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I am very happy with the images of this fantastic little orchid. It was an absolute nightmare to photograph in the wild. The plants always grew on branches overhanging the river. I had to take the close-up shots out of hand sitting in a large dugout canoe. Keeping the boat still in a strong flowing river was difficult enough but convincing the 6 or 7 other people in the boat not to move was even more of a problem. On top of all this the long, hair-fringed lip of the flower is hinged and moved constantly in even the slightest, unnoticable breeze.

Really spectacular and fascinating species found on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia. The flowers are very large, over 12″ (30 cm) from tip to tip and bloom sequentially usually for up to 6+ months. Flowers have a very strong fragrance, pretty nasty and have a blood red, brain looking lip on a hinge.

Found in Peninsula Myanmar, Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand in primary montane forests from 1,000 to 2000 meters in elevation. Each one inch pseudobulb holds a single, large, complex bloom with tassels and a highly mobile lip that wiggle and flutter in the slightest breeze.

Found in Peninsula Myanmar, Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand in primary montane forests from 1,000 to 2000 meters in elevation. Each one inch pseudobulb holds a single, large, complex bloom with tassels and a highly mobile lip that wiggle and flutter in the slightest breeze.

Really spectacular and fascinating species found on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia. The flowers are very large, over 12″ (30 cm) from tip to tip and bloom sequentially usually for up to 6+ months. Flowers have a very strong fragrance, pretty nasty and have a blood red, brain looking lip on a hinge.

Really spectacular and fascinating species found on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia. The flowers are very large, over 12″ (30 cm) from tip to tip and bloom sequentially usually for up to 6+ months. Flowers have a very strong fragrance, pretty nasty and have a blood red, brain looking lip on a hinge.

Really spectacular and fascinating species found on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia. The flowers are very large, over 12″ (30 cm) from tip to tip and bloom sequentially usually for up to 6+ months. Flowers have a very strong fragrance, pretty nasty and have a blood red, brain looking lip on a hinge.

Really spectacular and fascinating species found on the island of Sulawesi in Indonesia. The flowers are very large, over 12″ (30 cm) from tip to tip and bloom sequentially usually for up to 6+ months. Flowers have a very strong fragrance, pretty nasty and have a blood red, brain looking lip on a hinge.

Subfamily: Epidendroideae Tribe: Podochilaeae SubTribe: Bulbophyllinae Genus: Bulbophyllum Species: Bulbophyllum macrochilum Rolfe Feb. 1896.

Common name: The Large-Lipped bulbophyllum.

201003-13

 

For the ladies..

une fleur pour vous♥ .. ♥un fiore per te♥ .. ♥una flor para ti♥ .. ♥uma flor para você♥

♫♪♫ It's you that matters ♫♪♫

I am very happy with the images of this fantastic little orchid. It was an absolute nightmare to photograph in the wild. The plants always grew on branches overhanging the river. I had to take the close-up shots out of hand sitting in a large dugout canoe. Keeping the boat still in a strong flowing river was difficult enough but convincing the 6 or 7 other people in the boat not to move was even more of a problem. On top of all this the long, hair-fringed lip of the flower is hinged and moved constantly in even the slightest, unnoticable breeze.

The Orchidaceae are a diverse and widespread family of flowering plants, with blooms that are often colourful and fragrant, commonly known as the orchid family.

 

Along with the Asteraceae, they are one of the two largest families of flowering plants. The Orchidaceae have about 28,000 currently accepted species, distributed in about 763 general.

 

The determination of which family is larger is still under debate, because verified data on the members of such enormous families are continually in flux. Regardless, the number of orchid species nearly equals the number of bony fishes and is more than twice the number of bird species, and about four times the number of mammal species.

 

The family also encompasses about 6–11% of all seed plants.

 

The largest genera are Bulbophyllum (2,000 species), Epidendrum (1,500 species), Dendrobium (1,400 species) and Pleurothallis (1,000 species).

The family also includes Vanilla (the genus of the vanilla plant), Orchis (type genus), and many commonly cultivated plants such as Phalaenopsis and Cattleya. Moreover, since the introduction of tropical species into cultivation in the 19th century, horticulturists have produced more than 100,000 hybrids and cultivars.

 

Orchids are easily distinguished from other plants, as they share some very evident, shared derived characteristics, or "apomorphies". Among these are: bilateral symmetry of the flower (zygomorphism), many resupinate flowers, a nearly always highly modified petal (labellum), fused stamens and carpels, and extremely small seeds.

 

Stem and roots

 

Germinating seeds of the temperate orchid Anacamptis coriophora. The protocorm is the first organ that will develop into true roots and leaves.

 

All orchids are perennial herbs that lack any permanent woody structure.

 

They can grow according to two patterns:

Monopodial: The stem grows from a single bud, leaves are added from the apex each year and the stem grows longer accordingly.

 

The stem of orchids with a monopodial growth can reach several metres in length, as in Vanda and Vanilla.

 

Sympodial: Sympodial orchids have a front (the newest growth) and a back (the oldest growth).

 

The plant produces a series of adjacent shoots which grow to a certain size, bloom and then stop growing and are replaced.

 

Sympodial orchids grow laterally rather than vertically, following the surface of their support. The growth continues by development of new leads, with their own leaves and roots, sprouting from or next to those of the previous year, as in Cattleya.

 

While a new lead is developing, the rhizome may start its growth again from a so-called 'eye', an undeveloped bud, thereby branching.

 

Sympodial orchids may have visible pseudobulbs joined by a rhizome, which creeps along the top or just beneath the soil.

 

Anacamptis lactea showing the two tubers

Terrestrial orchids may be rhizomatous or form corms or tubers. The root caps of terrestrial orchids are smooth and white.

 

Some sympodial terrestrial orchids, such as Orchis and Ophrys, have two subterranean tuberous roots. One is used as a food reserve for wintry periods, and provides for the development of the other one, from which visible growth develops.

 

In warm and constantly humid climates, many terrestrial orchids do not need pseudobulbs.

 

Epiphytic orchids, those that grow upon a support, have modified aerial roots that can sometimes be a few meters long. In the older parts of the roots, a modified spongy epidermis, called velamen, has the function to absorb humidity. It is made of dead cells and can have a silvery-grey, white or brown appearance. In some orchids, the velamen includes spongy and fibrous bodies near the passage cells, called tilosomes.

 

The cells of the root epidermis grow at a right angle to the axis of the root to allow them to get a firm grasp on their support.

 

Nutrients for epiphytic orchids mainly come from mineral dust, organic detritus, animal droppings and other substances collecting among on their supporting surfaces.

 

The pseudobulb of Prosthechea fragrans

The base of the stem of sympodial epiphytes, or in some species essentially the entire stem, may be thickened to form a pseudobulb that contains nutrients and water for drier periods.

 

The pseudobulb has a smooth surface with lengthwise grooves, and can have different shapes, often conical or oblong. Its size is very variable; in some small species of Bulbophyllum, it is no longer than two millimeters, while in the largest orchid in the world, Grammatophyllum speciosum (giant orchid), it can reach three meters.

 

Some Dendrobium species have long, canelike pseudobulbs with short, rounded leaves over the whole length; some other orchids have hidden or extremely small pseudobulbs, completely included inside the leaves.

 

With ageing, the pseudobulb sheds its leaves and becomes dormant. At this stage, it is often called a backbulb. Backbulbs still hold nutrition for the plant, but then a pseudobulb usually takes over, exploiting the last reserves accumulated in the backbulb, which eventually dies off, too. A pseudobulb typically lives for about five years.

 

Orchids without noticeable pseudobulbs are also said to have growths, an individual component of a sympodial plant.

 

Leaves

 

Like most monocots, orchids generally have simple leaves with parallel veins, although some Vanilloideae have reticulate venation. Leaves may be ovate, lanceolate, or orbiculate, and very variable in size on the individual plant.

 

Their characteristics are often diagnostic. They are normally alternate on the stem, often folded lengthwise along the centre ("plicate"), and have no stipules. Orchid leaves often have siliceous bodies called stegmata in the vascular bundle sheaths (not present in the Orchidoideae) and are fibrous.

 

The structure of the leaves corresponds to the specific habitat of the plant. Species that typically bask in sunlight, or grow on sites which can be occasionally very dry, have thick, leathery leaves and the laminae are covered by a waxy cuticle to retain their necessary water supply. Shade-loving species, on the other hand, have long, thin leaves.

 

The leaves of most orchids are perennial, that is, they live for several years, while others, especially those with plicate leaves as in Catasetum, shed them annually and develop new leaves together with new pseudobulbs.

 

The leaves of some orchids are considered ornamental. The leaves of the Macodes sanderiana, a semiterrestrial or rock-hugging ("lithophyte") orchid, show a sparkling silver and gold veining on a light green background. The cordate leaves of Psychopsis limminghei are light brownish-green with maroon-puce markings, created by flower pigments.

 

The attractive mottle of the leaves of lady's slippers from tropical and subtropical Asia (Paphiopedilum), is caused by uneven distribution of chlorophyll. Also, Phalaenopsis schilleriana is a pastel pink orchid with leaves spotted dark green and light green. The jewel orchid (Ludisia discolor) is grown more for its colorful leaves than its white flowers.

 

Some orchids, as Dendrophylax lindenii (ghost orchid), Aphyllorchis and Taeniophyllum depend on their green roots for photosynthesis and lack normally developed leaves, as do all of the heterotrophic species.

 

Orchids of the genus Corallorhiza (coralroot orchids) lack leaves altogether and instead wrap their roots around the roots of mature trees and use specialized fungi to harvest sugars.

 

Vanda cultivar

Flowers

The Orchidaceae are well known for the many structural variations in their flowers.

Some orchids have single flowers, but most have a racemose inflorescence, sometimes with a large number of flowers.

 

The flowering stem can be basal, that is, produced from the base of the tuber, like in Cymbidium, apical, meaning it grows from the apex of the main stem, like in Cattleya, or axillary, from the leaf axil, as in Vanda.

As an apomorphy of the clade, orchid flowers are primitively zygomorphic (bilaterally symmetrical), although in some genera like Mormodes, Ludisia, and Macodes, this kind of symmetry may be difficult to notice.

 

Dactylorhiza sambucina, Orchidoideae for reference

The orchid flower, like most flowers of monocots, has two whorls of sterile elements. The outer whorl has three sepals and the inner whorl has three petals. The sepals are usually very similar to the petals (thus called tepals, but may be completely distinct.

 

The medial petal, called the labellum or lip, which is always modified and enlarged, is actually the upper medial petal; however, as the flower develops, the inferior ovary or the pedicel usually rotates 180°, so that the labellum arrives at the lower part of the flower, thus becoming suitable to form a platform for pollinators. This characteristic, called resupination, occurs primitively in the family and is considered apomorphic, a derived characteristic all Orchidaceae share.

 

The torsion of the ovary is very evident from the longitudinal section shown (below right). Some orchids have secondarily lost this resupination, e.g. Epidendrum secundum.

 

Longitudinal section of a flower of Vanilla planifolia

The normal form of the sepals can be found in Cattleya, where they form a triangle.

 

In Paphiopedilum (Venus slippers), the lower two sepals are fused into a synsepal, while the lip has taken the form of a slipper. In Masdevallia, all the sepals are fused.

 

Orchid flowers with abnormal numbers of petals or lips are called peloric. Peloria is a genetic trait, but its expression is environmentally influenced and may appear random.

 

Laeliocattleya cultivar shows the normal form of petals.

Orchid flowers primitively had three stamens, but this situation is now limited to the genus Neuwiedia.

 

Apostasia and the Cypripedioideae have two stamens, the central one being sterile and reduced to a staminode.

 

All of the other orchids, the clade called Monandria, retain only the central stamen, the others being reduced to staminodes .

 

The filaments of the stamens are always adnate (fused) to the style to form cylindrical structure called the gynostemium or column.

 

In the primitive Apostasioideae, this fusion is only partial; in the Vanilloideae, it is more deep; in Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae, it is total. The stigma is very asymmetrical, as all of its lobes are bent towards the centre of the flower and lie on the bottom of the column.

Pollen is released as single grains, like in most other plants, in the Apostasioideae, Cypripedioideae, and Vanilloideae.

 

In the other subfamilies, which comprise the great majority of orchids, the anther carries two pollinia.

A pollinium is a waxy mass of pollen grains held together by the glue-like alkaloid viscin, containing both cellulosic strands and mucopolysaccharides. Each pollinium is connected to a filament which can take the form of a caudicle, as in Dactylorhiza or Habenaria, or a stipe, as in Vanda. Caudicles or stipes hold the pollinia to the viscidium, a sticky pad which sticks the pollinia to the body of pollinators.

 

At the upper edge of the stigma of single-anthered orchids, in front of the anther cap, is the rostellum, a slender extension involved in the complex pollination mechanism.

 

As mentioned, the ovary is always inferior (located behind the flower). It is three-carpelate and one or, more rarely, three-partitioned, with parietal placentation (axile in the Apostasioideae).

 

In 2011, Bulbophyllum nocturnum was discovered to flower nocturnally.

 

Pollination

 

The complex mechanisms which orchids have evolved to achieve cross-pollination were investigated by Charles Darwin and described in Fertilisation of Orchids (1862).

 

Orchids have developed highly specialized pollination systems, thus the chances of being pollinated are often scarce, so orchid flowers usually remain receptive for very long periods, rendering unpollinated flowers long-lasting in cultivation. Most orchids deliver pollen in a single mass.

 

Each time pollination succeeds, thousands of ovules can be fertilized.

 

Pollinators are often visually attracted by the shape and colours of the labellum.

However, some Bulbophyllum species attract male fruit flies (Bactrocera spp.) solely via a floral chemical which simultaneously acts as a floral reward (e.g. methyl eugenol, raspberry ketone, or zingerone) to perform pollination.

 

The flowers may produce attractive odours. Although absent in most species, nectar may be produced in a spur of the labellum, or on the point of the sepals, or in the septa of the ovary, the most typical position amongst the Asparagales.

In orchids that produce pollinia, pollination happens as some variant of the following sequence: when the pollinator enters into the flower, it touches a viscidium, which promptly sticks to its body, generally on the head or abdomen.

 

While leaving the flower, it pulls the pollinium out of the anther, as it is connected to the viscidium by the caudicle or stipe.

 

The caudicle then bends and the pollinium is moved forwards and downwards. When the pollinator enters another flower of the same species, the pollinium has taken such position that it will stick to the stigma of the second flower, just below the rostellum, pollinating it.

 

The possessors of orchids may be able to reproduce the process with a pencil, small paintbrush, or other similar device.

 

Ophrys apifera is about to self-pollinate

Some orchids mainly or totally rely on self-pollination, especially in colder regions where pollinators are particularly rare.

 

The caudicles may dry up if the flower has not been visited by any pollinator, and the pollinia then fall directly on the stigma. Otherwise, the anther may rotate and then enter the stigma cavity of the flower (as in Holcoglossum amesianum).

 

The slipper orchid Paphiopedilum parishii reproduces by self-fertilization. This occurs when the anther changes from a solid to a liquid state and directly contacts the stigma surface without the aid of any pollinating agent or floral assembly.

 

The labellum of the Cypripedioideae is poke bonnet-shaped, and has the function of trapping visiting insects. The only exit leads to the anthers that deposit pollen on the visitor.

In some extremely specialized orchids, such as the Eurasian genus Ophrys, the labellum is adapted to have a colour, shape, and odour which attracts male insects via mimicry of a receptive female.

 

Pollination happens as the insect attempts to mate with flowers.

Many neotropical orchids are pollinated by male orchid bees, which visit the flowers to gather volatile chemicals they require to synthesize pheromonal attractants.

 

Males of such species as Euglossa imperialis or Eulaema meriana have been observed to leave their territories periodically to forage for aromatic compounds, such as cineole, to synthesize pheromone for attracting and mating with females.

 

Each type of orchid places the pollinia on a different body part of a different species of bee, so as to enforce proper cross-pollination.

 

A rare achlorophyllous saprophytic orchid growing entirely underground in Australia, Rhizanthella slateri, is never exposed to light, and depends on ants and other terrestrial insects to pollinate it.

Catasetum, a genus discussed briefly by Darwin, actually launches its viscid pollinia with explosive force when an insect touches a seta, knocking the pollinator off the flower.

After pollination, the sepals and petals fade and wilt, but they usually remain attached to the ovary.

 

Asexual reproduction

 

Some species, such as Phalaenopsis, Dendrobium, and Vanda, produce offshoots or plantlets formed from one of the nodes along the stem, through the accumulation of growth hormones at that point. These shoots are known as keiki.

 

Fruits and seeds

 

Cross-sections of orchid capsules showing the longitudinal slits

The ovary typically develops into a capsule that is dehiscent by three or six longitudinal slits, while remaining closed at both ends.

 

The seeds are generally almost microscopic and very numerous, in some species over a million per capsule. After ripening, they blow off like dust particles or spores. They lack endosperm and must enter symbiotic relationships with various mycorrhizal basidiomyceteous fungi that provide them the necessary nutrients to germinate, so all orchid species are mycoheterotrophic during germination and reliant upon fungi to complete their lifecycles.

 

Closeup of a Phalaenopsis blossom

As the chance for a seed to meet a suitable fungus is very small, only a minute fraction of all the seeds released grow into adult plants. In cultivation, germination typically takes weeks.

 

Horticultural techniques have been devised for germinating orchid seeds on an artificial nutrient medium, eliminating the requirement of the fungus for germination and greatly aiding the propagation of ornamental orchids. The usual medium for the sowing of orchids in artificial conditions is agar agar gel combined with a carbohydrate energy source.

 

The carbohydrate source can be combinations of discrete sugars or can be derived from other sources such as banana, pineapple, peach, or even tomato puree or coconut water. After the preparation of the agar agar medium, it is poured into test tubes or jars which are then autoclaved (or cooked in a pressure cooker) to sterilize the medium.

 

After cooking, the medium begins to gel as it cools.

Taxonomy

Main article: Taxonomy of the Orchid family

The taxonomy of this family is in constant flux, as new studies continue to clarify the relationships between species and groups of species, allowing more taxa at several ranks to be recognized. The Orchidaceae is currently placed in the order Asparagales by the APG III system of 2009.

 

Five subfamilies are recognised. The cladogram below was made according to the APG system of 1998.

 

It represents the view that most botanists had held up to that time. It was supported by morphological studies, but never received strong support in molecular phylogenetic studies.

 

Apostasioideae: 2 genera and 16 species, south-western Asia

 

Cypripedioideae: 5 genera and 130 species, from the temperate regions of the world, as well as tropical America and tropical Asia

 

Monandrae

 

Vanilloideae: 15 genera and 180 species, humid tropical and subtropical regions, eastern North America

 

Epidendroideae: more than 500 genera and more or less 20,000 species, cosmopolitan

 

Orchidoideae: 208 genera and 3,630 species, cosmopolitan

 

In 2015, a phylogenetic study[12] showed strong statistical support for the following topology of the orchid tree, using 9 kb of plastid and nuclear DNA from 7 genes, a topology that was confirmed by a phylogenomic study in the same year.[13]

  

Apostasioideae

  

Vanilloideae

  

Cypripedioideae

  

Epidendroideae

  

Orchidoideae

  

Evolution

 

A study in the scientific journal Nature has hypothesised that the origin of orchids goes back much longer than originally expected.

 

An extinct species of stingless bee, Proplebeia dominicana, was found trapped in Miocene amber from about 15-20 million years ago. The bee was carrying pollen of a previously unknown orchid taxon, Meliorchis caribea, on its wings. This find is the first evidence of fossilised orchids to date and shows insects were active pollinators of orchids then.

 

This extinct orchid, M. caribea, has been placed within the extant tribe Cranichideae, subtribe Goodyerinae (subfamily Orchidoideae). An even older orchid species, Succinanthera baltica, was described from the Eocene Baltic amber by Poinar & Rasmussen (2017).

 

Genetic sequencing indicates orchids may have arisen earlier, 76 to 84 million years ago during the Late Cretaceous.

 

According to Mark W. Chase et al. (2001), the overall biogeography and phylogenetic patterns of Orchidaceae show they are even older and may go back roughly 100 million years.

 

Using the molecular clock method, it was possible to determine the age of the major branches of the orchid family.

 

This also confirmed that the subfamily Vanilloideae is a branch at the basal dichotomy of the monandrous orchids, and must have evolved very early in the evolution of the family.

 

Since this subfamily occurs worldwide in tropical and subtropical regions, from tropical America to tropical Asia, New Guinea and West Africa, and the continents began to split about 100 million years ago, significant biotic exchange must have occurred after this split (since the age of Vanilla is estimated at 60 to 70 million years).

 

Genome duplication occurred prior to the divergence of this taxon.

 

Link-

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orchidaceae

I am very happy with the images of this fantastic little orchid. It was an absolute nightmare to photograph in the wild. The plants always grew on branches overhanging the river. I had to take the close-up shots out of hand sitting in a large dugout canoe. Keeping the boat still in a strong flowing river was difficult enough but convincing the 6 or 7 other people in the boat not to move was even more of a problem. On top of all this the long, hair-fringed lip of the flower is hinged and moved constantly in even the slightest, unnoticable breeze.

that furry pointy lip jiggles in the wind. it's only just opened so i dont quite have a classification for the fragrance. but, it's attracting flies already.

Found in Peninsula Myanmar, Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand in primary montane forests from 1,000 to 2000 meters in elevation. Each one inch pseudobulb holds a single, large, complex bloom with tassels and a highly mobile lip that wiggle and flutter in the slightest breeze.

Cirr. Sandi Ting = (Cirr. sikkimense x makoyanum)

 

View in large or original size for all the hairy details. Oh, and in this one the lip is 'closed', but you can see it 'open' in the previous picture in the set.

Identifier: standardcycloped01bail

Title: The standard cyclopedia of horticulture; a discussion, for the amateur, and the professional and commercial grower, of the kinds, characteristics and methods of cultivation of the species of plants grown in the regions of the United States and Canada for ornament, for fancy, for fruit and for vegetables; with keys to the natural families and genera, descriptions of the horticultural capabilities of the states and provinces and dependent islands, and sketches of eminent horticulturists

Year: 1916 (1910s)

Authors: Bailey, L. H. (Liberty Hyde), 1858-1954

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: New York, The Macmillan Co. [etc., etc.]

Contributing Library: UMass Amherst Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: UMass Amherst Libraries

  

View Book Page: Book Viewer

About This Book: Catalog Entry

View All Images: All Images From Book

 

Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

  

Text Appearing Before Image:

ms. dis-tinct to the base but conniving in a tube; stamens 6;style 3-fid. at the top.—One variable species, treated ingeneral as crocuses are cult. Allied to Merendera, towhich some of the former species are referred. vernum, Linn. Fig. 691. Blooms in gardens inearliest spring before the Ivs. appear, the fls. restingnearly on the ground: fls. rosy purple, white-spottedon the interior, 1-3 from each bulb: Ivs. broad and chan-nelled. B.M. l.)3 (cf. Fig. 691). F.S. 11:1149. Gn. 75,p. 409.—Bulbs should be taken up and divided every2 or 3 years. Plant in the fall. LTsually blooms inadvance of the crocus. B. versicolor, Spreng. (B.riithenicum, Bunge), is a small handsome form. L. H. B. BULBOPHtLLUM (Greek, bulb-leaf). Orchidacex.F,pii)hylic ])laiit.s, creeping upon rocks or trees; cult, inthe wannhouse. P.scudobulbs 1-2-lvd in the axils of the sheaths, andwith the ind. arising from the base of the pseudobulb:fls. small and numerous in a raceme, or larger and few BULBOPHYLLUM BULLACE 597

 

Text Appearing After Image:

691. Bulbocodium vernum. or solitary; dorsal sepal erect or spreading, free, equal-ing or shorter than the lateral, whicli are obliquelybroadened at the base and adnate to the foot of thecolumn; petals shorter than or nearly equaling the sepals; lip articulated tothe foot of the column,incumbent upon thecolumn; pollinia 4.—Agenus of about 125 spe-cies, mostly natives ofTrop. Asia and Afr.—Bulbophyllum needs amoist atmosphere andshould not become dry.Grown on pieces ofwood or tree-fern stems. A. Fls. large, solitary.B Petals and lip minute;sepals tessellated imthpale brown and yel-low. grandiflorum, Blume.Pseudobulbs 2-3 in.■yj ,^ K ^VUC\ ^ V long, 1-lvd.: If. up to 10//it ^/\l ^■^ ^ ^ °^ ^^^ ^ ^° ^•o^^ / 1/ /[ l^lv emarginate at the apex: I I ( (I i\ V peduncle usually not ex- ceeding the If. with 2-4bracts and a solitarylarge fl. about 8 in. long;sepals tessellated with pale brown and yellow spots, thedorsal sepal arcuate and incurved, the sides reflexed,the lateral sepal

  

Note About Images

Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

I am very happy with the images of this fantastic little orchid. It was an absolute nightmare to photograph in the wild. The plants always grew on branches overhanging the river. I had to take the close-up shots out of hand sitting in a large dugout canoe. Keeping the boat still in a strong flowing river was difficult enough but convincing the 6 or 7 other people in the boat not to move was even more of a problem. On top of all this the long, hair-fringed lip of the flower is hinged and moved constantly in even the slightest, unnoticable breeze.

that furry pointy lip jiggles in the wind. it's only just opened so i dont quite have a classification for the fragrance. but, it's attracting flies already.

that furry pointy lip jiggles in the wind. it's only just opened so i dont quite have a classification for the fragrance. but, it's attracting flies already.

Orchidaceae 蘭科

The Royal Botanical Gardens of Kew list 880 genera and nearly 22,000 accepted species, but the exact number is unknown (perhaps as much as 25,000) [3] because classification varies greatly in different segments of the academic world. The number of orchid species equals about four times the number of mammal and bird species together. It also encompasses about 6 - 11 % of all seed plants [4] About 800 new orchid species are added each year. The largest genera are Bulbophyllum (2,000 species), Epidendrum (1,500 species), Dendrobium (1,400 species) and Pleurothallis (1,000 species). The family also includes the Vanilla (the genus of the vanilla plant), Orchis (type genus) and many commonly cultivated plants like some Phalaenopsis or Cattleya.

 

Moreover, since the introduction of tropical species in the 19th century, horticulturists have more than 100,000 hybrids and cultivars.

 

Distribution, Taxonomy (pls refer to wiki)

 

Ecology

 

A majority of species are perennial epiphytes; they are found in tropical moist broadleaf forests or mountains and subtropics. These are anchored on other plants, mostly trees, sometimes shrubs.

 

A few are lithophytes, growing naturally on rocks or on very rocky soil.

 

Others are terrestrial. This group includes nearly all temperate orchids.

 

Some orchids, like Neottia and Corallorhiza, lack chlorophyll and are myco-heterotrophs (formerly incorrectly called saprophytes). These achlorophyllous (i.e. nonphotosynthetic) orchids live on an ectomycorrhizal symbiosis and are completely dependent on soil fungi feeding on decaying plant matter, such as fallen leaves, to acquire nutrients.

 

Description

 

Orchids are easily distinguished, as they share some very evident apomorphies. Among these: bilaterally symmetric (zygomorphic) and resupinate, a petal (labellum) is always highly modified, stamens and carpels are fused and the seeds are extremely small.

 

Leaves, Stem and Roots (pls refer to wiki)

 

Flower

 

Orchidaceae are well known for the many structural variations in their flowers.

 

Some orchids have single flowers but most have a racemose inflorescence, sometimes with a large number of flowers. The flowering stem can be basal, that is produced from the base of the tuber, like in Cymbidium, apical, meaning it grows from the apex of the main stem, like in Cattleya, or axillary, from the leaf axil, as in Vanda.

 

As an apomorphy of the clade, orchid flowers are primitively zygomorphic (bilaterally symmetrical), although in some genera like Mormodes, Ludisia, Macodes this kind of symmetry may be difficut to notice.

 

The orchid flower, like most flowers of monocots has two whorls of sterile elements. The outer whorl has three sepals and three petals are in the inner whorl. The sepals are usually very similar to the petals (an thus called tepals, 1), but may be completely distinct.

 

The upper medial petal, called the labellum or lip (6),, is always modified and enlarged. The inferior ovary (7) or the pedicel is rotated 180 degrees, so that the labellum, goes on the lower part of the flower, thus becoming suitable to form a platform for pollinators. This characteristic, called the resupination occours primitively in the family and is considered apomorphic (the torsion of the ovary is very evident from the picture). Some orchids have secondarily lost the resupination, like some Zygopetalum'.

 

The normal form of the sepals can be found in Cattleya, where they form a triangle. In Paphiopedilum (Venus slippers) the lower two sepals are fused together into a synsepal, while the lip has taken the form of a slipper. In Masdevallia all the sepals are fused.

 

Orchid flowers with abnormal numbers of petals or lips are called peloric. Peloria is a genetic trait, but its expression is environmentally influenced and may appear random.

  

Longitudinal secion of a flower of Vanilla planifoliaOrchid flowers primitively had three stamens, but this situation is now limited to the genus Neuwiedia. Apostasia and the Cypripedioideae have two stamens, the central one being strile and reduced to a staminode. All of the other orchids, the clade called Monandria, retain only the central stamen, the others being reduced to staminodes (4). The filaments of the stamens are always adnate (fused) to the style to form cylindrical structure called the gynostemium or column (2). In the primitive Apostasioideae this fusion is only partial, in the Vanilloideae it is more deep, while in Orchidoideae and Epidendroideae it is total. The stigma (9) is very asymmetrical as all of its lobes are bent towards the centre of the flower and lay on the bottom of the column.

 

Pollen is released as single grains, like in most other plants, in the Apostasioideae, Cypripedioideae and Vanilloideae. In the other subfamilies, that comprise the great majority of orchids, the anther (3), carries and two pollinia.

 

A pollinium is a waxy mass of pollen grains held together by the glue-like alkaloid viscin, containing both cellulosic stands and mucopolysaccharides. Each pollinium is connected to a a filament which can take the form of a caudicle, like in Dactylorhiza or Habenaria or a stipe, like in Vanda. Caudicles or stipes hold the pollinia to the viscidium, a sticky pad which sticks the pollinia to the body of pollinators.

 

At the upper edge of the stigma of single-anthered orchids, in front of the anther cap, there is the rostellum (5), a slender extension involved in the complex pollination mechanism.

 

As aforementioned, the ovary is always inferior (located behind the flower). It is three-carpelate and one or, more rarely, three-partitioned, with parietal placentation (axile in the Apostasioideae).

 

Pollination, Asexual reproduction, Fruits and seeds, Evolution, Uses (pls refer to wiki)

 

Ref: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Orchidaceae

 

Title: The American florist : a weekly journal for the trade

Identifier: americanfloristw4113amer

Year: 1885 (1880s)

Authors: American Florists Company

Subjects: Floriculture; Florists

Publisher: Chicago : American Florist Company

Contributing Library: UMass Amherst Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries

  

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t9^3- The American Florist.

 

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THE LONDON HOLLAND HOUSE SHOW. Wall and Border Gardening, as Exhibited by J. Cheal & Sons. The London Holland House Show. This show is now one of the fash- ionable events of the Royal Horticul- tural Society during the summer, and, favored with fine weather, is sure to attract large numbers of exhibitors and visitors. This year's show took place July 13 in beautifully warm -weather, and a record trade was done by the various exhibitors, of whom there were about 110 altogether in the floral uepartment, while there were many others in the sundries section showing all sorts of horticultural and other appliances. The chief feature of the show was undoubtedly the hardy herbaceous perennials, alpine plants, rock and water gardens. Indeed, if these were eliminated the show^ would have been poor, although it would liave been impossible to see finer col- lections of orchids, stove and green- "house plants, fruit trees in pots, sweet peas, carnations, roses and ornamen- tal trees and shrubs. Vegetables were Tiot overdone by any means, but were worthily represented by a choice col- lection from the gardens of Vicary Gibbs of Aldenham House, Elstree. Owing to the fact that a silver-gilt challenge cup worth sixty guineas was offered for the best exhibit in the show, keen interest was mani- fested as to who would win it. Popu- lar opinion coincided with that of the .iudges when this prize fell to Messrs. Sander & Sons of St. Albans. They staged a Inagnificent group of or- chids, each end of which was rounded up with bold masses of Cattleya gigas, while the centre was a flowing white cascade of Phalsenopsis Riemstedti- ana flowing over a wall of the beauti- ful rosy Miltonia vexillaria Empress Augusta. There were many other fine plants in this champion group which helped it to secure the predominant prize in addition to a gold medal. Charlesworth & Co., Haywards Heath, had a marvelous group of orchids in which odontoglossums, choice odontio- das, cattleyas, the white-flowered Dendrobium Dearei, the chaste dove orchid (Peristeria elata), and a mag- nificent specimen of Cattleya gottoi- ana The President, figured largely in the public eye, and secured a gold medal. Other trade growers of orchids were Stuart Low &: Co., Enfield, who won silver and standard cups for a large group in which the pure white of Phalfenopsls Riemstedtiana vied with the deep red of Renanthera Imschoot- iana. now one of the most vivid or- chids in any group. Mansell & Hatcher, Rawdon, Leeds, are rapidly coming to the front with their care- fully arranged and well selected spe- cies and hybrids, and the award of a silver cup is sufficient testimony to the effectiveness of their group of odontiodas, Miltonias, cattleyas, odon- toglossums, and several rare and in- teresting curiousities. S. W. Plory, Twickenham, also secured a silver cup for a group in which gorgeous leaved anoectochilus played a prominent part. H. Dixon, Spencer Park Nursery, Wandsworth Common, won a silver flora medal for his odontoglossums, cattleyas and cypripediums; and E. V. Low, Haywards Heath, received a silver banksian medal for a group In which the pure white Cattleyas Men- delli lambeauana with a soft purple tinted lip was the conspicuous feature. There were exhibits from several ama- teurs, the most remarkable being that of Sir. J. Colman, Gatton Park, Rei- gate, to whom a large silver cup was awarded. In addition to odontiodas, phalsenopsis and Itelio-cattleyas, were some rare curiosities. Including Ca- tasetum Cliftoni, bulbophyllums, and Sobralia Colmanioe, one form of which had yellow and another pink blooms. Novelties were scarce, only three first class certificates being granted and four awards of merit. Fowler's variety of Miltonioda Harwoodi had bright cherry rose flowers with a yel- low crest. M. Sanderfe, a splendid hy- brid with -white flowers flushed with pink and a deep blackish blotch on the lip, was also shown. Odontioda Brewi from Charlesworth & Co. had rich bronze-red flowers and a yellow crest. These were the three F. C. C. plants. Cattleya mossise Olympia, and Odontioda Wilsoni. from Charles- worth & Co.; C. serenata. from Man- sell & Hatcher, and C. mossiiE Dread- nought from Sander & Sons, receiving the secondary awards. Splendid speci- mens of good culture came from Charlesworth & Co.. with Grammangia Ellisi, and from Sir J. Colman with Odontioda Bradshawse.

  

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Title: The American florist : a weekly journal for the trade

Identifier: americanfloristw40amer

Year: 1885 (1880s)

Authors: American Florists Company

Subjects: Floriculture; Florists

Publisher: Chicago : American Florist Company

Contributing Library: UMass Amherst Libraries

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902 The American Florist. May 26, stamllng all kinds of rough weather, with the flowers bright red so deeply- edged with yellow that at a little dis- tance this seems to be the predominat- ing color. Coleur Cardinal Is the deep- est vermilion with a lustrous almost black shading on the outside of the pet- als. It is a superb tulip. King of Yel- lows Is a pure self yellow and one of the best. There are several large beds of each of these now in the best of con- dition and those interested should not fail to pay a visit while they are at their best. The older Vermilion Bril- liant is like Coleur Cardinal but not Quite so showy, though the bulbs have come up and flowered very regularly. In whites there are fine beds of La Relne and Joost von Vondel. The lat- ter is a little early dn comparison with the above named, the former Just right and a splendid tulip for the purpose. Cottage Maid, as usual, is a delightful bed, the soft pink shading on the white ground being perfect. Besides these there are many large beds of mixed varieties, a few hyacinth beds and some excellent pansy beds that make a very fine display. The herbaceous borders are of great interest, now that the earlier species are in flower and the later ones throw- ing up characteristic growths. Two native plants in bloom now are Tril- liums and dodecatheons, both flower- ing finely. Ornithogalum nutans is also flowering, the lily of the valley is almost out, while the pretty little muscari or grape hyacinths, white and yellow, are at their best. Arabis al- pina, Alyssum saxatile, some of the dwarf phloxes, pansies and primroses of the polyanthus order are fine in the front of the borders while the sum- mer snowflake, Leucojum oestivum, is also in flower. There are still a few narcissi left and some of the finer tu- lips are coming in line, soon to be fol- lowed by peonies and other summer flowering occupants. The shrubbery is fine in its fresh green, the double al- monds, bird cherry, Pyrus Japonioa and others being in flower. THE OECHIDS Orchid fanciers will find much to in- terest them now in the conservatories and they should also get permission to visit the growing houses where there are numbers of rare and little known species in flower. Among the showiest kinds in flower are Cattleya Law- renceana, a very fine type of this showy species, good C. Skinneri and Skinneri alba the well known C. Mos- sise and the old C. maxima. However much this species deserved its name when introduced it seems out of place now when we consider the many grand flowers of the labiata section. C. Prince of Wales has pure white sepals and petals with pale rose and yellow lip markings and has evidently some Loddigesi blood in its veins. C. Schil- leriana is distinct and the only yellow cattleya, the sweetly scented C. cit- rina, is nicely in flower. Among the Islias are several hybrids including the showy Li. Latona, good forms of L. pur- purata and L. majalis and several oth- ers. Odontoglossum citrosmum is well done here and many fine plants are now in bloom. Among the dendro- biums are such species as D. primulinum and D. purpureum, while

 

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The Cactus Dahlia. ]'"loral Emblem of tlie Gre;it Seattle Exposilion. the pretty and distinct Cypripedium caudE^tum is also well flowered. Among the lesser known kinds we noted the singular Bulbophyllum barbigerum, a flower that the slightest puff of air sets in motion and a very interesting bo- tanical curiosity; Oncidium ampliatum is just coming into flower; Ansellia Af- ricana is showy and there is a small plant of the foxbrush orchid, Aerides Fieldingi, Leptotes bicolor and many cypripediums. The cattleyas in the growing quarters look well and the phaljenopsis are improving, P. Ludde- inanndana being in flower. There is a grand display in the con- servatories of all kinds of flowering plants, azaleas,' gloxinias, calceolarias, anthuriums and rhododendrons in great variety. Amaryllis is evidently given some attention and a number of excellent varieties are in flower. The pelargoniums are always good here and are just at their best, while the large baskets of fuchsias, the bougain- villeas and other flowering vines on the roof and the great variety of foliage plants make a splendid show. The ferns and palms are in good condition and all through the growing houses are large stocks of bedding and other plants being prepared for use in the flower garden. THE CARNATION. Planting In the Field. The planting in the field of the young stock should receive attention now. The cold, wet weather has de- layed outside 'Planting considerably. They should be planted out without any further delay. The coming two or three weeks is usually a good time for the plants to get root hold and well established in the ground before the very hot weather sets in. The system of setting the plants and the arrangement of the planting ground depends greatly upon the amount of space at disposal. In cases where a large number are to be planted the best arrangement, according to our ex- perience, is to set the plants 14 to 16 inches apart each way. This leaves ample space for working between with a' hand cultivator, for keeping down weeds and loosening up the surface soil, but it must be borne in mind that close planting makes it necessary to work the ground thoroughly from the time the plants are set out to keep ahead of the weeds before the plants attain any size, after which it will be difficult to work between them without doing some damage. Growers handling only a small num- ber of plants and with a limited amount of space at their disposal can plant 10 to 12 inches apart and de- pend on using the hand hoe to keep the ground clear of weeds. But the dis- tance of setting the plants apart In the field should be governed greatly according to the time of planting Into the houses. If early planting is the method followed, beginning to plant inside in July, then closer planting can be followed than if the plants are left out in the field until the middle of August or later, by which time they will have become very large under or- dinary circumstances and, if planted too close, difficult to care for properly. A very important point to bear in mind when transferring the plants to

  

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Identifier: cu31924003330374

Title: Orchids for everyone

Year: 1910 (1910s)

Authors: Curtis, Charles H

Subjects: Orchids

Publisher: London, J.M. Dent New York, E.P. Dutton

Contributing Library: Cornell University Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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re of peat and sphagnum to root in, and amplydrained pans or baskets. It grows about a foot or fifteen incheshigh, and bears its flowers on stiffs spikes that are about as tall asthe leaves. There is usually one flower on a spike, and it is threeor four inches across, violet-blue, with yellow lines on the lip.A rarely grown, but pretty. Summer flowering Orchid. B. La-LiNDEi, B. Lawrenceanum, and B. Patini are of interest to thosewho like uncommon Orchids. All the BoUeas are without pseudo-bulbs, and are frequently described as Zygopetalums. BROUGHTONIA The Jamaican Broughtonia sanguinea was sent to Kew aslong ago as 1793. It is a small plant, with flattish pseudo-bulbs,and slender, branched, arching spikes of deep red flowers that aresmall, but of an unusual shade of colour. It is best managed bybeing grown in a shallow teak basket or on a raft, with very littlesphagnum and peat about its roots, and suspended in the CattleyaHouse. While resting, it needs very little water, but must be

 

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CATTLEYA TRIAN.K ORCHIDS OF LESSER VALUE 177 given an ample supply at other seasons. It loves plenty of light,and only needs shade from the hottest mid-day sun. BULBOPHYLLUM In the Kew Hand-list of Orchids, dated 1904, no fewerthan seventy species of Bulbophyllums are cited as being incultivation in the Kew collection, but the extent of the genus isno indication of its popularity or its horticultural value. To thebotanist and the lover of the curious the many species appeal verystrongly, but most florists, gardeners, and nurserymen regard themas some of the weeds of the great Orchid family. The genusis widely spread, and species are found in such widely separatedregions as the Malay, Central America, Africa and Australasia.It is difficult to treat on such a large genus in a general way, butit has been found that the great majority of species thrive in peatand sphagnum, in pans or baskets, and love plenty of heat andmoisture when growing freely, but need much less moisture andslightly

  

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Identifier: centurysupplemen1901nich

Title: The century supplement to the dictionary of gardening, a practical and scientific encyclopaedia of horticulture for gardeners and botanists

Year: 1901 (1900s)

Authors: Nicholson, George, 1847-1908

Subjects: Gardening Horticulture Plants, Ornamental

Publisher: Hyde Park, Mass. : Geo. T. King London : L. Upcott Gill

Contributing Library: The LuEsther T Mertz Library, the New York Botanical Garden

Digitizing Sponsor: The LuEsther T Mertz Library, the New York Botanical Garden

  

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do-bulbs crowded, ovoid, small, one.leaved. Siam, 1895. B. elegans (elegant). H. lin. to liin. long; sepals rosy-purple,broad, the upper one shorter and paler than tne lateral ones; Bulbophylltun—continued. scapes slender, one-flowered, lin. to 2in. long. I. 3in. to 4in.long, lincarlaneeolate. PM.-udii bulbs Jin. to Uii. l..iii;. ovoid,closely set. Ceylon, 1892. B. ErlCSaoni tEricssous). li. vellouish-wbilr, spctted with brown, 9in. ui russ including ilie tails, umbellate. /. like those ofa Stanhopea Pseudobulbs thin, erect. Sin. high. Rhizomelong, creeping. Habitat not reiorded, 1893. A very striking species. B. fallaz (deceptive). /I. dark purple, small; scape 8iii. long,bent acutely in the middle. Assam, 1889. .\n elegant little species. B, Godseffiannm (Gudsefts). rt. 2in. across; sepals and petalsyellow and brown ; lip creamv-whife, with purple spots, cordate.Habitat, not recorded, 1890. Closelv allied to B. liearei. Sv.\.■ Sarcopodium Goi7s<;^am(m (G. M. 1890, ii., p. 540

 

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Fig. 184. BULBOPHYLLUM B.A.RDIGERrM. B. grandlflorain (large-flowered), ft. solitary, large, denselyretictdated with brown on a pale groimd ; sepals lanceolate-attenuate, 4in. to 5in. long, free, the upper one twice as broad asthe lateral ones, strongly arching over at the base, and hangingdown in front. I. solitary, elliptic, 2irin. to 3in. long. Pseudo.bulbs about lin. long, distant, four-angled. Rhizome creeping.New Guinea, 1887. More grotesque than beautiful. (L. iii.,t. 108.) B. g. bnrfordiense (Burford). yf., dorsal sepal green, shadedand mottled at base with greenish-brown, and witn large whitedots ; Lateral sepals pale gi-een, olive-tinted at apex. 1^5. Anextraordinary Orchid. B.Hookeriannm (Hookers). A synon\-m of B. Oremiastef. B. inflatun (inflated), ft. greenish-yellow, small; sepals 4in.across ; lip recurved ; racemes lin. to liin. long, the rachis swolleninto an ellipsoid, fleshy body; scapes pendulous, 2in. long.I. sessile, lanceolate-oblong, acuminate, 3in. to 4in. lon

  

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Identifier: gardenerschronic321lond

Title: The Gardeners' chronicle : a weekly illustrated journal of horticulture and allied subjects

Year: 1874 (1870s)

Authors:

Subjects: Ornamental horticulture Horticulture Plants, Ornamental Gardening

Publisher: London : [Gardeners Chronicle]

Contributing Library: UMass Amherst Libraries

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the kiudnesB of the Hon. Walter Rothschild,wo are enabled to give an illustration (fig. 16) of thisremarkable species, which was imported a few rearsngo by Messrs. F. Sander & Co., St. Albans, throughtheir enterprising Swedish collector, Ericsson. It wasdescribed from dried specimens sent by that collector slender flower-stalk, and you will get an idea ofthis extraordinary new Ilulbophyllum. The flowershave a yellowish white ground colour, the sepals andpetals are heavily spotted with dark brown, the lip isred, and has a very strange spongy texture at thedisc. Not only is tho species remarkable for itsshowy flowers, but its large shiny green leaves, sur- Wylam on-Tyne, for his successful hybridisation ofOrchid*, extending over many years, by which a largenumber of new and beautiful forms have been addedto this remarkable family of plants. To Martin R. Smith, of Warren House, Hayes, aneminent amateur, who has been most successful inthe raising of Carnation*. By his efforts many new

 

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FlQ. 16.—BULBOPHYLLUM ERICSSONI. to Messrs. Sander, by Dr. Kbanzlin, in ih*s GardenersChronicle, October 28, 1803, p. 522. The illustration represents a very fine and distinct new .species ; anda still stronger specimen, which is sending up twostout flower-spikes iu the Hon, Walteu LioTHSCUlLDsCollection, may probably quite come up to tho wordsofDr. Kuan zl iss description:—Thisis by far the moststriking new Orehid received for some time past.Imagine a group of from nine to twelve flowersOf a large Chimeeroid Ma*devallia, surmounting a mounting its long and rather slender pseudo-bulbs,render it an ornamental plant wbeu not in bloom.It is probably a native of New Guinea, and thereforea warm-house plant. Veitch Memorial Fund.- The Veitch Me-morial Trustees have decided to present, this year,a large Silver Medal for distinguished service tohorticulture, to each of the following gentlemen : —To Norman C. Cookson, Esq., of Oak wood, and beautiful varieties have been raised, especiall

  

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I am very happy with the images of this fantastic little orchid. It was an absolute nightmare to photograph in the wild. The plants always grew on branches overhanging the river. I had to take the close-up shots out of hand sitting in a large dugout canoe. Keeping the boat still in a strong flowing river was difficult enough but convincing the 6 or 7 other people in the boat not to move was even more of a problem. On top of all this the long, hair-fringed lip of the flower is hinged and moved constantly in even the slightest, unnoticable breeze.

Found in Peninsula Myanmar, Vietnam, Laos, and Thailand in primary montane forests from 1,000 to 2000 meters in elevation. Each one inch pseudobulb holds a single, large, complex bloom with tassels and a highly mobile lip that wiggle and flutter in the slightest breeze.

During the warmer months, Bulbophyllum macranthum bears large, solitary flowers with an exotic, sweet perfume. The bright flowers are somewhat variable in colour and are unusual in that they are held upside-down in comparison to the majority of orchids. Instead of being resupinate (twisted so that the lip is borne upside-down), the lip is held at the top of the flower (non-resupinate).

 

Bulbophyllum macranthum belongs to the Sestochilos section of Bulbophyllum, the largest orchid genus in the world. Section Sestochilos contains about 23 species, most of which have one-flowered inflorescences and rather showy flowers with relatively large petals; species in this section often have thick, long-creeping rhizomes