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A beautiful, but deceitful, mountain meadow of wildflowers. A million beautiful flowers and a million hungry mosquitoes that were so bad that this meadow was renamed "Malaria Meadow". It was here that I knew I was with kindred spirits as none of the dozen photographers present bolted for the car but all kept shooting varying compositions for our full allotted time. Proper name is Cattleman's Bridge.


A few more pics from my recent photo outing in Grand Teton National Park with Jeff Clow and Wil Bloodworth of Dirt Cheap Photo Tours. Highly Recommended.


Best Viewed with black border. Please Press "L" for lightbox.


Copyright ©James Keith, 2011, All Rights Reserved, Worldwide. My photos are posted for your enjoyment. Please don't use my photos in any way without permission.

A classic pano view of the Tetons from the Lake Jackson Lodge.


A few more pics from my recent photo outing in Grand Teton National Park with Jeff Clow and Wil Bloodworth of Dirt Cheap Photo Tours. Highly Recommended.


Best Viewed with black border. Please Press "L" for lightbox.


Copyright ©James Keith, 2011, All Rights Reserved, Worldwide. My photos are posted for your enjoyment. Please don't use my photos in any way without permission.

Now *that's* a reception venue. 14mm and 36mp... the perfect pair of numbers.


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There aren't many places where you'd find folks that'd rather have a corn dog then a steak. But I think in this one, you probably do. And then riding that Ferris wheel, you can get sick before they even tee it up.

Keith Jackson


tones: Pioneer Woman actions and Bärbel's PS/PSE actions

texture: SkeletalMess


wish you a great weekend :)


NEW: "i love your work 71"

Selma, AL | March 04, 2007


"Here today, I must begin because at the Unity breakfast this morning I was saving for last and the list was so long I left him out after that introduction. So I'm going to start by saying how much I appreciate the friendship and the support and the outstanding work that he does each and every day, not just in Capitol Hill but also back here in the district. Please give a warm round of applause for your Congressman Artur Davis.


It is a great honor to be here. Reverend Jackson, thank you so much. To the family of Brown A.M.E, to the good Bishop Kirkland, thank you for your wonderful message and your leadership.


I want to acknowledge one of the great heroes of American history and American life, somebody who captures the essence of decency and courage, somebody who I have admired all my life and were it not for him, I'm not sure I'd be here today, Congressman John Lewis.


I'm thankful to him. To all the distinguished guests and clergy, I'm not sure I'm going to thank Reverend Lowery because he stole the show. I was mentioning earlier, I know we've got C.T. Vivian in the audience, and when you have to speak in front of somebody who Martin Luther King said was the greatest preacher he ever heard, then you've got some problems.


And I'm a little nervous about following so many great preachers. But I'm hoping that the spirit moves me and to all my colleagues who have given me such a warm welcome, thank you very much for allowing me to speak to you here today.


You know, several weeks ago, after I had announced that I was running for the Presidency of the United States, I stood in front of the Old State Capitol in Springfield, Illinois; where Abraham Lincoln delivered his speech declaring, drawing in scripture, that a house divided against itself could not stand.


And I stood and I announced that I was running for the presidency. And there were a lot of commentators, as they are prone to do, who questioned the audacity of a young man like myself, haven't been in Washington too long.


And I acknowledge that there is a certain presumptuousness about this.


But I got a letter from a friend of some of yours named Reverend Otis Moss Jr. in Cleveland, and his son, Otis Moss III is the Pastor at my church and I must send greetings from Dr. Jeremiah A. Wright Jr. but I got a letter giving me encouragement and saying how proud he was that I had announced and encouraging me to stay true to my ideals and my values and not to be fearful.


And he said, if there's some folks out there who are questioning whether or not you should run, just tell them to look at the story of Joshua because you're part of the Joshua generation.


So I just want to talk a little about Moses and Aaron and Joshua, because we are in the presence today of a lot of Moseses. We're in the presence today of giants whose shoulders we stand on, people who battled, not just on behalf of African Americans but on behalf of all of America; that battled for America's soul, that shed blood , that endured taunts and formant and in some cases gave -- torment and in some cases gave the full measure of their devotion.


Like Moses, they challenged Pharaoh, the princes, powers who said that some are atop and others are at the bottom, and that's how it's always going to be.


There were people like Anna Cooper and Marie Foster and Jimmy Lee Jackson and Maurice Olette, C.T. Vivian, Reverend Lowery, John Lewis, who said we can imagine something different and we know there is something out there for us, too.


Thank God, He's made us in His image and we reject the notion that we will for the rest of our lives be confined to a station of inferiority, that we can't aspire to the highest of heights, that our talents can't be expressed to their fullest. And so because of what they endured, because of what they marched; they led a people out of bondage.


They took them across the sea that folks thought could not be parted. They wandered through a desert but always knowing that God was with them and that, if they maintained that trust in God, that they would be all right. And it's because they marched that the next generation hasn't been bloodied so much.


It's because they marched that we elected councilmen, congressmen. It is because they marched that we have Artur Davis and Keith Ellison. It is because they marched that I got the kind of education I got, a law degree, a seat in the Illinois senate and ultimately in the United States senate.


It is because they marched that I stand before you here today. I was mentioning at the Unity Breakfast this morning, my -- at the Unity Breakfast this morning that my debt is even greater than that because not only is my career the result of the work of the men and women who we honor here today. My very existence might not have been possible had it not been for some of the folks here today. I mentioned at the Unity Breakfast that a lot of people been asking, well, you know, your father was from Africa, your mother, she's a white woman from Kansas. I'm not sure that you have the same experience.


And I tried to explain, you don't understand. You see, my Grandfather was a cook to the British in Kenya. Grew up in a small village and all his life, that's all he was -- a cook and a house boy. And that's what they called him, even when he was 60 years old. They called him a house boy. They wouldn't call him by his last name.


Sound familiar?


He had to carry a passbook around because Africans in their own land, in their own country, at that time, because it was a British colony, could not move about freely. They could only go where they were told to go. They could only work where they were told to work.


Yet something happened back here in Selma, Alabama. Something happened in Birmingham that sent out what Bobby Kennedy called, 'Ripples of hope all around the world.' Something happened when a bunch of women decided they were going to walk instead of ride the bus after a long day of doing somebody else's laundry, looking after somebody else's children. When men who had PhD's decided that's enough and we're going to stand up for our dignity.


That sent a shout across oceans so that my grandfather began to imagine something different for his son. His son, who grew up herding goats in a small village in Africa could suddenly set his sights a little higher and believe that maybe a black man in this world had a chance.


What happened in Selma, Alabama and Birmingham also stirred the conscience of the nation. It worried folks in the White House who said, “You know, we're battling Communism. How are we going to win hearts and minds all across the world? If right here in our own country, John, we're not observing the ideals set fort in our Constitution, we might be accused of being hypocrites. So the Kennedy's decided we're going to do an air lift. We're going to go to Africa and start bringing young Africans over to this country and give them scholarships to study so they can learn what a wonderful country America is.


This young man named Barack Obama got one of those tickets and came over to this country. He met this woman whose great great-great-great-grandfather had owned slaves; but she had a good idea there was some craziness going on because they looked at each other and they decided that we know that the world as it has been it might not be possible for us to get together and have a child. There was something stirring across the country because of what happened in Selma, Alabama, because some folks are willing to march across a bridge. So they got together and Barack Obama Jr. was born. So don't tell me I don't have a claim on Selma, Alabama. Don't tell me I'm not coming home to Selma, Alabama.


I'm here because somebody marched. I'm here because you all sacrificed for me. I stand on the shoulders of giants. I thank the Moses generation; but we've got to remember, now, that Joshua still had a job to do. As great as Moses was, despite all that he did, leading a people out of bondage, he didn't cross over the river to see the Promised Land. God told him your job is done. You'll see it. You'll be at the mountain top and you can see what I've promised. What I've promised to Abraham and Isaac and Jacob. You will see that I've fulfilled that promise but you won't go there.


We're going to leave it to the Joshua generation to make sure it happens. There are still battles that need to be fought; some rivers that need to be crossed. Like Moses, the task was passed on to those who might not have been as deserving, might not have been as courageous, find themselves in front of the risks that their parents and grandparents and great grandparents had taken. That doesn't mean that they don't still have a burden to shoulder, that they don't have some responsibilities. The previous generation, the Moses generation, pointed the way. They took us 90% of the way there. We still got that 10% in order to cross over to the other side. So the question, I guess, that I have today is what's called of us in this Joshua generation? What do we do in order to fulfill that legacy; to fulfill the obligations and the debt that we owe to those who allowed us to be here today?


Now, I don't think we could ever fully repay that debt. I think that we're always going to be looking back; but, there are at least a few suggestions that I would have in terms of how we might fulfill that enormous legacy. The first is to recognize our history. John Lewis talked about why we're here today. But I worry sometimes -- we've got black history month, we come down and march every year, once a year, we occasionally celebrate the various events of the civil rights movement, we celebrate Dr. Kings birthday but it strikes me that understanding our history and knowing what it means is an everyday activity.


Now, I don't think we could ever fully repay that debt. I think that we're always going to be looking back, but there are at least a few suggestions that I would have in terms of how we might fulfill that enormous legacy. The first is to recognize our history. John Lewis talked about why we're here today. But I worry sometimes -- we've got black history month, we come down and march every year, once a year. We occasionally celebrate the various events of the Civil Rights Movement, we celebrate Dr. King's birthday, but it strikes me that understanding our history and knowing what it means, is an everyday activity.


Moses told the Joshua generation; don't forget where you came from. I worry sometimes, that the Joshua generation in its success forgets where it came from. Thinks it doesn't have to make as many sacrifices. Thinks that the very height of ambition is to make as much money as you can, to drive the biggest car and have the biggest house and wear a Rolex watch and get your own private jet, get some of that Oprah money. And I think that's a good thing. There's nothing wrong with making money, but if you know your history, then you know that there is a certain poverty of ambition involved in simply striving just for money. Materialism alone will not fulfill the possibilities of your existence. You have to fill that with something else. You have to fill it with the golden rule. You've got to fill it with thinking about others. And if we know our history, then we will understand that that is the highest mark of service.


Second thing that the Joshua generation needs to understand is that the principles of equality that were set fort and were battled for have to be fought each and every day. It is not a one-time thing. I was remarking at the unity breakfast on the fact that the single most significant concern that this justice department under this administration has had with respect to discrimination has to do with affirmative action. That they have basically spent all their time worrying about colleges and universities around the country that are given a little break to young African Americans and Hispanics to make sure that they can go to college, too.


I had a school in southern Illinois that set up a program for PhD's in math and science for African Americans. And the reason they had set it up is because we only had less than 1% of the PhD's in science and math go to African Americans. At a time when we are competing in a global economy, when we're not competing just against folks in North Carolina or Florida or California, we're competing against folks in China and India and we need math and science majors, this university thought this might be a nice thing to do. And the justice department wrote them a letter saying we are going to threaten to sue you for reverse discrimination unless you cease this program.


And it reminds us that we still got a lot of work to do, and that the basic enforcement of anti-discrimination laws, the injustice that still exists within our criminal justice system, the disparity in terms of how people are treated in this country continues. It has gotten better. And we should never deny that it's gotten better. But we shouldn't forget that better is not good enough. That until we have absolute equality in this country in terms of people being treated on the basis of their color or their gender, that that is something that we've got to continue to work on and the Joshua generation has a significant task in making that happen.


Third thing -- we've got to recognize that we fought for civil rights, but we've still got a lot of economic rights that have to be dealt with. We've got 46 million people uninsured in this country despite spending more money on health care than any nation on earth. It makes no sense. As a consequence, we've got what's known as a health care disparity in this nation because many of the uninsured are African American or Latino. Life expectancy is lower. Almost every disease is higher within minority communities. The health care gap.


Blacks are less likely in their schools to have adequate funding. We have less-qualified teachers in those schools. We have fewer textbooks in those schools. We got in some schools rats outnumbering computers. That's called the achievement gap. You've got a health care gap and you've got an achievement gap. You've got Katrina still undone. I went down to New Orleans three weeks ago. It still looks bombed out. Still not rebuilt. When 9/11 happened, the federal government had a special program of grants to help rebuild. They waived any requirement that Manhattan would have to pay 10% of the cost of rebuilding. When Hurricane Andrew happened in Florida, 10% requirement, they waived it because they understood that some disasters are so devastating that we can't expect a community to rebuild. New Orleans -- the largest national catastrophe in our history, the federal government says where's your 10%?


There is an empathy gap. There is a gap in terms of sympathizing for the folks in New Orleans. It's not a gap that the American people felt because we saw how they responded. But somehow our government didn't respond with that same sense of compassion, with that same sense of kindness. And here is the worst part, the tragedy in New Orleans happened well before the hurricane struck because many of those communities, there were so many young men in prison, so many kids dropping out, so little hope.


A hope gap. A hope gap that still pervades too many communities all across the country and right here in Alabama. So the question is, then, what are we, the Joshua generation, doing to close those gaps? Are we doing every single thing that we can do in Congress in order to make sure that early education is adequately funded and making sure that we are raising the minimum wage so people can have dignity and respect?


Are we ensuring that, if somebody loses a job, that they're getting retrained? And that, if they've lost their health care and pension, somebody is there to help them get back on their feet? Are we making sure we're giving a second chance to those who have strayed and gone to prison but want to start a new life? Government alone can't solve all those problems, but government can help. It's the responsibility of the Joshua generation to make sure that we have a government that is as responsive as the need that exists all across America. That brings me to one other point, about the Joshua generation, and that is this -- that it's not enough just to ask what the government can do for us-- it's important for us to ask what we can do for ourselves.


One of the signature aspects of the civil rights movement was the degree of discipline and fortitude that was instilled in all the people who participated. Imagine young people, 16, 17, 20, 21, backs straight, eyes clear, suit and tie, sitting down at a lunch counter knowing somebody is going to spill milk on you but you have the discipline to understand that you are not going to retaliate because in showing the world how disciplined we were as a people, we were able to win over the conscience of the nation. I can't say for certain that we have instilled that same sense of moral clarity and purpose in this generation. Bishop, sometimes I feel like we've lost it a little bit.


I'm fighting to make sure that our schools are adequately funded all across the country. With the inequities of relying on property taxes and people who are born in wealthy districts getting better schools than folks born in poor districts and that's now how it's supposed to be. That's not the American way. but I'll tell you what -- even as I fight on behalf of more education funding, more equity, I have to also say that , if parents don't turn off the television set when the child comes home from school and make sure they sit down and do their homework and go talk to the teachers and find out how they're doing, and if we don't start instilling a sense in our young children that there is nothing to be ashamed about in educational achievement, I don't know who taught them that reading and writing and conjugating your verbs was something white.


We've got to get over that mentality. That is part of what the Moses generation teaches us, not saying to ourselves we can't do something, but telling ourselves that we can achieve. We can do that. We got power in our hands. Folks are complaining about the quality of our government, I understand there's something to be complaining about. I'm in Washington. I see what's going on. I see those powers and principalities have snuck back in there, that they're writing the energy bills and the drug laws.


We understand that, but I'll tell you what. I also know that, if cousin Pookie would vote, get off the couch and register some folks and go to the polls, we might have a different kind of politics. That's what the Moses generation teaches us. Take off your bedroom slippers. Put on your marching shoes. Go do some politics. Change this country! That's what we need. We have too many children in poverty in this country and everybody should be ashamed, but don't tell me it doesn't have a little to do with the fact that we got too many daddies not acting like daddies. Don't think that fatherhood ends at conception. I know something about that because my father wasn't around when I was young and I struggled.


Those of you who read my book know. I went through some difficult times. I know what it means when you don't have a strong male figure in the house, which is why the hardest thing about me being in politics sometimes is not being home as much as I'd like and I'm just blessed that I've got such a wonderful wife at home to hold things together. Don't tell me that we can't do better by our children, that we can't take more responsibility for making sure we're instilling in them the values and the ideals that the Moses generation taught us about sacrifice and dignity and honesty and hard work and discipline and self-sacrifice. That comes from us. We've got to transmit that to the next generation and I guess the point that I'm making is that the civil rights movement wasn't just a fight against the oppressor; it was also a fight against the oppressor in each of us.


Sometimes it's easy to just point at somebody else and say it's their fault, but oppression has a way of creeping into it. Reverend, it has a way of stunting yourself. You start telling yourself, Bishop, I can't do something. I can't read. I can't go to college. I can't start a business. I can't run for Congress. I can't run for the presidency. People start telling you-- you can't do something, after a while, you start believing it and part of what the civil rights movement was about was recognizing that we have to transform ourselves in order to transform the world. Mahatma Gandhi, great hero of Dr. King and the person who helped create the nonviolent movement around the world; he once said that you can't change the world if you haven't changed.


If you want to change the world, the change has to happen with you first and that is something that the greatest and most honorable of generations has taught us, but the final thing that I think the Moses generation teaches us is to remind ourselves that we do what we do because God is with us. You know, when Moses was first called to lead people out of the Promised Land, he said I don't think I can do it, Lord. I don't speak like Reverend Lowery. I don't feel brave and courageous and the Lord said I will be with you. Throw down that rod. Pick it back up. I'll show you what to do. The same thing happened with the Joshua generation.


Joshua said, you know, I'm scared. I'm not sure that I am up to the challenge, the Lord said to him, every place that the sole of your foot will tread upon, I have given you. Be strong and have courage, for I am with you wherever you go. Be strong and have courage. It's a prayer for a journey. A prayer that kept a woman in her seat when the bus driver told her to get up, a prayer that led nine children through the doors of the little rock school, a prayer that carried our brothers and sisters over a bridge right here in Selma, Alabama. Be strong and have courage.


When you see row and row of state trooper facing you, the horses and the tear gas, how else can you walk? Towards them, unarmed, unafraid. When they come start beating your friends and neighbors, how else can you simply kneel down, bow your head and ask the Lord for salvation? When you see heads gashed open and eyes burning and children lying hurt on the side of the road, when you are John Lewis and you've been beaten within an inch of your life on Sunday, how do you wake up Monday and keep on marching?


Be strong and have courage, for I am with you wherever you go. We've come a long way in this journey, but we still have a long way to travel. We traveled because God was with us. It's not how far we've come. That bridge outside was crossed by blacks and whites, northerners and southerners, teenagers and children, the beloved community of God's children, they wanted to take those steps together, but it was left to the Joshua's to finish the journey Moses had begun and today we're called to be the Joshua's of our time, to be the generation that finds our way across this river.


There will be days when the water seems wide and the journey too far, but in those moments, we must remember that throughout our history, there has been a running thread of ideals that have guided our travels and pushed us forward, even when they're just beyond our reach, liberty in the face of tyranny, opportunity where there was none and hope over the most crushing despair. Those ideals and values beckon us still and when we have our doubts and our fears, just like Joshua did, when the road looks too long and it seems like we may lose our way, remember what these people did on that bridge.


Keep in your heart the prayer of that journey, the prayer that God gave to Joshua. Be strong and have courage in the face of injustice. Be strong and have courage in the face of prejudice and hatred, in the face of joblessness and helplessness and hopelessness. Be strong and have courage, brothers and sisters, those who are gathered here today, in the face of our doubts and fears, in the face of skepticism, in the face of cynicism, in the face of a mighty river.


Be strong and have courage and let us cross over that Promised Land together. Thank you so much everybody.


God bless you."


Keith Fuckin Jackson with his biggest fan and huge organ...

THANK YOU everyone for your visits, comments and favs!


I really appreciate your invitations and awards ~


© ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Use without permission is illegal.


~ Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981–1989).


This Ronald Reagan Rose was in the Rose Garden at Leu Gardens, Orlando ~


Ronald Reagan Rose ~


Red blend Hybrid Tea.


Bred by Dr. Keith W. Zary (United States, 2005).


Introduced in United States by Jackson & Perkins (Wholesale) in 2004 as 'Ronald Reagan'.

Hybrid Tea.


Red, lighter reverse. Mild, sweet fragrance. 26 to 40 petals. Average diameter 4.25". Large, full (26-40 petals), borne mostly solitary, classic hybrid tea bloom form. Continuous (perpetual) bloom throughout the season.


Tall, compact, upright, well-branched. Medium, glossy, dark green foliage.

Height of up to 4' 11" (up to 150 cm). Width of up to 39" (up to 100 cm).

USDA zone 5b and warmer. Can be used for cut flower, garden, landscape or specimen. Vigorous. does not do well in warmer climates. Disease susceptibility: susceptible to blackspot , mildew resistant, rust resistant. Remove spent blooms to encourage re-bloom. Spring Pruning: Remove old canes and dead or diseased wood and cut back canes that cross. In warmer climates, cut back the remaining canes by about one-third. In colder areas, you'll probably find you'll have to prune a little more than that.


I was driving along Lake Jackson to Yellowstone after the tour was over when I saw this sunrise in my rearview mirror. A quick stop for a shot with a telephoto. In retrospect, I wish I had taken the time to work the scene.


Photos taken in the Grand Teton National Park on a recent photo shoot with Dirt Cheap Photo Tours. Highly recommended.


Best Viewed with black border. Please Press "L" for lightbox.


Copyright ©James Keith, 2011, All Rights Reserved, Worldwide. My photos are posted for your enjoyment. Please don't use my photos in any way without permission.

Something so simple and small, doing what it does, best of all. But if it is fed, if it gets what it needs, it will be more than a cone or a seed. Some things can change, even if you have to bleed.


▶01: - 'Opening' - Part 1 of 'Glassworks' - Philip Glass

▶02 - AQUA- "Aquarius" -

▶03 - Jackson Browne - The Rebel Jesus(original-HD + lyrics) -

▶04 - Adele - Make You Feel My Love -

▶05 - Counting Crows - Raining In Baltimore -

▶06 - Tori Amos - "I'm On Fire" (cover) -

▶07 - Gary Jules - Mad World (live) -

▶08 - Personal Choice and total favorite, love this singer, but seemingly beyond my Reach - will put it in later if I can

▶09 - Tori Amos - Thank You (Led Zeppelin) -

▶10 - Nils Lofgren - Believe - YouTube

▶11 - Patti Smith ~ Dancing Barefoot (HQ Audio). -

▶12 - Paula Cole - Hush Hush Hush [guest starring Peter Gabriel] -

▶13 - Siouxsie And The Banshees ~ Trust in me -

▶14 - Bono *The Edge *Brian Eno *Pavarotti - Miss Sarajevo -

▶15 - KEITH JARRETT - Köln, January 24, 1975 Part I -

▶16 - Dum Dum Girls - Coming Down -

Oxbow Bend in the morning. One of the mandatory shots for any visit to Grand Teton NP.


A few more pics from my recent photo outing in Grand Teton National Park with Jeff Clow and Wil Bloodworth of Dirt Cheap Photo Tours. Highly Recommended.


Best Viewed with black border. Please Press "L" for lightbox.


Copyright ©James Keith, 2011, All Rights Reserved, Worldwide. My photos are posted for your enjoyment. Please don't use my photos in any way without permission.

The B52's - Dry County - Play this track here.


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¿Whats this iPod Shuffle set all about? Read about it here


I got into the B52's from their first single 'Rock Lobster', which I still have in the loft.


The band's name comes from a particular beehive hairdo resembling the nose cone of the aircraft of the same name. Keith Strickland suggested the name after a dream he had one night, of a band performing in a hotel lounge. In the dream he heard someone whisper in his ear that the name of the band was "The B-52s."


The band's quirky take on the New Wave sound of their era was a combination of dance and surf music set apart by the unusual guitar tunings used by Ricky Wilson. Their costume charity-shop (across the pond you might call this 'thrift-shop') chic set them apart as well.


That first single, "Rock Lobster", recorded for DB Records in 1978, was an underground success, selling over 2,000 copies in total that led to The B-52s performing at CBGB and Max's Kansas City in New York City. Two versions of the single were released in the United Kingdom; one featured the single in its original form, and the other featured the B-side "Running Around" in place of "52 Girls".


The buzz created by the record in the UK meant their first show in London at the Electric Ballroom, London, was packed in anticipation, with many UK pop stars such as Green Gartside from Scritti Politti, Joe Jackson and others in attendance.


This track is taken from 'Cosmic Thing', the fifth studio album. It contains the singles "Love Shack" and "Roam", which remain two of their most popular tunes. The success of the album acted as a comeback after the death of former guitarist Ricky Wilson in 1985.


The band toured in 2008 after the release of Funplex and I saw them at the Manchester Academy. They were on top form and appeared to be wearing pretty well.


¿Whats this iPod Shuffle set all about? Read about it here


Checkout more ipod music from my photostream.


Keep in touch, add me as a contact so I can follow all your new uploads.


¿Whats this iPod Shuffle set all about? Read about it here


(c) Hotpix / HotpixUK Tony Smith - WDCC




The most beautiful women in TV and Movie History now become Barbie Collector Dolls created by acclaimed re-paint Artist Donna Brinkley.


Farrah Leni Fawcett is known as the world's Sexiest Star of all time... she will forever be one of Hollywood's greatest Icons. She was born in Corpus Christi, Texas, the younger of two daughters.[3] Her mother, Pauline Alice January 30, 1914 – March 4, 2005), was a homemaker, and her father, James William Fawcett (October 14, 1917 – August 23, 2010), was an oil field contractor. Her sister was Diane Fawcett Walls (October 27, 1938 – October 16, 2001), a graphic artist. She was of Irish, French, English, and Choctaw Native American ancestry. Fawcett once said the name Ferrah was made up by her mother because it went well with their last name.


A Roman Catholic, Fawcett's early education was at the parish school of the church her family attended, St. Patrick's Roman Catholic Church in Corpus Christi. She graduated from W. B. Ray High School in Corpus Christi, where she was voted Most Beautiful by her classmates her Freshman, Sophomore, Junior and Senior years of High School. For three years, 1965–68, Fawcett attended the University of Texas at Austin, living one semester in Jester Center, and she became a sister of Delta Delta Delta Sorority. During her Freshman year, she was named one of the Ten Most Beautiful Coeds on Campus, the first time a Freshman had been chosen. Their photos were sent to various agencies in Hollywood. David Mirsch, a Hollywood agent called her and urged her to come to Los Angeles. She turned him down but he called her for the next two years. Finally, in 1968, the summer following her junior year, with her parents' permission to try her luck in Hollywood, Farrah moved to Hollywood. She did not return.


Upon arriving in Hollywood in 1968 she was signed to a $350 a week contract with Screen Gems. She began to appear in commercials for UltraBrite toothpaste, Noxema, Max Factor, Wella Balsam shampoo and conditioner, Mercury Cougar automobiles and Beauty Rest matresses. Fawcett's earliest acting appearances were guest spots on The Flying Nun and I Dream of Jeannie. She made numerous other TV appearances including Owen Marshall: Counselor at Law, [Mayberry RFD]] and The Partridge Family. She appeared in four episodes of The Six Million Dollar Man with husband Lee Majors, The Dating Game, S.W.A.T and a recurring role on Harry O alongside David Janssen. She also appeared in the Made for TV movies, The Feminist and the Fuzz, The Great American Beauty Contest, The Girl Who Came Giftwrapped, and Murder of Flight 502.


She had a sizable part in the 1969 French romantic-drama, Love Is a Funny Thing. She played opposite Raquel Welch and Mae West in the film version of, Myra Breckinridge (1970). The film earned negative reviews and was a box office flop. However, much has been written and said about the scene where Farrah and Raquel share a bed, and a near sexual experience. Fawcett co-starred with Michael York and Richard Jordan in the well-received science-fiction film, Logan's Run in 1976.


In 1976, Pro Arts Inc., pitched the idea of a poster of Fawcett to her agent, and a photo shoot was arranged with photographer Bruce McBroom, who was hired by the poster company. According to friend Nels Van Patten, Fawcett styled her own hair and did her make-up without the aid of a mirror. Her blonde highlights were further heightened by a squeeze of lemon juice. From 40 rolls of film, Fawcett herself selected her six favorite pictures, eventually narrowing her choice to the one that made her famous. The resulting poster, of Fawcett in a one-piece red bathing suit, was a best-seller; sales estimates ranged from over 5 million[12] to 8 million to as high as 12 million copies.


On March 21, 1976, the first appearance of Fawcett playing the character Jill Munroe in Charlie's Angels was aired as a movie of the week. Fawcett and her husband were frequent tennis partners of producer Aaron Spelling, and he and his producing partner thought of casting Fawcett as the golden girl Jill because of his friendship with the couple. The movie starred Kate Jackson, Jaclyn Smith and Fawcett (then billed as Farrah Fawcett-Majors) as private investigators for Townsend Associates, a detective agency run by a reclusive multi-millionaire whom the women had never met. Voiced by John Forsythe, the Charles Townsend character presented cases and dispensed advice via a speakerphone to his core team of three female employees, whom he referred to as Angels. They were aided in the office and occasionally in the field by two male associates, played by character actors David Doyle and David Ogden Stiers. The program quickly earned a huge following, leading the network to air it a second time and approve production for a series, with the pilot's principal cast except David Ogden Stiers.

Fawcett's record-breaking poster that sold 12 million copies.


The Charlie's Angels series formally debuted on September 22, 1976. Fawcett emerged as a fan favorite in the show, and the actress won a People's Choice Award for Favorite Performer in a New TV Program. In a 1977 interview with TV Guide, Fawcett said: When the show was number three, I thought it was our acting. When we got to be number one, I decided it could only be because none of us wears a bra.


Fawcett's appearance in the television show boosted sales of her poster, and she earned far more in royalties from poster sales than from her salary for appearing in Charlie's Angels. Her hairstyle went on to become an international trend, with women sporting a Farrah-do a Farrah-flip, or simply Farrah hair Iterations of her hair style predominated American women's hair styles well into the 1980s.


Fawcett left Charlie's Angels after only one season and Cheryl Ladd replaced her on the show, portraying Jill Munroe's younger sister Kris Munroe. Numerous explanations for Fawcett's precipitous withdrawal from the show were offered over the years. The strain on her marriage due to her long absences most days due to filming, as her then-husband Lee Majors was star of an established television show himself, was frequently cited, but Fawcett's ambitions to broaden her acting abilities with opportunities in films have also been given. Fawcett never officially signed her series contract with Spelling due to protracted negotiations over royalties from her image's use in peripheral products, which led to an even more protracted lawsuit filed by Spelling and his company when she quit the show.


The show was a major success throughout the world, maintaining its appeal in syndication, spawning a cottage industry of peripheral products, particularly in the show's first three seasons, including several series of bubble gum cards, two sets of fashion dolls, numerous posters, puzzles, and school supplies, novelizations of episodes, toy vans, and a board game, all featuring Fawcett's likeness. The Angels also appeared on the covers of magazines around the world, from countless fan magazines to TV Guide (four times) to Time Magazine.


The series ultimately ran for five seasons. As part of a settlement to a lawsuit over her early departure, Fawcett returned for six guest appearances over seasons three and four of the series.


In 2004, the television movie Behind the Camera: The Unauthorized Story of Charlie's Angels dramatized the events from the show with supermodel and actress Tricia Helfer portraying Fawcett and Ben Browder portraying Lee Majors, Fawcett's then-husband.


In 1983, Fawcett won critical acclaim for her role in the Off-Broadway stage production of the controversial play Extremities, written by William Mastrosimone. Replacing Susan Sarandon, she was a would-be rape victim who turns the tables on her attacker. She described the role as the most grueling, the most intense, the most physically demanding and emotionally exhausting of her career. During one performance, a stalker in the audience disrupted the show by asking Fawcett if she had received the photos and letters he had mailed her. Police removed the man and were able only to issue a summons for disorderly conduct.


The following year, her role as a battered wife in the fact-based television movie The Burning Bed (1984) earned her the first of her four Emmy Award nominations. The project is noted as being the first television movie to provide a nationwide 800 number that offered help for others in the situation, in this case victims of domestic abuse. It was the highest-rated television movie of the season.


In 1986, Fawcett appeared in the movie version of Extremities, which was also well received by critics, and for which she received a Golden Globe nomination for Best Performance by an Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama.


She appeared in Jon Avnet's Between Two Women with Colleen Dewhurst, and took several more dramatic roles as infamous or renowned women. She was nominated for Golden Globe awards for roles as Beate Klarsfeld in Nazi Hunter: The Beate Klarsfeld Story and troubled Woolworth heiress Barbara Hutton in Poor Little Rich Girl: The Barbara Hutton Story, and won a CableACE Award for her 1989 portrayal of groundbreaking LIFE magazine photojournalist Margaret Bourke-White in Double Exposure: The Story of Margaret Bourke-White. Her 1989 portrayal of convicted murderer Diane Downs in the miniseries Small Sacrifices earned her a second Emmy nomination[20] and her sixth Golden Globe Award nomination. The miniseries won a Peabody Award for excellence in television, with Fawcett's performance singled out by the organization, which stated Ms. Fawcett brings a sense of realism rarely seen in television miniseries (to) a drama of unusual power Art meets life.


Fawcett, who had steadfastly resisted appearing nude in magazines throughout the 1970s and 1980s (although she appeared topless in the 1980 film Saturn 3), caused a major stir by posing semi-nude in the December 1995 issue of Playboy.[citation needed] At the age of 50, she returned to Playboy with a pictorial for the July 1997 issue, which also became a top seller. The issue and its accompanying video featured Fawcett painting on canvas using her body, which had been an ambition of hers for years.


That same year, Fawcett was chosen by Robert Duvall to play his wife in an independent feature film he was producing, The Apostle. Fawcett received an Independent Spirit Award nomination as Best Actress for the film, which was highly critically acclaimed.


In 2000, she worked with director Robert Altman and an all-star cast in the feature film Dr. T the Women, playing the wife of Richard Gere (her character has a mental breakdown, leading to her first fully nude appearance). Also that year, Fawcett's collaboration with sculptor Keith Edmier was exhibited at the Los Angeles County Museum of Art, later traveling to The Andy Warhol Museum. The sculpture was also presented in a series of photographs and a book by Rizzoli.


In November 2003, Fawcett prepared for her return to Broadway in a production of Bobbi Boland, the tragicomic tale of a former Miss Florida. However, the show never officially opened, closing before preview performances. Fawcett was described as vibrating with frustration at the producer's extraordinary decision to cancel the production. Only days earlier the same producer closed an Off-Broadway show she had been backing.


Fawcett continued to work in television, with well-regarded appearances in made-for-television movies and on popular television series including Ally McBeal and four episodes each of Spin City and The Guardian, her work on the latter show earning her a third Emmy nomination in 2004.


Fawcett was married to Lee Majors, star of television's The Six Million Dollar Man, from 1973 to 1982, although the couple separated in 1979. During her marriage, she was known and credited in her roles as Farrah Fawcett-Majors.


From 1979 until 1997 Fawcett was involved romantically with actor Ryan O'Neal. The relationship produced a son, Redmond James Fawcett O'Neal, born January 30, 1985 in Los Angeles.[26] In April 2009, on probation for driving under the influence, Redmond was arrested for possession of narcotics while Fawcett was in the hospital.[citation needed] On June 22, 2009, The Los Angeles Times and Reuters reported that Ryan O'Neal had said that Fawcett had agreed to marry him as soon as she felt strong enough.


From 1997 to 1998, Fawcett had a relationship with Canadian filmmaker James Orr, writer and producer of the Disney feature film in which she co-starred with Chevy Chase and Jonathan Taylor Thomas, Man of the House. The relationship ended when Orr was charged with and later convicted of beating Fawcett during a 1998 fight between the two.


On June 5, 1997, Fawcett received negative commentary after giving a rambling interview and appearing distracted on Late Show with David Letterman. Months later, she told the host of The Howard Stern Show her behavior was just her way of joking around with the television host, partly in the guise of promoting her Playboy pictoral and video, explaining what appeared to be random looks across the theater was just her looking and reacting to fans in the audience. Though the Letterman appearance spawned speculation and several jokes at her expense, she returned to the show a week later, with success, and several years later, after Joaquin Phoenix's mumbling act on a February 2009 appearance on The Late Show, Letterman wrapped up the interview by saying, I'm sorry you couldn't be here tonight and recalled Fawcett's earlier appearance by noting we owe an apology to Farrah Fawcett.


Fawcett's elder sister, Diane Fawcett Walls, died from lung cancer just before her 63rd birthday, on October 16, 2001.[33] The fifth episode of her 2005 Chasing Farrah series followed the actress home to Texas to visit with her father, James, and mother, Pauline. Pauline Fawcett died soon after, on March 4, 2005, at the age of 91.


Fawcett was diagnosed with anal cancer in 2006, and began treatment, including chemotherapy and surgery. Four months later, on her 60th birthday, the Associated Press wire service reported that Fawcett was, at that point, cancer free.


Less than four months later, in May 2007, Fawcett brought a small digital video camera to document a doctor's office visit. There, she was told a malignant polyp was found where she had been treated for the initial cancer. Doctors contemplated whether to implant a radiation seeder (which differs from conventional radiation and is used to treat other types of cancer). Fawcett's U.S. doctors told her that she would require a colostomy. Instead, Fawcett traveled to Germany for treatments described variously in the press as holistic aggressive and alternative. There, Dr. Ursula Jacob prescribed a treatment including surgery to remove the anal tumor, and a course of perfusion and embolization for her liver cancer by Doctors Claus Kiehling and Thomas Vogl in Germany, and chemotherapy back in Fawcett's home town of Los Angeles. Although initially the tumors were regressing, their reappearance a few months later necessitated a new course, this time including laser ablation therapy and chemoembolization. Aided by friend Alana Stewart, Fawcett documented her battle with the disease.


In early April 2009, Fawcett, back in the United States, was hospitalized, with media reports declaring her unconscious and in critical condition, although subsequent reports indicated her condition was not so dire. On April 6, the Associated Press reported that her cancer had metastasized to her liver, a development Fawcett had learned of in May 2007 and which her subsequent treatments in Germany had targeted. The report denied that she was unconscious, and explained that the hospitalization was due not to her cancer but a painful abdominal hematoma that had been the result of a minor procedure. Her spokesperson emphasized she was not at death's door adding - She remains in good spirits with her usual sense of humor ... She's been in great shape her whole life and has an incredible resolve and an incredible resilience. Fawcett was released from the hospital on April 9, picked up by longtime companion O'Neal, and, according to her doctor, was walking and in great spirits and looking forward to celebrating Easter at home.


A month later, on May 7, Fawcett was reported as critically ill, with Ryan O'Neal quoted as saying she now spends her days at home, on an IV, often asleep. The Los Angeles Times reported Fawcett was in the last stages of her cancer and had the chance to see her son Redmond in April 2009, although shackled and under supervision, as he was then incarcerated. Her 91-year-old father, James Fawcett, flew out to Los Angeles to visit.


The cancer specialist that was treating Fawcett in L.A., Dr. Lawrence Piro, and Fawcett's friend and Angels co-star Kate Jackson – a breast cancer survivor – appeared together on The Today Show dispelling tabloid-fueled rumors, including suggestions Fawcett had ever been in a coma, had ever reached 86 pounds, and had ever given up her fight against the disease or lost the will to live. Jackson decried such fabrications, saying they really do hurt a human being and a person like Farrah. Piro recalled when it became necessary for Fawcett to undergo treatments that would cause her to lose her hair, acknowledging Farrah probably has the most famous hair in the world but also that it is not a trivial matter for any cancer patient, whose hair affects [one's] whole sense of who [they] are. Of the documentary, Jackson averred Fawcett didn't do this to show that 'she' is unique, she did it to show that we are all unique ... This was ... meant to be a gift to others to help and inspire them.


The two-hour documentary Farrah's Story, which was filmed by Fawcett and friend Alana Stewart, aired on NBC on May 15, 2009.[47] The documentary was watched by nearly nine million people at its premiere airing, and it was re-aired on the broadcast network's cable stations MSNBC, Bravo and Oxygen. Fawcett earned her fourth Emmy nomination posthumously on July 16, 2009, as producer of Farrah's Story.


Controversy surrounded the aired version of the documentary, with her initial producing partner, who had worked with her four years earlier on her reality series Chasing Farrah, alleging O'Neal's and Stewart's editing of the program was not in keeping with Fawcett's wishes to more thoroughly explore rare types of cancers such as her own and alternative methods of treatment. He was especially critical of scenes showing Fawcett's son visiting her for the last time, in shackles, while she was nearly unconscious in bed. Fawcett had generally kept her son out of the media, and his appearances were minimal in Chasing Farrah.


Fawcett died at approximately 9:28 am, PDT on June 25, 2009, in the intensive care unit of Saint John's Health Center in Santa Monica, California, with O'Neal and Stewart by her side. A private funeral was held in Los Angeles on June 30. Fawcett's son Redmond was permitted to leave his California detention center to attend his mother's funeral, where he gave the first reading.


The night of her death, ABC aired an hour-long special episode of 20/20 featuring clips from several of Barbara Walters' past interviews with Fawcett as well as new interviews with Ryan O'Neal, Jaclyn Smith, Alana Stewart, and Dr. Lawrence Piro. Walters followed up on the story on Friday's episode of 20/20. CNN's Larry King Live planned a show exclusively about Fawcett that evening until the death of Michael Jackson several hours later caused the program to shift to cover both stories. Cher, a longtime friend of Fawcett, and Suzanne de Passe, executive producer of Fawcett's Small Sacrifices mini-series, both paid tribute to Fawcett on the program. NBC aired a Dateline NBC special Farrah Fawcett: The Life and Death of an Angel; the following evening, June 26, preceded by a rebroadcast of Farrah's Story in prime time. That weekend and the following week, television tributes continued. MSNBC aired back-to-back episodes of its Headliners and Legends episodes featuring Fawcett and Jackson. TV Land aired a mini-marathon of Charlie's Angels and Chasing Farrah episodes. E! aired Michael and Farrah: Lost Icons and the The Biography Channel aired Bio Remembers: Farrah Fawcett. The documentary Farrah's Story re-aired on the Oxygen Network and MSNBC.


Larry King said of the Fawcett phenomenon,

TV had much more impact back in the '70s than it does today. Charlie's Angels got huge numbers every week – nothing really dominates the television landscape like that today. Maybe American Idol comes close, but now there are so many channels and so many more shows it's hard for anything to get the audience, or amount of attention, that Charlie's Angels got. Farrah was a major TV star when the medium was clearly dominant.


Playboy founder Hugh Hefner said Farrah was one of the iconic beauties of our time. Her girl-next-door charm combined with stunning looks made her a star on film, TV and the printed page.


Kate Jackson said,

She was a selfless person who loved her family and friends with all her heart, and what a big heart it was. Farrah showed immense courage and grace throughout her illness and was an inspiration to those around her... I will remember her kindness, her cutting dry wit and, of course, her beautiful smile...when you think of Farrah, remember her smiling because that is exactly how she wanted to be remembered: smiling.


She is buried at the Westwood Village Memorial Park in Los Angeles.


The red one-piece bathing suit worn by Farrah in her famous 1976 poster was donated to the Smithsonian's National Museum of American History (NMAH) on February 2, 2011.[65] Said to have been purchased at a Saks Fifth Avenue store, the red Lycra suit made by the leading Australian swimsuit company Speedo, was donated to the Smithsonian by her executors and was formally presented to NMAH in Washington D.C. by her longtime companion Ryan O'Neal.[66] The suit and the poster are expected to go on temporary display sometime in 2011–12. They will be made additions to the Smithsonian's popular culture department.


The famous poster of Farrah in a red swimsuit has been produced as a Barbie doll. The limited edition dolls, complete with a gold chain and the girl-next-door locks, have been snapped up by Barbie fans.


In 2011, Men's Health named her one of the 100 Hottest Women of All-Time ranking her at No. 31

Graffiti, ital. Singular Graffito, steht als Sammelbegriff für thematisch und gestalterisch unterschiedliche sichtbare Elemente, zum Beispiel Bilder, Schriftzüge oder Zeichen, die mit verschiedenen Techniken auf Oberflächen oder durch deren Veränderung im privaten und öffentlichen Raum erstellt wurden. Die Graffiti werden zumeist unter Pseudonym und ohne Genehmigung gefertigt.


Ersteller von Graffiti, insbesondere wenn sie Sprühdosen verwenden, werden oft Sprayer (englisch für Sprüher) genannt.


Die Akzeptanz und Definition von Graffiti ist unterschiedlich geprägt. Werden Graffiti in der öffentlichen Wahrnehmung, insbesondere die nicht genehmigten Graffiti, meist als Form des Vandalismus betrachtet, werden sie von anderer Seite auch als Form der Kunst anerkannt.[1]


Öffentliche Einrichtungen treffen vielschichtige Maßnahmen, um illegal angebrachte Graffiti zu verhindern. Viele Gemeinden geben spezielle Flächen frei. Die gesetzliche Ahndung reicht bis zum Besitzverbot entsprechender Werkzeuge. Der Zentralverband der Deutschen Haus- und Grundeigentümer teilte 2005 mit, dass die Entfernung unerlaubter Graffiti von Gebäuden und öffentlichen Verkehrsmitteln pro Jahr rund 500 Millionen Euro koste.[2] Die Deutsche Bahn beziffert ihre Schäden im Jahr 2012 auf 33 Millionen Euro, von 30000 Vandalismustaten seien 14000 Graffiti-Fälle.

Graffiti ist der Plural des italienischen Worts graffito. Es leitet sich etymologisch aus dem Griechischen von γράφειν (graphein) ab, was schreiben und zeichnen bedeutet.


Im Italienischen bedeutete graffito ursprünglich Schraffierung und bezeichnete (neben der heute auch modernen Bedeutung) eine in Stein geritzte Inschrift oder ornamentale bzw. figurale Dekoration (siehe auch die Stucktechniken des Sgraffito).[4]


Heute wird meist von einem Graffiti, statt von einem Graffito gesprochen und der analog gebildete Plural Graffitis verwendet.[5] Der Duden erlaubt beide Begriffe.[6][7]


Im offiziellen Sprachgebrauch der DDR wurden Graffiti als Teil der Hip-Hop-Jugendkultur als „Rapschrift“ bezeichnet, abgeleitet von Rap.

Es gibt viele verschiedene Arten von Graffiti, deren Abgrenzung oft nicht eindeutig möglich ist. Zum Beispiel können auch Klograffiti politische Inhalte haben oder ein Writer malt einen Schriftzug mit dem Namen seines Lieblingsfußballvereins.


Besonders die Unterscheidung zwischen Writing und Streetart ist heutzutage schwierig, da sich die Techniken oft überschneiden.

Style-Writing/Graffiti-Writing oder kurz Writing ist die mittlerweile am weitesten verbreitete Form von Graffiti und wird deswegen von der Allgemeinheit auch am stärksten wahrgenommen. Durch diesen Umstand findet meist keine Differenzierung zu anderen Formen von nichtwritingbezogenem Graffiti in der breiten Bevölkerung statt. Beim Writing bildet die Schrift (Buchstaben und Zahlen) das Basiselement der Bildkomposition und die Akteure (Writer) stellen an sich selbst einen künstlerischen Anspruch. Die möglichst häufige Verbreitung des Namens bzw. vielmehr des Pseudonyms eines Graffiti-Writers in Kombination mit dessen möglichst einzigartiger, innovativer und vor allem ästhetischer Gestaltung bilden die zentralen Ziele, um ein Höchstmaß an Ruhm (Fame) zu erlangen. Die Ästhetik steht aber deutlich im Vordergrund. Ein Writer, der keinen guten Style hat, erhält keine Anerkennung von anderen Szenemitgliedern, egal wie viel er malt. Bekannte Writing-Künstler sind unter anderem Loomit, DAIM oder auch der Schweizer Dare oder der Deutsch-Franzose Darco.


In der Hip-Hop-Kultur bildet Writing (neben MCing, DJing und B-Boying) eines der vier wesentlichen Elemente. Der Gedanke eines gewaltfreien Wettstreits und das Austragen von Konflikten auf künstlerischer Ebene (Battle) ist ein wesentliches Charakteristikum der friedlichen Writing-Kultur – ebenso wie bei den anderen Elementen des Hip-Hop – und manifestiert sich heutzutage z. B. im weltweit größten Writing-Wettbewerb Write4Gold, bei dem Writer auf zunächst nationaler und in weiteren Runden auch internationaler Ebene gegeneinander antreten, um die Besten ihrer Zunft zu wählen.[9] Writing steht somit im Gegensatz zu der gewalttätigen Gangkultur und darf nicht mit dieser verwechselt werden. Es gibt allerdings auch Writer und Crews, die exklusive Hoheitsansprüche auf ein bestimmtes Gebiet oder auch z. B. eine Zugabstellanlage (Yard) stellen und „Eindringlinge“ rigoros übermalen oder teilweise sogar gewaltsam gegen diese vorgehen.


Scratching ist eine Reaktion der Writerszene auf verstärkte Reinigungsmaßnahmen. Es werden meist Tags dargestellt, die mittels (Schleif-)Steinen, Sandpapier oder Messern vorwiegend in Glas- oder Plastikoberflächen gekratzt werden. Dies soll bezwecken, dass der Schriftzug länger erhalten bleibt. Diese Form von Graffiti-Writing kommt der ursprünglichen Form von Graffiti – dem Kratzen – am nächsten.

Eine extrem gesundheitsgefährdende und potentiell tödliche Art von Graffiti ist das Etching. Auch diese Form ist eine Weiterentwicklung aus der Writerszene, um verstärkten Reinigungsbemühungen entgegenzuwirken. Hierbei wird meistens Glas mit hochgiftiger Fluorwasserstoffsäure angeätzt.

Ganggraffiti sind in den USA bereits seit den 1930er Jahren bekannt. Die Stadt Los Angeles bildet hier eine Hochburg. Im Gegensatz zum Stylewriting dient beim Ganggraffiti das Anbringen von Tags ausschließlich als gezielte Markierung des Reviers (Turf) einer Gang. Die Schriftzüge fungieren hier als Warnung für andere Gangs, die auf diese Weise abgesteckten Grenzen zu überschreiten. Das Übermalen von Schriftzügen verfeindeter Gangs oder das Sprühen in einem fremden Revier gilt als Provokation, und wird teilweise bewusst eingesetzt, um einen Bandenkrieg auszulösen.


Beim Ganggraffiti wird im Gegensatz zum Style-Writing nur teilweise Wert auf eine gewisse Ästhetik gelegt. Die Buchstabengestaltung ist hier stark von Frakturschriften beeinflusst. Die Buchstaben werden nicht, wie oft beim Writing üblich, schreibschriftartig miteinander verbunden. Es entstehen auch so gut wie keine aufwändig ausgestalteten, mehrfarbigen Werke wie in der Writing-Szene.


Pixação ist eine spezielle Form von Ganggraffiti, die ihren Ursprung in São Paulo Ende der 1970er Jahre hat. Die Akteure (Pixadores) stammen meistens aus den Favelas der Stadt und haben daher außer ihrem Leben nicht mehr viel zu verlieren – daher bringen sie ihre Werke oft in teilweise extremer Höhe an. Charakteristisch für diese Art von Graffiti ist, dass fast ausschließlich einfarbige Tags mit Sprühdosen oder Malerrollen angefertigt werden. Die Grundformen der Buchstaben der Pixação sind überwiegend Frakturschriften, Runen und der Typografie der Logos von Heavy-Metal-Bands entlehnt und daher meist recht hoch und schmal. Die einzelnen Zeichen der oft mannshohen Schriftzüge, die auch figürliche Darstellungen enthalten können, haben meist eine einheitliche Höhe und sind klar voneinander abgegrenzt.


Auch Fußballfans, die meist der Ultra-Bewegung entstammen, kennzeichnen Orte, die sie besuchen, mit Graffiti. Diese sind künstlerisch eher anspruchslos und dienen der reinen Markierung. Es gibt einige Parallelen zum Ganggraffiti, da auch Fußballfans verschiedener Mannschaften oft verfeindet sind und sich daher oft gegenseitig übermalen.


In den jeweiligen Heimatorten der Gruppen werden auch teilweise aufwändige Wandmalereien angefertigt. Heutzutage entnehmen die Ultras auch Elemente aus der Writing-Kultur und dem Streetart-Bereich.


Unter dem Begriff Streetart (engl. für Straßenkunst) werden nichtwritingbezogenes künstlerisches Graffiti, Stencils, die Stickerkunst, Plakatierung und auch Installationen im öffentlichen Raum zusammengefasst. Auch viele Akteure der Adbusting-Szene sind Streetartists. Bei der Streetart spielen bildliche Motive meist eine größere Rolle als die Schrift.

Unter einem Stencil oder Pochoir versteht man eine Schablone, die vorher angefertigt werden muss und durch die anschließend die Farbe gesprüht wird. Häufig werden entsprechend der ursprünglichen Verwendung Politiker, politische Symbole, ideologisch dargestellte Personen, oder gesellschaftskritische Motive gesprüht.

Weit verbreitet und schon seit langem praktiziert sind Graffiti auf Plakaten, insbesondere solchen, auf denen Personen abgebildet sind. Die häufigste Form der Plakatgraffiti besteht darin, die auf diesen Personen abgebildeten Personen mit Bärten oder Hörnern zu „verzieren“. Graffiti auf Plakaten sind insbesondere zu Wahlkampfzeiten häufig zu beobachten. Diese Form von Graffiti ist eher in der Kategorie Klograffiti anzusiedeln.


Eine spezielle Form von Plakatgraffiti ist das sogenannte Adbusting, dessen Akteure meist aus dem Streetart-Bereich stammen und das als Konsum- und Gesellschaftskritik verstanden werden soll.

Politische Graffiti sind meist eher künstlerisch anspruchslos und dienen lediglich der anonymen Darstellung diverser meist gegen die Obrigkeit gerichteter Ansichten. Themen sind u. a. Ideologie, Religion, Antisemitismus, Rassismus und Diskriminierung von Minderheiten wie etwa Homosexuellen. Außerdem sind sie Ausdruck der Wut gegen z. B. Polizei und politische Machtverhältnisse (insbesondere in autoritären und totalitären Systemen) oder stellen allgemein Parolen oder auch nur Symbole dar.


Um eine möglichst große Zahl an Rezipienten zu erreichen, werden politische Graffiti vornehmlich an sehr stark frequentierten und gut sichtbaren Orten angebracht, wie etwa während des Arabischen Frühlings ab 2011 am Kairoer Tahrir-Platz.[16]


Beispielsweise in Nordirland oder dem Baskenland, aber auch in Metropolen wie z. B. Los Angeles finden politische Ansichten aber auch teilweise in aufwändigen Murals Ausdruck.

Klograffiti ist eine Form von Graffiti, die seit der Antike praktiziert wird. Dabei steht der künstlerische Anspruch – im gestalterischen Sinne – weniger oder gar nicht im Vordergrund. 2009 wurde ein großformatiges Werk für Kammerchor und Symphonieorchester des finnischen Komponisten Magnus Lindberg mit dem Titel Graffiti uraufgeführt, in dem der Komponist 62 lateinische Graffiti-Texte[17] aus Pompei und Herculaneum verwendet.[18] Unter dem Begriff Klograffiti werden sämtliche Kritzeleien wie Gedichte, Reime, Sprüche, Witze und Liebesbekundungen, Karikaturen und einfache Zeichnungen oder auch das bloße Hinterlassen von Namen zusammengefasst, die auf öffentlichen Toiletten zu finden sind. Zum Teil haben die Klosprüche philosophische, sexuelle oder humoristische Inhalte.[19]


Auch außerhalb von öffentlichen Toiletten lassen sich latrinaliaähnliche Graffiti finden, so z. B. in Gefängnissen oder auch an Orten, die besonders häufig Ziele von Touristen oder Wallfahrern sind, wie Berggipfel, Aussichtstürme oder z. B. unter dem Balkon von Romeo und Julia in Verona oder auch das Grab von Jim Morrison in Paris. Zu dieser Kategorie kann man auch Baumritzungen zählen, die von Wanderern und Liebespaaren mit einem spitzen Gegenstand (z. B. Taschenmesser) in die Rinde geschnitten werden. Das Hinterlassen von Namen weist in diesem Zusammenhang zwar gewisse Parallelen zum modernen Taggen auf, wird aber von Nicht-Writern erheblich seltener und nur an bestimmten Orten, zudem meist ohne Verwendung eines Pseudonyms, praktiziert.


Im Gefängnis entsteht Graffiti vorwiegend durch die Haftsituation und Langeweile. Im Untersuchungsgefängnis entstehen so ganze Sammlungen von Eintragungen, die vom einfachen Namen, Datumsangabe, über einfache Zeichnungen bis zu politischen Organisationsnamen oder Losungen reichen, die auf den Anlass der Verhaftung hindeuten. Teilweise werden, da hinreichend Zeit vorhanden ist, Namen auch typografisch sorgfältig ausgeführt. Als Schreibwerkzeug dienen verfügbare Dinge wie Bleistift, Kugelschreiber, Filzstift, Schlüssel oder Nägel.[20] Eine besondere Variante der Gefängnisgraffiti sind die Malereien, die Studenten während ihrer Haft in den universitären Karzern anbrachten.

Zinken sind Geheimzeichen von Gaunern, Landstreichern oder „fahrendem Volk“ allgemein, die an öffentlichen Orten angebracht werden, um Gleichgesinnte über die dortige Situation zu informieren. Diese Art der grafischen Kommunikation gibt es bereits seit dem 16. Jahrhundert.


Beim Reverse Graffiti werden schmutzige Oberflächen z. B. mit Wasser, Seife und Bürste selektiv so gesäubert, dass der gesäuberte Bereich das Graffiti darstellt.[21] Diese Form von Graffiti wird sowohl von Writern und Streetartists, als auch Normalbürgern und von der Industrie genutzt,[22] da durch diese Form von Graffiti Gesetzeslagen umgangen werden können.

Eine sehr moderne Weiterentwicklung von Graffiti, auch aufgrund verschärfter Gesetzeslagen, sind LED-Throwies. Dies sind kleine batteriebetriebene Leuchtdioden, die mit einem Magneten verbunden sind und möglichst hoch auf metallene (ferromagnetische) Oberflächen geworfen werden, damit sie eine höhere Verweildauer haben. Das Setzen konkreter Inhalte oder Botschaften in Form von Texten oder Bildern nennt man Nightwriting.

Auch mit Moos arbeiten Graffiti-Künstler, wie zum Beispiel der deutsche DTagno, der bei dem Projekt ARTotale der Leuphana Universität Lüneburg, eine Wand mit Moos-Tags überzog


Die Baumgraffiti werden in der Forstwirtschaft zur Markierung des Baumbestandes bei Waldarbeiten benutzt, ähnlich wie Markierungen im Straßenbau (technisches Graffiti).


Im Rahmen der ersten Aktion Spechtbaum markierten hunderttausende Natur- und Vogelschützer von Pro Natura und dem Schweizer Vogelschutz, Bäume mit Spechthöhlen. Dazu wurde ein Logo als Pochoir mittels pinkfarbenem Spray auf Brusthöhe an den Stämmen angebracht.

Die ersten Graffiti fanden sich im Alten Ägypten. Damit sind nicht die reich ausgestalteten Wandmalereien in den Tempeln und Grabstätten gemeint, sondern gemäß der Definition private, gekratzte Inschriften, die sich auf Tempeln, in Gräbern, auf Felsen und Statuen befinden. Es finden sich spätestens seit dem Alten Reich – also 2707–2216 v. Chr. – Graffiti in verschiedenen Schriften und Sprachen. So z. B. demotische, phönikische, aramäische, meroitische, lateinische und griechische Inschriften. Thematisch umfassen sie u. a. Segenswünsche, Gebete, Verehrungen von Göttern und Tempeleide. Es gibt aber auch Abrechnungen und bloße Listen von Waren, sowie auch nur den Namen des Schreibers selbst, so wie es auch heute noch üblich ist.[27][28] Die ägyptischen Graffiti lassen sich bis in die Mitte des 5. Jahrhunderts n. Chr. nachvollziehen. Das letzte in demotischer Schrift wird auf den 12. Dezember 452 n. Chr. datiert.[29]


Auch bei den Römern, z. B. in den Städten Pompeji und Herculaneum, die bereits 79 n. Chr. untergingen, geben viele Graffiti Aufschluss über die Lebenssituation der Menschen. Hinzu kommen hier sexuelle Inhalte, und Bilder, wie etwa Karikaturen oder andere Zeichnungen. Viele Graffiti handeln auch von Gladiatorenkämpfen und finden sich vornehmlich am Stadion.


Die gleiche Art von Inschriften finden sich z. B. auch im 2. und 3. Jahrhundert n. Chr. u. a. in den griechischen Städten Ephesos und Aphrodisias, die zu diesem Zeitpunkt ebenfalls Teil des römischen Reiches waren. Verfasst sind die Graffiti überwiegend in griechisch und nur selten in Latein. Das Anbringen von Graffiti scheint nichts Verwerfliches gewesen zu sein, so dass auch Lobpreisungen auf Gastwirte in Räumen gefunden wurden.[30][31]


In Amerika wurden bei den Maya in Tikal ebenfalls Graffiti gefunden. Diese sollen bis ca. 100 v. Chr. zurückreichen.[32]


Durch die Inhalte der antiken Graffiti lassen sich authentische Rückschlüsse über den damaligen Alltag der Menschen ziehen. Außerdem geben sie Auskunft über den Alphabetisierungsgrad der Bevölkerung zu den jeweiligen Zeiten. Durch die Datierung der Graffiti ergeben sich weitere wichtige Informationen für Historiker.[30]


Auch die Wikinger hinterließen Spuren in Form von Graffiti. Wahrscheinlich im 9. Jahrhundert ritzte ein Wikinger namens „Halvdan“ in Istanbul Runen in eine Balustrade der Hagia Sophia.[33] Im 12. Jahrhundert brachten Wikinger dem heutigen Klograffiti ähnliche Inschriften in einem Grab auf den Orkney-Inseln an.[34]


Seit dem 16. Jahrhundert findet man in Europa sogenannte „Zinken“ auf diversen Untergründen, die von fahrendem Volk angebracht werden, um Gleichgesinnte über die lokale Situation zu informieren. So werden diese Geheimzeichen z. B. an Wohnhäusern angebracht, um nachfolgenden Landstreichern anzuzeigen, ob es dort etwas zu erbetteln gibt oder ob man lieber nicht vorsprechen sollte, weil Prügel zu erwarten sind. Diese Symbole finden bis in die heutige Zeit Verwendung.[35]


Seit Anfang des 17. Jahrhunderts werden Inschriften in den sogenannten „Inscription Rock“ in New Mexico geritzt. Die erste stammt aus dem Jahr 1605 von dem spanischen Conquistador Don Juan de Oñate. Seitdem haben sich ca. 2.000 Personen dort verewigt. Heutzutage ist dies allerdings verboten. Die amerikanischen Ureinwohner haben dort bereits lange vor den Europäern und ihren Nachfahren Petroglyphen (Felszeichnungen) angebracht.


Der französische Schriftsteller Nicolas Edme Restif de la Bretonne ritzte von 1779–1789 in Paris verschiedene Texte mit einem Schlüssel in Wände und an Brücken. Er dokumentierte sogar seine gesamten Graffiti in seinem Buch „Mes Inscriptions“ (Meine Inschriften), das nach seinem Tod veröffentlicht wurde.[36]


Im 18. und 19. Jahrhundert ritzten Zöglinge der Klosterschule Bebenhausen ihre Namen in die Mauern des Kreuzgangs.


Ende des 18. und Anfang des 19. Jahrhunderts waren es u. a. die Soldaten Napoleons, die auf ihren Kriegszügen Graffiti hinterließen. So z. B. 1797 in Ludweiler[37] oder auch während des Ägyptenfeldzugs am Tempel der Isis in Philae.[38]


Auch der englische Dichter Lord Byron hinterließ seinen Namen an mehreren Orten. Dokumentiert sind u. a. seine Graffiti im Poseidontempel in Kap Sounion von 1810[39] und im Schloss Chillon von 1816.[40]


Der italienische Entdecker Giovanni Battista Belzoni bereiste zwischen 1815–1819 wiederum Ägypten und brachte diverse Graffiti an, um der Nachwelt seine Anwesenheit zu dokumentieren. So schrieb er 1818 in der Chephren-Pyramide „Scoperta da G. Belzoni 2 mar 1818.“.[41] Ebenso hinterließ er ein noch heute erhaltenes Graffito auf einer Säule im Ramesseum in Theben-West.[42]


In den 1830er Jahren gab es in Paris vermehrt Graffiti, die hauptsächlich von Straßenjungen angebracht wurden. Mehrere zeitgenössische Darstellungen zeigen, wie diese sogenannten „Gamins“ Birnengraffiti malen. Diese Birnengraffiti gehen auf eine damals populäre Karikatur des „Bürgerkönigs“ Louis-Philippe zurück, in der dessen Kopf aus physiognomisch naheliegenden Gründen zu einer Birne verwandelt wurde.[43]


1843 ritzte der Mathematiker William Rowan Hamilton spontan die Multiplikationsformel der Quaternionen in den Stein der Broom Bridge in Dublin, um die Lösung festzuhalten, die ihm dort nach jahrelanger Suche plötzlich eingefallen war. An dieses „Scratching“ erinnert heute eine Gedenktafel.


Im 19. und frühen 20. Jahrhundert brachten Studenten in den Karzern der Universitäten diverse Sprüche, Bilder und Karikaturen an, so auch der spätere Reichskanzler Otto von Bismarck 1833 in Göttingen.[44] Heutzutage werden diese Gefängnisgraffiti restauriert, um sie der Nachwelt als Zeugnis des damaligen studentischen Lebens zu erhalten.[45][46]


Als die Maya-Stadt Tikal in Guatemala wiederentdeckt wurde, in der bereits in der Antike Graffiti entstanden, verewigten sich dort wiederum die Forscher. So auch der Archäologe „Teoberto Maler 1895–1904“.[47]


Mao Zedong brachte 1915 in den Waschräumen seiner Universität in Changsha eine über 4000 Zeichen lange Schmähschrift über seine Lehrer und die chinesische Gesellschaft an. Damit hält er den Weltrekord für das Graffiti mit den meisten Zeichen.


Mindestens seit den 1930er Jahren gibt es in den Vereinigten Staaten Graffiti, die von Gangs angebracht werden. Diese Praxis findet auch bis in die heutige Zeit Anwendung. Die Blütezeit der Ganggraffiti war von den 1970er Jahren bis in die 1990er Jahre. Obwohl auch hier das Anbringen von Namen (taggen) eine Rolle spielt, darf diese Art von Graffiti nicht mit dem Writing verwechselt werden.[48]


Als 1955 der Jazz-Saxophonist Charlie „Bird“ Parker stirbt, erscheint kurze Zeit später der Spruch „Bird Lives!“ an den Jazzclubs in New York, für den sich später Ted Joans und einige seiner Freunde verantwortlich erklärten.[49]


Eine weitere künstlerisch anspruchslose Form des Taggens, die der reinen Markierung dient, wird seit den 1960er Jahren von einigen Fußballfans, die meist der Ultrà-Bewegung angehören, praktiziert. So markieren die Anhänger einer Mannschaft z. B. bei Auswärtsspielen ihre Aufenthaltsorte aber selbstverständlich auch ihre Heimatstadt vorrangig mit ihrem Gruppennamen. Teilweise entstehen jedoch auch großflächige Wandbilder mit Schriftzügen und Vereinsemblemen, welche doch einen gewissen künstlerischen Anspruch besitzen. In dem Fall wird häufig die Frakturschrift als Vorbild für die Buchstabengestaltung verwendet oder heutzutage ebenso häufig auch der Writingstil. Wie die Ultrà-Bewegung selbst findet diese Praxis ihren Ursprung in Italien.


1967 sprühte in der Londoner U-Bahn-Station Islington erstmals ein Unbekannter den Spruch „Clapton is God“. Dieser verbreitete sich daraufhin auch an anderen Orten in London. Heute ist dieses Graffito durch ein berühmtes Foto dokumentiert, auf dem ein Hund an die Wand uriniert, auf dem sich der Schriftzug befindet.[50]


1968 trat Peter-Ernst Eiffe in Erscheinung, der in Hamburg als erster Deutscher Graffiti in einem größeren Stil verbreitet haben soll. So schrieb er seinen Namen samt Adresse und diverse Sprüche überall in der Stadt auf Wände und andere Stadtmöbel.


1970 tauchte in München der Schriftzug „Heiduk“ auf. Dieses angeblich nichtsbedeutende Wort soll auf eine linke Kommune aus dem Schlachthofviertel zurückgehen.[51]


Allgemein finden sich im Zuge der APO und Studentenbewegungen der 1960er Jahre vermehrt politische Graffiti. Das wohl bekannteste ist das bereits 1958 entstandene Peace-Zeichen.


In den späten 1970er- und frühen 1980er Jahren waren es in Europa, noch vor dem Import des amerikanischen Writings, hauptsächlich Punks, die „taggten“. Hierbei tat sich besonders Amsterdam als Zentrum hervor. Teilweise wurden von den Punks schon Pseudonyme verwendet, jedoch erhoben sie auch eher keinen künstlerischen Anspruch an ihre Hinterlassenschaften, was im allgemeinen Ästhetikverständnis dieser Jugendkultur begründet liegt. Demzufolge gab es auch keine solche Entwicklung zu technisch ausgereiften Werken wie in den USA; die Graffiti behielten den Status von reinen Kritzeleien. Punks waren offenbar auch die ersten die im öffentlichen Raum Stencils in einem künstlerischen Kontext verwendeten.


Da sich Graffiti im europäischen Kulturraum zunächst völlig unabhängig von der Writing-Kultur in den USA entwickelten, entstanden hier gänzlich andere Ausdrucksformen. Anders als beim amerikanischen Writing bildete hier nicht die Schrift oder ein Name das Basiselement der Graffitikomposition, sondern vielmehr bildliche Motive.


Hierbei war besonders die Metropole Paris innovativ. Dem Franzosen Gérard Zlotykamien wird zugerechnet, als erster Künstler überhaupt und bereits vor der Entwicklung des Style-Writings im öffentlichen Raum künstlerisch tätig geworden zu sein. Zunächst mit Kreide oder Pinsel, später auch mit Sprühfarbe, malte er erstmals 1963 Strichfiguren, seine „Éphémères“ („die Vergänglichen“/„vom baldigen Verschwinden Bedrohten“), auf Mauern und andere Untergründe.


Ebenfalls in Paris verteilte seit 1981 Blek le Rat, anfangs noch als Duo, seine Schablonengraffiti auf diversen Wänden, nachdem er nach eigenen Aussagen kläglich daran gescheitert war, mit seinem Partner ein Piece im amerikanischen Writing-Stil zu sprühen.


1983 gestaltete Claude Costa in der Pariser Metro erstmals dort hängende Plakate mit Pinsel und Farbe um – eine frühe Form des Adbusting.


Fischfrau von Harald Naegeli, Fürstenplatz in Düsseldorf, um 1997

Seit 1977 sprüht Harald Naegeli, der ‚Sprayer von Zürich‘, seine Strichfiguren auf Wände in diversen Großstädten. Wegen seiner Graffiti in Zürich wurde er 1981 zu neun Monaten Haft und 206.000 Franken Strafe verurteilt. Diese Strafe musste er 1984 absitzen, nachdem er nach Deutschland geflohen und ein internationaler Haftbefehl gegen ihn ausgestellt worden war. Heute ist er ein anerkannter Künstler, dessen Werke von der Stadt Zürich als schützenswert erachtet werden.


Das „Liebespaar“ des Aachener Wandmalers Klaus Paier wurde im Dezember 2011 unter Denkmalschutz gestellt. Seine weiteren noch in Aachen vorhandenen Kunstwerke sollen ebenfalls geschützt werden.


Neben diesen europäischen, eher der Streetart zuzurechnenden Graffiti-Aktivisten gibt es auch im amerikanischen Kulturraum Sprayer, die diesem Genre und nicht dem Style-Writing zugeordnet werden können. Hier sind unter anderen Keith Haring, Jean-Michel Basquiat und Richard Hambleton als bekannte Vertreter zu erwähnen.

Graffiti-Writing als eines der vier wesentlichen Elemente (neben Rap/MCing, DJing und B-Boying) der Hip-Hop-Kultur[52] hat seine Wurzeln im New York Ende der 1960er Jahre. Es besteht jedoch nicht zwingend ein Zusammenhang zwischen Writing und Hip-Hop. Writing ist älter als die Hip-Hop-Kultur, welche erst später alle vier Elemente miteinander vereinte. So sind auch heutzutage nicht alle Writer zwangsläufig zugleich Hip-Hopper.


Das Hinterlassen von Namen ist so alt wie die Geschichte des Graffiti selbst. Schon bei den Alten Ägyptern findet man Zeugnisse dieser Praxis – jedoch nicht in dem Ausmaß, wie es beim modernen Graffiti-Writing der Fall ist.


Als Vorläufer des Graffiti-Writings gilt der Schriftzug Kyselak, den der Österreicher Joseph Kyselak im 19. Jahrhundert auf Grund einer Wette an alle möglichen und unmöglichen Stellen schrieb. Diese Art des Markierens von Stellen ist identisch mit dem Prinzip des modernen Taggens in der Writingkultur; jedoch ohne den ästhetischen Aspekt, den die Writer heutzutage an sich stellen. Auch verwendet er noch kein Pseudonym, so wie es später üblich ist.


Ein weiterer Vorläufer ist der Satz „Kilroy was here“, der im Zweiten Weltkrieg von US-Soldaten an die unmöglichsten und seltsamsten Stellen geschrieben wurde. Hier wurde derselbe Name von mehreren Personen gleichzeitig und damit wesentlich stärker verbreitet. Man kann sagen, dass diese Vorgehensweise dem Zusammenschluss von mehreren Writern zu einer Crew bereits ähnelt.


Mitte der 1960er Jahre begann Darryl McCray, sein Pseudonym CORNBREAD in Philadelphia zu verbreiten. Anfangs nur, um die Aufmerksamkeit eines Mädchens zu gewinnen, wurde es danach eine Art Selbstläufer, und er versuchte immer verrücktere Stellen zu taggen, um noch berühmter zu werden. So schrieb er sein Pseudonym u. a. an einen Elefanten im Zoo von Philadelphia und an den Privatjet der Jackson 5.[53] Zu erwähnen ist auch sein Partner COOL EARL. Möglichst waghalsige Aktionen, so wie es bereits Kyselak tat, und der damit verbundene Ruhm spielten somit als zentrales Ziel bereits eine entscheidende Rolle, so wie es auch heute noch für das moderne Graffiti-Writing üblich ist. Ein weiterer bedeutender Schritt weg vom bis dahin ausschließlich vorherrschenden Graffiti als Bestandteil der Gangkultur in Richtung Writing ist ebenfalls CORNBREAD zuzurechnen, da er als erster unabhängig von Gangrevieren, den sogenannten Turfs, im gesamten Stadtgebiet operierte.[54] CORNBREAD war übrigens auch der erste, der eine Krone über sein Tag setzte.


Ende der 1960er Jahre schwappte das Phänomen des Taggens nach New York City über, wo es erst so richtig populär wurde. Am 21. Juli 1971 berichtete die New York Times über das Faible eines griechisch-stämmigen Botenjungen, sein Pseudonym TAKI 183 während seiner Botengänge durch die Stadt New York auf diversen Wänden zu hinterlassen.[55] Dies animierte zahlreiche Nachahmer. Das Tagging breitete sich schnell unter den Jugendlichen der ganzen Stadt aus. Es wird gemutmaßt, dass evtl. JULIO 204 bereits vorher mit dem Taggen in New York begann, jedoch nicht die Aufmerksamkeit wie TAKI 183 erfuhr und daher nicht so bekannt wurde.[56]


Mit Markern oder Filzstiften und Sprühdosen brachten die Akteure ihre Kürzel, Zeichen oder Pseudonyme möglichst auffällig an Wänden, Türen, Bänken etc. an. Aufgrund der enormen Anzahl von Writern, wie die Mitglieder der Szene genannt werden, wurden die Tags immer größer und aufwändiger, und jeder Einzelne musste einen möglichst eigenen, innovativen Style und neue Techniken entwickeln, um aus der Masse von Namen hervorzustechen. Auch die Stellen wurden immer spektakulärer. Die Tagger entdeckten die U-Bahn als hervorragendes Mittel, den Namen leichter zu verbreiten, da so ihr Name durch die Stadt zu den Leuten fuhr und nicht umgekehrt.


Durch Erfindung des Fatcaps und das anschließende Umranden der auf diese Weise dickeren Buchstaben mit einer anderen Farbe (Outline) wurde das Piece – kurz für Masterpiece – erfunden. Diese Schritte werden SUPERKOOL 223 zugerechnet,[57] der ebenfalls als erster einen U-Bahn-Waggon von außen mit einem solchen Piece besprüht haben soll. Die Pieces wurden zunehmend größer, auffälliger und technisch ausgereifter, behielten aber im Prinzip meist nur die Form der Tags, die lediglich umrandet wurden. Die Writer begannen an sich selbst einen künstlerischen Anspruch zu stellen, und es entwickelten sich schnell verschiedene Styles, wie der Bubblestyle und der Wildstyle von PHASE2 oder der an Western-Typografie erinnernde Broadway Elegant, der durch TOPCAT 126 von Philadelphia nach New York importiert wurde[58][57] und sich bald zum Blockbuster weiterentwickelte.


Bedeutende Namen aus der Anfangszeit der Kultur sind u. a. FRANK 207, EDDIE 181, HONDO 1, JAPAN 1, MOSES 147, SNAKE 131, LEE 163rd, STAR 3, TRACY 168, BARBARA 62, EVA 62, CAY 161, JUNIOR 161 und STAY HIGH 149.[58][57]


Neuerungen wie der 3D-Block, um dem Style Tiefe zu geben, mehrfarbige Fill-Ins und Hintergrundgestaltungen (Background/Cloud), sowie Darstellungen von Figuren (Character) kamen allmählich hinzu. Gegen 1974 verwendeten Writer wie TRACY 168, CLIFF 159 und BLADE erstmals aufwändige Hintergrundgestaltungen und Figuren, dass bald ein kompletter Waggon mit detaillierten Szenerien gestaltet wurde (Mural-Wholecar). Der Style entwickelte sich ebenfalls weiter, dadurch dass die verschiedenen Writer Ideen anderer übernahmen, eigens interpretierten und weiterentwickelten. Zusätzlich wurde der Throw-Up erfunden. Auf diese Weise waren bis 1974 alle grundlegenden Entwicklungen abgeschlossen, auf denen alle weiteren Generationen aufbauten.[58][57]


Anfang der 1980er Jahre begann der Niedergang des Writings auf U-Bahnen in New York, da die Abstellanlagen besser gesichert und die Züge schneller und öfter gereinigt wurden. Durch die größeren Anstrengungen, die unternommen werden mussten, um die Züge zu bemalen, kam es zu Hoheitsansprüchen einiger Writer auf bestimmte Abstellanlagen und dementsprechend vermehrt zu Gewalt gegen „Eindringlinge“. Dies demotivierte eine große Zahl von Writern. Außerdem durften Sprühdosen nicht mehr an Minderjährige verkauft werden, und die Händler mussten die Sprühdosen in abgeschlossenen Schränken aufbewahren, damit sie nicht mehr gestohlen werden konnten.[58] Trotzdem blieb bis Ende der 1980er Jahre eine noch immer recht große Anzahl von Writern, die weiterhin auf U-Bahnen malten. Erst als 1989 der letzte Zug gereinigt wurde, malten nur noch sehr wenige New Yorker, aus nostalgischen Gründen oder weil sie den Kampf gegen die MTA nicht verlieren wollten, sowie einige Touristen, die in das „Mekka“ des Writings pilgerten, auf U-Bahnen.[59][57]


Das Writing wurde Anfang der 1980er Jahre auch über New Yorks Grenzen hinaus populär. Dem Franzosen BANDO CTK wird zugerechnet, 1983 das amerikanische Style-Writing nach Europa quasi importiert und hier maßgeblich zu dessen Verbreitung beigetragen zu haben.[60] Besonders aber auch durch die Filme Wild Style, Beat Street und Style Wars, durch die eine breite Öffentlichkeit erreicht wurde, fand die Idee des Writing in den 1980er Jahren vornehmlich in westlichen Kulturen begeisterte Anhänger.[59] Nach dem Ende des Kalten Krieges verbreitete sich das Graffiti-Writing auch vermehrt im Ostblock. Mittlerweile ist es fast auf der ganzen Welt verbreitet, jedoch vorwiegend in Europa, Nord- und Südamerika, sowie Australien. In Entwicklungsgebieten wie z. B. Afrika gibt es bis auf in Südafrika keine lokalen Szenen.


Writer, die mit Beginn der Bewegung auf dem jeweiligen Kontinent aktiv wurden, werden heute gemeinhin als Old School (alte Schule) bezeichnet. Es ist üblich, dass auch in einer Stadt die lokalen Pioniere dieser Kultur so bezeichnet werden.


Durch die vielen Weiterentwicklungen, die im Writing-Bereich in der jüngsten Zeit gemacht wurden, ist es heutzutage schwierig, die beiden Begriffe Writing und Streetart klar voneinander zu trennen. Viele Techniken überschneiden sich. Manche Writer haben z. B. ihren Namen so weit abstrahiert oder verbildlicht, dass sie zwar weiterhin unter einem Pseudonym bekannt sind, aber im Prinzip nur noch eine Art Logo oder ein figürliches Motiv als Erkennungszeichen verwenden. Andere Writer schreiben ihre Tags oder Bilder in Heimarbeit auf Sticker und Plakate, da diese schneller angebracht werden können. Wieder andere bauen dreidimensionale Plastiken ihres Namens und installieren diese im öffentlichen Raum. All dies sind aber auch Techniken aus dem Streetart-Bereich. Daher findet der englische Begriff Post-Graffiti manchmal Verwendung, der diese technische Weiterentwicklung beschreibt.


Graffiti werden auf allen geeigneten Oberflächen verschiedener Objekte gesprüht oder gemalt oder durch Veränderung und Eingriff in die Struktur der Objekte erstellt. Häufige Beispiele sind Hauswände, Trafostationen, Brücken, Unterführungen, Eisenbahnanlagen, Fahrzeuge, Schallschutzwände, Stromkästen oder Verkehrsschilder.


In der sogenannten Writing-Szene gilt als Faustregel: Je schwieriger ein Objekt zu erreichen und zu bemalen ist, desto größer ist die Anerkennung innerhalb dieser Gruppe. Eine auf einem Hausdach gelegene Wand, ein ganzer Eisenbahnzug oder z. B. auch ein Einsatzfahrzeug der Polizei sind in der Regel schwieriger zu bemalen, als eine Straßenunterführung und bringen dementsprechend mehr Ansehen. Hierbei hängt der Grad der Anerkennung aber auch von Qualität (Sauberkeit, Stil u. ä.) und Quantität ab.


Das Bemalen von Einfamilienhäusern, privaten PKW, Denkmälern, Grabsteinen, historischen Gebäuden und ähnlichen Objekten soll in der Writing-Szene hingegen verpönt sein, wenngleich diese selbstauferlegten Tabus keine Allgemeingültigkeit besitzen. Zudem werden Graffiti auch von Personen erstellt, die sich nicht dieser Szene zurechnen und sich entsprechend auch nicht an diese angeblich ungeschriebenen Regeln halten.


Das nicht genehmigte Aufbringen von Graffiti kann zivil- und strafrechtliche Folgen haben.


Rechtslage Deutschland, Österreich, Schweiz

Zivilrechtlich kann gegen die Sprayer ein Schadensersatzanspruch wegen unerlaubter Handlung entstehen. Ein Entfernen ist oft mit hohen Kosten verbunden, doch kann die Verjährung des Anspruchs auch bei einem momentan zahlungsunfähigen Verursacher bis zu fünf Jahre betragen. Daneben kann der Eigentümer auch Unterlassung verlangen.


Strafrechtlich werden Graffiti als Sachbeschädigung verfolgt, die auch mit einer Freiheitsstrafe sanktioniert werden kann. Die dafür geltenden Rechtsnormen sind in Deutschland § 303 und § 304 StGB (Geldstrafe oder bis 2 Jahre Freiheitsstrafe, bei der Beschädigung von Grabmälern, Denkmälern oder öffentlichen Kunstgegenständen bis zu 3 Jahren). In Österreich die §§ 125 und 126 StGB und in der Schweiz der Artikel 144 StGB.


Allerdings war es lange Zeit so, dass ein Eingriff in Sachsubstanz oder Funktion verlangt wurde, um den Tatbestand der Sachbeschädigung zu erfüllen (BGHSt 29, 129). Wenn die bestimmungsgemäße Funktion nicht wie bei Denkmälern, Verkehrsschildern usw. gerade in einem bestimmten Aussehen lag, erkannte die Rechtsprechung einen solchen Eingriff bei entfernbaren Aufsprühungen nicht. Eine weitere Auslegung überschreite die Wortlautgrenze (vgl. Analogieverbot). Allerdings ließen es die Gerichte genügen, dass Verletzungen der Sachsubstanz erst mit dem Entfernen entstanden. Diese Rechtsprechung verursachte aber sowohl praktische (Beweisprobleme, Gutachterkosten) wie auch dogmatische (Erfolgseintritt und damit Vollendungszeitpunkt) Probleme. Das führte in Deutschland im September 2005 zum 39. Strafrechtsänderungsgesetz, das den Sachbeschädigungstatbestand um den neuen Absatz 2 erweiterte. Danach macht sich auch strafbar, „wer unbefugt das Erscheinungsbild einer fremden Sache nicht nur unerheblich und nicht nur vorübergehend verändert.“ Noch nicht höchstrichterlich geklärt ist, was alles unter diesen neuen Tatbestand fällt.


Weitere mögliche Straftatbestände können sich aus der Verletzung des Eigentumsrechts (unerlaubtes Betreten fremden Grund und Bodens: § 123 StGB – Hausfriedensbruch) sowie durch Gefährdung des Straßen- und Eisenbahnverkehrs bei Bemalung von Verkehrszeichen, -schildern und Signalen (§ 315 und § 315b StGB – Gefährliche Eingriffe in den Bahn- oder Straßenverkehr) ergeben. Die Verwendung von Flusssäure im öffentlich zugänglichen Raum wird als Verbrechenstatbestand im Sinne des § 330a StGB – Schwere Gefährdung durch Freisetzen von Giften verfolgt.


Einige Länder haben auch im öffentlichen Recht entsprechende Regelungen getroffen. So findet sich im § 9 Abs. 3 der Bauordnung des Landes Berlin eine Pflicht zum Entfernen von „Farbschmierereien“. Dies geschieht auch, um durch eine rasche Entfernung der Graffiti die Attraktivität zu senken.


In der Berichterstattung über Gerichtsverfahren gegen Graffitikünstler wird auch auf den Konflikt der betroffenen Grundrechte hingewiesen. Auf der einen Seite die Kunstfreiheit (s. Artikel 5 GG oder Art. 5 GG) und auf der anderen die Gewährleistung von Eigentum (s. Art. 14 GG) beziehungsweise konkret die Sachbeschädigung nach § 303 Absatz 2 StGB.[63][64][65] Dies kann anhand des seit über 20 Jahren illegal arbeiteten Graffiti-Sprayer Oz in Hamburg verfolgt werden oder an den Augsburgblumen, die auf öffentliche Akzeptanz stießen (das Stadtmarketing wollte mit der den Blumen werben), dem Künstler aber wegen Sachbeschädigung 10 Monate Haft auf Bewährung sowie die Leistung von Sozialstunden und Geldstrafe einbrachten. Ein weiterer Fall, bei dem eine Abwägung zwischen Kunstfreiheit und Eigentum zum Tragen kam, ist die rechtliche Auseinandersetzung um den Graffiti-Dokumentarfilm UNLIKE U. Die betroffene Kunst ist hier allerdings nicht das Erstellen von Graffiti, sondern das Filmen davon auf dem Eigentum der Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe. Diese hatten wegen der Aufnahmen geklagt und in erster Instanz Recht bekommen; die nächste Instanz hob das Urteil wieder auf.[66][67] In dem Londoner Stadtbezirk Islington beschloss der Rat, die Graffiti von Banksy nicht nur nicht mehr zu entfernen, sondern sie zu schützen und wieder herzurichten.[68] In einem Fall in Düsseldorf ließ der Freund des afghanischen Models Zohre Esmaeli das Bild seiner Freundin zu deren Geburtstag durch den Airbrush-Künstler Andi Ponto als vier mal fünf Meter großes Wandgemälde an die einem Bahngelände zugewandte Brandwand eines Privathauses sprühen. Nachdem der Eigentümer des Hauses Anzeige wegen Sachbeschädigung erstattet hatte, begann die Staatsanwaltschaft mit den Ermittlungen.


Aufgrund der weiten Verbreitung von illegalen Graffiti gibt es Bestrebungen, potenzielle Ziele im öffentlichen Raum vor Sprayern zu schützen.


Im Wesentlichen gibt es hierfür folgende präventive Ansätze:


Schnelles Reinigen von Flächen, die häufig besprüht werden, um die Hoheit über die Fläche zu zeigen und den Anreiz für aufwändige Arbeiten zu nehmen. Der wesentliche Anreiz des Sprayers, seine Arbeit im öffentlichen Raum sichtbar zu zeigen, wird so zunichtegemacht. Dieser Ansatz hat in der Praxis häufig den negativen Effekt, dass die Qualität der aufgebrachten Graffiti extrem sinkt, teilweise sogar im andauernden „Crossen“ der Fläche endet.

Kameraüberwachung in Verkehrsmitteln und auf Bahnhöfen und Bahnanlagen. Dies soll vor allem abschreckend wirken, da das eigentliche Besprühen oder Kratzen damit nicht verhindert werden kann. Über die abschreckende Wirkung hinaus, kann das Bildmaterial zur Ermittlung der Täter genutzt werden.

Schutz beliebter Ziele von Graffiti – wie Züge – durch Umzäunen der Abstellanlagen, Stacheldraht, Einsatz von Wachpersonal, helle Beleuchtung und Bewegungsmelder.

Konsequente strafrechtliche Verfolgung. Auch hier steht vor allem die Abschreckung im Vordergrund. In New York wurde zu diesem Zweck in den 1990er Jahren von Bürgermeister Giuliani die Nulltoleranzstrategie eingeführt. In Deutschland wurde im Jahre 2005 das nicht unerhebliche und nicht nur vorübergehende äußerliche Verändern von Oberflächen als zusätzlicher Straftatbestand in das Strafgesetzbuch aufgenommen und gilt seither als Sachbeschädigung.

Die Verwendung von Glas als Hauptbaustoff stellt wegen der unter den Writern verbreiteten ursprünglichsten Form von Graffiti, dem Ritzen, keine wirkliche Prävention gegen Graffiti dar.

Die Berliner Verkehrsbetriebe schützen Teile der U-Bahnhöfe durch das Anbringen von leicht zu reinigenden Emailleschildern vor den Wänden. Spezielle Folien, die im Innenbereich auf Glasscheiben und im Außenbereich großflächig auf die Waggons geklebt werden, sollen ebenfalls für eine gute Entfernbarkeit sorgen und die Beschädigung des Untergrunds verhindern.

Fassaden können durch verschiedene Techniken zumindest soweit geschützt werden, dass bei der Entfernung von Graffiti keine Schäden an der Substanz entstehen. Dies erfolgt häufig durch Auftragen von Schutzschichten, die nach einer Graffiti-Entfernung erneut aufgetragen werden müssen.

Durch das Bepflanzen von Flächen werden Graffiti mit gutem Erfolg verhindert.

Große Flächen nicht einfarbig streichen, sondern eine Wandgestaltung anbringen lassen. Die meisten Writer haben Respekt vor künstlerischen Werken anderer und übersprühen große Murals nicht mit Tags oder Throwups. Es muss sich bei der Gestaltung nicht um Graffiti handeln, um diesen Präventionseffekt zu nutzen.

Schaffung von Freiflächen im öffentlichen Raum zur Förderung des legalen Graffiti (Hall of Fame). Damit kann nicht verhindert werden, dass einige Writer auf nicht genehmigten Flächen arbeiten, aber dies ist nur konsequent, um den Kindern und Jugendlichen glaubwürdig vermitteln zu können, dass sie nicht ohne Erlaubnis im öffentlichen Raum sprayen dürfen. Um „Schmierereien“ im Stadtgebiet einzudämmen, erließ beispielsweise die Stadt Lörrach im Jahr 2011, dass die Pfeiler der Wiesentalbrücke legal mit Graffiti gestaltet werden können. Die größte Wall of Fame Deutschlands, die Aerosol-Arena, befindet sich in Magdeburg. Auf rund 30.000 m² Fläche darf man dort legal Graffitis sprühen.

Durchführung von Wettbewerben mit entsprechenden Flächen

Gestaltung von öffentlichen und privaten Flächen durch Sprayer

In Frankfurt am Main entstand im Jahr 2000 durch Schnitzing ein Projekt zur Entkriminalisierung von Jugendlichen, das den „Förderpreis der Deutschen Kriminalprävention 2004“ erhielt. Hierbei werden Graffiti-Schriftzüge dreidimensional in Holz dargestellt. Damit verbindet man traditionelle Holzbildhauerei mit den Inhalten der Writing-Kultur, um die Dynamik der Graffiti-Formensprache zur skulpturalen Kunst zu erheben.


Das Thema Graffiti wird immer wieder kontrovers diskutiert: Graffiti gelten meist unter den Anhängern der Kultur als ein zentrales Ausdrucksmittel urbanen Lebensgefühls[71] und finden speziell unter Jugendlichen häufig Anerkennung. Dagegen empfand 2007 die überwiegende Mehrheit der Bevölkerung Graffiti als Verunstaltung und puren Vandalismus.[72] Aber in der Bevölkerung gehen die Meinungen weit auseinander und es gibt große Unterschiede in der Bewertung einzelner Werke und Ausprägungsformen. Während z. B. die kurzen Tags (Signaturkürzel) so wie die meisten anderen Erscheinungsarten von Graffiti als reine „Schmiererei“ und optische Verschmutzung wahrgenommen und strafrechtlich verfolgt werden, werden Werke Einzelner, wie etwa des britischen Streetartists Banksy teilweise hinter Plexiglasscheiben vor Veränderung geschützt oder sogar aus Wänden herausgesägt, um diese zu beachtlichen Beträgen auf Kunstauktionen versteigern zu können. Brad Pitt beispielsweise ist einer seiner berühmtesten Fans.[73][74][75] Ein gesprühtes Strichmännchen des Schweizers Harald Naegeli – übrigens das letzte erhaltene in seiner Heimatstadt – hat der Kanton Zürich 2004 offiziell als Zeitdokument[76] restaurieren lassen. Auch die Graffiti der East Side Gallery wurden gesellschaftlich weitgehend als Kunst anerkannt, sodass es 2013 zu Protesten gegen die Versetzung von Mauerteilen. Die Bewertung hängt somit auch entscheidend von der Schönheit und Bedeutung des ursprünglichen Objektes und der Ästhetik der Graffiti ab – wobei ein Graffiti szeneintern oft völlig anders bewertet wird als von Außenstehenden. Teile der Szene demonstrieren oder zelebrieren ihr Unrechtsbewusstsein allerdings auch absichtlich und verstärken damit die Ablehnung der Öffentlichkeit.


Wie weit der gesellschaftliche Einfluss und die Akzeptanz von Graffiti schon gediehen ist, zeigt etwa der Umstand, dass in Wien im März 2006 eine Straße von der Stadtverwaltung offiziell in Graffitistraße umbenannt worden ist. Das Kloster St. Ottilien lässt seit 2012 die Wände von Nebengebäuden mit Graffiti besprühen.[77] In München wurden seit 2011 Teile der Donnersbergerbrücke mit Unterstützung des städtischen Baureferats und der Stadtsparkasse München besprüht.[78][77] Die Stadt Wien hat Graffiti auch bereits offiziell als „Ausdrucksform der Jugendkultur“ und „Kunst“ anerkannt.[79] Auch die Stadt Helsinki hat Ende 2008 nach jahrelanger Nulltoleranzstrategie offiziell erklärt, Graffiti sei „Teil der Stadtkultur“.[80] Potsdam ließ kurze Zeit später Ähnliches verlauten.[71] Die letzten beiden Erklärungen machen die Ästhetik von Graffiti allerdings von ihrer Legalität abhängig. Im Gegensatz zu diesen Entwicklungen lässt die Stadt Sydney Graffiti konsequent von öffentlichen Flächen entfernen, auch wenn ihr diese nicht gehören und selbst dann, wenn der Hauseigentümer der Anbringung von Graffiti ausdrücklich zugestimmt oder sogar Graffitikünstler eigens dafür bezahlt hat, damit diese sein Eigentum gestalten.[81] Ein weiteres Zeugnis davon, wie groß die Wirkung von Graffiti auf die Gesellschaft ist, zeigt die Gründung diverser Vereine oder das Abhalten internationaler Kongresse zur Bekämpfung dieses Phänomens. Selbst Gesetze werden nur wegen Graffiti erlassen oder geändert. Die bekanntesten Beispiele sind hier wohl das 39. Strafrechtsänderungsgesetz 2005 in Deutschland, das erste Anti-Graffiti-Bekämpfungsgesetz 1972 in New York von Bürgermeister John Lindsay[82] sowie das Sprühdosenverkaufsverbot 1985 von Edward Koch. Auch in Australien und Neuseeland ist Minderjährigen der Besitz von Sprühdosen verboten. Seit November 2008 müssen erwischte Graffitisprüher in Mailand eine Geldstrafe von 500 Euro zahlen.[83]


Graffiti in seiner Gesamtheit und deren Ästhetik wird auch gerne als Stilmittel in der Werbe- und Designbranche, speziell für Jugendprodukte, oder um den Produkten ein jugendlicheres Image zu geben, verwendet. So warb z. B. der Autohersteller Smart mit passender Werbung für das entsprechend gestaltete Sondermodell Graffiti.[84] Auch von Renault gab es bereits ein gleichnamiges Clio-Sondermodell. Opel engagierte DAIM und Loomit für eine Werbekampagne (mit Lena Meyer-Landrut)[85] und Volvo lädt jährlich Graffiti- und Street-Artists nach Zürich zur Volvo Art Session ein.[86][87] Der Weltkonzern McDonalds setzt seit 2005 auf Stenciloptik,[88] ähnlich gestaltet wurde das Logo der Seifenoper Alles was zählt. Das Unternehmen Red Bull ging sogar einen erheblichen Schritt weiter und setzte 2006 mit der Aktion outsides[89] auf subversives als Streetart getarntes Guerilla-Marketing und der Pocket-Web-Anbieter Ogo lässt seinen Firmennamen direkt auf Wände sprühen.[90] Das waren nur einige wenige Beispiele, in welchen Formen die Industrie Graffiti als Werbemittel aufgreift und sogar teilweise selbst Umgestaltungen im öffentlichen Raum in graffititypischer Weise vornimmt bzw. vornehmen lässt. Die im Stadtbild allgemein vorhandene, legale kommerzielle Außenwerbung sieht sich weit weniger Vorwürfen als Graffiti ausgesetzt.

Unabhängig von rechtlichen Aspekten lässt sich jedes einzelne Graffito (Tag oder Piece) zunächst als ein Kunstwerk betrachten, das in der Tradition der abstrakten Malerei, der Kalligraphie und der Comic-Ästhetik steht. Allerdings ist nicht jedes Graffito ein „gelungenes“ Kunstwerk. Writing ist ein Genre wie andere auch, und so gibt es auch hier wenige Meister ihres Fachs und viele Lernende, Unbegabte oder Nachahmer. Diese Bewertung der Werke ist allerdings nur für Szene-Mitglieder relevant.


Teils wird aktuell von Insidern kritisiert, dass Motivwahl und Art der Ausführung heutiger Graffiti sich sehr wiederhole und zu engen Graffiti-Konventionen und Ritualen gehorche, die ursprüngliche Kreativität und Innovation in der Gestaltung sei aber einmal sehr frei gewesen, und habe viel mehr der „Selfexpression“, also dem subjektiven künstlerischem Ausdruck der Writer gedient, als heute, wo man oft nur etablierte Writing-Regeln penibel erfülle. Auch habe Graffiti seinen überraschenden Effekt für die Allgemeinheit verloren.


Der Soziologiestudent Hugo Martinez erkannte als Erster die Bedeutung der Writing-Kultur und gründete 1972 die United Graffiti Artists (UGA). Diese Gründung führte zu einer gewissen gesellschaftlichen Anerkennung der Subkultur und Werke der Writer wurden von nun an in Galerien ausgestellt und so – zumindest teilweise – erstmals als Kunst akzeptiert.


Einige Writer wie z. B. Seen, DAIM, JonOne und Jay One sind mittlerweile weltweit anerkannte Künstler, die ihre diversen Werke wie Leinwandarbeiten oder Skulpturen verkaufen und in renommierten Galerien[92][93] und Museen[94][95][96] ausstellen können. Allgemein finden zum Thema Writing/Streetart mittlerweile relativ viele Ausstellungen statt. Die von getting-up organisierten und durchgeführten Urban Discipline Ausstellungen gelten dabei zu den weltweit wichtigsten Graffiti-Ausstellungen.[97][98] Oder auch die in Berlin von Adrian Nabi initiierte Ausstellungsreihe Backjumps – The Live Issue waren wichtige Präsentationsplattformen.[99] Durch namhafte Kunstsammler wie Rik Reinking wird Graffiti und Street-Art auch in Ausstellungen mit weiteren Kunstgattungen kombiniert präsentiert.[100][101][102] Darüber hinaus gibt es zahlreiche Writer, die ihre gestalterischen Erfahrungen z. B. in der Design- oder Werbebranche einsetzen. Andere führen Auftragsarbeiten aus und können teilweise sogar davon leben. Im Gegensatz zu der Zeit, als die Kultur noch in den Kinderschuhen steckte und idealistische Motive im Vordergrund standen, stellt es für viele einen Anreiz dar, die Illegalität hinter sich zu lassen und von ihrem Hobby den Lebensunterhalt bestreiten zu können.


Graffiti-Magazine befassen sich meist mit dem Thema Style-Writing oder Streetart und werden in der Regel von der Szene für die Szene gemacht. Von der breiten Bevölkerung werden solche Publikationen kaum beachtet, zumal sie für gewöhnlich nur im entsprechenden Fachhandel vertrieben werden.


Einige Beispiele:


14K (Schweiz) Erstes deutschsprachiges, zweites europäisches und weltweit drittes Hip-Hop-Magazin. Erscheint ab Mai 1988 regelmäßig bis April 1998. 2003 beginnt eine Zusammenarbeit mit dem Zürcher Graffiti-Magazin RaZHia, aus der die Webseite entsteht.

Stylefile: erscheint drei Mal pro Jahr (März, Juli, November). Berichtet über Graffiti in Deutschland (speziell Rhein-Main-Gebiet) und Europa.

Nonstop: erscheint drei Mal pro Jahr. Berichtet über Graffiti und Streetart in der Schweiz und Europa.

Adrenalin: international bekanntes Graffiti-Magazin aus Saarbrücken.

Mit zunehmendem Einfluss des Internets erscheinen mittlerweile auch viele Magazine als PDF-Datei zum kostenlosen Download.

Die klassischen Filme, die sich mit dem Phänomen Writing befassen, sind der Spielfilm Beat Street (1984) und Wild Style (1983) – eine Mischung aus Dokumentation und Spielfilm. Ebenso wie Style Wars (1983) – eine reine Dokumentation – hatten sie enormen Einfluss auf die rasante Verbreitung der Writing-Kultur und prägten gleichzeitig die Graffitiszene und den Graffiti-Jargon.[103]


Etwas modernere Spielfilme, die sich im weitesten Sinn mit Graffiti auseinandersetzen, sind The Graffiti Artist (2004) und Quality of Life (2004). Aus Deutschland stammen Filmproduktionen wie Status Yo! (2003), Moebius17 (2005) und Wholetrain (2006). Die Regisseure der beiden letzten Filme (Frank Lämmer und Florian Gaag) sind eng mit der Writing-Kultur verwurzelt.


Außer in Filmen taucht das Thema Graffiti ab und zu auch in Fernsehserien auf und zwar im breiten Spektrum von z. B. Soaps über Kriminal- bis hin zu Trickfilmserien, was von einer öffentlichen Wahrnehmung zeugt – für die Graffitiszene aber keine wesentliche Bedeutung oder gar Prägung hat.


Bedeutsamer sind die Dokumentationen der Writing-Szene, die mit einem Blick eines Außenstehenden oder aber von Writern oder Crews entstehen. Eine recht ausgewogene Dokumentation ist Graffiti in Berlin – hier kommen sowohl Writer als auch die Polizei, ein Anti-Graffiti-Verein und ein Reinigungsmittelhersteller in Interviews zu Wort. Aus der Szene selber stammen meist Dokumentationen mit eingeschränkterem Blickwinkel, live gefilmten Aktionen und Interviews mit Writern. Teilweise finden sich darin auch Spielfilmhandlungen, die die Filmszenen thematisch miteinander verbinden oder anderweitiges Füllmaterial. International ist der 2007 veröffentlichte Film BOMB IT von Jon Reiss die momentan aktuelle und umfassendste Graffiti-Dokumentation.[104]


Das Thema Graffiti oder einzelne Künstler schaffen es gelegentlich auch in die Fernsehnachrichten (z. B. eine Gerichtsverhandlung von OZ in Hamburg), in Talkshows (Slide bei Riverboat im MDR) oder füllen ganze Reportagen (Loomit – Der Sprayer auf Arte).



2004 erschien GTA San Andreas. In: dem man als eine Nebenmission Ganggraffiti übersprühen muss. Allerdings war bereits in den Vorgängern der Videospielserie Graffiti ein Mittel um Realitätsnähe zu erzeugen. Für GTA IV wurden eigens COPE2 und andere bekannte New Yorker Writer engagiert und deren Werke in das Spiel integriert, um Authentizität zu erzeugen.

In der Videospielserie Tony Hawk’s Skateboarding finden sich ebenfalls in den meisten Levels Graffiti. In den Teilen Tony Hawk’s Underground 2 und Tony Hawk’s American Wasteland kann man eigene Logos erstellen und selbst sprühen.

Im Februar 2006 erschien das Videospiel Marc Ecko’s Getting Up: Contents Under Pressure, das ausschließlich das Thema Writing zum Inhalt hat. Auch hier sind eigens Szenegrößen engagiert worden.

Klark Kent entwickelte das Online-Spiel Bomb the World,[105] bei dem man seine eigenen Werke durch die Spielergemeinschaft bewerten lassen und so in der Spielerrangliste aufsteigen kann. Dieses Prinzip kommt der Grundidee der Writing-Kultur sehr nahe.

Ein weiteres Online-Spiel, das ähnlich wie Bomb the World aufgebaut ist, ist LRPD Vandalsquad.

„Weder durch legales noch durch illegales Hervorbringen von Kunstwerken entsteht der Gesellschaft oder dem Einzelnen Schädigung. Hingegen bedeutet deren willentliche Vernichtung Unterdrückung von Möglichkeiten zur Bewusstseinsbildung.“


– Joseph Beuys: Liefert den Sprayer nicht aus! In: Schauplatz Nr.10, Köln 1983, S. 45.

„Ich bin für eine Kunst, die etwas anderes tut, als auf ihrem Arsch im Museum zu sitzen. Ich bin für eine Kunst, die entsteht, ohne zu wissen, daß sie überhaupt Kunst ist, eine Kunst, die die Chance erhält, beim Nullpunkt zu beginnen. […] Ich bin für eine Kunst, die sich selbst in den alltäglichen Unsinn verwickelt und doch an seiner Spitze steht […] Ich bin für eine Kunst, die ihre Form direkt aus dem Leben bezieht“


– Ellen H. Johnson, Claes Oldenburg: Baltimore 1971, S. 16 f.

„Mit dem Graffiti bricht in einer Art von Aufstand der Zeichen das linguistische Ghetto in die Stadt ein. […] Insurrektion, Einbruch in das Urbane als Ort der Reproduktion und des Codes – auf dieser Ebene zählt nicht mehr das Kräfteverhältnis, denn das Spiel der Zeichen beruht nicht auf Kraft, sondern auf Differenz; vermittels der Differenz also muss es attackiert werden. […] Es genügen tausende mit Markers und Sprühdosen bewaffnete Jugendliche, um die urbane Signalethik durcheinanderzubringen, um die Ordnung der Zeichen zu stören.“


– Jean Baudrillard: KOOL KILLER oder Der Aufstand der Zeichen


→ Hauptartikel: Liste mit Graffiti- und Street-Art-Künstlern

Peter-Ernst Eiffe

Gérard Zlotykamien

Klaus Paier






Martin Heuwold



Martha Cooper

Fritz Peyer






Legendary Blues & Soul singer Etta James has died aged 73. Etta James, who will be remembered for timeless songs such as At Last, All I Could Do Was Cry and Tell Mama.


"We're all very sad," her doctor said. "To know her, to know her past, I feel very blessed to have been able to take care of her." James's husband and sons were with her when she died. She had been rushed to Parkview Community Hospital in Los Angeles on a Thursday night and died the following morning. She had been suffering end-stage leukemia and dementia for months, and had been hospitalized in December, 2011.


Her manager Lupe De Leon said: "She was a true original – her music defied category. This is a tremendous loss for the family, her friends and fans around the world." Her mother – described in her 1995 autobiography Rage to Survive as a scam artist – was a fleeting presence during Etta's youth. And Etta never knew her father, although she had been told he was the famous billiards player Minnesota Fats. They met when she was older and he neither confirmed nor denied the rumor. James' life was as eventful as her career, involving drug use and health problems, but she fed her troubles into her music.




Etta James was discovered by singer Johnny Otis, who died earlier this week. She scored her first hit in 1954 with Roll With Me Henry. James was just 15 at the time, and about to embark on a career that took in blues, gospel, soul, jazz and rock'n'roll. Known as "Miss Peaches", she joined Chess Records in 1960 and found a wider audience, although she never experienced huge commercial success. She later fought a heroin problem - saying in 1995 she tried the drug because "I was trying to be cool" – and in later years struggled with her weight, often performing from a wheelchair. In the early 2000s, she had weight-loss surgery.


The film Cadillac Records (2008 ) was based on the Chess story, with James portrayed by Beyoncé. The relationship between the two singers wasn't always a smooth one, however. When Beyoncé performed "At last" at Barack Obama's inaugural ball, James said she had "no business singing my song that I've been singing forever". She later retracted these comments, saying they were meant as a joke. Etta James voice, which could switch from tender to ferocious in an instant, inspired soul singers such as Amy Winehouse and Adele. Adele once claimed hearing Etta James made her want to take up singing. When she eventually met her, Adele said she was starstruck: "My mind went completely blank. I didn't know what to say. Afterward, I was crying my eyes out."


ETTA JAMES won six Grammy awards during her career and was honored with a star on the Hollywood Walk of Fame.


• ETTA JAMES :: 1938 - 2012 •


Etta James: 'I was like a punker … I'd spit in a minute' – a classic interview from the vaults


In our latest visit to Rock's Backpages – the world's leading archive of vintage music journalism – we bring you an interview with the late Etta James, by Cliff White for NME in 1978. 'I don’t like places where people can’t dance' … said Etta James in 1975.


"Thanksgiving Day in November will be my silver anniversary: 25 years since I cut my first record and I haven't become a superstar yet. It took Janis Joplin two years." A statement of fact. No bitterness in the voice, just a shadow of sadness exposed along with the naked truth; a fleeting glimpse of dues paid and years lost.


Etta James is not given to bitterness. She gets angry sometimes, certainly. Pretty wild with it too, so she says. But generally she greets life's dirty tricks with wry humour and a stoicism that has sustained her through the sort of professional trials and personal tribulations that have crippled – or killed – many a weaker personality.


Upon request, and if she's of a mind to, she can unpack a whole head load of memories of innocence and ignorance and exploitation and drug addiction, but once those private mental albums have been well thumbed by the insensitive interviewer, back they go in the file marked "education" and up bobs Etta's survival factor.


Like remembering the men who manipulated a lot of her life as "some of the greatest teachers that a person could have. If you went through them, boy, you knew how it was supposed to go. That's not saying that you won't get screwed again but at least you won't get screwed that way.


• Etta James - the blues icon •


"Everybody's got their little come-on. The day that I signed with Chess Records, part of their come-on to me was a cheque laying on the desk that was made out to Chuck Berry and Alan Freed for $167,700. And I looked and Leonard Chess said, 'See, this is the kind of money our artists make.' I said gosh!


"The next cheque I saw was made out to the Moonglows, Harvey Fuqua and Alan Freed; it was about $70,000 royalties for the record Sincerely. Alan Freed's name just happened to be on all of those cheques, y'know. Alan Freed and Leonard Chess, boy, they were the very best teachers.


"After that, after I had the hit with All I Could Do Was Cry, when Leonard handed me my very first envelope that said 'royalties', I opened it up and there was no cheque in there, just a little piece of paper saying, 'You're $14,000 in the red.' 'But,' he told me, 'don't worry about that. You need some money? We'll let you have two thousand.' That was always the way it was. You'd get a Cadillac or a fur stole or a ring, something like that. That was your royalties.


"But bitter? No. After all, what did I know? I didn't have any lawyer or a good manager or nothing, so what the heck? Long as I was riding in a big Cadillac and dressed nice and had plenty of food, that's all I cared about."


Etta James is a remarkable lady. Born in 1938 and raised on the west coast of America, in 1954 – while still a delinquent bobby-soxer – she was hustled into a private audition for Johnny Otis by an older groupie friend; taken straight into a studio to record the girls' whimsical composition Roll With Me Henry (which they made up in answer to the Hank Ballard and the Midnighters hit Work With Me Annie) and, having lied about her age, boarded the Otis touring revue on the princely wage of $10 per night.


The record shot up the R&B charts, was promptly banned from All-American airwaves for being too sexually upfront, and was coyly adapted as Dance With Me Henry by Georgia Gibbs, who reputedly sold 4m copies.


For four or five more years she continued to record for Modern Records of Los Angeles, cutting some of the best female rock and R&B of the era (Good Rockin' Daddy, Tough Lover) without ever seeing a royalty cheque, until she got stranded in Chicago in 1959, where she was introduced to Chess Records by Harvey Fuqua – then leader of the Moonglows, subsequently a producer with Anna, Motown and Fantasy.


For 17 years Etta enjoyed/suffered – delete where applicable – an erratic career with the ever-ailing Chess Corp, recording a small string of hits (including At Last and Fool That I Am) which were arranged to appeal to the early-60s supper-club audience; a more typical selection of hardcore rhythm'n'blues tunes (I Just Want to Make Love to You, Something's Got a Hold on Me) and, best remembered of all, many superb soul sides, from her first Chess hit (All I Could Do Was Cry) through late-60s Muscle Shoals classics (I'd Rather Go Blind, Tell Mama, Security, Miss Pitiful) to 70s stunners such as Leave Your Hat On, All the Way Down and Come a Little Closer.


Although consistently lauded by folk within the biz as one of the great black female singers, Etta is only just now emerging into the extreme sidelights of the great white wunnerful rock arena via a contract with Warner Brothers and her appearances on the current Rolling Stones tour of America.


"The Stones are great," she says, slightly wistfully. "They are doing black music and they've got it. They got the direction and they know what the hell to do. They know how to pump plenty of sound, they know how to get real intense and get people so crazy that they don't know what the heck's happening to them. And that's the way you gotta do it.


"I find myself going crazy about the Stones just like the kids are in the audience. Keith, he just stumbles over his own feet, blam, he falls down, he just lays there, blungablunga, he's still there just like it's part of the act. They kick each other and thump each other in the back of the head. Mick, if he forgets the damn words he just burbles and they go nuts. He forgets what part of the song he's singing but who cares, y'know? Long as he's there to holler something people just bump their heads on the wall, it's great.


"But, you know, Mick told me: 'I met you 15 years ago at a little club in Los Angeles. You were wearing a blonde wig and you had on a green dress and it had feathers …' he named everything. He was right. And a lot of the stuff that I see him do on stage is stuff that I used to do. I mean when I was really jumping around an' leaping an' looking all crazy.


"I was originally like a punker, know what I mean, like the punks are today, I'd spit in a minute. And I notice Mick does that same facial expression that I see, so then I sit in the dressing room and I think it's really weird how these guys have gotten over.


"The first night I worked with them I almost cried in my dressing room. I thought, God, here are these guys, they're famous millionaires from doing this here and I'm still nowhere after all these years. What is happening here?


"Then I think, I don't know, I wanna make money but I don't probably never wanna be cool about it, you know what I mean? I would never be cool about it. I would never give a shit whether I worked Las Vegas or Lake Tahoe or not. I'm not a bourgeois person, never will be. I could work Dingwalls forever because I'm used to that kind of joint.


"Like the guys came to me last night and said, 'I'm sorry this is not like the Ritz.' Well what the heck would I know? In 25 years I've never worked the Ritz; I've worked nothing but places that look like Dingwalls. And for those kind of people, that stand there and scream all night, and when you get through they're mad because you don't come back, that's my kind of people.


"See, I don't like places where people can't dance – don't like clubs or theatres where a bunch of bourgeois people sit around tip, tip, tipping their fingers."


Through an uncustomary tactical error on the part of producer Jerry Wexler, Etta's first Warners album Deep in the Night seems to be primarily aimed at the very audience she could live without. Fortunately Etta has the voice and personality to score a points win in her 10-round contest with the inappropriate arrangements and production, so that even with its faults the album is still one of the better releases by an American black female singer so far this year. Nevertheless, it could have been a good deal better, could it not?


"I think we could have made it stronger," Etta concedes. "It's a nice album, I'm not disappointed with it, but I think we went too far too soon. It was Jerry's idea to help me get over to a wider audience and to that extent it partly succeeded, but it's not really me, know what I mean?


"I think for the next album we'll go back to being a little more soulful. Y' know, the kind of bag that I think I've kinda made up my mind to shoot for, the slot that I think I should have taken, is the female Otis Redding slot.


"That's the direction I wanna go in now cause there's no other chick got the balls to do it. Tina Turner came very close – if she had of just kept right on that right track, she had it. That's the thing I'm talking about, that intense thing. But now she's shooting for another bag. And the closest chick that could do it now is Millie Jackson, but I don't think she would. She's a little bit over here on another kick; she's busy rapping and stuff.


"I'm talking about singing and laying it down for 'em, y'know, making people go crazy an 'burnin' their ears up. That's the deal. That's really the direction I wanna go in."


:: Reference:


:: Etta James :: The Blues is My Business


:: Etta James - My Funny Valentine


:: Imagine


:: Misty Blue 2011


:: The sky is crying


:: Try A Little Tenderness


:: At Last (Original Stereo)

:: Please no more


:: It's a Man's Man's World


:: I've Been Lovin' You Too Long


:: A Sunday Kind Of Love (Original Stereo Remastered)


Etta James - W-O-M-A-N



To hear Etta James talking about her career in 1989, visit Rock's Backpages:


*EXCLUSIVE* West Hollywood, CA - New "American Idol" judge Jennifer Lopez leaves Ago restaurant having dinner with fellow co-workers Steven Tyler, Randy Jackson and host Ryan Seacrest. The fashion forward diva wore all black with a shear top, leather short shorts, stockings and a pair of chic leopard print heels.


GSI Media March 10, 2011


To License These Photos, Please Contact :


Steve Ginsburg

(310) 505-8447

(323) 4239397




Keith Stockwell

(310) 261-8649

(323) 325-8055


I’ve got a dusty old pile of vinyl records sittin’ on my floor

I’ve played each one of ‘em over and over a dozen times or more

All I’ve got is a beat up chair a mattress a fork and another to spare

And that dusty old pile of records on my floor

I got Willie, Waylon and Woody Guthrie

Jimmy Buffett, Lyle Lovett and Bobby Gentry

Jerry Jeff, Bob Dylan, Donnie Fritts,

The Dead, The Doors, Patsy Cline, John Prine and more

I got Jackson Browne, Townes Van Zandt, Zeppelin, Lynyrd Skynyrd

Harry Chapin, Guy Clark and Van Halen

I got Rita, Kris, Keith Sykes and Country Joe when he was singin’ with the Fish you know

I got Emmylou, U2 and Arlo, James Taylor, Jimmie Rodgers, Hank Williams, Mojo Nixon,

Hendrix, Haggard and a whole lot more

In that dusty old pile of vinyl records I got sittin’ on my floor

One time in San Francisco

I was standin’ in an airport line

In one bag I had all my clothes and in the other was all them ol’ records of mine

The lady said I could only bring one bag

I had two, Oh what a drag

I had to jump on the plane and leave all my clothes behind

But I got Willie, Waylon and Woody Guthrie

Jimmy Buffett, Lyle Lovett and Bobby Gentry

Jerry Jeff, Bob Dylan, Donnie Fritts,

The Dead, The Doors, Patsy Cline, John Prine and more

I got Jackson Browne, Townes Van Zandt, Zeppelin, Lynyrd Skynyrd

Harry Chapin, Guy Clark and Van Halen

I got Rita, Kris, Keith Sykes and Country Joe when he was singin’ with the Fish you know

I got Emmylou, U2 and Arlo, James Taylor, Jimmie Rodgers, Hank Williams, Mojo Nixon,

Hendrix, Haggard and a whole lot more

I got all of Booker T’s, Tom T.Hall’s,

Bobby Bare, Belafonte and the New York Dolls,

Billy Joe, Jimmy Croce, Kiss, Crosby Stills and Nash,

John, June and Roseanne Cash

I got Forbert, Fromholtz, Stevie Ray,

T-Birds, Yardbirds, Sam and Dave,

And as some of y’all mighta guessed already

I got piles and piles and piles of Tom Petty

In that dusty old pile of vinyl records I got sittin’ on my floor




Todd Snider ©2002


Nah, KFJ doesn't have a Messiah Complex.



MPs' expenses: Full list of Labour MPs investigated by the Telegraph


All of the Labour MPs named by the Telegraph's investigation into how politicians exploited the system of parliamentary allowances to subsidise their lifestyles and multiple homes.


Last Updated: 3:26PM BST 25 May 2009


The Houses of Parliament in Westminster Photo: PA

MPs' expenses investigation in depth


Douglas Alexander spent more than £30,000 doing up his constituency home – which then suffered damage in a house fire. Claimed the cost of hiring a “media trainer” on their office expenses. Spent taxpayers’ money advertising at football and rugby league matches. Bought expensive gadgets. Claimed for party political propaganda


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Full list of Labour MPs investigated by the Telegraph

Full list of MPs from smaller parties investigated by the Telegraph

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MPs expenses: the best of the begging letters

Speaker spent £1,400 on chauffeurs

Margaret Moran: Second home 'flip' paid £22,500 dry rot bill: MPs' expenses Hilary Armstrong was told that allowing the Labour Party to pay for and run a computer at her taxpayer-funded home could make her “politically vulnerable”


Ian Austin split a claim for stamp duty on buying his second home in London into two payments and tried to claim it back over two financial years.


John Austin claimed more than £10,000 for redecorating his London flat, which was 11 miles from his main home, before selling it for a profit.


Vera Baird claimed the cost of Christmas tree decorations


Ed Balls and wife Yvette Cooper “flipped” the designation of their second home to three different properties within two years. Balls , the Schools Secretary, also attempted to claim £33 for poppy wreaths


Margaret Beckett made a £600 claim for hanging baskets and pot plants


Hilary Benn claimed only £42,113 on his second homes allowance in four years. Faces questions over party funding after it emerged he paid rent to the Labour Party from expenses. Claimed for party political propaganda


Liz Blackman went on last-minute shopping sprees before the end of each financial year, in an apparent attempt to make sure she claimed as close to maximum expenses as possible


Tony Blair re-mortgaged his constituency home and claimed almost a third of the interest around the time he was buying another property in London


Hazel Blears did not pay capital gains tax on a property she sold despite having told the Commons authorities it was her second home. She has since agreed to paid the tax but denied any wrongdoing. Claimed the costs of accountancy advice using expenses intended to fund their parliamentary and constituency offices. Bought expensive gadgets. Claimed for party political propaganda


Ben Bradshaw used his allowance to pay the mortgage interest on a flat he owned jointly with his boyfriend


Kevin Brennan had a £450 television delivered to his family home in Cardiff even though he reclaimed the money back on his London second home allowance


Gordon Brown's house swap let the PM claim thousands


Nick Brown claimed £18,800, without receipts, in expenses for food over four years amid total expenses of £87,000


Russell Brown reclaimed the maximum allowed under the Commons expenses system for his bathroom to be refurbished at his rented designated second home in London


Chris Bryant changed second home twice in two years to claim £20,000


Andy Burnham had an eight-month battle with the fees office after making a single expenses claim for more than £16,500. Burnham, the Cutlure Secretary, avoided paying tax on a £16,600 property windfall. Claimed for party political propaganda


Dawn Butler, the Labour whip, over-claimed £2,600 in rent on her constituency home.


Stephen Byers claimed more than £125,000 for repairs and maintenance at a London flat owned outright by his partner, where he lives rent-free


Ronnie Campbell claimed a total of £87,729 for furniture for his London flat


Ben Chapman deliberately over-claimed for interest on the mortgage of his London house by about £15,000 with the approval of the fees office, documents seen by the Telegraph suggest. He is facing possible suspension from the PLP


David Chaytor admits claiming almost £13,000 in interest payments for a mortgage that he had already repaid. He has been suspended from the Parliamentary Labour Party


Michael Clapham submitted a receipt for the pair of glasses bought for his wife


David Clelland claimed for the cost of “buying out” his partner’s £45,000 stake in his London flat


Harry Cohen claimed thousands of pounds for redecorating his second home before selling it and charging taxpayers £12,000 in stamp duty and fees on a new property


Michael Connarty sold some of the contents of his London home to Jim Devine, a close colleague, before charging the taxpayer thousands of pounds for goods delivered to addresses in Scotland


Yvette Cooper and husband Ed Balls “flipped” the designation of their second home to three different properties within two years. Cooper bought expensive gadgets and claimed for party political propaganda


Jim Cunningham shunned the opportunity to by furniture and his expenses were in the bottom 40 of any MP


Tam Dalyell attempted to claim £18,000 for bookcases two months before he retired as an MP


Alistair Darling's stamp duty was paid by the public. Claimed the costs of accountancy advice using expenses intended to fund their parliamentary and constituency offices. Claimed for party political propaganda


Ian Davidson paid £5,500 to a family friend to renovate his flat and then took him shooting with members of the House of Lords


Tory defector Quentin Davies repaired window frames at his18th-century mansion, charging £10,000 to expenses


Jim Devine bought Michael Connarty's furniture on expenses


David Drew used to own a home in London but decided to forgo it in favour of staying in hotels while in the capital


Angela Eagle claimed just £155 a month mortgage interest on her second home for a period and even underclaimed for council tax


Maria Eagle claimed thousands of pounds on refurbishing a bathroom at one of her flats just months before switching her designated second home to a property with a higher mortgage


Natascha Engel went on a shopping spree within months of being elected, spending thousands of pounds of taxpayers’ cash


Frank Field claimed just £44,338 on his second home allowance between 2004 and 2008


Michael Fallon claimed £8,300 too much in expenses for the mortgage on his second home.


Caroline Flint claimed £14,000 for fees for new flat


Barbara Follett used £25,000 of taxpayers' money to pay for private security patrols at her home


Neil Gerrard made no claims against the second home allowance


Ian Gibson claimed almost £80,000 in four years for mortgage interest and bills on a London flat which was the main home of his daughter


Linda Gilroy said that she was paying back £1,891


Paul Goggins, the Northern Ireland Minister, claimed almost £45,000 for a "second home", while a friend lived there rent-free


Helen Goodman claimed for a week's stay in a cottage in her constituency over a bank holiday


Mike Hall claimed thousands of pounds in expenses for the cost of cleaners, cleaning products and laundry bills for his London home


Patrick Hall's second home costs were a modest half of the total allowance


Fabian Hamilton declared his mother’s London house as his main residence while over-charging the taxpayer by thousands of pounds for a mortgage on his family home in Leeds


Harriet Harman hired Scarlett MccGwire for “consultancy” services on the public purse. Claimed for party political propaganda. Bought expensive gadgets.Claimed for party political propaganda


Jimmy Hood used his second homes allowance to claim up to £1,000 per month without providing receipts


Geoff Hoon established a property empire worth £1.7 million after claiming taxpayer-funded expenses for at least two properties. He also did not pay capital gains tax on the sale of his London home in 2006. Claimed the costs of accountancy advice using expenses intended to fund their parliamentary and constituency offices. Bought expensive gadgets


Phil Hope spent more than £10,000 in one year refurbishing a small London flat. He has promised to pay back £41,000 to the taxpayer


Kelvin Hopkins claims just a fraction of the available second-home allowance by taking the train to Westminster from his home town


David Howarth has not made any claims on his second home allowance since 2004/05


John Hutton faces questions over party funding after it emerged he paid rent to the Labour Party from expenses. Spent taxpayers’ money advertising at football and rugby league matches. Used his office expenses to pay for a degree studied by a member of his staff


Glenda Jackson did not claim on her second homes allowance between 2004 and 2008


Brian Jenkins claims little or no mortgage interest for his property in London


Alan Johnson claimed just £43,596 for his second home in 2004-8


Diana Johnson claimed nearly £1,000 to cover the cost of hiring an architect for a decorating project at her second home


Helen Jones claimed £87,647 in second home allowances for her London flat between 2004 and 2008


Gerald Kaufman charged the taxpayer £1,851 for a rug he imported from a New York antiques centre and tried to claim £8,865 for a television


Alan and Ann Keen claimed almost £40,000 a year on a central London flat although their family home was less than 10 miles away


Ruth Kelly has claimed more than £31,000 to redecorate and furnish her designated second home in the past five years. She also claimed thousands of pounds to pay for flood damage at her home, despite having a building insurance policy


Fraser Kemp made repeat purchases of household items over the space of several weeks


David Kidney said he was were paying back £2,450


David Lepper he was placed 545th out of 645 MPs in 2007-08, claiming only £11,175 of his second home allowance


Tom Levitt agrees the fees office was right to reject a claim of £16.50 for a Remberance Sunday wreath


Bob Laxton insisted he was 'too busy' to shop around when he attempted to claim £1,049 for a TV


Ian Lucas made £45,000 profit when he sold a London flat on which he had claimed second home expenses


Khalid Mahmood enjoyed nine nights with his girlfriend at a luxury London hotel, costing the taxpayer £175 a night


Sarah McCarthy-Fry, a junior minister, tried to claim a pair of £100 hair straighteners on her parliamentary expenses


Lord Mandelson faces questions over the timing of his house claim which came after he had announced he would step down


Fiona MacTaggart claimed just £3,392 on her second homes allowance in 2007/08


Shahid Malik claimed £66,000 on his second property while paying less than £100 a week for his main house. He has resigned as justice minister pending an investigation


Judy Mallaber rarely claims for food


Bob Marshall-Andrews claimed £118,000 for expenses at his second home, including stereo equipment, extensive redecoration and a pair of Kenyan carpets.


Gordon Marsdon claimed just £9,739 on his second homes allowance in 2007/08


Michael Martin used taxpayers' money to pay for chauffeur-driven cars to his local job centre and Celtic's football ground


Tommy McAvoy claimed £86,565 in second home allowances between 2004 and 2008 for his flat in Westminster


Steve McCabe over-claimed on his mortgage by £4,059 during the course of two years


Sarah McCarthy-Fry tried to claim a pair of £100 hair straighteners on her parliamentary expenses.


Ian McCartney spent £16,000 furnishing and decorating his designated second home but paid the money back two years later. McCartney, a former Labour Party chairman, will not stand at general election, citing "health reasons"


Michael Meacher claimed just £32,825 on his second homes allowance between 2004-8


David Miliband's spending was queried by his gardener. Faces questions over party funding after it emerged he paid rent to the Labour Party from expenses. Claimed for party political propaganda


Ed Miliband claimed just £7,670 on his second home allowance in 2007/08. Hired Scarlett MccGwire for “consultancy” services on the public purse


Austin Mitchell claimed for security shutters, ginger crinkle biscuits and the cost of reupholstering his sofa. He has offered to donate his old sofa coverings to make amends


Laura Moffatt has given up a riverside apartment she used to pay for on her parliamentary expenses in favour of a camp bed in her House of Commons office.


Madeleine Moon spent thousands in furniture shops near her Welsh constituency house and claimed the money back on her London designated second home allowance


Margaret Moran switched the address of her second home, allowing her to claim £22,500 to fix a dry rot problem. She has agreed to repay the money while insisting she acted within the rules. She could face an investigation for allegedly using Commons stationery to keep neighbours away from her fourth property in Spain. She also billed the taxpayer for nearly £4,000 in legal fees in settling a dispute with one of her staff and faces a challenge at the next general election from Esther Rantzen .


Julie Morgan makes do with a small flat in south London costing the taxpayer less than 10,000 a year


Elliot Morley claimed parliamentary expenses of more than £16,000 for a mortgage which had already been paid off


George Mudie claimed £62,000 in expenses for his London flat in four years, while having a mortgage of just £26,000


Chris Mullin watches a 30-year-old black and white television at his second home and claims the £45 cost of the licence on his expenses


Paul Murphy had a new plumbing system installed at taxpayers’ expense because the water in the old one was “too hot”


John Prescott claimed for two lavatory seats in two years


James Purnell avoided paying capital gains tax on the sale of his London flat after claiming expenses for accountancy advice. Bought expensive gadgets. Spent taxpayers’ money advertising at football and rugby league matches


John Randall was entitled to a second home allowance but instead claimed the less lucrative London subsidy


John Reid used his allowance to pay for slotted spoons, an ironing board and a glittery loo seat


Geoffrey Robinson has not made any claims on his second home allowance since 2004/05


Joan Ryan spent thousands of pounds on repairs and decorations at her constituency home before switching her designated second home to a London property


Martin Salter has not made any claims on his second home allowance since 2004/05


Jim Sheridan used his allowances to reclaim the cost of a 42-inch plasma TV, leather bed and hundreds of pounds worth of furniture


Caroline Spelman made no claims for mortgage interest or rent on her second home in 2006-07 and 2007-08


Andrew Smith spent more than £30,000 of taxpayers’ money giving his house a makeover


Angela Smith sought payment for four beds for a one-bedroom London flat.


Jacqui Smith claimed the costs of accountancy advice using expenses intended to fund their parliamentary and constituency offices. Bought expensive gadgets


Jack Straw only paid half the amount of council tax that he claimed on his parliamentary allowances over four years but later rectified the over-claim. Used his office expenses to pay for a degree studied by a member of his staff


Mark Todd defended his expenses claims as "essentials" but included a marble table and an espresso coffee machine


Don Touhig spent thousands of pounds redecorating his constituency home before “flipping” his allowance to a flat in London


Kitty Ussher asked the Commons authorities to fund extensive refurbishment of her Victorian family home


Keith Vaz claimed £75,500 for a second flat near Parliament even though he already lived just 12 miles from Westminster


Claire Ward, the MP responsible for keeping the Queen informed about Parliament, submitted monthly expense claims for hundreds of pounds of "petty cash" while claiming maximum allowances.


Tom Watson and Iain Wright spent £100,000 of taxpayers' money on the London flat they once shared


Malcolm Wicks was entitled to claim for a second home allowance because he is an outer London MP but instead claimed for the more moderate London subsidy of £2,812


David Winnick claimed just £36,354 on his second homes allowance between 2004-8


Alan Williams claimed just £5,221 on his second homes allowance in 2007/08


Shaun Woodward received £100,000 to help pay mortgage


Phil Woolas submitted receipts including comics, nappies and women's clothing as part of his claims for food


Iain Wright and Tom Watson spent £100,000 of taxpayers' money on the London flat they once shared


Derek Wyatt billed 75p for scotch eggs




Do not use on any other web site without written permission.


Tudor Crystal, Amblecote, Stourbridge, West Midlands.

On the banks of the Stourbridge canal.


The old photos are used with the kind permission of Tudor Crystal.


The reduced size Cone can just been seen peeking out above the buildings on the right of the photo.


The idea of a new glassworks was conceived around midsummer 1920 by Mr. Congreave Jackson, the managing Director of Thos. Webb & Sons, Dennis Glassworks Stourbridge. After Mr. Jacksons' resignation, John Guest & Son, A local building firm was commissioned to build the Stour Glassworks which was completed in 1921. There was a disagreement between Mr. Jackson and Mr. Guest which left Mr. Guest with a glass factory. He then approached several senior members of staff at Thos. Webbs & Sons with the intention of forming another company to operate the new factory.


This was a risky undertaking as the crystal industry in Stourbridge was slack after World War I and in 1922 there were 18 manufacturers with short-time working on the increase.


Despite the risk, The Stourbridge Glass Company Ltd. was formed with Mr. W. H. Aston as Managing Director, Mr. A. Horton, Mr. W.A. Price, Mr. H. Wilkinson as directors and Mr. Horace Guest as chairman.

It is now the last remaining crystal company in Stourbridge producing crystal in a traditional multi furnace glassmaking cone.

Source; Tudor Crystal.

See more information at there web site:

Top ten wedding photographers

Edward Olive


View Big On Black


its always hard to take a decent photo and especially hard not just to repeat yourself


i have been getting less than a decent shot per roll since the summer.


i am going to change cameras and style again. no more failing attemps at photojournalism and f4-32


taken during a wedding dinner in spain, september 2009


but then again even my second favourite photographer peruan mario testino is going off at times into posed staged fake smiled dullness


and even worse


dear me mario you don't need the money stick to the rio de janeiro sizzle


i was looking at the wikipedia encyclopedia and notable photographers and whilst wedding photography does exist as a category there is no category of wedding photographers nor any wedding photographer listed as notable


List of photographers

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Jump to: navigation, search


This is a list of notable photographers who already have articles.


Contents Top · 0–9 · A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z





Abstract photographer


Advertising photographer


Aerial photographer


Architectural photographer


Art photographer


Celebrity photographer


Digital photography


Documentary photographer


Ethnographic photographer


Fashion photographer



Food photographer


Industrial photographer


Interiors photographer


Landscape photographer




Portrait photographer


Scientific/technical photographer


Sports photographer


Underwater photographer


War photographer




[edit] A


* Rolf Aamot (art)

* Slim Aarons (doc)

* Hans Aarsman

* Abbas

* Berenice Abbott (doc, pict, port)

* Karimeh Abbud

* Sam Abell

* Laurence Aberhart

* William de Wiveleslie Abney

* George W. Ackerman (doc)

* Ansel Adams (art, doc, land, pict)

* Bryan Adams (port)

* Eddie Adams (doc, land, war)

* Robert Adams (art)

* Alfred Shea Addis

* Gustavo Aguerre (art)

* Tadasuke Akiyama (doc)

* Cris Alexander

* Fratelli Alinari

* Timothy Allen (doc, ethno, port)

* Darogha Ubbas Alli

* Jane Fulton Alt (art)

* Lola Álvarez Bravo

* Manuel Álvarez Bravo (abs, art, doc)

* Stephen Alvarez

* Christian von Alvensleben

* Takashi Amano (land, und)

* Mohamed Amin

* Ester Anderson

* Emmy Andriesse

* Taco Anema

* George Edward Anderson

* Tom Ang

* Dieter Appelt (port)

* Nobuyoshi Araki (art)

* Taku Aramasa (fash, doc)

* Allan Arbus

* Amy Arbus

* Diane Arbus (art, doc, fash, int, port)

* Malcolm Arbuthnot (pict, port)

* Fred Archer

* Roy Arden

* Taiji Arita

* Eve Arnold (art, fash, port)

* Hippolyte Arnoux

* Bill Aron

* Yann Arthus-Bertrand

* Anthony Asael

* Eugène Atget

* Anna Atkins

* Bill Atkinson (dig, land)

* Alan Aubry (arch, art, doc, int, land)

* Richard Avedon (art, fash, port)

* Jerry Avenaim (art, fash, port)


[edit] B


* Alioune Bâ

* Chapman Baehler (doc, adv, fash, port)

* David Bailey (fash, port)

* Reg Balch

* John Baldessari (abs, art)

* Edouard Baldus

* Lewis Baltz (art)

* Subhankar Banerjee

* Micha Bar-Am (doc)

* Olivo Barbieri

* Nigel Barker (fash)

* Tina Barney (art, port)

* George Barris

* Uta Barth (abs, art)

* Pablo Bartholomew (doc, art, ethno)

* Pinky Bass (abs, art, doc, land, port)

* Alexander Bassano

* Manfred Baumann

* Jean Baudrillard

* Hippolyte Bayard

* Peter Hill Beard

* Richard Beard

* Antonio Beato

* Felice Beato

* Cecil Beaton (art, doc, fash, port)

* Ingeborg de Beausacq

* Bernd and Hilla Becher (art, doc, int, land)

* Lukas Beck (art, doc, port)

* Francis Bedford

* Manzur Alam Beg (art)

* Lawrence Beitler

* Charles Belden

* Hans Bellmer (art, doc, port)

* E. J. Bellocq (doc, port)

* Rafael Ben-Ari (doc, war)

* Fernando Bengoechea (int)

* Harry Benson

* Roloff Beny

* Berry Berenson

* Henning von Berg (art, port)

* Herbert Bowyer Berkeley (land)

* Ruth Bernhard (art, int, port)

* Maeve Berry

* Peter Bialobrzeski

* James Bidgood

* Izis Bidermanas

* Edward Bierstadt (port, land)

* Richard Billingham (art, doc)

* Jack Birns

* Werner Bischof

* Auguste-Rosalie Bisson

* Andreas Bitesnich (fash)

* J. R. Black

* Louis Désiré Blanquart-Evrard

* Daniel Blaufuks

* Steve Bloom

* Karl Blossfeldt (art, sci)

* Erwin Blumenfeld

* A. Aubrey Bodine

* Henze Boekhout

* Francisco Boix

* Skip Bolen (jazz, music, celeb, doc, stills)

* Félix Bonfils

* Phil Borges

* Edouard Boubat (art)

* Jack E. Boucher (doc)

* Alexandra Boulat

* Jacques Bourboulon

* Jean-Christian Bourcart

* Margaret Bourke-White (doc, int, land, port)

* Guy Bourdin (fash)

* Samuel Bourne

* Jane Bown

* Alex Boyd (land, art)

* Mathew Brady (land, port, war)

* Brian Brake

* Bill Brandt (art, doc)

* Brassaï

* Manuel Álvarez Bravo

* Marilyn Bridges

* Anne Brigman

* Zana Briski (doc)

* Mike Brodie

* Alexey Brodovich

* Giacomo Brogi

* Hamish Brown (port)

* Dan Budnik (doc, port)

* Jan Bułhak

* Wynn Bullock (art)

* Max Burchartz

* Wilhelm J. Burger

* Victor Burgin

* Christopher Burkett

* René Burri

* Larry Burrows (war)

* Harry Burton (doc)

* Edward Burtynsky (land)

* Jean-Marc Bustamante (art)


[edit] C


* Geneviève Cadieux

* Pogus Caesar (doc, art)

* Bernard Cahier (spt)

* Claude Cahun

* Harry Callahan (art, doc, int, land, port)

* Sophie Calle

* Julia Margaret Cameron (art, doc, int, land, port)

* Loren Cameron (art, doc, port)

* Cornell Capa (doc)

* Robert Capa (doc, war)

* Paul Caponigro (art, land)

* Ilario Carposio

* Ricardo Carrasco

* Lewis Carroll (art, port)

* Keith Carter (art, doc, land, port)

* Kevin Carter

* Henri Cartier-Bresson (art, doc, port)

* Kyle Cassidy

* Andrew Catlin

* Hugh Cecil

* Chaiya

* Dean Chamberlain

* Martín Chambi

* Jean Chamoux (doc, port, fash, war)

* Polly Chandler (art, port)

* Dickey Chapelle (doc, war)

* Chien-Chi Chang

* Allan Chappelow

* Jean-Philippe Charbonnier (port, doc)

* Sarah Charlesworth (abs, art)

* Désiré Charnay

* Hong Cheong

* Tong Cheong

* Teisuke Chiba (doc)

* William Christenberry

* Hugo Cifuentes

* Elio Ciol

* Larry Clark (art, doc, fash, port)

* Bob Carlos Clarke (art)

* William Clarridge

* Antoine Claudet

* William Claxton (adv, fash, port)

* Charles Clegg

* Alvin Langdon Coburn (pict)

* Ioan Mihai Cochinescu (art, doc)

* Daniel Colegrove (doc, adv, port)

* Neville Coleman (und, land)

* Henry Collen

* Lois Conner

* Linda Connor

* Florin Constantinescu (art, doc, int, land, port)

* Martha Cooper (doc, ethno)

* Anton Corbijn

* Paul de Cordon (art, fash)

* Peter Cornelius (art)

* Joe Cornish

* Paul Couvrette (art, doc, int, land, port)

* Jeff Cowen

* Gregory Crewdson (abs, art, doc, land)

* Ted Croner

* Karel Cudlín (doc)

* Imogen Cunningham (doc, int, land, port)

* Asahel Curtis (doc)

* Edward S. Curtis (doc, land)


[edit] D


* Louis-Jacques-Mandé Daguerre (land, port)

* Louise Dahl-Wolfe (art, doc, port)

* Bruce Davidson (land, port)

* Ron Davies (art,dig,land,port)

* Daniel Davis Jr.

* George Davison

* F. Holland Day (pict)

* Lala Deen Dayal

* Peter Dazeley (adv,art,dig,fash,port)

* John Deakin (port, art)

* Loomis Dean

* Roy DeCarava

* Edgar de Evia (art, adv, doc, fash, food, int)

* Yvonne De Rosa

* Reza Deghati (doc, war)

* Manoocher Deghati (doc,war)

* Terry Deglau (doc, port)

* Luc Delahaye (doc)

* Jack Delano (doc)

* Patrick Demarchelier

* Autumn de Wilde (port)

* Hugh Welch Diamond

* Philip-Lorca diCorcia (art, doc, int, land, port)

* Rineke Dijkstra

* Christophe Dillinger (art, land, port)

* André-Adolphe-Eugène Disdéri

* Mark Divo art

* Zbigniew Dłubak

* Julie Doiron

* Robert Doisneau (doc, land, port)

* Peter Dombrovskis

* Ken Domon (arch, art, doc)

* Don Donaghy

* Terence Donovan (fash, doc)

* Sergio Dorantes

* David Doubilet (und)

* W. & D. Downey (port)

* Richard Drew

* František Drtikol

* Maxime Du Camp

* David Douglas Duncan

* Ken Duncan

* Jeff Dunas

* Max Dupain

* Jean Louis Marie Eugène Durieu

* Dutton & Michaels (photographic studio)


[edit] E


* Charles C. Ebbets

* Harold Eugene Edgerton (sci)

* Hugh Edwards

* John Paul Edwards (pict)

* Isidore Jacques Eggermont

* William Eggleston (art, doc, land)

* Ei-Q (art)

* Alfred Eisenstaedt (land)

* Arthur Elliott (arch)

* Ed van der Elsken

* Peter Henry Emerson

* T. Enami

* Clay Enos

* Mitch Epstein (doc, port)

* Elliott Erwitt (art, doc, int, port)

* Dulah Marie Evans ( drawing,land)

* Walker Evans (doc, port)


[edit] F


* Bruno Fabien (art)

* Ingrid Falk (art)

* Adolfo Farsari

* Antoine Fauchery

* Bernard Faucon (art)

* Chris Faust

* James Fee (art, war)

* Andreas Feininger

* Mark Feldstein

* Roger Fenton (war)

* Fernando Fernández Navarrete

* Marc Ferrez

* Franz Fiedler

* Michel Figuet

* George Fiske

* Frode Fjerdingstad (art)

* Hércules Florence

* Adam Foley

* Fernand Fonssagrives (art, fash)

* Franco Fontana (art)

* Joan Fontcuberta (art)

* Anna Fox

* Martine Franck

* Auguste François (ethno, doc, land)

* Robert Frank (doc, land, port)

* Stuart Franklin (doc)

* Thomas E. Franklin (doc)

* Leonard Freed

* Lee Friedlander (abs, art, land, port)

* Francis Frith

* Hakuyō Fuchikami

* Eva Fuka

* Mitsutarō Fuku

* Katsuji Fukuda (adv, art)

* Rosō Fukuhara (art)

* Shinzō Fukuhara (art)

* Jill Furmanovsky

* Adam Fuss (abs, art, doc)


[edit] G


* Ron Galella

* Isidoro Gallo

* Harry Gamboa, Jr.

* Alexander Gardner

* William Garnett

* Anne Geddes (art, doc, port)

* Arnold Genthe

* Helmut Gernsheim

* Luigi Ghirri

* Mario Giacomelli

* Paula Rae Gibson (art)

* Ralph Gibson

* Bruce Gilden

* Joseph-Philibert Girault de Prangey

* André Giroux

* Wilhelm von Gloeden (art, fash, port)

* Barbara Gluck (art,war)

* Fay Godwin (art, land, port)

* Frank Gohlke

* Anthony Goicolea

* Jim Goldberg

* David Goldblatt

* Nan Goldin (art, int, port)

* Andy Goldsworthy (abs, art, land)

* Kaveh Golestan (doc)

* Rolando Gomez (art, doc, port)

* Greg Gorman (art, port)

* John Gossage

* William P. Gottlieb

* Hal Gould (art)

* Emmet Gowin (art, doc)

* Masao Gozu

* Karen Graffeo (art, port, doc)

* Paul Graham

* Herb Greene (port)

* Timothy Greenfield-Sanders (port, celeb)

* Jill Greenberg

* Lauren Greenfield

* Lois Greenfield

* Philip Jones Griffiths (doc, war)

* Stan Grossfeld

* Bob Gruen (port)

* Emile Gsell

* Ara Güler

* Andreas Gursky (art)

* John Gutmann


[edit] H


* Ernst Haas (Doc, port)

* Tzeli Hadjidimitriou (art, land, arch)

* E.R. Hall (spt, port)

* Mark Robert Halper (adv, arch, art, inds, port)

* Philippe Halsman (art, fash, port)

* Dirck Halstead

* David Hamilton (abs, art)

* Adelaide Hanscom (pict)

* Charles Harbutt

* Bert Hardy (doc, war)

* John Harrington

* Alfred A. Hart

* Sam Haskins (adv, art, doc, fash, inds, food, land, port)

* Victor Hasselblad (Land)

* Masumi Hayashi

* Tadahiko Hayashi (doc, port)

* Takanobu Hayashi (art)

* William Hayes

* John Heartfield

* Darren Heath (spt)

* Petter Hegre (dig)

* William Heick (art, doc, ethno, inds)

* Gottfried Helnwein (art)

* Fritz Henle

* Bill Henson (art)

* Carli Hermès (abs, adv, art)

* J Malan Heslop (war)

* David Octavius Hill

* John K. Hillers

* David Hilliard

* Lewis Hine (art, doc, port)

* Terushichi Hirai

* Hiro (fash)

* John Hoagland (war)

* Hannah Höch (abs, art, port)

* David Hockney (abs, art, doc, int, land, port)

* Heinrich Hoffmann

* Frederick Hollyer (port, art, int)

* Joseph Holmes

* Ismo Hölttö

* Horie Kuwajirō

* Masao Horino

* Horst P. Horst (doc, fash, port)

* Eric Hosking

* Charles Howard (doc)

* Robert Howlett Pioneer, 1831–1858

* George Hoyningen-Huene

* Henri Huet

* Fred Hultstrand

* Art Hupy (arch, port)

* Frank Hurley

* David Hurn

* George Hurrell (art, fash)

* Philip Hyde (nature, land, art)


[edit] I


* Tetsuya Ichimura

* William H. Illingworth

* Jesús Inostroza (doc, art)

* Jerry Interval

* Walter Iooss

* Taikichi Irie (art, doc)

* Edith Irvine

* Lee Isaacs (abs, adv, art, doc, port)

* Johann Baptist Isenring

* Yasuhiro Ishimoto (doc, art)

* Jules Itier

* Mitsuaki Iwagō

* Takeji Iwamiya (arch, doc)


[edit] J


* Bill Jackson

* William Henry Jackson

* Lotte Jacobi (port)

* Bahman Jalali (doc, art)

* Russell James

* Olof Jarlbro

* Gaspard-Pierre-Gustave Joly de Lotbinière (arch, land)

* Jan Töve Johansson

* John S. Johnston

* Anthony Jones

* Charles Jones (food)

* Pirkle Jones

* Bishin Jumonji


[edit] K


* Gertrude Käsebier

* Clemens Kalischer (doc, art)

* Jesse Kalisher

* Kameya Tokujirō

* Consuelo Kanaga

* Nadav Kander

* Yousuf Karsh (port)

* Nasrollah Kasraian (doc, land)

* Rinko Kawauchi

* Barry Kay (doc, art)

* Seiki Kayamori (doc, ethno)

* Kensuke Kazama

* Mary Morgan Keipp

* Seydou Keïta

* Michael Kenna (art, int, land)

* Mitch Kern (art, port)

* Charles Kerry

* André Kertész (doc, land, int, port)

* Robert Glenn Ketchum

* Carl de Keyzer

* Yevgeny Khaldei

* Takashi Kijima

* Hiroh Kikai (doc, port)

* Shunkichi Kikuchi (doc, sci)

* Chris Killip

* Miru Kim (doc, art, land)

* Ihei Kimura (doc, port)

* Darius Kinsey

* Genzō Kitazumi (art, doc)

* William Klein

* Stuart Klipper (art, land)

* Mattias Klum

* Nick Knight

* Kiyoshi Koishi

* Akira Komoto (art)

* Tomio Kondō (doc, port)

* Yannis Kontos (doc)

* Ad Konings (sci)

* Rudolf Koppitz

* Alberto Korda

* Josef Koudelka

* George Krause

* Ed Krebs (port)

* Barbara Kruger (abs, art, doc)

* Motoichi Kumagai (doc)

* Yasuo Kuniyoshi

* Justine Kurland (art)

* Seiji Kurata (doc)

* Kusakabe Kimbei

* Kineo Kuwabara (doc)

* Shisei Kuwabara (doc)


[edit] L


* David LaChapelle (art, fash)

* Vincent Laforet (doc)

* Karl Lagerfeld (fash)

* Penny Lancaster

* Ernst Heinrich Landrock

* Inez van Lamsweerde

* Dorothea Lange (doc, port)

* Frans Lanting

* Clarence John Laughlin (art, int, land, port)

* Alma Lavenson

* Jacques Henri Lartigue (doc)

* Russell Lee (doc)

* Louis Legrand

* Gustave Le Gray

* Rudolf Franz Lehnert

* Peter Leibing

* Annie Leibovitz (art, doc, fash, port)

* Neil Leifer

* Jacques Leiser

* Herman Leonard

* Helmar Lerski

* Henri Le Secq (arch)

* Esther Levine (art)

* Sherrie Levine (art, doc)

* Helen Levitt (doc, port)

* Patrick Lichfield (port)

* Jerome Liebling (art)

* Peter Lindbergh (fash)

* Lawrence Denny Lindsley (land, doc)

* O. Winston Link (abs, adv, art, doc, land, inds)

* El Lissitzky

* Herbert List

* Jacqueline Livingston

* Harold Lloyd (port)

* R. Ian Lloyd

* Eugeniusz Lokajski

* Alejandro López de Haro (art)

* Jet Lowe (arch, doc, port)

* Auguste and Louis Lumière

* Markéta Luskačová (doc)

* Serge Lutens (art, fash)

* Loretta Lux (art)

* George Platt Lynes (adv, art, doc, fash, port)

* Danny Lyon (doc, port)

* Darryn Lyons


[edit] M


* Iain MacMillan

* Chema Madoz (art)

* Maeda Genzō

* Shinzo Maeda

* Jay Maisel (adv)

* Marianne Majerus

* Vassilis Makris

* Christopher Makos

* Erling Mandelmann

* Sally Mann (art, doc, pict, port)

* Jonathan Mannion (music, adv, celeb)

* Robert Mapplethorpe (art, fash, port)

* Fosco Maraini (ethno)

* Marcel Mariën

* Mary Ellen Mark (doc, port)

* Oscar G. Mason (sci)

* Willy Matheisl

* Spider Martin (doc, port)

* Enrico Martino (ethno, land, war)

* Margrethe Mather

* Susumu Matsushima (fash, port)

* Gordon Matta-Clark (art)

* Kate Matthews

* Alfred Maudslay

* Morton D. May

* John Jabez Edwin Mayall

* Roger Mayne (doc)

* Raphael Mazzucco (fashion)

* Angus McBean

* John McBride

* Will McBride (doc, port)

* Mary McCartney (port)

* Linda McCartney (art, doc, fash)

* Don McCullin

* Steve McCurry

* Glynnis McDaris

* Dave McKean

* Joseph McKeown (adv, doc, inds, war)

* Joe McNally (doc, port)

* Laura McPhee

* Steven Meisel (art, fash)

* Susan Meiselas

* Donald Mennie

* Enrique Metinides

* Pascal Meunier (doc)

* Adolf de Meyer

* Joel Meyerowitz

* Gjon Mili

* Lee Miller

* Mark Miremont

* Mohammadreza Mirzaei (art)

* Richard Misrach (abs, art, doc)

* Daniel S. Mitchell (doc)

* Tōyō Miyatake

* Miyazaki Yūhi

* Lisette Model

* Tina Modotti (art, doc, port)

* László Moholy-Nagy (art)

* Jean-Baptiste Mondino (fash)

* Geoff Moon (birds, nz natural)

* Charles Moore (doc, port)

* Derry Moore, 12th Earl of Drogheda (port, art, int)

* Raymond Moore (art)

* Julie Moos (art, doc, land, port)

* Inge Morath

* Abelardo Morell

* Aizō Morikawa (port)

* Daidō Moriyama

* Christopher Morris

* Wright Morris

* David Muench

* Ugo Mulas (art, doc, port)

* Vik Muniz (abs, art)

* Martin Munkácsi (spt, doc, fash)

* Isabel Muñoz

* Nickolas Muray

* Richard Murrian (art)

* Eadweard Muybridge (art, doc, land)

* Carl Mydans


[edit] N


* James Nachtwey (doc, war)

* Filip Naudts (art, port)

* Nadar

* Shigeichi Nagano (doc)

* Yasushi Nagao (doc)

* Billy Name (art, doc, port)

* Hans Namuth (portraits of artists)

* Ikkō Narahara (art)

* Graham Nash (art)

* Yōnosuke Natori (doc)

* Negretti and Zambra (photographic studio)

* Nelly's (Elli Souyioultzoglou-Seraïdari)

* Helmut Newton (art, fash, port)

* Arnold Newman (port)

* Dianora Niccolini (art)

* Nicéphore Niépce

* Lennart Nilsson

* Nicholas Nixon (doc, port)

* William Notman

* Kazimierz Nowak (doc, ethno)

* Lee Nye


[edit] O


* Michael O'Brien

* Ogawa Kazumasa

* Takashi Okamura

* Erwin Olaf (fash, port)

* Arthur Omar

* Mitsugu Ōnishi

* Kōshirō Onchi (art)

* Chizu Ono

* Catherine Opie

* Charles O'Rear

* Timothy O'Sullivan

* Stephens Orr

* Rubén Ortiz Torres (art)

* Graham Ovenden

* Paul Outerbridge


[edit] P


* Johannes Pääsuke (doc, ethno)

* Charles Page (doc)

* Tim Page (war)

* Giuseppe Palmas

* Basil Pao

* John Papillon

* Richard Pare

* Trent Parke (doc)

* Norman Parkinson

* Gordon Parks (doc)

* Martin Parr (art, doc)

* Steve Parish

* Robert ParkeHarrison (art)

* Freeman Patterson

* Dino Pedriali

* Irving Penn (art, fash)

* Gilles Peress (doc)

* Lucian Perkins (doc, war)

* Anders Petersen

* Bob Peterson (photographer)

* John Pezzenti (wildlife)

* John Pfahl

* Secondo Pia

* Jack Pierson (art)

* Gueorgui Pinkhassov (doc)

* Peter Pitseolak

* Sylvia Plachy

* Frank Plicka (doc)

* David Plowden (doc)

* Guglielmo Plüschow

* Robert Polidori (arch)

* Eliot Porter

* Mark Power

* Dith Pran

* Victor Prevost

* Richard Prince

* Priya Ramrakha

* Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii

* Włodzimierz Puchalski

* Willy Puchner (art, doc)

* Gerald P. Pulley


[edit] Q


* Altaf Qadri


[edit] R


* Ragnar Axelsson (doc)

* Raghu Rai

* Herbert Randall

* Rankin (fash)

* Paul Raphaelson (art)

* Man Ray (art, port)

* Tony Ray-Jones (art, doc)

* Jahangir Razmi (doc)

* David Redfern (music)

* Henri-Victor Regnault

* H. Reid

* Oscar Gustave Rejlander (art, port)

* Albert Renger-Patzsch

* Carlos Reyes-Manzo (doc)

* Bettina Rheims

* Marc Riboud (art, doc, int, land)

* Michael Richard

* Eugene Richards (doc)

* Jim Richardson (doc, land)

* Terry Richardson (fash, art)

* Sophy Rickett

* Leni Riefenstahl (doc, int, land, port)

* Robert Riger (spt)

* Jacob Riis

* Frank Rinehart (doc)

* Herb Ritts (art, fash, port)

* James Roark

* Grace Robertson

* James Robertson

* Ziki Robertson

* Henry Peach Robinson (pict)

* John V. Robinson (arch, doc, inds)

* Thomas C. Roche (doc, war)

* Alexandr Rodchenko

* George Rodger

* José Luis Rodríguez Pittí (art, doc)

* Milton Rogovin (doc)

* Matthew Rolston

* Willy Ronis

* Ben Rose (fash, food, port)

* Barbara Rosenthal (art, surrealism)

* Joe Rosenthal

* Martha Rosler

* Horatio Ross

* Mary Rosse

* Pierre Rossier

* Arthur Rothstein

* Dominic Rouse (art)

* Galen Rowell

* Johnny Rozsa (celeb, port, fash)

* Didier Ruef

* Michael Ruetz (art, doc)

* Thomas Ruff (art)

* Andrew J. Russell


[edit] S


* Sebastião Salgado (art, doc)

* Erich Salomon

* Lucas Samaras

* Arnold E. Samuelson (war)

* August Sander

* Akira Satō (art, fash)

* Kōji Satō

* Tokihiro Satō (art)

* Jan Saudek (art, port)

* William Saunders

* Charles Roscoe Savage

* Francesco Scavullo (art, fash)

* Jürgen Schadeberg

* Rocky Schenck (art)

* Bill Schwab (art)

* John Schwartz

* Arthur E. Scott

* Ignác Šechtl

* Josef Jindřich Šechtl

* Stéphane Sednaoui (adv, art, fash)

* Allan Sekula

* Mark Seliger (port)

* Vittorio Sella (land)

* Andres Serrano (art, doc, port)

* Masato Seto (doc)

* John Sexton

* David Seymour

* Charles Sheeler

* Bob Shell

* Charles Shepherd

* Cindy Sherman (art, doc, port)

* Stewart Shining (fashion)

* Kishin Shinoyama

* Mieko Shiomi

* Stephen Shore

* John Shuptrine

* Malick Sidibé

* Katharina Sieverding

* Jeanloup Sieff

* Wolfgang Sievers (arch, ind)

* Steven Siewert (art, doc)

* Floria Sigismondi (art)

* Roman Signer

* Jakob Sildnik

* Marilyn Silverstone

* Lorna Simpson (art)

* Aaron Siskind

* Natalia Skobeeva (art, fashion)

* Sandy Skoglund (art, doc)

* Moneta Sleet Jr.

* Victor Sloan (art)

* Rick Smolan

* Edwin Smith (arch, int, land)

* Graham Smith

* Mickey Smith (artist)

* Pennie Smith

* W. Eugene Smith (doc)

* Snowdon (port)

* Melvin Sokolsky (art, fash, adv)

* Frederick Sommer

* Giorgio Sommer

* Alec Soth (art, doc, land, port)

* Pete Souza

* Albert Spaggiari

* Jack Spencer (art, doc, int, land)

* Humphrey Spender (doc)

* Christine Spengler (war)

* Melissa Springer (art, doc, port)

* Vytautas Stanionis

* Andrew Stark (art, doc)

* Chris Steele-Perkins (doc)

* Edward Steichen (art, land, pict, port)

* Ralph Steiner

* Joel Sternfeld (doc)

* Louis Stettner

* David Stewart (art, adv)

* Charles Settrington (land)

* Alfred Stieglitz (art, port)

* Baron Raimund von Stillfried

* Stillfried & Andersen (photographic studio)

* Nellie Stockbridge(doc)

* Ezra Stoller

* Kęstutis Stoškus

* Paul Strand (art)

* Zoe Strauss (art)

* Thomas Struth (art, doc)

* Roy Stuart

* Jock Sturges (art, port)

* Anthony Suau (doc, war)

* Issei Suda (art)

* Josef Sudek (art, pict)

* Hiroshi Sugimoto (art, doc, port)

* Francis Meadow Sutcliffe

* Antanas Sutkus

* Kenneth Dupee Swan (land)

* John Szarkowski (doc)


[edit] T


* I. W. Taber

* Kaietsu Takagi

* Yutaka Takanashi

* Masataka Takayama (abs, art)

* William Fox Talbot

* Tamamura Kozaburō

* Akihide Tamura (aka Shigeru Tamura)

* Sakae Tamura (art, port)

* Sakae Tamura (sci)

* Shigeru Tamura (not Akihide Tamura)

* Kōtarō Tanaka

* Gerda Taro (Gerta Pohorylle) (doc)

* Henry Taunt (land)

* John Bigelow Taylor (arch, art, port)

* Maggie Taylor (art)

* Sam Taylor-Wood (art, doc, port)

* Joyce Tenneson

* Anya Teixeira

* Juergen Teller (fash)

* Teo Bee Yen

* Mario Testino

* Peter Thomann (doc)

* Warren T. Thompson

* John Thomson

* Nicolas Tikhomiroff

* Wolfgang Tillmans (abs, art, land)

* Herbert Tobias

* Shōmei Tōmatsu (art, doc)

* Tomishige Rihei

* Akira Toriyama (land, pict)

* Oliviero Toscani

* Larry Towell

* Barbara Traub

* Bill Travis (art, port)

* Eric Treacy

* Arthur Tress (art, fash, port)

* Linnaeus Tripe

* John Trobaugh (art, doc, port)

* Olegas Truchanas

* Thomas Tulis (art, doc, inds, land, port)

* Spencer Tunick (art, doc, fash, port)

* David C. Turnley (doc)

* Peter Turnley (doc)


[edit] U


* Uchida Kuichi

* Shōji Ueda

* Noboru Ueki

* Jerry Uelsmann (art, land, port)

* Ueno Hikoma

* Ukai Gyokusen

* Brian Ulrich (art, doc)

* Doris Ulmann

* Ellen von Unwerth

* Kaoru Usui (doc)

* Huynh Cong Ut


[edit] V


* John Vachon (arch, doc, port)

* Max Vadukul

* James Valentine

* James Van Der Zee

* Carl Van Vechten

* Kathy Vargas

* John Veltri

* Kiino Villand

* Roman Vishniac

* Massimo Vitali


[edit] W


* Bob Walker

* Jeff Wall

* Ian Wallace (land)

* Chris von Wangenheim (fash)

* Nick Waplington

* Andy Warhol (art, doc, fash, port)

* Waswo X. Waswo (art, port)

* Hiroshi Watanabe (port)

* Carleton Watkins

* Albert Watson

* Bruce Weber (art, doc, fash)

* Weegee (abs, art, doc)

* Carrie Mae Weems

* William Wegman

* Eudora Welty

* Henry Wessel, Jr.

* Brett Weston (art, port)

* Cole Weston (art, port)

* Edward Weston (art, pict, port)

* Kim Weston

* John H. White (doc)

* Minor White (art, land)

* Jeff Widener

* Hannah Wilke (art, port)

* Christopher Williams

* Michael Williamson

* Deborah Willis (art)

* Charles Paul Wilp (adv)

* Laura Wilson

* George Washington Wilson

* Kathryn Tucker Windham (doc)

* Garry Winogrand (art, land)

* Ernest Withers (doc)

* Stanisław Ignacy Witkiewicz

* Joel-Peter Witkin (art, doc, port)

* Michael Wolf

* Art Wolfe

* Brian Wood (art)

* Walter B. Woodbury

* Francesca Woodman (art)

* Don Worth (land, botanical)

* Otto Wunderlich

* Donovan Wylie


[edit] X

[edit] Y


* Lorna Yabsley (port)

* Alfred Yaghobzadeh

* Hiroshi Yamazaki

* Nakaji Yasui

* Bunny Yeager

* Yevonde

* Yokoyama Matsusaburō

* Kohei Yoshiyuki (doc)

* Paul Yule


[edit] Z


* Jerome Zerbe (art, doc, fash, war)

* David Drew Zingg

* Ron L. Zheng (abs, art)

* Fred Zinn (aer)

* Stanislovas Žvirgždas


See also


* Fetish photographer

* Fine art photography

* Glamour photographer

* Macro photography

* Magnum Photos

* Norwegian photographers

* Photograph

* Photographers of the erotic male

* New Zealand photography

* Photography

* Photojournalism

* Photojournalists

* Pictorialism

* Pulitzer Prize for Breaking News Photography

* Pulitzer Prize for Feature Photography

* Wedding photography

* Women in photography

* Wikipedian Photographers


Wedding photography

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Wedding photography is the photography of activities relating to weddings. It encompasses photographs of the couple before marriage (for announcements, portrait displays, or thank you cards) as well as coverage of the wedding and reception (sometimes referred to as the wedding breakfast in non-US countries). It is a major commercial endeavor that supports the bulk of the efforts for many photography studios or independent photographers.

Large format camera lens.jpg Photography portal


A 1942 wedding with bride in traditional long white wedding dress.


Like the technology of photography itself, the practice of wedding photography has evolved and grown since the invention of the photographic art form in 1826 by Joseph Nicéphore Niépce. In fact, an early photograph, recorded some 14 years after the fact, may be a recreation for the camera of the 1840 wedding of Queen Victoria to Prince Albert. However, in the early days of photography, most couples of more humble means did not hire a photographer to record the actual wedding itself. Until the later half of the 19th century, most people didn’t pose for formal wedding photos during the wedding. Rather, they might pose for a formal photo in their best clotthhes before or after a wedding. In the late 1860s, more couples started posing in their wedding clothes or sometimes hired a photographer to come to the wedding venue. (See the gallery at White wedding.)


Due to the nature of the bulky equipment and lighting issues, wedding photography was largely a studio practice for most of the late 1800s. Over time, technology improved, but many couples still might only pose for a single wedding portrait. Wedding albums started becoming more commonplace towards the 1880s, and the photographer would sometimes include the wedding party in the photographs. Often the wedding gifts would be laid out and recorded in the photographs as well.[1]


At the beginning of the 20th century, color photography became available, but was still unreliable and expensive, so most wedding photography was still practiced in black and white. The concept of capturing the wedding "event" came about after the Second World War. Using film roll technology and improved lighting techniques available with the invention of the compact flash bulb, photographers would often show up at a wedding and try to sell the photos later. Despite the initial low quality photographs that often resulted, the competition forced the studio photographers to start working on location.


Initially, professional studio photographers might bring a lot of bulky equipment, thus limiting their ability to record the entire event. Even "candid" photos were more often staged after the ceremony. In the 1970s, the more modern approach to recording the entire wedding event started evolving into the practice as we know it today.[2]



* 1 Technology

* 2 Approaches

* 3 Albums, prints, and other products

* 4 Profession

* 5 Professional organizations

* 6 See also

* 7 References



Here, a wedding photographer rehearses taking a wedding photo using her assistant as a model. The veil was deliberately placed in position by the photographer.


During the film era, photographers favored color negative film and medium-format cameras, especially by Hasselblad. Today, many more weddings are photographed with digital SLR cameras as the digital convenience provides quick detection of lighting mistakes and allows creative approaches to be reviewed immediately.


In spite of diminishing film use, some photographers continue to shoot with film as they prefer the film aesthetic, and others are of the opinion that negative film captures more information than digital technology, and has less margin for exposure error. Certainly true in some cases, it should be noted that exposure latitude inherent in a camera's native RAW image format (which allows for more under- and over- exposure than JPEG[3]) varies from manufacturer to manufacturer. All forms of RAW have a degree of exposure latitude which exceeds slide film - to which digital capture is commonly compared.[citation needed]


Currently, it is fair to say that many professional labs have a greater capacity to provide services in post-production for film compared with digital[citation needed], such as quickly generating adequate prints in the event of some over- or under- exposure. This should change over time, with manufacturers like Kodak announcing a commitment to further develop streamlined services in the area of professional digital lab output.


Technology has evolved with the use of remote triggers and flashes. Wedding photographers are now able to take advantage of traveling light and having the ability to use creative lighting.


This article may contain original research or unverified claims. Please improve the article by adding references. See the talk page for details. (December 2007)

Bride & groom in a park, posing in photojournalistic style.

A photojournalistic wedding image capturing the drama of the moment.


There are two primary approaches to wedding photography that are recognized today: Traditional and Photojournalistic. Traditional wedding photography provides for more classically posed images and a great deal of photographer control and interaction on the day of the wedding. Photojournalistic wedding photography takes its cue from editorial reporting styles and focuses more on candid and unposed images with little photographer interaction. These are two extremes and many of today's photographers will fall somewhere in the middle of these two styles.


A third style that is becoming more popular is a fashion-based approach. In contemporary/fashion-based wedding photography, photojournalistic images of the events of the day are combined with posed images that are inspired by editorial fashion photography as would be found in magazines like Vogue or Vanity Fair.


A fourth style that is popular in Asian countries, especially in China, is wedding studio photography(Chinese: 婚纱摄影; pinyin: hūn shā shè yǐng). Typically, couples will select a studio in a similar manner as western couples select a wedding photographer. They will then make an appointment with the studio for either in-studio or location shoot, which is becoming popular in recent years, to do "glamour wedding shots". In attendance will be a hair stylist and make-up artist in addition to the photographer and the couple. The couple will go through many changes of clothing and backgrounds in a similar manner to the fashion based approach.

A bride arriving at the venue, with her father also in the car. The black and white texture, together with her expression, and the composition of the photograph make for a picture that evokes some of the emotion from the day.


The term contemporary wedding photography is used to describe wedding photography that is not of a traditional nature. The emphasis in contemporary photography is to capture the story and atmosphere from the day, so the viewer has an appreciation of what the wedding was like, rather than a series of pre-determined poses. This term can be mistaken for meaning any photograph that is not posed or formal. The advent and advancement of digital cameras (and increased use of the internet) means that many people can offer their services as a wedding photographer, but contemporary wedding photography is more than taking informal photographs and involves the use of composition, lighting, and timing to capture photographs that have a strong visual appeal.


There is some uncertainty over what constitutes contemporary and how this differs from other forms of wedding photography. The PSA Journal, March 1994, records a debate on this subject.[4]. This highlights the difficulty with the word contemporary when defining photographic expression, as some feel this term is not sufficiently defined. For example, is photojournalism contemporary or is it different? Photojournalism is easier to define, as the term infers the photography is by its nature similar to journalism, where the emphasis is upon reporting and recording events in a newsworthy manner, whereas contemporary may include an element of photojournalism but is not exclusively that style of photography.


However, the landscape of Wedding Photography has constantly evolved, it is a creative discipline and those proponents at the leading edge of the industry are constantly feeding new ideas into the photographic community. As a result trends[5] will develop, mostly based around the core elements discussed. Some will be transitory while others will remain a traditional part.

Albums, prints, and other products


A contemporary wedding photographer will usually provide some or all of the following:


* Indoor photography at a church, temple, or other private venue during the ceremony and reception.

* Outdoor photography (often at a park, beach, or scenic location on the day of the wedding and/or for engagement photos).

* Both posed and candid (photojournalistic) shots of the wedding couple and their guests at the religious or civil ceremony, and the reception that follows.

* Formal portraiture in the studio (for either the wedding and/or the engagement photos).

* Digital services, such as digital prints or slides shows.

* Albums (either traditional or the more contemporary flush mount type of album).


A sample two-page spread from a contemporary flush mount wedding album.


The range of deliverables that a wedding photographer presents is varied. There is no standard as to what is included in a wedding coverage or package, so products vary regionally and from across photographers, as do the number of images provided.


Most photographers provide a set of proofs (usually unretouched, edited images) for the clients to view. Photographers may provide hard copy proofs in the form of 4x5 or 4x6 prints, a "magazine" of images with thumbnail sized pictures on multiple pages, an online proof gallery, images on CD or DVD in the form of a gallery or a slideshow, or a combination of the above. Some photographers provide these proofs for the client to keep, and some photographers require the client to make final print choices from the proofs and then return them or purchase them at an additional cost.


There are a wide variety of albums and manufacturers available, and photographers may provide traditional matted albums, digitally designed "coffee table" albums, contemporary flush mount albums, hardbound books, scrapbook style albums, or a combination of any of the above. Albums may be included as part of a pre-purchased package, or they may be added as an after-wedding purchase. Not all photographers provide albums; some may prefer to provide prints and/or files and let clients make their own albums.


Most photographers allow clients to purchase additional prints for themselves or their families. Many photographers now provide online sales either through galleries located on their own websites or through partnerships with other vendors. Those vendors typically host the images and provide the back end sales mechanism for the photographer; the photographer sets his or her own prices and the vendor takes a commission or charges a flat fee.


Some photographers are also including high resolution files in their packages. These photographers allow their clients limited rights to reproduce the images for their personal use, while retaining the copyright. Not all photographers release files and those who do will most likely charge a premium for them, since releasing files means giving up any after wedding print or album sales for the most part.


Photographers who do not retain copyright of the images often charge more for their services. In these cases the photographer provides the client with the digital images as part of the wedding package. The client then has unrestricted use of the images and can print any that they may desire.


This section may contain original research or unverified claims. Please improve the article by adding references. See the talk page for details. (November 2007)

A bride and groom are posed for this location shot using available lighting during the pre-twilight moments of the day due to the desirable soft lighting effects.


The wedding photography industry is home to some of the most respected names within the photography industry, some of whom were listed in PopPhoto's Top 10 Wedding Photographers in the World.[6] These figures represent the historical rise of wedding photojournalism, fashion, couture-style portraits, and all digital work-flow.


As a wedding is a one-time event, the photographer must be prepared for the unexpected. Shooting a wedding is both exhausting and invigorating as the photographer is constantly looking for good angles and opportunities for candid shots. Communication and planning time-lines before the event will alleviate many of the stresses associated with photographing a wedding. The ability to tactfully take charge also helps - particularly when photographing large groups or families - a common expectation after the ceremony. Having a run list with all of the expected shots is also a useful tool. A photographer may work with an assistant who can carry equipment, arrange guests, and assist with clothing adjustments or holding of reflectors.


Some wedding photographers have an office or studio which can double as a retail photography studio. In bigger cities, one might find dedicated wedding studios that only shoot weddings and may have large studios equipped with make-up and hair, and gowns ready for the bride to wear. Other wedding photographers work out of a home studio, preferring to photograph on location.

Professional organizations


Organizations such as the Professional Photographers of America (PPA) and Wedding and Portrait Photographers International (WPPI) and Wedding Photojournalist Association(WPJA)support the art and business of wedding photography. Standards and requirements for professional organizations vary, but membership often indicates a photographer is insured (if they should lose or ruin a large number of images, they can compensate such errors for their clients). Professional organizations offer training, professional competition, and support to members, as well as directory services to help with marketing.


See also


* Indian wedding photography

* Wedding planner


Identifier: recordsmemorials00spee

Title: Records and memorials of the Speed family

Year: 1892 (1890s)

Authors: Speed, Thos. (Thomas), 1841-1906

Subjects: Speed family Speed family (James Speed, 1679-1719)

Publisher: Louisville, Ky., Courier-journal job printing company

Contributing Library: New York Public Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN


View Book Page: Book Viewer

About This Book: Catalog Entry

View All Images: All Images From Book


Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.


Text Appearing Before Image:

ngton, D. C. He married Miss Lena Duke, daughter of James K. Duke,of Scott county, Ky., she being a grandniece of ChiefJustice Marshall. They have had five children, three daughters and two sons: 1. Eliza Clay, married James B. Hawkins, of Frankfort;died 1891. 2. Mary Buford, unmarried. 3. Keith Duke, unmarried. 4. Lena Duke, married John Whitehead. 5. Green Clay, unmarried. PAULINE SMITH TALBOTT. Pauline Smith, daughter of Colonel John Speed Smith,w7as born September 30, 1829. She married Guilford A,Talbott, of Boyle county, Ky. They had five daughtersand one son : 1. Eliza, married Thomas Jackson. 2. Maria E., married Charles Dunn. 3. Mary Junius, unmarried. 4. Henry. 5. Alberta. 6. Pauline. JOHN SPEED SMITH. John Speed Smith, the 3-oungest son of Colonel JohnSpeed Smith, married Miss Mary Barret, of Louisville.She was the daughter of Hon. Wm. F. Barret, the well-known lawyer of Louisville, whose wife was a daughter ofJudge William C. Goodloe, brother of David S. Goodloe. Ti^n — *


Text Appearing After Image:

JUDGE JOHN SPEED,Of Farrriingtoq, qear Louisville. From an old miniature. CAPT. JAMES SPEED AND MARY SPENCER—SECOND BRANCH. 93 The wife of Judge William C Goodloe was a daughter ofGovernor Owsley, of Ken tuck)-. The children of John Speed Smith and Mary Barret : i. Maria W. 2. Elizabeth Lewis. 3. John Speed. 4. Margaretta B. 5. Almira G., died. 6. Curran. 7. Mary Barret. JUDGE JOHN SPEED, OF LOUISVILLE. John Speed, son of Captain James Speed, was born May17, 1772, consequently, he was ten years old when he cameto Kentucky with his father in 1782. He received such edu-cation as could be obtained in the schools in the early daysof Kentucky, and when he reached manhood he and hisbrother, Thomas, engaged in merchandising. They werealso partners in making salt at the licks near Shepherds-ville, Ky. About the beginning of this century he becamethe owner of a large tract of the celebrated Beargrassland near Louisville, on the road leading to Bards town, theplace where his brother Thomas li


Note About Images

Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

French postcard by Editions P.I., Paris, no. 265. Photo: Paramount.


With her round apple-face, big eyes and charm, French-born Hollywood star Claudette Colbert (1903-1996) was the epitome of chic sophistication. Her comedies It Happened One Night (1934) - for which she won the Oscar, Midnight (1939) and The Palm Beach Story (1942) are among Hollywood's greatest ever. After more than 60 films, she returned with great success to the theatre, and was 84 years old when she won a Golden Globe for the TV mini-series The Two Mrs. Grenvilles (1987).


Claudette Colbert was born Emilie ‘Lily’ Claudette Chauchoin in 1903 in Saint-Mandé, an eastern suburb of Paris, where her father owned a bakery. Her parents were Georges Claude Chauchoin and Jeanne Marie née Loew. In 1906 her family emigrated to New York. Though she did some acting in college, her primary interest was fashion design. She studied fashion when she met the writer Anne Morrison at a party who offered the 20-year-old student a small role in her play The Wild Westcotts (1923) on Broadway. She started to use the stage name Claudette Colbert. After signing a five-year contract with the producer Al Woods, Colbert played ingénue roles on Broadway from 1925 through 1929. British actor Leslie Howard, with whom she had a brief relationship in 1924, encouraged her and persuaded his friend the producer Al Woods to put her under contract but, despite personally good notices, she did not get into a major hit until The Barker (1927) with Walter Huston and Norman Foster. In The Barker she played a duplicitous snake charmer. She and Foster, later a Hollywood actor and director, were married the following year during the play's London run. Their marriage remained a secret for many years while they lived in separate homes. In Los Angeles, Colbert shared a home with her mother Jeanne Chauchoin, but her domineering mother disliked Foster and did not allow him into their home. Colbert and Foster divorced in 1935 in Mexico. Colbert's first film, For the Love of Mike (Frank Capra, 1927), was made during The Barker's Broadway run. The silent film is now believed to be lost. She was concerned that silent cinema failed to utilise her melodious voice, one of her greatest assets. The advent of talkies changed her attitude, and in 1929 she signed a Paramount contract. Only two of her first 15 films - The Big Pond (Hobart Henley, 1930) and The Smiling Lieutenant (Ernst Lubitsch, 1931), both co-starring Maurice Chevalier - were better than mediocre. Then Cecil B. De Mille asked her to play Nero (Charles Laughton)'s unscrupulous wife Poppaea in the Biblical epic The Sign of the Cross (1932). Her performance was acclaimed, while her bath in asses' milk received immense publicity and has become a famous scene in Hollywood history. Columbia offered her the role of a spoiled heiress in It Happened One Night (Frank Capra, 1934). Colbert was initially reluctant to appear in the screwball comedy and demanded to be paid $50,000 - twice her usual pay - and that filming was to be completed within four weeks to allow her to take a planned vacation. Tom Valance at The Independent: “the role gave her the chance to work with Clark Gable, who had been forced by his studio, MGM, to do the film. Neither star initially expected much of the low-budget comedy which won five Oscars. Colbert was in fact boarding a train for New York on the night of the ceremony when she was stopped and rushed back to accept her Best Actress award from Shirley Temple.” The madcap comedy was a mega-hit all across the country. Two more big hits consolidated her status. She played the title role in the lavish but inaccurate Cleopatra (Cecil B. De Mille, 1934), then starred in Imitation of Life (John Stahl, 1934), a trenchant study of racial intolerance. It was based on Fannie Hurst's novel about a young widow who becomes a millionairess marketing the pancake recipe of her black friend (Louise Beavers). While the widow and her daughter move into society, the friend insists on keeping in the background, and when her light-skinned daughter, who faces exclusion and prejudice where her counterpart has privilege and opportunity, tries to pass for white and disowns her mother tragedy follows.


In 1935, Claudette Colbert was named one of the top 10 money-making stars, a position she was to hold again in 1936 and 1947. Fred MacMurray had his first major role in her next film, The Gilded Lily (Wesley Ruggles, 1935), and the two would go on to co-star in six more films. Charles Boyer, co-star of Colbert's next film, Private Worlds (Gregory La Cava, 1935), and not yet fully conversant with the English language, would also acknowledge the support he received from the actress, who won a second Oscar nomination for her performance as a psychiatrist in this grim story of mental illness. Wikipedia: “Colbert was a stickler for perfection regarding the way she appeared on screen. She believed that her face was difficult to light and photograph, and was obsessed with not showing the right side of her face to the camera, because of a small bump resulting from a childhood broken nose. She often refused to be filmed from the right side of her face, and this sometimes necessitated redesigning movie sets.” Colbert's first marriage ended in 1935 while she was making She Married Her Boss (Gregory La Cava, 1935). The same year she married Joel Pressman, a throat specialist and surgeon at UCLA, who remained her husband until his death in 1968. Colbert's role in Under Two Flags (Frank Lloyd, 1936), based on Ouida's tale of the Foreign Legion, was an unusual one for her, that of the tempestuous camp-follower "Cigarette" who sacrifices herself for love of a soldier (Ronald Colman). For the same director she starred in Maid of Salem (Frank Lloyd, 1937), an account of the 1692 witch-hunts in Massachusetts. Colbert never seemed entirely comfortable in period pieces, and both audiences and critics were happy when she returned to modern comedy with I Met Him In Paris (Wesley Ruggles, 1937) and Tovarich (Anatole Litvak, 1937), in which she and Charles Boyer were impoverished Russian nobility working as maid and butler in a Parisian household. Bluebeard's Eighth Wife (Ernst Lubitsch, 1938), with a screenplay by Billy Wilder and Charles Brackett, based on a 1923 Gloria Swanson silent film, was a disappointment. After a promising start in which Colbert meets Gary Cooper in a Riviera store where she is trying to buy pyjama bottoms while he is trying to purchase just the tops, it becomes contrived and frantic rather than funny. Zaza (George Cukor, 1939), in which Colbert sang several songs as a French music-hall star, was another failure. Then followed one of her greatest films, the Cinderella-inspired screwball comedy Midnight (1939), directed by Mitchell Leisen and brilliantly written by Brackett and Wilder. Colbert next appeared with Henry Fonda in the Western Drums Along the Mohawk (John Ford, 1939), her first film in colour, as a farmer's wife coping with rugged conditions and hostile Indians. Boom Town (Jack Conway, 1940) was one of her most popular films, due to its star-power of Gable, Colbert, Spencer Tracy and Hedy Lamarr.


Claudette Colbert cited as her own favourite film Arise My Love (Mitchell Leisen, 1940), set just after the Spanish Civil War. Tom Valance in The Independent: “it has some splendidly romantic, dramatic and comic moments as Colbert, playing a reporter, pretends to be the wife of a condemned soldier of fortune (Ray Milland) to save him from a Spanish firing squad, then inevitably falls in love with him. Brackett and Wilder's screenplay tried to keep pace with changing events in Europe (the story ends after the invasion of France) which resulted in some uneasy shifts of mood in an otherwise impressive work.” Better still was Henry King's warmly charming piece of Americana Remember The Day (Henry King, 1941), in which Colbert gave a glowing performance as a school teacher who while visiting a now-famous former pupil recalls the past and her sweetheart who was killed in the First World War. Preston Sturges' The Palm Beach Story (1942) is one of the screen's greatest screwball comedies and contains the sequence Colbert later cited as her favourite comic scene. Having left her husband to find a millionaire to finance his inventions, she is climbing into a train's upper berth when she steps on the face and glasses of a rich passenger (Rudy Vallee). During the Second World War Colbert's husband, Joel Pressman, became a navy lieutenant and she spent much time selling war bonds and working for the war effort. Two of her major films were effective wartime propaganda: So Proudly We Hail (Mark Sandrich, 1943), a tribute to the nurses in Bataan and Since You Went Away (John Cromwell, 1944), producer David O. Selznick's ambitious three-hour tribute to the families at home. Colbert considered hard before taking the role of the mother to two teenage girls, but it became one of her finest, most deeply felt performances, representing the women left to raise families while their husbands are at war. In one remarkably touching scene Colbert, who has taken a job at a munitions factory, converses with a refugee, now a naturalised American (Alla Nazimova). For the part, she received her third Academy Award nomination, but lost to Ingrid Bergman in Gaslight. She appeared in such mild comedies as Practically Yours (Mitchell Leisen, 1944), and tepid dramas as Tomorrow is Forever (Irving Pichel, 1946) with Orson Welles. Colbert and Fred MacMurray had an enormous box-office hit with The Egg and I (Chester Erskine, 1947) as a city couple trying to run a farm, but the slapstick (lots of falling about in the mud) was far from the sophistication Colbert purveyed so expertly. Three Came Home (Jean Negulesco, 1950) gave her a strong dramatic role as Agnes Newton Keith, a true-life American authoress captured when the Japanese invaded Borneo in 1941. Her scenes with Sessue Hayakawa (as the cultured prison camp commander) were memorable in a gripping film which was too grim to be a major hit. Colbert had appeared on radio regularly throughout her career, and in 1951 she made her television debut on The Jack Benny Show. Other appearances included The Royal Family of Broadway (1954), The Guardsman (1955) and Blithe Spirit (1956), with Noel Coward and Lauren Bacall. In 1951 she also returned to the stage, with a tour of Noel Coward's Island Fling (later known as South Sea Bubble). She went to Britain to star with Jack Hawkins in The Planter's Wife (Ken Annakin, 1952) based on the native terrorism being faced by rubber planters. The film was a hit in Britain. The following year Colbert went to France to play a mistress of Louis XIV in Sacha Guitry's lavish Si Versailles m'etait conte/Royal Affairs in Versailles (1953). She returned to Broadway in 1955, replacing Margaret Sullavan in Janus, then in 1958 starred in a new play, Leslie Stevens's The Marriage- Go-Round. The play was a hit and Colbert won a Tony nomination. Her last film was Parrish (Delmer Daves, 1961), a soap opera in which Colbert played the mother of Troy Donahue. She continued to make Broadway appearances, among them The Irregular Verb To Love (1963), The Kingfisher (1978) and A Talent For Murder (1981), and she returned to the London stage in Frederick Lonsdale's Aren't We All? (1984) opposite Rex Harrison. For her television work in the mini-series The Two Mrs. Grenvilles (John Erman, 1987) she received a Golden Globe and a nomination for an Emmy Award. Claudette Colbert spent much of her time at the 200-year-old plantation house she and her husband had bought long ago in Barbados, and she also had a flat in Paris and an apartment on the East Side of New York. After three strokes, she died in Barbados in 1996 at the age of 92.


Tom Vallance in The Independent: “It is no accident, surely, that she flourished at that most European of studios, Paramount, home of Lubitsch and Chevalier, Mamoulian, Von Sternberg and Wilder. Her distinctive high-cheekboned beauty and the throaty individuality of her voice were complemented by superb comic timing and fine technical skill honed by an extensive apprenticeship in the theatre. She could be warmly compassionate in romantic drama but was unsurpassable in sophisticated comedy.”


Sources: Tom Vallance (The Independent), Hal Erickson (AllMovie), Denny Jackson (IMDb), Wikipedia and IMDb.

New hope in 2009


"Barack" and "Obama" redirect here. For other uses, see Barack (disambiguation) and Obama (disambiguation).

Barack Obama




44th President of the United States


Assumed office

January 20, 2009

Vice President Joe Biden

Preceded by George W. Bush




United States Senator

from Illinois

In office

January 3, 2005 – November 16, 2008

Preceded by Peter Fitzgerald

Succeeded by Roland Burris




Member of the Illinois Senate

from the 13th district

In office

January 8, 1997 – November 4, 2004

Preceded by Alice Palmer

Succeeded by Kwame Raoul




Born August 4, 1961 (1961-08-04) (age 47)[1]

Honolulu, Hawaii, United States[2]

Birth name Barack Hussein Obama II[2]

Nationality American

Political party Democratic

Spouse Michelle Obama (m. 1992)

Children Malia Ann (b. 1998)

Natasha (a.k.a. Sasha) (b. 2001)

Residence Chicago, Illinois (private)

White House, Washington, D.C. (official)

Alma mater Occidental College

Columbia University (B.A.)

Harvard Law School (J.D.)

Profession Community organizer





Religion Protestant Christian[3]



This article is part of a series about

Barack Obama

Background · Illinois Senate · U.S. Senate

Political positions · Public image · Family

2008 primaries · Obama–Biden campaign

Transition · Inauguration · US Presidency


Barack Hussein Obama II (pronounced /bəˈrɑːk hʊˈseɪn oʊˈbɑːmə/; born August 4, 1961) is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama was the junior United States Senator from Illinois from 2005 until he resigned following his 2008 election to the presidency. He was inaugurated as President on January 20, 2009.


Obama is a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School, where he was the first African American president of the Harvard Law Review. He worked as a community organizer, and practiced as a civil rights attorney in Chicago before serving three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004. He also taught Constitutional Law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. Following an unsuccessful bid for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives in 2000, Obama was elected to the Senate in November 2004. Obama delivered the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in July 2004.


As a member of the Democratic minority in the 109th Congress, Obama helped create legislation to control conventional weapons and to promote greater public accountability in the use of federal funds. He also made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. During the 110th Congress, he helped create legislation regarding lobbying and electoral fraud, climate change, nuclear terrorism, and care for U.S. military personnel returning from combat assignments in Iraq and Afghanistan

Early life and career

Main article: Early life and career of Barack Obama

Barack Obama was born at the Kapi'olani Medical Center for Women & Children in Honolulu, Hawaii,[4][5] to Stanley Ann Dunham,[6] a White American from Wichita, Kansas,[7][8][9] and Barack Obama, Sr., a Luo from Nyang’oma Kogelo, Nyanza Province, Kenya. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Mānoa, where his father was a foreign student on scholarship.[10][11] The couple married on February 2, 1961.[12] Obama's parents separated when Obama was two years old, and they divorced in 1964.[11] Obama's father returned to Kenya and saw his son only once more before dying in an automobile accident in 1982.[13]


After her divorce, Dunham married Indonesian student Lolo Soetoro, who was attending college in Hawaii. When Soeharto, a military leader in Soetoro's home country, came to power in 1967, all students studying abroad were recalled and the family moved to Indonesia.[14] There Obama attended local schools in Jakarta, such as Besuki Public School and St. Francis of Assisi School, until he was ten years old.


He then returned to Honolulu to live with his maternal grandparents, Madelyn and Stanley Armour Dunham, while attending Punahou School from the fifth grade in 1971 until his graduation from high school in 1979.[15] Obama's mother returned to Hawaii in 1972 for five years, and then in 1977 went back to Indonesia, where she worked as an anthropological field worker. She stayed there most of the rest of her life, returning to Hawaii in 1994. She died of ovarian cancer in 1995.[16]


Right-to-left: Barack Obama and half-sister Maya Soetoro-Ng, with their mother Ann Dunham and grandfather Stanley Dunham, in Hawaii (early 1970s).Of his early childhood, Obama has recalled, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me — that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk — barely registered in my mind."[17] In his 1995 memoir, he described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multiracial heritage.[18] He wrote that he used alcohol, marijuana and cocaine during his teenage years to "push questions of who I was out of my mind."[19] At the 2008 Civil Forum on the Presidency, Obama identified his high-school drug use as his "greatest moral failure."[20]


Some of his fellow students at Punahou School later told the Honolulu Star-Bulletin that Obama was mature for his age, and that he sometimes attended college parties and other events in order to associate with African American students and military service people. Reflecting later on his formative years in Honolulu, Obama wrote: "The opportunity that Hawaii offered — to experience a variety of cultures in a climate of mutual respect — became an integral part of my world view, and a basis for the values that I hold most dear."[21]


Following high school, Obama moved to Los Angeles, where he studied at Occidental College for two years.[22] He then transferred to Columbia University in New York City, where he majored in political science with a specialization in international relations.[23] Obama graduated with a B.A. from Columbia in 1983. He worked for a year at the Business International Corporation[24][25] and then at the New York Public Interest Research Group.[26][27]


After four years in New York City, Obama moved to Chicago, where he was hired as director of the Developing Communities Project (DCP), a church-based community organization originally comprising eight Catholic parishes in Greater Roseland (Roseland, West Pullman and Riverdale) on Chicago's far South Side. He worked there for three years from June 1985 to May 1988.[26][28] During his three years as the DCP's director, its staff grew from one to thirteen and its annual budget grew from $70,000 to $400,000. His achievements included helping set up a job training program, a college preparatory tutoring program, and a tenants' rights organization in Altgeld Gardens.[29] Obama also worked as a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, a community organizing institute.[30] In mid-1988, he traveled for the first time to Europe for three weeks and then for five weeks in Kenya, where he met many of his paternal relatives for the first time.[31]


Obama entered Harvard Law School in late 1988. He was selected as an editor of the Harvard Law Review at the end of his first year,[32] and president of the journal in his second year.[33] During his summers, he returned to Chicago where he worked as a summer associate at the law firms of Sidley & Austin in 1989 and Hopkins & Sutter in 1990.[34] After graduating with a Juris Doctor (J.D.) magna cum laude[35][36] from Harvard in 1991, he returned to Chicago.[32]


Obama's election as the first black president of the Harvard Law Review gained national media attention[33] and led to a publishing contract and advance for a book about race relations.[37] In an effort to recruit him to their faculty, the University of Chicago Law School provided Obama with a fellowship and an office to work on his book.[37] He originally planned to finish the book in one year, but it took much longer as the book evolved into a personal memoir. In order to work without interruptions, Obama and his wife, Michelle, traveled to Bali where he wrote for several months. The manuscript was finally published in mid-1995 as Dreams from My Father.[37]


From April to October 1992, Obama directed Illinois's Project Vote, a voter registration drive with a staff of ten and seven hundred volunteers; it achieved its goal of registering 150,000 of 400,000 unregistered African Americans in the state, and led to Crain's Chicago Business naming Obama to its 1993 list of "40 under Forty" powers to be.[38][39]


For twelve years, Obama served as a professor at the University of Chicago Law School teaching Constitutional Law. He was first classified as a Lecturer from 1992 to 1996 and then as a Senior Lecturer from 1996 to 2004.[40] He also joined Davis, Miner, Barnhill & Galland, a twelve-attorney law firm specializing in civil rights litigation and neighborhood economic development, where he was an associate for three years from 1993 to 1996, then of counsel from 1996 to 2004, with his law license becoming inactive in 2002.[26][41][42]


Obama was a founding member of the board of directors of Public Allies in 1992, resigning before his wife, Michelle, became the founding executive director of Public Allies Chicago in early 1993.[26][43] He served from 1994 to 2002 on the board of directors of the Woods Fund of Chicago, which in 1985 had been the first foundation to fund the Developing Communities Project, and also from 1994 to 2002 on the board of directors of the Joyce Foundation.[26] Obama served on the board of directors of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge from 1995 to 2002, as founding president and chairman of the board of directors from 1995 to 1999.[26] He also served on the board of directors of the Chicago Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, the Center for Neighborhood Technology, and the Lugenia Burns Hope Center.[26]


Political career


State legislator: 1997–2004

Main article: Illinois Senate career of Barack Obama

Obama was elected to the Illinois Senate in 1996, succeeding State Senator Alice Palmer as Senator from Illinois's 13th District, which then spanned Chicago South Side neighborhoods from Hyde Park-Kenwood south to South Shore and west to Chicago Lawn.[44] Once elected, Obama gained bipartisan support for legislation reforming ethics and health care laws.[45] He sponsored a law increasing tax credits for low-income workers, negotiated welfare reform, and promoted increased subsidies for childcare.[46] In 2001, as co-chairman of the bipartisan Joint Committee on Administrative Rules, Obama supported Republican Governor Ryan's payday loan regulations and predatory mortgage lending regulations aimed at averting home foreclosures.[47]


Obama was reelected to the Illinois Senate in 1998, defeating Republican Yesse Yehudah in the General Election, and reelected again in 2002.[48] In 2000, he lost a Democratic primary run for the U.S. House of Representatives to four-term incumbent Bobby Rush by a margin of two to one.[49][50]


In January 2003, Obama became chairman of the Illinois Senate's Health and Human Services Committee when Democrats, after a decade in the minority, regained a majority.[51] He sponsored and led unanimous, bipartisan passage of legislation to monitor racial profiling by requiring police to record the race of drivers they detained and legislation making Illinois the first state to mandate videotaping of homicide interrogations.[46][52] During his 2004 general election campaign for U.S. Senate, police representatives credited Obama for his active engagement with police organizations in enacting death penalty reforms.[53] Obama resigned from the Illinois Senate in November 2004 following his election to the U.S. Senate.[54]


2004 U.S. Senate campaign

See also: United States Senate election in Illinois, 2004

In mid-2002, Obama began considering a run for the U.S. Senate; he enlisted political strategist David Axelrod that fall and formally announced his candidacy in January 2003.[55] Decisions by Republican incumbent Peter Fitzgerald and his Democratic predecessor Carol Moseley Braun not to contest the race launched wide-open Democratic and Republican primary contests involving fifteen candidates.[56] Obama's candidacy was boosted by Axelrod's advertising campaign featuring images of the late Chicago Mayor Harold Washington and an endorsement by the daughter of the late Paul Simon, former U.S. Senator for Illinois.[57] He received over 52% of the vote in the March 2004 primary, emerging 29% ahead of his nearest Democratic rival.[58]


In July 2004, Obama wrote and delivered the keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Boston, Massachusetts.[59] After describing his maternal grandfather's experiences as a World War II veteran and a beneficiary of the New Deal's FHA and G.I. Bill programs, Obama spoke about changing the U.S. government's economic and social priorities. He questioned the Bush administration's management of the Iraq War and highlighted America's obligations to its soldiers. Drawing examples from U.S. history, he criticized heavily partisan views of the electorate and asked Americans to find unity in diversity, saying, "There is not a liberal America and a conservative America; there's the United States of America."[60] Though it was not televised by the three major broadcast news networks, a combined 9.1 million viewers watching on PBS, CNN, MSNBC, Fox News and C-SPAN saw Obama's speech, which was a highlight of the convention and confirmed his status as the Democratic Party's brightest new star.[61]


Obama's expected opponent in the general election, Republican primary winner Jack Ryan, withdrew from the race in June 2004.[62] Two months later and less than three months before Election Day, Alan Keyes accepted the Illinois Republican Party's nomination to replace Ryan.[63] A long-time resident of Maryland, Keyes established legal residency in Illinois with the nomination.[64] In the November 2004 general election, Obama received 70% of the vote to Keyes's 27%, the largest victory margin for a statewide race in Illinois history.[65]


U.S. Senator: 2005–2008

Main article: United States Senate career of Barack Obama

Obama was sworn in as a senator on January 4, 2005.[66] Obama was the fifth African-American Senator in U.S. history, and the third to have been popularly elected.[67] He was the only Senate member of the Congressional Black Caucus.[68] CQ Weekly, a nonpartisan publication, characterized him as a "loyal Democrat" based on analysis of all Senate votes in 2005–2007. The National Journal ranked him as the "most liberal" senator based on an assessment of selected votes during 2007; in 2005 he was ranked sixteenth most liberal, and in 2006 he was ranked tenth.[69][70] In 2008, ranked him as the eleventh most powerful Senator.[71] Obama announced on November 13, 2008 that he would resign his senate seat on November 16, 2008, before the start of the lame-duck session, to focus on his transition period for the presidency.[72][73] This enabled him to avoid the conflict of dual roles as President-elect and Senator in the lame duck session of Congress, which no sitting member of Congress had faced since Warren Harding.[74]



See also: List of bills sponsored by Barack Obama in the United States Senate


Senate bill sponsors Tom Coburn (R-OK) and Obama discussing the Coburn–Obama Transparency Act.[75]Obama voted in favor of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and cosponsored the Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act.[76] In September 2006, Obama supported a related bill, the Secure Fence Act.[77] Obama introduced two initiatives bearing his name: Lugar–Obama, which expanded the Nunn–Lugar cooperative threat reduction concept to conventional weapons,[78] and the Coburn–Obama Transparency Act, which authorized the establishment of, a web search engine on federal spending.[79] On June 3, 2008, Senator Obama, along with Senators Thomas R. Carper, Tom Coburn, and John McCain, introduced follow-up legislation: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008.[80]


Obama sponsored legislation that would have required nuclear plant owners to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks, but the bill failed to pass in the full Senate after being heavily modified in committee.[81] Obama is not hostile to Tort reform and voted for the Class Action Fairness Act of 2005 and the FISA Amendments Act of 2008 which grants immunity from civil liability to telecommunications companies complicit with NSA warrantless wiretapping operations.[82]


In December 2006, President Bush signed into law the Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act, marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor.[83] In January 2007, Obama and Senator Feingold introduced a corporate jet provision to the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, which was signed into law in September 2007.[84] Obama also introduced Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act, a bill to criminalize deceptive practices in federal elections[85] and the Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007,[86] neither of which have been signed into law.


Obama and U.S. Sen. Richard Lugar (R-IN) visit a Russian mobile launch missile dismantling facility in August 2005.[87]Later in 2007, Obama sponsored an amendment to the Defense Authorization Act adding safeguards for personality disorder military discharges.[88] This amendment passed the full Senate in the spring of 2008.[89] He sponsored the Iran Sanctions Enabling Act supporting divestment of state pension funds from Iran's oil and gas industry, which has not passed committee, and co-sponsored legislation to reduce risks of nuclear terrorism.[90][91] Obama also sponsored a Senate amendment to the State Children's Health Insurance Program providing one year of job protection for family members caring for soldiers with combat-related injuries.[92]



Obama held assignments on the Senate Committees for Foreign Relations, Environment and Public Works and Veterans' Affairs through December 2006.[93] In January 2007, he left the Environment and Public Works committee and took additional assignments with Health, Education, Labor and Pensions and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs.[94] He also became Chairman of the Senate's subcommittee on European Affairs.[95] As a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Obama made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa. He met with Mahmoud Abbas before he became President of the Palestinian Authority, and gave a speech at the University of Nairobi condemning corruption in the Kenyan government.[96][97][98][99]


2008 Presidential campaign

Main articles: Barack Obama presidential primary campaign, 2008 and Barack Obama presidential campaign, 2008

Wikinews has related news: Barack Obama elected 44th President of the United States

On February 10, 2007, Obama announced his candidacy for President of the United States in front of the Old State Capitol building in Springfield, Illinois.[100][101] The choice of the announcement site was symbolic because it was also where Abraham Lincoln delivered his historic "House Divided" speech in 1858.[102] Throughout the campaign, Obama emphasized the issues of rapidly ending the Iraq War, increasing energy independence, and providing universal health care.[103]


Obama stands on stage with his wife and two daughters just before announcing his presidential candidacy in Springfield, Illinois, Feb. 10, 2007.During both the primary process and the general election, Obama's campaign set numerous fundraising records, particularly in the quantity of small donations.[104][105][106] On June 19, Obama became the first major-party presidential candidate to turn down public financing in the general election since the system was created in 1976.[107]


A large number of candidates initially entered the Democratic Party presidential primaries. After a few initial contests, the field narrowed to a contest between Obama and Senator Hillary Clinton, with each winning some states and the race remaining close throughout the primary process.[108][109][110][111] On May 31, the Democratic National Committee agreed to seat all of the disputed Michigan and Florida delegates at the national convention, each with a half-vote, narrowing Obama's delegate lead.[112] On June 3, with all states counted, Obama passed the threshold to become the presumptive nominee.[113][114] On that day, he gave a victory speech in St. Paul, Minnesota. Clinton suspended her campaign and endorsed him on June 7.[115] From that point on, he campaigned for the general election race against Senator John McCain, the Republican nominee.


On August 23, 2008, Obama announced that he had selected Delaware Senator Joe Biden as his vice presidential running mate.[116]


Obama delivers his presidential election victory speech.At the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado, Obama's former rival Hillary Clinton gave a speech in support of Obama's candidacy and later called for Obama to be nominated by acclamation as the Democratic presidential candidate.[117][118] On August 28, Obama delivered a speech to 84,000 supporters in Denver. During the speech, which was viewed by over 38 million people worldwide, he accepted his party's nomination and presented his policy goals.[119][120]


After McCain was nominated as the Republican presidential candidate, there were three presidential debates between Obama and McCain in September and October 2008.[121][122] In November, Obama won the presidency with 53% of the popular vote and a wide electoral college margin. His election sparked street celebrations in numerous cities in the United States[123] and abroad.


Election victory

Main article: Presidential transition of Barack Obama


President-elect Obama meets with President George W. Bush in the Oval Office, November 10, 2008.On November 4, 2008, Barack Obama defeated John McCain in the general election with 365 electoral votes to McCain's 173[124] and became the first African American to be elected President of the United States.[125][126][127][128] In his victory speech, delivered before a crowd of hundreds of thousands of his supporters in Chicago's Grant Park, Obama proclaimed that "change has come to America".[129]


On January 8, 2009, the joint session of the U.S. Congress met to certify the votes of the Electoral College for the 2008 presidential election. Based on the results of the electoral vote count, Barack Obama was declared to have been elected President of the United States and Joseph Biden was declared to have been elected Vice President of the United States.[130]



Main article: Presidency of Barack Obama

The inauguration of Barack Obama as the forty-fourth President, and Joe Biden as Vice President, took place on January 20, 2009. The theme of the inauguration was "A New Birth of Freedom," commemorating the 200th anniversary of the birth of Abraham Lincoln.[131]


In his first few days in office, Obama issued executive orders and presidential memoranda reversing President Bush's ban on federal funding to foreign establishments that allow abortions (known as the Global Gag Rule),[132] and changed procedures to promote disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act,[133] directing the U.S. military to develop plans to withdraw troops from Iraq,[134] and reducing the secrecy given to presidential records,[135] and closing Guantanamo Bay detention camp "as soon as practicable and no later than" January 2010, and "Immediate Review of All Guantánamo Detentions".


Political positions

Main article: Political positions of Barack Obama

A method that some political scientists use for gauging ideology is to compare the annual ratings by the Americans for Democratic Action (ADA) with the ratings by the American Conservative Union (ACU).[136] Based on his years in Congress, Obama has a lifetime average conservative rating of 7.67% from the ACU,[137] and a lifetime average liberal rating of 90% from the ADA.[138]


Obama campaigning in Abington, Pennsylvania, October 2008.Obama was an early opponent of the Bush administration's policies on Iraq.[139] On October 2, 2002, the day President George W. Bush and Congress agreed on the joint resolution authorizing the Iraq War,[140] Obama addressed the first high-profile Chicago anti-Iraq War rally in Federal Plaza,[141] speaking out against the war.[142][143] On March 16, 2003, the day Bush issued his 48-hour ultimatum to Saddam Hussein to leave Iraq before the U.S. invasion of Iraq,[144] Obama addressed the largest Chicago anti-Iraq War rally to date in Daley Plaza and told the crowd that "it's not too late" to stop the war.[145] Although Obama had previously said he wanted all the U.S. troops out of Iraq within 16 months of becoming President, after he won the primary, he said he might "refine" that promise.[146]


Obama stated that if elected he would enact budget cuts in the range of tens of billions of dollars, stop investing in "unproven" missile defense systems, not "weaponize" space, "slow development of Future Combat Systems," and work towards eliminating all nuclear weapons. Obama favors ending development of new nuclear weapons, reducing the current U.S. nuclear stockpile, enacting a global ban on production of fissile material, and seeking negotiations with Russia in order to take ICBMs off high alert status.[147]


In November 2006, Obama called for a "phased redeployment of U.S. troops from Iraq" and an opening of diplomatic dialogue with Syria and Iran.[148] In a March 2007 speech to AIPAC, a pro-Israel lobby, he said that the primary way to prevent Iran from developing nuclear weapons is through talks and diplomacy, although he did not rule out military action.[149] Obama has indicated that he would engage in "direct presidential diplomacy" with Iran without preconditions.[150][151][152] Detailing his strategy for fighting global terrorism in August 2007, Obama said "it was a terrible mistake to fail to act" against a 2005 meeting of al-Qaeda leaders that U.S. intelligence had confirmed to be taking place in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas. He said that as president he would not miss a similar opportunity, even without the support of the Pakistani government.[153]


In a December 2005, Washington Post opinion column, and at the Save Darfur rally in April 2006, Obama called for more assertive action to oppose genocide in the Darfur region of Sudan.[154] He has divested $180,000 in personal holdings of Sudan-related stock, and has urged divestment from companies doing business in Iran.[155] In the July–August 2007 issue of Foreign Affairs, Obama called for an outward looking post-Iraq War foreign policy and the renewal of American military, diplomatic, and moral leadership in the world. Saying that "we can neither retreat from the world nor try to bully it into submission," he called on Americans to "lead the world, by deed and by example."[156]


Obama speaking at a rally at the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri.In economic affairs, in April 2005, he defended the New Deal social welfare policies of Franklin D. Roosevelt and opposed Republican proposals to establish private accounts for Social Security.[157] In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, Obama spoke out against government indifference to growing economic class divisions, calling on both political parties to take action to restore the social safety net for the poor.[158] Shortly before announcing his presidential campaign, Obama said he supports universal health care in the United States.[159] Obama proposes to reward teachers for performance from traditional merit pay systems, assuring unions that changes would be pursued through the collective bargaining process.[160]


In September 2007, he blamed special interests for distorting the U.S. tax code.[161] His plan would eliminate taxes for senior citizens with incomes of less than $50,000 a year, repeal income tax cuts for those making over $250,000 as well as the capital gains and dividends tax cut,[162] close corporate tax loopholes, lift the income cap on Social Security taxes, restrict offshore tax havens, and simplify filing of income tax returns by pre-filling wage and bank information already collected by the IRS.[163] Announcing his presidential campaign's energy plan in October 2007, Obama proposed a cap and trade auction system to restrict carbon emissions and a ten year program of investments in new energy sources to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil.[164] Obama proposed that all pollution credits must be auctioned, with no grandfathering of credits for oil and gas companies, and the spending of the revenue obtained on energy development and economic transition costs.[165]


Obama has encouraged Democrats to reach out to evangelicals and other religious groups.[166] In December 2006, he joined Sen. Sam Brownback (R-KS) at the "Global Summit on AIDS and the Church" organized by church leaders Kay and Rick Warren.[167] Together with Warren and Brownback, Obama took an HIV test, as he had done in Kenya less than four months earlier.[168] He encouraged "others in public life to do the same" and not be ashamed of it.[169] Addressing over 8,000 United Church of Christ members in June 2007, Obama challenged "so-called leaders of the Christian Right" for being "all too eager to exploit what divides us."[170]


Family and personal life

Main articles: Early life and career of Barack Obama and Family of Barack Obama


Barack Obama and his wife Michelle Obama.In June 1989, Obama met Michelle Robinson, who later became his wife, when he was employed as a summer associate at the Chicago law firm of Sidley Austin.[171] Assigned for three months as Obama's adviser at the firm, Robinson joined him at group social functions, but declined his initial requests to date.[172] They began dating later that summer, became engaged in 1991, and were married on October 3, 1992.[173] The couple's first daughter, Malia Ann, was born in 1998,[174] followed by a second daughter, Natasha ("Sasha"), in 2001.[175] Because of Michelle Obama's employment with the University of Chicago, the Obama daughters attended the private University of Chicago Laboratory Schools. When they moved to Washington, D.C., in January 2009, the girls started at the private Sidwell Friends School.[176]


Obama was known as "Barry" in his youth, but asked to be addressed with his given name during his college years.[177]


Applying the proceeds of a book deal, in 2005 the family moved from a Hyde Park, Chicago condominium to their current $1.6 million house in neighboring Kenwood.[178] The purchase of an adjacent lot and sale of part of it to Obama by the wife of developer and friend Tony Rezko attracted media attention because of Rezko's indictment and subsequent conviction on political corruption charges that were unrelated to Obama.[179][180]


In December 2007, Money magazine estimated the Obama family's net worth at $1.3 million.[181] Their 2007 tax return showed a household income of $4.2 million—up from about $1 million in 2006 and $1.6 million in 2005—mostly from sales of his books.[182]


Obama playing basketball with U.S. military at Camp Lemonier, Djibouti in 2006.[183]In a 2006 interview, Obama highlighted the diversity of his extended family. "Michelle will tell you that when we get together for Christmas or Thanksgiving, it's like a little mini-United Nations." he said. "I've got relatives who look like Bernie Mac, and I've got relatives who look like Margaret Thatcher."[184] Obama has seven half-siblings from his Kenyan father's family, six of them living, and a half-sister with whom he was raised, Maya Soetoro-Ng, the daughter of his mother and her Indonesian second husband.[185] Obama's mother was survived by her Kansas-born mother, Madelyn Dunham[186] until her death on November 2, 2008, just before the presidential election.[187] In Dreams from My Father, Obama ties his mother's family history to possible Native American ancestors and distant relatives of Jefferson Davis, president of the southern Confederacy during the American Civil War.[188] Obama's maternal and paternal grandfathers fought in World War II. Obama's great-uncle served in the 89th Division that overran Ohrdruf,[189] the first Nazi camp liberated by U.S. troops.[190]


Obama plays basketball, a sport he participated in as a member of his high school's varsity team.[191] He is an avid sports fan. Obama follows the Chicago Bears, Chicago White Sox, Chicago Bulls and West Ham United F.C.[192][193][194][195] While he has never been a heavy smoker, Obama has tried to quit smoking several times, including a well-publicized and ongoing effort which he began before launching his presidential campaign.[196] Obama has said he will not smoke in the White House.[197]


Obama is a Protestant Christian whose religious views have evolved in his adult life. In The Audacity of Hope, Obama writes that he "was not raised in a religious household." He describes his mother, raised by non-religious parents (whom Obama has specified elsewhere as "non-practicing Methodists and Baptists") to be detached from religion, yet "in many ways the most spiritually awakened person that I have ever known." He describes his father as "raised a Muslim," but a "confirmed atheist" by the time his parents met, and his stepfather as "a man who saw religion as not particularly useful." In the book, Obama explains how, through working with black churches as a community organizer while in his twenties, he came to understand "the power of the African-American religious tradition to spur social change."[198][199] He was baptized at the Trinity United Church of Christ in 1988 and was an active member there for two decades.[200][201]


Besides his native English, Obama speaks Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia), at least on a colloquial level, which he learned during his four childhood years in Jakarta.[202] After the APEC summit in November 2008, Indonesian president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono related a telephone conversation with Obama in Indonesian to Indonesian media. Obama had told Yudhoyono that he missed Indonesian food like Nasi Goreng, Bakso or Rambutan.[203]


Cultural and political image

Main article: Public image of Barack Obama

With his black Kenyan father and white American mother, his upbringing in Honolulu and Jakarta, and his Ivy League education, Obama's early life experiences differ markedly from those of African-American politicians who launched their careers in the 1960s through participation in the civil rights movement.[204] Expressing puzzlement over questions about whether he is "black enough", Obama told an August 2007 meeting of the National Association of Black Journalists that the debate is not about his physical appearance or his record on issues of concern to black voters. Obama said that "we're still locked in this notion that if you appeal to white folks then there must be something wrong."[205]


Echoing the inaugural address of John F. Kennedy, Obama acknowledged his youthful image in an October 2007 campaign speech, saying: "I wouldn't be here if, time and again, the torch had not been passed to a new generation."[206] A popular catch phrase distilled the concept: "Rosa sat so Martin could walk; Martin walked so Obama could run; Obama is running so our children can fly."[207]


From left: Presidents George H. W. Bush, Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton and Jimmy Carter meet in the Oval Office on January 7, 2009.Obama has been praised as a master of oratory on par with other renowned speakers in the past such as Martin Luther King, Jr.[208][209] His "Yes We Can" speech, which artists independently set to music in a video produced by, was viewed by 10 million people on YouTube in the first month,[210] and received an Emmy Award.[211] University of Virginia professor Jonathan Haidt researched the effectiveness of Obama's public speaking and concluded that part of his excellence is because the politician is adept at inspiring the emotion of elevation, the desire to act morally and do good for others.[212] Obama used these communication skills in a series of weekly internet video addresses during his pre-inauguration transition period;[213] he has suggested he will make a series of broadcast and internet addresses similar to Franklin D. Roosevelt's famous fireside chats throughout his term as president to explain his policies and actions.[214]


Many commentators mentioned Obama's international appeal as a defining factor for his public image.[215] Not only did several polls show strong support for him in other countries,[216] but Obama also established close relationships with prominent foreign politicians and elected officials even before his presidential candidacy, notably with then incumbent British Prime Minister Tony Blair, whom he met in London in 2005,[217] with Italy's Democratic Party leader and then Mayor of Rome Walter Veltroni, who visited Obama's Senate office in 2005,[218] and with French President Nicolas Sarkozy, who also visited him in Washington in 2006.[219]


Obama won Best Spoken Word Album Grammy Awards for abridged audiobook versions of both of his books; for Dreams from My Father in February 2006 and for The Audacity of Hope in February 2008.[220]


In December 2008, Time magazine named Barack Obama as its Person of the Year for his historic candidacy and election, which it described as "the steady march of seemingly impossible accomplishments."[221]



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^ "Obama's church choice likely to be scrutinized". Associated Press. (November 17, 2008). Retrieved on 2009-1-20.

^ Maraniss, David (August 24, 2008). "Though Obama Had to Leave to Find Himself, It Is Hawaii That Made His Rise Possible", Politics, Washington Post. Retrieved on 27 October 2008.

^ Serafin, Peter (March 21, 2004). "Punahou grad stirs up Illinois politics" (Article), Special to the Star-Bulletin, Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved on November 30 2008.

^ For Stanley Ann's first name, see Obama (1995, 2004), p. 19

^ "Born in the U.S.A.". FactCheck (August 21, 2008). Retrieved on October 24, 2008.

^ Hutton, Brian (May 3, 2007). "For sure, Obama's South Side Irish", Politics, The Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved on 23 November 2008.

^ "Tiny Irish Village Is Latest Place to Claim Obama as Its Own -". Retrieved on 2008-11-08.

^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 9–10. For book excerpts, see "Barack Obama: Creation of Tales", East African (2004-11-01). Retrieved on 13 April 2008. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007.

^ a b Jones, Tim (2007-03-27). "Obama's mom: Not just a girl from Kansas: Strong personalities shaped a future senator", Chicago Tribune, reprinted in The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved on 27 October 2008.

^ Ripley, Amanda (2008-04-09). "The Story of Barack Obama's Mother", Time. Retrieved on 9 April 2007.

^ Merida, Kevin (2007-12-14). "The Ghost of a Father", Washington Post. Retrieved on 24 June 2008. See also: Ochieng, Philip (2004-11-01). "From Home Squared to the US Senate: How Barack Obama Was Lost and Found", East African. Retrieved on 24 June 2008. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. In August 2006, Obama flew his wife and two daughters from Chicago to join him in a visit to his father's birthplace, a village near Kisumu in rural western Kenya. Gnecchi, Nico (2006-02-27). "Obama Receives Hero's Welcome at His Family's Ancestral Village in Kenya", Voice of America. Retrieved on 24 June 2008.

^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 44–45.

^ Serafin, Peter (2004-03-21). "Punahou Grad Stirs Up Illinois Politics", Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved on 13 April 2008. See also: Obama (1995, 2004), Chapters 3 and 4.

^ Ripley, Amanda (2008-04-09). "The Story of Barack Obama's Mother", Time. Retrieved on 24 June 2008. See also: Suryakusuma, Julia (2006-11-29). "Obama for President... of Indonesia", Jakarta Post. Retrieved on 24 June 2008.

^ Obama (1995), pp. 9–10.

^ Obama (1995), Chapters 4 and 5. See also: Serrano, Richard A (March 11, 2007). "Obama's Peers Didn't See His Angst" (paid archive), Los Angeles Times. Retrieved on 4 January 2008.

^ "Obama Gets Blunt with N.H. Students", Associated Press, Boston Globe (November 21, 2007). Retrieved on 4 January 2008. In Dreams from My Father, Obama writes: "Pot had helped, and booze; maybe a little blow when you could afford it." Obama (1995), pp. 93–94. For analysis of the political impact of the quote and Obama's more recent admission that he smoked marijuana as a teenager ("When I was a kid, I inhaled."), see: Romano, Lois (January 3, 2007). "Effect of Obama's Candor Remains to Be Seen", Washington Post. Retrieved on 4 January 2008. Seelye, Katharine Q (October 24, 2006). "Obama Offers More Variations From the Norm", New York Times. Retrieved on 4 January 2008.

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^ Youngman, Sam; Aaron Blake (2007-03-14). "Obama's Crime Votes Are Fodder for Rivals", The Hill. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. See also: "US Presidential Candidate Obama Cites Work on State Death Penalty Reforms", Associated Press, International Herald Tribune (2007-11-12). Retrieved on 20 April 2008.

^ Coffee, Melanie (2004-11-06). "Attorney Chosen to Fill Obama's State Senate Seat", Associated Press, HPKCC. Retrieved on 20 April 2008.

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On September 10th, 2012 I was stunned when the image of Jesus Christ appeared right in front of me. The crisis of the Mohammed film and the organized assault on the Libyan embassy unfolded the next day. Days later it began to sink in that I had seen this image before and had told a counselor about it prior to the attacks of 9/11 over eleven years ago.


I first became aware of this image as a college student and I mentioned it to the counseling center at the Boeing building near LAX where I attempted to stop the 9/11 plot. I recalled having opened my Bible to Proverbs 29 8 corresponding to the physical address of this image at 2908 Hamm Rd. Proverbs 29 8 - NIV -"Mockers stir up a city but wise men turn away anger." A modern translation - "Terrorists aim to set a city ablaze but wise men stop their plots." The original King's James Version of 1611 offers a sidenote reference of "set a citie on fire" as an alternative to "bring a citie into a snare." I feel the message advocates an active role in promoting restraint and stopping plots. It raises the importance of guardians, of those who care about saving lives over gamblers who play the odds or idealists who sell their visions with a cataclysmic lure. In times of conflict, let guardians reign supreme!


I wanted our sense of guardianship to extend beyond the pains it took to round up the insurers needed to make the earth-shaking sale of the World Trade Center possible. I was alerted to the sale thanks to the internet through a sign, quite literally a sign off the 405 for Westfield Properties. I explained how the sign had stood out as it was surrounded by a sizeable expanse of undeveloped land. I was similarly alerted to the names of the reinsurers and forwarded these names feeling that contacting them could help set us on the right course to prevent an attack.


Having lived in Japan where the first Bojinka-related murder occured, I explained that I was aware the plotters had targeted our towers and national symbols with plans of using up to 12 hijacked planes in what was known as the Bojinka plot. The term may have been derived from 'Boeing' since Boeing airliners were targeted. Multiple indicators pointed towards a resurgence of the plot. Elsewhere I have enumerated various alarming reports and quotes but at this time I'd like to shed light on the revelations that entered through my subconscious as a result of therapy. In one dream I had leaped from a tall building and on the way down saw a man falling alongside me, a description of whom is known to my counselor.


I believe the dream speaks to Ezra 9:3 where the targeting of foreign spouses and bullying has led Ezra to pull out his hair and issue a "reform" annulling a list of high-level marriages to foreign spouses. 9 and 3 would later appear as targets throughout 9/11: the flight number 93, the floor hit on Tower One, any one of the several passengers who luckily missed flight 11 would have been its 93rd occupant, the time flight 175 hit Tower Two was 9:03 and the speed of 465 knots that flight 77 reached after it spiraled down to its target is Penta x 93.


Among those Ezra grieves over are two Jehiels perhaps foreshadowing the day when many men sharing the same name would marry foreign spouses including my brother and I. In fact, 93 is my wife's nickname which means 'forever beautiful' when written using kanji letters ku and mi. She became a target of Epstein, Becker and Green. The law firm contacted the counseling center prior to 9/11 and asked for my signature on the counselor's notes so that unknown to me at the time - but made clear in the deposition taken precisely one year after 9/11 - they could target my wife. I agreed to sign under these conditions: the center would forward my pleas to law enforcement to look in our flight schools and stop the Bojinka plotters as well as heed the warnings of security experts who had tested Logan airport. I could see the center and Epstein Becker and Green desperately needed my signature and it troubled me because I had already signed a release to aid law enforcement. I wanted to make sure law enforcement was receiving my pleas to stop the plot.


As we plummeted I accepted the fact that neither this stranger nor I could fly like Superman. Realizing our lives would end in seconds, I focused on the man falling hoping to retain some detail about him. He was 7 to 10 paces away. As we fell we were somewhat facing each other but he didn't seem to be aware of my presence like I was aware of his. The building was behind and to my right and he was to my right. I sensed an emergency had forced him to jump he looked caught off-guard and trying to get somewhere safe, I did not think he was trying to commit suicide.


I was reminded of Proverbs 29 8 and the fact the Man on a Mission website I'd initiated while harassed at work was still blank. My thoughts returned to my initial assertion when I first entered therapy. I had stated that when airliners begin plowing into our buildings it would be resurgent Bojinka plotters piloting the planes not a lone, crazed Japanese pilot (like in a Tom Clancy novel) When the center wrongly asserted I had feared a single plane would target the building we were in - the Boeing building near LAX. I corrected this leading to a fuller discussion about the Bojinka plotters. I personally had decided not to fly due to the risks but the dream had brought my mission to focus. I was not in therapy to replay all the painful events in my life or stew in anger over having been assaulted. That was NEVER my mission. I was there to "turn away anger"; to give others the benefit of my experience and alert them to stop the bojinka plot.


I do regret not contacting Larry Silverstein or the Port Authority personally with my concerns however I felt my concerns were already being addressed. Between my pleas to stop the Bojinka plotters in our flight schools and the airline security agents warnings about failed security procedures, the 9/11 plot should have been stopped. I highly regret the interference of Epstein, Becker and Green and center managers. The counselor indicated meetings were occurring periodically to address the matters being discussed; therefore I cannot blame the counselor for the situation created by the managers and Epstein, Becker and Green.


I was very satisfied with what my therapist and I had accomplished over the course of the year and was happy to be working with the center in bringing the matter of stopping the plotters to the attention of law enforcement. On two occasions - at the start and at the completion of my year-long efforts - I was asked by the center to sign documents that allowed them to share this information with the FBI or any other branch of law enforcement as well as attorneys. And it didn't end there; I encouraged the counselor specifically to forward my concerns about the plotters to law enforcement using the center's established procedures and the fact I had already signed a release. "The plotters are already in our flight schools, aren't they?" I asked. "You want the plot stopped?" She replied. "Yes, I want it stopped."


I also called the attorney in Aziz v. United Airlines to voice my concern when I found out the airline company had been sued because a stewardess had said a coworker had fit part of a terrorist profile. I felt the stewardess had been unfairly scapegoated considering the very real threat flight crews were facing. After 9/11, I continued my efforts. I called atty Riley again, atty Gloria Allred, and sent e-mails to a number of Senators, Congressman, and to members of the Catastrophic Terrorism panel which met for 10 months in 1998.


My efforts finally paid off in August 2006 when over several days I repeatedly pleaded to stop the 2nd half of the Bojinka plot. The trans-Atlantic Bojinka plot was successfully foiled and yet many in the UK felt it was foiled pre-maturely while others, like Keith Olberman, unaware of the real story, conceived it was a political ploy. The fact that our airline security transformed overnight tells a different story. And so did President Bush's unusually low-key announcement. Even the FBI has admitted that while they frantically searched for but did not find a related US cell, they couldn't be certain it didn't exist. In other words, they were left with no option but to implement the counter-measures that should have been in effect even prior to 9/11.


Prior to 9/11 I had been a reliability specialist for a GPS navigation company out of Japan. I had spent many years teaching in Japan and helping others find the optimal natural language path linking their thoughts to words. Understanding the effect of words and symbols is vital not only to a successful navigation product but in all aspects of communication.


I noticed, for example that engaging in sarcasm - as temptingly entertaining as it may be - has sound-a-likes in many languages denoting darkness and could potentially lead down a path with potholes the size of Texas. To a foreign listener sarcasm is not always easy to detect and can end up communicating the exact opposite of what was intended. Listening to Michael Savage's brand of sarcasm was certainly entertaining but I was concerned that blaming liberals was not the answer and would stop no plots.


And on the left, the focus in the weeks up to 9/11 was equally misplaced. Listening to radio personality and attorney Gloria Allred rant about Bush's illegitimacy seemed horribly out of sync with how much we liberals and conservatives alike should be helping Bush stop this plot. It sent chills up my spine listening to her as I could see not only the planes coming but victims leaping to their deaths.


Nevertheless, the alarming level of scorn between left and right which Savage and Alred embodied helped to underscore the importance of my message: it was time to set aside differences and stop the plot. Even Sting's sarcasm against the senior President George Bush on Bush's home turf in 1983, "A dog bit Bush today....Dogs know best," was brought up as reminder of the international scope of the political divide; I stressed that it was important not to make assumptions but to pull together to stop the plot.


Conservative sarcasm about Islamic militants typically centers on how we can't stop their plots; how we can't do anything to disturb their precious civil liberties because of liberals. It provides a convenient scapegoat - Liberals - when things do go wrong. Scapegoating can build up steam in an organization creating its own wind and self-defeating spirals.


And liberals are just as capable of passing the buck and threading the blame, too. Following the 9/11 attacks Jamie Gorelick asked Condoleezza Rice why she had done nothing to stop the "Hit Big" prognosis revealed in early 2001 at a meeting on terrorism they both attended. The problem is our policy began veering off course much earlier when Gorelick in 1998 was one of a select group asked to join the Catastrophic Terrorism study panel which convened for 10 months. Zero experts in aviation security were invited. Threats to aviation security were not addressed at all, not even the 10-12 plane Bojinka plot which emerged while Gorelick was deputy Attorney-General of the Justice Department. After I pointed this information out, the only YouTube video of this tell-tale exchange was sadly removed by the uploader.


The Bojinka plot was unveiled when I lived in Japan after a Philippine airliner was bombed en route to Tokyo killing passenger Haruki Igekami. Senator Harrison Schmitt's dramatic 1978 Senate floor plea to stand strong against attacks on civil aircraft no matter how few the casualties reverberated in my head given that the accuracy of his forewarning became devastatingly apparent in 1983. 269 lives were lost when KAL 7 was shot down near Sakhalin Island. My senior thesis analyzed the '78 and '83 Soviet shoot-downs of off-course Korean airline flights 902 and 7.


It was during this time in which I spent hours on end in the library that I met a beautiful European princess in the periodicals room. She was not a student and spoke English not without difficulty. She left on a bus chartered only for her. I neglected my other classes as I focused on my paper; After graduating I moved overseas and met my princess in Japan.


Higher Standards


One significant motivator for stopping the plot came from having considered Senator Schmitt's reasoning. He argued that since the use of force against airliners by terror groups is illegal it follows that neither should a government have a right to use force against a civilian plane, even one that is off-course. In my research I considered the threat of hijackers who wished to use a plane as a missile and I concluded it was imperative to take threats of suicidal hijackings EXTREMELY seriously since shooting down a hijacked plane represents a complete failure of security and an unconscionable act against innocent life. Providing passengers and crew the means to destroy hijackers would be the better option. Given a higher standard of restraint and with fewer options available, it follows that high-profile threats to aviation security would not have been tucked behind a footnote in a paper on Catastrophic Terrorism but would have received the proper attention they deserved. As much as I disagree with Harvard's 1998 report on Catastrophic Terrorism, I do recognize that a pivotal historic opportunity was missed in 1978 to place the issue of hijacked airliners used as missiles and the issue of dealing with off-course airliners directly on the international stage at the UN and on the Senate floor rather than keeping the scenario hidden from robust public debate. I cannot stress enough my gratefulness to Senator Harrison Schmitt for his several attempts to prod the Senate to action in this regard. Schmitt argued that an act of terror whether committed by a government or by a terrorist group deserves the same condemnation. He argued that the act of condemning a government for using excessive force even where only a few lives were lost would have the effect of strengthening the world's resolve to protect civil aviation against future threats.


Targeting civilian planes should not be allowed under any circumstances. This stance places the onus on the airlines and the government to listen to us - the traveling public - and to listen to their own security teams in order to prevent hijackings. Frankly I'm dismayed at how few in the media and in government have given adequate thought to this subject. It was reported a female pilot was prepared to bring down one of the hijacked planes awaiting orders from above. Nobody in the media cried foul. At schools there is an ax in a glass case in case of emergencies. Will the new approach be to call in air support instead of authorizing teachers to break the glass and use the ax to free victims? Killing the hijackers while maintaining control of the plane can be achieved by a variety of technical and procedural means without having to target an entire plane and all of its passengers. It would have made far more sense to have secured emergency weapons on board given the threat levels and even more sense to heed airport security professionals own prescient warnings. There is no substitute for good screening methods. Ben Gurion Airport - Israel's international airport - has had NO hijackings in over 40 years.


As reports of screening failure surfaced, I pleaded to stop the plotters in our flight schools, to alert airport security, and the FBI. We looked in our flight schools and one man was detained, Moussaui. But officials in Minneapolis couldn't obtain a federal warrant to examine his computer. He was readied for deportation to France to start this madness all over again.. We can and should take necessary precautions to safeguard our airlines and keep terrorists at bay just as Israel does.


Moussaui was cast as unfit to be a real terrorist, a wannabee, a clown. And his handwritten writings - not likely needing a warrant to see - were over-the-top, brimming with hatred toward the Queen of England. It was perhaps not easy to understand the connection between his scorn and contempt for the Queen and his flight training in Minneapolis. But by keeping his computer off-limits, it kept the prevailing winds of sarcasm blowing and the hunter's nap undisturbed.


Overcoming Spirals of Negativity With Positive Action


"No, we must wait." Found in Genesis 29 8, it's a surprising rebuttal to Jacob's reasonable request to commence giving water to the sheep packed around the stone-covered well in the mid-day heat. The answer is "No. We must wait for all the sheep to gather..."


Jacob's only concern was in relieving the deadly effects of heat on Rachel's' tightly-packed flock, so instead of waiting for them to follow his instruction he took it on himself to remove the stone cover allowing the sheep to drink. It is the first challenge he faced in winning over Rachel. Later, as the slope of jealous resistance steepened, he is tricked into marrying Rachel's older sister and forced to work another seven years to earn his true love.


I believe the lesson here is clear. Barriers of jealousy or pride will invariably cause even the most urgent request to be denied or delayed.. We must brush off the negativity that we encounter as we pursue our dream. We must roll up our sleeves and it just may happen that our enthusiasm will catch on and save the life of a sheep or even save a nation from a disaster.


EPILOGUE - 1 Chronicles 29 8; Guardians of the Treasury


I mentioned that two Jehieli had married foreign brides and the trouble this caused. In the Bible it explains that the keepers of the treasure were Jehielites Zetham and Joel who were sons of the Gershonites who were the sons of Ladan who were sons of the Levites. Other branches of Levites were Kohath and Merari.


These Jehieli brothers had charge of the treasure of the house of the Lord. The most special treasure of all were precious stones given to the treasury. Coincidentally in 1 Chronicles 29 8 we find that these stones were entrusted to Jehiel, the Gershonite from among the sons of Ladan who were descended from Levites. In Ezra, perhaps we see the results of a creeping mistrust of those guarding the treasures as a result of marriages to foreigners.


Bin Ladan means son of Ladan. It is not difficult to imagine how empty a treasury would soon become if every Jehieli had a dozen wives and 50 offspring to feed and clothe. In Ezra, the target is foreign spouses. Some have speculated that the Ladans of the Bible were ancestors of the Bin Ladans of today.


To be fair, it's conceivable that Ezra 9:3 speaks to a crisis that had less to do with marriage to foreigners than with the issue of polygamy. In other words, unable to address social problems created by the sacred cow of polygamy, marriages with foreigners became the scapegoat, the annulment of which was seen as the most expedient way to release social tension. Having two wives Ezra himself was polygamous but this figure pales in comparison to Solomon who had 700.


When the foreign wives and their children were expelled it would seem certain they took the names given by their fathers with them. What's significant is the pain this causes Ezra as he considers the families he is forced to divide and the children who may forever be removed from either their mother or father.


Ezra played a mediator's role as well as a judge; he was in no position to challenge the authorities in this matter so in anguish he pulled out his hair, ripped his vest, and looking harried and disheveled, he proceeded in silent protest not of God but of the men whose orders he must follow. As a starting place for reconciliation and healing I suggest we give some thought to Ezra 9:3 and consider the harmful effect abuse causes whether to it is done for the sake of winning a case and perfectly "legal" or done under great duress due to the pressures of peers, superiors, or adjudicators.


The following is taken from the Expositor's Bible: Ezra, Nehemiah, and Esther by Walter F. Adeney:


"Ezra's harsh reformation in the expulsion of foreign wives must have

struck the divorced women as a cruel and insulting outrage. Driven

back to their paternal homes with their burning wrongs, these poor

women must have roused the utmost indignation among their people. Thus

the reformer had stirred up a hornets' nest. The legislator who

ventures to interfere with the sacred privacy of domestic life excites

the deepest passions, and a wise man will think twice before he

meddles in so dangerous a business. Only the most imperative

requirements of religion and righteousness can justify such a course,

and even when it is justified nobody can foresee how far the trouble

it brings may spread."


Adeney places this commentary not in his chapter on 'Foreign Wives' but rather in a later chapter he has appropriately titled, "The Cost of an Idealist's Success." I find it odd I to have had to reach way back to 1900 to find a commentary on Ezra worth its salt; in fact I find the level of thematic congruence between his commentary and mine astonishing. I have italicized his use of 'burning wrongs' to point to his possible use of sarcasm to describe a repeating ritual of behavior suspected as sinful. Sarcasm, if it only humiliates and degrades, is unwise and if it's unclear, it confuses.


I think Adeney uses sarcasm here perhaps as a mirror to reflect back on a premise - made in his chapter on foreign wives - that no such commandment ever existed requiring such an extreme measure despite Ezra's assertion to the contrary; Ezra has tortured himself and associated God's will with this misguided idealistic plan born of man so as to make its enforcement an easier pill to swallow. With each garment ripped and hair uprooted Ezra foreshadows the coming grief of the affected families.


It is interesting to note that when one attorney described our culturally mixed marriage as 'strange' I felt compelled to point out the differences between my family and our culture and the radical Islamic culture whose plots I was urging us to stop. Their culture seeks dominance by having as many offspring by as many wives as possible and is not shy about embracing terrorism. My culture encourages having one spouse, two kids, with the only vice perhaps being too many hours spent watching television.


In Islamic tradition, specifically in Jami` at-Tirmidhi there are 72 virgins awaiting the faithful in heaven, a lure necessary to a culture embracing polygamy.. In contrast, the Bible offers a cautionary tale of 72 brothers in Judges 9:3, seventy of which are murdered by their brother of a concubine mother. The conspirator becomes king Abimelek for a bloody spell marked by his setting fire to the tower of Shechem killing a thousand men and women before either a millstone or a chamber pot full of excrement was tossed from a high wall onto his head by a woman. To spare him the dishonor of being killed by a woman, the dying king's assistant finishes him off.


I bought the domain names and reflecting my sense of having fought an age-old battle and won and ready to celebrate the success of my mission to stop our enemy's plots to use Boeing airliners as missiles. Epstein, Becker and Green targeted my wife and drew the wagons around the abusers. Henry 'Scoop' Jackson was jokingly dubbed the 'senator from Boeing' - a moniker he fully embraced - and he died shortly after Flight 7 was shot down. He had been suffering from a flu he'd caught in Asia. A social liberal and fiscal conservative he was the kind of man that refused to get caught up in petty partisan mudslinging which is often designed to obscure the most important issues at hand.


I could hear his voice of moderation and others because I had bothered to stop what I was doing and listen. When people speak, it's not just the words they use, there's a treasure trove of information that we can learn from. I could hear the many voices and signs saying to stop the plot because I had given not only those college years but seven years teaching in Japan to listening attentively to what others were saying and where words failed, to understanding their hearts. A Bush appointee was family and my wedding's volunteer videographer. Another family member, a 33rd degree Freemason, gave his services as well. My father was a retired NASA engineer. Though I was many states away from my family in Texas, the center connected me to our government, to law enforcement, and the means by which to stop the plot.


Epstein, Becker and Green came to the Boeing building in defense of abusers and they tossed out everything I had accomplished in therapy and in my life on their stone-age witch hunt for the "burning wrongs" of my foreign wife. And leading this charge were local women. It raises questions of interpretation and the possibility Ezra may have been acting on the social pressures of local wives' burning upset over their polygamous husbands' foreign spouses. It's an unexplored chapter as to what motivated Epstein, Becker and Green.


While 9/11 brought people back into the church it had a different effect on me. I had been going to church twice a week in the year before 9/11. And several churches. But 9/11 left me in shock and disbelief: I could not have been any more clear that I wanted the bojinka plot stopped. I did not wish to act in anger but to prevent another attack. After a letter I wrote explaining my efforts to stop the plot Alex Jones asked me to join his efforts but I declined. I wrote him asking him to recall when he first learned about the Bojinka plot and he has yet to respond to my request and neither has Philip Zelikow.


My only concern was in repairing our initial response and stopping another plot. The Truth Movement was co-opted; it put the focus on laser weapons, no-plane theories, 40-year old wild-hair scenarios against Castro, the kind of garbage that brings viewers but actually takes the pressure away from the people who need to feel the squeeze the most - the policy makers advising both parties.


Unconvinced that PNAC's Pearl Harbor assertion represented a pivotal moment of error in our policy, I dug deeper in the stack of papers published on terrorism prior to 9/11. That led me to focus instead on Harvard, The Kennedy School of Government, and the Catastrophic Terrorism Study Panel's conclusions. I wrote a critique of their report and wrote her members asking for feedback to help correct the heading that resulted from the wide-spread dissemination of their report among influential political, military, and intelligence leaders through the prestigious journal Foreign Affairs. Some Senators responded. But even where there was no response it would be wrong to assume my efforts had no sobering impact.


I wish I could explain why I couldn't bring myself to see the image of Christ above for 11 long years and why it completely astonished me last September. A few years ago I picked up a mirror from a clothing store that was closing and placed it on the fireplace. Its borders were covered in stickers. lostprophets, ezekiel, es, THINK, and Savier, the last of which were in the upper-right corner of the mirror next to the image of Christ. And still years went by before finally, in one startling moment last September on the eve of the 11th anniversary of the attacks I saw the image as Christ. After a few days the memories begin to resurface, Had I blocked them out for all these years due to stress? I don't know.


I am happy my pleas coincided with the insuring of the World Trade Center. Yet I truly regret the new owners and insurers were unable to receive the message to stop the plot coming from the Boeing building next to LAX. It was with heartbreak that after 9/11 I learned an attorney from Epstein, Becker, and Green had represented Silverstein's interests with Willis Holdings in regards to the World Trade Center deal. Our national security flew out the window as the abusive were protected by the firm while my therapy was invaded and my wife was targeted. When idealists have their "win" cap on, nothing gets in their way, not the truth, not the facts, not the evidence, not the witnesses, nothing. And the clock means nothing to them. They have unlimited time for themselves and yet no time for thoughtfulness. In times like these we need guardians, not gamblers; we need concentration, not dreams of cataclysm.


Precious stones excite romance, reveal a mystery, bring a smile to a face; we marvel at these tiny fragments of the Universe's creation, but the most precious gift of all is within our hearts, our kindness to one another, and our willingness to look after one another, even those in other tribes, so that in love and trust, we may experience the wisdom that God has set like a beautiful stone right before our very eyes.

LONDON, ENGLAND - AUGUST 20: Actress Kelly Brook attends the world premiere of Keith Lemon: The Film at the Odeon West End on August 20, 2012 in London, United Kingdom. (Photo by Chris Jackson/Getty Images)

Volume 2 ~ March, 2015


Ktistec Press


cover painting: Lissane Lake


Kevin Cheek



Table of Contents



Inventions Bright and New: Original Essays


Working With Ray: My Experiences with R.A. Lafferty by Greg Ketter

Ray’s Recycling Rewards Program by John Owen

Valery’s Really Eyes and the Parade of Creatures by Daniel Otto Jack Petersen

“This Was More Than a Spectacle, More Than an Illusion, It was a Communicating Instrument”: R. A. Lafferty and Hans Urs von Balthasar on the Relational Form of Being by Gregorio Montejo

Through a Glass Darkly by Craig May

Exploring Themes From Catholic Theology in Two Short Stories by R. A. Lafferty by John Ellison

Late Light by Rich Persaud

Lafferty’s Monkey by Clinton Reid Claussen

Lafferty: An Appreciation by Patrick May

Question: Why? Excuse: Because Monsters by Rich Persaud

All the People: International Fandom


Seven-Story Dream on Terschelling by Peter Sijbenga

The Lafferty Centennial In Japan by Kenji Matsuzaki

Continued on Next Book by 7 Japanese Laffertians

Russia Discovers R. A. Lafferty by Sergei Sobolev and Yakov Varganov

Those Who Know Everything: Interviews


An Interview with Nat! by Kevin Cheek

Oh, Whatta Ya Do When The Well Runs Dry: Reprinted Essays


Despair and the Duck Lady by Michael Swanwick

R. A. Lafferty—the secret sci-fi genius more than ready for a comeback by David Barnett

Twice Beheaded: R. A. Lafferty’s Thomas More by Anne Lake Prescott

Excerpt from a Thesis by John Ellison

A Richness of Endings by Dan Knight

Introduction to More than Melchisedech by Robert Whitaker Sirignano

On Sodom and Gomorrah, Texas by Andrew Ferguson

You’re On The Right Track, Kid: Reviews


R. A. Lafferty Spins a Yarn by Keith Purtell

Strange Doings - a review by Stephen R. Case

Oklahoma Gothic by Martin Heavisides

Arrive at Easterwine—a brief review by Kevin Cheek

Task Force Fifty-Eight and a Half by Heywood Reynolds

Iron Tears - a review by Darrell Schweitzer

Iron Tears - a review by Don Webb

The Emperor’s Shoestrings: Works Inspired by R. A. Lafferty


Land of the Great Horses by Peter Sijbenga

The Honking Worm and The Gorilla Cheetah by Bill Rogers

The Waltz Macabre by Logan Giannini

Fourteenth Chambers by Noah Wareness

A Fisherman’s Tune by Daniel Otto Jack Petersen

What I Wrote for Andronicus by Stephen R. Case

Willow Beeman by Howard Waldrop and Steven Utley

Primary Education: Lafferties


An Interview with R. A. Lafferty by Tom Jackson

Sodom and Gomorrah, Texas by R. A. Lafferty


Lafferty Blogs:


The Ants of God are Queer Fish

Continued on Next Rock

The Lafferty Devotional Page

Yet Another Lafferty Blog


1967 the continued presence of American troops increased further and a total of 475,000 were serving in Vietnam and the peace rallies were multiplying as the number of protesters against the war increased.


The Boxer Muhammad Ali was stripped of his boxing world championship for refusing to be inducted into the US Army.


In the middle east Israel also went to war with Syria, Egypt and Jordan in the six day war and when it was over Israel controlled and occupied a lot more territory than before the war.


Once again in the summer cities throughout America exploded in rioting and looting the worst being in Detroit on July 23rd where 7000 national Guard were bought in to restore law and order on the streets.


In England a new type of model became a fashion sensation by the name of Twiggy and mini skirts continued to get shorter and even more popular with a short lived fashion being paper clothing.


Also during this year new Discotheques and singles bars appeared across cities around the world and the Beatles continued to reign supreme with the release of "Sgt. Peppers Lonely Heart Club Band" album, and this year was also coined the summer of love when young teenagers got friendly and smoked pot and grooved to the music of "The Grateful Dead. Jefferson Airplane and The Byrds".


UK beat combos as The Searchers, Gerry and The Pacemakers, The Who and The Kinks enjoyed more commercial success.


The movie industry moved with the times and produced movies that would appeal to this younger audience including "The Graduate" Bonnie and Clyde" and "Cool Hand Luke" .


TV shows included "The Fugitive" and "The Monkees" and color television sets become popular as the price comes down and more programmes are made in color.


"Summer of Love"


Memories of the Summer of Love five decades after the event all too often seem to concentrate on the clichéd imagery parodied by Mike Myers in Austin Powers: International Man of Mystery. But such artists as The Seekers are as much a part of the summer of 1967 as The Beatles, and their vast record sales cannot be entirely explained away by their appeal to a middle-aged public. The fact that "Georgy Girl" was the theme song to a popular film certainly boosted its success. It also garnered the only known Oscar nomination for a member of the Carry On team; the lyrics were by Jim Dale.


But this was also the year that Engelbert Humperdinck's "Release Me" beat the best double-A side in pop history, "Strawberry Fields/Penny Lane", to No 1 in the hit parade, Vicky Leandros sang a much-hummed Eurovision entry, "L'amour est bleu", and Des O'Connor entered the Top 10 with "Careless Hands".


All such songs were ostensibly aimed at the respectable record-buyer, for whom seeing Frankie Vaughan in cabaret at the Talk of the Town was the acme of sophistication. They were also secretly listened to around the world by suburban would-be hipsters who could face no more of the boring passages from Sgt Pepper, or most of The Rolling Stones' one excursion into psychedelia, Their Satanic Majesties Request. The Seekers provided a real alternative for the teenager who could face no more George Harrison with a sitar or the future Sir Michael Jagger's determined efforts at decadence.


Buying a Seekers disc could involve a covert, perhaps after-dark, trip to the local electrical store, for admitting that you preferred to spend five shillings and ninepence on the songs of Miss Durham as opposed to those of Mick Jagger amounted to social death in terms of overall grooviness.


Today, The Seekers and their ilk rarely seem to appear on those occasions when British television relentlessly unearths that same Pathé newsreel of Carnaby Street to "celebrate" yet another 1960s anniversary. Instead, their music seems to belong to the provincial England on which the 1950s are rather reluctant to loosen their grip. In 1958, Tony Hancock recorded one of his finest radio half-hours, Sunday Afternoon at Home, a Pinteresque evocation of the miseries of suburban life where every form of entertainment is either closed or broken, and where the laws of time no longer apply. This is the same realm found in the photo archives of local newspapers – yellowing monochrome pictures of short-back-and-sided youths awkwardly lined up in their Civil Defence Corps uniforms; the sea of tweed coats that was the Winchester Young Farmers meetings of the late 1960s; and the local grammar school's celebration of its rousing success at the county chess tournament.


The local advertisements of the time portray a relentlessly grey world of sales of sensible slacks at the local tailors and barbers offering a short-back-and-sides for a mere 4s 6d. In the papers, you'll read about the local controversy about the possibility of automatic level-crossing barriers in the very near future, and the searing excitement of Michael Miles (of ITV's Take Your Pick fame) opening a new shoe-shop – also in the very near future.


In this England, respectable fathers would favour car-coats, listening to Mrs Dale's Diary and driving Morris Oxfords with starting-handle brackets and leather upholstery rather than sporting a kaftan at the wheel of a psychedelic Mini. Just as in a Ladybird book, red telephone boxes would still require the user to press button A and dial the operator for long-distance calls and, if the railway branch line had escaped the ravages of Beeching, the train arriving at the gas-lit station might still be steam-powered.


This, after all, was the year when David Frost and Simon Dee were still a middle-aged person's idea of what was young and hip. But 1967 was also the year Derek Cooper published his classic The Bad Food Guide, wherein he memorably skewered the frozen/deep fried/artificial cream/close at 5pm experience of typical British cuisine. The local "all night café" probably closed at 8.45pm. In 1967, a holiday abroad meant loading up the Hillman Superminx with Wonderloaf, lest the honest British tourist be forced to eat foreign food.


Of course, the wireless might provide exciting escape in the form of the all-new Radio 1, but even there, among the ex-pirate ship names, many of the DJs were reliably velvet-voiced middle-aged ex-actors such as Pete Murray. There was also the problem of the "needle-time agreement" with the Musicians' Union, which limited the airtime devoted to record playing as opposed to live studio broadcasts.


To supplement sessions by leading groups of the day, the station was heavily reliant on its in-house session band and, according to the late John Peel, one of V C Radio 1's early highlights was the Northern Dance Orchestra's version of "Hey Joe". At least the band's middle-aged vocalist did his very best to emulate Jimi Hendrix while wearing a cardigan in order to display his essential youthfulness.


As for British pop television, one of the very few 1967 moments from Top of the Pops that the BBC has thoughtlessly neglected to wipe – only four complete editions from the 1960s survive – boasts The Rolling Stones miming to "Let's Spend the Night Together". It is an iconic televisual moment, not least for those times when the camera pans to the audience to reveal cardiganed young blades clad in Hank Marvin glasses dancing with grim determination opposite eminently respectable mini-dressed young ladies. Fortunately, the BBC employed DJs with the demeanour of a particularly tolerant housemaster to explain away Jagger/Richards's more risqué lyrics.


The year 1967 also saw one the Stones' major controversies. Overshadowing their drugs bust was the infamous "Not Waving Bye-Bye Scandal" of 22 January. Sunday Night at the London Palladium was the jewel in ITV's light entertainment crown, so the Stones' decision to commit a foul act of sabotage – not waving goodbye to the audience in the closing credits – was guaranteed to shock prime-time viewers. It also rather helpfully detracted from the question of precisely what such an anti-Establishment group was actually doing there in the first place.


Such programmes were broadcast in black and white – in 1967, BBC2 was the first and only channel to provide very limited colour broadcasts, and ITV's colour shows were for export only. So, for many Britons, the alternative to this monochrome world was their local cinema. There, for a mere 1s 9d, the bill of fare might still include a newsreel and a B-film. The former would typically have a smooth-voiced announcer proclaiming the latest colonial disaster (it wouldn't be a proper 1960s newsreel without a British sporting victory and footage of at least one governor's residence in flames). The latter would be one of Merton Park Studios' Scales of Justice criminal shorts, as fronted by "the eminent criminologist Edgar Lustgarten".


The studio's 1967 offering, Payment in Kind, offers a fascinatingly bleak view of Wilson-era suburbia, with tallymen in their Vauxhall Victor Supers offering hire-purchase fantasies to bored housewives trapped behind their Tricity Deluxe cookers, combined with the traditional trilby-hatted Inspectors and police Wolseleys, black, with clanging bells. Then, following an Eastmancolor travelogue praising the beauties of Bournemouth as a holiday resort – "Dancing until 11 o'clock! This really is a swinging seaside town!" – there was, at long last, the main feature.


Here, one might at least expect to see some prime 1960s Technicolor clichés, such as the obligatory crane shot of five hipsters zooming over Tower Bridge in a Mini Moke, or general decadence and nudity along the lines of Antonioni's 1966 Blow-Up. But, of two of the best British films released that year, Bedazzled and The Deadly Affair, the former actually re-affirmed conventional morality (as well as demonstrating that Dud was a far better actor than Pete) and the latter was about a world of middle-aged despair.


Both were inevitably in complete contrast to the 1967 film that was to taint British cinema for quite a while after – Casino Royale. It may have boasted one of the most expensive casts ever, but it also used five studios, seven directors and countless scriptwriters to produce a film where the only abiding memories are of the Herb Alpert theme music and of poor David Niven's moustache visibly wilting in despair at the strain of carrying one of the most appalling films of this, or any, decade. It was a movie that had most British filmgoers eagerly awaiting the National Anthem that was played at the end of every cinema bill.


Fortunately, that year's Bond film, You Only Live Twice, was a safe option, with a hero who, as he previously informed us in Goldfinger, would not even contemplate listening to The Beatles without ear-muffs, and who philandered for Queen and Commonwealth. In the 1960s, Commander Bond spent precisely no on-screen time in Carnaby Street, and You Only Live Twice appropriately commences with Bond in the (then) colony of Hong Kong, where British military police in Sam Browne belts control the natives.


Almost as popular as 007 in box-office terms was Carry On Doctor, where the sole concessions to the new age were Barbara Windsor's miniskirt and Jim Dale combing his hair forward, and that immortal classic Calamity the Cow, an everyday Children's Film Foundation story of how cattle rustlers in deepest Surrey were defeated by a gang of Italia Conti students led by a notably well-spoken Phil Collins.


In fact, it was often British-set films that subverted or entirely ignored the (American funded) myth of universal hedonism that were the most interesting offerings of the decade; Michael Reeves's The Sorcerers used the horror-film genre to attack the impulses behind much of Britain's youth culture, and Nigel Kneale's screenplay for Quatermass and the Pit was inspired by the experiences of his wife as a young Jewish girl in 1930s Germany. The film's budget may seem pitiable, but the conclusion of the "ethnic cleansing" of London hasn't been equalled by films costing 20 times as much. Elsewhere, the Carnaby Street myth was applied by middle-aged film-makers with appalling results, none more so than in Corruption, with Anthony Booth doing his best to copy David Hemmings in Blow-Up with dialogue along the lines of "Freak out, baby!" Far out.


To reduce any era to ill-researched and increasingly banal images is to remove the fascinating ambiguities caused by the fact that periodisation can never be rigid. In 1967, the BBC was still screening The Black & White Minstrel Show. Homosexual acts were partly decriminalised. Forty years ago, Britain was fighting a bloody colonial battle in Aden, unmarried women might still be refused the Pill, and "orphans" would still depart from Tilbury to a new life in Australia. Glossy TV shows such as The Saint or The Avengers continue to peddle a 1960s myth precisely because they were shot on colour film as opposed to countless shows that were recorded on black-and-white video tape, only to be wiped a few years later.


This was a time when millions of viewers might enjoy Thora Hird and Freddie Frinton in Meet the Wife (name-checked by John Lennon on Sgt Pepper) or Hugh Lloyd and Terry Scott in Hugh and I, in addition to the self-conscious radicalism of Till Death Us Do Part. The surviving tapes of such shows, recorded in a cramped studio before live audiences, now appear as hilarious as an edition of Newsnight, but they were as much a staple of the Radio Times as The Billy Cotton Band Show.


Indeed, just as many viewers tuned into Jack Warner in Dixon of Dock Green as they did to see Simon Dee cruising through Manchester in his white Jaguar E-Type for Deetime. It was equally possible to view the ambiguities of The Prisoner and the mysteries of The Mike & Bernie Winters Show together with the enigma that was Hughie Greene in Double Your Money and the reassuringly respectable "Supt Lockhart of the Yard" of No Hiding Place – all on the same evening.


Just as there are Britons who refuse to admit that the nearest they came to the world of Miami Vice in the 1980s was seeing an L-reg Hillman Avenger doing a handbrake turn in Southampton, there are countless citizens in their sixties who should have the courage to admit that their favoured listening of 1967 was not so much "A Day in the Life" as The Seekers' "When Will the Good Apples Fall" or David Bowie's "The Laughing Gnome" – for do not all these songs hail from the decade that supposedly celebrated individuality? So, whenever anyone of late middle-age vintage trots out the cliché that "if you can remember the 1960s, you weren't there", bear in mind that the nearest they came to a freak-out was probably a caffeine overdose in a transport café on the A303.


London was in full swing, hemlines were rising and morals falling. More importantly, all manner of groundbreaking modifications were made to the people’s car – not least a whole host of technical changes that would take the Beetle into next decade… Here’s how that infamous year, and the milestone changes to the Bug, unfolded…


Ken Dodd’s Christmas show is the most watched programme on the box, The Beatles release Sergeant Pepper in a haze of drug fuelled genius, Che Guevara is shot and a man is given a new heart for the first time. The Dartford Tunnel is opened, plans for the creation of a new town called Milton Keynes are revealed and Spurs beat Chelsea 2-1 in the FA Cup Final.


The Summer of Love was a social phenomenon that occurred during the summer of 1967, when as many as 100,000 people converged in the Haight-Ashbury neighborhood of San Francisco. Although hippies also gathered in major cities across the U.S., Canada and Europe, San Francisco remained the epicenter of the social earthquake that would come to be known as the Hippie Revolution. Like its sister enclave of Greenwich Village, the city became even more of a melting pot of politics, music, drugs, creativity, and the total lack of sexual and social inhibition than it already was. As the hippie counterculture movement came farther and farther forward into public awareness, the activities centered therein became a defining moment of the 1960s, causing numerous 'ordinary citizens' to begin questioning everything and anything about them and their environment as a result.


This unprecedented gathering of young people is often considered to have been a social experiment, because of all the alternative lifestyles which became more common and accepted such as gender equality, communal living, and free love. Many of these types of social changes reverberated on into the early 1970s, and effects echo throughout modern society.


The hippies, sometimes called flower children, were an eclectic group. Many were suspicious of the government, rejected consumerist values, and generally opposed the Vietnam War. A few were interested in politics; others focused on art (music, painting, poetry in particular) or religious and meditative movements. All were eager to integrate new ideas and insights into daily life, both public and private.


Inspired by the Beats of the 1950s, who had flourished in the North Beach area of San Francisco, those who gathered in Haight-Ashbury in 1967 rejected the conformist values of Cold War America. These hippies rejected the material values of modern life; there was an emphasis on sharing and community. The Diggers established a Free Store, and a Free Clinic for medical treatment was started.


The prelude to the Summer of Love was the Human Be-In at Golden Gate Park on January 14, 1967, which was produced and organized by artist Michael Bowen as a "gathering of tribes".


James Rado and Gerome Ragni were in attendance and absorbed the whole experience; this became the basis for the musical Hair. Rado recalled, "There was so much excitement in the streets and the parks and the hippie areas, and we thought `If we could transmit this excitement to the stage it would be wonderful....' We hung out with them and went to their Be-Ins [and] let our hair grow. It was very important historically, and if we hadn't written it, there'd not be any examples. You could read about it and see film clips, but you'd never experience it. We thought, 'This is happening in the streets,' and we wanted to bring it to the stage.'"


Also at this event, Timothy Leary voiced his phrase, "turn on, tune in, drop out", that persisted throughout the Summer of Love.


The event was announced by the Haight-Ashbury's psychedelic newspaper, the San Francisco Oracle:


A new concept of celebrations beneath the human underground must emerge, become conscious, and be shared, so a revolution can be formed with a renaissance of compassion, awareness, and love, and the revelation of unity for all mankind.


The gathering of approximately 30,000 like-minded people made the Human Be-In the first event that confirmed there was a viable hippie scene.


The term "Summer of Love" originated with the formation of the Council for the Summer of Love in the spring of 1967 as response to the convergence of young people on the Haight-Ashbury district. The Council was composed of The Family Dog, The Straight Theatre, The Diggers, The San Francisco Oracle, and approximately twenty-five other people, who sought to alleviate some of the problems anticipated from the influx of people expected in the summer. The Council also supported the Free Clinic and organized housing, food, sanitation, music and arts, along with maintaining coordination with local churches and other social groups to fill in as needed, a practice that continues today.


1967 Events


January – The London-set film Blowup is released in the UK. Director: Michelangelo Antonioni. Stars: David Hemmings, Vanessa Redgrave, Sarah Miles


1 January – England's World Cup winning manager Alf Ramsey received a knighthood and captain Bobby Moore received an OBE in the New Year Honours.


2 January – Veteran actor Charlie Chaplin opened his last film, A Countess From Hong Kong, in England.


7 January–1 July – The television series The Forsyte Saga was first shown, on BBC Two. The Forsyte family live a more than pleasant upper middle class life in Victorian and later Edwardian England.


15 January – The United Kingdom entered the first round of negotiations for EEC membership in Rome.


16 January – Italy announced support for the United Kingdom's EEC membership.


18 January – Jeremy Thorpe became leader of the Liberal Party. Thorpe took Liberals to brink of coalition government but resigned as party leader in 1976 after being accused of conspiracy to murder.


23 January – Milton Keynes, a village in north Bucks, was formally designated as a new town by the government, incorporating nearby towns and villages including Bletchley and Newport Pagnell. Intended to accommodate the overspill population from London – some 50 miles away – it would become Britain's largest new town, with the area's population multiplying during the 1970s and 1980s.


26 January – Parliament decided to nationalize 90% of the British steel industry.


27 January – The UK, Soviet Union, and USA sign the Outer Space Treaty.


6 February – Soviet Premier Alexei Kosygin arrived in the UK for an eight-day visit. He met The Queen on 9 February.


7 February – The British National Front was founded by A. K. Chesterton (by merger of the British National Party and League of Empire Loyalists).


12 February – Police raided 'Redlands', the Sussex home of Rolling Stones musician Keith Richards, following a tip-off from the News of the World. No immediate arrests are made, but Richards, fellow band member Mick Jagger and art dealer Robert Fraser were later charged with possession of drugs.


Around 5:30pm on February 12th, 1967, around 20 police descended on Keith Richards‘ Sussex home, “Redlands”. Of The Rolling Stones, both Keith Richards and Mick Jagger were there at the time of the bust (Brian Jones was supposed to be there too but, according to Keith Richards, he and his girlfriend, Anita Pallenberg, were fighting when they left for Redlands, so they just left them behind in London) Several others had come down for the weekend including The Beatles‘ guitar player George Harrison and his then girlfriend, Patti Boyd, although they had left prior to the raid.


Brian Jones‘ trial took place in November 1967 also resulting in a prison sentence for the accused. However, after appealing the original prison sentence, Brian Jones was fined £1000, put on three years’ probation and ordered to seek professional help.


On this period, Keith Richards said, “There was a realization that the powers that be actually looked upon is as important enough to make a big statement and to wield the hammer. But they’d also made us more important than we ever bloody well were in the first place.”


25 February – Britain's second Polaris nuclear submarine, HMS Renown, was launched.


27 February – The Dutch government announced support for British EEC membership.


1 March – The Queen Elizabeth Hall was opened in London.


4 March - The first North Sea gas was pumped ashore at Easington, East Riding of Yorkshire.


Queens Park Rangers became the first Football League Third Division side to win the League Cup at Wembley Stadium defeating West Bromwich Albion 3-2. It was also the first year of a one-match final in the competition, the previous six finals having been two-legged affairs.


5 March - Polly Toynbee reveals the existence of the "Harry" letters that allege the secret funding of Amnesty International by the British government.


15 March – Manny Shinwell, 82, resigned as chairman of the Parliamentary Labour Party.


18 March – The supertanker Torrey Canyon ran aground between Land's End and the Scilly Isles.


29 – 30 March – RAF planes bombed the Torrey Canyon and sank it.


9 July – Alan Ayckbourn's first major success, Relatively Speaking, had its West End opening at the Duke of York's Theatre with Richard Briers, Michael Hordern and Celia Johnson.


Hendrix on Fire


31 March – At the London Astoria, Jimi Hendrix set fire to his guitar on stage for the first time. He was taken to hospital suffering burns to his hands.


Not wishing to be outdone by The Who’s Pete Townshend who had performed first and smashed up his guitar, Hendrix opted to set his amp on fire so as not to be accused of copycat behaviour.


He requested some lighter fluid but couldn’t bring himself to destroy the Strat and so swapped it secretly for a less valuable instrument.


The Fender Stratocaster continued to be used on Hendrix’s American tour (his return to the States after moving to the UK in 1966 to make his fortune). It later fell into the hands of his record company managed by James Wright.


“When Jimi used to smash a guitar up you would try and rebuild it so he could use it again for that purpose. Pete Townshend smashed his guitar up and put the neck into the amp. Jimi was annoyed at this and asked for some lighter fuel. He just wanted to outdo Pete Townshend,” Wright told The Times.


“He played the black guitar for most of the act and then right at the end he swapped it for a repaired one that he set fire to. At the time the black Fender was his favourite guitar and he didn’t want to ruin it.


At the time of the stunt Hendrix was a big star in Britain but still relatively unknown in the States. A picture of him leaning over the burning instrument was used on the cover of Rolling Stone magazine and the incident went down in rock ‘n’ roll history – helping to turn him into a legend.


The guitar is in relatively good condition aside from a few chips and scratches.The CBS era instrument with contour style solid body and original candy apple case dates from late 1966/67 with rosewood neck and black solid body and white scratch protection.


It will be sold by the Fame Bureau on 27 November in Mayfair, London. It is 42 years since the man widely considered to be the greatest electric guitarist in history died in London aged 27. Another Fender Stratocaster that Hendrix set fire to in 1967 at the Finsbury Astoria was auctioned by the Fame Bureau in January £90,000.


2 April – A UN delegation arrived in Aden because of the approaching independence. They leave 7 April, accusing British authorities of lack of cooperation. The British said the delegation did not contact them.


8 April – Puppet on a String performed by Sandie Shaw (music and lyrics by Bill Martin and Phil Coulter) won the Eurovision Song Contest for the UK.


11 April – Tom Stoppard's play Rosencrantz and Guildenstern Are Dead received its Old Vic premiere.


13 April – Conservatives won the Greater London Council elections.


2 May – Harold Wilson announced that the United Kingdom had decided to apply for EEC membership


5 May - The British-designed satellite Ariel 3, the first to be developed outside the Soviet Union or United States is launched.


The first motorway project of the year was completed when the elevated motorway section of the A57 road was officially opened (by Harold Wilson) to form a by-pass around the south of Manchester city area. The M1 was also being expanded this month from both termini, meaning that there would now be an unbroken motorway link between North London and South Yorkshire.


6 May – Manchester United won the Football League First Division title.


11 May – The United Kingdom and Ireland officially applied for European Economic Community membership.


14 May – The Roman Catholic Liverpool Metropolitan Cathedral of Christ the King was consecrated.


20 May – In the first all-London FA Cup final, Tottenham Hotspur defeated Chelsea 2-1 at Wembley Stadium.


24 May – The Royal Navy Leander-class frigate HMS Andromeda was launched at Portsmouth Dockyard, the last ship to be built there.


25 May - Celtic F.C. became the first British and Northern European team to reach a European Cup final and also to win it, beating Inter Milan 2-1 in normal time with the winning goal being scored by Steve Chalmers in Lisbon, Portugal.


Shadow cabinet Tory MP Enoch Powell described Britain as the "sick man of Europe" in his latest verbal attack on the Labour government.


28 May – Sir Francis Chichester arrived in Plymouth after completing his single-handed sailing voyage around the world in his yacht, Gipsy Moth IV, in nine months and one day.


29 May - The first Spring Bank Holiday occurred on a fixed date of the last Monday in May, replacing the former Whitsun holiday in England and Wales.


'Barbeque 67', a music festival, at the Tulip Bulb Auction Hall, Spalding, featured Jimi Hendrix, Cream, Pink Floyd and Zoot Money.


1 June – The Beatles released Sgt. Pepper's Lonely Hearts Club Band, one of rock's most acclaimed albums.


4 June – Stockport Air Disaster: British Midland flight G-ALHG crashed in Hopes Carr, Stockport, killing 72 passengers and crew.


27 June – The first automatic cash machine (voucher-based) was installed in the office of Barclays Bank in Enfield.


29 June – Keith Richards of the Rolling Stones was jailed for a year for possession illegal drugs. His bandmate Mick Jagger was sentenced to three months for the same offence.


1 July – The first scheduled colour television broadcasts from six transmitters covering the main population centres in England began on BBC2 for certain programmes, the first being live coverage from the Wimbledon Championships. A full colour service (other than news programmes) began on BBC2 on 2 December.


4 July – Parliament decriminalised male homosexuality in England and Wales with the Sexual Offences Act.


7 July – In the last amateur Wimbledon tennis tournament, Australian John Newcombe beat German Wilhelm P. Bungert to win the Gentlemen's Singles championship. The next day, American Billie Jean King beat Briton Ann Haydon Jones to win the Ladies' Singles championship. The matches are also the first to be broadcast in colour.


13 July – English road racing cyclist Tom Simpson died of exhaustion on the slopes of Mont Ventoux during the 13th stage of the Tour de France.


18 July – The UK government announced the closing of its military bases in Malaysia and Singapore. Australia and the United States do not approve.


27 July – The Welsh Language Act allowed the use of Welsh in legal proceedings and official documents in Wales.


28 July – The British steel industry was nationalised.


July – Astronomers Jocelyn Bell Burnell and Antony Hewish became the first to observe a pulsar.


3 August – The inquiry into the Aberfan disaster blamed the National Coal Board for the collapse of a colliery spoil tip which claimed the lives of 164 people in South Wales in October last year.


5 August – Pink Floyd released their debut album The Piper at the Gates of Dawn.


8 August – Dunsop Valley entered the UK Weather Records with the Highest 90-min total rainfall at 117 mm. As of August 2010 this record remains.


9 August – Playwright Joe Orton was battered to death by his lover Kenneth Halliwell (who then committed suicide) in their north London home.


14 August – The Marine, &c., Broadcasting (Offences) Act 1967 declared participation in offshore pirate radio in the United Kingdom illegal. Wonderful Radio London broadcast from MV Galaxy off the Essex coast for the last time.


17 August – Jimmy Hill, manager of the Coventry City side who have been promoted to the Football League First Division for the first time in their history, announced that he is leaving management to concentrate on a television career.


28 August - The first Late Summer Holiday occurred on a fixed date of the last Monday in August, replacing the former August Bank Holiday on the first Monday in England and Wales.


Herbert Bowden was appointed chairman of the Independent Television Authority.


6 September – Myrina was launched from the slipway at Harland and Wolff in Belfast, the first supertanker and (at around 192000 DWT) largest ship built in the U.K. up to this date.


9 September – Former prime minister Clement Attlee, 84, was hospitalised with an illness reported as a "minor condition".


10 September – In a Gibraltar sovereignty referendum, only 44 out of 12,182 voters in the British Crown colony of Gibraltar supported union with Spain.


20 September – The RMS Queen Elizabeth 2 (the QE2) was launched at Clydebank by Queen Elizabeth II, using the same pair of gold scissors used by her mother and grandmother to launch the Queen Elizabeth and Queen Mary respectively.


21 September – The Conservatives captured Cambridge and Walthamstow from Labour in by-elections.


27 September – The RMS Queen Mary arrived in Southampton at the end of her last transatlantic crossing.


29 September – Cult television series The Prisoner was first broadcast in the UK on ITV.


30 September – BBC Radio completely restructured its national programming: the Light Programme was split between new national pop station Radio 1 (modelled on the successful pirate station Radio London) and Radio 2; the cultural Third Programme was rebranded as Radio 3; and the primarily-talk Home Service became Radio 4.


5 October – A Court in Brighton was the first in England and Wales to decide a case by majority verdict (10 to 2) of the jury.


10 October – Simon Gray's first stage play, Wise Child, opened at the Wyndham's Theatre, London, with Alec Guinness, Gordon Jackson, Simon Ward and Cleo Sylvestre.


11 October – Prime Minister Harold Wilson won a libel action against rock group The Move in the High Court after they depicted him in the nude in promotional material for their record Flowers in the Rain.


25 October – The Abortion Act, passed in Parliament, legalising abortion on a number of grounds (with effect from 1968).


30 October – British troops and Chinese demonstrators clashed on the border of China and Hong Kong during the Hong Kong Riots.


October – St Pancras railway station in London was made a Grade I listed building, regarded as a landmark in the appreciation of Victorian architecture.


2 November – Winnie Ewing won the Hamilton by-election, the first success for the Scottish National Party in an election for the Parliament of the United Kingdom.


5 November – A Sunday evening express train from Hastings to London derailed in the Hither Green rail crash, killing 49 people.


7 November – Boxer Henry Cooper became the first to win three Lonsdale Belts outright.


18 November – Movement of animals was banned in England and Wales due to a foot-and-mouth disease outbreak.


19 November – The pound was devalued from 1 GBP = 2.80 USD to 1 GBP = 2.40 USD. Prime minister Harold Wilson defended this decision, assuring voters that it will tackle the "root cause" of the nation's economic problems.


27 November – Charles de Gaulle vetoed British entry into the European Economic Community again.


28 November – Horse racing events were called off due to the foot-and-mouth disease outbreak.


30 November – British troops left Aden, which they had occupied since 1839, enabling formation of the new republic of Yemen.


1 December – Tony O'Connor became the first black headmaster of a British school, in Warley, near Birmingham, Worcestershire.


5 December – The Beatles opened the Apple Shop in London.


10 December – Ronald George Wreyford Norrish, George Porter and the German Manfred Eigen won the Nobel Prize in Chemistry "for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions, effected by disturbing the equlibrium by means of very short pulses of energy".


11 December – The Concorde supersonic aircraft was unveiled in Toulouse, France.


12 December – Rolling Stones guitarist Brian Jones, 25, won a High Court appeal against a nine-month prison sentence for possessing and using cannabis. He was instead fined £1,000 and put on probation for three years.


22 December – BBC Radio 4 panel game Just a Minute, chaired by Nicholas Parsons, was first transmitted. It would still be running more than forty years later.

Romanian postcard by Casa Filmului Acin. Photo: publicity still for Deadlier than the male (Ralph Thomas, 1967) with Suzanna Leigh.


Last Saturday, 6 June 2015, British stage and screen actor and producer Richard Johnson has died, aged 87. He conferred his dark, handsome, saturnine features, assertive jaw, emphatic eyebrows and air of intelligence on scores of classic parts in the theatre, and on a wide range of film and television roles. Johnson was considered for the role of James Bond in the first Bond film, Dr. No. He declined the part down as he did not favour a lengthy contract.


Richard Keith Johnson was born at Upminster, Essex, in 1927, the son of Frances Louisa Olive (née Tweed) and Keith Holcombe Johnson. He was educated at Parkfield School and Felsted School before training for the stage at Rada. He claimed to have started acting as a child and then became a professional actor because it made him feel alive, and less aware of his ‘insufficiencies’. During the Second World War he served in the Royal Navy. His career began with a walk-on part in John Gielgud’s 1944 production of Hamlet in Manchester. He moved to the West End as part of a classical repertoire at the Haymarket where he took small parts in Love for Love, The Circle, and The Duchess of Malfi. Before and after his National Service in the Navy from 1945 to 1948 he was in repertory at Perth. After a season of old melodrama in Camden Town, he was in two West End productions, The Madwoman of Chaillot and After My Fashion, as well as open-air Shakespeare in Regent’s Park, before a season with the Bristol Old Vic company in 1953. He spent the next season in broadcasting, but in 1955 he got his first real break in Jean Anouilh’s version of the Joan of Arc story, The Lark, playing Warwick, one of his favourite parts, to Dorothy Tutin’s Joan. A few months later he was cast as Laertes in Peter Brook’s production of Hamlet, starring Paul Scofield (1955). After two more West End productions, playing Jack Absolute in The Rivals and Lord Plynlimmon in Plaintiff in a Pretty Hat, he joined the Shakespeare Memorial Theatre at Stratford-upon-Avon. Among his roles were Orlando in As You Like It, Mark Antony in Julius Caesar, Leonatus in Cymbeline and Ferdinand in The Tempest, which transferred to Drury Lane in 1957. The following season he played Romeo and Sir Andrew Aguecheek as well as the title role in Pericles and Don John in Much Ado About Nothing, visiting Moscow and Leningrad as Romeo and Aguecheek. During the 1960s Johnson became involved with Sir Peter Hall’s production of Cymbeline, leading to Hall inviting him to join him in the Royal Shakespeare Company. There, in 1961, he acted Hans in Jean Giraudoux’s Ondine. He also gave one of his finest performances as Urbaine in John Whiting’s The Devils, a study of 17th-century witchcraft directed by Peter Brook.


In 1959, Richard Johnson made his film debut in a major co-star role in the MGM war drama Never So Few (John Sturges, 1959), starring Frank Sinatra and Gina Lollobrigida. Subsequently he was contracted by MGM to appear in 1 film per year over 6 years. There he made his biggest films including Robert Wise’s The Haunting (1963), The Pumpkin Eater (Jack Clayton, 1964) and Khartoum (Basil Dearden, Eliot Elisofon, 1966), starring Laurence Olivier and Charlton Heston. In the early 1960s the director Terence Young had wanted Johnson to play James Bond in preference to Sean Connery. Johnson declined because he was under contract to MGM and did not relish the seven-year commitment. If the stardom for which his career seemed to be heading in the cinema of the early 1960s eluded him, he cut a dashingly romantic figure opposite Kim Novak, whom he married in real life at this time (albeit briefly – they divorced a year later), in the all-star romp, The Amorous Adventures of Moll Flanders (Terence Johnson, 1965). Johnson certainly displayed Bond-like qualities in some of his film roles, notably when he played a modern-day Bulldog Drummond (reimagined as a 007-type hero) in Deadlier Than the Male (Ralph Thomas, 1967) with Elke Sommer and Sylva Koscina and its less satisfactory sequel, Some Girls Do (Ralph Thomas, 1969) with Daliah Lavi. In 1969 he founded a production company called Pageant Entertainments Ltd. Its earliest productions included John Aubrey’s Brief Lives at the Criterion (1969). His feature films included the thriller Danger Route (Seth Holt, 1967), Oedipus the King (Philip Saville, 1968), Le calde notti di Lady Hamilton/Lady Hamilton (Christian Jaque, 1968) starring Michèle Mercier, Julius Caesar (Stuart Burge, 1970), and Hennessy (Don Sharp, 1975) for which he also wrote the original story.


Returning to the Royal Shakespeare Company in 1972, Richard Johnson played (both at Stratford and in London) Mark Antony in Julius Caesar, and Antony in Trevor Nunn’s Antony and Cleopatra (opposite Janet Suzman), a performance variously described as “fruity”, “genial” and “declining into a business ruffian”, but also firmly defining the warrior’s handsome gravity. After starring in a West End musical comedy, Thomas and the King, in 1975, in which he played Thomas, he joined the National Theatre Company for a couple of seasons, showing, again under Peter Hall’s direction, a sharp gift for farce in Noël Coward’s Blithe Spirit, and playing Pontius Pilate in The Passion (1977), Pinchwife in Wycherley’s The Country Wife (1977) and Nendor in The Guardsman in 1978. He went on to appear in such films as The Four Feathers (Don Sharp, 1978). He also appeared in several Italian films, including Lucio Fulci's cult classic, Zombi 2/Zombie (1979) which was banned for some years, and L'isola degli uomini pesce/Island of the Fishmen (Sergio Martino, 1979) with Barbara Bach. In 1983 Johnson became founder, chairman, and joint chief executive of a production company, United Artists, with Diana Rigg as director, and the actors Albert Finney and Glenda Jackson. They promoted such films as Turtle Diary (John Irvin, 1985) starring Glenda Jackson and Ben Kingsley, Castaway (Nicolas Roeg, 1986) with Oliver Reed, and The Lonely Passion of Judith Hearne (Jack Clayton, 1987) starring Maggie Smith. He made something of a comeback at Stratford-on-Avon in 1992 as Antony in Antony and Cleopatra, having two years earlier re-established himself on the television screen in two plays, The Camomile Lawn and Anglo-Saxon Attitudes. In later years, he was a charismatic presence in television productions such as Midsomer Murders, Waking the Dead, Silent Witness and Doc Martin. His later films include Lara Croft: Tomb Raider (Simon West, 2001) and The Boy in the Striped Pyjamas (Mark Herman, 2008). His last known film appearance was in Radiator (Tom Browne, 2014). Richard Johnson was married four times; first, in 1957 to the actress Sheila Sweet, by whom he had a son and daughter (the photographer, Sukey Parnell). After their divorce he married, in 1965, Kim Novak, a marriage which lasted a few months. In 1982 he married Mary-Louise Norlund, by whom he had a daughter. He also had a son with the French actress, Françoise Pascal. His fourth wife was Lynne Gurney, whom he married on a beach in Goa in 2004. She survives him with his four children and his stepson, the actor Paris Arrowsmith. Johnson’s family said he died on Saturday in the Royal Marsden hospital in Chelsea, west London, after a short illness.


Sources: The Telegraph, The New York Times, The Guardian, Wikipedia and IMDb.