View allAll Photos Tagged masugata
The Ishidorii is a stone gate. This gate was made in 1618 by Nagamasa Kuroda. The gate is 9.2 meters high, has pillars with a diameter of 3.6 meters and an underpass of 3.8 meters. The Ishidorii is one of the three best stone gates made in Japan. The gate that stands today is still the original one from 1618. The Ishidorii consists of 15 blocks of stone instead of wood. The stones for the gate were transported by ship from Kyushu to Koyama and then manually pulled over land to Nikko. To resist earthquakes, the top crossbar, called Kasagi, and the one below, called Shimaki, are hollow inside.
In front of the Ishidorii are the Sennin masugata (translated as 'stone steps'). Step by step they become narrower and lower. Even if there are only ten of them, it appears higher and wider than it actually is because of the perspective that the narrower and lower steps form. On the tenth step there is a terifuri-ishi which means stone weather forecaster.
During our visit, the stone steps were serviced and covered up
The O-Torii or "Great Torii" is the symbol of Miyajima. It's the entrance to the Itsukushima Shrine, first built late in the 12th Century. I went there early in the morning to catch the light and the high tide mark. More information on the o-torii can be found at visit-miyajima-japan.com/en/culture-and-heritage/spiritua.... More information on the Itsukushima Shrine can be found at www.miyajima.or.jp/english/spot/spot_itsukushima.html
@ Magome, Nakatsugawa, Gifu pref. （岐阜県中津川市 馬籠宿）
Hirakawa-mon (平川門?) is said to have been the main gate to the Sannomaru of Edo Castle. It is also said to have been the side gate for maidservants and therefore called the Otsubone-mon. The shape of this gate is in the masugata, similar to the Ōte-mon. However a watari-yagura-mon is built to an adjacent left angle within the kōrai-mon, of which it has two. The other kōrai-mon is located to the west of the watari-yagura-mon which was used as the "gates of the unclean" for the deceased and criminals from within the castle. Outside this gate is a wooden bridge with railings crowned with giboshi-ornamental tops.
* publicada na revista Alternativa Nishi de 12 de maio de 2011
* iPhoto editora Portfólio em Foco.
O Matsumoto-jo (em japonês: |松本城), também conhecido em português como Castelo de Matsumoto, é um dos "Três Famosos Castelos" do Japão, juntamente com o Himeji-jo e com o Kumamoto-jo. Fica localizado na cidade de Matsumoto, na província de Nagano, com fácil acesso a partir de Tóquio, o que o torna popular entre os turistas japoneses e de outros países.
Este castelo também é chamado de Castelo Corvo devido às suas paredes pretas e à propagação das suas alas. É um exemplo dos castelos de planície, não sendo construído no topo de um monte nem entre rios.
As origens deste castelo recuam ao Período Sengoku (Estados Guerreantes). Nessa época, o clã Ogasawara construiu um forte neste local, o qual era originalmente chamado de Castelo de Fukashi. Mais tarde, viria a ficar sob o governo do clã Takeda e depois de Tokugawa Ieyasu.
Castelo de MatsumotoQuando Toyotomi Hideyoshi transferiu Ieyasu para a região de Kanto, colocou Ishikawa Norimasa no comando de Matsumoto. Norimasa e o seu filho Yasunaga construiram a torre e outras partes do castelo, incluindo: as três torres, o tenshu (torre de menagem), inui-kotenshu (pequena torre do Noroeste), watari-yagura (andaime unido), goten (residência), taikomon (portão cilíndro), kuromon (portão preto), yagura (andaime), hori (trincheira), honmaru (a ala principal), ninomaru (a segunda ala), sannomaru (a terceira ala), e os sub-pisos do castelo, em grande parte como se encontram actualmente. Também intervieram na esquematização da cidade do castelo e das suas infraestruturas. Acredita-se que grande parte do castelo ficou concluído entre 1593 e 1594.
Durante o Período Edo, o Xogunato Tokugawa estabeleceu o Han (antiga divisão feudal japonesa) de Matsumoto, do qual Matsudaira, Mizuno e outros, foram Daimyo.
Em 1872, depois da Restauração Meiji, a torre foi vendida em leilão e esteve em risco de ser desmantelada. De qualquer forma, com a cooperação de Ichikawa Ryozo e de outras pessoas de Matsumoto, esta foi poupada. O "Kuromon-ninomon" (segundo portão do portão preto) e o "sodebei" (muro lateral) foram reconstruidos em 1990. O "taikomon-masugata" (portão quadrado em forma de cilindro) foi reconstruido em 1999.
A torre do Castelo de Matsumoto está classificada como Tesouro Nacional do Japão.
Tokyo Metropolis is the capital of Japan and one of its 47 prefectures.
IT'S OUR TURN SINCE 1964 !
2020 SUMMER OLYMPICS HOST CITY - TOKYO
For your information............
JR TOKYO STATION / MARUNOUCHI.....GATEWAY TO TOKYO,
TOKYO STATION GALLERY, MARUNOUCHI EKIMAE HIROBA, MITSUBISHI ICHIGOKAN MUSEUM TOKYO, MARU-BUILD., SHIN MARU BUILD., BRICK SQUARE, JP TOWER KITTE, GRANSTA MARUNOUCHI, OTEMACHI YOIMACHI, MARUNOUCHI OAZO, THE GRANROOF - TOKYO STATION CITY, TOKYO RAMEN STREET, FUJIFILM IMAGING PLAZA, THE AMAN TOKYO
GINZA.....GINZA SIX, GINZA PLACE, MARRONNIER GATE GINZA 2&3, THE IMPERIAL HOTEL, GINZA TOKYU PLAZA, MITSUKOSHI, MATSUYA, WAKO, KABUKIZA, TOKYO MIDTOWN HIBIYA, PLANETARIA TOKYO, GINZA TAKUMI, CANON DIGITAL HOUSE GINZA, LEICA CAMERA AG GINZA, SONY SHOW ROOM GINZA, NIKON PLAZA GINZA, ITOYA, GINZA LOFT, PANASONIC SHIODOME MUSEUM, IDEMITSU MUSEUM OF ARTS, THE PENINSULA TOKYO, SHISEIDO GALLERY, GINZA MAISON HERMES LE FORUM, BILLS GINZA, CHANEL NEXUS HALL, THE GINZA SONY PARK, NOEVIR GINZA GALLERY, LIXIL GALLERY, POLA MUSEUM ANNEX, THE HAMA RIKYU GARDENS, BOOKS KYOBUNKAN,
PANASONIC LUMIX GINZA TOKYO SHOWROOM AND GALLERY
( APRIL 2019〜) with Full-frame mirrorless, The Lumix DC-S1 Series Camera
TSUKIJI TSUKISHIMA TOYOSU......TOYOSU MARKET, SUMIDA RIVER TERRACE- (AROUND TSUKUDAJIMA), TSUKISHIMA MONJA STREET- 1 BANGAI〜4 BANGAI, TSUKIJI WEST STREET, TSUKIJI UOGASHI, JOGAI
HARAJUKU/OMOTE SANDO.....NEZU ART MUSEUM, LAFORET HARAJUKU, OMOTESANDO HILLS, ESPACE LOUIS VUITTON TOKYO, TOKYU PLAZA OMOTESANDO, Q PLAZA, HARAJUKU ALTA, CASCADE HARAJUKU, TAKESHITA STREET, URA-HARAJUKU-CAT STREET, OTA MEMORIAL MUSEUM OF ART, ANNIVERSARY AOYAMA - LA COLLEZIONE BUILD.
ASAKUSA.......SENSOJI TEMPLE, ASAKUSA CULTURE TOURIST INFORMATION CENTER, NAKAMISE, EKIMISE, ASAKUSA ENGEI HALL, ASAKUSA HANAYASHIKI, MARUGOTO NIPPON, TOKYO SKYTREE TOWN
ODAIBA.......DECKS TOKYO BEACH, DIVER CITY TOKYO PLAZA, MADAME TUSSAUDS TOKYO, FUJI TV BUILDING, KAIHINKOEN, TOKYO MINATORIE, GODDESS of THE TERRACE, TELECOM CENTER, ODAIBA-Palette Town-DAIKANRANSHA (Ferris wheel), KYUTAI TENBOSHITSU HACHITAMA, AQUA CITY ODAIBA, VENUSFORT ODAIBA
SHIBUYA.....TOGURI ART MUSEUM, HIKARIE SHINQ'S, 109, CENTER GAI , MODI, SHIBUYA CAST., HULIC&NEW SHIBUYA, SHIBUYA STREAM, THE BUNKAMURA MUSEUM OF ART, SHIBUYA MARK CITY, THE WATARI MUSEUM OF CONTEMPORARY ART, SHIBUYA SCRAMBLE SQUARE, SHIBUYA PUBLISHING BOOKSELLERS (OKU-SHIBUYA)
SHINJUKU.....SHINJUKU GYOEN NATIONAL GARDEN, KINOKUNIYA BOOK STORE, NAKAMURAYA SHINJUKU, KAGURAZAKA, KABUKICHO, TOKYO TOCHO - ( CITY VIEW OBSERVATION DECK ), ISETAN, LUMINE, BUSTA SHINJUKU, NEWOMAN, SANAGI SHINJUKU, SEIJI TOGO MEMORIAL SOMPO JAPAN-NIPPONKOA MUSEUM OF ART, SHINJUKU TOHO BUILD., TAKASHIMAYA TIMES SQUARE, THE PARK HYATT TOKYO, TOKYO OPERA CITY ART GALLERY, BICQLO - BICCAMERA SHINJUKU EAST STORE, SHINTOSHIN HODOUKYO - ( CITY VIEW FOR KABUKICHO ), JISHO IN - NEKO JIZO ( OCHIAI-MINAMINAGASAKI )
UENO........UENO ZOO, CHILDREN'S ZOO STEP, NATIONAL MUSEUM of WESTERN ART, TOKYO NATIONAL MUSEUM, NATIONAL MUSEUM of NATURE and SCIENCE, TOKYO METROPOLITAN ART MUSEUM, THE UENO ROYAL MUSEUM, AMEYOKO
ROPPONGI....... 21_21 DESIGN SIGHT, THE NATIONAL ART CENTER TOKYO, SUNTORY MUSEUM OF ART, MORI ARTS CENTER GALLERY, SNOOPY MUSEUM TOKYO, ROPPONGI HILLS, TOKYO MIDTOWN, THE RITS CARLTON TOKYO, KEYAKIZAKA STREET, LOUIS VUITTON ROPPONGI, TOKYO CITY VIEW, STRIPED HOUSE GALLERY
DAIKANYAMA / EBISU.........FLOWER SHOP THE KUSAKANMURI, ATRE EBISU WEST, BRICK END, LOG ROAD DAIKANYAMA, DAIKANYAMA T-SITE, WESTIN HOTEL TOKYO, YEBISU GARDEN PLACE, DAIKANYAMA UNDER GROUND FOOD COURT, YAMATANE ART MUSEUM, GEMS EBISU, TENOHA DAIKANYAMA
IKEBUKURO........SUNSHINE CITY, SUNSHINE AQUARIUM, SUNSHINE 60 SKY CIRCUS, J-WORLD TOKYO, NANJA TOWN, KONIKA MINOLTA PLANETARIUM MANTEN
AKIHABARA.......@HOME CAFE HONTEN, GUNDAM CAFE, AKB48 CAFE&SHOP AKIHABARA, ANI-ON STATION AKIHABARA HOTEN, SEGA VR AREA AKIHABARA, VR DEKIRU !! BOX, SENGOKU MAID CAFE MONONOPU
MEJIRO..........EISEIBUNKO, TANAKAYA ( LIQUOR SHOP ) , CHINZANSO GARDENS, AIGLE DOUCE, THE TRAD MEJIRO, THE ADACHI WOODCUT PRINTS, MEJIRODAI - HINASHIZAKA ( CITY VIEW FOR SHINJUKU ), YOSHIMURA JUNZO MEMORIAL GALLERY
NAKANO..........NAKANO BROADWAY STREET, TETSUGAKUDO KOEN, NAKANO STREET- ( SEASON of CHERRY BLOSSOM VIEWING - HANAMI ), ARAIYAKUSHI-BAISHO IN
SUGINAMI......ASAGAYA.......PARL CENTER, NAKASUGI STREET, OGIKUBO........HONMURA-AN SOBA SHOP, OTAGURO GARDEN, AMEX BUILD., OGIKUBO LUMINE, CAMERA NO SAKURAYA 1&2, NISHI-OGIKUBO...........KOKESHIYA, KURAMA AND IGUSA HACHIMAN
PIGMENT TOKYO, MARUZEN BOOK STORE NIHONBASHI, TOKYO WORLD TRADE CENTER - ( CITY VIEW OBSERVATION DECK ), YAESU BOOK CENTER HONTEN, TOKYO TOWER, TOKYODOME CITY, TOSHIMAEN, NERIMA ART MUSEUM, AQUAPARK SHINAGAWA, SUMIDA HOKUSAI MUSEUM, KOKYO GAIEN NATIONAL GARDENS (AROUND IMPERIAL PALACE), MEIJI JINGU, INOKASHIRA ONSHI KOEN, SHINJUKU SOSEKI SANPOU KINENKAN, TOKYO-DAIJINGU, NIHON BASHI,
"THE UMISENYAMASENKAI "??(ﾟДﾟ)-- I WANT TO GO SOMEDAY
COPPICE KICHIJOJI (MUSASHINO), KICHIJOJI SUNROAD (MUSASHINO), MT.TAKAO, UKAI CHIKUTEI (HACHIOJI)
HARA MUSEUM OF CONTEMPORARY ART, THE NATIONAL MUSEUM OF MODERN ART TOKYO, TOKYO FUJI ART MUSEUM, TOKYO METROPOLITAN TEIEN ART MUSEUM,
EDO-TOKYO MUSEUM, MUSEUM OF CONTEMPORARY ART TOKYO, MITSUI MEMORIAL MUSEUM,
THE JAPAN FOLK CRAFTS MUSEUM, AZABU JUBAN, THE MUSEUM OF THE IMPERIAL COLLECTIONS SANNOMARU SHOZOKAN, THE GOTOH MUSEUM, MATSUOKA MUSEUM OF ART, HATAKEYAMA MEMORIAL MUSEUM OF FINE ART, SEIKADO BUNKO ART MUSEUM, BUNKYO CIVIC CENTER - ( CITY VIEW OBSERVATION DECK ), DISCOVERY MUSEUM ( HANEDA AIRPORT ), COREDO MUROMACHI 1〜3
KAWASAKI DAISHI, LAZONA KAWASAKI PLAZA, LAZONA 4F KATSUKURA, MUZA KAWASAKI SYMPHONY HALL, IKUTA RYOKUCHI PARK, MT.MASUGATA, MUKOGAOKAYUEN, IKUTA, TARO OKAMOTO MUSEUM OF ART KAWASAKI, FUJIKO F FUJIO MUSEUM-DORAEMON MUSEUM (KAWASAKI),
MOTOMACHI, YAMATE, MINATOMIRAI, YAMASHITA KOEN, YOKOHAMA CHUKAGAI, YOKOHAMA AKARENGA SOKO, YOKOHAMA MARINE TOWER, YOKOHAMA OSANBASHI, ZOUNOHANA PARK, BANKOKUBASHI, YOKOHAMA LANDMARK TOWER, YOKOHAMA SANKEIEN GARDEN, SHINYOKOHAMA RAMEN HAKUBUTSUKAN, CAFE LOUNGE & RESTAURANT DOLPHIN ( YOKOHAMA )
TOKYO DISNEY RESORTS (CHIBA)
MY FAVORITE PLACES @ TOKYO
- MY ☆☆☆ 3 STARS AREA -
AS OF JAN., 2020
This is the bridge to Nijubashi - part of the private part of the Imperial Palace of Tokyo, with the Fushimi Yagura in the background. The bridge was actually built in the middle of the Meiji period (1888). A wooden bridge originally stood here before connecting to a masugata gate on the other side. The area is generally inaccessible to people except new years and the emperors birthday.
Explored: Highest Position: #227
Digital Blending of 3 exposures (+/- 2EV)
The Sakuradamon Gate was completed in 1620. Like most gates in Edo the Sakuradamon is a so-called "Masugata-mon", square shaped gate. The structure is made of two buildings: The first building is in fact a small narrow gate in the exterior wall. A second long, thick gate at a 90-degree angle to the first. This has the advantage of slowing or even stopping any invading army as it would have to navigate the sharp turn, similar to how the streets of Tokyo were intentionally allowed to develop in a confusing tangle of unnamed roads in order to confound foreign invaders.
In World War II when Allied air power destroyed much of the Imperial Palace complex, this gate survived.
The east gate and Tatsumi turret are all that's left, or actually what was rebuilt of Sumpu Castle. The east gate/Tatsumi yagura is located at the entrance of the castle’s second bailey and has a box-shaped design, called a masugata gate. The original gate burned down in 1635 and was rebuilt 3 years later, only to be destroyed again as a result of the Ansei earthquake of 1855. This reconstruction is based off of the 1638 design and was built using the traditional method, which means no nails were used.
Sumpu/Fuchu/Shizuoka was the 20th stop along the old Tōkaidō road that linked Edo (Tokyo) to Kyoto.
A blog post that includes these photos lives here: likeafishinwater.com/2014/11/04/demachi-masugata-shotenga...
My company: www.thirdplacemedia.com - Research, content development and communications strategy focused on transit, walkability, placemaking and environment issues
My blog: likeafishinwater.com
Fukuoka Castle (福岡城 Fukuoka-jō) is a Japanese castle located in Chūō-ku, Fukuoka, Japan. It is also known as Maizuru Castle (舞鶴城 Maizuru-jō) or Seki Castle (石城 Seki-jō). Completed in the early Edo period for tozama daimyo Kuroda Nagamasa, it has been decreed a historic site by the Japanese government.
The castle lies in the centre of Fukuoka, on top of Fukusaki hill. The Naka River (那珂), Naka-gawa in Japanese, acts as a natural moat on the eastern side of the castle, while the western side uses a mudflat as a natural moat. Hakata, a ward with a bustling port, is located on the opposite side of the Naka River to the east. The castle town was established on the northern side, facing the sea.
Much of the castle grounds has been converted to Maizuru Park, which houses several sports facilities, a courthouse, and an art museum. Heiwadai Baseball Stadium, the past home field of the Nishitetsu Lions and the Fukuoka Daiei Hawks, was also located on the castle grounds. Some of the castle's gates as well as its towers and turrets, known as yaguras, are preserved inside the park, one of which has been marked as an important historical artifact by the Japanese government.
The remnants of a korokan (鴻臚館), an ancient guest house for foreign diplomats, were discovered under the castle grounds in 1987, showing that the castle was a vital geographical checkpoint even into the Heian period. This is the only korokan remnant found in all of Japan.
Aeral photo of Fukuoka Castle and Ōhori Park in Chuo-ku, Fukuoka Prefecture, Fukuoka City, Japan
2Selection of locale
3.4Mounds and moats of the inner castle
5External defensive elements
8Fukuoka Castle mentioned in John Saris’ Journal
In 1600, Kuroda Nagamasa received huge rewards in the form of land in Chikuzen Province for his contributions during the Battle of Sekigahara and moved into Najima Castle (名島城 Najima-jō) to form the Fukuoka han. Najima Castle had been created by Tachibana Akitoshi and was expanded by Kobayakawa Takakage, but was much too small to accommodate a large han, leading to the selection of Fukusaki hill as a new castle site.
Construction began in 1601 (Keichō year 6). Yoshitaka, an expert at establishing fortifications, and Noguchi Kazunari, a stonemason who had worked on Edo Castle and Osaka Castle, directed the construction. Completed in 1607 (Keichō year 12) after seven years of work, the castle is said to have contained an impressive 47 yaguras, and covered an area of 47,000 square metres (making it the largest in the Kyūshū region). Katō Kiyomasa of the nearby Kumamoto han lauded the castle for its grandeur. The dry stone fortification designed by Noguchi was especially impressive, giving the castle the name "Seki-jō" (literally "Stone Castle").
The castle and castle town were renamed "Fukuoka" from "Fukusaki", after Fukuoka of Bizen Province (current Setouchi, Okayama), where the Kuroda family had originated.
Several minor repairs were made during the Edo period, and full-scale renovation was conducted during the Bakumatsu period.
In 1871, (Meiji year 4) the abolition of the han system forced the abandonment of the castle. Many of the buildings inside the castle grounds were taken down or moved to other locations.
Fukuoka Castle in April when cherry trees are in bloom
In 1920, (Taishō year 9) the Kinen Yagura was relocated to Taishō temple in Yahata Higashi-ku, Kitakyushu. The building was moved back to its original location in 1983.
On August 29, 1957, the castle was decreed a historic site by the Japanese government. Additional gates and yaguras were also decreed historical artifacts by the prefectural government in 1952, 1961, 1971 and 1957.
Part of the second main gate was set on fire by a vandal in 2000. Reconstruction of the gate is currently under way.
Selection of locale
After his overwhelming victory in the battle of Sekigahara in 1600, Kuroda Nagamasa was installed as the ruler of Chikuzen Province which he received in exchange for his six counties in Buzen Province. He established his quarters at Najima Castle together with his father, Josui.
Najima Castle was located on a peninsula projecting into Hakata Bay on the north of the estuary of the Tatara River. The castle fundamentally consisted of the hon-maru, the ni-no-maru, and the san-no-maru, respectively ranging from west to east, and extending for over 900 metres (2953 ft) (maru is here a term referring to a space within a castle's grounds). Built by Kobayakawa Takakage, an illustrious Japanese general, it was an impregnable castle. However, when the aspects of politics and economics were considered, it turned out to be undesirable as the administrative centre of the province, for it seemed impossible to construct an extensive castle town because of the river on the south, the sea on the north and the west, and the foothills on the east. On top of that, the castle was located far from Hakata, a large business centre.
Accordingly, Nagamasa and Josui made a survey of four sites: Sumiyoshi, Hakozaki, Aratsu-yama hill (present-day Nishi-kōen Park), and Fukuzaki. After careful consideration, Fukuzaki was chosen as the castle site. Fukuzaki, in the proximity of Hakata, was a place where a castle town could easily be constructed, and it was valuable as a naval port; furthermore, it had geostrategic advantages; it was surrounded by a cove, rivers, and hills. Thus Josui chose Fukuzaki, which is present-day Fukuoka, now one of the largest cities in Japan.
Kuruwa-layout image of Fukuoka Castle, bird's eye view from the north-west
Fukuoka and Hakata, c.1640
The construction of Fukuoka Castle began in 1601 and was completed in 1607. The plan is considered to have been directed by Kuroda Nagamasa. An old document suggests that Kuroda Nagamasa planned a gate and its surrounding area after many consultations with his distinguished commanding officers.
The process of construction is fairly well known, based on archaeological and geological research and old documents, which provided the details for developing an understanding of the process of castle construction.
Because there had been a range of hills from the Akasaka-yama hill (present-day Sakurazaka 2 chome), which is about 30 metres (98 ft) above sea level, to the hill which was to become the site of the hon-maru, an area to the south of the castle was excavated to form a moat. The hills to the south of the moat were also excavated and altered to become gently sloping hills. The top section of a hillock to the northwest of the inner castle was also truncated because it was higher than the hon-maru. The hillock was then used as the site for a retirement residence for Kuroda Yoshitaka.
A cove or an inlet on the west of the inner castle, in which Ōhori Park and Arato are now situated, was utilized for the Ohori Moat (Big Moat) in the cove's southern half and for a town in its northern half by a reclaiming and dredging process. At the same time the Hii (Tajima) River, which was flowing into the cove, was diverted from its course to the west.
On the west of the inner castle, two linear moats were excavated from the inner castle to the confluence of the Shiju River (the present-day Yakuin-shin River) and the Naka River.
This large scale construction required a great number of stones. An analysis of their composition reveals that they came from the islands of Noko-no-shima, Itoshima, Sawara and Kashii, and the region from Noma to Teratsuka. According to old books, the stones and buildings of the dismantled Najima Castle were shipped to Fukuoka and the stones which had been used for the Genko Borui walls (walls built to thwart the Mongolian invaders) and the ancient burial mounds in and around Hirao village and the Hirao-yama hills were also reused for Fukuoka Castle. From these facts it can be inferred that the constructors of the castle had a difficult time collecting the stones. The important walls were constructed under the direction of Noguchi Sasuke Kazushige, who was renowned for his skills in construction stone walls, and who in later years participated in the construction of Edo Castle and Osaka Castle.
For the castle construction, wealthy merchants, Kamiya Sotan and Shimai Soshitsu, provided greatly appreciated financial help. After completing the project, Yoshitaka and Nagamasa named the castle, "Fukuoka", in commemoration of the land of his forefathers, which is present-day Fukuoka, Setouchi-shi, Okayama Prefecture.
A hon-maru is a kuruwa located in the heart of a Japanese castle, which is a complex of kuruwas. Fukuoka Castle was built in the style of Teikaku-shiki or Hashigokaku-shiki (a plan in which the hon-maru, ni-no-maru, and san-no-maru share common defensive lines on one side, because the topography and the castle plan gives a particular advantage to that side) and its hon-maru is situated in the south of the inner castle. The hon-maru measures 125 metres (410 ft) from east to west, and 230 metres (755 ft) from north to south.
The hon-maru is shaped like an abbreviated form of a cross because of the complicated exterior lines of stone walls. The de-sumis (salient corners) on the north side of the hon-maru are rectangular flanking projections which increase the castle's defensibility; the iri-sumis (receded corners) on the south side of the hon-maru also increase the castle's defensibility because they permit cross fire at the enemy at the southern corners of the hon-maru. The top of the foundation of the dai-tenshu (large donjon) is 36.3 metres (119 ft) above sea level, and at the centre of the hon-maru, 23 metres (76 ft) above sea level. The hon-maru of Fukuoka Castle was divided into a northern part and a southern part by the stone foundations for the sho-tenshu (small donjon), the chū-tenshu (medium donjon), the dai-tenshu (large donjon), and the kanritsu-shiki tenshu-kuruwa (a kuruwa formed of rectangular buildings as the final strategic position in time of siege). The southern part is apparently the tenshu-kuruwa (a kuruwa especially designed for the defence of the tenshu), playing the role of the tsume-no-maru (a kuruwa for the final fighting of a siege), and it is the most fortified place in the castle. On the northwest corner of the foundation of the tenshu, the tenshu kuruwa has in addition the kanritsu-shiki tenshu-kuruwa. This particular feature indicates that the castle's purpose was defensive.
The foundation for the dai-tenshu (large donjon) measures about 24.8 metres (81 ft) from east to west, and 22.4 metres (74 ft) from north to south, and covers an area the size of the first floor of the tenshu of Himeji Castle, which has an area of 550.025 square metres. It has long been believed that there had not been a tenshu on the foundation; however, indirect descriptions of a tenshu are seen in a few old documents and the existence of an annex for the tenshu is indicated on some old maps. The problem is now being studied by various researchers. (Kuroda Nagamasa tried to destroy all the documents which were related to Christianity. Since "tenshu" also means "(Christian) God", it is possible that he destroyed almost all the documents which contained the word "tenshu".)
The hon-maru residence, which was located to the north of the foundation of the dai-tenshu (large donjon), served as a domicile for lords until the second lord, Kuroda Tadayuki, built a new residence in the san-no-maru. In the hon-maru residence, there was a 56 tatami-mat (109 sq.m. in Chikuzen) audience chamber and the Shaka-no-ma (Buddha Room) where Iken-kai (regular meetings in which principal retainers were permitted to freely speak their opinions whether they agreed with the lord's position or opinion or not) were held.
In the hon-maru, there were some Shinto shrines, as in the case of many other castles in Japan. On the west of the foundation of the dai-tenshu (large donjon), there was a Niyakuichioji Shrine. This shrine was a branch of the Kego Shrine, which was dedicated to three gods of war. In Meiwa 5 (1768), the Seisho-Gongen Shrine was built to the east of the foundation of the dai-tenshu to deify Kuroda Nagamasa, and in An'ei 2 (1773) the Suikyo-Gongen Shrine was raised to honor Kuroda Yoshitaka in the same building. Both shrines are still in existence in their new location in Nishi-koen Park (on Arato-yama hill) as one shrine, today called the "Terumo Shrine."
A ni-no-maru (as a common noun) is the second most important kuruwa. The ni-no-maru of Fukuoka Castle consists of four major kuruwas; i.e., Ni-no-kuruwa, Ni-no-maru (as a proper noun), Minami-no-maru, the mizunote, and some minor kuruwas, all which are adjacent to the hon-maru.
The height of the Ni-no-kuruwa, which is an elongated L-shaped kuruwa, is 17–18 metres (56–59 ft.) above sea level with the dimension of about 310 metres (1017 ft) from north to south. This kuruwa was designed to defend the gates of the hon-maru and functioned as a key kuruwa which controlled access to the hon-maru through its many gates. This kuruwa is well fortified; for example, it had a kakushi-guruwa (a hidden kuruwa), which was located to the south of the Kirinoki-zaka Gate and used for laying an ambush against an approaching enemy. Depicted in some old maps are several yaguras and something like a hitching post stable, but there are no other buildings, such as a residence complex.
The rectangular Ni-no-maru measures 135 metres (443 ft) from east to west, 150 metres (492 ft) from north to south, and 15–17 metres (49–56 ft.) above sea level. A map made in the early 17th century shows a residence bounded by yaguras, walls, and nagayas (long structures). Another illustrated map of the castle made during the reign of the third lord, Kuroda Mitsuyuki, has a note about this kuruwa which says, "Ni-no-maru, the residence of Hizen-no-kami." Considering that Hizen-no-kami (an honorary title which meant "governor of Hizen") was the title given to the heir of Mitsuyuki, this compound was used as the residence of the heir to the lordship, at least when the map was made in the late 17th century. In addition, another old document indicates that the residence of Mitsuyuki, then the heir of Lord Tadayuki, was in the Ni-no-maru, while yet another document says that during the reign of the fifth lord Nobumasa, his uncle Nagakiyo, the lord of the county of Nogata, had stayed in the Ni-no-maru when he visited Fukuoka. The kuruwa, which is mentioned in the two latter documents, probably refers to the Ni-no-maru.
The Minami-no-maru, another kuruwa shaped like a rectangle, measures about 70 metres (230 ft) from east to west and 110 metres (361 ft) from north to south. The height of the top of the foundation is more than 20 metres (66 ft) above sea level. This kuruwa was not only a defence against an enemy approaching from the south but also a kind of kakushi-guruwa (hidden kuruwa) where an ambush could be laid to launch a pincer attack from this kuruwa and the hon-maru on enemy soldiers approaching the hon-maru. Some documents indicate that there was a residence for the deputy castellan (the lord's councilor who was in charge of the castle during the lord's absence).
The mizunote, which has a dimension of about 120 metres (394 ft) from east to west and 160 metres (525 ft) from north to south, was situated to the east of the hon-maru. The mizunote is a kuruwa which has a well or a reservoir for drinking water. In Fukuoka Castle, the mizunote was built with a catchment reservoir which, in times of siege, also played the role of a sutebori-moat which forced the enemies to take a roundabout way to attack. In addition to the sutebori-moat, there was an L-shaped obi-guruwa along the sides of the hon-maru and Ni-no-maru, enabling simultaneous defensive fire from various levels. According to a report ("The Intelligence Report on the Provinces of Chikuzen, Chikugo, Hizen and Higo") on this castle which was made by a shogun's shinobi or ninja-spy, there was a flower garden surrounded by bamboo bushes to the south of the reservoir.
The inner castle of Fukuoka Castle is the area surrounded by a continuous moat, which measures about 1000 metres (3281 ft) from east to west and 700 metres (2297 ft) from north to south. Even without the moat, the inner castle of Fukuoka Castle, in its grandiose scale, is as large as some of the castles built by the Tokugawa Shogunate, such as Nagoya Castle and Osaka Castle of the Tokugawa Period. However, thanks to the wide roads which ran throughout the san-no-maru, especially from the Kami-no-hashi Gateway through the Shimo-no-hashi Gateway, soldiers could move quickly to the point of attack in case of fire concentrated at some point of the castle.
The san-no-maru, which is also called the san-no-kuruwa, covers a large proportion of this inner castle and is divided into an eastern section and a western section by the Matsunoki-zaka Approach, Takayashiki, and the stone walls between them. The foundation level of the western section is 5–6 metres (16–20 ft.) above sea level, while the eastern section is 2–3 metres higher than the western section within the mound lines along the moats, which were 8–17 metres above sea level. The height of Takayashiki is approximately 13 metres (43 ft).
In the eastern section, soon after the castle's completion, Kuroda Zusho, Kuroda Yoshin, Mori/Bori Tajima, and Kuriyama Bingo (principal retainers) initially occupied the residences that were aligned along the edge of the northern moat of the inner castle, from the eastern edge of the inner castle to the Shimo-no-hashi Gateway. On the east of the Ni-no-maru, there was another residence which was initially occupied by Inoue Suo. These residences were continuously occupied by principal retainers from the time of the castle's completion through the last days of the Tokugawa Shogunate. The principal retainers who resided in these residences were often required by their lord's command to relocate there, as were the residents in the castle town. These retainers' residences, which were all approximately the same size, enabled an effective defensive disposition. A castle's garrison of soldiers is said to have been one to two soldiers per tsubo (4 sq.m.), and accordingly, each residence could contain 1000–2000 soldiers.
After the completion of the castle, in the western section of the inner castle were the Daikan-cho residential quarters. The structural divisions depicted on the map of "The Intelligence Report on the Provinces of Chikuzen, Chikugo, Hizen and Higo", which was written by a shogun's shinobi and compiled in Kan'ei-4 (1627), probably reflect the early days of this castle. The "Illustrated Map of All Fukuoka and Hakata", made in Shōhō-3 (1646), shows different structural divisions in the western section. According to this map, there were five residences for principal retainers in the western section, and the lord's residence was on the west of the stone wall between the Matsunoki-zaka Approach and the Kirinoki-zaka Approach. The only other facility depicted in the map besides the residences was an independent section of the finance department to the south of Takayashiki. A facsimile of a map which was supposedly made in Kanbun-11 (1671) shows that the lord's residence had moved to the west of Takayashiki. This is the residence which was newly built in the same year, and it went by the name of O-shita-no-yashiki. From this time, the lord's residence did not move until the end of Tokugawa Shogunate. In Hōreki-13 (1763), a considerable part of the O-shita-no-yashiki Residence was destroyed by fire and reconstructed the following year. The residence then underwent renovation in Meiwa-7 (1770). The residence contained an audience chamber where the lord met with his retainers, the lord's living quarters, a large and a small study, a lesson room, secretaries' office, a recording room, a finance department office, anterooms for principal retainers and five commissioners, an apartment complex for court ladies, a kitchen, a granary which stored the five primary food staples, a charcoal storehouse, an archive, a treasury storehouse, a noh stage, and no less than 15 wells.
On the north of the O-shita-no-yashiki Residence, there were two sections of structures previously used as the principal retainer's residences. This site was then used for the Kita-no-maru (an annex to the O-shita-no-yashiki Residence where the mistresses of the lord lived), the firewood storehouse, the treasurer's residence, treasure houses, a wood workshop, and a flower garden.
On the south of the O-shita-no-yashiki Residence there were two sections of structures previously used as principal retainers' residences. These were replaced by a Goyo-yashiki, which may have been a government officials' apartment complex, and then a horse riding ground in Meiwa 8 (1771). In Bunka-8 (1811), the hawkers' office was moved from the south of the castle to an area adjacent to the riding ground.
Facing the Oimawashi Gateway lies the Uemono-kuruwa where the wall stones bear many types of seals carved into them. These seals indicate the groups belonging to different principle retainers at the quarries which provided stones for the castle's construction. This practice enabled administrators to accurately credit retainers with their contribution.
Mounds and moats of the inner castle
The inner castle of Fukuoka Castle is clearly defined by mounds and moats from the outer castle and the extramural areas. Most of the mounds are well preserved today and they still show the defense capability they offered.
The height of the mound of the inner castle is about 8 meters (26 ft) along the Ohori Moat (Big Moat), 12 metres (39 ft) on the east side, 17 metres (56 ft) at the southeast corner of the mizunote, and 16 metres (53 ft) to the west of the hon-maru above sea level. On the north side, although most of the mound is damaged, it can be inferred that it was about 10 metres above sea level if we consider the detailed accounts of "The Illustrated Map of All Fukuoka and Hakata". Except on the southern side, the mound of the inner castle was usually characterized by a koshimaki-sekirui or a mizutataki-ishigaki (a revetment constructed at the lower part of the mound), some of which can still be seen. In addition, around the gates were strengthened stone walls, which are 10 metres (33 ft) high.
In Keicho 20 (1615), the mound was planted with pine trees that acted as shitomi-uemono (visual barriers), prevented landslides, and served as windbreaks, as flaming torches, as building materials, and as emergency food. On the western and eastern sides, the mound lines have many ori (cremaillere, a front or face with receding steps, which consists of short and long branches) which permit flanking fire. The byobu-ori (tenaille lines formed by making alternate angles salient and re-entering), which can be seen from the south of the inner castle to the area to the east of the inner castle, is enormous. In general, byobu-ori have been shown to resemble the defensive lines of western fortifications. They thus bear eloquent witness to the depth of the foresight of "Kuroda Yoshitaka".
The moats of Fukuoka Castle were very wide compared with the castles of other tozama-daimyos (feudal lords who did not become retainers of the Tokugawa until after the decisive victory of Tokugawa at the battle of Sekigahara in 1600). The moat is about 115 metres (377 ft) wide on the southeast, and on the south, where there are high mounds on both sides of the moat, about 45 metres (148 ft), while to the north of the castle, it is about 70 metres (230 ft) wide on average. The Ohori Moat (Big Moat) has a width of about 600 metres (1969 ft), even after the construction of the Odote Causeway on the west of the Ohori Moat. The single, wide moat surrounding the inner castle is one of the features of this castle and only in few other castles built in the modern period can such an example be seen. The Ohori Moat was originally more than 3 ken (5.9 metres in Chikuzen) deep, and as for the other moats, more than 1 ken (2.0 metres in Chikuzen) deep at both sides, and more than 3 ken deep in the middle of the moat.
By the mid-17th century, the Ohori Moat, formed by reclaiming and dredging a large cove at the time of castle construction, was filled with sediment and the Torikai area was drained and turned into grassy land. Accordingly, during the period of Empo (1673–1689), the area that was turned into land was developed into rice fields, and the Odote Causeway was built along the shorelines. At the same time, the Komo River was modified to flow on the west of the Odote Causeway so that the silt in the flows would be carried to the sea by the river. After these works, the dimensions of the Ohori Moat were reduced; the water surface was however still more than twice as large as the present Ohori.
An outer castle is a kuruwa that includes the castle town, comprising samurai quarters, commoners' dwellings and temples. This kuruwa is clearly demarcated by defensive lines which consisted of moats, mound lines and gates that separated it from the areas outside the castle. Various writers of old texts differ with regard to the exterior boundaries of the outer castle of Fukuoka Castle; some indicate a smaller area, and some indicate a larger area, but when considering the viewpoint of the science of fortifications, it can be said that the Naka River, the Hizen Moat (present-day Tenjin 1-2 chome), the Naka Moat (present-day Daimyo 1-2 chome), the inner castle, the Tojin-machi-guchi Moat (present-day, Kuromon-gawa-dori Street), and the sea define the boundaries of the outer castle of Fukuoka Castle. The outer castle of Fukuoka Castle measures no less than about 3 km (1.9 mi) from east to west.
The east side of the outer castle along the Naka River was fortified by stone walls which were about 10 metres (33 ft) high and more than 700 metres (2297 ft) long. At the midpoint of the stone walls, at the entrance from the Nakajima-nishi Bridge, was the Higashi-toriire Gate. The Higashi-toriire Gate was composed of the Kita-mon (the North Gatehouse), the Minami-mon (the South Gatehouse), and a yagura. (A gateway structure where a masugata gateway has two gatehouses facing each other, or where a yagura is placed facing the front of a masugata gate forecourt, is unique.) This grand gateway and the stone walls of the newly built capital of Chikuzen looked down on and strongly dominated the city of Hakata, which had a very long history as a mercantile city. An old book indicates that there was a Roman Catholic church near the gate, within the walls. This may be the church built in memory of Kuroda Josui, which is mentioned in an annual report of a Jesuit missionary to Japan.
The southern side of the outer castle was demarcated by the inner castle and two linear moats along with mound lines, the total length of which was 1,200 metres (3937 ft). There were three gates along the mound lines. These were called the Akasaka Gate, the Yakui Gate, and the Kazuma Gate (Haruyoshi Gate), respectively from west to east. The moat between the Akasaka Gate Entranceway and the Yakui Gate Entranceway was called the Hizen Moat (Saga Moat), because it was excavated with the help of Nabeshima Naoshige, who was then lord of Hizen Province. The Naka Moat was about 60–110 metres (197–361 ft.) wide, and the Hizen Moat was about 60–80 metres (197–263 ft.) wide. Both moats are considerably wider than the moats surrounding outer castles in most of the other Japanese castles. The "Chronicle of Lord Naoshige" says that Kuroda Nagamasa sent laborers from Chikuzen to Hizen to excavate the moat on the east of the North Gate Entranceway of Saga Castle in return for the Hizen Moat construction. The moat, excavated with the help of Nagamasa, was called the Chikuzen Moat.
On the west side of the outer castle, there was the Tojin-machi-kuchi Moat (Yana Moat) which was about 17–35 metres (56–115 ft.) wide. Along the eastern side of this moat, there was the Matsu-dote (Pine Mound), while along the Ohori Moat continuing from the south end of the Matsu-dote there was the Sugi-dote (Cedar Mound). On the Matsu-dote defensive line there was a single storey gate, the Kuro Gate, which, unlike the other gates of the outer castle, was not a masugata gate. There was a weir at the north end of the moat, and fish were kept in water taken in from the sea.
In 1863, two major batteries and seven minor batteries were built along the shorelines of the outer castle, as well as other batteries around Hakata Bay due to the threat of foreign invasion.
External defensive elements
Defensive elements can also be seen in the areas outside the castle. To the east of the outer castle, Hakata had already been fortified when castle construction began. The defensive lines of this mercantile city probably appeared during the time of the Mongolian invasions in the late 13th century, when a series of walls was constructed to thwart the invaders. In the 16th century, the age of civil wars, Hakata was fortified in full-scale by diverting the course of the Hie (Mikasa) River to the east of Hakata and excavating moats to the south. After the construction of Fukuoka Castle, Hakata seems to have been designated as a demaru (a detached work placed in front of a gate to cover it) defending the Higashi-toriire Gate together with Nakajima (a man-made island on the estuary of the Naka River). To the east of Hakata there was the Ishido Entranceway and Gate, and on the south, the Tsujinodo Entranceway and Gate. Although these gates were located outside the outer castle of Fukuoka Castle, they were still designated as castle gates.
The Yakui River, which was to the south of the outer castle, not only made up a defensive line in itself, but also played an important role in preventing the moat around the inner castle, the Naka Moat and the Hizen Moat, from accumulating the silt which flowed from the heights of the hills to the south of the inner castle. In Enpō-6 (1678), a bridge that connected Haruyoshi Town and the Kazuma Gate Entranceway was newly built. It was placed obliquely so that enemies could not attack the gate directly. To the west of the castle were the Komo (Myoan-ji) and Hii (Tajima) Rivers, which served as defensive barriers.
Defensive aspects of Japanese castles extend to the castle towns which surround them. Temple placement at strategic points and street design are the most notable examples. In and around Fukuoka Castle, several Buddhist temples were placed at strategic locations, probably because temple buildings could be used as barracks, temple courtyards as assembling places, and tombstones from temple cemeteries as material to build stone walls. Even after the completion of Fukuoka Castle, temples were still being relocated to strategic points, and in consequence the castle was fortified by degrees.
In the castle town, many streets were planned to be T-shaped or L-shaped, and the streets that led to the Higashi-toriire Gate and to the Kuro Gate were curved. This planning, which is typical of city planning in castle towns of the Edo Period (1603–1868), weakened the enemy's psychological and strategic ability to attack while at the same time it enabled temporary defensive lines to be constructed more easily. This street layout makes modern city planning difficult, and Fukuokans are still having problems driving the severely angled streets which follow the original street design of the castle town. At the same time, it is one of the vestiges of Fukuoka Castle which reminds the inhabitants that they are living in a city that developed from a well-fortified castle.
Soon after the Meiji Restoration in 1868, the castle ended its history as a residence of the ruling nobility. The O-shita-no-yashiki Residence was then used as the government center of Fukuoka Prefecture, a new regional administrative unit which adopted the name of the castle. In Meiji 9 (1876) the government centre was moved to the southeastern area of what was once the outer castle of Fukuoka Castle, and the castle was then used as a military complex up until 1945, when the Pacific War ended, and the site began to be used by U.S. American occupation forces.
When the site of the inner castle was designated a national historical site in 1957, most of the castle structures in the inner castle had in the meanwhile decayed, been demolished, or burnt down, except for the following seven structures, which survive up to the present time:
Tamon Yagura (Minami-no-maru Nishi-hira Yagura)—Located atop the western wall of the Minami-no-maru.
Shimo-no-hashi Gate—The second floor of the structure was removed.
(Go-) Hon-maru Omote-(go-)mon (main gate of the hon-maru)—Located to the north of the hon-maru; moved to Sofuku-ji Temple.
Hanami Yagura (Cherry-blossom-viewing Yagura)—Located in the southwestern corner of the inner castle; moved to Sofuku-ji Temple, but being returned to its original location.
Shiomi Yagura (Sea-water-viewing Yagura)—Located in the northwestern corner of the inner castle; moved to Sofuku-ji Temple, but being returned to its original location. (This structure has long been believed to be the Tsukimi Yagura.)
Kinen Yagura (Prayer Yagura)—Located on the northeastern corner of the hon-maru; Moved to Taishō-ji Temple in the present-day city of Kitakyushu and returned to its original location. (The aftermath of this structure is not quite certain, because the exterior of the structure and some documents, including an old photograph, contradict each other.)
Inosuke Yagura or Ko-tokiuchi Yagura (Former Clock Yagura)—Located on the western wall of the hon-maru; moved to the Kuroda family's detached residence located to the north of the inner castle, then to the Shimo-no-hashi Gateway. (This structure has long been believed to be the Shiomi Yagura.)
The stone walls in the inner castle, however, are fairly well preserved, except for the following:
The stone wall to the south of the Higashi-Ni-no-maru.
The stone walls around the Matsunoki-zaka Gateway.
The stone walls around the Oimawashi Gateway.
Some parts of the revetment on both sides of the moats.
The mound lines are also well preserved today, although many parts of the moats have been reclaimed.
The inner castle site is now used as Maizuru (Dancing Crane) Park and Ohori Park, places of recreation and relaxation for the Fukuokan public. These parks include an athletic stadium, other sports facilities, flower gardens, Fukuoka City Museum of Art, Fukuoka District and High Courts, and Jonai residential quarter.
As for the outer castle, almost all the stone walls, mound lines and structures were demolished soon after the Meiji Restoration. The Hizen Moat and the Naka Moat were reclaimed and the Tojin-machiji-guchi Moat was converted into a culvert. However, a portion of the stone walls to the south of the Higashi-toriire Gate and an upper portion of the northern stone walls (bulwark) of the battery adjacent to the estuary of the Naka River can still be seen today.
Fukuoka Castle mentioned in John Saris’ Journal
"Wee (we) were rowed through, and amongst diuers(divers) Ilands(islands), all which, or the most part of them, were well inhabited, and diuers proper Townes(towns) built vpon(upon) them; whereof one, called Fuccate, hath a very strong Castle, built of freestone, but no Ordnance nor Souldiers(soldiers) therein. It hath a ditch about fiue (five) fathome(fathom) deepe (deep), and twice as broad, round about it, with a draw bridge, kept all in very good repaire (repair). I did land and dine there in the Towne, the tyde and wind so strong against vs (us) as that we could not passe (pass). The Towne seemed to be as great as London is within the wals(walls), very wel(well) built, and euen(even), so as you may see from the one end of the streete (street) to the other. The place exceedingly peopled, very Ciuill (civil) and curteous (courteous)…"
The Umadashi-mon gate (馬出門) in the foreground leads to a small open square called a masugata (升形), which is enclosed by an earthen and stone wall, and provides access to the Uchikabuki-mon inner gate (内冠木門), which is set at a right angle to the other gate, and opens to the horse stables. The masugata squares have two gates that protect the castle entrance by providing a place to gather cavalry forces out of sight of enemy forces; and with the two gates at right angles, the masugata helps prevent direct entry to the castle by attackers.
Edo Castle (江戸城 Edo-jō), also known as Chiyoda Castle (千代田城 Chiyoda-jō), is a flatland castle that was built in 1457 by Ōta Dōkan. It is today part of the Tokyo Imperial Palace and is located in Chiyoda, Tokyo, then known as Edo, Toshima District, Musashi Province. Tokugawa Ieyasu established the Tokugawa shogunate here. It was the residence of the shogun and location of the shogunate, and also functioned as the military capital during the Edo period of Japanese history. After the resignation of the shogun and the Meiji Restoration, it became the Tokyo Imperial Palace. Some moats, walls and ramparts of the castle survive to this day. However, the grounds were more extensive during the Edo period, with Tokyo Station and the Marunouchi section of the city lying within the outermost moat. It also encompassed Kitanomaru Park, the Nippon Budokan Hall and other landmarks of the surrounding area.
2Appearance of Edo Castle
6.2Seimon Ishibashi and Seimon Tetsubashi
Map of Edo Castle grounds around 1849 (click to see legend)
1)Ōoku 2)Naka-Oku 3)Omote 4)Ninomaru-Goten 5)Ninomaru 6)Momiji-yama 7)Nishinomaru 8)Fukiage 9)Kitanomaru 10)? 11)Sannomaru 12)Nishinomaru-shita 13)Ōte-mae 14)Daimyō-Kōji
The warrior Edo Shigetsugu built his residence in what is now the Honmaru and Ninomaru part of Edo Castle, around the end of the Heian or beginning of the Kamakura period. The Edo clan perished in the 15th century as a result of uprisings in the Kantō region, and Ōta Dōkan, a retainer of the Ogigayatsu Uesugi family, built Edo Castle in 1457.
The castle later came under the control of the Late Hōjō clan in 1524 after the Siege of Edo. The castle was vacated in 1590 due to the Siege of Odawara. Tokugawa Ieyasu made Edo Castle his base after he was offered eight eastern provinces by Toyotomi Hideyoshi. He later defeated Toyotomi Hideyori, son of Hideyoshi, at the Siege of Osaka in 1615, and emerged as the political leader of Japan. Tokugawa Ieyasu received the title of Seii Taishōgun in 1603, and Edo became the center of Tokugawa's administration.
Initially, parts of the area were lying under water. The sea reached the present Nishinomaru area of Edo Castle, and Hibiya was a beach.[clarification needed] The landscape was changed for the construction of the castle. Most construction started in 1593 and was completed in 1636 under Ieyasu's grandson, Tokugawa Iemitsu. By this time, Edo had a population of 150,000.
The existing Honmaru, Ninomaru, and Sannomaru areas were extended with the addition of the Nishinomaru, Nishinomaru-shita, Fukiage, and Kitanomaru areas. The perimeter measured 16 km.
The daimyōs were required by the shōgun to supply building materials or finances, a method used by the shogunate to keep the powers of the daimyōs in check. Large granite stones were moved from afar, the size and number of the stones depended on the wealth of the daimyōs. The wealthier ones had to contribute more. Those who did not supply stones were required to contribute labor for such tasks as digging the large moats and flattening hills. The earth that was taken from the moats was used as landfill for sea-reclamation or to level the ground. Thus the construction of Edo Castle laid the foundation for parts of the city where merchants were able to settle.
At least 10,000 men were involved in the first phase of the construction and more than 300,000 in the middle phase. When construction ended, the castle had 38 gates. The ramparts were almost 20 meters high and the outer walls were 12 meters high. Moats forming roughly concentric circles were dug for further protection. Some moats reached as far as Ichigaya and Yotsuya, and parts of the ramparts survive to this day. This area is bordered by either the sea or the Kanda River, allowing ships access.
Ukiyo-e print depicting the assault of Asano Naganori on Kira Yoshinaka in the Matsu no Ōrōka in 1701
Various fires over the centuries damaged or destroyed parts of the castle, Edo and the majority of its buildings being made of timber.
On April 21, 1701, in the Great Pine Corridor (Matsu no Ōrōka) of Edo Castle, Asano Takumi-no-kami drew his short sword and attempted to kill Kira Kōzuke-no-suke for insulting him. This triggered the events involving the forty-seven rōnin.
After the capitulation of the shogunate in 1867, the inhabitants including the shogun had to vacate the premises. The castle compound was renamed Tokyo Castle (東京城 Tōkei-jō) in October, 1868, and then renamed Imperial Castle (皇城 Kōjō) in 1869. In the year Meiji 2 (1868), on the 23rd day of the 10th month of the Japanese calendar the emperor moved to Tokyo and Edo castle became an imperial palace.
A fire consumed the old Edo Castle on the night of May 5, 1873. The area around the old donjon, which burned in the 1657 Meireki fire, became the site of the new Imperial Palace Castle (宮城 Kyūjō), built in 1888. Some Tokugawa era buildings which were still standing were destroyed to make space for new structures for the imperial government. The imperial palace building itself, however, was constructed in Nishinomaru Ward, not in the same location as the shogun's palace in Honmaru Ward.
The site suffered substantial damage during World War II and in the destruction of Tokyo in 1945.
Today the site is part of the Tokyo Imperial Palace. The government declared the area an historic site and has undertaken steps to restore and preserve the remaining structures of Edo Castle.
Appearance of Edo Castle
The plan of Edo Castle was not only large but elaborate. The grounds were divided into various wards, or citadels. The Honmaru was in the center, with the Ninomaru (second compound), Sannomaru (third compound) extending to the east; the Nishinomaru (west compound) flanked by Nishinomaru-shita (outer section) and Fukiage (firebreak compound); and the Kitanomaru (north compound). The different wards were divided by moats and large stone walls, on which various keeps, defense houses and towers were built. To the east, beyond the Sannomaru was an outer moat, enclosing the Otomachi and Daimyō-Kōji districts. Ishigaki stone walls were constructed around the Honmaru and the eastern side of the Nishinomaru. Each ward could be reached via wooden bridges, which were buffered by gates on either side. The circumference is subject to debate, with estimates ranging from 6 to 10 miles.
Folding screen depicting scenes of the attendance of daimyōs at Edo Castle in 1847. Hasuike-Tatsumi-Sanjū-yagura is at the center, Kikyō-mon (the inner Sakurada-mon) on the right side. Signs alongside the moat are written with the words "geba" (dismount). The attending daimyōs were required to reduce their number of attendants before entering the inner castle compound. Signs with the family names of each entourage identify them (counting from the right side the first panel) from the Okayama Domain, Fukuoka Domain (fourth panel), Kurume Domain (fifth panel), Tottori Domain (sixth panel), Satsuma and Izumi Domains (seventh panel) and the Sendai Domain (eighth panel).
With the enforcement of the sankin-kōtai system in the 17th century, it became expedient for the daimyōs to set up residence in Edo close to the shogun. Surrounding the inner compounds of the castle were the residences of daimyōs, most of which were concentrated at the Outer Sakurada Gate to the south-east and in the Ōtemachi and Daimyō-Kōji districts east of the castle inside the outer moat. Some residences were also located within the inner moats in the outer Nishinomaru.
The mansions were large and very elaborate, with no expenses spared to construct palaces with Japanese gardens and multiple gates. Each block had four to six of the mansions, which were surrounded by ditches for drainage. Daimyōs with lesser wealth were allowed to set up their houses, called banchō, to the north and west of the castle.
To the east and south of the castle were sections that were set aside for merchants, since this area was considered unsuitable for residences. The entertainment district Yoshiwara was also located there.
The inner citadels of the castle were protected by multiple large and small wooden gates (mon), constructed in-between the gaps of the stone wall. Not many are left today. From south to southwest to north, the main gates are located at Nijūbashi, Sakurada-mon, Sakashita-mon, Kikyō-mon, Hanzō-mon, Inui-mon, Ōte-mon, Hirakawa-mon and Kitahanebashi-mon. Only the stone foundations of the other gates (meaning the gap left in between the large stone walls for the wooden gates) are still preserved. Large gates, such as the Ōte-mon, had a guard of 120 men, while the smaller gates were guarded by 30 to 70 armed men.
An eye-witness account is given by the French director François Caron from the Dutch colony at Dejima. He described the gates and courts being laid out in such a manner as to confuse an outsider. Caron noted the gates were not placed in a straight line, but were staggered, forcing a person to make a 90 degree turn to pass on to the next gate. This style of construction for the main gates is called masugata (meaning "square"). As noted by Caron, the gate consisted of a square-shaped courtyard or enclosure and a two story gatehouse which is entered via three roofed kōrai-mon. The watari-yagura-mon was constructed at adjacent angles to each side within the gate. All major gates had large timbers that framed the main entry point and were constructed to impress and proclaim the might of the shogunate.
Accounts of how many armed men served at Edo Castle vary. The Spanish Governor-General of the Philippines Rodrigo de Vivero y Velasco gave an eye-witness account in 1608–1609, describing the huge stones that made up the walls and a large number of people at the castle. He claimed to have seen 20,000 servants between the first gate and the shogun's palace. He passed through two ranks of 1,000 soldiers armed with muskets, and by the second gate he was escorted by 400 armed men. He passed stables that apparently had room for 200 horses and an armory that stored enough weapons for 100,000 men.
The main tower (upper right) with the surrounding Honmaru palace, Bairinzaka, Hirakawaguchi Gate and Ninomaru (lower part)
The Honmaru (本丸) (also spelled Hommaru) was the central, innermost part of the castle containing the donjon and residence of the shogun. The stately and luxurious main buildings of the Honmaru, consisting of the outer, central, and inner halls, were said[who?] to have covered an area of 33,000 square meters during the Kan-ei era (1624–1644). Surrounding the Honmaru were curtain walls, with 11 keeps, 15 defense houses and more than 20 gates.
Honmaru was destroyed several times by fire and reconstructed after each fire. The donjon and main palace were destroyed in 1657 and 1863, respectively, and not reconstructed. Some remains, such as the Fujimi-yagura keep and Fujimi-tamon defense house, still exist.
The Honmaru was surrounded by moats on all sides. To the north separating Honmaru from the Kitanomaru were the Inui-bori and Hirakawa-bori, to the east separating the Ninomaru was the Hakuchō-bori, and to the west and south separating the Nishinomaru were the Hasuike-bori and Hamaguri-bori. Most of these still exist, although the Hakuchō-bori has partly been filled in since the Meiji era.
Kitahanebashi-mon (北桔橋門, literally "Northern Drawbridge Gate") is the northern gate to the Honmaru ward, facing Kitanomaru ward across Daikan-cho street. It is also constructed as a masu-gate just like Ōte-mon and Hirakawa-mon, and has a watari-yagura-mon in a left angle. The bridge in front of the gate, which was once a drawbridge during the Edo period, is now fixed to the ground. The metal clasps used to draw the bridge are still attached to the roof of the gate.
Stone foundation of the main tower (tenshu)
The main donjon or tower (known as the tenshudai (天守台)) was located in the northern corner of the Honmaru ward. Kitahanebashi-mon is located right next to it and was one of the main gateways to this innermost part. The measurements are 41 meters in width from east to west, 45 meters in length from north to south, and 11 meters in height. A five-storey donjon used to stand on this base which was 51 meters in height and was thus the highest castle tower in the whole of Japan, symbolizing the power of the shogun. The donjon and its multiple roofs were constructed in 1607 and ornamented with gold. It was destroyed in the 1657 Fire of Meireki and not reconstructed. The foundations of the donjon are all that is left.
Despite this, jidaigeki movies (such as Abarembo shogun) set in Edo usually depict Edo Castle as having a donjon, and substitute Himeji Castle for that purpose.
A non-profit "Rebuilding Edo-jo Association" (NPO江戸城再建) was founded in 2004 with the aim of a historically correct reconstruction of at least the main donjon. In March 2013 Naotaka Kotake, head of the group, said that "The capital city needs a symbolic building," and that the group planned to collect donations and signatures on a petition in the hope of having the tower rebuilt. A reconstruction blueprint had been made based on old documents. The Imperial Household Agency had not indicated whether it would support the project.
Model of shiro shoin (White study room), used for meetings with imperial messengers
The residential Honmaru Palace (本丸御殿 honmaru-goten) and the gardens of the shogun and his court were constructed around the castle keep in the Honmaru area. It consisted of a series of low-level buildings, connected by corridors and congregating around various gardens, courtyards or lying detached, similar to the structures that can be seen in Nijō Castle in Kyoto today. These structures were used for either residential or governmental purposes such as audiences.
The Honmaru Palace was one story high, and consisted of three sections:
The Ō-omote (Great Outer Palace) contained reception rooms for public audience and apartments for guards and officials;
The Naka-oku (middle interior) was where the shogun received his relatives, higher lords and met his counselors for the affairs of state; and
Ōoku (great interior) contained the private apartments of the shogun and his ladies-in-waiting. The great interior was strictly off-limits and communication went through young messenger boys. The great interior was apparently 1,000 tatami mats in size and could be divided into sections by the use of sliding shōji doors, which were painted in elegant schemes.
Various fires destroyed the Honmaru Palace over time and was rebuilt after each fire. In the span from 1844 to 1863, Honmaru experienced three fires. After each fire, the shogun moved to the Nishinomaru residences for the time being until reconstruction was complete. However, in 1853 both the Honmaru and Nishinomaru burned down, forcing the shogun to move into a daimyō residence. The last fire occurred in 1873, after which the palace was not rebuilt by the new imperial government.
Located behind the Honmaru Palace was the main donjon. Besides being the location of the donjon and palace, the Honmaru was also the site of the treasury. Three storehouses that bordered on a rampart adjoined the palace on the other side. The entrance was small, made with thick lumber and heavily guarded. Behind the wall was a deep drop to the moat below, making the area secure.
View onto Hamaguri-bori (front), Sakashita-mon (left), Hasuike-Tatsumi-Sanjū-yagura (right),Fujimi-yagura (center in the back) before 1870
The Fujimi Yagura (A Turret of The Edo Castle), 1659
The Fujimi-yagura (富士見櫓, "Mount Fuji-viewing keep") stands in the south-eastern corner of the Honmaru enceinte and is three storeys high. Fujimi-yagura is one of only three remaining keeps of the inner citadel of Edo Castle, from a total number of originally eleven. The other remaining keeps are Fushimi-yagura (located next to the upper steel bridge of Nijūbashi) and Tatsumi-nijyu-yagura (at the corner of Kikyō-bori moat next to Kikyō-mon gate). It is also called the "all-front-sided" keep because all sides look the same from all directions. It is believed that once Mount Fuji could be seen from this keep, hence the name. Since the main donjon of Edo Castle was destroyed in 1657 and not reconstructed, the Fujimi-yagura took on its role and was an important building during the Edo period. About 150–160 meters north of the Fujimi-yagura is the former site of the Matsu no Ōrōka corridor, scene of dramatic events in 1701 that led to the forty-seven rōnin incident.
The Fujimi-tamon (富士見多聞) defense house is located about 120–130 meters north from the Matsu no Ōrōka. This defense house sits on top of the large stone walls overlooking to the Hasuike-bori (Lotus-growing moat). Weapons and tools were stored here. During the Edo period, double and triple keeps (yagura) were constructed at strategic points on top of the stone wall surrounding the Honmaru. In between each keep, a defense house (called tamon) was erected for defensive purposes. There were once 15 of these houses in the Honmaru, of which only the Fujimi-tamon still exists.
North of the Fujimi-tamon is the ishimuro (石室, "stone cellar"), located on a slope. It is about 20 square meters. Its precise purpose is unknown, but since it is located close to the former inner palace storage area, it is believed to have been used for storage of supplies and documents for the shogunate.
Shiomi-zaka (潮見坂) is a slope running alongside today's Imperial Music Department building towards Ninomaru enceinte. In old times apparently the sea could be seen from here, therefore its name.
Hamaguri-bori (front),Hasuike-Tatsumi-Sanjū-yagura (left),Tatsumi-Sanjū-yagura(right) before 1870
At the foot of the Shiomi-zaka on the eastern side of the Honmaru lies the Ninomaru (二の丸, second enceinte) of Edo Castle. A palace for the heirs of the Tokugawa shoguns was constructed in 1639 in the west area and in 1630 it is reported that a garden designed by Kobori Enshū, who was the founder of Japanese landscaping, was located to its south-east. Several fires destroyed whatever stood here and it was not reconstructed. Aside from the Honmaru palace, the Ninomaru was surrounded by 7 keeps, 8 defense houses, approximately 10 gates and other guardhouses. The Tenjin-bori separates a part of the Ninomaru to the Sannomaru.
Several renovations were carried out over the years until the Meiji era. A completely new garden has been laid out since then around the old pond left from the Edo period. Only the Hyakunin-bansho and Dōshin-bansho are still standing.
The dōshin-bansho (同心番所) is a guardhouse. A big guardhouse was located within the Ōte-mon where today’s security is located. The passageway proceeding west from the guardhouse becomes narrower within the stone walls on both sides. The dōshin-bansho is located on the right side past this passageway. This is where the samurai guardsmen were posted to watch over the castle grounds.
There is a big stone wall in front of the Dōshin-bansho, which is the foundation of the Ōte-sanno-mon watari-yagura keep. The long building to the left on the southern side of this foundation is the hyakunin-bansho (百人番所). The Hyakunin-bansho is so called because it housed a hundred guardsmen closely associated with the Tokugawa clan.
The large stone wall in front of the Hyakunin-bansho is all that is left of the Naka-no-mon watari-yagura (Inner Gate Keep). This building to the inner-right side of the gate is the Ō-bansho (大番所). As the Honmaru enceinte was said to begin right behind the Naka-no-mon gate, the Ō-bansho probably played a key role in the security of Edo Castle.
The Suwa-no-Chaya (諏訪の茶屋) is a teahouse that was once located in the Fukiage garden during the Edo period. After various relocations in the Meiji era, today it is located in the modern Ninomaru Garden.
The sannomaru (三の丸, third enceinte) is the easternmost enceinte next to the Ninomaru, separated by the Tenjin-bori. Ōte-bori is located to the north, running then south is Kikyō-bori.
A steep slope, Bairin-zaka (梅林坂), runs from eastern Honmaru toward Hirakawa-mon in front of the today's Archives and Mausolea Department building. It is said[who?] that Ōta Dōkan planted several hundred plum trees in 1478 in dedication to Sugawara no Michizane. Dōkan is said to have built the Sanno-Gongendō here, where two shrines were located when the Tokugawa clan occupied the site. With the erection of the Honmaru of Edo Castle, the shrine dedicated to Sugawara no Michizane was moved to Kojimachi Hirakawa-chō and later became known as Hirakawa Shrine. Sanno Shrine was first moved to Momijiyama of Edo Castle and became its tutelary shrine but was moved again. Today it is known as Hie Shrine.
Hirakawa-mon (平川門) is said to have been the main gate to the Sannomaru of Edo Castle. It is also said to have been the side gate for maidservants and therefore called the Otsubone-mon. The shape of this gate is in the masugata, similar to the Ōte-mon. However a watari-yagura-mon is built to an adjacent left angle within the kōrai-mon, of which it has two. The other kōrai-mon is located to the west of the watari-yagura-mon which was used as the "gates of the unclean" for the deceased and criminals from within the castle. Outside this gate is a wooden bridge with railings crowned with giboshi-ornamental tops.
Ōte-mon (大手門, "Great Hand Gate") was the main gate of the castle. During the reign of the second shogun Tokugawa Hidetada, the castle underwent repairs in the 1620s and the gate is said to have taken its present form at this time, with the help of Date Masamune, lord of Sendai Castle, and Soma Toshitane, lord of Nakamura Castle.
A fire in Edo destroyed the Ōte-mon in January 1657, but was reconstructed in November 1658. It was severely damaged twice, in 1703 and 1855, by strong earthquakes, and reconstructed to stand until the Meiji era. Several repairs were conducted after the Meiji era, but the damage caused by the September 1923 Great Kantō earthquake lead to the dismantling of the watari-yagura and rebuilding of the stone walls on each side of the gate in 1925.
The watari-yagura was burnt down completely during World War II on April 30, 1945. Restoration took place from October 1965 through March 1967, to repair the kōrai-mon and its walls, and the Ōte-mon was reconstructed.
Tatsumi-yagura at Kikyō-bori
The tatsumi-yagura (巽櫓), also known as sakurada-yagura (桜田櫓), is a two-storey high keep at the easternmost corner of the Sannomaru and the only keep still remaining in it.
One of the few gates left of the Ninomaru is the kikyō-mon (桔梗門), which is also known as the Inner Sakurada-mon, as opposed to the (Outer) Sakurada-mon in the south. The architecture of the tower is a gate and in the kōrai style.
Nishinomaru and Fukiage, residences of the three Tokugawa families (17th century)
The nishinomaru (西の丸, western ward) was the location of the palaces and residences of the retired shogun and the heir-apparent for a while. The outer part of the Nishinomaru to the east (today's Outer Gardens of the Imperial Palace) was the site of various residences of daimyōs. The Nishinomaru is bordered by moats to the west such as the Dōkan-bori, Sakurada-bori and Gaisen-bori to the south, Kikyō-bori and Hamaguri-bori to the north. After each fire in the Honmaru, the shogun normally moved into the Nishinomaru, although it was also destroyed by fire in 1853. On May 5, 1873, the Nishinomaru residence burned down. On its site, the imperial palace was built in the Meiji era.
Sakurada-mon (left), the place where the Tairō Ii Naosuke was assassinated in 1860
Protecting the Nishinomaru from the south is the large Outer Sakurada-mon (桜田門). This gate is not to be confused with the Inner Sakurada-mon, also known as Kikyo-mon between Nishinomaru and Sannomaru.
Seimon Ishibashi and Seimon Tetsubashi
The old bridge before it was replaced with a European-style bridge during the Meiji-era, with the Fushimi-yagura in the back
Two bridges led over the moats. The bridges that were once wooden and arched, were replaced with modern stone and iron cast structures in the Meiji era. The bridges were once buffered by gates on both ends, of which only the Nishinomaru-mon has survived, which is the main gate to today's Imperial Palace.
The bridge in the foreground used to be called Nishinomaru Ōte-bashi (西の丸大手橋), while the one in the back was called Nishinomaru Shimojō-bashi (西の丸下乗橋).
After their replacement in the Meiji era, the bridge is now called Imperial Palace Main Gate Stone Bridge (皇居正門石橋 kōkyo seimon ishibashi)) and Imperial Palace Main Gate Iron Bridge (皇居正門鉄橋 kōkyo seimon tekkyō), respectively. The iron bridge is also known as Nijūbashi (二重橋, literally "double bridge"), because the original wooden bridge was built on top of an auxiliary bridge due to the deepness of the moat. The stone bridge is also called Meganebashi (眼鏡橋, literally "Spectacles Bridge") because of its shape. However, both bridges are often mistakenly collectively called Nijūbashi.
Today both bridges are closed to the public except on January 2 and the Emperor's Birthday.
Seimon Tetsubashi (Nijūbashi)
Seimon Ishibashi (Meganebashi)
Fushimi-yagura (伏見櫓) is a two-storey keep that still exists at the western corner leading towards the inner Nishinomaru, flanked by two galleries (tamon) on each side. It is the only keep that is left in the Nishinomaru. It comes originally from Fushimi Castle in Kyoto.
(坂下門, Sakashita-mon) originally faced the north, but was changed to face the east in the Meiji era. This tower gate overlooks Hamaguri-bori. The assassination of Nobumasa Ando, a member of the shogun's Council of Elders, occurred outside this gate.
Momijiyama (紅葉山, "Maple Mountain") is an area in northern Nishinomaru. The area had shrines dedicated to former shoguns in which ceremonies were conducted in memory of them and were held regularly.
Tokugawa Ieyasu built a library in 1602 within the Fujimi bower of the castle with many books he obtained from an old library in Kanazawa. In July 1693, a new library was constructed at Momijiyama (Momijiyama Bunko).
The so-called "Momijiyama Bunkobon" are the books from that library, which are preserved in the National Archives of Japan today. This group consists chiefly of books published during the Song dynasty, Korean books that were formerly in the possession of the Kanazawa Bunko library, books presented by the Hayashi family as gifts, and fair copies of books compiled by the Tokugawa government.
The fukiage (吹上, "blown clean") is the western area that was made into a firebreak after the great Meireki fire of 1657. The Fukiage is encircled by the Dōkan-bori to the Nishinomaru to the east, the Sakurada-bori to the south, the Hanzō-bori to the west, the Chidorigafuchi to the northwest and the Inui-bori to the north.
The Inui-mon (乾門) was located in the Nishinomaru area next to today's headquarters of the Imperial Household Agency and called Nishinomaru Ura-mon. It was relocated to its present location between the Kitanomaru and Fukiage garden in the Meiji era. It has its name because of its location in the northwestern part of the Imperial Palace grounds.
The Hanzōmon (半蔵門) is a gate in the kōrai style. The old gate was destroyed by fire during World War II. The Wadakura Gate was moved here in its stead. The Hanzō-mon is the only gate to the Fukiage area from outside today.
Inui-mon, former Nishinomaru Ura-mon
Hanzō-mon, former Wadakura Gate
The Kitanomaru (北の丸) is the northern enceinte next to the Honmaru. It was used as a medicinal garden (Ohanabatake) during the shogun's rule. During the 17th century, the Suruga Dainagon residence was located there as well, which was used by collateral branches of the Tokugawa clan. Today this site is the location of the public Kitanomaru Park. Not much is left from the times of the Edo Castle except for two gates, Shimizu-mon and further north Tayasu-mon.
Kitanomaru is surrounded by moats. The Inui-bori and Hirakawa-bori to the south separate it from the Honmaru and Chidorigafuchi to the west.
The Toranomon (Tiger Gate), demolished in the 1870s
Many place names in Tokyo derive from Edo Castle. Ōtemachi (大手町, "the town in front of the great gate"), Takebashi (竹橋, "the Bamboo Bridge"), Toranomon (虎ノ門, "the Tiger Gate"), Uchibori Dōri (内堀通り, "Inner Moat Street"), Sotobori Dōri (外堀通り, "Outer Moat Street"), and Marunouchi (丸の内, "Within the enclosure") are examples.
A blog post that includes these photos lives here: likeafishinwater.com/2014/04/18/demachi-masugata-shotengai/
My company: www.thirdplacemedia.com - Research, content development and communications strategy focused on transit, walkability, placemaking and environment issues
My blog: likeafishinwater.com
The Taro Okamoto Museum of Art Kawasaki (川崎市岡本太郎美術館).
Architect : Kume Sekkei (設計：川崎市町づくり局、久米設計).
Contractor : Toda Corporation (施工：戸田建設、北島組JV).
Built : July 1999 (竣工：1999年7月).
Structured : Reinforced Concrete (構造：鉄筋コンクリート造).
Costs : $ million (総工費：約億円).
Use : Museum (用途：美術館).
Height : ft (高さ：m).
Floor : 1 (階数：地上1階、地下1階).
Floor area : 53,744 sq.ft. (延床面積：4,993.8㎡).
Building area : 30,225.06 sq.ft. (建築面積：2,808.0㎡).
Site area : 101,912 sq.ft. (敷地面積：9,468.0㎡).
Location : 7-1-5 Masugata, Tama Ward, Kawasaki City, Kanagawa, Japan (所在地：日本国神奈川県川崎市多摩区枡形7-1-5).
This is the Akagane Gate of Odawara Castle. It is the main entrance point to the secondary bailey (nino-maru). This gate is constructed in the masugata style meaning that there are two gates separated by a rectangular courtyard. Because of the high walls which you can see on the left, and the right angle to which the doors are aligned, this is a very strong defensive structure.
For five generations, Odawara Castle served as the center of the Hojo Clan's empire. The castle, which was originally built in 1447, was torn down following the Meiji Restoration and reconstructed in 1960. The castle was known for it's fortification which is said to have repelled several attacks until Hideyoshi forced the surrender of the Hojo in 1590 after a three month siege. The castle was transferred to Tokugawa Ieyasu who held it for a brief time before Edo Castle was finished. Today, it is recognized as one of the finest reconstructed castles in Japan.
Contax ST＋Sonnar T* 85mm/F2.8 AEJ(Kodak Portra 400)
Contax ST＋Sonnar T* 85mm/F2.8 AEJ(Kodak Portra 400)
8000 series was Odakyu’s last train with steel body. The next series, 1000 series, was made of stainless steel. Since stainless steel cad does not require painting, 8000 series became the last Odakyu train that has cream color body.
Contax ST＋Sonnar T* 85mm/F2.8 AEJ(Kodak Portra 400)
Contax ST＋Sonnar T* 85mm/F2.8 AEJ(Kodak Portra 400)