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Rachel Whiteread's Holocaust Memorial

Holocaust Memorial, Judenplatz, Vienna

Vienna (see map)

A nice and rich city visited during christmas holidays

 

HDR applied

Federal Chancellery (1, Ballhaus square 2, identical to Löwel street 2-4). Instead of an Imperial Meierhof (which stretched in the area of ​​today's Ballhaus square and Löwel street, a Pfisterei (bakery) is mentioned already 1347) was 1717-1719 on order of Charles VI built by the imperial court architect Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt (architect Christian Alexander Oedtl) a representative building for the Secret/Effective (Austrian) Court Chancery at that time (bordering the Court Hospital in the north). The foundation stone was laid on 13 September 1717.

Court Chancery

The Court Chancery had until then been lodged in a tract of the Hofburg. It was the counterweight to the Imperial Chancery, led by the Imperial Chancellor (see Imperial Chancellery of the Hofburg). The foreign policy department, established from 1705 under the auspices of the Hofkanzlei under Sinzendorf (Philipp Ludwig Wenzel Sinzendorf (26 December 1671 – 8 February 1742) was an Austrian diplomat and statesman who for nearly four decades served as Court Chancellor responsible of foreign affairs of the Habsburg Monarchy), received the name Staatskanzlei in 1719.

When Maria Theresia united the former Austrian and Bohemian Court Chancellery in 1749 into a joint administrative authority responsible for both groups of countries, the new "Directorate" moved into the former building of the Bohemian Court Chancery (Jewish Square - Wippling street), this designation is already listed around 1770 on the Huber plan), the house on Ballhaus square was assigned to the Staatskanzlei (later German Federal Foreign Office) for the sole use. State Chancellor was 1753-1792 Wenzel Anton Count Kaunitz (starting from 1764 Reichsfürst/Princes of the Holy Roman Empire von Kaunitz-Rietberg), especially after the death Franz' I (1765) this one had a great influence on the government business (especially with regard to his opposition to Prussia and his alliance with France).

Secret Court Chancery according to Salomon Kleiner, 1733 (detail) (pictures are clickable by activating the link at the end of page!).

Hofkanzlei with its small garden on Löwel Bastion, above it the Paradeisgartel (Tomato garden), on the left the Amalienburg (detail from the Huber-Plan, published 1773).

The Staatskanzlei with the surroundings 1824. Above the Löwel Bation with the bastion garden belonging to the Staatskanzlei. The state chancery bordered the Minorite Monastery.

Conversion by Pacassi

From 1764 to 1767, the building on order of Maria Theresa was modified and extended by her Court Architect Nikolaus Pacassi. The main facade (Ballhausplatz) (however, apart from the altered roof and the missing attic statues) still corresponds to the construction of Hildebrandt. The extension served mainly the accommodation of the office and the establishment of an archive in which Maria Theresia, in particular, housed the Austrian and Lorraine state and house documents as well as the Hungarian and Bohemian state certificates (house, court and state archive). At that time the house of Hiernonymus Reichsfreiherr/Imperial Baron of Scalvinioni (at that time the supervisor of the court buildings) opposite the front, placed in front of Amalienburg, erected and expanded yet 1700, was also abolished, thus giving us the present floor plan of the Ballhausplatz.

Ballhausplatz 2, former Secret Court and State Chancery, c. 1850

The "Ballhausplatz" in the era of Metternich experienced great events (1810-1848 State Chancellor): the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815), the Police State before 1848, but also the tumults of the revolution of 1848 and the passing of Metternich. During his term of office happened the reconstruction of the wing at Löwel street (1821) and renovations (1826) The interior of the building is still predominantly from the 19th century as far as architecture is concerned. 1881-1882, the Löwel street wing was extended to Metastasio alley, 1900-1903 (after the demolition of the Court Hospital and the Minorite Monastery) it came to the construction of the House, Court and State Archives (plans of Otto Hofer), adjoining the Federal Chancellery.

Use by the Republic

From November 1918, the building was the seat of the government formed by the "Provisional National Assembly for German-Austria", led by Chancellor Dr. Karl Renner.

Ballhausplatz 2, 1., Ballhausplatz 2 (c. 1941)

War Damages on the Federal Chancellery (1946)

From 1920, the ministerial council meetings were held here. In 1922, the Federal Chancellery also moved from its original seat in Palais Modena (now the Ministry of the Interior), so that both the Federal President (Wing in Löwel street) and the Federal Chancellor and the Foreign Minister in this building officiated. On July 25, 1934 during the National Socialist coup attempt, Federal Chancellor Dr. Engelbert Dollfuss in the Chancellor's Office was murdered.

After the "Anschluss" a kind of liquidation office of the "Austrian provincial government" was quartered in the house, while Reichskommissar/Reich Commissioner Gauleiter/district leader Josef Bürckel resided in the parliament. It was not until his successor, the former Reichsjugendführer (highest paramilitary rank of the Hitler Youth), and now the Gauleiter and Reichsstatthalter/Reich Lieutenant Baldur von Schirach, as the Federal Chancellery was chosen as his office. On September 10, 1944, the building was damaged by bombs (destruction of the former Chancellor's room).

After the Second World War, the Federal Chancellery was once again the seat of the Federal Chancellor and the Federal Government, which also meet here for the ministerial council meetings (the Federal President is in the Leopoldine tract of the Hofburg). The Federal Chancellery has been restored and partially reconstructed (such as the stucco ceiling of the stairwell). The reconstruction was completed on 20 February 1950.

The most important rooms on the main floor: the large reception hall ("Congress Hall") is located above the main entrance, on the left (corner Löwel street), the former small dining room (today the Gray Corner Hall). Afterwards follow the great dining room (today Council of Ministers hall) in Löwel street, the library, the study of Metternich and the audience room. On your right (corner towards Minorite square) lies the Blue Conference Hall (today Marble Corner Room), alongside follow the Green Reception Hall (later Yellow Salon and Study of the Chancellor), the Column Hall (today the working room of the Chancellor) and (again on the corner) the meeting room (today study of the Head of Cabinet, in the direction of the House, Court and State Archives still follow the sleeping room of Metternich (today reception hall).

 

Bundeskanzleramt (1, Ballhausplatz 2, identisch mit Löwelstraße 2-4). Anstelle eines kaiserlichen Meierhofs (der sich Im Bereich des heutigen Ballhausplatzes und der Löwelstraße erstreckte; eine Pfisterei (Bäckerei) wird schon 1347 erwähnt) wurde 1717-1719 über Auftrag Karls VI. vom kaiserlichen Hofarchitekten Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt (Baumeister Christian Alexander Oedtl) ein repräsentatives Gebäude für die damalige Geheime (Österreichische) Hofkanzlei erbaut (das im Norden an das Hofspital angrenzte). Die Grundsteinlegung erfolgte am 13. September 1717.

Hofkanzlei

Die Hofkanzlei war bis dahin in einem Trakt der Hofburg untergebracht gewesen. Sie war das Gegengewicht zu der vom Reichsvizekanzler geleiteten Reichshofkanzlei (siehe Reichskanzleitrakt der Hofburg). Sie im Rahmen der Hofkanzlei unter Sinzendorf ab 1705 aufgebaute Außenpolitische Abteilung erhielt 1719 den Namen Staatskanzlei.

Als Maria Theresia 1749 die bisherige Österreichische und Böhmische Hofkanzlei zu einer gemeinsamen, für beide Ländergruppen zuständigen Verwaltungsbehörde vereinigte, zog das neue „Direktorium" in das ehemalige Gebäude der Böhmischen Hofkanzlei (Judenplatz - Wipplingerstraße) ein, und das Haus am Ballhausplatz (diese Bezeichnung ist bereits auf dem Huber-Plan um 1770 eingetragen) wurde der Staatskanzlei (später Auswärtiges Amt) zur alleinigen Benützung zugewiesen. Staatskanzler war 1753-1792 Wenzel Anton Graf Kaunitz (ab 1764 Reichsfürst von Kaunitz-Rietberg), der besonders nach dem Tod Franz' I. (1765) auf die Regierungsgeschäfte großen Einfluss nahm (vor allem hinsichtlich seiner Gegnerschaft zu Preußen und seiner Allianz mit Frankreich).

Geheime Hofkanzlei nach Salomon Kleiner, 1733 (Ausschnitt).

Hofkanzlei mit dem zugehörigen kleinen Garten auf der Löwelbastei, darüber erkennbar das Paradeisgartel, links die Amalienburg (Ausschnitt aus dem Huber-Plan, erschienen 1773).

Die Staatskanzlei mit Umgebung 1824. Oberhalb die Löwelbastei mit dem zur Staatskanzlei gehörigen basteigarten. Die Staatskanzlei grenzte an das Minoritenkloster.

Umbau durch Pacassi

1764-1767 wurde das Gebäude im Auftrag Maria Theresias von ihrem Hofarchitekten Nikolaus Pacassi verändert und bedeutend erweitert. Die Hauptfassade (Ballhausplatz) entspricht jedoch (abgesehen vom veränderten Dach und den fehlenden Attikafiguren) noch heute dem Bau Hildebrandts. Die Erweiterung diente vor allem der Unterbringung der Kanzlei und der Einrichtung eines Archivs, in welchem Maria Theresia insbesondere die österreichischen und lothringischen Staats- und Hausurkunden sowie die ungarischen und böhmischen Staatsurkunden unterbringen ließ (Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv). Damals wurde auch das der Front gegenüberliegende, der Amalienburg vorgelagerte und noch um 1700 aufgestockte beziehungsweise ausgebaute Haus des Hieronymus Reichsfreiherrn von Scalvinioni (damals Oberinspektor der Hofgebäude) abgetragen, sodass sich der uns heute geläufige Grundriss des Ballhausplatzes ergab.

Ballhausplatz 2, ehemalige Geheime Hof- und Staatskanzlei, um 1850

Der „Ballhausplatz" erlebte in der Ära Metternich (1810-1848 Staatskanzler) große Ereignisse: den Wiener Kongress (1814/1815), den vormärzlichen Polizeistaat, aber auch die Tumulte der Revolution 1848 und die Verabschiedung Metternichs. Während seiner Amtszeit kam es zu einem Umbau des Trakts an der Löwelstraße (1821) und zu Renovierungen (1826). Die Ausstattung des Gebäudes im Inneren stammt noch heute überwiegend aus dem 19. Jahrhundert, soweit es sich um die Architektur handelt. 1881/82 wurde der Löwelstraßenflügel des Gebäudes bis zur Metastasiogasse verlängert, 1900-1903 kam es (nach dem Abbruch des Hofspitals und des Minoritenklosters) zum Bau des an das Bundeskanzleramt angrenzenden Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchivs (Pläne von Otto Hofer).

Nutzung durch die Republik

Ab November 1918 war das Gebäude Sitz der von der „Provisorischen Nationalversammlung für Deutsch-Österreich" gebildeten Regierung, die von Staatskanzler Dr. Karl Renner geleitet wurde.

Ballhausplatz 2, 1., Ballhausplatz 2 (um 1941)

Kriegsschäden am Bundeskanzleramt (1946)

Ab 1920 wurden hier die Ministerratssitzungen abgehalten, 1922 übersiedelte auch das Bundeskanzleramt aus seinem ursprünglichen Amtssitz im Palais Modena (heute Innenministerium) hierher, sodass schließlich in der Ersten Republik im Gebäude sowohl der Bundespräsident (Trakt in der Löwelstraße) als auch der Bundeskanzler und der Außenminister amtierten. Am 25. Juli 1934 wurde während des nationalsozialistischen Putschversuchs Bundeskanzler Dr. Engelbert Dollfuß im Kanzleramt erschossen.

Nach dem „Anschluss" quartierte sich im Haus eine Art von Liquidationsstelle der „österreichischen Landesregierung" ein, während Reichskommissar Gauleiter Josef Bürckel im Parlament residierte. Erst sein Nachfolger, der vorherige Reichsjugendführer und nunmehrige Gauleiter und Reichsstatthalter Baldur von Schirach, wählte das Bundeskanzleramt zu seinem Amtssitz. Am 10. September 1944 wurde das Gebäude durch Bomben beschädigt (Zerstörung des früheren Kanzlerzimmers).

Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg wurde das Bundeskanzleramt wieder Amtssitz des Bundeskanzlers und der Bundesregierung, die hier auch zu den Ministerratssitzungen zusammentritt (der Bundespräsident amtiert im Leopoldinischen Trakt der Hofburg). Das Bundeskanzleramt wurde wiederhergestellt, teilweise (wie etwa die Stuckdecke des Stiegenhauses) auch rekonstruiert. Der Wiederaufbau war am 20. Februar 1950 abgeschlossen.

Die wichtigsten Räumlichkeiten im Hauptgeschoß: Über dem Haupteingang liegt der Große Empfangssaal („Kongreßsaal"), links (Ecke Löwelstraße) der ehemalige Kleine Speisesaal (heute Grauer Ecksalon), dem in der Löwelstraße der Große Speisesaal (heute Ministerratssaal), die Bibliothek, das Arbeitszimmer Metternichs und das Audienzzimmer folgen; rechts (Ecke zum Minoritenplatz) liegt der Blaue Gesellschaftssaal (heute Marmorecksalon), daneben folgen der Grüne Empfangssaal (später Gelber Salon und Arbeitszimmer des Bundeskanzlers), der Säulensaal (heute Arbeitszimmer des Bundeskanzlers) und (wiederum an der Ecke) das Sitzungszimmer (heute Arbeitszimmer des Kabinettschefs); in Richtung Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv folgt noch das Schlafzimmer Metternichs (heute Empfangsraum).

Kapelle

Im Zuge des Pacassischen Umbaus wurde 1767 eine über zwei Geschoße reichende Kapelle errichtet. Als der überkuppelte hohe Raum 1818 durch eine Zwischendecke geteilt wurde (um ein Bibliothekszimmer zu gewinnen), verschoben sich die Proportionen. Das ursprüngliche Altarbild „Heiliger Nepomuk vor Maria" (1741) kam 1821 nach Gerasdorf (dort verschollen).

www.wien.gv.at/wiki/index.php/Bundeskanzleramt

Jabornegg & Pálffy. Retrospektive. Architekturprojekte im historischen Kontext

Stift Altenburg

Das Mahnmal für die österreichischen jüdischen Opfer der Schoah steht am Judenplatz im ersten Bezirk von Wien. Es ist das zentrale Mahnmal für die österreichischen Opfer der Schoah, und wurde von der britischen Künstlerin Rachel Whiteread entworfen.

 

The Judenplatz Holocaust Memorial also known as the Nameless Library stands in Judenplatz in the first district of Vienna. It is the central memorial for the Austrian victims of the Holocaust and was designed by the British artist Rachel Whiteread.

Federal Chancellery (1, Ballhaus square 2, identical to Löwel street 2-4). Instead of an Imperial Meierhof (which stretched in the area of ​​today's Ballhaus square and Löwel street, a Pfisterei (bakery) is mentioned already 1347) was 1717-1719 on order of Charles VI built by the imperial court architect Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt (architect Christian Alexander Oedtl) a representative building for the Secret/Effective (Austrian) Court Chancery at that time (bordering the Court Hospital in the north). The foundation stone was laid on 13 September 1717.

Court Chancery

The Court Chancery had until then been lodged in a tract of the Hofburg. It was the counterweight to the Imperial Chancery, led by the Imperial Chancellor (see Imperial Chancellery of the Hofburg). The foreign policy department, established from 1705 under the auspices of the Hofkanzlei under Sinzendorf (Philipp Ludwig Wenzel Sinzendorf (26 December 1671 – 8 February 1742) was an Austrian diplomat and statesman who for nearly four decades served as Court Chancellor responsible of foreign affairs of the Habsburg Monarchy), received the name Staatskanzlei in 1719.

When Maria Theresia united the former Austrian and Bohemian Court Chancellery in 1749 into a joint administrative authority responsible for both groups of countries, the new "Directorate" moved into the former building of the Bohemian Court Chancery (Jewish Square - Wippling street), this designation is already listed around 1770 on the Huber plan), the house on Ballhaus square was assigned to the Staatskanzlei (later German Federal Foreign Office) for the sole use. State Chancellor was 1753-1792 Wenzel Anton Count Kaunitz (starting from 1764 Reichsfürst/Princes of the Holy Roman Empire von Kaunitz-Rietberg), especially after the death Franz' I (1765) this one had a great influence on the government business (especially with regard to his opposition to Prussia and his alliance with France).

Secret Court Chancery according to Salomon Kleiner, 1733 (detail) (pictures are clickable by activating the link at the end of page!).

Hofkanzlei with its small garden on Löwel Bastion, above it the Paradeisgartel (Tomato garden), on the left the Amalienburg (detail from the Huber-Plan, published 1773).

The Staatskanzlei with the surroundings 1824. Above the Löwel Bation with the bastion garden belonging to the Staatskanzlei. The state chancery bordered the Minorite Monastery.

Conversion by Pacassi

From 1764 to 1767, the building on order of Maria Theresa was modified and extended by her Court Architect Nikolaus Pacassi. The main facade (Ballhausplatz) (however, apart from the altered roof and the missing attic statues) still corresponds to the construction of Hildebrandt. The extension served mainly the accommodation of the office and the establishment of an archive in which Maria Theresia, in particular, housed the Austrian and Lorraine state and house documents as well as the Hungarian and Bohemian state certificates (house, court and state archive). At that time the house of Hiernonymus Reichsfreiherr/Imperial Baron of Scalvinioni (at that time the supervisor of the court buildings) opposite the front, placed in front of Amalienburg, erected and expanded yet 1700, was also abolished, thus giving us the present floor plan of the Ballhausplatz.

Ballhausplatz 2, former Secret Court and State Chancery, c. 1850

The "Ballhausplatz" in the era of Metternich experienced great events (1810-1848 State Chancellor): the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815), the Police State before 1848, but also the tumults of the revolution of 1848 and the passing of Metternich. During his term of office happened the reconstruction of the wing at Löwel street (1821) and renovations (1826) The interior of the building is still predominantly from the 19th century as far as architecture is concerned. 1881-1882, the Löwel street wing was extended to Metastasio alley, 1900-1903 (after the demolition of the Court Hospital and the Minorite Monastery) it came to the construction of the House, Court and State Archives (plans of Otto Hofer), adjoining the Federal Chancellery.

Use by the Republic

From November 1918, the building was the seat of the government formed by the "Provisional National Assembly for German-Austria", led by Chancellor Dr. Karl Renner.

Ballhausplatz 2, 1., Ballhausplatz 2 (c. 1941)

War Damages on the Federal Chancellery (1946)

From 1920, the ministerial council meetings were held here. In 1922, the Federal Chancellery also moved from its original seat in Palais Modena (now the Ministry of the Interior), so that both the Federal President (Wing in Löwel street) and the Federal Chancellor and the Foreign Minister in this building officiated. On July 25, 1934 during the National Socialist coup attempt, Federal Chancellor Dr. Engelbert Dollfuss in the Chancellor's Office was murdered.

After the "Anschluss" a kind of liquidation office of the "Austrian provincial government" was quartered in the house, while Reichskommissar/Reich Commissioner Gauleiter/district leader Josef Bürckel resided in the parliament. It was not until his successor, the former Reichsjugendführer (highest paramilitary rank of the Hitler Youth), and now the Gauleiter and Reichsstatthalter/Reich Lieutenant Baldur von Schirach, as the Federal Chancellery was chosen as his office. On September 10, 1944, the building was damaged by bombs (destruction of the former Chancellor's room).

After the Second World War, the Federal Chancellery was once again the seat of the Federal Chancellor and the Federal Government, which also meet here for the ministerial council meetings (the Federal President is in the Leopoldine tract of the Hofburg). The Federal Chancellery has been restored and partially reconstructed (such as the stucco ceiling of the stairwell). The reconstruction was completed on 20 February 1950.

The most important rooms on the main floor: the large reception hall ("Congress Hall") is located above the main entrance, on the left (corner Löwel street), the former small dining room (today the Gray Corner Hall). Afterwards follow the great dining room (today Council of Ministers hall) in Löwel street, the library, the study of Metternich and the audience room. On your right (corner towards Minorite square) lies the Blue Conference Hall (today Marble Corner Room), alongside follow the Green Reception Hall (later Yellow Salon and Study of the Chancellor), the Column Hall (today the working room of the Chancellor) and (again on the corner) the meeting room (today study of the Head of Cabinet, in the direction of the House, Court and State Archives still follow the sleeping room of Metternich (today reception hall).

 

Bundeskanzleramt (1, Ballhausplatz 2, identisch mit Löwelstraße 2-4). Anstelle eines kaiserlichen Meierhofs (der sich Im Bereich des heutigen Ballhausplatzes und der Löwelstraße erstreckte; eine Pfisterei (Bäckerei) wird schon 1347 erwähnt) wurde 1717-1719 über Auftrag Karls VI. vom kaiserlichen Hofarchitekten Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt (Baumeister Christian Alexander Oedtl) ein repräsentatives Gebäude für die damalige Geheime (Österreichische) Hofkanzlei erbaut (das im Norden an das Hofspital angrenzte). Die Grundsteinlegung erfolgte am 13. September 1717.

Hofkanzlei

Die Hofkanzlei war bis dahin in einem Trakt der Hofburg untergebracht gewesen. Sie war das Gegengewicht zu der vom Reichsvizekanzler geleiteten Reichshofkanzlei (siehe Reichskanzleitrakt der Hofburg). Sie im Rahmen der Hofkanzlei unter Sinzendorf ab 1705 aufgebaute Außenpolitische Abteilung erhielt 1719 den Namen Staatskanzlei.

Als Maria Theresia 1749 die bisherige Österreichische und Böhmische Hofkanzlei zu einer gemeinsamen, für beide Ländergruppen zuständigen Verwaltungsbehörde vereinigte, zog das neue „Direktorium" in das ehemalige Gebäude der Böhmischen Hofkanzlei (Judenplatz - Wipplingerstraße) ein, und das Haus am Ballhausplatz (diese Bezeichnung ist bereits auf dem Huber-Plan um 1770 eingetragen) wurde der Staatskanzlei (später Auswärtiges Amt) zur alleinigen Benützung zugewiesen. Staatskanzler war 1753-1792 Wenzel Anton Graf Kaunitz (ab 1764 Reichsfürst von Kaunitz-Rietberg), der besonders nach dem Tod Franz' I. (1765) auf die Regierungsgeschäfte großen Einfluss nahm (vor allem hinsichtlich seiner Gegnerschaft zu Preußen und seiner Allianz mit Frankreich).

Geheime Hofkanzlei nach Salomon Kleiner, 1733 (Ausschnitt).

Hofkanzlei mit dem zugehörigen kleinen Garten auf der Löwelbastei, darüber erkennbar das Paradeisgartel, links die Amalienburg (Ausschnitt aus dem Huber-Plan, erschienen 1773).

Die Staatskanzlei mit Umgebung 1824. Oberhalb die Löwelbastei mit dem zur Staatskanzlei gehörigen basteigarten. Die Staatskanzlei grenzte an das Minoritenkloster.

Umbau durch Pacassi

1764-1767 wurde das Gebäude im Auftrag Maria Theresias von ihrem Hofarchitekten Nikolaus Pacassi verändert und bedeutend erweitert. Die Hauptfassade (Ballhausplatz) entspricht jedoch (abgesehen vom veränderten Dach und den fehlenden Attikafiguren) noch heute dem Bau Hildebrandts. Die Erweiterung diente vor allem der Unterbringung der Kanzlei und der Einrichtung eines Archivs, in welchem Maria Theresia insbesondere die österreichischen und lothringischen Staats- und Hausurkunden sowie die ungarischen und böhmischen Staatsurkunden unterbringen ließ (Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv). Damals wurde auch das der Front gegenüberliegende, der Amalienburg vorgelagerte und noch um 1700 aufgestockte beziehungsweise ausgebaute Haus des Hieronymus Reichsfreiherrn von Scalvinioni (damals Oberinspektor der Hofgebäude) abgetragen, sodass sich der uns heute geläufige Grundriss des Ballhausplatzes ergab.

Ballhausplatz 2, ehemalige Geheime Hof- und Staatskanzlei, um 1850

Der „Ballhausplatz" erlebte in der Ära Metternich (1810-1848 Staatskanzler) große Ereignisse: den Wiener Kongress (1814/1815), den vormärzlichen Polizeistaat, aber auch die Tumulte der Revolution 1848 und die Verabschiedung Metternichs. Während seiner Amtszeit kam es zu einem Umbau des Trakts an der Löwelstraße (1821) und zu Renovierungen (1826). Die Ausstattung des Gebäudes im Inneren stammt noch heute überwiegend aus dem 19. Jahrhundert, soweit es sich um die Architektur handelt. 1881/82 wurde der Löwelstraßenflügel des Gebäudes bis zur Metastasiogasse verlängert, 1900-1903 kam es (nach dem Abbruch des Hofspitals und des Minoritenklosters) zum Bau des an das Bundeskanzleramt angrenzenden Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchivs (Pläne von Otto Hofer).

Nutzung durch die Republik

Ab November 1918 war das Gebäude Sitz der von der „Provisorischen Nationalversammlung für Deutsch-Österreich" gebildeten Regierung, die von Staatskanzler Dr. Karl Renner geleitet wurde.

Ballhausplatz 2, 1., Ballhausplatz 2 (um 1941)

Kriegsschäden am Bundeskanzleramt (1946)

Ab 1920 wurden hier die Ministerratssitzungen abgehalten, 1922 übersiedelte auch das Bundeskanzleramt aus seinem ursprünglichen Amtssitz im Palais Modena (heute Innenministerium) hierher, sodass schließlich in der Ersten Republik im Gebäude sowohl der Bundespräsident (Trakt in der Löwelstraße) als auch der Bundeskanzler und der Außenminister amtierten. Am 25. Juli 1934 wurde während des nationalsozialistischen Putschversuchs Bundeskanzler Dr. Engelbert Dollfuß im Kanzleramt erschossen.

Nach dem „Anschluss" quartierte sich im Haus eine Art von Liquidationsstelle der „österreichischen Landesregierung" ein, während Reichskommissar Gauleiter Josef Bürckel im Parlament residierte. Erst sein Nachfolger, der vorherige Reichsjugendführer und nunmehrige Gauleiter und Reichsstatthalter Baldur von Schirach, wählte das Bundeskanzleramt zu seinem Amtssitz. Am 10. September 1944 wurde das Gebäude durch Bomben beschädigt (Zerstörung des früheren Kanzlerzimmers).

Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg wurde das Bundeskanzleramt wieder Amtssitz des Bundeskanzlers und der Bundesregierung, die hier auch zu den Ministerratssitzungen zusammentritt (der Bundespräsident amtiert im Leopoldinischen Trakt der Hofburg). Das Bundeskanzleramt wurde wiederhergestellt, teilweise (wie etwa die Stuckdecke des Stiegenhauses) auch rekonstruiert. Der Wiederaufbau war am 20. Februar 1950 abgeschlossen.

Die wichtigsten Räumlichkeiten im Hauptgeschoß: Über dem Haupteingang liegt der Große Empfangssaal („Kongreßsaal"), links (Ecke Löwelstraße) der ehemalige Kleine Speisesaal (heute Grauer Ecksalon), dem in der Löwelstraße der Große Speisesaal (heute Ministerratssaal), die Bibliothek, das Arbeitszimmer Metternichs und das Audienzzimmer folgen; rechts (Ecke zum Minoritenplatz) liegt der Blaue Gesellschaftssaal (heute Marmorecksalon), daneben folgen der Grüne Empfangssaal (später Gelber Salon und Arbeitszimmer des Bundeskanzlers), der Säulensaal (heute Arbeitszimmer des Bundeskanzlers) und (wiederum an der Ecke) das Sitzungszimmer (heute Arbeitszimmer des Kabinettschefs); in Richtung Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv folgt noch das Schlafzimmer Metternichs (heute Empfangsraum).

Kapelle

Im Zuge des Pacassischen Umbaus wurde 1767 eine über zwei Geschoße reichende Kapelle errichtet. Als der überkuppelte hohe Raum 1818 durch eine Zwischendecke geteilt wurde (um ein Bibliothekszimmer zu gewinnen), verschoben sich die Proportionen. Das ursprüngliche Altarbild „Heiliger Nepomuk vor Maria" (1741) kam 1821 nach Gerasdorf (dort verschollen).

www.wien.gv.at/wiki/index.php/Bundeskanzleramt

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trafalgar_Square

 

Trafalgar Square is a square in central London, England. With its position in the heart of London, it is a tourist attraction; and one of the most famous squares in the United Kingdom and the world. At its centre is Nelson's Column, which is guarded by four lion statues at its base. Statues and sculptures are on display in the square, including a fourth plinth displaying changing pieces of contemporary art, and it is a site of political demonstrations.

The name commemorates the Battle of Trafalgar (1805), a British naval victory of the Napoleonic Wars. The original name was to have been "King William the Fourth's Square", but George Ledwell Taylor suggested the name "Trafalgar Square".

The northern area of the square had been the site of the King's Mews since the time of Edward I, while the southern end was the original Charing Cross, where the Strand from the City met Whitehall, coming north from Westminster. As the midpoint between these twin cities, Charing Cross is to this day considered the heart of London, from which all distances are measured.

In the 1820s the Prince Regent engaged the landscape architect John Nash to redevelop the area. Nash cleared the square as part of his Charing Cross Improvement Scheme. The present architecture of the square is due to Sir Charles Barry and was completed in 1845.

Trafalgar Square ranks as the fourth most popular tourist attraction on earth with more than 15 million annual visitors.

The square consists of a large central area surrounded by roadways on three sides, and stairs leading to the National Gallery on the other. The roads which cross the square form part of the A4 road, and prior to 2003, the square was surrounded by a one-way traffic system. Underpasses attached to Charing Cross tube station allow pedestrians to avoid traffic. Recent works have reduced the width of the roads and closed the northern side of the square to traffic.

Nelson's Column is in the centre of the square, surrounded by fountains designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens in 1939 (replacing two earlier fountains of Peterhead granite, now at the Wascana Centre and Confederation Park in Canada) and four huge bronze lions sculpted by Sir Edwin Landseer; the metal used is said to have been recycled from the cannon of the French fleet. The column is topped by a statue of Horatio Nelson, the admiral who commanded the British Fleet at Trafalgar.

The fountains are memorials to Lord Jellicoe (western side) and Lord Beatty (eastern side), Jellicoe being the Senior Officer.[1]

On the north side of the square is the National Gallery and to its east St Martin-in-the-Fields church. The square adjoins The Mall via Admiralty Arch to the southwest. To the south is Whitehall, to the east Strand and South Africa House, to the north Charing Cross Road and on the west side Canada House.

At the corners of the square are four plinths; the two northern ones were intended for equestrian statues, and thus are wider than the two southern. Three of them hold statues: George IV (northeast, 1840s), Henry Havelock (southeast, 1861, by William Behnes), and Sir Charles James Napier (southwest, 1855). Former Mayor of London Ken Livingstone controversially expressed a desire to see the two generals replaced with statues "ordinary Londoners would know".[2]

On the lawn in front of the National Gallery are two statues, James II to the west of the entrance portico and George Washington to the east. The latter statue, a gift from the state of Virginia, stands on soil imported from the United States. This was done in order to honour Washington's declaration he would never again set foot on British soil.[3]

In 1888 the statue of General Charles George Gordon was erected. In 1943 the statue was removed and, in 1953, re-sited on the Victoria Embankment. A bust of the Second World War First Sea Lord Admiral Cunningham by Franta Belsky was unveiled in Trafalgar Square on 2 April 1967 by Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.[4]

The square has become a social and political location for visitors and Londoners alike, developing over its history from "an esplanade peopled with figures of national heroes, into the country’s foremost place politique", as historian Rodney Mace has written. Its symbolic importance was demonstrated in 1940 when the Nazi SS developed secret plans to transfer Nelson's Column to Berlin following an expected German invasion, as related by Norman Longmate in If Britain Had Fallen (1972).

Fourth plinth

The fourth plinth on the northwest corner, designed by Sir Charles Barry and built in 1841,[5] was intended to hold an equestrian statue of William IV, but remained empty due to insufficient funds.[6] Later, agreement could not be reached over which monarch or military hero to place there.

In 1999, the Royal Society of Arts (RSA) conceived the Fourth Plinth Project, which temporarily occupied the plinth with a succession of works commissioned from three contemporary artists. These were:

•Mark Wallinger: Ecce Homo (1999) – Wallinger's Ecce Homo – the Latin title of which means "Behold the man", a reference to the words of Pontius Pilate at the trial of Jesus Christ (John 19:5) – was a life-sized figure of Christ, naked apart from a loin cloth, with his hands bound behind his back and wearing a crown of barbed wire (in allusion to the crown of thorns). Atop the huge plinth, designed for larger-than-life statuary, it looked minuscule. Some commentators said that, far from making the Man look insignificant, his apparent tininess drew the eye powerfully; they interpreted it as a commentary on human delusions of grandeur.[citation needed][7]

•Bill Woodrow: Regardless of History (2000)[8]

•Rachel Whiteread: Monument (2001) – Whiteread's Monument, by an artist already notable for her controversial Turner Prize-winning work House and the Judenplatz Holocaust Memorial in Vienna, was a cast of the plinth in transparent resin placed upside-down on top of the original.[9]

Companies have used the plinth (often without permission) as a platform for publicity stunts, including a model of David Beckham by Madame Tussauds during the 2002 FIFA World Cup.[5] The London-based American harmonica player Larry Adler jokingly suggested erecting a statue of Moby-Dick, which would then be called the "Plinth of Whales".[10] A television ident for the British TV station Channel 4 shows a CGI Channel 4 logo on top of the fourth plinth.[11]

The best use of the fourth plinth remains the subject of debate. On 24 March 2003 an appeal was launched by Wendy Woods, the widow of the anti-apartheid journalist Donald Woods, hoping to raise £400,000 to pay for a nine-foot high statue of Nelson Mandela by Ian Walters.[12] The relevance of the location is that South Africa House, the South African high commission, scene of many anti-apartheid demonstrations, is on the east side of Trafalgar Square.

A committee convened to consider the RSA's late-1990s project concluded that it had been a success and "unanimously recommended that the plinth should continue to be used for an ongoing series of temporary works of art commissioned from leading national and international artists".[13] After several years in which the plinth stood empty, the new Greater London Authority assumed responsibility for the fourth plinth and started its own series of changing exhibitions:

•Marc Quinn: Alison Lapper Pregnant (unveiled 15 September 2005) – a 3.6-metre, 13-tonne[5] marble torso-bust of Alison Lapper, an artist who was born with no arms and shortened legs due to a condition called phocomelia.[14]

•Thomas Schütte: Model for a Hotel 2007 (formerly Hotel for the Birds) (unveiled 7 November 2007) – a 5-metre by 4.5-metre by 5-metre architectural model of a 21-storey building made from coloured glass. The work cost £270,000 and was funded primarily by the Mayor of London and the Arts Council of England. Sandy Nairne, director of the National Portrait Gallery and chairman of the Fourth Plinth Commissioning Group that recommended Quinn's and Schütte's proposals to the Mayor in 2004, said: "There will be something extraordinarily sensual about the play of light through the coloured glass ... [I]t's going to feel like a sculpture of brilliance and light."[5][15]

•Antony Gormley: One & Other (6 July – 14 October 2009) – for a hundred consecutive days, 2,400 selected members of the public will each spend one hour on the plinth. They are allowed to do anything they wish to and are able to take anything with them, provided they can carry it unaided. Volunteers for the Fourth Plinth were invited to apply through the website www.oneandother.co.uk, and were chosen so that ethnic minorities and people from all parts of Britain were represented. For safety reasons, the plinth is surrounded by a net, and a team of six stewards is present 24 hours a day to make sure that, for instance, participants are not harmed by hecklers. There is a live feed of the plinth on the Internet sponsored by TV channel Sky Arts.[16][17] Gormley has said: "In the context of Trafalgar Square with its military, valedictory and male historical statues, this elevation of everyday life to the position formerly occupied by monumental art allows us to reflect on the diversity, vulnerability and particularity of the individual in contemporary society. It's about people coming together to do something extraordinary and unpredictable. It could be tragic but it could also be funny."[17]

In February 2008, Terry Smith, the chief executive of trading house Tullett Prebon, offered to pay more than £100,000 for a permanent statue acceptable to "ordinary Londoners" of Air Chief Marshal Sir Keith Rodney Park in recognition of his work as commander of No. 11 Group RAF during the Battle of Britain, as it was this Group that was responsible for the defence of London. A Greater London Authority spokesman said: "There are many worthy suggestions for statues on the fourth plinth and some people feel passionately about each of them. All proposals will be judged on their merits including its current use as one of the most high profile sites for contemporary public art in London. The cost of erecting the current work on the plinth is £270,000. The cost of a permanent monument is likely to be considerably more."[18] Subsequently, it was announced in May 2009 that in autumn that year a 5-metre high fibreglass statue of Sir Keith would be placed on the fourth plinth for six months, with a 2.78-metre bronze statue permanently installed in Waterloo Place.[19]

Fountains

When the square was first built in 1845, the fountains' primary purpose was not aesthetics, but rather to reduce the open space available and the risk of riotous assembly. They were originally fed by a steam engine behind the National Gallery from an artesian well underground. However, the engine were generally considered to be underpowered, so in the late 1930s the decision was made to replace them with stone basins and a new pump. At a cost of almost £50,000, the fountains were replaced with a design by Sir Edwin Lutyens and the old fountains were sold to donors and became gifts to Canada, eventually installed in Ottawa and Regina, where they are still in use today.[20][21] The Lutyens design is now listed Grade II.

Further restoration work became necessary and was completed by May 2009. The pump system was replaced as only one of three pumps was functioning. The new pump is capable of sending an 80-foot (24.4 m) jet of water into the air.[22] A new LED lighting system was also installed during this restoration to reduce the cost of lighting maintenance as the old incandscent bulbs cost £1,000 to replace and were failing regularly. The new lighting has been designed with the London 2012 Summer Olympics in mind and for the first time will project many different combinations of colours on to the fountains.[20] In addition, the new lighting system has a much lower energy requirement and will reduce the carbon footprint of the lighting by around 90%.[22]

Pigeons

The square used to be famous for its feral pigeons, and feeding them was a popular activity with Londoners and tourists. The National Portrait Gallery displays a 1948 photograph of Elizabeth Taylor posing there with bird seed so as to be mobbed by birds. The desirability of the birds' presence has long been contentious: their droppings look ugly on buildings and damage the stonework, and the flock, estimated at its peak to be 35,000, was considered to be a health hazard. In 1996, police arrested one man who was estimated to have trapped 1,500 birds for sale to a middleman; it is assumed that the birds ended up in the human food chain.[citation needed]

In 2000, the sale of bird seed in the square was controversially terminated and other measures were introduced to discourage the pigeons, including the use of trained falcons. Supporters of the birds – including Save the Trafalgar Square Pigeons – as well as some tourists continued to feed the birds, but in 2003 the then Mayor of London Ken Livingstone enacted byelaws to ban the feeding of pigeons within the square.[23] Due to frequent circumvention of these byelaws, on 10 September 2007 further byelaws were passed by the Westminster City Council to ban the feeding of birds on the square's pedestrianised North Terrace, the entire perimeter of the square, the area around St Martin-in-the-Fields Church, the space directly in front of the National Gallery, Canada House, South Africa House and parts of The Mall, Charing Cross Road and The Strand.[24] There are now few birds in Trafalgar Square and it is used for festivals and hired out to film companies in a way that was not feasible in the 1990s.

Redevelopment

In 2003 the redevelopment of the north side of the square was completed. The work involved permanently closing the main eastbound road there – diverting it around the rest of the square and demolishing part of the wall and building a wide set of stairs. This construction includes two Saxon scissor lifts for disabled access, public toilets, and a small café. Plans for a large staircase had long been discussed, even in original plans for the square. The new stairs lead to a large terrace or piazza in front of the National Gallery, in what was previously a road. Previously access between the square and the Gallery was via two busy crossings at the north east and north west corners of the square. The pedestrianisation plan was carried out in the face of protests from both road-users and pedestrians concerned that the diversion of traffic would lead to greater congestion elsewhere in London. However, this does not seem to have happened;[citation needed] the reduction in traffic due to the London congestion charge may be a factor.

New Year events

For many years, revellers celebrating the start of a New Year have gathered on the square, despite a lack of civic celebrations being arranged for them. The lack of official events in the square was partly because the authorities were concerned that actively encouraging more partygoers would cause overcrowding.

Since 2005, a firework display centred on London Eye and the South Bank of the Thames near the Square has given spectators a fitting start to the New Year.

VE Day celebrations

Victory in Europe Day (VE Day) was 8 May 1945, the date when the Allies during the Second World War formally celebrated the defeat of Nazi Germany and the end of Adolf Hitler's Third Reich. Trafalgar Square was filled with British subjects wanting to hear the formal announcement by Sir Winston Churchill that the war was over. Trafalgar Square was also used as a place of celebration by people travelling there from all over the country. On 8 May 2005 the BBC held a concert hosted by Eamonn Holmes and Natasha Kaplinsky to celebrate the 60th anniversary of VE Day.

Christmas ceremony

There has been a Christmas ceremony at Trafalgar Square every year since 1947. A Norway Spruce (or sometimes a fir) is given by Norway's capital Oslo and presented as London's Christmas tree, as a token of gratitude for Britain's support during World War II. (Besides the general war support, Norway's Prince Olav, as well as the country's government, lived in exile in London throughout the war.) As part of the tradition, the Lord Mayor of Westminster visits Oslo in the late autumn to take part in the felling of the tree, and the Mayor of Oslo then comes to London to light the tree at the Christmas ceremony.[25]

Political demonstrations

Since its construction, Trafalgar Square has been a venue for political demonstrations, though the authorities have often attempted to ban them. The 1939 fountains were allegedly[who?] added on their current scale to reduce the possibility of crowds gathering in the square as they were not in the original plans.

By March of the year Nelson's column opened, the authorities had started banning Chartist meetings in the square. A general ban on political rallies remained in effect until the 1880s, when the emerging Labour movement, particularly the Social Democratic Federation, began holding protests there.

On "Black Monday" (8 February 1886), protesters rallied against unemployment; this led to a riot in Pall Mall. A larger riot (called "Bloody Sunday") occurred in the square on 13 November 1887.

One of the first significant demonstrations of the modern era was held in the square on 19 September 1961 by the Committee of 100, which included the philosopher Bertrand Russell. The protesters rallied for peace and against war and nuclear weapons.

Throughout the 1980s, a continuous anti-apartheid protest was held outside South Africa House. More recently, the square has hosted the Poll Tax Riots (1990) and anti-war demonstrations opposing the Afghanistan war and the Iraq war.[26]

The square was also scene to a large vigil held shortly after the terrorist bombings in London on Thursday, 7 July 2005.[27]

Sports events

On 21 June 2002, 12,000 people gathered in the square to watch the England national football team's World Cup quarter-final against Brazil on giant video screens which had been erected specially for the occasion.[28]

In the early 21st century, Trafalgar Square has become the location to the climax for victory parades. It was used by the England national rugby union team on 9 December 2003 to celebrate its victory in the 2003 Rugby World Cup, and then on 13 September 2005 for the England national cricket team's victory against the Australia national cricket team in The Ashes.

On 6 July 2005 Trafalgar Square was a gathering place to hear the announcement that London had won the bid to host the 2012 Summer Olympics.

In 2007, Trafalgar Square hosted the opening ceremonies of the Tour de France.

Other uses

This painting (c. 1865) by an unknown artist is southwards across Trafalgar Square, with the towers of the Houses of Parliament on the skyline

Trafalgar Square is popularly used in films to suggest a generic London location (as an alternative to Big Ben) or less frequently, Britain in general. It featured prominently in films and television during the Swinging London era of the late 1960s, including The Avengers, Casino Royale, Doctor Who, The Ipcress File and Man in a Suitcase.

Trafalgar Square was used for portions of two sketches from the BBC comedy series Monty Python's Flying Circus. In a continuation of the sketch Collecting Birdwatchers' Eggs, several people in tan trenchcoats wander around the square mocking the famous pigeons. The sketch Olympic Hide and Seek also starts here. This sketch features Graham Chapman as British contestant Don Roberts and Terry Jones as Francisco Huron, his competitor from Paraguay in a contest that ends in a tie after more than 11 years. Chapman catches a taxi near the base of Lord Nelson's Column at the beginning of the sketch. Trafalgar Square also appears in cartoon form in several of Terry Gilliam's animations.

Trafalgar Square is also featured in the comic version of V for Vendetta as the location that the V's meet the army and defeat them, without a single fired shot due to sheer numbers (and the work of the Original V).

The square was also the location of the successful "World's Largest Coconut Orchestra" world record attempt on 23 April 2007. The record was set on St George's Day, and was followed by a screening of Monty Python and the Holy Grail. The world record attempt was linked with the use of coconuts during the film as well as the stage show Spamalot.

In May 2007, the square was grassed over with 2,000 square metres of turf for two days as part of a campaign by London authorities to promote "green spaces" in the city.[29]

In July 2007, the square held a parade and concert for the 60th independence of Pakistan from Great Britain. The event included many legendary sports and celebrity performances and many exhibitions of Pakistan's heritage and culture. It was recorded to be the biggest gathering of expat Pakistanis in the whole of Europe. It was televised live with Geo TV, a private Pakistani television and the High Commission of Pakistan.

Every year on the anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar (21 October), the Sea Cadet Corps holds a parade in honour of Admiral Lord Nelson and the British victory over the combined fleets of Spain and France at Trafalgar. The Areas of the Sea Cadet Corps are represented by seven 24-cadet platoons, made up of 12 male and 12 female cadets. They represent the Eastern Area, London Area, Southern Area, Southwest Area, Northwest Area, Northern Area and Marine Cadets. The National Sea Cadet Band also parades, as does a Guard and Colour Party.

On 30 April 2009, an estimated 13,500 people visited the square between 6:00 and 7:00 pm to a mass sing-a-long, organised by telephone company T-Mobile, to co-opt individuals as part of a commercial advertisement.

  

The "Nameless Library" in Judenplatz, Vienna.

Der Judenplatz ist ein Platz in der Wiener Innenstadt, der im Mittelalter das Zentrum der jüdischen Gemeinde Wiens war.

 

Jewish Square is a town square in Vienna's Innere Stadt that was the center of Jewish life and the Viennese Jewish Community in the Middle Ages.

Judenplatz Holocaust Memorial designed by Rachel Whiteread is a reinforced concrete cube resembling a library with its volumes turned inside out

 

Judenplatz, Vienna, Austria

The memorial to the Austrian Jews lost in the Holocaust was designed by British sulptress Rachael Whiteread, commissioned in Jan of 1996. After much controversy it opened late in 2000.

Detail of the books.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Trafalgar_Square

 

Trafalgar Square is a square in central London, England. With its position in the heart of London, it is a tourist attraction; and one of the most famous squares in the United Kingdom and the world. At its centre is Nelson's Column, which is guarded by four lion statues at its base. Statues and sculptures are on display in the square, including a fourth plinth displaying changing pieces of contemporary art, and it is a site of political demonstrations.

The name commemorates the Battle of Trafalgar (1805), a British naval victory of the Napoleonic Wars. The original name was to have been "King William the Fourth's Square", but George Ledwell Taylor suggested the name "Trafalgar Square".

The northern area of the square had been the site of the King's Mews since the time of Edward I, while the southern end was the original Charing Cross, where the Strand from the City met Whitehall, coming north from Westminster. As the midpoint between these twin cities, Charing Cross is to this day considered the heart of London, from which all distances are measured.

In the 1820s the Prince Regent engaged the landscape architect John Nash to redevelop the area. Nash cleared the square as part of his Charing Cross Improvement Scheme. The present architecture of the square is due to Sir Charles Barry and was completed in 1845.

Trafalgar Square ranks as the fourth most popular tourist attraction on earth with more than 15 million annual visitors.

The square consists of a large central area surrounded by roadways on three sides, and stairs leading to the National Gallery on the other. The roads which cross the square form part of the A4 road, and prior to 2003, the square was surrounded by a one-way traffic system. Underpasses attached to Charing Cross tube station allow pedestrians to avoid traffic. Recent works have reduced the width of the roads and closed the northern side of the square to traffic.

Nelson's Column is in the centre of the square, surrounded by fountains designed by Sir Edwin Lutyens in 1939 (replacing two earlier fountains of Peterhead granite, now at the Wascana Centre and Confederation Park in Canada) and four huge bronze lions sculpted by Sir Edwin Landseer; the metal used is said to have been recycled from the cannon of the French fleet. The column is topped by a statue of Horatio Nelson, the admiral who commanded the British Fleet at Trafalgar.

The fountains are memorials to Lord Jellicoe (western side) and Lord Beatty (eastern side), Jellicoe being the Senior Officer.[1]

On the north side of the square is the National Gallery and to its east St Martin-in-the-Fields church. The square adjoins The Mall via Admiralty Arch to the southwest. To the south is Whitehall, to the east Strand and South Africa House, to the north Charing Cross Road and on the west side Canada House.

At the corners of the square are four plinths; the two northern ones were intended for equestrian statues, and thus are wider than the two southern. Three of them hold statues: George IV (northeast, 1840s), Henry Havelock (southeast, 1861, by William Behnes), and Sir Charles James Napier (southwest, 1855). Former Mayor of London Ken Livingstone controversially expressed a desire to see the two generals replaced with statues "ordinary Londoners would know".[2]

On the lawn in front of the National Gallery are two statues, James II to the west of the entrance portico and George Washington to the east. The latter statue, a gift from the state of Virginia, stands on soil imported from the United States. This was done in order to honour Washington's declaration he would never again set foot on British soil.[3]

In 1888 the statue of General Charles George Gordon was erected. In 1943 the statue was removed and, in 1953, re-sited on the Victoria Embankment. A bust of the Second World War First Sea Lord Admiral Cunningham by Franta Belsky was unveiled in Trafalgar Square on 2 April 1967 by Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh.[4]

The square has become a social and political location for visitors and Londoners alike, developing over its history from "an esplanade peopled with figures of national heroes, into the country’s foremost place politique", as historian Rodney Mace has written. Its symbolic importance was demonstrated in 1940 when the Nazi SS developed secret plans to transfer Nelson's Column to Berlin following an expected German invasion, as related by Norman Longmate in If Britain Had Fallen (1972).

Fourth plinth

The fourth plinth on the northwest corner, designed by Sir Charles Barry and built in 1841,[5] was intended to hold an equestrian statue of William IV, but remained empty due to insufficient funds.[6] Later, agreement could not be reached over which monarch or military hero to place there.

In 1999, the Royal Society of Arts (RSA) conceived the Fourth Plinth Project, which temporarily occupied the plinth with a succession of works commissioned from three contemporary artists. These were:

•Mark Wallinger: Ecce Homo (1999) – Wallinger's Ecce Homo – the Latin title of which means "Behold the man", a reference to the words of Pontius Pilate at the trial of Jesus Christ (John 19:5) – was a life-sized figure of Christ, naked apart from a loin cloth, with his hands bound behind his back and wearing a crown of barbed wire (in allusion to the crown of thorns). Atop the huge plinth, designed for larger-than-life statuary, it looked minuscule. Some commentators said that, far from making the Man look insignificant, his apparent tininess drew the eye powerfully; they interpreted it as a commentary on human delusions of grandeur.[citation needed][7]

•Bill Woodrow: Regardless of History (2000)[8]

•Rachel Whiteread: Monument (2001) – Whiteread's Monument, by an artist already notable for her controversial Turner Prize-winning work House and the Judenplatz Holocaust Memorial in Vienna, was a cast of the plinth in transparent resin placed upside-down on top of the original.[9]

Companies have used the plinth (often without permission) as a platform for publicity stunts, including a model of David Beckham by Madame Tussauds during the 2002 FIFA World Cup.[5] The London-based American harmonica player Larry Adler jokingly suggested erecting a statue of Moby-Dick, which would then be called the "Plinth of Whales".[10] A television ident for the British TV station Channel 4 shows a CGI Channel 4 logo on top of the fourth plinth.[11]

The best use of the fourth plinth remains the subject of debate. On 24 March 2003 an appeal was launched by Wendy Woods, the widow of the anti-apartheid journalist Donald Woods, hoping to raise £400,000 to pay for a nine-foot high statue of Nelson Mandela by Ian Walters.[12] The relevance of the location is that South Africa House, the South African high commission, scene of many anti-apartheid demonstrations, is on the east side of Trafalgar Square.

A committee convened to consider the RSA's late-1990s project concluded that it had been a success and "unanimously recommended that the plinth should continue to be used for an ongoing series of temporary works of art commissioned from leading national and international artists".[13] After several years in which the plinth stood empty, the new Greater London Authority assumed responsibility for the fourth plinth and started its own series of changing exhibitions:

•Marc Quinn: Alison Lapper Pregnant (unveiled 15 September 2005) – a 3.6-metre, 13-tonne[5] marble torso-bust of Alison Lapper, an artist who was born with no arms and shortened legs due to a condition called phocomelia.[14]

•Thomas Schütte: Model for a Hotel 2007 (formerly Hotel for the Birds) (unveiled 7 November 2007) – a 5-metre by 4.5-metre by 5-metre architectural model of a 21-storey building made from coloured glass. The work cost £270,000 and was funded primarily by the Mayor of London and the Arts Council of England. Sandy Nairne, director of the National Portrait Gallery and chairman of the Fourth Plinth Commissioning Group that recommended Quinn's and Schütte's proposals to the Mayor in 2004, said: "There will be something extraordinarily sensual about the play of light through the coloured glass ... [I]t's going to feel like a sculpture of brilliance and light."[5][15]

•Antony Gormley: One & Other (6 July – 14 October 2009) – for a hundred consecutive days, 2,400 selected members of the public will each spend one hour on the plinth. They are allowed to do anything they wish to and are able to take anything with them, provided they can carry it unaided. Volunteers for the Fourth Plinth were invited to apply through the website www.oneandother.co.uk, and were chosen so that ethnic minorities and people from all parts of Britain were represented. For safety reasons, the plinth is surrounded by a net, and a team of six stewards is present 24 hours a day to make sure that, for instance, participants are not harmed by hecklers. There is a live feed of the plinth on the Internet sponsored by TV channel Sky Arts.[16][17] Gormley has said: "In the context of Trafalgar Square with its military, valedictory and male historical statues, this elevation of everyday life to the position formerly occupied by monumental art allows us to reflect on the diversity, vulnerability and particularity of the individual in contemporary society. It's about people coming together to do something extraordinary and unpredictable. It could be tragic but it could also be funny."[17]

In February 2008, Terry Smith, the chief executive of trading house Tullett Prebon, offered to pay more than £100,000 for a permanent statue acceptable to "ordinary Londoners" of Air Chief Marshal Sir Keith Rodney Park in recognition of his work as commander of No. 11 Group RAF during the Battle of Britain, as it was this Group that was responsible for the defence of London. A Greater London Authority spokesman said: "There are many worthy suggestions for statues on the fourth plinth and some people feel passionately about each of them. All proposals will be judged on their merits including its current use as one of the most high profile sites for contemporary public art in London. The cost of erecting the current work on the plinth is £270,000. The cost of a permanent monument is likely to be considerably more."[18] Subsequently, it was announced in May 2009 that in autumn that year a 5-metre high fibreglass statue of Sir Keith would be placed on the fourth plinth for six months, with a 2.78-metre bronze statue permanently installed in Waterloo Place.[19]

Fountains

When the square was first built in 1845, the fountains' primary purpose was not aesthetics, but rather to reduce the open space available and the risk of riotous assembly. They were originally fed by a steam engine behind the National Gallery from an artesian well underground. However, the engine were generally considered to be underpowered, so in the late 1930s the decision was made to replace them with stone basins and a new pump. At a cost of almost £50,000, the fountains were replaced with a design by Sir Edwin Lutyens and the old fountains were sold to donors and became gifts to Canada, eventually installed in Ottawa and Regina, where they are still in use today.[20][21] The Lutyens design is now listed Grade II.

Further restoration work became necessary and was completed by May 2009. The pump system was replaced as only one of three pumps was functioning. The new pump is capable of sending an 80-foot (24.4 m) jet of water into the air.[22] A new LED lighting system was also installed during this restoration to reduce the cost of lighting maintenance as the old incandscent bulbs cost £1,000 to replace and were failing regularly. The new lighting has been designed with the London 2012 Summer Olympics in mind and for the first time will project many different combinations of colours on to the fountains.[20] In addition, the new lighting system has a much lower energy requirement and will reduce the carbon footprint of the lighting by around 90%.[22]

Pigeons

The square used to be famous for its feral pigeons, and feeding them was a popular activity with Londoners and tourists. The National Portrait Gallery displays a 1948 photograph of Elizabeth Taylor posing there with bird seed so as to be mobbed by birds. The desirability of the birds' presence has long been contentious: their droppings look ugly on buildings and damage the stonework, and the flock, estimated at its peak to be 35,000, was considered to be a health hazard. In 1996, police arrested one man who was estimated to have trapped 1,500 birds for sale to a middleman; it is assumed that the birds ended up in the human food chain.[citation needed]

In 2000, the sale of bird seed in the square was controversially terminated and other measures were introduced to discourage the pigeons, including the use of trained falcons. Supporters of the birds – including Save the Trafalgar Square Pigeons – as well as some tourists continued to feed the birds, but in 2003 the then Mayor of London Ken Livingstone enacted byelaws to ban the feeding of pigeons within the square.[23] Due to frequent circumvention of these byelaws, on 10 September 2007 further byelaws were passed by the Westminster City Council to ban the feeding of birds on the square's pedestrianised North Terrace, the entire perimeter of the square, the area around St Martin-in-the-Fields Church, the space directly in front of the National Gallery, Canada House, South Africa House and parts of The Mall, Charing Cross Road and The Strand.[24] There are now few birds in Trafalgar Square and it is used for festivals and hired out to film companies in a way that was not feasible in the 1990s.

Redevelopment

In 2003 the redevelopment of the north side of the square was completed. The work involved permanently closing the main eastbound road there – diverting it around the rest of the square and demolishing part of the wall and building a wide set of stairs. This construction includes two Saxon scissor lifts for disabled access, public toilets, and a small café. Plans for a large staircase had long been discussed, even in original plans for the square. The new stairs lead to a large terrace or piazza in front of the National Gallery, in what was previously a road. Previously access between the square and the Gallery was via two busy crossings at the north east and north west corners of the square. The pedestrianisation plan was carried out in the face of protests from both road-users and pedestrians concerned that the diversion of traffic would lead to greater congestion elsewhere in London. However, this does not seem to have happened;[citation needed] the reduction in traffic due to the London congestion charge may be a factor.

New Year events

For many years, revellers celebrating the start of a New Year have gathered on the square, despite a lack of civic celebrations being arranged for them. The lack of official events in the square was partly because the authorities were concerned that actively encouraging more partygoers would cause overcrowding.

Since 2005, a firework display centred on London Eye and the South Bank of the Thames near the Square has given spectators a fitting start to the New Year.

VE Day celebrations

Victory in Europe Day (VE Day) was 8 May 1945, the date when the Allies during the Second World War formally celebrated the defeat of Nazi Germany and the end of Adolf Hitler's Third Reich. Trafalgar Square was filled with British subjects wanting to hear the formal announcement by Sir Winston Churchill that the war was over. Trafalgar Square was also used as a place of celebration by people travelling there from all over the country. On 8 May 2005 the BBC held a concert hosted by Eamonn Holmes and Natasha Kaplinsky to celebrate the 60th anniversary of VE Day.

Christmas ceremony

There has been a Christmas ceremony at Trafalgar Square every year since 1947. A Norway Spruce (or sometimes a fir) is given by Norway's capital Oslo and presented as London's Christmas tree, as a token of gratitude for Britain's support during World War II. (Besides the general war support, Norway's Prince Olav, as well as the country's government, lived in exile in London throughout the war.) As part of the tradition, the Lord Mayor of Westminster visits Oslo in the late autumn to take part in the felling of the tree, and the Mayor of Oslo then comes to London to light the tree at the Christmas ceremony.[25]

Political demonstrations

Since its construction, Trafalgar Square has been a venue for political demonstrations, though the authorities have often attempted to ban them. The 1939 fountains were allegedly[who?] added on their current scale to reduce the possibility of crowds gathering in the square as they were not in the original plans.

By March of the year Nelson's column opened, the authorities had started banning Chartist meetings in the square. A general ban on political rallies remained in effect until the 1880s, when the emerging Labour movement, particularly the Social Democratic Federation, began holding protests there.

On "Black Monday" (8 February 1886), protesters rallied against unemployment; this led to a riot in Pall Mall. A larger riot (called "Bloody Sunday") occurred in the square on 13 November 1887.

One of the first significant demonstrations of the modern era was held in the square on 19 September 1961 by the Committee of 100, which included the philosopher Bertrand Russell. The protesters rallied for peace and against war and nuclear weapons.

Throughout the 1980s, a continuous anti-apartheid protest was held outside South Africa House. More recently, the square has hosted the Poll Tax Riots (1990) and anti-war demonstrations opposing the Afghanistan war and the Iraq war.[26]

The square was also scene to a large vigil held shortly after the terrorist bombings in London on Thursday, 7 July 2005.[27]

Sports events

On 21 June 2002, 12,000 people gathered in the square to watch the England national football team's World Cup quarter-final against Brazil on giant video screens which had been erected specially for the occasion.[28]

In the early 21st century, Trafalgar Square has become the location to the climax for victory parades. It was used by the England national rugby union team on 9 December 2003 to celebrate its victory in the 2003 Rugby World Cup, and then on 13 September 2005 for the England national cricket team's victory against the Australia national cricket team in The Ashes.

On 6 July 2005 Trafalgar Square was a gathering place to hear the announcement that London had won the bid to host the 2012 Summer Olympics.

In 2007, Trafalgar Square hosted the opening ceremonies of the Tour de France.

Other uses

This painting (c. 1865) by an unknown artist is southwards across Trafalgar Square, with the towers of the Houses of Parliament on the skyline

Trafalgar Square is popularly used in films to suggest a generic London location (as an alternative to Big Ben) or less frequently, Britain in general. It featured prominently in films and television during the Swinging London era of the late 1960s, including The Avengers, Casino Royale, Doctor Who, The Ipcress File and Man in a Suitcase.

Trafalgar Square was used for portions of two sketches from the BBC comedy series Monty Python's Flying Circus. In a continuation of the sketch Collecting Birdwatchers' Eggs, several people in tan trenchcoats wander around the square mocking the famous pigeons. The sketch Olympic Hide and Seek also starts here. This sketch features Graham Chapman as British contestant Don Roberts and Terry Jones as Francisco Huron, his competitor from Paraguay in a contest that ends in a tie after more than 11 years. Chapman catches a taxi near the base of Lord Nelson's Column at the beginning of the sketch. Trafalgar Square also appears in cartoon form in several of Terry Gilliam's animations.

Trafalgar Square is also featured in the comic version of V for Vendetta as the location that the V's meet the army and defeat them, without a single fired shot due to sheer numbers (and the work of the Original V).

The square was also the location of the successful "World's Largest Coconut Orchestra" world record attempt on 23 April 2007. The record was set on St George's Day, and was followed by a screening of Monty Python and the Holy Grail. The world record attempt was linked with the use of coconuts during the film as well as the stage show Spamalot.

In May 2007, the square was grassed over with 2,000 square metres of turf for two days as part of a campaign by London authorities to promote "green spaces" in the city.[29]

In July 2007, the square held a parade and concert for the 60th independence of Pakistan from Great Britain. The event included many legendary sports and celebrity performances and many exhibitions of Pakistan's heritage and culture. It was recorded to be the biggest gathering of expat Pakistanis in the whole of Europe. It was televised live with Geo TV, a private Pakistani television and the High Commission of Pakistan.

Every year on the anniversary of the Battle of Trafalgar (21 October), the Sea Cadet Corps holds a parade in honour of Admiral Lord Nelson and the British victory over the combined fleets of Spain and France at Trafalgar. The Areas of the Sea Cadet Corps are represented by seven 24-cadet platoons, made up of 12 male and 12 female cadets. They represent the Eastern Area, London Area, Southern Area, Southwest Area, Northwest Area, Northern Area and Marine Cadets. The National Sea Cadet Band also parades, as does a Guard and Colour Party.

On 30 April 2009, an estimated 13,500 people visited the square between 6:00 and 7:00 pm to a mass sing-a-long, organised by telephone company T-Mobile, to co-opt individuals as part of a commercial advertisement.

  

the enitre structure is supposed to be books

Federal Chancellery (1, Ballhaus square 2, identical to Löwel street 2-4). Instead of an Imperial Meierhof (which stretched in the area of ​​today's Ballhaus square and Löwel street, a Pfisterei (bakery) is mentioned already 1347) was 1717-1719 on order of Charles VI built by the imperial court architect Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt (architect Christian Alexander Oedtl) a representative building for the Secret/Effective (Austrian) Court Chancery at that time (bordering the Court Hospital in the north). The foundation stone was laid on 13 September 1717.

Court Chancery

The Court Chancery had until then been lodged in a tract of the Hofburg. It was the counterweight to the Imperial Chancery, led by the Imperial Chancellor (see Imperial Chancellery of the Hofburg). The foreign policy department, established from 1705 under the auspices of the Hofkanzlei under Sinzendorf (Philipp Ludwig Wenzel Sinzendorf (26 December 1671 – 8 February 1742) was an Austrian diplomat and statesman who for nearly four decades served as Court Chancellor responsible of foreign affairs of the Habsburg Monarchy), received the name Staatskanzlei in 1719.

When Maria Theresia united the former Austrian and Bohemian Court Chancellery in 1749 into a joint administrative authority responsible for both groups of countries, the new "Directorate" moved into the former building of the Bohemian Court Chancery (Jewish Square - Wippling street), this designation is already listed around 1770 on the Huber plan), the house on Ballhaus square was assigned to the Staatskanzlei (later German Federal Foreign Office) for the sole use. State Chancellor was 1753-1792 Wenzel Anton Count Kaunitz (starting from 1764 Reichsfürst/Princes of the Holy Roman Empire von Kaunitz-Rietberg), especially after the death Franz' I (1765) this one had a great influence on the government business (especially with regard to his opposition to Prussia and his alliance with France).

Secret Court Chancery according to Salomon Kleiner, 1733 (detail) (pictures are clickable by activating the link at the end of page!).

Hofkanzlei with its small garden on Löwel Bastion, above it the Paradeisgartel (Tomato garden), on the left the Amalienburg (detail from the Huber-Plan, published 1773).

The Staatskanzlei with the surroundings 1824. Above the Löwel Bation with the bastion garden belonging to the Staatskanzlei. The state chancery bordered the Minorite Monastery.

Conversion by Pacassi

From 1764 to 1767, the building on order of Maria Theresa was modified and extended by her Court Architect Nikolaus Pacassi. The main facade (Ballhausplatz) (however, apart from the altered roof and the missing attic statues) still corresponds to the construction of Hildebrandt. The extension served mainly the accommodation of the office and the establishment of an archive in which Maria Theresia, in particular, housed the Austrian and Lorraine state and house documents as well as the Hungarian and Bohemian state certificates (house, court and state archive). At that time the house of Hiernonymus Reichsfreiherr/Imperial Baron of Scalvinioni (at that time the supervisor of the court buildings) opposite the front, placed in front of Amalienburg, erected and expanded yet 1700, was also abolished, thus giving us the present floor plan of the Ballhausplatz.

Ballhausplatz 2, former Secret Court and State Chancery, c. 1850

The "Ballhausplatz" in the era of Metternich experienced great events (1810-1848 State Chancellor): the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815), the Police State before 1848, but also the tumults of the revolution of 1848 and the passing of Metternich. During his term of office happened the reconstruction of the wing at Löwel street (1821) and renovations (1826) The interior of the building is still predominantly from the 19th century as far as architecture is concerned. 1881-1882, the Löwel street wing was extended to Metastasio alley, 1900-1903 (after the demolition of the Court Hospital and the Minorite Monastery) it came to the construction of the House, Court and State Archives (plans of Otto Hofer), adjoining the Federal Chancellery.

Use by the Republic

From November 1918, the building was the seat of the government formed by the "Provisional National Assembly for German-Austria", led by Chancellor Dr. Karl Renner.

Ballhausplatz 2, 1., Ballhausplatz 2 (c. 1941)

War Damages on the Federal Chancellery (1946)

From 1920, the ministerial council meetings were held here. In 1922, the Federal Chancellery also moved from its original seat in Palais Modena (now the Ministry of the Interior), so that both the Federal President (Wing in Löwel street) and the Federal Chancellor and the Foreign Minister in this building officiated. On July 25, 1934 during the National Socialist coup attempt, Federal Chancellor Dr. Engelbert Dollfuss in the Chancellor's Office was murdered.

After the "Anschluss" a kind of liquidation office of the "Austrian provincial government" was quartered in the house, while Reichskommissar/Reich Commissioner Gauleiter/district leader Josef Bürckel resided in the parliament. It was not until his successor, the former Reichsjugendführer (highest paramilitary rank of the Hitler Youth), and now the Gauleiter and Reichsstatthalter/Reich Lieutenant Baldur von Schirach, as the Federal Chancellery was chosen as his office. On September 10, 1944, the building was damaged by bombs (destruction of the former Chancellor's room).

After the Second World War, the Federal Chancellery was once again the seat of the Federal Chancellor and the Federal Government, which also meet here for the ministerial council meetings (the Federal President is in the Leopoldine tract of the Hofburg). The Federal Chancellery has been restored and partially reconstructed (such as the stucco ceiling of the stairwell). The reconstruction was completed on 20 February 1950.

The most important rooms on the main floor: the large reception hall ("Congress Hall") is located above the main entrance, on the left (corner Löwel street), the former small dining room (today the Gray Corner Hall). Afterwards follow the great dining room (today Council of Ministers hall) in Löwel street, the library, the study of Metternich and the audience room. On your right (corner towards Minorite square) lies the Blue Conference Hall (today Marble Corner Room), alongside follow the Green Reception Hall (later Yellow Salon and Study of the Chancellor), the Column Hall (today the working room of the Chancellor) and (again on the corner) the meeting room (today study of the Head of Cabinet, in the direction of the House, Court and State Archives still follow the sleeping room of Metternich (today reception hall).

 

Bundeskanzleramt (1, Ballhausplatz 2, identisch mit Löwelstraße 2-4). Anstelle eines kaiserlichen Meierhofs (der sich Im Bereich des heutigen Ballhausplatzes und der Löwelstraße erstreckte; eine Pfisterei (Bäckerei) wird schon 1347 erwähnt) wurde 1717-1719 über Auftrag Karls VI. vom kaiserlichen Hofarchitekten Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt (Baumeister Christian Alexander Oedtl) ein repräsentatives Gebäude für die damalige Geheime (Österreichische) Hofkanzlei erbaut (das im Norden an das Hofspital angrenzte). Die Grundsteinlegung erfolgte am 13. September 1717.

Hofkanzlei

Die Hofkanzlei war bis dahin in einem Trakt der Hofburg untergebracht gewesen. Sie war das Gegengewicht zu der vom Reichsvizekanzler geleiteten Reichshofkanzlei (siehe Reichskanzleitrakt der Hofburg). Sie im Rahmen der Hofkanzlei unter Sinzendorf ab 1705 aufgebaute Außenpolitische Abteilung erhielt 1719 den Namen Staatskanzlei.

Als Maria Theresia 1749 die bisherige Österreichische und Böhmische Hofkanzlei zu einer gemeinsamen, für beide Ländergruppen zuständigen Verwaltungsbehörde vereinigte, zog das neue „Direktorium" in das ehemalige Gebäude der Böhmischen Hofkanzlei (Judenplatz - Wipplingerstraße) ein, und das Haus am Ballhausplatz (diese Bezeichnung ist bereits auf dem Huber-Plan um 1770 eingetragen) wurde der Staatskanzlei (später Auswärtiges Amt) zur alleinigen Benützung zugewiesen. Staatskanzler war 1753-1792 Wenzel Anton Graf Kaunitz (ab 1764 Reichsfürst von Kaunitz-Rietberg), der besonders nach dem Tod Franz' I. (1765) auf die Regierungsgeschäfte großen Einfluss nahm (vor allem hinsichtlich seiner Gegnerschaft zu Preußen und seiner Allianz mit Frankreich).

Geheime Hofkanzlei nach Salomon Kleiner, 1733 (Ausschnitt).

Hofkanzlei mit dem zugehörigen kleinen Garten auf der Löwelbastei, darüber erkennbar das Paradeisgartel, links die Amalienburg (Ausschnitt aus dem Huber-Plan, erschienen 1773).

Die Staatskanzlei mit Umgebung 1824. Oberhalb die Löwelbastei mit dem zur Staatskanzlei gehörigen basteigarten. Die Staatskanzlei grenzte an das Minoritenkloster.

Umbau durch Pacassi

1764-1767 wurde das Gebäude im Auftrag Maria Theresias von ihrem Hofarchitekten Nikolaus Pacassi verändert und bedeutend erweitert. Die Hauptfassade (Ballhausplatz) entspricht jedoch (abgesehen vom veränderten Dach und den fehlenden Attikafiguren) noch heute dem Bau Hildebrandts. Die Erweiterung diente vor allem der Unterbringung der Kanzlei und der Einrichtung eines Archivs, in welchem Maria Theresia insbesondere die österreichischen und lothringischen Staats- und Hausurkunden sowie die ungarischen und böhmischen Staatsurkunden unterbringen ließ (Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv). Damals wurde auch das der Front gegenüberliegende, der Amalienburg vorgelagerte und noch um 1700 aufgestockte beziehungsweise ausgebaute Haus des Hieronymus Reichsfreiherrn von Scalvinioni (damals Oberinspektor der Hofgebäude) abgetragen, sodass sich der uns heute geläufige Grundriss des Ballhausplatzes ergab.

Ballhausplatz 2, ehemalige Geheime Hof- und Staatskanzlei, um 1850

Der „Ballhausplatz" erlebte in der Ära Metternich (1810-1848 Staatskanzler) große Ereignisse: den Wiener Kongress (1814/1815), den vormärzlichen Polizeistaat, aber auch die Tumulte der Revolution 1848 und die Verabschiedung Metternichs. Während seiner Amtszeit kam es zu einem Umbau des Trakts an der Löwelstraße (1821) und zu Renovierungen (1826). Die Ausstattung des Gebäudes im Inneren stammt noch heute überwiegend aus dem 19. Jahrhundert, soweit es sich um die Architektur handelt. 1881/82 wurde der Löwelstraßenflügel des Gebäudes bis zur Metastasiogasse verlängert, 1900-1903 kam es (nach dem Abbruch des Hofspitals und des Minoritenklosters) zum Bau des an das Bundeskanzleramt angrenzenden Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchivs (Pläne von Otto Hofer).

Nutzung durch die Republik

Ab November 1918 war das Gebäude Sitz der von der „Provisorischen Nationalversammlung für Deutsch-Österreich" gebildeten Regierung, die von Staatskanzler Dr. Karl Renner geleitet wurde.

Ballhausplatz 2, 1., Ballhausplatz 2 (um 1941)

Kriegsschäden am Bundeskanzleramt (1946)

Ab 1920 wurden hier die Ministerratssitzungen abgehalten, 1922 übersiedelte auch das Bundeskanzleramt aus seinem ursprünglichen Amtssitz im Palais Modena (heute Innenministerium) hierher, sodass schließlich in der Ersten Republik im Gebäude sowohl der Bundespräsident (Trakt in der Löwelstraße) als auch der Bundeskanzler und der Außenminister amtierten. Am 25. Juli 1934 wurde während des nationalsozialistischen Putschversuchs Bundeskanzler Dr. Engelbert Dollfuß im Kanzleramt erschossen.

Nach dem „Anschluss" quartierte sich im Haus eine Art von Liquidationsstelle der „österreichischen Landesregierung" ein, während Reichskommissar Gauleiter Josef Bürckel im Parlament residierte. Erst sein Nachfolger, der vorherige Reichsjugendführer und nunmehrige Gauleiter und Reichsstatthalter Baldur von Schirach, wählte das Bundeskanzleramt zu seinem Amtssitz. Am 10. September 1944 wurde das Gebäude durch Bomben beschädigt (Zerstörung des früheren Kanzlerzimmers).

Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg wurde das Bundeskanzleramt wieder Amtssitz des Bundeskanzlers und der Bundesregierung, die hier auch zu den Ministerratssitzungen zusammentritt (der Bundespräsident amtiert im Leopoldinischen Trakt der Hofburg). Das Bundeskanzleramt wurde wiederhergestellt, teilweise (wie etwa die Stuckdecke des Stiegenhauses) auch rekonstruiert. Der Wiederaufbau war am 20. Februar 1950 abgeschlossen.

Die wichtigsten Räumlichkeiten im Hauptgeschoß: Über dem Haupteingang liegt der Große Empfangssaal („Kongreßsaal"), links (Ecke Löwelstraße) der ehemalige Kleine Speisesaal (heute Grauer Ecksalon), dem in der Löwelstraße der Große Speisesaal (heute Ministerratssaal), die Bibliothek, das Arbeitszimmer Metternichs und das Audienzzimmer folgen; rechts (Ecke zum Minoritenplatz) liegt der Blaue Gesellschaftssaal (heute Marmorecksalon), daneben folgen der Grüne Empfangssaal (später Gelber Salon und Arbeitszimmer des Bundeskanzlers), der Säulensaal (heute Arbeitszimmer des Bundeskanzlers) und (wiederum an der Ecke) das Sitzungszimmer (heute Arbeitszimmer des Kabinettschefs); in Richtung Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv folgt noch das Schlafzimmer Metternichs (heute Empfangsraum).

Kapelle

Im Zuge des Pacassischen Umbaus wurde 1767 eine über zwei Geschoße reichende Kapelle errichtet. Als der überkuppelte hohe Raum 1818 durch eine Zwischendecke geteilt wurde (um ein Bibliothekszimmer zu gewinnen), verschoben sich die Proportionen. Das ursprüngliche Altarbild „Heiliger Nepomuk vor Maria" (1741) kam 1821 nach Gerasdorf (dort verschollen).

www.wien.gv.at/wiki/index.php/Bundeskanzleramt

many thanks for all your visits, favs and comments

6. Juni 2017, Eröffnung der Ausstellung "Bunker! Architektur des Überlebens"

Kids don’t remember days; they remember moments.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=dWP68_5VFts

Federal Chancellery (1, Ballhaus square 2, identical to Löwel street 2-4). Instead of an Imperial Meierhof (which stretched in the area of ​​today's Ballhaus square and Löwel street, a Pfisterei (bakery) is mentioned already 1347) was 1717-1719 on order of Charles VI built by the imperial court architect Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt (architect Christian Alexander Oedtl) a representative building for the Secret/Effective (Austrian) Court Chancery at that time (bordering the Court Hospital in the north). The foundation stone was laid on 13 September 1717.

Court Chancery

The Court Chancery had until then been lodged in a tract of the Hofburg. It was the counterweight to the Imperial Chancery, led by the Imperial Chancellor (see Imperial Chancellery of the Hofburg). The foreign policy department, established from 1705 under the auspices of the Hofkanzlei under Sinzendorf (Philipp Ludwig Wenzel Sinzendorf (26 December 1671 – 8 February 1742) was an Austrian diplomat and statesman who for nearly four decades served as Court Chancellor responsible of foreign affairs of the Habsburg Monarchy), received the name Staatskanzlei in 1719.

When Maria Theresia united the former Austrian and Bohemian Court Chancellery in 1749 into a joint administrative authority responsible for both groups of countries, the new "Directorate" moved into the former building of the Bohemian Court Chancery (Jewish Square - Wippling street), this designation is already listed around 1770 on the Huber plan), the house on Ballhaus square was assigned to the Staatskanzlei (later German Federal Foreign Office) for the sole use. State Chancellor was 1753-1792 Wenzel Anton Count Kaunitz (starting from 1764 Reichsfürst/Princes of the Holy Roman Empire von Kaunitz-Rietberg), especially after the death Franz' I (1765) this one had a great influence on the government business (especially with regard to his opposition to Prussia and his alliance with France).

Secret Court Chancery according to Salomon Kleiner, 1733 (detail) (pictures are clickable by activating the link at the end of page!).

Hofkanzlei with its small garden on Löwel Bastion, above it the Paradeisgartel (Tomato garden), on the left the Amalienburg (detail from the Huber-Plan, published 1773).

The Staatskanzlei with the surroundings 1824. Above the Löwel Bation with the bastion garden belonging to the Staatskanzlei. The state chancery bordered the Minorite Monastery.

Conversion by Pacassi

From 1764 to 1767, the building on order of Maria Theresa was modified and extended by her Court Architect Nikolaus Pacassi. The main facade (Ballhausplatz) (however, apart from the altered roof and the missing attic statues) still corresponds to the construction of Hildebrandt. The extension served mainly the accommodation of the office and the establishment of an archive in which Maria Theresia, in particular, housed the Austrian and Lorraine state and house documents as well as the Hungarian and Bohemian state certificates (house, court and state archive). At that time the house of Hiernonymus Reichsfreiherr/Imperial Baron of Scalvinioni (at that time the supervisor of the court buildings) opposite the front, placed in front of Amalienburg, erected and expanded yet 1700, was also abolished, thus giving us the present floor plan of the Ballhausplatz.

Ballhausplatz 2, former Secret Court and State Chancery, c. 1850

The "Ballhausplatz" in the era of Metternich experienced great events (1810-1848 State Chancellor): the Congress of Vienna (1814-1815), the Police State before 1848, but also the tumults of the revolution of 1848 and the passing of Metternich. During his term of office happened the reconstruction of the wing at Löwel street (1821) and renovations (1826) The interior of the building is still predominantly from the 19th century as far as architecture is concerned. 1881-1882, the Löwel street wing was extended to Metastasio alley, 1900-1903 (after the demolition of the Court Hospital and the Minorite Monastery) it came to the construction of the House, Court and State Archives (plans of Otto Hofer), adjoining the Federal Chancellery.

Use by the Republic

From November 1918, the building was the seat of the government formed by the "Provisional National Assembly for German-Austria", led by Chancellor Dr. Karl Renner.

Ballhausplatz 2, 1., Ballhausplatz 2 (c. 1941)

War Damages on the Federal Chancellery (1946)

From 1920, the ministerial council meetings were held here. In 1922, the Federal Chancellery also moved from its original seat in Palais Modena (now the Ministry of the Interior), so that both the Federal President (Wing in Löwel street) and the Federal Chancellor and the Foreign Minister in this building officiated. On July 25, 1934 during the National Socialist coup attempt, Federal Chancellor Dr. Engelbert Dollfuss in the Chancellor's Office was murdered.

After the "Anschluss" a kind of liquidation office of the "Austrian provincial government" was quartered in the house, while Reichskommissar/Reich Commissioner Gauleiter/district leader Josef Bürckel resided in the parliament. It was not until his successor, the former Reichsjugendführer (highest paramilitary rank of the Hitler Youth), and now the Gauleiter and Reichsstatthalter/Reich Lieutenant Baldur von Schirach, as the Federal Chancellery was chosen as his office. On September 10, 1944, the building was damaged by bombs (destruction of the former Chancellor's room).

After the Second World War, the Federal Chancellery was once again the seat of the Federal Chancellor and the Federal Government, which also meet here for the ministerial council meetings (the Federal President is in the Leopoldine tract of the Hofburg). The Federal Chancellery has been restored and partially reconstructed (such as the stucco ceiling of the stairwell). The reconstruction was completed on 20 February 1950.

The most important rooms on the main floor: the large reception hall ("Congress Hall") is located above the main entrance, on the left (corner Löwel street), the former small dining room (today the Gray Corner Hall). Afterwards follow the great dining room (today Council of Ministers hall) in Löwel street, the library, the study of Metternich and the audience room. On your right (corner towards Minorite square) lies the Blue Conference Hall (today Marble Corner Room), alongside follow the Green Reception Hall (later Yellow Salon and Study of the Chancellor), the Column Hall (today the working room of the Chancellor) and (again on the corner) the meeting room (today study of the Head of Cabinet, in the direction of the House, Court and State Archives still follow the sleeping room of Metternich (today reception hall).

 

Bundeskanzleramt (1, Ballhausplatz 2, identisch mit Löwelstraße 2-4). Anstelle eines kaiserlichen Meierhofs (der sich Im Bereich des heutigen Ballhausplatzes und der Löwelstraße erstreckte; eine Pfisterei (Bäckerei) wird schon 1347 erwähnt) wurde 1717-1719 über Auftrag Karls VI. vom kaiserlichen Hofarchitekten Johann Lukas von Hildebrandt (Baumeister Christian Alexander Oedtl) ein repräsentatives Gebäude für die damalige Geheime (Österreichische) Hofkanzlei erbaut (das im Norden an das Hofspital angrenzte). Die Grundsteinlegung erfolgte am 13. September 1717.

Hofkanzlei

Die Hofkanzlei war bis dahin in einem Trakt der Hofburg untergebracht gewesen. Sie war das Gegengewicht zu der vom Reichsvizekanzler geleiteten Reichshofkanzlei (siehe Reichskanzleitrakt der Hofburg). Sie im Rahmen der Hofkanzlei unter Sinzendorf ab 1705 aufgebaute Außenpolitische Abteilung erhielt 1719 den Namen Staatskanzlei.

Als Maria Theresia 1749 die bisherige Österreichische und Böhmische Hofkanzlei zu einer gemeinsamen, für beide Ländergruppen zuständigen Verwaltungsbehörde vereinigte, zog das neue „Direktorium" in das ehemalige Gebäude der Böhmischen Hofkanzlei (Judenplatz - Wipplingerstraße) ein, und das Haus am Ballhausplatz (diese Bezeichnung ist bereits auf dem Huber-Plan um 1770 eingetragen) wurde der Staatskanzlei (später Auswärtiges Amt) zur alleinigen Benützung zugewiesen. Staatskanzler war 1753-1792 Wenzel Anton Graf Kaunitz (ab 1764 Reichsfürst von Kaunitz-Rietberg), der besonders nach dem Tod Franz' I. (1765) auf die Regierungsgeschäfte großen Einfluss nahm (vor allem hinsichtlich seiner Gegnerschaft zu Preußen und seiner Allianz mit Frankreich).

Geheime Hofkanzlei nach Salomon Kleiner, 1733 (Ausschnitt).

Hofkanzlei mit dem zugehörigen kleinen Garten auf der Löwelbastei, darüber erkennbar das Paradeisgartel, links die Amalienburg (Ausschnitt aus dem Huber-Plan, erschienen 1773).

Die Staatskanzlei mit Umgebung 1824. Oberhalb die Löwelbastei mit dem zur Staatskanzlei gehörigen basteigarten. Die Staatskanzlei grenzte an das Minoritenkloster.

Umbau durch Pacassi

1764-1767 wurde das Gebäude im Auftrag Maria Theresias von ihrem Hofarchitekten Nikolaus Pacassi verändert und bedeutend erweitert. Die Hauptfassade (Ballhausplatz) entspricht jedoch (abgesehen vom veränderten Dach und den fehlenden Attikafiguren) noch heute dem Bau Hildebrandts. Die Erweiterung diente vor allem der Unterbringung der Kanzlei und der Einrichtung eines Archivs, in welchem Maria Theresia insbesondere die österreichischen und lothringischen Staats- und Hausurkunden sowie die ungarischen und böhmischen Staatsurkunden unterbringen ließ (Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv). Damals wurde auch das der Front gegenüberliegende, der Amalienburg vorgelagerte und noch um 1700 aufgestockte beziehungsweise ausgebaute Haus des Hieronymus Reichsfreiherrn von Scalvinioni (damals Oberinspektor der Hofgebäude) abgetragen, sodass sich der uns heute geläufige Grundriss des Ballhausplatzes ergab.

Ballhausplatz 2, ehemalige Geheime Hof- und Staatskanzlei, um 1850

Der „Ballhausplatz" erlebte in der Ära Metternich (1810-1848 Staatskanzler) große Ereignisse: den Wiener Kongress (1814/1815), den vormärzlichen Polizeistaat, aber auch die Tumulte der Revolution 1848 und die Verabschiedung Metternichs. Während seiner Amtszeit kam es zu einem Umbau des Trakts an der Löwelstraße (1821) und zu Renovierungen (1826). Die Ausstattung des Gebäudes im Inneren stammt noch heute überwiegend aus dem 19. Jahrhundert, soweit es sich um die Architektur handelt. 1881/82 wurde der Löwelstraßenflügel des Gebäudes bis zur Metastasiogasse verlängert, 1900-1903 kam es (nach dem Abbruch des Hofspitals und des Minoritenklosters) zum Bau des an das Bundeskanzleramt angrenzenden Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchivs (Pläne von Otto Hofer).

Nutzung durch die Republik

Ab November 1918 war das Gebäude Sitz der von der „Provisorischen Nationalversammlung für Deutsch-Österreich" gebildeten Regierung, die von Staatskanzler Dr. Karl Renner geleitet wurde.

Ballhausplatz 2, 1., Ballhausplatz 2 (um 1941)

Kriegsschäden am Bundeskanzleramt (1946)

Ab 1920 wurden hier die Ministerratssitzungen abgehalten, 1922 übersiedelte auch das Bundeskanzleramt aus seinem ursprünglichen Amtssitz im Palais Modena (heute Innenministerium) hierher, sodass schließlich in der Ersten Republik im Gebäude sowohl der Bundespräsident (Trakt in der Löwelstraße) als auch der Bundeskanzler und der Außenminister amtierten. Am 25. Juli 1934 wurde während des nationalsozialistischen Putschversuchs Bundeskanzler Dr. Engelbert Dollfuß im Kanzleramt erschossen.

Nach dem „Anschluss" quartierte sich im Haus eine Art von Liquidationsstelle der „österreichischen Landesregierung" ein, während Reichskommissar Gauleiter Josef Bürckel im Parlament residierte. Erst sein Nachfolger, der vorherige Reichsjugendführer und nunmehrige Gauleiter und Reichsstatthalter Baldur von Schirach, wählte das Bundeskanzleramt zu seinem Amtssitz. Am 10. September 1944 wurde das Gebäude durch Bomben beschädigt (Zerstörung des früheren Kanzlerzimmers).

Nach dem Zweiten Weltkrieg wurde das Bundeskanzleramt wieder Amtssitz des Bundeskanzlers und der Bundesregierung, die hier auch zu den Ministerratssitzungen zusammentritt (der Bundespräsident amtiert im Leopoldinischen Trakt der Hofburg). Das Bundeskanzleramt wurde wiederhergestellt, teilweise (wie etwa die Stuckdecke des Stiegenhauses) auch rekonstruiert. Der Wiederaufbau war am 20. Februar 1950 abgeschlossen.

Die wichtigsten Räumlichkeiten im Hauptgeschoß: Über dem Haupteingang liegt der Große Empfangssaal („Kongreßsaal"), links (Ecke Löwelstraße) der ehemalige Kleine Speisesaal (heute Grauer Ecksalon), dem in der Löwelstraße der Große Speisesaal (heute Ministerratssaal), die Bibliothek, das Arbeitszimmer Metternichs und das Audienzzimmer folgen; rechts (Ecke zum Minoritenplatz) liegt der Blaue Gesellschaftssaal (heute Marmorecksalon), daneben folgen der Grüne Empfangssaal (später Gelber Salon und Arbeitszimmer des Bundeskanzlers), der Säulensaal (heute Arbeitszimmer des Bundeskanzlers) und (wiederum an der Ecke) das Sitzungszimmer (heute Arbeitszimmer des Kabinettschefs); in Richtung Haus-, Hof- und Staatsarchiv folgt noch das Schlafzimmer Metternichs (heute Empfangsraum).

Kapelle

Im Zuge des Pacassischen Umbaus wurde 1767 eine über zwei Geschoße reichende Kapelle errichtet. Als der überkuppelte hohe Raum 1818 durch eine Zwischendecke geteilt wurde (um ein Bibliothekszimmer zu gewinnen), verschoben sich die Proportionen. Das ursprüngliche Altarbild „Heiliger Nepomuk vor Maria" (1741) kam 1821 nach Gerasdorf (dort verschollen).

www.wien.gv.at/wiki/index.php/Bundeskanzleramt

On Jewish square is the memorial of the German poet Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, created by Siegfried Charoux, a commissioned work Charoux won in 1930 against a competition of 82 sculptors. It was completed in 1931/1932, unveiled in 1935, and removed in 1939 by the National Socialists and finally melted. Lessing's "Ring Parable" in the drama "Nathan the Wise" is regarded as the key text of the Enlightenment and as a pointed formulation of the idea of tolerance. From 1962 to 1965, Charoux created a second bronze monument which was unveiled in 1968 and in 1981 moved from Saint Ruprecht's square to Jewish square. Lessing was in Vienna in 1775-1776, was received in audience by Joseph II and influenced the change of the intellectual climate.

 

Auf dem Judenplatz befindet sich das von Siegfried Charoux geschaffene Denkmal des deutschen Dichters Gotthold Ephraim Lessing, eine Auftragsarbeit, die Charoux 1930 gegen eine Konkurrenz von 82 Bildhauern gewann. Es wurde 1931 / 1932 vollendet, 1935 enthüllt und 1939 von den Nationalsozialisten abgetragen und eingeschmolzen. Lessings „Ringparabel“ im Drama „Nathan der Weise“ gilt als Schlüsseltext der Aufklärung und als pointierte Formulierung der Toleranzidee. Von 1962 bis 1965 schuf Charoux ein zweites, 1968 enthülltes Lessing-Denkmal aus Bronze, das 1981 vom Ruprechtsplatz auf den Judenplatz übersiedelt wurde. Lessing war 1775 / 1776 in Wien, wurde von Joseph II. in Audienz empfangen und hatte Einfluss auf die Veränderung des geistigen Klimas.

de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Judenplatz

Viena, Áustria

Wien, Austria

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