, I suspect of ancient origin. The insects around here are buzzing, and there are 3 species of deer. The bird life is also pretty cool. This could be one of my favourite places and it is getting better every year.....

His Majesty King Bhumibol Adulyadej was created this place to help the people and natural regeneration

The Newlands Valley, taken from the top of Castlehead.

 

The Newlands Valley is in the Lake District National Park in Cumbria, England. It is regarded as one of the most picturesque and quiet valleys in the national park, even though it is situated very close to the popular tourist town of Keswick and the busy A66 road.

 

The valley forms part of the civil parish of Above Derwent, within the Borough of Allerdale.

 

The scenery of the Newlands valley consists of farmland in the valley bottom and soaring fells above. Fells that have their foot in the valley include Barrow, Causey Pike, Catbells, Ard Crags, Knott Rigg, Maiden Moor, High Spy, Dale Head, Hindscarth and Robinson. The quality of the fell walking is very good; the Newlands horseshoe is a 14-kilometre walk, starting and finishing at Little Town, with over a 1,000 metres of ascent, taking in most of the 2,000-foot peaks at the head of the valley. On the steep slopes of Ard Crags above Keskadale farm is Keskadale Oakwood, which is an ancient oak and alder woodland, a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Area of Conservation. It has an area of 50 hectares and has been fenced off for an initial period of 15 years to encourage natural regeneration and keep out grazing animals.

one of my mum's pictures taken in glencoe,i like the very large rock with the autumnal silver birch growing behind it,in bottom right corner-wish she had taken it wider as the rock is twice the size as shown.this clearing was once part of a forest until cleared for natural regeneration,of indiginous trees for that area.scottish highlands,scotland. view large

MacMillan Provincial Park - Cathedral Grove series - I

 

"Cathedral Grove, located in MacMillan Provincial Park, is one of the most accessible stands of giant Douglas fir trees on Vancouver Island. Here visitors can stroll through a network of trails under the shadow of towering ancient Douglas-fir trees, majestic pillars untouched by the modern world – some more than 800 years old.

 

Trails on either side of the highway lead visitors through the mighty stands of this coastal forest. On the south side you will find the largest Douglas firs – one measuring more than 9 metres in circumference. On the northern side of the road you’ll find groves of ancient Western red cedar standing sentry over nearby Cameron Lake.

 

The park has been restoring some of its trails after a severe windstorm on New Year’s Day in 1997, which changed the look of the park forever. The storm toppled hundreds of huge trees and obliterated sections of the trail system. Some sections of the trail system were so badly hit that they have never been reopened. Restoration and cleanup began almost as soon as the winds stopped, and although visitors will now find many of these huge trees lying on the ground, their value has not diminished. These fallen trees open the canopy to provide light, space, shelter and nutrients for the next generations of plants. Natural regeneration is beginning to restore the Grove’s pristine beauty and the park’s diversity, making a visit to Cathedral Grove all the more intriguing.

 

Improvements to MacMillan Park can be supported by “feeding” the donation tree next to the main trail; your contributions will be used for youth team trail projects, volunteer projects, revegetation projects and new signs. The park’s small size and accessibility has left it vulnerable to impacts from high visitor use. Please stay on designated trails, where you will find ample opportunities to view and photograph this bit of history.

 

Special Features: The park protects and preserves an internationally significant representative example of Douglas fir old-growth forest within the Coastal Western Hemlock Biogeoclimatic Zone.

 

Established Date: February 27, 1947

 

Park Size: 301 hectares"

The squirrel

Sciurus vulgaris

Like mice and rats, squirrels are rodents, but thanks to their cute appearance, they have a higher cuddly. Yet they are not as innocent as they look because they have sharp teeth which they can bite firmly. Let the animals so mostly alone: ââthey are wild animals that belong in our nature.

 

The squirrel species living in Flanders, is also called red squirrel. In the rest of Europe, this is the most common type. He does not appear in southern Spain and some Mediterranean islands. In the UK, the gray squirrel is ever introduced. The latter now has red squirrel driven back to the north of the islands. In parts of Italy displaces the gray squirrel, the red squirrel. The gray squirrel is larger, heavier and less shy than the red squirrel.

 

You recognize the squirrel:

large bushy tail

ear tufts in the winter

color of the coat can vary from red to brown, sandy, gray or black, with a white belly

4 toes on the front and five on the hind legs, with sharp nails to climb well

lower jaw halves that can move independently from each other, so they can easily crack open nuts

 

His big bushy tail squirrel used to give signals. If he feels threatened or insecure, he is waving and undulating movements with his tail. He also used to keep the balance when jumping and to regulate his body temperature.

  

Big eater

Squirrels live in both coniferous, deciduous and mixed forests, parks and gardens. In autumn and winter squirrels eat mainly seeds of trees, hazelnuts, beechnuts, chestnuts, seeds of pine, spruce and lorkenappels, ... He is a big eater: he can the seeds of more than 100 pine cones a day eat! Squirrels make the greatest possible supply of winter, each time burying the seeds alone or with several together in a shallow well. The 'wintervoorraadjes' be found on smell, but often overlooked or not found.

 

In spring, when the trees lose their seeds, squirrels switch to previously constructed food stocks and buds and shoots and galls and later flowers of trees, berries, insects, worms, fungi and occasionally even a bird egg or young bird. From July, the proportion of seeds in their diet increased again. The squirrel is often labeled as a "notorious nest robbers, but the proportion of eggs in his diet is so small that the impact on bird populations is negligible.

No hibernation

Contrary to what many people think, keep squirrels do not hibernate. They will be less long active in the winter to lose too much energy: especially in the morning and early afternoon dives on them. By prolonged cold squirrels stay sometimes several days in their nest. The rest of the year they are active from dawn to dusk.

 

Squirrels use a half years about 12 nests. This involves both resting and sleeping nests. They make their nest in a natural tree cavity or an abandoned spechtenhol or build yourself a sphere nest of branches with leaves or needles, lined with stripped bark, moss, ferns, grass, ... There is a solidly built main nest often and longer used (eg during the winter and as a maternity nest).

  

Different fathers

Squirrels have two distinct reproductive peaks in January and in May-June During mating, the female 2-4 males are chasing. The most dominant male - or the male that can last the longest - may eventually pairs. Sometimes the dominant male can a week in advance to sleep with the female, but after mating both partners go their separate ways again. Females also mate with multiple males sometimes. Genetic research has shown already that boy from the same litter can have. Different fathers sometimes

 

After a gestation period of 36-42 days (ie from early February), 2-6 young are born. The reproductive success is greatest in large, heavy females with nutrient-rich habitats and favorable food and weather conditions. At the age of 8 weeks the boy first come out, and at 3 months the mother chases them away and they have to go searching. Private residential At 9-10 months, the boy sexually mature.

Many enemies

Squirrels are hunted by various birds of prey, the hawk probably has the greatest impact. Also captures the hawk and buzzard even the squirrels. Crows sometimes rob young squirrels out of the nest. Besides raptors mustelids are important predators. Many squirrels in the spring, when they forage on the ground, caught by a polecat. Also weasels, stoats and martens rob nests and even kill adult squirrels. Even foxes already put a squirrel on the menu. In gardens, young squirrels often slain by dogs or cats. In addition, also the traffic a major killer, especially around small bushes, where the squirrels have to cross to the surrounding gardens to gather enough food. Almost daily road

 

Because the squirrel with us not in high quantities, usually does not cause stripping bark and bark and eating buds and shoots for major damage to trees and shrubs. Be able squirrels in gardens full stock hazelnuts or walnuts eat. Fortunately, most people do not mind.

 

Squirrels are often accused of sabotage. The natural regeneration of forests However, it is very unlikely that the squirrels eat all the seeds. She has buried seeds indeed a positive effect on the germination and spread of the species, because the squirrels certainly not find all the seeds from their winter stock.

 

Lover of large forests

Between 1960 and 1970 plunged the population of the red squirrel in Western Europe in a disease. The population has since largely recovered. The probability of the presence of red squirrels is always very high in large forests, independent of the nutrient. However, in small forest quality is very important. The likelihood of their presence also decreases strongly with increasing isolation of the forest. As a result, the provinces of Antwerp and Limburg North, with their large coniferous forests, the most suitable for red squirrels. In South Limburg, Flemish Brabant and East Flanders (except the northern forest belt of East Flanders and the great forests to the east and southeast of the Brussels Region) knows the red squirrel a low presence, by the very humid or low quality forests (eg . poplar). In West Flanders, a province with very few forests, red squirrels are only for local, mainly in the area of ââBruges. In the woods of southern West Flanders there are sporadic sightings of red squirrel.

West Woods | Marlborough | Wiltshire

 

[EXPLORED] 20th April 2016 I am really pleased to have this image included in EXPLORE (My 12th EXPLORE to-date). Thanks for all the faves and nice comments. I really appreciate the support and welcome any constructive critique, while I continue to grow and develop my skills as a landscape photographer.

 

West Woods:

West Woods, near Marlborough in Wiltshire is a very beautiful plantation of beech trees on a former ancient woodland site.

 

Today, the woodland site is managed by the Forestry Commission. There is a long and gradual process under way to increase the biodiversity of the woodland by introducing native species other than just beech, through the promotion of natural regeneration and planting. I think that's why there is a red mark on some of the trees (although I'm not sure)...

 

This woodland becomes very popular in late spring due to the fantastic displays of bluebells which carpet the forest floor in certain areas. There is a good network of trails including an easy access route.

 

Did You Know?

There are different species of Bluebells, but the type that grow in West Woods are the native bluebells (Hyacinthoides non-scripta). Here are half a dozen facts about this beautiful flower:

 

1. Deep violet-blue. A genetic mutation occasionally causes white flowers

2. Flower stem droops or nods distinctly to one side

3. Almost all flowers are on one side of the stem, hanging down to one side

4. Flowers are a narrow, straight-sided bell with parallel sides

5. Petal tips curl back

6. Flowers have a strong, sweet scent

  

Location/Directions:

If travelling from afar, come off the M4 at junction 15 and take the A346 to Marlborough. Travel through the High Street and on the A4 towards Avebury & Calne. Approximately two miles outside Marlborough take a (sharp) left turn, which is signed Clatford. Drive up to the crossroads and straight over. About one and a half miles along this road the woods and car park are sign posted on the right.

 

Postcode for the car park is SN8 4DY

 

Blog

I've really enjoyed taking photos of bluebells in 2016. Having this image explored and viewed over 17,000 times has inspired me to write up some ramblings and I've also added a small collection of images on my blog. Feel free to check it out if you have a few spare minutes.

THANK YOU FOR ALL YOUR GREAT COMMENTS

 

SKY AND EARTH

 

Where does the sky begin ?

It ends in waters deep

Where green trees of the earth

Meet white clouds of the sky

 

Where does the earth begin ?

It ends in waters deep

Where white clouds of blue sky

Meet green trees of the earth

 

The end and beginning

Lost in the waters deep

Memories of the past

Are all lost in the trees

 

By Henrhyde

 

Location Aberdare Country Park , South Wales .

 

The Dare Valley Country Park was developed over 40 years ago on the site of two worked out collieries in the Dare Valley, Aberdare. Part of the first phase of land reclamation took place in 1966 .

 

The Park now represents one of the best examples of natural regeneration and restoration in a coal spoil environment . A beautiful and serene place in Wales.

 

No black coal tips -only green hills.

  

More amazing old trees in the Dulnain Caledonian Pine Forest. Interesting to see the extent of the natural regeneration, so many self seeded young trees. They must have wolves knocking about!

 

The Newlands Valley is in the Lake District National Park in Cumbria, England. It is regarded as one of the most picturesque and quiet valleys in the national park, even though it is situated very close to the popular tourist town of Keswick and the busy A66 road.

 

The valley forms part of the civil parish of Above Derwent, within the Borough of Allerdale.

 

The scenery of the Newlands valley consists of farmland in the valley bottom and soaring fells above. Fells that have their foot in the valley include Barrow, Causey Pike, Catbells, Ard Crags, Knott Rigg, Maiden Moor, High Spy, Dale Head, Hindscarth and Robinson. The quality of the fell walking is very good; the Newlands horseshoe is a 14-kilometre walk, starting and finishing at Little Town, with over a 1,000 metres of ascent, taking in most of the 2,000-foot peaks at the head of the valley. On the steep slopes of Ard Crags above Keskadale farm is Keskadale Oakwood, which is an ancient oak and alder woodland, a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Area of Conservation. It has an area of 50 hectares and has been fenced off for an initial period of 15 years to encourage natural regeneration and keep out grazing animals.

This old tree is a real character. Dundreggan is the home of Trees For Life's "Project Wolf", where volunteer humans patrol the woods in packs like the wolves used to. They hope to keep away the deer to allow natural regeneration.

The Newlands Valley is in the Lake District National Park in Cumbria, England. It is regarded as one of the most picturesque and quiet valleys in the national park, even though it is situated very close to the popular tourist town of Keswick and the busy A66 road.

 

The valley forms part of the civil parish of Above Derwent, within the Borough of Allerdale.

 

The scenery of the Newlands valley consists of farmland in the valley bottom and soaring fells above. Fells that have their foot in the valley include Barrow, Causey Pike, Catbells, Ard Crags, Knott Rigg, Maiden Moor, High Spy, Dale Head, Hindscarth and Robinson. The quality of the fell walking is very good; the Newlands horseshoe is a 14-kilometre walk, starting and finishing at Little Town, with over a 1,000 metres of ascent, taking in most of the 2,000-foot peaks at the head of the valley. On the steep slopes of Ard Crags above Keskadale farm is Keskadale Oakwood, which is an ancient oak and alder woodland, a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Area of Conservation. It has an area of 50 hectares and has been fenced off for an initial period of 15 years to encourage natural regeneration and keep out grazing animals.

The Newlands Valley is in the Lake District National Park in Cumbria, England. It is regarded as one of the most picturesque and quiet valleys in the national park, even though it is situated very close to the popular tourist town of Keswick and the busy A66 road.

 

The valley forms part of the civil parish of Above Derwent, within the Borough of Allerdale.

 

The scenery of the Newlands valley consists of farmland in the valley bottom and soaring fells above. Fells that have their foot in the valley include Barrow, Causey Pike, Catbells, Ard Crags, Knott Rigg, Maiden Moor, High Spy, Dale Head, Hindscarth and Robinson. The quality of the fell walking is very good; the Newlands horseshoe is a 14-kilometre walk, starting and finishing at Little Town, with over 1,000 metres of ascent, taking in most of the 2,000-foot peaks at the head of the valley.[7] On the steep slopes of Ard Crags above Keskadale farm is Keskadale Oakwood, which is an ancient oak and alder woodland, a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Area of Conservation. It has an area of 50 hectares and has been fenced off for an initial period of 15 years to encourage natural regeneration and keep out grazing animals

The Newlands Valley is in the Lake District National Park in Cumbria, England. It is regarded as one of the most picturesque and quiet valleys in the national park, even though it is situated very close to the popular tourist town of Keswick and the busy A66 road.

 

The valley forms part of the civil parish of Above Derwent, within the Borough of Allerdale.

 

The scenery of the Newlands valley consists of farmland in the valley bottom and soaring fells above. Fells that have their foot in the valley include Barrow, Causey Pike, Catbells, Ard Crags, Knott Rigg, Maiden Moor, High Spy, Dale Head, Hindscarth and Robinson. The quality of the fell walking is very good; the Newlands horseshoe is a 14-kilometre walk, starting and finishing at Little Town, with over a 1,000 metres of ascent, taking in most of the 2,000-foot peaks at the head of the valley. On the steep slopes of Ard Crags above Keskadale farm is Keskadale Oakwood, which is an ancient oak and alder woodland, a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Area of Conservation. It has an area of 50 hectares and has been fenced off for an initial period of 15 years to encourage natural regeneration and keep out grazing animals.

Tomnafmnoge is the last surviving fragment of the great Shillelagh woods which once clothed the hills and valleys of south Wicklow.As early as 1444 these woods supplied timber for the construction of Kings College, Cambridge, and later for Westminster Abbey, St Patrick's Cathedral and Trinity College Dublin. In 1634, the woods were estimated to cover 'more than many thousand acres', but from then on they were heavily exploited especially for shipbuilding. In 1670, the woods were reported to be still extensive, 'being nine or ten miles in length' and a valuation in 1671 found a total of 3905 acres (1579 hectares) of woodland here.

 

The present oaks were planted within an existing coppiced wood in the mid-1700s when there were still extensive native woods in the locality so it provides an important link between the ancient forest of Shillelagh and the woodland of today. It occupies the valley of the Derry river which flows in a south-west direction to join the Slaney. Unlike many other Wicklow woodlands, Tomafinnoge is growing on deep, fertile soils, the lowest of which are liable to winter flooding.

 

This is mature deciduous forest with a relatively open canopy ted by oak and beech with some Scots pine and a few other exotic conifers such as western hemlock. The standard trees are widely-spaced so that the crowns are well developed and still allow plenty of light to penetrate to the woodland floor. As a result, the understorey of holly, hazel with young oak and beech is extensive. In some areas, the evergreen rhododendron threatens to shade out the natural regeneration but grazing is light and the ground layer of bilberry, woodrush and brambles is luxuriant in places. Under the dense shade of beech, the ground is naturally bare but supports some interesting fungi in autumn.

 

The river that flows through the woodland is braided in places into a series of streams with much marshy ground and an interesting mixture of wetland and woodland plants. The river bank has willow, alder, birch and dogwood in addition to hazel, holly and birch and the undergrowth here is quite impenetrable. The dampness of the woods has produced a heavy growth of epiphytes such as mosses and polypody fern growing on the branches of the trees. Clean air has also encouraged the growth of lichens such as Usnea and Evernia.

 

Taken in Hatfield House Park with a FujiFilm X-Pro1 and 27mm f2.8.

The medieval parkland of Hatfield Park is one of the few remaining sites in the country where a wood pasture system of land management is still evident. Wood pasture is best defined as a land use system combining trees and grazing animals. The trees in this historic environment have been actively managed over the centuries to provide bark for tanning leather, wood for fuel and building and food stuffs for animals in the form of acorns and foliage. Managing the trees in this way was known as pollarding.

 

A pollarded tree is hard pruned above the grazing line so that the branch wood timber could be utilised. Livestock could feed on the pasture below without browsing the new regrowth on the tree. This system allows the pollarded tree to continue re-rejuvenating and this extends the life of a tree far beyond its normal life span.

 

An ancient pollard often provides a habitat for a host of other organisms. They are a tactile tangible link to our past and have been venerated for centuries.

 

At Hatfield there are some hugely imposing oak, hornbeam and beech pollards to be found. We take great pride in this natural heritage and have a policy of encouraging natural regeneration from these trees and creating new pollards for future generations to appreciate. Some of these ancient trees can be seen by following the longest route of the three nature trails.

 

This system of management has, over the centuries, created a diverse habit for wildlife.

natural regeneration in Portland Creek

natural regeneration area on Headlands State Park beach in Mentor Ohio

 

The Newlands Valley is in the Lake District National Park in Cumbria, England. It is regarded as one of the most picturesque and quiet valleys in the national park, even though it is situated very close to the popular tourist town of Keswick and the busy A66 road.

 

The valley forms part of the civil parish of Above Derwent, within the Borough of Allerdale.

 

The scenery of the Newlands valley consists of farmland in the valley bottom and soaring fells above. Fells that have their foot in the valley include Barrow, Causey Pike, Catbells, Ard Crags, Knott Rigg, Maiden Moor, High Spy, Dale Head, Hindscarth and Robinson. The quality of the fell walking is very good; the Newlands horseshoe is a 14-kilometre walk, starting and finishing at Little Town, with over a 1,000 metres of ascent, taking in most of the 2,000-foot peaks at the head of the valley. On the steep slopes of Ard Crags above Keskadale farm is Keskadale Oakwood, which is an ancient oak and alder woodland, a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Area of Conservation. It has an area of 50 hectares and has been fenced off for an initial period of 15 years to encourage natural regeneration and keep out grazing animals.

The Newlands Valley is in the Lake District National Park in Cumbria, England. It is regarded as one of the most picturesque and quiet valleys in the national park, even though it is situated very close to the popular tourist town of Keswick and the busy A66 road.

 

The valley forms part of the civil parish of Above Derwent, within the Borough of Allerdale.

 

The scenery of the Newlands valley consists of farmland in the valley bottom and soaring fells above. Fells that have their foot in the valley include Barrow, Causey Pike, Catbells, Ard Crags, Knott Rigg, Maiden Moor, High Spy, Dale Head, Hindscarth and Robinson. The quality of the fell walking is very good; the Newlands horseshoe is a 14-kilometre walk, starting and finishing at Little Town, with over a 1,000 metres of ascent, taking in most of the 2,000-foot peaks at the head of the valley. On the steep slopes of Ard Crags above Keskadale farm is Keskadale Oakwood, which is an ancient oak and alder woodland, a Site of Special Scientific Interest and a Special Area of Conservation. It has an area of 50 hectares and has been fenced off for an initial period of 15 years to encourage natural regeneration and keep out grazing animals.

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