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Axarquia | Malaga | Espana

(No Photoshop here)

 

لقد صار قلبي قابلا كل صورة

فدير لرهبان ومرعى لغزلان

وآيات إنجيل وترتيل قارئ

وألواح توراة ومصحف قرآن

أدين بدين الحب أنّى توجهت

ركائبه فالحب ديني وإيماني

 

~~~~~~~~

 

"Mon coeur est devenu capable de toutes les formes

Une prairie pour les gazelles

Un couvent pour les moines

Un temple pour les idoles

Une Ka'ba pour le pélerin

Les tables de la Torah

Le livre du Coran

Et quelque direction que prenne sa monture

L'Amour est ma religion et ma Foi."

 

[Ibn Arabi]

 

~~~~~~~~

 

Mi corazón se ha vuelto capaz de acoger todas las formas

Es pradera para las gacelas, monasterio para monjes

Templo para ídolos y Kaaba del peregrino

Tablas de la Torá y Libro del Corán

La religión que profeso es la del Amor y sea cual sea el rumbo que tome

Su montura, el Amor es mi religión y mi fe."

 

[Ibn Arabi]

 

~~~~~~~~

 

My heart has become capable of every form:

It is a pasture for gazelles

And a monastery for Christian monks

A temple for idols

And a Kaaba of the Pilgrim

The tablets of the Torah

And the book of the Koran.

I follow the religion of love.

Whatever path love's camel takes

This is my religion and my faith"

 

[Ibn Arabi]

  

music to accompany .. Bon Iver

 

Wonder,

A garden among the flames!

 

My heart can take on any form:

A meadow for gazelles,

... A cloister for monks,

For the idols, sacred ground,

Ka'ba for the circling pilgrim,

The tables of the Torah,

The scrolls of the Quran.

 

My creed is Love;

Wherever its caravan turns along the way,

That is my belief,

My faith.

 

~ Ibn Arabi♥

For fourteen days Muhyiddin Ibn ‘Arabi(1165-1240 )made a journey, a voyage with no return. For each day he wrote some special words, secret words. Those words are prayers, are private conversations with the divine…

 

"My heart has become capable of every form"

 

My heart has become capable of every form: it is a pasture for gazelles and a convent for Christian monks,

And a temple for idols, and the pilgrim's Ka'ba, and the tables of the Tora and the book of the Koran.

I follow the religion of Love, whichever way his camels take. My religion and my faith is the true religion.

We have a pattern in Bishr, the lover of Hind and her sister, and in Qays and Lubna, and in Mayya and Ghaylan."

Muhyiddin Ibn 'Arabi

The cosmosof Ibn' Arabi:

www.kheper.net/topics/Islamic_esotericism/Ibn_Arabi-world...

   

He sees the very anoble, large deep look and flexible body through water inside water.He showered them with rain and made them tremble with thunder. Ali ibn Muhammad ibn al Arabi.

After a lengthy renovation, Cruyllas Castle of Calatabiano (situated between the Alcantara Valley and Etna and not far from Taormina and Naxos) is ready to welcome its visitors thanks to its splendid panorama Between the walls of the castle is enclosed the entire history of the Mediterranean. A procession of populations and cultures who, battling for strategic control of the area by way of the stronghold, have all contributed to the development and enlargement during the course of the centuries: from the Sicels to the Greeks, from the Byzantines to the Arabs; from the Normans to the Suebi/Suevi, until the settlement of the Cruyllas, in the Aragon period, during which the castle was at its maximum splendor.

 

Il castello di Calatabiano, in provincia di Catania, al confine settentrionale della provincia etnea, sorge su una collina alta 220 m s.l.m. e domina la foce dell’Alcantara. Qui il fiume segna il confine tra Catania e Messina. Ai piedi del castello l’attuale abitato sorto a valle dopo l’abbandono della terra vecchia a seguito del disastroso terremoto di Val di Noto del 1693. La prima documentazione certa relativa al castello di Calatabiano si rileva da una carta della Sicilia in cui il geografo e viaggiatore arabo Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Idris (1099 1164) rappresentava l’Isola e i suoi sistemi fortificati. La carta tratta dal “Libro di Ruggero”, presso la cui corte il geografo prestava i suoi servigi, rappresenta l’Isola capovolta secondo la consuetudine araba. Qui il massiccio dell’Etna appare sul lato sinistro ed è lambito dai due fiumi Simeto e Alcantara. Proprio lungo le sponde del fiume Al-kantar (il ponte) appaiono rappresentate due fortezze speculari Tauromenion e Kalaat-al Bian. Ricostruito su preesistenti capisaldi greci e romani. Non sappiamo che nome avesse all’epoca bizantina il maniero che gli arabi, dopo la conquista, avrebbero chiamato: Kalaat-al-Bian, (Rocca di Biano).

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7QLdlvfEYo

 

www.castellodicalatabiano.it/

The name Sachal Sarmast can be translated as Ecstatic Saint of Truth. He is sometimes called Sachoo, The Truthful.

 

Sachal Sarmast was born in the Sindh region of what is today Pakistan, and is considered one of the great poets and Sufi mystics to emerge from the region.

 

His teachings have often been compared with al-Hallaj, the Sufi martyr who ecstatically proclaimed, "I am the Truth." Rather than blindly following tradition, Sachal urged people to seek the truth directly. And like ibn Arabi and others, Sachal Sarmast taught a vision of Unity called Wahdat al-Wujud, which others have compared to the great nondualist teachings of Advaita Vedanta within Hinduism and Zen/Chan within Buddhism.

 

Sachal Sarmast once said, "He (God) is everywhere and in each and every phenomenon. He has come here just to witness His own manifestation."

 

Sachal Sarmast was born Abdul Wahab in the village of Daraza in the Sindh region. His father died when he was a young child, and Abdul Wahab was raised by his uncle, who also became his spiritual master.

 

His soul was deeply moved by music. Listening to music, he was often enraptured, tears pouring down his face.

 

Sachal Sarmast married, but the young woman died two years later. He never remarried.

 

He took the name Sachal, Truth. Later people added Sarmast, Leader of the Ecstatics, to his name in appreciation of his spiritual poetry.

 

Sachal Sarmast lived a humble, ascetic life, preferring solitude, simple meals of daal and yogurt. It is said that he never left Daraza, the village of his birth. Yet he composed sacred poetry in seven different languages, poetry that is loved and sung to this day.

1. Tabarruj is disobedience to Allaah and His Messenger (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam)

 

The one who disobeys Allaah and His Messenger (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) can only harm himself and can not in any way harm Allaah: The Messenger (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said:

 

“All of my followers will enter Paradise except those who refuse.â€‌ It was asked: “O Messenger of Allaah, who would refuse?â€‌ He (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said: “He who obeys me enters Paradise and he who disobeys me has refused.â€‌ (Reported by al-Bukhaaree)

 

It is reported that Mu’awiyyah (radee Allaahu â€کanhu) gave a sermon in Greater Syria and in it he mentioned that the Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) prohibited seven things and he named tabarruj as one of them.

 

â€کAbdullaah ibn Mas’ood (radee Allaahu â€کanhu) reported that the Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) used to dislike ten kinds of behavior and he (â€کAbdullaah ibn Mas’ood) mentioned that from amongst them is displaying and beautification which is done in an improper place.

 

Jalaal-ud-Deen as-Suyuti (d.911H) (rahimahullaah) said that: “Tabarruj by displaying beautification is showing off to strangers and this is disliked.â€‌ This is the explanation of the meaning of â€کAbdullaah ibn Mas’ood’s statement “improper placeâ€‌, it is not the case if the beautification is done for the husband.

 

2. Tabarruj is a grave destructive sin

 

Umayymah, the daughter of Ruqayyah visited the Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) to acknowledge the message of Islam and to acknowledge that he (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) was and is the Messenger of Allaah. The Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said to her:

 

“I give my acknowledgment that you must not set partners to worship besides Allaah, that you do not steal, commit fornication or adultery, that you do not kill your child, that you do not commit any falsehood before your hands and between your legs, that you do not wail and that you do not make tabarruj like that of jahiliyyah (pre-Islamic era).â€‌ (Reported by Ahmad ibn Hanbal in his Musnad, Shaykh Ahmad Shakir graded the chain of the hadeeth as “goodâ€‌ and stated that Imaam ibn Kathir mentioned this hadeeth in his tafsir saying that the chain of this narration is “goodâ€‌)

 

It’s clear that the Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) associated tabarruj (display of beauty) with grave destructive sins.

 

3. Tabarruj brings the curse and expulsion from the Mercy of Allaah

 

The Messenger (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said:

 

“There shall be (in the later) part of my nation women who are dressed but are in fact naked. On their heads are humps like those of camels. Curse them for they are surely cursed.â€‌ (Reported by at-Tabaaranee, Shaykh al-Albaanee graded this hadeeth “Saheehâ€‌)

 

4. Tabarruj is an attribute of the people of hell

 

The Messenger (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said:

 

“Of the people of Hell there are two types whom I have never seen: The one possessing whips like the tail of an ox and they flog people with them. The second one the women who would be naked in spite of their being dressed, who are seduced to wrong paths and seduce others with their hair high like humps. These women would not get into Paradise and they would not perceive its odour, although its fragrance can be perceived from such and such distance.â€‌ (Reported by Muslim)

 

5. Tabarruj is darkness on the Day of Resurrection

 

It is narrated that the Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said:

 

“The parable of a woman who moves with a slow sweeping motion trailing her beautified clothes performing not for her husband is like darkness of the Day of Judgement, she has or comes with no light.â€‌ (Reported by at-Tirmidhee in his Sunan, Shaykh al-Albaanee graded the hadeeth “weakâ€‌)

 

Abu Bakr ibn al-Arabi (d.543H) (rahimahullaah) said that although this hadeeth is weak: “…its meaning is correct because the enjoyment in disobedience is in fact torture and suffering. The meaning is that this type of woman will come on the Day of Resurrection black in darkness as if she physically originated from darkness. In contrast, what happens to be difficult and painful in performance of obedient acts is a true enjoyment because of the reward awaiting those who are obedient to Allaah and His Messenger (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam).â€‌

 

The odor of the mouth of a fasting person may not be a pleasant in this world, to Allaah however it is better than the odor of musk because the Muslim has obeyed Allaah and performed what is due upon him from fasting. Similarly the woman wearing her Hijab may be looked upon as “reactionistâ€‌, “old fashionedâ€‌ or “a walking tentâ€‌, she however is the winner on the Day of Resurrection and those who mock her put themselves on a dangerous road and may be subjected to the wrath of Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aala).

 

6. Tabarruj is hypocrisy

 

The Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said:

 

“The best of your women is the affectionate, the fertile (in productivity), the propitious (favorable), the consultative if they fear Allaah. The most evil of your women are the Mutabar’rijat (those who do at-Tabarruj [display their beauty]), the Mutakhayelat (who strut/swagger), and they are the hypocrites. Those who enter Al-Jannah (the Paradise) are like the Cough Crow.â€‌ (Reported by al-Bayhaqi in his Sunan)

 

The cough crow has a red beak and red legs and is rare, so the expression in the hadeeth “cough cowâ€‌ indicates that the women who will enter Paradise will be few.

 

7. Tabarruj is disgraceful

 

The Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said:

 

“Any woman who takes of her clothes in other than her husband’s home has broken the shield between her and Allaah.â€‌ (Reported by Ahmad ibn Hanbal & al-Haakim who said it is “Saheehâ€‌ according to the conditions of al-Bukhaaree and Muslim and adh-Dhahabee agreed)

 

Imaam Abu Zakariya an-Nawawee (d.676H) (rahimahullaah) commenting on this hadeeth said:

 

“The saying of the Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam): â€کAny woman who takes of her clothes in other than her husband’s home’, means showing off her beauty to strangers by taking off her shield of clothes, she has broken the shield between her and Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aala).â€‌

 

Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aala) stated:

 

“O Children of Adam! We have bestowed raiment upon you to cover yourselves (screen your private parts, etc.) and as an adornment and the raiment of righteousness, that is better…â€‌ (Al-A’raf 7:26)

 

So if a woman does not fear Allaah and uncovers her private parts then she is breaking the shield between her and Allaah, Most High, and because she uncovered and dishonored herself and committed a grievance against her husband then Allaah will uncover her shield, she will be in a scandal.

 

8. Tabarruj is an unchaste and disgraceful sin

 

The women is â€کawrah, a source of attraction, her body is not to be shown, to wear clothes that show off her body and its shape and features is disgraceful. Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aala) orders us to stay away from disgraceful sins:

 

“And when they commit a Faahisha (evil deed, going round the Ka’bah in naked state, every kind of unlawful sexual intercourse, etc.), they say: â€کWe found our fathers doing it, and Allaah has commanded us of it.’ Say: â€کNay, Allaah never commands of Faahisha. Do you say of Allaah what you know not?â€‌ (Al-A’raf 7:28)

 

Rather, it is Shaytaan who orders such Faahisha, such disgraceful sins. Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aala) says:

 

“Shaytaan (Satan) threatens you with poverty and orders you to commit Fahshaa (evil deeds, illegal sexual intercourse, sins etc.); whereas Allaah promises you Forgiveness from Himself and Bounty, and Allaah is All-Sufficient for His creatures’ needs, All-Knower.â€‌ (Al-Baqarah 2:268)

 

The Mutabar’rijat (those who do at-Tabarruj [display their beauty]) create a sinful virus that spreads disgraceful sins amongst the Muslim society. Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aala) says:

 

“Verily, those who like that (the crime of) illegal sexual intercourse should be propagated among those who believe, they will have a painful torment in this world and in the Hereafter. And Allaah knows and you know not.â€‌ (An-Nur 24:19)

 

Tabarruj is the leading course for the spread of zina (illegal sexual relations).

 

9. Tabarruj is a Satanic way

 

The story of Adam and his wife demonstrates how the enemy of Allaah (i.e. Satan) was so keen to incite them to show their private parts in order to spread evil and disgraceful sins. It also shows that tabarruj of women is a primary goal for Shaytaan to achieve. Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aala) says:

 

“O Children of Adam! We have bestowed raiment upon you to cover yourselves (screen your private parts, etc.) and as an adornment, and the raiment of righteousness, that is better.â€‌ (Al-A’raf 7:26)

 

It is very clear that Satan is the one who established the call for Tabarruj and showing off and he is the leader of those leaders who call for the liberation of women. Shaytaan in the Imaam of everyone who obeys him and follows him in disobedience to Allaah, Most Merciful, especially those Mutabar’rijat (those who do at-Tabarruj [display their beauty]) who harm the Muslims and deceive their youth. The Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said:

 

“I have not left after me any chance of turmoil more harmful to men than the harm done to them because of women.â€‌ (Reported by al-Bukhaaree)

 

Adam (â€کalayhis-sallam) forgot, made a mistake, repented and asked for forgiveness from Allaah and Allaah accepted his repentance. The struggle between Adam’s offspring and Shaytaan continues, the Devil still whispers to drive us (men and women) to disobey Allaah and follow sins and there is no safeguard except in returning to Allaah in good faith and repentance, remembering Allaah and asking Him for His help to overcome lusts and desires.

 

10. Tabarruj is the way of the Jews

 

The Jews have an important role in the destruction of nations through fitnah, the seduction and temptation of women. The spread of tabarruj is an effective weapon of their wide spread establishments. One just has to look around to see Hollywood and famous houses of fashion, advertising, x-rated movies and clothes are all wide spread. In fact, the Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said:

 

“Watch out for this worldly life (safeguard yourself from its temptation) guard yourself from the allurement of women. Verily, the first trial for the people of Israel was caused by women.â€‌ (Reported by Muslim)

 

Their (the Jews) books also testify to this fact. In the third chapter of Isaiah it is quoted that:

 

“Moreover, the LORD said: â€کBecause the daughters of Zion are proud and walk with heads held high and seductive eyes, and go along with mincing steps, and tinkle the bangles on their feet. Therefore the Lord will afflict the scalp of the daughters of Zion with scabs, and the LORD will make their foreheads bare’.â€‌ (Isaiah, Chapter 3, V.16-17)

 

Furthermore:

 

“In that day the Lord will take away the beauty of their anklets, headbands, crescent ornaments, dangling earrings, bracelets, veils, headdresses, ankle chains, sashes, perfume boxes, amulets, finger rings, nose rings, festal robes, outer tunics, cloaks, money purses, hand mirrors, undergarments, turbans and veils.â€‌ (Isaiah, Chapter 3, V.18-23)

 

Although the Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) warned against mimicking the non-believers and their ways, many Muslims don’t abide by this warning. This is a testimony for the Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) who said:

 

“You will tread the same path as was trodden by those before you, inch by inch and step by step, so that if they enter the hole of the lizard you will follow them into it also.â€‌ His companions asked him: “Do you mean the Jews and the Christians.â€‌ He (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) replied: “Who else?!â€‌ (Reported by Muslim)

 

The similarity of those women who disobey Allaah and His Messenger (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) to the Jews is very evident because their response to Allaah’s command was and is similar to that of the Jews:

 

“We have heard and disobeyed.â€‌ (Al-Baqarah 2:93)

 

This is unlike the response of the believing woman who would respond (to the commands of Allaah) saying:

 

“We hear and we obey.â€‌ (Al-Baqarah 2:85)

 

They remember the saying of Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aala):

 

“And whoever contradicts and opposes the Messenger (Muhammad) after the right path has been shown clearly to him and follows other than the believers’ way. We shall keep him in the path he has chosen, and burn him in Hell - what an evil destination.â€‌ (An-Nisa 4:115)

 

11. Tabarruj is a filthy Jahiliyyah (ignorance)

 

Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aala) says:

 

“And stay in your houses, and do not display yourselves like that of the times of ignorance.â€‌ (Al-Ahzab 33:33)

 

The Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) described the times of ignorance as filthy and wicked and ordered us to reject them. Allaah (subhaanahu wa ta’aala) described the Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) in that:

 

“…he allows them as lawful at-Taiyibaat [(i.e. all good and lawful) as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc.], and prohibits them as unlawful al-Khabaa’ith (i.e. all evil and unlawful as regards things, deeds, beliefs, persons, foods, etc.).â€‌ (Al-A’raf 7:157)

 

The call to bring about the times of jahiliyyah is similar to the call for tabarruj, both of which are wicked ways which the Messenger (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) made unlawful. The Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said:

 

“Verily, ever matter of jahiliyyah is under my hate.â€‌ (Reported by Aboo Daawood, at-Tirmidhee, Ahmad and other)

 

Tabarruj and all forms of jahiliyyah such as false pride and haughtiness, ill thoughts about Allaah, call for falsehood, setting up rivals with Allaah, ruling by the laws of other than Islam, usury, etc., are all inclusive.

 

12. Tabarruj is an animal act

 

To reveal and expose of our natural behaviour to that of animals, whenever man inclines to such behaviour he starts his decline to a level lower than the level of manhood that Allaah has bestowed upon him. Allaah bestowed a natural inclination towards covering, preservation and safeguarding modesty, to consider the acts of display, exposition and uncovering as an act of beauty represents a corruption of the Fitrah (natural disposition / inclination) and is degeneration in state and a sign of decadence and decline.

 

The progress of mans stability is linked to his or her covering of the body. The Hijab cover is fitting to the instinct of ghareeh which draws its strength from the soul. The “so-calledâ€‌ liberation from the chains of covering is an instinct which draws its instincts from lusts which incites tabarruj and mixing of the sexes. The one who is satisfied with the second instinct must sacrifice the first one in order to silence the voice of the innate ghareeh in his heart in return for the “so-calledâ€‌ enjoyment of tabarruj and mixing. From this we understand that tabarruj is a sign of corruption of Fitrah (natural disposition / inclination), lack of bashfulness and insensitivity.

 

13. Tabarruj is a door to wide-spread evil

 

Anyone who carefully examines the Islamic texts, the Qur’aan and the authentic Sunnah and the lessons from history becomes convinced about the evils of tabarruj and its harms, both in religious and worldly matters, especially when it is associated with the mixing of sexes. Some of its underlying consequences are:

 

a) The competition amongst the displaying women in showing of their beauty, this is seduction, and it leads to the spoiling of morality and leaves women as merchandised articles for anyone to look at.

 

b) The corruption of the morality of men, especially the youth and those in adolescence, it pushes them to commit various kinds of sin. We have seen teenage kids on the corners of many streets in Europe, North America and other parts of the world roaming around smoking, at times half naked, on drugs and looking to engage in sexual relationships. Why, what happened? Many try to hide from the hard facts. The drive for lust and the materialistic life became the objective of the new generation, the Pepsi, Michael MTV Jackson generation. The result, AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases!

 

c) The destruction of family ties and the causing of a lack of trust between family members and the threat of divorce.

 

d) The commercial abuse of women in the world of advertising, entertainment and other areas.

 

e) Doing harm to women by declaring their ill intentions and evil conscience thus rendering her venerable to harm by the wicked.

 

f) The spread of diseases. The Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said:

 

“Sin did not spread in any particular nation until they openly conducted (their sins) and as a result plague and other illnesses that were not present amongst their predecessors because present amongst them.â€‌

 

g) The facilitation of the sin of zina and fornication of the eye. The Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said:

 

“The adultery of the eye is the lustful look.â€‌ (Reported by Muslim)

 

h) Tabarruj makes it difficult to lower the gaze.

 

i) It justifiably brings down the Punishment of Allaah and His Punishment is more severe then an atomic bomb. Allaah says:

 

“And when We decide to destroy a town (population), We (first) send a definite order (to obey Allaah and be righteous) to those among them [or We (first) increase in number those of its population] who are given the good things of this life. Then, they transgress therein, and thus the word (of torment) is justified against it (them). Then We destroy it with complete destruction.â€‌ (Al-Isra 17:16)

 

The Prophet (sall-Allaahu â€کalayhi wa sallam) said:

 

“When people see wrong or evil and they don’t change it then it is eminent that the Punishment of Allaah will fall upon them.â€‌ (Reported by Aboo Daawood and others)

 

Footnote:

 

[1] I (Aboo Uthmaan) transcribed (albeit not a verbatim transcription) this text from a lecture entitled “Tabarrujâ€‌ by Dr. Saleh as-Saleh

*found a link on you tube for your enjoyment; in this clip he appears in the last segment; I have seen nd heard this genius at a private Flamenco party some years ago; never forgotten him, painted him umpteen times; several posted on flickr

youtu.be/d_gPy2jHwyQ

After a lengthy renovation, Cruyllas Castle of Calatabiano (situated between the Alcantara Valley and Etna and not far from Taormina and Naxos) is ready to welcome its visitors thanks to its splendid panorama Between the walls of the castle is enclosed the entire history of the Mediterranean. A procession of populations and cultures who, battling for strategic control of the area by way of the stronghold, have all contributed to the development and enlargement during the course of the centuries: from the Sicels to the Greeks, from the Byzantines to the Arabs; from the Normans to the Suebi/Suevi, until the settlement of the Cruyllas, in the Aragon period, during which the castle was at its maximum splendor.

 

Il castello di Calatabiano, in provincia di Catania, al confine settentrionale della provincia etnea, sorge su una collina alta 220 m s.l.m. e domina la foce dell’Alcantara. Qui il fiume segna il confine tra Catania e Messina. Ai piedi del castello l’attuale abitato sorto a valle dopo l’abbandono della terra vecchia a seguito del disastroso terremoto di Val di Noto del 1693.

La prima documentazione certa relativa al castello di Calatabiano si rileva da una carta della Sicilia in cui il geografo e viaggiatore arabo Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Idris (1099 1164) rappresentava l’Isola e i suoi sistemi fortificati. La carta tratta dal “Libro di Ruggero”, presso la cui corte il geografo prestava i suoi servigi, rappresenta l’Isola capovolta secondo la consuetudine araba. Qui il massiccio dell’Etna appare sul lato sinistro ed è lambito dai due fiumi Simeto e Alcantara. Proprio lungo le sponde del fiume Al-kantar (il ponte) appaiono rappresentate due fortezze speculari Tauromenion e Kalaat-al Bian. Ricostruito su preesistenti capisaldi greci e romani.

Non sappiamo che nome avesse all’epoca bizantina il maniero che gli arabi, dopo la conquista, avrebbero chiamato: Kalaat-al-Bian, (Rocca di Biano).

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7QLdlvfEYo

 

www.castellodicalatabiano.it/

Objective and illuminating, this treatise, written by Sufi leader Muhyiddin Ibn 'Arabi, presents a fundamental analysis of spiritual practice. Underscoring the importance of silence, seclusion, hunger, and vigilance, this guide demonstrates that these activities are both physical and spiritual. Providing the necessary tools for an enlightened life, this dual-language edition incorporates the first critical edition of the Arabic text, gathered from the best-surviving manuscripts. An introduction, and translation of chapter 53 of the renowned Futuhat al-Makkiyya, are also included.

♫ ♪♫ Passage At Dusk ♪♫ ♪

San Giorgio | Venezia | Italia

 

"Quand tu te couches n'aie dans ton cœur rien de mauvais à l'égard de qui que ce soit, ni rancune, ni haine."

Ibn Arabi

In the very centre of Hell, condemned for committing the ultimate sin (personal treachery against God), is the Devil, referred to by Virgil as Dis (the Roman god of the underworld; the name "Dis" was often used for Pluto in antiquity, such as in Virgil's Aeneid). The arch-traitor, Lucifer was once held by God to be fairest of the angels before pride caused his rebellion against God and resulted in his expulsion from Heaven. Lucifer is a giant, terrifying beast trapped waist-deep in the ice, fixed and suffering. He has three faces, each a different color: one red (the middle), one a pale yellow (the right), and one black (the left):

... he had three faces: one in front bloodred;

and then another two that, just above

the midpoint of each shoulder, joined the first;

and at the crown, all three were reattached;

the right looked somewhat yellow, somewhat white;

the left in its appearance was like those

who come from where the Nile, descending, flows.

Dorothy L. Sayers notes that Satan's three faces are thought by some to suggest his control over the three human races: red for the Europeans (from Japheth), yellow for the Asiatic (from Shem), and black for the African (the race of Ham). All interpretations recognize that the three faces represent a fundamental perversion of the Trinity: Satan is impotent, ignorant, and full of hate, in contrast to the all-powerful, all-knowing, and all-loving nature of God.Lucifer retains his six wings (he originally belonged to the angelic order of Seraphim, described in Isaiah 6:2), but these are now dark, bat-like, and futile: the icy wind that emanates from the beating of Lucifer's wings only further ensures his own imprisonment in the frozen lake. He weeps from his six eyes, and his tears mix with bloody froth and pus as they pour down his three chins. Each face has a mouth that chews eternally on a prominent traitor. Marcus Junius Brutus and Gaius Cassius Longinus dangle with their feet in the left and right mouths, respectively, for their involvement in the assassination of Julius Caesar (March 15, 44 BC) – an act which, to Dante, represented the destruction of a unified Italy and the killing of the man who was divinely appointed to govern the world.In the central, most vicious mouth is Judas Iscariot, the apostle who betrayed Christ. Judas is receiving the most horrifying torture of the three traitors: his head is gnawed inside Lucifer's mouth while his back is forever flayed and shredded by Lucifer's claws. According to Dorothy L. Sayers, "just as Judas figures treason against God, so Brutus and Cassius figure treason against Man-in-Society; or we may say that we have here the images of treason against the Divine and the Secular government of the world."

At about 6:00 P.M. on Saturday evening, Virgil and Dante begin their escape from Hell by clambering down Satan's ragged fur, feet-first. When they reach Satan's navel, the poets pass through the center of the universe and of gravity from the Northern Hemisphere of land to the Southern Hemisphere of water. When Virgil changes direction and begins to climb "upward" towards the surface of the Earth at the antipodes, Dante, in his confusion, initially believes they are returning to Hell. Virgil indicates that the time is halfway between the canonical hours of Prime (6 a.m.) and Terce (9 a.m.) – that is, 7:30 A.M of the same Holy Saturday which was just about to end. Dante is confused as to how, after about an hour and a half of climbing, it is now apparently morning. Virgil explains that as a result of passing through the Earth's center into the Southern Hemisphere, which is twelve hours ahead of Jerusalem, the central city of the Northern Hemisphere (where, therefore, it is currently 7:30 P.M.).

Virgil goes on to explain how the Southern Hemisphere was once covered with dry land, but the land recoiled in horror to the north when Lucifer fell from Heaven and was replaced by the ocean. Meanwhile, the inner rock Lucifer displaced as he plunged into the center of the earth rushed upwards to the surface of the Southern Hemisphere to avoid contact with him, forming the Mountain of Purgatory. This mountain – the only land mass in the waters of the Southern Hemisphere – rises above the surface at a point directly opposite Jerusalem. The poets then ascend a narrow chasm of rock through the "space contained between the floor formed by the convex side of Cocytus and the underside of the earth above,"moving in opposition to Lethe, the river of oblivion, which flows down from the summit of Mount Purgatory. The poets finally emerge a little before dawn on the morning of Easter Sunday (April 10, 1300 A.D.) beneath a sky studded with stars (Canto XXXIV).

The Inferno tells the journey of Dante through Hell, guided by the ancient Roman poet Virgil. In the poem, Hell is depicted as nine concentric circles of suffering located within the Earth; it is the "realm ... of those who have rejected spiritual values by yielding to bestial appetites or violence, or by perverting their human intellect to fraud or malice against their fellowmen." As an allegory, the Divine Comedy represents the journey of the soul toward God, with the Inferno describing the recognition and rejection of sin

The poem begins on the night before Good Friday in the year 1300, "halfway along our life's path" (Nel mezzo del cammin di nostra vita). Dante is thirty-five years old, half of the biblical life expectancy of 70 (Psalms 89:10, Vulgate), lost in a dark wood (understood as sin), assailed by beasts (a lion, a leopard, and a she-wolf) he cannot evade, and unable to find the "straight way" (diritta via) – also translatable as "right way" – to salvation (symbolized by the sun behind the mountain). Conscious that he is ruining himself and that he is falling into a "low place" (basso loco) where the sun is silent ('l sol tace), Dante is at last rescued by Virgil, and the two of them begin their journey to the underworld. Each sin's punishment in Inferno is a contrapasso, a symbolic instance of poetic justice; for example, fortune-tellers have to walk with their heads on backwards, unable to see what is ahead, because that was what they had tried to do in life:

they had their faces twisted toward their haunches

and found it necessary to walk backward,

because they could not see ahead of them.

... and since he wanted so to see ahead,

he looks behind and walks a backward path.

Allegorically, the Inferno represents the Christian soul seeing sin for what it really is, and the three beasts represent three types of sin: the self-indulgent, the violent, and the malicious.These three types of sin also provide the three main divisions of Dante's Hell: Upper Hell, outside the city of Dis, for the four sins of indulgence (lust, gluttony, avarice, anger); Circle 7 for the sins of violence; and Circles 8 and 9 for the sins of malice (fraud and treachery). Added to these are two unlike categories that are specifically spiritual: Limbo, in Circle 1, contains the virtuous pagans who were not sinful but were ignorant of Christ, and Circle 6 contains the heretics who contradicted the doctrine and confused the spirit of Christ. The circles number 9, with the addition of Satan completing the structure of 9 + 1 = 10.

 

Purgatorio

Having survived the depths of Hell, Dante and Virgil ascend out of the undergloom, to the Mountain of Purgatory on the far side of the world. The Mountain is on an island, the only land in the Southern Hemisphere, created by the displacement of rock which resulted when Satan's fall created Hell[18] (which Dante portrays as existing underneath Jerusalem[19]). The mountain has seven terraces, corresponding to the seven deadly sins or "seven roots of sinfulness."The classification of sin here is more psychological than that of the Inferno, being based on motives, rather than actions. It is also drawn primarily from Christian theology, rather than from classical sources.However, Dante's illustrative examples of sin and virtue draw on classical sources as well as on the Bible and on contemporary events.Love, a theme throughout the Divine Comedy, is particularly important for the framing of the sin on the Mountain of Purgatory. While the love that flows from God is pure, it can become sinful as it flows through humanity. Humans can sin by using love towards improper or malicious ends (Wrath, Envy, Pride), or using it to proper ends but with love that is either not strong enough (Sloth) or love that is too strong (Lust, Gluttony, Greed). Below the seven purges of the soul is the Ante-Purgatory, containing the Excommunicated from the church and the Late repentant who died, often violently, before receiving rites. Thus the total comes to nine, with the addition of the Garden of Eden at the summit, equaling ten.Allegorically, the Purgatorio represents the Christian life. Christian souls arrive escorted by an angel, singing In exitu Israel de Aegypto. In his Letter to Cangrande, Dante explains that this reference to Israel leaving Egypt refers both to the redemption of Christ and to "the conversion of the soul from the sorrow and misery of sin to the state of grace." Appropriately, therefore, it is Easter Sunday when Dante and Virgil arrive.The Purgatorio is notable for demonstrating the medieval knowledge of a spherical Earth. During the poem, Dante discusses the different stars visible in the southern hemisphere, the altered position of the sun, and the various timezones of the Earth. At this stage it is, Dante says, sunset at Jerusalem, midnight on the River Ganges, and sunrise in Purgatory.

 

Islamic philosophy

In 1919, Professor Miguel Asín Palacios, a Spanish scholar and a Catholic priest, published La Escatología musulmana en la Divina Comedia ("Islamic Eschatology in the Divine Comedy"), an account of parallels between early Islamic philosophy and the Divine Comedy. Palacios argued that Dante derived many features of and episodes about the hereafter from the spiritual writings of Ibn Arabi and from the Isra and Mi'raj or night journey of Muhammad to heaven. The latter is described in the Hadith and the Kitab al Miraj (translated into Latin in 1264 or shortly before as Liber Scalae Machometi, "The Book of Muhammad's Ladder"), and has significant similarities to the Paradiso, such as a sevenfold division of Paradise,[39] although this is not unique to the Kitab al Miraj.

Some "superficial similarities" of the Divine Comedy to the Resalat Al-Ghufran or Epistle of Forgiveness of Al-Ma'arri have also been mentioned in this debate. The Resalat Al-Ghufran describes the journey of the poet in the realms of the afterlife and includes dialogue with people in Heaven and Hell, although, unlike the Kitab al Miraj, there is little description of these locations,and it is unlikely that Dante borrowed from this work.Dante did, however, live in a Europe of substantial literary and philosophical contact with the Muslim world, encouraged by such factors as Averroism ("Averrois, che'l gran comento feo" Commedia, Inferno, IV, 144, meaning "Averrois, who wrote the great comment") and the patronage of Alfonso X of Castile. Of the twelve wise men Dante meets in Canto X of the Paradiso, Thomas Aquinas and, even more so, Siger of Brabant were strongly influenced by Arabic commentators on Aristotle. Medieval Christian mysticism also shared the Neoplatonic influence of Sufis such as Ibn Arabi. Philosopher Frederick Copleston argued in 1950 that Dante's respectful treatment of Averroes, Avicenna, and Siger of Brabant indicates his acknowledgement of a "considerable debt" to Islamic philosophy.

Although this philosophical influence is generally acknowledged, many scholars have not been satisfied that Dante was influenced by the Kitab al Miraj. The 20th century Orientalist Francesco Gabrieli expressed skepticism regarding the claimed similarities, and the lack of evidence of a vehicle through which it could have been transmitted to Dante. Even so, while dismissing the probability of some influences posited in Palacios' work,Gabrieli conceded that it was "at least possible, if not probable, that Dante may have known the Liber scalae and have taken from it certain images and concepts of Muslim eschatology". Shortly before her death, the Italian philologist Maria Corti pointed out that, during his stay at the court of Alfonso X, Dante's mentor Brunetto Latini met Bonaventura de Siena, a Tuscan who had translated the Kitab al Miraj from Arabic into Latin. Corti speculates that Brunetto may have provided a copy of that work to Dante.René Guenon, in The Esoterism of Dante, rejected the influence of Ibn Arabi (direct or indirect) on Dante.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inferno_(Dante)

Prana is expended by thinking, willing, acting, moving, talking, writing, etc. A healthy and strong man has an abundance of prar:a, nerve force. vitality. Prana is supplied in water, in food, in air and in solar energy. Excess prana is stored in the brain and nerve centres. Seminal energy, when sublimated or transformed, supplies an abundance of prarna to the system. It is stored in the brain in the form of ‘ojas’. The yogi stores abundant prana by regular practice of pranayama. The yogi who has stored up a large supply of prana radiates strength and vitality. Those who come in close contact with him imbibe prar:a from him and get strength, vigour, vitality and exhilaration of spirits. Just as water flows from one vessel to another, prar:a flows, like a steady current, from a developed yogi to a weaker person. This may actually be seen by one who has developed his inner, psychic vision. Breath is the external manifestation of gross prana. Correct habits of breathing must be established by the regular practice of pranayama. If you can control prana, you can completely control all the forces of the universe, mental and physical. The yogi can also control the omnipresent, manifesting power out of which all energies take their origin. He can control magnetism, electricity, gravitation, cohesion, nerve-currents, vital forces or thought vibrations. In fact he can control the total forces of the universe, both physical and mental. A yogi can withdraw prana from any area. That area then becomes numb; it becomes impervious to heat and cold. He can send prana to the eyes and see distant objects. He can send prana to the nose and can experience divya gandha (supernatural scent). He can send prana to the tongue and can experience supersensuous taste. There is great significance in the order of the arigas (limbs) of raja yoga. Practice of asana (posture) controls rajas (restlessness). Brahmacarya (celibacy) purifies the prana. Pranayama purifies the nadis (astral tubes). Pranayama steadies the mind and makes it fit for concentration. It removes rajas and tamas (dullness). The practice of yama (self-restraint), niyama (discipline), asana and pranayama are all auxiliaries in the practice of concentration. Pranayama reduces the velocity of the mind. It makes it run in smaller and smaller circles. Most classical commentators other than Sufis took the statement "God is the light of the heavens and the earth" as a metaphor, and considered that God should not be literally equated with the natural phenomenon of light. Al-Tabari (839–923) in his Jami al-bayan says that the best interpretation is to substitute "guide" for "light", as "God is the guide of the heavens and the earth". Other interpretations make God the source of illumination rather than the light itself, as "God lights the heavens and the earth. The Persian scholar Al-Zamakhshari (c. 1074 –1144) says that the phrase "God is the light" is like saying "Zayd is generous and munificent". This does not mean that Zayd is the properties of generosity and munificence, but that he has these properties. Al-Zamakhshari rejected the possibility of attributes separate from God, such as power or knowledge or light, which would be contrary to the unity of God. He interpreted "God is the light of the heavens and the earth" as meaning, He is the possessor of the light of the heavens and the owner of the light of the heavens. The light of the heavens and the earth is the truth (al-ḥaqq), which can be compared to light in its manifestation and clarification, just as he says, "God is the friend of those who believe; He brings them forth from the shadows to the light (2:257), i.e., from the false to the true (al-ḥaqq). Al-Ghazali (c. 1058–1111) wrote a treatise on how different types of light should be defined, and how the phrase "God is the light of the heavens and the earth" should be interpreted. In his view, "light" can have three different meanings. The first is the ordinary usage, "an expression of what can be seen in itself and through which other things can be seen, like the sun". In Arabic the word "light" may also refer to the eye, through which perception takes place, and this may be a more appropriate interpretation. The "eye" of the intellect is an even more perfect organ of perception, and "light" may be used to refer to this organ. In this sense "light" may refer to Muhammad, and to a lesser extent to the other prophets and religious scholars. A third interpretation is that "light" is the first light (al-nūr al-awwal) and the real light (al-nūr al-ḥaqq) since it is the only light that does not take its luminosity from some other source. God is light, the only light, the universal light, and he is hidden from mortals because he is pure light, although he is omnipresent. Using the term "light" for any other purpose is metaphor. Another passage of the Quran states "The earth will shine with the light of its Lord" (Q39:69). Mainstream exegetes take this statement literally. Exegetes of the rationalist Mu'tazila school of theology of the 8th–10th centuries interpreted the word nūr in this passage in the sense of "the truth, the Quran and the proof" rather than the commonplace meaning of "light".Shia exegetes take it to mean "the land of the soul will shine with the Lord's light of justice and truth during the time of Imam al-Mahdi." Sufi exegetes take nūr in this case to mean "justice", or take the statement to mean "God will create a special light to shine on the Earth".The deeply influential German Catholic mystic theologian and spiritual psychologist Meister Eckhart was the most illustrious spiritual instructor of his day. He was also unjustly condemned as a heretic by the papacy after an impressive career of writing, teaching, preaching, directing souls and serving as a high-level administrator of the Dominican Order. Eckhart, virtually forgotten by the Church for centuries, is seen by growing numbers of people in the modern era to be one of the world’s pinnacle “nondual” mystics. His influence is greater now than at any time since the 14th century. Eckhart’s theology is that of radical panentheism (“all in God, God in all”), which goes far beyond mere theism (which can only posit a transcendent “God up there” who sometimes personally intervenes “down here”), and certainly goes far beyond lowly pantheism (“all is God”—God is not more than the sum of creation). For Eckhart, God’s supremely glorious nature can only mean that God is fully transcendent and fully immanent, entirely beyond all and yet completely within all as the One Who alone IS, pure Spirit, the groundless Ground or Essence of all. For Eckhart, therefore, God is both the transpersonal Godhead (Gotheit) or “God beyond god,” and the personal Lord, i.e., the triune God—the Persons Father, Son and Holy Spirit in one nondual, indistinct Divine Nature. No reclusive “quietist,” this very busy man’s duties must have interfered with his writing, for his intended major academic work, the Opus Tripartitum, was never finished; only fragments survive. His duties also required extensive travel—along slow-going, bad roads. In 1311 he was recalled from becoming Teutonia’s provincial to resume duties in the more professorial life at Paris; only Thomas Aquinas had also held this respected chair of theology twice. In 1313 Eckhart came to lively Strasburg near the French border, where again he served as theology professor, spiritual director and preacher. In 1314 he was made Dominican Vicar-General.

Eckhart was a prime impetus in this northern European movement of Rheno [Rhineland]-Flemish mysticism, a profound renewal of contemplative, ecstatic/instatic Christianity, which accepts outward worship of God but specializes in the inner via negativa, way of negation, or radical dis-identification from self by letting go all attachments, images, forms, and concepts—until nothing is left but God. The soul “dies” to all to live only in God—the one true Being or Substance.

 

This mysticism is suggested in the works of Albertus Magnus and Thomas Aquinas, but expressed most vividly in a line of via negativa or apophatic mystics featuring John Scotus Eriugena (c.800-c.877), the greatest Christian mind of the early middle ages, and pseudo-Dionysius (Denys) Areopagite, an unknown monk (likely Syrian) who, circa 500 CE, wrote seminal works of apophatic mystical theology and transcendental metaphysics synthesizing Christianity and Neoplatonism (Plotinus, Proclus, et al.) (see Dionysius’ Divine Names, Mystical Theology, Celestial Hierarchy, Ecclesiastical Hierarchy, and epistles). Gregory of Nyssa (c.330-c.395) had been the first Christian father to seriously explore this apophatic “negation” approach to God. After the Crusades re-exposed Christianity to the ancient Greeks —Muslims preserved many of their works—Aquinas made use of the newly-translated Aristotle to infuse Christianity with novel ideas. But Eckhart’s theology, “one of the great medieval attempts to achieve a synthesis between Greek thought and Christian faith” (Oliver Davies), made more use of the Neoplatonists (especially Proclus [410-85]), whose tradition was much more amenable to a rich inner mysticism and a very different sense of the God-soul relationship. Says Huston Smith: “From the human standpoint the two are separated by a categorical gulf; God appears of necessity as radically Other. But the Neoplatonic tradition in which Eckhart stands teaches that it is quite otherwise from God’s vantage point. For God knows that he alone is completely real; real in every sense—all else is only partially so. And that which is fully real in what is other-than-God is God’s presence in it. Thus from the divine perspective a sublime continuity reigns. Everything that is, to the degree that it is, is God him/her/itself—our pronouns do not fit.” Oliver Davies sees Eckhart’s use of Neoplatonism anticipating 19th-century German idealism and influencing modern thinkers like Hegel, Schopenhauer, Bloch, Heidegger and Derrida.

 

In 1322, Eckhart, now the most famous preacher of his era, was moved by the Dominicans to Cologne, where he uttered some of his most memorable sermons. His teachings were laced with fresh imagery from the vernacular style of chivalrous courtly love-talk, and even more rich with an extremely sublime, lofty mysticism often featuring riveting aphorisms that jolted one into (some degree of) spiritual awakening—e.g., “God is at home, man abroad”; “Be thoroughly dead and buried in God”; “I pray God to make me free of God, for [His] unconditioned Being is above God and all distinctions.” “The authorities say that God is a being, an intelligent being who knows everything. But I say that God is neither a being nor intelligent and He doesn’t ‘know’ either this or that. God is free of everything and therefore He is everything.” “If I had a God I could understand, I would no longer consider him God.” Eckhart’s mystic teachings were already suspect to non-mystics who heard or read his works out of context. “He seems to have delighted in shocking his listeners into attention to the divine presence within and in the world outside by outrageous comparisons, puns, and comic examples…. By adopting the role of trickster, Eckhart irritated the official guardians of pious sobriety and cautious expression…. Eckhart’s playful but profound assaults on conventional God-talk [were thought by some to be] mad and dangerous.” (Woods) Meister Eckhart was clearly a man of great piety himself, and urged this in others. Yet he was also ahead of his time, psychologically quite free, it seems, of that morbid penitential religiosity that weighed so heavily upon the West during the Middle Ages. In this, he was actually like Jesus 2,000 years ago, who taught the simple Our Father prayer, not a complex regimen of penance-practices. Listen, for instance, to Eckhart’s words on “sin” from one of his earliest writings: “Love knows nothing of sin—not that man has not sinned—but sins are blotted out at once by love and they vanish as if they had not been. This is because whatever God does he does completely, like the cup running over. Whom he forgives, he forgives utterly and at once.” (Talks of Instruction 15) Astute spiritual counselor that he was, like his beloved Lord Jesus, Eckhart did not want people maintaining an ego-sense through guilt any more than he wanted them to inflate the ego through pride. The essential aim that Meister Eckhart always points his listeners toward is selflessness and emptiness so that God can be one's only One.

 

In 1325 papal official Nicholas of Strasburg examined Eckhart’s works at Pope John XXII’s request and declared them “orthodox.” But in 1326 Eckhart was summoned before the inquisition and accused of heresy by Henry II of Virneburg, Cologne’s archbishop, perhaps jealous of Eckhart’s talent and fame. Eckhart was the first theologian of major rank ever to face this charge. He then trudged 500 miles to face the papal court at Avignon, France (where the papacy dwelt in exile from Rome). For over a year he defended his views; he wrote his Defense to show that his more controversial teachings were rooted in Scripture and the writings of eminent Church Fathers like Paul and Augustine. (Davies: “If his accusers charged Eckhart with heresy, then he charged them with stupidity,” i.e., lacking information and competence to judge such things.) Other factors were at play in this debacle. Since he was a reformer, disgruntled friars sought revenge. “The two key witnesses against him in Cologne and Avignon, Herman de Summo and William of Nidecken, were malcontents … later seized and imprisoned for disobedience and treachery.” (Woods) Moreover, the interrogators at Cologne were Franciscans, perhaps rankled by the teaching prowess of famous Dominicans like Eckhart. Finally, his association with the Beguines, increasingly coming in for censure by the Church (their non-institutional status made them hard to control), made him suspect as well. It seems, too, that some people were irresponsible in applying his teachings. As John Tauler poignantly said, “He spoke from the point of view of eternity, and you understood him from the point of view of time.” A verdict came in against him, so Eckhart appealed to Pope John. While the proceedings dragged on, Eckhart died at Avignon, probably in winter 1327/8. In 1329, Pope John, at the behest of petty Henry II, his close political ally in the attempt to return the papacy to Rome, condemned Eckhart, identifying 17 points of his teaching as heretically unorthodox, 11 as “evil-sounding, rash and suspect of heresy.” This postmortem condemnation—spiteful, since Eckhart was no longer alive to preach—shows how widely influential his mystical views had in fact become. The papal bull of condemnation intended to taint his good name and stamp out his writings. In fact, not until the mid-19th century did most of his teachings again came to light, thanks to Franz Pfeiffer and Franz Jostes, who uncovered a large body of Eckhart’s work beyond the few sermons preserved in the writings of his disciple Johann Tauler (1300-61). Yet Eckhart’s views were propagated through the 14th century, albeit more cautiously, by his followers, the Friends of God, and, more generally, by the Rheno-Flemish mystical movement. Thus, his German Dominican disciples Tauler and Blessed Henry Suso (1295-1366) (both of whom were at times censured by the Church), Flemish mystic Blessed Jan van Ruusbroec (or Ruysbroek, 1293-1381, also greatly influenced by Eckhart), the Beguine and Beghard communities, the important unknown German authors of The Book of Spiritual Poverty (c.1350) and Theologia Germanica (14th cent.), the unknown British author of Cloud of Unknowing (et al.) (late 14th c.), and the German mystic, Cardinal Nicholas of Cusa (1400-64)—all gratefully look to Eckhart for inspiration. In the 20th century, Dominican scholars have labored to clear Meister Eckhart’s name and, in a new light, show the brilliance and relevance of his thinking. The Walberberg Chapter, a panel of experts, from 1982-1992 studied his works and concluded that Eckhart needed no “rehabilitation” in the juridical sense, for neither he nor his doctrine had in fact been condemned, contrary to what had been thought; heresy implies deliberately, willfully teaching against Church doctrine, and Eckhart had been unyielding in claiming, rightly so, that his views were rooted in Scripture and Church Fathers, “a judgment sustained today by scores of theologians and historians.” (Woods) In 1992, the Master of the Dominican Order formally requested Cardinal Ratzinger (later Pope Benedict XVI) to abrogate the bull of condemnation; though this has not yet occurred, Pope John Paul II himself in September 1985 observed, “Did not Eckhart teach his disciples: ‘All that God asks you most pressingly is to go out of yourself … and let God be God in you?’ One could think that in separating himself from creatures, the mystic leaves his brothers, humanity, behind. The same Eckhart affirms that, on the contrary, the mystic is marvelously present to them on the only level where he can truly reach them, that is, in God.” (L’Osservatore Romano, 28 Oct. 1985) Dominican scholar Richard Woods concludes: “For all practical purposes, the exoneration of Meister Eckhart has been achieved.” So the Meister can openly be considered as he was in his own day: “one of the greatest masters of Western spirituality” (Colledge & McGinn). Meister Eckhart generated numerous Latin and German works. The Latin treatises—most quite orthodox and didactic—include 56 sermons, featuring a long sermon on the Lord’s Prayer; scriptural commentaries (many unfinished); fragments from his Opus Tripartitum; an Introduction to his commentary on Lombard’s Sentences; and the Parisian Questions, a record of his brilliant Paris debates. His works in Middle High German begin with four treatises: Talks of Instruction (longest and evidently earliest, written in the 1290s), The Nobleman/Aristocrat, On Detachment/Disinterest (this work has been questioned by some as authentically Eckhart’s), and, in 1308, The Book of Divine Consolation, especially written for the widowed Queen Anne of Hungary after the death of her mother and murder of her father, Emperor-elect Albert I of Austria. We also now finally have transcripts of over 100 German sermons judged as authentically Eckhart’s, “the first substantial body of sophisticated philosophical and theological discussion in a European vernacular language” (Davies). In these very original works occur most of the statements charged (falsely) as being “heretical.” And it is in these sermons (many recorded by the Dominican nuns under his guidance) that Eckhart eagerly speaks to the listeners’ heart with his most intensely nondual, mystical parlance on the glory of God and the soul. Meister Eckhart wanted everyone, high or low, learned or unlettered, to intimately know and love God the way he himself was blessed to enjoy. God is not distant, a matter for rarified theology. God is HERE and NOW. Thus, a central theme for Eckhart is the “birth of God in the soul” in this timeless Now, an Incarnation abolishing any dualism between self and God or God and world. Eckhart describes a threefold movement of detachment, release and dehiscence (splitting open), elsewhere called breakthrough, yielding a joyfully enlightened “living without a why” in the realization that all things are in God, who is One and thus renders all beings one within Him. “For Eckhart, as for the ancient mystical theology of the Church, God is uniquely present in the depths of the soul, waiting to break forth into consciousness.” (Woods)

 

Some have tried to find a consistent Eckhart schema for stages of mystical growth, as, for instance, found in many medieval Christian mystics’ triple sequence of “purgation, illumination, and union with God.” But Robert Forman observes, “I have counted at least seventeen separate passages in which Eckhart enumerates the divisions of phases that a mystic might undergo. No two are identical.” Moreover, in contrast to, for example, the Jesuits, with their structured “Spiritual Exercises” of St. Ignatius, Eckhart’s spiritual path is a “wayless way,” with no particular methodology other than pure, immediate contemplation of the infinitely simple Divine Truth already alive and dynamically present at the core of one’s being. Out of such spiritual contemplation flows loving action. And for Eckhart, contemplation and action aren’t separate, but truly one process.

 

A key element in many passages of Eckhart’s writings and sermons is complete accordance with the will of God. He points out with great irony that Christians daily pray, in the Our Father prayer, that “Thy will be done.” But then they complain when things happen that they don’t like—yet, for Eckhart, it is obvious that whatever happens is meant to be happening, by Divine Will, otherwise something else would be happening, by Divine Will.

 

Reading Meister Eckhart’s many works, one beholds his uncanny ability to draw out rich, multiple meanings from a single line in scripture. In an era and society that saw nearly everything in religious terms, Eckhart delighted in taking God-talk to ever-higher levels. His genius, surely flowing out of direct and deep experiencing of Divine Spirit, came up with a wealth of interpretations and illustrations, playfully-surprising turns of language, and “instatic” expressions of worshipful love of God. Bernard McGinn: “Eckhart was not only a highly trained philosopher and theologian, but also a preacher, a poet, and a punster who deliberately cultivated rhetorical effects, bold paradoxes, and unusual metaphors, neologisms, and wordplay to stir his readers and hearers from their intellectual and moral slumber.” Davies: “[We find] in his work a geniality of style, profound speculation and spiritual vision that still move us today as they once did those who gathered in the churches and convents of medieval Germany to hear a Master who spoke in so strange a way of the ‘God beyond words.’”

Whoever possesses God in their being, has him in a divine manner, and he shines out to them in all things; for them all things taste of God and in all things it is God's image that they see.

People should not worry as much about what they do but rather about what they are. If they and their ways are good, then their deeds are radiant. If you are righteous, then what you do will also be righteous. We should not think that holiness is based on what we do but rather on what we are, for it is not our works which sanctify us but we who sanctify our works.

It is a fair trade and an equal exchange: to the extent that you depart from things, thus far, no more and no less, God enters into you with all that is his, as far as you have stripped yourself of yourself in all things. It is here that you should begin, whatever the cost, for it is here that you will find true peace, and nowhere else. Talks of Instruction

In 1985 the Pope, John Paul II, said: "Did not Eckhart teach his disciples: 'All that God asks you most pressingly is to go out of yourself - and let God be God in you'? One could think that, in separating himself from creatures, the mystic leaves his brothers, humanity, behind. The same Eckhart affirms that, on the contrary, the mystic is marvelously present to them on the only level where he can truly reach them, that is in God.

Here in time we are celebrating the eternal birth which God the Father bore and unceasingly bears in eternity, because this same birth is now born in time, in human nature. [German sermon 1, trans M.O’C. Walshe]

The soul in which this birth is to take place must keep absolutely pure and must live in noble fashion, quite collected, and turned entirely inward: not running out through the five senses into the multiplicity of creatures, but all inturned and collected and in the purest part: there is His place; He disdains anything else. [German sermon 1, trans M.O’C. Walshe]

Here God enters the soul with His all, not merely with a part: God enters here the ground of the soul. [German sermon 1, trans M.O’C. Walshe]

Though it may be called a nescience, and unknowing, yet there is in it more than all knowing and understanding without it; for this unknowing lures and attracts you from all understood things, and from yourself as well. [German sermon 1, trans M.O’C. Walshe]

The soul is scattered abroad among her powers, and dissipated in the action of each. Thus her ability to work inwardly is enfeebled, for a scattered power is imperfect. [German sermon 2, trans M.O’C. Walshe]

Do not imagine that your reason can grow to the knowledge of God. [German sermon 4, trans M.O’C. Walshe]

No. Be sure of this: absolute stillness for as long as possible is best of all for you. [German sermon 4, trans M.O’C. Walshe]

You should know that God must act and pour Himself into the moment He finds you ready. [German sermon 4, trans M.O’C. Walshe]

To be receptive to the highest truth, and to live therein, a man must needs be without before and after, untrammelled by all his acts or by any images he ever perceived, empty and free, receiving the divine gift in the eternal Now, and bearing it back unhindered in the light of the same with praise and thanksgiving in our Lord Jesus Christ. . [German sermon 6, trans M.O’C. Walshe]

Since it is God's nature not to be like anyone, we have to come to the state of being nothing in order to enter into the same nature that He is. . [German sermon 7, trans M.O’C. Walshe]

So, when I am able to establish myself in nothing, and nothing in myself, uprooting and casting out what is in me, then I can pass into the naked being of God, which is the naked being of the Spirit. [German sermon 7, trans M.O’C. Walshe]

There is a power in the soul which touches neither time nor flesh, flowing from the spirit, remaining in the spirit, altogether spiritual. . [German sermon 7, trans M.O’C. Walshe]

One means, without which I cannot get to God, is work or activity in time, which does not interfere with eternal salvation. 'Works' are performed from without, but 'activity' is when one practises with care and understanding from within. [German sermon 9, trans M.O’C. Walshe]

It is a certain and necessary truth that he who resigns his will wholly to God will catch God and bind God, so that God can do nothing but what that man wills [German sermon 10, trans M.O’C. Walshe]

If you seek God and seek Him for your own profit and bliss, then in truth you are not seeking God. [German sermon 11, trans M.O’C. Walshe]

We find people who like the taste of God in one way and not in another, and they want to have God only in one way of contemplation, not in another.I raise no objection, but they are quite wrong. [German sermon 13a, trans M.O’C. Walshe]

I declare truly that as long as anything is reflected in your mind which is not the eternal Word, or which looks away from the eternal Word, then, good as it may be, it is not the right thing. [German sermon 14b, trans M.O’C. Walshe]

For he alone is a good man who, having set at nought all created things, stands facing straight, with no side-glances, towards the eternal Word, and is imaged and reflected there in righteousness. [German sermon 14b, trans M.O’C. Walshe]

The human spirit must transcend number and break through multiplicity, and God will break through him; and just as He breaks through into me, so I break through into Him. [German sermon 14b, trans M.O’C. Walshe]

Above thought is the intellect, which still seeks: it goes about looking, spies out here and there, picks up and drops. But above the intellect that seeks is another intellect which does not seek but stays in its pure, simple being, which is embraced in that light. . [German sermon 19b, trans M.O’C. Walshe]“Holding on to anger is like grasping a hot coal with the intent of throwing it at someone else; you are the one who gets burned.” Lord Buddha

“Happiness is not something ready made. It comes from your own actions.” Dalai Lama“Our souls may lose their peace and even disturb other people’s, if we are always criticizing trivial actions – which often are not real defects at all, but we construe them wrongly through our ignorance of their motives.” Saint Teresa of Avila

  

Parmi les grands compagnons, doués de connaissance et de prodiges, détenteurs des hauts degrés de sainteté, l'élite de l'élite, se trouve Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi Damraoui (qu’Allah l’agrée), originaire de Taza au Maroc.

    

Sidi Mohamed Ibn ‘Arabi était celui qui servait d'intermédiaire à Seïdina Ahmed Tijani (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret), au début, lorsque celui-ci voulait parler au Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui). Ceci en raison de la grande pudeur qui l'habitait.

    

Ceci est la marque des grands saints de la communauté qui utilisaient toujours un intermédiaire entre eux et le Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui) dans leurs demandes, car ils ne pouvaient lui adresser la parole et oubliaient tout en sa présence.

    

Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée), malgré son jeune âge, rencontrait souvent le Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui) à l'état de veille. Sidi Abdelaoui (qu’Allah l’agrée) a raconté que Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée) rencontrait le Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui) vingt-quatre fois en une journée. Le Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui) recommandait à Seïdina (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret)(qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret) te les a envoyés pour toi. » Elle sortit et trouva sur des peaux une grande quantité de miel. Elle avait l'habitude de flatter son mari auprès des femmes du quartier au point que celles-ci faisaient jalouser leurs maris par leurs potins, jusqu'à ce que cela soit la cause de sa mort.

    

Le fils de Seïdina (qu’Allah l’agrée) a raconté que Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée) avait des plantations et quand celles-ci avaient besoin d'eau, les nuages se formaient et venaient arroser le champ qui lui appartenait sans arroser les terrains avoisinants. Cela fait partie des grâces extraordinaires de nos maîtres les Walis.

    

Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée) a eu des problèmes avec des chefs de tribu, ceux-ci se mirent d'accord pour le capturer et combattre tous ceux qui s'opposeraient à leur volonté. Quand ils arrivèrent à 'Ain Madhi, ils ne laissèrent d'autre choix à leurs habitants que de leur livrer Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée) sous peine de détruire tout le village sans rien épargner. Or ils étaient si nombreux qu'ils ne pouvaient les repousser.

    

Les habitants de 'Ain Madhi l'enjoignirent à se rendre auprès de ceux qui le recherchaient et selon ce qu'Allah (qu’Il soit Glorifié et Exalté) aurait destiné. Celui-ci ne releva même pas sa tête et se mit à tracer sur la terre avec son doigt quelque chose qui ressemblait à une écriture, puis il a pris un petit morceau de papier et dessina des lettres, il le déchira en deux et jeta le tout dans la direction de ceux qui étaient venus le capturer. Les deux morceaux s'envolèrent et se réunirent, et en accord avec la destinée d'Allah (qu’Il soit Glorifié et Exalté), la troupe se querella les uns avec les autres et ils se battirent entre eux. Leur union se brisa et leur hostilité perdura.

    

Sidi Ahmed Abdelaoui (qu’Allah l’agrée) a dit que Sidi Mohammed Ibn ‘Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée), à cause de la force de son ouverture enviait et désirait arriver au degré qui était réservé à Seïdina (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret), malgré son jeune âge. Il lui écrivit une lettre dans laquelle il lui révéla qu'il avait vu une station (Maqam) se situant entre la Prophétie et celui des Pôles, qu'on ne peut pas hériter et qui est réservée à une seule personne de cette communauté.

    

Il lui avoua qu'il l'enviait lui-même, mais qu'il n'osait pas le demander au Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui) au cas où cette station ne lui serait pas réservée et par crainte que tout lui soit ôté. En effet, il fut informé que cela était réservé à Seïdina Ahmed Tijani (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret) et il se précipita pour l'informer de cette grâce immense.

    

Sidi Mohammed ibn ‘Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée) demanda à Seïdina (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret) de lui donner, en récompense de cette nouvelle, le mérite de dix fois Ismou Allah El A'dham, de dix fois la Salat el Fatihi et dix fois la récompense de Miftahoul Qoutbaniya. Car il constata qu'une seule parole d’évocation prononcée par Seïdina (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret) dépasse ce qu’il ferait, lui, ses enfants et ses ancêtres pendant soixante-dix ans.

    

Parmi les récits qui furent rapportés par les gens de confiance il est ceci : un groupe était parti visiter Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée). Parmi eux se trouvait Sidi Mohammed Ibn Mechri (qu’Allah l’agrée) et le Connaissant ('Arif) Sidi Hajj 'Ali Tamacini (qu’Allah l’agrée) et d'autres, ils lui posèrent la question suivante : « Lorsque les bêtes meurent entrent-elles au paradis ou non ? »

    

II se dit : « Ils ont pensé que j'étais un sage or j'étais stupide, mais celui qui m’aime malgré ma stupidité entrera au paradis et celui qui me déteste entrera en enfer. J'étais perplexe face à leur question et je ne savais quoi leur répondre jusqu'à ce que je rencontre le Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui) et l'interroge sur cela.

    

Il me dit que parmi elles, il en est qui entrent au paradis, celles des prophètes et messagers, des saints et celles qui meurent durant le combat ainsi que celles sur lesquelles on fait le Hajj et toutes celles qui meurent sur la voie d'Allah (qu’Il soit Glorifié et Exalté). Pour elles, il est un Paradis qui n'est pas celui des êtres doués de raison, il est sans construction et il est rempli de la végétation qu'elles aiment et désirent. »

    

Sidi Mohammed Ibn ‘Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée) est mort à 'Ain Madhi (Algérie) à l'âge de 28 ans et n'a laissé que deux filles comme progéniture dans cette ville. Il est mort quelques mois avant que Seïdina (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret) s'en aille pour Fès. Sa tombe, qui se trouve à 'Aïn Madhi, est célèbre et très visitée pour la baraka.

    

Source: www.tidjaniya.com/tijani-compagnons-damraoui.php

    

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Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi Damraui (May ALLAH be satisfied with him)

    

Amongst the great companions endowed with knowledge and wonders, holding the highest levels of sainthood – considered as the elite of the elite, stood Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi Damraoui (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) who was originally from Taza in Morocco.

    

At first, Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi Damraoui was acting as go-between for Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) when the latter, because of his great decency, wanted to speak to the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him). It is a mark of the great saints of the community who always used an intermediary between them and the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) in their requests because they forgot all things in his noble presence and so could not speak to him. Despite his young age, Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) often met the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) in waking state. Sidi Abdelaoui (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) reported that Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) used to meet the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) twenty-four times a day. The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) recommended Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) to take care of him.

    

During his stay in Boussemghoune, Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) often travelled to Taza to meet his companion and student, the great Knower of ALLAH, Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) because at that time he was one of his greatest companions and among his beloved. Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was taking care of him more and more as recommended by The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him). Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) used to visit him very often during his lifetime and after his death to such an extent that it was not necessary to mention it in the book "Djawahirou-l-Ma'ani". Seyidina Ahmed Tidjani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) said: "The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) told me to take care of Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) and told me that the latter one had rights over me". He also said that Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was a Cherif from Idmar Dachara in the region of Taza. Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) had a lot of favours and the most important of them was that the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) had assured him that he loved him. He was the intermediary between the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) and Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) by the consent of the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) himself. When Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) died, Seyidina Ahmed Tidjani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) replaced him by the great Caliph Sidi Hajj 'Ali Harazim (May ALLAH be satisfied with him), complying with, as always, the command of The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him).

    

Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was assassinated. When he moved to 'Aïn Madhi, he was attributed many virtues which people talked about. It became a subject of women discussions in the region and aroused jealousy of his enemies who encouraged someone to assassinate him.

    

Long before the horrible act, his murderer often used to pay him a visit and he used to ask him for prayers (dou'a) but Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) expelled him every time he came and told him: " Go away from me, O wrongdoer, son of wrongdoers! Enemies will encourage you to kill me." Indeed, it happened as he said.

    

One day, when Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was busy, that man came to him and and shot at him. He collapsed; the order of ALLAH (The Glorified and The Exalted) is a predestined decree. Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) knew by spiritual unveiling everything that was going to happen to him like the machinations of his enemies. Following the event, ALLAH (The Glorified and The Exalted) punished those who plotted against him as well as his murderer in a harsh way. Their group was scattered, their descendants have almost died out and those who survived in that region were completely ruined and shocked by horror of the consequence of ALLAH's intense revenge. May ALLAH (The Glorified and The Exalted) protect us from making the same mistake, i.e. standing against our masters, the Walis, because it undoubtedly leads on the road of ruin. ALLAH (The Glorified and The Exalted) said in a Qoudoussi hadith: "Whoever attacks one of My Walis, I will declare him war..." (Boukhari). After having heard his death, a Wali from Tunisia, who didn't belong to the Tariqa Tidjaniya, wanted to take his revenge on all the inhabitants of 'Aïn Madhi. Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) wrote him a letter to warn him against the consequences of such an act. So, a group of six persons among which the great erudite Sidi Muhammad Ibn Mechri (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was sent by Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) to carry him the message. It remained for him to comply with the orders by surrendering.

    

Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was the prodigy of his time for what he held in terms of secrets and knowledge. He received from the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him), both in dreams and waking states, what could astonish minds and could be noticed only by the greatest masters. One day, in a dream, he was given a poem by the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him). When he woke up, he saw the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) and asked him its comment. The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) explained him that it is thanks to the love and attachment to Seyidina Sheikh Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) that he got all these favours but, without this love, he would have never seen him. The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) ordered him to convey the poem and its commentary to Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him). The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) gave him also a prayer called The Pearl which contains huge benefits for the believers who recite it as it was said by the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) himself. Before meeting Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him), Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) belonged to the Tariqa Bel Ben 'Azouz. Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) had reported that The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) said: "Bel Ben 'Azouz is a demon of this community".

    

When Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) met Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him), he asked him the authorization to follow his Tariqa, having seen in him all the wonders. Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) considered him as his intimate, following the recommendations of The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him). Once, Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) sent his companion Sidi Hajj Mousaqam (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) to Taza with a horse to tell Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) to come and see him. Once he was there, Sidi Hajj Mousaqam (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) informed Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) about the message of Seyidina Sheikh (May ALLAH be satisfied with him). Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) got up right away to meet the obligation. During the trip, his horse died and he ordered the Rouhaniyoun (spiritual entities) to come in its body so that they could take him to Boussemghoune. On the way, his companion said: "O Master! The horse's smell is bothering me". Then, he ordered to hurry up. Once he arrived, he got off and the horse fell down and worms came out of it. Then, Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) met Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) who talked to him about secrets.

    

In each of his residences, Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (may ALLAH sanctify his precious secret) was reserving a room known as "Bayit Sirr" (room of the secret) and that, complying with the command of The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him). Indeed, in Boussemghoune, as in Ain Madhi, when Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (may ALLAH sanctify his precious secret) made his blessed house build, Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) convey that The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) said: "When the building of the house will be finished, reserve a room, named it "Bayit Sirr", perform your litanies and all I ordered you to do in it, and nobody else has the right to come in it but you, you will see the good and the blessing increase and you will reach all your goals."

    

This room was divided by wood plates. Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (may ALLAH sanctify his precious secret) was on one side while Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was on the other.

    

It was reported that one day while Sidi Muhammad ibn 'Arabi (May ALLAH be pleased with him) was doing his dhikr in the mentioned place a Rouhani came to him with a glass containing a drink of light so intense that it lit up the room where he was. The Rouhani said: "Drink!" But Sidi Muhammad ibn 'Arabi (May ALLAH be pleased with him) thought: "I would not like that somebody else than Seyidina Sheikh drinks this glass." Then he called Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (may ALLAH sanctify his precious secret) saying: "O my father" by repeating it from time to time, but Seyidina (may ALLAH sanctify his precious secret) did not answer because in that moment he was immersed in his dhikr. When he finished he finally answered him, and Sidi Muhammad ibn 'Arabi (ALLAH be pleased with him) said: "O my father, the Rouhani came to me with a glass and then I called you to send it to you. But as a long time passed, he left with it." Seyidina (may ALLAH sanctify his precious secret) said: "We are hopeful that ALLAH will bring it back to us."

    

Among all the favours of Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him), Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) said that, one day in Ain Madhi, the wife of Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) wanted some honey while it was not the season. But he used to never refuse what she wanted. However, given the circumstances, he apologized for not being able to meet her request but she didn't accept and insisted. Then, he said to her: "Go to the courtyard because Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) has sent it to you". She went out and found a lot of honey laid on skins. She used to flatter her husband when she was with the women of the neighborhood to such an extent that they made their husbands jealous by their gossips until it became the cause of Sidi Muhammad Ibn 'Arabi's death (May ALLAH be satisfied with him). The son of Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) narrated that Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) had plantations and when these had to be irrigated, clouds used to form and watered the field that belonged to him without watering the neighbours' ones. This is one of the extraordinary favours of our masters, the Walis.

Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) had some problems with tribal leaders because those ones decided to capture him and fight all those who will oppose their will. When they arrived in Ain Madhi, they left no other choice for the inhabitants than handing Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) over, otherwise they will destroy the whole village, and they were so numerous that the residents of Ain Madhi couldn't do anything. So the inhabitants asked Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) to hand over and to accept ALLAH's decree. Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) didn't even raise the head (to reply) and began to draw on the ground with his finger something like writing. Then, he took a little piece of paper and drew letters, then he torn it into two pieces and threw it in the direction of the enemies. The two little pieces flew away and congregate and according to ALLAH's decree, the enemies fought among themselves. Their union was broken and the hostility between them remained.

    

Sidi Ahmed Abdelaoui (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) reported that because of the strength of its spiritual opening (Fath), Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) envied and desired to reach the level that was exclusively reserved to Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) despite his young age. He wrote a letter to Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) in which he revealed that he saw a station (Maqam) that was between the Prophet and the Poles but it was not inheritable and reserved to one person in this community. He acknowledged that he envied that station but he dared not ask it to the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) in case that station wasn't reserved for him and fearing to lose everything. Indeed, he was informed that it was reserved for Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) and he went to inform him about this huge favour. Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) asked Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) to give him, as a reward for the good news, the merit of ten times Ismou ALLAH El A'dham, ten times Salat el Fatihi and ten times Miftahoul Qoutbaniya. He asked it because he had noticed that a single word of Zikr of Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) exceeded what he would do himself and his ancestors and his children during seventy years.

    

Among the stories reported by trustworthy people, there is the one of a group of people who paid a visit to Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) one day. Among them were Sidi Muhammad Ibn Mechri (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) and the Knower of ALLAH Sidi Hajj 'Ali Tamacini (May ALLAH be satisfied with him). They asked him: "When animals die, do they go to paradise or not?" Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) thought: "They thought I was a wise man but I was stupid. But those who love me despite my stupidity will go to paradise and those who hate me will go to hellfire. I was confused with that question and I didn't know what to answer them until I met the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) and asked him. He (Peace and blessings be upon him) told me that there are some of the animals that go to paradise, precisely those of the Prophets, The Messengers, The Saints, those that died in the war and those with which going on pilgrimage is performed and all those that died in the way of ALLAH (The Glorified and The Exalted).They have a Paradise which is different from the thinking beings and which is full of vegetation they love and desire".

    

Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) died in 'Ain Madhi at the age of 28 and left only two daughters in that town. He died a few months before Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) went to Fes. His grave which is located in 'Ain Madhi is well-known and is frequently visited for its baraka.

 

www.tidjaniya.com/en/tijani-companions-damraui.php

Parmi les grands compagnons, doués de connaissance et de prodiges, détenteurs des hauts degrés de sainteté, l'élite de l'élite, se trouve Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi Damraoui (qu’Allah l’agrée), originaire de Taza au Maroc.

    

Sidi Mohamed Ibn ‘Arabi était celui qui servait d'intermédiaire à Seïdina Ahmed Tijani (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret), au début, lorsque celui-ci voulait parler au Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui). Ceci en raison de la grande pudeur qui l'habitait.

    

Ceci est la marque des grands saints de la communauté qui utilisaient toujours un intermédiaire entre eux et le Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui) dans leurs demandes, car ils ne pouvaient lui adresser la parole et oubliaient tout en sa présence.

    

Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée), malgré son jeune âge, rencontrait souvent le Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui) à l'état de veille. Sidi Abdelaoui (qu’Allah l’agrée) a raconté que Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée) rencontrait le Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui) vingt-quatre fois en une journée. Le Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui) recommandait à Seïdina (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret)(qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret) te les a envoyés pour toi. » Elle sortit et trouva sur des peaux une grande quantité de miel. Elle avait l'habitude de flatter son mari auprès des femmes du quartier au point que celles-ci faisaient jalouser leurs maris par leurs potins, jusqu'à ce que cela soit la cause de sa mort.

    

Le fils de Seïdina (qu’Allah l’agrée) a raconté que Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée) avait des plantations et quand celles-ci avaient besoin d'eau, les nuages se formaient et venaient arroser le champ qui lui appartenait sans arroser les terrains avoisinants. Cela fait partie des grâces extraordinaires de nos maîtres les Walis.

    

Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée) a eu des problèmes avec des chefs de tribu, ceux-ci se mirent d'accord pour le capturer et combattre tous ceux qui s'opposeraient à leur volonté. Quand ils arrivèrent à 'Ain Madhi, ils ne laissèrent d'autre choix à leurs habitants que de leur livrer Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée) sous peine de détruire tout le village sans rien épargner. Or ils étaient si nombreux qu'ils ne pouvaient les repousser.

    

Les habitants de 'Ain Madhi l'enjoignirent à se rendre auprès de ceux qui le recherchaient et selon ce qu'Allah (qu’Il soit Glorifié et Exalté) aurait destiné. Celui-ci ne releva même pas sa tête et se mit à tracer sur la terre avec son doigt quelque chose qui ressemblait à une écriture, puis il a pris un petit morceau de papier et dessina des lettres, il le déchira en deux et jeta le tout dans la direction de ceux qui étaient venus le capturer. Les deux morceaux s'envolèrent et se réunirent, et en accord avec la destinée d'Allah (qu’Il soit Glorifié et Exalté), la troupe se querella les uns avec les autres et ils se battirent entre eux. Leur union se brisa et leur hostilité perdura.

    

Sidi Ahmed Abdelaoui (qu’Allah l’agrée) a dit que Sidi Mohammed Ibn ‘Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée), à cause de la force de son ouverture enviait et désirait arriver au degré qui était réservé à Seïdina (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret), malgré son jeune âge. Il lui écrivit une lettre dans laquelle il lui révéla qu'il avait vu une station (Maqam) se situant entre la Prophétie et celui des Pôles, qu'on ne peut pas hériter et qui est réservée à une seule personne de cette communauté.

    

Il lui avoua qu'il l'enviait lui-même, mais qu'il n'osait pas le demander au Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui) au cas où cette station ne lui serait pas réservée et par crainte que tout lui soit ôté. En effet, il fut informé que cela était réservé à Seïdina Ahmed Tijani (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret) et il se précipita pour l'informer de cette grâce immense.

    

Sidi Mohammed ibn ‘Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée) demanda à Seïdina (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret) de lui donner, en récompense de cette nouvelle, le mérite de dix fois Ismou Allah El A'dham, de dix fois la Salat el Fatihi et dix fois la récompense de Miftahoul Qoutbaniya. Car il constata qu'une seule parole d’évocation prononcée par Seïdina (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret) dépasse ce qu’il ferait, lui, ses enfants et ses ancêtres pendant soixante-dix ans.

    

Parmi les récits qui furent rapportés par les gens de confiance il est ceci : un groupe était parti visiter Sidi Mohammed Ibn 'Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée). Parmi eux se trouvait Sidi Mohammed Ibn Mechri (qu’Allah l’agrée) et le Connaissant ('Arif) Sidi Hajj 'Ali Tamacini (qu’Allah l’agrée) et d'autres, ils lui posèrent la question suivante : « Lorsque les bêtes meurent entrent-elles au paradis ou non ? »

    

II se dit : « Ils ont pensé que j'étais un sage or j'étais stupide, mais celui qui m’aime malgré ma stupidité entrera au paradis et celui qui me déteste entrera en enfer. J'étais perplexe face à leur question et je ne savais quoi leur répondre jusqu'à ce que je rencontre le Prophète (que la prière et la paix d’Allah soient sur lui) et l'interroge sur cela.

    

Il me dit que parmi elles, il en est qui entrent au paradis, celles des prophètes et messagers, des saints et celles qui meurent durant le combat ainsi que celles sur lesquelles on fait le Hajj et toutes celles qui meurent sur la voie d'Allah (qu’Il soit Glorifié et Exalté). Pour elles, il est un Paradis qui n'est pas celui des êtres doués de raison, il est sans construction et il est rempli de la végétation qu'elles aiment et désirent. »

    

Sidi Mohammed Ibn ‘Arabi (qu’Allah l’agrée) est mort à 'Ain Madhi (Algérie) à l'âge de 28 ans et n'a laissé que deux filles comme progéniture dans cette ville. Il est mort quelques mois avant que Seïdina (qu’Allah sanctifie son précieux secret) s'en aille pour Fès. Sa tombe, qui se trouve à 'Aïn Madhi, est célèbre et très visitée pour la baraka.

    

Source: www.tidjaniya.com/tijani-compagnons-damraoui.php

    

English--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

    

Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi Damraui (May ALLAH be satisfied with him)

    

Amongst the great companions endowed with knowledge and wonders, holding the highest levels of sainthood – considered as the elite of the elite, stood Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi Damraoui (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) who was originally from Taza in Morocco.

    

At first, Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi Damraoui was acting as go-between for Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) when the latter, because of his great decency, wanted to speak to the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him). It is a mark of the great saints of the community who always used an intermediary between them and the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) in their requests because they forgot all things in his noble presence and so could not speak to him. Despite his young age, Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) often met the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) in waking state. Sidi Abdelaoui (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) reported that Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) used to meet the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) twenty-four times a day. The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) recommended Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) to take care of him.

    

During his stay in Boussemghoune, Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) often travelled to Taza to meet his companion and student, the great Knower of ALLAH, Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) because at that time he was one of his greatest companions and among his beloved. Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was taking care of him more and more as recommended by The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him). Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) used to visit him very often during his lifetime and after his death to such an extent that it was not necessary to mention it in the book "Djawahirou-l-Ma'ani". Seyidina Ahmed Tidjani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) said: "The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) told me to take care of Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) and told me that the latter one had rights over me". He also said that Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was a Cherif from Idmar Dachara in the region of Taza. Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) had a lot of favours and the most important of them was that the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) had assured him that he loved him. He was the intermediary between the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) and Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) by the consent of the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) himself. When Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) died, Seyidina Ahmed Tidjani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) replaced him by the great Caliph Sidi Hajj 'Ali Harazim (May ALLAH be satisfied with him), complying with, as always, the command of The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him).

    

Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was assassinated. When he moved to 'Aïn Madhi, he was attributed many virtues which people talked about. It became a subject of women discussions in the region and aroused jealousy of his enemies who encouraged someone to assassinate him.

    

Long before the horrible act, his murderer often used to pay him a visit and he used to ask him for prayers (dou'a) but Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) expelled him every time he came and told him: " Go away from me, O wrongdoer, son of wrongdoers! Enemies will encourage you to kill me." Indeed, it happened as he said.

    

One day, when Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was busy, that man came to him and and shot at him. He collapsed; the order of ALLAH (The Glorified and The Exalted) is a predestined decree. Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) knew by spiritual unveiling everything that was going to happen to him like the machinations of his enemies. Following the event, ALLAH (The Glorified and The Exalted) punished those who plotted against him as well as his murderer in a harsh way. Their group was scattered, their descendants have almost died out and those who survived in that region were completely ruined and shocked by horror of the consequence of ALLAH's intense revenge. May ALLAH (The Glorified and The Exalted) protect us from making the same mistake, i.e. standing against our masters, the Walis, because it undoubtedly leads on the road of ruin. ALLAH (The Glorified and The Exalted) said in a Qoudoussi hadith: "Whoever attacks one of My Walis, I will declare him war..." (Boukhari). After having heard his death, a Wali from Tunisia, who didn't belong to the Tariqa Tidjaniya, wanted to take his revenge on all the inhabitants of 'Aïn Madhi. Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) wrote him a letter to warn him against the consequences of such an act. So, a group of six persons among which the great erudite Sidi Muhammad Ibn Mechri (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was sent by Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) to carry him the message. It remained for him to comply with the orders by surrendering.

    

Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was the prodigy of his time for what he held in terms of secrets and knowledge. He received from the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him), both in dreams and waking states, what could astonish minds and could be noticed only by the greatest masters. One day, in a dream, he was given a poem by the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him). When he woke up, he saw the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) and asked him its comment. The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) explained him that it is thanks to the love and attachment to Seyidina Sheikh Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) that he got all these favours but, without this love, he would have never seen him. The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) ordered him to convey the poem and its commentary to Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him). The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) gave him also a prayer called The Pearl which contains huge benefits for the believers who recite it as it was said by the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) himself. Before meeting Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him), Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) belonged to the Tariqa Bel Ben 'Azouz. Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) had reported that The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) said: "Bel Ben 'Azouz is a demon of this community".

    

When Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) met Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him), he asked him the authorization to follow his Tariqa, having seen in him all the wonders. Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) considered him as his intimate, following the recommendations of The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him). Once, Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) sent his companion Sidi Hajj Mousaqam (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) to Taza with a horse to tell Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) to come and see him. Once he was there, Sidi Hajj Mousaqam (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) informed Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) about the message of Seyidina Sheikh (May ALLAH be satisfied with him). Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) got up right away to meet the obligation. During the trip, his horse died and he ordered the Rouhaniyoun (spiritual entities) to come in its body so that they could take him to Boussemghoune. On the way, his companion said: "O Master! The horse's smell is bothering me". Then, he ordered to hurry up. Once he arrived, he got off and the horse fell down and worms came out of it. Then, Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) met Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) who talked to him about secrets.

    

In each of his residences, Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (may ALLAH sanctify his precious secret) was reserving a room known as "Bayit Sirr" (room of the secret) and that, complying with the command of The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him). Indeed, in Boussemghoune, as in Ain Madhi, when Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (may ALLAH sanctify his precious secret) made his blessed house build, Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) convey that The Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) said: "When the building of the house will be finished, reserve a room, named it "Bayit Sirr", perform your litanies and all I ordered you to do in it, and nobody else has the right to come in it but you, you will see the good and the blessing increase and you will reach all your goals."

    

This room was divided by wood plates. Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (may ALLAH sanctify his precious secret) was on one side while Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) was on the other.

    

It was reported that one day while Sidi Muhammad ibn 'Arabi (May ALLAH be pleased with him) was doing his dhikr in the mentioned place a Rouhani came to him with a glass containing a drink of light so intense that it lit up the room where he was. The Rouhani said: "Drink!" But Sidi Muhammad ibn 'Arabi (May ALLAH be pleased with him) thought: "I would not like that somebody else than Seyidina Sheikh drinks this glass." Then he called Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (may ALLAH sanctify his precious secret) saying: "O my father" by repeating it from time to time, but Seyidina (may ALLAH sanctify his precious secret) did not answer because in that moment he was immersed in his dhikr. When he finished he finally answered him, and Sidi Muhammad ibn 'Arabi (ALLAH be pleased with him) said: "O my father, the Rouhani came to me with a glass and then I called you to send it to you. But as a long time passed, he left with it." Seyidina (may ALLAH sanctify his precious secret) said: "We are hopeful that ALLAH will bring it back to us."

    

Among all the favours of Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him), Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) said that, one day in Ain Madhi, the wife of Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) wanted some honey while it was not the season. But he used to never refuse what she wanted. However, given the circumstances, he apologized for not being able to meet her request but she didn't accept and insisted. Then, he said to her: "Go to the courtyard because Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) has sent it to you". She went out and found a lot of honey laid on skins. She used to flatter her husband when she was with the women of the neighborhood to such an extent that they made their husbands jealous by their gossips until it became the cause of Sidi Muhammad Ibn 'Arabi's death (May ALLAH be satisfied with him). The son of Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) narrated that Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) had plantations and when these had to be irrigated, clouds used to form and watered the field that belonged to him without watering the neighbours' ones. This is one of the extraordinary favours of our masters, the Walis.

Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) had some problems with tribal leaders because those ones decided to capture him and fight all those who will oppose their will. When they arrived in Ain Madhi, they left no other choice for the inhabitants than handing Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) over, otherwise they will destroy the whole village, and they were so numerous that the residents of Ain Madhi couldn't do anything. So the inhabitants asked Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) to hand over and to accept ALLAH's decree. Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) didn't even raise the head (to reply) and began to draw on the ground with his finger something like writing. Then, he took a little piece of paper and drew letters, then he torn it into two pieces and threw it in the direction of the enemies. The two little pieces flew away and congregate and according to ALLAH's decree, the enemies fought among themselves. Their union was broken and the hostility between them remained.

    

Sidi Ahmed Abdelaoui (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) reported that because of the strength of its spiritual opening (Fath), Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) envied and desired to reach the level that was exclusively reserved to Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) despite his young age. He wrote a letter to Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) in which he revealed that he saw a station (Maqam) that was between the Prophet and the Poles but it was not inheritable and reserved to one person in this community. He acknowledged that he envied that station but he dared not ask it to the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) in case that station wasn't reserved for him and fearing to lose everything. Indeed, he was informed that it was reserved for Seyidina Ahmed Tijani (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) and he went to inform him about this huge favour. Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) asked Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) to give him, as a reward for the good news, the merit of ten times Ismou ALLAH El A'dham, ten times Salat el Fatihi and ten times Miftahoul Qoutbaniya. He asked it because he had noticed that a single word of Zikr of Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) exceeded what he would do himself and his ancestors and his children during seventy years.

    

Among the stories reported by trustworthy people, there is the one of a group of people who paid a visit to Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) one day. Among them were Sidi Muhammad Ibn Mechri (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) and the Knower of ALLAH Sidi Hajj 'Ali Tamacini (May ALLAH be satisfied with him). They asked him: "When animals die, do they go to paradise or not?" Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) thought: "They thought I was a wise man but I was stupid. But those who love me despite my stupidity will go to paradise and those who hate me will go to hellfire. I was confused with that question and I didn't know what to answer them until I met the Prophet (Peace and blessings be upon him) and asked him. He (Peace and blessings be upon him) told me that there are some of the animals that go to paradise, precisely those of the Prophets, The Messengers, The Saints, those that died in the war and those with which going on pilgrimage is performed and all those that died in the way of ALLAH (The Glorified and The Exalted).They have a Paradise which is different from the thinking beings and which is full of vegetation they love and desire".

    

Sidi Muhammad Ibn Arabi (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) died in 'Ain Madhi at the age of 28 and left only two daughters in that town. He died a few months before Seyidina (May ALLAH be satisfied with him) went to Fes. His grave which is located in 'Ain Madhi is well-known and is frequently visited for its baraka.

 

www.tidjaniya.com/en/tijani-companions-damraui.php

on the day of parting they did not saddle the full-grown reddish-white camels untilthey had mounted the peacocks upon them

peacocks with murderous glances and sovereign power

thugh wouldst fancy that each of them was a bilqis on her throne of pearls

when she walks on the glass pavement

thou seest a sun on a celestial sphere in the bosom of idris

when she kills with her glances

her speech restores to life

as though she

in giving life thereby

were jesus

the smooth surface of her legs is like the tora in brightness

and i followed it

and tread in its footsteps

as though i were moses

she is a bishopess

one of the daughters of rome

unadorned

thou seest in her a radiant goodness

wild is she

none can make her his friend

she has gotten in her solitery chamber a mausoleum for remenbrace

she has baffled everyone who is learned in our religion

every student of the psalms of david

every jewish doctor

and every christin priest

if with a gesture he demands the gospel

though wouldst deem us to be priests and patriachs and deacons

the day when they departe on the raod

i prepared for war with the armies of my patience

host after host

when my soul reached the throat

when i was at the point of death

i besought that beauty ant that grace to grant me relief

and she yielded

may god preserve us from her evil

and may the victorious king repel iblis

i exclaimed

when her camel set out to depart

o driver of the reddish-white camels

do not drive them away with her.......

 

Ibn 'Arabi's

"Gentle Now, Doves of the Thornberry and Moringa Thicket"

(ālā yā hamāmāti l-arākati wa l-bāni)

 

After sleep, she is languor.

The house exudes her fragrance.

She adorns it

when she appears in the morning,

As if her anklets and ivory

were entwined around a calotrope

stopping the water's flow

in the bed of a wadi,

Her buttocks like a dune

over which a rain shower falls

matting the sand

as it sprinkles down

Her hair-fall

over the lower curve of her back,

soft as the moringa's gossamer flowers,

curled with pins and combed,

With long cheek hollows

where tears flow,

and a lengthened curve at the breast sash

where it crosses and falls.

You see her ear pendant

along the exposed ridge of her neck,

swaying-out,

dangling over the abyss.

With a red thornberry tooth-twig,

fragrant as musk and Indian ambergris

brought in in the morning,

she reveals

Petals of a camomile

cooled by the night

to which the dew has risen at evening

from Ráma oasis,

Wafting in on all sides

with the earth scent of the garden,

redolent as a musk pod

falling open.

The white gleam of her teeth,

her immoderate laugh,

almost to the unhearing

speak secrets.

She is the cure, she the disease..

  

Expérience et doctrine de l'amour chez Ibn Arabî

"Par Dieu, j'éprouve de l'amour à un point tel que, me semble-t-il, les cieux se disloqueraient, lesétoiles s'affaisseraient, les montagnes s'ébranleraient si je leur en confiais la charge [1] : telle est mon expérience de l'amour..." [2] Attribuerais-je cette citation à Rûmî ou à Ruzbehân Baqlî, nul n'en serait surpris: l'un et l'autre sont unanimement reconnus pour être parmi les plus illustres représentants de la "voie d'amour" au sein de la tradition mystique d'islam. Mais, c'est dans les Futûhât makkiyya, cette oeuvre dont Massignon dénonçait le "ton impassible et glacé" [3] que surgit ce cri d'un coeur embrasé. Massignon avait tout lu; sans doute a-t-il connu ce texte mais, si son regard s'y est attardé quelques instants, il n'y aura probablement vu qu'un artifice littéraire. Ibn Arabî n'est pour lui qu'un dialecticien hautain et sec et rien n'a jamais pu le convaincre de revenir sur cette opinion professée dès sa jeunesse. L'auteur des Fusûs est certes aussi celui du Turjumân al-ashwâq; mais ce recueil de poèmes est-il autre chose qu'un hapax dans l'étendue aride d'un gigantesque corpus d'abstractions? Corbin s'est appliqué à démontrer qu'il n'en était rien. A-t-il été entendu? On constate en tous cas qu'Ibn Arabî est toujours présenté dans des travaux récents comme le représentant en islam d'une mystique spéculative qui s'oppose à celle dont Rûmî est le plus célèbre exemple. Un de ses traducteurs, qu'on aurait pu espérer plus avisé, l'a accusé il y a peu d'"impérialisme métaphysique" [4] . Un excellent chercheur américain, William Chittick, a consacré à Rûmî et à Ibn Arabî de savantes monographies. Or il est significatif que la première s'intitule "The Sufi Path of Love" et la seconde "The Sufî Path of Knowledge".

 

Sans nier qu'il y ait, entre le Mathnavî et les Futûhât, de considérables différences d'accent, on perçoit dans ces dichotomies l'écho de vieux débats qui ne sont pas étrangers au monde de la chrétienté latine. Dans l'itinerarium in deum, à laquelle des puissances revient le rôle essentiel? Est-ce à la volonté, d'où procède l'amour ou à l'intellect dont procède la connaissance? Il y a quelques décennies encore, de vives polémiques s'engagèrent sur l'interprétation correcte d'un adage que Guillaume de Saint-Thierry avait repris à Saint Grégoire le Grand: amor ipse intellectus est. Parmi les spécialistes de la mystique rhéno-flamande- et d'abord chez les auteurs mêmes qui illustrent ce puissant courant médiéval- les controverses sont nombreuses entre partisans d'une "mystique de l'Essence" (Wesenmystik) assez suspecte, et ceux d'une "Mystique nuptiale" (Brautmystik) plus rassurante. Au dix-septième siècle, l'"école abstraite"- celle de Benoît de Canfield ou du jeune Bérulle- souleva elle aussi bien des inquiétudes. Lorsqu'après un long parcours souterrain l'oeuvre d'Eckhart refit surface, à la fin du dix-neuvième siècle, elle fut l'objet- en premier lieu chez ses frères dominicains- d'appréciations étonnamment semblables à celles qui furent souvent réservées à Ibn Arabî.

 

Comparer les Traités et Sermons du Thuringien avec le Cantique des créatures ou les écrits d'Angèle de Foligno a-t-il un sens? Ce qui est sûr c'est que s'agissant d'Ibn Arabî, ses écrits ne laissent subsister aucun doute quant au fait que l'opposition entre une voie d'amour et une voie de connaissance est, dans son cas, dénuée de pertinence. Encore faut-il les lire sans idée préconçue; la sympathie non dissimulée de Massigon pour Hallâj dont le "martyre", pour reprendre son expression, évoque fortement la Passion et, de façon plus générale, celle de certains spécialistes occidentaux à l'égard de mystiques musulmans en la spiritualité desquels ils décèlent certaines affinités avec la tradition judéo-chrétienne est bien compréhensible. Elle ne doit pas faire oublier que dans le cadre de la tradition islamique, c'est le Prophète Muhammad- et lui seul- qui constitue l'exemplum, l'infaillible modèle que le pèlerin de Dieu se doit d'imiter au plus haut point. Cet axiome fonde et structure la doctrine hagiologique d'Ibn Arabî; il commande aussi son itinéraire spirituel.

 

La suite du texte où il déclare que le cosmos ne pourrait assumer le poids de son amour sous peine de s'effondrer apporte à cet égard une indication très éclairante:"Toutefois, précise-t-il, Dieu m'a consolidé en cette expérience de l'amour par la force que je tiens en héritage de celui qui est le 'chef des amoureux' (expression qui désigne, cela va sans dire, le Prophète de l'islam)". Un autre passage du même texte revient sur cet aspect, manifestement capital aux yeux d'Ibn Arabî, de l'expérience mystique de l'amour: "Dieu m'a donné une part surabondante de l'amour, mais Il m'a également donné de le dominer". En d'autres termes, si puissante que soit la grâce de l'amour qui le submerge, il n'en conserve pas moins la maîtrise des "états spirituels" qu'elle est susceptible d'engendrer: ivre d'amour donc, et malgré tout sobre.

 

S'il est une question qui a hanté les spirituels musulmans à compter du quatrième siècle de l'hégire, et plus exactement à dater du 24 dhu l-qa'da 309h./922, c'est bien celle qui touche à la notion de sukr, l'"ivresse spirituelle". Ce jour là, à Bagdad, Hallâj est exécuté sur la place publique. Quoique le procès qui a conduit à sa condamnation à mort soit aussi- peut-être même surtout- un procès politique, il n'en demeure pas moins que pour les soufis d'hier et d'aujourd'hui- et Ibn Arabî partage ce point de vue- Hallâj a péri pour avoir impudiquement dévoilé, sous l'emprise de l'ivresse, d'inviolables secrets. Aussi bien, sur la question de savoir si la "sobriété" est préférable à l'"ivresse" ou vice versa, la majorité des maîtres se prononcent en faveur de la première attitude tout en soulignant que le summum pour le spirituel est de conjuguer les deux, ou plus exactement, de réaliser l'i'tidâl, l'"équilibre" parfait entre ces deux pôles [5] . Ibn Arabî, on l'aura compris aux propos cités, adhère pleinement à cette doctrine commune du "juste milieu" que l'on ne doit jamais perdre de vue lorsqu'on aborde sa biographie spirituelle. Au vrai, l'examen de ses écrits en la matière fait apparaître que cette notion d'i'tidâl revêt une importance primordiale dans sa doctrine de l'expérience mystique de l'amour à son degré suprême.

 

Sur le thème de l'amour le maître andalou s'est exprimé à d'innombrables reprises, tantôt en des textes lyriques, tantôt en des exposés discursifs. Le Turjumân al-ashwâq, une large part du Diwân al-ma'ârif mais aussi de nombreux textes appartenant aux Tajalliyâtet au Tâj al-rasâ'il relèvent du premier genre et témoignent, en des termes souvent allusifs, de l'expérience personnelle de l'auteur en ce domaine. Leur lecture a au moins ceci d'instructif qu'elle montre que le shaykh al-akbar ne s'exprime pas en doctrinaire mais en témoin, shahîd. Cependant, ce sont bien évidemment les écrits de la seconde espèce, ceux qui constituent à proprement parler des énoncés doctrinaux qui retiendront ici mon attention [6] . Outre une série de chapitres figurant dans la section des Futûhât consacrée aux "états spirituels" (Fasl al-ahwâl) et dans laquelle sont notamment traités les thèmes de la "sobriété", de l'"ivresse" et de la "satiété" [7] , quatre des réponses au questionnaire de Tirmidhî exposent les idées maîtresses d'Ibn Arabî sur ce sujet [8] . D'importantes remarques figurent également dans les textes ayant trait à la notion de "beauté" (jamâl) dont nous allons voir qu'elle module du début à la fin la méditation d'Ibn Arabî sur l'amour divin. Enfin, le chapitre 178 des Futûhât, intitulé "De la connaissance de la station de l'amour et de ses secrets", développe amplement la question et c'est donc sur lui que se concentreront mes réflexions [9] .

 

Ce chapitre présente d'ailleurs une particularité qui, si elle est d'ordre stylistique, n'en n'est pas moins significative quant au sujet qui nous occupe: c'est celui des Futûhât qui contient le plus grand nombre de vers. Il va sans dire que le thème débattu, celui de l'amour, n'est pas étranger à cette promotion du langage poétique lequel, en libérant la parole des contraintes du discours organisé, est à même d'exprimer l'ineffable désir de Dieu. Et parce qu'il s'agit précisément d'une expérience qui relève de l'indicible, le shaykh al-akbar recourt souvent, pour en rendre compte, à l'image la plus universelle qui soit: celle de la "bien-aimée", dont le prénom, au demeurant, varie au fil de sa plume.

 

"J'ai un Bien-Aimé qui porte le nom de tous ceux qui ont un nom" , déclare-t-il à ce propos dans le Dîwân al-ma'ârif. Il est remarquable que ce vers soit celui qui ouvre la longue section de ce recueil recensant les odes, innombrables, où l'auteur clame sans plus de retenue la passion qui le consume. Il estd'ailleurs un vocable qui, sous diverses formes, hante cette longue série de poèmes: celui de hawâ' , "l'amour-passion", que l'auteur des Futûhât définit comme "une annihilation totale de la volonté en l'Aimé" .

 

Louange à Dieu qui a fait de l'amour (al- hawâ') un sanctuaire vers lequel marchent les coeurs des hommes dont l'éducation spirituelle est parfaite et une ka'ba autour de laquelle tournoient les secrets des poitrines des hommes de raffinement spirituel

notion de sequela dont on constate que sur cette question de l'amour comme sur toutes celles qui touchent à la vie spirituelle, elle commande la pédagogie initiatique d'Ibn Arabî. Il est significatif à cet égard que parmi les neufs vertus majeures qu'il retient d'entre toutes celles que mentionne le Coran comme étant propres à susciter immanquablement l'amour de Dieu, c'est l'ittibâ' al-nabîqu'il place en tête de liste, soulignant à ce propos qu'il implique, outre de suivre le Prophète dans l'observance de ce qui est légalement obligatoire, à savoir les farâ'id, de l'imiter aussi dans ce qui relève du surérogatoire, autrement dit les nawâfil et, partant, dans les "nobles vertus" qu'il a exemplifiées et dont la pratique, dès lors, ne saurait être regardée comme superfétatoire [51] . Il va sans dire que cette insistance sur les deux aspects majeurs que revêt le précepte de l'ittibâ'se fonde sur le hadîth déjà entrevu et selon lequel les deux modes d'accès à la proximité divine sont précisément la pratique des farâ'id d'une part, des nawâfil d'autre part; chacun d'eux correspondant chez Ibn Arabî, ainsi que l'a montré l'auteur du Sceau des saints [52] , à un degré éminent de réalisation spirituelle: celui qu'Ibn Arabî désigne sous le nom de 'ubûdiyya al-ikhtiyâr, le servage "librement consenti" s'agissant des nawâfil- l'accomplissement d'un acte non obligatoire impliquant un choix volontaire- et celui de la 'ubûdiyya al-idtirâr, le servage "imposé" s'agissant des farâ'id qui sont exécutés par simple obéissance [53] . Dans le premier cas de figure, le spirituel qui n'a pas entièrement renoncé à toute volonté propre entend faire prévaloir sa qualité de muhibb, "aimant", au sens fort du participe actif. Or l'amour, remarque Ibn Arabî, lorsqu'il est sincère et absolu, a pour effet que le muhibb s'identifie en fin de compte à celui dont il est "épris" au point d'assumer ses attributs [54] . D'où la théomorphose évoquée dans le hadîth : Dieu est l'ouïe du muhibb, sa vue, ses mains, etc. Transfiguré de la sorte par la grâce de l'amour, le spirituel voit le monde tel qu'il est au regard de l'Eternel, d'une éblouissante beauté tout comme il perçoit le murmure assourdissant des louanges que "toute chose", fût-elle apparemment inanimée, adresse au "Seigneur des mondes" (Cor. 17:44) [55] ; dès lors, il aime toutes les créatures, sans exclusion aucune, car en chacune d'elles il contemple le Bien-Aimé ("Où que vous vous tourniez, là est la face de Dieu" Cor. 2:115). C'est à cela, au demeurant, souligne Ibn Arabî que se reconnaît un homme qui aime véritablement Dieu [56] .

 

Rares sont les élus qui réalisent pleinement cette theomimesis; plus rares encore ceux qui atteignent la station supérieure, celle de la 'ubûdiyya al-idtirâr qui ressortit au faqr, à la "pauvreté" la plus absolue. En cette ultime demeure spirituelle, le gnostique est, selon l'expression d'Ibn Arabî, maqtûl, "tué", mort à lui-même et incapable par conséquent de la moindre volonté propre [57] . Sans doute est-il mahbûb, "aimé" de Dieu, encore qu'il ne le sache plus, mais non plus muhibb: dépris de toute chose, dépris de soi et de Dieu même qu'il a renoncé à posséder, il a recouvré le souverain détachement- au sens eckhartien du terme- qui était le sien lorsque, enclos dans le "trésor caché", il était sans se savoir être. En cette vacuité de la créature, Dieu peut enfin s'épancher à loisir et assumer en toute plénitude sa qualité de muhibb qui est sienne de toute éternité. C'est pourquoi, conclut, Ibn Arabî, c'est Lui, en ce cas, qui se revêt des attributs du saint, lequel est Son ouïe, Sa vue [58] .

 

Dans l'abaissement de l'homme "au plus bas des bas" (Cor. 95:5) s'accomplit donc la theosis, lorsque l'adéquation entre la'ubûdiyya de la créature et la rubûbiyya du Créateur est si totale que leur distinction s'efface. Il n'est donné qu'à l'Homme Parfait de connaître cette entière réciprocité, en vertu de laquelle il est le mithl, le "pareil" de Dieu en ce bas monde. Encore n'est-il lui-même que le "substitut" (nâ'ib) du Prophète qui, en raison de son insurpassable perfection, détient seul cette prérogative. Dans un passage du Kitâb al-hujub, Ibn Arabî va d'ailleurs jusqu'à identifier la personne du Prophète, ou, plus exactement, la "Réalité muhammadienne", avec l'amour en tant que celui-ci est le moteur de l'univers: "...[ L'amour] est le principe de l'existence et sa cause; il est le commencement du monde et ce qui le maintient et c'est Muhammad.[...] Car c'est à partir de la réalité (haqîqa) de ce Maître, sur lui la Grâce et la Paix, que se déploient les réalités supérieures et inférieures." [59] En d'autres termes, le Prophète est le barzakh par excellence, l'"isthme" où coïncident le haut et le bas; à l'image de Dieu qui se décrit comme "Le Premier et le Dernier, l'Apparent et le Caché" (Cor. 57:3) et dont il est le "suprême réceptacle" (al-majlâ al-a'zam) [60] , il est à la fois ceci et cela et pourtant ni ceci ni cela, d'où sa sublime perfection.

 

Au vrai, c'est un leitmotiv chez le shaykh al-akbar que d'affirmer que la perfection réside dans l'i'tidâl, le "juste milieu" en lequel demeure le spirituel parvenu au point culminant du détachement. Ainsi, le chapitre 243 des Futûhât consacré à la notion de perfection (kamâl) s'intitule de manière significative: "De la connaissance de la perfection qui est l'i'tidâl [61] ". Plus éloquent ce passage du Fihrist, où,à propos de son commentaire du Coran, Ibn Arabî indique avoir pris en compte, pour chaque verset, trois aspects: "En premier lieu, la station de la majesté (maqâm al-jalâl), en second lieu, la station de la beauté (al-jamâl), enfin la station de l'équilibre (i'tidâl) qui est l' "isthme" (barzakh) du point de vue de celui qui hérite de Muhammad et c'est la station de la perfection. [62] " Ailleurs encore, il déclare: "Celui qui se qualifie par la perfection n'incline jamais." [63] Et de le comparer une autre fois à l'"arbre béni" de la sourate al-Nûr (Cor. 24:35), qui "n'est ni oriental ni occidental" [64] . Il est intéressant de noter que cette allusion au statut à la fois vertical et équinoxial des plus parfaits d'entre les spirituels figure dans un texte des Tanazzulât mawsiliyya consacré à la salât al-wustâ, la "prière du milieu", généralement assimilée par les commentateurs à la prière du 'asr. Cette coïncidence n'a évidemment rien de fortuit: dans le chapitre des Futûhât correspondant à la demeure de la sourate al-'asr65] , il est également question de ce "juste milieu" qui préserve l'Homme Parfait de toute inclination spirituelle: "S'agissant du spirituel parfait, les Noms divins se contrecarrent mutuellementde sorte qu'ils n'exercent aucune influence sur lui; il demeure exempt de toute influence, avec l'Essence absolue que ni les Noms ni les Attributs ne conditionnent. Aussi le spirituel parfait atteint-il l'extrême sobriété (fî ghâyat al-sahw), à l'exemple des Envoyés." [66]

 

Sobre, le Prophète de l'islam le fut plus que tout autre. Du moins est-ce la conviction d'Ibn Arabî qui, en maintes occasions, souligne que l'Envoyé ne laissait rien paraître des grâces spirituelles que Dieu répandait en abondance sur lui; cette occultation des attributs de la sainteté constituant pour Ibn Arabî, on le sait, le signe de sa perfection spirituelle et la caractéristique majeure de ses héritiers, les malâmiyya, qu'il appelle aussi très souvent les "muhammadiens". Occultation et non dissimulation: le 'ârif n'a pas à dissimuler ses états spirituels; il les transcende, d'où sa sobriété. A l'exemple du messager de Dieu, il a choisi le lait plutôt que le vin, interdit ici-bas parce qu'il a le pouvoir d'annihiler l'intellect lequel, en ce cas, n'est plus en mesure d'opérer la distinction entre rabb et 'abd que les règles de convenance spirituelle (adab) impose de respecter en ce monde [67] . Le lait, en revanche, n'altère pas la conscience distinctive; il symbolise- selon l'interprétation qu'en fit le Prophète à la suite d'un songe [68] - la science que Dieu n'octroie qu'à ceux qu'Il aime [69] et dont le désir est toujours inassouvi et à jamais inassouvissable: plus Dieu les abreuve de connaissances, plus ils sont assoiffés, plus ils en réclament[70] .

 

"Détachement", "mort", "sobriété","science" autant de vocables qui pourraient donner à penser que le saint accompli, tel que le conçoit Ibn Arabî, est pareil à un bloc de granit, dur et froid. Rien ne serait plus faux. Certes, parvenu au plus près de Dieu, le spirituel est maqtûl. Toutefois, indique Ibn Arabî, mort par amour pour Dieu, il est mort en martyr71] . Il est donc suprêmement vivant puisque telle est la récompense promise par Dieu à ceux qui s'offrent à Lui. Détaché de toute chose, il n'en est que plus proche de ceux qui l'entourent, plus libre de les aimer. Quant à sa sobriété, elle n'est pas l'assèchement de celui qui n'a jamais connu les transports de l'amour dont elle est, tout au contraire, l'apothéose. Car c'est en vertu de cette sobriété que le spirituel peut jouir, post eventum, des connaissances qui, sans qu'il s'en rendît compte alors, fluaient sur lui tandis que Dieu l'enivrait de son amour au point de le ravir à lui-même; ce n'est qu'une fois revenu à lui même qu'il peut juger à bon escient ce qui, des secrets à lui révélés tandis qu'il se tenait auprès de son Seigneur, "à la distance de deux arcs ou plus près" (Cor. 53:9), doit être divulgué ou doit être tenu secret. La sobriété est en cela supérieure à l'ivresse qu'elle confère aux saints, et a fortiori aux messagers divins la basîra, la "clairevoyance" nécessaire à l'accomplissement de leur fonction de guidance.

EL AMOR UDRÍ EN AL-SIRÂJ IBN SUHAYD DE CÓRDOBA

(Breve estudio introductorio)

 

Nacido durante el dominio almohade de Al-Andalus, Al-Sirâj Ibn Suhayd de Córdoba (1161-1236) es considerado por los arabistas como uno de los continuadores más relevantes del modelo literario creado por el poeta Ibn Hazm. Al-Maqqari de Tremecen, historiador árabe del siglo XVII y compilador de la cultura andalusí, nos narra en su obra Nafh at-Tib diversos acontecimientos de su vida, entre ellos el descubrimiento de su vocación lírica tras la lectura de “El collar de la paloma” de su admirado maestro. Entre sus páginas va encontrando la esencia de las palabras que más tarde formarán las raíces de su propia poesía. Es por ello que, antes de adentrarnos en su figura, conviene traer a este estudio un extracto de las mismas para así acercar al lector a la que pudo ser su primera mirada poética:

“Difieren entre sí las gentes sobre la naturaleza del amor y hablan y no acaban sobre ella. Mi parecer es que consiste en la unión entre partes de almas que, en este mundo creado, andan divididas, en relación a como primero eran en su elevada esencia; pero no en el sentido en que lo afirma Muhammad Ibn Dawud cuando, respaldándose en la opinión de cierto filósofo, dice que son las almas esferas partidas, sino en el sentido de la mutua relación que sus potencias tuvieron en la morada de su altísimo mundo y de la vecindad que ahora tienen en la forma de su actual composición.

Sabemos todos que el secreto de la atracción o del desvío entre las cosas creadas está en la afinidad o repulsión que hay entre ellas, porque cada cosa busca siempre a su semejante, lo afín sólo en su afín sosiega, y esta comunidad de especie ejerce una acción que los sentidos perciben y una influencia que salta a la vista. La mutua antipatía entre los contrarios, la mutua simpatía entre los iguales, el ímpetu que enlaza a las cosas parejas entre sí, son cosas que hallamos bien patentes en nuestro mundo.

Si la causa del amor fuese no más que la belleza de la figura corporal, fuerza sería conceder que el que tuviera cualquier tacha en su figura no sería amado, y, por el contrario, a menudo vemos que hay quien prefiere alguien de inferior belleza con respecto a otros cuya superioridad reconoce, y que, sin embargo, no puede apartar de él su corazón. Y si dicha causa consistiese en la conformidad de los caracteres, no amaría el hombre a quién no le es propicio ni con él se concierta. Reconocemos, por tanto, que el amor es algo que radica en la misma esencia del alma.”

Al-Sirâj queda tan fascinado con este texto que tras su estudio decide dedicar su Vida a la búsqueda del amor puro a través de la poesía. Se forma junto al insigne Ibn Arabi y viaja, como él, por todo el mundo mediterráneo. Deja escritos diversos tratados filosóficos y religiosos que luego mandará traducir Alfonso X el Sabio en su escuela de Toledo. Sus versos siguen la misma senda del Amor Udrí que inicia Ibn Hazm y que luego continuaría Ibn Arabi. Son numerosos sus discípulos, entre los que destaca el sevillano Ibn Sahl. Muere en Fez unos días antes de que su ciudad natal fuera conquistada por las tropas del rey de Castilla Fernando III.

Su obra está marcada por una continua referencia a la tensión de los contrarios como empuje en la evolución de la Vida: luz frente a vacío, amor frente a miedo, belleza frente a miseria... Al igual que Ibn Arabi, defiende el principio de la Unidad de la Existencia, manifestando en todos sus escritos que, a pesar de nuestras diferencias, todos somos uno, pequeños fragmentos de la Divinidad de la que formamos parte indivisible. En su poesía es común la identificación con la persona amada, sirviendo de precedente -como también lo fueron los demás poetas que bebieron de la corriente Udrí- para el amor cortés provenzal. Manifiesta en repetidas ocasiones su creencia en el origen divino del amor, que personifica en los perfiles de la luz que muestran en cada gesto de la amada su esencia sagrada. En todos sus poemas se transparenta un sentido trágico de la Vida cuando ésta está tocada por el amor en su creación más sublime: la pasión desbordada y desbordante. Es por ello que se proyecta en su entorno, impregnándolo todo con los contrastes que modelan su sentimiento y con su visión del mundo dirigida únicamente hacia el otro enamorado. Para darle forma a sus textos concibe una métrica que rompe con los cánones establecidos en su época, haciendo que predomine el verso libre en la mayoría de sus composiciones.

Nos encontramos ante una poesía que se debate entre la pureza inalcanzable y el deseo insatisfecho. Porque nada importa salvo el amor, alrededor todo desaparece frente al vendaval desatado. Tal es así que el poeta sólo se reconoce en el aliento de la amada. Cualquier gesto es imperfecto salvo el acto de amar, que está por encima de la débil humanidad de los amantes. Al-Sirâj convierte así el amor en una religión y al poeta en un místico.

 

CÓRDOBA, OCTUBRE DE 2009.

 

www.rafaelpavonreina.blogspot.com

 

Por heterónimo se entiende el autor ficticio o pseudoautor que es también personaje y del que se valen ciertos autores reales, llamados ortónimos, para crear una obra literaria paralela o distinta a la suya.

Una curiosa foto, obtenida directamente de lo que se veía en el escenario (sin ningún tipo de manipulación fotográfica por mi parte... si cabe algo de mérito, es el haberlas hecho todas con unas condiciones dificilísimas de luz) durante el espectáculo que la compañía Producciones Viridiana ponía en escena en el Auditorio del Siete Colinas de Ceuta.

Se trata de la obra HABIBI (Amado), obra creada y dirigida por Jesús Arbués. En la misma se habla de la fusión entre el amante y el amado, utilizando para ello las palabras y los versos de los grandes maestros del sufismo (Ibn Arabi y Mevlana Rumi) junto con la música y el baile de un derviche girador (interpretado por el bailarín egipcio Mohamed El Sayed) al que se añade un gran despliegue técnico que permite proyectar durante la obra imágenes ante los actores, consiguiendo un espectacular efecto tridimensional y de mestizaje.

Producciones Viridiana es una compañía teatral asentada en Huesca desde el año 1994 y compuesta por jóvenes profesionales formados en distintas escuelas (Institut del Teatro de Barcelona, Teatro de la Abadía, Escuela de Teatro de Zaragoza). Durante estos años han realizado más de 1500 actuaciones por toda la geografía nacional y el extranjero (Argentina, Bulgaria, Cuba, Francia, Marruecos, México, Perú, Portugal y Republica Dominicana).

Wonder,

A garden among the flames!

 

My heart can take on any form:

A meadow for gazelles,

A cloister for monks,

For the idols, sacred ground,

Ka'ba for the circling pilgrim,

The tables of the Torah,

The scrolls of the Quran.

 

My creed is Love;

Wherever its caravan turns along the way,

That is my belief,

My faith.

 

~ Ibn Arabi♥

Concierto de Música de Cine, por la Banda del Cabezo de Torres, uno de los actos del pasado Ibn Arabí Film Festival.

The Universal Tree and the Four Birds: Treatise on Unification

 

Through the story of the Universal Tree, representing the complete human being, and the four birds, representing the four essential aspects of Existence, Ibn 'Arabi explains his teaching on the nature and meaning of union.

book preview : books.google.com/books?hl=en&id=TOKmUYvCPU4C&dq=f...

 

"When a person does not know that he isHow can he comprehend the eternityAnd reach the possessor of no beginnings…" Ibn Arabi

After a lengthy renovation, Cruyllas Castle of Calatabiano (situated between the Alcantara Valley and Etna and not far from Taormina and Naxos) is ready to welcome its visitors thanks to its splendid panorama Between the walls of the castle is enclosed the entire history of the Mediterranean. A procession of populations and cultures who, battling for strategic control of the area by way of the stronghold, have all contributed to the development and enlargement during the course of the centuries: from the Sicels to the Greeks, from the Byzantines to the Arabs; from the Normans to the Suebi/Suevi, until the settlement of the Cruyllas, in the Aragon period, during which the castle was at its maximum splendor.

 

Il castello di Calatabiano, in provincia di Catania, al confine settentrionale della provincia etnea, sorge su una collina alta 220 m s.l.m. e domina la foce dell’Alcantara. Qui il fiume segna il confine tra Catania e Messina. Ai piedi del castello l’attuale abitato sorto a valle dopo l’abbandono della terra vecchia a seguito del disastroso terremoto di Val di Noto del 1693.

La prima documentazione certa relativa al castello di Calatabiano si rileva da una carta della Sicilia in cui il geografo e viaggiatore arabo Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Idris (1099 1164) rappresentava l’Isola e i suoi sistemi fortificati. La carta tratta dal “Libro di Ruggero”, presso la cui corte il geografo prestava i suoi servigi, rappresenta l’Isola capovolta secondo la consuetudine araba. Qui il massiccio dell’Etna appare sul lato sinistro ed è lambito dai due fiumi Simeto e Alcantara. Proprio lungo le sponde del fiume Al-kantar (il ponte) appaiono rappresentate due fortezze speculari Tauromenion e Kalaat-al Bian. Ricostruito su preesistenti capisaldi greci e romani.

Non sappiamo che nome avesse all’epoca bizantina il maniero che gli arabi, dopo la conquista, avrebbero chiamato: Kalaat-al-Bian, (Rocca di Biano).

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7QLdlvfEYo

 

www.castellodicalatabiano.it/

After a lengthy renovation, Cruyllas Castle of Calatabiano (situated between the Alcantara Valley and Etna and not far from Taormina and Naxos) is ready to welcome its visitors thanks to its splendid panorama Between the walls of the castle is enclosed the entire history of the Mediterranean. A procession of populations and cultures who, battling for strategic control of the area by way of the stronghold, have all contributed to the development and enlargement during the course of the centuries: from the Sicels to the Greeks, from the Byzantines to the Arabs; from the Normans to the Suebi/Suevi, until the settlement of the Cruyllas, in the Aragon period, during which the castle was at its maximum splendor.

 

Il castello di Calatabiano, in provincia di Catania, al confine settentrionale della provincia etnea, sorge su una collina alta 220 m s.l.m. e domina la foce dell’Alcantara. Qui il fiume segna il confine tra Catania e Messina. Ai piedi del castello l’attuale abitato sorto a valle dopo l’abbandono della terra vecchia a seguito del disastroso terremoto di Val di Noto del 1693. La prima documentazione certa relativa al castello di Calatabiano si rileva da una carta della Sicilia in cui il geografo e viaggiatore arabo Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Idris (1099 1164) rappresentava l’Isola e i suoi sistemi fortificati. La carta tratta dal “Libro di Ruggero”, presso la cui corte il geografo prestava i suoi servigi, rappresenta l’Isola capovolta secondo la consuetudine araba. Qui il massiccio dell’Etna appare sul lato sinistro ed è lambito dai due fiumi Simeto e Alcantara. Proprio lungo le sponde del fiume Al-kantar (il ponte) appaiono rappresentate due fortezze speculari Tauromenion e Kalaat-al Bian. Ricostruito su preesistenti capisaldi greci e romani.

Non sappiamo che nome avesse all’epoca bizantina il maniero che gli arabi, dopo la conquista, avrebbero chiamato: Kalaat-al-Bian, (Rocca di Biano).

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7QLdlvfEYo

 

www.castellodicalatabiano.it/

After a lengthy renovation, Cruyllas Castle of Calatabiano (situated between the Alcantara Valley and Etna and not far from Taormina and Naxos) is ready to welcome its visitors thanks to its splendid panorama Between the walls of the castle is enclosed the entire history of the Mediterranean. A procession of populations and cultures who, battling for strategic control of the area by way of the stronghold, have all contributed to the development and enlargement during the course of the centuries: from the Sicels to the Greeks, from the Byzantines to the Arabs; from the Normans to the Suebi/Suevi, until the settlement of the Cruyllas, in the Aragon period, during which the castle was at its maximum splendor.

 

Il castello di Calatabiano, in provincia di Catania, al confine settentrionale della provincia etnea, sorge su una collina alta 220 m s.l.m. e domina la foce dell’Alcantara. Qui il fiume segna il confine tra Catania e Messina. Ai piedi del castello l’attuale abitato sorto a valle dopo l’abbandono della terra vecchia a seguito del disastroso terremoto di Val di Noto del 1693.

La prima documentazione certa relativa al castello di Calatabiano si rileva da una carta della Sicilia in cui il geografo e viaggiatore arabo Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Idris (1099 1164) rappresentava l’Isola e i suoi sistemi fortificati. La carta tratta dal “Libro di Ruggero”, presso la cui corte il geografo prestava i suoi servigi, rappresenta l’Isola capovolta secondo la consuetudine araba. Qui il massiccio dell’Etna appare sul lato sinistro ed è lambito dai due fiumi Simeto e Alcantara. Proprio lungo le sponde del fiume Al-kantar (il ponte) appaiono rappresentate due fortezze speculari Tauromenion e Kalaat-al Bian. Ricostruito su preesistenti capisaldi greci e romani.

Non sappiamo che nome avesse all’epoca bizantina il maniero che gli arabi, dopo la conquista, avrebbero chiamato: Kalaat-al-Bian, (Rocca di Biano).

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7QLdlvfEYo

 

www.castellodicalatabiano.it/

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Makhdoom Ali Mahimi (1372–1431) was a Muslim Scholar originating from the Konkan in India, widely[vague] acknowledged for his scholarly treatises, liberal views and humanist ideals. Mahimi was born into a family of Arab travelers from Iraq who had settled down on the island of Mahim, one of the seven islands that later formed the city of Bombay (now Mumbai).

Not much is known of his early childhood. He later became the disciple of Mohiuddin Ibne Arabi, a Spanish Muslim saint. Mahimi's reputation grew after the Sultan of Gujarat, Ahmed Shah of the Muzaffarid dynasty, chose him to be the town's Qazi (the Head Muslim Judge/cleric of a town).

Mahimi was the first Indian scholar to write an exegesis on the Qur'an, which gained critical acclimation from numerous Islamic scholars including Shah Waliullah. Authoring a total of nineteen books, he was given the moniker Qutb-e -Kokan (Kokan's Pole Star). His commentary (tafseer) of the Nobel Quran in Arabic "Tayseer Al-Quran" is available in Al Azhar University, Cairo and Ummul-Qura University, Makkah.

Mahimi is revered by both the Muslims and Hindus, all Muslim sects hold him in high esteem. After his death in 1431, he was buried in Mahim. The site later became a dargah (shrine) for devotees.

 

During the annual ten day Urs festival celebrated on the 13th day of Shawwal as per the Muslim calendar, millions of devotees visit his dargah.

The highlight of this is a procession of around eight thousand begins at the Mahim Police Station, believed to be the site of his residence. Two police officers from each of the eighty four city police stations represent the police whose association with the saint dates back to the saint's era. A representative of the Mumbai police who is the first to offer the "chaddar" (shawl) at the tomb on the first day of the festival. Legend has it that it was a police constable who gave water to the dying saint from his cap. Another story points to some miraculous assistance police officers once received from an old man, whom they believed was the saint, in fighting smugglers.

A room adjacent to the office of the senior inspector of police station contains a steel cupboard that houses the saint's preserved belongings such as his chair, a pair of sandals and his hand-written Qur'an which is considered to be a calligraphic work of art. The room is opened once every year to the public. In 1920 the cupboard was purchased by a senior British police inspector, Raymond Esquire as a tribute to the saint he revered.

On 2005-05-21, the government of Maharashtra named the JJ Flyover after the saint as a tribute to the saint. The 2.1 kilometre flyover is the longest viaduct in the country.

[edit]Name And Lineage

  

Dargah Sharif on 11/23/2011

His name is Ali as well as Alauddin. His surname is Abul Hasan and the title is Zainuddin. The tribes of Nawait families were connected to the ‘Paro’ and the same that is ‘Paro’ was his family title. Being well versed in theology he was called Faquih and being a place of refuge to all and a competent authority he was called Makhdum.He was considered to be one of the saints. So, he was called, Shaikh’.

His respectable father’s name is Maulana Shaikh Ahmad who was a learned man of high grade and he was a genuine saint. He was considered to be one of the wealthy traders of Kokan.

His honourable mother’s name is Hazrat Fatima Bint (Daughter of) Nakhuda Husain Ankolia. It is said of his maternal grandfather that he was king of the traders. His venerable mother was a pious devout, an abstinent and she was very religious-minded and god-fearing. She was a saintly woman.

1) He is Makhdum Ali Bin Ahmad and known as Ibn (son) of Bint (daughter of) Husain Nakuda Ankolia. This statement (opinion) has been adapted from a book namely Khatib Kalyani in an Arabic magazine Zamirul Insaan.

2) He is Ali Bin Hasan Bin Ibrahim Bin Ismail, the writer of ilhamur Rehman and Compiler of Tafsirur Rehman Bin Muhammad Bin Ahmad entitled Kodar. This opinion was found written at the end of ‘Shumailul Atqiya by the writer of this magazine. This book Shumail’, as per the writer of the magazine was written in his own handwriting by Hazrat Makhdum Ali Faquih Mahaimi. He writes, also that, the scholars of our times were fully sure that the second statement had been written by Hazrat Makhdum Ali Faquih Mahaimi himself at the end of the’ Shumail’.

Maulawi Late Muhammad Yusuf Khatkhate. referring to a passage of the handwritten book Tabsirur Rehman, has written that in this book as described, of Hazrat Makhdurn Ali, is Alauddin and as a matter of fact our forefathers and parents are related to Ali Paro Bin Ahmad Paro Bin Ali Paro Bin Ahmad Paro and as well as, ibn bint (D/O) Husain Nakhuda Ankolia . And probably it is the right one.

This hand-written copy of the book was copied down 133 years after the death of Hazrat Makhdum Ali Faquih Mahaimi any way, Hazrat Makhdum Ali was a son and descendant of a gentle and respectable family. And his predecessors were originally Arabs that is Naiti. In an ancient book. It is written that (Hazrat Makhdum Ali Maulana Shaikh Ahmad Mahaimi comes of a Nawait Clan. This word is on the metre (weight) of Thawabit. A certain community lived in the cities and towns of Southern India (The Deccan). Their description is available in the Persian books. An ancient written, Tabri has written in his historical book that Naita is a tribe of ‘Quraish who had fled from Madina Munawwara due to the fear of Hajjaj Bin Yusuf (who had killed five thousand scholars and saintly people without any pretext). And these people got down near about the mouth of the Indus River. and they made that territory their living place.[1]

[edit]The Originality Of Nawayat

 

The word of Nawayat can be written with its last letters as ‘to’e’ or ‘te’ The ancient historians and the writers of biographies used to write it with both the letters.

Nawayat is a community of the tribe, Quraish, who is related to Muhammad through Nazr Bin Kanana. These were the residents of Madina Munawwara. They migrated to India during the period of Hajjaj bin Yusuf and they got down on the coast of the Indian Ocean.

[edit]Arrival Of Nawayat In India

 

Having got fed up with the cruelties and tyrannies of Hajjaj Bin Yusuf. the first caravan of Muslim Arab Migrators took shelter in India on 8th Hijri that is in the year 699 A.D. There were, in this caravan, some Arab migrators of the village of Basra., which was called Nayat. Their family tree is connected to the tribe of Quraish through the family of Banu Nazar.

Against the courageous steps of Abdulla Bin Zubair Radi Allahu anhu, Abdul Malik Bin Marwan encouraged and incited Hajjaj Bin Yususf to killings, plunder and blood-shed. He made many a people of Banu Hashim prisoners and made them to suffer great hardships. Some of these people went to North Africa and Spain and one of the caravans of the migrators got down around the islands of Bombay. They got down at Sopara, Thana, Semore (Chambur). a seaport at that time.

In the Bombay Gazette, it has been written about Hazrat Makhdum Ali Faquih Mahaimi that: “This sufi (saint) was of Arab origin. His fore-fathers came to Mahim in the year 860 A.D. i.e. 252 H. as they were not able to stand against the tyrannies and cruelties of Hajjaj Bin Yusuf And after about five hundred years later Hazrat Makhdum Ali Faquih Mahaimi was born.

[edit]Education And Training

 

His honourable father Maulana Hazrat Shaikh Ahmad Sahib was learned, great scholar and saintly man. He lived in Kokan from the very beginning. He was of Arab origin *and comes of the descendants of Hazrat Jafar Tayyar Radi allahu anhu Bin Hazrat Abi Talib Radi Allahu anhu . His mausoleum is situated in Amman (the capital of .Jordan) in the city of Moutha. The city of Mautah is situated at the distance of 112 Km. from Amman.

His honourable father, having observed his smart son’s cleverness and liking for knowledge and learning, paid his attention to his higher education. And, as he, too, was a great scholar of Arabic language.

[2]

He, therefore. helped his son Hazrat Makhdum Ali Mahaimi to become. a scholar. In his childhood. under the training of his father, Maulana Shaikh Ahmed rehmatullahi Bin Ali, Hazrat Makhdum Ali Mahaimi acquired full fledged knowledge of recitation of’ the Qura’n with correct phonetics. theology, logic, philosophy, Hadith and all other extra-religious fields of knowledge and traditionlally reported sciences etcetera.

The gracious mother of Hazrat Makhdum, Hazrat Bibi Fatima, too, was a perfect saintly woman. The gracious parents of Hazrat Makhdum through their training. polished and illuminated the God-gifted talents of their son. And by the favour and bounty of Allah, He became a writer of Quranic exegesis of high quality, a scholar of Muhammad's traditions, a theologian and a saint (Sufi), excellent and well versed in revelation and miracles. It is widely known that Hazrat Khizr Alaih salaam, also, took a greater part in his training.

When Hazrat Makhdum was barely of nine years age. completed all the branches of knowledge. external as well as celestial and the Islamic Jurisprudence. Thereafter, only a few days had passed when, on the 25th of Jamadil Akhir 785 Hijri, his father Maulana Shaikh died.

In some other book, the year of the expiry of Maulana Shaikh Ahmad Bin Ali is given as 788 Hijri.)

Hazrat Makhdum’s revered father Maulana Shaikh Ahmad Bin Ali; who rose from the land of Kalyan, was buried in the very place of land. The grave of Hazrat Makhdum Ali’s father is situated in the locality of Kalyan, namely Bombal Bazar*. Near Namak Bander (salt port) of Kalyan, there is an old graveyard and in it is situated a pucca Mausoleum, a shrine. of Maulana Shaikh Ahmad Ali which was built on 5th Rabiul Awwal, 1313 Hijri.

His mausoleum is situated adjacent to the Bahir Kot (fort) Masjid (Mosque) and to the other side, there is the mausoleum of Hazrat Nizamuddin Khamosh.

Bombal Bazar, - Ghas Bazar :. On this very same date, the fair (Urs) is celebrated every year regularly.

Some local poet has said two stanzas of poetry in Urdu depicting the date of his expiry. These are in Urdu and the poet is Rashid. They are inscribed on two marble plaques. One of them is inside the mausoleum while the other one is outside it.

The inside plaque bears these lines:

Janab-e- Shaikh Ahmad Wasil-e-Haq

Jahan se jab huye jannat ko rukhsat

Lisan-e-gaib-e- Rashid ne bataya

Makeenul Khuld un ka sal-e- rukhsat

(788 H.)

When Hazrat Makhdum Ali became orphan due to the expiry of his father, his thirst for knowledge and learning went on increasing. There was no source to quench this thirst. hence he came to his respected mother and said, Dear Mother My longing for knowledge is going on increasing. Here, I don’t find any source to satisfy my desire and longing for it. If you give me permission then. I would set out in search of the knowledge. The respected mother looked at the son for some time and then said.’ My son! your separation is unbearable to me. Allah, The Highest, is The Causer of the Causes. He, being the real doer of things, will make such a provision from unknown that it will be the source of satisfaction to your longing. The knowledge that is obtained through the divine favour is better than that acquired by any method of teaching and learning.

So. the very night. his respectable mother prayed to Allah and her prayers were answered positively by Allah. As usual, after the early morning prayer was over, Hazrat Makhdum Ali, went for a walk to the sea-side. While he was strolling on the coast of the sea, he saw a radiant faced elderly person sitting on a rock which was lying on the coast of the sea. He conveyed his salam (the best wishes) to him. The elderly man returned his salams to Hazrat Makhdum Ali and showed his pleasure smilingly. Then, he said, ‘ You are longing for acquiring divine knowledge, then you come here to me daily every morning and I will teach you. The things you wish to obtain through journeys to distant places, Insha Allah (If Allah so wishes), you will get the same here and here. I am the Khizr Alaih salaam. Allah, The highest, has sent me to teach you. Don’t divulge this secret to anybody.

So, he would go to that place where Khizr Alaih salam used to be sitting. It was his routine to do so every morning after the early morning (fajr) prayers were over. He was regular in this . And, thus, he started to acquire godly knowledge from Hazrat Khizr Alaih Salaam In a few days, he was perfect in both the types of knowledge, intellectual as well as additional. One day, by chance, his respectable mother made an enquiry with him. saying. “My son! To whom do you go to obtain knowledge daily? I have heard that you go to the sea-shore every day” . At first, he hesitated to give reply to his mother’s enquiry. But, feeling that it would be against the manner, he said, I go to Hazrat Khizr Alaih Salaam to learn from him.”

The next day, when, as usual, he went to the sea-shore, he found that Hazrat Khizr Alaih Salaam was not there. He regretted much and become very sorrowful and came to his mother. Hazrat Makhdum, with tears in his eyes said to his mother, ‘Dear Mother ! I had, against the instruction and warning of Hazrat Khizr Alaih Salaam, mentioned you the secret of his teaching. And, I think, most probably, being angry with me, he did not turn up today.” The glorious mother, again, consoled him and said, “Don’t be disapponted. Allah, The Highest, is The Most Powerful. He will send, again, Hazrat Khizr Alaih Salaam for the sake of you. “ The glorious mother prayed to Allah, that very night. Consequently, the next day, at the time of the prayers of Asr, Hazrat Khizr Alaih Salaam met him on the way and said, “ You have got the inspired- knowledge by the order of Allah.” Then he took him to the sea-shore and having taken out a morsel of godly bounty from his own mouth, fed it to him and said “Your glorious mother’s prayers are always answered positively and you have achieved mastery over all the branches of knowledge by the favour of Allah.” When he was free from the evening prayers, he found his pure and clean bosom overloaded with all the branches of the knowledge.

[edit]Habits And Good Qualities

 

The real essence of life is the beauty of character. It is only the good character that has made the memory of the noble men perpetual and has strengthened their description Sayyid Ibrahim Madni, in his hook, Magazine Zamirul Insan says, “ Hazrat Makhdum Sahib was very modest, good mannered, obedient and fond of service to his parents from his childhood. By chance, one night his mother, after her night prayers, was lying on the bed. She felt thirsty. So, she asked Makhdum Ali to fetch her water. He return with the water but he saw that his mother was fast asleep. He thought that to awake her from the sleep would be against the good manners. So, he stood beside her with the glass of water in his hand for the whole night.

At last, it was early morning when his mother woke up from sleep. She asked him,’My son, how long are you standing here with the water? ‘.He said, “ Since the time you went to sleep and you had asked for the water. And I am, since then standing here waiting for you to wake up”

The mother liked this good mannerly behaviour of her son to such an extent that her happiness knew no bounds. She got up from the bed immediately, performed ablution and prayed to Allah for the betterment of her son. It was the effect of these prayers of his mother that due to it Makhdum Sahib very soon attained the perfection in both the types of sciences of knowledge, apparent as well as latent.

While describing the noble character of Hazrat Makhdum Ali Faquih Mahaimi some of the people have written that he was very much generous and libral. He used to help the needy open-heartedly. Even though he was the son of a wealthy father, he never gave importance to the worldly ‘wealth and riches.There was a crowd of guests at his house all the time. On his table cloth various kinds of tasty foods were served and he felt happy to feed the guests to their satisfaction. It is said that he liked fish very much. All the Muslims and the Hindus, both were attracted by his pleasing character and good behaviour.

[edit]Devotion And Mystic Exercise

 

Hazrat Makhdum Ali was a genuine abstinent, devotee, master of the knowledge of all the branches of sciences in respect of Islamic Jurisprudence and intimate knowledge of God and measure” and regulations, both apparent and the latent. He had reached to the zenith in the intellectual sciences and conventional as well. He had the best qualities and pleasing habits and excellent characteristics. He performed extra-ordinay feats.

Sufi (Saintly person) Shaikh Abdul Wahab Muttaqui Shazli Qadiri, describes, in his book, a strange event concerning Hazrat Makhdum Ali

“ The author of ‘ Tafsir-e-Rehmani Hazrat Shaikh Ali Mahaimi was overwhelmed with the effect of meditation and absorption. The ruling king’s sister was in matrimonial relation with him. One day, the king’s wives and their lady companions came to see the king’s sister at the Shaikh’s house. Shaikh, at that time, was sitting at the door of the house. The ladies hesitated to come in. Shaikh’s mother was present there. She said to them, ‘Why are you hesitant? Come on. What is the hesitation and reluctance for at all?’ They said that they were reluctant to come in because Shaikh was sitting on the door sill and he would see them. Shaikh’s mother said that it was not possible because he was in the unconscious state. He had no sense of any thing, neither theirs nor of this world and the hereafter as well. No sooner they heard this, all of them came in . Then they insisted on its proof. Thereupon, Shaikh’s mother came to him and said to him,’ My son take this wrapper and wear this on and give your dress for washing. At that shaikh was putting on clean clothes. He, immediately, put off his clothes and put on the wrapper. And, again he sat down. After an hour, his mother brought him other dirty clothes and asked him to take off his clothes. Shaikh took the same dirty clothes and put them on. He had no sense as to which clothes he should put on and which to put off.”

In one of the magazine, he has said;

“In Yeman, there lived a learned man by name Imam Jamal Muhammad One of the servants brought to me a letter from him. and he stated: It is a fact that Sharfuddin the Yemani the teacher of Quran has not the understanding and discerning power to such extent than he may be able to comprehend the works of Shaikh Mohiuddin Ibn Arabi Even then he belittles Shaikh only because he, himself is incapable and inefficient and he is bent on infidelity to the Shaikh and the followers of him.

Having heard this awkward and malicious statement, a thought occurred to my mind that I must bring out what the truth is. And this thought didn’t allow me to sit at my house idle. Helplessly, I decided to make a journey and set out to Yeman. Having reached there, I forwarded the necessary arguments and gave perfect proofs and evidences. And, at last I succeeded in wiping out the dust of doubts and suspicion and cleansed the pollution of criticism and abuse from the beliefs of the teacher, Muallim.

[3]

[edit]Revelations And Miracles

 

Those elderly and saintly people who adopted the life style of their dear most Prophet Salla Allahu ta’ala’alayhi wa sallam , in a very few days. they too start the experience of their being beloved and to this the promise is made by Allah in His Glorious book. The Qura’n that whosoever adopts the manners, the ways of life. the habits, the characteristics and the traditions of Muhammad, he will be under the care of Allah.

In the words of the Muhammad, it is as:

“Tell them, if you love Allah, do follow me. Then Allah will be mindful of you.”

Hazrat Makhdum Ali Mahairni was one of the chief Awilyas (The saints). Many a miracle are attributed to him. Hence, many a people have written books on his miracles with title of Karamat-e-Makhdum (The Miracles of Makhdum). Many of them are hearsays only and to establish their authenticity is difficult due to lack of documentary evidences Therefore. we. mention here only’ those of his miracles that are brought to light by the writer of the Magazine. ‘Zamirul insan’, Maulana Sayyid Ibrahim Madani and that too, with particular stress.

(1) It is natrated that Hazrat Makhdum Baba had reared a she-goat whom he loved immensely. Once when he had gone away on some business, the goat fell ill and ultimately died, His mother got the deid goat buried on the sea-shore. When he heard about the death of the goat, he became extremely sad and went to the sea-shore to see it. His maid-servant had followed him and he ordered her to go away. She got frightened and went away from that place, but hid herself at a little distance. After the departure of the servant he recited some prayer and he stood there for some time praying to Allah. The maid servant who was watching all this saw the legs of the animal moving. Afterwards, he held the ear of the goat and brought her back home. This was the first miraculous feat that he exhibited at the age of 10 and its report spread far and wide.

(2) This maid servant, since that day, made it a regular practice- to serve Hazrat Makhdum Baba Whenever she washed his clothes she would preserve the first wash of water and drank it This entitled her also to gain knowledge and miraculous powers by the Grace of Allah. One day a traveller came to the mosque in Mahim. Hazrat Makhdum Baba noticed him and sent food to him through this maid-servant. When the maid reached the mosque with the tray of food she found the traveller missing. Through her powers she traced the person to be praying in the Khana-e-Ka’aba. She reached Makka and served him and later returned to the mosque. Thus, his dependents and followers also performed miraculous feats.

(3) Once, as usual, the men of INSIGHT had assembled from far off place and a general meeting was organised. During the session, one of the pious men informed that there is a Lote tree in the land of Madina Munawwara whose fruit is very delicious and nice. On this Hazrat Makhdum Baba said, “This was the season of this fruit and requested him to get some of it from there. He replied in the affirmative and promised to present Hazrat Makhdum Baba that fruit, He himself was a perfect scholar and had mastered the special prayer (benediction) called “Tayyal Farasakh” which at once took him to Madina. When he reached the tree he saw that there was someone already up the tree. He decided not to climb up and requested the person upon the tree to shake one of the branches of the tree so that he may also pick up some fruits. The man on the tree plucked some fruits and dropped them on the ground and shook a branch as well. The sage picked up the fruit and returned to Mahim.

He presented the said fruit to Hazrat Makhdum Baba who ate some of it and appreciated its taste and then remarked that. the fruit was undoubtedly tasty but he had brought it without exerting any effort. On hearing this the said sage felt very much astonished and he thought that perhaps he was watched by Hazrat Makhdum Baba by his miraculous powers but the situation was completely different. Hazrat Makhdum Baba had personally reached there prior to him and had climbed the tree. The holy man also realised the same and begged pardon. He accepted the difference between them. Hazrat Makhdum Baba is the Qutb of Konkan (The Polar Star of Konkan). Afterwards, Hazrat Shaikh Makhdum Baba removed some fruits from his pocket and distributed them among the people assembled there. All of them ate and relished them.

(4) During the days of Hazrat Makhdum Baba, the marine traffic had commenced and the ship started navigating to and fro. In those days a Hindu trader despatched his merchandise aboard a ship but the ship did not return. Seven years passed by and he virtually forgot about that ship. But whenever any accident of such nature occurred, he mourned about his loss regretfully. He met many learned people, religious activists, astrologers and sorcerers to inquire about the fate of his ship. All of them told him that, that ship had sunk along with his merchandise and general cargo. A disciple of Hazrat Makhdum Baba was also sitting there and he inquired of this fellow whether he had ever approached his Shaikh and told him if he had not, he should accompany him there and then and he assured him that he would certainly get satisfactory information about his ship. The man agreed and they reached Hazrat Makhdum Baba and narrated the entire incident. Hazrat Makhdum Baba told him to sit down and close his eyes. He did as directed and then Hazrat Makhdum Baba told him to open his eyes and then prophesied that his ship laden with his cargo and merchandise. would arrive back on the sea-shore on that very day in the evening.

The trader returned home and he was puzzled as to how the said ship that was lost seven years ago would suddenly appear from no where and that too on that very day. He reached the sea-shore before the onset of evening. He was restless. He saw a ship approaching the coast before the sunset. After half an hour the ship arrived and (he trader was amazed as it was his own ship.

He was beyond himself with joy. He developed utter faith in the miraculous power of Hazrat Makhdum Baba. The next day. he, along with his family members. came to Hazrat Makhdum Baba and cheerfully and willingly embraced Islam.

(5) Hazrat Makhdum Baba was famous as a trustworthy person. A man came to him and said that he was going alone on a journey and did not want to take some of his gems and diamonds along with him lest they be robbed. He requested Hazrat Makhdum Baba to keep them in his trust and that he would take them back on his return. At that time, Hazrat Makhdum Baba was standing close to a well and he agreed to help that man. As soon as that man placed those diamonds on his blessed hand, he dropped them into the well. The man, puzzled and perplexed, enquired how he would retrieve them? Hazrat Makhdum Baba told him that he would get them back whenever he wanted. But he was a hasty man and demanded his diamonds. Hazrat Makhdum Baba put his hand in the well and brought out a fistful of gems and told him to pick up his diamonds from amongst them. The man was astonished, ashamed and repented upon his mistake. Ultimately. Hazrat Makhdum Baba himself picked up his particular gems and handed them over to him and threw the remaining diamonds back in the well.

(6) Hazrat Makhdum Baba was a very rich and well-to-do person. His dining table served a variety of delicious food. His guest house was always full with his guests who were treated very kindly and generously and served with excellent food.

Hazrat Makhdum Baba’s supernatural powers and piety gained much publicity and acclaim. Once in the assembly of pious men his position came under discussion. It was said that he was a very generous person and liked nice and sumptuous food. It was said that he was a turn of Insight and piety and held a high position in awliya (bloved of Allah). One of the attendants said that such combination cannot be found and that religious accomplishments and worldly preferences never went together because to him the (derwish) mendicants always cherished simple food. A heated discussion followed this statement but that man was not satisfied and he perferred to observe the situation himself. So he set out to meet Hazrat Makhdum personally. He came to Mahim and Hazrat Makhdum Baba lovingly lodged him in his guest house. At the meal-time, the dining-table was set and that day fish was served specially. The man found him the way he had heard about him. Hazrat Makhdum Baba was performing the duties of the host very graciously and requested the guest to do full justice to the food served. He had personally joined him in partaking food. He insisted that his guest should taste every item of the menu. Hazrat Makhdum Baba finished his food earlier than the guest. He dropped the bones of the fish in the wash-basin whilst washing his hands. When the guest completed his meal and washed his hands in the wash-basin, he found to his amazement that, instead of the bones, the fishes were swimming in the basin. He was astonished, his question received a very fitting answer. So he very earnestly and humbly asked for his forgiveness. Hazrat Makhdum showed his wisdom and affection. He excused him and said that he never intended to show any trace of pride or superiority but just wanted to prove that Allah is Al-mighty and shows His kindness to the one whom He likes.

(7) Since Mahim is situated on the sea-shore, the ships have been arriving there from different countries. Certain foreigners stayed there in rented houses for some period of time. Incidentally, a young, handsome and rich Arab trader reached there and he settled there for a couple of days. Perchance, he passed by the house of a girl and happened to see her. That very moment he fell in love with her and he expressed his feelings that he would like to marry the girl if she was unmarried. The people told him though the girl was unmarried she could not marry him because she had been engaged to the poor boy of Mahim.

The Arab trader said that the engagement could be broken and that he was prepared to bear the expenses.

Some people, that very day, approached the father of the girl who was already engaged with a (poor) boy. They misled the father and made him agreeable to break the engagement of his daughter and to get her married to the Arab trader.

In order to break the engagement, a meeting of the community was called. When this news reached the Arab trader, he felt extremely delighted. But that very news aggrieved and saddened that poor boy. There was none who could console him. Nonetheless, Allah had destined something else. When the boy reached the mosque the next morning for prayers, he was spotted by the Great Faqih, Hazrat Makhdum Ali and every thing had become clear to him. He called the boy aside and told him to be patient and thankful to Allah. He added that a truthful person always attained tranquility and peace of mind. He further said that he would personally attend the meeting of the community and would see as to what could be done for him and by what means.This kind and favourable attitude of Hazrat Makhdum Baba gladdened the boy and He busied himself with his daily routine. The meeting was held on the fixed time. Hazrat also reached there and was received very warmly by the people and was made the President of that meeting. The deliberations started and the problem of.the Arab trader was raised and the agenda of the break-up of the engagement with that boy on the basis of his poverty was discussed. At this point Hazrat explained that riches and poverty were not specially assigned to certain people and that, that distinction was meaningless. Someone, prone to tell lies, said that the boy had the habit of drinking. Then Hazrat inquired whether anybody had seen him drinking or in the state of inebriation. If not that would not be considered as evidence in which case that matter could be condoned. This situation silenced everybody arid then he delivered his judgement and that was that both the poor boy and the rich Arab trader should go on the pilgrimage of Hajj. And anyone of them who returned earlier than the other should be allowed to marry the girl. All the people unanimously agreed with this suggestion. The Arab trader was particularly happy since he owned a personal sailing ship which he could handle the way he wanted. He felt that his poor rival will go by some ship after paying the fare and would not be able to return early as per his desire.

Within next couple of days the Arab set sails for the pilgrimage. When the poor boy heard about his departure, he felt very depressed and conveycd the news to Hazrat who comforted him and told him not to worry as Allah would make all the arrangements.

In the meantime, the months of Shawal and Zilqad passed by and the moon of the month of Zilhajj made its appearance. The 8th of the said month came and none could see any arrangement being made for the departure of the boy and he was always being seen in Mahim. On the morning of the 9th when the Hajj was to be performed, the boy reached the mosque and Hazrat told him not to go anywhere after the prayers and should wait for him there only. He did as he was told and waited for Hazrat who ultimately came and proceeded with the boy towards the hoz of the masjid. Then they stood at the edge of the hoz and Hazrat told the boy close his eyes and not to open them till asked to do so. Then Hazrat held the hand of the boy and dived him into the hoz and after a few moments told the boy to open his eyes. When the boy opened his eyes, he found himself standing on the gate of the Khana-e-Ka’aba. Then Hazrat took out some money from his pocket and while giving it to the boy he said that he should purchase necessary provisions of the Hajj. He told him to meet the Arab trader who had lodged in a particular tent, that day. it-self. He was further told to meet Hazrat at that very spot after performing the Hajj and that he should keep the entire episode as well-guarded secret, The boy proceeded to do whatever he was asked to while thanking Allah. He was very happy as Allah had honoured him with the kindness of such an accomplished leader and monitor.

After wearing, Ihram he reached the plains of Arafat and searched the tent of the rich Arab trader and met him. Afterwards he performed the rites and rituals and other important duties pertaining to Hajj which he completed in two or three days and he reached Hateem on the 12th to meet Hazrat Makhdoom Baba. Hazrat Makhdum Baba again told him to close his eyes and after a short time they reached the masjid. Six months elapsed when the Arab trader returned to Mahim. The meeting of the community, as per the programme, was called again. Hazrat Makhdum Baba attended this meeting too. The Arab also came there. Hazrat Makhdum Baba asked him whether he had performed the Hajj on which he replied in the affirmative. He further asked him whether that boy had gone for Hajj and whether he had met the trader or whether he had seen him there. The trader replied that the boy had gone for Hajj and had met him in the plains of Arafat and that he had seen him performing the Hajj and all the relevant rites and rituals. Then Hazrat Makhdum Baba asked the traders whether that boy had returned to Mahirn earlier. They confirmed that he had certainly returned earlier. By the Grace of Allah this state of affairs consolidated the faith of the people that all that had happened was due to him and that it was his glance of favour that allowed the boy to win that contest. The Arab trader kept quiet and accepted his defeat. Finally that girl was married to that poor boy.

Apart from this, many other supernatural feats were exhibited by Hazrat Makhdum Baba.

Zauqui Shah Sahib writes as:

“He preferred a life of loneliness and obscurity for a considerable period of his life. But his knowledge and excellence, his extra ordinary feats, obvious as well as latent, his miracles and the supernatural events that were revealed by and through him, made the whole world attracted to him….”

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makhdoom_Ali_Mahimi

El origen de la existencia es el movimiento. En consecuencia en la existencia no hay cabida para la inmovilidad, pues si la existencia fuese inmóvil, retornaría a su origen, es decir, a la nada. Por ello, el viajar jamás tiene fin, ni en el mundo espiritual ni en el material.

Ibn Al Arabi El libro sobre la revelación de los efectos del viajar

 

Title: Alchemiae Gebri Arabis philosophi solertissimi libri, cum reliquis, ut versa pagella indicabit

Identifier: alchemiaegebriar00jabi

Year: 1545 (1540s)

Authors: Jabir ibn Hayyan Bacon, Roger, 1214?-1294. Speculum alchemiae Hermes, Trismegistus. Tabul smaragdina Hortulanus. Commentarius in Tabulam Smaragdinam Hermetis Trismegisti Khalid ibn Yazid al-Umawi, 7th cent. Liber secretorum alchemiae Polydorus, Chrysogonus Richardus, Anglicus, d. 1252. Correctorium alchemiae

Subjects: Alchemy

Publisher: [Bern] : Ioañ. Petreius Nurembergeñ. denuo Bernae excudi faciebat

  

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Saudi Arabia (officially Kingdom of Saudi Arabia) is the largest Arab country of the Middle East. It is bordered by Jordan and Iraq on the north and northeast, Kuwait, Qatar, Bahrain and the United Arab Emirates on the east, Oman on the southeast, and Yemen on the south. The Persian Gulf lies to the northeast and the Red Sea to its west. It has an estimated population of 28 million, and its size is approximately 2,149,690 square kilometres (830,000 sq mi).

 

The Kingdom is sometimes called "The Land of the Two Holy Mosques" in reference to Mecca and Medina, the two holiest places in Islam. The two mosques are Masjid al-Haram and Masjid Al-Nabawi. The current Kingdom was founded by Abdul-Aziz bin Saud, whose efforts began in 1902 when he captured the Al-Saud’s ancestral home of Riyadh, and culminated in 1932 with the proclamation and recognition of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, though its national origins go back as far as 1744 with the establishment of the First Saudi State.

 

Saudi Arabia is full of petroleum exporter. Petroleum exports fuel the Saudi economy. Oil accounts for more than 90 percent of exports and nearly 75 percent of government revenues, facilitating the creation of a welfare state, which the government has found difficult to fund during periods of low oil prices.

 

History

Although the region in which the country stands today has an ancient history, the emergence of the Saudi dynasty began in central Arabia in 1744. That year, Muhammad ibn Saud, the ruler of the town of Ad-Dir'iyyah near Riyadh, joined forces with a cleric, Muhammad ibn Abd-al-Wahhab, to create a new political entity. This alliance formed in the 18th century remains the basis of Saudi Arabian dynastic rule today.

 

Over the next 150 years, the fortunes of the Saud family rose and fell several times as Saudi rulers contended with Egypt, the Ottoman Empire, and other Arabian families for control on the peninsula (see First Saudi State and Second Saudi State). The third and current Saudi state was founded in the early 20th century by King Abdul Aziz Al Saud (known internationally as Abdul Aziz Ibn Saud).

 

Geography

The Kingdom occupies about 80 percent of the Arabian peninsula. In 2000 Saudi Arabia and Yemen signed an agreement to settle their long-running border dispute. A significant length of the country's southern borders with the United Arab Emirates, and Oman, are not precisely defined or marked, so the exact size of the country remains unknown. The Saudi government's estimate is 2,217,949 km2 (856,355 sq mi). Other reputable estimates vary between 1,960,582 km2 (756,934 mi) and 2,240,000 km2 (860,000 sq mi). The kingdom is commonly listed as the world's 14th largest state.

Saudi Arabia's geography is varied. From the humid western coastal region (Tihamah) on the Red Sea, the land rises from sea level to a peninsula-long mountain range (Jabal al-Hejaz) beyond which lies the plateau of Nejd in the center. The southwestern 'Asir region has mountains as high as 3,000 m (9,800 ft) and is known for having the greenest and freshest climate in all of the country, one that attracts many Saudis to resorts such as Abha in the summer months. The east is primarily rocky or sandy lowland continuing to the shores of the Persian Gulf. The geographically hostile Rub' al Khali ("Empty Quarter") desert along the country's imprecisely defined southern borders contains almost no life.

Mostly uninhabited, much of the nation's landmass consists of desert and semi-arid regions, with a dwindling traditional Bedouin population. In these parts of the country, vegetation is limited to weeds, xerophytic herbs and shrubs. Less than two percent of the kingdom's total area is arable land. Population centers are mainly located along the eastern and western coasts and densely populated interior oases such as Hofuf and Buraydah. In some extended areas, primarily the Rub' al-Khali and the Arabian Desert, there is no population whatsoever, although the petroleum industry is constructing a few planned communities there. Saudi Arabia has no permanent year-round rivers or lakes; however, its coastline extends for 2,640 km (1,640 mi) and, along the Red Sea, harbors world-class coral reefs, including the Gulf of Aqaba.

Native animals include the ibex, wildcats, baboons, wolves, and hyenas in the mountainous highlands. Small birds are found in the oases. The coastal area on the Red Sea with its coral reefs has a rich marine life.

 

Oficial Name:

المملكة العربيّة السّعوديّة

Al-Mamlakah al-'Arabiyah as-Sa'udiyah

 

Establishment :

Kingdom declared January 8, 1926

- Recognized May 20, 1927

- Unified September 23, 1932

 

Area:

2.248.000km2

 

Inhabitants:

22.568.000

 

Languages:

Arabic, Gulf Spoken [afb] 200,000 in Saudi Arabia. Northern and southern Eastern Province. Alternate names: Gulf Spoken. Dialects: Al-Hasaa. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic

More information.

 

Arabic, Hijazi Spoken [acw] 6,000,000 in Saudi Arabia (1996). Red Sea coast and adjacent highlands. Also spoken in Eritrea. Alternate names: Hijazi, West Arabian Colloquial Arabic. Dialects: North Hijazi, South Hijazi, Valley Tihaamah, Coastal Tihaamah. North Hijazi has 4 subdialects, South Hijazi has 16. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic

More information.

 

Arabic, Najdi Spoken [ars] 8,000,000 in Saudi Arabia. Population total all countries: 9,863,520. Also spoken in Canada, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Syria, USA. Dialects: North Najdi (Shammari, Bani Khaalid, Dafiir), Central Najdi (Rwala, Haayil, Al-Qasiim, Sudair, Riyadh, Hofuf, Biishah, Najraan, Wild `Ali, `Awaazim, Rashaayda, Mutair, `Utaiba, `Ajmaan), South Anjdi (Aal Murrah, Najran). Some dialects are spoken by Bedouins. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic

More information.

 

Arabic, Standard [arb] 206,000,000 first-language speakers of all Arabic varieties (1999 WA). Middle East, North Africa, other Muslim countries. Also spoken in Algeria, Bahrain, Chad, Comoros, Djibouti, Egypt, Eritrea, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Palestinian West Bank and Gaza, Qatar, Somalia, Sudan, Syria, Tanzania, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates, Yemen. Alternate names: High Arabic, Al Fus-Ha, Al Arabiya. Dialects: Modern Standard Arabic (Modern Literary Arabic), Classical Arabic (Koranic Arabic, Quranic Arabic). Preserves the ancient grammar. Classification: Afro-Asiatic, Semitic, Central, South, Arabic

 

Capital city:

Riyadh

 

Meaning country name:

"Saudi" after the House of Saud, the royal family who founded the kingdom and who still rule it. The dynasty takes its name from its ancestor, "Sa`ûd", whose name in Arabic means "a group of stars/planets". The etymology of the term "Arab" or "Arabian" links closely with that of the place-name "Arabia". The root of the word has many meanings in Semitic languages, including "west / sunset", "desert", "mingle", "merchant", "raven" and "comprehensible", all of which appear to have some relevance to the emergence of the name.

 

Description Flag:

The flag of Saudi Arabia is the flag used by the government of Saudi Arabia since March 15, 1973. It is a green flag featuring in white an Arabic inscription and a sword.

The script on the flag is written in the Thuluth script. It is the shahada or Islamic declaration of faith:

لا إله إلا الله محمد رسول الله

la ilaha ill allah muhammadun rasul allah

"There is no god but Allah, and Muhammad is his Messenger"

The sword, symbolising the victories of Ibn Saud, is underneath the inscription.

Green flags bearing this or other Arabic scripts are frequently seen in Islam and should not be confused with the Saudi national flag. These other flags normally do not bear the sword symbol.

The flag is manufactured with differing obverse and reverse sides, to ensure the shahada reads correctly, from right to left, from either side. The sword points from hoist to fly on both sides. The flag is sinister hoisted, meaning that the obverse side (front) has the hoist side (flagpole side) to the right.

 

Coat of arms:

The Saudi Arabian coat of arms (Arabic: شعار السعودية) includes two swords and a palm tree which represents the Saudi main tree. Each of the swords represent the two houses which founded modern day Saudi Arabia, the House of Saud, and the House of Wahab.

The date palm tree represents vitality and growth. The crossed scimitars symbolize justice and strength rooted in faith.

 

Motto:

"There is no God but Allah; Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah" (the Shahadah)

 

National Anthem: عاش المليك --As-Salam Al Malaki

 

Arab

 

سارعي للمجد و العلياء

مجدي لخالق السماء

و ارفعي الخفاق أخضر

يحمل النور المسطر

رددِ الله أكبر ياموطني

موطني قد عشت فخر المسلمين

عاش الملك للعلم و الوطن

 

Transliteration

Sār‘ī le l-majd wa l-‘alyā',

Majjedī le Khāleq as-Samā'!

Wa arfa‘ī el khaffāq akhḍḍar

Yaḥmil an-Nūr al-musaṭṭar

Raddedi: Allahu akbar,

Yā mawtanī!

Mawtanī, qad ‘išta fakhr al-Muslimīn

‘Āsh al-Malik le l-‘alam wa l-watan!

 

English

Hasten to glory and supremacy,

Glorify the Creator of the heavens!

And raise the green, fluttering flag

Carrying the emblem of Light,

Repeat: God is greatest,

O my country!

My country, may you always live, glory of all Muslims!

Long live the King for the flag and the country!

 

Internet Page: www.moe.gov.sa

www.esaudi.info

www.the-saudi.net

www.saudia-online.com

 

S.Arabia in diferent languages

 

eng | eus | lin: Saudi Arabia

ita | lld | oci | roh: Arabia Saudita

arg | ast | glg: Arabia Saudí

afr | lim: Saoedi-Arabië

est | vor: Saudi Araabia

fao | sme: Saudi-Arábia

fin | nor: Saudi-Arabia

ind | msa: Arab Saudi / عرب سعودي

kin | run: Sawudi Arabiya

ltz | nds: Saudi-Arabien / Saudi-Arabien

por | tet: Arábia Saudita

aze: Səudiyyə Ərəbistanı / Сәудијјә Әрәбистаны

bam: Arabi-Sawuditi

bos: Saudijska Arabija / Саудијска Арабија

bre: Arabia Saoudat

cat: Aràbia Saudita

ces: Saúdská Arábie

cor: Arabi Saoudek

cos: Arabia Saudiana

crh: Saudiy Arabistan / Саудий Арабистан

csb: Saudëjskô Arabijô

cym: Sawdi Arabia

dan: Saudi-Arabien

deu: Saudi-Arabien / Saudi-Arabien; Saudisch-Arabien / Saudiſch-Arabien

dsb: Saudi-Arabiska

epo: Saŭda Arabujo; Saŭda Arabio

fra: Arabie saoudite

frp: Arabie saoudita

fry: Saûdy-Araabje

fur: Arabie Saudide

gag: Saudi Arabiya / Сауди Арабия

gla: Saud-Aràibia; Aràbia Saudach; Aràibia Saudach

gle: An Araib Shádach / An Araib Ṡádaċ

glv: Yn Araab Saudi

hat: Arabi Sawoudit

hau: Saudi Arabiya; Makka

haw: Saudi ʻAlapia

hrv: Saudijska Arabija

hsb: Saudi-Arabska

hun: Szaúd-Arábia

ibo: Sọdi Arebia

ina: Arabia Saudita; Arabia Saudi

isl: Sádí-Arabía

jav: Arab Saudi

jnf: Arabie Saudi

kaa: Saudov Araviyası / Саудов Аравиясы

kmr: Erebistana Seûdî / Ә’рәбьстана Сәуди / عەرەبستانا سەعوودی

kur: Erebistana Seʿûdî / ئەرەبستانا سەعوودی

lat: Arabia Saudiana; Arabia Saudica

lav: Saūda Arābija

lit: Saudo Arabija

mlg: Arabo Saodita; Arabia Saodita

mlt: Għarabja Sawdita

mol: Arabia Saudită / Арабия Саудитэ

nld: Saoedi-Arabië; Saudi-Arabië

nrm: Arabie Sâodite

pol: Arabia Saudyjska

que: Sawud Arabsuyu

rmy: Saudikani Arabiya / साउदिकानी आराबिया

ron: Arabia Saudită

rup: Arabia Saudescã; Arabia Sauditã

scn: Arabbia Saudita

slk: Saudská Arábia

slo: Saudju Arabia / Саудйу Арабиа

slv: Saudska Arabija; Saudova Arabija

smg: Saudo Arabėjė

smo: Sauti Arapia

som: Sacuudi Carabiya

spa: Arabia Saudita; Arabia Saudí

sqi: Arabia Saudite

srd: Aràbbia Saùdida

swa: Arabuni Saudi

swe: Saudiarabien

szl: Arabja Saudyjsko

ton: Sauti Alepea

tuk: Saud Arabystany / Сауд Арабыстаны; Saud Arawiýa / Сауд Аравия

tur: Suudi Arabistan; Süudi Arabistan

uzb: Saudiya Arabistoni / Саудия Арабистони

vie: Ả-rập Xê-út

vol: Sauda-Larabän

wln: Arabeye Sawoudite

wol: Araabi Sawdit

zza: Erebıstanê Seudi

krc | udm: Сауд Аравия (Saud Aravija)

abq: Саудовска Аравия (Saudovska Aravija)

alt: Саудовский Аравия (Saudovskij Aravija)

ava: СагӀудияб ГӀарабустан (Saʿudijab ʿArabustan)

bak: Сәғүд Ғәрәбстаны / Säğüd Ğäräbstanı

bel: Саудаўская Аравія / Saudaŭskaja Aravija; Саудаўская Арабія / Saudaŭskaja Arabija

bul: Саудитска Аравия (Sauditska Aravija); Саудитска Арабия (Sauditska Arabija)

che: Саудовски Арави (Saudovski Aravi)

chm: Саудовский Аравий (Saudovskij Aravij)

chv: Сауд Аравийӗ (Saud Aravijĕ)

kaz: Сауд Арабиясы / Sawd Arabïyası / ساۋد ارابياسى; Сауд Аравиясы / Sawd Aravïyası / ساۋد اراۆياسى

kbd: Саудовскэ Аравие (Saudovskă Aravie)

kir: Сауд Аравиясы (Saud Aravijasy)

kjh: Саудовскай Аравия (Saudovskaj Aravija)

kom: Саудовскӧй Аравия (Saudovsköj Aravija)

kum: Сауд Арабыстаны (Saud Arabystany)

lbe: Саоьдлул Аьрабусттан (Saödlul Ärabusttan)

mkd: Саудиска Арабија (Saudiska Arabija)

mon: Саудын Араб (Saudyn Arab)

oss: Саудон Арави (Saudon Aravi)

rus: Саудовская Аравия (Saudovskaja Aravija)

srp: Саудијска Арабија / Saudijska Arabija

tab: Сауд Аьрабистан (Saud Ärabistan)

tat: Согуд Гарәбстаны / Soğud Ğaräbstanı; Сөгүд Гарәбстаны / Sögüd Ğaräbstanı

tgk: Арабистони Саудӣ / عربستان سعودی / Arabistoni Saudī

tyv: Сауд Аравиязы (Saud Aravijazy)

ukr: Саудівська Аравія (Saudivs'ka Aravija)

ara: العربية السعودية (al-ʿArabīyâtu s-Saʿūdīyâ); السعودية (as-Saʿūdīyâ)

ckb: سعوودیە / Siʿûdiye

fas: عربستان سعودی / Arabestâne Saudi

prs: عربستان سعودی (ʿArabestān-e Saʿūdī)

pus: سعودي عربستان (Saʿūdī ʿArabistān); سعودي عربيه (Saʿūdī ʿArabiyâ); سعودي عرب (Saʿūdī ʿArab)

snd: سعودي عرب (Saʿūdī ʿArabu)

uig: سەئۇدى ئەرەبىستان / Seudi Erebistan / Сәуди Әрәбистан

urd: سعودی عرب (Saʿūdī ʿArab)

div: ސައޫދީ އާރަބިޔާ (Sa'ūdī Ārabiyā); ސައޫދީ އަރަބިއްޔާ (Sa'ūdī Arabiyyā)

syr: ܥܪܒܝܐ ܕܣܥܘܕܝ (ʿArabiyā da-Saʿūdī)

heb: ערב הסעודית (ʿAraṿ ha-Saʿûdît)

lad: אראביה סאודיטה / Arabia Saudita

yid: סאַוד אַראַביע (Saud Arabye)

amh: ሳውዲ አራቢያ (Sawdi Ărabiya); ሳውዲ ዓረቢያ (Sawdi ʿAräbiya)

ell-dhi: Σαουδική Αραβία (Saoydikī́ Aravía)

ell-kat: Σαουδικὴ Ἀραβία (Saoydikī̀ Aravía)

hye: Սաուդյան Արաբիա (Saoudyan Arabia)

kat: საუდის არაბეთი (Saudis Arabeṭi)

hin: सऊदी अरब (Saūdī Arab)

nep: साउदी अरब (Sāudī Arab)

ben: সাউদি আরব (Sāudi Ārôb); সৌদি আরব (Soudi Ārôb); সৌদী আরব (Soudī Ārôb)

ori: ସୌଦି ଆରବ (Soudi Ārôb)

pan: ਸਾਊਦੀ ਅਰਬ (Sāūdī Arab)

kan: ಸೌದಿ ಅರೇಬಿಯ (Saudi Arēbiya)

mal: സൗദി അറേബ്യ (Sāudi Aṟēbya); സൌദി അറേബ്യ (Saudi Aṟēbya)

tam: சவுதி அரேபியா (Čavuti Arēpiyā); சவூதி அரேபியா (Čavūti Arēpiyā)

tel: సౌదీ అరేబియా (Saudī Arēbiyā)

zho: 沙特阿拉伯 (Shātè Ālābó)

jpn: サウディ・アラビア (Saudi Arabia); サウジアラビア (Saujiarabia)

kor: 사우디아라비아 (Saudiarabia)

bod: ཧྲ་ཐི་ཨར་ལ་སྤེ་ (Hra.tʰi. Ar.la.spe.); ས་ཐི་ཨ་ལ་པེ་ (Sa.tʰi. A.la.pe.); སའུ་དི་ཨ་ར་པི་ཡ་ (Sa'u.di. A.ra.pi.ya.)

dzo: སའུ་དི་ཨེ་ར་སྦི་ཡ་ (Sa'u.di E.ra.sbi.ya.)

mya: ဆော္ဒီအာရေဗ္ယ (Sʰɔdi Aẏebyá)

tha: ซาอุดีอาระเบีย (Sā'udī Ārabiya); ซาอุดิอาระเบีย (Sā'udi Ārabiya)

lao: ອາຣາບີຊາອູດີ (Ālābī Sā'ūdī)

khm: អារ៉ាប៊ីសាអ៊ូឌីត (Ārābī Sā'ūdīt); អារ៉ាប់ប៊ីសាអ៊ូឌីដ (Ārabbī Sā'ūdīd)

 

# www.youtube.com/watch?v=gU8fiayHbVk

 

Jesus: the Muslim prophet

By Mehdi Hasan

 

Christianity is rooted in the belief that Jesus is the Son of God, so is Islam’s version of Christ a source of tension, or a way of building bridges between the world’s two largest faiths?

  

Christians, perhaps because they call themselves Christians and believe in Christianity, like to claim ownership of Christ.

 

But the veneration of Jesus by Muslims began during the lifetime of the Prophet of Islam.

 

Perhaps most telling is the story in the classical biographies of Muhammad, who, entering the city of Mecca in triumph in 630AD, proceeded at once to the Kaaba to cleanse the holy shrine of its idols.

 

As he walked around, ordering the destruction of the pictures and statues of the 360 or so pagan deities, he came across a fresco on the wall depicting the Virgin and Child.

 

He is said to have covered it reverently with his cloak and decreed that all other paintings be washed away except that one.

 

Jesus, or Isa, as he is known in Arabic, is deemed by Islam to be a Muslim prophet rather than the Son of God, or God incarnate.

 

He is referred to by name in as many as 25 different verses of the Quran and six times with the title of "Messiah" (or "Christ", depending on which Quranic translation is being used).

 

He is also referred to as the "Messenger" and the "Prophet" but, perhaps above all else, as the "Word" and the "Spirit" of God.

 

No other prophet in the Quran, not even Muhammad, is given this particular honour. In fact, among the 124,000 prophets said to be recognised by Islam - a figure that includes all of the Jewish prophets of the Old Testament - Jesus is considered second only to Muhammad, and is believed to be the precursor to the Prophet of Islam.

 

In his fascinating book The Muslim Jesus, the former Cambridge professor of Arabic and Islamic studies Tarif Khalidi brings together, from a vast range of sources, 303 stories, sayings and traditions of Jesus that can be found in Muslim literature, from the earliest centuries of Islamic history.

 

These paint a picture of Christ not dissimilar to the Christ of the Gospels.

 

The Muslim Jesus is the patron saint of asceticism, the lord of nature, a miracle worker, a healer, a moral, spiritual and social role model.

 

“Jesus used to eat the leaves of the trees," reads one saying, "dress in hairshirts, and sleep wherever night found him. He had no child who might die, no house which might fall into ruin; nor did he save his lunch for his dinner or his dinner for his lunch. He used to say, 'Each day brings with it its own sustenance.'"

 

According to Islamic theology, Christ did not bring a new revealed law, or reform an earlier law, but introduced a new path or way (tariqah) based on the love of God; it is perhaps for this reason that he has been adopted by the mystics, or Sufis, of Islam.

 

The Sufi philosopher al-Ghazali described Jesus as "the prophet of the soul" and the Sufi master Ibn Arabi called him "the seal of saints".

 

The Jesus of Islamic Sufism, as Khalidi notes, is a figure "not easily distinguished" from the Jesus of the Gospels.

 

What prompted Khalidi to write such a pro­vocative book?

 

"We need to be reminded of a history that told a very different story: how one religion, Islam, co-opted Jesus into its own spirituality yet still maintained him as an independent hero of the struggle between the spirit and the letter of the law," he told me.

 

"It is in many ways a remarkable story of religious encounter, of one religion fortifying its own piety by adopting and cherishing the master spiritual narrative of another religion."

 

Islam reveres both Jesus and his mother, Mary (Joseph appears nowhere in the Islamic narrative of Christ's birth).

 

"Unlike the canonical Gospels, the Quran tilts backward to his miraculous birth rather than forward to his Passion," writes Khalidi.

 

"This is why he is often referred to as 'the son of Mary' and why he and his mother frequently appear together."

 

In fact, the Virgin Mary, or Maryam, as she is known in the Quran, is considered by Muslims to hold the most exalted spiritual position among women.

 

She is the only woman mentioned by name in Islam's holy book and a chapter of the Quran is named after her.

 

In one oft-cited tradition, the Prophet Muhammad described her as one of the four perfect women in human history.

 

But the real significance of Mary is that Islam considers her a virgin and endorses the Christian concept of the Virgin Birth.

 

"She was the chosen woman, chosen to give birth to Jesus, without a husband," says Shaykh Ibrahim Mogra, an imam in Leicester and assistant secretary general of the Muslim Council of Britain (MCB).

 

This is the orthodox Islamic position and, paradoxically, as Seyyed Hossein Nasr notes in The Heart of Islam, "respect for such teachings is so strong among Muslims that today, in interreligious dialogues with Christians . . . Muslims are often left defending traditional . . . Christian doctrines such as the miraculous birth of Christ before modernist interpreters would reduce them to metaphors."

 

With Christianity and Islam so intricately linked, it might make sense for Muslim communities across Europe, harassed, haran­gued and often under siege, to do more to stress this common religious heritage, and especially the shared love for Jesus and Mary.

 

There is a renowned historical precedent for this from the life of the Prophet. In 616AD, six years in to his mission in Mecca, Muhammad decided to find a safer refuge for those of his followers who had been exposed to the worst persecution from his opponents in the pagan tribes of the Quraysh.

 

He asked the Negus, the Christian king of Abyssinia (modern-day Ethiopia), to take them in.

 

He agreed and more than 80 Muslims left Mecca with their families. The friendly reception that greeted them upon arrival in Abyssinia so alarmed the Quraysh that, worried about the prospects of Muhammad's Muslims winning more allies abroad, they sent two delegates to the court of the Negus to persuade him to extradite them back to Mecca.

 

The Muslim refugees, claimed the Quraysh, were blasphemers and fugitives.

 

The Negus invited Jafar, cousin of Muhammad and leader of the Muslim group, to answer the charges.

 

Jafar explained that Muhammad was a prophet of the same God who had confirmed his revelation to Jesus, and recited aloud the Quranic account of the virginal conception of Christ in the womb of Mary:

 

And make mention of Mary in the Scripture, when she had withdrawn from her people to a chamber looking East,

 

And had chosen seclusion from them. Then We sent unto her Our Spirit and it assumed for her the likeness of a perfect man.

 

She said: Lo! I seek refuge in the Beneficent One from thee, if thou art God-fearing.

 

He said: I am only a messenger of thy Lord, that I may bestow on thee a faultless son.

 

She said: How can I have a son when no mortal hath touched me, neither have I been unchaste?

 

He said: So (it will be). Thy Lord saith: It is easy for Me. And (it will be) that We may make of him a revelation for mankind and a mercy from Us, and it is a thing ordained.

Quran, 19:16-21

 

Karen Armstrong writes, in her biography of Muhammad, that "when Jafar finished, the beauty of the Quran had done its work.

 

The Negus was weeping so hard that his beard was wet, and the tears poured down the cheeks of his bishops and advisers so copiously that their scrolls were soaked."

 

The Muslims remained in Abyssinia, under the protection of the Negus, and were able to practise their religion freely.

 

However, for Muslims, the Virgin Birth is not evidence of Jesus's divinity, only of his unique importance as a prophet and a messiah.

 

The Trinity is rejected by Islam, as is Jesus's Crucifixion and Resurrection.

 

The common theological ground seems to narrow at this point - as Jonathan Bartley, co-director of the Christian think tank Ekklesia, argues, the belief in the Resurrection is the "deal-breaker".

 

He adds: "There is a fundamental tension at the heart of interfaith dialogue that neither side wants to face up to, and that is that the orthodox Christian view of Jesus is blasphemous to Muslims and the orthodox Muslim view of Jesus is blasphemous to Christians."

 

He has a point. The Quran singles out Christianity for formulating the concept of the Trinity:

 

Do not say, "Three" - Cease! That is better for you. God is one God. Glory be to Him, [high exalted is He] above having a son.

Quran 4:171

 

It castigates Christianity for the widespread practice among its sects of worshipping Jesus and Mary, and casts the criticism in the form of an interrogation of Jesus by God:

 

And when God will say: "O Jesus, son of Mary, did you say to the people, 'Take me and my mother as gods besides God'?" he will say, "Glory be to You, it was not for me to say what I had no right [to say]! If I had said it, You would have known it.

Quran 5:116

 

Jesus, as Khalidi points out, "is a controversial prophet. He is the only prophet in the Quran who is deliberately made to distance himself from the doctrines that his community is said to hold of him."

 

For example, Muslims believe that Jesus was not crucified but was raised bodily to heaven by God.

 

Yet many Muslim scholars have maintained that the Islamic conception of Jesus - shorn of divinity; outside the Trinity; a prophet - is in line with the beliefs and teachings of some of the earliest Jewish-Christian sects, such as the Ebionites and the Nazarenes, who believed Jesus to be the Messiah, but not divine.

 

Muslims claim the Muslim Jesus is the historical Jesus, stripped of a later, man-made "Christology": "Jesus as he might have been without St Paul or St Augustine or the Council of Nicaea", to quote the Cambridge academic John Casey.

 

Or, as A N Wilson wrote in the Daily Express a decade ago: "Islam is a moral and intellectual acknowledgement of the lordship of God without the encumbrance of Christian mythological baggage . . . That is why Christianity will decline in the next millennium, and the religious hunger of the human heart will be answered by the Crescent, not the Cross."

 

Despite the major doctrinal differences, there remain areas of significant overlap, such as on the second coming of Christ. Both Muslims and Christians subscribe to the belief that before the world ends Jesus will return to defeat the Antichrist, whom Muslims refer to as Dajjal.

 

The idea of a Muslim Jesus, in whatever doctrinal form, may help fortify the resolve of those scholars who talk of the need to reformulate the exclusivist concept of a Judaeo-Christian civilisation and refer instead to a "Judaeo-Christian-Muslim civilisation".

 

This might be anathema to evangelical Christians - especially in the US, where populist preachers such as Franklin Graham see Islam as a "very evil and wicked religion" - but, as Khalidi points out, "While the Jewish tradition by and large rejects Jesus, the Islamic tradition, especially Sufi or mystical Islam, constructs a place for him at the very centre of its devotions."

 

Nonetheless, Jesus remains an esoteric part of Islamic faith and practice.

 

Where, for example, is the Islamic equivalent of Christmas?

 

Why do Muslims celebrate the birth of the Prophet Muhammad but not that of the Prophet Jesus?

 

"We, too, in our own way should celebrate the birth of Jesus . . . [because] he is so special to us," says Mogra.

  

"But I think each religious community has distinct celebrations, so Muslims will celebrate their own and Christians their own."

 

In recent years, the right-wing press in Britain has railed against alleged attempts by "politically correct" local authorities to downplay or even suppress Christmas. Birmingham's attempt to name its seasonal celebrations "Winterval" and Luton's Harry Potter-themed lights, or "Luminos", are notorious examples.

 

There is often a sense that such decisions are driven by the fear that outward displays of Christian faith might offend British Muslim sensibilities, but, given the importance of Jesus in Islam, such fears seem misplaced.

 

Mogra, who leads the MCB's interfaith relations committee, concurs: "It's a ridiculous suggestion to change the name of Christmas."

 

He adds: "Britain is great when it comes to celebrating diverse religious festivals of our various faith communities. They should remain named as they are, and we should celebrate them all."

 

Mogra is brave to urge Muslims to engage in an outward and public celebration of Jesus, in particular his birth, in order to match the private reverence that Muslims say they have for him.

 

Is there a danger, however, that Muslim attempts to re-establish the importance of Jesus within Islam and as an integral part of their faith and tradition might be misinterpreted?

 

Might they be misconstrued as part of a campaign by a supposedly resurgent and politicised Islam to try to take "ownership" of Jesus, in a western world in which organised Christianity is in seeming decline?

 

Might it be counterproductive for interfaith relations?

 

Church leaders, thankfully, seem to disagree.

 

“I have always enjoyed spending time with Muslim friends, with whom we as Christians have so much in common, along with Jewish people, as we all trace our faith back to Abraham," the Archbishop of York, Dr John Sentamu, tells me.

 

"When I visit a mosque, having been welcomed in the name of 'Allah and His Prophet Muhammad, peace be upon Him', I respond with greetings 'in the name of Jesus Christ, whom you Muslims revere as a prophet, and whom I know as the Saviour of the World, the Prince of Peace'."

 

Amid tensions between the Christian west and the Islamic east, a common focus on Jesus - and what Khalidi calls a "salutary" reminder of when Christianity and Islam were more open to each other and willing to rely on each other's witness - could help close the growing divide between the world's two largest faiths.

 

Mogra agrees: "We don't have to fight over Jesus. He is special for Christians and Muslims. He is bigger than life. We can share him."

 

Reverend David Marshall, one of the Church of England's specialists on Islam, cites the concluding comments from the Archbishop of Canterbury, Rowan Williams, at a recent seminar for Christian and Muslim scholars.

 

He said he had been encouraged by "the quality of our disagreement". "Christians and Muslims disagree on many points and will continue to do so - but how we disagree is not predetermined," says Marshall.

 

"Muslims are called by the Quran to 'argue only in the best way with the People of the Book' [Quran 29:46], and Christians are encouraged to give reasons for the hope that is within them, 'with gentleness and reverence' [1 Peter 3:15]. If we can do this, we have no reason to be afraid."

 

“The Muslim Jesus" by Tarif Khalidi is published by Harvard University Press (£14.95)

 

Mehdi Hasan is the NS's senior editor (politics)

  

www.newstatesman.com/religion/2009/12/jesus-islam-muslims...

  

The Islamic and Christian views of Jesus: a comparison

The person of Jesus or Isa in Arabic (peace be upon him) is of great significance in both Islam and Christianity. However, there are differences in terms of beliefs about the nature and life occurrences of this noble Messenger.

 

Source of information about Jesus in Islam

 

Most of the Islamic information about Jesus is actually found in the Quran.

 

The Quran was revealed by God to Prophet Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon him), and memorized and written down in his lifetime. Today, anyone who calls him or herself a Muslim believes in the complete authenticity of the Quran as the original revealed guidance from God.

 

Source of information about Jesus in Christianity

 

Christians take their information about Jesus from the Bible, which includes the Old and New Testaments.

 

These contain four biblical narratives covering the life and death of Jesus.

 

They have been written, according to tradition, respectively by Matthew, Mark, Luke and John.

 

They are placed at the beginning of the New Testament and comprise close to half of it.

 

Encyclopedia Britannica notes that none of the sources of his life and work can be traced to Jesus himself; he did not leave a single known written word.

 

Also, there are no contemporary accounts written of his life and death.

 

What can be established about the historical Jesus depends almost without exception on Christian traditions, especially on the material used in the composition of the Gospels of Mark, Matthew, and Luke, which reflect the outlook of the later church and its faith in Jesus.

 

Below are the views of Islam and Christianity based on primary source texts and core beliefs.

  

ISLAM

  

1. Do Muslims believe he was a Messenger of One God? YES

 

Belief in all of the Prophets and Messengers of God is a fundamental article of faith in Islam.

 

Thus, believing in Prophets Adam, Jesus, Moses, and Muhammad (peace and blessings be upon them) is a requirement for anyone who calls him or herself a Muslim. A person claiming to be a Muslim who, for instance, denies the Messengership of Jesus, is not considered a Muslim.

 

The Quran says in reference to the status of Jesus as a Messenger:

 

"The Messiah (Jesus), son of Mary, was no more than a Messenger before whom many Messengers have passed away; and his mother adhered wholly to truthfulness, and they both ate food (as other mortals do). See how We make Our signs clear to them; and see where they are turning away!" (Quran 5:75).

  

2. Do Muslims believe he was born of a Virgin Mother? YES

 

Like Christians, Muslims believe Mary, Maria in Spanish, or Maryam as she is called in Arabic, was a chaste, virgin woman, who miraculously gave birth to Jesus.

 

"Relate in the Book the story of Mary, when she withdrew from her family, to a place in the East. She screened herself from them; then We sent to her Our spirit (angel Gabriel) and he appeared before her as a man in all respects. She said: I seek refuge from you in God Most Gracious (come not near) if you do fear God. He said: Nay, I am only a Messenger from your Lord, to announce to you the gift of a pure son. She said: How shall I have a son, when no man has ever touched me, and I am not unchaste? He said: So it will be, your Lord says: ‘That is easy for Me; and We wish to appoint him as a sign unto men and a Mercy from Us': It was a matter so decreed" (Quran 19:16-21).

  

3. Do Muslims believe Jesus had a miraculous birth? YES

 

The Quran says:

 

"She (Mary) said: ‘O my Lord! How shall I have a son when no man has touched me.' He (God) said: ‘So (it will be) for God creates what He wills. When He has decreed something, He says to it only: ‘Be!'- and it is" (3:47).

 

It should also be noted about his birth that:

 

"Verily, the likeness of Jesus in God's Sight is the likeness of Adam. He (God) created him from dust, then (He) said to him: ‘Be!'-and he was" (Quran 3:59).

  

4. Do Muslims believe Jesus spoke in the cradle? YES

 

"Then she (Mary) pointed to him. They said: ‘How can we talk to one who is a child in the cradle?' He (Jesus) said: ‘Verily! I am a slave of God, He has given me the Scripture and made me a Prophet; " (19:29-30).

 

5. Do Muslims believe he performed miracles? YES

 

Muslims, like Christians believe Jesus performed miracles. But these were performed by the will and permission of God, Who has power and control over all things.

 

"Then will God say: ‘O Jesus the son of Mary! recount My favor to you and to your mother. Behold! I strengthened you with the Holy Spirit (the angel Gabriel) so that you did speak to the people in childhood and in maturity. Behold! I taught you the Book and Wisdom, the Law and the Gospel. And behold: you make out of clay, as it were, the figure of a bird, by My leave, and you breathe into it, and it becomes a bird by My leave, and you heal those born blind, and the lepers by My leave. And behold! you bring forth the dead by My leave. And behold! I did restrain the children of Israel from (violence to you) when you did show them the Clear Signs, and the unbelievers among them said: ‘This is nothing but evident magic' (5:110).

  

6. Do Muslims believe in the Trinity? NO

 

Muslims believe in the Absolute Oneness of God, Who is a Supreme Being free of human limitations, needs and wants. He has no partners in His Divinity. He is the Creator of everything and is completely separate from His creation.

 

God says in the Quran regarding the Trinity:

 

"People of the Book (Jews and Christians)! Do not exceed the limits in your religion, and attribute to God nothing except the truth. The Messiah, Jesus, son of Mary, was only a Messenger of God, and His command that He conveyed unto Mary, and a spirit from Him.

 

So believe in God and in His Messengers, and do not say: ‘God is a Trinity.' Give up this assertion; it would be better for you. God is indeed just One God.

 

Far be it from His glory that He should have a son. To Him belongs all that is in the heavens and in the earth. God is sufficient for a guardian" (Quran 4:171).

  

7. Do Muslims believe that Jesus was the son of God? NO

 

"Say: "God is Unique! God, the Source [of everything]. He has not fathered anyone nor was He fathered, and there is nothing comparable to Him!" (Quran 112:1-4).

 

The Quran also states:

 

"Such was Jesus, the son of Mary; it is a statement of truth, about which they vainly dispute. It is not befitting to the majesty of God, that He should beget a son. Glory be to Him! When He determines a matter, He only says to it, ‘Be' and it is" (Quran 19:34-35).

  

8. Do Muslims believe Jesus was killed on the cross then resurrected? NO

 

"“They did not kill him, nor did they crucify him, but they thought they did.” (Quran 4:156) “God lifted him up to His presence. God is Almighty, All-Wise” (Quran 4:157) .

 

www.soundvision.com/Info/Jesus/inIslam.asp

 

# www.youtube.com/watch?v=yyOBvyF_0HI&NR=1

Hazrat Gausul Azam Maizbhandari Shah Sufi Moulana Syed Ahmed Ullah

(Hazrat Kebla Kaba):

 

As mentioned earlier, Hazrat Kebla Kaba was born on 15th January, 1826; corresponding to 1st Magh of 1233 Bangla Calendar Year. A renowned religious scholar and spiritual leader Hazrat Mohiuddin Ibn Arabi predicted the birth of HazratKebla Kaba even 586 years before his birth. He also predicted that the whole world would be enlightened by the knowledge and spiritual power of Hazrat kebla Kaba. Soon after the birth of Hazrat Kebla Kaba, his father was directed by the Prophet (SM) to name his son as ‘Ahmed Ullah’. Upon completion of secondary education in Chittagong, Hazrat Kebla kaba joined Calcutta Alia Madrasha in India for his higher studies in Islamic religion and philosophy. Throughout his academic life, Hazrat Kebla Kaba demonstrated his utmost brilliance and unique ability, which could not be achieved without the highest level of spiritual competence bestowed by Allah himself. Upon completion of his studies, Hazrat Kebla Kaba took up the job of Jessore District Judge but a year later; he resigned at his own will. He then accepted a teaching position in a religious college in Calcutta. Along with this assignment, Hazrat Kebla Kaba engaged himself preaching the teachings of Islam among the people, and addressing public in religious gatherings. During his stay in Calcutta, Hazrat Kebla Kaba came with the close connection of two great religious scholars and high-powered spiritual personalities – Shah Sufi Hazrat Abu Shahama Muhammad Saleh Al-Quaderi Lahori and Kutubul Aktab Shah Sufi Hazrat Delwar Ali Pakbaz. Hazrat Kebla Kaba got blessings from these two towering personalities and broadened his spiritual domain for the well being of the whole world. Since then, his concentration in religious and spiritual activities has increased tremendously. Most of his time he devoted in the meditation of Allah. After few years of staying in Calcutta, Hazrat Kebla Kaba came back home. At the age of 32, Hazrat got married, but even after his marriage, instead of devoting in worldly affairs, he concentrated more on Allah’s meditation. Through this meditation he used to grasp the mystery of Almighty’s creation and tried to understand the true sense and spirit of humanity. Over the time, the issue of Hazrat Kebla Kaba’s spiritual endowment had been gradually known among the people at home and abroad. People from all walks of life started coming to him for his spiritual blessing. Within a short span of time, the name of Maizbhandar Sharif was spread as the centre for peace and pilgrimage for the people, irrespective of their status and position in the society. Hazrat Kebla Kaba used to give patient hearings to everyone who came to him and solved their problems through his spiritual blessings. Even before he saw the person, Hazrat Kebla Kaba could tell his/her desire. In fact, through the eye contact with him, many people achieved the highest level of spiritual power. There are numerous instances, which can illustrate the great spiritual strengths of Hazrat Kebla Kaba. Through these events, (in the Sufi Language such mysterious events are termed as "Karamat") perhaps, the Allah, Himself wanted to make the spiritual power and attainment of Hazrat Kebla Kaba public for the greater well-being of the entire universe. Only few "Karamats" are being documented, but many of them are not even known to us. He saved people from various miseries, showed the path of Allah, and blessed many with his magnanimous spiritual power. Hazrat Kebla Kaba never opted for any worldly gain or fame. On the contrary, throughout his life he directed all his activities for guiding the people in the right path and ensuring a continuous betterment of humanity. That’s why people from every sphere of the society spontaneously used to come for his blessings. Dedicating his life for the cause of Allah and humanity, as per the desire of Allah, Hazrat Kebla Kaba left this world on 23rd January, 1906, corresponding to 10th Magh of 1313 of Bengali Calendar Year. Countless devotees gather on this day every year in Maizbhandar Sharif to rejuvenate their minds and seek blessings of Allah.

After a lengthy renovation, Cruyllas Castle of Calatabiano (situated between the Alcantara Valley and Etna and not far from Taormina and Naxos) is ready to welcome its visitors thanks to its splendid panorama Between the walls of the castle is enclosed the entire history of the Mediterranean. A procession of populations and cultures who, battling for strategic control of the area by way of the stronghold, have all contributed to the development and enlargement during the course of the centuries: from the Sicels to the Greeks, from the Byzantines to the Arabs; from the Normans to the Suebi/Suevi, until the settlement of the Cruyllas, in the Aragon period, during which the castle was at its maximum splendor.

 

Il castello di Calatabiano, in provincia di Catania, al confine settentrionale della provincia etnea, sorge su una collina alta 220 m s.l.m. e domina la foce dell’Alcantara. Qui il fiume segna il confine tra Catania e Messina. Ai piedi del castello l’attuale abitato sorto a valle dopo l’abbandono della terra vecchia a seguito del disastroso terremoto di Val di Noto del 1693.

La prima documentazione certa relativa al castello di Calatabiano si rileva da una carta della Sicilia in cui il geografo e viaggiatore arabo Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Idris (1099 1164) rappresentava l’Isola e i suoi sistemi fortificati. La carta tratta dal “Libro di Ruggero”, presso la cui corte il geografo prestava i suoi servigi, rappresenta l’Isola capovolta secondo la consuetudine araba. Qui il massiccio dell’Etna appare sul lato sinistro ed è lambito dai due fiumi Simeto e Alcantara. Proprio lungo le sponde del fiume Al-kantar (il ponte) appaiono rappresentate due fortezze speculari Tauromenion e Kalaat-al Bian. Ricostruito su preesistenti capisaldi greci e romani.

Non sappiamo che nome avesse all’epoca bizantina il maniero che gli arabi, dopo la conquista, avrebbero chiamato: Kalaat-al-Bian, (Rocca di Biano).

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7QLdlvfEYo

 

www.castellodicalatabiano.it/

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Makhdoom Ali Mahimi (1372–1431) was a Muslim Scholar originating from the Konkan in India, widely[vague] acknowledged for his scholarly treatises, liberal views and humanist ideals. Mahimi was born into a family of Arab travelers from Iraq who had settled down on the island of Mahim, one of the seven islands that later formed the city of Bombay (now Mumbai).

Not much is known of his early childhood. He later became the disciple of Mohiuddin Ibne Arabi, a Spanish Muslim saint. Mahimi's reputation grew after the Sultan of Gujarat, Ahmed Shah of the Muzaffarid dynasty, chose him to be the town's Qazi (the Head Muslim Judge/cleric of a town).

Mahimi was the first Indian scholar to write an exegesis on the Qur'an, which gained critical acclimation from numerous Islamic scholars including Shah Waliullah. Authoring a total of nineteen books, he was given the moniker Qutb-e -Kokan (Kokan's Pole Star). His commentary (tafseer) of the Nobel Quran in Arabic "Tayseer Al-Quran" is available in Al Azhar University, Cairo and Ummul-Qura University, Makkah.

Mahimi is revered by both the Muslims and Hindus, all Muslim sects hold him in high esteem. After his death in 1431, he was buried in Mahim. The site later became a dargah (shrine) for devotees.

 

During the annual ten day Urs festival celebrated on the 13th day of Shawwal as per the Muslim calendar, millions of devotees visit his dargah.

The highlight of this is a procession of around eight thousand begins at the Mahim Police Station, believed to be the site of his residence. Two police officers from each of the eighty four city police stations represent the police whose association with the saint dates back to the saint's era. A representative of the Mumbai police who is the first to offer the "chaddar" (shawl) at the tomb on the first day of the festival. Legend has it that it was a police constable who gave water to the dying saint from his cap. Another story points to some miraculous assistance police officers once received from an old man, whom they believed was the saint, in fighting smugglers.

A room adjacent to the office of the senior inspector of police station contains a steel cupboard that houses the saint's preserved belongings such as his chair, a pair of sandals and his hand-written Qur'an which is considered to be a calligraphic work of art. The room is opened once every year to the public. In 1920 the cupboard was purchased by a senior British police inspector, Raymond Esquire as a tribute to the saint he revered.

On 2005-05-21, the government of Maharashtra named the JJ Flyover after the saint as a tribute to the saint. The 2.1 kilometre flyover is the longest viaduct in the country.

[edit]Name And Lineage

  

Dargah Sharif on 11/23/2011

His name is Ali as well as Alauddin. His surname is Abul Hasan and the title is Zainuddin. The tribes of Nawait families were connected to the ‘Paro’ and the same that is ‘Paro’ was his family title. Being well versed in theology he was called Faquih and being a place of refuge to all and a competent authority he was called Makhdum.He was considered to be one of the saints. So, he was called, Shaikh’.

His respectable father’s name is Maulana Shaikh Ahmad who was a learned man of high grade and he was a genuine saint. He was considered to be one of the wealthy traders of Kokan.

His honourable mother’s name is Hazrat Fatima Bint (Daughter of) Nakhuda Husain Ankolia. It is said of his maternal grandfather that he was king of the traders. His venerable mother was a pious devout, an abstinent and she was very religious-minded and god-fearing. She was a saintly woman.

1) He is Makhdum Ali Bin Ahmad and known as Ibn (son) of Bint (daughter of) Husain Nakuda Ankolia. This statement (opinion) has been adapted from a book namely Khatib Kalyani in an Arabic magazine Zamirul Insaan.

2) He is Ali Bin Hasan Bin Ibrahim Bin Ismail, the writer of ilhamur Rehman and Compiler of Tafsirur Rehman Bin Muhammad Bin Ahmad entitled Kodar. This opinion was found written at the end of ‘Shumailul Atqiya by the writer of this magazine. This book Shumail’, as per the writer of the magazine was written in his own handwriting by Hazrat Makhdum Ali Faquih Mahaimi. He writes, also that, the scholars of our times were fully sure that the second statement had been written by Hazrat Makhdum Ali Faquih Mahaimi himself at the end of the’ Shumail’.

Maulawi Late Muhammad Yusuf Khatkhate. referring to a passage of the handwritten book Tabsirur Rehman, has written that in this book as described, of Hazrat Makhdurn Ali, is Alauddin and as a matter of fact our forefathers and parents are related to Ali Paro Bin Ahmad Paro Bin Ali Paro Bin Ahmad Paro and as well as, ibn bint (D/O) Husain Nakhuda Ankolia . And probably it is the right one.

This hand-written copy of the book was copied down 133 years after the death of Hazrat Makhdum Ali Faquih Mahaimi any way, Hazrat Makhdum Ali was a son and descendant of a gentle and respectable family. And his predecessors were originally Arabs that is Naiti. In an ancient book. It is written that (Hazrat Makhdum Ali Maulana Shaikh Ahmad Mahaimi comes of a Nawait Clan. This word is on the metre (weight) of Thawabit. A certain community lived in the cities and towns of Southern India (The Deccan). Their description is available in the Persian books. An ancient written, Tabri has written in his historical book that Naita is a tribe of ‘Quraish who had fled from Madina Munawwara due to the fear of Hajjaj Bin Yusuf (who had killed five thousand scholars and saintly people without any pretext). And these people got down near about the mouth of the Indus River. and they made that territory their living place.[1]

[edit]The Originality Of Nawayat

 

The word of Nawayat can be written with its last letters as ‘to’e’ or ‘te’ The ancient historians and the writers of biographies used to write it with both the letters.

Nawayat is a community of the tribe, Quraish, who is related to Muhammad through Nazr Bin Kanana. These were the residents of Madina Munawwara. They migrated to India during the period of Hajjaj bin Yusuf and they got down on the coast of the Indian Ocean.

[edit]Arrival Of Nawayat In India

 

Having got fed up with the cruelties and tyrannies of Hajjaj Bin Yusuf. the first caravan of Muslim Arab Migrators took shelter in India on 8th Hijri that is in the year 699 A.D. There were, in this caravan, some Arab migrators of the village of Basra., which was called Nayat. Their family tree is connected to the tribe of Quraish through the family of Banu Nazar.

Against the courageous steps of Abdulla Bin Zubair Radi Allahu anhu, Abdul Malik Bin Marwan encouraged and incited Hajjaj Bin Yususf to killings, plunder and blood-shed. He made many a people of Banu Hashim prisoners and made them to suffer great hardships. Some of these people went to North Africa and Spain and one of the caravans of the migrators got down around the islands of Bombay. They got down at Sopara, Thana, Semore (Chambur). a seaport at that time.

In the Bombay Gazette, it has been written about Hazrat Makhdum Ali Faquih Mahaimi that: “This sufi (saint) was of Arab origin. His fore-fathers came to Mahim in the year 860 A.D. i.e. 252 H. as they were not able to stand against the tyrannies and cruelties of Hajjaj Bin Yusuf And after about five hundred years later Hazrat Makhdum Ali Faquih Mahaimi was born.

[edit]Education And Training

 

His honourable father Maulana Hazrat Shaikh Ahmad Sahib was learned, great scholar and saintly man. He lived in Kokan from the very beginning. He was of Arab origin *and comes of the descendants of Hazrat Jafar Tayyar Radi allahu anhu Bin Hazrat Abi Talib Radi Allahu anhu . His mausoleum is situated in Amman (the capital of .Jordan) in the city of Moutha. The city of Mautah is situated at the distance of 112 Km. from Amman.

His honourable father, having observed his smart son’s cleverness and liking for knowledge and learning, paid his attention to his higher education. And, as he, too, was a great scholar of Arabic language.

[2]

He, therefore. helped his son Hazrat Makhdum Ali Mahaimi to become. a scholar. In his childhood. under the training of his father, Maulana Shaikh Ahmed rehmatullahi Bin Ali, Hazrat Makhdum Ali Mahaimi acquired full fledged knowledge of recitation of’ the Qura’n with correct phonetics. theology, logic, philosophy, Hadith and all other extra-religious fields of knowledge and traditionlally reported sciences etcetera.

The gracious mother of Hazrat Makhdum, Hazrat Bibi Fatima, too, was a perfect saintly woman. The gracious parents of Hazrat Makhdum through their training. polished and illuminated the God-gifted talents of their son. And by the favour and bounty of Allah, He became a writer of Quranic exegesis of high quality, a scholar of Muhammad's traditions, a theologian and a saint (Sufi), excellent and well versed in revelation and miracles. It is widely known that Hazrat Khizr Alaih salaam, also, took a greater part in his training.

When Hazrat Makhdum was barely of nine years age. completed all the branches of knowledge. external as well as celestial and the Islamic Jurisprudence. Thereafter, only a few days had passed when, on the 25th of Jamadil Akhir 785 Hijri, his father Maulana Shaikh died.

In some other book, the year of the expiry of Maulana Shaikh Ahmad Bin Ali is given as 788 Hijri.)

Hazrat Makhdum’s revered father Maulana Shaikh Ahmad Bin Ali; who rose from the land of Kalyan, was buried in the very place of land. The grave of Hazrat Makhdum Ali’s father is situated in the locality of Kalyan, namely Bombal Bazar*. Near Namak Bander (salt port) of Kalyan, there is an old graveyard and in it is situated a pucca Mausoleum, a shrine. of Maulana Shaikh Ahmad Ali which was built on 5th Rabiul Awwal, 1313 Hijri.

His mausoleum is situated adjacent to the Bahir Kot (fort) Masjid (Mosque) and to the other side, there is the mausoleum of Hazrat Nizamuddin Khamosh.

Bombal Bazar, - Ghas Bazar :. On this very same date, the fair (Urs) is celebrated every year regularly.

Some local poet has said two stanzas of poetry in Urdu depicting the date of his expiry. These are in Urdu and the poet is Rashid. They are inscribed on two marble plaques. One of them is inside the mausoleum while the other one is outside it.

The inside plaque bears these lines:

Janab-e- Shaikh Ahmad Wasil-e-Haq

Jahan se jab huye jannat ko rukhsat

Lisan-e-gaib-e- Rashid ne bataya

Makeenul Khuld un ka sal-e- rukhsat

(788 H.)

When Hazrat Makhdum Ali became orphan due to the expiry of his father, his thirst for knowledge and learning went on increasing. There was no source to quench this thirst. hence he came to his respected mother and said, Dear Mother My longing for knowledge is going on increasing. Here, I don’t find any source to satisfy my desire and longing for it. If you give me permission then. I would set out in search of the knowledge. The respected mother looked at the son for some time and then said.’ My son! your separation is unbearable to me. Allah, The Highest, is The Causer of the Causes. He, being the real doer of things, will make such a provision from unknown that it will be the source of satisfaction to your longing. The knowledge that is obtained through the divine favour is better than that acquired by any method of teaching and learning.

So. the very night. his respectable mother prayed to Allah and her prayers were answered positively by Allah. As usual, after the early morning prayer was over, Hazrat Makhdum Ali, went for a walk to the sea-side. While he was strolling on the coast of the sea, he saw a radiant faced elderly person sitting on a rock which was lying on the coast of the sea. He conveyed his salam (the best wishes) to him. The elderly man returned his salams to Hazrat Makhdum Ali and showed his pleasure smilingly. Then, he said, ‘ You are longing for acquiring divine knowledge, then you come here to me daily every morning and I will teach you. The things you wish to obtain through journeys to distant places, Insha Allah (If Allah so wishes), you will get the same here and here. I am the Khizr Alaih salaam. Allah, The highest, has sent me to teach you. Don’t divulge this secret to anybody.

So, he would go to that place where Khizr Alaih salam used to be sitting. It was his routine to do so every morning after the early morning (fajr) prayers were over. He was regular in this . And, thus, he started to acquire godly knowledge from Hazrat Khizr Alaih Salaam In a few days, he was perfect in both the types of knowledge, intellectual as well as additional. One day, by chance, his respectable mother made an enquiry with him. saying. “My son! To whom do you go to obtain knowledge daily? I have heard that you go to the sea-shore every day” . At first, he hesitated to give reply to his mother’s enquiry. But, feeling that it would be against the manner, he said, I go to Hazrat Khizr Alaih Salaam to learn from him.”

The next day, when, as usual, he went to the sea-shore, he found that Hazrat Khizr Alaih Salaam was not there. He regretted much and become very sorrowful and came to his mother. Hazrat Makhdum, with tears in his eyes said to his mother, ‘Dear Mother ! I had, against the instruction and warning of Hazrat Khizr Alaih Salaam, mentioned you the secret of his teaching. And, I think, most probably, being angry with me, he did not turn up today.” The glorious mother, again, consoled him and said, “Don’t be disapponted. Allah, The Highest, is The Most Powerful. He will send, again, Hazrat Khizr Alaih Salaam for the sake of you. “ The glorious mother prayed to Allah, that very night. Consequently, the next day, at the time of the prayers of Asr, Hazrat Khizr Alaih Salaam met him on the way and said, “ You have got the inspired- knowledge by the order of Allah.” Then he took him to the sea-shore and having taken out a morsel of godly bounty from his own mouth, fed it to him and said “Your glorious mother’s prayers are always answered positively and you have achieved mastery over all the branches of knowledge by the favour of Allah.” When he was free from the evening prayers, he found his pure and clean bosom overloaded with all the branches of the knowledge.

[edit]Habits And Good Qualities

 

The real essence of life is the beauty of character. It is only the good character that has made the memory of the noble men perpetual and has strengthened their description Sayyid Ibrahim Madni, in his hook, Magazine Zamirul Insan says, “ Hazrat Makhdum Sahib was very modest, good mannered, obedient and fond of service to his parents from his childhood. By chance, one night his mother, after her night prayers, was lying on the bed. She felt thirsty. So, she asked Makhdum Ali to fetch her water. He return with the water but he saw that his mother was fast asleep. He thought that to awake her from the sleep would be against the good manners. So, he stood beside her with the glass of water in his hand for the whole night.

At last, it was early morning when his mother woke up from sleep. She asked him,’My son, how long are you standing here with the water? ‘.He said, “ Since the time you went to sleep and you had asked for the water. And I am, since then standing here waiting for you to wake up”

The mother liked this good mannerly behaviour of her son to such an extent that her happiness knew no bounds. She got up from the bed immediately, performed ablution and prayed to Allah for the betterment of her son. It was the effect of these prayers of his mother that due to it Makhdum Sahib very soon attained the perfection in both the types of sciences of knowledge, apparent as well as latent.

While describing the noble character of Hazrat Makhdum Ali Faquih Mahaimi some of the people have written that he was very much generous and libral. He used to help the needy open-heartedly. Even though he was the son of a wealthy father, he never gave importance to the worldly ‘wealth and riches.There was a crowd of guests at his house all the time. On his table cloth various kinds of tasty foods were served and he felt happy to feed the guests to their satisfaction. It is said that he liked fish very much. All the Muslims and the Hindus, both were attracted by his pleasing character and good behaviour.

[edit]Devotion And Mystic Exercise

 

Hazrat Makhdum Ali was a genuine abstinent, devotee, master of the knowledge of all the branches of sciences in respect of Islamic Jurisprudence and intimate knowledge of God and measure” and regulations, both apparent and the latent. He had reached to the zenith in the intellectual sciences and conventional as well. He had the best qualities and pleasing habits and excellent characteristics. He performed extra-ordinay feats.

Sufi (Saintly person) Shaikh Abdul Wahab Muttaqui Shazli Qadiri, describes, in his book, a strange event concerning Hazrat Makhdum Ali

“ The author of ‘ Tafsir-e-Rehmani Hazrat Shaikh Ali Mahaimi was overwhelmed with the effect of meditation and absorption. The ruling king’s sister was in matrimonial relation with him. One day, the king’s wives and their lady companions came to see the king’s sister at the Shaikh’s house. Shaikh, at that time, was sitting at the door of the house. The ladies hesitated to come in. Shaikh’s mother was present there. She said to them, ‘Why are you hesitant? Come on. What is the hesitation and reluctance for at all?’ They said that they were reluctant to come in because Shaikh was sitting on the door sill and he would see them. Shaikh’s mother said that it was not possible because he was in the unconscious state. He had no sense of any thing, neither theirs nor of this world and the hereafter as well. No sooner they heard this, all of them came in . Then they insisted on its proof. Thereupon, Shaikh’s mother came to him and said to him,’ My son take this wrapper and wear this on and give your dress for washing. At that shaikh was putting on clean clothes. He, immediately, put off his clothes and put on the wrapper. And, again he sat down. After an hour, his mother brought him other dirty clothes and asked him to take off his clothes. Shaikh took the same dirty clothes and put them on. He had no sense as to which clothes he should put on and which to put off.”

In one of the magazine, he has said;

“In Yeman, there lived a learned man by name Imam Jamal Muhammad One of the servants brought to me a letter from him. and he stated: It is a fact that Sharfuddin the Yemani the teacher of Quran has not the understanding and discerning power to such extent than he may be able to comprehend the works of Shaikh Mohiuddin Ibn Arabi Even then he belittles Shaikh only because he, himself is incapable and inefficient and he is bent on infidelity to the Shaikh and the followers of him.

Having heard this awkward and malicious statement, a thought occurred to my mind that I must bring out what the truth is. And this thought didn’t allow me to sit at my house idle. Helplessly, I decided to make a journey and set out to Yeman. Having reached there, I forwarded the necessary arguments and gave perfect proofs and evidences. And, at last I succeeded in wiping out the dust of doubts and suspicion and cleansed the pollution of criticism and abuse from the beliefs of the teacher, Muallim.

[3]

[edit]Revelations And Miracles

 

Those elderly and saintly people who adopted the life style of their dear most Prophet Salla Allahu ta’ala’alayhi wa sallam , in a very few days. they too start the experience of their being beloved and to this the promise is made by Allah in His Glorious book. The Qura’n that whosoever adopts the manners, the ways of life. the habits, the characteristics and the traditions of Muhammad, he will be under the care of Allah.

In the words of the Muhammad, it is as:

“Tell them, if you love Allah, do follow me. Then Allah will be mindful of you.”

Hazrat Makhdum Ali Mahairni was one of the chief Awilyas (The saints). Many a miracle are attributed to him. Hence, many a people have written books on his miracles with title of Karamat-e-Makhdum (The Miracles of Makhdum). Many of them are hearsays only and to establish their authenticity is difficult due to lack of documentary evidences Therefore. we. mention here only’ those of his miracles that are brought to light by the writer of the Magazine. ‘Zamirul insan’, Maulana Sayyid Ibrahim Madani and that too, with particular stress.

(1) It is natrated that Hazrat Makhdum Baba had reared a she-goat whom he loved immensely. Once when he had gone away on some business, the goat fell ill and ultimately died, His mother got the deid goat buried on the sea-shore. When he heard about the death of the goat, he became extremely sad and went to the sea-shore to see it. His maid-servant had followed him and he ordered her to go away. She got frightened and went away from that place, but hid herself at a little distance. After the departure of the servant he recited some prayer and he stood there for some time praying to Allah. The maid servant who was watching all this saw the legs of the animal moving. Afterwards, he held the ear of the goat and brought her back home. This was the first miraculous feat that he exhibited at the age of 10 and its report spread far and wide.

(2) This maid servant, since that day, made it a regular practice- to serve Hazrat Makhdum Baba Whenever she washed his clothes she would preserve the first wash of water and drank it This entitled her also to gain knowledge and miraculous powers by the Grace of Allah. One day a traveller came to the mosque in Mahim. Hazrat Makhdum Baba noticed him and sent food to him through this maid-servant. When the maid reached the mosque with the tray of food she found the traveller missing. Through her powers she traced the person to be praying in the Khana-e-Ka’aba. She reached Makka and served him and later returned to the mosque. Thus, his dependents and followers also performed miraculous feats.

(3) Once, as usual, the men of INSIGHT had assembled from far off place and a general meeting was organised. During the session, one of the pious men informed that there is a Lote tree in the land of Madina Munawwara whose fruit is very delicious and nice. On this Hazrat Makhdum Baba said, “This was the season of this fruit and requested him to get some of it from there. He replied in the affirmative and promised to present Hazrat Makhdum Baba that fruit, He himself was a perfect scholar and had mastered the special prayer (benediction) called “Tayyal Farasakh” which at once took him to Madina. When he reached the tree he saw that there was someone already up the tree. He decided not to climb up and requested the person upon the tree to shake one of the branches of the tree so that he may also pick up some fruits. The man on the tree plucked some fruits and dropped them on the ground and shook a branch as well. The sage picked up the fruit and returned to Mahim.

He presented the said fruit to Hazrat Makhdum Baba who ate some of it and appreciated its taste and then remarked that. the fruit was undoubtedly tasty but he had brought it without exerting any effort. On hearing this the said sage felt very much astonished and he thought that perhaps he was watched by Hazrat Makhdum Baba by his miraculous powers but the situation was completely different. Hazrat Makhdum Baba had personally reached there prior to him and had climbed the tree. The holy man also realised the same and begged pardon. He accepted the difference between them. Hazrat Makhdum Baba is the Qutb of Konkan (The Polar Star of Konkan). Afterwards, Hazrat Shaikh Makhdum Baba removed some fruits from his pocket and distributed them among the people assembled there. All of them ate and relished them.

(4) During the days of Hazrat Makhdum Baba, the marine traffic had commenced and the ship started navigating to and fro. In those days a Hindu trader despatched his merchandise aboard a ship but the ship did not return. Seven years passed by and he virtually forgot about that ship. But whenever any accident of such nature occurred, he mourned about his loss regretfully. He met many learned people, religious activists, astrologers and sorcerers to inquire about the fate of his ship. All of them told him that, that ship had sunk along with his merchandise and general cargo. A disciple of Hazrat Makhdum Baba was also sitting there and he inquired of this fellow whether he had ever approached his Shaikh and told him if he had not, he should accompany him there and then and he assured him that he would certainly get satisfactory information about his ship. The man agreed and they reached Hazrat Makhdum Baba and narrated the entire incident. Hazrat Makhdum Baba told him to sit down and close his eyes. He did as directed and then Hazrat Makhdum Baba told him to open his eyes and then prophesied that his ship laden with his cargo and merchandise. would arrive back on the sea-shore on that very day in the evening.

The trader returned home and he was puzzled as to how the said ship that was lost seven years ago would suddenly appear from no where and that too on that very day. He reached the sea-shore before the onset of evening. He was restless. He saw a ship approaching the coast before the sunset. After half an hour the ship arrived and (he trader was amazed as it was his own ship.

He was beyond himself with joy. He developed utter faith in the miraculous power of Hazrat Makhdum Baba. The next day. he, along with his family members. came to Hazrat Makhdum Baba and cheerfully and willingly embraced Islam.

(5) Hazrat Makhdum Baba was famous as a trustworthy person. A man came to him and said that he was going alone on a journey and did not want to take some of his gems and diamonds along with him lest they be robbed. He requested Hazrat Makhdum Baba to keep them in his trust and that he would take them back on his return. At that time, Hazrat Makhdum Baba was standing close to a well and he agreed to help that man. As soon as that man placed those diamonds on his blessed hand, he dropped them into the well. The man, puzzled and perplexed, enquired how he would retrieve them? Hazrat Makhdum Baba told him that he would get them back whenever he wanted. But he was a hasty man and demanded his diamonds. Hazrat Makhdum Baba put his hand in the well and brought out a fistful of gems and told him to pick up his diamonds from amongst them. The man was astonished, ashamed and repented upon his mistake. Ultimately. Hazrat Makhdum Baba himself picked up his particular gems and handed them over to him and threw the remaining diamonds back in the well.

(6) Hazrat Makhdum Baba was a very rich and well-to-do person. His dining table served a variety of delicious food. His guest house was always full with his guests who were treated very kindly and generously and served with excellent food.

Hazrat Makhdum Baba’s supernatural powers and piety gained much publicity and acclaim. Once in the assembly of pious men his position came under discussion. It was said that he was a very generous person and liked nice and sumptuous food. It was said that he was a turn of Insight and piety and held a high position in awliya (bloved of Allah). One of the attendants said that such combination cannot be found and that religious accomplishments and worldly preferences never went together because to him the (derwish) mendicants always cherished simple food. A heated discussion followed this statement but that man was not satisfied and he perferred to observe the situation himself. So he set out to meet Hazrat Makhdum personally. He came to Mahim and Hazrat Makhdum Baba lovingly lodged him in his guest house. At the meal-time, the dining-table was set and that day fish was served specially. The man found him the way he had heard about him. Hazrat Makhdum Baba was performing the duties of the host very graciously and requested the guest to do full justice to the food served. He had personally joined him in partaking food. He insisted that his guest should taste every item of the menu. Hazrat Makhdum Baba finished his food earlier than the guest. He dropped the bones of the fish in the wash-basin whilst washing his hands. When the guest completed his meal and washed his hands in the wash-basin, he found to his amazement that, instead of the bones, the fishes were swimming in the basin. He was astonished, his question received a very fitting answer. So he very earnestly and humbly asked for his forgiveness. Hazrat Makhdum showed his wisdom and affection. He excused him and said that he never intended to show any trace of pride or superiority but just wanted to prove that Allah is Al-mighty and shows His kindness to the one whom He likes.

(7) Since Mahim is situated on the sea-shore, the ships have been arriving there from different countries. Certain foreigners stayed there in rented houses for some period of time. Incidentally, a young, handsome and rich Arab trader reached there and he settled there for a couple of days. Perchance, he passed by the house of a girl and happened to see her. That very moment he fell in love with her and he expressed his feelings that he would like to marry the girl if she was unmarried. The people told him though the girl was unmarried she could not marry him because she had been engaged to the poor boy of Mahim.

The Arab trader said that the engagement could be broken and that he was prepared to bear the expenses.

Some people, that very day, approached the father of the girl who was already engaged with a (poor) boy. They misled the father and made him agreeable to break the engagement of his daughter and to get her married to the Arab trader.

In order to break the engagement, a meeting of the community was called. When this news reached the Arab trader, he felt extremely delighted. But that very news aggrieved and saddened that poor boy. There was none who could console him. Nonetheless, Allah had destined something else. When the boy reached the mosque the next morning for prayers, he was spotted by the Great Faqih, Hazrat Makhdum Ali and every thing had become clear to him. He called the boy aside and told him to be patient and thankful to Allah. He added that a truthful person always attained tranquility and peace of mind. He further said that he would personally attend the meeting of the community and would see as to what could be done for him and by what means.This kind and favourable attitude of Hazrat Makhdum Baba gladdened the boy and He busied himself with his daily routine. The meeting was held on the fixed time. Hazrat also reached there and was received very warmly by the people and was made the President of that meeting. The deliberations started and the problem of.the Arab trader was raised and the agenda of the break-up of the engagement with that boy on the basis of his poverty was discussed. At this point Hazrat explained that riches and poverty were not specially assigned to certain people and that, that distinction was meaningless. Someone, prone to tell lies, said that the boy had the habit of drinking. Then Hazrat inquired whether anybody had seen him drinking or in the state of inebriation. If not that would not be considered as evidence in which case that matter could be condoned. This situation silenced everybody arid then he delivered his judgement and that was that both the poor boy and the rich Arab trader should go on the pilgrimage of Hajj. And anyone of them who returned earlier than the other should be allowed to marry the girl. All the people unanimously agreed with this suggestion. The Arab trader was particularly happy since he owned a personal sailing ship which he could handle the way he wanted. He felt that his poor rival will go by some ship after paying the fare and would not be able to return early as per his desire.

Within next couple of days the Arab set sails for the pilgrimage. When the poor boy heard about his departure, he felt very depressed and conveycd the news to Hazrat who comforted him and told him not to worry as Allah would make all the arrangements.

In the meantime, the months of Shawal and Zilqad passed by and the moon of the month of Zilhajj made its appearance. The 8th of the said month came and none could see any arrangement being made for the departure of the boy and he was always being seen in Mahim. On the morning of the 9th when the Hajj was to be performed, the boy reached the mosque and Hazrat told him not to go anywhere after the prayers and should wait for him there only. He did as he was told and waited for Hazrat who ultimately came and proceeded with the boy towards the hoz of the masjid. Then they stood at the edge of the hoz and Hazrat told the boy close his eyes and not to open them till asked to do so. Then Hazrat held the hand of the boy and dived him into the hoz and after a few moments told the boy to open his eyes. When the boy opened his eyes, he found himself standing on the gate of the Khana-e-Ka’aba. Then Hazrat took out some money from his pocket and while giving it to the boy he said that he should purchase necessary provisions of the Hajj. He told him to meet the Arab trader who had lodged in a particular tent, that day. it-self. He was further told to meet Hazrat at that very spot after performing the Hajj and that he should keep the entire episode as well-guarded secret, The boy proceeded to do whatever he was asked to while thanking Allah. He was very happy as Allah had honoured him with the kindness of such an accomplished leader and monitor.

After wearing, Ihram he reached the plains of Arafat and searched the tent of the rich Arab trader and met him. Afterwards he performed the rites and rituals and other important duties pertaining to Hajj which he completed in two or three days and he reached Hateem on the 12th to meet Hazrat Makhdoom Baba. Hazrat Makhdum Baba again told him to close his eyes and after a short time they reached the masjid. Six months elapsed when the Arab trader returned to Mahim. The meeting of the community, as per the programme, was called again. Hazrat Makhdum Baba attended this meeting too. The Arab also came there. Hazrat Makhdum Baba asked him whether he had performed the Hajj on which he replied in the affirmative. He further asked him whether that boy had gone for Hajj and whether he had met the trader or whether he had seen him there. The trader replied that the boy had gone for Hajj and had met him in the plains of Arafat and that he had seen him performing the Hajj and all the relevant rites and rituals. Then Hazrat Makhdum Baba asked the traders whether that boy had returned to Mahirn earlier. They confirmed that he had certainly returned earlier. By the Grace of Allah this state of affairs consolidated the faith of the people that all that had happened was due to him and that it was his glance of favour that allowed the boy to win that contest. The Arab trader kept quiet and accepted his defeat. Finally that girl was married to that poor boy.

Apart from this, many other supernatural feats were exhibited by Hazrat Makhdum Baba.

Zauqui Shah Sahib writes as:

“He preferred a life of loneliness and obscurity for a considerable period of his life. But his knowledge and excellence, his extra ordinary feats, obvious as well as latent, his miracles and the supernatural events that were revealed by and through him, made the whole world attracted to him….”

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Makhdoom_Ali_Mahimi

Title: Alchemiae Gebri Arabis philosophi solertissimi libri, cum reliquis, ut versa pagella indicabit

Identifier: alchemiaegebriar00jabi

Year: 1545 (1540s)

Authors: Jabir ibn Hayyan Bacon, Roger, 1214?-1294. Speculum alchemiae Hermes, Trismegistus. Tabul smaragdina Hortulanus. Commentarius in Tabulam Smaragdinam Hermetis Trismegisti Khalid ibn Yazid al-Umawi, 7th cent. Liber secretorum alchemiae Polydorus, Chrysogonus Richardus, Anglicus, d. 1252. Correctorium alchemiae

Subjects: Alchemy

Publisher: [Bern] : Ioañ. Petreius Nurembergeñ. denuo Bernae excudi faciebat

  

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After a lengthy renovation, Cruyllas Castle of Calatabiano (situated between the Alcantara Valley and Etna and not far from Taormina and Naxos) is ready to welcome its visitors thanks to its splendid panorama Between the walls of the castle is enclosed the entire history of the Mediterranean. A procession of populations and cultures who, battling for strategic control of the area by way of the stronghold, have all contributed to the development and enlargement during the course of the centuries: from the Sicels to the Greeks, from the Byzantines to the Arabs; from the Normans to the Suebi/Suevi, until the settlement of the Cruyllas, in the Aragon period, during which the castle was at its maximum splendor.

 

Il castello di Calatabiano, in provincia di Catania, al confine settentrionale della provincia etnea, sorge su una collina alta 220 m s.l.m. e domina la foce dell’Alcantara. Qui il fiume segna il confine tra Catania e Messina. Ai piedi del castello l’attuale abitato sorto a valle dopo l’abbandono della terra vecchia a seguito del disastroso terremoto di Val di Noto del 1693.

La prima documentazione certa relativa al castello di Calatabiano si rileva da una carta della Sicilia in cui il geografo e viaggiatore arabo Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Idris (1099 1164) rappresentava l’Isola e i suoi sistemi fortificati. La carta tratta dal “Libro di Ruggero”, presso la cui corte il geografo prestava i suoi servigi, rappresenta l’Isola capovolta secondo la consuetudine araba. Qui il massiccio dell’Etna appare sul lato sinistro ed è lambito dai due fiumi Simeto e Alcantara. Proprio lungo le sponde del fiume Al-kantar (il ponte) appaiono rappresentate due fortezze speculari Tauromenion e Kalaat-al Bian. Ricostruito su preesistenti capisaldi greci e romani.

Non sappiamo che nome avesse all’epoca bizantina il maniero che gli arabi, dopo la conquista, avrebbero chiamato: Kalaat-al-Bian, (Rocca di Biano).

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7QLdlvfEYo

 

www.castellodicalatabiano.it/

"What is required is the devotion of knowledge to contemplation, far removedfrom the fruits of ordinary thought." Ibn Arabi

Vivi ogni giorno come se dovessi vivere cent'anni.

Vivi come se vivessi l'ultimo tuo giorno.

Precetto attribuito a Ibn al-Arabi

After a lengthy renovation, Cruyllas Castle of Calatabiano (situated between the Alcantara Valley and Etna and not far from Taormina and Naxos) is ready to welcome its visitors thanks to its splendid panorama Between the walls of the castle is enclosed the entire history of the Mediterranean. A procession of populations and cultures who, battling for strategic control of the area by way of the stronghold, have all contributed to the development and enlargement during the course of the centuries: from the Sicels to the Greeks, from the Byzantines to the Arabs; from the Normans to the Suebi/Suevi, until the settlement of the Cruyllas, in the Aragon period, during which the castle was at its maximum splendor.

 

Il castello di Calatabiano, in provincia di Catania, al confine settentrionale della provincia etnea, sorge su una collina alta 220 m s.l.m. e domina la foce dell’Alcantara. Qui il fiume segna il confine tra Catania e Messina. Ai piedi del castello l’attuale abitato sorto a valle dopo l’abbandono della terra vecchia a seguito del disastroso terremoto di Val di Noto del 1693.

La prima documentazione certa relativa al castello di Calatabiano si rileva da una carta della Sicilia in cui il geografo e viaggiatore arabo Abu ‘Abd Allah Muhammad ibn Idris (1099 1164) rappresentava l’Isola e i suoi sistemi fortificati. La carta tratta dal “Libro di Ruggero”, presso la cui corte il geografo prestava i suoi servigi, rappresenta l’Isola capovolta secondo la consuetudine araba. Qui il massiccio dell’Etna appare sul lato sinistro ed è lambito dai due fiumi Simeto e Alcantara. Proprio lungo le sponde del fiume Al-kantar (il ponte) appaiono rappresentate due fortezze speculari Tauromenion e Kalaat-al Bian. Ricostruito su preesistenti capisaldi greci e romani.

Non sappiamo che nome avesse all’epoca bizantina il maniero che gli arabi, dopo la conquista, avrebbero chiamato: Kalaat-al-Bian, (Rocca di Biano).

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=c7QLdlvfEYo

 

www.castellodicalatabiano.it/

Title: Alchemiae Gebri Arabis philosophi solertissimi libri, cum reliquis, ut versa pagella indicabit

Identifier: alchemiaegebriar00jabi

Year: 1545 (1540s)

Authors: Jabir ibn Hayyan Bacon, Roger, 1214?-1294. Speculum alchemiae Hermes, Trismegistus. Tabul smaragdina Hortulanus. Commentarius in Tabulam Smaragdinam Hermetis Trismegisti Khalid ibn Yazid al-Umawi, 7th cent. Liber secretorum alchemiae Polydorus, Chrysogonus Richardus, Anglicus, d. 1252. Correctorium alchemiae

Subjects: Alchemy

Publisher: [Bern] : Ioañ. Petreius Nurembergeñ. denuo Bernae excudi faciebat

  

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About This Book: Catalog Entry

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