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My regular visitors may have forgotten that it's not only Billy in our household. Ever since his introduction about 9 weeks ago, Poeka has been spending most of her days in the garden. We've had a near perfect summer, so she enjoyed every minute of it, I hope.

 

She doesn't enjoy Billy very much I'm afraid, although there don't seem to be any problems at night when they are together in the attic. We may have a problem coming up though, because Poeka seems to start leaving bits of urine indoors. Could be a problem with her bladder, but it can also be her dislike of the new situation. Any tips anyone?

111 Water Saving Tips

 

#1. There are a number of ways to save water, and they all start with you.

 

#2. When washing dishes by hand, don't let the water run while rinsing. Fill one sink with wash water and the other with rinse water.

 

#3. Evaporative coolers require a seasonal maintenance checkup. For more efficient cooling, check your evaporative cooler annually.

 

#4. Check your sprinkler system frequently and adjust sprinklers so only your lawn is watered and not the house, sidewalk, or street.

 

#5. Run your washing machine and dishwasher only when they are full and you could save 1000 gallons a month.

 

#6. Avoid planting turf in areas that are hard to water such as steep inclines and isolated strips along sidewalks and driveways.

 

#7. Install covers on pools and spas and check for leaks around your pumps.

 

#8. Use the garbage disposal sparingly. Compost instead and save gallons every time.

 

#9. Plant during the spring or fall when the watering requirements are lower.

 

#10. Keep a pitcher of water in the refrigerator instead of running the tap for cold drinks, so that every drop goes down you not the drain.

 

#11. Check your water meter and bill to track your water usage.

 

#12. Minimize evaporation by watering during the early morning hours, when temperatures are cooler and winds are lighter.

 

#13. Wash your produce in the sink or a pan that is partially filled with water instead of running water from the tap.

 

#14. Use a layer of organic mulch around plants to reduce evaporation and save hundreds of gallons of water a year.

 

#15. Use a broom instead of a hose to clean your driveway or sidewalk and save 80 gallons of water every time.

 

#16. If your shower can fill a one-gallon bucket in less than 20 seconds, then replace it with a water-efficient showerhead.

 

#17. Collect the water you use for rinsing produce and reuse it to water houseplants.

 

#18. Divide your watering cycle into shorter periods to reduce runoff and allow for better absorption every time you water.

 

#19. We're more likely to notice leaky faucets indoors, but don't forget to check outdoor faucets, pipes, and hoses for leaks.

 

#20. Periodically check your pool for leaks if you have an automatic refilling device.

 

#21. Only water your lawn when needed. You can tell this by simply walking across your lawn. If you leave footprints, it's time to water.

 

#22. When you shop for a new appliance, consider one offering cycle and load size adjustments. They are more water and energy-efficient than older appliances.

 

#23. Time your shower to keep it under 5 minutes. You'll save up to 1000 gallons a month.

 

#24. Install low-volume toilets.

 

#25. Adjust your lawn mower to a higher setting. Longer grass shades root systems and holds soil moisture better than a closely clipped lawn.

 

#26. When you clean your fish tank, use the water you've drained on your plants. The water is rich in nitrogen and phosphorus, providing you with a free and effective fertilizer.

 

#27. Use the sprinkler for larger areas of grass. Water small patches by hand to avoid waste.

 

#28. Put food coloring in your toilet tank. If it seeps into the toilet bowl, you have a leak. It's easy to fix, and you can save more than 600 gallons a month.

 

#29. Plug the bathtub before turning the water on, then adjust the temperature as the tub fills up.

 

#30. Use porous materials for walkways and patios to keep water in your yard and prevent wasteful runoff.

 

#31. Direct downspouts and other runoff towards shrubs and trees, or collect and use for your garden.

 

#32. Designate one glass for your drinking water each day. This will cut down on the number of times you run your dishwasher.

 

#33. Water your summer lawns once every three days and your winter lawn once every five days.

 

#34. Install a rain shut-off device on your automatic sprinklers to eliminate unnecessary watering.

 

#35. Don't use running water to thaw food.

 

#36. Choose a water-efficient drip irrigation system for trees, shrubs and flowers. Watering at the roots is very effective, be careful not to over water.

 

#37. Grab a wrench and fix that leaky faucet. It's simple, inexpensive, and can save 140 gallons a week.

 

#38. Reduce the amount of grass in your yard by planting shrubs, and ground cover with rock and granite mulching.

 

#39. When doing laundry, match the water level to the size of the load.

 

#40. Teach your children to turn the faucets off tightly after each use.

 

#41. Remember to check your sprinkler system valves periodically for leaks and keep the heads in good shape.

 

#42. Before you lather up, install a low-flow showerhead. They're inexpensive, easy to install, and can save your family more than 500 gallons a week.

 

#43. Soak your pots and pans instead of letting the water run while you scrape them clean.

 

#44. Don't water your lawn on windy days. After all, sidewalks and driveways don't need water.

 

#45. Water your plants deeply but less frequently to create healthier and stronger landscapes.

 

#46. Make sure you know where your master water shut-off valve is located. This could save gallons of water and damage to your home if a pipe were to burst.

 

#47. When watering grass on steep slopes, use a soaker hose to prevent wasteful runoff.

 

#48. Group plants with the same watering needs together to get the most out of your watering time.

 

#49. Remember to weed your lawn and garden regularly. Weeds compete with other plants for nutrients, light, and water.

 

#50. While fertilizers promote plant growth, they also increase water consumption. Apply the minimum amount of fertilizer needed.

 

#51. Avoid installing ornamental water features and fountains that spray water into the air. Trickling or cascading fountains lose less water to evaporation.

 

#52. Use a commercial car wash that recycles water.

 

#53. Don't buy recreational water toys that require a constant flow of water.

 

#54. Turn off the water while you brush your teeth and save 4 gallons a minute. That's 200 gallons a week for a family of four.

 

#55. Buy a rain gauge to track how much rain or irrigation your yard receives. Check with your local water agency to see how much rain is needed to skip an irrigation cycle.

 

#56. Encourage your school system and local government to help develop and promote a water conservation ethic among children and adults.

 

#57. Teach your family how to shut off your automatic watering systems. Turn sprinklers off if the system is malfunctioning or when a storm is approaching.

 

#58. Set a kitchen timer when watering your lawn or garden with a hose.

 

#59. Make sure your toilet flapper doesn't stick open after flushing.

 

#60. Make sure there are aerators on all of your faucets.

 

#61. Next time you add or replace a flower or shrub, choose a low water use plant for year-round landscape color and save up to 550 gallons each year.

 

#62. Install an instant water heater on your kitchen sink so you don't have to let the water run while it heats up. This will also reduce heating costs for your household.

 

#63. Use a grease pencil to mark the water level of your pool at the skimmer. Check the mark 24 hours later. Your pool should lose no more than 1/4 inch each day.

 

#64. Cut back on rinsing if your dishwasher is new. Newer models clean more thoroughly than older ones.

 

#65. Use a screwdriver as a soil probe to test soil moisture. If it goes in easily, don't water. Proper lawn watering can save thousands of gallons of water annually.

  

#66. Avoid overseeding your lawn with winter grass. Once established, ryegrass needs water every three to five days, whereas dormant Bermuda grass needs water only once a month.

  

#67. Do one thing each day that will save water. Even if savings are small, every drop counts.

  

#68. When the kids want to cool off, use the sprinkler in an area where your lawn needs it the most.

  

#69. Make sure your swimming pools, fountains, and ponds are equipped with recirculating pumps.

  

#70. Bathe your young children together.

  

#71. Landscape with Xeriscape trees, plants and groundcovers. Call your local conservation office for more information about these water thrifty plants.

  

#72. Winterize outdoor spigots when temps dip to 20 degrees F to prevent pipes from bursting or freezing.

  

#73. Insulate hot water pipes so you don't have to run as much water to get hot water to the faucet.

  

#74. Wash your car on the grass. This will water your lawn at the same time.

 

#75. Drop that tissue in the trash instead of flushing it and save gallons every time.

 

#76. If you have an evaporative cooler, direct the water drain to a flowerbed, tree, or your lawn.

 

#77. Make suggestions to your employer to save water (and dollars) at work.

 

#78. Support projects that use reclaimed wastewater for irrigation and other uses.

 

#79. Use a hose nozzle and turn off the water while you wash your car and save more than 100 gallons.

 

#80. Encourage your friends and neighbors to be part of a water-conscious community.

 

#81. If your toilet was installed prior to 1980, place a toilet dam or bottle filled with water in your toilet tank to cut down on the amount of water used for each flush. Be sure these devices do not interfere with operating parts.

 

#82. Install water softening systems only when necessary. Save water and salt by running the minimum number of regenerations necessary to maintain water softness.

  

#83. Wash clothes only when you have a full load and save up to 600 gallons each month.

  

#84. Leave lower branches on trees and shrubs and allow leaf litter to accumulate on top of the soil. This keeps the soil cooler and reduces evaporation.

  

#85. Pick-up the phone and report significant water losses from broken pipes, open hydrants and errant sprinklers to the property owner or your water management district.

  

#86. Bermuda grasses are dormant (brown) in the winter and will only require water once every three to four weeks or less if it rains.

 

#87. Start a compost pile. Using compost when you plant adds water-holding organic matter to the soil.

 

#88. Use sprinklers that throw big drops of water close to the ground. Smaller drops of water and mist often evaporate before they hit the ground.

 

#89. Listen for dripping faucets and toilets that flush themselves. Fixing a leak can save 500 gallons each month.

 

#90. More plants die from over-watering than from under-watering. Be sure only to water plants when necessary.

 

#91. Cook food in as little water as possible. This will also retain more of the nutrients.

 

#92. Adjust your watering schedule to the season. Water your summer lawn every third day and your winter lawn every fifth day.

 

#93. Turn the water off while you shampoo and condition your hair and you can save more than 50 gallons a week.

 

#94. Bathe your pets outdoors in an area in need of water.

 

#95. Choose new water-saving appliances, like washing machines that save up to 20 gallons per load.

 

#96. Water only as rapidly as the soil can absorb the water.

 

#97. Aerate your lawn. Punch holes in your lawn about six inches apart so water will reach the roots rather than run off the surface.

 

#98. Select the proper size pans for cooking. Large pans require more cooking water than may be necessary.

 

#99. Place an empty tuna can on your lawn to catch and measure the water output of your sprinklers. For lawn watering advice, contact your local conservation office.

 

#100. Turn off the water while you shave and you can save more than 100 gallons a week.

 

#101. When you give your pet fresh water, don't throw the old water down the drain. Use it to water your trees or shrubs.

 

#102. If you accidentally drop ice cubes when filling your glass from the freezer, don't throw them in the sink. Drop them in a house plant instead.

 

#103. To save water and time, consider washing your face or brushing your teeth while in the shower.

 

#104. While staying in a hotel or even at home, consider reusing your towels.

 

#105. When backwashing your pool, consider using the water on your

landscaping.

 

#106. For hanging baskets, planters and pots, place ice cubes under the moss or dirt to give your plants a cool drink of water and help eliminate water overflow.

 

#107. Throw trimmings and peelings from fruits and vegetables into your yard compost to prevent from using the garbage disposal.

 

#108. When you have ice left in your cup from a take-out restaurant, don't throw it in the trash, dump it on a plant.

 

#109. Have your plumber re-route your gray water to trees and gardens rather than letting it run into the sewer line. Check with your city codes, and if it isn't allowed in your area, start a movement to get that changed.

 

#110. Keep a bucket in the shower to catch water as it warms up or runs. Use this water to flush toilets or water plants.

 

#111. When you are washing your hands, don't let the water run while you lather.

 

Photo courtesy Unsplash/Lacey Williams

 

Depending where you live, recycling at home can make a substantial difference to the environment for future generations. According to the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), the recycling average is right under 30 percent nation-wide. Recycling at your apartment is a great way individuals can make a difference on both a local and global scale.

Here are six tips for easy recycling at home so you can kick start your efforts and improve our planet for the better.

Tip #1: Sorting

Check into your city’s recycling policies to see what items can be recycled and how to go about doing it. Some cities need you to separate plastic from glass or aluminum and some cities need you to use certain types of bags. Every where is different. Set up a recycling station in your apartment so you will place each item in the correct place such as paper and cardboard, plastics, glass and aluminum. Label each container and make sure each bin has a lid to avoid unwanted smells.

Tip #2: Local drop-off locations

Research a drop off center in your city where you can safely dispose of batteries, metals, light-bulbs and electronics. If you have an old cell phone or computer, consider donating it to someone in need or selling it. Many electronic stores also have drop-off kiosks where you can recycle broken or unused electronics.

Tip #3: Rinse items

Rinse and remove any leftover food from all bottles, tins and other recyclable items before placing them in your recycling bins. There is no need to thoroughly clean everything or use a lot of water, just a light rinse is all you need to ensure that your containers remain dry.

  

A post shared by @recycling on Mar 24, 2016 at 6:17am PDT

  

Tip #4: Re-use

DIY recycling projects are a fun and creative way to re-use your old items and put them to a new use. Whether it’s decorative or practical, it’s just another way to minimize your impact on our planet. Another way is to wash and re-use ziplock bags or glass jars to be used again and again.

Tip #5: Bring your own bags

Bringing your own bag when you shop is an effective way to limit plastic in our communities. Many stores will even give you a small discount for doing so. If you do take plastic bags, most grocery stores and recycling centers have bins where customers can drop off used plastic bags for recycling.

Tip #6: Buy recycled

Choosing products that we bring into our homes that are made and packaged with recycled materials is a great way to limit our impact. Products that can be commonly found that are made with recycled materials include boxes for food items, bottles that contain soap or other household cleaners—check out this all natural brand— and even furniture.

Like what you just read? Subscribe to the AMLI Blog so you don’t miss another

 

The post 6 Tips for Easier Recycling at Home appeared first on AMLI Blog: Loving Apartment Living.

  

rentvilla.tk/6-tips-for-easier-recycling-at-home/

 

#ApartmentLife, #GreenLiving

BEAUTIFUL LIMITED EDITION ART PRINTS AVAILABLE on

bumbleandbramble.blogspot.com/

 

5.5' x 6' x 3'

110k - 130k pieces

Black, white, dark and light bluish gray, clear trans and black trans colors used.

No foreign materials (wood, glue, paint or otherwise) were used – this is pure Lego. No Lego piece have been altered (painted, cut or otherwise).

Photo retouching used only for adding contrast and color correction & background.

Approx 600 hours to build

Third in my series of Abandoned Houses

(also, my third moc)

 

Special Thanks

To my wife, Stephanie, for her support and generous patience

The afol/moc community for design inspiration and techniques to make this possible.

 

To view my site and more closeups/the making of: Snap

My MOC page

 

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The third installment of this abandoned house series continues its textural exploration of decay with a Victorian home engulfed in mud. The mud travels through the first floor, tears down a front wall and oozes over the porch side, taking with it household contents of convenience. This detail opens the piece up, allowing the eye to travel the surface of the house and then back through the porch, into a room and back out to survey the piles of garbage. The play on depth here is something I enjoy as one has a glimpse of the activity behind this architectural scrim.

 

The house, itself, was chosen due to the repeating angled roofs that reach up high. This gives the architectural mass a certain rhythm that I found appealing. Also, abstractly, this echos the gothic representation of cathedrals – with their many spires – reaching upward to the heavens. While this is not a religious piece, there is a certain contemplation that I find in it.

 

On that note, of particular interest to me in this work is the notion of broken trust and faith. Foundations give way. Permanence transmutes into fragility. Our safe havens betray us.

 

For me, this piece speaks to the inherent unpredictability of those things which we call our foundation. Like a little dollhouse, a seemingly secure home is plucked up and set on a new path. This charming home, lovingly embellished with ornamental fancy was no match for nature. The fancy embellishments serve as a reminder of our earlier focus on the material world, while the aftermath removes us from that focus. The piece offers no answers or necessarily any hope, but rather points to life's fragility.

 

Strong foundations are the essence of safe havens. These foundations can be physical foundations (an orderly home, for instance), ideological foundations (religion and politics), financial foundations (steady income and solid investments), social foundations (emotional ties to others) and so on. Our well-being is pinned on these safe havens that we hold on to as a place to fall back in times of stress and trouble. Amidst the chaos of environments we cannot control – whether physical, financial, social or mental – the house is one of the ultimate icons representing a safe haven. It is the final retreat and escape of the day where we can let go of the external pressures (or at least some of them) that grip us during the day. Here, in the home, with the world locked behind a door, we control what will be our guest and what will not.

 

However, this and other safe havens betray. The door can be kicked in at the blink of an eye and our foundation instantly dissolves. Local events of recent – catastrophic earthquakes, tsunami, nuclear radiation leaks, record fires, floods and tornadoes – all presented real devastation to many personal safe havens. Graft and corruption in media, government, financial sectors and businesses betray a sense of social order that provides for us a mental, moral safe haven. Untouchable international crime organizations silently hack large databases of personal information with crushing effect to individuals' financial safe haven. Financial institutions and the people within unapologetically bring the world to its knees through reckless, greedy practices. Religious safe havens (whether "Christian" or otherwise) are assaulted from within as certain fundamentalists carve out their own scriptural interpretations of hate toward others. A democratic superpower representing life, liberty and happiness denies personal rights and institutes a policy of indefinite personal torture and the threat of it. And so it goes. All the planning, effort and unbreakable trust we put in our foundations – whatever form they take – can falter without warning.

 

Such it is. Life events that kick at our door or we witness through others temporarily blasts the scrim open, revealing – like the hole in this model's wall – the fragility of our own foundations and, perhaps for a moment, a sense of gratitude for those foundations left standing and greater clarity as to which safe havens are truly important to our well-being.

 

– Mike

 

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Much thanks to all for the enthusiastic comments!! They are greatly appreciated :)

A great deal of credit goes to the afol community for sharing their wonderful mocs and tips all of which has served to inspire me.

You can stay updated on any new works or showings at my facebook art page:

www.facebook.com/pages/Mike-Doyles-Art/548752985156359

via WordPress ift.tt/2yVONsL

 

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The post 30 Brilliant Ways To Advertise Gardening Goods | gardening goods appeared first on Garden Eden.

 

Gardens By The Bay

 

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the Singapore Strait to its south. Singapore is highly urbanised but almost half of the country is covered by greenery. More land is being created for development through land reclamation.

 

Singapore had been a part of various local empires since it was first inhabited in the second century AD. Modern Singapore was founded as a trading post of the East India Company by Sir Stamford Raffles in 1819 with permission from the Sultanate of Johor. The British obtained full sovereignty over the island in 1824 and Singapore became one of the British Straits Settlements in 1826. Singapore was occupied by the Japanese in World War II and reverted to British rule after the war. It became internally self-governing in 1959. Singapore united with other former British territories to form Malaysia in 1963 and became a fully independent state two years later after separation from Malaysia. Since then it has had a massive increase in wealth, and is one of the Four Asian Tigers. The economy depends heavily on the industry and service sectors. Singapore is a world leader in several areas: It is the world's fourth-leading financial centre, the world's second-biggest casino gambling market, and the world's third-largest oil refining centre. The port of Singapore is one of the five busiest ports in the world, most notable for being the busiest transshipment port in the world. The country is home to more US dollar millionaire households per capita than any other country. The World Bank notes Singapore as the easiest place in the world to do business. The country has the world's third highest GDP PPP per capita of US$59,936, making Singapore one of the world's wealthiest countries.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia...

 

A new garden at the bay of marina will be opening soon next year.

Gardens by the Bay consists of three distinctive waterfront gardens – Bay South, Bay East and Bay Central, spanning a total of 101 hectares. They are set in the heart of Singapore’s new downtown Marina Bay, encircling the Marina Reservoir like a green necklace. The Gardens will complement the array of attractions around Marina Bay.

 

Gardens by the Bay is an integral part of a strategy by the Singapore government that further transforms Singapore from a ‘Garden City’ to a ‘City in a Garden’, in which the city is woven into a green and floral tapestry. This aims to raise the quality of life in Singapore with a more holistic and all-encompassing programme that enhances greenery and flora in the city. First announced to the public by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong during the National Day Rally in August 2005, Gardens by the Bay will become Singapore’s premier urban outdoor recreation space, and a national icon.

 

An international competition for the design of the master plan was held in January 2006 to elicit the best designs for the Gardens. This attracted more than 70 entries submitted by 170 firms from 24 countries, from which two firms – Grant Associates and Gustafson Porter – were eventually awarded the master plan design for the Bay South and Bay East Gardens respectively.

 

The Gardens are being developed in phases. Bay South is currently being constructed and is slated to be completed by June 2012. Bay East has been developed as an interim park in support of the Youth Olympic Games 2010, and is scheduled to open to the public in late 2011 or early 2012. The full master plan implementation of Bay East and the development of Bay Central are part of the next phase of development.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia...On the far right side is the port of singapore - Keppel Bay.......

About

Paan is very Famous After Iftaar :P when Fasting is Over and we Take Food after That Paan is Must For me :P

The consumption of paan has been a very popular cultural tradition throughout Pakistan since the start, especially in Memon and Muhajir households. Pakistan grows a large variety of betel leaf (specifically in the coastal areas of Sindh)

The paan business is famously handled and run by Memon traders, who migrated from western India when Pakistan was created in 1947. To explain the popularity level that the paan is sold at, rough estimates show that an average Pakistani can consume up to 7-8 paans a day. :D

 

For more Visit here

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paan

 

After Eating Paan Some Times This will Happens too :P

www.youtube.com/watch?v=CiY9HJ-Y2yw

  

Visit my Website

www.xploiter.tk

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All my images are copyrighted.

If you intend to use any of my pictures, for any usage, you need to contact me first.

Thank you.

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Almost all my photos are geotagged !!!

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Single Exposure Shot

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Basic Adjustments , tools , Frames & Logo.

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All comments, criticism and tips for improvements are (as always) welcome

 

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From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hook Lighthouse

 

Hook Head Lighthouse

LocationCounty Wexford, Ireland

Coordinates52°7′25.7″N 6°55′45.5″WCoordinates: 52°7′25.7″N 6°55′45.5″W

Year first constructed1245(1172?)

Automated1996

Constructionlimestone

Tower shapecylinder

Markings / patternwhite with two black bands

Height35m

Current lensthird order Fresnel lens

Range23nm

CharacteristicFlashing 3s

The Hook Lighthouse (also known as Hook Head Lighthouse) is a building situated at the tip of the Hook Peninsula in County Wexford, in Ireland. It is one of the oldest lighthouses in the world, and the oldest operating lighthouse in Ireland.[1] It is operated by the Commissioners of Irish Lights, the Irish Lighthouse Authority, it marks the eastern entrance to Waterford Harbour. The current structure has stood for almost 800 years.

Contents [hide]

1 History

2 References

3 References

4 External links

[edit]History

 

The existing tower dates from the twelfth century, though tradition states that Dubhán, a missionary to the Wexford area, established some sort of beacon as early as the fifth century. The headland is known in Irish as Rinn Dubháin, St. Dubhán's Head. According to Onomasticon Goidelicum (1910, p582) Rinn Dubáin Ailithir is mentioned in the Book of Leinster, written about 1079. However, the similar-sounding Irish word 'duán' means a fish hook, hence the English name. It is known locally as "the tower of Hook." The exact circumstance of the initial construction on the present structure are the subject of some controversy. It had been thought that the tower was constructed in 1172 by Raymond LeGros following the Norman Invasion in 1169, both to establish the lighthouse and to serve as a fortress on the approaches to Waterford. According to the Commissioners of Irish Lights, however, more recent studies have attributed construction to William Marshal in 1245.[2] However, this is impossible since Marshall died in 1219, meaing that either he was not involved in the construction, or that the date of 1245 is incorrect. In any case, this tower, in its original form, was 8m high and roughly 8.5m in diameter, with an open fire at the top serving as the beacon. The tower and its grounds was entrusted to the monks, who by then were associated with the Priory of Saint Augustine in Ross. This arrangement continued even through the dissolution of the monasteries under Henry VIII.

Maintenance of the beacon was interrupted by the English Civil War, when the monks abandoned the area. The lack of the light was felt, and in 1657 the governor of Duncannon Fort was petitioned to restore the beacon, but without success. However, in 1665 Charles II authorized Richard Reading to build six lighthouses on the Irish coast, including the rehabilitation of the light at Hook Head. By this time the tower had been enlarged; an addition incorporating a spiral staircase had been added surrounding the old tower, and the height of the whole structure raised to 24m. What Reading did in relighting the beacon is unclear, but he may have constructed an enclosed lantern to shelter the fire, as was customary at the time. The light was returned to service in 1667 and has remained active in some form ever since.

In 1704 Queen Anne transferred custody of the Irish lights to the Revenue Commissioners, but this transfer did not immediately affect Hook Head, as it was held in lease by Henry Loftus of Loftus Hall. The lease passed to his son, who threatened to extinguish the light failing renewal of the lease on his terms. In the end he got his renewal, but at terms more favorable to the crown.

By the 1790s the tower was in need of repair. At this time Thomas Rogers was contracted with to maintain this and nine other lighthouses. He replaced the Reading lantern with a new one housing the Argand lamp and reflector system typical of the period. The beacon was altered in 1812 and then replaced in 1864 with a dioptric lens housed in a new lantern, which is that used today.

Subsequent changes left the structure largely unaltered but updated the light source. Coal gas replaced oil lamps in 1871, with vaporized paraffin taking over in 1911, and electricity in 1972. A rotating third-order Fresnel lens was also installed in 1911. A variety of fog signals were installed beginning with a bell in 1838, a cannon in 1872, an explosive charge in 1905 (altered in 1938), an air horn in 1975, and an electric horn from 1995 on. Resident keeper households were replaced by a team of six keepers in 1977, and the light was automated in 1996. The light continues to operate as an active aid to navigation. An older daymark of three red bands on a white background was altered to two black bands on white in 1938.

In 2001 the light was opened to the public as a tourist attraction after construction of an attached visitors' center. In January 2011 The Hooks fog horn was heard for the last time as all the fog horns were turned off. It was felt that seeing that the technology on modern ships were so advanced that the fog horn was no longer required. In June 2011 the structure was placed first by Lonely Planet in its list of "Top 10 Flashiest Lighthouses"; the guide described Hook as "The great granddaddy of lighthouses".[3][4]

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Maybe you’ve lost your job. Maybe your partner is suffering through a costly illness. Maybe you’ve run up so much credit card debt that you can barely keep up with your minimum monthly payment.

 

You’re in the middle of a financial crisis. But what can you do to work your way out of it? And how can you do this without destroying your credit?

 

Here are some tips for how to survive a financial crisis and what to do to prevent one in the future.

 

Prioritize Your Payments

 

Ideally, you’ll pay all your bills on time each month. This might not be possible in a financial crisis, meaning that you might have to prioritize. Certain bills are more important than others.

 

You need a place to live, so do whatever you can to stay current on your mortgage or rent payments. You don’t want to risk losing your home. Mortgage payments are especially important as paying this bill more than 30 days late will cause your three-digit credit score to fall by 100 points or more.

 

You also need to spend money on the essentials, such as your home’s power and groceries.

 

You should pay your credit cards on time, too. Your credit card payments are also reported to the three national credit bureaus of Experian, Equifax and TransUnion. If you pay these more than 30 days late, your credit score will again fall. The same holds true for your auto loan and student loan payments. However, if you can’t pay all of your bills, remember that it’s possible to rebuild a credit score, so prioritize paying for the essentials.

 

Owe Money? Don’t Hide

 

If you owe money that you can’t pay, your first inclination might be to hide. You’ll avoid opening mail from your creditors. You won’t pick up the phone when these creditors call.

 

But Karen Ford, a financial coach, public speaker and author based in Fairmont, West Virginia, said that you should take the opposite approach: Instead of hiding from those you owe money to, you should reach out to explain your financial emergency. Your creditors might be willing to renegotiate your repayment schedule to leave you with monthly payments you can afford.

 

For instance, your mortgage lender might agree to lower your interest rate, lowering your monthly payment at the same time. Some lenders might even rework the terms of your loan, perhaps turning your 15-year loan into a longer-term 30-year one, again lowering your monthly payments.

 

“Contact your debtors and explain the situation,” Ford said. “Whether you’ve had an illness, hospitalization or job loss, be honest with them. Then explain to them that you will pay them what you owe, but it may be smaller payments than they would normally receive.”

 

Slow Your Spending

 

The next step is to curb any spending you can, Ford said. This could include such simple steps as decreasing the heat in your home by two degrees before you leave for work. As Ford says, this can save you about $20 a month.

 

That doesn’t seem like much, especially when you’re struggling to pay the bills, but by taking a series of these smaller steps, you can reduce your monthly costs significantly.

 

Some more obvious areas to cut spending include gym memberships, cable subscriptions, eating out and entertainment. If you’re in a financial crisis, focus, again, on spending only on the essentials.

 

Try to Negotiate Your Credit Card Debt

 

If it’s your credit card debt that is causing your financial crisis, don’t be shy about calling the issuers of your cards. Carla Dearing, chief executive officer of online financial wellness site Sum180, suggests asking if they’ll lower the interest rate they’re charging you. If this rate falls, your credit card debt won’t grow as quickly and your minimum required monthly payment will drop.

 

You might think credit card companies would be unwilling to do this, but you’ll never know if you don’t call.

 

“Many credit card issuers would rather lower your rate than have you transfer to another company,” Dearing said. “It’s worth asking.”

 

Dearing also recommends that you use as much as 50% of your monthly savings to pay down your credit card debt. Reducing this debt as quickly as possible will help ease your financial pain. The high interest rates that come with cards means that your credit card debt can grow quickly each month if you don’t pay it off in full.

 

Tap Your Home’s Equity

 

If you own a home, you might also consider applying for a home equity loan or home equity line of credit to pay off your credit card debt. There is one catch here: You can only take out one of these loans if you’ve built up equity in your home. Equity is the difference between what your home is worth and what you owe on your mortgage. If your home is worth $200,000 and you owe $150,000 on your mortgage, you have $50,000 in equity.

 

You can then borrow against that equity. The benefit of home equity loans or lines of credit is that the interest rates that come with them are so much lower than those attached to credit cards. If you can borrow money at a lower rate, you can then use it to pay off the credit card debt that is causing your financial emergency. (Note: Quicken Loans does not offer home equity lines of credit.)

 

“By paying off the credit card and moving that balance to a home equity line of credit, you’ve reduced the amount of interest that will stack up, and you will be able to pay off the debt more quickly,” Dearing said.

 

An alternative to a home equity line of credit could be a cash-out refinance. Much like a home equity loan, a cash-out refinance uses the equity you’ve built up in your home, but instead of taking out another loan, this refinances your primary mortgage.

 

Refinance Your Student Loans

 

Student loan payments are another burden that often leads people into financial crisis. This is especially true for those paying off private, versus federal, student loans.

 

One way to reduce the financial burden of these loans is to refinance them, Dearing said. When you refinance a student loan, you’re left with one consolidated loan with a single monthly payment and a lower interest rate, Dearing said.

 

That lower interest rate is important, Dearing says, because it means that more of each payment goes toward paying down the balance of your loans.

 

You must do your research before refinancing, though, Dearing said. Search for a reputable bank and compare interest rates. There are plenty of companies operating in this space that will overcharge for refinancing student loans.

 

“Steer clear of companies charging high upfront fees to help you consolidate your student loans or that claim to be ‘approved’ or ‘exclusive’ servicers to ‘special programs,'” Dearing said.

 

The Ultimate Step: Declaring Bankruptcy

 

If your debts are too much to handle, it might be time to declare bankruptcy. This, though, should only be considered as a last resort.

 

There are two types of bankruptcy you can declare: Chapter 7, in which most of your debts are forgiven but you’ll lose your most valuable assets, and Chapter 13, in which a bankruptcy judge works out a plan allowing you to repay all or some of the debt on a monthly schedule you can afford.

 

Bankruptcy will give you a chance to start over financially, but it comes with a cost. Declaring bankruptcy will devastate your credit score. Chapter 7 will remain on your credit reports for 10 years, while Chapter 13 will stick on them for seven.

 

If your financial crisis is so severe that you can’t work through it on your own, bankruptcy might be a choice. But only use this tool as a last resort.

 

Preventing Another Financial Crisis

 

Once you work your way out of your current financial crisis, it’s important to develop the financial habits that will help you avoid another one.

 

You can’t prevent every financial crisis, but you can lower the odds that you’ll fall into money problems again. Olga Kirshenbaum, financial coach and owner of New York City–based Rags to Riches Consulting, said that the key lies in not spending more than you earn each month.

 

To live this way, you’ll have to create a household budget. This budget should list the money that comes into your home each month and the money you spend. Expenses include fixed costs such as your mortgage, rent or car payment and those that fluctuate each month, including your utility bills and transportation costs. You should also provide a monthly estimate for how much you spend on groceries, eating out and entertainment.

 

Once you’ve created this budget, you can determine how much you can spend each month, Kirshenbaum said.

 

“Many people don’t have a working budget and can’t tell you if they are living within their means,” Kirshenbaum said. “Once they see that they are spending more than they are making, mindful spending begins to kick in.”

 

Once your budget is set, it’s time to build an emergency fund. This fund contains dollars that you can tap should an unexpected financial emergency pop up, anything from a furnace that conks out during the winter to a car with a blown transmission. With an emergency fund, you can pay for these emergencies with cash instead of using your credit card and building up more debt.

 

How big should this emergency fund be? Financial advisors say it should have from three months to a year of daily living expenses.

 

“This number depends on each person and their situation,” Kirshenbaum said. “How significant are your monthly costs, and how likely are you to find a job right away to get back on your feet? Whatever it is you decide to put away each month, that number needs to go into your budget.”

 

Have you experienced a financial crisis? How did you get out of it? Let us know in the comments below.

 

The post Financial Crisis? Here’s How to Get Through It appeared first on ZING Blog by Quicken Loans.

 

www.quickenloans.com/blog/financial-crisis-heres-get

So, some of you think that you can't shoot still life because you don't have a decent studio lighting equipment?

I have a long wish list which contents keep changing constantly.

But this is shot with natural light, plus several mirrors and reflectors. As a financially challenged photographer, I have to experiment with things I have in my household.

I am also a regular customer at a local 99 pence shop, where some of my mirrors come from.

Any tips and advices about lighting (well, have to be reasonably priced) are much appreciated.

...is OK with blue....

 

Actually I used 2 different lights.. one each side.

LED on the left ( bit too much light) and just a standard household light bulb on the right... As Tio... keeps saying lighting makes a differents.. Tio.. please keep giving us those tips... www.flickr.com/photos/66179962@N00/

 

By the way... Tio.. is New York City's "Butterfly Hunter"

 

July 30, 2007

at 6.26pm EDT

 

Have a wonderful weekend friends...

 

My 89th image to make an appearance in Explore

Highest position #220

In the 1950s, the mangle, crisps and dance hall admissions were popular. 1950s saw the introduction of fish fingers, electric fires, washing machine, ink and toilet paper.

 

Most food shopping in the 1950s was done every day and from local shops. Not every household owned a car or a refrigerator, so food shopping was part of the housewife's daily routine.

 

It would have been quite normal to visit separate shops for your bread (bakers), meat (butchers), vegetables (greengrocers), fish (fishmongers) etc. It was quite common too, for tradesmen to deliver their goods direct to the housewife. Groceries and greengroceries were often delivered each week in a motorised van and milk was delivered every day.

 

1957: Only a handful of shops in the country were self-serve (pay as you go out). The first Sainsbury’s to try out this innovation was opened in June 1950 in Croydon.

 

2007: There are more than 33,500 supermarkets and convenience stores in the UK

 

A shopping basket in the 1950s would have included items such as: wild rabbits, mangles, corsets, candles, wireless licence and gramophone records.

 

Fresh fruit and vegetables came mainly from Britain, so strawberries would be in the shops for just a few weeks in the summer, and there would have been no fresh peas, beans or salads vegetables during the winter months.

 

In the 1950s, a typical home had a cooker, vacuum cleaner and a plug-in radio. Only 33 per cent of households had a washing machine. Most people were still doing their washing by hand.

 

Only 15 per cent had a fridge and freezers and tumble dryers were scarcely heard of. Only 10 per cent of the population had a telephone. People listen to gramophone records.

 

Most families’ entertainment came from the radio (or ‘wireless’) or through listening to 78rpm records on a gramophone. However, a single event in 1953 gave a huge boost to the uptake of television. This was the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II on 2nd June 1953 at Westminster Abbey. Cameras had never before been allowed inside Westminster Abbey for a coronation, and the general public were thrilled to be able to watch the event live. Families crowded into the home of anyone lucky enough to have a television to watch the event.

 

Two-thirds of homes owned a television. The programmes were shown in black and white. A second and commercialised TV channel was added in 1955.

 

People spent most of their leisure time at home – reading, listening to the radio, watching television or pursuing hobbies. The most popular hobbies were knitting and needle-work for women, and gardening for men.

 

Children spent a lot of time playing with other children outdoors. They also enjoyed a range of hobbies such as stamp collecting.

 

Families enjoyed playing board games such as Monopoly, Ludo, and Snakes and Ladders.

 

There was a craze for yo-yos, 3D-spectacles, I-Spy books and hoola hoops in the late 1950s.

 

It was an era when women stayed at home, a 9-to-5 job meant just that, workers had a job for life and nobody had a Blackberry to ruin their holidays.

 

1950s when most Britain's spent their holidays in the UK.

 

In 1952, just four per cent of people worked part-time. Today, the number has ballooned to one in four workers, equal to astonishing 26 per cent of the entire workforce.

 

Today’s workers may whinge that they are over-worked, but it was their parents or grandparents in the 1950s who had a lot more to complain about.

 

On average, workers did a 48-hour week in 1952. Today, a typical worker with a full-time job does only 37 hours.

 

Of all the seismic changes, it is probably the type of jobs that people did which have changed most dramatically.

 

In 1952, 8.7million people worked in manufacturing. Today, the number is a paltry 2.5million.

 

Around 880,000 worked in ‘mining and quarrying’, compared to 60,000 today, while the number working in agriculture, forestry and fishing has tumbled from 725,000 to 460,000.

 

There are some jobs which barely existed 60 years ago. In 1952, there were only around 20,000 people working in personnel, compared to today’s army of around 400,000.

 

But some things that never change. Around six million people worked in the public sector, which is exactly the number which currently make up the State workforce.

 

And how many people did not work? Not very many, according to the report, which shows that the number of working women was much higher than expected.

 

Around one in two women of working age had a job in the 1950s, compared to two-thirds today.

 

Local Bristol Stories that made the news in 1950s

 

Feb 7th 1952

 

Ethel May Challenger (24) 2, Akeman Way Avonmouth, previously charged in Bristol with attempted suicide by drinking zinc solution was today put on probation for two years. Dr. J. L. Faull said Challenger had brooded over problems of money and rearing five young children. Her husband was told by the magistrates: " Your wife needs all the help you can give her."

 

Aug 1952

 

Two coloured stowaways Cyril Benjamin Mcleod of Jamaica, and Philip Bertand of Dominica, who were arrested at Avonmouth Docks when the s.s. Cavina berthed, were sent to prison for 21 days in Bristol. Bertand said: 'Things were very bad in the West Indies - there is no work.' Mcleod said he was a graduate of an agricultural traing centre, and wished to work as a dairyman.

 

Aug 12th 1952

 

Harold Edward Peacock (52) Dorian Road, Horfield, was fined £5 in Bristol court for stealing 6lb of onions, from Southmead Hospital market garden.

 

Aug 12th 1952

 

Six hundred filmgoers sang community songs to while away the time when the power failure stopped the projectors at the Kingsway Cinema, Two Mile Hill, Kingswood, for 90 minutes last night.

 

The cinema was almost full of customers who came to see a popular film - the Marx Bros, in 'Cassablanca' - when, during the showing of the 'trailers' of fourth coming films the screen went blank. The main film was due to be screened 10 minutes later, at 6.10 p.m. The manager, Mr. John Crew, immediately went on the stage and explianed what had occurred. He told the audience that any one who wanted to leave would be given complimentary tickets for tonight's show.

 

'A few people left, but most stayed and entertained themselves with singing songs'. The power came back on at 7.30 and the cinema was able to show the complete film.

 

Feb 7th 1952

 

Bristol Fire Brigade were today damping down the smouldering ruins of the blaze in St. Pauls Street, where the damage is estimated at £40,000.

 

As the blaze ravaged adjoining tannery offices and warehouses, explosions rocked a wide area, and hundreds of people dashed for shelter as burning debris rained down. The premises belonging to Messrs. J. R. Hawkins and Co., leather manufactures and Messrs. Wilkinson nand Riddell (Bristol). Ltd., textile merchants. The fire which started inn the tannery, gutted Messrs Hawkins workshops, burnt out a large part of offices and destroyed a warehouse belonging to the textile firm. The flames fanned by a hign wind, threatened nearby houses in Orange street, as firemen fought to control the blaze.

 

A young boy Royston John Hurley of Claremount Street., Stapleton had a very lucky escape when a three- foot piece of drain pipe fell from the blazing tannery. It struck him on the leg causing only slight injury. This was the third fire in the tannery in the past three months. It was the largest post-war fire in Bristol and took 48hrs to bring the fire under control.

 

November 1958

 

It's interesting, but not really surprising, to find that 50 years ago the weather - in another gloomy November week - was dominating the headlines. Fog enveloped Bristol - or at least the Eastville and Fishponds areas of the city - (aided, no doubt, by pollution from the many coal fires) almost paralysing transport.

 

By 11pm visibility at Filton was down to five yards, with traffic almost at a standstill on the Gloucester Road. But while the city suffered, the Bristol Evening Post said that many country areas were clear. Despite this, the Aust ferry - which carried passengers and cars over to Chepstow - was cancelled indefinitely. Dense fog was reported at Portishead. No aircraft were arriving or leaving from Whitchurch airport and there was a complete hold-up of sailings from both Avonmouth and the City Docks.

 

Trains were arriving from London up to half an hour late and city businessmen were taking an unprecedented 50 minutes to get to work from places such as Clifton and Henleaze. It was chaos. Other news of the week concerned bus drivers and conductors (they were the ones who took the money and gave you tickets in those far off days) who were due get a pay rise of 11 shillings a week (just over 50p). Maintenance workers, however, were only to get eight shillings and 3p a week more.

 

The unions had been asking for between 16 and 33 shillings. As it was estimated that the rise would cost the Bristol bus company an extra £100,000 a year, guess what? Yes, you're right - fares went up by 2p and 3p the following week.

 

You'll no doubt be pleased to hear that busmen of all grades would now be getting between £7 and £8 a week - with drivers getting £7 and 18 shillings. That, incidentally, was about the average wage in those days. Of interest - if only because it's recently been announced that it's on the way back - was the Corporation's collecting of kitchen waste to use in pig swill. The average weekly collection totalled 300 tons which, after 'treatment' yielded about 260 tons of so-called 'Bristol pudding', collected by farmers and used for pig food.

 

Only five other cities in the country had such a service, and Bristol's was considered to be the best. Chief credit for this, said the Post proudly, were the city's housewives. Each week they filled 130,000 specially- provided bins. People were being asked politely not to put their cutlery in the bins - the pigs didn't like it.

 

Still on the subject of housewives, many of them (if not all) were delighted to hear that purchase tax was to be withdrawn on household brushes, brooms and mops (remember them, the stringy ones?). The idea was to help the trade, rather than the household purse, especially as many blind and disabled persons derived their living from it. Still, people must have been revelling in domestic bliss back then - one festive street ad suggesting: 'She'll love a Hoover Steam Iron for Christmas'. Such a wonderful present at only £4 19 shillings and 6p. Want a tip? Don't take that advice today.

 

Some items of great concern for those interested in this great city's illustrious past popped up in the Press 50 years ago. One was a story about the Hogarth altar piece, three oil paintings commissioned by the Vestry of St Mary Redcliffe some 250 years ago. This triptych - which had been in store for some 80 years - was being handed over to the Corporation of Bristol to be hung on public view in the City Art Gallery. So where, you are entitled to ask, is this priceless Bristol treasure now? As far as I know (and I might very well be wrong) it's still languishing in the abandoned St Nicholas church museum, locked away from public view.

 

Bristol's reverence for its past was also revealed in a story about the last service to be held at the Old King Street Baptist Church in Broadmead. This chapel had a longer history than any other Baptist church in the city - it was founded at Quakers Friars in 1640 and it moved to Old King Street in 1815 - so of course it was being demolished. The reason? It was in the way of the 'new' Broadmead shopping area.

 

The congregation moved to Redland. Another one of Bristol's treasures, on the other hand, was getting a thorough inspection. Brunel's suspension bridge was closed for the week to all but pedestrians while workmen began examining and testing one of the two cross-girders. The old one, removed and taken away to be tested 'to destruction', was to be replaced by one coated with zinc.

 

A shocking Bristol court case that made the headlines 50 years ago concerned a 'savage assault' allegedly made by a 35-year-old Southmead man on his wife using a broken milk bottle.

 

The couple, the court was informed, had been married 15 years and had three children, aged six, 12 and 14. Their life together had not been happy, and three months previously the man had put his wife 'out of the house'. She had moved into lodgings, but then resorted to prostitution. There was evidence, it was said, that the husband had received some of the money earned this way. On the evening of the alleged assault, the couple had been out drinking.

 

There was a quarrel on the way home and the man told his wife: 'I'll rip your face so that no man will look at you.' She was crying when they reached the house, so their 14-year-old daughter made a cup of tea. After using bad language, which the daughter tried to stop, the man threw his cup of tea over his wife. 'As she stood up he punched her hard in the mouth with his left hand,' said the prosecution. 'She fell back against the wall.

 

Then he picked up a milk bottle, smashed it against the wall and took hold of his wife by the back of the head. 'Holding her with his left hand, he struck her repeatedly in the face with the jagged glass, causing very severe injuries. She was taken to hospital and had 16 stitches inserted, 14 in the face.' In evidence, the wife said that while they were walking home her husband said 'I'll 'chiv' you'. During the alleged attack she felt a sharp pain and everything went red. She told the court: 'He was saying 'I'll finish you off' and dragged me up by my hair and slung me around the room.' A policeman said that when he went to the house the woman's face was badly cut and bleeding.

 

'All she could say was, 'take him away, he's mad'.' In his defence, the husband said that he had told his wife that if she did not change her ways he would change them for her for the sake of the children.

 

He had made allegations against his wife, and his eldest daughter slapped his face. 'She started to yell and shout and I lost my temper and struck her,' he said. 'She fell face down among the glass from the broken milk bottle and that was how her face got cut. 'I did not actually intend to cause the injuries - I threw the milk bottle at her and it smashed against the wall. While I was punching her, her face was twisting about and must have been going into the broken glass.' The man was committed for trial - on a surety of £100 - at Bristol Assize (the old Crown Court). The jury found him guilty.

Manhattan is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City. The borough is coterminous with New York County, founded on November 1, 1683 as an original county of the U.S. state of New York. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the East, Hudson, and Harlem Rivers, but also includes several small adjacent islands, as well as Marble Hill, a small neighborhood on the U.S. mainland.

 

Manhattan has been described as the economic and cultural center of the United States and serves as home to the United Nations Headquarters. Wall Street, in Lower Manhattan, has been called the financial capital of the world, and is home to the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Many multinational media conglomerates are based in the borough. Historically documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for the equivalent of US$24, Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island itself estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2014.

 

New York County is the most densely populated county in the United States, and is more dense than any individual American city. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a Census-estimated 2013 population of 1,626,159 living in a land area of 22.96 square miles (59.5 km2), or about 70,826 residents per square mile (27,346/km²). On business days, the influx of commuters increases that number to over 3.9 million, or around 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, and is the smallest borough in terms of land area.

 

Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan have become well known to New York City's approximately 50 million annual visitors. Times Square, iconified as "The Crossroads of the World" and "The Center of the Universe", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. The borough hosts many world-renowned bridges, skyscrapers, and parks. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere. The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 35 in the world. The city of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of city government and a National Historic Landmark that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen (Half Moon). A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River (later named the Hudson River). The word "Manhattan" has been translated as "island of many hills" from the Lenape language.

 

The United States Postal Service prefers that mail addressed to Manhattan use "New York, NY" rather than "Manhattan, NY".

  

The area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of the French king Francis I – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. He entered The Narrows aboard his ship La Dauphine and named the land around Upper New York Harbor "New Angoulême", in reference to the family name of Francis I of France that was derived from Angoulême in France; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the Hudson River which he referred to in his report to the French king as a "very big river"; and he named Upper New York Bay the Bay of Santa Margarita – after Marguerite de Navarre – the elder sister of the king.

 

It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, that the area was mapped. Hudson came across Manhattan Island and the native people living there in 1609, and continued up the river that would later bear his name, the Hudson River, until he arrived at the site of present day Albany.

  

A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, later called New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam). Manhattan Island was chosen as the site of Fort Amsterdam, a citadel for the protection of the new arrivals; its 1625 establishment is recognized as the birth date of New York City. According to the document by Pieter Janszoon Schagen our People (ons Volck), Peter Minuit and Dutch colonists acquired Manhattan in 1626 from unnamed American Indian people in exchange for trade goods worth 60 guilders, often said to be worth US$24, though (by comparing the price of bread and other goods) it actually amounts to around US$1,050 in 2014.

 

In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director General of the colony. New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1653. In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it "New York" after the English Duke of York and Albany, the future King James II. The Dutch, under Director General Stuyvesant, successfully negotiated with the English to produce 24 articles of provisional transfer, which sought to retain for the extant citizens of New Netherland their previously attained liberties (including freedom of religion) under new colonial English rulers.

 

The Dutch Republic regained it in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming the city "New Orange". New Netherland was ceded permanently to the English in November 1674 through the Treaty of Westminster, in exchange for Run Island which was the long-coveted last link in the Dutch nutmeg trading monopoly in Indonesia.

American Revolution and the early United States

 

Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of major battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the disastrous Battle of Fort Washington on November 16, 1776. The city became the British political and military center of operations in North America for the remainder of the war. Manhattan was greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the British military rule that followed. British occupation lasted until November 25, 1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the city.

 

From January 11, 1785, to the fall of 1788, New York City was the fifth of five capitals of the United States under the Articles of Confederation, with the Continental Congress meeting at New York City Hall (then at Fraunces Tavern). New York was the first capital under the newly enacted Constitution of the United States, from March 4, 1789, to August 12, 1790, at Federal Hall. Federal Hall was also the site of where the United States Supreme Court met for the first time, the United States Bill of Rights were drafted and ratified, and where the Northwest Ordinance was adopted, establishing measures for adding new states to the Union.

 

Manhattan is loosely divided into Downtown (Lower Manhattan), Midtown (Midtown Manhattan), and Uptown (Upper Manhattan), with Fifth Avenue dividing Manhattan's east and west sides. Manhattan Island is bounded by the Hudson River to the west and the East River to the east. To the north, the Harlem River divides Manhattan Island from The Bronx and the mainland United States. Several small islands are also part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall's Island, Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, New York County has a total area of 33.6 square miles (87 km2), of which 22.8 square miles (59 km2) is land and 10.8 square miles (28 km2) (32%) is water. The northern segment of Upper Manhattan represents a geographic panhandle. Manhattan Island is 22.7 square miles (59 km2) in area, 13.4 miles (21.6 km) long and 2.3 miles (3.7 km) wide, at its widest (near 14th Street).

 

Early in the 19th century, landfill was used to expand Lower Manhattan from the natural Hudson shoreline at Greenwich Street to West Street. When building the World Trade Center, 1.2 million cubic yards (917,000 m³) of material was excavated from the site. Rather than dumping the spoil at sea or in landfills, the fill material was used to expand the Manhattan shoreline across West Street, creating Battery Park City. The result was a 700-foot (210-m) extension into the river, running six blocks or 1,484 feet (452 m), covering 92 acres (37 ha), providing a 1.2-mile (1.9 km) riverfront esplanade and over 30 acres (12 ha) of parks.

 

At the 2010 Census, there were 1,585,873 people living in Manhattan, an increase of 3.2% since 2000. Since 2010, Manhattan's population was estimated by the Census Bureau to have increased 2.5% to 1,626,159 as of 2013, representing 19.3% of the city's population and 8.3% of the state's population. As of the 2000 Census, the population density of New York County was 66,940 per square mile (25,846/km²), the highest population density of any county in the United States. If 2012 census estimates were accurate, the population density then approximated 70,518 people per square mile (27,227/km²). In 1910, at the height of European immigration to New York, Manhattan's population density reached a peak of 101,548 people per square mile (39,208/km²). There were 798,144 housing units in 2000 at an average density of 34,756.7 per square mile (13,421.8/km²). Only 20.3% of Manhattan residents lived in owner-occupied housing, the second-lowest rate of all counties in the nation, behind the Bronx.

 

According to 2012 Census estimates, 65.2% of the population was White, 18.4% Black or African American, 1.2% American Indian and Alaska Native, 12.0% Asian, and 3.1% of two or more races. 25.8% of Manhattan's population was of Hispanic or Latino origin, of any race. Manhattan has the second highest percentage of non-Hispanic Whites (48%) of New York City's boroughs, after Staten Island (where non-Hispanic Whites make up 64% of residents).

 

The New York City Department of City Planning projects that Manhattan's population will increase by 289,000 people between 2000 and 2030, an increase of 18.8% over the period, second only to Staten Island, while the rest of the city is projected to grow by 12.7% over the same period. The school-age population is expected to grow 4.4% by 2030, in contrast to a small decline in the city as a whole. The elderly population is forecast to grow by 57.9%, with the borough adding 108,000 persons ages 65 and over, compared to 44.2% growth citywide.

 

According to the 2009 American Community Survey, the average household size was 2.11, and the average family size was 3.21. Approximately 59.4% of the population over the age of 25 have a bachelor's degree or higher. Approximately 27.0% of the population is foreign-born, and 61.7% of the population over the age of 5 speak only English at home. People of Irish ancestry make up 7.8% of the population, while Italian Americans make up 6.8% of the population. German Americans and Russian Americans make up 7.2% and 6.2% of the population respectively.

 

In 2000, 56.4% of people living in Manhattan were White, 17.39% were Black, 14.14% were from other races, 9.40% were Asian, 0.5% were Native American, and 0.07% were Pacific Islander. 4.14% were from two or more races. 27.18% were Hispanic of any race.

 

There were 738,644 households. 25.2% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 59.1% were non-families. 17.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them. 48% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was two and the average family size was 2.99.

 

Manhattan's population was spread out with 16.8% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 38.3% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, and 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males.

 

Manhattan is one of the highest-income places in the United States with a population greater than one million. As of 2012, Manhattan's cost of living was the highest in the United States, but the borough also contained the country's most profound level of income inequality. Manhattan is also the United States county with the highest per capita income, being the sole county whose per capita income exceeded $100,000 in 2010. In 2012, The New York Times reported that "the income gap in Manhattan, already wider than almost anywhere else in the country, rivaled disparities in sub-Saharan Africa. ... The wealthiest fifth of Manhattanites made more than 40 times what the lowest fifth reported, a widening gap (it was 38 times, the year before) surpassed by only a few developing countries".

 

Lower Manhattan has been experiencing a baby boom, well above the overall birth rate in Manhattan, with the area south of Canal Street witnessing 1,086 births in 2010, 12% greater than 2009 and over twice the number born in 2001. The Financial District alone has witnessed growth in its population to approximately 43,000 as of 2014, nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census.

  

from Wikipedia

 

Putuo Zongcheng Temple

Known as "Small Potala Palace", one of biggest temple outside of Mountain Resort, Chengde, Hebei,China

 

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Introduction from www.elycn.com/hb/cd/cd03/004.htm

  

Qianlong thirty-five years (in 1770) is the 60 birthday of Emperor Qianlong, the Empress Dowager Niohuru 80 the following year is a birthday. Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Mongolia and other places all kings and chiefs had been asked to visit Chengde birthday. Qianlong attached enormous importance to these two grand assembly, of Sterling Imperial Household Department imitation Maekura resident political and religious leader the Dalai Lama to build temple in Chengde Potala Palace in Lhasa. Qianlong Sanshiernian (1767) in March began, the original terms of three years for completion due to construction of the latter part of fire, until Sanshiliunian (1771) in August completed an area of 21.6 hectares. Putuo case by a Tibetan Abdallah's translation, so the temple also known as Abdallah, Abdallah smaller than in Tibet because of their size, commonly known as small Potala Palace.

Putuo Temple of cases by the overall layout of the Potala Palace in Tibet is similar to no obvious central axis, the momentum can not keep up Tibet Abdallah, but the area of the broad mass of the structure of the temple of the great but only for the Mainland. All Temple layout points before and after the two parts: the front located on a hill, from white units, Mountain Gate, tablets pavilions of architectural composition; back in the Mountain, Taiwan and the room layout Red Fort. According to characteristic points can be divided into three parts: the first part by the main gate, the tablets pavilions, five-tower doors, glass arch composition; second part of the white platform group, formed by a number of small white sets; third is divided into red units. White station group into the "×"-shaped, red on the arch units, the next Wai entrance, tablets pavilions, five towers and the arch, the architectural layout as the Eight Outer Temples is also a unique Chinese traditional architecture.

The first part of the gate

The south gate from the Tibetan city of Temple Terrace and the composition of the Han-style veranda. City, Taiwan for the brick structure, three-hole open in the front arches, arches above a horizontal window blind, the puzzle pheasant dish. City Hall stage from veranda, is located around the Gallery, Gallery built-in window sills, solid walls on both sides of seal, Miankuo 5 Ying, into the deep 2, Dan Yan glazed tile roof, the edge Shi green glazed tiles, for defending the God, left to the right order of four protective deities, Zhang Lu Peng defending the ancient god Mahakala Mahal Cannes La protective deities. Front entrance a pair of stone lions, and then south for the five-hole stone bridge, entrance is located on both sides of waist door, there is connected to the wall.

Gate the north tablets pavilions, flat rectangular three-bay, double eaves and yellow glazed Xieshan Ding, brick arch structure, and sealing solid wall, surrounded by open arches, under the Sumeru TOJO bearing. Li Kiosk stone 3: for "Putuo Zongcheng Temple Inscription," describes the background and the temple was built over; East as "Torghut all allegiance in mind," the West for "pacifying the Department of Public Torghut mind" , describes the Department of E Lute Mongolia Torghut reunification process and the Qing government pension situation in the Ministry. Inscription with the Manchu, the Han, Mongolian, Tibetan and four kinds of text engraved on the Chinese language for the Qianlong personally. Tablets pavilions north of the tower for five doors, three arch shapes of white units, solid wall of windows blind, the puzzle parapet, white table-li five towers, from east to west, respectively black, white, yellow, green, red colored, each color represents a body of religious teaching. Qing Dynasty statue Yellow Sect as the State religion, so a yellow center. 5 Tap Mun as a pair of pre-rock, in order to send a symbol of Mahayana. 5 Tap Mun north of glass through the arch, three four-column shape the seventh floor, the floor, his forehead, "Pu doors should now", which means Goddess of Mercy show the door to salvation of all beings. After the amount of "Lotus solemn profession", which means Goddess of Mercy temple.

The second part of the white-Taiwan Group

Red Tainan, the first part of both sides of the loose more than 30 small white units, as "×"-shaped irregular layout. White Hall station sub-units, balcony, spacious units, real sets, the shape varied body mass ranging from different functions. Storey one to four, two, three-person majority, most of lime wiping face, a red brick trim blind windows, glass puzzle roof tile on the eaves singled out Tangshui long. White flat-topped platform for Tibetan Tibetan stone room shapes, building brick-concrete structure with Han Chinese French. Some two white sets combined into a courtyard for Seng Fang; some stage, the Han-style temple built for temple, bell tower use; Some Taiwan-top stupa; Taiwan brick structure, some white solid, only as barrier Jing Zeng King and decorative effect. White sets the overall effectiveness of group performance before the foot of the mountains of Tibet's Potala Palace, Fan Zi features. The south wall Split 2 turret is really white-Taiwan puzzle blind wall windows, starting at the top notch. Could it be provided on both sides of white mesosphere, door, played veranda Hall, symmetrical configuration, for the monks out of use.

Glass arch the north-gang sub-Temple, surrounded by Tibetan carved puzzle room wall, the wall is located three blind windows, east, south to a layer of Sengfang, West puzzle Deng Dao, north of monks from the roof veranda Hall, Dan Yan green glazed tile roof , 5 Ying lacking a broad prospect, into the deep 2, available for Palden Lhamo, four protective deities, big Brahma. Gang Sub East Hall East Hall, also known as sub-Dian Dong Gang, flat as a "B"-shaped, two-story. This hall was originally Sengfang is supreme Tantric yoga for five pairs of Mi Yue Yun pairs of empty body, like Huan Xifo amending the law. East from north to south followed by Diamond Goddess, big Wade King, dense poly-King, Sheng Yue Jin-Gang Wang, evil King degrees. Tantric Huan Xifo statues are generally long, the table more than intellect, the most top-centered image, I like to change; multi-arm multi-legged table and vigorously more energy; foot monster, the table can Xiangyao town magic.

Gang sub-set of homes for the West Hall of the Northwest Temple, also known as the West-Gang Yu Temple, is through the hall, flat as a "factory"-shaped, just south of provision of doors, hokubo two hard mountain top and gray tiles. Available for the main statue Palden Lhamo, the original shrine in weighing the Three Realms hall, exhibition hall after the Cultural Revolution changed this. Palden Lhamo is gold-bronze statues, high 116 cm, body riding a mule, before and after two small statues Shoutou person, the chassis of the sea. The whole group of statues with 1196 pounds copper, gold, 57 2, employment 6425. According to "Palden Lhamo by the" records, Palden Lhamo to change as the Goddess of Mercy, is the Dalai Lama's defending God, an annual New Year's Day she was riding the sun lower bound of the parties to inspect the world, drive out demons, bless all sentient beings safe. Tibetan Buddhists in the Tibetan calendar every year to October 15 Palden Lhamo to be summoned as Temple pulled from the big paraded in order to maintain the personnel calm, fine weather. Palden Lhamo, like the West for the longevity Buddha 9, Yakushi Buddha 12, are brass.

 

The third part of the Red Taiwan

Red Taiwan-bit Putuo Zongcheng Temple Finally, the location of the maximum area of 10.3 thousand square meters, due to clever use of terrain will be several groups of buildings connected into a whole, the visual on the exaggerated, even more difficult and costly. Positive grass-roots level is a white sets, solid, high 17 meters, the lower part of puzzle granite stone, the upper part of brick, lime noodles, the wall is located three trapezoidal windows blind, East and West sides assemble a white stone steps directly to Taiwan at the top of Gordon Road.

White 5-ying, Taiwan, southeast corner of a Miankuo, into the deep 3's "Monju Celestine" Hall. Qian Foge the west, surrounded by Gallery (now collapsed), Genei for the Mongolian princes presented to the Empress Dowager of the 1000 Buddha neutral "Qian Foge Inscription of" Thirty-five years of Qianlong imperial system. Genei a banner reads: "A wonderful capital coincide Zhan Qian-Li Zhu Fu, Fan Zhu Wan Huan determining contact with the fan base."

Taitung White House for the dumb pit, Jin Miao incense to the emperor, when the monks of the avoided. Bai Taiwan on Taiwan from red, high 25 meters wide and 58 meters on the next wide and 59 meters, seven, one to four solid, are set blind windows, the upper three spaced real window, blind window.

Red Tainan surface perpendicular to the middle of inlay decoration glass shrines 6, yellow, and green and white, Chinese-style tactics, one marking the axis, two decorative role play. Red-Taiwan puzzle parapet at the top of the wall under the three sides (East, West, South) decorative yellow glass shrines, pulling home under the eaves stone Drainage long trough. Red Taiwan inside of five to seven for the three attic, each layer 44, four surround, also known as towers.

Group F, the south into the deep three, Tung Tianzhu four rows; in five north into the deep 4, Tung Tianzhu five rows; Group F, three rows of the east pass Tianzhu, into the deep 2; the west side of pass Tianzhu four rows deep into the two and a half. Group F, east, west, south and north respectively banners "approach of taking by the Court", "Mahayana Miao-feng", "secret shengjing", "nirvana." Group F, a layer of split stone mandala 6, there is Buddha, Kuan Yin, Amitayus, custard apple, big Wade King Kong, King Kong-hi. Group F banner of "Man Chui-ying Hu Hua niches color, like a tame lion under Washio Cenhui"; "Fosha Gancheng France is now owned raft metaphor to teach Zen to open Aurora Speech Chuandeng"; "the same can not figure this boundless ci 2, Yu Purdue Daqian than promising Act ";" Unification Xumi days mostly from the resident community, over the sea will be now with the Kegon side ";" super-secret Indian holding four wonderful fruit, round light Ching show Triyana ";" now France-based newspaper all over the body tan Fei Yin and integration after the first occasion, as taught in the same holding ";" relative to light in early to hold one of the ACFTU, the heavens were played Mima poly-Vatican incense ";" Bore often melt phase poly-5 Ford, Bodhicitta and the card by eight auspicious ";" view of Indian Yuantong Neng Ren Jue Pu show, understanding language clean Miao Zhi Tian fellow ";" merit verses show Aromatherapy eaves Portuguese, a solemn-looking lover-ray Ying glass ";" mental and physical beings who Farley and the economy, revel Shi desire, all the regular round ";" 3000 Guang Pu care sector, Shou domain always-trillion Spring ";" Baoshu Jiao Hui Xiang constant, Cheung Turning the Law Wheel boundless. "

Group F at the top of the northwest corner of Jian Chi Hong Purdue Hall, lutetium bronze tiles, Zhong Yan Liu Jiaoting-shaped, two-story horizontal inscribed board "Fusho Three Realms", hall plaque "big show itself," banners "Swie King Yu Hsi Lai Miaoguan the case the monthly round of Wu-South refers to co-phase yun. " Jian Dian-ming weigh the northeast corner of the Three Realms, lutetium bronze tiles, double eaves and star anise, containing the amount of "fine Yan is the situation right," banner "Dharma Realm divinity that is empty now that the color, Brahma by strong non-domestic non-OK."

Scarlet Taiwan Sanjie West Northeast weighed built Luojia shengjing Hall Miankuo 5 Ying, into the deep one. Logar shengjing South, Red Taitung Jian-Dong group of buildings, three. Eastern Group House Sorai southerly from the stage, face the north, side three, three. Taiwan to build the northwest corner of the Red Eagle House, solid, from decorative effect. Group F 10000 France Sorai center in a hall owned by a square between the seven corners slightly incorporated into half of the double eaves and save tip overlying gold-fish-scale copper-watt, four-wave ridge decoration, French bell ding. Ying-door swing enamel, Lime tower, for the red sandalwood in the shrines are available for Maitreya, east and west sides Rosewood Longevity tower home. Altar placed Babao, five for the coral tree. By the North Tree screen, a huge tapestry hanging in front to hang like a satin embroidered Buddhist (high thirty feet wide, Yi Zhang), is no deposit. Pre-screen for the Buddha, and then the former for the Tsongkhapa, on both sides for the main hall as the Dalai Lama and Tsongkhapa, both copper sculpture, fine texture, fine technology, movements symmetry, vividly. North and South in a hall banners as "net sex super ride," the second as "Miaodeyuancheng"; face the Southern Banner, "Pu-10000 should be fate." Hall banner of "a divinity Ham Leo Chin Fen Xun, serpent eagle is a good friend P is now the solemn wind-sighted"; "moon in legal careers in Taiwan attained great joy, is the embodiment of the plug retaining wonderful auspicious"; "the beginning of the total land holding of Falun owned Fu-sheng because of the extension on the plug;, widely played by the Vatican Hengsha Vision contact Nengren new fan ";" spread were Brahma taught speech delivery, incarnation is often Hui Rong. "

10000 France owned by a Hall of the whole temple gatherings and celebrations held in place July 11 at the hall each year degree examinations held in Buddhism. The twelfth lunar month 27, the first month 14 in this event organized by sending worship, all the monks in this chanting, drive out demons pray for peace. The Qing Dynasty, Mongolia, far away into the inside and outside the temple incenseqiu fo by an endless stream. Qianlong Sanshiliunian (1771). Hong Li was in this hall meeting with Miles and his entourage return Torghut leader Wo Baxi and preaching at a large-scale birthday celebrations. 10000 France owned by a number of Putuo Temple is the Temple of the main hall, hidden in the red group of floor units among Dianding higher than the base building, spangle. The bottom of the floor, encircled by three groups, video tone of darkness and light contrasts, resulting in strict and solemn religious atmosphere, is a gem of religious architecture in the Mainland.

In 1932, the United States large-scale international exposition held in Chicago, big Rockefeller in order to move gaze transactions, in 1930 adopted a Swede He set out into the Evans statement sent to the palace to the measured real painting, created in Chicago with this one Hall of the same size model, but also in China through various means to collect a large number of Buddhist statues, Buddhist implements, in 1931, with the special launch to Chicago, a copy of the "method return a Temple" is a display, leading to emergence of the Chicago Exposition, Oriental Cultural Fever, Rockefeller the limelight, earning a lot of money, this is "yesterday" in comedy. Today, Vince He determined Rockefeller should be duty-bound this was "forgotten" of the history, facing the East, saying that one can make the Chinese people a decent emotional words. The Swedish architect Maike Si Mr. Wu Lei and several other experts interested in Chinese culture established a foundation from Anna University, Indiana United States would "go a Temple 10000 France" all components bought in preparation for In the Stockholm International Culture Research Center "reconstruction" assembly. Mr. Wu Lei in 1989 had been to Chengde, in consultation with the competent departments to inspect the method return a hall when Mr. Wu Lei said: This is a miracle. Imitation may be like, the end is not the original thing.

 

If you’re even remotely like me you know all about Jell-O. But just in case here is the definition:

 

Jell-O is a registered trademark of Kraft Foods for varieties of gelatin desserts, puddings, and no-bake cream pies. The original gelatin desserts are sometimes referred to as jello. Wikipedia

 

No Bake Strawberry Jello Lasagna is quick and easy dessert recipe for refreshing summer sweet treat and use only few ingredients: fresh strawberries, whipped cream, strawberry Jello, cream cheese, Golden Oreo, white chocolate and strawberry Greek yogurt. Delicious layered dessert is a twist on classic Strawberry Jello Pie.

 

No Bake Strawberry Jello Lasagna

 

Although it’s a sweet treat, I simply like to call this type of dessert LASAGNA. I found out it is annoying for some people, but what would be the better name for layered dessert than lasagna?! In fact, who cares what it’s called as long as it tastes so good!!!

 

However No Bake Strawberry Jello Lasagna has five mouthwatering layers.

 

First of all is Golden Oreo crust. It’s just simple mixture of Golden Oreo crumbs and melted butter pressed in the bottom of the pan.

 

Next layer is cream cheese with diced fresh strawberries. Then come the best part, light and fluffy pink layer. It’s mixture of whipped cream, strawberry Jello and strawberry Greek yogurt. That’s like melt –in-your-mouth strawberry flavored cream. If you like easy Strawberry Jello Pie with Cool Whip or whipped cream, you will love this, too. It’s even better than a classic pie filling thanks to strawberry yogurt which makes it so refreshing.

 

Fourth layer is whipped cream. And the top layer is white chocolate curls. Strawberry and chocolate is like match made in heaven.

 

Since fresh strawberries are in full season in spring and summer, the time is perfect for quick and easy strawberry desserts. By the way, when the weather is warm no one likes to heat the oven, but we all love to enjoy delicious sweet treats. That’s the reason why we all looking for EASY NO BAKE SUMMER DESSERT RECIPES.

 

After all, my all-time favorite summer treats are light, creamy and refreshing DESSERT LASAGNAS. I made so many versions of lasagna desserts so far, but this No Bake Strawberry Jello Lasagna beat them all. ~ No Bake Strawberry Jello Lasagna ~ by Vera Z. May 14, 2017

 

No Bake Strawberry Jello Lasagna - OMG Chocolate Desserts

 

Gelatin Handbook PDF

 

I Really enjoy Jello Recipes and wanted to do more than just share the Awesome recipe above by Vera May.

 

Below you will find a fantastic PDF I have used for a very long time to prepare all types of recipes.

 

Enjoy the Kraft Recipes available from their website:

 

kraft-jello

 

Roger Keyserling

 

All types of Household items are available with “Dragon Deals” Via Keywebco Store App:

 

Keywebco eBay Store version 51

 

Jello Lasagna And No Cooking Love this Recipe was originally published in eCom Tips on Medium, where people are continuing the conversation by highlighting and responding to this story.

via Stories by Roger Keyserling on Medium ift.tt/2A1LZ01

Cut and paste from: www.yankalilla.sa.gov.au/

 

"The Starfish Hill Wind Farm is located across two hills on the tip of the Fleurieu Peninsula near Cape Jervis and was the first wind farm built in South Australia. The site was selected because the area has consistently high winds, is sparsely populated and the land was previously cleared for farming and grazing.

 

Starfish Hill rises to a height of 306 metres along a north-south ridge about three kilometres from the coastline. Salt Creek Hill, west of Starfish Hill on another north-south ridge, has a height of 220 metres and is about one kilometre from the coast. West of Salt Creek Hill, steep cliffs rise 100 metres above the sea.

 

There are 23 wind turbines with 15 located on Salt Creek Hill and 8 on Starfish Hill. Each of the turbines has 3 blades with a tower height of 68 metres and overall height of 100 metres from the ground to the blade tip.

 

The wind farm provides enough energy to meet the needs of about 18,000 households (ie. 2% of the State's residential customers) and adds 1% to the available generation capacity in South Australia."

  

# www.youtube.com/watch?v=MqWeOmICIdQ&feature=related

  

Albert Owen designated second home in London and claimed monthly mortgage interest of £1,288 in August 2007. Claimed £629 for television, £73 for painting and decorating and £89 for cutlery

 

James Paice claims mortgage interest on south London flat. Spent £2,684 on furniture in May 2004 and in March 2007, spent another £2,130

 

Ian Paisley claims rent on second home in west London. December 2003, claimed for night at Jolly Hotel St Ermin’s in the city, including £3 on minibar

 

Nick Palmer rents second home in London. Switched between rental properties, claiming £424 in August 2005 for removal costs. Later switched back to rental flat in the original block

 

Owen Paterson claimed mortgage interest of £1,041 a month on flat near Parliament. Switched to another property in 2005, payments rose to £1,657

 

Ian Pearson has second home in West Midlands, claims mortgage interest. Other claims: £240 for 20 hours of gardening

 

Andrew Pelling does not claim additional costs allowance (ACA). Claimed the smaller London Supplement, which was £2,812 last year

 

Mike Penning , a shadow health minister, charged the taxpayer £2.99 for a stainless steel dog bowl

 

John Penrose's second home is Thames-side flat near Parliament, with tracker mortgage, on which he claims monthly interest payments of around £2,000

 

Eric Pickles claimed for £200 in petty cash monthly between 2005 and the middle of 2008. Claimed mortgage interest of less than £250 a month and service charges of £750 a year for a flat in east London. One of the lower claimers. Stopped using the additional costs allowance to run a second home when made party chairman.

 

James Plaskitt asked by fees office not to claim nominal sums such as £400 or £300 a month for groceries without submitting evidence of expenditure

 

Greg Pope claimed £1,590 for shopping at John Lewis in March 2006. In September 2006, submitted claim of £560 for two paintings, for which a receipt with no company letterhead was submitted

 

Stephen Pound is not eligible for second home allowance. Claimed £160 for guided tour of Palace of Westminster under Incidental Expenses Provision (IEP)

 

Bridget Prentice claimed no ACA. Office IEP expenses include £230 in 2004 for accountant to prepare her tax return

 

Gordon Prentice claimed £2,262 for items bought at John Lewis, including a £749 television, £649 fridge freezer and various furniture for London flat on top of £900-a-month mortgage

 

John Prescott claimed for two lavatory seats in two years

 

Adam Price claimed for books, including Bring Home the Revolution: The Case for a British Republic, by Jonathan Freedland. Queried by fees office

 

Dawn Primarolo claimed on second home in Bristol. In 2004, switched to London flat and claimed mortgage interest payments

 

Mark Prisk accidentally claimed £1,726 rather than £1,182 for one month’s mortgage interest on London home. Error was spotted by officials

 

Mark Pritchard moved flats in Westminster in 2007, claiming for £199 vacuum cleaner, £1,000 furnishings, kitchen utensils worth £66, bedding of £45 and a £145 microwave

 

Gwyn Prosser paid his brother from his taxpayer-funded expenses to carry out work on his London flat - despite the fact that he lived almost 200 miles away.

 

John Pugh rents London flat for £1,280 a month; rent claims rose to £1,500. In July 2006, told fees office his daughter would be staying while at university, so he would reduce claims on rent and utilities. Claims remained close to maximum

 

Ken Purchase spent £1,465 on new blinds for second home in south London in 2005-06. Regularly claims up to maximum £400 a month for food. Monthly mortgage interest payments were £580 last year, leaving an ACA of £14,713

 

James Purnell avoided paying capital gains tax on the sale of his London flat after claiming expenses for accountancy advice. Bought expensive gadgets. Spent taxpayers’ money advertising at football and rugby league matches

 

Bill Rammell claimed £475 a month mortgage interest in 2008 for second home located in constituency. Claimed £1,360 for replastering and installing downlights in bedroom

 

Nick Raynsford: as an inner London MP, he is not eligible to claim a second home allowance, but he claimed the maximum London Supplement of £2,812 last year

 

John Redwood has admitted being paid twice after submitting an identical £3,000 decorating bill on his second home allowance

 

Andy Reed has a flat as second home in Westminster. In 2007, claimed £1,180 for the flat but this fell to £727 for a mortgage interest payment in 2008. Website states he claims about £450 aper month in mortgage interest payments

 

Jamie Reed claimed £8,640 stamp duty and £3,943 in legal fees when he bought London home in May 2006. Claimed £2,336 for two beds and two mattresses, but this was reduced to £1,000 by the fees office

 

Alan Reid claimed more than £1,500 on his parliamentary expenses for staying in hotels and bed-and-breakfasts near his home

 

John Reid used his allowance to pay for slotted spoons, an ironing board and a glittery loo seat

 

Willie Rennie's second home is a flat in Lambeth, south London. In 2005, claimed £708 for new cooker and fridge freezer. In 2007, claimed for £1,350 monthly rent

 

Sir Malcolm Rifkind claimed the smaller London Supplement, which amounted to £2,812 last year

 

Linda Riordan bought flat in Kennington in early 2006, claims for mortgage interest. Claims for beds/headboards refused, but £219 bedding, £1,310 sofa bed/chair and £1,936 carpet approved. Regularly claims maximum £400 for unreceipted monthly food bills

 

Andrew Robathan claimed monthly mortgage interest payments on London home of more than £3,300 before notifying the fees office he was switching his second home to a new property in his constituency, “which we are going to refurbish”

 

Angus Robertson successfully appealed to the fees office when they turned down his claim for a £400 home cinema system

 

Hugh Robertson rents second home in London for more than £1,800 a month. Main home, in Kent, belongs to his wife’s family. He checked with fees office that this arrangement was in order, they confirmed it was

 

John Robertson rents a second home in London for about £1,100 a month and has claimed £675 in window cleaning at the property since 2005

 

Laurence Robertson designates constituency house as second home, claiming £900 monthly mortgage interest and about £800 a year heating oil. Pays wife Susan’s travel and phone from office allowance. She works for him but they are separated

 

Geoffrey Robinson has not made any claims on his second home allowance since 2004/05

 

Peter and Iris Robinson both claimed expenses based on the same £1,223 bill when they submitted their parliamentary claims in 2007

 

Dan Rogerson bought London flat in 2005. Claimed £2,500 stamp duty, £1,572 legal fees, £340 survey; £1,108 furniture. In March 2008, changed mortgage to interest-only, allowing maximum benefits of ACA

 

Terry Rooney claimed interest payments on mortgage for home in Bradford using second home allowance. Between March 2007 and April 2008, claimed £1,200 for cleaning

 

Andrew Rosindell claimed more than £125,000 in second home expenses for a flat in London, while designating his childhood home 17 miles away - where his mother lived - as his main address

 

Paul Rowen claimed mortgage interest payments for second home in Battersea, south London. In 2007, claimed for a £325 rug, a chest of drawers costing £295 and an £85 bedside table, all from John Lewis

 

Frank Roy claimed £455 on “assorted bedding, curtains and furnishings” in March 2006. In July, submitted bill for £750 towards £795 HD-ready 32 in television with DVD player. In January 2008, claimed £265 for sink waste disposal unit

 

Chris Ruane claimed £4,560 part costs of buying flat in March 2006, then claimed £10,958 for remainder following month. Fees office noted on claim that this could not be paid because costs were incurred in 2005-06 financial year and it was then 2006-07

 

Joan Ruddock claimed £235 for training on debt advice provided by Shelter, the charity, in May 2008. Confirmed she paid tax on reimbursed accountacy fees

 

David Ruffley claimed for new furniture and fittings after “flipping” his second home from London to a new flat in his constituency

 

Bob Russell claims mortgage interest for south London flat he shares with fellow MP Mike Hancock. In July 2006, claimed £1,035 for replacing windows

 

Christine Russell claims rent on second home in London, which she shares with fellow MP Helen Southworth

 

Joan Ryan spent thousands of pounds on repairs and decorations at her constituency home before switching her designated second home to a London property

 

Alex Salmond claimed £400 per month for food when the Commons was not even sitting. He also billed the taxpayer £14,100 to try to impeach Tony Blair

 

Martin Salter has not made any claims on his second home allowance since 2004/05

 

Adrian Sanders claimed rent on his London flat of up to £988 a month. Claimed for £55 vase from the Dartington Cider Press Centre in Totnes, Devon

 

Mohammed Sarwar claimed almost £100,000 to cover mortgage interest that he paid from an account with a Swiss bank.

 

Alison Seabeck claims £1,100 a month mortgage interest for her constituency home, but billed £65 for a night in local hotel plus £10 breakfast after she had left her keys in London

 

Andrew Selous designates constituency property as second home, on which he claims monthly mortgage interest payments of more than £1,600

 

Grant Shapps claimed just £7,269 on his second homes allowance in 2007/08

 

Virendra Sharma chose not to claim designated second home expenses under ACA after entering Parliament in a by-election in July, 2007, although he was entitled to them as an outer London MP. Took £1,958 in London supplement in 2007-08 and £15,988 in office expenses.

 

Jonathan Shaw claimed £240 in London hotel bills plus £800 monthly flat renta in March 2005, saying it was being redecorated

 

Barry Sheerman claimed mortgage interest payments of about £900 a month on London second home, £1,338 for 20 in Apple iMac on office expenses

 

Richard Shepherd has repaid £162 to the Fees Office after deciding he should not have claimed for cleaning and gardening at his constituency home

 

Jim Sheridan used his allowances to reclaim the cost of a 42-inch plasma TV, leather bed and hundreds of pounds worth of furniture. Claimed £2,091 for three-seater sofa, two-seater sofa bed, coffee table and lamp table for London home bought from Edinburgh dfs store in March 2006

 

Clare Short claimed thousands of pounds of taxpayers' money to which she was not entitled within months of standing down as a Cabinet minister

 

Mark Simmonds claims up to £2,696 a month for interest-only mortgage on second home in London

 

Sion Simon claimed £5,400 in stamp duty after moving house in London in May 2008. Also claimed £1,850 on refurbishing new home that month

 

Alan Simpson claimed £4,000 towards the cost of replacing the boiler at second home in Lambeth. In September 2007, claimed £10,000 towards £11,020 on stripping out old kitchen

 

David Simpson bought London flat in March 2006. Over two days, claimed £6,234 for furniture. Claimed £1,082 monthly mortgage interest payments

 

Keith Simpson has claimed almost £200 for light bulbs on his expenses

 

Marsha Singh claimed mortgage interest payments for London flat as second home. Claimed for £750 television, £229 DVD player and £400 music player with handwritten receipt

 

Andrew Slaughter is not eligible to claim ACA. In 2007, claimed for a fountain pen nib costing £90 using his IEP

 

Andrew Smith spent more than £30,000 of taxpayers’ money giving his house a makeover

 

Angela Smith sought payment for four beds for a one-bedroom London flat

 

Angela C Smith spent nearly £11,000 over two years on setting up a second home in London

 

Geraldine Smith spent £235 on picture and £185 on mirror for London flat in August 2005. Bought Bali table lamp, floor lamp and three cushions for total of £620 one month later

 

advice using expenses intended to fund their parliamentary and constituency offices. Bought expensive gadgets including an iPhone for her husband.

 

John Smith claimed £57,955 in second home expenses in four years without submitting a single receipt.

 

Sir Robert Smith claimed about £910 a month for mortgage interest payments on Lambeth flat in 2008-09

 

Anne Snelgrove claimed £4,100 for furniture including a bedstead, sofa and chest of drawers. Also claimed £499.97 for a television set, £454.70 for crockery and kitchen equipment, £655 on a table, chairs and bookcase, and £55 on towels.

 

Nicholas Soames claimed up to £1,340 a month for mortgage interest on Westminster home

 

Sir Peter Soulsby fell behind with the rent at his offices but when the £472 bailiffs bill arrived he billed the taxpayer

 

Helen Southworth claims rent on second home in London, which she shares with fellow MP Christine Russell. Claimed £709 for a television, £259 for an air conditioning unit and £239 for a Dyson cleaner

 

John Spellar claims for his constituency home in the West Midlands. Claimed £600 for a tree surgeon, £1.99 for a washing up brush and 47p for a pair of rubber gloves

 

Caroline Spelman made no claims for mortgage interest or rent on her second home in 2006-07 and 2007-08

 

Michael Spicer claimed for work on his helipad and received thousands of pounds for gardening bills

 

Bob Spink claimed about £25,000 for fees and refurbishment when he bought a flat in 2004. Included was £11,000 for decorators’ fees, £3,400 for a leather sofa, £3,000 for carpets and curtains

 

Richard Spring claimed monthly mortgage interest payments of more than £1,300 on a property in Suffolk. Also claimed £35.25 to treat a wasps’ nest

 

Sir John Stanley claims for rent on London flat, also claims for food, utilities, council tax and a cleaner

 

Phyllis Starkey claims for rent on home in consituency, along with utilities and council tax. Also owns a house in Oxford from which rental income is received

 

Anthony Steen claimed £87,000 on country mansion with 500 trees. He has announced he will step down at the next election

 

Ian Stewart claims rent on flat in London. Also claimed for a £500 leather suite and a £1,247 computer bought from the shopping channel QVC

 

Howard Stoate claimed thousands in DIY bills 'to ease the burden on the taxpayer'

 

Gavin Strang claims for his flat in London and for up to £400 per month in food. Also receives rental income from farmland and woodland in Perthshire

 

Jack Straw only paid half the amount of council tax that he claimed on his parliamentary allowances over four years but later rectified the over-claim. Used his office expenses to pay for a degree studied by a member of his staff

 

Gary Streeter claims for the mortgage interest on his constituency home in Plymouth, also claimed for food and £1.60 for a pack of 10 lightbulbs

 

Gisela Stuart claims for mortgage interest on constituency home in Birmingham and up to £2,000 per year for food. Also owns a family home in Worcestershire and a flat in London

 

Graham Stringer: hotel stays when in London and claims up to £4,800 per year for food. Hotel bills have included snacks such as Pringles crisps at £1.75

 

Graham Stuart shares a flat in London with Conservative MP David Mundell, shares costs with him and claims for rent, council tax and utilities. Bills for household items included £426 for duvet, pillows and towels

 

Andrew Stunell claims for mortgage interest on flat in London, also claimed for £5,545 replacement windows by Everest. Claims more than £1,000 per year for food in some years

 

Gerry Sutcliffe claims for mortgage interest on constituency home in Bingley. Claimed £3,790 for fitted bedroom, £2,616 for new gutters and sofit boards, and £1,745 for two sofas

 

Desmond Swayne has a second home in London, on which he paid a £652 monthly mortgage interest in 2005-06. Rose to £711 in 2007-08. Charged £6,131 for new kitchen and £411 for tree work in 2006

 

Jo Swinson included receipts for eyeliner, a “tooth flosser” and 29p dusters with her parliamentary expenses claims

 

Hugo Swire, the former shadow culture secretary, designated his first home in London and claimed for rent at his second home in Devon. He said London was his main home and his daughter went to school in the capital. In June, 2007, he claimed £349 for a satellite navigation system to “cover the 176.25 square miles of his constituency”.

 

Robert Syms claimed more than £2,000 worth of furniture on expenses for his designated second home in London, but had it all delivered to his parents’ address in Wiltshire

 

Mark Tami has a second home in Bromley, Kent. Bought London home in Dec 2007, claimed £9,000 stamp duty and mortgage interest rate increased to £1,300

 

Sir Peter Tapsell claimed rent for second home in London, which rose from £4,821 a quarter in 2006 to £5,417 a quarter in 2008. Total claims over fours years of £87,729

 

Dari Taylor claimed flat in south-east London as second home and charged monthly mortgage interest of £1,000 in 2008. Fees office asked for evidence of mortgage in October 2007

 

David Taylor has a second home in London, monthly mortgage interest payments of £375 in 2005 rose to £700 after buying new second home in 2007

 

Ian Taylor said he will retire at the next election after it emerged that he made second home claims on a flat in London although his main home is within 40 minutes’ commuting distance of Westminster

 

Matthew Taylor claims for flat in London while also owning another flat in London which he rents out. Bills include £350 for gardening, £1,373 for curtains and blinds

 

Richard Taylor claims for renting flat in London and for council tax. No claims for furniture, cleaning, utilities or food

 

Sarah Teather did not claim on her second homes allowance between 2004 and 2008

 

Gareth Thomas used public money to settle a £1,000 accountancy bill to recover a tax "over-payment" of £2,000. Has repaid more than £1,600 he claimed for gardening, £1,200 he overclaimed for council tax and mortgage interest payments and £30 for wine and other personal items

 

Emily Thornberry is not entitled to claim for a second home as an inner London MP. However, takes home the London Supplement, which was £2,812 last year

 

John Thurso claimed rent on designated second home in London and for hotels across Scotland because of “vast area of constituency”. Approved by fees office

 

Stephen Timms is an outer London MP who chooses not to claim second homes allowance. Claims the London Supplement which amounted to £2,812 last year

 

Paddy Tipping claimed mortgage interest payments of about £500 per month on a flat in London. His overall claims were only just over half the maximum amount claimed by some MPs

 

Mark Todd defended his expenses claims as "essentials" but included a marble table and an espresso coffee machine

 

Baroness Tonge claimed mortgage interest on her second home allowance as an MP, then after her retirement leased the property to a fellow MP who in turn recovered the rent from the taxpayer

 

Don Touhig spent thousands of pounds redecorating his constituency home before “flipping” his allowance to a flat in London

 

David Tredinnick tried to claim the £125 cost of attending a course on "intimate relationships" through his Parliamentary expenses

 

Jon Trickett claimed £761.68 per month in mortgage interest payments for a second home in London. Also claimed for food, utilities and council tax

 

Paul Truswell stays in hotels in London while at Westminster, usually paying £119 for a room, also claimed for £4.95 packets of nuts from the minibar. In 2007-08, claimed £2,255 for food and £18 for laundry

 

Andrew Turner used his office expenses to pay for his girlfriend, who is also his parliamentary assistant, to have "life coaching" classes

 

Des Turner claimed mortgage interest payments of up to £450 per month on a flat in London as his designated second home. Also claimed up to £400 per month food. Claimed roughly half of the maximum available under the second homes allowance.

 

Neil Turner claimed for mortgage interest on flat in London, and up to £400 per month for food some months. Also claims utilities, council tax and for small amounts of furniture

 

Derek Twigg moved his designated second home from constituency to flat near Parliament in 2004, now claims £1,343 a month in rent. Claimed £110 for an iron and radio in 2005, and £77 for same items two years later

 

Lord Tyler claimed for the mortgage interest on his family-owned flat in Westminster – and then sold his share to his daughter a month after he quit as an MP

 

Andrew Tyrie nominates a flat in property near his constituency as second home. Claims £700 a month in mortgage interest payments and £6,000 a year on service charges

 

Kitty Ussher resigned as Treasury minister after he expenses files showed she avoided paying up to £17,000 in tax on the sale of her constituency home

 

Ed Vaizey had £2,000 worth of furniture delivered to his London home when he was claiming his Commons allowance on a second home in Oxfordshire.

 

Shailesh Vara tried to claim £1,500 on his expenses for costs incurred before he was elected

 

Keith Vaz claimed £75,500 for a second flat near Parliament even though he already lived just 12 miles from Westminster

 

Sir Peter Viggers included with his expense claims the £1,645 cost of a floating duck house in the garden pond at his Hampshire home. He has announced he will step down at the next election and admitted he made a "ridiculous and grave error of judgment"

 

Theresa Villiers claimed almost £16,000 in stamp duty and professional fees on expenses when she bought a London flat, even though she already had a house in the capital. She has agreed to stop claiming the second home allowance

 

Rudi Vis receives second home allowance and claims £2,300 a month interest on a mortgage he took out in 2006 on his constituency home. Says main home is in Suffolk

 

Charles Walker claims £700 in mortgage interest payments for flat in Wandsworth, constituency home is 21 miles from Westminster. Claimed £6,732 for decoration, carpets, curtains and re-wiring at flat

 

Ben Wallace claimed for more than £700 to stay at Carlton Club after May 2005 general election. Included the cost of at least three Daily Telegraphs on bill. Most claims made up of rent, council tax bills and utility bills

 

Joan Walley claimed for more than £4,400 of furniture in London flat in 2004-05 and a £195 blanket. In 2005-06, claimed for £1,199 LCD Sony television. Fees office cut bill to £750

 

Robert Walter attempted to claim £1,008 for handmade carpets he bought while on a trip to India. Claimed for £16,000 moving costs; estate agents’ commission, stamp duty and solicitors’ fees. Then claimed for two flat screen televisions worth £749 and £399 and eight chairs worth £744

 

Lynda Waltho claimed £1,680 for food in one year. Billed taxpayer for £472 bed, £81 sheets, towels and a pillow and £1,022 of electrical equipment. Also claimed for £380 armchair and £8.32 kettle

 

Claire Ward, the MP responsible for keeping the Queen informed about Parliament, submitted monthly expense claims for hundreds of pounds of "petty cash" while claiming maximum allowances

 

Bob Wareing claimed for more than £4,000 in food bills in 2004-05. Then claimed for £176 air conditioning unit, as well as a £19.99 kettle for his Westminster flat

 

Nigel Waterson claimed mortgage interest/rent payments and food bills at his second home in Beckenham, Kent. Also billed taxpayer £1,055 to paint house and garage

 

Angela Watkinson claimed £3,100 to redecorate flat including new doors, latches and locks in 2005-06. Then claimed £6,350 for a new bathroom, as well as £804 for a television, microwave and fridge

 

Tom Watson and Iain Wright spent £100,000 of taxpayers' money on the London flat they once shared

 

Dave Watts claimed for refurbishment to kitchen (£3,543), bathroom (£3,500) and £742 redecoration. Also claimed for £549 Philips LCD 26 in television

 

Steve Webb sold his London flat and bought another nearby, while the taxpayer picked up an £8,400 bill for stamp duty

 

Mike Weir claimed £1,300 per month rent for his second home in London plus bills for utilities, telephone, council tax and food

 

Alan Whitehead claimed mortgage interest payments of up to £730 per month on his second home in London. Also claimed £1,942.98 for a replacement boiler

 

John Whittingdale claimed £1,828.30 for bathroom fitting, £1,800 for a replacement boiler, £774.50 on a sofa and rug from Laura Ashley and £1,014 on a bed

 

Malcolm Wicks was entitled to claim for a second home allowance but instead claimed for the more moderate London subsidy of £2,812

 

Ann Widdecombe claimed just £858 on her second home allowance in 2007/08. However, she did spend more than £9,000 of taxpayers' money on her own personal newspaper cuttings service over a four year period.

 

Bill Wiggin claimed interest payments for a property which had no mortgage

 

Betty Williams claimed mortgage interest payments of £519 per month on London flat. Also claimed service charge, utilities, telephone and food but made few other claims

 

Hywel Williams claimed more than £1,000 per month in mortgage interest payments on London flat. Also claimed £2,408.75 for a plumbing bill

 

David Willetts, the Conservatives' choice for skills minister, needed help changing light bulbs. He has agreed to repay the bill

 

Alan Williams claimed just £5,221 on his second homes allowance in 2007/08

 

Mark Williams claimed up to £1,300 per month to rent a flat in London as his second home but made few other claims under the allowance

 

Stephen Williams claimed up to £1,500 per month to cover rent at his second home, a flat in London. Also claimed for food and utility bills but made few other claims

 

Roger Williams claimed £1,200 per month in rent for a flat in London, which he designated as his second home. Also claimed for food, utilities and cleaning

 

Phil Willis spent thousands of pounds of public funds on mortgage interest payments, redecoration and furnishings for a flat where his daughter now lives.

 

Jenny Willott claimed up to £1,500 per month to live in a flat in London as her second home. Also claimed £519 for a sofa, £933.50 for a bed and £850 for a mattress

 

Michael Wills claims about £1,120 a month in interest for the mortgage on his house in Wiltshire. On one occasion, the fees office agreed to pay £2,633 for a claim made two months after the deadline for 2005-06 had passed. He said a “genuine mistake” had been made by a “trusted and normally reliable member of staff”.

 

David Wilshire claimed thousands of pounds of taxpayers money for monthly payments towards the cost of replacing curtains and carpets at some point in the future. Claimed up to £1,375 per month in mortgage interest payments and also claimed for council tax, service charges and food

 

Phil Wilson claimed £1,250 per month in rent for a London flat, which he designated as his second home. Also claimed £350 for a sofa bed

 

Rob Wilson did not claim on his second homes allowance between 2004 and 2008

 

Sammy Wilson originally claimed for hotels when in London. Later jointly bought a property in the city with another MP. Claimed £6,150 stamp duty, £1,406.90 solicitors’ fees and £2,914 on furniture

 

David Winnick claimed just £36,354 on his second homes allowance between 2004-8

 

Sir Nicholas Winterton and his wife Ann claimed more than £80,000 for a London flat owned by a trust controlled by their children. They have announced they will stand down at the next general election

 

Rosie Winterton submitted claims for “soundproofing” the bedroom of her London home and received thousands of pounds for gardening and decorating. She paid back more than £8,000 in mortgage payments that she claimed wrongly on her parliamentary expenses

 

Peter Wishart claimed £1,400 per month in rent for a second home in London. Also claimed for food but made few other claims under the second homes allowance

 

Mike Wood claimed just over £500 per month to live in a flat in London. Also claimed £3,421.76 for a central heating boiler, £599.99 for a television and £1,332 for a new bathroom

 

Phil Woolas submitted receipts including comics, nappies and women's clothing as part of his claims for food

 

Shaun Woodward received £100,000 to help pay mortgage

 

Anthony Wright claims rent for London flat, also claimed £498 for TV, £90 for trouser press. Accepted £10,000 cash payment from owners of flat, which meant taxpayer-funded rent went up

 

David Wright accepted a £16,787 payment from the owners of his flat in return for giving up the right to cheap rent, then moved out. Claimed £599 for a TV but a £64.99 claim for a razor was turned down

 

Iain Wright and Tom Watson spent £100,000 of taxpayers' money on the London flat they once shared

 

Jeremy Wright claims for flat in London. Spent £2,884 on furniture when he became an MP, including £809 for a bed and £399 for a television

 

Tony Wright claims for his rent in Dolphin Square complex in London, £995 for Venetian blinds, £1,630 for a new sofa and chairs and £799 for a sideboard

 

Derek Wyatt billed 75p for scotch eggs

 

Tim Yeo claimed for a pink laptop computer from John Lewis in the weeks leading up to Christmas.

 

George Young claimed the maximum second home allowance on his London flat for the past two years. He also billed taxpayers for the cost of a video camera so that he could broadcast clips of himself at work on YouTube

 

Richard Younger-Ross spent £1,235 on four mirrors and bought 'Don Juan’ bookca

  

Photography tip (#1):

When you're running out of new shots to post, it's important to try to be imaginative.

In times of photo-scarcity, common household items such as these elastic bands, can often provide a cheap alternative to more time-consuming endeavors or costly photographic props or models.

 

Does anybody know the closing date for the Turner Prize?

Manhattan is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City. The borough is coterminous with New York County, founded on November 1, 1683 as an original county of the U.S. state of New York. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the East, Hudson, and Harlem Rivers, but also includes several small adjacent islands, as well as Marble Hill, a small neighborhood on the U.S. mainland.

 

Manhattan has been described as the economic and cultural center of the United States and serves as home to the United Nations Headquarters. Wall Street, in Lower Manhattan, has been called the financial capital of the world, and is home to the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Many multinational media conglomerates are based in the borough. Historically documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for the equivalent of US$24, Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island itself estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2014.

 

New York County is the most densely populated county in the United States, and is more dense than any individual American city. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a Census-estimated 2013 population of 1,626,159 living in a land area of 22.96 square miles (59.5 km2), or about 70,826 residents per square mile (27,346/km²). On business days, the influx of commuters increases that number to over 3.9 million, or around 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, and is the smallest borough in terms of land area.

 

Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan have become well known to New York City's approximately 50 million annual visitors. Times Square, iconified as "The Crossroads of the World" and "The Center of the Universe", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. The borough hosts many world-renowned bridges, skyscrapers, and parks. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere. The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 35 in the world. The city of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of city government and a National Historic Landmark that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen (Half Moon). A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River (later named the Hudson River). The word "Manhattan" has been translated as "island of many hills" from the Lenape language.

 

The United States Postal Service prefers that mail addressed to Manhattan use "New York, NY" rather than "Manhattan, NY".

  

The area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of the French king Francis I – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. He entered The Narrows aboard his ship La Dauphine and named the land around Upper New York Harbor "New Angoulême", in reference to the family name of Francis I of France that was derived from Angoulême in France; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the Hudson River which he referred to in his report to the French king as a "very big river"; and he named Upper New York Bay the Bay of Santa Margarita – after Marguerite de Navarre – the elder sister of the king.

 

It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, that the area was mapped. Hudson came across Manhattan Island and the native people living there in 1609, and continued up the river that would later bear his name, the Hudson River, until he arrived at the site of present day Albany.

  

A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, later called New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam). Manhattan Island was chosen as the site of Fort Amsterdam, a citadel for the protection of the new arrivals; its 1625 establishment is recognized as the birth date of New York City. According to the document by Pieter Janszoon Schagen our People (ons Volck), Peter Minuit and Dutch colonists acquired Manhattan in 1626 from unnamed American Indian people in exchange for trade goods worth 60 guilders, often said to be worth US$24, though (by comparing the price of bread and other goods) it actually amounts to around US$1,050 in 2014.

 

In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director General of the colony. New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1653. In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it "New York" after the English Duke of York and Albany, the future King James II. The Dutch, under Director General Stuyvesant, successfully negotiated with the English to produce 24 articles of provisional transfer, which sought to retain for the extant citizens of New Netherland their previously attained liberties (including freedom of religion) under new colonial English rulers.

 

The Dutch Republic regained it in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming the city "New Orange". New Netherland was ceded permanently to the English in November 1674 through the Treaty of Westminster, in exchange for Run Island which was the long-coveted last link in the Dutch nutmeg trading monopoly in Indonesia.

American Revolution and the early United States

 

Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of major battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the disastrous Battle of Fort Washington on November 16, 1776. The city became the British political and military center of operations in North America for the remainder of the war. Manhattan was greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the British military rule that followed. British occupation lasted until November 25, 1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the city.

 

From January 11, 1785, to the fall of 1788, New York City was the fifth of five capitals of the United States under the Articles of Confederation, with the Continental Congress meeting at New York City Hall (then at Fraunces Tavern). New York was the first capital under the newly enacted Constitution of the United States, from March 4, 1789, to August 12, 1790, at Federal Hall. Federal Hall was also the site of where the United States Supreme Court met for the first time, the United States Bill of Rights were drafted and ratified, and where the Northwest Ordinance was adopted, establishing measures for adding new states to the Union.

 

Manhattan is loosely divided into Downtown (Lower Manhattan), Midtown (Midtown Manhattan), and Uptown (Upper Manhattan), with Fifth Avenue dividing Manhattan's east and west sides. Manhattan Island is bounded by the Hudson River to the west and the East River to the east. To the north, the Harlem River divides Manhattan Island from The Bronx and the mainland United States. Several small islands are also part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall's Island, Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, New York County has a total area of 33.6 square miles (87 km2), of which 22.8 square miles (59 km2) is land and 10.8 square miles (28 km2) (32%) is water. The northern segment of Upper Manhattan represents a geographic panhandle. Manhattan Island is 22.7 square miles (59 km2) in area, 13.4 miles (21.6 km) long and 2.3 miles (3.7 km) wide, at its widest (near 14th Street).

 

Early in the 19th century, landfill was used to expand Lower Manhattan from the natural Hudson shoreline at Greenwich Street to West Street. When building the World Trade Center, 1.2 million cubic yards (917,000 m³) of material was excavated from the site. Rather than dumping the spoil at sea or in landfills, the fill material was used to expand the Manhattan shoreline across West Street, creating Battery Park City. The result was a 700-foot (210-m) extension into the river, running six blocks or 1,484 feet (452 m), covering 92 acres (37 ha), providing a 1.2-mile (1.9 km) riverfront esplanade and over 30 acres (12 ha) of parks.

 

At the 2010 Census, there were 1,585,873 people living in Manhattan, an increase of 3.2% since 2000. Since 2010, Manhattan's population was estimated by the Census Bureau to have increased 2.5% to 1,626,159 as of 2013, representing 19.3% of the city's population and 8.3% of the state's population. As of the 2000 Census, the population density of New York County was 66,940 per square mile (25,846/km²), the highest population density of any county in the United States. If 2012 census estimates were accurate, the population density then approximated 70,518 people per square mile (27,227/km²). In 1910, at the height of European immigration to New York, Manhattan's population density reached a peak of 101,548 people per square mile (39,208/km²). There were 798,144 housing units in 2000 at an average density of 34,756.7 per square mile (13,421.8/km²). Only 20.3% of Manhattan residents lived in owner-occupied housing, the second-lowest rate of all counties in the nation, behind the Bronx.

 

According to 2012 Census estimates, 65.2% of the population was White, 18.4% Black or African American, 1.2% American Indian and Alaska Native, 12.0% Asian, and 3.1% of two or more races. 25.8% of Manhattan's population was of Hispanic or Latino origin, of any race. Manhattan has the second highest percentage of non-Hispanic Whites (48%) of New York City's boroughs, after Staten Island (where non-Hispanic Whites make up 64% of residents).

 

The New York City Department of City Planning projects that Manhattan's population will increase by 289,000 people between 2000 and 2030, an increase of 18.8% over the period, second only to Staten Island, while the rest of the city is projected to grow by 12.7% over the same period. The school-age population is expected to grow 4.4% by 2030, in contrast to a small decline in the city as a whole. The elderly population is forecast to grow by 57.9%, with the borough adding 108,000 persons ages 65 and over, compared to 44.2% growth citywide.

 

According to the 2009 American Community Survey, the average household size was 2.11, and the average family size was 3.21. Approximately 59.4% of the population over the age of 25 have a bachelor's degree or higher. Approximately 27.0% of the population is foreign-born, and 61.7% of the population over the age of 5 speak only English at home. People of Irish ancestry make up 7.8% of the population, while Italian Americans make up 6.8% of the population. German Americans and Russian Americans make up 7.2% and 6.2% of the population respectively.

 

In 2000, 56.4% of people living in Manhattan were White, 17.39% were Black, 14.14% were from other races, 9.40% were Asian, 0.5% were Native American, and 0.07% were Pacific Islander. 4.14% were from two or more races. 27.18% were Hispanic of any race.

 

There were 738,644 households. 25.2% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 59.1% were non-families. 17.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them. 48% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was two and the average family size was 2.99.

 

Manhattan's population was spread out with 16.8% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 38.3% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, and 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males.

 

Manhattan is one of the highest-income places in the United States with a population greater than one million. As of 2012, Manhattan's cost of living was the highest in the United States, but the borough also contained the country's most profound level of income inequality. Manhattan is also the United States county with the highest per capita income, being the sole county whose per capita income exceeded $100,000 in 2010. In 2012, The New York Times reported that "the income gap in Manhattan, already wider than almost anywhere else in the country, rivaled disparities in sub-Saharan Africa. ... The wealthiest fifth of Manhattanites made more than 40 times what the lowest fifth reported, a widening gap (it was 38 times, the year before) surpassed by only a few developing countries".

 

Lower Manhattan has been experiencing a baby boom, well above the overall birth rate in Manhattan, with the area south of Canal Street witnessing 1,086 births in 2010, 12% greater than 2009 and over twice the number born in 2001. The Financial District alone has witnessed growth in its population to approximately 43,000 as of 2014, nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census.

  

from Wikipedia

 

Manhattan is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City. The borough is coterminous with New York County, founded on November 1, 1683 as an original county of the U.S. state of New York. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the East, Hudson, and Harlem Rivers, but also includes several small adjacent islands, as well as Marble Hill, a small neighborhood on the U.S. mainland.

 

Manhattan has been described as the economic and cultural center of the United States and serves as home to the United Nations Headquarters. Wall Street, in Lower Manhattan, has been called the financial capital of the world, and is home to the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Many multinational media conglomerates are based in the borough. Historically documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for the equivalent of US$24, Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island itself estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2014.

 

New York County is the most densely populated county in the United States, and is more dense than any individual American city. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a Census-estimated 2013 population of 1,626,159 living in a land area of 22.96 square miles (59.5 km2), or about 70,826 residents per square mile (27,346/km²). On business days, the influx of commuters increases that number to over 3.9 million, or around 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, and is the smallest borough in terms of land area.

 

Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan have become well known to New York City's approximately 50 million annual visitors. Times Square, iconified as "The Crossroads of the World" and "The Center of the Universe", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. The borough hosts many world-renowned bridges, skyscrapers, and parks. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere. The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 35 in the world. The city of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of city government and a National Historic Landmark that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen (Half Moon). A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River (later named the Hudson River). The word "Manhattan" has been translated as "island of many hills" from the Lenape language.

 

The United States Postal Service prefers that mail addressed to Manhattan use "New York, NY" rather than "Manhattan, NY".

  

The area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of the French king Francis I – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. He entered The Narrows aboard his ship La Dauphine and named the land around Upper New York Harbor "New Angoulême", in reference to the family name of Francis I of France that was derived from Angoulême in France; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the Hudson River which he referred to in his report to the French king as a "very big river"; and he named Upper New York Bay the Bay of Santa Margarita – after Marguerite de Navarre – the elder sister of the king.

 

It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, that the area was mapped. Hudson came across Manhattan Island and the native people living there in 1609, and continued up the river that would later bear his name, the Hudson River, until he arrived at the site of present day Albany.

  

A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, later called New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam). Manhattan Island was chosen as the site of Fort Amsterdam, a citadel for the protection of the new arrivals; its 1625 establishment is recognized as the birth date of New York City. According to the document by Pieter Janszoon Schagen our People (ons Volck), Peter Minuit and Dutch colonists acquired Manhattan in 1626 from unnamed American Indian people in exchange for trade goods worth 60 guilders, often said to be worth US$24, though (by comparing the price of bread and other goods) it actually amounts to around US$1,050 in 2014.

 

In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director General of the colony. New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1653. In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it "New York" after the English Duke of York and Albany, the future King James II. The Dutch, under Director General Stuyvesant, successfully negotiated with the English to produce 24 articles of provisional transfer, which sought to retain for the extant citizens of New Netherland their previously attained liberties (including freedom of religion) under new colonial English rulers.

 

The Dutch Republic regained it in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming the city "New Orange". New Netherland was ceded permanently to the English in November 1674 through the Treaty of Westminster, in exchange for Run Island which was the long-coveted last link in the Dutch nutmeg trading monopoly in Indonesia.

American Revolution and the early United States

 

Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of major battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the disastrous Battle of Fort Washington on November 16, 1776. The city became the British political and military center of operations in North America for the remainder of the war. Manhattan was greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the British military rule that followed. British occupation lasted until November 25, 1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the city.

 

From January 11, 1785, to the fall of 1788, New York City was the fifth of five capitals of the United States under the Articles of Confederation, with the Continental Congress meeting at New York City Hall (then at Fraunces Tavern). New York was the first capital under the newly enacted Constitution of the United States, from March 4, 1789, to August 12, 1790, at Federal Hall. Federal Hall was also the site of where the United States Supreme Court met for the first time, the United States Bill of Rights were drafted and ratified, and where the Northwest Ordinance was adopted, establishing measures for adding new states to the Union.

 

Manhattan is loosely divided into Downtown (Lower Manhattan), Midtown (Midtown Manhattan), and Uptown (Upper Manhattan), with Fifth Avenue dividing Manhattan's east and west sides. Manhattan Island is bounded by the Hudson River to the west and the East River to the east. To the north, the Harlem River divides Manhattan Island from The Bronx and the mainland United States. Several small islands are also part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall's Island, Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, New York County has a total area of 33.6 square miles (87 km2), of which 22.8 square miles (59 km2) is land and 10.8 square miles (28 km2) (32%) is water. The northern segment of Upper Manhattan represents a geographic panhandle. Manhattan Island is 22.7 square miles (59 km2) in area, 13.4 miles (21.6 km) long and 2.3 miles (3.7 km) wide, at its widest (near 14th Street).

 

Early in the 19th century, landfill was used to expand Lower Manhattan from the natural Hudson shoreline at Greenwich Street to West Street. When building the World Trade Center, 1.2 million cubic yards (917,000 m³) of material was excavated from the site. Rather than dumping the spoil at sea or in landfills, the fill material was used to expand the Manhattan shoreline across West Street, creating Battery Park City. The result was a 700-foot (210-m) extension into the river, running six blocks or 1,484 feet (452 m), covering 92 acres (37 ha), providing a 1.2-mile (1.9 km) riverfront esplanade and over 30 acres (12 ha) of parks.

 

At the 2010 Census, there were 1,585,873 people living in Manhattan, an increase of 3.2% since 2000. Since 2010, Manhattan's population was estimated by the Census Bureau to have increased 2.5% to 1,626,159 as of 2013, representing 19.3% of the city's population and 8.3% of the state's population. As of the 2000 Census, the population density of New York County was 66,940 per square mile (25,846/km²), the highest population density of any county in the United States. If 2012 census estimates were accurate, the population density then approximated 70,518 people per square mile (27,227/km²). In 1910, at the height of European immigration to New York, Manhattan's population density reached a peak of 101,548 people per square mile (39,208/km²). There were 798,144 housing units in 2000 at an average density of 34,756.7 per square mile (13,421.8/km²). Only 20.3% of Manhattan residents lived in owner-occupied housing, the second-lowest rate of all counties in the nation, behind the Bronx.

 

According to 2012 Census estimates, 65.2% of the population was White, 18.4% Black or African American, 1.2% American Indian and Alaska Native, 12.0% Asian, and 3.1% of two or more races. 25.8% of Manhattan's population was of Hispanic or Latino origin, of any race. Manhattan has the second highest percentage of non-Hispanic Whites (48%) of New York City's boroughs, after Staten Island (where non-Hispanic Whites make up 64% of residents).

 

The New York City Department of City Planning projects that Manhattan's population will increase by 289,000 people between 2000 and 2030, an increase of 18.8% over the period, second only to Staten Island, while the rest of the city is projected to grow by 12.7% over the same period. The school-age population is expected to grow 4.4% by 2030, in contrast to a small decline in the city as a whole. The elderly population is forecast to grow by 57.9%, with the borough adding 108,000 persons ages 65 and over, compared to 44.2% growth citywide.

 

According to the 2009 American Community Survey, the average household size was 2.11, and the average family size was 3.21. Approximately 59.4% of the population over the age of 25 have a bachelor's degree or higher. Approximately 27.0% of the population is foreign-born, and 61.7% of the population over the age of 5 speak only English at home. People of Irish ancestry make up 7.8% of the population, while Italian Americans make up 6.8% of the population. German Americans and Russian Americans make up 7.2% and 6.2% of the population respectively.

 

In 2000, 56.4% of people living in Manhattan were White, 17.39% were Black, 14.14% were from other races, 9.40% were Asian, 0.5% were Native American, and 0.07% were Pacific Islander. 4.14% were from two or more races. 27.18% were Hispanic of any race.

 

There were 738,644 households. 25.2% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 59.1% were non-families. 17.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them. 48% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was two and the average family size was 2.99.

 

Manhattan's population was spread out with 16.8% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 38.3% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, and 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males.

 

Manhattan is one of the highest-income places in the United States with a population greater than one million. As of 2012, Manhattan's cost of living was the highest in the United States, but the borough also contained the country's most profound level of income inequality. Manhattan is also the United States county with the highest per capita income, being the sole county whose per capita income exceeded $100,000 in 2010. In 2012, The New York Times reported that "the income gap in Manhattan, already wider than almost anywhere else in the country, rivaled disparities in sub-Saharan Africa. ... The wealthiest fifth of Manhattanites made more than 40 times what the lowest fifth reported, a widening gap (it was 38 times, the year before) surpassed by only a few developing countries".

 

Lower Manhattan has been experiencing a baby boom, well above the overall birth rate in Manhattan, with the area south of Canal Street witnessing 1,086 births in 2010, 12% greater than 2009 and over twice the number born in 2001. The Financial District alone has witnessed growth in its population to approximately 43,000 as of 2014, nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census.

  

from Wikipedia

 

Singapore Gardens by the Bay consists of three distinctive waterfront gardens – Bay South, Bay East and Bay Central, spanning a total of 101 hectares. They are set in the heart of Singapore’s new downtown Marina Bay, encircling the Marina Reservoir like a green necklace. The Gardens will complement the array of attractions around Marina Bay.

 

Gardens by the Bay is an integral part of a strategy by the Singapore government that further transforms Singapore from a ‘Garden City’ to a ‘City in a Garden’, in which the city is woven into a green and floral tapestry. This aims to raise the quality of life in Singapore with a more holistic and all-encompassing programme that enhances greenery and flora in the city. First announced to the public by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong during the National Day Rally in August 2005, Gardens by the Bay will become Singapore’s premier urban outdoor recreation space, and a national icon.

 

An international competition for the design of the master plan was held in January 2006 to elicit the best designs for the Gardens. This attracted more than 70 entries submitted by 170 firms from 24 countries, from which two firms – Grant Associates and Gustafson Porter – were eventually awarded the master plan design for the Bay South and Bay East Gardens respectively.

 

The Gardens are being developed in phases. Bay South is currently being constructed and is slated to be completed by June 2012. Bay East has been developed as an interim park in support of the Youth Olympic Games 2010, and is scheduled to open to the public in late 2011 or early 2012. The full master plan implementation of Bay East and the development of Bay Central are part of the next phase of development.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia......

 

Some information about singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the Singapore Strait to its south. Singapore is highly urbanised but almost half of the country is covered by greenery. More land is being created for development through land reclamation.

 

Singapore had been a part of various local empires since it was first inhabited in the second century AD. Modern Singapore was founded as a trading post of the East India Company by Sir Stamford Raffles in 1819 with permission from the Sultanate of Johor. The British obtained full sovereignty over the island in 1824 and Singapore became one of the British Straits Settlements in 1826. Singapore was occupied by the Japanese in World War II and reverted to British rule after the war. It became internally self-governing in 1959. Singapore united with other former British territories to form Malaysia in 1963 and became a fully independent state two years later after separation from Malaysia. Since then it has had a massive increase in wealth, and is one of the Four Asian Tigers. The economy depends heavily on the industry and service sectors. Singapore is a world leader in several areas: It is the world's fourth-leading financial centre, the world's second-biggest casino gambling market, and the world's third-largest oil refining centre. The port of Singapore is one of the five busiest ports in the world, most notable for being the busiest transshipment port in the world. The country is home to more US dollar millionaire households per capita than any other country. The World Bank notes Singapore as the easiest place in the world to do business. The country has the world's third highest GDP PPP per capita of US$59,936, making Singapore one of the world's wealthiest countries.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia...

  

Marina Bay

 

Please note that all the contents in this photostream is copyrighted and protected under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, any usage of the images without permission will face liability for the infringement.

Some information about singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the Singapore Strait to its south. Singapore is highly urbanised but almost half of the country is covered by greenery. More land is being created for development through land reclamation.

 

Singapore had been a part of various local empires since it was first inhabited in the second century AD. Modern Singapore was founded as a trading post of the East India Company by Sir Stamford Raffles in 1819 with permission from the Sultanate of Johor. The British obtained full sovereignty over the island in 1824 and Singapore became one of the British Straits Settlements in 1826. Singapore was occupied by the Japanese in World War II and reverted to British rule after the war. It became internally self-governing in 1959. Singapore united with other former British territories to form Malaysia in 1963 and became a fully independent state two years later after separation from Malaysia. Since then it has had a massive increase in wealth, and is one of the Four Asian Tigers. The economy depends heavily on the industry and service sectors. Singapore is a world leader in several areas: It is the world's fourth-leading financial centre, the world's second-biggest casino gambling market, and the world's third-largest oil refining centre. The port of Singapore is one of the five busiest ports in the world, most notable for being the busiest transshipment port in the world. The country is home to more US dollar millionaire households per capita than any other country. The World Bank notes Singapore as the easiest place in the world to do business. The country has the world's third highest GDP PPP per capita of US$59,936, making Singapore one of the world's wealthiest countries.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia...

  

Singapore Marina Bay is a bay near Central Area in the southern part of Singapore, and lies to the east of the Downtown Core. Marina Bay is set to be a 24/7 destination with endless opportunities for people to “explore new living and lifestyle options, exchange new ideas and information for business, and be entertained by rich leisure and cultural experiences”.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

singapore river..

marina bay.

marina bay sands.

.

  

Gardens by the Bay consists of three distinctive waterfront gardens – Bay South, Bay East and Bay Central, spanning a total of 101 hectares. They are set in the heart of Singapore’s new downtown Marina Bay, encircling the Marina Reservoir like a green necklace. The Gardens will complement the array of attractions around Marina Bay.

 

Gardens by the Bay is an integral part of a strategy by the Singapore government that further transforms Singapore from a ‘Garden City’ to a ‘City in a Garden’, in which the city is woven into a green and floral tapestry. This aims to raise the quality of life in Singapore with a more holistic and all-encompassing programme that enhances greenery and flora in the city. First announced to the public by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong during the National Day Rally in August 2005, Gardens by the Bay will become Singapore’s premier urban outdoor recreation space, and a national icon.

 

An international competition for the design of the master plan was held in January 2006 to elicit the best designs for the Gardens. This attracted more than 70 entries submitted by 170 firms from 24 countries, from which two firms – Grant Associates and Gustafson Porter – were eventually awarded the master plan design for the Bay South and Bay East Gardens respectively.

 

The Gardens are being developed in phases. Bay South is currently being constructed and is slated to be completed by June 2012. Bay East has been developed as an interim park in support of the Youth Olympic Games 2010, and is scheduled to open to the public in late 2011 or early 2012. The full master plan implementation of Bay East and the development of Bay Central are part of the next phase of development.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia......

 

Some information about singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the Singapore Strait to its south. Singapore is highly urbanised but almost half of the country is covered by greenery. More land is being created for development through land reclamation.

 

Singapore had been a part of various local empires since it was first inhabited in the second century AD. Modern Singapore was founded as a trading post of the East India Company by Sir Stamford Raffles in 1819 with permission from the Sultanate of Johor. The British obtained full sovereignty over the island in 1824 and Singapore became one of the British Straits Settlements in 1826. Singapore was occupied by the Japanese in World War II and reverted to British rule after the war. It became internally self-governing in 1959. Singapore united with other former British territories to form Malaysia in 1963 and became a fully independent state two years later after separation from Malaysia. Since then it has had a massive increase in wealth, and is one of the Four Asian Tigers. The economy depends heavily on the industry and service sectors. Singapore is a world leader in several areas: It is the world's fourth-leading financial centre, the world's second-biggest casino gambling market, and the world's third-largest oil refining centre. The port of Singapore is one of the five busiest ports in the world, most notable for being the busiest transshipment port in the world. The country is home to more US dollar millionaire households per capita than any other country. The World Bank notes Singapore as the easiest place in the world to do business. The country has the world's third highest GDP PPP per capita of US$59,936, making Singapore one of the world's wealthiest countries.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia...

  

Manhattan is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City. The borough is coterminous with New York County, founded on November 1, 1683 as an original county of the U.S. state of New York. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the East, Hudson, and Harlem Rivers, but also includes several small adjacent islands, as well as Marble Hill, a small neighborhood on the U.S. mainland.

 

Manhattan has been described as the economic and cultural center of the United States and serves as home to the United Nations Headquarters. Wall Street, in Lower Manhattan, has been called the financial capital of the world, and is home to the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Many multinational media conglomerates are based in the borough. Historically documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for the equivalent of US$24, Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island itself estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2014.

 

New York County is the most densely populated county in the United States, and is more dense than any individual American city. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a Census-estimated 2013 population of 1,626,159 living in a land area of 22.96 square miles (59.5 km2), or about 70,826 residents per square mile (27,346/km²). On business days, the influx of commuters increases that number to over 3.9 million, or around 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, and is the smallest borough in terms of land area.

 

Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan have become well known to New York City's approximately 50 million annual visitors. Times Square, iconified as "The Crossroads of the World" and "The Center of the Universe", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. The borough hosts many world-renowned bridges, skyscrapers, and parks. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere. The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 35 in the world. The city of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of city government and a National Historic Landmark that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen (Half Moon). A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River (later named the Hudson River). The word "Manhattan" has been translated as "island of many hills" from the Lenape language.

 

The United States Postal Service prefers that mail addressed to Manhattan use "New York, NY" rather than "Manhattan, NY".

  

The area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of the French king Francis I – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. He entered The Narrows aboard his ship La Dauphine and named the land around Upper New York Harbor "New Angoulême", in reference to the family name of Francis I of France that was derived from Angoulême in France; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the Hudson River which he referred to in his report to the French king as a "very big river"; and he named Upper New York Bay the Bay of Santa Margarita – after Marguerite de Navarre – the elder sister of the king.

 

It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, that the area was mapped. Hudson came across Manhattan Island and the native people living there in 1609, and continued up the river that would later bear his name, the Hudson River, until he arrived at the site of present day Albany.

  

A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, later called New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam). Manhattan Island was chosen as the site of Fort Amsterdam, a citadel for the protection of the new arrivals; its 1625 establishment is recognized as the birth date of New York City. According to the document by Pieter Janszoon Schagen our People (ons Volck), Peter Minuit and Dutch colonists acquired Manhattan in 1626 from unnamed American Indian people in exchange for trade goods worth 60 guilders, often said to be worth US$24, though (by comparing the price of bread and other goods) it actually amounts to around US$1,050 in 2014.

 

In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director General of the colony. New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1653. In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it "New York" after the English Duke of York and Albany, the future King James II. The Dutch, under Director General Stuyvesant, successfully negotiated with the English to produce 24 articles of provisional transfer, which sought to retain for the extant citizens of New Netherland their previously attained liberties (including freedom of religion) under new colonial English rulers.

 

The Dutch Republic regained it in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming the city "New Orange". New Netherland was ceded permanently to the English in November 1674 through the Treaty of Westminster, in exchange for Run Island which was the long-coveted last link in the Dutch nutmeg trading monopoly in Indonesia.

American Revolution and the early United States

 

Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of major battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the disastrous Battle of Fort Washington on November 16, 1776. The city became the British political and military center of operations in North America for the remainder of the war. Manhattan was greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the British military rule that followed. British occupation lasted until November 25, 1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the city.

 

From January 11, 1785, to the fall of 1788, New York City was the fifth of five capitals of the United States under the Articles of Confederation, with the Continental Congress meeting at New York City Hall (then at Fraunces Tavern). New York was the first capital under the newly enacted Constitution of the United States, from March 4, 1789, to August 12, 1790, at Federal Hall. Federal Hall was also the site of where the United States Supreme Court met for the first time, the United States Bill of Rights were drafted and ratified, and where the Northwest Ordinance was adopted, establishing measures for adding new states to the Union.

 

Manhattan is loosely divided into Downtown (Lower Manhattan), Midtown (Midtown Manhattan), and Uptown (Upper Manhattan), with Fifth Avenue dividing Manhattan's east and west sides. Manhattan Island is bounded by the Hudson River to the west and the East River to the east. To the north, the Harlem River divides Manhattan Island from The Bronx and the mainland United States. Several small islands are also part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall's Island, Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, New York County has a total area of 33.6 square miles (87 km2), of which 22.8 square miles (59 km2) is land and 10.8 square miles (28 km2) (32%) is water. The northern segment of Upper Manhattan represents a geographic panhandle. Manhattan Island is 22.7 square miles (59 km2) in area, 13.4 miles (21.6 km) long and 2.3 miles (3.7 km) wide, at its widest (near 14th Street).

 

Early in the 19th century, landfill was used to expand Lower Manhattan from the natural Hudson shoreline at Greenwich Street to West Street. When building the World Trade Center, 1.2 million cubic yards (917,000 m³) of material was excavated from the site. Rather than dumping the spoil at sea or in landfills, the fill material was used to expand the Manhattan shoreline across West Street, creating Battery Park City. The result was a 700-foot (210-m) extension into the river, running six blocks or 1,484 feet (452 m), covering 92 acres (37 ha), providing a 1.2-mile (1.9 km) riverfront esplanade and over 30 acres (12 ha) of parks.

 

At the 2010 Census, there were 1,585,873 people living in Manhattan, an increase of 3.2% since 2000. Since 2010, Manhattan's population was estimated by the Census Bureau to have increased 2.5% to 1,626,159 as of 2013, representing 19.3% of the city's population and 8.3% of the state's population. As of the 2000 Census, the population density of New York County was 66,940 per square mile (25,846/km²), the highest population density of any county in the United States. If 2012 census estimates were accurate, the population density then approximated 70,518 people per square mile (27,227/km²). In 1910, at the height of European immigration to New York, Manhattan's population density reached a peak of 101,548 people per square mile (39,208/km²). There were 798,144 housing units in 2000 at an average density of 34,756.7 per square mile (13,421.8/km²). Only 20.3% of Manhattan residents lived in owner-occupied housing, the second-lowest rate of all counties in the nation, behind the Bronx.

 

According to 2012 Census estimates, 65.2% of the population was White, 18.4% Black or African American, 1.2% American Indian and Alaska Native, 12.0% Asian, and 3.1% of two or more races. 25.8% of Manhattan's population was of Hispanic or Latino origin, of any race. Manhattan has the second highest percentage of non-Hispanic Whites (48%) of New York City's boroughs, after Staten Island (where non-Hispanic Whites make up 64% of residents).

 

The New York City Department of City Planning projects that Manhattan's population will increase by 289,000 people between 2000 and 2030, an increase of 18.8% over the period, second only to Staten Island, while the rest of the city is projected to grow by 12.7% over the same period. The school-age population is expected to grow 4.4% by 2030, in contrast to a small decline in the city as a whole. The elderly population is forecast to grow by 57.9%, with the borough adding 108,000 persons ages 65 and over, compared to 44.2% growth citywide.

 

According to the 2009 American Community Survey, the average household size was 2.11, and the average family size was 3.21. Approximately 59.4% of the population over the age of 25 have a bachelor's degree or higher. Approximately 27.0% of the population is foreign-born, and 61.7% of the population over the age of 5 speak only English at home. People of Irish ancestry make up 7.8% of the population, while Italian Americans make up 6.8% of the population. German Americans and Russian Americans make up 7.2% and 6.2% of the population respectively.

 

In 2000, 56.4% of people living in Manhattan were White, 17.39% were Black, 14.14% were from other races, 9.40% were Asian, 0.5% were Native American, and 0.07% were Pacific Islander. 4.14% were from two or more races. 27.18% were Hispanic of any race.

 

There were 738,644 households. 25.2% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 59.1% were non-families. 17.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them. 48% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was two and the average family size was 2.99.

 

Manhattan's population was spread out with 16.8% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 38.3% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, and 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males.

 

Manhattan is one of the highest-income places in the United States with a population greater than one million. As of 2012, Manhattan's cost of living was the highest in the United States, but the borough also contained the country's most profound level of income inequality. Manhattan is also the United States county with the highest per capita income, being the sole county whose per capita income exceeded $100,000 in 2010. In 2012, The New York Times reported that "the income gap in Manhattan, already wider than almost anywhere else in the country, rivaled disparities in sub-Saharan Africa. ... The wealthiest fifth of Manhattanites made more than 40 times what the lowest fifth reported, a widening gap (it was 38 times, the year before) surpassed by only a few developing countries".

 

Lower Manhattan has been experiencing a baby boom, well above the overall birth rate in Manhattan, with the area south of Canal Street witnessing 1,086 births in 2010, 12% greater than 2009 and over twice the number born in 2001. The Financial District alone has witnessed growth in its population to approximately 43,000 as of 2014, nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census.

  

from Wikipedia

 

Jupiter Inlet Colony is a town in Palm Beach County, Florida, United States. The population was 400 at the 2010 census.

 

Jupiter Inlet Colony is located at 26°56′51″N 80°4′29″W (26.947393, -80.074616), in the southernmost tip of Jupiter Island.

 

According to the United States Census Bureau, the town has a total area of 0.2 square miles (0.52 km2), of which 0.2 square miles (0.52 km2) is land and 0.1 square miles (0.26 km2) (21.74%) is water.

 

As of the census of 2000, there were 368 people, 180 households, and 124 families residing in the town. The population density was 2,090.1 inhabitants per square mile (789.4/km²). There were 229 housing units at an average density of 1,300.6 per square mile (491.2/km²). The racial makeup of the town was 99.73% White, and 0.27% from other races.

 

There were 180 households out of which 12.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 64.4% were married couples living together, 3.3% had a female householder with no husband present, and 31.1% were non-families. 23.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 15.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.04 and the average family size was 2.38.

 

In the town, the population was spread out with 10.6% under the age of 18, 1.1% from 18 to 24, 12.2% from 25 to 44, 36.1% from 45 to 64, and 39.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 60 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.4 males.

 

The median income for a household in the town was $65,938, and the median income for a family was $93,554. Males had a median income of $90,000 versus $41,875 for females. The per capita income for the town was $66,713. About 1.6% of families and 3.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 10.0% of those under age 18 and 1.2% of those age 65 or over.

 

As of 2000, 100% of the population spoke English as their first language. It, along with Briny Breezes, Cloud Lake, and Golf, were the only municipalities in Palm Beach county with all residents having the mother tongue of English.

 

Credit for the data above is given to the following website:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jupiter_Inlet_Colony,_Florida

Here you can see the shorelines of Bangui and Pagudpud of Ilocos Norte , Philippines . Claveria is actually part of Cagayan , Philippines .

 

Pagudpud is a coastal resort town on the northernmost tip of Luzon in the Philippines. According to the latest census, Pagudpud has a population of 20,385 people in 3,804 households.

Its white-sand beaches and crystal-blue water makes Pagudpud a haven for tourists. Maira-Ira Point is also an emerging attraction with its secluded beach known as the Blue Lagoon. Access to this public beach is from a secondary concrete road on the north side of the Maharlika Highway just before approaching the Patapat Viaduct. On the way to the Blue Lagoon, a sea arch can be seen. Coconut trees line much of the town's coast. On a clear day, the Batanes Islands are visible from Patapat National Park.

 

The Patapat Viaduct, elevated 31 meters over sea level, is 1.3 km concrete coastal bridge that connects the Maharlika Highway from Laoag, Ilocos Norte to the Cagayan Valley Region. It rises along the town's coastal mountains, which is the starting point of the Cordillera Mountain Range that snakes through Northern Luzon. It is the 4th longest bridge in the Philippines. Located more than 16 kilometers from the town proper, it offers a scenic view of Pasaleng Bay- a view that leads towards wide and pristine beaches backed by mountains with breathtaking waterfalls Kabigan and Mabaga, along with the many cool, refreshing springs waiting to be discovered within.

  

Olkhon (Ольхон, also transliterated as Olchon) is the third-largest lake-bound island in the world. It is by far the largest island in Lake Baikal in eastern Siberia, with an area of 730 square kilometres (280 sq mi). Structurally, it acts as the southwestern margin of Academician Ridge. The island measures 71.5 kilometres (44.4 mi) in length and 20.8 kilometres (12.9 mi) in width.

 

Olkhon has a dramatic combination of terrain and is rich in archeological landmarks. Steep mountains line its eastern shore, and at 1,276 metres (4,186 ft) above sea level, Mount Zhima is the highest point on the island, peaking at 818 metres (2,684 ft) above the water level of Lake Baikal. The island is large enough to have its own lakes, and features a combination of taiga, steppe and even a small desert. A deep strait separates the island from the land.

The island's appearance is a result of millions of years of tectonic movement resulting in the hollowing of the channel between the land (Small Sea Strait) and the block of stone forming the island. The steep slopes of the mountains show the vertical heave of the earth.

 

The population of the island is less than 1,500 and consists mostly of Buryats, the island's aboriginal people.

 

There are several settlements and five villages on the island: Yalga, Malomorets, Khuzhir, Kharantsi, and Ulan-Khushin. The village of Khuzhir is the administrative capital of Olkhon, designated as such in April 1987, when the Soviet government issued a comprehensive decree protecting Lake Baikal. Khuzhir is home to about 1,200 residents and boasts a museum of local nature and history.

 

Most residents are fishermen, farmers, or cattle-ranchers. Due to an increasing number of tourists from all over the world, many residents work in this sector as well, and tourism has become an important part of the economy in Olkhon.

 

The indigenous Buryats, adherents of shamanism, believe the island to be a spiritual place; one of the groups of deities adhered to in Buryati yellow shamanism is called the oikony noyod, the "thirteen lords of Olkhon. On the western coast, close to Khuzhir, is Baikal's most famous landmark, the Shamanka, or Shaman's Rock. Natives believe that Burkhan, a modern religious cult figure of the Altai peoples, lives in the cave in this rock. The rock is one of nine Asian Most Sacred Places. Olkhon is considered a centre of Kurumchinskay culture of 6th-10th centuries.

The museum at Olkhon, named after Revyakin, exposits on the nature and ethnography of the island, including pipe-smoking and a samovar collection.

 

The island has a long history of human habitation. The original indigenous people were the Kurykans, forefathers of two ethnic groups: the Buryats and Yakuts.

Russian explorers first visited during the 17th century.

 

One of the most important ecological problems of Olkhon Island is the disposal of household waste. At present, the waste is disposed of in large piles in forestry near the village of Khuzhir. The dump is unenclosed, and the tipping process is uncontrolled. Moreover, with recent increases in tourism on the island, new sources of hard rubbish have begun to appear.

 

Another ecological concern affecting the island is the illegal felling of timber by local inhabitants. A complicated net of forestry roads in the areas adjacent to Khuzhir lead to woodland areas on the mountain slopes. Timber is brought out of the forest at night time, and the deforestation is taking its toll on the area.

   

Il Lago Bajkal (in russo: О́зеро Байка́л, Ozero Bajkal, ['ozʲɪrə bʌj'kɑl],in mongolo ed in buriato Dalai-Nor, Mare sacro) è un lago della Siberia meridionale, diviso fra i territori dell'oblast' di Irkutsk e della repubblica di Buriazia. È stato posto sotto la tutela dell'UNESCO come patrimonio dell'umanità nel 1996. Fa parte della lista delle Sette meraviglie della Russia.

 

Il lago Bajkal si estende su una superficie di 31.722 km², che ne fa uno dei maggiori laghi al mondo per superficie; si allunga per 636 km da nord a sud (è il secondo del mondo per lunghezza dopo il lago Tanganica), con una larghezza media di 48 km (massima 79,4 km). La profondità media del lago è di 744 m, con una massima di 1.642 m nella parte centrale. Questi valori ne fanno contemporaneamente il lago d'acqua dolce più profondo del mondo e quello con il volume maggiore (23.615 km3). Contiene un volume d'acqua pressoché equivalente a quello dei cinque grandi laghi americani messi assieme. Si stima che contenga circa il 20% delle riserve d'acqua dolce del pianeta (esclusi i ghiacciai e le calotte polari).

Il lago Bajkal si estende in una zona geologicamente molto tormentata; occupa una zona di sprofondamento (fossa tettonica) molto profonda (la criptodepressione arriva a quasi 1.200 m sotto il livello del mare, dato che il pelo dell'acqua del lago è a circa 450 m s.l.m.), ed è circondato da piccole catene montuose che si allungano tutto intorno alle sue coste: monti del Bajkal, monti del Barguzin, monti Primorskij, monti Chamar-Daban, monti Ulan-Burgasy e, all'estremità settentrionale, l'Altopiano Stanovoj.

 

Il Bajkal riceve le acque di 336 immissari, i maggiori dei quali sono il Selenga (che nasce in Mongolia), il Barguzin, la Verchnjaja Angara (Angara Superiore), la Turka e la Snežnaja; possiede per contro un solo emissario, l'Angara, tramite il quale il lago tributa allo Enisej. Il bacino imbrifero del Bajkal si estende su una superficie di circa 557.000 km².

 

Il Bajkal si trova in una regione dal clima molto duro, con fortissime escursioni termiche fra le stagioni estreme; il lago, con la sua enorme massa d'acqua, esercita una forte azione di mitigazione delle temperature, con il risultato di avere inverni meno freddi ed estati più fresche e umide delle zone circostanti. D'inverno il lago è interessato da un esteso congelamento delle acque superficiali; questi ghiacci, per via della inerzia termica data dalla gran massa d'acqua, tendono a formarsi piuttosto tardi (dicembre) e a fondere completamente solo verso maggio.

Il lago è frequentemente battuto da un forte vento che viene chiamato "sarma" dalle popolazioni locali, che può toccare i 150 km/h.

 

Il lago Bajkal è caratterizzato da un ambiente atipico per un lago: le sue acque sono molto ricche d'ossigeno (soluzione satura al 75%) e anche il punto più profondo è popolato da forme di vita, mentre in altri laghi profondi in varie parti del mondo le forme di vita macroscopica scompaiono oltre i 300 m a causa dell'anossia.

Il lago Bajkal è sede di svariati endemismi.

Nel 1962 erano state censite nel lago e nelle sue vicinanze 1.220 diverse specie animali e vegetali, nel 1978 il numero era cresciuto a 1.400 e da allora ogni anno nuove forme di vita continuano ad essere scoperte. Ad oggi le nuove specie scoperte in loco sono oltre 2.500, di cui il 60% di tipo animale ed il 15% di tipo vegetale. Nel lago vi sono 250 specie di crostacei e ben 52 di pesci, di cui 27 endemiche del Bajkal.

Una delle specie più caratteristiche è la nerpa, la foca del Bajkal (Pusa sibirica), specie endemica di taglia piccola, dal manto grigio scuro, si nutre di pesci, ed è all'apice della catena alimentare del lago Bajkal. Alla fine del secolo scorso la caccia ne aveva drasticamente ridotto il numero, oggi risalito, grazie ad una politica di tutela, ad oltre 75.000 individui.

All'altra estremità della catena alimentare c'è un piccolo crostaceo filtratore del genere Epischura, che costituisce il 97% del plancton e raggiunge una biomassa pari a circa 4 milioni di tonnellate. Questo gamberetto non sopporta una temperatura più elevata di 12 °C, e quindi necessita di una elevata concentrazione di ossigeno, né sopporta una concentrazione salina anche solo leggermente superiore a quella (molto bassa) del lago Bajkal, ossia 100 mg di sali per litro d'acqua.

Alcuni ricercatori ritengono che soprattutto le specie endemiche più piccole si siano evolute dall'antica fauna di un immenso lago salmastro che sembra ricoprisse quasi l'intera Asia centrale agli inizi del Terziario (65 milioni di anni fa). Più tardi, 30 milioni di anni fa, il predetto lago si era frammentato in tanti piccoli laghi salmastri circondati da foreste di tipo tropicale. Una serie di importanti sconvolgimenti tettonici (ancor oggi in loco si verificano oltre 2.000 scosse ogni anno) dovuti alla collisione tra il continente euroasiatico con il sub-continente indiano, formarono una profonda frattura nella crosta terrestre la quale venne progressivamente riempita dalle acque convogliate dalla vasta pianura circostante, il volume d'acqua raccolto equivale alla massa d'acqua trasportabile da tutti i fiumi del pianeta nell'arco di un intero anno.

La fossa di frattura del Bajkal è una delle tipiche strutture geologiche estensionali, particolarmente vistosa perché superficiale, che si formano perpendicolarmente alle catene orogeniche (la catena orogenica in questo caso è quella himalayana).

Alcuni pesci, come la golomjanka (Comephorus baikalensis), e la suddetta foca del Bajkal sembrano essere arrivati in queste acque in epoche più recenti, forse dall'Artico attraverso gli immensi fiumi siberiani.

Nei pressi del lago esiste una riserva naturale nella quale vivono gli zibellini, specie a rischio di estinzione che oggi viene protetta, ed il cui allevamento è monopolio dello Stato russo.

 

Le acque del lago, mai più calde di 14 °C, lasciano filtrare lo sguardo fino a più di 40 m di profondità. Tale purezza è stata a più riprese posta a rischio da svariati eventi:

negli anni settanta, con il progetto per la costruzione della Ferrovia Bajkal-Amur, voluta da Leonid Brežnev per aprire la Siberia allo sfruttamento delle sue materie prime;

attraverso la nascita della città di Severobajkal'sk, 600 km a nord del lago;

riversando nel Bajkal gli scarichi delle industrie di Ulan-Ude (capitale della Buriazia, 350 000 abitanti), attraverso il fiume Selenga;

costruendo, proprio a Bajkal'sk, ad un centinaio di metri dalla riva, un grande impianto di trasformazione del legno e di lavorazione della cellulosa, peraltro contestato dalle popolazioni locali.

Fin dagli anni settanta, a protestare contro l'inquinamento del lago vi fu il biologo Grigorij Galazyj, membro dell' Accademia delle Scienze, ed allora direttore dell' Istituto di limnologia di Irkutsk, successivamente direttore del Museo del Bajkal. Secondo Galazyj "Nessuno dei molti decreti e progetti varati per proteggere il Bajkal è stato messo in atto, ed ogni giorno l'impianto per la lavorazione del legno riversa nel lago 250.000 l di acque di scarico, oltre a consumare 500.000 m³ di legno l'anno".

 

Sulle sponde del lago si sono insediate comunità di credo differente; le religioni principali sono tre: lo "sciamanesimo tibetano", il "buddhismo" ed il cristianesimo ortodosso che fu portata dai russi dopo che Kurbat Ivanov scoprì le acque del lago Bajkal nel 1643.

Il territorio della Buriazia, che è bagnata dal Bajkal per il 60% della linea costiera e la sua gente, i Buriati, furono annessi allo stato russo dai trattati del 1689 e del 1728, quando le terre intorno al Bajkal furono separate dalla Mongolia. Dalla metà del XVII secolo all'inizio del XX il numero di Buriati aumentò da 27.700 a 300.000.

Dopo l'annessione della Buriazia alla Russia la cultura buriata subì le influenze del buddhismo tibetano e della Chiesa Cristiana Ortodossa. I Buriati furono per lo più sottoposti ad un processo di integrazione ad usi e costumi tipicamente russi che li portò ad abbandonare progressivamente il nomadismo unitamente all'agricoltura itinerante, mentre i Buriati dell'est (Transbajkal) subirono l'influenza mongola (ancora oggi diversi gruppi vivono in yurta e sono in gran parte buddhisti). Nel Settecento fu costruito il primo monastero buddhista buriato.

 

Il nome "Buriati" è menzionato per la prima volta in un'opera mongola: infatti costoro sono i discendenti diretti dell'antico popolo nomade dei mongoli ed ancora oggi vivono lungo le sponde del lago; una leggenda locale asserisce che la madre di Gengis Khan fosse nata nel villaggio di Barguzin, sulla riva orientale del lago. I buriati d'inverno sono soliti attraversare il lago ghiacciato (quando la crosta è spessa 1 metro) con i camion poiché in tal modo la distanza fra le città di Irkutsk ed Ulan Ude si accorciano di molto, anche se questa pratica è molto pericolosa.

I Buriati sono soliti pescare l'"omul", specie endemica piuttosto pregiata, unitamente ad altre 52 specie presenti nel lago e svariati tipi di crostacei.

Un'antica credenza popolare afferma che esistono due demoni maligni abitanti delle acque profonde intorno all'isola di Olkhon: "Burkhan" e "Doshkin Nojon", pronti a prendersi le anime dei pescatori durante le tempeste.

Una piccola consuetudine è quella di collocare dei nastrini colorati portafortuna detti "semelga" sopra gli arbusti.

 

La Roccia dello Sciamano.

Trattasi di un masso enorme che spunta appena dalle acque proprio laddove l'Angara lascia il Bajkal.

La Roccia dello Sciamano è protagonista di una leggenda che i buriati imparano a conoscere già in tenera età. Secondo tale leggenda il Grande Uomo Bajkal giunse in questa regione con le sue 337 figlie e decise di fermarsi; mentre dormiva una delle figlie, alla quale i gabbiani avevano raccontato le prodezze di Jenisej, decise di fuggire per correre verso l'uomo-fiume di cui si era innamorata; svegliatosi, il Bajkal scagliò verso la fuggitiva una pietra, la Roccia dello Sciamano appunto.

Chi era sospettato di un crimine veniva posto la sera al di sopra della roccia. Se al mattino era ancora lì e la corrente non l'aveva portato via, costui era innocente e veniva liberato. Tuttavia pare che ciò accadesse di rado, in quanto il fiume Angara possiede delle acque tanto rapide ed irruente che è l'unico fiume della regione a non gelare d'inverno.

 

(from wikipedia.org)

5 Golf Hacks That Will Change Your Game!

 

This week on the impact show we’re going to give you 5 golfing hacks that will change your game using basic household items! Lets take charge of your game.

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Olkhon (Ольхон, also transliterated as Olchon) is the third-largest lake-bound island in the world. It is by far the largest island in Lake Baikal in eastern Siberia, with an area of 730 square kilometres (280 sq mi). Structurally, it acts as the southwestern margin of Academician Ridge. The island measures 71.5 kilometres (44.4 mi) in length and 20.8 kilometres (12.9 mi) in width.

 

Olkhon has a dramatic combination of terrain and is rich in archeological landmarks. Steep mountains line its eastern shore, and at 1,276 metres (4,186 ft) above sea level, Mount Zhima is the highest point on the island, peaking at 818 metres (2,684 ft) above the water level of Lake Baikal. The island is large enough to have its own lakes, and features a combination of taiga, steppe and even a small desert. A deep strait separates the island from the land.

The island's appearance is a result of millions of years of tectonic movement resulting in the hollowing of the channel between the land (Small Sea Strait) and the block of stone forming the island. The steep slopes of the mountains show the vertical heave of the earth.

 

The population of the island is less than 1,500 and consists mostly of Buryats, the island's aboriginal people.

 

There are several settlements and five villages on the island: Yalga, Malomorets, Khuzhir, Kharantsi, and Ulan-Khushin. The village of Khuzhir is the administrative capital of Olkhon, designated as such in April 1987, when the Soviet government issued a comprehensive decree protecting Lake Baikal. Khuzhir is home to about 1,200 residents and boasts a museum of local nature and history.

 

Most residents are fishermen, farmers, or cattle-ranchers. Due to an increasing number of tourists from all over the world, many residents work in this sector as well, and tourism has become an important part of the economy in Olkhon.

 

The indigenous Buryats, adherents of shamanism, believe the island to be a spiritual place; one of the groups of deities adhered to in Buryati yellow shamanism is called the oikony noyod, the "thirteen lords of Olkhon. On the western coast, close to Khuzhir, is Baikal's most famous landmark, the Shamanka, or Shaman's Rock. Natives believe that Burkhan, a modern religious cult figure of the Altai peoples, lives in the cave in this rock. The rock is one of nine Asian Most Sacred Places. Olkhon is considered a centre of Kurumchinskay culture of 6th-10th centuries.

The museum at Olkhon, named after Revyakin, exposits on the nature and ethnography of the island, including pipe-smoking and a samovar collection.

 

The island has a long history of human habitation. The original indigenous people were the Kurykans, forefathers of two ethnic groups: the Buryats and Yakuts.

Russian explorers first visited during the 17th century.

 

One of the most important ecological problems of Olkhon Island is the disposal of household waste. At present, the waste is disposed of in large piles in forestry near the village of Khuzhir. The dump is unenclosed, and the tipping process is uncontrolled. Moreover, with recent increases in tourism on the island, new sources of hard rubbish have begun to appear.

 

Another ecological concern affecting the island is the illegal felling of timber by local inhabitants. A complicated net of forestry roads in the areas adjacent to Khuzhir lead to woodland areas on the mountain slopes. Timber is brought out of the forest at night time, and the deforestation is taking its toll on the area.

   

Il Lago Bajkal (in russo: О́зеро Байка́л, Ozero Bajkal, ['ozʲɪrə bʌj'kɑl],in mongolo ed in buriato Dalai-Nor, Mare sacro) è un lago della Siberia meridionale, diviso fra i territori dell'oblast' di Irkutsk e della repubblica di Buriazia. È stato posto sotto la tutela dell'UNESCO come patrimonio dell'umanità nel 1996. Fa parte della lista delle Sette meraviglie della Russia.

 

Il lago Bajkal si estende su una superficie di 31.722 km², che ne fa uno dei maggiori laghi al mondo per superficie; si allunga per 636 km da nord a sud (è il secondo del mondo per lunghezza dopo il lago Tanganica), con una larghezza media di 48 km (massima 79,4 km). La profondità media del lago è di 744 m, con una massima di 1.642 m nella parte centrale. Questi valori ne fanno contemporaneamente il lago d'acqua dolce più profondo del mondo e quello con il volume maggiore (23.615 km3). Contiene un volume d'acqua pressoché equivalente a quello dei cinque grandi laghi americani messi assieme. Si stima che contenga circa il 20% delle riserve d'acqua dolce del pianeta (esclusi i ghiacciai e le calotte polari).

Il lago Bajkal si estende in una zona geologicamente molto tormentata; occupa una zona di sprofondamento (fossa tettonica) molto profonda (la criptodepressione arriva a quasi 1.200 m sotto il livello del mare, dato che il pelo dell'acqua del lago è a circa 450 m s.l.m.), ed è circondato da piccole catene montuose che si allungano tutto intorno alle sue coste: monti del Bajkal, monti del Barguzin, monti Primorskij, monti Chamar-Daban, monti Ulan-Burgasy e, all'estremità settentrionale, l'Altopiano Stanovoj.

 

Il Bajkal riceve le acque di 336 immissari, i maggiori dei quali sono il Selenga (che nasce in Mongolia), il Barguzin, la Verchnjaja Angara (Angara Superiore), la Turka e la Snežnaja; possiede per contro un solo emissario, l'Angara, tramite il quale il lago tributa allo Enisej. Il bacino imbrifero del Bajkal si estende su una superficie di circa 557.000 km².

 

Il Bajkal si trova in una regione dal clima molto duro, con fortissime escursioni termiche fra le stagioni estreme; il lago, con la sua enorme massa d'acqua, esercita una forte azione di mitigazione delle temperature, con il risultato di avere inverni meno freddi ed estati più fresche e umide delle zone circostanti. D'inverno il lago è interessato da un esteso congelamento delle acque superficiali; questi ghiacci, per via della inerzia termica data dalla gran massa d'acqua, tendono a formarsi piuttosto tardi (dicembre) e a fondere completamente solo verso maggio.

Il lago è frequentemente battuto da un forte vento che viene chiamato "sarma" dalle popolazioni locali, che può toccare i 150 km/h.

 

Il lago Bajkal è caratterizzato da un ambiente atipico per un lago: le sue acque sono molto ricche d'ossigeno (soluzione satura al 75%) e anche il punto più profondo è popolato da forme di vita, mentre in altri laghi profondi in varie parti del mondo le forme di vita macroscopica scompaiono oltre i 300 m a causa dell'anossia.

Il lago Bajkal è sede di svariati endemismi.

Nel 1962 erano state censite nel lago e nelle sue vicinanze 1.220 diverse specie animali e vegetali, nel 1978 il numero era cresciuto a 1.400 e da allora ogni anno nuove forme di vita continuano ad essere scoperte. Ad oggi le nuove specie scoperte in loco sono oltre 2.500, di cui il 60% di tipo animale ed il 15% di tipo vegetale. Nel lago vi sono 250 specie di crostacei e ben 52 di pesci, di cui 27 endemiche del Bajkal.

Una delle specie più caratteristiche è la nerpa, la foca del Bajkal (Pusa sibirica), specie endemica di taglia piccola, dal manto grigio scuro, si nutre di pesci, ed è all'apice della catena alimentare del lago Bajkal. Alla fine del secolo scorso la caccia ne aveva drasticamente ridotto il numero, oggi risalito, grazie ad una politica di tutela, ad oltre 75.000 individui.

All'altra estremità della catena alimentare c'è un piccolo crostaceo filtratore del genere Epischura, che costituisce il 97% del plancton e raggiunge una biomassa pari a circa 4 milioni di tonnellate. Questo gamberetto non sopporta una temperatura più elevata di 12 °C, e quindi necessita di una elevata concentrazione di ossigeno, né sopporta una concentrazione salina anche solo leggermente superiore a quella (molto bassa) del lago Bajkal, ossia 100 mg di sali per litro d'acqua.

Alcuni ricercatori ritengono che soprattutto le specie endemiche più piccole si siano evolute dall'antica fauna di un immenso lago salmastro che sembra ricoprisse quasi l'intera Asia centrale agli inizi del Terziario (65 milioni di anni fa). Più tardi, 30 milioni di anni fa, il predetto lago si era frammentato in tanti piccoli laghi salmastri circondati da foreste di tipo tropicale. Una serie di importanti sconvolgimenti tettonici (ancor oggi in loco si verificano oltre 2.000 scosse ogni anno) dovuti alla collisione tra il continente euroasiatico con il sub-continente indiano, formarono una profonda frattura nella crosta terrestre la quale venne progressivamente riempita dalle acque convogliate dalla vasta pianura circostante, il volume d'acqua raccolto equivale alla massa d'acqua trasportabile da tutti i fiumi del pianeta nell'arco di un intero anno.

La fossa di frattura del Bajkal è una delle tipiche strutture geologiche estensionali, particolarmente vistosa perché superficiale, che si formano perpendicolarmente alle catene orogeniche (la catena orogenica in questo caso è quella himalayana).

Alcuni pesci, come la golomjanka (Comephorus baikalensis), e la suddetta foca del Bajkal sembrano essere arrivati in queste acque in epoche più recenti, forse dall'Artico attraverso gli immensi fiumi siberiani.

Nei pressi del lago esiste una riserva naturale nella quale vivono gli zibellini, specie a rischio di estinzione che oggi viene protetta, ed il cui allevamento è monopolio dello Stato russo.

 

Le acque del lago, mai più calde di 14 °C, lasciano filtrare lo sguardo fino a più di 40 m di profondità. Tale purezza è stata a più riprese posta a rischio da svariati eventi:

negli anni settanta, con il progetto per la costruzione della Ferrovia Bajkal-Amur, voluta da Leonid Brežnev per aprire la Siberia allo sfruttamento delle sue materie prime;

attraverso la nascita della città di Severobajkal'sk, 600 km a nord del lago;

riversando nel Bajkal gli scarichi delle industrie di Ulan-Ude (capitale della Buriazia, 350 000 abitanti), attraverso il fiume Selenga;

costruendo, proprio a Bajkal'sk, ad un centinaio di metri dalla riva, un grande impianto di trasformazione del legno e di lavorazione della cellulosa, peraltro contestato dalle popolazioni locali.

Fin dagli anni settanta, a protestare contro l'inquinamento del lago vi fu il biologo Grigorij Galazyj, membro dell' Accademia delle Scienze, ed allora direttore dell' Istituto di limnologia di Irkutsk, successivamente direttore del Museo del Bajkal. Secondo Galazyj "Nessuno dei molti decreti e progetti varati per proteggere il Bajkal è stato messo in atto, ed ogni giorno l'impianto per la lavorazione del legno riversa nel lago 250.000 l di acque di scarico, oltre a consumare 500.000 m³ di legno l'anno".

 

Sulle sponde del lago si sono insediate comunità di credo differente; le religioni principali sono tre: lo "sciamanesimo tibetano", il "buddhismo" ed il cristianesimo ortodosso che fu portata dai russi dopo che Kurbat Ivanov scoprì le acque del lago Bajkal nel 1643.

Il territorio della Buriazia, che è bagnata dal Bajkal per il 60% della linea costiera e la sua gente, i Buriati, furono annessi allo stato russo dai trattati del 1689 e del 1728, quando le terre intorno al Bajkal furono separate dalla Mongolia. Dalla metà del XVII secolo all'inizio del XX il numero di Buriati aumentò da 27.700 a 300.000.

Dopo l'annessione della Buriazia alla Russia la cultura buriata subì le influenze del buddhismo tibetano e della Chiesa Cristiana Ortodossa. I Buriati furono per lo più sottoposti ad un processo di integrazione ad usi e costumi tipicamente russi che li portò ad abbandonare progressivamente il nomadismo unitamente all'agricoltura itinerante, mentre i Buriati dell'est (Transbajkal) subirono l'influenza mongola (ancora oggi diversi gruppi vivono in yurta e sono in gran parte buddhisti). Nel Settecento fu costruito il primo monastero buddhista buriato.

 

Il nome "Buriati" è menzionato per la prima volta in un'opera mongola: infatti costoro sono i discendenti diretti dell'antico popolo nomade dei mongoli ed ancora oggi vivono lungo le sponde del lago; una leggenda locale asserisce che la madre di Gengis Khan fosse nata nel villaggio di Barguzin, sulla riva orientale del lago. I buriati d'inverno sono soliti attraversare il lago ghiacciato (quando la crosta è spessa 1 metro) con i camion poiché in tal modo la distanza fra le città di Irkutsk ed Ulan Ude si accorciano di molto, anche se questa pratica è molto pericolosa.

I Buriati sono soliti pescare l'"omul", specie endemica piuttosto pregiata, unitamente ad altre 52 specie presenti nel lago e svariati tipi di crostacei.

Un'antica credenza popolare afferma che esistono due demoni maligni abitanti delle acque profonde intorno all'isola di Olkhon: "Burkhan" e "Doshkin Nojon", pronti a prendersi le anime dei pescatori durante le tempeste.

Una piccola consuetudine è quella di collocare dei nastrini colorati portafortuna detti "semelga" sopra gli arbusti.

 

La Roccia dello Sciamano.

Trattasi di un masso enorme che spunta appena dalle acque proprio laddove l'Angara lascia il Bajkal.

La Roccia dello Sciamano è protagonista di una leggenda che i buriati imparano a conoscere già in tenera età. Secondo tale leggenda il Grande Uomo Bajkal giunse in questa regione con le sue 337 figlie e decise di fermarsi; mentre dormiva una delle figlie, alla quale i gabbiani avevano raccontato le prodezze di Jenisej, decise di fuggire per correre verso l'uomo-fiume di cui si era innamorata; svegliatosi, il Bajkal scagliò verso la fuggitiva una pietra, la Roccia dello Sciamano appunto.

Chi era sospettato di un crimine veniva posto la sera al di sopra della roccia. Se al mattino era ancora lì e la corrente non l'aveva portato via, costui era innocente e veniva liberato. Tuttavia pare che ciò accadesse di rado, in quanto il fiume Angara possiede delle acque tanto rapide ed irruente che è l'unico fiume della regione a non gelare d'inverno.

 

(from wikipedia.org)

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Singapore i/ˈsɪŋəpɔər/, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the Singapore Strait to its south. Singapore is highly urbanised but almost half of the country is covered by greenery. More land is being created for development through land reclamation.

 

Singapore had been a part of various local empires since it was first inhabited in the second century AD. Modern Singapore was founded as a trading post of the East India Company by Sir Stamford Raffles in 1819 with permission from the Sultanate of Johor. The British obtained full sovereignty over the island in 1824 and Singapore became one of the British Straits Settlements in 1826. Singapore was occupied by the Japanese in World War II and reverted to British rule after the war. It became internally self-governing in 1959. Singapore united with other former British territories to form Malaysia in 1963 and became a fully independent state two years later after separation from Malaysia. Since then it has had a massive increase in wealth, and is one of the Four Asian Tigers. The economy depends heavily on the industry and service sectors. Singapore is a world leader in several areas: It is the world's fourth-leading financial centre, the world's second-biggest casino gambling market, and the world's third-largest oil refining centre. The port of Singapore is one of the five busiest ports in the world, most notable for being the busiest transshipment port in the world. The country is home to more US dollar millionaire households per capita than any other country. The World Bank notes Singapore as the easiest place in the world to do business. The country has the world's third highest GDP PPP per capita of US$59,936, making Singapore one of the world's wealthiest countries.

 

Singapore is a parliamentary republic with a Westminster system of unicameral parliamentary government. The People's Action Party (PAP) has won every election since the British grant of internal self-government in 1959. The legal system of Singapore has its foundations in the English common law system, but modifications have been made to it over the years, such as the removal of trial by jury. The PAP's popular image is that of a strong, experienced and highly qualified government, backed by a skilled Civil Service and an education system with an emphasis on achievement and meritocracy; but it is perceived by some voters, opposition critics and international observers as being authoritarian and too restrictive on individual freedom.

 

Some 5 million people live in Singapore, of whom 2.91 million were born locally. Most are of Chinese, Malay or Indian descent. There are four official languages: English, Chinese, Malay and Tamil. One of the five founding members of the Association of South East Asian Nations, Singapore also hosts the APEC Secretariat, and is a member of the East Asia Summit, the Non-Aligned Movement, and the Commonwealth.

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Some information about singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the Singapore Strait to its south. Singapore is highly urbanised but almost half of the country is covered by greenery. More land is being created for development through land reclamation.

 

Singapore had been a part of various local empires since it was first inhabited in the second century AD. Modern Singapore was founded as a trading post of the East India Company by Sir Stamford Raffles in 1819 with permission from the Sultanate of Johor. The British obtained full sovereignty over the island in 1824 and Singapore became one of the British Straits Settlements in 1826. Singapore was occupied by the Japanese in World War II and reverted to British rule after the war. It became internally self-governing in 1959. Singapore united with other former British territories to form Malaysia in 1963 and became a fully independent state two years later after separation from Malaysia. Since then it has had a massive increase in wealth, and is one of the Four Asian Tigers. The economy depends heavily on the industry and service sectors. Singapore is a world leader in several areas: It is the world's fourth-leading financial centre, the world's second-biggest casino gambling market, and the world's third-largest oil refining centre. The port of Singapore is one of the five busiest ports in the world, most notable for being the busiest transshipment port in the world. The country is home to more US dollar millionaire households per capita than any other country. The World Bank notes Singapore as the easiest place in the world to do business. The country has the world's third highest GDP PPP per capita of US$59,936, making Singapore one of the world's wealthiest countries.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia...

  

Singapore Marina Bay is a bay near Central Area in the southern part of Singapore, and lies to the east of the Downtown Core. Marina Bay is set to be a 24/7 destination with endless opportunities for people to “explore new living and lifestyle options, exchange new ideas and information for business, and be entertained by rich leisure and cultural experiences”.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

singapore river..

marina bay.

marina bay sands.

.

  

Identifier: ladieshomejourna65janwyet

Title: The Ladies' home journal

Year: 1889 (1880s)

Authors: Wyeth, N. C. (Newell Convers), 1882-1945

Subjects: Women's periodicals Janice Bluestein Longone Culinary Archive

Publisher: Philadelphia : [s.n.]

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mam/m. / I sailplure<I handle ismfortable, always cool,)i acts fingers I mm hums . . • • flt-r/; elements supply iniued heal that smoothes Mic ii ithout pressure . . . Some gifts make work for the bride... but TipToe takes the hard work out of the most tiring of household tasks... spares her energy, frees her from fatigue, gives her extra hours saved for years and years... will be appreciated long after other gifts are forgotten!

  

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By Drew Carrington, CFA, Arch of Institutional Authentic Contribution, Franklin Templeton Investments; Michael Doshier, Carnality President, Retirement Marketing, Franklin Templeton Investments

 

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In contempo months, there has been acute action in Washington DC, in the breadth of retirement policy, with affairs and proposals that could advisedly adapt the landscape. Drew Carrington, arch of Institutional Authentic Addition at Franklin Templeton Investments, and Michael Doshier, carnality president, Retirement Marketing, altercate the latest aldermanic developments and ideas.

 

This accomplished year we’ve apparent acute fizz in Washington DC about retirement. Issues and proposals accept included agitation over the analogue of “fiduciary,” assay of assorted employer retirement affairs (MEPs), and how to admonition added Americans bigger save for retirement, including those saddled with apprentice debt.

 

We anticipate the big takeaway is “Change is coming.” It’s no best a catechism of if, but when. Whether legislation happens this year or abutting year, we are acceptable to see the best allusive alterations to the retirement mural back the Pension Protection Act (PPA) of 2006.

 

Retirement action seems to appear in after-effects about already per decade, so it appears now is the time to get things done. So, we feel now, added than ever, is the time to be affianced in the discussions. We’ve spent time in Washington talking to policymakers to admonition best the annual of convalescent the US retirement arrangement so that added Americans are alike bigger able for the future. We will outline a few contempo developments.

 

On October 22, the DOL appear proposed regulations that accommodate a new estimation of how “employer” is authentic aural the Employment Retirement Income Aegis Act of 1974 (ERISA). This angle is in absolute acknowledgment to Admiral Trump’s August 31, 2018, Executive Order, which directed the DOL to “clarify and aggrandize the affairs beneath which United States employers, abnormally baby and mid-sized businesses, may sponsor or accept a MEP,” – or as the angle calls them, “Association Retirement Plans” (ARPs) – as a abode retirement advantage for their employees, accountable to adapted safeguards.

 

With the proposed ARP accent out for animadversion with a borderline of December 23, we anticipate it’s acceptable we will see this new anatomy of plan starting abutting year.

 

In October of this year, we saw US Senators Rob Portman (R-OH) and Ben Cardin (D-MD) adduce a new bill which proposes to “Enhance Retirement Security.” This bill builds on abounding of the action proposals included in added legislation afore Congress, such as the Retirement Enhancement and Accumulation Act (RESA) and the Family Accumulation Act. The Portman-Cardin bill highlights several means to aggrandize advantage and access retirement savings. These include:

 

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Establishing a new, automated acceptance safe harbor. The legislation proposes adopting the minimum allotment of an individual’s bacon that would be deferred into a retirement plan beneath automated acceptance to 6% from 3% currently in the aboriginal year.

 

Mandatory analogous contributions. The employer would be appropriate to accomplish dollar-for-dollar analogous contributions on annual of all acceptable non-highly compensated advisers up to 1% of pay, 50 cents per dollar on the abutting 5% of pay, and 25 cents on the abutting 4% of pay, so that at atomic some akin of analogous addition is fabricated on up to 10% of pay.

 

Special tax acclaim and Saver’s Credit. A appropriate tax acclaim would administer to baby administration that accept the new automated acceptance safe harbor. The accepted “Saver’s Credit” is a nonrefundable acclaim for individuals – that is, it can abate the bulk of taxes owed, but it can’t be provided as a refund. This new bill proposes to accomplish the Saver’s Acclaim refundable; it charge be contributed anon into a retirement plan or Roth IRA. It would additionally aggrandize the accommodation for a 20% credit.

 

We apperceive apprentice debt is a claiming in the United States, decidedly for adolescent investors who accept apparent their charge costs skyrocket. US apprentice accommodation debt has risen to added than $1.5 trillion, and in 2017, one-fifth of those with debt were abaft on their payments.1

 

When individuals accept ample amounts of debt, it goes after adage that they accept beneath assets for arbitrary purchases-and for extenuative for the future. In fact, a contempo assay from OneAmerica appear about one in four respondents adumbrated they were advantageous a apprentice accommodation for themselves or addition else, and of those, 85% said that obligation impacted their adeptness to save for retirement.2

 

What happens if we alpha acclamation the apprentice debt claiming aural authentic addition (DC) plans? We anticipate giving advisers an advantage to carry some of their analogous retirement-plan contributions against advantageous off student-loan debt is an absorbing abstraction – although it adeptness not be appropriate for everyone. That is the abstraction abaft two new student-loan aldermanic solutions circulating appropriate now.

 

In 2016, Senator Ron Wyden (D-OR) appear a abstract angle alleged the “Retirement Improvements and Accumulation Enhancement Act of 2016,” which permits an employer to accomplish analogous contributions beneath a 401(k) plan, 403(b) plan or SIMPLE IRA on annual of “qualified apprentice accommodation repayments.” Put simply, the angle allows advisers to absolute their analogous contributions against advantageous off apprentice debt, instead of extenuative for retirement. The added way it works is to “match” apprentice accommodation repayments into the plan.

 

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The added angle circulating involves the adeptness of an employer to balance advisers for their apprentice accommodation payments on a nontaxable basis, in lieu of accouterment a analogous addition to a retirement plan.

 

The Department of Labor’s “Fiduciary Rule” was alone this year, but it may not be asleep aloof yet, as discussions about it abide to resurface. We apprehend we could see added altercation on this affair in the year ahead, and it’s bright that the DOL will be affiliated to the SEC and their “Best Interest” adjustment action forward.

 

Our appearance is that not anybody is because the extensive and near-term implications this action action could accept on the retirement landscape. One added agency in the abeyant change of retirement affairs today is the circle of alteration adjustment with the availability of technology to apparatus those changes.

 

Worth noting, cipher accepted PPA 2006 (which was advised to abode authentic account plan funding) to fundamentally, radically adapt the way we bear DC affairs to participants. And yet, it did (and mostly for the better) due to things like an added cardinal of affairs automatically enrolling participants.

 

So, we accept to anticipate about what the adventitious after-effects of all of the changes currently beneath application will be. What happens back you accept new entities active an ARP that aren’t as abashed of fiduciary action (because they run fiduciary accident as a accustomed allotment of their business)?

 

We apperceive what statistics attending like on ample plans-fees, accord rates, prevalence of automation, etc. What happens if we consolidate bags of baby plans, and accomplish them attending like big plans? How abounding added individuals access the system, save added and advance a addiction of saving?

 

Despite all these changing questions, we are aflame about the focus of the chat in the breadth of retirement, and policymakers’ admiration to move some allusive action changes against the accomplishment line.

 

Front Yard Landscape Master Plan Design Plans ~ Garden Trends – plan of landscape | plan of landscape

 

Now is the time for anybody absorbed in allowance to advance the all-embracing retirement arrangement to articulation their assessment and participate in the dialogue. We attending advanced to continuing to accommodate solutions that bigger adapt bodies for retirement.

 

The comments, opinions and analyses bidding herein should not be advised recommendations to advance in any aegis or to accept any advance strategy. Because bazaar and bread-and-butter altitude are accountable to accelerated change, comments, opinions and analyses are rendered as of the date of the announcement and may change after notice. The actual is not advised as a complete assay of every actual actuality apropos any country, region, market, industry, advance or strategy.

 

CFA:registered: and Chartered Financial Analyst:registered: are trademarks endemic by CFA Institute.

 

This admonition is advised for US association only.

 

This actual is accepted in nature, and is provided for advisory and educational purposes only. It is not advised as investment, tax or acknowledged advice, or as an advance advocacy aural the acceptation of federal, accompaniment or bounded laws or as a acting for acknowledged counsel. Laws and regulations are circuitous and accountable to change; amuse argue with a able able with account to your specific affairs and alone goals.

 

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1.Source: US Federal Reserve, “Consumer Acclaim Outstanding Levels,” as of additional division 2018; “Report on the Bread-and-butter Well Being of US Households in 2017 – May 2018.”

 

2.Source: OneAmerica:registered: Survey: Apprentice Loans Accept Significant Impact on Retirement Preparation,” August 2018.

 

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Moving from two incomes to a single income household can be a strain for any household. Fortunately, there are steps you can take to make this transition a smoother one, whether your move to a single income is one that you chose or one that was forced upon you.

 

Build an Emergency Fund

 

John Bush, investment advisor for Schwallier Wealth Management in Ada, Mich., says that households transitioning to single-income living need an emergency fund.

 

Bush recommends that this fund contains at least six months of daily living expenses. This way, if an emergency pops up – and they almost always do – single-income households can pay for these unexpected expenses without resorting to using their credit cards.

 

An emergency fund can also protect single-income households in case of a job loss or reduction in working hours, Bush says.

 

“Typically, having three to six months of expenses is the suggestion, but the financial moat is thinner when there is only one income source,” Bush says. “One job loss and you will have no income. Some may be OK with less than this, but cautious couples would be well-served by funding the account with a full six months of expenses.”

 

Set a Budget — and Don’t Break It

 

When you’re living on one income, you have less financial wiggle room. Because of this, setting a household budget and sticking to it is critical.

 

Your budget should include how much money comes into your household each month and how much flows out of it, too. Your budget needs to account for both fixed expenses, such as rent or mortgage payments, and those that fluctuate each month, such as the money you spend on groceries, dining out and entertainment.

 

Once you’ve created your budget, you can determine how much you can afford to spend each month.

 

Mark Aselstine, founder of Uncorked Ventures, a wine-of-the-month and gift basket business just outside San Francisco, says that budgets really are the key to making the transition to a single-income family work.

 

“The one thing we’ve always done that seems to make it work well, or well enough, is to set a budget and legitimately stick to it,” Aselstine says. “Things like ordering a pizza on a whim after soccer practice tend to go out the window as we try our best to plan our expenses from A to Z at the beginning of the month and also from week to week.”

 

Review Your Debt, and Make a Plan for Paying It Off

 

Jeanne Kelly, a credit coach based in Rhinebeck, New York, says that couples often fail to address their debt before transitioning to a single-income household.

 

This is a mistake. It’s important to have as little debt as possible before becoming a single-income household. It will likely be far more difficult to pay down that debt when you no longer have two incomes on which to rely.

 

Kelly recommends that couples order their free credit reports before making this move. These reports will tell them how much debt they’re facing. Couples can then have honest conversations about this debt and how to pay it off before transitioning to a single income.

 

“Oftentimes I have heard from someone who did not realize a spouse had so much credit card debt or a student loan balance,” Kelly says. “It’s healthy to review your credit reports together at least once a year and make this a habit.”

 

Build Your Business

 

Moving to a single-income household can be especially stressful if the income you’re relying on is on a freelance basis, says J.R. Duren, personal finance analyst at consumer reviews website HighYa.com.

 

If you’re a freelancer, you may need to make sure that you have several anchor clients in place before you move to a single-income home. What are anchor clients? These are the clients that you can count on to provide you with steady work and income each month.

 

“One of the most stressful things about having a single income as a freelancer is the swings in income,” Duren says. “The more sound the payment, the more sound the mind and the soul.”

 

Save Your Raises

 

Christine Maxwell, who lives in Colorado Springs, and owns the blog HerMoneyMoves.com, knows all about living on one income. Maxwell is married to a member of the U.S. Army. It’s not unusual for military families to move every two to three years. It’s often challenging for military spouses to find stable employment.

 

That’s why Maxwell recommends that the readers of her blog live on the income of only the service member, whose job is more stable.

 

Her favorite tip for living on only one income? When you do get a raise, save or invest that money. It can be tempting to spend more each month once you’re earning more. But doing so means you’ll never boost the savings that you need to build wealth, Maxwell says.

 

“Don’t go out and spend your raises on new vehicles, expensive vacations or on building or buying bigger homes,” Maxwell says. “When a family is able to avoid lifestyle creep while receiving bonuses and pay raises, it financially prepares them to take on life changes in stride, whether it’s moving from a double to single income by choice or by force.”

 

Change Your Lifestyle

 

Chad Rixse, co-founder of Seattle-based financial advisor Millennial Wealth, says that couples will need to make changes to their lifestyle if they plan on moving to a single income.

 

This could mean dining out less, taking fewer vacations and skipping the movies, all of which might be a challenge.

 

“Most people get used to living a certain lifestyle,” Rixse says. “Adjusting down from that can be difficult to accomplish. The transition can mean completely rethinking how we go about our daily lives, and that’s not easy for most people.”

 

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KANSAS CITY, Mo. — Right afterwards Halloween and afore the anniversary blitz is a absolute time to do some abatement cleaning. Sure, anybody brand to get in a aberration about bounce cleaning, but now is a acceptable time to apply on your home and abstain hunkering bottomward too anon for the dawdling season.

 

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Cleaning up your domiciliary and befitting some movement in your anatomy can additionally advice anticipate weight accretion from all the aliment gatherings about to appear in the abreast future. Actuality is a 30 day plan to accumulate your abode apple-pie and to ultimately advice you declutter.

 

Before you get started, strategize. Accomplish a agenda of your claimed ataxia “hot spots.” The table by the aback door? Your bath counter? Underneath the bed? Accomplish a agenda of these spaces and afresh set your account aside. You can bandy in these “hot spot” canicule with challenges beneath that are not as accordant to you.

 

Before accepting to the apple-pie sweep, you charge four boxes for keeping, donating, recycling, and trash. You can acquire a “maybe” box if you’re absolutely abashed by an account or two aback you get into the charwoman process. If things breach in the maybe box for 6 months, it apparently can be befuddled abroad or donated.

 

Day 1. Accomplish allowance now for new sweaters. Go through your closet and see what you don’t abrasion anymore. There are several accouterment shelters and churches that would be blessed to booty your acclimated clothes. Your kids may acquire outgrown their clothes as well. Try to accord clothes that are still in acceptable condition. A allotment of accouterment covered in holes ability be bigger ill-fitted for dusting. Accord yourself a ambition afore you alpha diving into the closet: are you activity to ample up 3 debris accoutrements with clothes for donations or one behemothic box? If an account doesn’t fit, let it go. Right now your focus should be to accomplish allowance for clothes that do fit. A pro tip for allowance out clothes you don’t use: at the alpha of the year, cast all your hangers to the amiss side. As you abrasion something, cast the hanger for that account to the added accessible to ability direction. Aback the year is over all the clothes that still face the amiss administration are the ones you haven’t worn.

 

Day 2. Apple-pie up the closets. Now it’s time to adapt closets in the house. You can go to TJ Maxx, Target, or Ikea for closet accumulator ideas. Shelves for shoes are lifesavers. You can align your clothes by division or by blush to accomplish it easier for you to get dressed for work. Be on the anchor for corrupt shoes that may charge to be befuddled out altogether or charge some TLC. Aback charwoman out the closet, accomplish abiding you get rid of any added trash, paper, or artificial – you can calmly recycle this stuff. Accomplish abiding if there are any important abstracts to put them calm with added important pieces — it’s best to acquire a binder accessible for these items, you can characterization the binder “to be filed.” Repeat this for added closets in the house. See what you don’t need, donate, and let go. Analysis to see if there are any coats blind out in the covering abutting that you may acquire kept for a few too abounding decades.

 

Day 3. Apple-pie the refrigerator. You may acquire calm a few new sauces, bloom dressings, and added items over the year that you’re not application and are aloof filing up space. Several of these bottles are recyclable. Do a acceptable apple-pie ablution of the fridge, use a admixture of 1 cup alkali and 2 cups baptize to get rid of stains. Accomplish abiding you don’t acquire any old assortment ambuscade in the back. Annihilation with cast needs to be befuddled away. Alike admitting you ability not see the cast throughout bread, cheese, or added items – any assurance of cast agency it has spread, and not all cast is arresting to the eye. If you’re a haversack rat and adulation to put things on the fridge, some of those items now charge to move to a anthology or keepsake box. Cut the fridge decorations in half.

 

Day 4. Apple-pie the pantry. Attending through the abdomen to see if you can acquisition any asleep foods, those charge to be tossed out first. If there are any foods still in acceptable appearance but you agnosticism you’ll absolutely eat, now is a acceptable time to accord them to a aliment pantry. It’s acceptable to attending through the abdomen and accomplish abiding there are no cobwebs. Dust bottomward the shelves, amalgamate bales like assorted spaghetti boxes, and accede abacus a aroma arbor to the Christmas account if you don’t acquire one already.

 

Day 5. Apple-pie out the cutlery. Maybe you acquire had a lot of dishes anesthetized bottomward to you, assorted bells gifts, or grandparents who died and absolute their dishes to you, additional the abominable ones you may acquire bought in college. If your kitchen is activity awash – or there are affluence of items never accepting acclimated – accede aspersing this. Affluence of donation places or aliment pantries will acquire these items. You’ll appetite to alarm advanced to see if they’ll booty them. Religious sites generally will booty these supplies. Sharpen the knives if they’re starting to get dull, absorb time alignment the items if aggregate is in chaos, and restock the charwoman food beneath the bore if they’re attractive lackluster. Also, if those charwoman food are accepting old, it may be time to declutter there as well. If you acquire accessories you never use nor plan to use, let it go.

 

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Day 6. Apple-pie out the basement. If you acquire cords that you haven’t acclimated in 10 years, it may be time to say goodbye to those. There are usually a few boxes in the basement that never get touched. It may be time to say goodbye to those boxes, or maybe they charge to be rearranged. If you acquire lots of pictures, those could be put into scrapbooks or anchor and put on shelves to advice with space. It’s additionally a bigger anatomy of canning rather than actuality lumped calm in boxes.

 

One basement charwoman adjustment is to dump out all the boxes and force yourself to collaborate with the altar and see how you can put them into a applied space, or collapsed out get rid of the stuff. This plan ability additionally be stressful, so anticipate afore auctioning items everywhere. You’ll appetite to put things in four altered zones: KEEP – DONATE – RECYCLE – TRASH. Characterization things if you haven’t. Anchor for accidental duplicates.

 

Day 7. Apple-pie out bathrooms. Some of us acquire a bad addiction of accession bath supplies. We’re not accession dragons; we’re bodies with acceptable taste, so stop befitting things you don’t need. It’s best to apple-pie all the bathrooms at already to see if there are alike items. Don’t be abashed to accessible all the drawers and cabinets and bandy abroad junk. Now ability be a acceptable time to recycle bottles and cut bottomward on the articles to the ones absolutely in use. Old balm bottles sitting about accession dust are accomplishing no one any favors. Read labels anxiously to see if annihilation has expired. Accomplish abiding to apple-pie bottomward all the surfaces, accord the toilets a scrub, and use cleaner on the showers and bathtubs. Attending for any added soap band or added exceptionable critters.

 

Day 8. Ample 2 accoutrements with debris or recycling. Instead of absorption on a specific room, go about the abode bushing two accoutrements with things that can anon be discarded, whether for debris or recycling. Continue the activity about the abode until you acquire abounding those two bags. Accomplish abiding not to bandy abroad annihilation important. Some culprits for trash: old mail, bonbon wrappers, opened up packages, camp crafts, and boundless knick-knacks. Forcing yourself to get rid of debris about the abode will advice you to declutter and appraise areas of the abode that charge added sprucing up. If you acquire apparent a new ataxia “hot spot” add that to the account you fabricated afore accepting into the abatement apple-pie sweep.

 

Day 9. Apple-pie out your car. Absorb a brace of bucks and go get a car wash. Abolish the debris in the car and use a exhaustion to blot up trash, leaves, and added chunks of things that aggregate in the car. Attending through your cuff box and see if there are old files in it. Do you charge cardboard allowance or do you acquire an allowance app on your buzz with your IDs? Either way, one cardboard allowance archetype will answer in the cuff box. Accumulate your appellation and added important documents, maybe the aftermost bill from aback you went to the mechanic. Best affidavit that are added than a year old are apparently not important anymore and can be befuddled away. You can put things that do assume appropriate in your “to be filed” folder. Accomplish abiding to accessible up your block and see if there are added items in there that you don’t need. The things you should acquire are: jumper cables, a additional tire, a apparatus kit, and a aboriginal aid kit.

 

Day 10. Acid bottomward on objects. Today you’ll be practicing the KonMari method. Marie Kondo is a acclaimed acclimation adviser from Japan. Her adjustment of acclimation is accepted as the KonMari method, and consists of acquisition calm all of your accouterments one class at a time, and afresh befitting alone those things that “spark joy” (tokimeku,the chat in Japanese, agency “flutter, throb, palpitate”), and allotment a abode for aggregate for the items you keep. We’re activity to abridge this somewhat. Booty about 50-60 ambiguous items into the active allowance with you and authority anniversary account for about 30 abnormal and ask yourself – does this account accompany me joy or did it acclimated to accompany me joy? If it acclimated to accompany you joy and serves no purpose anymore, abundant – it belongs in the donation or debris pile. This adjustment can acutely booty a continued time if you go through the accomplished house, for some maybe a brace of hours – for others a activity that could be done over months. The abstraction is to not authority assimilate so abounding items that absolutely aloof flood the household.

 

Day 11. Allowance out paperwork. It is now time to go through all the bills, receipts, papers, aggregate architecture up and bung it out or atom and recycle it. Absorb at best 2 hours accession the items and chief what to do with it. Any added affidavit amphibian about can be apparent addition day. You don’t charge all those affidavit sitting there confusing you and architecture in the house. If you do charge a assertive paper, it needs to be in a binder in a appointed place. You may acquire some affidavit that are additionally agenda copies. You can use those instead of acquire assorted medical files, tax files, etc. Do accumulate affidavit that you charge to accomplish an activity with and one binder for items that charge to be filed.

 

Day 12. Apple-pie out linen closet. If you acquire a linen closet overflowing, it may be time to get rid of some of the earlier linens you never use. Generally abandoned shelters or beastly shelters will use linens that are still in acceptable condition. Bung any items that are absolutely bedimmed and in bad activity into recycling. It’s a acceptable abstraction to cull aggregate out and ablution bottomward the shelves, attending for cobwebs, and absolutely go through anniversary linen to see what you absolutely acquire in banal and if you acquire too abundant surplus. Maybe all your accouchement acquire developed up and could use some of those linens or maybe you aloof had a breakdown and accepting rid of some aggregate items that admonish you of your ex would be a blessed reprieve.

 

Day 13. Bandy out old makeup. Bung annihilation that has been expired, annihilation cracked, or annihilation that you’re not alike abiding what it is. Try to abbreviate bottomward to your essentials with makeups. Also, go advanced and accord all the brushes you use a wash. Maybe some of the brushes charge to be tossed. To apple-pie the brushes:

 

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Day 14. Array jewelry. Attending through your adornment and see if you acquire broken, tarnished, or missing pieces. Some of these could be donated, some of them may be in bad abundant activity that you should bandy them into recycling. Accede affairs a adornment box if you haven’t got one already — or add it to the Christmas list. If you acquire an big-ticket allotment of adornment – like a design – don’t aloof recycle it. If it has problems, agenda time for a adjustment or for able maintenance. If you acquire way too abundant jewelry, accede giving some to ancestors associates who ability like it. This could additionally accomplish for an accessible Christmas gift.

 

Day 15. Bureaucracy healthcare appointments. This is a day for you to declutter your activity by acid bottomward on the accessories you haven’t setup. The nice allotment about abatement charwoman is that you may apprehend you haven’t apparent assertive doctors this year. Now is a acceptable time to bureaucracy those dentist, eye doctor, and added appointments. Maybe you haven’t taken the dog or cat to see the veterinarian; now is the time to get those awe-inspiring things they do arrested out. Decluttering is about authoritative convalescent active amplitude for you, and alive on your alone bloom is one way to chargeless up your time and space.

 

Day 16. Apple-pie out beat and underwear drawer. If you haven’t already, it’s time to bandy out all the old socks and underwear you don’t use anymore. If it has a aperture in it, don’t bother with it anymore. These are calmly dispensable items, so don’t authority assimilate things that are old and ratty. Some accouterment items are acceptable afterwards alone so abounding uses.

 

Day 17. Apple-pie out laundry room. If you acquire old products, it’s time to actuate of them. Attending about for cobwebs and added dust that needs to be removed. See if you acquire accidentally been ambuscade clothes that charge to go to a closet instead. Accede abacus a shelf if things are too blowzy or scattered. Accomplish abiding the laundry allowance is about the laundry allowance and not article else. It should be accessible to cut aback on the ataxia in this room.

 

Day 18. Accord things a home. Go about the abode and acquisition 5-15 things that don’t acquire a place, and acquisition them a place. Put it on a shelf, put it with like items, but don’t aloof actuality it aback into your closet. That’s cheating, and it doesn’t work.

 

Day 19. Scrub those floors down. Aback is the aftermost time your floors acquire had a acceptable scrubbing? It’s time to mop, sweep, vacuum, and maybe appoint professionals to apple-pie up the carpets. There are some awful critters that can accumulate in carpets, and bedraggled advance about the abode can accomplish you sick. Accomplishing a acceptable attic charwoman can be acceptable exercise. Mop the floors bottomward and absolutely accord it added bend grease. Your ambition is to accomplish the attic as spotless as possible, which can be arduous with kids and animals. Move appliance so you can apple-pie areas that haven’t been bankrupt in ages. Booty absolutely acceptable agenda of your floors for the aboriginal time. Is there article in the way of them actuality clean? Also, abrade bottomward all the baseboards – get rid of that clay and dust.

 

Day 20. Apple-pie out your office. Alpha with all the affidavit that acquire accumulated up. Put them in stacks: “to file,” “to do,” and “to toss.” Book your annal in a way that makes faculty to you. Annal earlier than seven years can acceptable be tossed out (that’s the breadth of time attorneys are accurately appropriate to accumulate their own records.) Apple-pie off the desk; attending for knick-knacks you don’t need. Limit how abounding knick-knacks you acquire on your desk: maybe 5. Bandy abroad things you haven’t acclimated in a year. Empty out all the drawers and go through the items one by one. Get rid of old planners, asleep coupons, etc. Booty banal of your supplies, and acquirement drawer organizers that will board your belongings.

 

Day 21. Apple-pie out toys. Your kids or pets ability not like this, but if there are a lot of toys, abnormally old and decrepit – it ability be time to get rid of some, accord them, and advancement to added toys. Sometimes the kids will advice you if they apperceive the toys are activity to a acceptable cause. Helping them to let go of toys will advice them bigger handle decluttering aback they are older. Too abounding toys can be a way for bacilli to spread. If your pets are not application assertive toys, or if they acquire several that are chewed up – aloof bung them out. Your pets won’t apperception not seeing them or accepting new toys to claiming their minds. It’s acceptable to aeon pet toys so they don’t get annoyed of them, so you can put some abroad for a brace of months in accumulator and aeon through them every so often.

 

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Day 22. Abrade bottomward the kitchen. Sprinkle alkali into the kitchen bore and abrade with a cut lemon. If you acquire old, gross brushes, those can be tossed. Mix 1 cup of alkali with 2 cups baptize and ablution bottomward all the counters and places area your ancestors eats. Baking soda can be acclimated to apple-pie aloof about anything. You should abrade these counters daily, but try giving them added of your elbows this time. Also, abrade bottomward handles, attending for any abstruse marks, and abrade bottomward accessories that haven’t been bankrupt in a while – the coffee pot is a acceptable culprit.

 

Day 23. Apple-pie your agenda devices. Backup important files on a adamantine drive or beam drives. Go through your computer and see if you can get added space. Your computer will run bigger this way. Try to abate the cardinal of marks on your desktop. Abolish apps you don’t use and are demography up space. Annul items you no best need. Maybe you acquire some old computer bold boxes from the aboriginal 2000s that no best serve you. Apple-pie up and array the files on your computer. You can additionally absorb the day charwoman up your amusing media presence. Analysis to see if your aloofness settings are set at their best level, see if there are pictures you would appetite in a concrete copy, and see what you can abbreviate on your profile. Maybe it’s time to amend your LinkedIn or your accord status. If you’ve burst up with addition in the contempo past, maybe it’s time to annul some pictures off Instagram. Also, analysis to see if you’re abaft on any emails, texts, clandestine letters and the like. If you acquire several amusing media accounts, annul one of them.

 

Day 24. Declutter the backyard. Maybe you acquire a shed, maybe you acquire a crazy dog who finds things, or maybe your accouchement like to booty all their toys out for a brilliant stroll. One way or another, the backyard shouldn’t be cluttered. Aback mowing the backyard for the aftermost time afore winter, accomplish abiding to booty banal of what’s authoritative your backyard blowzy and how you can administer that now.

 

Day 25. Craft supplies. For those of you who are artists, this may be a nightmare. Attending through your crafts accumulating and see if you acquire any old paints, boundless amounts of assertive supplies, or added things that candidly could be donated to a abbey or school. Try to get your items bottomward to what is accordant and abolish what you won’t absence or what causes accidental pain. Apple-pie your paintbrushes; bandy out ones that are not activity to get better. Invest in new shelving accessories if necessary.

 

Day 26. Second debris bag day. Go about the abode afresh and bandy abroad items that can be tossed out into at atomic 2 bags. These can be items beatific to recycling. Accumulate activity about the abode until you ample up those 2 accoutrements or boxes. If you abort at accomplishing this, go through your closets afresh to acquisition items you can accord or bung out entirely.

 

Day 27. The “hot spot” cleanup. Dealers best here, but if you started this declutter appointment by autograph bottomward your domiciliary “hot spots” for clutter, now is the time to ambition two or added of those areas (if any still exist). Apple-pie and breach these spots bottomward like a champ, and appear up with a adjustment for it to never be infiltrated again. It’s your job to deliver the space.

 

Day 28. Donation day. If you haven’t already, it’s time to booty your donation items to places that will acquire them, whether Goodwill, religious drives, or schools. You may acquire to accomplish a few buzz calls to plan this out. Characterization altar that you apperceive will be activity to a specific person.

 

Day 29. Apple-pie out wallet, backpack, and purse. This should be an accessible day. Go through your accouterments area you backpack your money and added circadian essentials and cut it bottomward to aloof that. You don’t charge to be accustomed about gum wrappers, receipts, and the like. If your wallet or purse are in bad appearance – it’s time to go alter it. This can additionally be a nice account for the anniversary arcade list.

 

Day 30. The final sprint, 5,000 accomplish of cleaning. To accomplish absolutely abiding that your abode is clean, go about the abode sprucing things up till you’ve hit 5,000 accomplish on the odometer. Best smartphones acquire an odometer beneath the bloom section. 5,000 accomplish is about 50 account of approved ceaseless walking. With charwoman arresting your walking, this can add a lot of time. This final day ability booty you awhile. If you’re absolutely aggressive and absolutely appetite to be a apple-pie authority – up the accomplish and shoot for a abounding day of charwoman with 10,000 accomplish of chores. Reward yourself with some ice chrism aback you ability your goal.

 

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(Been away for a while--bear with me as I ramble through an exceptionally long caption today...or just ignore it and enjoy the image).

 

Today marked the start of Christmas season in our household. The tree is up, the myriad of other decorations we have are up, we will be sitting down this evening to watch Elf and The Muppet Christmas Carol, and late this evening, I will be taking the first pictures of our Christmas tree.

 

This season could not have started soon enough for me. I have been waiting all year to post my Christmas pictures, although since the August and October trips, I think I am now less impressed with a lot of these Christmas shots, and I have been editing them for a couple of weeks now. Today's picture is one of my favorites. I know it is nothing all that great photography-wise, but I love it because it captures my favorite feeling of Christmas at Disney so well: being alone in the parks, hearing that background music blast overheard (it's really quite loud when there is no one else around), and just taking in the lights. I actually posted a very similar shot last year (from a different evening), but I decided to edit and post this shot because it is much wider and I think it shows just how much my editing skills have improved over the last year. I previously overlooked this shot last year because I didn't shoot this one as well "the first time" as the linked shot, and because that shot had slight reflections, which I like. So for this shot to start out worse than the linked shot but, in my opinion, finish better, says a lot.

 

Another reason I liked this wide angle view is that it shows something few, if any, other wide shots of large areas I've ever taken have accomplished: it has no people in it. I would be hard pressed to replicate this shot. Even when we're the last guests out of the parks, the place is always crawling with Cast Members. How all of them (besides one single person, who I clone stamped out) are absent from this shot boggles my mind. Finally, reviewing these shots allowed me to reminisce about another feat we haven't accomplished since the Christmas trip: closing two parks in the same evening. That trip, we closed both the Studios and MK the first night, EPCOT and MK the second night, and MK alone the final two nights. For some reason, I'm quite proud of closing two parks in a night. Most people probably don't care...

 

Okay, that's definitely more than enough tooting my own horn. Now, for the faults that these shots from last Christmas have taught me. First, that the 18-200 lens with filter attached is not as sharp as any of my other lenses. Now, I am hardly a pixel peeper, but in some of my older shots, this really is problematic, especially when compared to similar shots from other lenses. It also makes my lust for a 70-200 all the greater (and that's not good). Moreover, with a f/5.6 aperture at 200mm, I don't have much control of depth of field (you'll see this in subsequent shots). Second, that my compositional eye had not evolved as much from August to November of 2008 as I had thought it had. In looking at these shots, a lot of them are still plain "here's a building with no people around" or snapshot type shots. A lot of them are not shots like that, but too many suffer from that problem. It's still a problem I have, but I'm hoping to correct it. Given these problems, I tried to process many of the shots in unique ways, so maybe that will help.

 

Anyway, enough commentary for today. Time to head off and enjoy Christmastime!

 

Check out this article on my blog if you're interested in tips for visiting Walt Disney World at Christmas or seeing tons more Christmas photos!

 

View my Disney Photo Gallery for thousands of Disney photos that aren't on Flickr!

 

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Revelation 2:10 Do not be afraid of what you are about to suffer. I tell you, the devil will put some of you in prison to test you, and you will suffer persecution for ten days. Be faithful, even to the point of death, and I will give you life as your victor's crown.

  

Bulletin of Christian Persecution

October 2 - October 28, 2011

 

October 2, 2011

Java, Indonesia

The village chief in Mekargalih, along with members of the Islamic Defender Front, expeled Christians from their place of worship for allegedly engaging in "proselytizing" in a predominantly Muslim area. A Christian woman complains, "Police have no guts against this radical group."

 

October 6, 2011

Pakistan (Hat tip to AtlasShrugs)

Last night, Safdar Masih was shot to death; others, including children, were injured. The local Church had bought some land to build an orphanage, but the local land mafia laid claim to it. Police refuses to open an investigation into the affair.

 

October 7, 2011

Pakistan (Hat tip to JihadWatch)

A Christian Pakistani politician accused security forces on Friday, October 7, of refusing to detain Muslim fighters who allegedly shot dead one Christian and injured over 20 others in Pakistan's Punjab province.

 

The murdered Christian, identified as Sabir Masih, was gunned down and "two dozen Christians including children, men and women were seriously injured" when Muslims attacked Christians "to grab a piece of land bought for a social project."

 

Maldives

Shijo Kokkattu, an Indian Catholic from Kerala, has been languishing in a Maldives prison for more than a week because he had a Bible and a rosary at his home. Both items are banned on the archipelago.

 

Islam is state religion in the Maldives. There is no freedom of worship. In 2008, a constitutional amendment denied non-Muslims the right to obtain Maldivian citizenship.

 

Shijo, 30, has taught at Raafainu School on Raa Atoll for the past two years. Recently, whilst transferring some data from his pen drive to the school laptop, he accidentally copied Marian songs and a picture of Mother Mary into the system. Some teachers reported the matter to the police who raided his home and found a Bible and a rosary in his possession.

 

October 8, 2011

Egypt (Hat tip to JihadWatch)

Christians fear pressure from Muslims to obey Islamic law. On her first day to school, 15-year-old Christian student Ferial Habib was stopped at the doorstep of her new high school with clear instructions: either put on a headscarf or no school this year. Habib refused. While most Muslim women in Egypt wear the headscarf, Christians do not, and the move by administrators to force a Christian student to don it was unprecedented.

 

Recent attacks on churches in southern Egypt also illustrate the heat Christians are under. Under Mubarak-era rules, the building of a church or repairs for an existing one required permission from local authorities and the state security agency - a rule not applied to mosques. The rules sought to avoid outbursts of violence from Muslim hard-liners. Since permission was rarely given, Christians at times resorted to building churches in secret, often in parish guesthouses.

 

October 9, 2011

Egypt

Massive clashes that drew in Christians angry over a recent church attack, Muslims, and Egyptian security forces raged over a large section of downtown Cairo Sunday night, leaving at least 19 people dead and more than 150 injured. It was the worst violence since the 18-day uprising that ousted Hosni Mubarak in February.

 

The ongoing clashes lasted late into the night, bringing out a deployment of more than 1,000 security forces and armored vehicles to defend the state television building along the Nile, where the trouble began. The clashes spread to nearby Tahrir Square and the area around it, drawing in thousands of people. They battled each other with rocks and firebombs, some tearing up pavement for ammunition and others collecting stones in boxes.

 

Christians blame Egypt's ruling military council for being too lenient on those behind a spate of anti-Christian attacks since the ouster of Mubarak. The Coptic Christian minority makes up about 10 percent of the country of more than 80 million people. As Egypt undergoes a chaotic power transition and security vacuum in the wake of this year's uprising, Christians are particularly worried about the increasing show of force by the ultraconservative Islamists. More HERE. Video HERE.

 

October 10, 2011

Java, Indonesia

Beni Asri, one of the country's best-known Islamic extremists, arrested after the attack on the Christian church of Solo (Java) last September, has admitted strong links with the leading Muslim cleric Abu Bakar Baasyr. (09/25/2011 At least three killed in a suicide attack on church in Indonesia).

 

Beni Asri has been accused of planning several suicide bombings in Indonesia, and in particular of being the organizer of the attack against the Solo church. Beni Asri was arrested Sept. 30 in his parents' house in Solok, West Sumatra province.

 

Malaysia (hat tip to the ReligionofPeace)

Islamic authorities will provide counselling to a dozen Malaysian Muslims to "restore their belief and faith" after they attended a community dinner at a church hall, a royal sultan said on Monday.

 

The case has triggered worries among officials in Muslim-majority Malaysia that some non-Muslims were trying to convert Muslims. Proselytising of Muslims is punishable by prison terms of various lengths in most Malaysian states.

 

Church officials had repeatedly denied any proselytisation occurred at the dinner, which they described as a multiethnic gathering to celebrate the work of a community organization that worked with women, children and HIV patients. Update HERE.

 

USA/Egypt

From Raymond Ibrahim: Egypt, destroying churches one at a time. What clearer sign that Egypt is turning rabidly Islamist than the fact that hardly a few weeks go by without a church being destroyed, or without protesting Christians being attacked and slaughtered by the military?

 

Egypt (Hat tip to JihadWatch)

Egypt's state television announced on Monday that there are no deaths among the military forces after previously reporting there were during the bloody Sunday clashes between the military and Coptic protesters, saying that it was the fault of the news presenter.

 

State TV, also known as Maspero, is under fire from rights activists for falsely reporting that the Coptic protesters attacked the military forces with weapons, which resulted in the death of at least three soldiers and the called on the Egyptian people to take to the street to help protect the armed forces.

 

The news, when reported on Sunday evening, agitated many Muslims, who took up arms and went to the streets of downtown, clashing with protesters, both Muslims and Coptic Christians, injuring dozens in the worst sectarian violence since the fall of ousted President Hosni Muabrak's regime. State TV also reported that the protesters were armed and initiated the violence that killed the soldiers, which escalated the bloodshed late on Sunday.

 

October 12, 2011

Sudan

Local authorities have threatened to demolish three church buildings in Omdurman as part of a long-standing bid to rid Sudan of Christianity, Christian sources told Compass.

 

Officials from the Ministry of Physical Planning and Public Utilities-Khartoum State appeared at the three church sites in Omdurman, on the Nile River opposite Khartoum, the afternoon of Sept. 11, threatening to demolish the structures if the churches continued to conduct worship services, church leaders said.

 

Church leaders from the three churches in the Madinat al Fath area of Omdurman - the Sudanese Church of Christ, the Episcopal Church of Sudan and the Roman Catholic Church - said they were surprised to see government officials come to their church premises and accuse them of operating churches on government land without permission. The church leaders told Compass the buildings were not located on government land and required no permission.

 

Afghanistan

There aren't any public churchs left standing in Afghanistan, according to the U.S. State Department. So much for religious freedom one decade after the United States first invaded and then overthrew its Taliban regime, costing taxpayers $440 billion and incurring more than 1,700 U.S. military deaths to date.

 

The last public Christian church in Afghanistan was razed back in March 2010, according to the State Department's International Religious Freedom Report, which also states that there are no Christian schools left in the country.

 

October 13, 2011

Pakistan

A 12-year-old Christian girl was kidnapped and repeatedly raped for eight months in Pakistan by a man who then falsified marriage documents with her, it was claimed today.

 

The girl was lured on a shopping trip in Lahore by a friend, before she was driven 120 miles to Tandianwalla and raped by the friend's uncle in January this year.Two days later, she was forced to sign papers consenting to marriage with the man and beaten for refusing to convert from Christianity to Islam. She was then held against her will for eight months, before managing to escape and contact her family.

 

The Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC) has said the rapists have not been arrested because of their affiliation with a militant Muslim organisation - the Lashkar-e-Tayyaba. It claims the police have refused to order a medical check-up on the girl, and have warned her parents that it would be better for them to hand over the girl to her 'legal' husband or a criminal case would be filed against them. An investigation into the kidnapping found the girl's father reported her disappearance in January and made complaints against her abductors, but police took no action for eight months.

 

October 15, 2011

Egypt

An army crackdown on a protest that killed more than 20 Christians has not only stunned Egyptians, it has left them with deeply torn feelings toward the force seen as the protector of the nation. Even supporters of the ruling military are grappling with the question of how the bloodshed could have happened.

 

Many Egyptians view the military as the last bastion of stability - a force "made up of our own sons," as many often say - and tend to trust it to handle the transition toward a democratic system. So images of army troops wildly running over protesters with armored vehicles have jolted them. Some try to find excuses for the ruling junta or nervously defend it. Intertwined in the reaction are the religious tensions between Egypt's Muslim majority and Christian minority. The fact that victims were Christians has made some less sympathetic or more willing to forgive the army's actions.

 

The violence was the deadliest since the military took over Egypt following the Feb. 11 fall of President Hosni Mubarak - and was a stark contrast to the idealistic sense of Muslim-Christian unity that flourished during the anti-Mubarak uprising.

 

It began Sunday night when thousands of Christians demonstrated outside the state television building, protesting an attack on a church in southern Egypt. Army troops waded in, and armored personnel carriers barreled through the crowds. The violence killed 26 people, including at least 21 Christians, some crushed by vehicles or shot to death. State media said three soldiers were among the dead.

 

In the first official press conference after the violence, the military tried to exonerate itself, blaming the Christians and "hidden hands" for starting the violence, denying its troops shot any protesters or intentionally ran them over. Witnesses said soldiers started the melee. Videos showing soldiers beating and shooting into crowds and armored vehicles seeming to chase protesters cast doubt on the military's account.

 

October 17, 2011

Egypt (hat tip to JihadWatch)

A week after a Maspero protest turned deadly when the army crushed a Coptic demonstration, local papers are taking a tone that suggests the nation's military rulers are not to blame.

 

Most of Monday's papers accuse various actors for the bloodshed that left at least 27 civilians dead and hundreds injured on 9 October. Surprisingly, Prime Minister Essam Sharaf's cabinet doesn't get the biggest share for blame although he was a primary target for criticism following the events. State-sponsored media was also heavily criticized, but now local media is finding another scapegoat. Coptic religious leaders, clergy and intellectuals are responsible not only for the Maspero violence but also for threatening national unity, according to several papers.

 

Nigeria

Violence-weary Christians in Borno state have been further upset to learn of the murder of a Nigerian evangelist by Boko Haram less than three months after the Islamic extremist group killed a Maiduguri pastor.

 

Already shell-shocked from attacks by Boko Haram, which was originally based in Borno state, Christians again took cover after the Aug. 27 shooting of Mark Ojunta, a 36-year-old evangelist from southern Nigeria who was ministering amid the Kotoko people of Nigeria's northeastern state with Calvary Ministries (CAPRO). He was killed in Maiduguri.

 

October 19, 2011

Somalia

Militants from the Islamic extremist al Shabaab beheaded a 17-year-old Somali Christian near Mogadishu last month, a journalist in the Somali capital told Compass.

 

The militants, who have vowed to rid Somalia of Christianity, killed Guled Jama Muktar on Sept. 25 in his home near Deynile, about 20 kilometers (12 miles) from Mogadishu. The Islamic extremist group had been monitoring his family since the Christians arrived in Somalia from Kenya in 2008, said the source in Mogadishu, who requested anonymity.

 

The Islamic militants, who are fighting the transitional government for control of the country, knew from their observations of the family that they were Christians, the source said.

 

Pakistan

Update on Asia Bibi. . . A female prison officer assigned to provide security for a Christian mother of five who was sentenced to death on "blasphemy" charges beat her earlier this month, sources said.

 

Sources in Pakistan's Sheikhupura District Jail said Asia Noreen, also known as Asia Bibi, was beaten on Oct. 5 by a prison officer identified only as Khadeeja, allegedly because of the Muslim officer's anti-Christian bias, while other staff members deployed for her security looked on in silence.

 

Noreen, mother of two children and stepmother to three others, was sentenced to death last November after her conviction for blaspheming Islam's prophet, Muhammad, after a verbal disagreement with some women in the village of Ittanwali, near Lahore.

 

October 23, 2011

Malaysia (hat tip to AtlasShrugs)

Right-wing Malaysian activists on Saturday staged a rally against Christians who 'challenge the sovereignty of Islam', amid fears of growing Islamisation in the multicultural nation.

The gathering of about 2,000 people in Selangor state follows allegations of Christian proselytisation in the Muslim-majority country after religious police raided a Methodist church event in August fearing Muslims were being converted.

 

Newspapers linked to the ruling coalition have also alleged that Christian groups are secretly trying to convert poor Muslims by using welfare such as housing, food and cash.

'Apostasy violates the wishes of Allah, there is no bigger sin,' Yusri Mohamad, the event's chief organiser, told the crowd in Shah Alam, the state capital.

 

October 24, 2011

Nigeria

Nigerian soldiers summoned to stop inter-religious fighting between Muslim and Christian youths last week shot and killed a Christian mother of five in the Yelwa area of Bauchi city, according to family and church sources.

 

Soldiers were called in to restore calm following fighting that broke out at a high school soccer match on Thursday (Oct. 20), and later three Muslim soldiers shot and killed Charity Augustine Agbo and a Christian boy. The circumstances leading to the shooting of the boy, who is unrelated to Agbo, were not immediately known, and his name was not disclosed.

 

Sudan

Emboldened by government calls for a Sudan based on Islamic law since the secession of South Sudan, Muslims long opposed to a church near Khartoum have attacked Christians trying to finish constructing their building, sources said.

 

The Sudanese Church of Christ (SCOC) congregation in Omdurman West, across the Nile River from Khartoum, has continued to meet for Sunday worship in a building without a roof in spite of opposition from area Muslims and local authorities, the sources told Compass. Claiming that Christianity was no longer an accepted religion in the country, Muslims in the Hay al Sawra, Block 29 area of Omdurman West on Aug. 5 attacked SCOC members who were constructing the church building, the sources said.

 

October 25, 2011

Sudan

Sudanese leader Omer Hassan Al-Bashir is rewriting his country's constitution in order to implement shar'ia (Islamic) law.

 

"This new law is going to affect a significant number of Christians who live in places like Khartoum," said Jonathan Rach, International Christian Concern's North Africa specialist. "There are still a significant number of Christians in Sudan … If Al-Bashir introduces this shar'ia law and if he's going to go ahead and adopt an entirely Islamic constitution, Christians and other non-Muslims who live in Sudan will be treated like second-class citizens; they will be dhimmis and they will not have full rights in the freedom of religion."

 

West Java, Indonesia

Members of a church in Bogor, West Java, are determined to continue meeting outside their sealed building each Sunday until they are granted freedom to worship inside it, despite a ban on street meetings issued by the local mayor.

 

Egypt

An Egyptian Military Court ordered that an imprisoned Christian activist be admitted to a mental health hospital to determine whether he's responsible for his actions.

Michael Nabil Sanad was sent to Abbasiya Hospital in Cairo, a facility that specializes in treating seriously ill psychiatric patients.

 

Writer William Weesa said this was very dangerous because "there are many people who were admitted to these hospitals by the security services, who were quite healthy when they went in, but came out as a devastated human beings." Weesa asked that this "farce perpetrated against a prisoner of conscience" be stopped.

 

October 26, 2011

Egypt

The Egyptian military's intent to investigate its own use of force against unarmed Coptic Christians demonstrating on Oct. 9, 2011, raises concerns of a cover-up, according to Human Rights Watch.

The military arrested at least 28 people, mostly Copts, and brought them all before military prosecutors who ordered their detention for 15 days pending an investigation.

 

However, Human Rights Watch interviewed 20 demonstrators who all testified that at least two armored personnel carriers drove recklessly through crowds of Christians; autopsies showed that the massive, metal APCs killed at least 10 demonstrators.

 

"The military cannot investigate itself with any credibility," said Joe Stork, deputy Middle East director at Human Rights Watch. "This had been an essentially peaceful protest until the military used excessive force and military vehicles ran over protesters. The only hope for justice for the victims is an independent civilian-led investigation that the army fully cooperates with and cannot control and that leads to the prosecution of those responsible."

 

October 27, 2011

Pakistan

A petition circling around Canada is calling for Pakistan to drop its blasphemy laws. The Islamic republic's law has grave consequences for the nation's Christians, including some who are facing death for their beliefs.

 

October 28, 2011

Iran

A Muslim convert to Christianity has gone missing since his arrest last week by plain clothes security officer

 

According to Mohabat News, on October 17, 2011, a group of four officers engaged in a commando-style raid on the house of Mr. Arazm, arresting him, then transferring him to an unknown location. The raid took place around 7:30 in the morning local time, just before he left for work.

 

The officers apparently searched the house upside-down and left a mess in their wake. The plainclothes officers confiscated Mr. Arazm's computer hard disk, CDs, pictures, and a number of Bibles. His family was also threatened to remain silent and not to talk about this

It's been ages since my last upload, not counting those three from the other days. Lots have happened - this time with the not so usual suspects; death, a cocktail of illnesses and lung infections that seemed to have taken a wicked, incessant keenness on the inhabitants of this household since fall, pregnancy, shock, acceptance and joyous infanticipation, only to be shocked again - cysts have multiplied in my baby's brain... I could go on and on. Point is, I'd have my fill of these right now and despite everything, life is still beautiful out t/here...

 

I realized I just missed my 1 year flickr anniversary. When I started out, I was clueless about how to deal with a camera properly. All I knew was that I appreciated beauty and wanted to capture dear family moments, of documenting the baby-to-childhood metamorphosis of my girls and to perhaps capture some passable nature shots, if lucky. All I could was to point and shoot - well, I still do that but with a bit of conscious regard to adjustments and such. I'm learning slowly I must admit, picking up bits and tips here and there but it always has been fun along the way.

 

Flickr is an enormous reservoir of amazing talents and I'm thankful for all the inspirations. Contacts and wonderful comments brighten my day. Kindness and friendship by dear Mai, Yves, David, Arnel and Zeetz put a smile to my heart lately. Warm thanks to you guys! :))

 

Special thank you shotout to:

 

Love-love ko for nurturing my curiosity and surprising me with my own camera. ♡

 

Kasia for leaving an impression, introducing the world of flickr and photography.

 

V for being there from the beginning on, amazing me with her constant friendship, encouragement and inspiration. :)

 

and finally to Ge, another favorite soul, for his warm, generous heart, for the trust and understanding and the inspirations. :)

  

lovelier on black :)

via WordPress ift.tt/2OhYQlj

 

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Good cooking skills are something everyone should have, whether or not you happen to be living alone or located in a sizable family unit. The various benefits associated with cooking include social family time, extra nutrients and vitamins and a lot more funds in your wallet also! This article below can provide some valuable information that may make cooking a pleasure.

 

You could start cooking simple meals away from a cookbook it is possible to borrow through the library. That way you can try different meals that one could prepare and when you find yourself done it is possible to carry it back. Try making three or four in the recipes that interest you probably the most, and present yourself lots of time to perfect your newly acquired skill.

 

If using oil inside your cooking, pour it inside the pan inside an area out of the food. Once the oil reaches the meal it really has been heated up and is ready to roll. It will help to boost and maximize the taste of your own cooking.

 

It is rather crucial that your knives are usually sharp. Knives are in reality more dangerous whenever they get dull, since they get harder to regulate. It is possible to cut yourself simply because you are forcing the knife from the food, utilize a sharp knife.

 

Keep the kitchen knives sharp. Dull knives make cutting difficult, nevertheless in addition, these are dangerous. Wanting to force a blunt blade via a tough root vegetable is more prone to cause a car accident, than quickly dicing and slicing the identical tough root vegetable using a sharp blade.

 

To help make your French-fried potatoes crisper, try leaving the raw potatoes in a few cold water for 30 minutes prior to deciding to fry them. The fibers of raw cut potatoes that were soaked in cold water just before striking the deep fryer, are stronger and will handle the warmth better without breakage.

 

If you're capable of cook, it is possible to provide your household with a lot of benefits. Because these tips showed, cooking can improve various facets of your life, whatever sort of cooking you want, whether it's soul food, down-home favorites or haute cuisine. Obtain is actually a nice option every once in a while, but nothing is superior to food you've made yourself. www.bestpastamaker.org

Olkhon (Ольхон, also transliterated as Olchon) is the third-largest lake-bound island in the world. It is by far the largest island in Lake Baikal in eastern Siberia, with an area of 730 square kilometres (280 sq mi). Structurally, it acts as the southwestern margin of Academician Ridge. The island measures 71.5 kilometres (44.4 mi) in length and 20.8 kilometres (12.9 mi) in width.

 

Olkhon has a dramatic combination of terrain and is rich in archeological landmarks. Steep mountains line its eastern shore, and at 1,276 metres (4,186 ft) above sea level, Mount Zhima is the highest point on the island, peaking at 818 metres (2,684 ft) above the water level of Lake Baikal. The island is large enough to have its own lakes, and features a combination of taiga, steppe and even a small desert. A deep strait separates the island from the land.

The island's appearance is a result of millions of years of tectonic movement resulting in the hollowing of the channel between the land (Small Sea Strait) and the block of stone forming the island. The steep slopes of the mountains show the vertical heave of the earth.

 

The population of the island is less than 1,500 and consists mostly of Buryats, the island's aboriginal people.

 

There are several settlements and five villages on the island: Yalga, Malomorets, Khuzhir, Kharantsi, and Ulan-Khushin. The village of Khuzhir is the administrative capital of Olkhon, designated as such in April 1987, when the Soviet government issued a comprehensive decree protecting Lake Baikal. Khuzhir is home to about 1,200 residents and boasts a museum of local nature and history.

 

Most residents are fishermen, farmers, or cattle-ranchers. Due to an increasing number of tourists from all over the world, many residents work in this sector as well, and tourism has become an important part of the economy in Olkhon.

 

The indigenous Buryats, adherents of shamanism, believe the island to be a spiritual place; one of the groups of deities adhered to in Buryati yellow shamanism is called the oikony noyod, the "thirteen lords of Olkhon. On the western coast, close to Khuzhir, is Baikal's most famous landmark, the Shamanka, or Shaman's Rock. Natives believe that Burkhan, a modern religious cult figure of the Altai peoples, lives in the cave in this rock. The rock is one of nine Asian Most Sacred Places. Olkhon is considered a centre of Kurumchinskay culture of 6th-10th centuries.

The museum at Olkhon, named after Revyakin, exposits on the nature and ethnography of the island, including pipe-smoking and a samovar collection.

 

The island has a long history of human habitation. The original indigenous people were the Kurykans, forefathers of two ethnic groups: the Buryats and Yakuts.

Russian explorers first visited during the 17th century.