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Where we can be helpful is to provide you with some timely #tips to help make sure your #household #plumbing is ready for the #spring. By doing a little #springplumbing (detective) work now, you’ll have much more time to enjoy the #beautiful weather that surely lies just around the corner.

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My regular visitors may have forgotten that it's not only Billy in our household. Ever since his introduction about 9 weeks ago, Poeka has been spending most of her days in the garden. We've had a near perfect summer, so she enjoyed every minute of it, I hope.

 

She doesn't enjoy Billy very much I'm afraid, although there don't seem to be any problems at night when they are together in the attic. We may have a problem coming up though, because Poeka seems to start leaving bits of urine indoors. Could be a problem with her bladder, but it can also be her dislike of the new situation. Any tips anyone?

Many individuals imagine becoming professional chefs. However, this encompasses plenty of training that may get this dream seem impossible. Recognize that cooking is actually a step-by-step process, and this information will educate you on how to become an improved cook quickly.

 

Store herbs and spices inside an area that is certainly cool and dark. Your spices and herbs will lose some of their flavor when in contact with light, humidity and also heat. Herbs and spices generally keep their taste and flavor for approximately twelve months. Spices who have not been ground can still be worth using for three years or a little bit more. Should you store them the proper way, they will be fresher.

 

Always bake pie and tart crusts for more than the recipe specifies for optimum results. Delay until the crust turns golden as opposed to pale blond. This golden color implies that the sugar has caramelized, leaving a sweet flavor.

 

An excellent tip when cooking with oil is always to use it in the sides in the pan so it's already hot if it slides down into the meal. A drop of water in the pan will sizzle if the oil are at the appropriate temperature.

 

Buy a knife sharpener to help make cutting any ingredient easier. By trying to slice employing a dull knife, you should have a large amount of difficulty, also it can another very dangerous. Should you be putting a lot of pressure on the knife due to the dullness, the likelihood of obtaining a car accident is increased.

 

Every cook needs usage of a collection of sharp knives. Dull knives, in addition to being ineffective, are in reality very dangerous. Using a dull knife, you might have to battle to cut a vegetable, rendering it very likely you will get injured during this process. Employing a sharp knife will make it easier to cut that vegetable, which means you are more unlikely to have hurt.

 

Whether you plan to dazzle your household using a well-cooked meal or impress a hot date using a romantic dinner, culinary talent will boost your life in several ways. Eating with friends and relations is actually a custom that transcends place and culture. If you are taking the data provided here, you will definitely get a head start on transforming into a proficient cook for virtually any event that you might want to participate in in. www.onelastreview.com/best-food-processor-reviews

BEAUTIFUL LIMITED EDITION ART PRINTS AVAILABLE on

bumbleandbramble.blogspot.com/

 

5.5' x 6' x 3'

110k - 130k pieces

Black, white, dark and light bluish gray, clear trans and black trans colors used.

No foreign materials (wood, glue, paint or otherwise) were used – this is pure Lego. No Lego piece have been altered (painted, cut or otherwise).

Photo retouching used only for adding contrast and color correction & background.

Approx 600 hours to build

Third in my series of Abandoned Houses

(also, my third moc)

 

Special Thanks

To my wife, Stephanie, for her support and generous patience

The afol/moc community for design inspiration and techniques to make this possible.

 

To view my site and more closeups/the making of: Snap

My MOC page

 

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The third installment of this abandoned house series continues its textural exploration of decay with a Victorian home engulfed in mud. The mud travels through the first floor, tears down a front wall and oozes over the porch side, taking with it household contents of convenience. This detail opens the piece up, allowing the eye to travel the surface of the house and then back through the porch, into a room and back out to survey the piles of garbage. The play on depth here is something I enjoy as one has a glimpse of the activity behind this architectural scrim.

 

The house, itself, was chosen due to the repeating angled roofs that reach up high. This gives the architectural mass a certain rhythm that I found appealing. Also, abstractly, this echos the gothic representation of cathedrals – with their many spires – reaching upward to the heavens. While this is not a religious piece, there is a certain contemplation that I find in it.

 

On that note, of particular interest to me in this work is the notion of broken trust and faith. Foundations give way. Permanence transmutes into fragility. Our safe havens betray us.

 

For me, this piece speaks to the inherent unpredictability of those things which we call our foundation. Like a little dollhouse, a seemingly secure home is plucked up and set on a new path. This charming home, lovingly embellished with ornamental fancy was no match for nature. The fancy embellishments serve as a reminder of our earlier focus on the material world, while the aftermath removes us from that focus. The piece offers no answers or necessarily any hope, but rather points to life's fragility.

 

Strong foundations are the essence of safe havens. These foundations can be physical foundations (an orderly home, for instance), ideological foundations (religion and politics), financial foundations (steady income and solid investments), social foundations (emotional ties to others) and so on. Our well-being is pinned on these safe havens that we hold on to as a place to fall back in times of stress and trouble. Amidst the chaos of environments we cannot control – whether physical, financial, social or mental – the house is one of the ultimate icons representing a safe haven. It is the final retreat and escape of the day where we can let go of the external pressures (or at least some of them) that grip us during the day. Here, in the home, with the world locked behind a door, we control what will be our guest and what will not.

 

However, this and other safe havens betray. The door can be kicked in at the blink of an eye and our foundation instantly dissolves. Local events of recent – catastrophic earthquakes, tsunami, nuclear radiation leaks, record fires, floods and tornadoes – all presented real devastation to many personal safe havens. Graft and corruption in media, government, financial sectors and businesses betray a sense of social order that provides for us a mental, moral safe haven. Untouchable international crime organizations silently hack large databases of personal information with crushing effect to individuals' financial safe haven. Financial institutions and the people within unapologetically bring the world to its knees through reckless, greedy practices. Religious safe havens (whether "Christian" or otherwise) are assaulted from within as certain fundamentalists carve out their own scriptural interpretations of hate toward others. A democratic superpower representing life, liberty and happiness denies personal rights and institutes a policy of indefinite personal torture and the threat of it. And so it goes. All the planning, effort and unbreakable trust we put in our foundations – whatever form they take – can falter without warning.

 

Such it is. Life events that kick at our door or we witness through others temporarily blasts the scrim open, revealing – like the hole in this model's wall – the fragility of our own foundations and, perhaps for a moment, a sense of gratitude for those foundations left standing and greater clarity as to which safe havens are truly important to our well-being.

 

– Mike

 

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Much thanks to all for the enthusiastic comments!! They are greatly appreciated :)

A great deal of credit goes to the afol community for sharing their wonderful mocs and tips all of which has served to inspire me.

You can stay updated on any new works or showings at my facebook art page:

www.facebook.com/pages/Mike-Doyles-Art/548752985156359

About

Paan is very Famous After Iftaar :P when Fasting is Over and we Take Food after That Paan is Must For me :P

The consumption of paan has been a very popular cultural tradition throughout Pakistan since the start, especially in Memon and Muhajir households. Pakistan grows a large variety of betel leaf (specifically in the coastal areas of Sindh)

The paan business is famously handled and run by Memon traders, who migrated from western India when Pakistan was created in 1947. To explain the popularity level that the paan is sold at, rough estimates show that an average Pakistani can consume up to 7-8 paans a day. :D

 

For more Visit here

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paan

 

After Eating Paan Some Times This will Happens too :P

www.youtube.com/watch?v=CiY9HJ-Y2yw

  

Visit my Website

www.xploiter.tk

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Join me on Facebook

www.facebook.com/atif.xploiter

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Usage

All my images are copyrighted.

If you intend to use any of my pictures, for any usage, you need to contact me first.

Thank you.

Where ?

Almost all my photos are geotagged !!!

The Shot

Single Exposure Shot

Photomatix

Tonemapped generated HDR using detail enhancer option

Photoshop

Basic Adjustments , tools , Frames & Logo.

You

All comments, criticism and tips for improvements are (as always) welcome

 

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Atif (Xploiter ™) © All rights reserved.

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Die Glühlampe oder Glühfadenlampe (früher Glühlicht) ist eine künstliche Lichtquelle. Umgangssprachlich werden Glühlampen wegen der Form als Glühbirnen bezeichnet. In der Glühlampe wird ein elektrischer Leiter durch elektrischen Strom aufgeheizt und dadurch zum Leuchten angeregt. Die weit verbreitete Bauform der Glühlampe mit Schraubsockel wird fachsprachlich als Allgebrauchslampe bezeichnet (abgekürzt A-Lampe oder AGL).

  

Sie wird heute noch sehr oft zur Wohnraumbeleuchtung eingesetzt. In der Europäischen Union, der Schweiz, Australien und einigen anderen Ländern ist aus Energiespargründen ein Herstellungs- und Vertriebsverbot von Glühlampen mit geringer Energieeffizienz (Energielabel E, F und G) geplant, schon beschlossen oder bereits in Kraft.

  

In einer Glühlampe lässt man einen elektrischen Strom durch einen dünnen, aus einem leitenden Material (Leiter) (meist ein Metall) bestehenden Faden fließen. Dank geeignet gewähltem Material, z. B. Wolfram, schmilzt dieses nicht. Der Metall-Faden hat die Form einer Glühwendel (Glühfaden). Fließt ein ausreichend starker elektrischer Strom (Stromfluss) durch den Faden, wird dieser so stark erhitzt (joulesche Wärme), dass er glüht. Die Temperatur der Glühwendel beträgt je nach Bauform ca. 1500–3000 °C, so dass sie gemäß dem planckschen Strahlungsgesetz elektromagnetische Strahlung emittiert, die vor allem im Bereich der Infrarotstrahlung und des sichtbaren Lichts liegt. Das Aussenden von Photonen (Lichtteilchen) wird dabei durch Gitterschwingungen im Glühfaden hervorgerufen.

  

Die aufgenommene elektrische Leistung wird jedoch nur zu einem sehr geringen Teil (etwa 5 %) im Bereich des sichtbaren Lichtes, ein weit größerer Teil im Infraroten (oft als Wärmestrahlung bezeichnet) abgestrahlt. Der Rest wird mittels Wärmeleitung und -konvektion an das Füllgas und den Glaskolben sowie an die Zuleitungs- und Haltedrähte der Glühwendel abgegeben.

  

Die Glühlampe besteht aus einem Sockel einschließlich der elektrischen Stromzuführungen im Quetschfuß und einem Glaskolben, der den Glühfaden und dessen Halterung vor der Außenumgebung abschirmt. Die unterschiedlichen Bauformen und Leistungsformen werden meist durch das Lampenbezeichnungssystem ILCOS charakterisiert und sind dort näher beschrieben.

  

Der Sockel einer Glühlampe dient dazu, sie in einer Lampenfasssung zu fixieren und elektrisch zu kontaktieren. Die Ausführung der Fassung beschränkt die zulässige Leistung und Stromaufnahme der darin betreibbaren Glühlampe. Leuchtenfassungen für E27-Allgebrauchslampen sind oft auf 60 Watt begrenzt. Sockellose Lampen besitzen nur Anschlussdrähte oder einen Quetschfuß ohne Stutzen zum Einstecken. Stecksockellampen tragen lediglich verstärkte Stifte am Quetschfuß. Traditionelle Glühlampen besitzen aus Blech gefertigte Edisonsockel, in die die Lampe eingekittet ist. Bei Projektionslampen (außer Halogen) und solchen für Fahrzeugscheinwerfer ist der Sockel gegenüber dem Glühdraht exakt justiert. Im Sockel von Allgebrauchslampen höherer Leistung (ab 40 oder 60 Watt) befindet sich eine Schmelzsicherung oder ein dafür geeignetes dünnes Drahtstück, um zu vermeiden, dass der beim Durchbrennen möglicherweise im Inneren der Lampe zündende Lichtbogen zum Auslösen der vorgeordneten Sicherung oder zum Bersten des Glaskolbens führt.

  

In normaler Umgebungsluft würde der Glühfaden aufgrund des Sauerstoffs und der hohen Betriebstemperaturen sofort zu Wolframoxid verbrennen, deshalb wird er durch den Glaskolben von der Umgebungsluft abgeschirmt. Da während des Betriebs ständig Metall vom Glühfaden abdampft, richtet sich die Größe des Kolbens im Wesentlichen nach der Sublimationsrate des Drahtmaterials. Konventionelle Glühlampen bzw. Glühlampen mit hoher Leistung benötigen einen großen Glaskolben, damit sich der Niederschlag auf einer größeren Fläche verteilen kann und die Transparenz des Glaskolbens während der Lebensdauer der Lampe nicht allzu sehr eingeschränkt wird. Der Glaskolben kann innen partiell verspiegelt, mattiert (innen aufgeraut) oder aus opakem Glas (Milchglas) gefertigt sein. Farbige Glühlampen werden selten durch gefärbtes Glas, öfter durch lackierte Kolben realisiert. Glühlampen-Glaskolben besitzen fertigungsbedingt einen Pumpstutzen (Abpumpen der Luft und Befüllen mit Schutzgas), der abgeschmolzen ist. Bei älteren Glühlampen und bei Halogen-Glühlampe sitzt er an der Spitze des Kolbens, unter anderem bei Allgebrauchslampen sitzt er geschützt im Sockel. An die Glasart werden nur bei kompakteren Bauformen besondere Anforderungen gestellt; sie ist teilweise aus hitzebeständigem Glas oder – bei Halogenglühlampen – aus Kieselglas.

  

Früher wurde der Glaskolben evakuiert. Heute sind die Glühlampen mit einem Schutzgas gefüllt. Das vereinfacht die Herstellung und reduziert die Sublimationsrate. Die bei einer Gasfüllung auftretenden Wärmeverluste durch Wärmeleitung und Konvektion begrenzt man durch die Wahl von möglichst schweren Inertgasmolekülen oder -atomen. Stickstoff-Argon-Gemische sind ein Zugeständnis an die Herstellungskosten. Teure Glühlampen enthalten Krypton oder Xenon, was eine stärkere Erwärmung ermöglicht.

  

Die ersten patentierten Glühlampen in den 1840er Jahren hatten Glühfäden aus Platin. Aus diesen Entwicklungen wurde allerdings kein Produkt. Erst bei Temperaturen knapp unter dem Schmelzpunkt von Platin von 1772 °C wurde eine akzeptable Lichtausbeute erzielt. Die exakte Temperatursteuerung für haltbare Glühfäden erwies sich als zu schwierig. Thomas Alva Edison gab diesen Technikansatz auf.

  

Die ersten kommerziell hergestellten Glühlampen enthielten einen Faden aus Kohle mit einem Sublimationspunkt von 3550 °C. Die Verkohlung von natürlichen dünnen Fasern schnellwachsender tropischer Pflanzen wie Bambus war geeignet. Der Herstellungsprozess ist wesentlich komplexer als die Herstellung dünner Fäden aus Platin. Ferner erfordert der Betrieb von Kohlefäden ein stärkeres Vakuum im Glaskolben. Kohlenfadenlampen sind heute noch erhältlich. Das leicht rötliche Licht und das sanfte Ansteigen der Helligkeit beim Einschalten wird oft als angenehm empfunden.

  

Vor allem um die Helligkeit zu erhöhen, wurde weiterhin an Metallglühfäden geforscht. Gemäß dem schon damals bekannten Wienschen Strahlungsgesetz ist dazu eine höhere Temperatur des Glühfadens erforderlich als mit einem Kohlefaden erreichbar ist. Ein wichtiger Zwischenschritt waren Glühfäden aus Osmium. Durch den hohen Schmelzpunkt war eine große Helligkeit bei relativ niedriger Wärmeentwicklung möglich. Nachteilig ist, dass Osmium so spröde ist, dass es sich überhaupt nicht zu Drähten formen lässt, sondern mit einem Bindemittel zu einer metallpulverhaltigen Paste verarbeitet und dann zu Fäden gespritzt werden muss. Die so erhaltenen Glühfäden sind noch empfindlicher gegen Erschütterung als Kohlefäden. Außerdem sind sie relativ dick und leiten sehr gut, bedingen also bei kleinen Leistungen sehr geringe Spannungen, wie sie in den damals üblichen Gleichstromnetzen nur schwer bereitzustellen waren. Wegen dieser Nachteile wurden die Osmiumglühfäden sehr schnell von solchen aus Tantal verdrängt. Ab dem Jahr 1903 war es möglich, das ebenfalls hochschmelzende Tantal sehr rein und damit zu feinen Drähten verformbar herzustellen. Die Tantalglühfäden lösten in der darauffolgenden Zeit die Kohlefäden in den meisten Anwendungen ab. Ab 1910 wurden Glühfäden aus Wolfram üblich, nachdem man Methoden gefunden hatte, um dieses noch höher als Osmium schmelzende Metall zu dünnen Metalldrähten zu formen.

  

Neben der möglichen Erhöhung der Temperatur und damit der Lichtausbeute pro Watt besitzen die Metallfäden auch noch einen weiteren Vorteil: Sie können zu kleinen Wendeln geformt werden, wodurch sich die Leistungsdichte erhöht – die Glühlampe wird bei gleicher Lichtabgabe kleiner. Neben dem verringerten Platzbedarf lässt sich das Licht dadurch auch besser bündeln. Zudem kann bei gleicher elektrischer Leistung nochmals eine höhere Temperatur erreicht werden, weil die Wärmequelle eine geringere Ausdehnung hat und somit nicht so viel Wärme an die Umgebung verliert. Bei Lampen großer Leistung ist der Draht oft doppelt gewendelt, um durch eine kleine Langmuir-Schicht diese Wärmekonvektion zu begrenzen und/oder bei hohen Betriebsspannungen viel Draht auf kleinem Volumen unterzubringen.

Wendeln und Doppelwendeln werden hergestellt, indem Wolframdraht auf Molybdändraht größeren Durchmessers gewickelt wird, dieser – bei Doppelwendeln – wiederum auf einen weiteren dickeren Draht. Die Hilfsdrähte werden weggeätzt.

Lange Wendeln müssen durch Stützdrähte gehalten werden. An Fahrzeuglampen werden besondere Anforderungen hinsichtlich Erschütterungsempfindlichkeit gestellt.

Aufgrund der positiven Temperatur-Widerstands-Charakteristik (Kaltleiter) fließt beim Einschalten einer Metalldraht-Glühlampe ein sehr hoher Einschaltstrom (das Fünf- bis Fünfzehnfache des Nennstromes), der die Glühwendel schnell auf die Betriebstemperatur aufheizt. Mit der Zunahme des elektrischen Widerstands bei steigender Temperatur sinkt der Strom auf den Nennwert. Die früher gebräuchlichen Kohlenfadenlampen zeigten dagegen eine sanfte Zunahme des Stromes beim Einschalten, da erst mit steigender Temperatur genügend Ladungsträger für den Stromtransport freigesetzt werden (Kohle ist ein Heißleiter).

  

Der hohe Einschaltstrom ist die Ursache für Ausfälle von Glühlampen unmittelbar beim Einschalten (siehe unten). Dabei kann (bei höheren Betriebsspannungen) ein Lichtbogen zünden, was zum Auslösen der Sicherung und/oder zum Bersten des Glaskolbens führen kann. Glühlampen für Netzspannung sind daher im Sockel mit einer Schmelzsicherung in Form eines dünnen Anschlussdrahtes versehen.

  

Der hohe Einschaltstrom von Metalldrahtglühlampen belastet das Energieversorgungssystem des Leuchtmittels.

Fast die gesamte der Lampe zugeführte Energie wird in Strahlung umgesetzt, die Verluste durch Wärmeleitung und -konvektion sind gering. Aber nur ein kleiner Wellenlängenbereich der Strahlung ist für das menschliche Auge sichtbar, der Hauptanteil liegt im unsichtbaren Infrarotbereich und kann für Beleuchtungszwecke nicht genutzt werden.

  

Verlauf der Glühdrahttemperatur (obere Kurve) und der relativen Helligkeit (untere Kurve) einer Glühlampe 12 V/60 W in Abhängigkeit von der Betriebsspannung

Die Wellenlängenverteilung des erzeugten Lichtes entspricht dem planckschen Strahlungsgesetz, sein Spektrum ist wie bei der Sonne kontinuierlich. Da aber die Temperatur des Glühfadens wesentlich geringer ist, überwiegt der Rotanteil bei weitem, Blau ist nur sehr schwach vertreten. Das Strahlungsmaximum der Strahlung verschiebt sich mit steigender Temperatur gemäß dem Wienschen Verschiebungsgesetz zu kleineren Wellenlängen und damit zu sichtbarem Licht hin, bleibt aber immer im IR-Bereich. Zugleich erhöht sich die spektrale Strahlungsflußdichte und damit das Strahlungsmaximum mit der 4. Potenz der Temperatur. Die Helligkeit einer Glühlampe hängt daher stark überproportional von der Temperatur des Glühfadens ab, wobei die Höhe der Betriebsspannung ausschlaggebend ist.

  

Um eine möglichst hohe Lichtausbeute zu erhalten, muss also das Strahlungsmaximum durch Temperaturerhöhung aus dem Bereich der langwelligen Infrarotstrahlung (Wärmestrahlung) möglichst weit in den Bereich des sichtbaren Lichtes verschoben werden, ohne der Schmelztemperatur von Wolfram zu nahe zu kommen. Denn bereits vorher sublimiert Wolfram, wodurch die Nutzungsdauer der Glühlampe vermindert wird:

  

Die abgelösten Atome kondensieren an der kühleren Glasinnenwand, schwärzen sie und verringern die Lichtausbeute. Dieses Problem wird in der Halogenlampe weitgehend beseitigt.

Der Glühfaden wird immer dünner und heißer und beschleunigt seine eigene Zerstörung.

Teilweise wird versucht, den infraroten Strahlungsanteil mittels einer Beschichtung des Glaskolbens (Dichroitischer Spiegel) teilweise zurück auf den Glühfaden zu reflektieren, wodurch die Stromaufnahme bei gleicher Fadentemperatur sinkt (sogenannte IRC-Beschichtung,[3] siehe unten bei Halogenglühlampe).

  

Die Lichtausbeute beträgt bei einer Glühfadentemperatur von etwa 2700 K etwa 12 lm/W (Lumen pro Watt). Erhöht man die Temperatur auf 3400 K, so steigt die Lichtausbeute auf etwa 34 lm/W. Die höhere Temperatur führt jedoch zu einer stark verkürzten Lebensdauer. Die Lichtausbeute typischer Allgebrauchsglühlampen wird mit 10…20 lm/W angegeben.

  

Die Höchsttemperatur wird durch die Eigenschaften des Glühfadenmaterials begrenzt. Um möglichst hohe Temperaturen zu ermöglichen, verwendet man heute für Glühfäden das hochschmelzende Metall Wolfram (Schmelztemperatur 3422 ± 15 °C), früher auch Osmium oder Kohle. Allerdings lässt sich mit keinem dieser Stoffe die für tageslichtähnliches Licht wünschenswerte Farbtemperatur von etwa 6200 K erreichen, da Wolfram bei dieser Temperatur sogar bereits gasförmig (Siedetemperatur 5660 °C) ist. Selbst wenn es gelänge, betrüge die Lichtausbeute aufgrund des breiten emittierten Wellenlängenbandes maximal 95 lm/W (bei ca. 6600 K).

Glühlampen geben mit Farbtemperaturen von etwa 2300 K bis 2900 K ein Licht ab, das deutlich gelb-rötlicher als das natürliche Tageslicht ist. Je nach Sonnenschein liegt Tageslicht bei 5000 K bis 7000 K. Andere Lichtquellen mit dieser typischen Farbtemperatur von Glühlampen (Energiesparlampen, Leuchtstofflampen und LED-Lampen) werden als „Warmton“ angeboten, haben aber im Gegensatz zu Glühlampen kein kontinuierliches Lichtspektrum, weshalb der Farbwiedergabeindex schlechter ist.

  

Die Glühfadentemperatur entspricht nicht der Farbtemperatur des abgestrahlten Lichts, da Wolfram kein idealer Schwarzer Körper ist; Die Farbtemperatur ist um etwa 60 bis 80 Kelvin höher als die Glühfadentemperatur (im Temperaturbereich üblicher Glühlampen).[6] Der Grund ist der wellenlängenabgängige Emissionsgrad des metallischen Wolframs, welcher mit geringerer Wellenlänge etwas ansteigt.

  

Um beispielsweise für Projektions- und Bühnenbeleuchtungszwecke sowie für Fotoarbeiten eine höhere Farbtemperatur zu erreichen, werden entsprechende Glühlampen mit sehr hohen Glühfadentemperaturen betrieben, die Farbtemperaturen von 3400 K erlauben. Die Lebensdauer sinkt dementsprechend auf teilweise wenige Stunden ab. Oft werden zusätzlich auch Wärmeschutzfilter eingesetzt, die die Farbtemperatur weiter erhöhen. Vergleiche auch Kaltlichtspiegellampe.

  

Auf der anderen Seite werden Glühlampen oft mit Unterspannung betrieben (gedimmt), um stimmungsvolles Licht zu erzeugen, ähnlich demjenigen von Kerzen (ca. 1600 K) oder Feuer.

  

Die Leuchtdichte des Glühdrahtes einer Glühlampe beträgt 5 bis 36 Mcd/m2,[7]. Auch wenn dieser Wert von anderen künstlichen Lichtquellen (zum Beispiel Hochdruck-Gasentladungslampen, Kohlebogenlampen, LEDs) noch übertroffen wird, eignen sich Glühlampen daher gut für Anwendungen, bei denen das Licht gebündelt werden muss, etwa für Projektoren und Scheinwerfer. Die wirksame Leuchtdichte lässt sich durch die Gestaltung des Glühfadens (Doppelwendel, Flachwendel) weiter erhöhen. Generell besitzen dicke Glühdrähte (für niedrige Betriebsspannungen) höhere wirksame Leuchtdichten als dünne Glühdrähte.

  

Aufgrund der thermischen Trägheit des Glühfadens weisen auch an netz- bzw. niederfrequenter Wechselspannung betriebene Glühlampen nur geringe Schwankungen der Helligkeit auf. Die Helligkeitsmodulation mit der doppelten Betriebsfrequenz ist umso stärker, je dünner der Glühfaden ist. Sie ist also besonders bei Lampen geringer Leistung für Netzspannung ausgeprägt und beträgt bei einer Glühlampe 15 W/230 V etwa 30 %.

  

Insbesondere Niederspannungsglühlampen gelten aufgrund ihrer dicken, thermisch trägen Glühdrähte als flimmerfrei – ein Vorteil bei der Beleuchtung von rotierenden Maschinen. Glühlampen mit sehr dünnem Glühfaden für Betriebsströme von weniger als 0,1 A können mit Frequenzen bis zu einigen 100 Hz moduliert werden und wurden früher in Bastelprojekten zur Sprachübertragung verwendet.

  

Die Lebensdauer einer Glühlampe fällt mit steigender Lichtausbeute durch die höhere Glühfadentemperatur drastisch ab. Bei 2700 K erreichen konventionelle Glühlampen eine Standzeit von etwa 1000 Stunden, bei 3400 K (Studiolampen) von nur wenigen Stunden. Wie das Diagramm zeigt, verdoppelt sich die Helligkeit, wenn man die Betriebsspannung um 20 % erhöht. Gleichzeitig reduziert sich die Lebensdauer um 95 %. Eine Halbierung der Betriebsspannung (zum Beispiel durch Reihenschaltung zweier gleichartiger Glühlampen) verringert demnach zwar die Lichtausbeute, verlängert aber die Lebensdauer um mehr als das Tausendfache. Sind die Kosten für das Auswechseln einer Lampe hoch (Ersatzbeschaffung, Montage), so kann zu Gunsten einer höheren Lebensdauer auf eine hohe Lichtausbeute verzichtet und die Betriebsspannung abgesenkt werden. In Geräten eingebaute Lampen sind meist umständlich zu wechseln. Hier sollte für die Glühlampen eine deutlich niedrigere Betriebsspannung als die Nennspannung der Lampen angesetzt werden.

  

Die Lebensdauer einer Glühlampe wird meist nicht durch gleichmäßiges Abdampfen von Wendelmaterial bestimmt, sondern durch das Durchbrennen an einer Stelle. Grund ist eine Instabilität, die mit der Zunahme des elektrischen Widerstandes mit der Temperatur zusammenhängt: Stellen des Glühfadens, die nur wenig dünner sind und sich beim Einschalten zunächst nur aufgrund der höheren Stromdichte schneller aufheizen, haben dann auch noch aufgrund ihrer Übertemperatur einen höheren Widerstand, heizen sich kurzzeitig extrem auf und verlieren dabei etwas Material durch Verdampfen. Beim nächsten Einschalten verschärft sich das Problem. Beim letzten Einschalten kann von der Unterbrechungsstelle sogar eine Bogenentladung im Füllgas ausgehen.

  

Um Überströme durch solche Bogenentladungen gerade durchgebrannter oder anders innen kurzgeschlossener Glühlampen zu limitieren, haben viele 230-Volt-Glühlampen eine Schmelzsicherung im Sockel. Sie hat die Gestalt eines dünnen Glasröhrchens.

  

Eine Möglichkeit, die Lebensdauer zu verlängern, ist daher die Begrenzung des Einschaltstroms oder die in der Veranstaltungstechnik häufig angewandte Vorheizung (engl. Pre Heat) durch einen permanenten Stromfluss knapp unterhalb der Leuchtschwelle.

  

Die Ausfallwahrscheinlichkeit von Glühlampen lässt sich durch eine Exponentialverteilung oder, mit Berücksichtigung der Historie, durch eine Weibullverteilung beschreiben.

  

An incandescent light bulb, incandescent lamp or incandescent light globe is an electric light which produces light with a wire filament heated to a high temperature by an electric current passing through it, until it glows (see Incandescence). The hot filament is protected from oxidation with a glass or quartz bulb that is filled with inert gas or evacuated. In a halogen lamp, filament evaporation is prevented by a chemical process that redeposits metal vapor onto the filament, extending its life. The light bulb is supplied with electrical current by feed-through terminals or wires embedded in the glass. Most bulbs are used in a socket which provides mechanical support and electrical connections.

  

Incandescent bulbs are manufactured in a wide range of sizes, light output, and voltage ratings, from 1.5 volts to about 300 volts. They require no external regulating equipment, have low manufacturing costs, and work equally well on either alternating current or direct current. As a result, the incandescent lamp is widely used in household and commercial lighting, for portable lighting such as table lamps, car headlamps, and flashlights, and for decorative and advertising lighting.

  

Incandescent bulbs are much less efficient than most other types of electric lighting; incandescent bulbs convert less than 5% of the energy they use into visible light[1] (with the remaining energy being converted into heat). The luminous efficacy of a typical incandescent bulb is 16 lumens per watt, compared to the 60 lm/W of a compact fluorescent bulb. Some applications of the incandescent bulb deliberately use the heat generated by the filament. Such applications include incubators, brooding boxes for poultry,[2] heat lights for reptile tanks,[3] infrared heating for industrial heating and drying processes, lava lamps, and the Easy-Bake Oven toy. Incandescent bulbs also have short lifetimes compared with other types of lighting; around 1000 hours for home light bulbs versus up to 10,000 hours for compact fluorescents and up to 100,000 hours for LED lamps.

  

Incandescent bulbs are gradually being replaced in many applications by other types of electric light, such as fluorescent lamps, compact fluorescent lamps (CFL), cold cathode fluorescent lamps (CCFL), high-intensity discharge lamps, and light-emitting diode lamps (LED). Some jurisdictions, such as the European Union and Canada, are in the process of phasing out the use of incandescent light bulbs.

  

In addressing the question of who invented the incandescent lamp, historians Robert Friedel and Paul Israel[4] list 22 inventors of incandescent lamps prior to Joseph Swan and Thomas Edison. They conclude that Edison's version was able to outstrip the others because of a combination of three factors: an effective incandescent material, a higher vacuum than others were able to achieve (by use of the Sprengel pump) and a high resistance that made power distribution from a centralized source economically viable.

  

Historian Thomas Hughes has attributed Edison's success to his development of an entire, integrated system of electric lighting.

  

The lamp was a small component in his system of electric lighting, and no more critical to its effective functioning than the Edison Jumbo generator, the Edison main and feeder, and the parallel-distribution system. Other inventors with generators and incandescent lamps, and with comparable ingenuity and excellence, have long been forgotten because their creators did not preside over their introduction in a system of lighting.

In 1802, Humphry Davy had what was then the most powerful electrical battery in the world at the Royal Institution of Great Britain (with the possible exception of another one made in the same year by Vasily Petrov in Russia[citation needed]). In that year, Davy created the first incandescent light by passing the current through a thin strip of platinum, chosen because the metal had an extremely high melting point. It was not bright enough nor did it last long enough to be practical, but it was the precedent behind the efforts of scores of experimenters over the next 75 years.[8]

  

Over the first three-quarters of the 19th century many experimenters worked with various combinations of platinum or iridium wires, carbon rods, and evacuated or semi-evacuated enclosures. Many of these devices were demonstrated and some were patented.[9]

  

In 1835, James Bowman Lindsay demonstrated a constant electric light at a public meeting in Dundee, Scotland. He stated that he could "read a book at a distance of one and a half feet". However, having perfected the device to his own satisfaction, he turned to the problem of wireless telegraphy and did not develop the electric light any further. His claims are not well documented, although he is credited in Challoner et al.[10] with being the inventor of the "Incandescent Light Bulb".

  

In 1840, British scientist Warren de la Rue enclosed a coiled platinum filament in a vacuum tube and passed an electric current through it. The design was based on the concept that the high melting point of platinum would allow it to operate at high temperatures and that the evacuated chamber would contain fewer gas molecules to react with the platinum, improving its longevity. Although a workable design, the cost of the platinum made it impractical for commercial use.

  

In 1841, Frederick de Moleyns of England was granted the first patent for an incandescent lamp, with a design using platinum wires contained within a vacuum bulb.[11]

  

In 1845, American John W. Starr[12] acquired a patent for his incandescent light bulb involving the use of carbon filaments.[13] He died shortly after obtaining the patent, and his invention was never produced commercially. Little else is known about him.[14]

  

In 1851, Jean Eugène Robert-Houdin publicly demonstrated incandescent light bulbs on his estate in Blois, France. His light bulbs are on display in the museum of the Château de Blois.[15]

  

In 1872, Russian Alexander Lodygin invented an incandescent light bulb and obtained a Russian patent in 1874. He used as a burner two carbon rods of diminished section in a glass receiver, hermetically sealed, and filled with nitrogen, electrically arranged so that the current could be passed to the second carbon when the first had been consumed.[16] Later he lived in the USA, changed his name to Alexander de Lodyguine and applied and obtained patents for incandescent lamps having chromium, iridium, rhodium, ruthenium, osmium, molybdenum and tungsten filaments,[17] and a bulb using a molybdenum filament was demonstrated at the world fair of 1900 in Paris.[18]

  

Heinrich Göbel in 1893 claimed he had designed the first incandescent light bulb in 1854, with a thin carbonized bamboo filament of high resistance, platinum lead-in wires in an all-glass envelope, and a high vacuum. Judges of four courts raised doubts about the alleged Göbel anticipation, but there was never a decision in a final hearing due to the expiry date of Edison's patent. A research work published 2007 concluded that the story of the Göbel lamps in the 1850s is a legend.[19] On 24 July 1874, a Canadian patent was filed by Henry Woodward and Mathew Evans for a lamp consisting of carbon rods mounted in a nitrogen-filled glass cylinder. They were unsuccessful at commercializing their lamp, and sold rights to their patent (U.S. Patent 0,181,613) to Thomas Edison in 1879.

  

Joseph Swan (1828–1914) was a British physicist and chemist. In 1850, he began working with carbonized paper filaments in an evacuated glass bulb. By 1860, he was able to demonstrate a working device but the lack of a good vacuum and an adequate supply of electricity resulted in a short lifetime for the bulb and an inefficient source of light. By the mid-1870s better pumps became available, and Swan returned to his experiments.

  

With the help of Charles Stearn, an expert on vacuum pumps, in 1878, Swan developed a method of processing that avoided the early bulb blackening. This received a British Patent in 1880.[22][dubious – discuss] On 18 December 1878, a lamp using a slender carbon rod was shown at a meeting of the Newcastle Chemical Society, and Swan gave a working demonstration at their meeting on 17 January 1879. It was also shown to 700 who attended a meeting of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Newcastle upon Tyne on 3 February 1879. These lamps used a carbon rod from an arc lamp rather than a slender filament. Thus they had low resistance and required very large conductors to supply the necessary current, so they were not commercially practical, although they did furnish a demonstration of the possibilities of incandescent lighting with relatively high vacuum, a carbon conductor, and platinum lead-in wires. Besides requiring too much current for a central station electric system to be practical, they had a very short lifetime.[23] Swan turned his attention to producing a better carbon filament and the means of attaching its ends. He devised a method of treating cotton to produce 'parchmentised thread' and obtained British Patent 4933 in 1880.[22] From this year he began installing light bulbs in homes and landmarks in England. His house was the first in the world to be lit by a lightbulb and so the first house in the world to be lit by hydroelectric power. In 1878 the home of Lord Armstrong at Cragside was also among the first houses to be lit by electricity. In the early 1880s he had started his company.[24] In 1881, the Savoy Theatre in the City of Westminster, London was lit by Swan incandescent lightbulbs, which was the first theatre, and the first public building in the world, to be lit entirely by electricity.[

  

Thomas Edison began serious research into developing a practical incandescent lamp in 1878. Edison filed his first patent application for "Improvement In Electric Lights" on 14 October 1878.[26] After many experiments, first with carbon in the early 1880s and then with platinum and other metals, in the end Edison returned to a carbon filament.[27] The first successful test was on 22 October 1879,[28][29] and lasted 13.5 hours. Edison continued to improve this design and by 4 November 1879, filed for a US patent for an electric lamp using "a carbon filament or strip coiled and connected ... to platina contact wires."[30] Although the patent described several ways of creating the carbon filament including using "cotton and linen thread, wood splints, papers coiled in various ways,"[30] Edison and his team later discovered that a carbonized bamboo filament could last more than 1200 hours.[31] In 1880, the Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company steamer, Columbia, became the first application for Edison's incandescent electric lamps (it was also the first ship to execute use of a dynamo).[32][33][34] Columbia sank in a collision with a schooner off California in 1907.

  

Hiram S. Maxim started a lightbulb company in 1878 to exploit his patents and those of William Sawyer. His United States Electric Lighting Company was the second company, after Edison, to sell practical incandescent electric lamps. They made their first commercial installation of incandescent lamps at the Mercantile Safe Deposit Company in New York City in the fall of 1880, about six months after the Edison incandescent lamps had been installed on the Columbia. In October 1880, Maxim patented a method of coating carbon filaments with hydrocarbons to extend their life.

  

Lewis Latimer, employed at the time by Edison, developed an improved method of heat-treating carbon filaments which reduced breakage and allowed them to be molded into novel shapes, such as the characteristic "M" shape of Maxim filaments. On 17 January 1882, Latimer received a patent for the "Process of Manufacturing Carbons", an improved method for the production of light bulb filaments, which was purchased by the United States Electric Light Company.[35] Latimer patented other improvements such as a better way of attaching filaments to their wire supports.[36]

  

In Britain, the Edison and Swan companies merged into the Edison and Swan United Electric Company (later known as Ediswan, and ultimately incorporated into Thorn Lighting Ltd). Edison was initially against this combination, but after Swan sued him and won, Edison was eventually forced to cooperate, and the merger was made. Eventually, Edison acquired all of Swan's interest in the company. Swan sold his US patent rights to the Brush Electric Company in June 1882.

  

In 1882, the first recorded set of miniature incandescent lamps for lighting a Christmas tree was installed.[citation needed] These did not become common in homes for many years.

  

The United States Patent Office gave a ruling 8 October 1883, that Edison's patents were based on the prior art of William Sawyer and were invalid. Litigation continued for a number of years. Eventually on 6 October 1889, a judge ruled[citation needed] that Edison's electric light improvement claim for "a filament of carbon of high resistance" was valid.

  

In the 1890s, the Austrian inventor Carl Auer von Welsbach worked on metal-filament mantles, first with platinum wire, and then osmium, and produced an operating version in 1898. In 1898, he patented the osmium lamp and started marketing it in 1902, the first commercial metal filament incandescent lamp.[citation needed]

  

In 1897, German physicist and chemist Walther Nernst developed the Nernst lamp, a form of incandescent lamp that used a ceramic globar and did not require enclosure in a vacuum or inert gas. Twice as efficient as carbon filament lamps, Nernst lamps were briefly popular until overtaken by lamps using metal filaments.[citation needed]

  

In 1901, American businessman Frank A. Poor purchased the Merritt Manufacturing Company, the predecessor to North American light bulb makers Hygrade and Osram Sylvania. Poor's firm in Middleton, Massachusetts, specialized in refilling burned-out light bulbs until 1916.[citation needed]

  

In 1903, Willis Whitnew invented a metal-coated carbon filament that would not blacken the inside of a light bulb.

  

On 13 December 1904, Hungarian Sándor Just and Croatian Franjo Hanaman were granted a Hungarian patent (No. 34541) for a tungsten filament lamp that lasted longer and gave brighter light than the carbon filament. Tungsten filament lamps were first marketed by the Hungarian company Tungsram in 1904. This type is often called Tungsram-bulbs in many European countries.[37] Their experiments also showed that the luminosity of bulbs filled with an inert gas was higher than in vacuum.[38] The tungsten filament outlasted all other types.

  

In 1906, the General Electric Company patented a method of making filaments from sintered tungsten and in 1911, used ductile tungsten wire for incandescent light bulbs.

  

In 1913, Irving Langmuir found that filling a lamp with inert gas instead of a vacuum resulted in twice the luminous efficacy and reduction of bulb blackening. In 1924, Marvin Pipkin, an American chemist, patented a process for frosting the inside of lamp bulbs without weakening them, and in 1947, he patented a process for coating the inside of lamps with silica.

  

Between 1924 and the outbreak of the Second World War, the Phoebus cartel attempted to fix prices and sales quotas for bulb manufacturers outside of North America.

  

In 1930, Hungarian Imre Bródy filled lamps with krypton gas rather than argon, and designed a process to obtain krypton from air. Production of krypton filled lamps based on his invention started at Ajka in 1937, in a factory co-designed by Polányi and Hungarian-born physicist Egon Orowan.[39]

  

By 1964, improvements in efficiency and production of incandescent lamps had reduced the cost of providing a given quantity of light by a factor of thirty, compared with the cost at introduction of Edison's lighting system.[40]

  

Consumption of incandescent light bulbs grew rapidly in the US. In 1885, an estimated 300,000 general lighting service lamps were sold, all with carbon filaments. When tungsten filaments were introduced, about 50 million lamp sockets existed in the US. In 1914, 88.5 million lamps were used, (only 15% with carbon filaments), and by 1945, annual sales of lamps were 795 million (more than 5 lamps per person per year).

  

Of the power consumed by typical incandescent light bulbs, 95% or more is converted into heat rather than visible light.[1] Other electrical light sources are more effective.

  

Luminous efficacy of a light source may be defined in two ways. The radiant luminous efficacy (LER) is the ratio of the visible light flux emitted (the luminous flux) to the total power radiated over all wavelengths. The source luminous efficacy (LES) is the ratio of the visible light flux emitted (the luminous flux) to the total power input to the source, such as a lamp.[42] Visible light is measured in lumens, a unit which is defined in part by the differing sensitivity of the human eye to different wavelengths of light. Not all wavelengths of visible electromagnetic energy are equally effective at stimulating the human eye; the luminous efficacy of radiant energy (LER) is a measure of how well the distribution of energy matches the perception of the eye. The units of luminous efficacy are "lumens per watt" (lpw). The maximum LER possible is 683 lm/W for monochromatic green light at 555 nanometres wavelength, the peak sensitivity of the human eye.

  

The luminous efficiency is defined as the ratio of the luminous efficacy to the theoretical maximum luminous efficacy of 683 lpw, and, as for luminous efficacy, is of two types, radiant luminous efficiency (LFR) and source luminous efficacy (LFS).

  

The chart below lists values of overall luminous efficacy and efficiency for several types of general service, 120-volt, 1000-hour lifespan incandescent bulb, and several idealized light sources. The values for the incandescent bulbs are source efficiencies and efficacies. The values for the ideal sources are radiant efficiencies and efficacies. A similar chart in the article on luminous efficacy compares a broader array of light sources to one another.

  

The spectrum emitted by a blackbody radiator at temperatures of incandescent bulbs does not match the sensitivity characteristics of the human eye; the light emitted does not appear white, and most is not in the range of wavelengths at which the eye is most sensitive. Tungsten filaments radiate mostly infrared radiation at temperatures where they remain solid – below 3,695 K (3,422 °C; 6,191 °F). Donald L. Klipstein explains it this way: "An ideal thermal radiator produces visible light most efficiently at temperatures around 6,300 °C (6,600 K; 11,400 °F). Even at this high temperature, a lot of the radiation is either infrared or ultraviolet, and the theoretical luminous efficacy (LER) is 95 lumens per watt."[43] No known material can be used as a filament at this ideal temperature, which is hotter than the sun's surface. An upper limit for incandescent lamp luminous efficacy (LER) is around 52 lumens per watt, the theoretical value emitted by tungsten at its melting point.[40]

  

Although inefficient, incandescent light bulbs have an advantage in applications where accurate color reproduction is important, since the continuous blackbody spectrum emitted from an incandescent light-bulb filament yields near-perfect color rendition, with a color rendering index of 100 (the best possible).[45] White-balancing is still required to avoid too "warm" or "cool" colors, but this is a simple process that requires only the color temperature in Kelvin as input for modern, digital visual reproduction equipment such as video or still cameras unless it is completely automatized. The color-rendering performance of incandescent lights cannot be matched by LEDs or fluorescent lights, although they can offer satisfactory performance for non-critical applications such as home lighting.[46][47] White-balancing such lights is therefore more complicated, requiring additional adjustments to reduce for example green-magenta color casts, and even when properly white-balanced, the color reproduction will not be perfect.

  

For a given quantity of light, an incandescent light bulb produces more heat (and thus consumes more power) than a fluorescent lamp. In buildings where air conditioning is used, incandescent lamps' heat output increases load on the air conditioning system.[48] Heat from lights will displace heat required from a building's heating system, but generally space heating energy is of lower cost than heat from lighting.

  

High-quality halogen incandescent lamps have higher efficacy, which will allow a halogen light to use less power to produce the same amount of light compared to a non-halogen incandescent light. The expected life span of halogen lights is also generally longer compared to non-halogen incandescent lights, and halogen lights produce a more constant light-output over time, without much dimming.[49]

  

There are many non-incandescent light sources, such as the fluorescent lamp, high-intensity discharge lamps and LED lamps, which have higher luminous efficiency, and some have been designed to be retrofitted in fixtures for incandescent lights. These devices produce light by luminescence. These mechanisms produce discrete spectral lines and do not have the broad "tail" of invisible infrared emissions. By careful selection of which electron energy level transitions are used, and fluorescent coatings which modify the spectral distribution, the spectrum emitted can be tuned to mimic the appearance of incandescent sources, or other different color temperatures of white light, although due to the discrete spectral lines rather than a continuous spectrum, the color rendering index will not be perfect for applications such as photography or cinematography.[46][47]

  

Cost of lighting

See also: Architectural lighting design

The initial cost of an incandescent bulb is small compared to the cost of the energy it uses over its lifetime. Incandescent bulbs have a shorter life than most other lighting, an important factor if replacement is inconvenient or expensive. Some types of lamp, including incandescent and fluorescent, emit less light as they age; this may be an inconvenience, or may reduce effective lifetime due to lamp replacement before total failure. A comparison of incandescent lamp operating cost with other light sources must include illumination requirements, cost of the lamp and labor cost to replace lamps (taking into account effective lamp lifetime), cost of electricity used, effect of lamp operation on heating and air conditioning systems. When used for lighting in houses and commercial buildings, the energy lost to heat can significantly increase the energy required by a building's air conditioning system, although during the heating season such heat is not all wasted, but is not as effective as the heating system.[50]

  

Measures to ban use

Main article: Phase-out of incandescent light bulbs

Since incandescent light bulbs use more energy than alternatives such as CFLs and LED lamps, many governments have introduced measures to ban their use,[51] by setting minimum efficacy standards higher than can be achieved by incandescent lamps.

  

In the US, federal law has scheduled the most common incandescent light bulbs to be phased out by 2014, to be replaced with more energy-efficient light bulbs.[52] Traditional incandescent light bulbs were phased out in Australia in November 2009.[53]

  

Objections to banning the use of incandescent light bulbs include the higher initial cost and quality of light of alternatives.[54] Some people have concerns about the health effects of fluorescent lamps.

  

Efforts to improve efficiency

Some research has been carried out to improve the efficacy of commercial incandescent lamps. In 2007, the consumer lighting division of General Electric announced a "high efficiency incandescent" (HEI) lamp project, which they claimed would ultimately be as much as four times more efficient than current incandescents, although their initial production goal was to be approximately twice as efficient.[55][56] The HEI program was terminated in 2008 due to slow progress.[57][58]

  

US Department of Energy research at Sandia National Laboratories initially indicated the potential for dramatically improved efficiency from a photonic lattice filament.[55] However, later work indicated that initially promising results were in error.[59]

  

Prompted by US legislation mandating increased bulb efficiency by 2012, new "hybrid" incandescent bulbs have been introduced by Philips. The "Halogena Energy Saver" incandescent is 30 percent more efficient than traditional designs, using a special chamber to reflect formerly wasted heat back to the filament to provide additional lighting power.[60]

  

Construction

Incandescent light bulbs consist of an air-tight glass enclosure (the envelope, or bulb) with a filament of tungsten wire inside the bulb, through which an electric current is passed. Contact wires and a base with two (or more) conductors provide electrical connections to the filament. Incandescent light bulbs usually contain a stem or glass mount anchored to the bulb's base that allows the electrical contacts to run through the envelope without air or gas leaks. Small wires embedded in the stem in turn support the filament and its lead wires.

  

The bulb is filled with an inert gas such as argon (93%) and nitrogen (7%) to reduce evaporation of the filament and prevent its oxidation at a pressure of about 70 kPa (0.7 atm).[61] Early lamps, and some small modern lamps used only a vacuum to protect the filament from oxygen.

  

An electric current heats the filament to typically 2,000 to 3,300 K (3,140 to 5,480 °F), well below tungsten's melting point of 3,695 K (6,191 °F). Filament temperatures depend on the filament type, shape, size, and amount of current drawn. The heated filament emits light that approximates a continuous spectrum. The useful part of the emitted energy is visible light, but most energy is given off as heat in the near-infrared wavelengths.

  

Three-way light bulbs have two filaments and three conducting contacts in their bases. The filaments share a common ground, and can be lit separately or together. Common wattages include 30–70–100, 50–100–150, and 100–200–300, with the first two numbers referring to the individual filaments, and the third giving the combined wattage.

  

Most light bulbs have either clear or coated glass. The coated glass bulbs have a white powdery substance on the inside called kaolin. Kaolin, or kaolinite, is a white, chalky clay in a very fine powder form, that is blown in and electrostatically deposited on the interior of the bulb. It diffuses the light emitted from the filament, producing a more gentle and evenly distributed light. Manufacturers may add pigments to the kaolin to adjust the characteristics of the final light emitted from the bulb. Kaolin diffused bulbs are used extensively in interior lighting because of their comparatively gentle light. Other kinds of colored bulbs are also made, including the various colors used for "party bulbs", Christmas tree lights and other decorative lighting. These are created by staining the glass with a dopant; which is often a metal like cobalt (blue) or chromium (green).[62] Neodymium-containing glass is sometimes used to provide a more natural-appearing light.

  

Many arrangements of electrical contacts are used. Large lamps may have a screw base (one or more contacts at the tip, one at the shell) or a bayonet base (one or more contacts on the base, shell used as a contact or used only as a mechanical support). Some tubular lamps have an electrical contact at either end. Miniature lamps may have a wedge base and wire contacts, and some automotive and special purpose lamps have screw terminals for connection to wires. Contacts in the lamp socket allow the electric current to pass through the base to the filament. Power ratings for incandescent light bulbs range from about 0.1 watt to about 10,000 watts.

  

The glass bulb of a general service lamp can reach temperatures between 200 and 260 °C (392 and 500 °F). Lamps intended for high power operation or used for heating purposes will have envelopes made of hard glass or fused quartz.[

Early lamps were laboriously assembled by hand. After automatic machinery was developed the cost of lamps fell.

  

In manufacturing the glass bulb, a type of "ribbon machine" is used. A continuous ribbon of glass is passed along a conveyor belt, heated in a furnace, and then blown by precisely aligned air nozzles through holes in the conveyor belt into molds. Thus the glass bulbs are created. After the bulbs are blown, and cooled, they are cut off the ribbon machine; a typical machine of this sort produces 50,000 bulbs per hour.[63] The filament and its supports are assembled on a glass stem, which is fused to the bulb. The air is pumped out of the bulb, and the evacuation tube in the stem press is sealed by a flame. The bulb is then inserted into the lamp base, and the whole assembly tested.

  

The first successful light bulb filaments were made of carbon (from carbonized paper or bamboo). Early carbon filaments had a negative temperature coefficient of resistance — as they got hotter, their electrical resistance decreased. This made the lamp sensitive to fluctuations in the power supply, since a small increase of voltage would cause the filament to heat up, reducing its resistance and causing it to draw even more power and heat even further. In the "flashing" process, carbon filaments were heated by current passing through them, while in an evacuated vessel containing hydrocarbon (gasoline) vapor. The carbon deposited by this treatment improved the uniformity and strength of filaments, and their efficiency. A metallized or graphitized filament was first heated in a high-temperature oven before flashing and lamp assembly; this transformed the carbon into graphite, which further strengthened and smoothed the filament, and as a byproduct had the advantage of changing the lamp to a positive temperature coefficient like a metallic conductor. This helped stabilize power consumption, temperature and light output against minor variations in supply voltage.

  

In 1902, the Siemens company developed a tantalum lamp filament. These lamps were more efficient than even graphitized carbon filaments and could operate at higher temperatures. Since the metal had a lower resistivity than carbon, the tantalum lamp filament was quite long and required multiple internal supports. The metal filament had the property of gradually shortening in use; the filaments were installed with large loops that tightened in use. This made lamps in use for several hundred hours quite fragile.[64] Metal filaments had the property of breaking and re-welding, though this would usually decrease resistance and shorten the life of the filament. General Electric bought the rights to use tantalum filaments and produced them in the US until 1913.[65]

  

From 1898 to around 1905, osmium was also used as a lamp filament in Europe, but the metal was so expensive that used broken lamps could be returned for part credit.[66] It could not be made for 110 V or 220 V so several lamps were wired in series for use on standard voltage circuits.

  

In 1906, the tungsten filament was introduced. Tungsten metal was initially not available in a form that allowed it to be drawn into fine wires. Filaments made from sintered tungsten powder were quite fragile. By 1910, a process was developed by William D. Coolidge at General Electric for production of a ductile form of tungsten. The process required pressing tungsten powder into bars, then several steps of sintering, swaging, and then wire drawing. It was found that very pure tungsten formed filaments that sagged in use, and that a very small "doping" treatment with potassium, silicon, and aluminium oxides at the level of a few hundred parts per million greatly improved the life and durability of the tungsten filaments.[67]

  

To improve the efficiency of the lamp, the filament usually consists of coils of coiled fine wire, also known as a 'coiled coil'. For a 60-watt 120-volt lamp, the uncoiled length of the tungsten filament is usually 22.8 inches (580 mm),[40] and the filament diameter is 0.0018 inches (0.046 mm). The advantage of the coiled coil is that evaporation of the tungsten filament is at the rate of a tungsten cylinder having a diameter equal to that of the coiled coil. The coiled-coil filament evaporates more slowly than a straight filament of the same surface area and light-emitting power. If the filament is then run hotter to bring back evaporation to the same rate, the resulting filament is a more efficient light source.

  

There are several different shapes of filament used in lamps, with differing characteristics. Manufacturers designate the types with codes such as C-6, CC-6, C-2V, CC-2V, C-8, CC-88, C-2F, CC-2F, C-Bar, C-Bar-6, C-8I, C-2R, CC-2R, and Axial.

  

Electrical filaments are also used in hot cathodes of fluorescent lamps and vacuum tubes as a source of electrons or in vacuum tubes to heat an electron-emitting electrode.

  

Reducing filament evaporation

One of the problems of the standard electric light bulb is evaporation of the filament. Small variations in resistivity along the filament cause "hot spots" to form at points of higher resistivity;[41] a variation of diameter of only 1% will cause a 25% reduction in service life.[40] The hot spots evaporate faster than the rest of the filament, increasing resistance at that point—a positive feedback that ends in the familiar tiny gap in an otherwise healthy-looking filament. Irving Langmuir found that an inert gas, instead of vacuum, would retard evaporation. General service incandescent light bulbs over about 25 watts in rating are now filled with a mixture of mostly argon and some nitrogen,[68] or sometimes krypton.[69] Since a filament breaking in a gas-filled bulb can form an electric arc, which may spread between the terminals and draw very heavy current, intentionally thin lead-in wires or more elaborate protection devices are therefore often used as fuses built into the light bulb.[70] More nitrogen is used in higher-voltage lamps to reduce the possibility of arcing.

  

While inert gas reduces filament evaporation, it also conducts heat from the filament, thereby cooling the filament and reducing efficiency. At constant pressure and temperature, the thermal conductivity of a gas depends upon the molecular weight of the gas and the cross sectional area of the gas molecules. Higher molecular weight gasses have lower thermal conductivity, because both the molecular weight is higher and also the cross sectional area is higher. Xenon gas improves efficiency because of its high molecular weight, but is also more expensive, so its use is limited to smaller lamps.[71]

  

During ordinary operation, the tungsten of the filament evaporates; hotter, more-efficient filaments evaporate faster. Because of this, the lifetime of a filament lamp is a trade-off between efficiency and longevity. The trade-off is typically set to provide a lifetime of several hundred to 2,000 hours for lamps used for general illumination. Theatrical, photographic, and projection lamps may have a useful life of only a few hours, trading life expectancy for high output in a compact form. Long-life general service lamps have lower efficiency but are used where the cost of changing the lamp is high compared to the value of energy used.

  

Filament notching describes another phenomenon that limits the life of lamps. Lamps operated on direct current develop random stairstep irregularities on the filament surface, reducing the cross section and further increasing heat and evaporation of tungsten at these points. In small lamps operated on direct current, lifespan may be cut in half compared to AC operation. Different alloys of tungsten and rhenium can be used to counteract the effect.[72][73]

  

If a light bulb envelope leaks, the hot tungsten filament reacts with air, yielding an aerosol of brown tungsten nitride, brown tungsten dioxide, violet-blue tungsten pentoxide, and yellow tungsten trioxide that then deposits on the nearby surfaces or the bulb interior.

  

Bulb blackening

In a conventional lamp, the evaporated tungsten eventually condenses on the inner surface of the glass envelope, darkening it. For bulbs that contain a vacuum, the darkening is uniform across the entire surface of the envelope. When a filling of inert gas is used, the evaporated tungsten is carried in the thermal convection currents of the gas, depositing preferentially on the uppermost part of the envelope and blackening just that portion of the envelope. An incandescent lamp that gives 93% or less of its initial light output at 75% of its rated life is regarded as unsatisfactory, when tested according to IEC Publication 60064. Light loss is due to filament evaporation and bulb blackening.[74] Study of the problem of bulb blackening led to the discovery of the Edison effect, thermionic emission and invention of the vacuum tube.

  

A very small amount of water vapor inside a light bulb can significantly affect lamp darkening. Water vapor dissociates into hydrogen and oxygen at the hot filament. The oxygen attacks the tungsten metal, and the resulting tungsten oxide particles travel to cooler parts of the lamp. Hydrogen from water vapor reduces the oxide, reforming water vapor and continuing this water cycle.[41] The equivalent of a drop of water distributed over 500,000 lamps will significantly increase darkening.[40] Small amounts of substances such as zirconium are placed within the lamp as a getter to react with any oxygen that may bake out of the lamp components during operation.

  

Some old, high-powered lamps used in theater, projection, searchlight, and lighthouse service with heavy, sturdy filaments contained loose tungsten powder within the envelope. From time to time, the operator would remove the bulb and shake it, allowing the tungsten powder to scrub off most of the tungsten that had condensed on the interior of the envelope, removing the blackening and brightening the lamp again.

  

Quelle:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Incandescent_light_bulb

de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Gl%C3%BChbirne

   

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hook Lighthouse

 

Hook Head Lighthouse

LocationCounty Wexford, Ireland

Coordinates52°7′25.7″N 6°55′45.5″WCoordinates: 52°7′25.7″N 6°55′45.5″W

Year first constructed1245(1172?)

Automated1996

Constructionlimestone

Tower shapecylinder

Markings / patternwhite with two black bands

Height35m

Current lensthird order Fresnel lens

Range23nm

CharacteristicFlashing 3s

The Hook Lighthouse (also known as Hook Head Lighthouse) is a building situated at the tip of the Hook Peninsula in County Wexford, in Ireland. It is one of the oldest lighthouses in the world, and the oldest operating lighthouse in Ireland.[1] It is operated by the Commissioners of Irish Lights, the Irish Lighthouse Authority, it marks the eastern entrance to Waterford Harbour. The current structure has stood for almost 800 years.

Contents [hide]

1 History

2 References

3 References

4 External links

[edit]History

 

The existing tower dates from the twelfth century, though tradition states that Dubhán, a missionary to the Wexford area, established some sort of beacon as early as the fifth century. The headland is known in Irish as Rinn Dubháin, St. Dubhán's Head. According to Onomasticon Goidelicum (1910, p582) Rinn Dubáin Ailithir is mentioned in the Book of Leinster, written about 1079. However, the similar-sounding Irish word 'duán' means a fish hook, hence the English name. It is known locally as "the tower of Hook." The exact circumstance of the initial construction on the present structure are the subject of some controversy. It had been thought that the tower was constructed in 1172 by Raymond LeGros following the Norman Invasion in 1169, both to establish the lighthouse and to serve as a fortress on the approaches to Waterford. According to the Commissioners of Irish Lights, however, more recent studies have attributed construction to William Marshal in 1245.[2] However, this is impossible since Marshall died in 1219, meaing that either he was not involved in the construction, or that the date of 1245 is incorrect. In any case, this tower, in its original form, was 8m high and roughly 8.5m in diameter, with an open fire at the top serving as the beacon. The tower and its grounds was entrusted to the monks, who by then were associated with the Priory of Saint Augustine in Ross. This arrangement continued even through the dissolution of the monasteries under Henry VIII.

Maintenance of the beacon was interrupted by the English Civil War, when the monks abandoned the area. The lack of the light was felt, and in 1657 the governor of Duncannon Fort was petitioned to restore the beacon, but without success. However, in 1665 Charles II authorized Richard Reading to build six lighthouses on the Irish coast, including the rehabilitation of the light at Hook Head. By this time the tower had been enlarged; an addition incorporating a spiral staircase had been added surrounding the old tower, and the height of the whole structure raised to 24m. What Reading did in relighting the beacon is unclear, but he may have constructed an enclosed lantern to shelter the fire, as was customary at the time. The light was returned to service in 1667 and has remained active in some form ever since.

In 1704 Queen Anne transferred custody of the Irish lights to the Revenue Commissioners, but this transfer did not immediately affect Hook Head, as it was held in lease by Henry Loftus of Loftus Hall. The lease passed to his son, who threatened to extinguish the light failing renewal of the lease on his terms. In the end he got his renewal, but at terms more favorable to the crown.

By the 1790s the tower was in need of repair. At this time Thomas Rogers was contracted with to maintain this and nine other lighthouses. He replaced the Reading lantern with a new one housing the Argand lamp and reflector system typical of the period. The beacon was altered in 1812 and then replaced in 1864 with a dioptric lens housed in a new lantern, which is that used today.

Subsequent changes left the structure largely unaltered but updated the light source. Coal gas replaced oil lamps in 1871, with vaporized paraffin taking over in 1911, and electricity in 1972. A rotating third-order Fresnel lens was also installed in 1911. A variety of fog signals were installed beginning with a bell in 1838, a cannon in 1872, an explosive charge in 1905 (altered in 1938), an air horn in 1975, and an electric horn from 1995 on. Resident keeper households were replaced by a team of six keepers in 1977, and the light was automated in 1996. The light continues to operate as an active aid to navigation. An older daymark of three red bands on a white background was altered to two black bands on white in 1938.

In 2001 the light was opened to the public as a tourist attraction after construction of an attached visitors' center. In January 2011 The Hooks fog horn was heard for the last time as all the fog horns were turned off. It was felt that seeing that the technology on modern ships were so advanced that the fog horn was no longer required. In June 2011 the structure was placed first by Lonely Planet in its list of "Top 10 Flashiest Lighthouses"; the guide described Hook as "The great granddaddy of lighthouses".[3][4]

...is OK with blue....

 

Actually I used 2 different lights.. one each side.

LED on the left ( bit too much light) and just a standard household light bulb on the right... As Tio... keeps saying lighting makes a differents.. Tio.. please keep giving us those tips... www.flickr.com/photos/66179962@N00/

 

By the way... Tio.. is New York City's "Butterfly Hunter"

 

July 30, 2007

at 6.26pm EDT

 

Have a wonderful weekend friends...

 

My 89th image to make an appearance in Explore

Highest position #220

My Gallery

where I live

 

Believe it or not but this used to be the council tip in the 1970's. Thank God they stopped before burying the whole of the valley and ancient woodland. No health and safety then nor any concern for the environment, we live in a far cleaner healthier environment now compared to a few decades ago. I wonder if the residents of the estate they built there as well know that thaey are sitting on top of a hole filled with household waste from the 1970's.

My Gallery

 

where I live

Irrespective of where your home is or the things you do, odds are you might engage in the sale of real-estate one or more times with your lifetime. For several people, selling real-estate can seem to be overwhelming and frustrating. Finding the right knowledge can certainly make the method less complicated. This informative article provides useful information and plenty of effective tips that can help you sell your real-estate.

 

Homeowners can see repair efforts, for example managing landscaping and painting a problem. Neglecting these tasks for days on end will bring about plenty of work before a residence might be sold.

 

As you may advertise your home, seek to reduce the level of stuff inside, although you may have yet to advance. Prospective buyers ought to mentally put themselves in your house as a way to think about buying it. Naturally, achieving this also makes it much simpler to bring along once it comes down a chance to move.

 

All pertinent specifics of a residence you will be selling must be kept well-organized and simply available. A very important factor to incorporate in this data listing may be the names associated with a contractors which may have repaired or upgraded your own home. This gives prospective buyers to appreciate because you took a lively role from the upkeep of your residence.

 

Although you may still should remain at your residence, empty out all the contents as you possibly can. Prospective buyers ought to mentally put themselves in your house as a way to think about buying it. Naturally, achieving this also makes it much simpler to bring along once it comes down a chance to move.

 

Supercharge your real-estate listing with bonuses and incentives. Many sellers are selling items for example appliances for no extra charge, to help you boost curiosity about their residence. Few the situation is more potent with their power to attract prospective buyers. See what buyers are seeking and evaluate your financial allowance, then choose an appliance that may sweeten the pot. Achieving this really boosts your rate of success.

 

Of many investments people make in the lifetime, real-estate purchases tend to be the most important. Once you decide to offer that investment, you should become as knowledgeable as you possibly can about real-estate sales. By utilizing the recommendation with this article, you can expect to improve the likelihood of making the hottest deal possible. www.rockymountainmovers.net/moving-tips/park-city-moving/...

Manhattan is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City. The borough is coterminous with New York County, founded on November 1, 1683 as an original county of the U.S. state of New York. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the East, Hudson, and Harlem Rivers, but also includes several small adjacent islands, as well as Marble Hill, a small neighborhood on the U.S. mainland.

 

Manhattan has been described as the economic and cultural center of the United States and serves as home to the United Nations Headquarters. Wall Street, in Lower Manhattan, has been called the financial capital of the world, and is home to the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Many multinational media conglomerates are based in the borough. Historically documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for the equivalent of US$24, Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island itself estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2014.

 

New York County is the most densely populated county in the United States, and is more dense than any individual American city. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a Census-estimated 2013 population of 1,626,159 living in a land area of 22.96 square miles (59.5 km2), or about 70,826 residents per square mile (27,346/km²). On business days, the influx of commuters increases that number to over 3.9 million, or around 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, and is the smallest borough in terms of land area.

 

Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan have become well known to New York City's approximately 50 million annual visitors. Times Square, iconified as "The Crossroads of the World" and "The Center of the Universe", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. The borough hosts many world-renowned bridges, skyscrapers, and parks. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere. The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 35 in the world. The city of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of city government and a National Historic Landmark that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen (Half Moon). A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River (later named the Hudson River). The word "Manhattan" has been translated as "island of many hills" from the Lenape language.

 

The United States Postal Service prefers that mail addressed to Manhattan use "New York, NY" rather than "Manhattan, NY".

  

The area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of the French king Francis I – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. He entered The Narrows aboard his ship La Dauphine and named the land around Upper New York Harbor "New Angoulême", in reference to the family name of Francis I of France that was derived from Angoulême in France; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the Hudson River which he referred to in his report to the French king as a "very big river"; and he named Upper New York Bay the Bay of Santa Margarita – after Marguerite de Navarre – the elder sister of the king.

 

It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, that the area was mapped. Hudson came across Manhattan Island and the native people living there in 1609, and continued up the river that would later bear his name, the Hudson River, until he arrived at the site of present day Albany.

  

A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, later called New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam). Manhattan Island was chosen as the site of Fort Amsterdam, a citadel for the protection of the new arrivals; its 1625 establishment is recognized as the birth date of New York City. According to the document by Pieter Janszoon Schagen our People (ons Volck), Peter Minuit and Dutch colonists acquired Manhattan in 1626 from unnamed American Indian people in exchange for trade goods worth 60 guilders, often said to be worth US$24, though (by comparing the price of bread and other goods) it actually amounts to around US$1,050 in 2014.

 

In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director General of the colony. New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1653. In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it "New York" after the English Duke of York and Albany, the future King James II. The Dutch, under Director General Stuyvesant, successfully negotiated with the English to produce 24 articles of provisional transfer, which sought to retain for the extant citizens of New Netherland their previously attained liberties (including freedom of religion) under new colonial English rulers.

 

The Dutch Republic regained it in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming the city "New Orange". New Netherland was ceded permanently to the English in November 1674 through the Treaty of Westminster, in exchange for Run Island which was the long-coveted last link in the Dutch nutmeg trading monopoly in Indonesia.

American Revolution and the early United States

 

Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of major battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the disastrous Battle of Fort Washington on November 16, 1776. The city became the British political and military center of operations in North America for the remainder of the war. Manhattan was greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the British military rule that followed. British occupation lasted until November 25, 1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the city.

 

From January 11, 1785, to the fall of 1788, New York City was the fifth of five capitals of the United States under the Articles of Confederation, with the Continental Congress meeting at New York City Hall (then at Fraunces Tavern). New York was the first capital under the newly enacted Constitution of the United States, from March 4, 1789, to August 12, 1790, at Federal Hall. Federal Hall was also the site of where the United States Supreme Court met for the first time, the United States Bill of Rights were drafted and ratified, and where the Northwest Ordinance was adopted, establishing measures for adding new states to the Union.

 

Manhattan is loosely divided into Downtown (Lower Manhattan), Midtown (Midtown Manhattan), and Uptown (Upper Manhattan), with Fifth Avenue dividing Manhattan's east and west sides. Manhattan Island is bounded by the Hudson River to the west and the East River to the east. To the north, the Harlem River divides Manhattan Island from The Bronx and the mainland United States. Several small islands are also part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall's Island, Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, New York County has a total area of 33.6 square miles (87 km2), of which 22.8 square miles (59 km2) is land and 10.8 square miles (28 km2) (32%) is water. The northern segment of Upper Manhattan represents a geographic panhandle. Manhattan Island is 22.7 square miles (59 km2) in area, 13.4 miles (21.6 km) long and 2.3 miles (3.7 km) wide, at its widest (near 14th Street).

 

Early in the 19th century, landfill was used to expand Lower Manhattan from the natural Hudson shoreline at Greenwich Street to West Street. When building the World Trade Center, 1.2 million cubic yards (917,000 m³) of material was excavated from the site. Rather than dumping the spoil at sea or in landfills, the fill material was used to expand the Manhattan shoreline across West Street, creating Battery Park City. The result was a 700-foot (210-m) extension into the river, running six blocks or 1,484 feet (452 m), covering 92 acres (37 ha), providing a 1.2-mile (1.9 km) riverfront esplanade and over 30 acres (12 ha) of parks.

 

At the 2010 Census, there were 1,585,873 people living in Manhattan, an increase of 3.2% since 2000. Since 2010, Manhattan's population was estimated by the Census Bureau to have increased 2.5% to 1,626,159 as of 2013, representing 19.3% of the city's population and 8.3% of the state's population. As of the 2000 Census, the population density of New York County was 66,940 per square mile (25,846/km²), the highest population density of any county in the United States. If 2012 census estimates were accurate, the population density then approximated 70,518 people per square mile (27,227/km²). In 1910, at the height of European immigration to New York, Manhattan's population density reached a peak of 101,548 people per square mile (39,208/km²). There were 798,144 housing units in 2000 at an average density of 34,756.7 per square mile (13,421.8/km²). Only 20.3% of Manhattan residents lived in owner-occupied housing, the second-lowest rate of all counties in the nation, behind the Bronx.

 

According to 2012 Census estimates, 65.2% of the population was White, 18.4% Black or African American, 1.2% American Indian and Alaska Native, 12.0% Asian, and 3.1% of two or more races. 25.8% of Manhattan's population was of Hispanic or Latino origin, of any race. Manhattan has the second highest percentage of non-Hispanic Whites (48%) of New York City's boroughs, after Staten Island (where non-Hispanic Whites make up 64% of residents).

 

The New York City Department of City Planning projects that Manhattan's population will increase by 289,000 people between 2000 and 2030, an increase of 18.8% over the period, second only to Staten Island, while the rest of the city is projected to grow by 12.7% over the same period. The school-age population is expected to grow 4.4% by 2030, in contrast to a small decline in the city as a whole. The elderly population is forecast to grow by 57.9%, with the borough adding 108,000 persons ages 65 and over, compared to 44.2% growth citywide.

 

According to the 2009 American Community Survey, the average household size was 2.11, and the average family size was 3.21. Approximately 59.4% of the population over the age of 25 have a bachelor's degree or higher. Approximately 27.0% of the population is foreign-born, and 61.7% of the population over the age of 5 speak only English at home. People of Irish ancestry make up 7.8% of the population, while Italian Americans make up 6.8% of the population. German Americans and Russian Americans make up 7.2% and 6.2% of the population respectively.

 

In 2000, 56.4% of people living in Manhattan were White, 17.39% were Black, 14.14% were from other races, 9.40% were Asian, 0.5% were Native American, and 0.07% were Pacific Islander. 4.14% were from two or more races. 27.18% were Hispanic of any race.

 

There were 738,644 households. 25.2% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 59.1% were non-families. 17.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them. 48% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was two and the average family size was 2.99.

 

Manhattan's population was spread out with 16.8% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 38.3% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, and 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males.

 

Manhattan is one of the highest-income places in the United States with a population greater than one million. As of 2012, Manhattan's cost of living was the highest in the United States, but the borough also contained the country's most profound level of income inequality. Manhattan is also the United States county with the highest per capita income, being the sole county whose per capita income exceeded $100,000 in 2010. In 2012, The New York Times reported that "the income gap in Manhattan, already wider than almost anywhere else in the country, rivaled disparities in sub-Saharan Africa. ... The wealthiest fifth of Manhattanites made more than 40 times what the lowest fifth reported, a widening gap (it was 38 times, the year before) surpassed by only a few developing countries".

 

Lower Manhattan has been experiencing a baby boom, well above the overall birth rate in Manhattan, with the area south of Canal Street witnessing 1,086 births in 2010, 12% greater than 2009 and over twice the number born in 2001. The Financial District alone has witnessed growth in its population to approximately 43,000 as of 2014, nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census.

  

from Wikipedia

 

In the 1950s, the mangle, crisps and dance hall admissions were popular. 1950s saw the introduction of fish fingers, electric fires, washing machine, ink and toilet paper.

 

Most food shopping in the 1950s was done every day and from local shops. Not every household owned a car or a refrigerator, so food shopping was part of the housewife's daily routine.

 

It would have been quite normal to visit separate shops for your bread (bakers), meat (butchers), vegetables (greengrocers), fish (fishmongers) etc. It was quite common too, for tradesmen to deliver their goods direct to the housewife. Groceries and greengroceries were often delivered each week in a motorised van and milk was delivered every day.

 

1957: Only a handful of shops in the country were self-serve (pay as you go out). The first Sainsbury’s to try out this innovation was opened in June 1950 in Croydon.

 

2007: There are more than 33,500 supermarkets and convenience stores in the UK

 

A shopping basket in the 1950s would have included items such as: wild rabbits, mangles, corsets, candles, wireless licence and gramophone records.

 

Fresh fruit and vegetables came mainly from Britain, so strawberries would be in the shops for just a few weeks in the summer, and there would have been no fresh peas, beans or salads vegetables during the winter months.

 

In the 1950s, a typical home had a cooker, vacuum cleaner and a plug-in radio. Only 33 per cent of households had a washing machine. Most people were still doing their washing by hand.

 

Only 15 per cent had a fridge and freezers and tumble dryers were scarcely heard of. Only 10 per cent of the population had a telephone. People listen to gramophone records.

 

Most families’ entertainment came from the radio (or ‘wireless’) or through listening to 78rpm records on a gramophone. However, a single event in 1953 gave a huge boost to the uptake of television. This was the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II on 2nd June 1953 at Westminster Abbey. Cameras had never before been allowed inside Westminster Abbey for a coronation, and the general public were thrilled to be able to watch the event live. Families crowded into the home of anyone lucky enough to have a television to watch the event.

 

Two-thirds of homes owned a television. The programmes were shown in black and white. A second and commercialised TV channel was added in 1955.

 

People spent most of their leisure time at home – reading, listening to the radio, watching television or pursuing hobbies. The most popular hobbies were knitting and needle-work for women, and gardening for men.

 

Children spent a lot of time playing with other children outdoors. They also enjoyed a range of hobbies such as stamp collecting.

 

Families enjoyed playing board games such as Monopoly, Ludo, and Snakes and Ladders.

 

There was a craze for yo-yos, 3D-spectacles, I-Spy books and hoola hoops in the late 1950s.

 

It was an era when women stayed at home, a 9-to-5 job meant just that, workers had a job for life and nobody had a Blackberry to ruin their holidays.

 

1950s when most Britain's spent their holidays in the UK.

 

In 1952, just four per cent of people worked part-time. Today, the number has ballooned to one in four workers, equal to astonishing 26 per cent of the entire workforce.

 

Today’s workers may whinge that they are over-worked, but it was their parents or grandparents in the 1950s who had a lot more to complain about.

 

On average, workers did a 48-hour week in 1952. Today, a typical worker with a full-time job does only 37 hours.

 

Of all the seismic changes, it is probably the type of jobs that people did which have changed most dramatically.

 

In 1952, 8.7million people worked in manufacturing. Today, the number is a paltry 2.5million.

 

Around 880,000 worked in ‘mining and quarrying’, compared to 60,000 today, while the number working in agriculture, forestry and fishing has tumbled from 725,000 to 460,000.

 

There are some jobs which barely existed 60 years ago. In 1952, there were only around 20,000 people working in personnel, compared to today’s army of around 400,000.

 

But some things that never change. Around six million people worked in the public sector, which is exactly the number which currently make up the State workforce.

 

And how many people did not work? Not very many, according to the report, which shows that the number of working women was much higher than expected.

 

Around one in two women of working age had a job in the 1950s, compared to two-thirds today.

 

Local Bristol Stories that made the news in 1950s

 

Feb 7th 1952

 

Ethel May Challenger (24) 2, Akeman Way Avonmouth, previously charged in Bristol with attempted suicide by drinking zinc solution was today put on probation for two years. Dr. J. L. Faull said Challenger had brooded over problems of money and rearing five young children. Her husband was told by the magistrates: " Your wife needs all the help you can give her."

 

Aug 1952

 

Two coloured stowaways Cyril Benjamin Mcleod of Jamaica, and Philip Bertand of Dominica, who were arrested at Avonmouth Docks when the s.s. Cavina berthed, were sent to prison for 21 days in Bristol. Bertand said: 'Things were very bad in the West Indies - there is no work.' Mcleod said he was a graduate of an agricultural traing centre, and wished to work as a dairyman.

 

Aug 12th 1952

 

Harold Edward Peacock (52) Dorian Road, Horfield, was fined £5 in Bristol court for stealing 6lb of onions, from Southmead Hospital market garden.

 

Aug 12th 1952

 

Six hundred filmgoers sang community songs to while away the time when the power failure stopped the projectors at the Kingsway Cinema, Two Mile Hill, Kingswood, for 90 minutes last night.

 

The cinema was almost full of customers who came to see a popular film - the Marx Bros, in 'Cassablanca' - when, during the showing of the 'trailers' of fourth coming films the screen went blank. The main film was due to be screened 10 minutes later, at 6.10 p.m. The manager, Mr. John Crew, immediately went on the stage and explianed what had occurred. He told the audience that any one who wanted to leave would be given complimentary tickets for tonight's show.

 

'A few people left, but most stayed and entertained themselves with singing songs'. The power came back on at 7.30 and the cinema was able to show the complete film.

 

Feb 7th 1952

 

Bristol Fire Brigade were today damping down the smouldering ruins of the blaze in St. Pauls Street, where the damage is estimated at £40,000.

 

As the blaze ravaged adjoining tannery offices and warehouses, explosions rocked a wide area, and hundreds of people dashed for shelter as burning debris rained down. The premises belonging to Messrs. J. R. Hawkins and Co., leather manufactures and Messrs. Wilkinson nand Riddell (Bristol). Ltd., textile merchants. The fire which started inn the tannery, gutted Messrs Hawkins workshops, burnt out a large part of offices and destroyed a warehouse belonging to the textile firm. The flames fanned by a hign wind, threatened nearby houses in Orange street, as firemen fought to control the blaze.

 

A young boy Royston John Hurley of Claremount Street., Stapleton had a very lucky escape when a three- foot piece of drain pipe fell from the blazing tannery. It struck him on the leg causing only slight injury. This was the third fire in the tannery in the past three months. It was the largest post-war fire in Bristol and took 48hrs to bring the fire under control.

 

November 1958

 

It's interesting, but not really surprising, to find that 50 years ago the weather - in another gloomy November week - was dominating the headlines. Fog enveloped Bristol - or at least the Eastville and Fishponds areas of the city - (aided, no doubt, by pollution from the many coal fires) almost paralysing transport.

 

By 11pm visibility at Filton was down to five yards, with traffic almost at a standstill on the Gloucester Road. But while the city suffered, the Bristol Evening Post said that many country areas were clear. Despite this, the Aust ferry - which carried passengers and cars over to Chepstow - was cancelled indefinitely. Dense fog was reported at Portishead. No aircraft were arriving or leaving from Whitchurch airport and there was a complete hold-up of sailings from both Avonmouth and the City Docks.

 

Trains were arriving from London up to half an hour late and city businessmen were taking an unprecedented 50 minutes to get to work from places such as Clifton and Henleaze. It was chaos. Other news of the week concerned bus drivers and conductors (they were the ones who took the money and gave you tickets in those far off days) who were due get a pay rise of 11 shillings a week (just over 50p). Maintenance workers, however, were only to get eight shillings and 3p a week more.

 

The unions had been asking for between 16 and 33 shillings. As it was estimated that the rise would cost the Bristol bus company an extra £100,000 a year, guess what? Yes, you're right - fares went up by 2p and 3p the following week.

 

You'll no doubt be pleased to hear that busmen of all grades would now be getting between £7 and £8 a week - with drivers getting £7 and 18 shillings. That, incidentally, was about the average wage in those days. Of interest - if only because it's recently been announced that it's on the way back - was the Corporation's collecting of kitchen waste to use in pig swill. The average weekly collection totalled 300 tons which, after 'treatment' yielded about 260 tons of so-called 'Bristol pudding', collected by farmers and used for pig food.

 

Only five other cities in the country had such a service, and Bristol's was considered to be the best. Chief credit for this, said the Post proudly, were the city's housewives. Each week they filled 130,000 specially- provided bins. People were being asked politely not to put their cutlery in the bins - the pigs didn't like it.

 

Still on the subject of housewives, many of them (if not all) were delighted to hear that purchase tax was to be withdrawn on household brushes, brooms and mops (remember them, the stringy ones?). The idea was to help the trade, rather than the household purse, especially as many blind and disabled persons derived their living from it. Still, people must have been revelling in domestic bliss back then - one festive street ad suggesting: 'She'll love a Hoover Steam Iron for Christmas'. Such a wonderful present at only £4 19 shillings and 6p. Want a tip? Don't take that advice today.

 

Some items of great concern for those interested in this great city's illustrious past popped up in the Press 50 years ago. One was a story about the Hogarth altar piece, three oil paintings commissioned by the Vestry of St Mary Redcliffe some 250 years ago. This triptych - which had been in store for some 80 years - was being handed over to the Corporation of Bristol to be hung on public view in the City Art Gallery. So where, you are entitled to ask, is this priceless Bristol treasure now? As far as I know (and I might very well be wrong) it's still languishing in the abandoned St Nicholas church museum, locked away from public view.

 

Bristol's reverence for its past was also revealed in a story about the last service to be held at the Old King Street Baptist Church in Broadmead. This chapel had a longer history than any other Baptist church in the city - it was founded at Quakers Friars in 1640 and it moved to Old King Street in 1815 - so of course it was being demolished. The reason? It was in the way of the 'new' Broadmead shopping area.

 

The congregation moved to Redland. Another one of Bristol's treasures, on the other hand, was getting a thorough inspection. Brunel's suspension bridge was closed for the week to all but pedestrians while workmen began examining and testing one of the two cross-girders. The old one, removed and taken away to be tested 'to destruction', was to be replaced by one coated with zinc.

 

A shocking Bristol court case that made the headlines 50 years ago concerned a 'savage assault' allegedly made by a 35-year-old Southmead man on his wife using a broken milk bottle.

 

The couple, the court was informed, had been married 15 years and had three children, aged six, 12 and 14. Their life together had not been happy, and three months previously the man had put his wife 'out of the house'. She had moved into lodgings, but then resorted to prostitution. There was evidence, it was said, that the husband had received some of the money earned this way. On the evening of the alleged assault, the couple had been out drinking.

 

There was a quarrel on the way home and the man told his wife: 'I'll rip your face so that no man will look at you.' She was crying when they reached the house, so their 14-year-old daughter made a cup of tea. After using bad language, which the daughter tried to stop, the man threw his cup of tea over his wife. 'As she stood up he punched her hard in the mouth with his left hand,' said the prosecution. 'She fell back against the wall.

 

Then he picked up a milk bottle, smashed it against the wall and took hold of his wife by the back of the head. 'Holding her with his left hand, he struck her repeatedly in the face with the jagged glass, causing very severe injuries. She was taken to hospital and had 16 stitches inserted, 14 in the face.' In evidence, the wife said that while they were walking home her husband said 'I'll 'chiv' you'. During the alleged attack she felt a sharp pain and everything went red. She told the court: 'He was saying 'I'll finish you off' and dragged me up by my hair and slung me around the room.' A policeman said that when he went to the house the woman's face was badly cut and bleeding.

 

'All she could say was, 'take him away, he's mad'.' In his defence, the husband said that he had told his wife that if she did not change her ways he would change them for her for the sake of the children.

 

He had made allegations against his wife, and his eldest daughter slapped his face. 'She started to yell and shout and I lost my temper and struck her,' he said. 'She fell face down among the glass from the broken milk bottle and that was how her face got cut. 'I did not actually intend to cause the injuries - I threw the milk bottle at her and it smashed against the wall. While I was punching her, her face was twisting about and must have been going into the broken glass.' The man was committed for trial - on a surety of £100 - at Bristol Assize (the old Crown Court). The jury found him guilty.

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So, some of you think that you can't shoot still life because you don't have a decent studio lighting equipment?

I have a long wish list which contents keep changing constantly.

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Cut and paste from: www.yankalilla.sa.gov.au/

 

"The Starfish Hill Wind Farm is located across two hills on the tip of the Fleurieu Peninsula near Cape Jervis and was the first wind farm built in South Australia. The site was selected because the area has consistently high winds, is sparsely populated and the land was previously cleared for farming and grazing.

 

Starfish Hill rises to a height of 306 metres along a north-south ridge about three kilometres from the coastline. Salt Creek Hill, west of Starfish Hill on another north-south ridge, has a height of 220 metres and is about one kilometre from the coast. West of Salt Creek Hill, steep cliffs rise 100 metres above the sea.

 

There are 23 wind turbines with 15 located on Salt Creek Hill and 8 on Starfish Hill. Each of the turbines has 3 blades with a tower height of 68 metres and overall height of 100 metres from the ground to the blade tip.

 

The wind farm provides enough energy to meet the needs of about 18,000 households (ie. 2% of the State's residential customers) and adds 1% to the available generation capacity in South Australia."

  

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Putuo Zongcheng Temple

Known as "Small Potala Palace", one of biggest temple outside of Mountain Resort, Chengde, Hebei,China

 

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Introduction from www.elycn.com/hb/cd/cd03/004.htm

  

Qianlong thirty-five years (in 1770) is the 60 birthday of Emperor Qianlong, the Empress Dowager Niohuru 80 the following year is a birthday. Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Mongolia and other places all kings and chiefs had been asked to visit Chengde birthday. Qianlong attached enormous importance to these two grand assembly, of Sterling Imperial Household Department imitation Maekura resident political and religious leader the Dalai Lama to build temple in Chengde Potala Palace in Lhasa. Qianlong Sanshiernian (1767) in March began, the original terms of three years for completion due to construction of the latter part of fire, until Sanshiliunian (1771) in August completed an area of 21.6 hectares. Putuo case by a Tibetan Abdallah's translation, so the temple also known as Abdallah, Abdallah smaller than in Tibet because of their size, commonly known as small Potala Palace.

Putuo Temple of cases by the overall layout of the Potala Palace in Tibet is similar to no obvious central axis, the momentum can not keep up Tibet Abdallah, but the area of the broad mass of the structure of the temple of the great but only for the Mainland. All Temple layout points before and after the two parts: the front located on a hill, from white units, Mountain Gate, tablets pavilions of architectural composition; back in the Mountain, Taiwan and the room layout Red Fort. According to characteristic points can be divided into three parts: the first part by the main gate, the tablets pavilions, five-tower doors, glass arch composition; second part of the white platform group, formed by a number of small white sets; third is divided into red units. White station group into the "×"-shaped, red on the arch units, the next Wai entrance, tablets pavilions, five towers and the arch, the architectural layout as the Eight Outer Temples is also a unique Chinese traditional architecture.

The first part of the gate

The south gate from the Tibetan city of Temple Terrace and the composition of the Han-style veranda. City, Taiwan for the brick structure, three-hole open in the front arches, arches above a horizontal window blind, the puzzle pheasant dish. City Hall stage from veranda, is located around the Gallery, Gallery built-in window sills, solid walls on both sides of seal, Miankuo 5 Ying, into the deep 2, Dan Yan glazed tile roof, the edge Shi green glazed tiles, for defending the God, left to the right order of four protective deities, Zhang Lu Peng defending the ancient god Mahakala Mahal Cannes La protective deities. Front entrance a pair of stone lions, and then south for the five-hole stone bridge, entrance is located on both sides of waist door, there is connected to the wall.

Gate the north tablets pavilions, flat rectangular three-bay, double eaves and yellow glazed Xieshan Ding, brick arch structure, and sealing solid wall, surrounded by open arches, under the Sumeru TOJO bearing. Li Kiosk stone 3: for "Putuo Zongcheng Temple Inscription," describes the background and the temple was built over; East as "Torghut all allegiance in mind," the West for "pacifying the Department of Public Torghut mind" , describes the Department of E Lute Mongolia Torghut reunification process and the Qing government pension situation in the Ministry. Inscription with the Manchu, the Han, Mongolian, Tibetan and four kinds of text engraved on the Chinese language for the Qianlong personally. Tablets pavilions north of the tower for five doors, three arch shapes of white units, solid wall of windows blind, the puzzle parapet, white table-li five towers, from east to west, respectively black, white, yellow, green, red colored, each color represents a body of religious teaching. Qing Dynasty statue Yellow Sect as the State religion, so a yellow center. 5 Tap Mun as a pair of pre-rock, in order to send a symbol of Mahayana. 5 Tap Mun north of glass through the arch, three four-column shape the seventh floor, the floor, his forehead, "Pu doors should now", which means Goddess of Mercy show the door to salvation of all beings. After the amount of "Lotus solemn profession", which means Goddess of Mercy temple.

The second part of the white-Taiwan Group

Red Tainan, the first part of both sides of the loose more than 30 small white units, as "×"-shaped irregular layout. White Hall station sub-units, balcony, spacious units, real sets, the shape varied body mass ranging from different functions. Storey one to four, two, three-person majority, most of lime wiping face, a red brick trim blind windows, glass puzzle roof tile on the eaves singled out Tangshui long. White flat-topped platform for Tibetan Tibetan stone room shapes, building brick-concrete structure with Han Chinese French. Some two white sets combined into a courtyard for Seng Fang; some stage, the Han-style temple built for temple, bell tower use; Some Taiwan-top stupa; Taiwan brick structure, some white solid, only as barrier Jing Zeng King and decorative effect. White sets the overall effectiveness of group performance before the foot of the mountains of Tibet's Potala Palace, Fan Zi features. The south wall Split 2 turret is really white-Taiwan puzzle blind wall windows, starting at the top notch. Could it be provided on both sides of white mesosphere, door, played veranda Hall, symmetrical configuration, for the monks out of use.

Glass arch the north-gang sub-Temple, surrounded by Tibetan carved puzzle room wall, the wall is located three blind windows, east, south to a layer of Sengfang, West puzzle Deng Dao, north of monks from the roof veranda Hall, Dan Yan green glazed tile roof , 5 Ying lacking a broad prospect, into the deep 2, available for Palden Lhamo, four protective deities, big Brahma. Gang Sub East Hall East Hall, also known as sub-Dian Dong Gang, flat as a "B"-shaped, two-story. This hall was originally Sengfang is supreme Tantric yoga for five pairs of Mi Yue Yun pairs of empty body, like Huan Xifo amending the law. East from north to south followed by Diamond Goddess, big Wade King, dense poly-King, Sheng Yue Jin-Gang Wang, evil King degrees. Tantric Huan Xifo statues are generally long, the table more than intellect, the most top-centered image, I like to change; multi-arm multi-legged table and vigorously more energy; foot monster, the table can Xiangyao town magic.

Gang sub-set of homes for the West Hall of the Northwest Temple, also known as the West-Gang Yu Temple, is through the hall, flat as a "factory"-shaped, just south of provision of doors, hokubo two hard mountain top and gray tiles. Available for the main statue Palden Lhamo, the original shrine in weighing the Three Realms hall, exhibition hall after the Cultural Revolution changed this. Palden Lhamo is gold-bronze statues, high 116 cm, body riding a mule, before and after two small statues Shoutou person, the chassis of the sea. The whole group of statues with 1196 pounds copper, gold, 57 2, employment 6425. According to "Palden Lhamo by the" records, Palden Lhamo to change as the Goddess of Mercy, is the Dalai Lama's defending God, an annual New Year's Day she was riding the sun lower bound of the parties to inspect the world, drive out demons, bless all sentient beings safe. Tibetan Buddhists in the Tibetan calendar every year to October 15 Palden Lhamo to be summoned as Temple pulled from the big paraded in order to maintain the personnel calm, fine weather. Palden Lhamo, like the West for the longevity Buddha 9, Yakushi Buddha 12, are brass.

 

The third part of the Red Taiwan

Red Taiwan-bit Putuo Zongcheng Temple Finally, the location of the maximum area of 10.3 thousand square meters, due to clever use of terrain will be several groups of buildings connected into a whole, the visual on the exaggerated, even more difficult and costly. Positive grass-roots level is a white sets, solid, high 17 meters, the lower part of puzzle granite stone, the upper part of brick, lime noodles, the wall is located three trapezoidal windows blind, East and West sides assemble a white stone steps directly to Taiwan at the top of Gordon Road.

White 5-ying, Taiwan, southeast corner of a Miankuo, into the deep 3's "Monju Celestine" Hall. Qian Foge the west, surrounded by Gallery (now collapsed), Genei for the Mongolian princes presented to the Empress Dowager of the 1000 Buddha neutral "Qian Foge Inscription of" Thirty-five years of Qianlong imperial system. Genei a banner reads: "A wonderful capital coincide Zhan Qian-Li Zhu Fu, Fan Zhu Wan Huan determining contact with the fan base."

Taitung White House for the dumb pit, Jin Miao incense to the emperor, when the monks of the avoided. Bai Taiwan on Taiwan from red, high 25 meters wide and 58 meters on the next wide and 59 meters, seven, one to four solid, are set blind windows, the upper three spaced real window, blind window.

Red Tainan surface perpendicular to the middle of inlay decoration glass shrines 6, yellow, and green and white, Chinese-style tactics, one marking the axis, two decorative role play. Red-Taiwan puzzle parapet at the top of the wall under the three sides (East, West, South) decorative yellow glass shrines, pulling home under the eaves stone Drainage long trough. Red Taiwan inside of five to seven for the three attic, each layer 44, four surround, also known as towers.

Group F, the south into the deep three, Tung Tianzhu four rows; in five north into the deep 4, Tung Tianzhu five rows; Group F, three rows of the east pass Tianzhu, into the deep 2; the west side of pass Tianzhu four rows deep into the two and a half. Group F, east, west, south and north respectively banners "approach of taking by the Court", "Mahayana Miao-feng", "secret shengjing", "nirvana." Group F, a layer of split stone mandala 6, there is Buddha, Kuan Yin, Amitayus, custard apple, big Wade King Kong, King Kong-hi. Group F banner of "Man Chui-ying Hu Hua niches color, like a tame lion under Washio Cenhui"; "Fosha Gancheng France is now owned raft metaphor to teach Zen to open Aurora Speech Chuandeng"; "the same can not figure this boundless ci 2, Yu Purdue Daqian than promising Act ";" Unification Xumi days mostly from the resident community, over the sea will be now with the Kegon side ";" super-secret Indian holding four wonderful fruit, round light Ching show Triyana ";" now France-based newspaper all over the body tan Fei Yin and integration after the first occasion, as taught in the same holding ";" relative to light in early to hold one of the ACFTU, the heavens were played Mima poly-Vatican incense ";" Bore often melt phase poly-5 Ford, Bodhicitta and the card by eight auspicious ";" view of Indian Yuantong Neng Ren Jue Pu show, understanding language clean Miao Zhi Tian fellow ";" merit verses show Aromatherapy eaves Portuguese, a solemn-looking lover-ray Ying glass ";" mental and physical beings who Farley and the economy, revel Shi desire, all the regular round ";" 3000 Guang Pu care sector, Shou domain always-trillion Spring ";" Baoshu Jiao Hui Xiang constant, Cheung Turning the Law Wheel boundless. "

Group F at the top of the northwest corner of Jian Chi Hong Purdue Hall, lutetium bronze tiles, Zhong Yan Liu Jiaoting-shaped, two-story horizontal inscribed board "Fusho Three Realms", hall plaque "big show itself," banners "Swie King Yu Hsi Lai Miaoguan the case the monthly round of Wu-South refers to co-phase yun. " Jian Dian-ming weigh the northeast corner of the Three Realms, lutetium bronze tiles, double eaves and star anise, containing the amount of "fine Yan is the situation right," banner "Dharma Realm divinity that is empty now that the color, Brahma by strong non-domestic non-OK."

Scarlet Taiwan Sanjie West Northeast weighed built Luojia shengjing Hall Miankuo 5 Ying, into the deep one. Logar shengjing South, Red Taitung Jian-Dong group of buildings, three. Eastern Group House Sorai southerly from the stage, face the north, side three, three. Taiwan to build the northwest corner of the Red Eagle House, solid, from decorative effect. Group F 10000 France Sorai center in a hall owned by a square between the seven corners slightly incorporated into half of the double eaves and save tip overlying gold-fish-scale copper-watt, four-wave ridge decoration, French bell ding. Ying-door swing enamel, Lime tower, for the red sandalwood in the shrines are available for Maitreya, east and west sides Rosewood Longevity tower home. Altar placed Babao, five for the coral tree. By the North Tree screen, a huge tapestry hanging in front to hang like a satin embroidered Buddhist (high thirty feet wide, Yi Zhang), is no deposit. Pre-screen for the Buddha, and then the former for the Tsongkhapa, on both sides for the main hall as the Dalai Lama and Tsongkhapa, both copper sculpture, fine texture, fine technology, movements symmetry, vividly. North and South in a hall banners as "net sex super ride," the second as "Miaodeyuancheng"; face the Southern Banner, "Pu-10000 should be fate." Hall banner of "a divinity Ham Leo Chin Fen Xun, serpent eagle is a good friend P is now the solemn wind-sighted"; "moon in legal careers in Taiwan attained great joy, is the embodiment of the plug retaining wonderful auspicious"; "the beginning of the total land holding of Falun owned Fu-sheng because of the extension on the plug;, widely played by the Vatican Hengsha Vision contact Nengren new fan ";" spread were Brahma taught speech delivery, incarnation is often Hui Rong. "

10000 France owned by a Hall of the whole temple gatherings and celebrations held in place July 11 at the hall each year degree examinations held in Buddhism. The twelfth lunar month 27, the first month 14 in this event organized by sending worship, all the monks in this chanting, drive out demons pray for peace. The Qing Dynasty, Mongolia, far away into the inside and outside the temple incenseqiu fo by an endless stream. Qianlong Sanshiliunian (1771). Hong Li was in this hall meeting with Miles and his entourage return Torghut leader Wo Baxi and preaching at a large-scale birthday celebrations. 10000 France owned by a number of Putuo Temple is the Temple of the main hall, hidden in the red group of floor units among Dianding higher than the base building, spangle. The bottom of the floor, encircled by three groups, video tone of darkness and light contrasts, resulting in strict and solemn religious atmosphere, is a gem of religious architecture in the Mainland.

In 1932, the United States large-scale international exposition held in Chicago, big Rockefeller in order to move gaze transactions, in 1930 adopted a Swede He set out into the Evans statement sent to the palace to the measured real painting, created in Chicago with this one Hall of the same size model, but also in China through various means to collect a large number of Buddhist statues, Buddhist implements, in 1931, with the special launch to Chicago, a copy of the "method return a Temple" is a display, leading to emergence of the Chicago Exposition, Oriental Cultural Fever, Rockefeller the limelight, earning a lot of money, this is "yesterday" in comedy. Today, Vince He determined Rockefeller should be duty-bound this was "forgotten" of the history, facing the East, saying that one can make the Chinese people a decent emotional words. The Swedish architect Maike Si Mr. Wu Lei and several other experts interested in Chinese culture established a foundation from Anna University, Indiana United States would "go a Temple 10000 France" all components bought in preparation for In the Stockholm International Culture Research Center "reconstruction" assembly. Mr. Wu Lei in 1989 had been to Chengde, in consultation with the competent departments to inspect the method return a hall when Mr. Wu Lei said: This is a miracle. Imitation may be like, the end is not the original thing.

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Photography tip (#1):

When you're running out of new shots to post, it's important to try to be imaginative.

In times of photo-scarcity, common household items such as these elastic bands, can often provide a cheap alternative to more time-consuming endeavors or costly photographic props or models.

 

Does anybody know the closing date for the Turner Prize?

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Marina Bay

 

Please note that all the contents in this photostream is copyrighted and protected under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, any usage of the images without permission will face liability for the infringement.

Some information about singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the Singapore Strait to its south. Singapore is highly urbanised but almost half of the country is covered by greenery. More land is being created for development through land reclamation.

 

Singapore had been a part of various local empires since it was first inhabited in the second century AD. Modern Singapore was founded as a trading post of the East India Company by Sir Stamford Raffles in 1819 with permission from the Sultanate of Johor. The British obtained full sovereignty over the island in 1824 and Singapore became one of the British Straits Settlements in 1826. Singapore was occupied by the Japanese in World War II and reverted to British rule after the war. It became internally self-governing in 1959. Singapore united with other former British territories to form Malaysia in 1963 and became a fully independent state two years later after separation from Malaysia. Since then it has had a massive increase in wealth, and is one of the Four Asian Tigers. The economy depends heavily on the industry and service sectors. Singapore is a world leader in several areas: It is the world's fourth-leading financial centre, the world's second-biggest casino gambling market, and the world's third-largest oil refining centre. The port of Singapore is one of the five busiest ports in the world, most notable for being the busiest transshipment port in the world. The country is home to more US dollar millionaire households per capita than any other country. The World Bank notes Singapore as the easiest place in the world to do business. The country has the world's third highest GDP PPP per capita of US$59,936, making Singapore one of the world's wealthiest countries.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia...

  

Singapore Marina Bay is a bay near Central Area in the southern part of Singapore, and lies to the east of the Downtown Core. Marina Bay is set to be a 24/7 destination with endless opportunities for people to “explore new living and lifestyle options, exchange new ideas and information for business, and be entertained by rich leisure and cultural experiences”.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

singapore river..

marina bay.

marina bay sands.

.

  

Manhattan is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City. The borough is coterminous with New York County, founded on November 1, 1683 as an original county of the U.S. state of New York. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the East, Hudson, and Harlem Rivers, but also includes several small adjacent islands, as well as Marble Hill, a small neighborhood on the U.S. mainland.

 

Manhattan has been described as the economic and cultural center of the United States and serves as home to the United Nations Headquarters. Wall Street, in Lower Manhattan, has been called the financial capital of the world, and is home to the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Many multinational media conglomerates are based in the borough. Historically documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for the equivalent of US$24, Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island itself estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2014.

 

New York County is the most densely populated county in the United States, and is more dense than any individual American city. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a Census-estimated 2013 population of 1,626,159 living in a land area of 22.96 square miles (59.5 km2), or about 70,826 residents per square mile (27,346/km²). On business days, the influx of commuters increases that number to over 3.9 million, or around 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, and is the smallest borough in terms of land area.

 

Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan have become well known to New York City's approximately 50 million annual visitors. Times Square, iconified as "The Crossroads of the World" and "The Center of the Universe", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. The borough hosts many world-renowned bridges, skyscrapers, and parks. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere. The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 35 in the world. The city of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of city government and a National Historic Landmark that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen (Half Moon). A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River (later named the Hudson River). The word "Manhattan" has been translated as "island of many hills" from the Lenape language.

 

The United States Postal Service prefers that mail addressed to Manhattan use "New York, NY" rather than "Manhattan, NY".

  

The area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of the French king Francis I – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. He entered The Narrows aboard his ship La Dauphine and named the land around Upper New York Harbor "New Angoulême", in reference to the family name of Francis I of France that was derived from Angoulême in France; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the Hudson River which he referred to in his report to the French king as a "very big river"; and he named Upper New York Bay the Bay of Santa Margarita – after Marguerite de Navarre – the elder sister of the king.

 

It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, that the area was mapped. Hudson came across Manhattan Island and the native people living there in 1609, and continued up the river that would later bear his name, the Hudson River, until he arrived at the site of present day Albany.

  

A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, later called New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam). Manhattan Island was chosen as the site of Fort Amsterdam, a citadel for the protection of the new arrivals; its 1625 establishment is recognized as the birth date of New York City. According to the document by Pieter Janszoon Schagen our People (ons Volck), Peter Minuit and Dutch colonists acquired Manhattan in 1626 from unnamed American Indian people in exchange for trade goods worth 60 guilders, often said to be worth US$24, though (by comparing the price of bread and other goods) it actually amounts to around US$1,050 in 2014.

 

In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director General of the colony. New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1653. In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it "New York" after the English Duke of York and Albany, the future King James II. The Dutch, under Director General Stuyvesant, successfully negotiated with the English to produce 24 articles of provisional transfer, which sought to retain for the extant citizens of New Netherland their previously attained liberties (including freedom of religion) under new colonial English rulers.

 

The Dutch Republic regained it in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming the city "New Orange". New Netherland was ceded permanently to the English in November 1674 through the Treaty of Westminster, in exchange for Run Island which was the long-coveted last link in the Dutch nutmeg trading monopoly in Indonesia.

American Revolution and the early United States

 

Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of major battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the disastrous Battle of Fort Washington on November 16, 1776. The city became the British political and military center of operations in North America for the remainder of the war. Manhattan was greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the British military rule that followed. British occupation lasted until November 25, 1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the city.

 

From January 11, 1785, to the fall of 1788, New York City was the fifth of five capitals of the United States under the Articles of Confederation, with the Continental Congress meeting at New York City Hall (then at Fraunces Tavern). New York was the first capital under the newly enacted Constitution of the United States, from March 4, 1789, to August 12, 1790, at Federal Hall. Federal Hall was also the site of where the United States Supreme Court met for the first time, the United States Bill of Rights were drafted and ratified, and where the Northwest Ordinance was adopted, establishing measures for adding new states to the Union.

 

Manhattan is loosely divided into Downtown (Lower Manhattan), Midtown (Midtown Manhattan), and Uptown (Upper Manhattan), with Fifth Avenue dividing Manhattan's east and west sides. Manhattan Island is bounded by the Hudson River to the west and the East River to the east. To the north, the Harlem River divides Manhattan Island from The Bronx and the mainland United States. Several small islands are also part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall's Island, Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, New York County has a total area of 33.6 square miles (87 km2), of which 22.8 square miles (59 km2) is land and 10.8 square miles (28 km2) (32%) is water. The northern segment of Upper Manhattan represents a geographic panhandle. Manhattan Island is 22.7 square miles (59 km2) in area, 13.4 miles (21.6 km) long and 2.3 miles (3.7 km) wide, at its widest (near 14th Street).

 

Early in the 19th century, landfill was used to expand Lower Manhattan from the natural Hudson shoreline at Greenwich Street to West Street. When building the World Trade Center, 1.2 million cubic yards (917,000 m³) of material was excavated from the site. Rather than dumping the spoil at sea or in landfills, the fill material was used to expand the Manhattan shoreline across West Street, creating Battery Park City. The result was a 700-foot (210-m) extension into the river, running six blocks or 1,484 feet (452 m), covering 92 acres (37 ha), providing a 1.2-mile (1.9 km) riverfront esplanade and over 30 acres (12 ha) of parks.

 

At the 2010 Census, there were 1,585,873 people living in Manhattan, an increase of 3.2% since 2000. Since 2010, Manhattan's population was estimated by the Census Bureau to have increased 2.5% to 1,626,159 as of 2013, representing 19.3% of the city's population and 8.3% of the state's population. As of the 2000 Census, the population density of New York County was 66,940 per square mile (25,846/km²), the highest population density of any county in the United States. If 2012 census estimates were accurate, the population density then approximated 70,518 people per square mile (27,227/km²). In 1910, at the height of European immigration to New York, Manhattan's population density reached a peak of 101,548 people per square mile (39,208/km²). There were 798,144 housing units in 2000 at an average density of 34,756.7 per square mile (13,421.8/km²). Only 20.3% of Manhattan residents lived in owner-occupied housing, the second-lowest rate of all counties in the nation, behind the Bronx.

 

According to 2012 Census estimates, 65.2% of the population was White, 18.4% Black or African American, 1.2% American Indian and Alaska Native, 12.0% Asian, and 3.1% of two or more races. 25.8% of Manhattan's population was of Hispanic or Latino origin, of any race. Manhattan has the second highest percentage of non-Hispanic Whites (48%) of New York City's boroughs, after Staten Island (where non-Hispanic Whites make up 64% of residents).

 

The New York City Department of City Planning projects that Manhattan's population will increase by 289,000 people between 2000 and 2030, an increase of 18.8% over the period, second only to Staten Island, while the rest of the city is projected to grow by 12.7% over the same period. The school-age population is expected to grow 4.4% by 2030, in contrast to a small decline in the city as a whole. The elderly population is forecast to grow by 57.9%, with the borough adding 108,000 persons ages 65 and over, compared to 44.2% growth citywide.

 

According to the 2009 American Community Survey, the average household size was 2.11, and the average family size was 3.21. Approximately 59.4% of the population over the age of 25 have a bachelor's degree or higher. Approximately 27.0% of the population is foreign-born, and 61.7% of the population over the age of 5 speak only English at home. People of Irish ancestry make up 7.8% of the population, while Italian Americans make up 6.8% of the population. German Americans and Russian Americans make up 7.2% and 6.2% of the population respectively.

 

In 2000, 56.4% of people living in Manhattan were White, 17.39% were Black, 14.14% were from other races, 9.40% were Asian, 0.5% were Native American, and 0.07% were Pacific Islander. 4.14% were from two or more races. 27.18% were Hispanic of any race.

 

There were 738,644 households. 25.2% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 59.1% were non-families. 17.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them. 48% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was two and the average family size was 2.99.

 

Manhattan's population was spread out with 16.8% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 38.3% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, and 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males.

 

Manhattan is one of the highest-income places in the United States with a population greater than one million. As of 2012, Manhattan's cost of living was the highest in the United States, but the borough also contained the country's most profound level of income inequality. Manhattan is also the United States county with the highest per capita income, being the sole county whose per capita income exceeded $100,000 in 2010. In 2012, The New York Times reported that "the income gap in Manhattan, already wider than almost anywhere else in the country, rivaled disparities in sub-Saharan Africa. ... The wealthiest fifth of Manhattanites made more than 40 times what the lowest fifth reported, a widening gap (it was 38 times, the year before) surpassed by only a few developing countries".

 

Lower Manhattan has been experiencing a baby boom, well above the overall birth rate in Manhattan, with the area south of Canal Street witnessing 1,086 births in 2010, 12% greater than 2009 and over twice the number born in 2001. The Financial District alone has witnessed growth in its population to approximately 43,000 as of 2014, nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census.

  

from Wikipedia

 

Manhattan is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City. The borough is coterminous with New York County, founded on November 1, 1683 as an original county of the U.S. state of New York. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the East, Hudson, and Harlem Rivers, but also includes several small adjacent islands, as well as Marble Hill, a small neighborhood on the U.S. mainland.

 

Manhattan has been described as the economic and cultural center of the United States and serves as home to the United Nations Headquarters. Wall Street, in Lower Manhattan, has been called the financial capital of the world, and is home to the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Many multinational media conglomerates are based in the borough. Historically documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for the equivalent of US$24, Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island itself estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2014.

 

New York County is the most densely populated county in the United States, and is more dense than any individual American city. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a Census-estimated 2013 population of 1,626,159 living in a land area of 22.96 square miles (59.5 km2), or about 70,826 residents per square mile (27,346/km²). On business days, the influx of commuters increases that number to over 3.9 million, or around 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, and is the smallest borough in terms of land area.

 

Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan have become well known to New York City's approximately 50 million annual visitors. Times Square, iconified as "The Crossroads of the World" and "The Center of the Universe", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. The borough hosts many world-renowned bridges, skyscrapers, and parks. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere. The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 35 in the world. The city of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of city government and a National Historic Landmark that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen (Half Moon). A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River (later named the Hudson River). The word "Manhattan" has been translated as "island of many hills" from the Lenape language.

 

The United States Postal Service prefers that mail addressed to Manhattan use "New York, NY" rather than "Manhattan, NY".

  

The area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of the French king Francis I – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. He entered The Narrows aboard his ship La Dauphine and named the land around Upper New York Harbor "New Angoulême", in reference to the family name of Francis I of France that was derived from Angoulême in France; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the Hudson River which he referred to in his report to the French king as a "very big river"; and he named Upper New York Bay the Bay of Santa Margarita – after Marguerite de Navarre – the elder sister of the king.

 

It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, that the area was mapped. Hudson came across Manhattan Island and the native people living there in 1609, and continued up the river that would later bear his name, the Hudson River, until he arrived at the site of present day Albany.

  

A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, later called New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam). Manhattan Island was chosen as the site of Fort Amsterdam, a citadel for the protection of the new arrivals; its 1625 establishment is recognized as the birth date of New York City. According to the document by Pieter Janszoon Schagen our People (ons Volck), Peter Minuit and Dutch colonists acquired Manhattan in 1626 from unnamed American Indian people in exchange for trade goods worth 60 guilders, often said to be worth US$24, though (by comparing the price of bread and other goods) it actually amounts to around US$1,050 in 2014.

 

In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director General of the colony. New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1653. In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it "New York" after the English Duke of York and Albany, the future King James II. The Dutch, under Director General Stuyvesant, successfully negotiated with the English to produce 24 articles of provisional transfer, which sought to retain for the extant citizens of New Netherland their previously attained liberties (including freedom of religion) under new colonial English rulers.

 

The Dutch Republic regained it in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming the city "New Orange". New Netherland was ceded permanently to the English in November 1674 through the Treaty of Westminster, in exchange for Run Island which was the long-coveted last link in the Dutch nutmeg trading monopoly in Indonesia.

American Revolution and the early United States

 

Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of major battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the disastrous Battle of Fort Washington on November 16, 1776. The city became the British political and military center of operations in North America for the remainder of the war. Manhattan was greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the British military rule that followed. British occupation lasted until November 25, 1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the city.

 

From January 11, 1785, to the fall of 1788, New York City was the fifth of five capitals of the United States under the Articles of Confederation, with the Continental Congress meeting at New York City Hall (then at Fraunces Tavern). New York was the first capital under the newly enacted Constitution of the United States, from March 4, 1789, to August 12, 1790, at Federal Hall. Federal Hall was also the site of where the United States Supreme Court met for the first time, the United States Bill of Rights were drafted and ratified, and where the Northwest Ordinance was adopted, establishing measures for adding new states to the Union.

 

Manhattan is loosely divided into Downtown (Lower Manhattan), Midtown (Midtown Manhattan), and Uptown (Upper Manhattan), with Fifth Avenue dividing Manhattan's east and west sides. Manhattan Island is bounded by the Hudson River to the west and the East River to the east. To the north, the Harlem River divides Manhattan Island from The Bronx and the mainland United States. Several small islands are also part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall's Island, Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, New York County has a total area of 33.6 square miles (87 km2), of which 22.8 square miles (59 km2) is land and 10.8 square miles (28 km2) (32%) is water. The northern segment of Upper Manhattan represents a geographic panhandle. Manhattan Island is 22.7 square miles (59 km2) in area, 13.4 miles (21.6 km) long and 2.3 miles (3.7 km) wide, at its widest (near 14th Street).

 

Early in the 19th century, landfill was used to expand Lower Manhattan from the natural Hudson shoreline at Greenwich Street to West Street. When building the World Trade Center, 1.2 million cubic yards (917,000 m³) of material was excavated from the site. Rather than dumping the spoil at sea or in landfills, the fill material was used to expand the Manhattan shoreline across West Street, creating Battery Park City. The result was a 700-foot (210-m) extension into the river, running six blocks or 1,484 feet (452 m), covering 92 acres (37 ha), providing a 1.2-mile (1.9 km) riverfront esplanade and over 30 acres (12 ha) of parks.

 

At the 2010 Census, there were 1,585,873 people living in Manhattan, an increase of 3.2% since 2000. Since 2010, Manhattan's population was estimated by the Census Bureau to have increased 2.5% to 1,626,159 as of 2013, representing 19.3% of the city's population and 8.3% of the state's population. As of the 2000 Census, the population density of New York County was 66,940 per square mile (25,846/km²), the highest population density of any county in the United States. If 2012 census estimates were accurate, the population density then approximated 70,518 people per square mile (27,227/km²). In 1910, at the height of European immigration to New York, Manhattan's population density reached a peak of 101,548 people per square mile (39,208/km²). There were 798,144 housing units in 2000 at an average density of 34,756.7 per square mile (13,421.8/km²). Only 20.3% of Manhattan residents lived in owner-occupied housing, the second-lowest rate of all counties in the nation, behind the Bronx.

 

According to 2012 Census estimates, 65.2% of the population was White, 18.4% Black or African American, 1.2% American Indian and Alaska Native, 12.0% Asian, and 3.1% of two or more races. 25.8% of Manhattan's population was of Hispanic or Latino origin, of any race. Manhattan has the second highest percentage of non-Hispanic Whites (48%) of New York City's boroughs, after Staten Island (where non-Hispanic Whites make up 64% of residents).

 

The New York City Department of City Planning projects that Manhattan's population will increase by 289,000 people between 2000 and 2030, an increase of 18.8% over the period, second only to Staten Island, while the rest of the city is projected to grow by 12.7% over the same period. The school-age population is expected to grow 4.4% by 2030, in contrast to a small decline in the city as a whole. The elderly population is forecast to grow by 57.9%, with the borough adding 108,000 persons ages 65 and over, compared to 44.2% growth citywide.

 

According to the 2009 American Community Survey, the average household size was 2.11, and the average family size was 3.21. Approximately 59.4% of the population over the age of 25 have a bachelor's degree or higher. Approximately 27.0% of the population is foreign-born, and 61.7% of the population over the age of 5 speak only English at home. People of Irish ancestry make up 7.8% of the population, while Italian Americans make up 6.8% of the population. German Americans and Russian Americans make up 7.2% and 6.2% of the population respectively.

 

In 2000, 56.4% of people living in Manhattan were White, 17.39% were Black, 14.14% were from other races, 9.40% were Asian, 0.5% were Native American, and 0.07% were Pacific Islander. 4.14% were from two or more races. 27.18% were Hispanic of any race.

 

There were 738,644 households. 25.2% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 59.1% were non-families. 17.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them. 48% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was two and the average family size was 2.99.

 

Manhattan's population was spread out with 16.8% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 38.3% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, and 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males.

 

Manhattan is one of the highest-income places in the United States with a population greater than one million. As of 2012, Manhattan's cost of living was the highest in the United States, but the borough also contained the country's most profound level of income inequality. Manhattan is also the United States county with the highest per capita income, being the sole county whose per capita income exceeded $100,000 in 2010. In 2012, The New York Times reported that "the income gap in Manhattan, already wider than almost anywhere else in the country, rivaled disparities in sub-Saharan Africa. ... The wealthiest fifth of Manhattanites made more than 40 times what the lowest fifth reported, a widening gap (it was 38 times, the year before) surpassed by only a few developing countries".

 

Lower Manhattan has been experiencing a baby boom, well above the overall birth rate in Manhattan, with the area south of Canal Street witnessing 1,086 births in 2010, 12% greater than 2009 and over twice the number born in 2001. The Financial District alone has witnessed growth in its population to approximately 43,000 as of 2014, nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census.

  

from Wikipedia

 

Not fly-tipping but the over spill of a households hording

# www.youtube.com/watch?v=MqWeOmICIdQ&feature=related

  

Albert Owen designated second home in London and claimed monthly mortgage interest of £1,288 in August 2007. Claimed £629 for television, £73 for painting and decorating and £89 for cutlery

 

James Paice claims mortgage interest on south London flat. Spent £2,684 on furniture in May 2004 and in March 2007, spent another £2,130

 

Ian Paisley claims rent on second home in west London. December 2003, claimed for night at Jolly Hotel St Ermin’s in the city, including £3 on minibar

 

Nick Palmer rents second home in London. Switched between rental properties, claiming £424 in August 2005 for removal costs. Later switched back to rental flat in the original block

 

Owen Paterson claimed mortgage interest of £1,041 a month on flat near Parliament. Switched to another property in 2005, payments rose to £1,657

 

Ian Pearson has second home in West Midlands, claims mortgage interest. Other claims: £240 for 20 hours of gardening

 

Andrew Pelling does not claim additional costs allowance (ACA). Claimed the smaller London Supplement, which was £2,812 last year

 

Mike Penning , a shadow health minister, charged the taxpayer £2.99 for a stainless steel dog bowl

 

John Penrose's second home is Thames-side flat near Parliament, with tracker mortgage, on which he claims monthly interest payments of around £2,000

 

Eric Pickles claimed for £200 in petty cash monthly between 2005 and the middle of 2008. Claimed mortgage interest of less than £250 a month and service charges of £750 a year for a flat in east London. One of the lower claimers. Stopped using the additional costs allowance to run a second home when made party chairman.

 

James Plaskitt asked by fees office not to claim nominal sums such as £400 or £300 a month for groceries without submitting evidence of expenditure

 

Greg Pope claimed £1,590 for shopping at John Lewis in March 2006. In September 2006, submitted claim of £560 for two paintings, for which a receipt with no company letterhead was submitted

 

Stephen Pound is not eligible for second home allowance. Claimed £160 for guided tour of Palace of Westminster under Incidental Expenses Provision (IEP)

 

Bridget Prentice claimed no ACA. Office IEP expenses include £230 in 2004 for accountant to prepare her tax return

 

Gordon Prentice claimed £2,262 for items bought at John Lewis, including a £749 television, £649 fridge freezer and various furniture for London flat on top of £900-a-month mortgage

 

John Prescott claimed for two lavatory seats in two years

 

Adam Price claimed for books, including Bring Home the Revolution: The Case for a British Republic, by Jonathan Freedland. Queried by fees office

 

Dawn Primarolo claimed on second home in Bristol. In 2004, switched to London flat and claimed mortgage interest payments

 

Mark Prisk accidentally claimed £1,726 rather than £1,182 for one month’s mortgage interest on London home. Error was spotted by officials

 

Mark Pritchard moved flats in Westminster in 2007, claiming for £199 vacuum cleaner, £1,000 furnishings, kitchen utensils worth £66, bedding of £45 and a £145 microwave

 

Gwyn Prosser paid his brother from his taxpayer-funded expenses to carry out work on his London flat - despite the fact that he lived almost 200 miles away.

 

John Pugh rents London flat for £1,280 a month; rent claims rose to £1,500. In July 2006, told fees office his daughter would be staying while at university, so he would reduce claims on rent and utilities. Claims remained close to maximum

 

Ken Purchase spent £1,465 on new blinds for second home in south London in 2005-06. Regularly claims up to maximum £400 a month for food. Monthly mortgage interest payments were £580 last year, leaving an ACA of £14,713

 

James Purnell avoided paying capital gains tax on the sale of his London flat after claiming expenses for accountancy advice. Bought expensive gadgets. Spent taxpayers’ money advertising at football and rugby league matches

 

Bill Rammell claimed £475 a month mortgage interest in 2008 for second home located in constituency. Claimed £1,360 for replastering and installing downlights in bedroom

 

Nick Raynsford: as an inner London MP, he is not eligible to claim a second home allowance, but he claimed the maximum London Supplement of £2,812 last year

 

John Redwood has admitted being paid twice after submitting an identical £3,000 decorating bill on his second home allowance

 

Andy Reed has a flat as second home in Westminster. In 2007, claimed £1,180 for the flat but this fell to £727 for a mortgage interest payment in 2008. Website states he claims about £450 aper month in mortgage interest payments

 

Jamie Reed claimed £8,640 stamp duty and £3,943 in legal fees when he bought London home in May 2006. Claimed £2,336 for two beds and two mattresses, but this was reduced to £1,000 by the fees office

 

Alan Reid claimed more than £1,500 on his parliamentary expenses for staying in hotels and bed-and-breakfasts near his home

 

John Reid used his allowance to pay for slotted spoons, an ironing board and a glittery loo seat

 

Willie Rennie's second home is a flat in Lambeth, south London. In 2005, claimed £708 for new cooker and fridge freezer. In 2007, claimed for £1,350 monthly rent

 

Sir Malcolm Rifkind claimed the smaller London Supplement, which amounted to £2,812 last year

 

Linda Riordan bought flat in Kennington in early 2006, claims for mortgage interest. Claims for beds/headboards refused, but £219 bedding, £1,310 sofa bed/chair and £1,936 carpet approved. Regularly claims maximum £400 for unreceipted monthly food bills

 

Andrew Robathan claimed monthly mortgage interest payments on London home of more than £3,300 before notifying the fees office he was switching his second home to a new property in his constituency, “which we are going to refurbish”

 

Angus Robertson successfully appealed to the fees office when they turned down his claim for a £400 home cinema system

 

Hugh Robertson rents second home in London for more than £1,800 a month. Main home, in Kent, belongs to his wife’s family. He checked with fees office that this arrangement was in order, they confirmed it was

 

John Robertson rents a second home in London for about £1,100 a month and has claimed £675 in window cleaning at the property since 2005

 

Laurence Robertson designates constituency house as second home, claiming £900 monthly mortgage interest and about £800 a year heating oil. Pays wife Susan’s travel and phone from office allowance. She works for him but they are separated

 

Geoffrey Robinson has not made any claims on his second home allowance since 2004/05

 

Peter and Iris Robinson both claimed expenses based on the same £1,223 bill when they submitted their parliamentary claims in 2007

 

Dan Rogerson bought London flat in 2005. Claimed £2,500 stamp duty, £1,572 legal fees, £340 survey; £1,108 furniture. In March 2008, changed mortgage to interest-only, allowing maximum benefits of ACA

 

Terry Rooney claimed interest payments on mortgage for home in Bradford using second home allowance. Between March 2007 and April 2008, claimed £1,200 for cleaning

 

Andrew Rosindell claimed more than £125,000 in second home expenses for a flat in London, while designating his childhood home 17 miles away - where his mother lived - as his main address

 

Paul Rowen claimed mortgage interest payments for second home in Battersea, south London. In 2007, claimed for a £325 rug, a chest of drawers costing £295 and an £85 bedside table, all from John Lewis

 

Frank Roy claimed £455 on “assorted bedding, curtains and furnishings” in March 2006. In July, submitted bill for £750 towards £795 HD-ready 32 in television with DVD player. In January 2008, claimed £265 for sink waste disposal unit

 

Chris Ruane claimed £4,560 part costs of buying flat in March 2006, then claimed £10,958 for remainder following month. Fees office noted on claim that this could not be paid because costs were incurred in 2005-06 financial year and it was then 2006-07

 

Joan Ruddock claimed £235 for training on debt advice provided by Shelter, the charity, in May 2008. Confirmed she paid tax on reimbursed accountacy fees

 

David Ruffley claimed for new furniture and fittings after “flipping” his second home from London to a new flat in his constituency

 

Bob Russell claims mortgage interest for south London flat he shares with fellow MP Mike Hancock. In July 2006, claimed £1,035 for replacing windows

 

Christine Russell claims rent on second home in London, which she shares with fellow MP Helen Southworth

 

Joan Ryan spent thousands of pounds on repairs and decorations at her constituency home before switching her designated second home to a London property

 

Alex Salmond claimed £400 per month for food when the Commons was not even sitting. He also billed the taxpayer £14,100 to try to impeach Tony Blair

 

Martin Salter has not made any claims on his second home allowance since 2004/05

 

Adrian Sanders claimed rent on his London flat of up to £988 a month. Claimed for £55 vase from the Dartington Cider Press Centre in Totnes, Devon

 

Mohammed Sarwar claimed almost £100,000 to cover mortgage interest that he paid from an account with a Swiss bank.

 

Alison Seabeck claims £1,100 a month mortgage interest for her constituency home, but billed £65 for a night in local hotel plus £10 breakfast after she had left her keys in London

 

Andrew Selous designates constituency property as second home, on which he claims monthly mortgage interest payments of more than £1,600

 

Grant Shapps claimed just £7,269 on his second homes allowance in 2007/08

 

Virendra Sharma chose not to claim designated second home expenses under ACA after entering Parliament in a by-election in July, 2007, although he was entitled to them as an outer London MP. Took £1,958 in London supplement in 2007-08 and £15,988 in office expenses.

 

Jonathan Shaw claimed £240 in London hotel bills plus £800 monthly flat renta in March 2005, saying it was being redecorated

 

Barry Sheerman claimed mortgage interest payments of about £900 a month on London second home, £1,338 for 20 in Apple iMac on office expenses

 

Richard Shepherd has repaid £162 to the Fees Office after deciding he should not have claimed for cleaning and gardening at his constituency home

 

Jim Sheridan used his allowances to reclaim the cost of a 42-inch plasma TV, leather bed and hundreds of pounds worth of furniture. Claimed £2,091 for three-seater sofa, two-seater sofa bed, coffee table and lamp table for London home bought from Edinburgh dfs store in March 2006

 

Clare Short claimed thousands of pounds of taxpayers' money to which she was not entitled within months of standing down as a Cabinet minister

 

Mark Simmonds claims up to £2,696 a month for interest-only mortgage on second home in London

 

Sion Simon claimed £5,400 in stamp duty after moving house in London in May 2008. Also claimed £1,850 on refurbishing new home that month

 

Alan Simpson claimed £4,000 towards the cost of replacing the boiler at second home in Lambeth. In September 2007, claimed £10,000 towards £11,020 on stripping out old kitchen

 

David Simpson bought London flat in March 2006. Over two days, claimed £6,234 for furniture. Claimed £1,082 monthly mortgage interest payments

 

Keith Simpson has claimed almost £200 for light bulbs on his expenses

 

Marsha Singh claimed mortgage interest payments for London flat as second home. Claimed for £750 television, £229 DVD player and £400 music player with handwritten receipt

 

Andrew Slaughter is not eligible to claim ACA. In 2007, claimed for a fountain pen nib costing £90 using his IEP

 

Andrew Smith spent more than £30,000 of taxpayers’ money giving his house a makeover

 

Angela Smith sought payment for four beds for a one-bedroom London flat

 

Angela C Smith spent nearly £11,000 over two years on setting up a second home in London

 

Geraldine Smith spent £235 on picture and £185 on mirror for London flat in August 2005. Bought Bali table lamp, floor lamp and three cushions for total of £620 one month later

 

advice using expenses intended to fund their parliamentary and constituency offices. Bought expensive gadgets including an iPhone for her husband.

 

John Smith claimed £57,955 in second home expenses in four years without submitting a single receipt.

 

Sir Robert Smith claimed about £910 a month for mortgage interest payments on Lambeth flat in 2008-09

 

Anne Snelgrove claimed £4,100 for furniture including a bedstead, sofa and chest of drawers. Also claimed £499.97 for a television set, £454.70 for crockery and kitchen equipment, £655 on a table, chairs and bookcase, and £55 on towels.

 

Nicholas Soames claimed up to £1,340 a month for mortgage interest on Westminster home

 

Sir Peter Soulsby fell behind with the rent at his offices but when the £472 bailiffs bill arrived he billed the taxpayer

 

Helen Southworth claims rent on second home in London, which she shares with fellow MP Christine Russell. Claimed £709 for a television, £259 for an air conditioning unit and £239 for a Dyson cleaner

 

John Spellar claims for his constituency home in the West Midlands. Claimed £600 for a tree surgeon, £1.99 for a washing up brush and 47p for a pair of rubber gloves

 

Caroline Spelman made no claims for mortgage interest or rent on her second home in 2006-07 and 2007-08

 

Michael Spicer claimed for work on his helipad and received thousands of pounds for gardening bills

 

Bob Spink claimed about £25,000 for fees and refurbishment when he bought a flat in 2004. Included was £11,000 for decorators’ fees, £3,400 for a leather sofa, £3,000 for carpets and curtains

 

Richard Spring claimed monthly mortgage interest payments of more than £1,300 on a property in Suffolk. Also claimed £35.25 to treat a wasps’ nest

 

Sir John Stanley claims for rent on London flat, also claims for food, utilities, council tax and a cleaner

 

Phyllis Starkey claims for rent on home in consituency, along with utilities and council tax. Also owns a house in Oxford from which rental income is received

 

Anthony Steen claimed £87,000 on country mansion with 500 trees. He has announced he will step down at the next election

 

Ian Stewart claims rent on flat in London. Also claimed for a £500 leather suite and a £1,247 computer bought from the shopping channel QVC

 

Howard Stoate claimed thousands in DIY bills 'to ease the burden on the taxpayer'

 

Gavin Strang claims for his flat in London and for up to £400 per month in food. Also receives rental income from farmland and woodland in Perthshire

 

Jack Straw only paid half the amount of council tax that he claimed on his parliamentary allowances over four years but later rectified the over-claim. Used his office expenses to pay for a degree studied by a member of his staff

 

Gary Streeter claims for the mortgage interest on his constituency home in Plymouth, also claimed for food and £1.60 for a pack of 10 lightbulbs

 

Gisela Stuart claims for mortgage interest on constituency home in Birmingham and up to £2,000 per year for food. Also owns a family home in Worcestershire and a flat in London

 

Graham Stringer: hotel stays when in London and claims up to £4,800 per year for food. Hotel bills have included snacks such as Pringles crisps at £1.75

 

Graham Stuart shares a flat in London with Conservative MP David Mundell, shares costs with him and claims for rent, council tax and utilities. Bills for household items included £426 for duvet, pillows and towels

 

Andrew Stunell claims for mortgage interest on flat in London, also claimed for £5,545 replacement windows by Everest. Claims more than £1,000 per year for food in some years

 

Gerry Sutcliffe claims for mortgage interest on constituency home in Bingley. Claimed £3,790 for fitted bedroom, £2,616 for new gutters and sofit boards, and £1,745 for two sofas

 

Desmond Swayne has a second home in London, on which he paid a £652 monthly mortgage interest in 2005-06. Rose to £711 in 2007-08. Charged £6,131 for new kitchen and £411 for tree work in 2006

 

Jo Swinson included receipts for eyeliner, a “tooth flosser” and 29p dusters with her parliamentary expenses claims

 

Hugo Swire, the former shadow culture secretary, designated his first home in London and claimed for rent at his second home in Devon. He said London was his main home and his daughter went to school in the capital. In June, 2007, he claimed £349 for a satellite navigation system to “cover the 176.25 square miles of his constituency”.

 

Robert Syms claimed more than £2,000 worth of furniture on expenses for his designated second home in London, but had it all delivered to his parents’ address in Wiltshire

 

Mark Tami has a second home in Bromley, Kent. Bought London home in Dec 2007, claimed £9,000 stamp duty and mortgage interest rate increased to £1,300

 

Sir Peter Tapsell claimed rent for second home in London, which rose from £4,821 a quarter in 2006 to £5,417 a quarter in 2008. Total claims over fours years of £87,729

 

Dari Taylor claimed flat in south-east London as second home and charged monthly mortgage interest of £1,000 in 2008. Fees office asked for evidence of mortgage in October 2007

 

David Taylor has a second home in London, monthly mortgage interest payments of £375 in 2005 rose to £700 after buying new second home in 2007

 

Ian Taylor said he will retire at the next election after it emerged that he made second home claims on a flat in London although his main home is within 40 minutes’ commuting distance of Westminster

 

Matthew Taylor claims for flat in London while also owning another flat in London which he rents out. Bills include £350 for gardening, £1,373 for curtains and blinds

 

Richard Taylor claims for renting flat in London and for council tax. No claims for furniture, cleaning, utilities or food

 

Sarah Teather did not claim on her second homes allowance between 2004 and 2008

 

Gareth Thomas used public money to settle a £1,000 accountancy bill to recover a tax "over-payment" of £2,000. Has repaid more than £1,600 he claimed for gardening, £1,200 he overclaimed for council tax and mortgage interest payments and £30 for wine and other personal items

 

Emily Thornberry is not entitled to claim for a second home as an inner London MP. However, takes home the London Supplement, which was £2,812 last year

 

John Thurso claimed rent on designated second home in London and for hotels across Scotland because of “vast area of constituency”. Approved by fees office

 

Stephen Timms is an outer London MP who chooses not to claim second homes allowance. Claims the London Supplement which amounted to £2,812 last year

 

Paddy Tipping claimed mortgage interest payments of about £500 per month on a flat in London. His overall claims were only just over half the maximum amount claimed by some MPs

 

Mark Todd defended his expenses claims as "essentials" but included a marble table and an espresso coffee machine

 

Baroness Tonge claimed mortgage interest on her second home allowance as an MP, then after her retirement leased the property to a fellow MP who in turn recovered the rent from the taxpayer

 

Don Touhig spent thousands of pounds redecorating his constituency home before “flipping” his allowance to a flat in London

 

David Tredinnick tried to claim the £125 cost of attending a course on "intimate relationships" through his Parliamentary expenses

 

Jon Trickett claimed £761.68 per month in mortgage interest payments for a second home in London. Also claimed for food, utilities and council tax

 

Paul Truswell stays in hotels in London while at Westminster, usually paying £119 for a room, also claimed for £4.95 packets of nuts from the minibar. In 2007-08, claimed £2,255 for food and £18 for laundry

 

Andrew Turner used his office expenses to pay for his girlfriend, who is also his parliamentary assistant, to have "life coaching" classes

 

Des Turner claimed mortgage interest payments of up to £450 per month on a flat in London as his designated second home. Also claimed up to £400 per month food. Claimed roughly half of the maximum available under the second homes allowance.

 

Neil Turner claimed for mortgage interest on flat in London, and up to £400 per month for food some months. Also claims utilities, council tax and for small amounts of furniture

 

Derek Twigg moved his designated second home from constituency to flat near Parliament in 2004, now claims £1,343 a month in rent. Claimed £110 for an iron and radio in 2005, and £77 for same items two years later

 

Lord Tyler claimed for the mortgage interest on his family-owned flat in Westminster – and then sold his share to his daughter a month after he quit as an MP

 

Andrew Tyrie nominates a flat in property near his constituency as second home. Claims £700 a month in mortgage interest payments and £6,000 a year on service charges

 

Kitty Ussher resigned as Treasury minister after he expenses files showed she avoided paying up to £17,000 in tax on the sale of her constituency home

 

Ed Vaizey had £2,000 worth of furniture delivered to his London home when he was claiming his Commons allowance on a second home in Oxfordshire.

 

Shailesh Vara tried to claim £1,500 on his expenses for costs incurred before he was elected

 

Keith Vaz claimed £75,500 for a second flat near Parliament even though he already lived just 12 miles from Westminster

 

Sir Peter Viggers included with his expense claims the £1,645 cost of a floating duck house in the garden pond at his Hampshire home. He has announced he will step down at the next election and admitted he made a "ridiculous and grave error of judgment"

 

Theresa Villiers claimed almost £16,000 in stamp duty and professional fees on expenses when she bought a London flat, even though she already had a house in the capital. She has agreed to stop claiming the second home allowance

 

Rudi Vis receives second home allowance and claims £2,300 a month interest on a mortgage he took out in 2006 on his constituency home. Says main home is in Suffolk

 

Charles Walker claims £700 in mortgage interest payments for flat in Wandsworth, constituency home is 21 miles from Westminster. Claimed £6,732 for decoration, carpets, curtains and re-wiring at flat

 

Ben Wallace claimed for more than £700 to stay at Carlton Club after May 2005 general election. Included the cost of at least three Daily Telegraphs on bill. Most claims made up of rent, council tax bills and utility bills

 

Joan Walley claimed for more than £4,400 of furniture in London flat in 2004-05 and a £195 blanket. In 2005-06, claimed for £1,199 LCD Sony television. Fees office cut bill to £750

 

Robert Walter attempted to claim £1,008 for handmade carpets he bought while on a trip to India. Claimed for £16,000 moving costs; estate agents’ commission, stamp duty and solicitors’ fees. Then claimed for two flat screen televisions worth £749 and £399 and eight chairs worth £744

 

Lynda Waltho claimed £1,680 for food in one year. Billed taxpayer for £472 bed, £81 sheets, towels and a pillow and £1,022 of electrical equipment. Also claimed for £380 armchair and £8.32 kettle

 

Claire Ward, the MP responsible for keeping the Queen informed about Parliament, submitted monthly expense claims for hundreds of pounds of "petty cash" while claiming maximum allowances

 

Bob Wareing claimed for more than £4,000 in food bills in 2004-05. Then claimed for £176 air conditioning unit, as well as a £19.99 kettle for his Westminster flat

 

Nigel Waterson claimed mortgage interest/rent payments and food bills at his second home in Beckenham, Kent. Also billed taxpayer £1,055 to paint house and garage

 

Angela Watkinson claimed £3,100 to redecorate flat including new doors, latches and locks in 2005-06. Then claimed £6,350 for a new bathroom, as well as £804 for a television, microwave and fridge

 

Tom Watson and Iain Wright spent £100,000 of taxpayers' money on the London flat they once shared

 

Dave Watts claimed for refurbishment to kitchen (£3,543), bathroom (£3,500) and £742 redecoration. Also claimed for £549 Philips LCD 26 in television

 

Steve Webb sold his London flat and bought another nearby, while the taxpayer picked up an £8,400 bill for stamp duty

 

Mike Weir claimed £1,300 per month rent for his second home in London plus bills for utilities, telephone, council tax and food

 

Alan Whitehead claimed mortgage interest payments of up to £730 per month on his second home in London. Also claimed £1,942.98 for a replacement boiler

 

John Whittingdale claimed £1,828.30 for bathroom fitting, £1,800 for a replacement boiler, £774.50 on a sofa and rug from Laura Ashley and £1,014 on a bed

 

Malcolm Wicks was entitled to claim for a second home allowance but instead claimed for the more moderate London subsidy of £2,812

 

Ann Widdecombe claimed just £858 on her second home allowance in 2007/08. However, she did spend more than £9,000 of taxpayers' money on her own personal newspaper cuttings service over a four year period.

 

Bill Wiggin claimed interest payments for a property which had no mortgage

 

Betty Williams claimed mortgage interest payments of £519 per month on London flat. Also claimed service charge, utilities, telephone and food but made few other claims

 

Hywel Williams claimed more than £1,000 per month in mortgage interest payments on London flat. Also claimed £2,408.75 for a plumbing bill

 

David Willetts, the Conservatives' choice for skills minister, needed help changing light bulbs. He has agreed to repay the bill

 

Alan Williams claimed just £5,221 on his second homes allowance in 2007/08

 

Mark Williams claimed up to £1,300 per month to rent a flat in London as his second home but made few other claims under the allowance

 

Stephen Williams claimed up to £1,500 per month to cover rent at his second home, a flat in London. Also claimed for food and utility bills but made few other claims

 

Roger Williams claimed £1,200 per month in rent for a flat in London, which he designated as his second home. Also claimed for food, utilities and cleaning

 

Phil Willis spent thousands of pounds of public funds on mortgage interest payments, redecoration and furnishings for a flat where his daughter now lives.

 

Jenny Willott claimed up to £1,500 per month to live in a flat in London as her second home. Also claimed £519 for a sofa, £933.50 for a bed and £850 for a mattress

 

Michael Wills claims about £1,120 a month in interest for the mortgage on his house in Wiltshire. On one occasion, the fees office agreed to pay £2,633 for a claim made two months after the deadline for 2005-06 had passed. He said a “genuine mistake” had been made by a “trusted and normally reliable member of staff”.

 

David Wilshire claimed thousands of pounds of taxpayers money for monthly payments towards the cost of replacing curtains and carpets at some point in the future. Claimed up to £1,375 per month in mortgage interest payments and also claimed for council tax, service charges and food

 

Phil Wilson claimed £1,250 per month in rent for a London flat, which he designated as his second home. Also claimed £350 for a sofa bed

 

Rob Wilson did not claim on his second homes allowance between 2004 and 2008

 

Sammy Wilson originally claimed for hotels when in London. Later jointly bought a property in the city with another MP. Claimed £6,150 stamp duty, £1,406.90 solicitors’ fees and £2,914 on furniture

 

David Winnick claimed just £36,354 on his second homes allowance between 2004-8

 

Sir Nicholas Winterton and his wife Ann claimed more than £80,000 for a London flat owned by a trust controlled by their children. They have announced they will stand down at the next general election

 

Rosie Winterton submitted claims for “soundproofing” the bedroom of her London home and received thousands of pounds for gardening and decorating. She paid back more than £8,000 in mortgage payments that she claimed wrongly on her parliamentary expenses

 

Peter Wishart claimed £1,400 per month in rent for a second home in London. Also claimed for food but made few other claims under the second homes allowance

 

Mike Wood claimed just over £500 per month to live in a flat in London. Also claimed £3,421.76 for a central heating boiler, £599.99 for a television and £1,332 for a new bathroom

 

Phil Woolas submitted receipts including comics, nappies and women's clothing as part of his claims for food

 

Shaun Woodward received £100,000 to help pay mortgage

 

Anthony Wright claims rent for London flat, also claimed £498 for TV, £90 for trouser press. Accepted £10,000 cash payment from owners of flat, which meant taxpayer-funded rent went up

 

David Wright accepted a £16,787 payment from the owners of his flat in return for giving up the right to cheap rent, then moved out. Claimed £599 for a TV but a £64.99 claim for a razor was turned down

 

Iain Wright and Tom Watson spent £100,000 of taxpayers' money on the London flat they once shared

 

Jeremy Wright claims for flat in London. Spent £2,884 on furniture when he became an MP, including £809 for a bed and £399 for a television

 

Tony Wright claims for his rent in Dolphin Square complex in London, £995 for Venetian blinds, £1,630 for a new sofa and chairs and £799 for a sideboard

 

Derek Wyatt billed 75p for scotch eggs

 

Tim Yeo claimed for a pink laptop computer from John Lewis in the weeks leading up to Christmas.

 

George Young claimed the maximum second home allowance on his London flat for the past two years. He also billed taxpayers for the cost of a video camera so that he could broadcast clips of himself at work on YouTube

 

Richard Younger-Ross spent £1,235 on four mirrors and bought 'Don Juan’ bookca

  

Singapore Gardens by the Bay consists of three distinctive waterfront gardens – Bay South, Bay East and Bay Central, spanning a total of 101 hectares. They are set in the heart of Singapore’s new downtown Marina Bay, encircling the Marina Reservoir like a green necklace. The Gardens will complement the array of attractions around Marina Bay.

 

Gardens by the Bay is an integral part of a strategy by the Singapore government that further transforms Singapore from a ‘Garden City’ to a ‘City in a Garden’, in which the city is woven into a green and floral tapestry. This aims to raise the quality of life in Singapore with a more holistic and all-encompassing programme that enhances greenery and flora in the city. First announced to the public by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong during the National Day Rally in August 2005, Gardens by the Bay will become Singapore’s premier urban outdoor recreation space, and a national icon.

 

An international competition for the design of the master plan was held in January 2006 to elicit the best designs for the Gardens. This attracted more than 70 entries submitted by 170 firms from 24 countries, from which two firms – Grant Associates and Gustafson Porter – were eventually awarded the master plan design for the Bay South and Bay East Gardens respectively.

 

The Gardens are being developed in phases. Bay South is currently being constructed and is slated to be completed by June 2012. Bay East has been developed as an interim park in support of the Youth Olympic Games 2010, and is scheduled to open to the public in late 2011 or early 2012. The full master plan implementation of Bay East and the development of Bay Central are part of the next phase of development.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia......

 

Some information about singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the Singapore Strait to its south. Singapore is highly urbanised but almost half of the country is covered by greenery. More land is being created for development through land reclamation.

 

Singapore had been a part of various local empires since it was first inhabited in the second century AD. Modern Singapore was founded as a trading post of the East India Company by Sir Stamford Raffles in 1819 with permission from the Sultanate of Johor. The British obtained full sovereignty over the island in 1824 and Singapore became one of the British Straits Settlements in 1826. Singapore was occupied by the Japanese in World War II and reverted to British rule after the war. It became internally self-governing in 1959. Singapore united with other former British territories to form Malaysia in 1963 and became a fully independent state two years later after separation from Malaysia. Since then it has had a massive increase in wealth, and is one of the Four Asian Tigers. The economy depends heavily on the industry and service sectors. Singapore is a world leader in several areas: It is the world's fourth-leading financial centre, the world's second-biggest casino gambling market, and the world's third-largest oil refining centre. The port of Singapore is one of the five busiest ports in the world, most notable for being the busiest transshipment port in the world. The country is home to more US dollar millionaire households per capita than any other country. The World Bank notes Singapore as the easiest place in the world to do business. The country has the world's third highest GDP PPP per capita of US$59,936, making Singapore one of the world's wealthiest countries.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia...

  

www.youtube.com/watch?v=FsJjgLaWU0s - Marisi

 

Just messin' `round with a lemon before drinking it. Lighted by Sunlight coming in through the kitchen window. Texture courtesy Sarah Gardner - www.sarahgardnerphotography.com/ , www.sarahgardnerphotography.com/#!textures-and-actions/c219s

 

1. They heal acne and remove blackheads. Lemons' antibacterial and antifungal properties make them a natural alternative to treat acne. Simply slice open a lemon and rub it across your face. Or you can add a few drops of honey to a lemon half before applying it directly to the area where you have blackheads. Wait five to 10 minutes before rinsing off with cold water.

 

2. They lighten dark spots and blemishes. Acne scars and marks are embarrassing and a pain to get rid of. Lemon juice's citric acid gradually fades spots and evens your skin tone. Be cautious of open wounds or cuts on the face, as it can sting real bad.

 

3. They whiten teeth. Professional teeth whitening treatments can cost a fortune. Save yourself a lot of money and time with a homemade teeth whitener using baking soda and lemon juice. Mix the two ingredients into a bubbly solution and put onto your teeth with a Q-tip. Leave on for no more than one minute (the acid is strong enough to break down tooth enamel) and gently scrub off with a toothbrush.

 

4. They get rid of oily skin. We've tested out some pretty weird ways to bring down the shine on our faces, including laxatives. But swiping a cotton swab with a little lemon juice is just as effective. Try doing this before bed and washing your face the next morning to prevent oily skin.

 

5. They brighten your hair color. The cheapest highlights you'll ever pay for involve making a trip to the grocery store to buy lemons. Combine lemon juice and hair conditioner, comb through strands, sit in the sun for a few hours and wash out. Repeat these steps at least once a week, and you will notice that your hair is significantly lighter.

 

6. They strengthen nails. There are tons of nail hardeners on the shelves at your local drugstore, but you can get the same results -- and naturally -- using olive oil and lemon juice. The solution will not only condition weak and brittle nails, but it will also whiten yellowing nails.

 

7. They calm dry scalp and remedy dandruff. We're huge believers in DIY hair masks. Massaging a combination of household staples like coconut oil, olive oil and raw honey with lemon juice onto your scalp is a simple solution for dry scalp and dandruff.

 

8. They soothe chapped lips. Another overnight beauty treatment that only requires slicing open a lemon is an exfoliant for chapped lips. Rub the fruit onto your pucker, then wash off the next morning. The lemon juice will remove any dead skin cells so that your lipstick goes on super smooth.

 

9. They cleanse the face and body. If you're unsure about what's lurking inside your favorite face or body wash, you can always be certain with a homemade cleanser made out of lemon juice, yogurt and an essential oil like lavender or chamomile. Massage this on to remove dirt and bacteria, while moisturizing your skin at the same time.

 

Each morning, wash a lemon and squeeze its juice and pulp into a pitcher of room temperature-to-warm water. Let rind float in water. Drink. Repeat if desired.

As a result of how hard many Americans must work weekly, it is actually clear as to the reason that so many individuals pick a hobby for leisure time. Many individuals realize that hobbies are incredibly relaxing. However, you will need certain information so that you can fully love a hobby. The following tips should help you get the most out of your hobbies.

 

If you wish to produce a business away from your hobby, ensure you price your product or service correctly. You need to charge an excellent amount to help make a reliable profit and support yourself. Evaluate which the expense involved are and charge more to produce a profit.

 

Anxiety from effort is much easier to relieve in case you have a hobby in the home that you simply enjoy. Take into account that a hobby never needs to become occupation, to help you in reality choose something that you don't have professional skills in.

 

Don't enable your hobby to get your complete focus in life. Allow yourself time to function, rest AND play. When you find yourself passing up on important responsibilities, lessen your hobby time.

 

Desire a hobby that concerns the ocean? Try surfing! You can get a used board to start out, and also the lessons tend not to cost so much. Yet another benefit is that you will be getting exercise and building muscles inside your legs.

 

It could be addicting to possess a garage or estate sale hobby. You can get some really cool things at these sales. There might be art stuff, home appliances, household goods and a lot more. Portion of the fun is unearthing a treasure right after the thrill in the chase.

 

After reading this post, you almost certainly visit a hobbies in another light. Understand and discover more about these hobbies to have a good time. So now you cna have a little bit more appreciation to get a hobby, after reading this post. paintballmission.com/

It's been ages since my last upload, not counting those three from the other days. Lots have happened - this time with the not so usual suspects; death, a cocktail of illnesses and lung infections that seemed to have taken a wicked, incessant keenness on the inhabitants of this household since fall, pregnancy, shock, acceptance and joyous infanticipation, only to be shocked again - cysts have multiplied in my baby's brain... I could go on and on. Point is, I'd have my fill of these right now and despite everything, life is still beautiful out t/here...

 

I realized I just missed my 1 year flickr anniversary. When I started out, I was clueless about how to deal with a camera properly. All I knew was that I appreciated beauty and wanted to capture dear family moments, of documenting the baby-to-childhood metamorphosis of my girls and to perhaps capture some passable nature shots, if lucky. All I could was to point and shoot - well, I still do that but with a bit of conscious regard to adjustments and such. I'm learning slowly I must admit, picking up bits and tips here and there but it always has been fun along the way.

 

Flickr is an enormous reservoir of amazing talents and I'm thankful for all the inspirations. Contacts and wonderful comments brighten my day. Kindness and friendship by dear Mai, Yves, David, Arnel and Zeetz put a smile to my heart lately. Warm thanks to you guys! :))

 

Special thank you shotout to:

 

Love-love ko for nurturing my curiosity and surprising me with my own camera. ♡

 

Kasia for leaving an impression, introducing the world of flickr and photography.

 

V for being there from the beginning on, amazing me with her constant friendship, encouragement and inspiration. :)

 

and finally to Ge, another favorite soul, for his warm, generous heart, for the trust and understanding and the inspirations. :)

  

lovelier on black :)

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Isle_of_Portland

  

The Isle of Portland is a limestone tied island, 6 kilometres (4 mi) long by 2.4 kilometres (1.5 mi) wide, in the English Channel. Portland is 8 kilometres (5 mi) south of the resort of Weymouth, forming the southernmost point of the county of Dorset, England. A tombolo over which runs the A354 road connects it to Chesil Beach and the mainland. Portland and Weymouth together form the borough of Weymouth and Portland. The population of Portland is almost 13,000.

Portland is a central part of the Jurassic Coast, a World Heritage Site on the Dorset and east Devon coast, important for its geology and landforms. Its name is used for one of the British Sea Areas, and has been exported as the name of North American and Australian towns. Portland stone, famous for its use in British and world architecture, including St Paul's Cathedral and the United Nations Headquarters, continues to be quarried.

Portland Harbour, in the bay between Portland and Weymouth, is one of the largest man-made harbours in the world. The harbour was formed by the building of stone breakwaters between 1848 and 1905. From its inception it was a Royal Navy base, and played prominent roles during the First and Second World Wars; ships of the Royal Navy and NATO countries worked up and exercised in its waters until 1995. The harbour is now a civilian port and popular recreation area, which will be used for the 2012 Olympic Games.

   

History

 

Portland has been inhabited since at least the Mesolithic period (the Middle Stone Age)—there is archaeological evidence of Mesolithic inhabitants near Portland Bill,[2] and of inhabitation in ages since. The Romans occupied Portland, reputedly calling it Vindelis.[3][4] In 1539 King Henry VIII ordered the construction of Portland Castle for defence against attacks by the French; the castle cost £4,964.[5] It is one of the best preserved castles from this period, and is open to the public by the custodians English Heritage.[6]

Sir Christopher Wren, the architect and Member of Parliament for nearby Weymouth, used six million tons of white Portland limestone to rebuild destroyed parts of London after the Great Fire of London of 1666. Well-known buildings in the capital, including St Paul's Cathedral[7] and the eastern front of Buckingham Palace feature the stone.[8] After the First World War, a quarry was opened by The Crown Estate to provide stone for the Cenotaph in Whitehall and half a million gravestones for war cemeteries,[4] and after the Second World War hundreds of thousands of gravestones were hewn for the fallen soldiers on the Western Front.[4] Portland cement has nothing to do with Portland; it was named such due to its similar colour to Portland stone when mixed with lime and sand.[9]

 

There have been railways in Portland since the early 19th century. The Merchant's Railway was the earliest—it opened in 1826 (one year after the Stockton and Darlington railway) and ran from the quarries at the north of Tophill to a pier at Castletown, from where the Portland stone was shipped around the country.[10] The Weymouth and Portland Railway was laid in 1865, and ran from a station in Melcombe Regis, across the Fleet and along the low isthmus behind Chesil Beach to a station at Victoria Square in Chiswell.[11] At the end of the 19th century the line was extended to the top of the island as the Easton and Church Hope Railway, running through Castletown and ascending the cliffs at East Weares, to loop back north to a station in Easton.[10] The line closed to passengers in 1952, and the final goods train (and two passenger 'specials') ran in April 1965.[11]

The Royal National Institution for the Preservation of Life from Shipwreck stationed a lifeboat at Portland in 1826, but it was withdrawn in 1851.[12] Coastal flooding has affected Portland's residents and transport for centuries—the only way off the island is along the causeway in the lee of Chesil Beach. At times of extreme floods (about every 10 years) this road link is cut by floods. The low-lying village of Chiswell used to flood on average every 5 years. Chesil Beach occasionally faces severe storms and massive waves, which have a fetch across the Atlantic Ocean.[13] Following two severe flood events in the 1970s, Weymouth and Portland Borough Council and Wessex Water decided to investigate the structure of the beach, and possible coastal management schemes that could be built to protect Chiswell and the beach road. In the 1980s it was agreed that a scheme to protect against a one-in-five year storm would be practicable; it would reduce flood depth and duration in more severe storms.[13] Hard engineering techniques were employed in the scheme, including a gabion beach crest running 1.6 kilometres (1 mi) to the north of Chiswell, an extended sea wall in Chesil Cove, and a culvert running from inside the beach, underneath the beach road and into Portland Harbour, to divert flood water away from low lying areas.[13]

 

At the start of the First World War, HMS Hood was sunk in the passage between the southern breakwaters to protect the harbour from torpedo and submarine attack.[14] Portland Harbour was formed (1848–1905) by the construction of breakwaters, but before that the natural anchorage had hosted ships of the Royal Navy for more than 500 years. It was a centre for Admiralty research into asdic submarine detection and underwater weapons from 1917 to 1998; the shore base HMS Serepta was renamed HMS Osprey in 1927.[15] During the Second World War Portland was the target of heavy bombing, although most warships had moved North as Portland was within enemy striking range across the Channel. Portland was a major embarkation point for Allied forces on D-Day in 1944. Early helicopters were stationed at Portland in 1946-1948, and in 1959 a shallow tidal flat, The Mere, was infilled, and sports fields taken to form a heliport. The station was formally commissioned as HMS Osprey which then became the largest and busiest military helicopter station in Europe. The base was gradually improved with additional landing areas and one of England's shortest runways, at 229 metres (751 ft).[15] There are still two prisons on Portland, HMP The Verne, which until 1949 was a huge Victorian military fortress, and a Young Offenders' Institution (HMYOI) on the Grove clifftop. This was the original prison built for convicts who quarried stone for the Portland Breakwaters from 1848. For a few years until 2005 Britain's only prison ship, HMP Weare, was berthed in the harbour.

The naval base closed after the end of the Cold War in 1995, and the Royal Naval Air Station closed in 1999, although the runway remained in use for Her Majesty's Coastguard Search and Rescue flights as MRCC Portland.[15] MRCC Portland's area of responsibility extends midway across the English Channel, and from Start Point in Devon to the Dorset/Hampshire border, covering an area of around 10,400 square kilometres (4,000 sq mi).[16] The 12 Search and Rescue teams in the Portland area dealt with almost 1000 incidents in 2005;

  

Governance

 

Portland is an ancient Royal Manor, and until the 19th century remained a separate liberty within Dorset for administration purposes. It was an urban district from 1894 to 1974, until the borough of Weymouth and Portland formed on April 1, 1974, under the Local Government Act 1972. This merged the borough of Weymouth and Melcombe Regis with Portland urban district. For local elections the borough is divided into 15 wards, and three of them cover Portland.[18] Elections take place in a four-year cycle; one third of the councillors in all but three wards retire or seek re-election in years one, two and three, and county council elections are held in year four.[19]

The Mayor of Weymouth and Portland is Paul Kimber (Labour Co-operative), and Graham Winter (Liberal Democrat) is Deputy Mayor.[20] Weymouth, Portland and the Purbeck district are in the South Dorset parliamentary constituency, created in 1885. The constituency elects one Member of Parliament; the current MP is Richard Drax (Conservative).[21] South Dorset, the rest of the South West England, and Gibraltar are in the South West England constituency of the European Parliament.[22]

Weymouth and Portland have been twinned with the town of Holzwickede in North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany since 1986,[23] and the French town of Louviers, in the department of Eure in Normandy, since 1959.[24] The borough and nearby Chickerell have been a Fairtrade Zone for three years.

  

Geography

 

The Isle of Portland lies in the English Channel, 3 kilometres (2 mi) south of Wyke Regis, and 200 km (120 mi) west-southwest of London, at 50°33′0″N 2°26′24″W (50.55, −2.44). Portland is situated approximately half-way along the UNESCO Jurassic Coast World Heritage Site; the site includes 153 kilometres (95 mi) of the Dorset and east Devon coast that is important for its geology and landforms.[26] The South West Coast Path runs around the coast; it is the United Kingdom's longest national trail at 1,014 kilometres (630 mi). Portland is unusual as it is connected to the mainland at Abbotsbury by Chesil Beach, a tombolo which runs 29 kilometres (18 mi) north-west to West Bay.[27] Portland is sometimes defined incorrectly as a tombolo—in fact Portland is a tied island, and Chesil Beach is the tombolo (a spit joined to land at both ends).[28]

There are eight settlements on Portland, the largest being Fortuneswell in Underhill and Easton on Tophill. Castletown and Chiswell are the other villages in Underhill, and Weston, Southwell, Wakeham and the Grove are on the Tophill plateau. Many old buildings are built out of Portland Stone; Several parts have been designated Conservation Areas to preserve the unique character the older settlements which date back hundreds of years. The architecture; the natural and man-made environment and the proximity to the sea give Portland overal character which is quite distinct.

   

Geology

 

Geologically, Portland is separated into two areas; the steeply sloping land at its north end called Underhill, and the larger, gently sloping land to the south, called Tophill. Portland stone lies under Tophill; the strata decline at a shallow angle of around 1.5 degrees, from a height of 151 metres (495 ft) near the Verne in the north, to just above sea level at Portland Bill.[29] The geology of Underhill is different to Tophill; Underhill lies on a steep escarpment composed of Portland Sand, lying above a thicker layer of Kimmeridge Clay, which extends to Chesil Beach and Portland Harbour. This Kimmeridge Clay has resulted in a series of landslides, forming West Weares and East Weares.[29]

2.4 kilometres (1.5 mi) Underneath south Dorset lies a layer of Triassic rock salt, and Portland is one of four locations in the United Kingdom where the salt is thick enough to create stable cavities.[30][31] Portland Gas has applied to excavate 14 caverns to store 1,000,000,000 cubic metres (3.5×1010 cu ft) of natural gas, which is 1 % of the UK’s total annual demand.[30][31] The caverns will be connected to the National gas grid at Mappowder via a 37-kilometre (23 mi) pipeline.[30][31] The surface facilities will be complete to store the first gas in 2011, and the entire cavern space should be available for storage in winter 2013.[31] As part of the £350 million scheme,[30] a Grade II listed former engine shed is being converted into an £1.5 million educational centre with a café and an exhibition space about the geology of Portland.

  

Portland Bill

 

Portland Bill is the southern tip of the island of Portland. The Bill has three lighthouse towers: The Higher Lighthouse is now a dwelling and holiday apartments; the Lower Lighthouse is now a bird observatory and field centre which opened in 1961. The white and red lighthouse on Bill Point replaced the Higher and Lower Lighthouses in 1906. It is a prominent and much photographed feature; an important landmark for ships passing the headland and its tidal race. The current lighthouse was refurbished in 1996 and became remotely controlled. It now contains a visitors' centre giving information and guided tours of the lighthouse.[33] As of June 2009, the lighthouse uses a 1 kW metal-halide US-made lamp with an operational life of about 4000 hours, or 14 months. Two earlier lighthouses stand further inland: one is an important observatory used by ornithologists, providing records of bird migration and accommodation for visitors.[33][34]

Portland Ledge (the Shambles) is an underwater extension of Portland Stone into the English Channel at a place where the depth of Channel is 20 to 40 metres (about 10 to 20 fathoms). Tidal flow is disrupted by the feature; at 10 metres (about 5 fathoms) deep and 2.4 kilometres (1.3 nmi) long, it causes a tidal race to the south of Portland Bill, the so-called Portland Race.[35] The current only stops for brief periods during the 12½ hour tidal cycle and can reach 4 metres per second (8 kn) at the spring tide of 2 metres (6 ft 7 in).

  

Ecology

 

Due to its isolated coastal location, the Isle of Portland has an extensive range of flora and fauna; the coastline and disused quarries are designated as Sites of Special Scientific Interest.[26][34] Sea and migratory birds occupy the cliffs in different seasons, sometimes these include rare species which draw ornithologists from around the country.[26][36] Rare visitors to the surrounding seas include dolphins, seals and basking sharks.[34] Chesil Beach is one of only two sites in Britain where the Scaly Cricket can be found; unlike any other cricket it is wingless and does not sing or hop.[36] A number of British primitive goats have recently[when?] been introduced to the East Weares part of the island to control scrub.[37]

The comparatively warm and sunny climate allows species of plants to thrive which do not on the mainland. The limestone soil has low nutrient levels; hence smaller species of wild flowers and grasses are able to grow in the absence of larger species.[34] Portland Sea Lavender can be found on the higher sea cliffs—unique to Portland it is one of the United Kingdom's rarest plants.[38] The wild flowers and plants make an excellent habitat for butterflies; over half of the British Isles' 57 butterfly species can be seen on Portland, including varieties that migrate from mainland Europe.[26] Species live on Portland that are rare in the United Kingdom, including the limestone race of the Silver Studded Blue.

  

Climate

The mild seas which almost surround the tied island produce a temperate climate (Koppen climate classification Cfb) with a small variation in daily and annual temperatures. The average annual mean temperature from 1971 to 2000 was 10.2 to 12 °C (50.4 to 53.6 °F).[40] The warmest month is August, which has an average temperature range of 13.3 to 20.4 °C (56 to 69 °F), and the coolest is February, which has a range of 3.1 to 8.3 °C (38 to 47 °F).[41] Maximum and minimum temperatures throughout the year are above England's average,[42] and Portland is in AHS Heat zone 1.[B] Mean sea surface temperatures range from 7.0 °C (44.6 °F) in February to 17.2 °C (63.0 °F) in August; the annual mean is 11.8 °C (53.2 °F).

 

The mild seas that surround Portland act to keep night-time temperatures above freezing, making winter frost rare: on average eight times per year — this is far below the United Kingdom's average annual total of 55.6 days of frost.[45][46] Days with snow lying are equally rare: on average zero to six days per year;[47] almost all winters have one day or less with snow lying. It may snow or sleet in winter, yet it almost never settles on the ground[41]—coastal areas in South West England such as Portland experience the mildest winters in the UK.[48] Portland is less affected by the Atlantic storms that Devon and Cornwall experience. The growing season in Weymouth and Portland lasts from nine to twelve months per year,[D] and the borough is in Hardiness zone 9b.[49][E]

 

Weymouth and Portland, and the rest of the south coast,[50] has the sunniest climate in the United Kingdom.[26][51] The borough averaged 1768.4 hours of sunshine annually between 1971 and 2000,[41] which is over 40 % of the maximum possible,[C] and 32 % above the United Kingdom average of 1339.7 hours.[45] Four of the last nine years have had more than 2000 hours of sunshine.[41] December is the cloudiest and wettest month (55.7 hours of sunshine, 90.9 millimetres (3.6 in) of rain) and July is the sunniest and driest (235.1 hours of sunshine, 35.6 millimetres (1.4 in) of rain).[41] Sunshine totals in all months are well above the United Kingdom average,[45] and monthly rainfall totals throughout the year are less than the UK average, particularly in summer;[45] this summer minimum of rainfall is not experienced away from the south coast of England.[50] The average annual rainfall of 751.7 millimetres (29.6 in) is well below the UK average of 1,125 millimetres (44.3 in).

  

Demography

Religion

%[52][F]

 

Buddhist

0.21

Christian

74.67

Hindu

0.03

Jewish

0.12

Muslim

0.30

No religion

15.89

Other

0.32

Sikh

0.03

Not stated8.43

AgePercentage[1]

 

0–1519.4

16–173.1

18–4438.3

45–5920.6

60–8417.2

85+1.5

      

The mid-year population of Portland in 2005 was 12,710;[A] this figure has remained around twelve to thirteen thousand since the 1970s. In 2005 there were 5,474 dwellings in an area of 11.5 square kilometres (2,840 acres), giving an approximate population density of 1100 people per km2 (4.5 per acre).[1] The population is almost entirely native to England—96.8 % of residents are of white ethnicity.[1] House prices in Weymouth and Portland are relatively high by UK standards, yet around average for most of the south of England—the average price of a detached house in 2007 was £327,569; semi-detached and terraced houses were cheaper, at £230,932 and £190,073 respectively, and an apartment or maisonette cost £168,727.[53][G]

Crime rates are below that of Weymouth and the United Kingdom—there were 9.1 burglaries per 1000 households in 2005 and 2006; which is higher than South West England (8.9 per 1000) but lower than England and Wales (13.5 per 1000).[1] Unemployment levels are lower in summer than the winter—1.8 % of the economically active population in July 2006 were not employed, and 5.3 % were unemployed year-round,[1] the same as the United Kingdom average.[54] The largest religion in Weymouth and Portland is Christianity, at almost 74.7 %,[52] which is slightly above the UK average of 71.6 %.[55] The next-largest sector is those with no religion, at almost 15.9 %,[52] also slightly above the UK average of 15.5 %.[

  

Transport

The A354 road is now the only land based access to the peninsula; formerly a railway ran alongside it. The road connects to Weymouth and the A35 trunk road in Dorchester. The road runs from Easton, splitting into a northbound section through Chiswell and a southbound section through Fortuneswell, then along Chesil Beach and across a bridge to the mainland in Wyke Regis.

Local buses are run by FirstGroup, which has services from Portland to Weymouth town centre.[56] Weymouth serves as the hub for south Dorset bus routes; providing services to Dorchester and local villages.[56] Weymouth is connected to towns and villages along the Jurassic Coast by the Jurassic Coast Bus service, which runs along the route of 142 kilometres (88 mi) from Exeter to Poole, through Sidford, Beer, Seaton, Lyme Regis, Charmouth, Bridport, Abbotsbury, Weymouth, Wool, and Wareham.[57] Travellers can catch trains from Weymouth to London and Bristol, and ferries to the French port of St Malo, and the Channel Islands of Guernsey and Jersey.[58]

There is a short airstrip and heliport just north of Fortuneswell at the northern end of the Isle.

  

Education

The Chesil Education Partnership pyramid area operates in south Dorset, and includes five infant schools, four junior schools, twelve primary schools, four secondary schools and two special schools.[1] 69.8 % of Portland residents have qualifications, which is slightly below the Dorset average of 73.8 %.[1] 10.2% of residents have higher qualifications (Level 4+), less than the Dorset average of 18.3 %.[1]

There are two infant schools on Portland—Brackenbury Infant School in Fortuneswell and Grove Infant School.[59] Portland has one junior school Underhill Community Junior School in Fortuneswell, (a second junior school, Tophill Junior School was absorbed into St George's Primary School in 2006) and two primary schools, St George's Primary School in Weston and Southwell Primary School.[59] Royal Manor Arts College in Weston is Portland's only secondary school,[1] however it has no sixth form centre. In 2007, 57 % of RMAC students gained five or more grade A* to C GCSEs.[60]

Some students commute to Weymouth to study A-Levels, or to attend the other three secondary schools in the Chesil Education Partnership. Budmouth College in Chickerell has a sixth form centre which had 296 students in 2006.[61] Weymouth College in Melcombe Regis is a further education college which has around 7,500 students from south west England and overseas,[62] about 1500 studying A-Level courses.[61] In 2006, Budmouth students received an average of 647.6 UCAS points, and Weymouth College students gained 614.1.[61] Some secondary and A-Level students commute to Dorchester to attend The Thomas Hardye School; in 2007, 79% of Hardye school students received five or more A* to C GCSEs, and 78 % of all A-Level results were A to C grades

  

Culture

Sport and recreation

 

In 2000, the Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy was built in Osprey Quay in Underhill as a centre for sailing in the United Kingdom. Weymouth and Portland's waters were credited by the Royal Yachting Association as the best in Northern Europe.[64] Weymouth and Portland regularly host local, national and international sailing events in their waters; these include the J/24 World Championships in 2005, trials for the 2004 Athens Olympics, the ISAF World Championship 2006, the BUSA Fleet Racing Championships, and the RYA Youth National Championships.[65]

In 2005, the WPNSA was selected to host sailing events at the 2012 Olympic Games—mainly because the Academy had recently been built, so no new venue would have to be provided.[66] However, as part of the South West of England Regional Development Agency's plans to redevelop Osprey Quay, a new 600-berth marina and an extension with more on-site facilities will be built.[67] Construction was scheduled between October 2007 and the end of 2008, and with its completion and formal opening on 11 June 2009, the venue became the first of the 2012 Olympic Games to be completed.[68][69][70][71][72]

Weymouth Bay and Portland Harbour are used for other water sports — the reliable wind is favourable for wind and kite-surfing. Chesil Beach and Portland Harbour are used regularly for angling, diving to shipwrecks, snorkelling, canoeing, and swimming.[73] The limestone cliffs and quarries are used for rock climbing; Portland has areas for bouldering and deep water soloing, however sport climbing with bolt protection is the most common style.[74] Since June 2003 the South West Coast Path National Trail has included 21.3 kilometres (13.2 mi) of coastal walking around the Isle of Portland, including following the A354 Portland Beach Road twice.

 

Rabbits

 

Rabbits have long been associated with bad luck on Portland; use of the name is still taboo—the creatures are often referred to as "Underground Mutton", "Long-Eared Furry Things" or just "bunnies".[76] The origin of this superstition is obscure (there is no record of it before the 1920s) but it is believed to derive from quarry workers; they would see rabbits emerging from their burrows immediately before a rock fall and blame them for increasing the risk of dangerous, sometimes deadly, landslides.[77] If a rabbit was seen in a quarry, the workers would pack up and go home for the day, until the safety of the area had been assured.[76] Local fishermen too would refuse to go to sea if the word was mentioned.

Even today older Portland residents are 'offended' (sometimes for the benefit of tourists) at the mention of rabbits;[77] this superstition came to national attention in October 2005 when a special batch of advertisement posters were made for the Wallace and Gromit film, The Curse of the Were-Rabbit. In respect of local beliefs the adverts omitted the word 'rabbit' and replaced the film's title with the phrase "Something bunny is going on"

 

Literature

 

Thomas Hardy called Portland the Isle of Slingers in his novels; the isle was the main setting of The Well-Beloved (1897), and was featured in The Trumpet-Major (1880).[78] The cottage that now houses Portland Museum was the inspiration for the heroine's house in The Well-Beloved. Portlanders were expert stone-throwers in the defence of their land, and Hardy's Isle of Slingers is heavily based on Portland; the Street of Wells representing Fortuneswell and The Beal Portland Bill. Hardy named Portland the Gibraltar of the North, with reference to its similarities with Gibraltar; its physical geography, isolation, comparatively mild climate, and Underhill's winding streets.[79]

In The Warlord Chronicles (1995-97), Bernard Cornwell makes Portland the Isle of the Dead, a place of internal exile, where the causeway was guarded to keep the 'dead' (people suffering insanity) from crossing the Fleet and returning to the mainland. No historical evidence exists to support this idea.[80]

The Portland Chronicles series of four children's books, set on and around Portland and Weymouth and written by local author Carol Hunt, draw on local history to explore a seventeenth century world of smuggling, witchcraft, piracy and local intrigue.

  

Vernacular

Bunnies - see above.

Kimberlin: slang for any 'strangers' not from the Island.[82]

Portland screw: fossil mollusc (Aptyxiella portlandica) with a long screw-like shell or its cast

 

Notable persons born here

•Edgar F. Codd (August 23, 1923 – April 18, 2003), British computer scientist and inventor of the relational model for database management.

•Former Premier League referee Paul Durkin.

 

Olkhon (Ольхон, also transliterated as Olchon) is the third-largest lake-bound island in the world. It is by far the largest island in Lake Baikal in eastern Siberia, with an area of 730 square kilometres (280 sq mi). Structurally, it acts as the southwestern margin of Academician Ridge. The island measures 71.5 kilometres (44.4 mi) in length and 20.8 kilometres (12.9 mi) in width.

 

Olkhon has a dramatic combination of terrain and is rich in archeological landmarks. Steep mountains line its eastern shore, and at 1,276 metres (4,186 ft) above sea level, Mount Zhima is the highest point on the island, peaking at 818 metres (2,684 ft) above the water level of Lake Baikal. The island is large enough to have its own lakes, and features a combination of taiga, steppe and even a small desert. A deep strait separates the island from the land.

The island's appearance is a result of millions of years of tectonic movement resulting in the hollowing of the channel between the land (Small Sea Strait) and the block of stone forming the island. The steep slopes of the mountains show the vertical heave of the earth.

 

The population of the island is less than 1,500 and consists mostly of Buryats, the island's aboriginal people.

 

There are several settlements and five villages on the island: Yalga, Malomorets, Khuzhir, Kharantsi, and Ulan-Khushin. The village of Khuzhir is the administrative capital of Olkhon, designated as such in April 1987, when the Soviet government issued a comprehensive decree protecting Lake Baikal. Khuzhir is home to about 1,200 residents and boasts a museum of local nature and history.

 

Most residents are fishermen, farmers, or cattle-ranchers. Due to an increasing number of tourists from all over the world, many residents work in this sector as well, and tourism has become an important part of the economy in Olkhon.

 

The indigenous Buryats, adherents of shamanism, believe the island to be a spiritual place; one of the groups of deities adhered to in Buryati yellow shamanism is called the oikony noyod, the "thirteen lords of Olkhon. On the western coast, close to Khuzhir, is Baikal's most famous landmark, the Shamanka, or Shaman's Rock. Natives believe that Burkhan, a modern religious cult figure of the Altai peoples, lives in the cave in this rock. The rock is one of nine Asian Most Sacred Places. Olkhon is considered a centre of Kurumchinskay culture of 6th-10th centuries.

The museum at Olkhon, named after Revyakin, exposits on the nature and ethnography of the island, including pipe-smoking and a samovar collection.

 

The island has a long history of human habitation. The original indigenous people were the Kurykans, forefathers of two ethnic groups: the Buryats and Yakuts.

Russian explorers first visited during the 17th century.

 

One of the most important ecological problems of Olkhon Island is the disposal of household waste. At present, the waste is disposed of in large piles in forestry near the village of Khuzhir. The dump is unenclosed, and the tipping process is uncontrolled. Moreover, with recent increases in tourism on the island, new sources of hard rubbish have begun to appear.

 

Another ecological concern affecting the island is the illegal felling of timber by local inhabitants. A complicated net of forestry roads in the areas adjacent to Khuzhir lead to woodland areas on the mountain slopes. Timber is brought out of the forest at night time, and the deforestation is taking its toll on the area.

   

Il Lago Bajkal (in russo: О́зеро Байка́л, Ozero Bajkal, ['ozʲɪrə bʌj'kɑl],in mongolo ed in buriato Dalai-Nor, Mare sacro) è un lago della Siberia meridionale, diviso fra i territori dell'oblast' di Irkutsk e della repubblica di Buriazia. È stato posto sotto la tutela dell'UNESCO come patrimonio dell'umanità nel 1996. Fa parte della lista delle Sette meraviglie della Russia.

 

Il lago Bajkal si estende su una superficie di 31.722 km², che ne fa uno dei maggiori laghi al mondo per superficie; si allunga per 636 km da nord a sud (è il secondo del mondo per lunghezza dopo il lago Tanganica), con una larghezza media di 48 km (massima 79,4 km). La profondità media del lago è di 744 m, con una massima di 1.642 m nella parte centrale. Questi valori ne fanno contemporaneamente il lago d'acqua dolce più profondo del mondo e quello con il volume maggiore (23.615 km3). Contiene un volume d'acqua pressoché equivalente a quello dei cinque grandi laghi americani messi assieme. Si stima che contenga circa il 20% delle riserve d'acqua dolce del pianeta (esclusi i ghiacciai e le calotte polari).

Il lago Bajkal si estende in una zona geologicamente molto tormentata; occupa una zona di sprofondamento (fossa tettonica) molto profonda (la criptodepressione arriva a quasi 1.200 m sotto il livello del mare, dato che il pelo dell'acqua del lago è a circa 450 m s.l.m.), ed è circondato da piccole catene montuose che si allungano tutto intorno alle sue coste: monti del Bajkal, monti del Barguzin, monti Primorskij, monti Chamar-Daban, monti Ulan-Burgasy e, all'estremità settentrionale, l'Altopiano Stanovoj.

 

Il Bajkal riceve le acque di 336 immissari, i maggiori dei quali sono il Selenga (che nasce in Mongolia), il Barguzin, la Verchnjaja Angara (Angara Superiore), la Turka e la Snežnaja; possiede per contro un solo emissario, l'Angara, tramite il quale il lago tributa allo Enisej. Il bacino imbrifero del Bajkal si estende su una superficie di circa 557.000 km².

 

Il Bajkal si trova in una regione dal clima molto duro, con fortissime escursioni termiche fra le stagioni estreme; il lago, con la sua enorme massa d'acqua, esercita una forte azione di mitigazione delle temperature, con il risultato di avere inverni meno freddi ed estati più fresche e umide delle zone circostanti. D'inverno il lago è interessato da un esteso congelamento delle acque superficiali; questi ghiacci, per via della inerzia termica data dalla gran massa d'acqua, tendono a formarsi piuttosto tardi (dicembre) e a fondere completamente solo verso maggio.

Il lago è frequentemente battuto da un forte vento che viene chiamato "sarma" dalle popolazioni locali, che può toccare i 150 km/h.

 

Il lago Bajkal è caratterizzato da un ambiente atipico per un lago: le sue acque sono molto ricche d'ossigeno (soluzione satura al 75%) e anche il punto più profondo è popolato da forme di vita, mentre in altri laghi profondi in varie parti del mondo le forme di vita macroscopica scompaiono oltre i 300 m a causa dell'anossia.

Il lago Bajkal è sede di svariati endemismi.

Nel 1962 erano state censite nel lago e nelle sue vicinanze 1.220 diverse specie animali e vegetali, nel 1978 il numero era cresciuto a 1.400 e da allora ogni anno nuove forme di vita continuano ad essere scoperte. Ad oggi le nuove specie scoperte in loco sono oltre 2.500, di cui il 60% di tipo animale ed il 15% di tipo vegetale. Nel lago vi sono 250 specie di crostacei e ben 52 di pesci, di cui 27 endemiche del Bajkal.

Una delle specie più caratteristiche è la nerpa, la foca del Bajkal (Pusa sibirica), specie endemica di taglia piccola, dal manto grigio scuro, si nutre di pesci, ed è all'apice della catena alimentare del lago Bajkal. Alla fine del secolo scorso la caccia ne aveva drasticamente ridotto il numero, oggi risalito, grazie ad una politica di tutela, ad oltre 75.000 individui.

All'altra estremità della catena alimentare c'è un piccolo crostaceo filtratore del genere Epischura, che costituisce il 97% del plancton e raggiunge una biomassa pari a circa 4 milioni di tonnellate. Questo gamberetto non sopporta una temperatura più elevata di 12 °C, e quindi necessita di una elevata concentrazione di ossigeno, né sopporta una concentrazione salina anche solo leggermente superiore a quella (molto bassa) del lago Bajkal, ossia 100 mg di sali per litro d'acqua.

Alcuni ricercatori ritengono che soprattutto le specie endemiche più piccole si siano evolute dall'antica fauna di un immenso lago salmastro che sembra ricoprisse quasi l'intera Asia centrale agli inizi del Terziario (65 milioni di anni fa). Più tardi, 30 milioni di anni fa, il predetto lago si era frammentato in tanti piccoli laghi salmastri circondati da foreste di tipo tropicale. Una serie di importanti sconvolgimenti tettonici (ancor oggi in loco si verificano oltre 2.000 scosse ogni anno) dovuti alla collisione tra il continente euroasiatico con il sub-continente indiano, formarono una profonda frattura nella crosta terrestre la quale venne progressivamente riempita dalle acque convogliate dalla vasta pianura circostante, il volume d'acqua raccolto equivale alla massa d'acqua trasportabile da tutti i fiumi del pianeta nell'arco di un intero anno.

La fossa di frattura del Bajkal è una delle tipiche strutture geologiche estensionali, particolarmente vistosa perché superficiale, che si formano perpendicolarmente alle catene orogeniche (la catena orogenica in questo caso è quella himalayana).

Alcuni pesci, come la golomjanka (Comephorus baikalensis), e la suddetta foca del Bajkal sembrano essere arrivati in queste acque in epoche più recenti, forse dall'Artico attraverso gli immensi fiumi siberiani.

Nei pressi del lago esiste una riserva naturale nella quale vivono gli zibellini, specie a rischio di estinzione che oggi viene protetta, ed il cui allevamento è monopolio dello Stato russo.

 

Le acque del lago, mai più calde di 14 °C, lasciano filtrare lo sguardo fino a più di 40 m di profondità. Tale purezza è stata a più riprese posta a rischio da svariati eventi:

negli anni settanta, con il progetto per la costruzione della Ferrovia Bajkal-Amur, voluta da Leonid Brežnev per aprire la Siberia allo sfruttamento delle sue materie prime;

attraverso la nascita della città di Severobajkal'sk, 600 km a nord del lago;

riversando nel Bajkal gli scarichi delle industrie di Ulan-Ude (capitale della Buriazia, 350 000 abitanti), attraverso il fiume Selenga;

costruendo, proprio a Bajkal'sk, ad un centinaio di metri dalla riva, un grande impianto di trasformazione del legno e di lavorazione della cellulosa, peraltro contestato dalle popolazioni locali.

Fin dagli anni settanta, a protestare contro l'inquinamento del lago vi fu il biologo Grigorij Galazyj, membro dell' Accademia delle Scienze, ed allora direttore dell' Istituto di limnologia di Irkutsk, successivamente direttore del Museo del Bajkal. Secondo Galazyj "Nessuno dei molti decreti e progetti varati per proteggere il Bajkal è stato messo in atto, ed ogni giorno l'impianto per la lavorazione del legno riversa nel lago 250.000 l di acque di scarico, oltre a consumare 500.000 m³ di legno l'anno".

 

Sulle sponde del lago si sono insediate comunità di credo differente; le religioni principali sono tre: lo "sciamanesimo tibetano", il "buddhismo" ed il cristianesimo ortodosso che fu portata dai russi dopo che Kurbat Ivanov scoprì le acque del lago Bajkal nel 1643.

Il territorio della Buriazia, che è bagnata dal Bajkal per il 60% della linea costiera e la sua gente, i Buriati, furono annessi allo stato russo dai trattati del 1689 e del 1728, quando le terre intorno al Bajkal furono separate dalla Mongolia. Dalla metà del XVII secolo all'inizio del XX il numero di Buriati aumentò da 27.700 a 300.000.

Dopo l'annessione della Buriazia alla Russia la cultura buriata subì le influenze del buddhismo tibetano e della Chiesa Cristiana Ortodossa. I Buriati furono per lo più sottoposti ad un processo di integrazione ad usi e costumi tipicamente russi che li portò ad abbandonare progressivamente il nomadismo unitamente all'agricoltura itinerante, mentre i Buriati dell'est (Transbajkal) subirono l'influenza mongola (ancora oggi diversi gruppi vivono in yurta e sono in gran parte buddhisti). Nel Settecento fu costruito il primo monastero buddhista buriato.

 

Il nome "Buriati" è menzionato per la prima volta in un'opera mongola: infatti costoro sono i discendenti diretti dell'antico popolo nomade dei mongoli ed ancora oggi vivono lungo le sponde del lago; una leggenda locale asserisce che la madre di Gengis Khan fosse nata nel villaggio di Barguzin, sulla riva orientale del lago. I buriati d'inverno sono soliti attraversare il lago ghiacciato (quando la crosta è spessa 1 metro) con i camion poiché in tal modo la distanza fra le città di Irkutsk ed Ulan Ude si accorciano di molto, anche se questa pratica è molto pericolosa.

I Buriati sono soliti pescare l'"omul", specie endemica piuttosto pregiata, unitamente ad altre 52 specie presenti nel lago e svariati tipi di crostacei.

Un'antica credenza popolare afferma che esistono due demoni maligni abitanti delle acque profonde intorno all'isola di Olkhon: "Burkhan" e "Doshkin Nojon", pronti a prendersi le anime dei pescatori durante le tempeste.

Una piccola consuetudine è quella di collocare dei nastrini colorati portafortuna detti "semelga" sopra gli arbusti.

 

La Roccia dello Sciamano.

Trattasi di un masso enorme che spunta appena dalle acque proprio laddove l'Angara lascia il Bajkal.

La Roccia dello Sciamano è protagonista di una leggenda che i buriati imparano a conoscere già in tenera età. Secondo tale leggenda il Grande Uomo Bajkal giunse in questa regione con le sue 337 figlie e decise di fermarsi; mentre dormiva una delle figlie, alla quale i gabbiani avevano raccontato le prodezze di Jenisej, decise di fuggire per correre verso l'uomo-fiume di cui si era innamorata; svegliatosi, il Bajkal scagliò verso la fuggitiva una pietra, la Roccia dello Sciamano appunto.

Chi era sospettato di un crimine veniva posto la sera al di sopra della roccia. Se al mattino era ancora lì e la corrente non l'aveva portato via, costui era innocente e veniva liberato. Tuttavia pare che ciò accadesse di rado, in quanto il fiume Angara possiede delle acque tanto rapide ed irruente che è l'unico fiume della regione a non gelare d'inverno.

 

(from wikipedia.org)

The day your child was born is likely to top your list of the most memorable days you've ever had or ever will have. The mother and child connection is one of the strongest human bonds we can experience. The advice below will help you to build your relationship, ensuring that the connection between you and your child not only remains strong, it flourishes!

 

If you are an expecting mother, don't hurt your checkbook by spending money on expensive nursery equipment. It is always possible to buy baby furniture, bedding and the like at much better prices by shopping at large discount stores. Also, consider borrowing some nursery products from friends or family members.

 

Transitions can be hard for any preschooler. They tend to become frustrated and have temper tantrums when they must change tasks quickly.

 

Although difficult, it is important for parents of college-bound students not to exert pressure on their child to attend a specific school. When they feel pressured, teens may act in a perverse manner if they feel that someone is trying to control them.

 

Take a break once in a while. Even if you can only manage to find a babysitter for a couple of hours or have to ask a family member, the break will do you good. Tension often arises after parents have gone too long without a break from the kids. As tension rises, so does the stress of the household, which can cause everyone to be unhappy.

 

If your baby is cutting a painful tooth, fill a mesh teether with carrots, cucumbers or pickles. There are certainly other methods that work, but the odds of your child continuing to gnaw are best if tasty items are involved. The longer the child has the item in their mouth being chewed on, the longer the relief will last.

 

If you are planning a trip with small children, be sure to bring their favorite comfort items along if space allows. A fun family vacation is still a disruption to your little one's every day routine. Giving children a special toy or security blanket helps them in big changes.

 

If you have a good relationship with your children when they are still little you will have a better one when they get older. You can use the tips within this article to either begin or strengthen the relationship you have with your child. yourparentingtips.com/top-faqs-about-teenage-violence-tow...

Please note that all the contents in this photostream is copyrighted and protected under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, any usage of the images without permission will face liability for the infringement.

Some information about singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the Singapore Strait to its south. Singapore is highly urbanised but almost half of the country is covered by greenery. More land is being created for development through land reclamation.

 

Singapore had been a part of various local empires since it was first inhabited in the second century AD. Modern Singapore was founded as a trading post of the East India Company by Sir Stamford Raffles in 1819 with permission from the Sultanate of Johor. The British obtained full sovereignty over the island in 1824 and Singapore became one of the British Straits Settlements in 1826. Singapore was occupied by the Japanese in World War II and reverted to British rule after the war. It became internally self-governing in 1959. Singapore united with other former British territories to form Malaysia in 1963 and became a fully independent state two years later after separation from Malaysia. Since then it has had a massive increase in wealth, and is one of the Four Asian Tigers. The economy depends heavily on the industry and service sectors. Singapore is a world leader in several areas: It is the world's fourth-leading financial centre, the world's second-biggest casino gambling market, and the world's third-largest oil refining centre. The port of Singapore is one of the five busiest ports in the world, most notable for being the busiest transshipment port in the world. The country is home to more US dollar millionaire households per capita than any other country. The World Bank notes Singapore as the easiest place in the world to do business. The country has the world's third highest GDP PPP per capita of US$59,936, making Singapore one of the world's wealthiest countries.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia...

  

Singapore Marina Bay is a bay near Central Area in the southern part of Singapore, and lies to the east of the Downtown Core. Marina Bay is set to be a 24/7 destination with endless opportunities for people to “explore new living and lifestyle options, exchange new ideas and information for business, and be entertained by rich leisure and cultural experiences”.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

singapore river..

marina bay.

marina bay sands.

.

  

Olkhon (Ольхон, also transliterated as Olchon) is the third-largest lake-bound island in the world. It is by far the largest island in Lake Baikal in eastern Siberia, with an area of 730 square kilometres (280 sq mi). Structurally, it acts as the southwestern margin of Academician Ridge. The island measures 71.5 kilometres (44.4 mi) in length and 20.8 kilometres (12.9 mi) in width.

 

Olkhon has a dramatic combination of terrain and is rich in archeological landmarks. Steep mountains line its eastern shore, and at 1,276 metres (4,186 ft) above sea level, Mount Zhima is the highest point on the island, peaking at 818 metres (2,684 ft) above the water level of Lake Baikal. The island is large enough to have its own lakes, and features a combination of taiga, steppe and even a small desert. A deep strait separates the island from the land.

The island's appearance is a result of millions of years of tectonic movement resulting in the hollowing of the channel between the land (Small Sea Strait) and the block of stone forming the island. The steep slopes of the mountains show the vertical heave of the earth.

 

The population of the island is less than 1,500 and consists mostly of Buryats, the island's aboriginal people.

 

There are several settlements and five villages on the island: Yalga, Malomorets, Khuzhir, Kharantsi, and Ulan-Khushin. The village of Khuzhir is the administrative capital of Olkhon, designated as such in April 1987, when the Soviet government issued a comprehensive decree protecting Lake Baikal. Khuzhir is home to about 1,200 residents and boasts a museum of local nature and history.

 

Most residents are fishermen, farmers, or cattle-ranchers. Due to an increasing number of tourists from all over the world, many residents work in this sector as well, and tourism has become an important part of the economy in Olkhon.

 

The indigenous Buryats, adherents of shamanism, believe the island to be a spiritual place; one of the groups of deities adhered to in Buryati yellow shamanism is called the oikony noyod, the "thirteen lords of Olkhon. On the western coast, close to Khuzhir, is Baikal's most famous landmark, the Shamanka, or Shaman's Rock. Natives believe that Burkhan, a modern religious cult figure of the Altai peoples, lives in the cave in this rock. The rock is one of nine Asian Most Sacred Places. Olkhon is considered a centre of Kurumchinskay culture of 6th-10th centuries.

The museum at Olkhon, named after Revyakin, exposits on the nature and ethnography of the island, including pipe-smoking and a samovar collection.

 

The island has a long history of human habitation. The original indigenous people were the Kurykans, forefathers of two ethnic groups: the Buryats and Yakuts.

Russian explorers first visited during the 17th century.

 

One of the most important ecological problems of Olkhon Island is the disposal of household waste. At present, the waste is disposed of in large piles in forestry near the village of Khuzhir. The dump is unenclosed, and the tipping process is uncontrolled. Moreover, with recent increases in tourism on the island, new sources of hard rubbish have begun to appear.

 

Another ecological concern affecting the island is the illegal felling of timber by local inhabitants. A complicated net of forestry roads in the areas adjacent to Khuzhir lead to woodland areas on the mountain slopes. Timber is brought out of the forest at night time, and the deforestation is taking its toll on the area.

   

Il Lago Bajkal (in russo: О́зеро Байка́л, Ozero Bajkal, ['ozʲɪrə bʌj'kɑl],in mongolo ed in buriato Dalai-Nor, Mare sacro) è un lago della Siberia meridionale, diviso fra i territori dell'oblast' di Irkutsk e della repubblica di Buriazia. È stato posto sotto la tutela dell'UNESCO come patrimonio dell'umanità nel 1996. Fa parte della lista delle Sette meraviglie della Russia.

 

Il lago Bajkal si estende su una superficie di 31.722 km², che ne fa uno dei maggiori laghi al mondo per superficie; si allunga per 636 km da nord a sud (è il secondo del mondo per lunghezza dopo il lago Tanganica), con una larghezza media di 48 km (massima 79,4 km). La profondità media del lago è di 744 m, con una massima di 1.642 m nella parte centrale. Questi valori ne fanno contemporaneamente il lago d'acqua dolce più profondo del mondo e quello con il volume maggiore (23.615 km3). Contiene un volume d'acqua pressoché equivalente a quello dei cinque grandi laghi americani messi assieme. Si stima che contenga circa il 20% delle riserve d'acqua dolce del pianeta (esclusi i ghiacciai e le calotte polari).

Il lago Bajkal si estende in una zona geologicamente molto tormentata; occupa una zona di sprofondamento (fossa tettonica) molto profonda (la criptodepressione arriva a quasi 1.200 m sotto il livello del mare, dato che il pelo dell'acqua del lago è a circa 450 m s.l.m.), ed è circondato da piccole catene montuose che si allungano tutto intorno alle sue coste: monti del Bajkal, monti del Barguzin, monti Primorskij, monti Chamar-Daban, monti Ulan-Burgasy e, all'estremità settentrionale, l'Altopiano Stanovoj.

 

Il Bajkal riceve le acque di 336 immissari, i maggiori dei quali sono il Selenga (che nasce in Mongolia), il Barguzin, la Verchnjaja Angara (Angara Superiore), la Turka e la Snežnaja; possiede per contro un solo emissario, l'Angara, tramite il quale il lago tributa allo Enisej. Il bacino imbrifero del Bajkal si estende su una superficie di circa 557.000 km².

 

Il Bajkal si trova in una regione dal clima molto duro, con fortissime escursioni termiche fra le stagioni estreme; il lago, con la sua enorme massa d'acqua, esercita una forte azione di mitigazione delle temperature, con il risultato di avere inverni meno freddi ed estati più fresche e umide delle zone circostanti. D'inverno il lago è interessato da un esteso congelamento delle acque superficiali; questi ghiacci, per via della inerzia termica data dalla gran massa d'acqua, tendono a formarsi piuttosto tardi (dicembre) e a fondere completamente solo verso maggio.

Il lago è frequentemente battuto da un forte vento che viene chiamato "sarma" dalle popolazioni locali, che può toccare i 150 km/h.

 

Il lago Bajkal è caratterizzato da un ambiente atipico per un lago: le sue acque sono molto ricche d'ossigeno (soluzione satura al 75%) e anche il punto più profondo è popolato da forme di vita, mentre in altri laghi profondi in varie parti del mondo le forme di vita macroscopica scompaiono oltre i 300 m a causa dell'anossia.

Il lago Bajkal è sede di svariati endemismi.

Nel 1962 erano state censite nel lago e nelle sue vicinanze 1.220 diverse specie animali e vegetali, nel 1978 il numero era cresciuto a 1.400 e da allora ogni anno nuove forme di vita continuano ad essere scoperte. Ad oggi le nuove specie scoperte in loco sono oltre 2.500, di cui il 60% di tipo animale ed il 15% di tipo vegetale. Nel lago vi sono 250 specie di crostacei e ben 52 di pesci, di cui 27 endemiche del Bajkal.

Una delle specie più caratteristiche è la nerpa, la foca del Bajkal (Pusa sibirica), specie endemica di taglia piccola, dal manto grigio scuro, si nutre di pesci, ed è all'apice della catena alimentare del lago Bajkal. Alla fine del secolo scorso la caccia ne aveva drasticamente ridotto il numero, oggi risalito, grazie ad una politica di tutela, ad oltre 75.000 individui.

All'altra estremità della catena alimentare c'è un piccolo crostaceo filtratore del genere Epischura, che costituisce il 97% del plancton e raggiunge una biomassa pari a circa 4 milioni di tonnellate. Questo gamberetto non sopporta una temperatura più elevata di 12 °C, e quindi necessita di una elevata concentrazione di ossigeno, né sopporta una concentrazione salina anche solo leggermente superiore a quella (molto bassa) del lago Bajkal, ossia 100 mg di sali per litro d'acqua.

Alcuni ricercatori ritengono che soprattutto le specie endemiche più piccole si siano evolute dall'antica fauna di un immenso lago salmastro che sembra ricoprisse quasi l'intera Asia centrale agli inizi del Terziario (65 milioni di anni fa). Più tardi, 30 milioni di anni fa, il predetto lago si era frammentato in tanti piccoli laghi salmastri circondati da foreste di tipo tropicale. Una serie di importanti sconvolgimenti tettonici (ancor oggi in loco si verificano oltre 2.000 scosse ogni anno) dovuti alla collisione tra il continente euroasiatico con il sub-continente indiano, formarono una profonda frattura nella crosta terrestre la quale venne progressivamente riempita dalle acque convogliate dalla vasta pianura circostante, il volume d'acqua raccolto equivale alla massa d'acqua trasportabile da tutti i fiumi del pianeta nell'arco di un intero anno.

La fossa di frattura del Bajkal è una delle tipiche strutture geologiche estensionali, particolarmente vistosa perché superficiale, che si formano perpendicolarmente alle catene orogeniche (la catena orogenica in questo caso è quella himalayana).

Alcuni pesci, come la golomjanka (Comephorus baikalensis), e la suddetta foca del Bajkal sembrano essere arrivati in queste acque in epoche più recenti, forse dall'Artico attraverso gli immensi fiumi siberiani.

Nei pressi del lago esiste una riserva naturale nella quale vivono gli zibellini, specie a rischio di estinzione che oggi viene protetta, ed il cui allevamento è monopolio dello Stato russo.

 

Le acque del lago, mai più calde di 14 °C, lasciano filtrare lo sguardo fino a più di 40 m di profondità. Tale purezza è stata a più riprese posta a rischio da svariati eventi:

negli anni settanta, con il progetto per la costruzione della Ferrovia Bajkal-Amur, voluta da Leonid Brežnev per aprire la Siberia allo sfruttamento delle sue materie prime;

attraverso la nascita della città di Severobajkal'sk, 600 km a nord del lago;

riversando nel Bajkal gli scarichi delle industrie di Ulan-Ude (capitale della Buriazia, 350 000 abitanti), attraverso il fiume Selenga;

costruendo, proprio a Bajkal'sk, ad un centinaio di metri dalla riva, un grande impianto di trasformazione del legno e di lavorazione della cellulosa, peraltro contestato dalle popolazioni locali.

Fin dagli anni settanta, a protestare contro l'inquinamento del lago vi fu il biologo Grigorij Galazyj, membro dell' Accademia delle Scienze, ed allora direttore dell' Istituto di limnologia di Irkutsk, successivamente direttore del Museo del Bajkal. Secondo Galazyj "Nessuno dei molti decreti e progetti varati per proteggere il Bajkal è stato messo in atto, ed ogni giorno l'impianto per la lavorazione del legno riversa nel lago 250.000 l di acque di scarico, oltre a consumare 500.000 m³ di legno l'anno".

 

Sulle sponde del lago si sono insediate comunità di credo differente; le religioni principali sono tre: lo "sciamanesimo tibetano", il "buddhismo" ed il cristianesimo ortodosso che fu portata dai russi dopo che Kurbat Ivanov scoprì le acque del lago Bajkal nel 1643.

Il territorio della Buriazia, che è bagnata dal Bajkal per il 60% della linea costiera e la sua gente, i Buriati, furono annessi allo stato russo dai trattati del 1689 e del 1728, quando le terre intorno al Bajkal furono separate dalla Mongolia. Dalla metà del XVII secolo all'inizio del XX il numero di Buriati aumentò da 27.700 a 300.000.

Dopo l'annessione della Buriazia alla Russia la cultura buriata subì le influenze del buddhismo tibetano e della Chiesa Cristiana Ortodossa. I Buriati furono per lo più sottoposti ad un processo di integrazione ad usi e costumi tipicamente russi che li portò ad abbandonare progressivamente il nomadismo unitamente all'agricoltura itinerante, mentre i Buriati dell'est (Transbajkal) subirono l'influenza mongola (ancora oggi diversi gruppi vivono in yurta e sono in gran parte buddhisti). Nel Settecento fu costruito il primo monastero buddhista buriato.

 

Il nome "Buriati" è menzionato per la prima volta in un'opera mongola: infatti costoro sono i discendenti diretti dell'antico popolo nomade dei mongoli ed ancora oggi vivono lungo le sponde del lago; una leggenda locale asserisce che la madre di Gengis Khan fosse nata nel villaggio di Barguzin, sulla riva orientale del lago. I buriati d'inverno sono soliti attraversare il lago ghiacciato (quando la crosta è spessa 1 metro) con i camion poiché in tal modo la distanza fra le città di Irkutsk ed Ulan Ude si accorciano di molto, anche se questa pratica è molto pericolosa.

I Buriati sono soliti pescare l'"omul", specie endemica piuttosto pregiata, unitamente ad altre 52 specie presenti nel lago e svariati tipi di crostacei.

Un'antica credenza popolare afferma che esistono due demoni maligni abitanti delle acque profonde intorno all'isola di Olkhon: "Burkhan" e "Doshkin Nojon", pronti a prendersi le anime dei pescatori durante le tempeste.

Una piccola consuetudine è quella di collocare dei nastrini colorati portafortuna detti "semelga" sopra gli arbusti.

 

La Roccia dello Sciamano.

Trattasi di un masso enorme che spunta appena dalle acque proprio laddove l'Angara lascia il Bajkal.

La Roccia dello Sciamano è protagonista di una leggenda che i buriati imparano a conoscere già in tenera età. Secondo tale leggenda il Grande Uomo Bajkal giunse in questa regione con le sue 337 figlie e decise di fermarsi; mentre dormiva una delle figlie, alla quale i gabbiani avevano raccontato le prodezze di Jenisej, decise di fuggire per correre verso l'uomo-fiume di cui si era innamorata; svegliatosi, il Bajkal scagliò verso la fuggitiva una pietra, la Roccia dello Sciamano appunto.

Chi era sospettato di un crimine veniva posto la sera al di sopra della roccia. Se al mattino era ancora lì e la corrente non l'aveva portato via, costui era innocente e veniva liberato. Tuttavia pare che ciò accadesse di rado, in quanto il fiume Angara possiede delle acque tanto rapide ed irruente che è l'unico fiume della regione a non gelare d'inverno.

 

(from wikipedia.org)

111 Water Saving Tips

 

#1. There are a number of ways to save water, and they all start with you.

 

#2. When washing dishes by hand, don't let the water run while rinsing. Fill one sink with wash water and the other with rinse water.

 

#3. Evaporative coolers require a seasonal maintenance checkup. For more efficient cooling, check your evaporative cooler annually.

 

#4. Check your sprinkler system frequently and adjust sprinklers so only your lawn is watered and not the house, sidewalk, or street.

 

#5. Run your washing machine and dishwasher only when they are full and you could save 1000 gallons a month.

 

#6. Avoid planting turf in areas that are hard to water such as steep inclines and isolated strips along sidewalks and driveways.

 

#7. Install covers on pools and spas and check for leaks around your pumps.

 

#8. Use the garbage disposal sparingly. Compost instead and save gallons every time.

 

#9. Plant during the spring or fall when the watering requirements are lower.

 

#10. Keep a pitcher of water in the refrigerator instead of running the tap for cold drinks, so that every drop goes down you not the drain.

 

#11. Check your water meter and bill to track your water usage.

 

#12. Minimize evaporation by watering during the early morning hours, when temperatures are cooler and winds are lighter.

 

#13. Wash your produce in the sink or a pan that is partially filled with water instead of running water from the tap.

 

#14. Use a layer of organic mulch around plants to reduce evaporation and save hundreds of gallons of water a year.

 

#15. Use a broom instead of a hose to clean your driveway or sidewalk and save 80 gallons of water every time.

 

#16. If your shower can fill a one-gallon bucket in less than 20 seconds, then replace it with a water-efficient showerhead.

 

#17. Collect the water you use for rinsing produce and reuse it to water houseplants.

 

#18. Divide your watering cycle into shorter periods to reduce runoff and allow for better absorption every time you water.

 

#19. We're more likely to notice leaky faucets indoors, but don't forget to check outdoor faucets, pipes, and hoses for leaks.

 

#20. Periodically check your pool for leaks if you have an automatic refilling device.

 

#21. Only water your lawn when needed. You can tell this by simply walking across your lawn. If you leave footprints, it's time to water.

 

#22. When you shop for a new appliance, consider one offering cycle and load size adjustments. They are more water and energy-efficient than older appliances.

 

#23. Time your shower to keep it under 5 minutes. You'll save up to 1000 gallons a month.

 

#24. Install low-volume toilets.

 

#25. Adjust your lawn mower to a higher setting. Longer grass shades root systems and holds soil moisture better than a closely clipped lawn.

 

#26. When you clean your fish tank, use the water you've drained on your plants. The water is rich in nitrogen and phosphorus, providing you with a free and effective fertilizer.

 

#27. Use the sprinkler for larger areas of grass. Water small patches by hand to avoid waste.

 

#28. Put food coloring in your toilet tank. If it seeps into the toilet bowl, you have a leak. It's easy to fix, and you can save more than 600 gallons a month.

 

#29. Plug the bathtub before turning the water on, then adjust the temperature as the tub fills up.

 

#30. Use porous materials for walkways and patios to keep water in your yard and prevent wasteful runoff.

 

#31. Direct downspouts and other runoff towards shrubs and trees, or collect and use for your garden.

 

#32. Designate one glass for your drinking water each day. This will cut down on the number of times you run your dishwasher.

 

#33. Water your summer lawns once every three days and your winter lawn once every five days.

 

#34. Install a rain shut-off device on your automatic sprinklers to eliminate unnecessary watering.

 

#35. Don't use running water to thaw food.

 

#36. Choose a water-efficient drip irrigation system for trees, shrubs and flowers. Watering at the roots is very effective, be careful not to over water.

 

#37. Grab a wrench and fix that leaky faucet. It's simple, inexpensive, and can save 140 gallons a week.

 

#38. Reduce the amount of grass in your yard by planting shrubs, and ground cover with rock and granite mulching.

 

#39. When doing laundry, match the water level to the size of the load.

 

#40. Teach your children to turn the faucets off tightly after each use.

 

#41. Remember to check your sprinkler system valves periodically for leaks and keep the heads in good shape.

 

#42. Before you lather up, install a low-flow showerhead. They're inexpensive, easy to install, and can save your family more than 500 gallons a week.

 

#43. Soak your pots and pans instead of letting the water run while you scrape them clean.

 

#44. Don't water your lawn on windy days. After all, sidewalks and driveways don't need water.

 

#45. Water your plants deeply but less frequently to create healthier and stronger landscapes.

 

#46. Make sure you know where your master water shut-off valve is located. This could save gallons of water and damage to your home if a pipe were to burst.

 

#47. When watering grass on steep slopes, use a soaker hose to prevent wasteful runoff.

 

#48. Group plants with the same watering needs together to get the most out of your watering time.

 

#49. Remember to weed your lawn and garden regularly. Weeds compete with other plants for nutrients, light, and water.

 

#50. While fertilizers promote plant growth, they also increase water consumption. Apply the minimum amount of fertilizer needed.

 

#51. Avoid installing ornamental water features and fountains that spray water into the air. Trickling or cascading fountains lose less water to evaporation.

 

#52. Use a commercial car wash that recycles water.

 

#53. Don't buy recreational water toys that require a constant flow of water.

 

#54. Turn off the water while you brush your teeth and save 4 gallons a minute. That's 200 gallons a week for a family of four.

 

#55. Buy a rain gauge to track how much rain or irrigation your yard receives. Check with your local water agency to see how much rain is needed to skip an irrigation cycle.

 

#56. Encourage your school system and local government to help develop and promote a water conservation ethic among children and adults.

 

#57. Teach your family how to shut off your automatic watering systems. Turn sprinklers off if the system is malfunctioning or when a storm is approaching.

 

#58. Set a kitchen timer when watering your lawn or garden with a hose.

 

#59. Make sure your toilet flapper doesn't stick open after flushing.

 

#60. Make sure there are aerators on all of your faucets.

 

#61. Next time you add or replace a flower or shrub, choose a low water use plant for year-round landscape color and save up to 550 gallons each year.

 

#62. Install an instant water heater on your kitchen sink so you don't have to let the water run while it heats up. This will also reduce heating costs for your household.

 

#63. Use a grease pencil to mark the water level of your pool at the skimmer. Check the mark 24 hours later. Your pool should lose no more than 1/4 inch each day.

 

#64. Cut back on rinsing if your dishwasher is new. Newer models clean more thoroughly than older ones.

 

#65. Use a screwdriver as a soil probe to test soil moisture. If it goes in easily, don't water. Proper lawn watering can save thousands of gallons of water annually.

  

#66. Avoid overseeding your lawn with winter grass. Once established, ryegrass needs water every three to five days, whereas dormant Bermuda grass needs water only once a month.

  

#67. Do one thing each day that will save water. Even if savings are small, every drop counts.

  

#68. When the kids want to cool off, use the sprinkler in an area where your lawn needs it the most.

  

#69. Make sure your swimming pools, fountains, and ponds are equipped with recirculating pumps.

  

#70. Bathe your young children together.

  

#71. Landscape with Xeriscape trees, plants and groundcovers. Call your local conservation office for more information about these water thrifty plants.

  

#72. Winterize outdoor spigots when temps dip to 20 degrees F to prevent pipes from bursting or freezing.

  

#73. Insulate hot water pipes so you don't have to run as much water to get hot water to the faucet.

  

#74. Wash your car on the grass. This will water your lawn at the same time.

 

#75. Drop that tissue in the trash instead of flushing it and save gallons every time.

 

#76. If you have an evaporative cooler, direct the water drain to a flowerbed, tree, or your lawn.

 

#77. Make suggestions to your employer to save water (and dollars) at work.

 

#78. Support projects that use reclaimed wastewater for irrigation and other uses.

 

#79. Use a hose nozzle and turn off the water while you wash your car and save more than 100 gallons.

 

#80. Encourage your friends and neighbors to be part of a water-conscious community.

 

#81. If your toilet was installed prior to 1980, place a toilet dam or bottle filled with water in your toilet tank to cut down on the amount of water used for each flush. Be sure these devices do not interfere with operating parts.

 

#82. Install water softening systems only when necessary. Save water and salt by running the minimum number of regenerations necessary to maintain water softness.

  

#83. Wash clothes only when you have a full load and save up to 600 gallons each month.

  

#84. Leave lower branches on trees and shrubs and allow leaf litter to accumulate on top of the soil. This keeps the soil cooler and reduces evaporation.

  

#85. Pick-up the phone and report significant water losses from broken pipes, open hydrants and errant sprinklers to the property owner or your water management district.

  

#86. Bermuda grasses are dormant (brown) in the winter and will only require water once every three to four weeks or less if it rains.

 

#87. Start a compost pile. Using compost when you plant adds water-holding organic matter to the soil.

 

#88. Use sprinklers that throw big drops of water close to the ground. Smaller drops of water and mist often evaporate before they hit the ground.

 

#89. Listen for dripping faucets and toilets that flush themselves. Fixing a leak can save 500 gallons each month.

 

#90. More plants die from over-watering than from under-watering. Be sure only to water plants when necessary.

 

#91. Cook food in as little water as possible. This will also retain more of the nutrients.

 

#92. Adjust your watering schedule to the season. Water your summer lawn every third day and your winter lawn every fifth day.

 

#93. Turn the water off while you shampoo and condition your hair and you can save more than 50 gallons a week.

 

#94. Bathe your pets outdoors in an area in need of water.

 

#95. Choose new water-saving appliances, like washing machines that save up to 20 gallons per load.

 

#96. Water only as rapidly as the soil can absorb the water.

 

#97. Aerate your lawn. Punch holes in your lawn about six inches apart so water will reach the roots rather than run off the surface.

 

#98. Select the proper size pans for cooking. Large pans require more cooking water than may be necessary.

 

#99. Place an empty tuna can on your lawn to catch and measure the water output of your sprinklers. For lawn watering advice, contact your local conservation office.

 

#100. Turn off the water while you shave and you can save more than 100 gallons a week.

 

#101. When you give your pet fresh water, don't throw the old water down the drain. Use it to water your trees or shrubs.

 

#102. If you accidentally drop ice cubes when filling your glass from the freezer, don't throw them in the sink. Drop them in a house plant instead.

 

#103. To save water and time, consider washing your face or brushing your teeth while in the shower.

 

#104. While staying in a hotel or even at home, consider reusing your towels.

 

#105. When backwashing your pool, consider using the water on your

landscaping.

 

#106. For hanging baskets, planters and pots, place ice cubes under the moss or dirt to give your plants a cool drink of water and help eliminate water overflow.

 

#107. Throw trimmings and peelings from fruits and vegetables into your yard compost to prevent from using the garbage disposal.

 

#108. When you have ice left in your cup from a take-out restaurant, don't throw it in the trash, dump it on a plant.

 

#109. Have your plumber re-route your gray water to trees and gardens rather than letting it run into the sewer line. Check with your city codes, and if it isn't allowed in your area, start a movement to get that changed.

 

#110. Keep a bucket in the shower to catch water as it warms up or runs. Use this water to flush toilets or water plants.

 

#111. When you are washing your hands, don't let the water run while you lather.

 

Here you can see the shorelines of Bangui and Pagudpud of Ilocos Norte , Philippines . Claveria is actually part of Cagayan , Philippines .

 

Pagudpud is a coastal resort town on the northernmost tip of Luzon in the Philippines. According to the latest census, Pagudpud has a population of 20,385 people in 3,804 households.

Its white-sand beaches and crystal-blue water makes Pagudpud a haven for tourists. Maira-Ira Point is also an emerging attraction with its secluded beach known as the Blue Lagoon. Access to this public beach is from a secondary concrete road on the north side of the Maharlika Highway just before approaching the Patapat Viaduct. On the way to the Blue Lagoon, a sea arch can be seen. Coconut trees line much of the town's coast. On a clear day, the Batanes Islands are visible from Patapat National Park.

 

The Patapat Viaduct, elevated 31 meters over sea level, is 1.3 km concrete coastal bridge that connects the Maharlika Highway from Laoag, Ilocos Norte to the Cagayan Valley Region. It rises along the town's coastal mountains, which is the starting point of the Cordillera Mountain Range that snakes through Northern Luzon. It is the 4th longest bridge in the Philippines. Located more than 16 kilometers from the town proper, it offers a scenic view of Pasaleng Bay- a view that leads towards wide and pristine beaches backed by mountains with breathtaking waterfalls Kabigan and Mabaga, along with the many cool, refreshing springs waiting to be discovered within.

  

On earth of redecorating, there are numerous great resources offered to both new and experienced people. You can find a huge number of videos, books, classes and podcasts that one can choose. This list of tips contains the best advice for helping you to figure out how to properly do redecorating jobs.

 

When managing your property during the summer months, use several fans since you can. Ceiling fans especially keep the atmosphere within a room circulating and so keep your room cooler. Fans help lower the energy is allocated to the atmosphere conditioner. For that reason, your electricity bill may be decreased.

 

Consider getting a combo unit washer/dryer should you reside in a tiny space. It is possible to fit a lot of combo washer-dryers in a tiny space. A combo unit washes the garments and whenever done switches into a dryer.

 

Stained baseboards present an excellent replacement for traditionally painted ones. Natural wood carries a look that is not merely classic, but works in virtually every design of home. Painted wood will show every mark you could potentially ever imagine, whereas stained wood camouflages imperfections considerably more easily. The many colors of stain available ensure you will choose the right color for your residence.

 

Have you contemplated setting up solar energy panels? This really is a great investment, especially since you should pay more for electricity. This will trim down your household utility bills, as you'll can get a great deal of your power in the energy your panels are storing. Improvements in solar tech made this a viable sustainable energy source.

 

Visit some open houses for newer homes before deciding what home improvements you wish to make. You will definately get the chance to discover how the most up-to-date trends in styles and colors look in the home rather than at home center. A great deal of builders actually hire professional designers to embellish open houses, which can present you with some real inspiration and aid in avoiding mistakes.

 

When the following tips are followed, you can expect to better determine what is necessary to execute a good job with home projects. The level of information available may be overwhelming, so you ought to be mindful of the way to utilize all this to the best advantage. That said, it is possible to refine your own personal techniques and goals to make the house of your dreams.

Good cooking skills are something everyone should have, whether or not you happen to be living alone or located in a sizable family unit. The various benefits associated with cooking include social family time, extra nutrients and vitamins and a lot more funds in your wallet also! This article below can provide some valuable information that may make cooking a pleasure.

 

You could start cooking simple meals away from a cookbook it is possible to borrow through the library. That way you can try different meals that one could prepare and when you find yourself done it is possible to carry it back. Try making three or four in the recipes that interest you probably the most, and present yourself lots of time to perfect your newly acquired skill.

 

If using oil inside your cooking, pour it inside the pan inside an area out of the food. Once the oil reaches the meal it really has been heated up and is ready to roll. It will help to boost and maximize the taste of your own cooking.

 

It is rather crucial that your knives are usually sharp. Knives are in reality more dangerous whenever they get dull, since they get harder to regulate. It is possible to cut yourself simply because you are forcing the knife from the food, utilize a sharp knife.

 

Keep the kitchen knives sharp. Dull knives make cutting difficult, nevertheless in addition, these are dangerous. Wanting to force a blunt blade via a tough root vegetable is more prone to cause a car accident, than quickly dicing and slicing the identical tough root vegetable using a sharp blade.

 

To help make your French-fried potatoes crisper, try leaving the raw potatoes in a few cold water for 30 minutes prior to deciding to fry them. The fibers of raw cut potatoes that were soaked in cold water just before striking the deep fryer, are stronger and will handle the warmth better without breakage.

 

If you're capable of cook, it is possible to provide your household with a lot of benefits. Because these tips showed, cooking can improve various facets of your life, whatever sort of cooking you want, whether it's soul food, down-home favorites or haute cuisine. Obtain is actually a nice option every once in a while, but nothing is superior to food you've made yourself. www.bestpastamaker.org

zauji.com/15500.

My wife and I were looking for an iron holder so we didnt have to place the iron on top of our builtin (not recessed) ironing board. We werent sure what we were looking for, we just knew we wanted something that would hold our iron. One day while on a business trip I saw this iron holder in the closet of the hotel I was staying. Im sure many of you have seen this same product, they are in almost every hotel these days. So I then searched for this iron holder and found it here on Amazon.com. The item arrived in a timely fashion and looked just like what we had ordered. It came with instructions and the parts to install it on the wall, including a diagram. It was easy to install, is very secure, which is important as you slide the iron in and out, and if you are going to hang your ironing board on it as well this is even more important. It has worked with every standard iron we have had (2) and is simple in design, you just slide the iron in from the top, so therefore easy to use on a daytoday basis. The only drawback is the place for the cord is cumbersome to use and winding up the cord into a small bundle will take some practice and the cord doesnt always stay put. This is a relatively small issue for me, but if you are an organization freak it might drive you nuts.

Bulletin of Christian Persecution

October 2 - October 28, 2011

 

October 2, 2011

Java, Indonesia

The village chief in Mekargalih, along with members of the Islamic Defender Front, expeled Christians from their place of worship for allegedly engaging in "proselytizing" in a predominantly Muslim area. A Christian woman complains, "Police have no guts against this radical group."

 

October 6, 2011

Pakistan (Hat tip to AtlasShrugs)

Last night, Safdar Masih was shot to death; others, including children, were injured. The local Church had bought some land to build an orphanage, but the local land mafia laid claim to it. Police refuses to open an investigation into the affair.

 

October 7, 2011

Pakistan (Hat tip to JihadWatch)

A Christian Pakistani politician accused security forces on Friday, October 7, of refusing to detain Muslim fighters who allegedly shot dead one Christian and injured over 20 others in Pakistan's Punjab province.

 

The murdered Christian, identified as Sabir Masih, was gunned down and "two dozen Christians including children, men and women were seriously injured" when Muslims attacked Christians "to grab a piece of land bought for a social project."

 

Maldives

Shijo Kokkattu, an Indian Catholic from Kerala, has been languishing in a Maldives prison for more than a week because he had a Bible and a rosary at his home. Both items are banned on the archipelago.

 

Islam is state religion in the Maldives. There is no freedom of worship. In 2008, a constitutional amendment denied non-Muslims the right to obtain Maldivian citizenship.

 

Shijo, 30, has taught at Raafainu School on Raa Atoll for the past two years. Recently, whilst transferring some data from his pen drive to the school laptop, he accidentally copied Marian songs and a picture of Mother Mary into the system. Some teachers reported the matter to the police who raided his home and found a Bible and a rosary in his possession.

 

October 8, 2011

Egypt (Hat tip to JihadWatch)

Christians fear pressure from Muslims to obey Islamic law. On her first day to school, 15-year-old Christian student Ferial Habib was stopped at the doorstep of her new high school with clear instructions: either put on a headscarf or no school this year. Habib refused. While most Muslim women in Egypt wear the headscarf, Christians do not, and the move by administrators to force a Christian student to don it was unprecedented.

 

Recent attacks on churches in southern Egypt also illustrate the heat Christians are under. Under Mubarak-era rules, the building of a church or repairs for an existing one required permission from local authorities and the state security agency - a rule not applied to mosques. The rules sought to avoid outbursts of violence from Muslim hard-liners. Since permission was rarely given, Christians at times resorted to building churches in secret, often in parish guesthouses.

 

October 9, 2011

Egypt

Massive clashes that drew in Christians angry over a recent church attack, Muslims, and Egyptian security forces raged over a large section of downtown Cairo Sunday night, leaving at least 19 people dead and more than 150 injured. It was the worst violence since the 18-day uprising that ousted Hosni Mubarak in February.

 

The ongoing clashes lasted late into the night, bringing out a deployment of more than 1,000 security forces and armored vehicles to defend the state television building along the Nile, where the trouble began. The clashes spread to nearby Tahrir Square and the area around it, drawing in thousands of people. They battled each other with rocks and firebombs, some tearing up pavement for ammunition and others collecting stones in boxes.

 

Christians blame Egypt's ruling military council for being too lenient on those behind a spate of anti-Christian attacks since the ouster of Mubarak. The Coptic Christian minority makes up about 10 percent of the country of more than 80 million people. As Egypt undergoes a chaotic power transition and security vacuum in the wake of this year's uprising, Christians are particularly worried about the increasing show of force by the ultraconservative Islamists. More HERE. Video HERE.

 

October 10, 2011

Java, Indonesia

Beni Asri, one of the country's best-known Islamic extremists, arrested after the attack on the Christian church of Solo (Java) last September, has admitted strong links with the leading Muslim cleric Abu Bakar Baasyr. (09/25/2011 At least three killed in a suicide attack on church in Indonesia).

 

Beni Asri has been accused of planning several suicide bombings in Indonesia, and in particular of being the organizer of the attack against the Solo church. Beni Asri was arrested Sept. 30 in his parents' house in Solok, West Sumatra province.

 

Malaysia (hat tip to the ReligionofPeace)

Islamic authorities will provide counselling to a dozen Malaysian Muslims to "restore their belief and faith" after they attended a community dinner at a church hall, a royal sultan said on Monday.

 

The case has triggered worries among officials in Muslim-majority Malaysia that some non-Muslims were trying to convert Muslims. Proselytising of Muslims is punishable by prison terms of various lengths in most Malaysian states.

 

Church officials had repeatedly denied any proselytisation occurred at the dinner, which they described as a multiethnic gathering to celebrate the work of a community organization that worked with women, children and HIV patients. Update HERE.

 

USA/Egypt

From Raymond Ibrahim: Egypt, destroying churches one at a time. What clearer sign that Egypt is turning rabidly Islamist than the fact that hardly a few weeks go by without a church being destroyed, or without protesting Christians being attacked and slaughtered by the military?

 

Egypt (Hat tip to JihadWatch)

Egypt's state television announced on Monday that there are no deaths among the military forces after previously reporting there were during the bloody Sunday clashes between the military and Coptic protesters, saying that it was the fault of the news presenter.

 

State TV, also known as Maspero, is under fire from rights activists for falsely reporting that the Coptic protesters attacked the military forces with weapons, which resulted in the death of at least three soldiers and the called on the Egyptian people to take to the street to help protect the armed forces.

 

The news, when reported on Sunday evening, agitated many Muslims, who took up arms and went to the streets of downtown, clashing with protesters, both Muslims and Coptic Christians, injuring dozens in the worst sectarian violence since the fall of ousted President Hosni Muabrak's regime. State TV also reported that the protesters were armed and initiated the violence that killed the soldiers, which escalated the bloodshed late on Sunday.

 

October 12, 2011

Sudan

Local authorities have threatened to demolish three church buildings in Omdurman as part of a long-standing bid to rid Sudan of Christianity, Christian sources told Compass.

 

Officials from the Ministry of Physical Planning and Public Utilities-Khartoum State appeared at the three church sites in Omdurman, on the Nile River opposite Khartoum, the afternoon of Sept. 11, threatening to demolish the structures if the churches continued to conduct worship services, church leaders said.

 

Church leaders from the three churches in the Madinat al Fath area of Omdurman - the Sudanese Church of Christ, the Episcopal Church of Sudan and the Roman Catholic Church - said they were surprised to see government officials come to their church premises and accuse them of operating churches on government land without permission. The church leaders told Compass the buildings were not located on government land and required no permission.

 

Afghanistan

There aren't any public churchs left standing in Afghanistan, according to the U.S. State Department. So much for religious freedom one decade after the United States first invaded and then overthrew its Taliban regime, costing taxpayers $440 billion and incurring more than 1,700 U.S. military deaths to date.

 

The last public Christian church in Afghanistan was razed back in March 2010, according to the State Department's International Religious Freedom Report, which also states that there are no Christian schools left in the country.

 

October 13, 2011

Pakistan

A 12-year-old Christian girl was kidnapped and repeatedly raped for eight months in Pakistan by a man who then falsified marriage documents with her, it was claimed today.

 

The girl was lured on a shopping trip in Lahore by a friend, before she was driven 120 miles to Tandianwalla and raped by the friend's uncle in January this year.Two days later, she was forced to sign papers consenting to marriage with the man and beaten for refusing to convert from Christianity to Islam. She was then held against her will for eight months, before managing to escape and contact her family.

 

The Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC) has said the rapists have not been arrested because of their affiliation with a militant Muslim organisation - the Lashkar-e-Tayyaba. It claims the police have refused to order a medical check-up on the girl, and have warned her parents that it would be better for them to hand over the girl to her 'legal' husband or a criminal case would be filed against them. An investigation into the kidnapping found the girl's father reported her disappearance in January and made complaints against her abductors, but police took no action for eight months.

 

October 15, 2011

Egypt

An army crackdown on a protest that killed more than 20 Christians has not only stunned Egyptians, it has left them with deeply torn feelings toward the force seen as the protector of the nation. Even supporters of the ruling military are grappling with the question of how the bloodshed could have happened.

 

Many Egyptians view the military as the last bastion of stability - a force "made up of our own sons," as many often say - and tend to trust it to handle the transition toward a democratic system. So images of army troops wildly running over protesters with armored vehicles have jolted them. Some try to find excuses for the ruling junta or nervously defend it. Intertwined in the reaction are the religious tensions between Egypt's Muslim majority and Christian minority. The fact that victims were Christians has made some less sympathetic or more willing to forgive the army's actions.

 

The violence was the deadliest since the military took over Egypt following the Feb. 11 fall of President Hosni Mubarak - and was a stark contrast to the idealistic sense of Muslim-Christian unity that flourished during the anti-Mubarak uprising.

 

It began Sunday night when thousands of Christians demonstrated outside the state television building, protesting an attack on a church in southern Egypt. Army troops waded in, and armored personnel carriers barreled through the crowds. The violence killed 26 people, including at least 21 Christians, some crushed by vehicles or shot to death. State media said three soldiers were among the dead.

 

In the first official press conference after the violence, the military tried to exonerate itself, blaming the Christians and "hidden hands" for starting the violence, denying its troops shot any protesters or intentionally ran them over. Witnesses said soldiers started the melee. Videos showing soldiers beating and shooting into crowds and armored vehicles seeming to chase protesters cast doubt on the military's account.

 

October 17, 2011

Egypt (hat tip to JihadWatch)

A week after a Maspero protest turned deadly when the army crushed a Coptic demonstration, local papers are taking a tone that suggests the nation's military rulers are not to blame.

 

Most of Monday's papers accuse various actors for the bloodshed that left at least 27 civilians dead and hundreds injured on 9 October. Surprisingly, Prime Minister Essam Sharaf's cabinet doesn't get the biggest share for blame although he was a primary target for criticism following the events. State-sponsored media was also heavily criticized, but now local media is finding another scapegoat. Coptic religious leaders, clergy and intellectuals are responsible not only for the Maspero violence but also for threatening national unity, according to several papers.

 

Nigeria

Violence-weary Christians in Borno state have been further upset to learn of the murder of a Nigerian evangelist by Boko Haram less than three months after the Islamic extremist group killed a Maiduguri pastor.

 

Already shell-shocked from attacks by Boko Haram, which was originally based in Borno state, Christians again took cover after the Aug. 27 shooting of Mark Ojunta, a 36-year-old evangelist from southern Nigeria who was ministering amid the Kotoko people of Nigeria's northeastern state with Calvary Ministries (CAPRO). He was killed in Maiduguri.

 

October 19, 2011

Somalia

Militants from the Islamic extremist al Shabaab beheaded a 17-year-old Somali Christian near Mogadishu last month, a journalist in the Somali capital told Compass.

 

The militants, who have vowed to rid Somalia of Christianity, killed Guled Jama Muktar on Sept. 25 in his home near Deynile, about 20 kilometers (12 miles) from Mogadishu. The Islamic extremist group had been monitoring his family since the Christians arrived in Somalia from Kenya in 2008, said the source in Mogadishu, who requested anonymity.

 

The Islamic militants, who are fighting the transitional government for control of the country, knew from their observations of the family that they were Christians, the source said.

 

Pakistan

Update on Asia Bibi. . . A female prison officer assigned to provide security for a Christian mother of five who was sentenced to death on "blasphemy" charges beat her earlier this month, sources said.

 

Sources in Pakistan's Sheikhupura District Jail said Asia Noreen, also known as Asia Bibi, was beaten on Oct. 5 by a prison officer identified only as Khadeeja, allegedly because of the Muslim officer's anti-Christian bias, while other staff members deployed for her security looked on in silence.

 

Noreen, mother of two children and stepmother to three others, was sentenced to death last November after her conviction for blaspheming Islam's prophet, Muhammad, after a verbal disagreement with some women in the village of Ittanwali, near Lahore.

 

October 23, 2011

Malaysia (hat tip to AtlasShrugs)

Right-wing Malaysian activists on Saturday staged a rally against Christians who 'challenge the sovereignty of Islam', amid fears of growing Islamisation in the multicultural nation.

The gathering of about 2,000 people in Selangor state follows allegations of Christian proselytisation in the Muslim-majority country after religious police raided a Methodist church event in August fearing Muslims were being converted.

 

Newspapers linked to the ruling coalition have also alleged that Christian groups are secretly trying to convert poor Muslims by using welfare such as housing, food and cash.

'Apostasy violates the wishes of Allah, there is no bigger sin,' Yusri Mohamad, the event's chief organiser, told the crowd in Shah Alam, the state capital.

 

October 24, 2011

Nigeria

Nigerian soldiers summoned to stop inter-religious fighting between Muslim and Christian youths last week shot and killed a Christian mother of five in the Yelwa area of Bauchi city, according to family and church sources.

 

Soldiers were called in to restore calm following fighting that broke out at a high school soccer match on Thursday (Oct. 20), and later three Muslim soldiers shot and killed Charity Augustine Agbo and a Christian boy. The circumstances leading to the shooting of the boy, who is unrelated to Agbo, were not immediately known, and his name was not disclosed.

 

Sudan

Emboldened by government calls for a Sudan based on Islamic law since the secession of South Sudan, Muslims long opposed to a church near Khartoum have attacked Christians trying to finish constructing their building, sources said.

 

The Sudanese Church of Christ (SCOC) congregation in Omdurman West, across the Nile River from Khartoum, has continued to meet for Sunday worship in a building without a roof in spite of opposition from area Muslims and local authorities, the sources told Compass. Claiming that Christianity was no longer an accepted religion in the country, Muslims in the Hay al Sawra, Block 29 area of Omdurman West on Aug. 5 attacked SCOC members who were constructing the church building, the sources said.

 

October 25, 2011

Sudan

Sudanese leader Omer Hassan Al-Bashir is rewriting his country's constitution in order to implement shar'ia (Islamic) law.

 

"This new law is going to affect a significant number of Christians who live in places like Khartoum," said Jonathan Rach, International Christian Concern's North Africa specialist. "There are still a significant number of Christians in Sudan … If Al-Bashir introduces this shar'ia law and if he's going to go ahead and adopt an entirely Islamic constitution, Christians and other non-Muslims who live in Sudan will be treated like second-class citizens; they will be dhimmis and they will not have full rights in the freedom of religion."

 

West Java, Indonesia

Members of a church in Bogor, West Java, are determined to continue meeting outside their sealed building each Sunday until they are granted freedom to worship inside it, despite a ban on street meetings issued by the local mayor.

 

Egypt

An Egyptian Military Court ordered that an imprisoned Christian activist be admitted to a mental health hospital to determine whether he's responsible for his actions.

Michael Nabil Sanad was sent to Abbasiya Hospital in Cairo, a facility that specializes in treating seriously ill psychiatric patients.

 

Writer William Weesa said this was very dangerous because "there are many people who were admitted to these hospitals by the security services, who were quite healthy when they went in, but came out as a devastated human beings." Weesa asked that this "farce perpetrated against a prisoner of conscience" be stopped.

 

October 26, 2011

Egypt

The Egyptian military's intent to investigate its own use of force against unarmed Coptic Christians demonstrating on Oct. 9, 2011, raises concerns of a cover-up, according to Human Rights Watch.

The military arrested at least 28 people, mostly Copts, and brought them all before military prosecutors who ordered their detention for 15 days pending an investigation.

 

However, Human Rights Watch interviewed 20 demonstrators who all testified that at least two armored personnel carriers drove recklessly through crowds of Christians; autopsies showed that the massive, metal APCs killed at least 10 demonstrators.

 

"The military cannot investigate itself with any credibility," said Joe Stork, deputy Middle East director at Human Rights Watch. "This had been an essentially peaceful protest until the military used excessive force and military vehicles ran over protesters. The only hope for justice for the victims is an independent civilian-led investigation that the army fully cooperates with and cannot control and that leads to the prosecution of those responsible."

 

October 27, 2011

Pakistan

A petition circling around Canada is calling for Pakistan to drop its blasphemy laws. The Islamic republic's law has grave consequences for the nation's Christians, including some who are facing death for their beliefs.

 

October 28, 2011

Iran

A Muslim convert to Christianity has gone missing since his arrest last week by plain clothes security officer

 

According to Mohabat News, on October 17, 2011, a group of four officers engaged in a commando-style raid on the house of Mr. Arazm, arresting him, then transferring him to an unknown location. The raid took place around 7:30 in the morning local time, just before he left for work.

 

The officers apparently searched the house upside-down and left a mess in their wake. The plainclothes officers confiscated Mr. Arazm's computer hard disk, CDs, pictures, and a number of Bibles. His family was also threatened to remain silent and not to talk about this

 

Manhattan is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City. The borough is coterminous with New York County, founded on November 1, 1683 as an original county of the U.S. state of New York. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the East, Hudson, and Harlem Rivers, but also includes several small adjacent islands, as well as Marble Hill, a small neighborhood on the U.S. mainland.

 

Manhattan has been described as the economic and cultural center of the United States and serves as home to the United Nations Headquarters. Wall Street, in Lower Manhattan, has been called the financial capital of the world, and is home to the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Many multinational media conglomerates are based in the borough. Historically documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for the equivalent of US$24, Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island itself estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2014.

 

New York County is the most densely populated county in the United States, and is more dense than any individual American city. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a Census-estimated 2013 population of 1,626,159 living in a land area of 22.96 square miles (59.5 km2), or about 70,826 residents per square mile (27,346/km²). On business days, the influx of commuters increases that number to over 3.9 million, or around 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, and is the smallest borough in terms of land area.

 

Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan have become well known to New York City's approximately 50 million annual visitors. Times Square, iconified as "The Crossroads of the World" and "The Center of the Universe", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. The borough hosts many world-renowned bridges, skyscrapers, and parks. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere. The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 35 in the world. The city of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of city government and a National Historic Landmark that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen (Half Moon). A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River (later named the Hudson River). The word "Manhattan" has been translated as "island of many hills" from the Lenape language.

 

The United States Postal Service prefers that mail addressed to Manhattan use "New York, NY" rather than "Manhattan, NY".

  

The area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of the French king Francis I – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. He entered The Narrows aboard his ship La Dauphine and named the land around Upper New York Harbor "New Angoulême", in reference to the family name of Francis I of France that was derived from Angoulême in France; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the Hudson River which he referred to in his report to the French king as a "very big river"; and he named Upper New York Bay the Bay of Santa Margarita – after Marguerite de Navarre – the elder sister of the king.

 

It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, that the area was mapped. Hudson came across Manhattan Island and the native people living there in 1609, and continued up the river that would later bear his name, the Hudson River, until he arrived at the site of present day Albany.

  

A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, later called New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam). Manhattan Island was chosen as the site of Fort Amsterdam, a citadel for the protection of the new arrivals; its 1625 establishment is recognized as the birth date of New York City. According to the document by Pieter Janszoon Schagen our People (ons Volck), Peter Minuit and Dutch colonists acquired Manhattan in 1626 from unnamed American Indian people in exchange for trade goods worth 60 guilders, often said to be worth US$24, though (by comparing the price of bread and other goods) it actually amounts to around US$1,050 in 2014.

 

In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director General of the colony. New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1653. In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it "New York" after the English Duke of York and Albany, the future King James II. The Dutch, under Director General Stuyvesant, successfully negotiated with the English to produce 24 articles of provisional transfer, which sought to retain for the extant citizens of New Netherland their previously attained liberties (including freedom of religion) under new colonial English rulers.

 

The Dutch Republic regained it in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming the city "New Orange". New Netherland was ceded permanently to the English in November 1674 through the Treaty of Westminster, in exchange for Run Island which was the long-coveted last link in the Dutch nutmeg trading monopoly in Indonesia.

American Revolution and the early United States

 

Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of major battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the disastrous Battle of Fort Washington on November 16, 1776. The city became the British political and military center of operations in North America for the remainder of the war. Manhattan was greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the British military rule that followed. British occupation lasted until November 25, 1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the city.

 

From January 11, 1785, to the fall of 1788, New York City was the fifth of five capitals of the United States under the Articles of Confederation, with the Continental Congress meeting at New York City Hall (then at Fraunces Tavern). New York was the first capital under the newly enacted Constitution of the United States, from March 4, 1789, to August 12, 1790, at Federal Hall. Federal Hall was also the site of where the United States Supreme Court met for the first time, the United States Bill of Rights were drafted and ratified, and where the Northwest Ordinance was adopted, establishing measures for adding new states to the Union.

 

Manhattan is loosely divided into Downtown (Lower Manhattan), Midtown (Midtown Manhattan), and Uptown (Upper Manhattan), with Fifth Avenue dividing Manhattan's east and west sides. Manhattan Island is bounded by the Hudson River to the west and the East River to the east. To the north, the Harlem River divides Manhattan Island from The Bronx and the mainland United States. Several small islands are also part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall's Island, Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, New York County has a total area of 33.6 square miles (87 km2), of which 22.8 square miles (59 km2) is land and 10.8 square miles (28 km2) (32%) is water. The northern segment of Upper Manhattan represents a geographic panhandle. Manhattan Island is 22.7 square miles (59 km2) in area, 13.4 miles (21.6 km) long and 2.3 miles (3.7 km) wide, at its widest (near 14th Street).

 

Early in the 19th century, landfill was used to expand Lower Manhattan from the natural Hudson shoreline at Greenwich Street to West Street. When building the World Trade Center, 1.2 million cubic yards (917,000 m³) of material was excavated from the site. Rather than dumping the spoil at sea or in landfills, the fill material was used to expand the Manhattan shoreline across West Street, creating Battery Park City. The result was a 700-foot (210-m) extension into the river, running six blocks or 1,484 feet (452 m), covering 92 acres (37 ha), providing a 1.2-mile (1.9 km) riverfront esplanade and over 30 acres (12 ha) of parks.

 

At the 2010 Census, there were 1,585,873 people living in Manhattan, an increase of 3.2% since 2000. Since 2010, Manhattan's population was estimated by the Census Bureau to have increased 2.5% to 1,626,159 as of 2013, representing 19.3% of the city's population and 8.3% of the state's population. As of the 2000 Census, the population density of New York County was 66,940 per square mile (25,846/km²), the highest population density of any county in the United States. If 2012 census estimates were accurate, the population density then approximated 70,518 people per square mile (27,227/km²). In 1910, at the height of European immigration to New York, Manhattan's population density reached a peak of 101,548 people per square mile (39,208/km²). There were 798,144 housing units in 2000 at an average density of 34,756.7 per square mile (13,421.8/km²). Only 20.3% of Manhattan residents lived in owner-occupied housing, the second-lowest rate of all counties in the nation, behind the Bronx.

 

According to 2012 Census estimates, 65.2% of the population was White, 18.4% Black or African American, 1.2% American Indian and Alaska Native, 12.0% Asian, and 3.1% of two or more races. 25.8% of Manhattan's population was of Hispanic or Latino origin, of any race. Manhattan has the second highest percentage of non-Hispanic Whites (48%) of New York City's boroughs, after Staten Island (where non-Hispanic Whites make up 64% of residents).

 

The New York City Department of City Planning projects that Manhattan's population will increase by 289,000 people between 2000 and 2030, an increase of 18.8% over the period, second only to Staten Island, while the rest of the city is projected to grow by 12.7% over the same period. The school-age population is expected to grow 4.4% by 2030, in contrast to a small decline in the city as a whole. The elderly population is forecast to grow by 57.9%, with the borough adding 108,000 persons ages 65 and over, compared to 44.2% growth citywide.

 

According to the 2009 American Community Survey, the average household size was 2.11, and the average family size was 3.21. Approximately 59.4% of the population over the age of 25 have a bachelor's degree or higher. Approximately 27.0% of the population is foreign-born, and 61.7% of the population over the age of 5 speak only English at home. People of Irish ancestry make up 7.8% of the population, while Italian Americans make up 6.8% of the population. German Americans and Russian Americans make up 7.2% and 6.2% of the population respectively.

 

In 2000, 56.4% of people living in Manhattan were White, 17.39% were Black, 14.14% were from other races, 9.40% were Asian, 0.5% were Native American, and 0.07% were Pacific Islander. 4.14% were from two or more races. 27.18% were Hispanic of any race.

 

There were 738,644 households. 25.2% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 59.1% were non-families. 17.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them. 48% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was two and the average family size was 2.99.

 

Manhattan's population was spread out with 16.8% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 38.3% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, and 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males.

 

Manhattan is one of the highest-income places in the United States with a population greater than one million. As of 2012, Manhattan's cost of living was the highest in the United States, but the borough also contained the country's most profound level of income inequality. Manhattan is also the United States county with the highest per capita income, being the sole county whose per capita income exceeded $100,000 in 2010. In 2012, The New York Times reported that "the income gap in Manhattan, already wider than almost anywhere else in the country, rivaled disparities in sub-Saharan Africa. ... The wealthiest fifth of Manhattanites made more than 40 times what the lowest fifth reported, a widening gap (it was 38 times, the year before) surpassed by only a few developing countries".

 

Lower Manhattan has been experiencing a baby boom, well above the overall birth rate in Manhattan, with the area south of Canal Street witnessing 1,086 births in 2010, 12% greater than 2009 and over twice the number born in 2001. The Financial District alone has witnessed growth in its population to approximately 43,000 as of 2014, nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census.

  

from Wikipedia

 

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