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原來繞了一大圈尋找著Mattehsc21照片裡質感典雅的13座石柱,我在 2017/1/8 早就來過襄陽路的土銀了!可是菜鳥的我甚麼也不敢拍! 取景沒有特色... 好有趣的一份緣! 不過倒也開啟了我這一系列的台北迷走漫遊...

「臺灣土地銀行舊總行」建築,其前身為日據時期在台設立之「日本勸業銀行臺北支店(分行)」,竣工於1933年(昭和8年)。由日本勸業銀行建築課設計監造,株式會社大林組施工,為三層樓的鋼骨鋼筋混凝土造建築物。勸銀舊廈座落於街角,以13根粗壯的圓柱緊密排列,這種融合了柱列與亭子腳的設計,給人強烈的視覺震撼;寬厚的壁柱與檐牆,配合柱頭、牆體、檐口及女兒牆上渾厚的裝飾紋樣,表現昭和初期的藝術裝飾運動與西洋古典的折衷建築風格。

 

Taipei branch office of Nippon Kangyo Bank opened on January 12, 1923. The bank was founded to finance the opening up of land for cultivation, construction, irrigation, and agriculture. It was the only bank in Taiwan to finance real estate and land cultivation deals. As its financial dealings grew year by year, it began to expand into other areas, and invested a great deal in constructing a new location. Supervised by Kangyo Bank’s Construction Division, Obayashi Corporation broke ground in 1932 and, by 1933, the RC structure was complete and opened to the public. The building is located on a street corner. The exterior consists of 13 stout columns positioned in close proximity. The columns, which incorporate design elements taken from classical Western columns as well as the traditional Taiwanese pavilion style, create a stunning visual impact and give an impression of prudence and trustworthiness. The generous pilasters and eaves, along with the unique column stigma, walls, cornices, and richly patterned parapet walls, are an excellent example of the hybrid architecture popular during the Showa period (1926-1989), typified by a combination of Japanese sensibilities with Western classical styles.

 

神思者 S.E.N.S. / 遺失的記憶 Lost Memory

www.youtube.com/watch?v=osiXF8B_fJw&index=11&list...

 

HSS

Laxmi Niwas Palace is inside the Lallgarh Palace complex and bigger then Lallgarh Palace in grandness and beauty. The Lallgarh palace is an imposing red- sand stone palace and was built by Maharaja Ganga Singhji in the memory of his father, Maharaja Lall Singhj in 1902 A.D.

 

This oriental fantasy designed by Col. Sir Swinton Jacob, is entirely a hybrid architecture and mixture of different elements of Rajput, Muslim and European styles and can be categorized as Indo- Saracenic style.

 

The Rajput exterior of Lallgarh Palace contrasts dramatically with the occidental décor within. The intricately dexterous carving on red stone is hall mark of great local craftsman.

 

Today this Palace has been converted into a Grand Heritage hotel. This unmatched jewel in the Thar Desert, has played host to a number of dignitaries from all over the world. The lush green sprawling lawns with dancing peacocks and beautiful bougainvilleas adorn the palace.Open corridors run the length of the halls and rooms and are lined with a rare collection of old prints and vintage copies of etchings. The covered corridors that link rooms are mounted with hunting Trophies.

  

Catherine Howard strolling down the vaulted corridor designed by Sir Christopher Wren_Hampton Court Palace, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, London, KT8 9AU

History

Tudor period

 

Hampton Court Palace, with marked reference points referred to on this page. A: West Front & Main Entrance; B: Base Court; C: Clock Tower; D: Clock Court, E: Fountain Court; F: East Front; G: South Front; H: Banqueting House; J: Great Hall; K: River Thames; M: East Gardens; O: Cardinal Wolsey's Rooms; P: Chapel.

 

Thomas Wolsey, Archbishop of York, Chief Minister and favourite of King Henry VIII, took over the site of Hampton Court Palace in 1514. It had previously been a property of the Order of St John of Jerusalem. Over the following seven years, Wolsey spent lavishly to build the finest palace in England at Hampton Court, a figure of 200,000 gold crowns. Wolsey rebuilt the existing manor house to form the nucleus of the present palace. Today, little of Wolsey's building work remains unchanged. The first courtyard, the Base Court, (B on plan), was his creation, as was the second, inner gatehouse (C) which leads to the Clock Court (D) (Wolsey's seal remains visible over the entrance arch of the clock tower) which contained his private rooms (O on plan). The Base Court contained forty-four lodgings reserved for guests, while the second court (today, Clock Court) contained the very best rooms—the state apartments—reserved for the King and his family. Henry VIII stayed in the state apartments as Wolsey's guest immediately after their completion in 1525.

 

In building his palace, Wolsey was attempting to create a Renaissance cardinal's palace featuring rectilinear symmetrical planning with grand apartments on a raised piano nobile, all rendered with classical detailing. Jonathan Foyle has suggested that it is likely that Wolsey had been inspired by Paolo Cortese's De Cardinalatu, a manual for cardinals that included advice on palatial architecture, published in 1510. The architectural historian Sir John Summerson asserts that the palace shows "the essence of Wolsey—the plain English churchman who nevertheless made his sovereign the arbiter of Europe and who built and furnished Hampton Court to show foreign embassies that Henry VIII's chief minister knew how to live as graciously as any cardinal in Rome."[10] Whatever the concepts were, the architecture is an excellent and rare example of a thirty-year era when English architecture was in a harmonious transition from domestic Tudor, strongly influenced by perpendicular Gothic, to the Italian Renaissance classical style. Perpendicular Gothic owed nothing historically to the Renaissance style, yet harmonised well with it. This blending of styles was realised by a small group of Italian craftsmen working at the English court in the second and third decades of the sixteenth century. They specialised in the adding of Renaissance ornament to otherwise straightforward Tudor buildings. It was one of these, Giovanni da Maiano who was responsible for the set of eight relief busts of Roman emperors which were set in the Tudor brickwork.

Anne Boleyn's Gate. The Tudor gatehouse and astrological clock, made for Henry VIII in 1540 (C on plan above) Two of the Renaissance bas reliefs by Giovanni di Maiano can be seen set into the brickwork.

 

Wolsey was only to enjoy his palace for a few years. In 1528, knowing that his enemies and the King were engineering his downfall, he passed the palace to the King as a gift. Wolsey died the following year.

 

Within six months of coming into ownership, the King began his own rebuilding and expansion. Henry VIII's court consisted of over one thousand people, while the King owned over sixty houses and palaces. Few of these were large enough to hold the assembled court, and thus one of the first of the King's building works (in order to transform Hampton Court to a principal residence) was to build the vast kitchens. These were quadrupled in size in 1529. The architecture of King Henry's new palace followed the design precedent set by Wolsey: perpendicular Gothic-inspired Tudor with restrained Renaissance ornament. This hybrid architecture was to remain almost unchanged for nearly a century, until Inigo Jones introduced strong classical influences from Italy to the London palaces of the first Stuart kings.

 

Between 1532 and 1535 Henry added the Great Hall (the last medieval great hall built for the English monarchy) and the Royal Tennis Court. The Great Hall features a carved hammer-beam roof. During Tudor times, this was the most important room of the palace; here, the King would dine in state seated at a table upon a raised dais. The hall took five years to complete, so impatient was the King for completion that the masons were compelled to work throughout the night by candlelight.

 

The gatehouse to the second, inner court was adorned in 1540 with an early example of a post-Copernican astronomical clock. Still functioning, the clock shows the time of day, the phases of the moon, the month, the quarter of the year, the date, the sun and star sign, and high water at London Bridge.[17] The latter information was of great importance to those visiting this Thames-side palace from London, as the preferred method of transport at the time was by barge, and at low water London Bridge created dangerous rapids. This gatehouse is also known today as Anne Boleyn's gate, after Henry's second wife. Work was still underway on Anne Boleyn's apartments above the gate when the King, having tired of her, had her executed.

Henry VIII's first building project at Hampton Court created vast kitchens capable of feeding his court of 1000 people.

 

During the Tudor period, the palace was the scene of many historic events. In 1537, the King's much desired male heir, the future Edward VI, was born at the palace and the child's mother, Jane Seymour, died there two weeks later. Four years afterwards, whilst attending Mass in the palace's chapel, the King was informed of his fifth wife's adultery. The Queen, Catherine Howard, was dragged away, screaming, from a gallery leading to the chapel. Her ghost is said to haunt it.

 

King Henry died in January 1547 and was succeeded first by his son Edward VI, and then by both his daughters in turn. It was to Hampton Court that Queen Mary I (Henry's eldest daughter) retreated with King Philip II of Spain to spend her honeymoon, after their wedding at Winchester. The marriage was politically expedient rather than a love match. Mary chose Hampton Court as the place for the birth of her first child, which turned out to be the first of two phantom pregnancies. Mary was succeeded by her half-sister, Elizabeth I and it was Elizabeth who had the Eastern kitchen built; today, this is the palace's public tea room.

 

Hampton Court Palace has had a street in the Roman town of Towcester or Lactodorum named after it.

[edit] Stuart period

Christopher Wren's south front built for William and Mary (G on plan) viewed from the Privy Garden.

The King's Staircase murals painted by Antonio Verrio.

 

On the death of Elizabeth I in 1603, the Tudor period came to an end. The Queen was succeeded by her first cousin-twice-removed, the Scottish King, James VI, who became known in England as James I of the House of Stuart.

 

In 1604, the palace was the site of King James' meeting with representatives of the English Puritans, known as the Hampton Court Conference; while agreement with the Puritans was not reached, the meeting led to James's commissioning of the King James Version of the Bible.

 

King James was succeeded in 1625 by his son, the ill-fated Charles I. For this king, Hampton Court was to become both his palace and his prison. It was also the setting for his honeymoon with his fifteen year old bride, Henrietta Maria in 1625. Following King Charles' execution in 1649, the palace became the property of the Commonwealth presided over by Oliver Cromwell. Unlike some other former royal properties, the palace escaped relatively unscathed. While the government auctioned much of the contents, the building was ignored.

 

After the Restoration, King Charles II and his successor James II, visited Hampton Court, but largely preferred to reside elsewhere. By this time, by current French court standards Hampton Court appeared old-fashioned. It was in 1689, shortly after Louis XIV's court had moved permanently to Versailles, that the palace's antiquated state was addressed. England had two new joint monarchs, William of Orange and his wife, the daughter of James II, Queen Mary II. Within months of their accession they embarked on a massive rebuilding project at Hampton Court. The intention was to demolish the Tudor palace a section at a time, while replacing it with a huge modern palace in the Baroque style retaining only Henry VIII's Great Hall. The country's most eminent architect, Sir Christopher Wren, was called upon to draw the plans, while the master of works was to be William Talman. The plan was for a vast palace constructed around two courtyards at right angles to each other. Wren's design for a domed palace bore resemblances to the work of Jules Hardouin Mansart and Louis Le Vau, both architects employed by Louis XIV at Versailles. It has been suggested, though, that the plans were abandoned because the resemblance to Versailles was too subtle and not strong enough; at this time, it was impossible for any sovereign to visualise a palace that did not emulate Versailles' repetitive Baroque form. However, the resemblances are there: while the facades are not so long as those of Versailles, they have similar seemingly unstoppable repetitive rhythms beneath a long flat skyline. The monotony is even repeated as the facade turns the corner from the east to the south fronts. However, Hampton Court, unlike Versailles, is given an extra dimension by the contrast between the pink brick and the pale Portland stone quoins, frames and banding. Further diversion is added by the circular and decorated windows of the second floor mezzanine. This theme is repeated in the inner Fountain Court, but the rhythm is faster and the windows, unpedimented on the outer facades, are given pointed pediments in the courtyard; this has led the courtyard to be described as "Startling, as of simultaneous exposure to a great many eyes with raised eyebrows."

The Fountain Court designed by Sir Christopher Wren (E on plan): "Startling, as of simultaneous exposure to a great many eyes with raised eyebrows."

 

During this work, half the Tudor palace was replaced and Henry VIII's state rooms were lost; the new wings around the Fountain Court contained new state apartments and private rooms, one set for the King and one for the Queen. Each suite of state rooms was accessed by a state staircase. The royal suites were of completely equal value in order to reflect William and Mary's unique status as joint sovereigns. The King's Apartments face south over the Privy Garden, the Queen's east over the Fountain Garden. The suites are linked by a gallery running the length of the east facade, another reference to Versailles, where the King and Queen's apartments are linked by the Galerie des Glaces. However, at Hampton Court the linking gallery is of more modest proportions and decoration. The King's staircase was decorated with frescos by Antonio Verrio and delicate ironwork by Jean Tijou. Other artists commissioned to decorate the rooms included Grinling Gibbons, Sir James Thornhill and Jacques Rousseau; furnishings were designed by Daniel Marot.

 

After the death of Queen Mary, King William lost interest in the renovations, and work ceased. However, it was in Hampton Court Park in 1702 that he fell from his horse, later dying from his injuries at Kensington Palace. He was succeeded by his sister-in-law Queen Anne who continued the decoration and completion of the state apartments. On Queen Anne's death in 1714 the Stuart dynasty came to an end.

 

Queen Anne's successor was George I; he and his son George II were the last monarchs to reside at Hampton Court. Under George I six rooms were completed in 1717 to the design of John Vanbrugh. Under George II and his Queen, Caroline, further refurbishment took place, with the architect William Kent employed to design new furnishings and decor including the Queen's Staircase, (1733) and the Cumberland Suite (1737) for the Duke of Cumberland. Today, the Queen's Private Apartments are open to the public and include her bathroom and bedroom.

2012: Titan, world's most powerful supercomputer

 

The Titan supercomputer replaces the Jaguar supercomputer at ORNL. For a time, it ranks first on the TOP500 as the world's fastest supercomputer and consistently ranks as America's fastest supercomputer. Titan features a unique hybrid architecture with central processing units, or CPUs, and graphics processing units, or GPUs. Read more...

 

The ancient port city of Galle is Sri Lanka's fourth largest town, with a population of around 80,000 people and a history that stretches back hundreds of years. Some historians have suggested that Galle might even be the Biblical Tarshish, where King Solomon's ships called to take on gemstones, spices and scented woods. There's nothing to establish the truth of this rather fanciful tale, but it is at least certain that Galle is Sri Lanka's oldest living city, contrasting with the more ancient--but deserted--capitals of Sigiriya, Anuradhapura and Polonnaruwa.

 

Located on the south-western shore of the island, about 115km south of Colombo and just 18km south of the popular beach resort of Hikkaduwa, Galle was for centuries Sri Lanka's main port, a position which strengthened during the periods of Portuguese and Dutch colonial rule. Galle only lost its primacy in the late 19th century, when the British expanded and developed the harbour at Colombo to become the island's major port. Today Galle Harbour still handles fishing vessels, a certain amount of container traffic, as well as a few luxury yachts. It's a shadow of its former self, though, and this adds to the mellow, laid-back atmosphere of the place.

 

Although there is plenty of good accommodation available in Galle, as well as some very passable places to eat, many visitors will prefer to stay at one of the nearby beach resorts of Hikkaduwa, Unawatuna or Weligama. A visit to Galle makes an excellent and enjoyable day trip when it seems time to take a break from beach life and indulge in a little history and culture.

 

History:

 

Galle was clearly chosen as a port for excellent strategic reasons. It has a fine natural harbour protected, to the west, by a south-pointing promontory--the next piece of land, literally, is the frozen waste of the Antarctic, over five thousand miles distant.

 

Perhaps the earliest recorded reference to Galle comes from the great Arab traveller Ibn Battuta, who visited the port--which he calls Qali--in the mid-14th century. The Portuguese first arrived in 1505, when a fleet commanded by Lorenzo de Almeida took shelter from a storm in the lee of the town. Clearly the strategic significance of the harbour impressed the Portuguese, for 82 years later, in 1587, they seized control of the town from the Sinhala kings and began the construction of Galle Fort. This event marked the beginning of almost four centuries of European domination of the city, resulting in the fascinating hybrid--architecturally, culturally and ethnically--which Galle is today.

 

The Dutch captured the city from the Portuguese in 1640, and immediately began strengthening the fortifications. They remained for almost 150 years, until the city was in turn taken by the British in 1796. Not until 1947, when Ceylon gained its independence from the British, did Galle become, once again, an independent city--and by this time the long years of association with European colonialism had left an indelible stamp on the city which makes it unique in today's Sri Lanka. In recognition of this fact, the Old City of Galle--essentially the fort and its surroundings--was declared a World Heritage Site in 1988.

 

The Town:

 

Galle is really a tale of two cities. Inland, to the north of the Colombo-Matara Road, is the modern commercial town characterised by a jumble of bustling stores, warehouses and small restaurants. Here, by the banks of the old Dutch Canal, may be found the railway station, bus station and main bazaar. It's a place to arrive, leave, eat, shop for necessities or change money (though there are also two money-changing facilities within the fort itself). The only building worthy of note is St Mary's Cathedral, built by the British in 1874, and of more interest for the views its provides over the Old Town than for any intrinsic architectural merit. Nevertheless, "New Galle" is the beating commercial heart of the city without which the Old Town would have difficulty surviving, and would lose much of its bucolic charm.

 

Immediately south of the Colombo-Matara Road, and dividing the commercial sector from the old fort, lies an area of open land which, since 1998, has acquired increasing international fame. Once known simply as The Esplanade, it is now graced with the title Galle International Stadium, an international test cricket venue which continues to grow in stature and reputation alongside the remarkable successes of the Sri Lankan national team [see box below].

 

Just to the south of the stadium Old Galle begins. Its barriers are unmistakable, as three massive bastions rise up behind the playing field, cutting off the fortified peninsular from the hustle and bustle of commerce--almost, it might seem, from the 21st century.

 

Galle Fort covers an area of 36 hectares and encloses several museums, a clock tower, churches, mosques, a lighthouse and several hundred private dwellings. Tellingly, there are no major Buddhist temples within the walls--the Dutch may have been gone for more than two centuries, but their cultural influence, best represented by the crumbling Groote Kerk, local seat of the Dutch Reformed Church, remains palpable.

 

It takes a full day to explore Galle Fort properly, but given this length of time the exploration can be carried out in a leisurely and relaxing manner by foot. The ancient walls, dating in large part from the Dutch establishment of the fort in 1663, are largely intact and make a wonderfully evocative circuitous walk around the fort, especially at dusk when the setting sun illumines the historic western ramparts.

 

The City Ramparts: Galle's Dutch defenders feared--mistakenly, as it turned out--assault by land from the Sinhala kings more than the threat by sea from their British cousins. Accordingly, three great ramparts were built at tremendous cost in both labour and treasure to isolate the peninsula from "the mainland". Stretching across the peninsula from west to east, these are the Star Bastion, the Moon Bastion and the Sun Bastion. Rising high above the present-day esplanade, these deep, crenellated fortifications must once have appeared all-but-impregnable to the armies of Kandy and Colombo. Today, however--and let the visitor be forewarned--their angular crevices provide privacy for courting couples rather than security for archers and musketeers. Quite seriously, one should approach these outer battlements with discretion for fear of giving offence. Towards dusk there is hardly a recess in the battlements without its pair of cuddling teenagers, often shielded from prying eyes behind a large umbrella!

 

It takes about two hours for a leisurely stroll around the walls of the Old City. Only once, between the Aurora Bastion and the Main Gate, is it necessary to descend into the fort itself. Yet this is no great hardship, for nearby is the distinguished New Oriental Hotel, built by the Dutch in 1684 as a governorial mansion, where cold beer, lime soda and other more substantial sustenance are readily available.

 

It's best to make a circuit of the walls clockwise, starting at the New Oriental Hotel. From here it's just a short stroll, beneath great, shady rain trees, to the Aurora Bastion. Continue southwards, with fine views over old Galle Harbour to the east, to reach the 20m-high lighthouse, built by the British in 1934, which dominates Point Utrecht Bastion at the fort's south-eastern corner. The walk continues due west, skirting the Indian Ocean past Triton, Neptune and Clippenburg Bastions--all, more likely than not, with a few courting couples gazing into the setting sunset.

 

Beyond Clippenburg, as the fortifications turn due north towards Star Bastion and the main northern defences, there is a Sri Lankan Army camp at Aeolus Bastion, which remains off limits to tourists. There's no great sense of military paranoia, but, especially in view of the political instability in the north of the island, it's better to refrain from taking photos at this point. One Sri Lankan army officer, discussing the matter, pointed out that Anton Balasingham, the Tamil Tiger's chief political theoretician, is married to Adele Balasingham, a white Australian militant who figures prominently on the Sri Lankan government's most wanted list. Clearly, being a Westerner is no guarantee of neutrality, so it's always best to exercise discretion near Sri Lankan army bases!

 

Inside Galle Fort: The real charm of Old Galle lies in the quiet back streets and alleyways of the historic fort, which have changed little--if at all--since colonial times. There are two entries into the fort, the Main Gate, built by the British in 1873 which pierces the main ramparts between the Sun and Moon Bastions, and the more venerable Old Gate, further to the east on Baladaksha Maw (or Customs Road). The latter is distinguished by the British coat of arms carved into its outer stone lintel, while on the inside the initials VOC, flanked by two lions and surmounted by a cock are deeply etched on the inner lintel. This latter inscription is dated 1669, and VOC stands for the Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie, or United East India Company. The cockerel has become a symbol of Galle, and it is even suggested that the name of the city derives from galo, which is "rooster" in Portuguese. Just beyond the Old Gate stands the Zwart Bastion, or Black Fort--the oldest fortification surviving in Galle, and thought to be of Portuguese origin.

 

With the exception of Zwart Bastion, the interior of Galle Fort is strongly redolent of the Dutch period. Several of the narrow streets still bear Dutch names such as Leyn Baan or "Rope Lane" and Mohrische Kramer Straat or "Street of the Moorish Traders". Beneath the streets an efficient, Dutch-built sewerage system is still flushed out twice daily by the rising tides of the Indian Ocean. Many of the streets are lined with formerly opulent buildings characterised by large rooms, arched verandas and windows protected by heavy, wooden-louvered shutters.

 

The northern part of the fort is dominated by the British-built Clock Tower and a small roundabout located immediately within the Main Gate. From here Church Street curves away south past the National Cultural Museum (Tue-Sat 9am-5pm; Rs35) with rather poorly displayed exhibits of the city's colonial heritage. The National Maritime Museum on nearby Queen Street (Sun-Thu 9am-5pm; Rs55) is similarly dilapidated, but of more interest than the various fishing and other maritime artefacts is the massively fortified Dutch warehouse in which they are displayed. Old Galle is of much more interest as a "living museum" than for the museums it houses, but it's worth making a quick visit to the Dutch Period Museum on Leyn Baan (daily 8.30am-5.30pm; admission free). This privately-owned establishment houses an astonishing array of Dutch-period artefacts ranging from rare porcelain to obscure bric-a-brac.

 

Of far more interest than the museums is the dilapidated Groot Kerk or Dutch Reformed Church, located--appropriately enough--on Church Street just south of the New Oriental Hotel. Founded in 1754 by the then Dutch Governor of Galle, Capar de Jong, it's in urgent need of restoration but well worth visiting for the ancient Dutch gravestones, both in the churchyard and within the nave. These are generally distinguished by skulls and skeletons, grim reminders of the tenuous nature of life in 18th century Galle, as well as characteristic of the dour nature of contemporary Dutch Protestantism.

 

Opposite the Groot Kerk stands the old Dutch Government House, a fine old colonial building bearing the date 1683 and the cockerel crest of Galle over the main entrance. The original Dutch ovens still survive within the building, which is currently used as a commercial office but slated for redevelopment as a luxury hotel; whether this venture will succeed remains to be seen, as the house is generally believed to be haunted.

 

Further south along Church Street stands the Catholic All Saints Church, built by the British in 1868 and consecrated in 1871. Beyond this, at the southernmost point of the peninsula, a small "Moorish" (Muslim) community still prospers, with a madrassa or Islamic college and two mosques, the most impressive of which is the Meera Masjid. It's fine to enter, but as with similar Christian, Buddhist and Hindu institutions you should be appropriately dressed and respectful of worshippers.

 

PRACTICALITIES

 

The best way of getting to Galle from Colombo is by either train or bus. Regular CTB and private buses ply the coastal A2 highway. Air-conditioned express buses cost Rs60 (3 hours) and leave every 15 minutes from Colombo's Bastian Mawatha station. The express buses are preferable to the ordinary buses (Rs40) which can get awfully crowded. All buses pull in at Galle's busy bus station opposite the cricket ground. Ten trains leave either Colombo's Fort or Maradana stations daily for Galle. The journey takes around 2 1/2 hours and both 1st and 2nd class seats are available on most trains. From Galle there's a daily train to Kandy (6-7 hours). Galle railway station is slightly to the west of the bus station on the Colombo Road. Taxis at more than RS3000 a trip between Colombo and Galle are an expensive option.

Frost Rd, Batu Gajah.

Immediately adjacent to the original Kinta Gymkhana Club, this beautiful residence looked out over the green swathes of the race and golf courses on the Changkat tableland. This is a wonderful example of the hybrid architecture favoured by the British colonials in Malaya combining European elements with the local Malay 'kampung' vernacular. Variations of this style can be found in towns, suburbs and rubber estates throughout Malaya. For me, this is a dream home!

 

Given that the British Resident in Perak lived in Taiping (the state capital until 1937), the senior British colonial official in Batu Gajah was the District Officer who lived nearby at the D.O.'s Residence - see my photo at www.flickr.com/photos/23268776@N03/5621487935 . In keeping with the Malayan Civil Service custom of building rest houses upcountry for travelling civil servants, this building accommodated visiting worthies from the Governor of the Straits Settlements down to more junior cadet civil servants.

 

The road fronting the residence is named after the long-term Malayan civil servant, Captain Geoffrey Meadows Frost, formerly the District Officer for Kinta from 1920-1922 who was later promoted to become the most senior British civil servant in Penang, the Resident Councillor from 1928-1930.

Inversion Installation, Hybrid Architecture Exhibition

designed by Steven Holl Architects

Location: Milan

taken in 2013.

İshak Paşa Palace, located in Ağrı, Doğubeyazıt, is a border castle with 116 rooms, tombs, a mosque, walls, harem, inner and outer courtyards and a divan. The construction of the palace, known as the last monumental building of the Tulip Period, begun in 1685, on the order of Çolak Abdi Paşa, the governor of Doğubeyazıt sanjak. It was completed in 1784, under Mehmet Paşa’s governorship. The palace has a hybrid architectural style, comprising Persian, Seljuk and Ottoman characteristics. İshak Paşa Palace, also known as the first palace in the world to own a central heating system, is the second most important palace of its period, after the Topkapı Palace in Istanbul.

 

#SALTResearch, Ali Saim Ülgen Archive

 

Ağrı, Doğubeyazıt yakınlarında yer alan İshak Paşa Sarayı, 116 odası, türbesi, camisi, surları, harem daireleri, iç ve dış avluları ve divanıyla bir bey kalesidir. Lale Devri’nin son büyük anıtsal yapısı olan sarayın yapımına, Doğubeyazıt Sancak Beyi Çolak Abdi Paşa’nın emriyle 1685’te başlandı. 1784’te, Mehmet Paşa döneminde tamamlanan saray, Fars, Selçuklu ve Osmanlı üsluplarının özelliklerini taşıyan melez bir mimari karakterdedir. Dünyanın ilk kalorifer tesisatı döşenmiş sarayı olan İshak Paşa, Topkapı Sarayı’ndan sonra Osmanlı topraklarındaki en önemli saray yapısıdır.

 

#SALTAraştırma, Ali Saim Ülgen Arşivi

 

Repository: SALT Research

 

Rights Info: This material can be used under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International (CC BY-NC-ND 4.0) license.

Inversion Installation, Hybrid Architecture Exhibition

designed by Steven Holl Architects

Location: Milan

taken in 2013.

Inversion Installation, Hybrid Architecture Exhibition

designed by Steven Holl Architects

Location: Milan

taken in 2013.

The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) is home to Titan, the nation’s most powerful supercomputer for open science.

 

Titan is a hybrid-architecture Cray XK7 system with a theoretical peak performance exceeding 27,000 trillion calculations per second (27 petaflops). It contains both advanced 16-core AMD Opteron central processing units (CPUs) and NVIDIA Kepler graphics processing units (GPUs). GPUs are energy-efficient, high-performance chips originally developed for gaming systems. The combination of these two technologies allows Titan to achieve 10 times the speed and 5 times the energy efficiency of its predecessor, the Jaguar supercomputer, while using only modestly more energy and occupying the same physical footprint.

 

Titan features 18,688 compute nodes, a total system memory of 710 terabytes, and Cray’s high-performance Gemini network. Its 299,008 CPU cores guide simulations while the accompanying GPUs that can handle hundreds of calculations simultaneously. The system provides decreased time to solution, increased complexity of models, and greater realism in simulations.

 

Titan is enabling researchers across the scientific arena to acquire unparalleled accuracy in their simulations and achieve research breakthroughs more rapidly than ever before. OLCF simulations have improved the safety and performance of nuclear power plants, turbomachinery, and aircraft; aided understanding of climate change; sped development of new drugs and advanced materials; and guided design of the ITER international fusion reactor. Researchers have used OLCF systems to model supernovas, hurricanes, biofuels, neurodegenerative diseases, and clean combustion for power and propulsion.

 

Titan users have access to data analysis and visualization resources that include the Eos and Rhea systems and the Exploratory Visualization Environment for REsearch in Science and Technology, or EVEREST. Users also have access to file systems—like Spider for immediate data storage, with over 1,000 gigabytes per second of aggregate data bandwidth and more than 30 petabytes of storage capacity, and the High Performance Storage System (HPSS) for archival data storage—to manage the floods of data that Titan’s simulations generate. All of these resources are available through high-performance networks including ESnet’s upgraded 100 gigabit per second links.

 

Computational scientists gain access to OLCF’s cutting-edge facilities and support systems through three programs that allocate millions of processor hours. The Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment program, or INCITE, supports large-scale, high-impact projects that make concurrent use of at least 20 percent of Titan’s cores. The Advanced Scientific Computing Research Leadership Computing Challenge, or ALCC program, primarily aids research that supports the energy mission of the Department of Energy’s Office of Science and emphasizes high-risk, high-rewards endeavors. And the OLCF’s Director’s Discretionary program helps new high-performance computing users explore topics of national importance.

 

Research challenges remain, but Titan is helping launch a new era for science and engineering as computing approaches the exascale, or a million trillion calculations a second.

The Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility (OLCF) is home to Titan, the nation’s most powerful supercomputer for open science.

 

Titan is a hybrid-architecture Cray XK7 system with a theoretical peak performance exceeding 27,000 trillion calculations per second (27 petaflops). It contains both advanced 16-core AMD Opteron central processing units (CPUs) and NVIDIA Kepler graphics processing units (GPUs). GPUs are energy-efficient, high-performance chips originally developed for gaming systems. The combination of these two technologies allows Titan to achieve 10 times the speed and 5 times the energy efficiency of its predecessor, the Jaguar supercomputer, while using only modestly more energy and occupying the same physical footprint.

 

Titan features 18,688 compute nodes, a total system memory of 710 terabytes, and Cray’s high-performance Gemini network. Its 299,008 CPU cores guide simulations while the accompanying GPUs that can handle hundreds of calculations simultaneously. The system provides decreased time to solution, increased complexity of models, and greater realism in simulations.

 

Titan is enabling researchers across the scientific arena to acquire unparalleled accuracy in their simulations and achieve research breakthroughs more rapidly than ever before. OLCF simulations have improved the safety and performance of nuclear power plants, turbomachinery, and aircraft; aided understanding of climate change; sped development of new drugs and advanced materials; and guided design of the ITER international fusion reactor. Researchers have used OLCF systems to model supernovas, hurricanes, biofuels, neurodegenerative diseases, and clean combustion for power and propulsion.

 

Titan users have access to data analysis and visualization resources that include the Eos and Rhea systems and the Exploratory Visualization Environment for REsearch in Science and Technology, or EVEREST. Users also have access to file systems—like Spider for immediate data storage, with over 1,000 gigabytes per second of aggregate data bandwidth and more than 30 petabytes of storage capacity, and the High Performance Storage System (HPSS) for archival data storage—to manage the floods of data that Titan’s simulations generate. All of these resources are available through high-performance networks including ESnet’s upgraded 100 gigabit per second links.

 

Computational scientists gain access to OLCF’s cutting-edge facilities and support systems through three programs that allocate millions of processor hours. The Innovative and Novel Computational Impact on Theory and Experiment program, or INCITE, supports large-scale, high-impact projects that make concurrent use of at least 20 percent of Titan’s cores. The Advanced Scientific Computing Research Leadership Computing Challenge, or ALCC program, primarily aids research that supports the energy mission of the Department of Energy’s Office of Science and emphasizes high-risk, high-rewards endeavors. And the OLCF’s Director’s Discretionary program helps new high-performance computing users explore topics of national importance.

 

Research challenges remain, but Titan is helping launch a new era for science and engineering as computing approaches the exascale, or a million trillion calculations a second.

The Lallgarh palace is an imposing red- sand stone palace and was built by Maharaja Ganga Singhji in the memory of his father, Maharaj Lall Singhj in 1902 A.D. This oriental fantasy designed by Col. Sir Swinton Jacob, is entirely a hybrid architecture and mixture of different elements of Rajput, Muslim and European styles and can be categorized as Indo- Saracenic style. The Rajput exterior of Lallgarh Palace contrasts dramatically with the occidental décor within. The intricately dexterous carving on red stone is hall mark of great local craftsman.

 

It is unmatched jewel in the Thar Desert and has played host to a number of dignitaries from all over the world. The lush green sprawling lawns with dancing peacocks and beautiful bougainvilleas adorn the palace.Open corridors run the length of the halls and rooms and are lined with a rare collection of old prints and vintage copies of etchings. The covered corridors that link rooms are mounted with hunting Trophies.

 

The Lallgarh palace Hotel has 56 well-appointed historical, Superior and Standard rooms equipped with Mini Bar & CCTV. A luxury palace hotel standing tall with its rich heritage, picturesque created to celebrate your stay royally.

 

Source: www.lallgarhpalace.com/

Inversion Installation, Hybrid Architecture Exhibition

designed by Steven Holl Architects

Location: Milan

taken in 2013.

Inversion Installation, Hybrid Architecture Exhibition

designed by Steven Holl Architects

Location: Milan

taken in 2013.

Inversion Installation, Hybrid Architecture Exhibition

designed by Steven Holl Architects

Location: Milan

taken in 2013.

FuoriSalone 2013 - Milan Design Week (8-14 April 2013)

 

sheet of water TEUCO GUZZINI

fragrance Acqua Essenziale by SALVATORE FERRAGAMO

lighting iGuzzini

 

The forms are carved out rectangular stone blocks. Reflected in a sheet of water which is equipped with a misting system.

Ground Substance

Sabin+Jones LabStudio

A hybrid architectural design and biological research unit that demonstrates new modes of thinking in design and material construction.

Press "L".

 

Pentax 67ii, SMC 45mm f4, Heliopan sh-pmc CPL, Lee GND, Kodak Ektachrome E100VS self-developed in Fuji Hunt Chrome 6X kit, IT8-calibrated & wet-mounted drumscan (through PhotoMultiplier Tubes - PMTs - no CCD nor CMOS involved in light detection & digitizing process), no cropping.

 

...::: 4nalog :::...

Università Statale di Milano

 

New Orleans' Garden District is full of beautiful residences in hybrid architectural styles. Some are nearly unphotographable because of landscaping, utilities, and other obstacles. Some photographers Photoshop out the phone and power lines, but I didn't.

Università Statale di Milano

 

Catherine Howard strolling down the vaulted corridor designed by Sir Christopher Wren_Hampton Court Palace, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, London, KT8 9AU

History

Tudor period

 

Hampton Court Palace, with marked reference points referred to on this page. A: West Front & Main Entrance; B: Base Court; C: Clock Tower; D: Clock Court, E: Fountain Court; F: East Front; G: South Front; H: Banqueting House; J: Great Hall; K: River Thames; M: East Gardens; O: Cardinal Wolsey's Rooms; P: Chapel.

 

Thomas Wolsey, Archbishop of York, Chief Minister and favourite of King Henry VIII, took over the site of Hampton Court Palace in 1514. It had previously been a property of the Order of St John of Jerusalem. Over the following seven years, Wolsey spent lavishly to build the finest palace in England at Hampton Court, a figure of 200,000 gold crowns. Wolsey rebuilt the existing manor house to form the nucleus of the present palace. Today, little of Wolsey's building work remains unchanged. The first courtyard, the Base Court, (B on plan), was his creation, as was the second, inner gatehouse (C) which leads to the Clock Court (D) (Wolsey's seal remains visible over the entrance arch of the clock tower) which contained his private rooms (O on plan). The Base Court contained forty-four lodgings reserved for guests, while the second court (today, Clock Court) contained the very best rooms—the state apartments—reserved for the King and his family. Henry VIII stayed in the state apartments as Wolsey's guest immediately after their completion in 1525.

 

In building his palace, Wolsey was attempting to create a Renaissance cardinal's palace featuring rectilinear symmetrical planning with grand apartments on a raised piano nobile, all rendered with classical detailing. Jonathan Foyle has suggested that it is likely that Wolsey had been inspired by Paolo Cortese's De Cardinalatu, a manual for cardinals that included advice on palatial architecture, published in 1510. The architectural historian Sir John Summerson asserts that the palace shows "the essence of Wolsey—the plain English churchman who nevertheless made his sovereign the arbiter of Europe and who built and furnished Hampton Court to show foreign embassies that Henry VIII's chief minister knew how to live as graciously as any cardinal in Rome."[10] Whatever the concepts were, the architecture is an excellent and rare example of a thirty-year era when English architecture was in a harmonious transition from domestic Tudor, strongly influenced by perpendicular Gothic, to the Italian Renaissance classical style. Perpendicular Gothic owed nothing historically to the Renaissance style, yet harmonised well with it. This blending of styles was realised by a small group of Italian craftsmen working at the English court in the second and third decades of the sixteenth century. They specialised in the adding of Renaissance ornament to otherwise straightforward Tudor buildings. It was one of these, Giovanni da Maiano who was responsible for the set of eight relief busts of Roman emperors which were set in the Tudor brickwork.

Anne Boleyn's Gate. The Tudor gatehouse and astrological clock, made for Henry VIII in 1540 (C on plan above) Two of the Renaissance bas reliefs by Giovanni di Maiano can be seen set into the brickwork.

 

Wolsey was only to enjoy his palace for a few years. In 1528, knowing that his enemies and the King were engineering his downfall, he passed the palace to the King as a gift. Wolsey died the following year.

 

Within six months of coming into ownership, the King began his own rebuilding and expansion. Henry VIII's court consisted of over one thousand people, while the King owned over sixty houses and palaces. Few of these were large enough to hold the assembled court, and thus one of the first of the King's building works (in order to transform Hampton Court to a principal residence) was to build the vast kitchens. These were quadrupled in size in 1529. The architecture of King Henry's new palace followed the design precedent set by Wolsey: perpendicular Gothic-inspired Tudor with restrained Renaissance ornament. This hybrid architecture was to remain almost unchanged for nearly a century, until Inigo Jones introduced strong classical influences from Italy to the London palaces of the first Stuart kings.

 

Between 1532 and 1535 Henry added the Great Hall (the last medieval great hall built for the English monarchy) and the Royal Tennis Court. The Great Hall features a carved hammer-beam roof. During Tudor times, this was the most important room of the palace; here, the King would dine in state seated at a table upon a raised dais. The hall took five years to complete, so impatient was the King for completion that the masons were compelled to work throughout the night by candlelight.

 

The gatehouse to the second, inner court was adorned in 1540 with an early example of a post-Copernican astronomical clock. Still functioning, the clock shows the time of day, the phases of the moon, the month, the quarter of the year, the date, the sun and star sign, and high water at London Bridge.[17] The latter information was of great importance to those visiting this Thames-side palace from London, as the preferred method of transport at the time was by barge, and at low water London Bridge created dangerous rapids. This gatehouse is also known today as Anne Boleyn's gate, after Henry's second wife. Work was still underway on Anne Boleyn's apartments above the gate when the King, having tired of her, had her executed.

Henry VIII's first building project at Hampton Court created vast kitchens capable of feeding his court of 1000 people.

 

During the Tudor period, the palace was the scene of many historic events. In 1537, the King's much desired male heir, the future Edward VI, was born at the palace and the child's mother, Jane Seymour, died there two weeks later. Four years afterwards, whilst attending Mass in the palace's chapel, the King was informed of his fifth wife's adultery. The Queen, Catherine Howard, was dragged away, screaming, from a gallery leading to the chapel. Her ghost is said to haunt it.

 

King Henry died in January 1547 and was succeeded first by his son Edward VI, and then by both his daughters in turn. It was to Hampton Court that Queen Mary I (Henry's eldest daughter) retreated with King Philip II of Spain to spend her honeymoon, after their wedding at Winchester. The marriage was politically expedient rather than a love match. Mary chose Hampton Court as the place for the birth of her first child, which turned out to be the first of two phantom pregnancies. Mary was succeeded by her half-sister, Elizabeth I and it was Elizabeth who had the Eastern kitchen built; today, this is the palace's public tea room.

 

Hampton Court Palace has had a street in the Roman town of Towcester or Lactodorum named after it.

[edit] Stuart period

Christopher Wren's south front built for William and Mary (G on plan) viewed from the Privy Garden.

The King's Staircase murals painted by Antonio Verrio.

 

On the death of Elizabeth I in 1603, the Tudor period came to an end. The Queen was succeeded by her first cousin-twice-removed, the Scottish King, James VI, who became known in England as James I of the House of Stuart.

 

In 1604, the palace was the site of King James' meeting with representatives of the English Puritans, known as the Hampton Court Conference; while agreement with the Puritans was not reached, the meeting led to James's commissioning of the King James Version of the Bible.

 

King James was succeeded in 1625 by his son, the ill-fated Charles I. For this king, Hampton Court was to become both his palace and his prison. It was also the setting for his honeymoon with his fifteen year old bride, Henrietta Maria in 1625. Following King Charles' execution in 1649, the palace became the property of the Commonwealth presided over by Oliver Cromwell. Unlike some other former royal properties, the palace escaped relatively unscathed. While the government auctioned much of the contents, the building was ignored.

 

After the Restoration, King Charles II and his successor James II, visited Hampton Court, but largely preferred to reside elsewhere. By this time, by current French court standards Hampton Court appeared old-fashioned. It was in 1689, shortly after Louis XIV's court had moved permanently to Versailles, that the palace's antiquated state was addressed. England had two new joint monarchs, William of Orange and his wife, the daughter of James II, Queen Mary II. Within months of their accession they embarked on a massive rebuilding project at Hampton Court. The intention was to demolish the Tudor palace a section at a time, while replacing it with a huge modern palace in the Baroque style retaining only Henry VIII's Great Hall. The country's most eminent architect, Sir Christopher Wren, was called upon to draw the plans, while the master of works was to be William Talman. The plan was for a vast palace constructed around two courtyards at right angles to each other. Wren's design for a domed palace bore resemblances to the work of Jules Hardouin Mansart and Louis Le Vau, both architects employed by Louis XIV at Versailles. It has been suggested, though, that the plans were abandoned because the resemblance to Versailles was too subtle and not strong enough; at this time, it was impossible for any sovereign to visualise a palace that did not emulate Versailles' repetitive Baroque form. However, the resemblances are there: while the facades are not so long as those of Versailles, they have similar seemingly unstoppable repetitive rhythms beneath a long flat skyline. The monotony is even repeated as the facade turns the corner from the east to the south fronts. However, Hampton Court, unlike Versailles, is given an extra dimension by the contrast between the pink brick and the pale Portland stone quoins, frames and banding. Further diversion is added by the circular and decorated windows of the second floor mezzanine. This theme is repeated in the inner Fountain Court, but the rhythm is faster and the windows, unpedimented on the outer facades, are given pointed pediments in the courtyard; this has led the courtyard to be described as "Startling, as of simultaneous exposure to a great many eyes with raised eyebrows."

The Fountain Court designed by Sir Christopher Wren (E on plan): "Startling, as of simultaneous exposure to a great many eyes with raised eyebrows."

 

During this work, half the Tudor palace was replaced and Henry VIII's state rooms were lost; the new wings around the Fountain Court contained new state apartments and private rooms, one set for the King and one for the Queen. Each suite of state rooms was accessed by a state staircase. The royal suites were of completely equal value in order to reflect William and Mary's unique status as joint sovereigns. The King's Apartments face south over the Privy Garden, the Queen's east over the Fountain Garden. The suites are linked by a gallery running the length of the east facade, another reference to Versailles, where the King and Queen's apartments are linked by the Galerie des Glaces. However, at Hampton Court the linking gallery is of more modest proportions and decoration. The King's staircase was decorated with frescos by Antonio Verrio and delicate ironwork by Jean Tijou. Other artists commissioned to decorate the rooms included Grinling Gibbons, Sir James Thornhill and Jacques Rousseau; furnishings were designed by Daniel Marot.

 

After the death of Queen Mary, King William lost interest in the renovations, and work ceased. However, it was in Hampton Court Park in 1702 that he fell from his horse, later dying from his injuries at Kensington Palace. He was succeeded by his sister-in-law Queen Anne who continued the decoration and completion of the state apartments. On Queen Anne's death in 1714 the Stuart dynasty came to an end.

 

Queen Anne's successor was George I; he and his son George II were the last monarchs to reside at Hampton Court. Under George I six rooms were completed in 1717 to the design of John Vanbrugh. Under George II and his Queen, Caroline, further refurbishment took place, with the architect William Kent employed to design new furnishings and decor including the Queen's Staircase, (1733) and the Cumberland Suite (1737) for the Duke of Cumberland. Today, the Queen's Private Apartments are open to the public and include her bathroom and bedroom.

The Kitchen

Hampton Court Palace, Kingston upon Thames, Surrey, London, KT8 9AU

History

Tudor period

Hampton Court Palace, with marked reference points referred to on this page. A: West Front & Main Entrance; B: Base Court; C: Clock Tower; D: Clock Court, E: Fountain Court; F: East Front; G: South Front; H: Banqueting House; J: Great Hall; K: River Thames; M: East Gardens; O: Cardinal Wolsey's Rooms; P: Chapel.

 

Thomas Wolsey, Archbishop of York, Chief Minister and favourite of King Henry VIII, took over the site of Hampton Court Palace in 1514.[4] It had previously been a property of the Order of St John of Jerusalem.[2] Over the following seven years, Wolsey spent lavishly to build the finest palace in England at Hampton Court, a figure of 200,000 gold crowns.[5] Wolsey rebuilt the existing manor house to form the nucleus of the present palace. Today, little of Wolsey's building work remains unchanged. The first courtyard, the Base Court,[6] (B on plan), was his creation, as was the second, inner gatehouse (C) which leads to the Clock Court (D) (Wolsey's seal remains visible over the entrance arch of the clock tower[7]) which contained his private rooms (O on plan).[4] The Base Court contained forty-four lodgings reserved for guests, while the second court (today, Clock Court) contained the very best rooms—the state apartments—reserved for the King and his family.[8] Henry VIII stayed in the state apartments as Wolsey's guest immediately after their completion in 1525.

 

In building his palace, Wolsey was attempting to create a Renaissance cardinal's palace featuring rectilinear symmetrical planning with grand apartments on a raised piano nobile, all rendered with classical detailing. Jonathan Foyle has suggested[9] that it is likely that Wolsey had been inspired by Paolo Cortese's De Cardinalatu, a manual for cardinals that included advice on palatial architecture, published in 1510. The architectural historian Sir John Summerson asserts that the palace shows "the essence of Wolsey—the plain English churchman who nevertheless made his sovereign the arbiter of Europe and who built and furnished Hampton Court to show foreign embassies that Henry VIII's chief minister knew how to live as graciously as any cardinal in Rome."[10] Whatever the concepts were, the architecture is an excellent and rare example of a thirty-year era when English architecture was in a harmonious transition from domestic Tudor, strongly influenced by perpendicular Gothic, to the Italian Renaissance classical style. Perpendicular Gothic owed nothing historically to the Renaissance style, yet harmonised well with it.[11] This blending of styles was realised by a small group of Italian craftsmen working at the English court in the second and third decades of the sixteenth century. They specialised in the adding of Renaissance ornament to otherwise straightforward Tudor buildings.[11] It was one of these, Giovanni da Maiano who was responsible for the set of eight relief busts of Roman emperors which were set in the Tudor brickwork.[12]

Anne Boleyn's Gate. The Tudor gatehouse and astrological clock, made for Henry VIII in 1540 (C on plan above) Two of the Renaissance bas reliefs by Giovanni di Maiano can be seen set into the brickwork.

 

Wolsey was only to enjoy his palace for a few years.[10] In 1528, knowing that his enemies and the King were engineering his downfall, he passed the palace to the King as a gift. Wolsey died the following year.[10]

 

Within six months of coming into ownership, the King began his own rebuilding and expansion.[8] Henry VIII's court consisted of over one thousand people, while the King owned over sixty houses and palaces. Few of these were large enough to hold the assembled court, and thus one of the first of the King's building works (in order to transform Hampton Court to a principal residence) was to build the vast kitchens. These were quadrupled in size in 1529.[13] The architecture of King Henry's new palace followed the design precedent set by Wolsey: perpendicular Gothic-inspired Tudor with restrained Renaissance ornament. This hybrid architecture was to remain almost unchanged for nearly a century, until Inigo Jones introduced strong classical influences from Italy to the London palaces of the first Stuart kings.

 

Between 1532 and 1535 Henry added the Great Hall (the last medieval great hall built for the English monarchy) and the Royal Tennis Court.[14] The Great Hall features a carved hammer-beam roof. During Tudor times, this was the most important room of the palace; here, the King would dine in state seated at a table upon a raised dais.[15] The hall took five years to complete, so impatient was the King for completion that the masons were compelled to work throughout the night by candlelight.[16]

 

The gatehouse to the second, inner court was adorned in 1540 with an early example of a post-Copernican astronomical clock. Still functioning, the clock shows the time of day, the phases of the moon, the month, the quarter of the year, the date, the sun and star sign, and high water at London Bridge.[17] The latter information was of great importance to those visiting this Thames-side palace from London, as the preferred method of transport at the time was by barge, and at low water London Bridge created dangerous rapids. This gatehouse is also known today as Anne Boleyn's gate, after Henry's second wife. Work was still underway on Anne Boleyn's apartments above the gate when the King, having tired of her, had her executed.[18]

Henry VIII's first building project at Hampton Court created vast kitchens capable of feeding his court of 1000 people.

 

During the Tudor period, the palace was the scene of many historic events. In 1537, the King's much desired male heir, the future Edward VI, was born at the palace and the child's mother, Jane Seymour, died there two weeks later.[19] Four years afterwards, whilst attending Mass in the palace's chapel, the King was informed of his fifth wife's adultery. The Queen, Catherine Howard, was dragged away, screaming, from a gallery leading to the chapel. Her ghost is said to haunt it.[20]

 

King Henry died in January 1547 and was succeeded first by his son Edward VI, and then by both his daughters in turn. It was to Hampton Court that Queen Mary I (Henry's eldest daughter) retreated with King Philip II of Spain to spend her honeymoon, after their wedding at Winchester.[16] The marriage was politically expedient rather than a love match. Mary chose Hampton Court as the place for the birth of her first child, which turned out to be the first of two phantom pregnancies. Mary was succeeded by her half-sister, Elizabeth I and it was Elizabeth who had the Eastern kitchen built; today, this is the palace's public tea room.[21]

 

Hampton Court Palace has had a street in the Roman town of Towcester or Lactodorum named after it.

[edit] Stuart period

Christopher Wren's south front built for William and Mary (G on plan) viewed from the Privy Garden.

The King's Staircase murals painted by Antonio Verrio.

 

On the death of Elizabeth I in 1603, the Tudor period came to an end. The Queen was succeeded by her first cousin-twice-removed, the Scottish King, James VI, who became known in England as James I of the House of Stuart.

 

In 1604, the palace was the site of King James' meeting with representatives of the English Puritans, known as the Hampton Court Conference; while agreement with the Puritans was not reached, the meeting led to James's commissioning of the King James Version of the Bible.[22]

 

King James was succeeded in 1625 by his son, the ill-fated Charles I. For this king, Hampton Court was to become both his palace and his prison.[22] It was also the setting for his honeymoon with his fifteen year old bride, Henrietta Maria in 1625.[16] Following King Charles' execution in 1649, the palace became the property of the Commonwealth presided over by Oliver Cromwell. Unlike some other former royal properties, the palace escaped relatively unscathed. While the government auctioned much of the contents, the building was ignored.[23]

 

After the Restoration, King Charles II and his successor James II, visited Hampton Court, but largely preferred to reside elsewhere. By this time, by current French court standards Hampton Court appeared old-fashioned. It was in 1689, shortly after Louis XIV's court had moved permanently to Versailles, that the palace's antiquated state was addressed. England had two new joint monarchs, William of Orange and his wife, the daughter of James II, Queen Mary II. Within months of their accession they embarked on a massive rebuilding project at Hampton Court. The intention was to demolish the Tudor palace a section at a time, while replacing it with a huge modern palace in the Baroque style retaining only Henry VIII's Great Hall.[24] The country's most eminent architect, Sir Christopher Wren, was called upon to draw the plans, while the master of works was to be William Talman. The plan was for a vast palace constructed around two courtyards at right angles to each other. Wren's design for a domed palace bore resemblances to the work of Jules Hardouin Mansart and Louis Le Vau, both architects employed by Louis XIV at Versailles.[24] It has been suggested, though, that the plans were abandoned because the resemblance to Versailles was too subtle and not strong enough; at this time, it was impossible for any sovereign to visualise a palace that did not emulate Versailles' repetitive Baroque form.[25] However, the resemblances are there: while the facades are not so long as those of Versailles, they have similar seemingly unstoppable repetitive rhythms beneath a long flat skyline. The monotony is even repeated as the facade turns the corner from the east to the south fronts. However, Hampton Court, unlike Versailles, is given an extra dimension by the contrast between the pink brick and the pale Portland stone quoins, frames and banding.[26] Further diversion is added by the circular and decorated windows of the second floor mezzanine. This theme is repeated in the inner Fountain Court, but the rhythm is faster and the windows, unpedimented on the outer facades, are given pointed pediments in the courtyard; this has led the courtyard to be described as "Startling, as of simultaneous exposure to a great many eyes with raised eyebrows."[27]

The Fountain Court designed by Sir Christopher Wren (E on plan): "Startling, as of simultaneous exposure to a great many eyes with raised eyebrows."[27]

 

During this work, half the Tudor palace was replaced and Henry VIII's state rooms were lost; the new wings around the Fountain Court contained new state apartments and private rooms, one set for the King and one for the Queen. Each suite of state rooms was accessed by a state staircase. The royal suites were of completely equal value in order to reflect William and Mary's unique status as joint sovereigns.[28] The King's Apartments face south over the Privy Garden, the Queen's east over the Fountain Garden. The suites are linked by a gallery running the length of the east facade, another reference to Versailles, where the King and Queen's apartments are linked by the Galerie des Glaces. However, at Hampton Court the linking gallery is of more modest proportions and decoration. The King's staircase was decorated with frescos by Antonio Verrio and delicate ironwork by Jean Tijou.[29] Other artists commissioned to decorate the rooms included Grinling Gibbons, Sir James Thornhill and Jacques Rousseau; furnishings were designed by Daniel Marot.[30]

 

After the death of Queen Mary, King William lost interest in the renovations, and work ceased. However, it was in Hampton Court Park in 1702 that he fell from his horse, later dying from his injuries at Kensington Palace. He was succeeded by his sister-in-law Queen Anne who continued the decoration and completion of the state apartments. On Queen Anne's death in 1714 the Stuart dynasty came to an end.

 

Queen Anne's successor was George I; he and his son George II were the last monarchs to reside at Hampton Court.[1] Under George I six rooms were completed in 1717 to the design of John Vanbrugh.[31] Under George II and his Queen, Caroline, further refurbishment took place, with the architect William Kent employed to design new furnishings and decor including the Queen's Staircase, (1733)[32] and the Cumberland Suite (1737) for the Duke of Cumberland.[32] Today, the Queen's Private Apartments are open to the public and include her bathroom and bedroom.

Wikipedia Encyclopedia:

 

Thomas Wolsey, Archbishop of York, Chief Minister and favourite of Henry VIII, took over the site of Hampton Court Palace in 1514. It had previously been a property of the Order of St John of Jerusalem. Over the following seven years, Wolsey spent lavishly (200,000 gold crowns) to build the finest palace in England at Hampton Court. Wolsey rebuilt the existing manor house to form the nucleus of the present palace. Today, little of Wolsey's building work remains unchanged. The first courtyard, the Base Court, was his creation, as was the second, inner gatehouse which leads to the Clock Court (Wolsey's seal remains visible over the entrance arch of the clock tower) which contained his private rooms. The Base Court contained forty-four lodgings reserved for guests, while the second court (today, Clock Court) contained the very best rooms – the state apartments – reserved for the King and his family. Henry VIII stayed in the state apartments as Wolsey's guest immediately after their completion in 1525.

 

In building his palace, Wolsey was attempting to create a Renaissance cardinal's palace of a rectilinear symmetrical plan with grand apartments on a raised piano nobile, all rendered with classical detailing.

The architecture is an excellent and rare example of a thirty-year era when English architecture was in a harmonious transition from domestic Tudor, strongly influenced by perpendicular Gothic, to the Italian Renaissance classical style. Perpendicular Gothic owed nothing historically to the Renaissance style, yet harmonised well with it.

This blending of styles was realised by a small group of Italian craftsmen working at the English court in the second and third decades of the sixteenth century. They specialised in the adding of Renaissance ornament to otherwise straightforward Tudor buildings.

It was one of these, Giovanni da Maiano, who was responsible for the set of eight relief busts of Roman emperors which were set in the Tudor brickwork.

 

Wolsey was only to enjoy his palace for a few years. In 1528, knowing that his enemies and the King were engineering his downfall, he passed the palace to the King as a gift. Wolsey died two years later in 1530.

 

Within six months of coming into ownership, the King began his own rebuilding and expansion. Henry VIII's court consisted of over one thousand people, while the King owned over sixty houses and palaces. Few of these were large enough to hold the assembled court, and thus one of the first of the King's building works (in order to transform Hampton Court to a principal residence) was to build the vast kitchens. These were quadrupled in size in 1529.

The architecture of King Henry's new palace followed the design precedent set by Wolsey: perpendicular Gothic-inspired Tudor with restrained Renaissance ornament. This hybrid architecture was to remain almost unchanged for nearly a century, until Inigo Jones introduced strong classical influences from Italy to the London palaces of the first Stuart kings.

 

Between 1532 and 1535 Henry added the Great Hall (the last medieval great hall built for the English monarchy) and the Royal Tennis Court. The Great Hall has a carved hammer-beam roof. During Tudor times, this was the most important room of the palace; here, the King would dine in state seated at a table upon a raised dais. The hall took five years to complete; so impatient was the King for completion that the masons were compelled to work throughout the night by candlelight.

 

The gatehouse to the second, inner court was adorned in 1540 with the Hampton Court astronomical clock, an early example of a pre-Copernican astronomical clock. Still functioning, the clock shows the time of day, the phases of the moon, the month, the quarter of the year, the date, the sun and star sign, and high water at London Bridge.

The latter information was of great importance to those visiting this Thames-side palace from London, as the preferred method of transport at the time was by barge, and at low water London Bridge created dangerous rapids. This gatehouse is also known today as Anne Boleyn's gate, after Henry's second wife. Work was still underway on Anne Boleyn's apartments above the gate when the King, who had become tired of her, had her executed.

 

Henry VIII's first building project at Hampton Court created vast kitchens capable of feeding his court of 1,000 people.

 

During the Tudor period, the palace was the scene of many historic events. In 1537, the King's much desired male heir, the future Edward VI, was born at the palace and the child's mother, Jane Seymour, died there two weeks later.

 

Four years afterwards, whilst attending Mass in the palace's chapel, the King was informed of his fifth wife's adultery. The Queen, Catherine Howard, was then confined to her room for a few days before being sent to Syon House and then on to the Tower of London.

  

Università Statale di Milano

 

Kai-Uwe Kühnberger presents Learning from Inconsistencies in an Integrated Cognitive Architecture by Kai-Uwe Kühnberger , Peter Geibel , Helmar Gust , Ulf Krumnack , Ekaterina Ovchinnikova , Angela Schwering , Tonio Wandmacher of the AI Group at Institute Cognitive Science, Universität Osnabrück

 

Learning

 

Usually, cognitive architectures are based on a number of different modules

Example: Hybrid System

[ see Hybrid intelligent system approach. ]

 

Obviously, coherence problems and inconsistencies can occur, in particular, in hybrid systems.

 

In hybrid architectures, two main questions can be asked:

- On what level should learning be implemented?

- What are plausible strategies in order to resolve inconsistencies?

 

Idea of this talk: Use occuring inconsistencies as a mechnaism (trigger) of learning.

 

He was quite dynamic speaker, in motion, this was about the best photo I could get.

This is a pretty extensive AI research team.

  

Technical Session II: Architecture of AGI Systems at the The First Conference on Artificial General Intelligence (AGI-08)

 

This room is The Zone, at the FedEx Institute of Technology, University of Memphis. It was a very good venue for this conference.

 

Artificial General Intelligence (AGI) research focuses on the original and ultimate goal of AI -- to create intelligence as a whole, by exploring all available paths, including theoretical and experimental computer science, cognitive science, neuroscience, and innovative interdisciplinary methodologies. AGI is also called Strong AI in the AI community.

 

Another good reference is Artificial General Intelligence : A Gentle Introduction by Pei Wang

  

I030208 073

St. George's Church Penang – South East Asia oldest Anglican Church:

 

The popularity of Christendom's St. George is far-reaching, touching the religious as well as the secular. Churches named after him are found in many parts of the world, including the historic city of George Town, Penang. St. George has also served as a fountain of inspiration to writers (like Shakespeare), artists and musicians. The most famous depiction of St. George was his battle with a ferocious dragon (such as the one shown here from The Catholic Community Forum) and it is this mortal combat with which the Saint has most often been captured by artists – on canvases, medals and tapestries.

 

The one located here, on the corner of Lebuh Farquhar and Jalan Masjid Kapitan Keling is historically significant in this part of the world because it is the oldest Anglican Church in Southeast Asia.

 

The building of the church:

With the help of The East India Company, the church was built in 1816 using convict labor during Colonel J. A. Bannerman's term as British Governor of Penang. The inspiration behind the formation of the church, however, was credited to Rev. Robert Sparke Hutchings, a well known educationist and Robert Smith, an engineer and landscape artist.

 

Rev. Hutchings contributions towards the development of Penang from an educational perspective are significant – he founded the Penang Free School and compiled and wrote what were considered the first books on Malay grammar, in addition to several elementary text-books and a dictionary mainly for school use. He founded the Auxiliary Bible Society and translated the New Testament into Malay.

 

The cost of building the church was 60,000 Spanish Dollars. To give you a rough idea on the significance of that amount, Singapore was sold to the British sometime in 1819 for the same price! On 11 May 1819, the church was consecrated by The Rt. Rev. Thomas Middleton, Bishop of Calcutta.

 

Ministry:

The first significant event which took place in the church soon after its completion was the wedding of a W. E. Philips to Janet, the daughter of Governor Col. Bannerman in 1818.

 

Under the guidance of Rev. Hutchings, the church grew in popularity first among the members of the British colonialists, and then slowly among the locals.

 

During the Japanese occupation of WWII, services were somewhat interrupted until church leaders temporarily transferred them first to the Mission House and then to the Wesley Church in Burmah Road. After the fall of the Japanese Empire, church services at the St. Geroge's church were resumed, much to the relief of everyone.

 

Two events brought about the emancipation of the church – an act of Parliament in 1971 which created a new and independent Diocese of West Malaysia, and the formation of the Province of Churches in South East Asia in 1996 by the Archbishop of Canterbury. Since then, the church has been run by local clergymen.

 

Today, services in English are held twice every Sunday, the first at 8.30am and second at 10.30am.

 

The church's architecture:

The Georgian Palladium architecture of the church was designed by Captain Robert N. Smith of Madras Engineers, whose considerable talents also extended to etchings and oil paintings. His work consisting of an impressive series of oil-painted landscapes of Penang are now permanent exhibits at the Penang State Museum.

 

His career in Penang in 1814-15 when he assumed the post of Superintending Engineer. He illustrated the church in a hybrid architectural style described as 'Georgian Palladium'- which is a combination of. 'Georgian', a style of architecture characteristic of Kings George I and IV (1714-1830) and 'Palladium', named after the Grecian-styled architectural works of a Roman named Palladius.

 

The most striking feature of the church's architecture are without a doubt the huge Grecian columns lined outside the front entrance. They immediately remind one of classical Greek structures such as The Parthenon, The Propylaia, the Temple to Athene and The Erechtheion. The pavilion which sits in the lawn also lends a Grecian air to the ambience.

 

The brick structure has a solid plastered stone base. When the occupants realised that the original Madras-style flat roof was unsuitable for the climate in Penang, a gable shaped roof was built in its place, in 1864. The octagonal-shaped steeple, visible from afar, forms the apex of the roof.

 

The aforementioned pavilion was actually erected in 1886 to commemorate Sir Francis Light. Underneath the dome is found a marble plaque framed by two columns, dedicated to Light.

 

The inscription reads "In his capacity as Governor the settlers and natives were greatly attached to him and by his death had to deplore the loss of one who watched over their interests and cares as a father".

 

The mahogany trees in the lawn, which came from India as seedlings, were planted by A.B.Mackean in 1885. The ones still remaining today are survivors from the destruction wreaked by WWII.

 

The war took its toll on the church. Although the structure escaped relatively unscathed, the interior was another story. Looters carted off plaques, memorials and furnishings. A total of 24 memorials life-size marble figures were ruined during the heavy looting. Pews, the pulpit, the lectern and the organ had all to be replaced.

 

Work to restore the church back to its former self started soon afterwards and was completed in 1948. Sunday services were immediately resumed.

 

As they became available, modern amenities were installed such as air-conditioning and video monitors which 'broadcasted' the sermons to people whose view of the sanctum was blocked by the columns.

 

Further reading at St. George's Church

What do we do with your family's items? we will be there for your family Auctions! Cheers. We will be sure to do it LIVE.

 

Lot 55

Elizabeth Wright(b. 1964)

Kimbolton City Comprehensive School

 

paper model, wooden plinth and perspex cover, computer manipulated photographic print

and architectural drawing printed on tracing paper

model: 138.5 x 60 x 42 cm (54 1/2 x 23 1/2 x 16 1/2 in.)

print: 88 x 122 cm (34 1/2 x 48 in.)

architectural plan: 59 x 84 cm (23 1/2 x 33 in.)

over all: variable

Executed in 2001.

 

Estimate: 3500 - 4500

Provenance: Acquired directly from the artist

 

The auction marked the end of the Castles life as a family residence, and after a short period of uncertainty, the start of its life in 1950 as a school. Despite this change in function the overall sense of grandeur has not left the building and it retains a flavour of comfort and privilege. This work acknowledges this point of sale and change of function. Using plans of the Castle and a modern secondary school Elizabeth Wright has merged the two to create a hybrid architectural model encouraging the viewer to draw on past experiences of school, home and visits to stately homes.

 

Lot 228 A painting, a dog, another, a hare, another, Castle and grounds with two horses, and another, Forest scene with two stags

 

Elizabeth Wright studied sculpture at Birmingham and the Royal College of Art. She makes site-specific work through the representation of familiar mundane objects: bicycles, mopeds, cars, telephone directories, plastic bags, cigarettes. Each of Wrights objects have been re-made as precisely as possible, copied with laborious exactitude. Through a change in scale, Wrights sculptures distort our experience of the real. She has shown work at venues throughout London, including the Institute of Contemporary Art, Showroom and Delfina Gallery; her international shows include the Kunsthalle in Bern and the Biennale in Venice.

 

This work has also been supported by Norwich School of Art & Design

New Orleans' Garden District is full of colorful houses in a hybrid architectural style. Some are nearly unphotographable because of landscaping, utilities, and other obstacles. Most photographers Photoshop out the phone and power lines, but I didn't.

This is the oldest Anglican church in South-East Asia, planted in 1816 and is a heritage landmark of Penang.

 

The church was built in a hybrid architectural style called 'Georgian Palladium'- which is a combination of 'Georgian', a style of architecture characteristic of Kings George I and IV (1714-1830) and 'Palladium', named after the Grecian-styled architectural works of a Roman named Palladius.

 

The most striking feature of the church architecture are the huge Grecian columns lined outside the front entrance. They are reminiscent of classical Greek structures such as The Parthenon, The Propylaia, the Temple to Athene and The Erechtheion.

  

Image polysémique : l’architecture hybride, bourgeoise et résidentielle du mandat français, promise à démolition; les stigmates de la guerre civile ; la spéculation immobilière; enfin la communication par l’image, projection dans le futur commentée un peu plus bas dans la rue, en deux langues, car la résidence s’appellera « Rudamas » et son promoteur affirme : « We build on values »… quelles valeurs ? Au sens propre, sans doute, mais pas à celui de la qualité architecturale ou urbaine.

 

Beirut, Damascus street, January, 2012

 

Polysemic picture : middle class, refined, hybrid architecture of the French mandate period, to be demolished shortly; the stigmata of the civil war; real estate speculation; and finally communication through pictures, commented further down along the street, in two languages, for the future residence will be called “Rudamas” and its promoter states : “We build on values”… Which values? Values as in financial values, most probably, but not in terms of architectural or urban design quality.

 

Photo © Caecilia Pieri

A 'student project' seen at Aalto University in Otaniemi.

Università Statale di Milano

 

Seattle Modern Home Tour <a href="http://seattle.modernhohttp://seattle.modernhometours.com/hybrid-architecture-assembly-1827-south-lane-st/

Università Statale di Milano

 

2015 Lexus ES 350 luxury and traditional comfort are keywords for which lands squarely between the IS and GS sport sedans in the lineup like a teddy lower performance-oriented counterpart to both models. 2015 Lexus ES 350 hybrid architecture is based on the Toyota Avalon more than a few years ...

 

r2015 Lexus ES 350

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