new icn messageflickr-free-ic3d pan white
View allAll Photos Tagged ibn+arabi

Wonder,

A garden among the flames!

 

My heart can take on any form:

A meadow for gazelles,

A cloister for monks,

For the idols, sacred ground,

Ka'ba for the circling pilgrim,

The tables of the Torah,

The scrolls of the Quran.

 

My creed is Love;

Wherever its caravan turns along the way,

That is my belief,

My faith.

  

Ibn Arabi - wonder

 

View large

Axarquia | Malaga | Espana

(No Photoshop here)

 

لقد صار قلبي قابلا كل صورة

فدير لرهبان ومرعى لغزلان

وآيات إنجيل وترتيل قارئ

وألواح توراة ومصحف قرآن

أدين بدين الحب أنّى توجهت

ركائبه فالحب ديني وإيماني

 

~~~~~~~~

 

"Mon coeur est devenu capable de toutes les formes

Une prairie pour les gazelles

Un couvent pour les moines

Un temple pour les idoles

Une Ka'ba pour le pélerin

Les tables de la Torah

Le livre du Coran

Et quelque direction que prenne sa monture

L'Amour est ma religion et ma Foi."

 

[Ibn Arabi]

 

~~~~~~~~

 

Mi corazón se ha vuelto capaz de acoger todas las formas

Es pradera para las gacelas, monasterio para monjes

Templo para ídolos y Kaaba del peregrino

Tablas de la Torá y Libro del Corán

La religión que profeso es la del Amor y sea cual sea el rumbo que tome

Su montura, el Amor es mi religión y mi fe."

 

[Ibn Arabi]

 

~~~~~~~~

 

My heart has become capable of every form:

It is a pasture for gazelles

And a monastery for Christian monks

A temple for idols

And a Kaaba of the Pilgrim

The tablets of the Torah

And the book of the Koran.

I follow the religion of love.

Whatever path love's camel takes

This is my religion and my faith"

 

[Ibn Arabi]

  

La Mezquita Azul, en Estambul.

 

Mi corazón puede adoptar todas las formas:

Es pasto para las gacelas

y monasterio para monjes cristianos

y templo para ídolos

y la Kaaba para el peregrino

y las tablas de la Torá y el libro del Corán

Yo sigo la religión del Amor

cualquiera que sea el rumbo que tomen los camellos.

Ésa es mi religión y mi fe.

 

Ibn Arabi

 

music to accompany .. Bon Iver

 

Wonder,

A garden among the flames!

 

My heart can take on any form:

A meadow for gazelles,

... A cloister for monks,

For the idols, sacred ground,

Ka'ba for the circling pilgrim,

The tables of the Torah,

The scrolls of the Quran.

 

My creed is Love;

Wherever its caravan turns along the way,

That is my belief,

My faith.

 

~ Ibn Arabi♥

For fourteen days Muhyiddin Ibn ‘Arabi(1165-1240 )made a journey, a voyage with no return. For each day he wrote some special words, secret words. Those words are prayers, are private conversations with the divine…

 

"My heart has become capable of every form"

 

My heart has become capable of every form: it is a pasture for gazelles and a convent for Christian monks,

And a temple for idols, and the pilgrim's Ka'ba, and the tables of the Tora and the book of the Koran.

I follow the religion of Love, whichever way his camels take. My religion and my faith is the true religion.

We have a pattern in Bishr, the lover of Hind and her sister, and in Qays and Lubna, and in Mayya and Ghaylan."

Muhyiddin Ibn 'Arabi

The cosmosof Ibn' Arabi:

www.kheper.net/topics/Islamic_esotericism/Ibn_Arabi-world...

   

He sees the very anoble, large deep look and flexible body through water inside water.He showered them with rain and made them tremble with thunder. Ali ibn Muhammad ibn al Arabi.

After a lengthy renovation, Cruyllas Castle of Calatabiano (situated between the Alcantara Valley and Etna and not far from Taormina and Naxos) is ready to welcome its visitors thanks to its splendid panorama Between the walls of the castle is enclosed the entire history of the Mediterranean. A procession of populations and cultures who, battling for strategic control of the area by way of the stronghold, have all contributed to the development and enlargement during the course of the centuries: from the Sicels to the Greeks, from the Byzantines to the Arabs; from the Normans to the Suebi/Suevi, until the settlement of the Cruyllas, in the Aragon period, during which the castle was at its maximum splendor.

 

Il castello di Calatabiano, in provincia di Catania, al confine settentrionale della provincia etnea, sorge su una collina alta 220 m s.l.m. e domina la foce dell’Alcantara. Qui il fiume segna il confine tra Catania e Messina. Ai piedi del castello l’attuale abitato sorto a valle dopo l’abbandono della terra vecchia a seguito del disastroso terremoto di Val di Noto del 1693. La prima documentazione certa relativa al castello di Calatabiano si rileva da una carta della Sicilia in cui il geografo e viaggiatore arabo Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Idris (1099 1164) rappresentava l’Isola e i suoi sistemi fortificati. La carta tratta dal “Libro di Ruggero”, presso la cui corte il geografo prestava i suoi servigi, rappresenta l’Isola capovolta secondo la consuetudine araba. Qui il massiccio dell’Etna appare sul lato sinistro ed è lambito dai due fiumi Simeto e Alcantara. Proprio lungo le sponde del fiume Al-kantar (il ponte) appaiono rappresentate due fortezze speculari Tauromenion e Kalaat-al Bian. Ricostruito su preesistenti capisaldi greci e romani. Non sappiamo che nome avesse all’epoca bizantina il maniero che gli arabi, dopo la conquista, avrebbero chiamato: Kalaat-al-Bian, (Rocca di Biano).

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7QLdlvfEYo

 

www.castellodicalatabiano.it/

The name Sachal Sarmast can be translated as Ecstatic Saint of Truth. He is sometimes called Sachoo, The Truthful.

 

Sachal Sarmast was born in the Sindh region of what is today Pakistan, and is considered one of the great poets and Sufi mystics to emerge from the region.

 

His teachings have often been compared with al-Hallaj, the Sufi martyr who ecstatically proclaimed, "I am the Truth." Rather than blindly following tradition, Sachal urged people to seek the truth directly. And like ibn Arabi and others, Sachal Sarmast taught a vision of Unity called Wahdat al-Wujud, which others have compared to the great nondualist teachings of Advaita Vedanta within Hinduism and Zen/Chan within Buddhism.

 

Sachal Sarmast once said, "He (God) is everywhere and in each and every phenomenon. He has come here just to witness His own manifestation."

 

Sachal Sarmast was born Abdul Wahab in the village of Daraza in the Sindh region. His father died when he was a young child, and Abdul Wahab was raised by his uncle, who also became his spiritual master.

 

His soul was deeply moved by music. Listening to music, he was often enraptured, tears pouring down his face.

 

Sachal Sarmast married, but the young woman died two years later. He never remarried.

 

He took the name Sachal, Truth. Later people added Sarmast, Leader of the Ecstatics, to his name in appreciation of his spiritual poetry.

 

Sachal Sarmast lived a humble, ascetic life, preferring solitude, simple meals of daal and yogurt. It is said that he never left Daraza, the village of his birth. Yet he composed sacred poetry in seven different languages, poetry that is loved and sung to this day.

Mértola, Portugal

 

Abu-l-Qasim Ahmad ibn al-Husayn ibn Qasi was a Sufi, a political leader of the opposition against the Almoravid dynasty in Al-Garb Al-Andalus and governor of the Taifa of Mértola. He was born and died (assassinated) in Silves in 1151. He was a friend of Ibn al-Arif. Ibn Qasi wrote a treatise "the Removal of the Sandals", this book revolves around Ibn Qasi's Philosophy, Sufism and History. Ibn Arabi has written a commentary on some parts of this treatise.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Abu-l-Qasim_Ahmad_ibn_al-Husayn_ibn...

 

20110423_7D_IMG_5442_Mertola

To the Sufi, it is the transmission of divine light from the teacher's heart to the heart of the student, rather than worldly knowledge, that allows the adept to progress. They further believe that the teacher should attempt inerrantly to follow the Divine Law.According to Moojan Momen "one of the most important doctrines of Sufism is the concept of al-Insan al-Kamil "the Perfect Man". This doctrine states that there will always exist upon the earth a "Qutb" (Pole or Axis of the Universe)—a man who is the perfect channel of grace from God to man and in a state of wilayah (sanctity, being under the protection of Allah). The concept of the Sufi Qutb is similar to that of the Shi'i Imam. However, this belief puts Sufism in "direct conflict" with Shia Islam, since both the Qutb (who for most Sufi orders is the head of the order) and the Imam fulfill the role of "the purveyor of spiritual guidance and of Allah's grace to mankind". The vow of obedience to the Shaykh or Qutb which is taken by Sufis is considered incompatible with devotion to the Imam".As a further example, the prospective adherent of the Mevlevi Order would have been ordered to serve in the kitchens of a hospice for the poor for 1001 days prior to being accepted for spiritual instruction, and a further 1,001 days in solitary retreat as a precondition of completing that instruction.Some teachers, especially when addressing more general audiences, or mixed groups of Muslims and non-Muslims, make extensive use of parable, allegory, and metaphor.[80] Although approaches to teaching vary among different Sufi orders, Sufism as a whole is primarily concerned with direct personal experience, and as such has sometimes been compared to other, non-Islamic forms of mysticism (e.g., as in the books of Hossein Nasr).Many Sufi believe that to reach the highest levels of success in Sufism typically requires that the disciple live with and serve the teacher for a long period of time.[citation needed] An example is the folk story about Baha-ud-Din Naqshband Bukhari, who gave his name to the Naqshbandi Order. He is believed to have served his first teacher, Sayyid Muhammad Baba As-Samasi, for 20 years, until as-Samasi died. He is said to then have served several other teachers for lengthy periods of time. He is said to have helped the poorer members of the community for many years and after this concluded his teacher directed him to care for animals cleaning their wounds, and assisting them.Sufis believe the sharia (exoteric "canon"), tariqa (esoteric "order") and haqiqa ("truth") are mutually interdependent.[92] Sufism leads the adept, called salik or "wayfarer", in his sulûk or "road" through different stations (maqaam) until he reaches his goal, the perfect tawhid, the existential confession that God is One.[93] Ibn Arabi says, "When we see someone in this Community who claims to be able to guide others to God, but is remiss in but one rule of the Sacred Law—even if he manifests miracles that stagger the mind—asserting that his shortcoming is a special dispensation for him, we do not even turn to look at him, for such a person is not a sheikh, nor is he speaking the truth, for no one is entrusted with the secrets of God Most High save one in whom the ordinances of the Sacred Law are preserved. (Jamiʿ karamat al-awliyaʾ)".Traditional Islamic scholars have recognized two major branches within the practice of Sufism, and use this as one key to differentiating among the approaches of different masters and devotional lineages.On the one hand there is the order from the signs to the Signifier (or from the arts to the Artisan). In this branch, the seeker begins by purifying the lower self of every corrupting influence that stands in the way of recognizing all of creation as the work of God, as God's active Self-disclosure or theophany. This is the way of Imam Al-Ghazali and of the majority of the Sufi orders.On the other hand, there is the order from the Signifier to His signs, from the Artisan to His works. In this branch the seeker experiences divine attraction (jadhba), and is able to enter the order with a glimpse of its endpoint, of direct apprehension of the Divine Presence towards which all spiritual striving is directed. This does not replace the striving to purify the heart, as in the other branch; it simply stems from a different point of entry into the path. This is the way primarily of the masters of the Naqshbandi and Shadhili orders.Contemporary scholars may also recognize a third branch, attributed to the late Ottoman scholar Said Nursi and explicated in his vast Qur'an commentary called the Risale-i Nur. This approach entails strict adherence to the way of Muhammad, in the understanding that this wont, or sunnah, proposes a complete devotional spirituality adequate to those without access to a master of the Sufi way.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sufism

  

10 kilometers east of the town of Tlemcen in the commune of Ain Fezza, the caves of Beni Add, which date back to about 65,000 years, are remarkable for their charm and legendary beauty.

Ibn Arabi précise que : « les –stations- spirituelles de base de Sidi Boumediene étaient, « el wara » le scrupule et « tawadhu’ », l’humilité ; qui consistent à reconnaître la servitude absolue de la créature vis-à-vis du Créateur. La dernière chose dont se libère l’âme des amis sincères de Dieu est l’amour de la souveraineté qui subsiste avec l’ignorance. Il avait, disait t-il le don d’intuition et de lecture des âmes. Il connaissait le sens profond et les correspondances des formes, des attitudes et des gestes avec l’état présent et futur de l’âme ».Quatre siècles après, à Bejaia et à Tlemcen, le Cheikh Ahmed Al Burnussi Al Zurruk (Xe siècle hégire) qui était un Maitre enseignait la signification des paroles de Sidi Boumediene et d’Ibn Arabi. A cette même époque le Qutb, pôle du soufisme, qui dynamisa la Tarîqa d’Abu el Hassan Schadhily, disciple d’Abdeslam Mechiche, ce dernier faqir de Sidi Boumediene, Cheikh sidi Ahmed Benyoucef el Rachidi el miliani, disait après Sidi Boumediene et Schadhily : « mes livres ce sont mes disciples ! » Sidi Boumediene a écrit au moins deux ouvrages, dont le plus décisif est « Ilm Tawhid », La science de l’Unicité.

1. Tabarruj is disobedience to Allaah and His Messenger (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam)

 

The one who disobeys Allaah and His Messenger (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) can only harm himself and can not in any way harm Allaah: The Messenger (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said:

 

“All of my followers will enter Paradise except those who refuse.â€‌ It was asked: “O Messenger of Allaah, who would refuse?â€‌ He (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said: “He who obeys me enters Paradise and he who disobeys me has refused.â€‌ (Reported by al-Bukhaaree)

 

It is reported that Mu’awiyyah (radee Allaahu â€کanhu) gave a sermon in Greater Syria and in it he mentioned that the Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) prohibited seven things and he named tabarruj as one of them.

 

â€کAbdullaah ibn Mas’ood (radee Allaahu â€کanhu) reported that the Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) used to dislike ten kinds of behavior and he (â€کAbdullaah ibn Mas’ood) mentioned that from amongst them is displaying and beautification which is done in an improper place.

 

Jalaal-ud-Deen as-Suyuti (d.911H) (rahimahullaah) said that: “Tabarruj by displaying beautification is showing off to strangers and this is disliked.â€‌ This is the explanation of the meaning of â€کAbdullaah ibn Mas’ood’s statement “improper placeâ€‌, it is not the case if the beautification is done for the husband.

 

2. Tabarruj is a grave destructive sin

 

Umayymah, the daughter of Ruqayyah visited the Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) to acknowledge the message of Islam and to acknowledge that he (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) was and is the Messenger of Allaah. The Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said to her:

 

“I give my acknowledgment that you must not set partners to worship besides Allaah, that you do not steal, commit fornication or adultery, that you do not kill your child, that you do not commit any falsehood before your hands and between your legs, that you do not wail and that you do not make tabarruj like that of jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic era).â€‌ (Reported by Ahmad ibn Hanbal in his Musnad, Shaykh Ahmad Shakir graded the chain of the hadeeth as “goodâ€‌ and stated that Imaam ibn Kathir mentioned this hadeeth in his tafsir saying that the chain of this narration is “goodâ€‌)

 

It’s clear that the Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) associated tabarruj (display of beauty) with grave destructive sins.

 

3. Tabarruj brings the curse and expulsion from the Mercy of Allaah

 

The Messenger (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said:

 

“There shall be (in the later) part of my nation women who are dressed but are in fact naked. On their heads are humps like those of camels. Curse them for they are surely cursed.â€‌ (Reported by at-Tabaaranee, Shaykh al-Albaanee graded this hadeeth “Saheehâ€‌)

 

4. Tabarruj is an attribute of the people of hell

 

The Messenger (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said:

 

“Of the people of Hell there are two types whom I have never seen: The one possessing whips like the tail of an ox and they flog people with them. The second one the women who would be naked in spite of their being dressed, who are seduced to wrong paths and seduce others with their hair high like humps. These women would not get into Paradise and they would not perceive its odour, although its fragrance can be perceived from such and such distance.â€‌ (Reported by Muslim)

 

5. Tabarruj is darkness on the Day of Resurrection

 

It is narrated that the Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said:

 

“The parable of a woman who moves with a slow sweeping motion trailing her beautified clothes performing not for her husband is like darkness of the Day of Judgement, she has or comes with no light.â€‌ (Reported by at-Tirmidhee in his Sunan, Shaykh al-Albaanee graded the hadeeth “weakâ€‌)

 

Abu Bakr ibn al-Arabi (d.543H) (rahimahullaah) said that although this hadeeth is weak: “…its meaning is correct because the enjoyment in disobedience is in fact torture and suffering. The meaning is that this type of woman will come on the Day of Resurrection black in darkness as if she physically originated from darkness. In contrast, what happens to be difficult and painful in performance of obedient acts is a true enjoyment because of the reward awaiting those who are obedient to Allaah and His Messenger (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam).â€‌

 

The odor of the mouth of a fasting person may not be a pleasant in this world, to Allaah however it is better than the odor of musk because the Muslim has obeyed Allaah and performed what is due upon him from fasting. Similarly the woman wearing her Hijab may be looked upon as “reactionistâ€‌, “old fashionedâ€‌ or “a walking tentâ€‌, she however is the winner on the Day of Resurrection and those who mock her put themselves on a dangerous road and may be subjected to the wrath of Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aala).

 

6. Tabarruj is hypocrisy

 

The Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said:

 

“The best of your women is the affectionate, the fertile (in productivity), the propitious (favorable), the consultative if they fear Allaah. The most evil of your women are the Mutabar’rijat (those who do at-Tabarruj [display their beauty]), the Mutakhayelat (who strut/swagger), and they are the hypocrites. Those who enter Al-Jannah (the Paradise) are like the Cough Crow.â€‌ (Reported by al-Bayhaqi in his Sunan)

 

The cough crow has a red beak and red legs and is rare, so the expression in the hadeeth “cough cowâ€‌ indicates that the women who will enter Paradise will be few.

 

7. Tabarruj is disgraceful

 

The Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said:

 

“Any woman who takes of her clothes in other than her husband’s home has broken the shield between her and Allaah.â€‌ (Reported by Ahmad ibn Hanbal & al-Haakim who said it is “Saheehâ€‌ according to the conditions of al-Bukhaaree and Muslim and adh-Dhahabee agreed)

 

Imaam Abu Zakariya an-Nawawee (d.676H) (rahimahullaah) commenting on this hadeeth said:

 

“The saying of the Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam): â€کAny woman who takes of her clothes in other than her husband’s home’, means showing off her beauty to strangers by taking off her shield of clothes, she has broken the shield between her and Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aala).â€‌

 

Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aala) stated:

 

“O Children of Adam! We have bestowed raiment upon you to cover yourselves (screen your private parts, etc.) and as an adornment and the raiment of righteousness, that is better…â€‌ (Al-A’raf 7:26)

 

So if a woman does not fear Allaah and uncovers her private parts then she is breaking the shield between her and Allaah, Most High, and because she uncovered and dishonored herself and committed a grievance against her husband then Allaah will uncover her shield, she will be in a scandal.

 

8. Tabarruj is an unchaste and disgraceful sin

 

The women is â€کawrah, a source of attraction, her body is not to be shown, to wear clothes that show off her body and its shape and features is disgraceful. Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aala) orders us to stay away from disgraceful sins:

 

“And when they commit a Faahisha (evil deed, going round the Ka’bah in naked state, every kind of unlawful sexual intercourse, etc.), they say: â€کWe found our fathers doing it, and Allaah has commanded us of it.’ Say: â€کNay, Allaah never commands of Faahisha. Do you say of Allaah what you know not?â€‌ (Al-A’raf 7:28)

 

Rather, it is Shaytaan who orders such Faahisha, such disgraceful sins. Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aala) says:

 

“Shaytaan (Satan) threatens you with poverty and orders you to commit Fahshaa (evil deeds, illegal sexual intercourse, sins etc.); whereas Allaah promises you Forgiveness from Himself and Bounty, and Allaah is All-Sufficient for His creatures’ needs, All-Knower.â€‌ (Al-Baqarah 2:268)

 

The Mutabar’rijat (those who do at-Tabarruj [display their beauty]) create a sinful virus that spreads disgraceful sins amongst the Muslim society. Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aala) says:

 

“Verily, those who like that (the crime of) illegal sexual intercourse should be propagated among those who believe, they will have a painful torment in this world and in the Hereafter. And Allaah knows and you know not.â€‌ (An-Nur 24:19)

 

Tabarruj is the leading course for the spread of zina (illegal sexual relations).

 

9. Tabarruj is a Satanic way

 

The story of Adam and his wife demonstrates how the enemy of Allaah (i.e. Satan) was so keen to incite them to show their private parts in order to spread evil and disgraceful sins. It also shows that tabarruj of women is a primary goal for Shaytaan to achieve. Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aala) says:

 

“O Children of Adam! We have bestowed raiment upon you to cover yourselves (screen your private parts, etc.) and as an adornment, and the raiment of righteousness, that is better.â€‌ (Al-A’raf 7:26)

 

It is very clear that Satan is the one who established the call for Tabarruj and showing off and he is the leader of those leaders who call for the liberation of women. Shaytaan in the Imaam of everyone who obeys him and follows him in disobedience to Allaah, Most Merciful, especially those Mutabar’rijat (those who do at-Tabarruj [display their beauty]) who harm the Muslims and deceive their youth. The Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said:

 

“I have not left after me any chance of turmoil more harmful to men than the harm done to them because of women.â€‌ (Reported by al-Bukhaaree)

 

Adam (â€کalayhis-sallam) forgot, made a mistake, repented and asked for forgiveness from Allaah and Allaah accepted his repentance. The struggle between Adam’s offspring and Shaytaan continues, the Devil still whispers to drive us (men and women) to disobey Allaah and follow sins and there is no safeguard except in returning to Allaah in good faith and repentance, remembering Allaah and asking Him for His help to overcome lusts and desires.

 

10. Tabarruj is the way of the Jews

 

The Jews have an important role in the destruction of nations through fitnah, the seduction and temptation of women. The spread of tabarruj is an effective weapon of their wide spread establishments. One just has to look around to see Hollywood and famous houses of fashion, advertising, x-rated movies and clothes are all wide spread. In fact, the Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said:

 

“Watch out for this worldly life (safeguard yourself from its temptation) guard yourself from the allurement of women. Verily, the first trial for the people of Israel was caused by women.â€‌ (Reported by Muslim)

 

Their (the Jews) books also testify to this fact. In the third chapter of Isaiah it is quoted that:

 

“Moreover, the LORD said: â€کBecause the daughters of Zion are proud and walk with heads held high and seductive eyes, and go along with mincing steps, and tinkle the bangles on their feet. Therefore the Lord will afflict the scalp of the daughters of Zion with scabs, and the LORD will make their foreheads bare’.â€‌ (Isaiah, Chapter 3, V.16-17)

 

Furthermore:

 

“In that day the Lord will take away the beauty of their anklets, headbands, crescent ornaments, dangling earrings, bracelets, veils, headdresses, ankle chains, sashes, perfume boxes, amulets, finger rings, nose rings, festal robes, outer tunics, cloaks, money purses, hand mirrors, undergarments, turbans and veils.â€‌ (Isaiah, Chapter 3, V.18-23)

 

Although the Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) warned against mimicking the non-believers and their ways, many Muslims don’t abide by this warning. This is a testimony for the Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) who said:

 

“You will tread the same path as was trodden by those before you, inch by inch and step by step, so that if they enter the hole of the lizard you will follow them into it also.â€‌ His companions asked him: “Do you mean the Jews and the Christians.â€‌ He (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) replied: “Who else?!â€‌ (Reported by Muslim)

 

The similarity of those women who disobey Allaah and His Messenger (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) to the Jews is very evident because their response to Allaah’s command was and is similar to that of the Jews:

 

“We have heard and disobeyed.â€‌ (Al-Baqarah 2:93)

 

This is unlike the response of the believing woman who would respond (to the commands of Allaah) saying:

 

“We hear and we obey.â€‌ (Al-Baqarah 2:85)

 

They remember the saying of Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aala):

 

“And whoever contradicts and opposes the Messenger (Muhammad) after the right path has been shown clearly to him and follows other than the believers’ way. We shall keep him in the path he has chosen, and burn him in Hell - what an evil destination.â€‌ (An-Nisa 4:115)

 

11. Tabarruj is a filthy Jahiliyyah (ignorance)

 

Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aala) says:

 

“And stay in your houses, and do not display yourselves like that of the times of ignorance.â€‌ (Al-Ahzab 33:33)

 

The Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) described the times of ignorance as filthy and wicked and ordered us to reject them. Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aala) described the Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) in that:

 

“…he allows them as lawful at-Taiyibaat [(i.e. all good and lawful) as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc.], and prohibits them as unlawful al-Khabaa’ith (i.e. all evil and unlawful as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc.).â€‌ (Al-A’raf 7:157)

 

The call to bring about the times of jahiliyyah is similar to the call for tabarruj, both of which are wicked ways which the Messenger (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) made unlawful. The Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said:

 

“Verily, ever matter of jahiliyyah is under my hate.â€‌ (Reported by Aboo Daawood, at-Tirmidhee, Ahmad and other)

 

Tabarruj and all forms of jahiliyyah such as false pride and haughtiness, ill thoughts about Allaah, call for falsehood, setting up rivals with Allaah, ruling by the laws of other than Islam, usury, etc., are all inclusive.

 

12. Tabarruj is an animal act

 

To reveal and expose of our natural behaviour to that of animals, whenever man inclines to such behaviour he starts his decline to a level lower than the level of manhood that Allaah has bestowed upon him. Allaah bestowed a natural inclination towards covering, preservation and safeguarding modesty, to consider the acts of display, exposition and uncovering as an act of beauty represents a corruption of the Fitrah (natural disposition / inclination) and is degeneration in state and a sign of decadence and decline.

 

The progress of mans stability is linked to his or her covering of the body. The Hijab cover is fitting to the instinct of ghareeh which draws its strength from the soul. The “so-calledâ€‌ liberation from the chains of covering is an instinct which draws its instincts from lusts which incites tabarruj and mixing of the sexes. The one who is satisfied with the second instinct must sacrifice the first one in order to silence the voice of the innate ghareeh in his heart in return for the “so-calledâ€‌ enjoyment of tabarruj and mixing. From this we understand that tabarruj is a sign of corruption of Fitrah (natural disposition / inclination), lack of bashfulness and insensitivity.

 

13. Tabarruj is a door to wide-spread evil

 

Anyone who carefully examines the Islamic texts, the Qur’aan and the authentic Sunnah and the lessons from history becomes convinced about the evils of tabarruj and its harms, both in religious and worldly matters, especially when it is associated with the mixing of sexes. Some of its underlying consequences are:

 

a) The competition amongst the displaying women in showing of their beauty, this is seduction, and it leads to the spoiling of morality and leaves women as merchandised articles for anyone to look at.

 

b) The corruption of the morality of men, especially the youth and those in adolescence, it pushes them to commit various kinds of sin. We have seen teenage kids on the corners of many streets in Europe, North America and other parts of the world roaming around smoking, at times half naked, on drugs and looking to engage in sexual relationships. Why, what happened? Many try to hide from the hard facts. The drive for lust and the materialistic life became the objective of the new generation, the Pepsi, Michael MTV Jackson generation. The result, AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases!

 

c) The destruction of family ties and the causing of a lack of trust between family members and the threat of divorce.

 

d) The commercial abuse of women in the world of advertising, entertainment and other areas.

 

e) Doing harm to women by declaring their ill intentions and evil conscience thus rendering her venerable to harm by the wicked.

 

f) The spread of diseases. The Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said:

 

“Sin did not spread in any particular nation until they openly conducted (their sins) and as a result plague and other illnesses that were not present amongst their predecessors because present amongst them.â€‌

 

g) The facilitation of the sin of zina and fornication of the eye. The Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said:

 

“The adultery of the eye is the lustful look.â€‌ (Reported by Muslim)

 

h) Tabarruj makes it difficult to lower the gaze.

 

i) It justifiably brings down the Punishment of Allaah and His Punishment is more severe then an atomic bomb. Allaah says:

 

“And when We decide to destroy a town (population), We (first) send a definite order (to obey Allaah and be righteous) to those among them [or We (first) increase in number those of its population] who are given the good things of this life. Then, they transgress therein, and thus the word (of torment) is justified against it (them). Then We destroy it with complete destruction.â€‌ (Al-Isra 17:16)

 

The Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said:

 

“When people see wrong or evil and they don’t change it then it is eminent that the Punishment of Allaah will fall upon them.â€‌ (Reported by Aboo Daawood and others)

 

Footnote:

 

[1] I (Aboo Uthmaan) transcribed (albeit not a verbatim transcription) this text from a lecture entitled “Tabarrujâ€‌ by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

*found a link on you tube for your enjoyment; in this clip he appears in the last segment; I have seen nd heard this genius at a private Flamenco party some years ago; never forgotten him, painted him umpteen times; several posted on flickr

youtu.be/d_gPy2jHwyQ

After a lengthy renovation, Cruyllas Castle of Calatabiano (situated between the Alcantara Valley and Etna and not far from Taormina and Naxos) is ready to welcome its visitors thanks to its splendid panorama Between the walls of the castle is enclosed the entire history of the Mediterranean. A procession of populations and cultures who, battling for strategic control of the area by way of the stronghold, have all contributed to the development and enlargement during the course of the centuries: from the Sicels to the Greeks, from the Byzantines to the Arabs; from the Normans to the Suebi/Suevi, until the settlement of the Cruyllas, in the Aragon period, during which the castle was at its maximum splendor.

 

Il castello di Calatabiano, in provincia di Catania, al confine settentrionale della provincia etnea, sorge su una collina alta 220 m s.l.m. e domina la foce dell’Alcantara. Qui il fiume segna il confine tra Catania e Messina. Ai piedi del castello l’attuale abitato sorto a valle dopo l’abbandono della terra vecchia a seguito del disastroso terremoto di Val di Noto del 1693.

La prima documentazione certa relativa al castello di Calatabiano si rileva da una carta della Sicilia in cui il geografo e viaggiatore arabo Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Idris (1099 1164) rappresentava l’Isola e i suoi sistemi fortificati. La carta tratta dal “Libro di Ruggero”, presso la cui corte il geografo prestava i suoi servigi, rappresenta l’Isola capovolta secondo la consuetudine araba. Qui il massiccio dell’Etna appare sul lato sinistro ed è lambito dai due fiumi Simeto e Alcantara. Proprio lungo le sponde del fiume Al-kantar (il ponte) appaiono rappresentate due fortezze speculari Tauromenion e Kalaat-al Bian. Ricostruito su preesistenti capisaldi greci e romani.

Non sappiamo che nome avesse all’epoca bizantina il maniero che gli arabi, dopo la conquista, avrebbero chiamato: Kalaat-al-Bian, (Rocca di Biano).

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7QLdlvfEYo

 

www.castellodicalatabiano.it/

Objective and illuminating, this treatise, written by Sufi leader Muhyiddin Ibn 'Arabi, presents a fundamental analysis of spiritual practice. Underscoring the importance of silence, seclusion, hunger, and vigilance, this guide demonstrates that these activities are both physical and spiritual. Providing the necessary tools for an enlightened life, this dual-language edition incorporates the first critical edition of the Arabic text, gathered from the best-surviving manuscripts. An introduction, and translation of chapter 53 of the renowned Futuhat al-Makkiyya, are also included.

I Hermes stand here at the crossroads by the wind beaten orchard, near the hoary grey coast; and I keep a resting place for weary men. And the cool stainless spring gushes out.

Hermes Trismegistus may be a representation of the syncretic combination of the Greek god Hermes and the Egyptian god Thoth.Greeks in Hellenistic Egypt recognized the equivalence of Hermes and Thoth.Consequently, the two gods were worshiped as one, in what had been the Temple of Thoth in Khemnu, which the Greeks called Hermopolis.Both Hermes and Thoth were gods of writing and of magic in their respective cultures.[citation needed] Hermes, the Greek god of interpretive communication, was combined with Thoth, the Egyptian god of wisdom, to become the patron of astrology and alchemy. In addition, both gods were psychopomps, guiding souls to the afterlife. The Egyptian priest and polymath Imhotep had been deified long after his death and therefore assimilated to Thoth in the classical and Hellenistic period.The renowned scribe Amenhotep and a wise man named Teôs were co-equal deities of wisdom, science, and medicine; and, thus, they were placed alongside Imhotep in shrines dedicated to Thoth-Hermes during the Ptolemaic period.A Mycenaean Greek reference to a deity or semi-deity called ti-ri-se-ro-e (Linear B: ; Tris Hḗrōs, "thrice or triple hero")[6] was found on two Linear B clay tablets at Pylos and could be connected to the later epithet "thrice great", Trismegistos, applied to Hermes/Thoth. On the aforementioned PY Tn 316 tablet—as well as other Linear B tablets found in Pylos, Knossos, and Thebes—there appears the name of the deity "Hermes" as e-ma-ha (Linear B: ), but not in any apparent connection with the "Trisheros". This interpretation of poorly-understood Mycenaean material is disputed, since Hermes Trismegistus is not referenced in any of the copious sources before he emerges in Hellenistic Egypt.The majority of Greeks, and later Romans, did not accept Hermes Trismegistus in the place of Hermes.[citation needed] The two gods were regarded as distinct. Cicero enumerates several deities referred to as "Hermes": a "fourth Mercury (Hermes) was the son of the Nile, whose name may not be spoken by the Egyptians"; and "the fifth, who is worshiped by the people of Pheneus [in Arcadia], is said to have killed Argus, and for this reason to have fled to Egypt, and to have given the Egyptians their laws and alphabet: he it is whom the Egyptians call Theyt". The most likely interpretation of this passage is as two variants on the same syncretism of Greek Hermes and Egyptian Thoth (or sometimes other gods): the fourth (where Hermes turns out "actually" to have been a "son of the Nile," i.e. a native god) being viewed from the Egyptian perspective, the fifth (who went from Greece to Egypt) being viewed from the Greek-Arcadian perspective. Both of these early references in Cicero (most ancient Trismegistus material is from the early centuries AD) corroborate the view that Thrice-Great Hermes originated in Hellenistic Egypt through syncretism between Greek and Egyptian gods (the Hermetica refer most often to Thoth and Amun).The Hermetic literature among the Egyptians, which was concerned with conjuring spirits and animating statues, inform the oldest Hellenistic writings on Greco-Babylonian astrology and on the newly developed practice of alchemy. In a parallel tradition, Hermetic philosophy rationalized and systematized religious cult practices and offered the adept a means of personal ascension from the constraints of physical being. This latter tradition has led to the confusion of Hermeticism with Gnosticism, which was developing contemporaneously.As a divine source of wisdom, Hermes Trismegistus was credited with tens of thousands of highly esteemed writings, which were reputed to be of immense antiquity. Plato's Timaeus and Critias state that in the temple of Neith at Sais there were secret halls containing historical records which had been kept for 9,000 years. Clement of Alexandria was under the impression that the Egyptians had forty-two sacred writings by Hermes, writings that detailed the training of Egyptian priests. Siegfried Morenz has suggested, in Egyptian Religion: "The reference to Thoth's authorship... is based on ancient tradition; the figure forty-two probably stems from the number of Egyptian nomes, and thus conveys the notion of completeness." The Neo-Platonic writers took up Clement's "forty-two essential texts".The Hermetica is a category of papyri containing spells and initiatory induction procedures. The dialogue called the Asclepius (after the Greek god of healing) describes the art of imprisoning the souls of demons or of angels in statues with the help of herbs, gems, and odors, so that the statue could speak and engage in prophecy. In other papyri, there are recipes for constructing such images and animating them, such as when images are to be fashioned hollow so as to enclose a magic name inscribed on gold leaf.Sayyid Ahmed Amiruddin has pointed out that Hermes Trismegistus has a major place in Islamic tradition. He writes, "Hermes Trismegistus is mentioned in the Quran in verse 19:56-57:'Mention, in the Book, Idris, that he was truthful, a prophet. We took him up to a high place'". The Jabirian corpus contains the oldest documented source for the Emerald Tablet of Hermes Trismegistus, translated by Jābir ibn Hayyān (Geber) for the Hashemite Caliph of Baghdad Harun al-Rashid the Abbasid. Jābir ibn Hayyān, a Shiite, identified as Jābir al-Sufi, was a student of Ja'far al-Sadiq, Husayn ibn 'Ali's great grandson. Thus, for the Abbasid's and the Alid's, the writings of Hermes Trismegistus were considered sacred, as an inheritance from the Ahl al-Bayt. These writings were recorded by the Ikhwan al-Safa, and subsequently translated from Arabic into Persian, Turkish, Hebrew, Russian, and English. In these writings, Hermes Trismegistus is identified as Idris, the infallible Prophet who traveled to outer space from Egypt, and to heaven, whence he brought back Adam and the Black Stone when he landed on earth in India.According to ancient Arab genealogists, Muhammad the Prophet, who is also believed to have traveled to the heavens on the night of Isra and Mi'raj, is a direct descendant of Hermes Trismegistus. Ibn Kathir said, "As for Idris...He is in the genealogical chain of the Prophet Muhammad, except according to one genealogist...Ibn Ishaq says he was the first who wrote with the Pen. There was a span of 380 years between him and the life of Adam. Many of the scholars allege that he was the first to speak about this, and they call him Thrice-Great Hermes [Hermes Trismegistus]".Ahmad al-Buni considered himself a follower of the hermetic teachings; and his contemporary Ibn Arabi mentioned Hermes Trismegistus in his writings. The Futūḥāt al-Makkiyya of Ibn Arabi speaks of Hermes's travels to "vast cities (outside earth), possessing technologies far superior then ours"[28] and meeting with the Twelfth Imam, the Ninth (generation) from the Third (al-Husayn the third Imam) (referring here to the Masters of Wisdom from the Emerald Tablet), who also ascended to the heavens, and is still alive like his ancestor Hermes Trismegistus".A late Arabic writer wrote of the Sabaeans that their religion had a sect of star worshipers who held their doctrine to come from Hermes Trismegistus through the prophet Adimun.Antoine Faivre, in The Eternal Hermes (1995), has pointed out that Hermes Trismegistus has a place in the Islamic tradition, although the name Hermes does not appear in the Qur'an. Hagiographers and chroniclers of the first centuries of the Islamic Hegira quickly identified Hermes Trismegistus with Idris,[31] the nabi of surahs 19.57 and 21.85, whom the Arabs also identified with Enoch (cf. Genesis 5.18–24). Idris/Hermes was termed "Thrice-Wise" Hermes Trismegistus because he had a threefold origin. The first Hermes, comparable to Thoth, was a "civilizing hero", an initiator into the mysteries of the divine science and wisdom that animate the world; he carved the principles of this sacred science in hieroglyphs. The second Hermes, in Babylon, was the initiator of Pythagoras. The third Hermes was the first teacher of alchemy. "A faceless prophet," writes the Islamicist Pierre Lory, "Hermes possesses no concrete or salient characteristics, differing in this regard from most of the major figures of the Bible and the Quran." A common interpretation of the representation of "Trismegistus" as "thrice great" recalls the three characterizations of Idris: as a messenger of god, or a prophet; as a source of wisdom, or hikmet (wisdom from hokmah); and as a king of the world order, or a "sultanate". These are referred to as müselles bin ni'me.Imad Jafar, in his essay "Enoch in the Islamic Tradition", writes:The lore that developed around Idrīs’ legendary gnosis led to him being further identified with Hermes Trismegistus (Hirmīs) ... whereby Muslims began to acknowledge Idrīs as the founder of alchemy as well..In the Illuminationistic philosophy of the renowned Persian Islamic sage and saint Suhrawardī (c. 1154-1191), Idrīs was revered fundamentally as the teacher of the ancient sages amongst the Hindus, Persians, Babylonians, Egyptians, and Greeks up to the time of Aristotle.... When these Greco-Alexandrian wisdom sciences and the gnostic lore of the Sabaeans of Harrān – who regarded Hermes as their prophet and his writings as their scriptures – spread amongst the Islamic community, Idrīs was immediately identified ... with the founder of Hermeticism ... Mulla Sadra (1571-1636), one of the greatest Muslim sages of the later period, who said: "Know that Wisdom (hikmah) began originally with Adam and his progeny Seth, Hermes, who is Idrīs, and Noah, because the world is never deprived of a person upon whom the science of Unity and eschatology rests. And it is the greatest Hermes who propagated it (hikmah) throughout the regions of the world and different countries manifested it and made it emanate upon the ‘true worshipers’. He is indeed the ‘Father of philosophers’ and the master of those who are the masters of the sciences".

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hermes_Trismegistus

This photo was ranked amongst the "World's Best Photo of Malaysia"

 

LARGER

Comments: If you plant a seed...nurture, water..care for it throughout its life...you will reap the harvest...barring ill health, bad weather or things you can't control. I've seen many tired farmers with a satisfied smile ..and some looking very depressed. Life is like that. Why would any art be different?

 

Ibn al-'Arabi: “Everything we call other than God, everything we call the universe, is related to the Divine Being as the shadow to the person. The world is God's shadow. . . . The shadow is at once God and something other than God. Everything we perceive is the Divine Being in the eternal hexeities of the possibles.”

 

Gears: Nikon D50 and AF Zoom-Nikkor 70-300mm f/4-5.6G lens

Location: Tok Jembal Beach, Kuala Terengganu, Malaysia

Processing: Not processed, just cropped to get aspect ratio

 

For most of my film works, I've also put up a new gallery on Leica User Group HERE

  

La religión del Amor

sigo a donde se encamine

su caravana,que amor

es mi doctrina y mi fe.

 

Ibn Arabi

 

رسائل ابن عربي (جلد اول) جو كه باره رسائل پر مشتمل هے يه پهلے پهل حيدر آباد دكن سے شائع هوئے تھے ۔ اردو زبان ميں پهلي مرتبه ابن عربي فاونڈيشن نے انهيں ترجمه كرنے كي سعادت حاصل كي ۔

After a lengthy renovation, Cruyllas Castle of Calatabiano (situated between the Alcantara Valley and Etna and not far from Taormina and Naxos) is ready to welcome its visitors thanks to its splendid panorama Between the walls of the castle is enclosed the entire history of the Mediterranean. A procession of populations and cultures who, battling for strategic control of the area by way of the stronghold, have all contributed to the development and enlargement during the course of the centuries: from the Sicels to the Greeks, from the Byzantines to the Arabs; from the Normans to the Suebi/Suevi, until the settlement of the Cruyllas, in the Aragon period, during which the castle was at its maximum splendor.

 

Il castello di Calatabiano, in provincia di Catania, al confine settentrionale della provincia etnea, sorge su una collina alta 220 m s.l.m. e domina la foce dell’Alcantara. Qui il fiume segna il confine tra Catania e Messina. Ai piedi del castello l’attuale abitato sorto a valle dopo l’abbandono della terra vecchia a seguito del disastroso terremoto di Val di Noto del 1693. La prima documentazione certa relativa al castello di Calatabiano si rileva da una carta della Sicilia in cui il geografo e viaggiatore arabo Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Idris (1099 1164) rappresentava l’Isola e i suoi sistemi fortificati. La carta tratta dal “Libro di Ruggero”, presso la cui corte il geografo prestava i suoi servigi, rappresenta l’Isola capovolta secondo la consuetudine araba. Qui il massiccio dell’Etna appare sul lato sinistro ed è lambito dai due fiumi Simeto e Alcantara. Proprio lungo le sponde del fiume Al-kantar (il ponte) appaiono rappresentate due fortezze speculari Tauromenion e Kalaat-al Bian. Ricostruito su preesistenti capisaldi greci e romani. Non sappiamo che nome avesse all’epoca bizantina il maniero che gli arabi, dopo la conquista, avrebbero chiamato: Kalaat-al-Bian, (Rocca di Biano).

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7QLdlvfEYo

 

www.castellodicalatabiano.it/

"When a person does not know that he isHow can he comprehend the eternityAnd reach the possessor of no beginnings…" Ibn Arabi

♫ ♪♫ Passage At Dusk ♪♫ ♪

San Giorgio | Venezia | Italia

 

"Quand tu te couches n'aie dans ton cœur rien de mauvais à l'égard de qui que ce soit, ni rancune, ni haine."

Ibn Arabi

Wonder,

A garden among the flames!

 

My heart can take on any form:

A meadow for gazelles,

A cloister for monks,

For the idols, sacred ground,

Ka'ba for the circling pilgrim,

The tables of the Torah,

The scrolls of the Quran.

 

My creed is Love;

Wherever its caravan turns along the way,

That is my belief,

My faith.

 

Ibn Arabi

In the very centre of Hell, condemned for committing the ultimate sin (personal treachery against God), is the Devil, referred to by Virgil as Dis (the Roman god of the underworld; the name "Dis" was often used for Pluto in antiquity, such as in Virgil's Aeneid). The arch-traitor, Lucifer was once held by God to be fairest of the angels before pride caused his rebellion against God and resulted in his expulsion from Heaven. Lucifer is a giant, terrifying beast trapped waist-deep in the ice, fixed and suffering. He has three faces, each a different color: one red (the middle), one a pale yellow (the right), and one black (the left):

... he had three faces: one in front bloodred;

and then another two that, just above

the midpoint of each shoulder, joined the first;

and at the crown, all three were reattached;

the right looked somewhat yellow, somewhat white;

the left in its appearance was like those

who come from where the Nile, descending, flows.

Dorothy L. Sayers notes that Satan's three faces are thought by some to suggest his control over the three human races: red for the Europeans (from Japheth), yellow for the Asiatic (from Shem), and black for the African (the race of Ham). All interpretations recognize that the three faces represent a fundamental perversion of the Trinity: Satan is impotent, ignorant, and full of hate, in contrast to the all-powerful, all-knowing, and all-loving nature of God.Lucifer retains his six wings (he originally belonged to the angelic order of Seraphim, described in Isaiah 6:2), but these are now dark, bat-like, and futile: the icy wind that emanates from the beating of Lucifer's wings only further ensures his own imprisonment in the frozen lake. He weeps from his six eyes, and his tears mix with bloody froth and pus as they pour down his three chins. Each face has a mouth that chews eternally on a prominent traitor. Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus dangle with their feet in the left and right mouths, respectively, for their involvement in the assassination of Julius Caesar (March 15, 44 BC) – an act which, to Dante, represented the destruction of a unified Italy and the killing of the man who was divinely appointed to govern the world.In the central, most vicious mouth is Judas Iscariot, the apostle who betrayed Christ. Judas is receiving the most horrifying torture of the three traitors: his head is gnawed inside Lucifer's mouth while his back is forever flayed and shredded by Lucifer's claws. According to Dorothy L. Sayers, "just as Judas figures treason against God, so Brutus and Cassius figure treason against Man-in-Society; or we may say that we have here the images of treason against the Divine and the Secular government of the world."

At about 6:00 P.M. on Saturday evening, Virgil and Dante begin their escape from Hell by clambering down Satan's ragged fur, feet-first. When they reach Satan's navel, the poets pass through the center of the universe and of gravity from the Northern Hemisphere of land to the Southern Hemisphere of water. When Virgil changes direction and begins to climb "upward" towards the surface of the Earth at the antipodes, Dante, in his confusion, initially believes they are returning to Hell. Virgil indicates that the time is halfway between the canonical hours of Prime (6 a.m.) and Terce (9 a.m.) – that is, 7:30 A.M of the same Holy Saturday which was just about to end. Dante is confused as to how, after about an hour and a half of climbing, it is now apparently morning. Virgil explains that as a result of passing through the Earth's center into the Southern Hemisphere, which is twelve hours ahead of Jerusalem, the central city of the Northern Hemisphere (where, therefore, it is currently 7:30 P.M.).

Virgil goes on to explain how the Southern Hemisphere was once covered with dry land, but the land recoiled in horror to the north when Lucifer fell from Heaven and was replaced by the ocean. Meanwhile, the inner rock Lucifer displaced as he plunged into the center of the earth rushed upwards to the surface of the Southern Hemisphere to avoid contact with him, forming the Mountain of Purgatory. This mountain – the only land mass in the waters of the Southern Hemisphere – rises above the surface at a point directly opposite Jerusalem. The poets then ascend a narrow chasm of rock through the "space contained between the floor formed by the convex side of Cocytus and the underside of the earth above,"moving in opposition to Lethe, the river of oblivion, which flows down from the summit of Mount Purgatory. The poets finally emerge a little before dawn on the morning of Easter Sunday (April 10, 1300 A.D.) beneath a sky studded with stars (Canto XXXIV).

The Inferno tells the journey of Dante through Hell, guided by the ancient Roman poet Virgil. In the poem, Hell is depicted as nine concentric circles of suffering located within the Earth; it is the "realm ... of those who have rejected spiritual values by yielding to bestial appetites or violence, or by perverting their human intellect to fraud or malice against their fellowmen." As an allegory, the Divine Comedy represents the journey of the soul toward God, with the Inferno describing the recognition and rejection of sin

The poem begins on the night before Good Friday in the year 1300, "halfway along our life's path" (Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita). Dante is thirty-five years old, half of the biblical life expectancy of 70 (Psalms 89:10, Vulgate), lost in a dark wood (understood as sin), assailed by beasts (a lion, a leopard, and a she-wolf) he cannot evade, and unable to find the "straight way" (diritta via) – also translatable as "right way" – to salvation (symbolized by the sun behind the mountain). Conscious that he is ruining himself and that he is falling into a "low place" (basso loco) where the sun is silent ('l sol tace), Dante is at last rescued by Virgil, and the two of them begin their journey to the underworld. Each sin's punishment in Inferno is a contrapasso, a symbolic instance of poetic justice; for example, fortune-tellers have to walk with their heads on backwards, unable to see what is ahead, because that was what they had tried to do in life:

they had their faces twisted toward their haunches

and found it necessary to walk backward,

because they could not see ahead of them.

... and since he wanted so to see ahead,

he looks behind and walks a backward path.

Allegorically, the Inferno represents the Christian soul seeing sin for what it really is, and the three beasts represent three types of sin: the self-indulgent, the violent, and the malicious.These three types of sin also provide the three main divisions of Dante's Hell: Upper Hell, outside the city of Dis, for the four sins of indulgence (lust, gluttony, avarice, anger); Circle 7 for the sins of violence; and Circles 8 and 9 for the sins of malice (fraud and treachery). Added to these are two unlike categories that are specifically spiritual: Limbo, in Circle 1, contains the virtuous pagans who were not sinful but were ignorant of Christ, and Circle 6 contains the heretics who contradicted the doctrine and confused the spirit of Christ. The circles number 9, with the addition of Satan completing the structure of 9 + 1 = 10.

 

Purgatorio

Having survived the depths of Hell, Dante and Virgil ascend out of the undergloom, to the Mountain of Purgatory on the far side of the world. The Mountain is on an island, the only land in the Southern Hemisphere, created by the displacement of rock which resulted when Satan's fall created Hell[18] (which Dante portrays as existing underneath Jerusalem[19]). The mountain has seven terraces, corresponding to the seven deadly sins or "seven roots of sinfulness."The classification of sin here is more psychological than that of the Inferno, being based on motives, rather than actions. It is also drawn primarily from Christian theology, rather than from classical sources.However, Dante's illustrative examples of sin and virtue draw on classical sources as well as on the Bible and on contemporary events.Love, a theme throughout the Divine Comedy, is particularly important for the framing of the sin on the Mountain of Purgatory. While the love that flows from God is pure, it can become sinful as it flows through humanity. Humans can sin by using love towards improper or malicious ends (Wrath, Envy, Pride), or using it to proper ends but with love that is either not strong enough (Sloth) or love that is too strong (Lust, Gluttony, Greed). Below the seven purges of the soul is the Ante-Purgatory, containing the Excommunicated from the church and the Late repentant who died, often violently, before receiving rites. Thus the total comes to nine, with the addition of the Garden of Eden at the summit, equaling ten.Allegorically, the Purgatorio represents the Christian life. Christian souls arrive escorted by an angel, singing In exitu Israel de Aegypto. In his Letter to Cangrande, Dante explains that this reference to Israel leaving Egypt refers both to the redemption of Christ and to "the conversion of the soul from the sorrow and misery of sin to the state of grace." Appropriately, therefore, it is Easter Sunday when Dante and Virgil arrive.The Purgatorio is notable for demonstrating the medieval knowledge of a spherical Earth. During the poem, Dante discusses the different stars visible in the southern hemisphere, the altered position of the sun, and the various timezones of the Earth. At this stage it is, Dante says, sunset at Jerusalem, midnight on the River Ganges, and sunrise in Purgatory.

 

Islamic philosophy

In 1919, Professor Miguel Asín Palacios, a Spanish scholar and a Catholic priest, published La Escatología musulmana en la Divina Comedia ("Islamic Eschatology in the Divine Comedy"), an account of parallels between early Islamic philosophy and the Divine Comedy. Palacios argued that Dante derived many features of and episodes about the hereafter from the spiritual writings of Ibn Arabi and from the Isra and Mi'raj or night journey of Muhammad to heaven. The latter is described in the Hadith and the Kitab al Miraj (translated into Latin in 1264 or shortly before as Liber Scalae Machometi, "The Book of Muhammad's Ladder"), and has significant similarities to the Paradiso, such as a sevenfold division of Paradise,[39] although this is not unique to the Kitab al Miraj.

Some "superficial similarities" of the Divine Comedy to the Resalat Al-Ghufran or Epistle of Forgiveness of Al-Ma'arri have also been mentioned in this debate. The Resalat Al-Ghufran describes the journey of the poet in the realms of the afterlife and includes dialogue with people in Heaven and Hell, although, unlike the Kitab al Miraj, there is little description of these locations,and it is unlikely that Dante borrowed from this work.Dante did, however, live in a Europe of substantial literary and philosophical contact with the Muslim world, encouraged by such factors as Averroism ("Averrois, che'l gran comento feo" Commedia, Inferno, IV, 144, meaning "Averrois, who wrote the great comment") and the patronage of Alfonso X of Castile. Of the twelve wise men Dante meets in Canto X of the Paradiso, Thomas Aquinas and, even more so, Siger of Brabant were strongly influenced by Arabic commentators on Aristotle. Medieval Christian mysticism also shared the Neoplatonic influence of Sufis such as Ibn Arabi. Philosopher Frederick Copleston argued in 1950 that Dante's respectful treatment of Averroes, Avicenna, and Siger of Brabant indicates his acknowledgement of a "considerable debt" to Islamic philosophy.

Although this philosophical influence is generally acknowledged, many scholars have not been satisfied that Dante was influenced by the Kitab al Miraj. The 20th century Orientalist Francesco Gabrieli expressed skepticism regarding the claimed similarities, and the lack of evidence of a vehicle through which it could have been transmitted to Dante. Even so, while dismissing the probability of some influences posited in Palacios' work,Gabrieli conceded that it was "at least possible, if not probable, that Dante may have known the Liber scalae and have taken from it certain images and concepts of Muslim eschatology". Shortly before her death, the Italian philologist Maria Corti pointed out that, during his stay at the court of Alfonso X, Dante's mentor Brunetto Latini met Bonaventura de Siena, a Tuscan who had translated the Kitab al Miraj from Arabic into Latin. Corti speculates that Brunetto may have provided a copy of that work to Dante.René Guenon, in The Esoterism of Dante, rejected the influence of Ibn Arabi (direct or indirect) on Dante.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inferno_(Dante)

After a lengthy renovation, Cruyllas Castle of Calatabiano (situated between the Alcantara Valley and Etna and not far from Taormina and Naxos) is ready to welcome its visitors thanks to its splendid panorama Between the walls of the castle is enclosed the entire history of the Mediterranean. A procession of populations and cultures who, battling for strategic control of the area by way of the stronghold, have all contributed to the development and enlargement during the course of the centuries: from the Sicels to the Greeks, from the Byzantines to the Arabs; from the Normans to the Suebi/Suevi, until the settlement of the Cruyllas, in the Aragon period, during which the castle was at its maximum splendor.

 

Il castello di Calatabiano, in provincia di Catania, al confine settentrionale della provincia etnea, sorge su una collina alta 220 m s.l.m. e domina la foce dell’Alcantara. Qui il fiume segna il confine tra Catania e Messina. Ai piedi del castello l’attuale abitato sorto a valle dopo l’abbandono della terra vecchia a seguito del disastroso terremoto di Val di Noto del 1693. La prima documentazione certa relativa al castello di Calatabiano si rileva da una carta della Sicilia in cui il geografo e viaggiatore arabo Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Idris (1099 1164) rappresentava l’Isola e i suoi sistemi fortificati. La carta tratta dal “Libro di Ruggero”, presso la cui corte il geografo prestava i suoi servigi, rappresenta l’Isola capovolta secondo la consuetudine araba. Qui il massiccio dell’Etna appare sul lato sinistro ed è lambito dai due fiumi Simeto e Alcantara. Proprio lungo le sponde del fiume Al-kantar (il ponte) appaiono rappresentate due fortezze speculari Tauromenion e Kalaat-al Bian. Ricostruito su preesistenti capisaldi greci e romani.

Non sappiamo che nome avesse all’epoca bizantina il maniero che gli arabi, dopo la conquista, avrebbero chiamato: Kalaat-al-Bian, (Rocca di Biano).

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7QLdlvfEYo

 

www.castellodicalatabiano.it/

The Shaykh Mohideen Mosque against Jabal (Mountain) Qassiyoun, Damascus.

The mosque holds the tomb of the scholar Ibn Arabi.

What are the rights of the husband and what are the rights of the wife?

what are a wife's rights on her husband according the Quran and Sunnah? or what are a husbands duties to his wife and viceversa?

 

Praise be to Allaah.

 

Islam has enjoined upon the husband duties towards his wife, and vice versa, and among these duties are some which are shared by both husband and wife.

We will mention – by the help of Allaah – some of the texts of the Qur’aan and Sunnah which have to do with the duties of the spouses towards one another, quoting also from the commentaries and views of the scholars.

 

Firstly:

The RIGHTS OF THE WIFE WHICH ARE HERS ALONE:

 

The wife has financial rights over her husband, which are the mahr (dowry), spending and accommodation.

And she has non-financial rights, such as fair division between co-wives, being treated in a decent and reasonable manner, and not being treated in a harmful way by her husband.

1. Financial rights

 

(a) The mahr (dowry). This is the money to which the wife is entitled from her husband when the marriage contract is completed or when the marriage is consummated. It is a right which the man is obliged to pay to the woman. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And give to the women (whom you marry) their Mahr (obligatory bridal-money given by the husband to his wife at the time of marriage) with a good heart” [al-Nisaa’ 4:4]

The prescription of the mahr demonstrates the seriousness and importance of the marriage-contract, and is a token of respect and honour to the woman.

The mahr is not a condition or essential part of the marriage-contract, according to the majority of fuqahaa’; rather it is one of the consequences of the contract. If the marriage-contract is done without any mention of the mahr, it is still valid, according to the consensus of the majority, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“There is no sin on you, if you divorce women while yet you have not touched (had sexual relation with) them, nor appointed unto them their Mahr (bridal-money given by the husband to his wife at the time of marriage)” [al-Baqarah 2:236]

The fact that divorce is permitted before consummation of the marriage or before stipulating the mahr indicates that it is permissible not to stipulate the mahr in the marriage-contract.

If the mahr is stipulated, it becomes obligatory upon the husband; if it is not stipulated, then he must give the mahr that is given to women of similar status to his wife.

 

(b) Spending. The scholars of Islam are agreed that it is obligatory for husbands to spend on their wives, on the condition that the wife make herself available to her husband. If she refuses him or rebels, then she is not entitled to that spending.

The reason why it is obligatory to spend on her is that the woman is available only to her husband, because of the marriage contract, and she is not allowed to leave the marital home except with his permission. So he has to spend on her and provide for her, and this is in return for her making herself available to him for his pleasure.

What is meant by spending is providing what the wife needs of food and accommodation. She has the right to these things even if she is rich, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“but the father of the child shall bear the cost of the mother’s food and clothing on a reasonable basis” [al-Baqarah 2:233]

“Let the rich man spend according to his means; and the man whose resources are restricted, let him spend according to what Allaah has given him” [al-Talaaq 65:7]

From the Sunnah:

The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to Hind bint ‘Utbah – the wife of Abu Sufyaan – who had complained that he did not spend on her: “Take what is sufficient for you and your children, on a reasonable basis.”

It was narrated that ‘Aa’ishah said: “Hind bint ‘Utbah, the wife of Abu Sufyaan, entered upon the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, Abu Sufyaan is a stingy man who does not spend enough on me and my children, except for what I take from his wealth without his knowledge. Is there any sin on me for doing that?’ The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, ‘Take from his wealth on a reasonable basis, only what is sufficient for you and your children.’” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 5049; Muslim, 1714)

It was narrated from Jaabir that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said in his Farewell Sermon:

“Fear Allah concerning women! Verily you have taken them on the security of Allah, and intercourse with them has been made lawful unto you by words of Allah. You too have rights over them, and that they should not allow anyone to sit on your bed [i.e., not let them into the house] whom you do not like. But if they do that, you can chastise them but not severely. Their rights upon you are that you should provide them with food and clothing in a fitting manner” (Narrated by Muslim, 1218)

 

(c) Accommodation. This is also one of the wife’s rights, which means that her husband should prepare for her accommodation according to his means and ability. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Lodge them (the divorced women) where you dwell, according to your means” [al-Talaaq 65:6]

2. Non-financial rights

(i) Fair treatment of co-wives. One of the rights that a wife has over her husband is that she and her co-wives should be treated equally, if the husband has other wives, with regard to nights spent with them, spending and clothing.

(ii) Kind treatment. The husband must have a good attitude towards his wife and be kind to her, and offer her everything that may soften her heart towards him, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“and live with them honourably” [al-Nisaa’ 4:19]

“And they (women) have rights (over their husbands as regards living expenses) similar (to those of their husbands) over them (as regards obedience and respect) to what is reasonable” [al-Baqarah 2:228]

From the Sunnah:

It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘Be kind to women.’”(Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 3153; Muslim, 1468).

There follow examples of the kind treatment of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) towards his wives – for he is the best example:

1. It was narrated from Zaynab bint Abi Salamah that Umm Salamah said: “I got my menses when I was lying with the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) under a single woollen sheet. I slipped away and put on the clothes I usually wore for menstruation. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said to me, ‘Have you got your menses?’ I said, ‘Yes.’ Then he called me and made me lie with him under the same sheet.”

She said: And she told me that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to kiss her when he was fasting, and the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and I used to do ghusl to cleanse ourselves from janaabah from one vessel.(Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 316; Muslim, 296)

2. It was narrated that ‘Urwah ibn al-Zubayr said: “ ‘Aa’ishah said: ‘By Allaah, I saw the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) standing at the door of my apartment when the Abyssinians were playing with their spears in the Mosque of the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). He covered me with his cloak so that I could watch their games, then he stood there for my sake until I was the one who had had enough. So you should appreciate the fact that young girls like to have fun.’” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 443; Muslim, 892)

3. It was narrated from ‘Aa’ishah the Mother of the Believers (may Allaah be pleased with her) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) used to pray sitting down; he would recite Qur’aan when he was sitting down, then when there were thirty or forty aayahs left, he would stand up and recite them standing up. Then he did rukoo’, then sujood; then he would do likewise in the second rak’ah. When he had finished his prayer, he would look, and if I was awake he would talk with me, and if I was asleep he would lie down.

(Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1068)

 

(c) Not harming one’s wife.

This is one of the basic principles of Islam. Because harming others is haraam in the case of strangers, it is even more so in the case of harming one’s wife.

It was narrated from ‘Ubaadah ibn al-Saamit that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) ruled, “There should be no harming nor reciprocating harm.” (Narrated by Ibn Maajah,, 2340)

This hadeeth was classed as saheeh by Imaam Ahmad, al-Haakim, Ibn al-Salaah and others. See Khalaasat al-Badr al-Muneer, 2/438.

Among the things to which the Lawgiver drew attention in this matter is the prohibition of hitting or beating in a severe manner.

It was narrated from Jaabir that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said in his Farewell Sermon:

“Fear Allah concerning women! Verily you have taken them on the security of Allah, and intercourse with them has been made lawful unto you by words of Allah. You too have rights over them, and that they should not allow anyone to sit on your bed [i.e., not let them into the house] whom you do not like. But if they do that, you can chastise them but not severely. Their rights upon you are that you should provide them with food and clothing in a fitting manner” (Narrated by Muslim, 1218)

 

Secondly:

THE HUSBAND’S RIGHTS OVER HIS WIFE:

 

The rights of the husband over his wife are among the greatest rights; indeed his rights over her are greater than her rights over him, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And they (women) have rights (over their husbands as regards living expenses) similar (to those of their husbands) over them (as regards obedience and respect) to what is reasonable, but men have a degree (of responsibility) over them [al-Baqarah 2:228]

al-Jassaas said: Allaah tells us in this aayah that each of the spouses has rights over the other, and that the husband has one particular right over his wife which she does not have over him.

Ibn al-‘Arabi said: this text states that he has some preference over her with regard to rights and duties of marriage.

These rights include:

 

(a)The obligation of obedience. Allaah has made the man a qawwaam (protector and maintainer) of the woman by commanding, directing and taking care of her, just as guardians take care of their charges, by virtue of the physical and mental faculties that Allaah has given only to men and the financial obligations that He has enjoined upon them. Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allaah has made one of them to excel the other, and because they spend (to support them) from their means” [al-Nisaa’ 4:34]

‘Ali ibn Abi Talhah said, narrating from Ibn ‘Abbaas: “Men are the protectors and maintainers of women” means, they are in charge of them, i.e., she should obey him in matters of obedience that Allaah has enjoined upon her, and obey him by treating his family well and taking care of his wealth. This was the view of Muqaatil, al-Saddi and al-Dahhaak.(Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 1/492)

 

(b) Making herself available to her husband. One of the rights that the husband has over his wife is that he should be able to enjoy her (physically). If he marries a woman and she is able to have intercourse, she is obliged to submit herself to him according to the contract, if he asks her. That is after he gives her the immediate mahr, and gives her some time – two or three days, if she asks for that – to sort herself out, because that is something that she needs, and because that is not too long and is customary.

If a wife refuses to respond to her husband’s request for intercourse, she has done something haraam and has committed a major sin, unless she has a valid shar’i excuse such as menses, obligatory fasting, sickness, etc.

It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: “The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: ‘When a man calls his wife to his bed and she refuses, and he went to sleep angry with her, the angels will curse her until morning.’” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 3065; Muslim, 1436)

 

(c)Not admitting anyone whom the husband dislikes. One of the rights that the husband has over his wife is that she should not permit anyone whom he dislikes to enter his house.

It was narrated from Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “It is not permitted for a woman to fast when her husband is present without his permission, or to admit anyone into his house without his permission. And whatever she spends (in charity) of his wealth without his consent, ….” (Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 4899; Muslim, 1026)

 

It was narrated from Sulaymaan ibn ‘Amr ibn al-Ahwas: my father told me that he was present at the Farewell Pilgrimage (Hujjat al-Wadaa’) with the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him). He [the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him)] praised and glorified Allaah, then he preached a sermon and said: “Treat women kindly, for they are prisoners and you have no other power over them than that, if they are guilty of open lewdness, then refuse to share their beds, and hit them, but not severely. But if they return to obedience, (then) do not seek means (of annoyance) against them. You have rights over your women and your women have rights over you. Your rights over your women are that they should not let anyone whom you dislike sit on your bed and they should not let anyone whom you dislike enter your house. Their rights over you are that you should feed and clothe them well.”

(Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 1163 – he said this is a saheeh hasan hadeeth. Also narrated by Ibn Maajah, 1851)

It was narrated that Jaabir said: [the Prophet] (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said:

“Fear Allah concerning women! Verily you have taken them on the security of Allah, and intercourse with them has been made lawful unto you by words of Allah. You too have rights over them, and that they should not allow anyone to sit on your bed [i.e., not let them into the house] whom you do not like. But if they do that, you can chastise them but not severely. Their rights upon you are that you should provide them with food and clothing in a fitting manner” (Narrated by Muslim, 1218)

 

(d) Not going out of the house except with the husband’s permission. One of the rights of the husband over his wife is that she should not go out of the house except with his permission.

The Shaafa’is and Hanbalis said: she does not have the right to visit (even) her sick father except with the permission of her husband, and he has the right to prevent her from doing that… because obedience to the husband is obligatory, and it is not permitted to neglect an obligatory action for something that is not obligatory.

 

(e) Discipline. The husband has the right to discipline his wife if she disobeys him in something good, not if she disobeys him in something sinful, because Allaah has enjoined disciplining women by forsaking them in bed and by hitting them, when they do not obey.

The Hanafis mentioned four situations in which a husband is permitted to discipline his wife by hitting her. These are: not adorning herself when he wants her to; not responding when he calls her to bed and she is taahirah (pure, i.e., not menstruating); not praying; and going out of the house without his permission.

The evidence that it is permissible to discipline one's wife includes the aayahs (interpretation of the meaning):

“As to those women on whose part you see ill conduct, admonish them (first), (next) refuse to share their beds, (and last) beat them (lightly, if it is useful)” [al-Nisaa’ 4:34]

“O you who believe! Ward off yourselves and your families against a Fire (Hell) whose fuel is men and stones” [al-Tahreem 66:6]

Ibn Katheer said:

Qutaadah said: you should command them to obey Allaah, and forbid them to disobey Allaah; you should be in charge of them in accordance with the command of Allaah, and instruct them to follow the commands of Allaah, and help them to do so. If you see any act of disobedience towards Allaah, then stop them from doing it and rebuke them for that.

This was also the view of al-Dahhaak and Muqaatil: that the duty of the Muslim is to teach his family, including his relatives and his slaves, that which Allaah has enjoined upon them and that which He has forbidden them. (Tafseer Ibn Katheer, 4/392)

 

(f) The wife serving her husband. There is a great deal of evidence (daleel) for this, some of which has been mentioned above.

Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah said:

She is obliged to serve her husband according to what is reasonable among people of similar standing. That varies according to circumstances: the way in which a Bedouin woman serves (her husband) will not be like the way of a town-dweller, and the way of a strong woman will not be like the way of a weak woman. (al-Fataawa al-Kubraa, 4/561)

 

(g) Submitting herself to him. Once the conditions of the marriage-contract have been fulfilled and it is valid, then the woman is obliged to submit herself to her husband and allow him to enjoy her (physically), because once the contract is completed, he is allowed in return to enjoy her, and the wife is entitled to the compensation which is the mahr.

 

(h) The wife should treat her husband in a good manner, because Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning):

“And they (women) have rights (over their husbands as regards living expenses) similar (to those of their husbands) over them (as regards obedience and respect) to what is reasonable” [al-Baqarah 2:228]

Al-Qurtubi said:

It was also narrated from him – i.e., Ibn ‘Abbaas – that this means: they have the right to good companionship and kind and reasonable treatment from their husbands just as they are obliged to obey the commands of their husbands.

And it was said that they have the right that their husbands should not harm them, and their husbands have a similar right over them. This was the view of al-Tabari.

Ibn Zayd said: You should fear Allaah concerning them just as they should fear Allaah concerning you.

The meanings are similar, and the aayah includes all of that in the rights and duties of marriage.(Tafseer al-Qurtubi, 3/123-124)

 

And Allaah knows best.

Sheikh Muhammed Salih Al-Munajjid

 

*found a link on you tube for your enjoyment; in this clip he appears in the last segment; I have seen nd heard this genius at a private Flamenco party some years ago; never forgotten him, painted him umpteen times; several posted on flickr

youtu.be/d_gPy2jHwyQ

Parmi les grands compagnons, doués de connaissance et de prodiges, détenteurs des hauts degrés de sainteté, l'élite de l'élite, se trouve Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi Damraoui (qu’Allah l’agrée), originaire de Taza au Maroc.

    

Sidi Mohamed Ibn ‘Arabi était celui qui servait d'intermédiaire à Seïdina Ahmed Tijani (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret), au début, lorsque celui-ci voulait parler au Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui). Ceci en raison de la grande pudeur qui l'habitait.

    

Ceci est la marque des grands saints de la communauté qui utilisaient toujours un intermédiaire entre eux et le Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui) dans leurs demandes, car ils ne pouvaient lui adresser la parole et oubliaient tout en sa présence.

    

Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée), malgré son jeune âge, rencontrait souvent le Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui) à l'état de veille. Sidi Abdelaoui (qu’Allah l’agrée) a raconté que Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée) rencontrait le Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui) vingt-quatre fois en une journée. Le Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui) recommandait à Seïdina (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret)(qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret) te les a envoyés pour toi. » Elle sortit et trouva sur des peaux une grande quantité de miel. Elle avait l'habitude de flatter son mari auprès des femmes du quartier au point que celles-ci faisaient jalouser leurs maris par leurs potins, jusqu'à ce que cela soit la cause de sa mort.

    

Le fils de Seïdina (qu’Allah l’agrée) a raconté que Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée) avait des plantations et quand celles-ci avaient besoin d'eau, les nuages se formaient et venaient arroser le champ qui lui appartenait sans arroser les terrains avoisinants. Cela fait partie des grâces extraordinaires de nos maîtres les Walis.

    

Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée) a eu des problèmes avec des chefs de tribu, ceux-ci se mirent d'accord pour le capturer et combattre tous ceux qui s'opposeraient à leur volonté. Quand ils arrivèrent à 'Ain Madhi, ils ne laissèrent d'autre choix à leurs habitants que de leur livrer Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée) sous peine de détruire tout le village sans rien épargner. Or ils étaient si nombreux qu'ils ne pouvaient les repousser.

    

Les habitants de 'Ain Madhi l'enjoignirent à se rendre auprès de ceux qui le recherchaient et selon ce qu'Allah (qu’Il soit Glorifié et Exalté) aurait destiné. Celui-ci ne releva même pas sa tête et se mit à tracer sur la terre avec son doigt quelque chose qui ressemblait à une écriture, puis il a pris un petit morceau de papier et dessina des lettres, il le déchira en deux et jeta le tout dans la direction de ceux qui étaient venus le capturer. Les deux morceaux s'envolèrent et se réunirent, et en accord avec la destinée d'Allah (qu’Il soit Glorifié et Exalté), la troupe se querella les uns avec les autres et ils se battirent entre eux. Leur union se brisa et leur hostilité perdura.

    

Sidi Ahmed Abdelaoui (qu’Allah l’agrée) a dit que Sidi Mohammed Ibn ‘Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée), à cause de la force de son ouverture enviait et désirait arriver au degré qui était réservé à Seïdina (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret), malgré son jeune âge. Il lui écrivit une lettre dans laquelle il lui révéla qu'il avait vu une station (Maqam) se situant entre la Prophétie et celui des Pôles, qu'on ne peut pas hériter et qui est réservée à une seule personne de cette communauté.

    

Il lui avoua qu'il l'enviait lui-même, mais qu'il n'osait pas le demander au Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui) au cas où cette station ne lui serait pas réservée et par crainte que tout lui soit ôté. En effet, il fut informé que cela était réservé à Seïdina Ahmed Tijani (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret) et il se précipita pour l'informer de cette grâce immense.

    

Sidi Mohammed ibn ‘Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée) demanda à Seïdina (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret) de lui donner, en récompense de cette nouvelle, le mérite de dix fois Ismou Allah El A'dham, de dix fois la Salat el Fatihi et dix fois la récompense de Miftahoul Qoutbaniya. Car il constata qu'une seule parole d’évocation prononcée par Seïdina (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret) dépasse ce qu’il ferait, lui, ses enfants et ses ancêtres pendant soixante-dix ans.

    

Parmi les récits qui furent rapportés par les gens de confiance il est ceci : un groupe était parti visiter Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée). Parmi eux se trouvait Sidi Mohammed Ibn Mechri (qu’Allah l’agrée) et le Connaissant ('Arif) Sidi Hajj 'Ali Tamacini (qu’Allah l’agrée) et d'autres, ils lui posèrent la question suivante : « Lorsque les bêtes meurent entrent-elles au paradis ou non ? »

    

II se dit : « Ils ont pensé que j'étais un sage or j'étais stupide, mais celui qui m’aime malgré ma stupidité entrera au paradis et celui qui me déteste entrera en enfer. J'étais perplexe face à leur question et je ne savais quoi leur répondre jusqu'à ce que je rencontre le Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui) et l'interroge sur cela.

    

Il me dit que parmi elles, il en est qui entrent au paradis, celles des prophètes et messagers, des saints et celles qui meurent durant le combat ainsi que celles sur lesquelles on fait le Hajj et toutes celles qui meurent sur la voie d'Allah (qu’Il soit Glorifié et Exalté). Pour elles, il est un Paradis qui n'est pas celui des êtres doués de raison, il est sans construction et il est rempli de la végétation qu'elles aiment et désirent. »

    

Sidi Mohammed Ibn ‘Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée) est mort à 'Ain Madhi (Algérie) à l'âge de 28 ans et n'a laissé que deux filles comme progéniture dans cette ville. Il est mort quelques mois avant que Seïdina (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret) s'en aille pour Fès. Sa tombe, qui se trouve à 'Aïn Madhi, est célèbre et très visitée pour la baraka.

    

Source: www.tidjaniya.com/tijani-compagnons-damraoui.php

    

English--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    

Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi Damraui (May ALLAH be satisfied with him)

    

Amongst the great companions endowed with knowledge and wonders, holding the highest levels of sainthood – considered as the elite of the elite, stood Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi Damraoui (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) who was originally from Taza in Morocco.

    

At first, Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi Damraoui was acting as go-between for Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) when the latter, because of his great decency, wanted to speak to the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him). It is a mark of the great saints of the community who always used an intermediary between them and the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) in their requests because they forgot all things in his noble presence and so could not speak to him. Despite his young age, Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) often met the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) in waking state. Sidi Abdelaoui (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) reported that Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) used to meet the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) twenty-four times a day. The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) recommended Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) to take care of him.

    

During his stay in Boussemghoune, Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) often travelled to Taza to meet his companion and student, the great Knower of ALLAH, Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) because at that time he was one of his greatest companions and among his beloved. Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was taking care of him more and more as recommended by The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him). Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) used to visit him very often during his lifetime and after his death to such an extent that it was not necessary to mention it in the book "Djawahirou-l-Ma'ani". Seyidina Ahmed Tidjani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) said: "The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) told me to take care of Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) and told me that the latter one had rights over me". He also said that Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was a Cherif from Idmar Dachara in the region of Taza. Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) had a lot of favours and the most important of them was that the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) had assured him that he loved him. He was the intermediary between the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) and Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) by the consent of the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) himself. When Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) died, Seyidina Ahmed Tidjani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) replaced him by the great Caliph Sidi Hajj 'Ali Harazim (May ALLAH be satisfied with him), complying with, as always, the command of The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him).

    

Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was assassinated. When he moved to 'Aïn Madhi, he was attributed many virtues which people talked about. It became a subject of women discussions in the region and aroused jealousy of his enemies who encouraged someone to assassinate him.

    

Long before the horrible act, his murderer often used to pay him a visit and he used to ask him for prayers (dou'a) but Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) expelled him every time he came and told him: " Go away from me, O wrongdoer, son of wrongdoers! Enemies will encourage you to kill me." Indeed, it happened as he said.

    

One day, when Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was busy, that man came to him and and shot at him. He collapsed; the order of ALLAH (The Glorified and The Exalted) is a predestined decree. Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) knew by spiritual unveiling everything that was going to happen to him like the machinations of his enemies. Following the event, ALLAH (The Glorified and The Exalted) punished those who plotted against him as well as his murderer in a harsh way. Their group was scattered, their descendants have almost died out and those who survived in that region were completely ruined and shocked by horror of the consequence of ALLAH's intense revenge. May ALLAH (The Glorified and The Exalted) protect us from making the same mistake, i.e. standing against our masters, the Walis, because it undoubtedly leads on the road of ruin. ALLAH (The Glorified and The Exalted) said in a Qoudoussi hadith: "Whoever attacks one of My Walis, I will declare him war..." (Boukhari). After having heard his death, a Wali from Tunisia, who didn't belong to the Tariqa Tidjaniya, wanted to take his revenge on all the inhabitants of 'Aïn Madhi. Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) wrote him a letter to warn him against the consequences of such an act. So, a group of six persons among which the great erudite Sidi Muhammad Ibn Mechri (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was sent by Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) to carry him the message. It remained for him to comply with the orders by surrendering.

    

Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was the prodigy of his time for what he held in terms of secrets and knowledge. He received from the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him), both in dreams and waking states, what could astonish minds and could be noticed only by the greatest masters. One day, in a dream, he was given a poem by the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him). When he woke up, he saw the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) and asked him its comment. The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) explained him that it is thanks to the love and attachment to Seyidina Sheikh Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) that he got all these favours but, without this love, he would have never seen him. The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) ordered him to convey the poem and its commentary to Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him). The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) gave him also a prayer called The Pearl which contains huge benefits for the believers who recite it as it was said by the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) himself. Before meeting Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him), Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) belonged to the Tariqa Bel Ben 'Azouz. Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) had reported that The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) said: "Bel Ben 'Azouz is a demon of this community".

    

When Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) met Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him), he asked him the authorization to follow his Tariqa, having seen in him all the wonders. Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) considered him as his intimate, following the recommendations of The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him). Once, Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) sent his companion Sidi Hajj Mousaqam (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) to Taza with a horse to tell Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) to come and see him. Once he was there, Sidi Hajj Mousaqam (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) informed Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) about the message of Seyidina Sheikh (May ALLAH be satisfied with him). Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) got up right away to meet the obligation. During the trip, his horse died and he ordered the Rouhaniyoun (spiritual entities) to come in its body so that they could take him to Boussemghoune. On the way, his companion said: "O Master! The horse's smell is bothering me". Then, he ordered to hurry up. Once he arrived, he got off and the horse fell down and worms came out of it. Then, Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) met Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) who talked to him about secrets.

    

In each of his residences, Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (may ALLAH sanctify his precious secret) was reserving a room known as "Bayit Sirr" (room of the secret) and that, complying with the command of The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him). Indeed, in Boussemghoune, as in Ain Madhi, when Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (may ALLAH sanctify his precious secret) made his blessed house build, Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) convey that The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) said: "When the building of the house will be finished, reserve a room, named it "Bayit Sirr", perform your litanies and all I ordered you to do in it, and nobody else has the right to come in it but you, you will see the good and the blessing increase and you will reach all your goals."

    

This room was divided by wood plates. Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (may ALLAH sanctify his precious secret) was on one side while Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was on the other.

    

It was reported that one day while Sidi Muhammad ibn 'Arabi (May ALLAH be pleased with him) was doing his dhikr in the mentioned place a Rouhani came to him with a glass containing a drink of light so intense that it lit up the room where he was. The Rouhani said: "Drink!" But Sidi Muhammad ibn 'Arabi (May ALLAH be pleased with him) thought: "I would not like that somebody else than Seyidina Sheikh drinks this glass." Then he called Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (may ALLAH sanctify his precious secret) saying: "O my father" by repeating it from time to time, but Seyidina (may ALLAH sanctify his precious secret) did not answer because in that moment he was immersed in his dhikr. When he finished he finally answered him, and Sidi Muhammad ibn 'Arabi (ALLAH be pleased with him) said: "O my father, the Rouhani came to me with a glass and then I called you to send it to you. But as a long time passed, he left with it." Seyidina (may ALLAH sanctify his precious secret) said: "We are hopeful that ALLAH will bring it back to us."

    

Among all the favours of Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him), Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) said that, one day in Ain Madhi, the wife of Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) wanted some honey while it was not the season. But he used to never refuse what she wanted. However, given the circumstances, he apologized for not being able to meet her request but she didn't accept and insisted. Then, he said to her: "Go to the courtyard because Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) has sent it to you". She went out and found a lot of honey laid on skins. She used to flatter her husband when she was with the women of the neighborhood to such an extent that they made their husbands jealous by their gossips until it became the cause of Sidi Muhammad Ibn 'Arabi's death (May ALLAH be satisfied with him). The son of Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) narrated that Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) had plantations and when these had to be irrigated, clouds used to form and watered the field that belonged to him without watering the neighbours' ones. This is one of the extraordinary favours of our masters, the Walis.

Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) had some problems with tribal leaders because those ones decided to capture him and fight all those who will oppose their will. When they arrived in Ain Madhi, they left no other choice for the inhabitants than handing Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) over, otherwise they will destroy the whole village, and they were so numerous that the residents of Ain Madhi couldn't do anything. So the inhabitants asked Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) to hand over and to accept ALLAH's decree. Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) didn't even raise the head (to reply) and began to draw on the ground with his finger something like writing. Then, he took a little piece of paper and drew letters, then he torn it into two pieces and threw it in the direction of the enemies. The two little pieces flew away and congregate and according to ALLAH's decree, the enemies fought among themselves. Their union was broken and the hostility between them remained.

    

Sidi Ahmed Abdelaoui (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) reported that because of the strength of its spiritual opening (Fath), Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) envied and desired to reach the level that was exclusively reserved to Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) despite his young age. He wrote a letter to Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) in which he revealed that he saw a station (Maqam) that was between the Prophet and the Poles but it was not inheritable and reserved to one person in this community. He acknowledged that he envied that station but he dared not ask it to the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) in case that station wasn't reserved for him and fearing to lose everything. Indeed, he was informed that it was reserved for Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) and he went to inform him about this huge favour. Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) asked Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) to give him, as a reward for the good news, the merit of ten times Ismou ALLAH El A'dham, ten times Salat el Fatihi and ten times Miftahoul Qoutbaniya. He asked it because he had noticed that a single word of Zikr of Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) exceeded what he would do himself and his ancestors and his children during seventy years.

    

Among the stories reported by trustworthy people, there is the one of a group of people who paid a visit to Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) one day. Among them were Sidi Muhammad Ibn Mechri (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) and the Knower of ALLAH Sidi Hajj 'Ali Tamacini (May ALLAH be satisfied with him). They asked him: "When animals die, do they go to paradise or not?" Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) thought: "They thought I was a wise man but I was stupid. But those who love me despite my stupidity will go to paradise and those who hate me will go to hellfire. I was confused with that question and I didn't know what to answer them until I met the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) and asked him. He (Peace and blessings be upon him) told me that there are some of the animals that go to paradise, precisely those of the Prophets, The Messengers, The Saints, those that died in the war and those with which going on pilgrimage is performed and all those that died in the way of ALLAH (The Glorified and The Exalted).They have a Paradise which is different from the thinking beings and which is full of vegetation they love and desire".

    

Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) died in 'Ain Madhi at the age of 28 and left only two daughters in that town. He died a few months before Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) went to Fes. His grave which is located in 'Ain Madhi is well-known and is frequently visited for its baraka.

 

www.tidjaniya.com/en/tijani-companions-damraui.php

Parmi les grands compagnons, doués de connaissance et de prodiges, détenteurs des hauts degrés de sainteté, l'élite de l'élite, se trouve Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi Damraoui (qu’Allah l’agrée), originaire de Taza au Maroc.

    

Sidi Mohamed Ibn ‘Arabi était celui qui servait d'intermédiaire à Seïdina Ahmed Tijani (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret), au début, lorsque celui-ci voulait parler au Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui). Ceci en raison de la grande pudeur qui l'habitait.

    

Ceci est la marque des grands saints de la communauté qui utilisaient toujours un intermédiaire entre eux et le Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui) dans leurs demandes, car ils ne pouvaient lui adresser la parole et oubliaient tout en sa présence.

    

Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée), malgré son jeune âge, rencontrait souvent le Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui) à l'état de veille. Sidi Abdelaoui (qu’Allah l’agrée) a raconté que Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée) rencontrait le Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui) vingt-quatre fois en une journée. Le Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui) recommandait à Seïdina (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret)(qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret) te les a envoyés pour toi. » Elle sortit et trouva sur des peaux une grande quantité de miel. Elle avait l'habitude de flatter son mari auprès des femmes du quartier au point que celles-ci faisaient jalouser leurs maris par leurs potins, jusqu'à ce que cela soit la cause de sa mort.

    

Le fils de Seïdina (qu’Allah l’agrée) a raconté que Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée) avait des plantations et quand celles-ci avaient besoin d'eau, les nuages se formaient et venaient arroser le champ qui lui appartenait sans arroser les terrains avoisinants. Cela fait partie des grâces extraordinaires de nos maîtres les Walis.

    

Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée) a eu des problèmes avec des chefs de tribu, ceux-ci se mirent d'accord pour le capturer et combattre tous ceux qui s'opposeraient à leur volonté. Quand ils arrivèrent à 'Ain Madhi, ils ne laissèrent d'autre choix à leurs habitants que de leur livrer Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée) sous peine de détruire tout le village sans rien épargner. Or ils étaient si nombreux qu'ils ne pouvaient les repousser.

    

Les habitants de 'Ain Madhi l'enjoignirent à se rendre auprès de ceux qui le recherchaient et selon ce qu'Allah (qu’Il soit Glorifié et Exalté) aurait destiné. Celui-ci ne releva même pas sa tête et se mit à tracer sur la terre avec son doigt quelque chose qui ressemblait à une écriture, puis il a pris un petit morceau de papier et dessina des lettres, il le déchira en deux et jeta le tout dans la direction de ceux qui étaient venus le capturer. Les deux morceaux s'envolèrent et se réunirent, et en accord avec la destinée d'Allah (qu’Il soit Glorifié et Exalté), la troupe se querella les uns avec les autres et ils se battirent entre eux. Leur union se brisa et leur hostilité perdura.

    

Sidi Ahmed Abdelaoui (qu’Allah l’agrée) a dit que Sidi Mohammed Ibn ‘Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée), à cause de la force de son ouverture enviait et désirait arriver au degré qui était réservé à Seïdina (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret), malgré son jeune âge. Il lui écrivit une lettre dans laquelle il lui révéla qu'il avait vu une station (Maqam) se situant entre la Prophétie et celui des Pôles, qu'on ne peut pas hériter et qui est réservée à une seule personne de cette communauté.

    

Il lui avoua qu'il l'enviait lui-même, mais qu'il n'osait pas le demander au Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui) au cas où cette station ne lui serait pas réservée et par crainte que tout lui soit ôté. En effet, il fut informé que cela était réservé à Seïdina Ahmed Tijani (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret) et il se précipita pour l'informer de cette grâce immense.

    

Sidi Mohammed ibn ‘Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée) demanda à Seïdina (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret) de lui donner, en récompense de cette nouvelle, le mérite de dix fois Ismou Allah El A'dham, de dix fois la Salat el Fatihi et dix fois la récompense de Miftahoul Qoutbaniya. Car il constata qu'une seule parole d’évocation prononcée par Seïdina (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret) dépasse ce qu’il ferait, lui, ses enfants et ses ancêtres pendant soixante-dix ans.

    

Parmi les récits qui furent rapportés par les gens de confiance il est ceci : un groupe était parti visiter Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée). Parmi eux se trouvait Sidi Mohammed Ibn Mechri (qu’Allah l’agrée) et le Connaissant ('Arif) Sidi Hajj 'Ali Tamacini (qu’Allah l’agrée) et d'autres, ils lui posèrent la question suivante : « Lorsque les bêtes meurent entrent-elles au paradis ou non ? »

    

II se dit : « Ils ont pensé que j'étais un sage or j'étais stupide, mais celui qui m’aime malgré ma stupidité entrera au paradis et celui qui me déteste entrera en enfer. J'étais perplexe face à leur question et je ne savais quoi leur répondre jusqu'à ce que je rencontre le Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui) et l'interroge sur cela.

    

Il me dit que parmi elles, il en est qui entrent au paradis, celles des prophètes et messagers, des saints et celles qui meurent durant le combat ainsi que celles sur lesquelles on fait le Hajj et toutes celles qui meurent sur la voie d'Allah (qu’Il soit Glorifié et Exalté). Pour elles, il est un Paradis qui n'est pas celui des êtres doués de raison, il est sans construction et il est rempli de la végétation qu'elles aiment et désirent. »

    

Sidi Mohammed Ibn ‘Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée) est mort à 'Ain Madhi (Algérie) à l'âge de 28 ans et n'a laissé que deux filles comme progéniture dans cette ville. Il est mort quelques mois avant que Seïdina (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret) s'en aille pour Fès. Sa tombe, qui se trouve à 'Aïn Madhi, est célèbre et très visitée pour la baraka.

    

Source: www.tidjaniya.com/tijani-compagnons-damraoui.php

    

English--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    

Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi Damraui (May ALLAH be satisfied with him)

    

Amongst the great companions endowed with knowledge and wonders, holding the highest levels of sainthood – considered as the elite of the elite, stood Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi Damraoui (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) who was originally from Taza in Morocco.

    

At first, Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi Damraoui was acting as go-between for Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) when the latter, because of his great decency, wanted to speak to the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him). It is a mark of the great saints of the community who always used an intermediary between them and the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) in their requests because they forgot all things in his noble presence and so could not speak to him. Despite his young age, Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) often met the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) in waking state. Sidi Abdelaoui (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) reported that Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) used to meet the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) twenty-four times a day. The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) recommended Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) to take care of him.

    

During his stay in Boussemghoune, Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) often travelled to Taza to meet his companion and student, the great Knower of ALLAH, Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) because at that time he was one of his greatest companions and among his beloved. Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was taking care of him more and more as recommended by The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him). Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) used to visit him very often during his lifetime and after his death to such an extent that it was not necessary to mention it in the book "Djawahirou-l-Ma'ani". Seyidina Ahmed Tidjani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) said: "The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) told me to take care of Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) and told me that the latter one had rights over me". He also said that Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was a Cherif from Idmar Dachara in the region of Taza. Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) had a lot of favours and the most important of them was that the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) had assured him that he loved him. He was the intermediary between the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) and Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) by the consent of the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) himself. When Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) died, Seyidina Ahmed Tidjani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) replaced him by the great Caliph Sidi Hajj 'Ali Harazim (May ALLAH be satisfied with him), complying with, as always, the command of The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him).

    

Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was assassinated. When he moved to 'Aïn Madhi, he was attributed many virtues which people talked about. It became a subject of women discussions in the region and aroused jealousy of his enemies who encouraged someone to assassinate him.

    

Long before the horrible act, his murderer often used to pay him a visit and he used to ask him for prayers (dou'a) but Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) expelled him every time he came and told him: " Go away from me, O wrongdoer, son of wrongdoers! Enemies will encourage you to kill me." Indeed, it happened as he said.

    

One day, when Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was busy, that man came to him and and shot at him. He collapsed; the order of ALLAH (The Glorified and The Exalted) is a predestined decree. Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) knew by spiritual unveiling everything that was going to happen to him like the machinations of his enemies. Following the event, ALLAH (The Glorified and The Exalted) punished those who plotted against him as well as his murderer in a harsh way. Their group was scattered, their descendants have almost died out and those who survived in that region were completely ruined and shocked by horror of the consequence of ALLAH's intense revenge. May ALLAH (The Glorified and The Exalted) protect us from making the same mistake, i.e. standing against our masters, the Walis, because it undoubtedly leads on the road of ruin. ALLAH (The Glorified and The Exalted) said in a Qoudoussi hadith: "Whoever attacks one of My Walis, I will declare him war..." (Boukhari). After having heard his death, a Wali from Tunisia, who didn't belong to the Tariqa Tidjaniya, wanted to take his revenge on all the inhabitants of 'Aïn Madhi. Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) wrote him a letter to warn him against the consequences of such an act. So, a group of six persons among which the great erudite Sidi Muhammad Ibn Mechri (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was sent by Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) to carry him the message. It remained for him to comply with the orders by surrendering.

    

Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was the prodigy of his time for what he held in terms of secrets and knowledge. He received from the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him), both in dreams and waking states, what could astonish minds and could be noticed only by the greatest masters. One day, in a dream, he was given a poem by the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him). When he woke up, he saw the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) and asked him its comment. The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) explained him that it is thanks to the love and attachment to Seyidina Sheikh Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) that he got all these favours but, without this love, he would have never seen him. The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) ordered him to convey the poem and its commentary to Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him). The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) gave him also a prayer called The Pearl which contains huge benefits for the believers who recite it as it was said by the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) himself. Before meeting Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him), Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) belonged to the Tariqa Bel Ben 'Azouz. Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) had reported that The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) said: "Bel Ben 'Azouz is a demon of this community".

    

When Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) met Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him), he asked him the authorization to follow his Tariqa, having seen in him all the wonders. Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) considered him as his intimate, following the recommendations of The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him). Once, Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) sent his companion Sidi Hajj Mousaqam (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) to Taza with a horse to tell Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) to come and see him. Once he was there, Sidi Hajj Mousaqam (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) informed Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) about the message of Seyidina Sheikh (May ALLAH be satisfied with him). Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) got up right away to meet the obligation. During the trip, his horse died and he ordered the Rouhaniyoun (spiritual entities) to come in its body so that they could take him to Boussemghoune. On the way, his companion said: "O Master! The horse's smell is bothering me". Then, he ordered to hurry up. Once he arrived, he got off and the horse fell down and worms came out of it. Then, Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) met Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) who talked to him about secrets.

    

In each of his residences, Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (may ALLAH sanctify his precious secret) was reserving a room known as "Bayit Sirr" (room of the secret) and that, complying with the command of The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him). Indeed, in Boussemghoune, as in Ain Madhi, when Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (may ALLAH sanctify his precious secret) made his blessed house build, Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) convey that The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) said: "When the building of the house will be finished, reserve a room, named it "Bayit Sirr", perform your litanies and all I ordered you to do in it, and nobody else has the right to come in it but you, you will see the good and the blessing increase and you will reach all your goals."

    

This room was divided by wood plates. Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (may ALLAH sanctify his precious secret) was on one side while Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was on the other.

    

It was reported that one day while Sidi Muhammad ibn 'Arabi (May ALLAH be pleased with him) was doing his dhikr in the mentioned place a Rouhani came to him with a glass containing a drink of light so intense that it lit up the room where he was. The Rouhani said: "Drink!" But Sidi Muhammad ibn 'Arabi (May ALLAH be pleased with him) thought: "I would not like that somebody else than Seyidina Sheikh drinks this glass." Then he called Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (may ALLAH sanctify his precious secret) saying: "O my father" by repeating it from time to time, but Seyidina (may ALLAH sanctify his precious secret) did not answer because in that moment he was immersed in his dhikr. When he finished he finally answered him, and Sidi Muhammad ibn 'Arabi (ALLAH be pleased with him) said: "O my father, the Rouhani came to me with a glass and then I called you to send it to you. But as a long time passed, he left with it." Seyidina (may ALLAH sanctify his precious secret) said: "We are hopeful that ALLAH will bring it back to us."

    

Among all the favours of Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him), Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) said that, one day in Ain Madhi, the wife of Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) wanted some honey while it was not the season. But he used to never refuse what she wanted. However, given the circumstances, he apologized for not being able to meet her request but she didn't accept and insisted. Then, he said to her: "Go to the courtyard because Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) has sent it to you". She went out and found a lot of honey laid on skins. She used to flatter her husband when she was with the women of the neighborhood to such an extent that they made their husbands jealous by their gossips until it became the cause of Sidi Muhammad Ibn 'Arabi's death (May ALLAH be satisfied with him). The son of Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) narrated that Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) had plantations and when these had to be irrigated, clouds used to form and watered the field that belonged to him without watering the neighbours' ones. This is one of the extraordinary favours of our masters, the Walis.

Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) had some problems with tribal leaders because those ones decided to capture him and fight all those who will oppose their will. When they arrived in Ain Madhi, they left no other choice for the inhabitants than handing Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) over, otherwise they will destroy the whole village, and they were so numerous that the residents of Ain Madhi couldn't do anything. So the inhabitants asked Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) to hand over and to accept ALLAH's decree. Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) didn't even raise the head (to reply) and began to draw on the ground with his finger something like writing. Then, he took a little piece of paper and drew letters, then he torn it into two pieces and threw it in the direction of the enemies. The two little pieces flew away and congregate and according to ALLAH's decree, the enemies fought among themselves. Their union was broken and the hostility between them remained.

    

Sidi Ahmed Abdelaoui (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) reported that because of the strength of its spiritual opening (Fath), Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) envied and desired to reach the level that was exclusively reserved to Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) despite his young age. He wrote a letter to Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) in which he revealed that he saw a station (Maqam) that was between the Prophet and the Poles but it was not inheritable and reserved to one person in this community. He acknowledged that he envied that station but he dared not ask it to the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) in case that station wasn't reserved for him and fearing to lose everything. Indeed, he was informed that it was reserved for Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) and he went to inform him about this huge favour. Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) asked Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) to give him, as a reward for the good news, the merit of ten times Ismou ALLAH El A'dham, ten times Salat el Fatihi and ten times Miftahoul Qoutbaniya. He asked it because he had noticed that a single word of Zikr of Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) exceeded what he would do himself and his ancestors and his children during seventy years.

    

Among the stories reported by trustworthy people, there is the one of a group of people who paid a visit to Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) one day. Among them were Sidi Muhammad Ibn Mechri (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) and the Knower of ALLAH Sidi Hajj 'Ali Tamacini (May ALLAH be satisfied with him). They asked him: "When animals die, do they go to paradise or not?" Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) thought: "They thought I was a wise man but I was stupid. But those who love me despite my stupidity will go to paradise and those who hate me will go to hellfire. I was confused with that question and I didn't know what to answer them until I met the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) and asked him. He (Peace and blessings be upon him) told me that there are some of the animals that go to paradise, precisely those of the Prophets, The Messengers, The Saints, those that died in the war and those with which going on pilgrimage is performed and all those that died in the way of ALLAH (The Glorified and The Exalted).They have a Paradise which is different from the thinking beings and which is full of vegetation they love and desire".

    

Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) died in 'Ain Madhi at the age of 28 and left only two daughters in that town. He died a few months before Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) went to Fes. His grave which is located in 'Ain Madhi is well-known and is frequently visited for its baraka.

 

www.tidjaniya.com/en/tijani-companions-damraui.php

on the day of parting they did not saddle the full-grown reddish-white camels untilthey had mounted the peacocks upon them

peacocks with murderous glances and sovereign power

thugh wouldst fancy that each of them was a bilqis on her throne of pearls

when she walks on the glass pavement

thou seest a sun on a celestial sphere in the bosom of idris

when she kills with her glances

her speech restores to life

as though she

in giving life thereby

were jesus

the smooth surface of her legs is like the tora in brightness

and i followed it

and tread in its footsteps

as though i were moses

she is a bishopess

one of the daughters of rome

unadorned

thou seest in her a radiant goodness

wild is she

none can make her his friend

she has gotten in her solitery chamber a mausoleum for remenbrace

she has baffled everyone who is learned in our religion

every student of the psalms of david

every jewish doctor

and every christin priest

if with a gesture he demands the gospel

though wouldst deem us to be priests and patriachs and deacons

the day when they departe on the raod

i prepared for war with the armies of my patience

host after host

when my soul reached the throat

when i was at the point of death

i besought that beauty ant that grace to grant me relief

and she yielded

may god preserve us from her evil

and may the victorious king repel iblis

i exclaimed

when her camel set out to depart

o driver of the reddish-white camels

do not drive them away with her.......

 

Ibn 'Arabi's

"Gentle Now, Doves of the Thornberry and Moringa Thicket"

(ālā yā hamāmāti l-arākati wa l-bāni)

 

After sleep, she is languor.

The house exudes her fragrance.

She adorns it

when she appears in the morning,

As if her anklets and ivory

were entwined around a calotrope

stopping the water's flow

in the bed of a wadi,

Her buttocks like a dune

over which a rain shower falls

matting the sand

as it sprinkles down

Her hair-fall

over the lower curve of her back,

soft as the moringa's gossamer flowers,

curled with pins and combed,

With long cheek hollows

where tears flow,

and a lengthened curve at the breast sash

where it crosses and falls.

You see her ear pendant

along the exposed ridge of her neck,

swaying-out,

dangling over the abyss.

With a red thornberry tooth-twig,

fragrant as musk and Indian ambergris

brought in in the morning,

she reveals

Petals of a camomile

cooled by the night

to which the dew has risen at evening

from Ráma oasis,

Wafting in on all sides

with the earth scent of the garden,

redolent as a musk pod

falling open.

The white gleam of her teeth,

her immoderate laugh,

almost to the unhearing

speak secrets.

She is the cure, she the disease..

  

Expérience et doctrine de l'amour chez Ibn Arabî

"Par Dieu, j'éprouve de l'amour à un point tel que, me semble-t-il, les cieux se disloqueraient, lesétoiles s'affaisseraient, les montagnes s'ébranleraient si je leur en confiais la charge [1] : telle est mon expérience de l'amour..." [2] Attribuerais-je cette citation à Rûmî ou à Ruzbehân Baqlî, nul n'en serait surpris: l'un et l'autre sont unanimement reconnus pour être parmi les plus illustres représentants de la "voie d'amour" au sein de la tradition mystique d'islam. Mais, c'est dans les Futûhât makkiyya, cette oeuvre dont Massignon dénonçait le "ton impassible et glacé" [3] que surgit ce cri d'un coeur embrasé. Massignon avait tout lu; sans doute a-t-il connu ce texte mais, si son regard s'y est attardé quelques instants, il n'y aura probablement vu qu'un artifice littéraire. Ibn Arabî n'est pour lui qu'un dialecticien hautain et sec et rien n'a jamais pu le convaincre de revenir sur cette opinion professée dès sa jeunesse. L'auteur des Fusûs est certes aussi celui du Turjumân al-ashwâq; mais ce recueil de poèmes est-il autre chose qu'un hapax dans l'étendue aride d'un gigantesque corpus d'abstractions? Corbin s'est appliqué à démontrer qu'il n'en était rien. A-t-il été entendu? On constate en tous cas qu'Ibn Arabî est toujours présenté dans des travaux récents comme le représentant en islam d'une mystique spéculative qui s'oppose à celle dont Rûmî est le plus célèbre exemple. Un de ses traducteurs, qu'on aurait pu espérer plus avisé, l'a accusé il y a peu d'"impérialisme métaphysique" [4] . Un excellent chercheur américain, William Chittick, a consacré à Rûmî et à Ibn Arabî de savantes monographies. Or il est significatif que la première s'intitule "The Sufi Path of Love" et la seconde "The Sufî Path of Knowledge".

 

Sans nier qu'il y ait, entre le Mathnavî et les Futûhât, de considérables différences d'accent, on perçoit dans ces dichotomies l'écho de vieux débats qui ne sont pas étrangers au monde de la chrétienté latine. Dans l'itinerarium in deum, à laquelle des puissances revient le rôle essentiel? Est-ce à la volonté, d'où procède l'amour ou à l'intellect dont procède la connaissance? Il y a quelques décennies encore, de vives polémiques s'engagèrent sur l'interprétation correcte d'un adage que Guillaume de Saint-Thierry avait repris à Saint Grégoire le Grand: amor ipse intellectus est. Parmi les spécialistes de la mystique rhéno-flamande- et d'abord chez les auteurs mêmes qui illustrent ce puissant courant médiéval- les controverses sont nombreuses entre partisans d'une "mystique de l'Essence" (Wesenmystik) assez suspecte, et ceux d'une "Mystique nuptiale" (Brautmystik) plus rassurante. Au dix-septième siècle, l'"école abstraite"- celle de Benoît de Canfield ou du jeune Bérulle- souleva elle aussi bien des inquiétudes. Lorsqu'après un long parcours souterrain l'oeuvre d'Eckhart refit surface, à la fin du dix-neuvième siècle, elle fut l'objet- en premier lieu chez ses frères dominicains- d'appréciations étonnamment semblables à celles qui furent souvent réservées à Ibn Arabî.

 

Comparer les Traités et Sermons du Thuringien avec le Cantique des créatures ou les écrits d'Angèle de Foligno a-t-il un sens? Ce qui est sûr c'est que s'agissant d'Ibn Arabî, ses écrits ne laissent subsister aucun doute quant au fait que l'opposition entre une voie d'amour et une voie de connaissance est, dans son cas, dénuée de pertinence. Encore faut-il les lire sans idée préconçue; la sympathie non dissimulée de Massigon pour Hallâj dont le "martyre", pour reprendre son expression, évoque fortement la Passion et, de façon plus générale, celle de certains spécialistes occidentaux à l'égard de mystiques musulmans en la spiritualité desquels ils décèlent certaines affinités avec la tradition judéo-chrétienne est bien compréhensible. Elle ne doit pas faire oublier que dans le cadre de la tradition islamique, c'est le Prophète Muhammad- et lui seul- qui constitue l'exemplum, l'infaillible modèle que le pèlerin de Dieu se doit d'imiter au plus haut point. Cet axiome fonde et structure la doctrine hagiologique d'Ibn Arabî; il commande aussi son itinéraire spirituel.

 

La suite du texte où il déclare que le cosmos ne pourrait assumer le poids de son amour sous peine de s'effondrer apporte à cet égard une indication très éclairante:"Toutefois, précise-t-il, Dieu m'a consolidé en cette expérience de l'amour par la force que je tiens en héritage de celui qui est le 'chef des amoureux' (expression qui désigne, cela va sans dire, le Prophète de l'islam)". Un autre passage du même texte revient sur cet aspect, manifestement capital aux yeux d'Ibn Arabî, de l'expérience mystique de l'amour: "Dieu m'a donné une part surabondante de l'amour, mais Il m'a également donné de le dominer". En d'autres termes, si puissante que soit la grâce de l'amour qui le submerge, il n'en conserve pas moins la maîtrise des "états spirituels" qu'elle est susceptible d'engendrer: ivre d'amour donc, et malgré tout sobre.

 

S'il est une question qui a hanté les spirituels musulmans à compter du quatrième siècle de l'hégire, et plus exactement à dater du 24 dhu l-qa'da 309h./922, c'est bien celle qui touche à la notion de sukr, l'"ivresse spirituelle". Ce jour là, à Bagdad, Hallâj est exécuté sur la place publique. Quoique le procès qui a conduit à sa condamnation à mort soit aussi- peut-être même surtout- un procès politique, il n'en demeure pas moins que pour les soufis d'hier et d'aujourd'hui- et Ibn Arabî partage ce point de vue- Hallâj a péri pour avoir impudiquement dévoilé, sous l'emprise de l'ivresse, d'inviolables secrets. Aussi bien, sur la question de savoir si la "sobriété" est préférable à l'"ivresse" ou vice versa, la majorité des maîtres se prononcent en faveur de la première attitude tout en soulignant que le summum pour le spirituel est de conjuguer les deux, ou plus exactement, de réaliser l'i'tidâl, l'"équilibre" parfait entre ces deux pôles [5] . Ibn Arabî, on l'aura compris aux propos cités, adhère pleinement à cette doctrine commune du "juste milieu" que l'on ne doit jamais perdre de vue lorsqu'on aborde sa biographie spirituelle. Au vrai, l'examen de ses écrits en la matière fait apparaître que cette notion d'i'tidâl revêt une importance primordiale dans sa doctrine de l'expérience mystique de l'amour à son degré suprême.

 

Sur le thème de l'amour le maître andalou s'est exprimé à d'innombrables reprises, tantôt en des textes lyriques, tantôt en des exposés discursifs. Le Turjumân al-ashwâq, une large part du Diwân al-ma'ârif mais aussi de nombreux textes appartenant aux Tajalliyâtet au Tâj al-rasâ'il relèvent du premier genre et témoignent, en des termes souvent allusifs, de l'expérience personnelle de l'auteur en ce domaine. Leur lecture a au moins ceci d'instructif qu'elle montre que le shaykh al-akbar ne s'exprime pas en doctrinaire mais en témoin, shahîd. Cependant, ce sont bien évidemment les écrits de la seconde espèce, ceux qui constituent à proprement parler des énoncés doctrinaux qui retiendront ici mon attention [6] . Outre une série de chapitres figurant dans la section des Futûhât consacrée aux "états spirituels" (Fasl al-ahwâl) et dans laquelle sont notamment traités les thèmes de la "sobriété", de l'"ivresse" et de la "satiété" [7] , quatre des réponses au questionnaire de Tirmidhî exposent les idées maîtresses d'Ibn Arabî sur ce sujet [8] . D'importantes remarques figurent également dans les textes ayant trait à la notion de "beauté" (jamâl) dont nous allons voir qu'elle module du début à la fin la méditation d'Ibn Arabî sur l'amour divin. Enfin, le chapitre 178 des Futûhât, intitulé "De la connaissance de la station de l'amour et de ses secrets", développe amplement la question et c'est donc sur lui que se concentreront mes réflexions [9] .

 

Ce chapitre présente d'ailleurs une particularité qui, si elle est d'ordre stylistique, n'en n'est pas moins significative quant au sujet qui nous occupe: c'est celui des Futûhât qui contient le plus grand nombre de vers. Il va sans dire que le thème débattu, celui de l'amour, n'est pas étranger à cette promotion du langage poétique lequel, en libérant la parole des contraintes du discours organisé, est à même d'exprimer l'ineffable désir de Dieu. Et parce qu'il s'agit précisément d'une expérience qui relève de l'indicible, le shaykh al-akbar recourt souvent, pour en rendre compte, à l'image la plus universelle qui soit: celle de la "bien-aimée", dont le prénom, au demeurant, varie au fil de sa plume.

 

"J'ai un Bien-Aimé qui porte le nom de tous ceux qui ont un nom" , déclare-t-il à ce propos dans le Dîwân al-ma'ârif. Il est remarquable que ce vers soit celui qui ouvre la longue section de ce recueil recensant les odes, innombrables, où l'auteur clame sans plus de retenue la passion qui le consume. Il estd'ailleurs un vocable qui, sous diverses formes, hante cette longue série de poèmes: celui de hawâ' , "l'amour-passion", que l'auteur des Futûhât définit comme "une annihilation totale de la volonté en l'Aimé" .

 

Louange à Dieu qui a fait de l'amour (al- hawâ') un sanctuaire vers lequel marchent les coeurs des hommes dont l'éducation spirituelle est parfaite et une ka'ba autour de laquelle tournoient les secrets des poitrines des hommes de raffinement spirituel

notion de sequela dont on constate que sur cette question de l'amour comme sur toutes celles qui touchent à la vie spirituelle, elle commande la pédagogie initiatique d'Ibn Arabî. Il est significatif à cet égard que parmi les neufs vertus majeures qu'il retient d'entre toutes celles que mentionne le Coran comme étant propres à susciter immanquablement l'amour de Dieu, c'est l'ittibâ' al-nabîqu'il place en tête de liste, soulignant à ce propos qu'il implique, outre de suivre le Prophète dans l'observance de ce qui est légalement obligatoire, à savoir les farâ'id, de l'imiter aussi dans ce qui relève du surérogatoire, autrement dit les nawâfil et, partant, dans les "nobles vertus" qu'il a exemplifiées et dont la pratique, dès lors, ne saurait être regardée comme superfétatoire [51] . Il va sans dire que cette insistance sur les deux aspects majeurs que revêt le précepte de l'ittibâ'se fonde sur le hadîth déjà entrevu et selon lequel les deux modes d'accès à la proximité divine sont précisément la pratique des farâ'id d'une part, des nawâfil d'autre part; chacun d'eux correspondant chez Ibn Arabî, ainsi que l'a montré l'auteur du Sceau des saints [52] , à un degré éminent de réalisation spirituelle: celui qu'Ibn Arabî désigne sous le nom de 'ubûdiyya al-ikhtiyâr, le servage "librement consenti" s'agissant des nawâfil- l'accomplissement d'un acte non obligatoire impliquant un choix volontaire- et celui de la 'ubûdiyya al-idtirâr, le servage "imposé" s'agissant des farâ'id qui sont exécutés par simple obéissance [53] . Dans le premier cas de figure, le spirituel qui n'a pas entièrement renoncé à toute volonté propre entend faire prévaloir sa qualité de muhibb, "aimant", au sens fort du participe actif. Or l'amour, remarque Ibn Arabî, lorsqu'il est sincère et absolu, a pour effet que le muhibb s'identifie en fin de compte à celui dont il est "épris" au point d'assumer ses attributs [54] . D'où la théomorphose évoquée dans le hadîth : Dieu est l'ouïe du muhibb, sa vue, ses mains, etc. Transfiguré de la sorte par la grâce de l'amour, le spirituel voit le monde tel qu'il est au regard de l'Eternel, d'une éblouissante beauté tout comme il perçoit le murmure assourdissant des louanges que "toute chose", fût-elle apparemment inanimée, adresse au "Seigneur des mondes" (Cor. 17:44) [55] ; dès lors, il aime toutes les créatures, sans exclusion aucune, car en chacune d'elles il contemple le Bien-Aimé ("Où que vous vous tourniez, là est la face de Dieu" Cor. 2:115). C'est à cela, au demeurant, souligne Ibn Arabî que se reconnaît un homme qui aime véritablement Dieu [56] .

 

Rares sont les élus qui réalisent pleinement cette theomimesis; plus rares encore ceux qui atteignent la station supérieure, celle de la 'ubûdiyya al-idtirâr qui ressortit au faqr, à la "pauvreté" la plus absolue. En cette ultime demeure spirituelle, le gnostique est, selon l'expression d'Ibn Arabî, maqtûl, "tué", mort à lui-même et incapable par conséquent de la moindre volonté propre [57] . Sans doute est-il mahbûb, "aimé" de Dieu, encore qu'il ne le sache plus, mais non plus muhibb: dépris de toute chose, dépris de soi et de Dieu même qu'il a renoncé à posséder, il a recouvré le souverain détachement- au sens eckhartien du terme- qui était le sien lorsque, enclos dans le "trésor caché", il était sans se savoir être. En cette vacuité de la créature, Dieu peut enfin s'épancher à loisir et assumer en toute plénitude sa qualité de muhibb qui est sienne de toute éternité. C'est pourquoi, conclut, Ibn Arabî, c'est Lui, en ce cas, qui se revêt des attributs du saint, lequel est Son ouïe, Sa vue [58] .

 

Dans l'abaissement de l'homme "au plus bas des bas" (Cor. 95:5) s'accomplit donc la theosis, lorsque l'adéquation entre la'ubûdiyya de la créature et la rubûbiyya du Créateur est si totale que leur distinction s'efface. Il n'est donné qu'à l'Homme Parfait de connaître cette entière réciprocité, en vertu de laquelle il est le mithl, le "pareil" de Dieu en ce bas monde. Encore n'est-il lui-même que le "substitut" (nâ'ib) du Prophète qui, en raison de son insurpassable perfection, détient seul cette prérogative. Dans un passage du Kitâb al-hujub, Ibn Arabî va d'ailleurs jusqu'à identifier la personne du Prophète, ou, plus exactement, la "Réalité muhammadienne", avec l'amour en tant que celui-ci est le moteur de l'univers: "...[ L'amour] est le principe de l'existence et sa cause; il est le commencement du monde et ce qui le maintient et c'est Muhammad.[...] Car c'est à partir de la réalité (haqîqa) de ce Maître, sur lui la Grâce et la Paix, que se déploient les réalités supérieures et inférieures." [59] En d'autres termes, le Prophète est le barzakh par excellence, l'"isthme" où coïncident le haut et le bas; à l'image de Dieu qui se décrit comme "Le Premier et le Dernier, l'Apparent et le Caché" (Cor. 57:3) et dont il est le "suprême réceptacle" (al-majlâ al-a'zam) [60] , il est à la fois ceci et cela et pourtant ni ceci ni cela, d'où sa sublime perfection.

 

Au vrai, c'est un leitmotiv chez le shaykh al-akbar que d'affirmer que la perfection réside dans l'i'tidâl, le "juste milieu" en lequel demeure le spirituel parvenu au point culminant du détachement. Ainsi, le chapitre 243 des Futûhât consacré à la notion de perfection (kamâl) s'intitule de manière significative: "De la connaissance de la perfection qui est l'i'tidâl [61] ". Plus éloquent ce passage du Fihrist, où,à propos de son commentaire du Coran, Ibn Arabî indique avoir pris en compte, pour chaque verset, trois aspects: "En premier lieu, la station de la majesté (maqâm al-jalâl), en second lieu, la station de la beauté (al-jamâl), enfin la station de l'équilibre (i'tidâl) qui est l' "isthme" (barzakh) du point de vue de celui qui hérite de Muhammad et c'est la station de la perfection. [62] " Ailleurs encore, il déclare: "Celui qui se qualifie par la perfection n'incline jamais." [63] Et de le comparer une autre fois à l'"arbre béni" de la sourate al-Nûr (Cor. 24:35), qui "n'est ni oriental ni occidental" [64] . Il est intéressant de noter que cette allusion au statut à la fois vertical et équinoxial des plus parfaits d'entre les spirituels figure dans un texte des Tanazzulât mawsiliyya consacré à la salât al-wustâ, la "prière du milieu", généralement assimilée par les commentateurs à la prière du 'asr. Cette coïncidence n'a évidemment rien de fortuit: dans le chapitre des Futûhât correspondant à la demeure de la sourate al-'asr65] , il est également question de ce "juste milieu" qui préserve l'Homme Parfait de toute inclination spirituelle: "S'agissant du spirituel parfait, les Noms divins se contrecarrent mutuellementde sorte qu'ils n'exercent aucune influence sur lui; il demeure exempt de toute influence, avec l'Essence absolue que ni les Noms ni les Attributs ne conditionnent. Aussi le spirituel parfait atteint-il l'extrême sobriété (fî ghâyat al-sahw), à l'exemple des Envoyés." [66]

 

Sobre, le Prophète de l'islam le fut plus que tout autre. Du moins est-ce la conviction d'Ibn Arabî qui, en maintes occasions, souligne que l'Envoyé ne laissait rien paraître des grâces spirituelles que Dieu répandait en abondance sur lui; cette occultation des attributs de la sainteté constituant pour Ibn Arabî, on le sait, le signe de sa perfection spirituelle et la caractéristique majeure de ses héritiers, les malâmiyya, qu'il appelle aussi très souvent les "muhammadiens". Occultation et non dissimulation: le 'ârif n'a pas à dissimuler ses états spirituels; il les transcende, d'où sa sobriété. A l'exemple du messager de Dieu, il a choisi le lait plutôt que le vin, interdit ici-bas parce qu'il a le pouvoir d'annihiler l'intellect lequel, en ce cas, n'est plus en mesure d'opérer la distinction entre rabb et 'abd que les règles de convenance spirituelle (adab) impose de respecter en ce monde [67] . Le lait, en revanche, n'altère pas la conscience distinctive; il symbolise- selon l'interprétation qu'en fit le Prophète à la suite d'un songe [68] - la science que Dieu n'octroie qu'à ceux qu'Il aime [69] et dont le désir est toujours inassouvi et à jamais inassouvissable: plus Dieu les abreuve de connaissances, plus ils sont assoiffés, plus ils en réclament[70] .

 

"Détachement", "mort", "sobriété","science" autant de vocables qui pourraient donner à penser que le saint accompli, tel que le conçoit Ibn Arabî, est pareil à un bloc de granit, dur et froid. Rien ne serait plus faux. Certes, parvenu au plus près de Dieu, le spirituel est maqtûl. Toutefois, indique Ibn Arabî, mort par amour pour Dieu, il est mort en martyr71] . Il est donc suprêmement vivant puisque telle est la récompense promise par Dieu à ceux qui s'offrent à Lui. Détaché de toute chose, il n'en est que plus proche de ceux qui l'entourent, plus libre de les aimer. Quant à sa sobriété, elle n'est pas l'assèchement de celui qui n'a jamais connu les transports de l'amour dont elle est, tout au contraire, l'apothéose. Car c'est en vertu de cette sobriété que le spirituel peut jouir, post eventum, des connaissances qui, sans qu'il s'en rendît compte alors, fluaient sur lui tandis que Dieu l'enivrait de son amour au point de le ravir à lui-même; ce n'est qu'une fois revenu à lui même qu'il peut juger à bon escient ce qui, des secrets à lui révélés tandis qu'il se tenait auprès de son Seigneur, "à la distance de deux arcs ou plus près" (Cor. 53:9), doit être divulgué ou doit être tenu secret. La sobriété est en cela supérieure à l'ivresse qu'elle confère aux saints, et a fortiori aux messagers divins la basîra, la "clairevoyance" nécessaire à l'accomplissement de leur fonction de guidance.

EL AMOR UDRÍ EN AL-SIRÂJ IBN SUHAYD DE CÓRDOBA

(Breve estudio introductorio)

 

Nacido durante el dominio almohade de Al-Andalus, Al-Sirâj Ibn Suhayd de Córdoba (1161-1236) es considerado por los arabistas como uno de los continuadores más relevantes del modelo literario creado por el poeta Ibn Hazm. Al-Maqqari de Tremecen, historiador árabe del siglo XVII y compilador de la cultura andalusí, nos narra en su obra Nafh at-Tib diversos acontecimientos de su vida, entre ellos el descubrimiento de su vocación lírica tras la lectura de “El collar de la paloma” de su admirado maestro. Entre sus páginas va encontrando la esencia de las palabras que más tarde formarán las raíces de su propia poesía. Es por ello que, antes de adentrarnos en su figura, conviene traer a este estudio un extracto de las mismas para así acercar al lector a la que pudo ser su primera mirada poética:

“Difieren entre sí las gentes sobre la naturaleza del amor y hablan y no acaban sobre ella. Mi parecer es que consiste en la unión entre partes de almas que, en este mundo creado, andan divididas, en relación a como primero eran en su elevada esencia; pero no en el sentido en que lo afirma Muhammad Ibn Dawud cuando, respaldándose en la opinión de cierto filósofo, dice que son las almas esferas partidas, sino en el sentido de la mutua relación que sus potencias tuvieron en la morada de su altísimo mundo y de la vecindad que ahora tienen en la forma de su actual composición.

Sabemos todos que el secreto de la atracción o del desvío entre las cosas creadas está en la afinidad o repulsión que hay entre ellas, porque cada cosa busca siempre a su semejante, lo afín sólo en su afín sosiega, y esta comunidad de especie ejerce una acción que los sentidos perciben y una influencia que salta a la vista. La mutua antipatía entre los contrarios, la mutua simpatía entre los iguales, el ímpetu que enlaza a las cosas parejas entre sí, son cosas que hallamos bien patentes en nuestro mundo.

Si la causa del amor fuese no más que la belleza de la figura corporal, fuerza sería conceder que el que tuviera cualquier tacha en su figura no sería amado, y, por el contrario, a menudo vemos que hay quien prefiere alguien de inferior belleza con respecto a otros cuya superioridad reconoce, y que, sin embargo, no puede apartar de él su corazón. Y si dicha causa consistiese en la conformidad de los caracteres, no amaría el hombre a quién no le es propicio ni con él se concierta. Reconocemos, por tanto, que el amor es algo que radica en la misma esencia del alma.”

Al-Sirâj queda tan fascinado con este texto que tras su estudio decide dedicar su Vida a la búsqueda del amor puro a través de la poesía. Se forma junto al insigne Ibn Arabi y viaja, como él, por todo el mundo mediterráneo. Deja escritos diversos tratados filosóficos y religiosos que luego mandará traducir Alfonso X el Sabio en su escuela de Toledo. Sus versos siguen la misma senda del Amor Udrí que inicia Ibn Hazm y que luego continuaría Ibn Arabi. Son numerosos sus discípulos, entre los que destaca el sevillano Ibn Sahl. Muere en Fez unos días antes de que su ciudad natal fuera conquistada por las tropas del rey de Castilla Fernando III.

Su obra está marcada por una continua referencia a la tensión de los contrarios como empuje en la evolución de la Vida: luz frente a vacío, amor frente a miedo, belleza frente a miseria... Al igual que Ibn Arabi, defiende el principio de la Unidad de la Existencia, manifestando en todos sus escritos que, a pesar de nuestras diferencias, todos somos uno, pequeños fragmentos de la Divinidad de la que formamos parte indivisible. En su poesía es común la identificación con la persona amada, sirviendo de precedente -como también lo fueron los demás poetas que bebieron de la corriente Udrí- para el amor cortés provenzal. Manifiesta en repetidas ocasiones su creencia en el origen divino del amor, que personifica en los perfiles de la luz que muestran en cada gesto de la amada su esencia sagrada. En todos sus poemas se transparenta un sentido trágico de la Vida cuando ésta está tocada por el amor en su creación más sublime: la pasión desbordada y desbordante. Es por ello que se proyecta en su entorno, impregnándolo todo con los contrastes que modelan su sentimiento y con su visión del mundo dirigida únicamente hacia el otro enamorado. Para darle forma a sus textos concibe una métrica que rompe con los cánones establecidos en su época, haciendo que predomine el verso libre en la mayoría de sus composiciones.

Nos encontramos ante una poesía que se debate entre la pureza inalcanzable y el deseo insatisfecho. Porque nada importa salvo el amor, alrededor todo desaparece frente al vendaval desatado. Tal es así que el poeta sólo se reconoce en el aliento de la amada. Cualquier gesto es imperfecto salvo el acto de amar, que está por encima de la débil humanidad de los amantes. Al-Sirâj convierte así el amor en una religión y al poeta en un místico.

 

CÓRDOBA, OCTUBRE DE 2009.

 

www.rafaelpavonreina.blogspot.com

 

Por heterónimo se entiende el autor ficticio o pseudoautor que es también personaje y del que se valen ciertos autores reales, llamados ortónimos, para crear una obra literaria paralela o distinta a la suya.

En 1832 inició el levantamiento contra los franceses llamando a la Guerra Santa y puso sitio a Orán. Proclamado príncipe de los creyentes (amir) en 1832, prosiguió la guerra contra Francia hasta que en el Tratado de Tafna (1837) se le concedió el control de la provincia de Orán y una parte de la de Argel. En 1839 atacó Mitidja pero fue derrotado por las tropas francesas, que en 1843 completaron la ocupación de Argelia, que se prolongaría en el tiempo hasta 1962.

 

Refugiado en los confines de Marruecos intentó continuar la lucha, pero la derrota de su aliado, el sultán marroquí Abd al-Rahmán, en la batalla de Isly (1844) le forzó a entregarse a los franceses en 1847.

 

Fue internado en Francia, primero en Toulon, en Pau y en Amboise, hasta que en 1852 se le dio la libertad con honores. Durante este periodo escribió al-Mirad al-Hadd, un breve escrito donde defendía el Islam de los ataques de un cura. Partió hacia Asia Menor, residiendo primero en Bursa (1853) y luego en Damasco (1855). En esta ciudad residió hasta su muerte. De esta época han recogido los historiadores su actuación en las revueltas de los drusos, donde protegió a los cristianos de las matanzas (por lo que se le concedió la medalla de honor de la República Francesa) y su participación en la ceremonia de apertura del canal de Suez. Falleció en Damasco y fue enterrado junto a la tumba del maestro sufí andalusí Ibn Arabi, aunque sus restos fueron trasladados a Argelia en 1966 por petición de este país, donde es considerado un héroe nacional.

 

Su actividad durante el exilio en Siria se centró en la enseñanza de la teología y la práctica del sufismo. Dentro del sufismo sirio ocupa un lugar muy importante, pues, además de ser ser el reintroductor del estudio de la obra de Ibn Arabi en Siria, introdujo la rama darqawi de la shadhiliyya en la tierra del Sham.

 

La Parroquia Altagracia es una de las 32 parroquias que forman parte de Caracas y una de las 22 que se encuentran dentro del Municipio Libertador. Está ubicada al norte del centro histórico del Municipio Libertador. Limíta al norte con el Parque Nacional El Ávila; al sur con la Parroquia Catedral; al este con la Parroquia San José; y al oeste limíta con la Parroquia La Pastora.

La Parroquia Altagracia nace oficialmente en 1750, pasando a ser la segunda parroquia de Caracas, en 1889 pierde buena parte de su territorio al oeste cuando es creada la Parroquia La Pastora. Entre los edificios públicos más importantes se encuentran el Tribunal Supremo de Justicia, el Cuartel San Carlos, el Panteón Nacional, la Biblioteca Nacional de Venezuela, el Banco Central de Venezuela y los Ministerios de Finanzas y Educación. Entre los espacios públicos destacan la Plaza Las Mercedes, la Plaza Juan Pedro López, la Plaza José Martí y el Foro Libertador.

Las principales avenidas son la Urdaneta, Baralt y la Boyacá o Cota Mil.

Wonder,

A garden among the flames!

 

My heart can take on any form:

A meadow for gazelles,

A cloister for monks,

For the idols, sacred ground,

Ka'ba for the circling pilgrim,

The tables of the Torah,

The scrolls of the Quran.

 

My creed is Love;

Wherever its caravan turns along the way,

That is my belief,

My faith.

 

~ Ibn Arabi♥

Una curiosa foto, obtenida directamente de lo que se veía en el escenario (sin ningún tipo de manipulación fotográfica por mi parte... si cabe algo de mérito, es el haberlas hecho todas con unas condiciones dificilísimas de luz) durante el espectáculo que la compañía Producciones Viridiana ponía en escena en el Auditorio del Siete Colinas de Ceuta.

Se trata de la obra HABIBI (Amado), obra creada y dirigida por Jesús Arbués. En la misma se habla de la fusión entre el amante y el amado, utilizando para ello las palabras y los versos de los grandes maestros del sufismo (Ibn Arabi y Mevlana Rumi) junto con la música y el baile de un derviche girador (interpretado por el bailarín egipcio Mohamed El Sayed) al que se añade un gran despliegue técnico que permite proyectar durante la obra imágenes ante los actores, consiguiendo un espectacular efecto tridimensional y de mestizaje.

Producciones Viridiana es una compañía teatral asentada en Huesca desde el año 1994 y compuesta por jóvenes profesionales formados en distintas escuelas (Institut del Teatro de Barcelona, Teatro de la Abadía, Escuela de Teatro de Zaragoza). Durante estos años han realizado más de 1500 actuaciones por toda la geografía nacional y el extranjero (Argentina, Bulgaria, Cuba, Francia, Marruecos, México, Perú, Portugal y Republica Dominicana).

After a lengthy renovation, Cruyllas Castle of Calatabiano (situated between the Alcantara Valley and Etna and not far from Taormina and Naxos) is ready to welcome its visitors thanks to its splendid panorama Between the walls of the castle is enclosed the entire history of the Mediterranean. A procession of populations and cultures who, battling for strategic control of the area by way of the stronghold, have all contributed to the development and enlargement during the course of the centuries: from the Sicels to the Greeks, from the Byzantines to the Arabs; from the Normans to the Suebi/Suevi, until the settlement of the Cruyllas, in the Aragon period, during which the castle was at its maximum splendor.

 

Il castello di Calatabiano, in provincia di Catania, al confine settentrionale della provincia etnea, sorge su una collina alta 220 m s.l.m. e domina la foce dell’Alcantara. Qui il fiume segna il confine tra Catania e Messina. Ai piedi del castello l’attuale abitato sorto a valle dopo l’abbandono della terra vecchia a seguito del disastroso terremoto di Val di Noto del 1693. La prima documentazione certa relativa al castello di Calatabiano si rileva da una carta della Sicilia in cui il geografo e viaggiatore arabo Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Idris (1099 1164) rappresentava l’Isola e i suoi sistemi fortificati. La carta tratta dal “Libro di Ruggero”, presso la cui corte il geografo prestava i suoi servigi, rappresenta l’Isola capovolta secondo la consuetudine araba. Qui il massiccio dell’Etna appare sul lato sinistro ed è lambito dai due fiumi Simeto e Alcantara. Proprio lungo le sponde del fiume Al-kantar (il ponte) appaiono rappresentate due fortezze speculari Tauromenion e Kalaat-al Bian. Ricostruito su preesistenti capisaldi greci e romani. Non sappiamo che nome avesse all’epoca bizantina il maniero che gli arabi, dopo la conquista, avrebbero chiamato: Kalaat-al-Bian, (Rocca di Biano).

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7QLdlvfEYo

 

www.castellodicalatabiano.it/

The Universal Tree and the Four Birds: Treatise on Unification

 

Through the story of the Universal Tree, representing the complete human being, and the four birds, representing the four essential aspects of Existence, Ibn 'Arabi explains his teaching on the nature and meaning of union.

book preview : books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=TOKmUYvCPU4C&dq=f...

 

After a lengthy renovation, Cruyllas Castle of Calatabiano (situated between the Alcantara Valley and Etna and not far from Taormina and Naxos) is ready to welcome its visitors thanks to its splendid panorama Between the walls of the castle is enclosed the entire history of the Mediterranean. A procession of populations and cultures who, battling for strategic control of the area by way of the stronghold, have all contributed to the development and enlargement during the course of the centuries: from the Sicels to the Greeks, from the Byzantines to the Arabs; from the Normans to the Suebi/Suevi, until the settlement of the Cruyllas, in the Aragon period, during which the castle was at its maximum splendor.

 

Il castello di Calatabiano, in provincia di Catania, al confine settentrionale della provincia etnea, sorge su una collina alta 220 m s.l.m. e domina la foce dell’Alcantara. Qui il fiume segna il confine tra Catania e Messina. Ai piedi del castello l’attuale abitato sorto a valle dopo l’abbandono della terra vecchia a seguito del disastroso terremoto di Val di Noto del 1693. La prima documentazione certa relativa al castello di Calatabiano si rileva da una carta della Sicilia in cui il geografo e viaggiatore arabo Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Idris (1099 1164) rappresentava l’Isola e i suoi sistemi fortificati. La carta tratta dal “Libro di Ruggero”, presso la cui corte il geografo prestava i suoi servigi, rappresenta l’Isola capovolta secondo la consuetudine araba. Qui il massiccio dell’Etna appare sul lato sinistro ed è lambito dai due fiumi Simeto e Alcantara. Proprio lungo le sponde del fiume Al-kantar (il ponte) appaiono rappresentate due fortezze speculari Tauromenion e Kalaat-al Bian. Ricostruito su preesistenti capisaldi greci e romani.

Non sappiamo che nome avesse all’epoca bizantina il maniero che gli arabi, dopo la conquista, avrebbero chiamato: Kalaat-al-Bian, (Rocca di Biano).

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7QLdlvfEYo

 

www.castellodicalatabiano.it/

After a lengthy renovation, Cruyllas Castle of Calatabiano (situated between the Alcantara Valley and Etna and not far from Taormina and Naxos) is ready to welcome its visitors thanks to its splendid panorama Between the walls of the castle is enclosed the entire history of the Mediterranean. A procession of populations and cultures who, battling for strategic control of the area by way of the stronghold, have all contributed to the development and enlargement during the course of the centuries: from the Sicels to the Greeks, from the Byzantines to the Arabs; from the Normans to the Suebi/Suevi, until the settlement of the Cruyllas, in the Aragon period, during which the castle was at its maximum splendor.

 

Il castello di Calatabiano, in provincia di Catania, al confine settentrionale della provincia etnea, sorge su una collina alta 220 m s.l.m. e domina la foce dell’Alcantara. Qui il fiume segna il confine tra Catania e Messina. Ai piedi del castello l’attuale abitato sorto a valle dopo l’abbandono della terra vecchia a seguito del disastroso terremoto di Val di Noto del 1693. La prima documentazione certa relativa al castello di Calatabiano si rileva da una carta della Sicilia in cui il geografo e viaggiatore arabo Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Idris (1099 1164) rappresentava l’Isola e i suoi sistemi fortificati. La carta tratta dal “Libro di Ruggero”, presso la cui corte il geografo prestava i suoi servigi, rappresenta l’Isola capovolta secondo la consuetudine araba. Qui il massiccio dell’Etna appare sul lato sinistro ed è lambito dai due fiumi Simeto e Alcantara. Proprio lungo le sponde del fiume Al-kantar (il ponte) appaiono rappresentate due fortezze speculari Tauromenion e Kalaat-al Bian. Ricostruito su preesistenti capisaldi greci e romani.

Non sappiamo che nome avesse all’epoca bizantina il maniero che gli arabi, dopo la conquista, avrebbero chiamato: Kalaat-al-Bian, (Rocca di Biano).

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7QLdlvfEYo

 

www.castellodicalatabiano.it/

After a lengthy renovation, Cruyllas Castle of Calatabiano (situated between the Alcantara Valley and Etna and not far from Taormina and Naxos) is ready to welcome its visitors thanks to its splendid panorama Between the walls of the castle is enclosed the entire history of the Mediterranean. A procession of populations and cultures who, battling for strategic control of the area by way of the stronghold, have all contributed to the development and enlargement during the course of the centuries: from the Sicels to the Greeks, from the Byzantines to the Arabs; from the Normans to the Suebi/Suevi, until the settlement of the Cruyllas, in the Aragon period, during which the castle was at its maximum splendor.

 

Il castello di Calatabiano, in provincia di Catania, al confine settentrionale della provincia etnea, sorge su una collina alta 220 m s.l.m. e domina la foce dell’Alcantara. Qui il fiume segna il confine tra Catania e Messina. Ai piedi del castello l’attuale abitato sorto a valle dopo l’abbandono della terra vecchia a seguito del disastroso terremoto di Val di Noto del 1693.

La prima documentazione certa relativa al castello di Calatabiano si rileva da una carta della Sicilia in cui il geografo e viaggiatore arabo Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Idris (1099 1164) rappresentava l’Isola e i suoi sistemi fortificati. La carta tratta dal “Libro di Ruggero”, presso la cui corte il geografo prestava i suoi servigi, rappresenta l’Isola capovolta secondo la consuetudine araba. Qui il massiccio dell’Etna appare sul lato sinistro ed è lambito dai due fiumi Simeto e Alcantara. Proprio lungo le sponde del fiume Al-kantar (il ponte) appaiono rappresentate due fortezze speculari Tauromenion e Kalaat-al Bian. Ricostruito su preesistenti capisaldi greci e romani.

Non sappiamo che nome avesse all’epoca bizantina il maniero che gli arabi, dopo la conquista, avrebbero chiamato: Kalaat-al-Bian, (Rocca di Biano).

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7QLdlvfEYo

 

www.castellodicalatabiano.it/

1 3 4 5 6 7 ••• 15 16