new icn messageflickr-free-ic3d pan white
View allAll Photos Tagged household+tips

DIY Skin Care Recipes :

  

Rice-Powde-For-Be…_ Beauty Tips Health and Care Household Tips Skin Care Beauty Benefits of Rice Powder for Skin

    

diypick.com/beauty/diy-masks/diy-skin-care-recipes-rice-p...

My regular visitors may have forgotten that it's not only Billy in our household. Ever since his introduction about 9 weeks ago, Poeka has been spending most of her days in the garden. We've had a near perfect summer, so she enjoyed every minute of it, I hope.

 

She doesn't enjoy Billy very much I'm afraid, although there don't seem to be any problems at night when they are together in the attic. We may have a problem coming up though, because Poeka seems to start leaving bits of urine indoors. Could be a problem with her bladder, but it can also be her dislike of the new situation. Any tips anyone?

111 Water Saving Tips

 

#1. There are a number of ways to save water, and they all start with you.

 

#2. When washing dishes by hand, don't let the water run while rinsing. Fill one sink with wash water and the other with rinse water.

 

#3. Evaporative coolers require a seasonal maintenance checkup. For more efficient cooling, check your evaporative cooler annually.

 

#4. Check your sprinkler system frequently and adjust sprinklers so only your lawn is watered and not the house, sidewalk, or street.

 

#5. Run your washing machine and dishwasher only when they are full and you could save 1000 gallons a month.

 

#6. Avoid planting turf in areas that are hard to water such as steep inclines and isolated strips along sidewalks and driveways.

 

#7. Install covers on pools and spas and check for leaks around your pumps.

 

#8. Use the garbage disposal sparingly. Compost instead and save gallons every time.

 

#9. Plant during the spring or fall when the watering requirements are lower.

 

#10. Keep a pitcher of water in the refrigerator instead of running the tap for cold drinks, so that every drop goes down you not the drain.

 

#11. Check your water meter and bill to track your water usage.

 

#12. Minimize evaporation by watering during the early morning hours, when temperatures are cooler and winds are lighter.

 

#13. Wash your produce in the sink or a pan that is partially filled with water instead of running water from the tap.

 

#14. Use a layer of organic mulch around plants to reduce evaporation and save hundreds of gallons of water a year.

 

#15. Use a broom instead of a hose to clean your driveway or sidewalk and save 80 gallons of water every time.

 

#16. If your shower can fill a one-gallon bucket in less than 20 seconds, then replace it with a water-efficient showerhead.

 

#17. Collect the water you use for rinsing produce and reuse it to water houseplants.

 

#18. Divide your watering cycle into shorter periods to reduce runoff and allow for better absorption every time you water.

 

#19. We're more likely to notice leaky faucets indoors, but don't forget to check outdoor faucets, pipes, and hoses for leaks.

 

#20. Periodically check your pool for leaks if you have an automatic refilling device.

 

#21. Only water your lawn when needed. You can tell this by simply walking across your lawn. If you leave footprints, it's time to water.

 

#22. When you shop for a new appliance, consider one offering cycle and load size adjustments. They are more water and energy-efficient than older appliances.

 

#23. Time your shower to keep it under 5 minutes. You'll save up to 1000 gallons a month.

 

#24. Install low-volume toilets.

 

#25. Adjust your lawn mower to a higher setting. Longer grass shades root systems and holds soil moisture better than a closely clipped lawn.

 

#26. When you clean your fish tank, use the water you've drained on your plants. The water is rich in nitrogen and phosphorus, providing you with a free and effective fertilizer.

 

#27. Use the sprinkler for larger areas of grass. Water small patches by hand to avoid waste.

 

#28. Put food coloring in your toilet tank. If it seeps into the toilet bowl, you have a leak. It's easy to fix, and you can save more than 600 gallons a month.

 

#29. Plug the bathtub before turning the water on, then adjust the temperature as the tub fills up.

 

#30. Use porous materials for walkways and patios to keep water in your yard and prevent wasteful runoff.

 

#31. Direct downspouts and other runoff towards shrubs and trees, or collect and use for your garden.

 

#32. Designate one glass for your drinking water each day. This will cut down on the number of times you run your dishwasher.

 

#33. Water your summer lawns once every three days and your winter lawn once every five days.

 

#34. Install a rain shut-off device on your automatic sprinklers to eliminate unnecessary watering.

 

#35. Don't use running water to thaw food.

 

#36. Choose a water-efficient drip irrigation system for trees, shrubs and flowers. Watering at the roots is very effective, be careful not to over water.

 

#37. Grab a wrench and fix that leaky faucet. It's simple, inexpensive, and can save 140 gallons a week.

 

#38. Reduce the amount of grass in your yard by planting shrubs, and ground cover with rock and granite mulching.

 

#39. When doing laundry, match the water level to the size of the load.

 

#40. Teach your children to turn the faucets off tightly after each use.

 

#41. Remember to check your sprinkler system valves periodically for leaks and keep the heads in good shape.

 

#42. Before you lather up, install a low-flow showerhead. They're inexpensive, easy to install, and can save your family more than 500 gallons a week.

 

#43. Soak your pots and pans instead of letting the water run while you scrape them clean.

 

#44. Don't water your lawn on windy days. After all, sidewalks and driveways don't need water.

 

#45. Water your plants deeply but less frequently to create healthier and stronger landscapes.

 

#46. Make sure you know where your master water shut-off valve is located. This could save gallons of water and damage to your home if a pipe were to burst.

 

#47. When watering grass on steep slopes, use a soaker hose to prevent wasteful runoff.

 

#48. Group plants with the same watering needs together to get the most out of your watering time.

 

#49. Remember to weed your lawn and garden regularly. Weeds compete with other plants for nutrients, light, and water.

 

#50. While fertilizers promote plant growth, they also increase water consumption. Apply the minimum amount of fertilizer needed.

 

#51. Avoid installing ornamental water features and fountains that spray water into the air. Trickling or cascading fountains lose less water to evaporation.

 

#52. Use a commercial car wash that recycles water.

 

#53. Don't buy recreational water toys that require a constant flow of water.

 

#54. Turn off the water while you brush your teeth and save 4 gallons a minute. That's 200 gallons a week for a family of four.

 

#55. Buy a rain gauge to track how much rain or irrigation your yard receives. Check with your local water agency to see how much rain is needed to skip an irrigation cycle.

 

#56. Encourage your school system and local government to help develop and promote a water conservation ethic among children and adults.

 

#57. Teach your family how to shut off your automatic watering systems. Turn sprinklers off if the system is malfunctioning or when a storm is approaching.

 

#58. Set a kitchen timer when watering your lawn or garden with a hose.

 

#59. Make sure your toilet flapper doesn't stick open after flushing.

 

#60. Make sure there are aerators on all of your faucets.

 

#61. Next time you add or replace a flower or shrub, choose a low water use plant for year-round landscape color and save up to 550 gallons each year.

 

#62. Install an instant water heater on your kitchen sink so you don't have to let the water run while it heats up. This will also reduce heating costs for your household.

 

#63. Use a grease pencil to mark the water level of your pool at the skimmer. Check the mark 24 hours later. Your pool should lose no more than 1/4 inch each day.

 

#64. Cut back on rinsing if your dishwasher is new. Newer models clean more thoroughly than older ones.

 

#65. Use a screwdriver as a soil probe to test soil moisture. If it goes in easily, don't water. Proper lawn watering can save thousands of gallons of water annually.

  

#66. Avoid overseeding your lawn with winter grass. Once established, ryegrass needs water every three to five days, whereas dormant Bermuda grass needs water only once a month.

  

#67. Do one thing each day that will save water. Even if savings are small, every drop counts.

  

#68. When the kids want to cool off, use the sprinkler in an area where your lawn needs it the most.

  

#69. Make sure your swimming pools, fountains, and ponds are equipped with recirculating pumps.

  

#70. Bathe your young children together.

  

#71. Landscape with Xeriscape trees, plants and groundcovers. Call your local conservation office for more information about these water thrifty plants.

  

#72. Winterize outdoor spigots when temps dip to 20 degrees F to prevent pipes from bursting or freezing.

  

#73. Insulate hot water pipes so you don't have to run as much water to get hot water to the faucet.

  

#74. Wash your car on the grass. This will water your lawn at the same time.

 

#75. Drop that tissue in the trash instead of flushing it and save gallons every time.

 

#76. If you have an evaporative cooler, direct the water drain to a flowerbed, tree, or your lawn.

 

#77. Make suggestions to your employer to save water (and dollars) at work.

 

#78. Support projects that use reclaimed wastewater for irrigation and other uses.

 

#79. Use a hose nozzle and turn off the water while you wash your car and save more than 100 gallons.

 

#80. Encourage your friends and neighbors to be part of a water-conscious community.

 

#81. If your toilet was installed prior to 1980, place a toilet dam or bottle filled with water in your toilet tank to cut down on the amount of water used for each flush. Be sure these devices do not interfere with operating parts.

 

#82. Install water softening systems only when necessary. Save water and salt by running the minimum number of regenerations necessary to maintain water softness.

  

#83. Wash clothes only when you have a full load and save up to 600 gallons each month.

  

#84. Leave lower branches on trees and shrubs and allow leaf litter to accumulate on top of the soil. This keeps the soil cooler and reduces evaporation.

  

#85. Pick-up the phone and report significant water losses from broken pipes, open hydrants and errant sprinklers to the property owner or your water management district.

  

#86. Bermuda grasses are dormant (brown) in the winter and will only require water once every three to four weeks or less if it rains.

 

#87. Start a compost pile. Using compost when you plant adds water-holding organic matter to the soil.

 

#88. Use sprinklers that throw big drops of water close to the ground. Smaller drops of water and mist often evaporate before they hit the ground.

 

#89. Listen for dripping faucets and toilets that flush themselves. Fixing a leak can save 500 gallons each month.

 

#90. More plants die from over-watering than from under-watering. Be sure only to water plants when necessary.

 

#91. Cook food in as little water as possible. This will also retain more of the nutrients.

 

#92. Adjust your watering schedule to the season. Water your summer lawn every third day and your winter lawn every fifth day.

 

#93. Turn the water off while you shampoo and condition your hair and you can save more than 50 gallons a week.

 

#94. Bathe your pets outdoors in an area in need of water.

 

#95. Choose new water-saving appliances, like washing machines that save up to 20 gallons per load.

 

#96. Water only as rapidly as the soil can absorb the water.

 

#97. Aerate your lawn. Punch holes in your lawn about six inches apart so water will reach the roots rather than run off the surface.

 

#98. Select the proper size pans for cooking. Large pans require more cooking water than may be necessary.

 

#99. Place an empty tuna can on your lawn to catch and measure the water output of your sprinklers. For lawn watering advice, contact your local conservation office.

 

#100. Turn off the water while you shave and you can save more than 100 gallons a week.

 

#101. When you give your pet fresh water, don't throw the old water down the drain. Use it to water your trees or shrubs.

 

#102. If you accidentally drop ice cubes when filling your glass from the freezer, don't throw them in the sink. Drop them in a house plant instead.

 

#103. To save water and time, consider washing your face or brushing your teeth while in the shower.

 

#104. While staying in a hotel or even at home, consider reusing your towels.

 

#105. When backwashing your pool, consider using the water on your

landscaping.

 

#106. For hanging baskets, planters and pots, place ice cubes under the moss or dirt to give your plants a cool drink of water and help eliminate water overflow.

 

#107. Throw trimmings and peelings from fruits and vegetables into your yard compost to prevent from using the garbage disposal.

 

#108. When you have ice left in your cup from a take-out restaurant, don't throw it in the trash, dump it on a plant.

 

#109. Have your plumber re-route your gray water to trees and gardens rather than letting it run into the sewer line. Check with your city codes, and if it isn't allowed in your area, start a movement to get that changed.

 

#110. Keep a bucket in the shower to catch water as it warms up or runs. Use this water to flush toilets or water plants.

 

#111. When you are washing your hands, don't let the water run while you lather.

 

BEAUTIFUL LIMITED EDITION ART PRINTS AVAILABLE on

bumbleandbramble.blogspot.com/

 

5.5' x 6' x 3'

110k - 130k pieces

Black, white, dark and light bluish gray, clear trans and black trans colors used.

No foreign materials (wood, glue, paint or otherwise) were used – this is pure Lego. No Lego piece have been altered (painted, cut or otherwise).

Photo retouching used only for adding contrast and color correction & background.

Approx 600 hours to build

Third in my series of Abandoned Houses

(also, my third moc)

 

Special Thanks

To my wife, Stephanie, for her support and generous patience

The afol/moc community for design inspiration and techniques to make this possible.

 

To view my site and more closeups/the making of: Snap

My MOC page

 

----------

 

The third installment of this abandoned house series continues its textural exploration of decay with a Victorian home engulfed in mud. The mud travels through the first floor, tears down a front wall and oozes over the porch side, taking with it household contents of convenience. This detail opens the piece up, allowing the eye to travel the surface of the house and then back through the porch, into a room and back out to survey the piles of garbage. The play on depth here is something I enjoy as one has a glimpse of the activity behind this architectural scrim.

 

The house, itself, was chosen due to the repeating angled roofs that reach up high. This gives the architectural mass a certain rhythm that I found appealing. Also, abstractly, this echos the gothic representation of cathedrals – with their many spires – reaching upward to the heavens. While this is not a religious piece, there is a certain contemplation that I find in it.

 

On that note, of particular interest to me in this work is the notion of broken trust and faith. Foundations give way. Permanence transmutes into fragility. Our safe havens betray us.

 

For me, this piece speaks to the inherent unpredictability of those things which we call our foundation. Like a little dollhouse, a seemingly secure home is plucked up and set on a new path. This charming home, lovingly embellished with ornamental fancy was no match for nature. The fancy embellishments serve as a reminder of our earlier focus on the material world, while the aftermath removes us from that focus. The piece offers no answers or necessarily any hope, but rather points to life's fragility.

 

Strong foundations are the essence of safe havens. These foundations can be physical foundations (an orderly home, for instance), ideological foundations (religion and politics), financial foundations (steady income and solid investments), social foundations (emotional ties to others) and so on. Our well-being is pinned on these safe havens that we hold on to as a place to fall back in times of stress and trouble. Amidst the chaos of environments we cannot control – whether physical, financial, social or mental – the house is one of the ultimate icons representing a safe haven. It is the final retreat and escape of the day where we can let go of the external pressures (or at least some of them) that grip us during the day. Here, in the home, with the world locked behind a door, we control what will be our guest and what will not.

 

However, this and other safe havens betray. The door can be kicked in at the blink of an eye and our foundation instantly dissolves. Local events of recent – catastrophic earthquakes, tsunami, nuclear radiation leaks, record fires, floods and tornadoes – all presented real devastation to many personal safe havens. Graft and corruption in media, government, financial sectors and businesses betray a sense of social order that provides for us a mental, moral safe haven. Untouchable international crime organizations silently hack large databases of personal information with crushing effect to individuals' financial safe haven. Financial institutions and the people within unapologetically bring the world to its knees through reckless, greedy practices. Religious safe havens (whether "Christian" or otherwise) are assaulted from within as certain fundamentalists carve out their own scriptural interpretations of hate toward others. A democratic superpower representing life, liberty and happiness denies personal rights and institutes a policy of indefinite personal torture and the threat of it. And so it goes. All the planning, effort and unbreakable trust we put in our foundations – whatever form they take – can falter without warning.

 

Such it is. Life events that kick at our door or we witness through others temporarily blasts the scrim open, revealing – like the hole in this model's wall – the fragility of our own foundations and, perhaps for a moment, a sense of gratitude for those foundations left standing and greater clarity as to which safe havens are truly important to our well-being.

 

– Mike

 

--------

 

Much thanks to all for the enthusiastic comments!! They are greatly appreciated :)

A great deal of credit goes to the afol community for sharing their wonderful mocs and tips all of which has served to inspire me.

You can stay updated on any new works or showings at my facebook art page:

www.facebook.com/pages/Mike-Doyles-Art/548752985156359

Gardens By The Bay

 

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the Singapore Strait to its south. Singapore is highly urbanised but almost half of the country is covered by greenery. More land is being created for development through land reclamation.

 

Singapore had been a part of various local empires since it was first inhabited in the second century AD. Modern Singapore was founded as a trading post of the East India Company by Sir Stamford Raffles in 1819 with permission from the Sultanate of Johor. The British obtained full sovereignty over the island in 1824 and Singapore became one of the British Straits Settlements in 1826. Singapore was occupied by the Japanese in World War II and reverted to British rule after the war. It became internally self-governing in 1959. Singapore united with other former British territories to form Malaysia in 1963 and became a fully independent state two years later after separation from Malaysia. Since then it has had a massive increase in wealth, and is one of the Four Asian Tigers. The economy depends heavily on the industry and service sectors. Singapore is a world leader in several areas: It is the world's fourth-leading financial centre, the world's second-biggest casino gambling market, and the world's third-largest oil refining centre. The port of Singapore is one of the five busiest ports in the world, most notable for being the busiest transshipment port in the world. The country is home to more US dollar millionaire households per capita than any other country. The World Bank notes Singapore as the easiest place in the world to do business. The country has the world's third highest GDP PPP per capita of US$59,936, making Singapore one of the world's wealthiest countries.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia...

 

A new garden at the bay of marina will be opening soon next year.

Gardens by the Bay consists of three distinctive waterfront gardens – Bay South, Bay East and Bay Central, spanning a total of 101 hectares. They are set in the heart of Singapore’s new downtown Marina Bay, encircling the Marina Reservoir like a green necklace. The Gardens will complement the array of attractions around Marina Bay.

 

Gardens by the Bay is an integral part of a strategy by the Singapore government that further transforms Singapore from a ‘Garden City’ to a ‘City in a Garden’, in which the city is woven into a green and floral tapestry. This aims to raise the quality of life in Singapore with a more holistic and all-encompassing programme that enhances greenery and flora in the city. First announced to the public by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong during the National Day Rally in August 2005, Gardens by the Bay will become Singapore’s premier urban outdoor recreation space, and a national icon.

 

An international competition for the design of the master plan was held in January 2006 to elicit the best designs for the Gardens. This attracted more than 70 entries submitted by 170 firms from 24 countries, from which two firms – Grant Associates and Gustafson Porter – were eventually awarded the master plan design for the Bay South and Bay East Gardens respectively.

 

The Gardens are being developed in phases. Bay South is currently being constructed and is slated to be completed by June 2012. Bay East has been developed as an interim park in support of the Youth Olympic Games 2010, and is scheduled to open to the public in late 2011 or early 2012. The full master plan implementation of Bay East and the development of Bay Central are part of the next phase of development.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia...On the far right side is the port of singapore - Keppel Bay.......

About

Paan is very Famous After Iftaar :P when Fasting is Over and we Take Food after That Paan is Must For me :P

The consumption of paan has been a very popular cultural tradition throughout Pakistan since the start, especially in Memon and Muhajir households. Pakistan grows a large variety of betel leaf (specifically in the coastal areas of Sindh)

The paan business is famously handled and run by Memon traders, who migrated from western India when Pakistan was created in 1947. To explain the popularity level that the paan is sold at, rough estimates show that an average Pakistani can consume up to 7-8 paans a day. :D

 

For more Visit here

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Paan

 

After Eating Paan Some Times This will Happens too :P

www.youtube.com/watch?v=CiY9HJ-Y2yw

  

Visit my Website

www.xploiter.tk

=================

Join me on Facebook

www.facebook.com/atif.xploiter

=================

 

Usage

All my images are copyrighted.

If you intend to use any of my pictures, for any usage, you need to contact me first.

Thank you.

Where ?

Almost all my photos are geotagged !!!

The Shot

Single Exposure Shot

Photomatix

Tonemapped generated HDR using detail enhancer option

Photoshop

Basic Adjustments , tools , Frames & Logo.

You

All comments, criticism and tips for improvements are (as always) welcome

 

===============================

Atif (Xploiter ™) © All rights reserved.

===============================

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hook Lighthouse

 

Hook Head Lighthouse

LocationCounty Wexford, Ireland

Coordinates52°7′25.7″N 6°55′45.5″WCoordinates: 52°7′25.7″N 6°55′45.5″W

Year first constructed1245(1172?)

Automated1996

Constructionlimestone

Tower shapecylinder

Markings / patternwhite with two black bands

Height35m

Current lensthird order Fresnel lens

Range23nm

CharacteristicFlashing 3s

The Hook Lighthouse (also known as Hook Head Lighthouse) is a building situated at the tip of the Hook Peninsula in County Wexford, in Ireland. It is one of the oldest lighthouses in the world, and the oldest operating lighthouse in Ireland.[1] It is operated by the Commissioners of Irish Lights, the Irish Lighthouse Authority, it marks the eastern entrance to Waterford Harbour. The current structure has stood for almost 800 years.

Contents [hide]

1 History

2 References

3 References

4 External links

[edit]History

 

The existing tower dates from the twelfth century, though tradition states that Dubhán, a missionary to the Wexford area, established some sort of beacon as early as the fifth century. The headland is known in Irish as Rinn Dubháin, St. Dubhán's Head. According to Onomasticon Goidelicum (1910, p582) Rinn Dubáin Ailithir is mentioned in the Book of Leinster, written about 1079. However, the similar-sounding Irish word 'duán' means a fish hook, hence the English name. It is known locally as "the tower of Hook." The exact circumstance of the initial construction on the present structure are the subject of some controversy. It had been thought that the tower was constructed in 1172 by Raymond LeGros following the Norman Invasion in 1169, both to establish the lighthouse and to serve as a fortress on the approaches to Waterford. According to the Commissioners of Irish Lights, however, more recent studies have attributed construction to William Marshal in 1245.[2] However, this is impossible since Marshall died in 1219, meaing that either he was not involved in the construction, or that the date of 1245 is incorrect. In any case, this tower, in its original form, was 8m high and roughly 8.5m in diameter, with an open fire at the top serving as the beacon. The tower and its grounds was entrusted to the monks, who by then were associated with the Priory of Saint Augustine in Ross. This arrangement continued even through the dissolution of the monasteries under Henry VIII.

Maintenance of the beacon was interrupted by the English Civil War, when the monks abandoned the area. The lack of the light was felt, and in 1657 the governor of Duncannon Fort was petitioned to restore the beacon, but without success. However, in 1665 Charles II authorized Richard Reading to build six lighthouses on the Irish coast, including the rehabilitation of the light at Hook Head. By this time the tower had been enlarged; an addition incorporating a spiral staircase had been added surrounding the old tower, and the height of the whole structure raised to 24m. What Reading did in relighting the beacon is unclear, but he may have constructed an enclosed lantern to shelter the fire, as was customary at the time. The light was returned to service in 1667 and has remained active in some form ever since.

In 1704 Queen Anne transferred custody of the Irish lights to the Revenue Commissioners, but this transfer did not immediately affect Hook Head, as it was held in lease by Henry Loftus of Loftus Hall. The lease passed to his son, who threatened to extinguish the light failing renewal of the lease on his terms. In the end he got his renewal, but at terms more favorable to the crown.

By the 1790s the tower was in need of repair. At this time Thomas Rogers was contracted with to maintain this and nine other lighthouses. He replaced the Reading lantern with a new one housing the Argand lamp and reflector system typical of the period. The beacon was altered in 1812 and then replaced in 1864 with a dioptric lens housed in a new lantern, which is that used today.

Subsequent changes left the structure largely unaltered but updated the light source. Coal gas replaced oil lamps in 1871, with vaporized paraffin taking over in 1911, and electricity in 1972. A rotating third-order Fresnel lens was also installed in 1911. A variety of fog signals were installed beginning with a bell in 1838, a cannon in 1872, an explosive charge in 1905 (altered in 1938), an air horn in 1975, and an electric horn from 1995 on. Resident keeper households were replaced by a team of six keepers in 1977, and the light was automated in 1996. The light continues to operate as an active aid to navigation. An older daymark of three red bands on a white background was altered to two black bands on white in 1938.

In 2001 the light was opened to the public as a tourist attraction after construction of an attached visitors' center. In January 2011 The Hooks fog horn was heard for the last time as all the fog horns were turned off. It was felt that seeing that the technology on modern ships were so advanced that the fog horn was no longer required. In June 2011 the structure was placed first by Lonely Planet in its list of "Top 10 Flashiest Lighthouses"; the guide described Hook as "The great granddaddy of lighthouses".[3][4]

So, some of you think that you can't shoot still life because you don't have a decent studio lighting equipment?

I have a long wish list which contents keep changing constantly.

But this is shot with natural light, plus several mirrors and reflectors. As a financially challenged photographer, I have to experiment with things I have in my household.

I am also a regular customer at a local 99 pence shop, where some of my mirrors come from.

Any tips and advices about lighting (well, have to be reasonably priced) are much appreciated.

...is OK with blue....

 

Actually I used 2 different lights.. one each side.

LED on the left ( bit too much light) and just a standard household light bulb on the right... As Tio... keeps saying lighting makes a differents.. Tio.. please keep giving us those tips... www.flickr.com/photos/66179962@N00/

 

By the way... Tio.. is New York City's "Butterfly Hunter"

 

July 30, 2007

at 6.26pm EDT

 

Have a wonderful weekend friends...

 

My 89th image to make an appearance in Explore

Highest position #220

Where we can be helpful is to provide you with some timely #tips to help make sure your #household #plumbing is ready for the #spring. By doing a little #springplumbing (detective) work now, you’ll have much more time to enjoy the #beautiful weather that surely lies just around the corner.

www.icmechanicalservices.com/spring-plumbing-maintenance-...

In the 1950s, the mangle, crisps and dance hall admissions were popular. 1950s saw the introduction of fish fingers, electric fires, washing machine, ink and toilet paper.

 

Most food shopping in the 1950s was done every day and from local shops. Not every household owned a car or a refrigerator, so food shopping was part of the housewife's daily routine.

 

It would have been quite normal to visit separate shops for your bread (bakers), meat (butchers), vegetables (greengrocers), fish (fishmongers) etc. It was quite common too, for tradesmen to deliver their goods direct to the housewife. Groceries and greengroceries were often delivered each week in a motorised van and milk was delivered every day.

 

1957: Only a handful of shops in the country were self-serve (pay as you go out). The first Sainsbury’s to try out this innovation was opened in June 1950 in Croydon.

 

2007: There are more than 33,500 supermarkets and convenience stores in the UK

 

A shopping basket in the 1950s would have included items such as: wild rabbits, mangles, corsets, candles, wireless licence and gramophone records.

 

Fresh fruit and vegetables came mainly from Britain, so strawberries would be in the shops for just a few weeks in the summer, and there would have been no fresh peas, beans or salads vegetables during the winter months.

 

In the 1950s, a typical home had a cooker, vacuum cleaner and a plug-in radio. Only 33 per cent of households had a washing machine. Most people were still doing their washing by hand.

 

Only 15 per cent had a fridge and freezers and tumble dryers were scarcely heard of. Only 10 per cent of the population had a telephone. People listen to gramophone records.

 

Most families’ entertainment came from the radio (or ‘wireless’) or through listening to 78rpm records on a gramophone. However, a single event in 1953 gave a huge boost to the uptake of television. This was the coronation of Queen Elizabeth II on 2nd June 1953 at Westminster Abbey. Cameras had never before been allowed inside Westminster Abbey for a coronation, and the general public were thrilled to be able to watch the event live. Families crowded into the home of anyone lucky enough to have a television to watch the event.

 

Two-thirds of homes owned a television. The programmes were shown in black and white. A second and commercialised TV channel was added in 1955.

 

People spent most of their leisure time at home – reading, listening to the radio, watching television or pursuing hobbies. The most popular hobbies were knitting and needle-work for women, and gardening for men.

 

Children spent a lot of time playing with other children outdoors. They also enjoyed a range of hobbies such as stamp collecting.

 

Families enjoyed playing board games such as Monopoly, Ludo, and Snakes and Ladders.

 

There was a craze for yo-yos, 3D-spectacles, I-Spy books and hoola hoops in the late 1950s.

 

It was an era when women stayed at home, a 9-to-5 job meant just that, workers had a job for life and nobody had a Blackberry to ruin their holidays.

 

1950s when most Britain's spent their holidays in the UK.

 

In 1952, just four per cent of people worked part-time. Today, the number has ballooned to one in four workers, equal to astonishing 26 per cent of the entire workforce.

 

Today’s workers may whinge that they are over-worked, but it was their parents or grandparents in the 1950s who had a lot more to complain about.

 

On average, workers did a 48-hour week in 1952. Today, a typical worker with a full-time job does only 37 hours.

 

Of all the seismic changes, it is probably the type of jobs that people did which have changed most dramatically.

 

In 1952, 8.7million people worked in manufacturing. Today, the number is a paltry 2.5million.

 

Around 880,000 worked in ‘mining and quarrying’, compared to 60,000 today, while the number working in agriculture, forestry and fishing has tumbled from 725,000 to 460,000.

 

There are some jobs which barely existed 60 years ago. In 1952, there were only around 20,000 people working in personnel, compared to today’s army of around 400,000.

 

But some things that never change. Around six million people worked in the public sector, which is exactly the number which currently make up the State workforce.

 

And how many people did not work? Not very many, according to the report, which shows that the number of working women was much higher than expected.

 

Around one in two women of working age had a job in the 1950s, compared to two-thirds today.

 

Local Bristol Stories that made the news in 1950s

 

Feb 7th 1952

 

Ethel May Challenger (24) 2, Akeman Way Avonmouth, previously charged in Bristol with attempted suicide by drinking zinc solution was today put on probation for two years. Dr. J. L. Faull said Challenger had brooded over problems of money and rearing five young children. Her husband was told by the magistrates: " Your wife needs all the help you can give her."

 

Aug 1952

 

Two coloured stowaways Cyril Benjamin Mcleod of Jamaica, and Philip Bertand of Dominica, who were arrested at Avonmouth Docks when the s.s. Cavina berthed, were sent to prison for 21 days in Bristol. Bertand said: 'Things were very bad in the West Indies - there is no work.' Mcleod said he was a graduate of an agricultural traing centre, and wished to work as a dairyman.

 

Aug 12th 1952

 

Harold Edward Peacock (52) Dorian Road, Horfield, was fined £5 in Bristol court for stealing 6lb of onions, from Southmead Hospital market garden.

 

Aug 12th 1952

 

Six hundred filmgoers sang community songs to while away the time when the power failure stopped the projectors at the Kingsway Cinema, Two Mile Hill, Kingswood, for 90 minutes last night.

 

The cinema was almost full of customers who came to see a popular film - the Marx Bros, in 'Cassablanca' - when, during the showing of the 'trailers' of fourth coming films the screen went blank. The main film was due to be screened 10 minutes later, at 6.10 p.m. The manager, Mr. John Crew, immediately went on the stage and explianed what had occurred. He told the audience that any one who wanted to leave would be given complimentary tickets for tonight's show.

 

'A few people left, but most stayed and entertained themselves with singing songs'. The power came back on at 7.30 and the cinema was able to show the complete film.

 

Feb 7th 1952

 

Bristol Fire Brigade were today damping down the smouldering ruins of the blaze in St. Pauls Street, where the damage is estimated at £40,000.

 

As the blaze ravaged adjoining tannery offices and warehouses, explosions rocked a wide area, and hundreds of people dashed for shelter as burning debris rained down. The premises belonging to Messrs. J. R. Hawkins and Co., leather manufactures and Messrs. Wilkinson nand Riddell (Bristol). Ltd., textile merchants. The fire which started inn the tannery, gutted Messrs Hawkins workshops, burnt out a large part of offices and destroyed a warehouse belonging to the textile firm. The flames fanned by a hign wind, threatened nearby houses in Orange street, as firemen fought to control the blaze.

 

A young boy Royston John Hurley of Claremount Street., Stapleton had a very lucky escape when a three- foot piece of drain pipe fell from the blazing tannery. It struck him on the leg causing only slight injury. This was the third fire in the tannery in the past three months. It was the largest post-war fire in Bristol and took 48hrs to bring the fire under control.

 

November 1958

 

It's interesting, but not really surprising, to find that 50 years ago the weather - in another gloomy November week - was dominating the headlines. Fog enveloped Bristol - or at least the Eastville and Fishponds areas of the city - (aided, no doubt, by pollution from the many coal fires) almost paralysing transport.

 

By 11pm visibility at Filton was down to five yards, with traffic almost at a standstill on the Gloucester Road. But while the city suffered, the Bristol Evening Post said that many country areas were clear. Despite this, the Aust ferry - which carried passengers and cars over to Chepstow - was cancelled indefinitely. Dense fog was reported at Portishead. No aircraft were arriving or leaving from Whitchurch airport and there was a complete hold-up of sailings from both Avonmouth and the City Docks.

 

Trains were arriving from London up to half an hour late and city businessmen were taking an unprecedented 50 minutes to get to work from places such as Clifton and Henleaze. It was chaos. Other news of the week concerned bus drivers and conductors (they were the ones who took the money and gave you tickets in those far off days) who were due get a pay rise of 11 shillings a week (just over 50p). Maintenance workers, however, were only to get eight shillings and 3p a week more.

 

The unions had been asking for between 16 and 33 shillings. As it was estimated that the rise would cost the Bristol bus company an extra £100,000 a year, guess what? Yes, you're right - fares went up by 2p and 3p the following week.

 

You'll no doubt be pleased to hear that busmen of all grades would now be getting between £7 and £8 a week - with drivers getting £7 and 18 shillings. That, incidentally, was about the average wage in those days. Of interest - if only because it's recently been announced that it's on the way back - was the Corporation's collecting of kitchen waste to use in pig swill. The average weekly collection totalled 300 tons which, after 'treatment' yielded about 260 tons of so-called 'Bristol pudding', collected by farmers and used for pig food.

 

Only five other cities in the country had such a service, and Bristol's was considered to be the best. Chief credit for this, said the Post proudly, were the city's housewives. Each week they filled 130,000 specially- provided bins. People were being asked politely not to put their cutlery in the bins - the pigs didn't like it.

 

Still on the subject of housewives, many of them (if not all) were delighted to hear that purchase tax was to be withdrawn on household brushes, brooms and mops (remember them, the stringy ones?). The idea was to help the trade, rather than the household purse, especially as many blind and disabled persons derived their living from it. Still, people must have been revelling in domestic bliss back then - one festive street ad suggesting: 'She'll love a Hoover Steam Iron for Christmas'. Such a wonderful present at only £4 19 shillings and 6p. Want a tip? Don't take that advice today.

 

Some items of great concern for those interested in this great city's illustrious past popped up in the Press 50 years ago. One was a story about the Hogarth altar piece, three oil paintings commissioned by the Vestry of St Mary Redcliffe some 250 years ago. This triptych - which had been in store for some 80 years - was being handed over to the Corporation of Bristol to be hung on public view in the City Art Gallery. So where, you are entitled to ask, is this priceless Bristol treasure now? As far as I know (and I might very well be wrong) it's still languishing in the abandoned St Nicholas church museum, locked away from public view.

 

Bristol's reverence for its past was also revealed in a story about the last service to be held at the Old King Street Baptist Church in Broadmead. This chapel had a longer history than any other Baptist church in the city - it was founded at Quakers Friars in 1640 and it moved to Old King Street in 1815 - so of course it was being demolished. The reason? It was in the way of the 'new' Broadmead shopping area.

 

The congregation moved to Redland. Another one of Bristol's treasures, on the other hand, was getting a thorough inspection. Brunel's suspension bridge was closed for the week to all but pedestrians while workmen began examining and testing one of the two cross-girders. The old one, removed and taken away to be tested 'to destruction', was to be replaced by one coated with zinc.

 

A shocking Bristol court case that made the headlines 50 years ago concerned a 'savage assault' allegedly made by a 35-year-old Southmead man on his wife using a broken milk bottle.

 

The couple, the court was informed, had been married 15 years and had three children, aged six, 12 and 14. Their life together had not been happy, and three months previously the man had put his wife 'out of the house'. She had moved into lodgings, but then resorted to prostitution. There was evidence, it was said, that the husband had received some of the money earned this way. On the evening of the alleged assault, the couple had been out drinking.

 

There was a quarrel on the way home and the man told his wife: 'I'll rip your face so that no man will look at you.' She was crying when they reached the house, so their 14-year-old daughter made a cup of tea. After using bad language, which the daughter tried to stop, the man threw his cup of tea over his wife. 'As she stood up he punched her hard in the mouth with his left hand,' said the prosecution. 'She fell back against the wall.

 

Then he picked up a milk bottle, smashed it against the wall and took hold of his wife by the back of the head. 'Holding her with his left hand, he struck her repeatedly in the face with the jagged glass, causing very severe injuries. She was taken to hospital and had 16 stitches inserted, 14 in the face.' In evidence, the wife said that while they were walking home her husband said 'I'll 'chiv' you'. During the alleged attack she felt a sharp pain and everything went red. She told the court: 'He was saying 'I'll finish you off' and dragged me up by my hair and slung me around the room.' A policeman said that when he went to the house the woman's face was badly cut and bleeding.

 

'All she could say was, 'take him away, he's mad'.' In his defence, the husband said that he had told his wife that if she did not change her ways he would change them for her for the sake of the children.

 

He had made allegations against his wife, and his eldest daughter slapped his face. 'She started to yell and shout and I lost my temper and struck her,' he said. 'She fell face down among the glass from the broken milk bottle and that was how her face got cut. 'I did not actually intend to cause the injuries - I threw the milk bottle at her and it smashed against the wall. While I was punching her, her face was twisting about and must have been going into the broken glass.' The man was committed for trial - on a surety of £100 - at Bristol Assize (the old Crown Court). The jury found him guilty.

Manhattan is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City. The borough is coterminous with New York County, founded on November 1, 1683 as an original county of the U.S. state of New York. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the East, Hudson, and Harlem Rivers, but also includes several small adjacent islands, as well as Marble Hill, a small neighborhood on the U.S. mainland.

 

Manhattan has been described as the economic and cultural center of the United States and serves as home to the United Nations Headquarters. Wall Street, in Lower Manhattan, has been called the financial capital of the world, and is home to the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Many multinational media conglomerates are based in the borough. Historically documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for the equivalent of US$24, Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island itself estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2014.

 

New York County is the most densely populated county in the United States, and is more dense than any individual American city. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a Census-estimated 2013 population of 1,626,159 living in a land area of 22.96 square miles (59.5 km2), or about 70,826 residents per square mile (27,346/km²). On business days, the influx of commuters increases that number to over 3.9 million, or around 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, and is the smallest borough in terms of land area.

 

Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan have become well known to New York City's approximately 50 million annual visitors. Times Square, iconified as "The Crossroads of the World" and "The Center of the Universe", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. The borough hosts many world-renowned bridges, skyscrapers, and parks. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere. The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 35 in the world. The city of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of city government and a National Historic Landmark that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen (Half Moon). A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River (later named the Hudson River). The word "Manhattan" has been translated as "island of many hills" from the Lenape language.

 

The United States Postal Service prefers that mail addressed to Manhattan use "New York, NY" rather than "Manhattan, NY".

  

The area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of the French king Francis I – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. He entered The Narrows aboard his ship La Dauphine and named the land around Upper New York Harbor "New Angoulême", in reference to the family name of Francis I of France that was derived from Angoulême in France; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the Hudson River which he referred to in his report to the French king as a "very big river"; and he named Upper New York Bay the Bay of Santa Margarita – after Marguerite de Navarre – the elder sister of the king.

 

It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, that the area was mapped. Hudson came across Manhattan Island and the native people living there in 1609, and continued up the river that would later bear his name, the Hudson River, until he arrived at the site of present day Albany.

  

A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, later called New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam). Manhattan Island was chosen as the site of Fort Amsterdam, a citadel for the protection of the new arrivals; its 1625 establishment is recognized as the birth date of New York City. According to the document by Pieter Janszoon Schagen our People (ons Volck), Peter Minuit and Dutch colonists acquired Manhattan in 1626 from unnamed American Indian people in exchange for trade goods worth 60 guilders, often said to be worth US$24, though (by comparing the price of bread and other goods) it actually amounts to around US$1,050 in 2014.

 

In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director General of the colony. New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1653. In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it "New York" after the English Duke of York and Albany, the future King James II. The Dutch, under Director General Stuyvesant, successfully negotiated with the English to produce 24 articles of provisional transfer, which sought to retain for the extant citizens of New Netherland their previously attained liberties (including freedom of religion) under new colonial English rulers.

 

The Dutch Republic regained it in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming the city "New Orange". New Netherland was ceded permanently to the English in November 1674 through the Treaty of Westminster, in exchange for Run Island which was the long-coveted last link in the Dutch nutmeg trading monopoly in Indonesia.

American Revolution and the early United States

 

Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of major battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the disastrous Battle of Fort Washington on November 16, 1776. The city became the British political and military center of operations in North America for the remainder of the war. Manhattan was greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the British military rule that followed. British occupation lasted until November 25, 1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the city.

 

From January 11, 1785, to the fall of 1788, New York City was the fifth of five capitals of the United States under the Articles of Confederation, with the Continental Congress meeting at New York City Hall (then at Fraunces Tavern). New York was the first capital under the newly enacted Constitution of the United States, from March 4, 1789, to August 12, 1790, at Federal Hall. Federal Hall was also the site of where the United States Supreme Court met for the first time, the United States Bill of Rights were drafted and ratified, and where the Northwest Ordinance was adopted, establishing measures for adding new states to the Union.

 

Manhattan is loosely divided into Downtown (Lower Manhattan), Midtown (Midtown Manhattan), and Uptown (Upper Manhattan), with Fifth Avenue dividing Manhattan's east and west sides. Manhattan Island is bounded by the Hudson River to the west and the East River to the east. To the north, the Harlem River divides Manhattan Island from The Bronx and the mainland United States. Several small islands are also part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall's Island, Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, New York County has a total area of 33.6 square miles (87 km2), of which 22.8 square miles (59 km2) is land and 10.8 square miles (28 km2) (32%) is water. The northern segment of Upper Manhattan represents a geographic panhandle. Manhattan Island is 22.7 square miles (59 km2) in area, 13.4 miles (21.6 km) long and 2.3 miles (3.7 km) wide, at its widest (near 14th Street).

 

Early in the 19th century, landfill was used to expand Lower Manhattan from the natural Hudson shoreline at Greenwich Street to West Street. When building the World Trade Center, 1.2 million cubic yards (917,000 m³) of material was excavated from the site. Rather than dumping the spoil at sea or in landfills, the fill material was used to expand the Manhattan shoreline across West Street, creating Battery Park City. The result was a 700-foot (210-m) extension into the river, running six blocks or 1,484 feet (452 m), covering 92 acres (37 ha), providing a 1.2-mile (1.9 km) riverfront esplanade and over 30 acres (12 ha) of parks.

 

At the 2010 Census, there were 1,585,873 people living in Manhattan, an increase of 3.2% since 2000. Since 2010, Manhattan's population was estimated by the Census Bureau to have increased 2.5% to 1,626,159 as of 2013, representing 19.3% of the city's population and 8.3% of the state's population. As of the 2000 Census, the population density of New York County was 66,940 per square mile (25,846/km²), the highest population density of any county in the United States. If 2012 census estimates were accurate, the population density then approximated 70,518 people per square mile (27,227/km²). In 1910, at the height of European immigration to New York, Manhattan's population density reached a peak of 101,548 people per square mile (39,208/km²). There were 798,144 housing units in 2000 at an average density of 34,756.7 per square mile (13,421.8/km²). Only 20.3% of Manhattan residents lived in owner-occupied housing, the second-lowest rate of all counties in the nation, behind the Bronx.

 

According to 2012 Census estimates, 65.2% of the population was White, 18.4% Black or African American, 1.2% American Indian and Alaska Native, 12.0% Asian, and 3.1% of two or more races. 25.8% of Manhattan's population was of Hispanic or Latino origin, of any race. Manhattan has the second highest percentage of non-Hispanic Whites (48%) of New York City's boroughs, after Staten Island (where non-Hispanic Whites make up 64% of residents).

 

The New York City Department of City Planning projects that Manhattan's population will increase by 289,000 people between 2000 and 2030, an increase of 18.8% over the period, second only to Staten Island, while the rest of the city is projected to grow by 12.7% over the same period. The school-age population is expected to grow 4.4% by 2030, in contrast to a small decline in the city as a whole. The elderly population is forecast to grow by 57.9%, with the borough adding 108,000 persons ages 65 and over, compared to 44.2% growth citywide.

 

According to the 2009 American Community Survey, the average household size was 2.11, and the average family size was 3.21. Approximately 59.4% of the population over the age of 25 have a bachelor's degree or higher. Approximately 27.0% of the population is foreign-born, and 61.7% of the population over the age of 5 speak only English at home. People of Irish ancestry make up 7.8% of the population, while Italian Americans make up 6.8% of the population. German Americans and Russian Americans make up 7.2% and 6.2% of the population respectively.

 

In 2000, 56.4% of people living in Manhattan were White, 17.39% were Black, 14.14% were from other races, 9.40% were Asian, 0.5% were Native American, and 0.07% were Pacific Islander. 4.14% were from two or more races. 27.18% were Hispanic of any race.

 

There were 738,644 households. 25.2% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 59.1% were non-families. 17.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them. 48% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was two and the average family size was 2.99.

 

Manhattan's population was spread out with 16.8% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 38.3% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, and 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males.

 

Manhattan is one of the highest-income places in the United States with a population greater than one million. As of 2012, Manhattan's cost of living was the highest in the United States, but the borough also contained the country's most profound level of income inequality. Manhattan is also the United States county with the highest per capita income, being the sole county whose per capita income exceeded $100,000 in 2010. In 2012, The New York Times reported that "the income gap in Manhattan, already wider than almost anywhere else in the country, rivaled disparities in sub-Saharan Africa. ... The wealthiest fifth of Manhattanites made more than 40 times what the lowest fifth reported, a widening gap (it was 38 times, the year before) surpassed by only a few developing countries".

 

Lower Manhattan has been experiencing a baby boom, well above the overall birth rate in Manhattan, with the area south of Canal Street witnessing 1,086 births in 2010, 12% greater than 2009 and over twice the number born in 2001. The Financial District alone has witnessed growth in its population to approximately 43,000 as of 2014, nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census.

  

from Wikipedia

 

Putuo Zongcheng Temple

Known as "Small Potala Palace", one of biggest temple outside of Mountain Resort, Chengde, Hebei,China

 

-------------------------------------------------------------

Introduction from www.elycn.com/hb/cd/cd03/004.htm

  

Qianlong thirty-five years (in 1770) is the 60 birthday of Emperor Qianlong, the Empress Dowager Niohuru 80 the following year is a birthday. Tibet, Qinghai, Xinjiang, Mongolia and other places all kings and chiefs had been asked to visit Chengde birthday. Qianlong attached enormous importance to these two grand assembly, of Sterling Imperial Household Department imitation Maekura resident political and religious leader the Dalai Lama to build temple in Chengde Potala Palace in Lhasa. Qianlong Sanshiernian (1767) in March began, the original terms of three years for completion due to construction of the latter part of fire, until Sanshiliunian (1771) in August completed an area of 21.6 hectares. Putuo case by a Tibetan Abdallah's translation, so the temple also known as Abdallah, Abdallah smaller than in Tibet because of their size, commonly known as small Potala Palace.

Putuo Temple of cases by the overall layout of the Potala Palace in Tibet is similar to no obvious central axis, the momentum can not keep up Tibet Abdallah, but the area of the broad mass of the structure of the temple of the great but only for the Mainland. All Temple layout points before and after the two parts: the front located on a hill, from white units, Mountain Gate, tablets pavilions of architectural composition; back in the Mountain, Taiwan and the room layout Red Fort. According to characteristic points can be divided into three parts: the first part by the main gate, the tablets pavilions, five-tower doors, glass arch composition; second part of the white platform group, formed by a number of small white sets; third is divided into red units. White station group into the "×"-shaped, red on the arch units, the next Wai entrance, tablets pavilions, five towers and the arch, the architectural layout as the Eight Outer Temples is also a unique Chinese traditional architecture.

The first part of the gate

The south gate from the Tibetan city of Temple Terrace and the composition of the Han-style veranda. City, Taiwan for the brick structure, three-hole open in the front arches, arches above a horizontal window blind, the puzzle pheasant dish. City Hall stage from veranda, is located around the Gallery, Gallery built-in window sills, solid walls on both sides of seal, Miankuo 5 Ying, into the deep 2, Dan Yan glazed tile roof, the edge Shi green glazed tiles, for defending the God, left to the right order of four protective deities, Zhang Lu Peng defending the ancient god Mahakala Mahal Cannes La protective deities. Front entrance a pair of stone lions, and then south for the five-hole stone bridge, entrance is located on both sides of waist door, there is connected to the wall.

Gate the north tablets pavilions, flat rectangular three-bay, double eaves and yellow glazed Xieshan Ding, brick arch structure, and sealing solid wall, surrounded by open arches, under the Sumeru TOJO bearing. Li Kiosk stone 3: for "Putuo Zongcheng Temple Inscription," describes the background and the temple was built over; East as "Torghut all allegiance in mind," the West for "pacifying the Department of Public Torghut mind" , describes the Department of E Lute Mongolia Torghut reunification process and the Qing government pension situation in the Ministry. Inscription with the Manchu, the Han, Mongolian, Tibetan and four kinds of text engraved on the Chinese language for the Qianlong personally. Tablets pavilions north of the tower for five doors, three arch shapes of white units, solid wall of windows blind, the puzzle parapet, white table-li five towers, from east to west, respectively black, white, yellow, green, red colored, each color represents a body of religious teaching. Qing Dynasty statue Yellow Sect as the State religion, so a yellow center. 5 Tap Mun as a pair of pre-rock, in order to send a symbol of Mahayana. 5 Tap Mun north of glass through the arch, three four-column shape the seventh floor, the floor, his forehead, "Pu doors should now", which means Goddess of Mercy show the door to salvation of all beings. After the amount of "Lotus solemn profession", which means Goddess of Mercy temple.

The second part of the white-Taiwan Group

Red Tainan, the first part of both sides of the loose more than 30 small white units, as "×"-shaped irregular layout. White Hall station sub-units, balcony, spacious units, real sets, the shape varied body mass ranging from different functions. Storey one to four, two, three-person majority, most of lime wiping face, a red brick trim blind windows, glass puzzle roof tile on the eaves singled out Tangshui long. White flat-topped platform for Tibetan Tibetan stone room shapes, building brick-concrete structure with Han Chinese French. Some two white sets combined into a courtyard for Seng Fang; some stage, the Han-style temple built for temple, bell tower use; Some Taiwan-top stupa; Taiwan brick structure, some white solid, only as barrier Jing Zeng King and decorative effect. White sets the overall effectiveness of group performance before the foot of the mountains of Tibet's Potala Palace, Fan Zi features. The south wall Split 2 turret is really white-Taiwan puzzle blind wall windows, starting at the top notch. Could it be provided on both sides of white mesosphere, door, played veranda Hall, symmetrical configuration, for the monks out of use.

Glass arch the north-gang sub-Temple, surrounded by Tibetan carved puzzle room wall, the wall is located three blind windows, east, south to a layer of Sengfang, West puzzle Deng Dao, north of monks from the roof veranda Hall, Dan Yan green glazed tile roof , 5 Ying lacking a broad prospect, into the deep 2, available for Palden Lhamo, four protective deities, big Brahma. Gang Sub East Hall East Hall, also known as sub-Dian Dong Gang, flat as a "B"-shaped, two-story. This hall was originally Sengfang is supreme Tantric yoga for five pairs of Mi Yue Yun pairs of empty body, like Huan Xifo amending the law. East from north to south followed by Diamond Goddess, big Wade King, dense poly-King, Sheng Yue Jin-Gang Wang, evil King degrees. Tantric Huan Xifo statues are generally long, the table more than intellect, the most top-centered image, I like to change; multi-arm multi-legged table and vigorously more energy; foot monster, the table can Xiangyao town magic.

Gang sub-set of homes for the West Hall of the Northwest Temple, also known as the West-Gang Yu Temple, is through the hall, flat as a "factory"-shaped, just south of provision of doors, hokubo two hard mountain top and gray tiles. Available for the main statue Palden Lhamo, the original shrine in weighing the Three Realms hall, exhibition hall after the Cultural Revolution changed this. Palden Lhamo is gold-bronze statues, high 116 cm, body riding a mule, before and after two small statues Shoutou person, the chassis of the sea. The whole group of statues with 1196 pounds copper, gold, 57 2, employment 6425. According to "Palden Lhamo by the" records, Palden Lhamo to change as the Goddess of Mercy, is the Dalai Lama's defending God, an annual New Year's Day she was riding the sun lower bound of the parties to inspect the world, drive out demons, bless all sentient beings safe. Tibetan Buddhists in the Tibetan calendar every year to October 15 Palden Lhamo to be summoned as Temple pulled from the big paraded in order to maintain the personnel calm, fine weather. Palden Lhamo, like the West for the longevity Buddha 9, Yakushi Buddha 12, are brass.

 

The third part of the Red Taiwan

Red Taiwan-bit Putuo Zongcheng Temple Finally, the location of the maximum area of 10.3 thousand square meters, due to clever use of terrain will be several groups of buildings connected into a whole, the visual on the exaggerated, even more difficult and costly. Positive grass-roots level is a white sets, solid, high 17 meters, the lower part of puzzle granite stone, the upper part of brick, lime noodles, the wall is located three trapezoidal windows blind, East and West sides assemble a white stone steps directly to Taiwan at the top of Gordon Road.

White 5-ying, Taiwan, southeast corner of a Miankuo, into the deep 3's "Monju Celestine" Hall. Qian Foge the west, surrounded by Gallery (now collapsed), Genei for the Mongolian princes presented to the Empress Dowager of the 1000 Buddha neutral "Qian Foge Inscription of" Thirty-five years of Qianlong imperial system. Genei a banner reads: "A wonderful capital coincide Zhan Qian-Li Zhu Fu, Fan Zhu Wan Huan determining contact with the fan base."

Taitung White House for the dumb pit, Jin Miao incense to the emperor, when the monks of the avoided. Bai Taiwan on Taiwan from red, high 25 meters wide and 58 meters on the next wide and 59 meters, seven, one to four solid, are set blind windows, the upper three spaced real window, blind window.

Red Tainan surface perpendicular to the middle of inlay decoration glass shrines 6, yellow, and green and white, Chinese-style tactics, one marking the axis, two decorative role play. Red-Taiwan puzzle parapet at the top of the wall under the three sides (East, West, South) decorative yellow glass shrines, pulling home under the eaves stone Drainage long trough. Red Taiwan inside of five to seven for the three attic, each layer 44, four surround, also known as towers.

Group F, the south into the deep three, Tung Tianzhu four rows; in five north into the deep 4, Tung Tianzhu five rows; Group F, three rows of the east pass Tianzhu, into the deep 2; the west side of pass Tianzhu four rows deep into the two and a half. Group F, east, west, south and north respectively banners "approach of taking by the Court", "Mahayana Miao-feng", "secret shengjing", "nirvana." Group F, a layer of split stone mandala 6, there is Buddha, Kuan Yin, Amitayus, custard apple, big Wade King Kong, King Kong-hi. Group F banner of "Man Chui-ying Hu Hua niches color, like a tame lion under Washio Cenhui"; "Fosha Gancheng France is now owned raft metaphor to teach Zen to open Aurora Speech Chuandeng"; "the same can not figure this boundless ci 2, Yu Purdue Daqian than promising Act ";" Unification Xumi days mostly from the resident community, over the sea will be now with the Kegon side ";" super-secret Indian holding four wonderful fruit, round light Ching show Triyana ";" now France-based newspaper all over the body tan Fei Yin and integration after the first occasion, as taught in the same holding ";" relative to light in early to hold one of the ACFTU, the heavens were played Mima poly-Vatican incense ";" Bore often melt phase poly-5 Ford, Bodhicitta and the card by eight auspicious ";" view of Indian Yuantong Neng Ren Jue Pu show, understanding language clean Miao Zhi Tian fellow ";" merit verses show Aromatherapy eaves Portuguese, a solemn-looking lover-ray Ying glass ";" mental and physical beings who Farley and the economy, revel Shi desire, all the regular round ";" 3000 Guang Pu care sector, Shou domain always-trillion Spring ";" Baoshu Jiao Hui Xiang constant, Cheung Turning the Law Wheel boundless. "

Group F at the top of the northwest corner of Jian Chi Hong Purdue Hall, lutetium bronze tiles, Zhong Yan Liu Jiaoting-shaped, two-story horizontal inscribed board "Fusho Three Realms", hall plaque "big show itself," banners "Swie King Yu Hsi Lai Miaoguan the case the monthly round of Wu-South refers to co-phase yun. " Jian Dian-ming weigh the northeast corner of the Three Realms, lutetium bronze tiles, double eaves and star anise, containing the amount of "fine Yan is the situation right," banner "Dharma Realm divinity that is empty now that the color, Brahma by strong non-domestic non-OK."

Scarlet Taiwan Sanjie West Northeast weighed built Luojia shengjing Hall Miankuo 5 Ying, into the deep one. Logar shengjing South, Red Taitung Jian-Dong group of buildings, three. Eastern Group House Sorai southerly from the stage, face the north, side three, three. Taiwan to build the northwest corner of the Red Eagle House, solid, from decorative effect. Group F 10000 France Sorai center in a hall owned by a square between the seven corners slightly incorporated into half of the double eaves and save tip overlying gold-fish-scale copper-watt, four-wave ridge decoration, French bell ding. Ying-door swing enamel, Lime tower, for the red sandalwood in the shrines are available for Maitreya, east and west sides Rosewood Longevity tower home. Altar placed Babao, five for the coral tree. By the North Tree screen, a huge tapestry hanging in front to hang like a satin embroidered Buddhist (high thirty feet wide, Yi Zhang), is no deposit. Pre-screen for the Buddha, and then the former for the Tsongkhapa, on both sides for the main hall as the Dalai Lama and Tsongkhapa, both copper sculpture, fine texture, fine technology, movements symmetry, vividly. North and South in a hall banners as "net sex super ride," the second as "Miaodeyuancheng"; face the Southern Banner, "Pu-10000 should be fate." Hall banner of "a divinity Ham Leo Chin Fen Xun, serpent eagle is a good friend P is now the solemn wind-sighted"; "moon in legal careers in Taiwan attained great joy, is the embodiment of the plug retaining wonderful auspicious"; "the beginning of the total land holding of Falun owned Fu-sheng because of the extension on the plug;, widely played by the Vatican Hengsha Vision contact Nengren new fan ";" spread were Brahma taught speech delivery, incarnation is often Hui Rong. "

10000 France owned by a Hall of the whole temple gatherings and celebrations held in place July 11 at the hall each year degree examinations held in Buddhism. The twelfth lunar month 27, the first month 14 in this event organized by sending worship, all the monks in this chanting, drive out demons pray for peace. The Qing Dynasty, Mongolia, far away into the inside and outside the temple incenseqiu fo by an endless stream. Qianlong Sanshiliunian (1771). Hong Li was in this hall meeting with Miles and his entourage return Torghut leader Wo Baxi and preaching at a large-scale birthday celebrations. 10000 France owned by a number of Putuo Temple is the Temple of the main hall, hidden in the red group of floor units among Dianding higher than the base building, spangle. The bottom of the floor, encircled by three groups, video tone of darkness and light contrasts, resulting in strict and solemn religious atmosphere, is a gem of religious architecture in the Mainland.

In 1932, the United States large-scale international exposition held in Chicago, big Rockefeller in order to move gaze transactions, in 1930 adopted a Swede He set out into the Evans statement sent to the palace to the measured real painting, created in Chicago with this one Hall of the same size model, but also in China through various means to collect a large number of Buddhist statues, Buddhist implements, in 1931, with the special launch to Chicago, a copy of the "method return a Temple" is a display, leading to emergence of the Chicago Exposition, Oriental Cultural Fever, Rockefeller the limelight, earning a lot of money, this is "yesterday" in comedy. Today, Vince He determined Rockefeller should be duty-bound this was "forgotten" of the history, facing the East, saying that one can make the Chinese people a decent emotional words. The Swedish architect Maike Si Mr. Wu Lei and several other experts interested in Chinese culture established a foundation from Anna University, Indiana United States would "go a Temple 10000 France" all components bought in preparation for In the Stockholm International Culture Research Center "reconstruction" assembly. Mr. Wu Lei in 1989 had been to Chengde, in consultation with the competent departments to inspect the method return a hall when Mr. Wu Lei said: This is a miracle. Imitation may be like, the end is not the original thing.

Cut and paste from: www.yankalilla.sa.gov.au/

 

"The Starfish Hill Wind Farm is located across two hills on the tip of the Fleurieu Peninsula near Cape Jervis and was the first wind farm built in South Australia. The site was selected because the area has consistently high winds, is sparsely populated and the land was previously cleared for farming and grazing.

 

Starfish Hill rises to a height of 306 metres along a north-south ridge about three kilometres from the coastline. Salt Creek Hill, west of Starfish Hill on another north-south ridge, has a height of 220 metres and is about one kilometre from the coast. West of Salt Creek Hill, steep cliffs rise 100 metres above the sea.

 

There are 23 wind turbines with 15 located on Salt Creek Hill and 8 on Starfish Hill. Each of the turbines has 3 blades with a tower height of 68 metres and overall height of 100 metres from the ground to the blade tip.

 

The wind farm provides enough energy to meet the needs of about 18,000 households (ie. 2% of the State's residential customers) and adds 1% to the available generation capacity in South Australia."

  

Manhattan is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City. The borough is coterminous with New York County, founded on November 1, 1683 as an original county of the U.S. state of New York. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the East, Hudson, and Harlem Rivers, but also includes several small adjacent islands, as well as Marble Hill, a small neighborhood on the U.S. mainland.

 

Manhattan has been described as the economic and cultural center of the United States and serves as home to the United Nations Headquarters. Wall Street, in Lower Manhattan, has been called the financial capital of the world, and is home to the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Many multinational media conglomerates are based in the borough. Historically documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for the equivalent of US$24, Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island itself estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2014.

 

New York County is the most densely populated county in the United States, and is more dense than any individual American city. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a Census-estimated 2013 population of 1,626,159 living in a land area of 22.96 square miles (59.5 km2), or about 70,826 residents per square mile (27,346/km²). On business days, the influx of commuters increases that number to over 3.9 million, or around 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, and is the smallest borough in terms of land area.

 

Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan have become well known to New York City's approximately 50 million annual visitors. Times Square, iconified as "The Crossroads of the World" and "The Center of the Universe", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. The borough hosts many world-renowned bridges, skyscrapers, and parks. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere. The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 35 in the world. The city of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of city government and a National Historic Landmark that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen (Half Moon). A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River (later named the Hudson River). The word "Manhattan" has been translated as "island of many hills" from the Lenape language.

 

The United States Postal Service prefers that mail addressed to Manhattan use "New York, NY" rather than "Manhattan, NY".

  

The area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of the French king Francis I – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. He entered The Narrows aboard his ship La Dauphine and named the land around Upper New York Harbor "New Angoulême", in reference to the family name of Francis I of France that was derived from Angoulême in France; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the Hudson River which he referred to in his report to the French king as a "very big river"; and he named Upper New York Bay the Bay of Santa Margarita – after Marguerite de Navarre – the elder sister of the king.

 

It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, that the area was mapped. Hudson came across Manhattan Island and the native people living there in 1609, and continued up the river that would later bear his name, the Hudson River, until he arrived at the site of present day Albany.

  

A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, later called New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam). Manhattan Island was chosen as the site of Fort Amsterdam, a citadel for the protection of the new arrivals; its 1625 establishment is recognized as the birth date of New York City. According to the document by Pieter Janszoon Schagen our People (ons Volck), Peter Minuit and Dutch colonists acquired Manhattan in 1626 from unnamed American Indian people in exchange for trade goods worth 60 guilders, often said to be worth US$24, though (by comparing the price of bread and other goods) it actually amounts to around US$1,050 in 2014.

 

In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director General of the colony. New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1653. In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it "New York" after the English Duke of York and Albany, the future King James II. The Dutch, under Director General Stuyvesant, successfully negotiated with the English to produce 24 articles of provisional transfer, which sought to retain for the extant citizens of New Netherland their previously attained liberties (including freedom of religion) under new colonial English rulers.

 

The Dutch Republic regained it in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming the city "New Orange". New Netherland was ceded permanently to the English in November 1674 through the Treaty of Westminster, in exchange for Run Island which was the long-coveted last link in the Dutch nutmeg trading monopoly in Indonesia.

American Revolution and the early United States

 

Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of major battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the disastrous Battle of Fort Washington on November 16, 1776. The city became the British political and military center of operations in North America for the remainder of the war. Manhattan was greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the British military rule that followed. British occupation lasted until November 25, 1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the city.

 

From January 11, 1785, to the fall of 1788, New York City was the fifth of five capitals of the United States under the Articles of Confederation, with the Continental Congress meeting at New York City Hall (then at Fraunces Tavern). New York was the first capital under the newly enacted Constitution of the United States, from March 4, 1789, to August 12, 1790, at Federal Hall. Federal Hall was also the site of where the United States Supreme Court met for the first time, the United States Bill of Rights were drafted and ratified, and where the Northwest Ordinance was adopted, establishing measures for adding new states to the Union.

 

Manhattan is loosely divided into Downtown (Lower Manhattan), Midtown (Midtown Manhattan), and Uptown (Upper Manhattan), with Fifth Avenue dividing Manhattan's east and west sides. Manhattan Island is bounded by the Hudson River to the west and the East River to the east. To the north, the Harlem River divides Manhattan Island from The Bronx and the mainland United States. Several small islands are also part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall's Island, Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, New York County has a total area of 33.6 square miles (87 km2), of which 22.8 square miles (59 km2) is land and 10.8 square miles (28 km2) (32%) is water. The northern segment of Upper Manhattan represents a geographic panhandle. Manhattan Island is 22.7 square miles (59 km2) in area, 13.4 miles (21.6 km) long and 2.3 miles (3.7 km) wide, at its widest (near 14th Street).

 

Early in the 19th century, landfill was used to expand Lower Manhattan from the natural Hudson shoreline at Greenwich Street to West Street. When building the World Trade Center, 1.2 million cubic yards (917,000 m³) of material was excavated from the site. Rather than dumping the spoil at sea or in landfills, the fill material was used to expand the Manhattan shoreline across West Street, creating Battery Park City. The result was a 700-foot (210-m) extension into the river, running six blocks or 1,484 feet (452 m), covering 92 acres (37 ha), providing a 1.2-mile (1.9 km) riverfront esplanade and over 30 acres (12 ha) of parks.

 

At the 2010 Census, there were 1,585,873 people living in Manhattan, an increase of 3.2% since 2000. Since 2010, Manhattan's population was estimated by the Census Bureau to have increased 2.5% to 1,626,159 as of 2013, representing 19.3% of the city's population and 8.3% of the state's population. As of the 2000 Census, the population density of New York County was 66,940 per square mile (25,846/km²), the highest population density of any county in the United States. If 2012 census estimates were accurate, the population density then approximated 70,518 people per square mile (27,227/km²). In 1910, at the height of European immigration to New York, Manhattan's population density reached a peak of 101,548 people per square mile (39,208/km²). There were 798,144 housing units in 2000 at an average density of 34,756.7 per square mile (13,421.8/km²). Only 20.3% of Manhattan residents lived in owner-occupied housing, the second-lowest rate of all counties in the nation, behind the Bronx.

 

According to 2012 Census estimates, 65.2% of the population was White, 18.4% Black or African American, 1.2% American Indian and Alaska Native, 12.0% Asian, and 3.1% of two or more races. 25.8% of Manhattan's population was of Hispanic or Latino origin, of any race. Manhattan has the second highest percentage of non-Hispanic Whites (48%) of New York City's boroughs, after Staten Island (where non-Hispanic Whites make up 64% of residents).

 

The New York City Department of City Planning projects that Manhattan's population will increase by 289,000 people between 2000 and 2030, an increase of 18.8% over the period, second only to Staten Island, while the rest of the city is projected to grow by 12.7% over the same period. The school-age population is expected to grow 4.4% by 2030, in contrast to a small decline in the city as a whole. The elderly population is forecast to grow by 57.9%, with the borough adding 108,000 persons ages 65 and over, compared to 44.2% growth citywide.

 

According to the 2009 American Community Survey, the average household size was 2.11, and the average family size was 3.21. Approximately 59.4% of the population over the age of 25 have a bachelor's degree or higher. Approximately 27.0% of the population is foreign-born, and 61.7% of the population over the age of 5 speak only English at home. People of Irish ancestry make up 7.8% of the population, while Italian Americans make up 6.8% of the population. German Americans and Russian Americans make up 7.2% and 6.2% of the population respectively.

 

In 2000, 56.4% of people living in Manhattan were White, 17.39% were Black, 14.14% were from other races, 9.40% were Asian, 0.5% were Native American, and 0.07% were Pacific Islander. 4.14% were from two or more races. 27.18% were Hispanic of any race.

 

There were 738,644 households. 25.2% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 59.1% were non-families. 17.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them. 48% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was two and the average family size was 2.99.

 

Manhattan's population was spread out with 16.8% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 38.3% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, and 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males.

 

Manhattan is one of the highest-income places in the United States with a population greater than one million. As of 2012, Manhattan's cost of living was the highest in the United States, but the borough also contained the country's most profound level of income inequality. Manhattan is also the United States county with the highest per capita income, being the sole county whose per capita income exceeded $100,000 in 2010. In 2012, The New York Times reported that "the income gap in Manhattan, already wider than almost anywhere else in the country, rivaled disparities in sub-Saharan Africa. ... The wealthiest fifth of Manhattanites made more than 40 times what the lowest fifth reported, a widening gap (it was 38 times, the year before) surpassed by only a few developing countries".

 

Lower Manhattan has been experiencing a baby boom, well above the overall birth rate in Manhattan, with the area south of Canal Street witnessing 1,086 births in 2010, 12% greater than 2009 and over twice the number born in 2001. The Financial District alone has witnessed growth in its population to approximately 43,000 as of 2014, nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census.

  

from Wikipedia

 

Photography tip (#1):

When you're running out of new shots to post, it's important to try to be imaginative.

In times of photo-scarcity, common household items such as these elastic bands, can often provide a cheap alternative to more time-consuming endeavors or costly photographic props or models.

 

Does anybody know the closing date for the Turner Prize?

# www.youtube.com/watch?v=MqWeOmICIdQ&feature=related

  

Albert Owen designated second home in London and claimed monthly mortgage interest of £1,288 in August 2007. Claimed £629 for television, £73 for painting and decorating and £89 for cutlery

 

James Paice claims mortgage interest on south London flat. Spent £2,684 on furniture in May 2004 and in March 2007, spent another £2,130

 

Ian Paisley claims rent on second home in west London. December 2003, claimed for night at Jolly Hotel St Ermin’s in the city, including £3 on minibar

 

Nick Palmer rents second home in London. Switched between rental properties, claiming £424 in August 2005 for removal costs. Later switched back to rental flat in the original block

 

Owen Paterson claimed mortgage interest of £1,041 a month on flat near Parliament. Switched to another property in 2005, payments rose to £1,657

 

Ian Pearson has second home in West Midlands, claims mortgage interest. Other claims: £240 for 20 hours of gardening

 

Andrew Pelling does not claim additional costs allowance (ACA). Claimed the smaller London Supplement, which was £2,812 last year

 

Mike Penning , a shadow health minister, charged the taxpayer £2.99 for a stainless steel dog bowl

 

John Penrose's second home is Thames-side flat near Parliament, with tracker mortgage, on which he claims monthly interest payments of around £2,000

 

Eric Pickles claimed for £200 in petty cash monthly between 2005 and the middle of 2008. Claimed mortgage interest of less than £250 a month and service charges of £750 a year for a flat in east London. One of the lower claimers. Stopped using the additional costs allowance to run a second home when made party chairman.

 

James Plaskitt asked by fees office not to claim nominal sums such as £400 or £300 a month for groceries without submitting evidence of expenditure

 

Greg Pope claimed £1,590 for shopping at John Lewis in March 2006. In September 2006, submitted claim of £560 for two paintings, for which a receipt with no company letterhead was submitted

 

Stephen Pound is not eligible for second home allowance. Claimed £160 for guided tour of Palace of Westminster under Incidental Expenses Provision (IEP)

 

Bridget Prentice claimed no ACA. Office IEP expenses include £230 in 2004 for accountant to prepare her tax return

 

Gordon Prentice claimed £2,262 for items bought at John Lewis, including a £749 television, £649 fridge freezer and various furniture for London flat on top of £900-a-month mortgage

 

John Prescott claimed for two lavatory seats in two years

 

Adam Price claimed for books, including Bring Home the Revolution: The Case for a British Republic, by Jonathan Freedland. Queried by fees office

 

Dawn Primarolo claimed on second home in Bristol. In 2004, switched to London flat and claimed mortgage interest payments

 

Mark Prisk accidentally claimed £1,726 rather than £1,182 for one month’s mortgage interest on London home. Error was spotted by officials

 

Mark Pritchard moved flats in Westminster in 2007, claiming for £199 vacuum cleaner, £1,000 furnishings, kitchen utensils worth £66, bedding of £45 and a £145 microwave

 

Gwyn Prosser paid his brother from his taxpayer-funded expenses to carry out work on his London flat - despite the fact that he lived almost 200 miles away.

 

John Pugh rents London flat for £1,280 a month; rent claims rose to £1,500. In July 2006, told fees office his daughter would be staying while at university, so he would reduce claims on rent and utilities. Claims remained close to maximum

 

Ken Purchase spent £1,465 on new blinds for second home in south London in 2005-06. Regularly claims up to maximum £400 a month for food. Monthly mortgage interest payments were £580 last year, leaving an ACA of £14,713

 

James Purnell avoided paying capital gains tax on the sale of his London flat after claiming expenses for accountancy advice. Bought expensive gadgets. Spent taxpayers’ money advertising at football and rugby league matches

 

Bill Rammell claimed £475 a month mortgage interest in 2008 for second home located in constituency. Claimed £1,360 for replastering and installing downlights in bedroom

 

Nick Raynsford: as an inner London MP, he is not eligible to claim a second home allowance, but he claimed the maximum London Supplement of £2,812 last year

 

John Redwood has admitted being paid twice after submitting an identical £3,000 decorating bill on his second home allowance

 

Andy Reed has a flat as second home in Westminster. In 2007, claimed £1,180 for the flat but this fell to £727 for a mortgage interest payment in 2008. Website states he claims about £450 aper month in mortgage interest payments

 

Jamie Reed claimed £8,640 stamp duty and £3,943 in legal fees when he bought London home in May 2006. Claimed £2,336 for two beds and two mattresses, but this was reduced to £1,000 by the fees office

 

Alan Reid claimed more than £1,500 on his parliamentary expenses for staying in hotels and bed-and-breakfasts near his home

 

John Reid used his allowance to pay for slotted spoons, an ironing board and a glittery loo seat

 

Willie Rennie's second home is a flat in Lambeth, south London. In 2005, claimed £708 for new cooker and fridge freezer. In 2007, claimed for £1,350 monthly rent

 

Sir Malcolm Rifkind claimed the smaller London Supplement, which amounted to £2,812 last year

 

Linda Riordan bought flat in Kennington in early 2006, claims for mortgage interest. Claims for beds/headboards refused, but £219 bedding, £1,310 sofa bed/chair and £1,936 carpet approved. Regularly claims maximum £400 for unreceipted monthly food bills

 

Andrew Robathan claimed monthly mortgage interest payments on London home of more than £3,300 before notifying the fees office he was switching his second home to a new property in his constituency, “which we are going to refurbish”

 

Angus Robertson successfully appealed to the fees office when they turned down his claim for a £400 home cinema system

 

Hugh Robertson rents second home in London for more than £1,800 a month. Main home, in Kent, belongs to his wife’s family. He checked with fees office that this arrangement was in order, they confirmed it was

 

John Robertson rents a second home in London for about £1,100 a month and has claimed £675 in window cleaning at the property since 2005

 

Laurence Robertson designates constituency house as second home, claiming £900 monthly mortgage interest and about £800 a year heating oil. Pays wife Susan’s travel and phone from office allowance. She works for him but they are separated

 

Geoffrey Robinson has not made any claims on his second home allowance since 2004/05

 

Peter and Iris Robinson both claimed expenses based on the same £1,223 bill when they submitted their parliamentary claims in 2007

 

Dan Rogerson bought London flat in 2005. Claimed £2,500 stamp duty, £1,572 legal fees, £340 survey; £1,108 furniture. In March 2008, changed mortgage to interest-only, allowing maximum benefits of ACA

 

Terry Rooney claimed interest payments on mortgage for home in Bradford using second home allowance. Between March 2007 and April 2008, claimed £1,200 for cleaning

 

Andrew Rosindell claimed more than £125,000 in second home expenses for a flat in London, while designating his childhood home 17 miles away - where his mother lived - as his main address

 

Paul Rowen claimed mortgage interest payments for second home in Battersea, south London. In 2007, claimed for a £325 rug, a chest of drawers costing £295 and an £85 bedside table, all from John Lewis

 

Frank Roy claimed £455 on “assorted bedding, curtains and furnishings” in March 2006. In July, submitted bill for £750 towards £795 HD-ready 32 in television with DVD player. In January 2008, claimed £265 for sink waste disposal unit

 

Chris Ruane claimed £4,560 part costs of buying flat in March 2006, then claimed £10,958 for remainder following month. Fees office noted on claim that this could not be paid because costs were incurred in 2005-06 financial year and it was then 2006-07

 

Joan Ruddock claimed £235 for training on debt advice provided by Shelter, the charity, in May 2008. Confirmed she paid tax on reimbursed accountacy fees

 

David Ruffley claimed for new furniture and fittings after “flipping” his second home from London to a new flat in his constituency

 

Bob Russell claims mortgage interest for south London flat he shares with fellow MP Mike Hancock. In July 2006, claimed £1,035 for replacing windows

 

Christine Russell claims rent on second home in London, which she shares with fellow MP Helen Southworth

 

Joan Ryan spent thousands of pounds on repairs and decorations at her constituency home before switching her designated second home to a London property

 

Alex Salmond claimed £400 per month for food when the Commons was not even sitting. He also billed the taxpayer £14,100 to try to impeach Tony Blair

 

Martin Salter has not made any claims on his second home allowance since 2004/05

 

Adrian Sanders claimed rent on his London flat of up to £988 a month. Claimed for £55 vase from the Dartington Cider Press Centre in Totnes, Devon

 

Mohammed Sarwar claimed almost £100,000 to cover mortgage interest that he paid from an account with a Swiss bank.

 

Alison Seabeck claims £1,100 a month mortgage interest for her constituency home, but billed £65 for a night in local hotel plus £10 breakfast after she had left her keys in London

 

Andrew Selous designates constituency property as second home, on which he claims monthly mortgage interest payments of more than £1,600

 

Grant Shapps claimed just £7,269 on his second homes allowance in 2007/08

 

Virendra Sharma chose not to claim designated second home expenses under ACA after entering Parliament in a by-election in July, 2007, although he was entitled to them as an outer London MP. Took £1,958 in London supplement in 2007-08 and £15,988 in office expenses.

 

Jonathan Shaw claimed £240 in London hotel bills plus £800 monthly flat renta in March 2005, saying it was being redecorated

 

Barry Sheerman claimed mortgage interest payments of about £900 a month on London second home, £1,338 for 20 in Apple iMac on office expenses

 

Richard Shepherd has repaid £162 to the Fees Office after deciding he should not have claimed for cleaning and gardening at his constituency home

 

Jim Sheridan used his allowances to reclaim the cost of a 42-inch plasma TV, leather bed and hundreds of pounds worth of furniture. Claimed £2,091 for three-seater sofa, two-seater sofa bed, coffee table and lamp table for London home bought from Edinburgh dfs store in March 2006

 

Clare Short claimed thousands of pounds of taxpayers' money to which she was not entitled within months of standing down as a Cabinet minister

 

Mark Simmonds claims up to £2,696 a month for interest-only mortgage on second home in London

 

Sion Simon claimed £5,400 in stamp duty after moving house in London in May 2008. Also claimed £1,850 on refurbishing new home that month

 

Alan Simpson claimed £4,000 towards the cost of replacing the boiler at second home in Lambeth. In September 2007, claimed £10,000 towards £11,020 on stripping out old kitchen

 

David Simpson bought London flat in March 2006. Over two days, claimed £6,234 for furniture. Claimed £1,082 monthly mortgage interest payments

 

Keith Simpson has claimed almost £200 for light bulbs on his expenses

 

Marsha Singh claimed mortgage interest payments for London flat as second home. Claimed for £750 television, £229 DVD player and £400 music player with handwritten receipt

 

Andrew Slaughter is not eligible to claim ACA. In 2007, claimed for a fountain pen nib costing £90 using his IEP

 

Andrew Smith spent more than £30,000 of taxpayers’ money giving his house a makeover

 

Angela Smith sought payment for four beds for a one-bedroom London flat

 

Angela C Smith spent nearly £11,000 over two years on setting up a second home in London

 

Geraldine Smith spent £235 on picture and £185 on mirror for London flat in August 2005. Bought Bali table lamp, floor lamp and three cushions for total of £620 one month later

 

advice using expenses intended to fund their parliamentary and constituency offices. Bought expensive gadgets including an iPhone for her husband.

 

John Smith claimed £57,955 in second home expenses in four years without submitting a single receipt.

 

Sir Robert Smith claimed about £910 a month for mortgage interest payments on Lambeth flat in 2008-09

 

Anne Snelgrove claimed £4,100 for furniture including a bedstead, sofa and chest of drawers. Also claimed £499.97 for a television set, £454.70 for crockery and kitchen equipment, £655 on a table, chairs and bookcase, and £55 on towels.

 

Nicholas Soames claimed up to £1,340 a month for mortgage interest on Westminster home

 

Sir Peter Soulsby fell behind with the rent at his offices but when the £472 bailiffs bill arrived he billed the taxpayer

 

Helen Southworth claims rent on second home in London, which she shares with fellow MP Christine Russell. Claimed £709 for a television, £259 for an air conditioning unit and £239 for a Dyson cleaner

 

John Spellar claims for his constituency home in the West Midlands. Claimed £600 for a tree surgeon, £1.99 for a washing up brush and 47p for a pair of rubber gloves

 

Caroline Spelman made no claims for mortgage interest or rent on her second home in 2006-07 and 2007-08

 

Michael Spicer claimed for work on his helipad and received thousands of pounds for gardening bills

 

Bob Spink claimed about £25,000 for fees and refurbishment when he bought a flat in 2004. Included was £11,000 for decorators’ fees, £3,400 for a leather sofa, £3,000 for carpets and curtains

 

Richard Spring claimed monthly mortgage interest payments of more than £1,300 on a property in Suffolk. Also claimed £35.25 to treat a wasps’ nest

 

Sir John Stanley claims for rent on London flat, also claims for food, utilities, council tax and a cleaner

 

Phyllis Starkey claims for rent on home in consituency, along with utilities and council tax. Also owns a house in Oxford from which rental income is received

 

Anthony Steen claimed £87,000 on country mansion with 500 trees. He has announced he will step down at the next election

 

Ian Stewart claims rent on flat in London. Also claimed for a £500 leather suite and a £1,247 computer bought from the shopping channel QVC

 

Howard Stoate claimed thousands in DIY bills 'to ease the burden on the taxpayer'

 

Gavin Strang claims for his flat in London and for up to £400 per month in food. Also receives rental income from farmland and woodland in Perthshire

 

Jack Straw only paid half the amount of council tax that he claimed on his parliamentary allowances over four years but later rectified the over-claim. Used his office expenses to pay for a degree studied by a member of his staff

 

Gary Streeter claims for the mortgage interest on his constituency home in Plymouth, also claimed for food and £1.60 for a pack of 10 lightbulbs

 

Gisela Stuart claims for mortgage interest on constituency home in Birmingham and up to £2,000 per year for food. Also owns a family home in Worcestershire and a flat in London

 

Graham Stringer: hotel stays when in London and claims up to £4,800 per year for food. Hotel bills have included snacks such as Pringles crisps at £1.75

 

Graham Stuart shares a flat in London with Conservative MP David Mundell, shares costs with him and claims for rent, council tax and utilities. Bills for household items included £426 for duvet, pillows and towels

 

Andrew Stunell claims for mortgage interest on flat in London, also claimed for £5,545 replacement windows by Everest. Claims more than £1,000 per year for food in some years

 

Gerry Sutcliffe claims for mortgage interest on constituency home in Bingley. Claimed £3,790 for fitted bedroom, £2,616 for new gutters and sofit boards, and £1,745 for two sofas

 

Desmond Swayne has a second home in London, on which he paid a £652 monthly mortgage interest in 2005-06. Rose to £711 in 2007-08. Charged £6,131 for new kitchen and £411 for tree work in 2006

 

Jo Swinson included receipts for eyeliner, a “tooth flosser” and 29p dusters with her parliamentary expenses claims

 

Hugo Swire, the former shadow culture secretary, designated his first home in London and claimed for rent at his second home in Devon. He said London was his main home and his daughter went to school in the capital. In June, 2007, he claimed £349 for a satellite navigation system to “cover the 176.25 square miles of his constituency”.

 

Robert Syms claimed more than £2,000 worth of furniture on expenses for his designated second home in London, but had it all delivered to his parents’ address in Wiltshire

 

Mark Tami has a second home in Bromley, Kent. Bought London home in Dec 2007, claimed £9,000 stamp duty and mortgage interest rate increased to £1,300

 

Sir Peter Tapsell claimed rent for second home in London, which rose from £4,821 a quarter in 2006 to £5,417 a quarter in 2008. Total claims over fours years of £87,729

 

Dari Taylor claimed flat in south-east London as second home and charged monthly mortgage interest of £1,000 in 2008. Fees office asked for evidence of mortgage in October 2007

 

David Taylor has a second home in London, monthly mortgage interest payments of £375 in 2005 rose to £700 after buying new second home in 2007

 

Ian Taylor said he will retire at the next election after it emerged that he made second home claims on a flat in London although his main home is within 40 minutes’ commuting distance of Westminster

 

Matthew Taylor claims for flat in London while also owning another flat in London which he rents out. Bills include £350 for gardening, £1,373 for curtains and blinds

 

Richard Taylor claims for renting flat in London and for council tax. No claims for furniture, cleaning, utilities or food

 

Sarah Teather did not claim on her second homes allowance between 2004 and 2008

 

Gareth Thomas used public money to settle a £1,000 accountancy bill to recover a tax "over-payment" of £2,000. Has repaid more than £1,600 he claimed for gardening, £1,200 he overclaimed for council tax and mortgage interest payments and £30 for wine and other personal items

 

Emily Thornberry is not entitled to claim for a second home as an inner London MP. However, takes home the London Supplement, which was £2,812 last year

 

John Thurso claimed rent on designated second home in London and for hotels across Scotland because of “vast area of constituency”. Approved by fees office

 

Stephen Timms is an outer London MP who chooses not to claim second homes allowance. Claims the London Supplement which amounted to £2,812 last year

 

Paddy Tipping claimed mortgage interest payments of about £500 per month on a flat in London. His overall claims were only just over half the maximum amount claimed by some MPs

 

Mark Todd defended his expenses claims as "essentials" but included a marble table and an espresso coffee machine

 

Baroness Tonge claimed mortgage interest on her second home allowance as an MP, then after her retirement leased the property to a fellow MP who in turn recovered the rent from the taxpayer

 

Don Touhig spent thousands of pounds redecorating his constituency home before “flipping” his allowance to a flat in London

 

David Tredinnick tried to claim the £125 cost of attending a course on "intimate relationships" through his Parliamentary expenses

 

Jon Trickett claimed £761.68 per month in mortgage interest payments for a second home in London. Also claimed for food, utilities and council tax

 

Paul Truswell stays in hotels in London while at Westminster, usually paying £119 for a room, also claimed for £4.95 packets of nuts from the minibar. In 2007-08, claimed £2,255 for food and £18 for laundry

 

Andrew Turner used his office expenses to pay for his girlfriend, who is also his parliamentary assistant, to have "life coaching" classes

 

Des Turner claimed mortgage interest payments of up to £450 per month on a flat in London as his designated second home. Also claimed up to £400 per month food. Claimed roughly half of the maximum available under the second homes allowance.

 

Neil Turner claimed for mortgage interest on flat in London, and up to £400 per month for food some months. Also claims utilities, council tax and for small amounts of furniture

 

Derek Twigg moved his designated second home from constituency to flat near Parliament in 2004, now claims £1,343 a month in rent. Claimed £110 for an iron and radio in 2005, and £77 for same items two years later

 

Lord Tyler claimed for the mortgage interest on his family-owned flat in Westminster – and then sold his share to his daughter a month after he quit as an MP

 

Andrew Tyrie nominates a flat in property near his constituency as second home. Claims £700 a month in mortgage interest payments and £6,000 a year on service charges

 

Kitty Ussher resigned as Treasury minister after he expenses files showed she avoided paying up to £17,000 in tax on the sale of her constituency home

 

Ed Vaizey had £2,000 worth of furniture delivered to his London home when he was claiming his Commons allowance on a second home in Oxfordshire.

 

Shailesh Vara tried to claim £1,500 on his expenses for costs incurred before he was elected

 

Keith Vaz claimed £75,500 for a second flat near Parliament even though he already lived just 12 miles from Westminster

 

Sir Peter Viggers included with his expense claims the £1,645 cost of a floating duck house in the garden pond at his Hampshire home. He has announced he will step down at the next election and admitted he made a "ridiculous and grave error of judgment"

 

Theresa Villiers claimed almost £16,000 in stamp duty and professional fees on expenses when she bought a London flat, even though she already had a house in the capital. She has agreed to stop claiming the second home allowance

 

Rudi Vis receives second home allowance and claims £2,300 a month interest on a mortgage he took out in 2006 on his constituency home. Says main home is in Suffolk

 

Charles Walker claims £700 in mortgage interest payments for flat in Wandsworth, constituency home is 21 miles from Westminster. Claimed £6,732 for decoration, carpets, curtains and re-wiring at flat

 

Ben Wallace claimed for more than £700 to stay at Carlton Club after May 2005 general election. Included the cost of at least three Daily Telegraphs on bill. Most claims made up of rent, council tax bills and utility bills

 

Joan Walley claimed for more than £4,400 of furniture in London flat in 2004-05 and a £195 blanket. In 2005-06, claimed for £1,199 LCD Sony television. Fees office cut bill to £750

 

Robert Walter attempted to claim £1,008 for handmade carpets he bought while on a trip to India. Claimed for £16,000 moving costs; estate agents’ commission, stamp duty and solicitors’ fees. Then claimed for two flat screen televisions worth £749 and £399 and eight chairs worth £744

 

Lynda Waltho claimed £1,680 for food in one year. Billed taxpayer for £472 bed, £81 sheets, towels and a pillow and £1,022 of electrical equipment. Also claimed for £380 armchair and £8.32 kettle

 

Claire Ward, the MP responsible for keeping the Queen informed about Parliament, submitted monthly expense claims for hundreds of pounds of "petty cash" while claiming maximum allowances

 

Bob Wareing claimed for more than £4,000 in food bills in 2004-05. Then claimed for £176 air conditioning unit, as well as a £19.99 kettle for his Westminster flat

 

Nigel Waterson claimed mortgage interest/rent payments and food bills at his second home in Beckenham, Kent. Also billed taxpayer £1,055 to paint house and garage

 

Angela Watkinson claimed £3,100 to redecorate flat including new doors, latches and locks in 2005-06. Then claimed £6,350 for a new bathroom, as well as £804 for a television, microwave and fridge

 

Tom Watson and Iain Wright spent £100,000 of taxpayers' money on the London flat they once shared

 

Dave Watts claimed for refurbishment to kitchen (£3,543), bathroom (£3,500) and £742 redecoration. Also claimed for £549 Philips LCD 26 in television

 

Steve Webb sold his London flat and bought another nearby, while the taxpayer picked up an £8,400 bill for stamp duty

 

Mike Weir claimed £1,300 per month rent for his second home in London plus bills for utilities, telephone, council tax and food

 

Alan Whitehead claimed mortgage interest payments of up to £730 per month on his second home in London. Also claimed £1,942.98 for a replacement boiler

 

John Whittingdale claimed £1,828.30 for bathroom fitting, £1,800 for a replacement boiler, £774.50 on a sofa and rug from Laura Ashley and £1,014 on a bed

 

Malcolm Wicks was entitled to claim for a second home allowance but instead claimed for the more moderate London subsidy of £2,812

 

Ann Widdecombe claimed just £858 on her second home allowance in 2007/08. However, she did spend more than £9,000 of taxpayers' money on her own personal newspaper cuttings service over a four year period.

 

Bill Wiggin claimed interest payments for a property which had no mortgage

 

Betty Williams claimed mortgage interest payments of £519 per month on London flat. Also claimed service charge, utilities, telephone and food but made few other claims

 

Hywel Williams claimed more than £1,000 per month in mortgage interest payments on London flat. Also claimed £2,408.75 for a plumbing bill

 

David Willetts, the Conservatives' choice for skills minister, needed help changing light bulbs. He has agreed to repay the bill

 

Alan Williams claimed just £5,221 on his second homes allowance in 2007/08

 

Mark Williams claimed up to £1,300 per month to rent a flat in London as his second home but made few other claims under the allowance

 

Stephen Williams claimed up to £1,500 per month to cover rent at his second home, a flat in London. Also claimed for food and utility bills but made few other claims

 

Roger Williams claimed £1,200 per month in rent for a flat in London, which he designated as his second home. Also claimed for food, utilities and cleaning

 

Phil Willis spent thousands of pounds of public funds on mortgage interest payments, redecoration and furnishings for a flat where his daughter now lives.

 

Jenny Willott claimed up to £1,500 per month to live in a flat in London as her second home. Also claimed £519 for a sofa, £933.50 for a bed and £850 for a mattress

 

Michael Wills claims about £1,120 a month in interest for the mortgage on his house in Wiltshire. On one occasion, the fees office agreed to pay £2,633 for a claim made two months after the deadline for 2005-06 had passed. He said a “genuine mistake” had been made by a “trusted and normally reliable member of staff”.

 

David Wilshire claimed thousands of pounds of taxpayers money for monthly payments towards the cost of replacing curtains and carpets at some point in the future. Claimed up to £1,375 per month in mortgage interest payments and also claimed for council tax, service charges and food

 

Phil Wilson claimed £1,250 per month in rent for a London flat, which he designated as his second home. Also claimed £350 for a sofa bed

 

Rob Wilson did not claim on his second homes allowance between 2004 and 2008

 

Sammy Wilson originally claimed for hotels when in London. Later jointly bought a property in the city with another MP. Claimed £6,150 stamp duty, £1,406.90 solicitors’ fees and £2,914 on furniture

 

David Winnick claimed just £36,354 on his second homes allowance between 2004-8

 

Sir Nicholas Winterton and his wife Ann claimed more than £80,000 for a London flat owned by a trust controlled by their children. They have announced they will stand down at the next general election

 

Rosie Winterton submitted claims for “soundproofing” the bedroom of her London home and received thousands of pounds for gardening and decorating. She paid back more than £8,000 in mortgage payments that she claimed wrongly on her parliamentary expenses

 

Peter Wishart claimed £1,400 per month in rent for a second home in London. Also claimed for food but made few other claims under the second homes allowance

 

Mike Wood claimed just over £500 per month to live in a flat in London. Also claimed £3,421.76 for a central heating boiler, £599.99 for a television and £1,332 for a new bathroom

 

Phil Woolas submitted receipts including comics, nappies and women's clothing as part of his claims for food

 

Shaun Woodward received £100,000 to help pay mortgage

 

Anthony Wright claims rent for London flat, also claimed £498 for TV, £90 for trouser press. Accepted £10,000 cash payment from owners of flat, which meant taxpayer-funded rent went up

 

David Wright accepted a £16,787 payment from the owners of his flat in return for giving up the right to cheap rent, then moved out. Claimed £599 for a TV but a £64.99 claim for a razor was turned down

 

Iain Wright and Tom Watson spent £100,000 of taxpayers' money on the London flat they once shared

 

Jeremy Wright claims for flat in London. Spent £2,884 on furniture when he became an MP, including £809 for a bed and £399 for a television

 

Tony Wright claims for his rent in Dolphin Square complex in London, £995 for Venetian blinds, £1,630 for a new sofa and chairs and £799 for a sideboard

 

Derek Wyatt billed 75p for scotch eggs

 

Tim Yeo claimed for a pink laptop computer from John Lewis in the weeks leading up to Christmas.

 

George Young claimed the maximum second home allowance on his London flat for the past two years. He also billed taxpayers for the cost of a video camera so that he could broadcast clips of himself at work on YouTube

 

Richard Younger-Ross spent £1,235 on four mirrors and bought 'Don Juan’ bookca

  

Manhattan is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City. The borough is coterminous with New York County, founded on November 1, 1683 as an original county of the U.S. state of New York. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the East, Hudson, and Harlem Rivers, but also includes several small adjacent islands, as well as Marble Hill, a small neighborhood on the U.S. mainland.

 

Manhattan has been described as the economic and cultural center of the United States and serves as home to the United Nations Headquarters. Wall Street, in Lower Manhattan, has been called the financial capital of the world, and is home to the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Many multinational media conglomerates are based in the borough. Historically documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for the equivalent of US$24, Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island itself estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2014.

 

New York County is the most densely populated county in the United States, and is more dense than any individual American city. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a Census-estimated 2013 population of 1,626,159 living in a land area of 22.96 square miles (59.5 km2), or about 70,826 residents per square mile (27,346/km²). On business days, the influx of commuters increases that number to over 3.9 million, or around 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, and is the smallest borough in terms of land area.

 

Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan have become well known to New York City's approximately 50 million annual visitors. Times Square, iconified as "The Crossroads of the World" and "The Center of the Universe", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. The borough hosts many world-renowned bridges, skyscrapers, and parks. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere. The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 35 in the world. The city of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of city government and a National Historic Landmark that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen (Half Moon). A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River (later named the Hudson River). The word "Manhattan" has been translated as "island of many hills" from the Lenape language.

 

The United States Postal Service prefers that mail addressed to Manhattan use "New York, NY" rather than "Manhattan, NY".

  

The area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of the French king Francis I – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. He entered The Narrows aboard his ship La Dauphine and named the land around Upper New York Harbor "New Angoulême", in reference to the family name of Francis I of France that was derived from Angoulême in France; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the Hudson River which he referred to in his report to the French king as a "very big river"; and he named Upper New York Bay the Bay of Santa Margarita – after Marguerite de Navarre – the elder sister of the king.

 

It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, that the area was mapped. Hudson came across Manhattan Island and the native people living there in 1609, and continued up the river that would later bear his name, the Hudson River, until he arrived at the site of present day Albany.

  

A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, later called New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam). Manhattan Island was chosen as the site of Fort Amsterdam, a citadel for the protection of the new arrivals; its 1625 establishment is recognized as the birth date of New York City. According to the document by Pieter Janszoon Schagen our People (ons Volck), Peter Minuit and Dutch colonists acquired Manhattan in 1626 from unnamed American Indian people in exchange for trade goods worth 60 guilders, often said to be worth US$24, though (by comparing the price of bread and other goods) it actually amounts to around US$1,050 in 2014.

 

In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director General of the colony. New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1653. In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it "New York" after the English Duke of York and Albany, the future King James II. The Dutch, under Director General Stuyvesant, successfully negotiated with the English to produce 24 articles of provisional transfer, which sought to retain for the extant citizens of New Netherland their previously attained liberties (including freedom of religion) under new colonial English rulers.

 

The Dutch Republic regained it in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming the city "New Orange". New Netherland was ceded permanently to the English in November 1674 through the Treaty of Westminster, in exchange for Run Island which was the long-coveted last link in the Dutch nutmeg trading monopoly in Indonesia.

American Revolution and the early United States

 

Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of major battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the disastrous Battle of Fort Washington on November 16, 1776. The city became the British political and military center of operations in North America for the remainder of the war. Manhattan was greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the British military rule that followed. British occupation lasted until November 25, 1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the city.

 

From January 11, 1785, to the fall of 1788, New York City was the fifth of five capitals of the United States under the Articles of Confederation, with the Continental Congress meeting at New York City Hall (then at Fraunces Tavern). New York was the first capital under the newly enacted Constitution of the United States, from March 4, 1789, to August 12, 1790, at Federal Hall. Federal Hall was also the site of where the United States Supreme Court met for the first time, the United States Bill of Rights were drafted and ratified, and where the Northwest Ordinance was adopted, establishing measures for adding new states to the Union.

 

Manhattan is loosely divided into Downtown (Lower Manhattan), Midtown (Midtown Manhattan), and Uptown (Upper Manhattan), with Fifth Avenue dividing Manhattan's east and west sides. Manhattan Island is bounded by the Hudson River to the west and the East River to the east. To the north, the Harlem River divides Manhattan Island from The Bronx and the mainland United States. Several small islands are also part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall's Island, Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, New York County has a total area of 33.6 square miles (87 km2), of which 22.8 square miles (59 km2) is land and 10.8 square miles (28 km2) (32%) is water. The northern segment of Upper Manhattan represents a geographic panhandle. Manhattan Island is 22.7 square miles (59 km2) in area, 13.4 miles (21.6 km) long and 2.3 miles (3.7 km) wide, at its widest (near 14th Street).

 

Early in the 19th century, landfill was used to expand Lower Manhattan from the natural Hudson shoreline at Greenwich Street to West Street. When building the World Trade Center, 1.2 million cubic yards (917,000 m³) of material was excavated from the site. Rather than dumping the spoil at sea or in landfills, the fill material was used to expand the Manhattan shoreline across West Street, creating Battery Park City. The result was a 700-foot (210-m) extension into the river, running six blocks or 1,484 feet (452 m), covering 92 acres (37 ha), providing a 1.2-mile (1.9 km) riverfront esplanade and over 30 acres (12 ha) of parks.

 

At the 2010 Census, there were 1,585,873 people living in Manhattan, an increase of 3.2% since 2000. Since 2010, Manhattan's population was estimated by the Census Bureau to have increased 2.5% to 1,626,159 as of 2013, representing 19.3% of the city's population and 8.3% of the state's population. As of the 2000 Census, the population density of New York County was 66,940 per square mile (25,846/km²), the highest population density of any county in the United States. If 2012 census estimates were accurate, the population density then approximated 70,518 people per square mile (27,227/km²). In 1910, at the height of European immigration to New York, Manhattan's population density reached a peak of 101,548 people per square mile (39,208/km²). There were 798,144 housing units in 2000 at an average density of 34,756.7 per square mile (13,421.8/km²). Only 20.3% of Manhattan residents lived in owner-occupied housing, the second-lowest rate of all counties in the nation, behind the Bronx.

 

According to 2012 Census estimates, 65.2% of the population was White, 18.4% Black or African American, 1.2% American Indian and Alaska Native, 12.0% Asian, and 3.1% of two or more races. 25.8% of Manhattan's population was of Hispanic or Latino origin, of any race. Manhattan has the second highest percentage of non-Hispanic Whites (48%) of New York City's boroughs, after Staten Island (where non-Hispanic Whites make up 64% of residents).

 

The New York City Department of City Planning projects that Manhattan's population will increase by 289,000 people between 2000 and 2030, an increase of 18.8% over the period, second only to Staten Island, while the rest of the city is projected to grow by 12.7% over the same period. The school-age population is expected to grow 4.4% by 2030, in contrast to a small decline in the city as a whole. The elderly population is forecast to grow by 57.9%, with the borough adding 108,000 persons ages 65 and over, compared to 44.2% growth citywide.

 

According to the 2009 American Community Survey, the average household size was 2.11, and the average family size was 3.21. Approximately 59.4% of the population over the age of 25 have a bachelor's degree or higher. Approximately 27.0% of the population is foreign-born, and 61.7% of the population over the age of 5 speak only English at home. People of Irish ancestry make up 7.8% of the population, while Italian Americans make up 6.8% of the population. German Americans and Russian Americans make up 7.2% and 6.2% of the population respectively.

 

In 2000, 56.4% of people living in Manhattan were White, 17.39% were Black, 14.14% were from other races, 9.40% were Asian, 0.5% were Native American, and 0.07% were Pacific Islander. 4.14% were from two or more races. 27.18% were Hispanic of any race.

 

There were 738,644 households. 25.2% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 59.1% were non-families. 17.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them. 48% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was two and the average family size was 2.99.

 

Manhattan's population was spread out with 16.8% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 38.3% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, and 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males.

 

Manhattan is one of the highest-income places in the United States with a population greater than one million. As of 2012, Manhattan's cost of living was the highest in the United States, but the borough also contained the country's most profound level of income inequality. Manhattan is also the United States county with the highest per capita income, being the sole county whose per capita income exceeded $100,000 in 2010. In 2012, The New York Times reported that "the income gap in Manhattan, already wider than almost anywhere else in the country, rivaled disparities in sub-Saharan Africa. ... The wealthiest fifth of Manhattanites made more than 40 times what the lowest fifth reported, a widening gap (it was 38 times, the year before) surpassed by only a few developing countries".

 

Lower Manhattan has been experiencing a baby boom, well above the overall birth rate in Manhattan, with the area south of Canal Street witnessing 1,086 births in 2010, 12% greater than 2009 and over twice the number born in 2001. The Financial District alone has witnessed growth in its population to approximately 43,000 as of 2014, nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census.

  

from Wikipedia

 

Singapore Gardens by the Bay consists of three distinctive waterfront gardens – Bay South, Bay East and Bay Central, spanning a total of 101 hectares. They are set in the heart of Singapore’s new downtown Marina Bay, encircling the Marina Reservoir like a green necklace. The Gardens will complement the array of attractions around Marina Bay.

 

Gardens by the Bay is an integral part of a strategy by the Singapore government that further transforms Singapore from a ‘Garden City’ to a ‘City in a Garden’, in which the city is woven into a green and floral tapestry. This aims to raise the quality of life in Singapore with a more holistic and all-encompassing programme that enhances greenery and flora in the city. First announced to the public by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong during the National Day Rally in August 2005, Gardens by the Bay will become Singapore’s premier urban outdoor recreation space, and a national icon.

 

An international competition for the design of the master plan was held in January 2006 to elicit the best designs for the Gardens. This attracted more than 70 entries submitted by 170 firms from 24 countries, from which two firms – Grant Associates and Gustafson Porter – were eventually awarded the master plan design for the Bay South and Bay East Gardens respectively.

 

The Gardens are being developed in phases. Bay South is currently being constructed and is slated to be completed by June 2012. Bay East has been developed as an interim park in support of the Youth Olympic Games 2010, and is scheduled to open to the public in late 2011 or early 2012. The full master plan implementation of Bay East and the development of Bay Central are part of the next phase of development.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia......

 

Some information about singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the Singapore Strait to its south. Singapore is highly urbanised but almost half of the country is covered by greenery. More land is being created for development through land reclamation.

 

Singapore had been a part of various local empires since it was first inhabited in the second century AD. Modern Singapore was founded as a trading post of the East India Company by Sir Stamford Raffles in 1819 with permission from the Sultanate of Johor. The British obtained full sovereignty over the island in 1824 and Singapore became one of the British Straits Settlements in 1826. Singapore was occupied by the Japanese in World War II and reverted to British rule after the war. It became internally self-governing in 1959. Singapore united with other former British territories to form Malaysia in 1963 and became a fully independent state two years later after separation from Malaysia. Since then it has had a massive increase in wealth, and is one of the Four Asian Tigers. The economy depends heavily on the industry and service sectors. Singapore is a world leader in several areas: It is the world's fourth-leading financial centre, the world's second-biggest casino gambling market, and the world's third-largest oil refining centre. The port of Singapore is one of the five busiest ports in the world, most notable for being the busiest transshipment port in the world. The country is home to more US dollar millionaire households per capita than any other country. The World Bank notes Singapore as the easiest place in the world to do business. The country has the world's third highest GDP PPP per capita of US$59,936, making Singapore one of the world's wealthiest countries.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia...

  

Marina Bay

 

Please note that all the contents in this photostream is copyrighted and protected under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, any usage of the images without permission will face liability for the infringement.

Some information about singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the Singapore Strait to its south. Singapore is highly urbanised but almost half of the country is covered by greenery. More land is being created for development through land reclamation.

 

Singapore had been a part of various local empires since it was first inhabited in the second century AD. Modern Singapore was founded as a trading post of the East India Company by Sir Stamford Raffles in 1819 with permission from the Sultanate of Johor. The British obtained full sovereignty over the island in 1824 and Singapore became one of the British Straits Settlements in 1826. Singapore was occupied by the Japanese in World War II and reverted to British rule after the war. It became internally self-governing in 1959. Singapore united with other former British territories to form Malaysia in 1963 and became a fully independent state two years later after separation from Malaysia. Since then it has had a massive increase in wealth, and is one of the Four Asian Tigers. The economy depends heavily on the industry and service sectors. Singapore is a world leader in several areas: It is the world's fourth-leading financial centre, the world's second-biggest casino gambling market, and the world's third-largest oil refining centre. The port of Singapore is one of the five busiest ports in the world, most notable for being the busiest transshipment port in the world. The country is home to more US dollar millionaire households per capita than any other country. The World Bank notes Singapore as the easiest place in the world to do business. The country has the world's third highest GDP PPP per capita of US$59,936, making Singapore one of the world's wealthiest countries.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia...

  

Singapore Marina Bay is a bay near Central Area in the southern part of Singapore, and lies to the east of the Downtown Core. Marina Bay is set to be a 24/7 destination with endless opportunities for people to “explore new living and lifestyle options, exchange new ideas and information for business, and be entertained by rich leisure and cultural experiences”.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

singapore river..

marina bay.

marina bay sands.

.

  

Gardens by the Bay consists of three distinctive waterfront gardens – Bay South, Bay East and Bay Central, spanning a total of 101 hectares. They are set in the heart of Singapore’s new downtown Marina Bay, encircling the Marina Reservoir like a green necklace. The Gardens will complement the array of attractions around Marina Bay.

 

Gardens by the Bay is an integral part of a strategy by the Singapore government that further transforms Singapore from a ‘Garden City’ to a ‘City in a Garden’, in which the city is woven into a green and floral tapestry. This aims to raise the quality of life in Singapore with a more holistic and all-encompassing programme that enhances greenery and flora in the city. First announced to the public by Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong during the National Day Rally in August 2005, Gardens by the Bay will become Singapore’s premier urban outdoor recreation space, and a national icon.

 

An international competition for the design of the master plan was held in January 2006 to elicit the best designs for the Gardens. This attracted more than 70 entries submitted by 170 firms from 24 countries, from which two firms – Grant Associates and Gustafson Porter – were eventually awarded the master plan design for the Bay South and Bay East Gardens respectively.

 

The Gardens are being developed in phases. Bay South is currently being constructed and is slated to be completed by June 2012. Bay East has been developed as an interim park in support of the Youth Olympic Games 2010, and is scheduled to open to the public in late 2011 or early 2012. The full master plan implementation of Bay East and the development of Bay Central are part of the next phase of development.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia......

 

Some information about singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the Singapore Strait to its south. Singapore is highly urbanised but almost half of the country is covered by greenery. More land is being created for development through land reclamation.

 

Singapore had been a part of various local empires since it was first inhabited in the second century AD. Modern Singapore was founded as a trading post of the East India Company by Sir Stamford Raffles in 1819 with permission from the Sultanate of Johor. The British obtained full sovereignty over the island in 1824 and Singapore became one of the British Straits Settlements in 1826. Singapore was occupied by the Japanese in World War II and reverted to British rule after the war. It became internally self-governing in 1959. Singapore united with other former British territories to form Malaysia in 1963 and became a fully independent state two years later after separation from Malaysia. Since then it has had a massive increase in wealth, and is one of the Four Asian Tigers. The economy depends heavily on the industry and service sectors. Singapore is a world leader in several areas: It is the world's fourth-leading financial centre, the world's second-biggest casino gambling market, and the world's third-largest oil refining centre. The port of Singapore is one of the five busiest ports in the world, most notable for being the busiest transshipment port in the world. The country is home to more US dollar millionaire households per capita than any other country. The World Bank notes Singapore as the easiest place in the world to do business. The country has the world's third highest GDP PPP per capita of US$59,936, making Singapore one of the world's wealthiest countries.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia...

  

Manhattan is the most densely populated of the five boroughs of New York City. The borough is coterminous with New York County, founded on November 1, 1683 as an original county of the U.S. state of New York. The borough consists mostly of Manhattan Island, bounded by the East, Hudson, and Harlem Rivers, but also includes several small adjacent islands, as well as Marble Hill, a small neighborhood on the U.S. mainland.

 

Manhattan has been described as the economic and cultural center of the United States and serves as home to the United Nations Headquarters. Wall Street, in Lower Manhattan, has been called the financial capital of the world, and is home to the New York Stock Exchange and NASDAQ. Many multinational media conglomerates are based in the borough. Historically documented to have been purchased by Dutch colonists from Native Americans in 1626 for the equivalent of US$24, Manhattan real estate has since become among the most expensive in the world, with the value of Manhattan Island itself estimated to exceed US$3 trillion in 2014.

 

New York County is the most densely populated county in the United States, and is more dense than any individual American city. It is one of the most densely populated areas in the world, with a Census-estimated 2013 population of 1,626,159 living in a land area of 22.96 square miles (59.5 km2), or about 70,826 residents per square mile (27,346/km²). On business days, the influx of commuters increases that number to over 3.9 million, or around 170,000 people per square mile. Manhattan has the third-largest population of New York's five boroughs, after Brooklyn and Queens, and is the smallest borough in terms of land area.

 

Many districts and landmarks in Manhattan have become well known to New York City's approximately 50 million annual visitors. Times Square, iconified as "The Crossroads of the World" and "The Center of the Universe", is the brightly illuminated hub of the Broadway Theater District, one of the world's busiest pedestrian intersections, and a major center of the world's entertainment industry. The borough hosts many world-renowned bridges, skyscrapers, and parks. Manhattan's Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere. The Stonewall Inn in Greenwich Village is considered the birthplace of the modern gay rights movement. Numerous colleges and universities are located in Manhattan, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, which have been ranked among the top 35 in the world. The city of New York was founded at the southern tip of Manhattan, and the borough houses New York City Hall, the seat of city government and a National Historic Landmark that is listed on the National Register of Historic Places.

The name Manhattan derives from the word Manna-hata, as written in the 1609 logbook of Robert Juet, an officer on Henry Hudson's yacht Halve Maen (Half Moon). A 1610 map depicts the name as Manna-hata, twice, on both the west and east sides of the Mauritius River (later named the Hudson River). The word "Manhattan" has been translated as "island of many hills" from the Lenape language.

 

The United States Postal Service prefers that mail addressed to Manhattan use "New York, NY" rather than "Manhattan, NY".

  

The area that is now Manhattan was long inhabited by the Lenape Native Americans. In 1524, Florentine explorer Giovanni da Verrazzano – sailing in service of the French king Francis I – was the first European to visit the area that would become New York City. He entered The Narrows aboard his ship La Dauphine and named the land around Upper New York Harbor "New Angoulême", in reference to the family name of Francis I of France that was derived from Angoulême in France; he sailed far enough into the harbor to sight the Hudson River which he referred to in his report to the French king as a "very big river"; and he named Upper New York Bay the Bay of Santa Margarita – after Marguerite de Navarre – the elder sister of the king.

 

It was not until the voyage of Henry Hudson, an Englishman who worked for the Dutch East India Company, that the area was mapped. Hudson came across Manhattan Island and the native people living there in 1609, and continued up the river that would later bear his name, the Hudson River, until he arrived at the site of present day Albany.

  

A permanent European presence in New Netherland began in 1624 with the founding of a Dutch fur trading settlement on Governors Island. In 1625, construction was started on the citadel of Fort Amsterdam on Manhattan Island, later called New Amsterdam (Nieuw Amsterdam). Manhattan Island was chosen as the site of Fort Amsterdam, a citadel for the protection of the new arrivals; its 1625 establishment is recognized as the birth date of New York City. According to the document by Pieter Janszoon Schagen our People (ons Volck), Peter Minuit and Dutch colonists acquired Manhattan in 1626 from unnamed American Indian people in exchange for trade goods worth 60 guilders, often said to be worth US$24, though (by comparing the price of bread and other goods) it actually amounts to around US$1,050 in 2014.

 

In 1647, Peter Stuyvesant was appointed as the last Dutch Director General of the colony. New Amsterdam was formally incorporated as a city on February 2, 1653. In 1664, the English conquered New Netherland and renamed it "New York" after the English Duke of York and Albany, the future King James II. The Dutch, under Director General Stuyvesant, successfully negotiated with the English to produce 24 articles of provisional transfer, which sought to retain for the extant citizens of New Netherland their previously attained liberties (including freedom of religion) under new colonial English rulers.

 

The Dutch Republic regained it in August 1673 with a fleet of 21 ships, renaming the city "New Orange". New Netherland was ceded permanently to the English in November 1674 through the Treaty of Westminster, in exchange for Run Island which was the long-coveted last link in the Dutch nutmeg trading monopoly in Indonesia.

American Revolution and the early United States

 

Manhattan was at the heart of the New York Campaign, a series of major battles in the early American Revolutionary War. The Continental Army was forced to abandon Manhattan after the disastrous Battle of Fort Washington on November 16, 1776. The city became the British political and military center of operations in North America for the remainder of the war. Manhattan was greatly damaged by the Great Fire of New York during the British military rule that followed. British occupation lasted until November 25, 1783, when George Washington returned to Manhattan, as the last British forces left the city.

 

From January 11, 1785, to the fall of 1788, New York City was the fifth of five capitals of the United States under the Articles of Confederation, with the Continental Congress meeting at New York City Hall (then at Fraunces Tavern). New York was the first capital under the newly enacted Constitution of the United States, from March 4, 1789, to August 12, 1790, at Federal Hall. Federal Hall was also the site of where the United States Supreme Court met for the first time, the United States Bill of Rights were drafted and ratified, and where the Northwest Ordinance was adopted, establishing measures for adding new states to the Union.

 

Manhattan is loosely divided into Downtown (Lower Manhattan), Midtown (Midtown Manhattan), and Uptown (Upper Manhattan), with Fifth Avenue dividing Manhattan's east and west sides. Manhattan Island is bounded by the Hudson River to the west and the East River to the east. To the north, the Harlem River divides Manhattan Island from The Bronx and the mainland United States. Several small islands are also part of the borough of Manhattan, including Randall's Island, Wards Island, and Roosevelt Island in the East River, and Governors Island and Liberty Island to the south in New York Harbor. According to the U.S. Census Bureau, New York County has a total area of 33.6 square miles (87 km2), of which 22.8 square miles (59 km2) is land and 10.8 square miles (28 km2) (32%) is water. The northern segment of Upper Manhattan represents a geographic panhandle. Manhattan Island is 22.7 square miles (59 km2) in area, 13.4 miles (21.6 km) long and 2.3 miles (3.7 km) wide, at its widest (near 14th Street).

 

Early in the 19th century, landfill was used to expand Lower Manhattan from the natural Hudson shoreline at Greenwich Street to West Street. When building the World Trade Center, 1.2 million cubic yards (917,000 m³) of material was excavated from the site. Rather than dumping the spoil at sea or in landfills, the fill material was used to expand the Manhattan shoreline across West Street, creating Battery Park City. The result was a 700-foot (210-m) extension into the river, running six blocks or 1,484 feet (452 m), covering 92 acres (37 ha), providing a 1.2-mile (1.9 km) riverfront esplanade and over 30 acres (12 ha) of parks.

 

At the 2010 Census, there were 1,585,873 people living in Manhattan, an increase of 3.2% since 2000. Since 2010, Manhattan's population was estimated by the Census Bureau to have increased 2.5% to 1,626,159 as of 2013, representing 19.3% of the city's population and 8.3% of the state's population. As of the 2000 Census, the population density of New York County was 66,940 per square mile (25,846/km²), the highest population density of any county in the United States. If 2012 census estimates were accurate, the population density then approximated 70,518 people per square mile (27,227/km²). In 1910, at the height of European immigration to New York, Manhattan's population density reached a peak of 101,548 people per square mile (39,208/km²). There were 798,144 housing units in 2000 at an average density of 34,756.7 per square mile (13,421.8/km²). Only 20.3% of Manhattan residents lived in owner-occupied housing, the second-lowest rate of all counties in the nation, behind the Bronx.

 

According to 2012 Census estimates, 65.2% of the population was White, 18.4% Black or African American, 1.2% American Indian and Alaska Native, 12.0% Asian, and 3.1% of two or more races. 25.8% of Manhattan's population was of Hispanic or Latino origin, of any race. Manhattan has the second highest percentage of non-Hispanic Whites (48%) of New York City's boroughs, after Staten Island (where non-Hispanic Whites make up 64% of residents).

 

The New York City Department of City Planning projects that Manhattan's population will increase by 289,000 people between 2000 and 2030, an increase of 18.8% over the period, second only to Staten Island, while the rest of the city is projected to grow by 12.7% over the same period. The school-age population is expected to grow 4.4% by 2030, in contrast to a small decline in the city as a whole. The elderly population is forecast to grow by 57.9%, with the borough adding 108,000 persons ages 65 and over, compared to 44.2% growth citywide.

 

According to the 2009 American Community Survey, the average household size was 2.11, and the average family size was 3.21. Approximately 59.4% of the population over the age of 25 have a bachelor's degree or higher. Approximately 27.0% of the population is foreign-born, and 61.7% of the population over the age of 5 speak only English at home. People of Irish ancestry make up 7.8% of the population, while Italian Americans make up 6.8% of the population. German Americans and Russian Americans make up 7.2% and 6.2% of the population respectively.

 

In 2000, 56.4% of people living in Manhattan were White, 17.39% were Black, 14.14% were from other races, 9.40% were Asian, 0.5% were Native American, and 0.07% were Pacific Islander. 4.14% were from two or more races. 27.18% were Hispanic of any race.

 

There were 738,644 households. 25.2% were married couples living together, 12.6% had a female householder with no husband present, and 59.1% were non-families. 17.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them. 48% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.9% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was two and the average family size was 2.99.

 

Manhattan's population was spread out with 16.8% under the age of 18, 10.2% from 18 to 24, 38.3% from 25 to 44, 22.6% from 45 to 64, and 12.2% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 90.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 87.9 males.

 

Manhattan is one of the highest-income places in the United States with a population greater than one million. As of 2012, Manhattan's cost of living was the highest in the United States, but the borough also contained the country's most profound level of income inequality. Manhattan is also the United States county with the highest per capita income, being the sole county whose per capita income exceeded $100,000 in 2010. In 2012, The New York Times reported that "the income gap in Manhattan, already wider than almost anywhere else in the country, rivaled disparities in sub-Saharan Africa. ... The wealthiest fifth of Manhattanites made more than 40 times what the lowest fifth reported, a widening gap (it was 38 times, the year before) surpassed by only a few developing countries".

 

Lower Manhattan has been experiencing a baby boom, well above the overall birth rate in Manhattan, with the area south of Canal Street witnessing 1,086 births in 2010, 12% greater than 2009 and over twice the number born in 2001. The Financial District alone has witnessed growth in its population to approximately 43,000 as of 2014, nearly double the 23,000 recorded at the 2000 Census.

  

from Wikipedia

 

My Gallery

where I live

 

Believe it or not but this used to be the council tip in the 1970's. Thank God they stopped before burying the whole of the valley and ancient woodland. No health and safety then nor any concern for the environment, we live in a far cleaner healthier environment now compared to a few decades ago. I wonder if the residents of the estate they built there as well know that thaey are sitting on top of a hole filled with household waste from the 1970's.

My Gallery

 

where I live

Olkhon (Ольхон, also transliterated as Olchon) is the third-largest lake-bound island in the world. It is by far the largest island in Lake Baikal in eastern Siberia, with an area of 730 square kilometres (280 sq mi). Structurally, it acts as the southwestern margin of Academician Ridge. The island measures 71.5 kilometres (44.4 mi) in length and 20.8 kilometres (12.9 mi) in width.

 

Olkhon has a dramatic combination of terrain and is rich in archeological landmarks. Steep mountains line its eastern shore, and at 1,276 metres (4,186 ft) above sea level, Mount Zhima is the highest point on the island, peaking at 818 metres (2,684 ft) above the water level of Lake Baikal. The island is large enough to have its own lakes, and features a combination of taiga, steppe and even a small desert. A deep strait separates the island from the land.

The island's appearance is a result of millions of years of tectonic movement resulting in the hollowing of the channel between the land (Small Sea Strait) and the block of stone forming the island. The steep slopes of the mountains show the vertical heave of the earth.

 

The population of the island is less than 1,500 and consists mostly of Buryats, the island's aboriginal people.

 

There are several settlements and five villages on the island: Yalga, Malomorets, Khuzhir, Kharantsi, and Ulan-Khushin. The village of Khuzhir is the administrative capital of Olkhon, designated as such in April 1987, when the Soviet government issued a comprehensive decree protecting Lake Baikal. Khuzhir is home to about 1,200 residents and boasts a museum of local nature and history.

 

Most residents are fishermen, farmers, or cattle-ranchers. Due to an increasing number of tourists from all over the world, many residents work in this sector as well, and tourism has become an important part of the economy in Olkhon.

 

The indigenous Buryats, adherents of shamanism, believe the island to be a spiritual place; one of the groups of deities adhered to in Buryati yellow shamanism is called the oikony noyod, the "thirteen lords of Olkhon. On the western coast, close to Khuzhir, is Baikal's most famous landmark, the Shamanka, or Shaman's Rock. Natives believe that Burkhan, a modern religious cult figure of the Altai peoples, lives in the cave in this rock. The rock is one of nine Asian Most Sacred Places. Olkhon is considered a centre of Kurumchinskay culture of 6th-10th centuries.

The museum at Olkhon, named after Revyakin, exposits on the nature and ethnography of the island, including pipe-smoking and a samovar collection.

 

The island has a long history of human habitation. The original indigenous people were the Kurykans, forefathers of two ethnic groups: the Buryats and Yakuts.

Russian explorers first visited during the 17th century.

 

One of the most important ecological problems of Olkhon Island is the disposal of household waste. At present, the waste is disposed of in large piles in forestry near the village of Khuzhir. The dump is unenclosed, and the tipping process is uncontrolled. Moreover, with recent increases in tourism on the island, new sources of hard rubbish have begun to appear.

 

Another ecological concern affecting the island is the illegal felling of timber by local inhabitants. A complicated net of forestry roads in the areas adjacent to Khuzhir lead to woodland areas on the mountain slopes. Timber is brought out of the forest at night time, and the deforestation is taking its toll on the area.

   

Il Lago Bajkal (in russo: О́зеро Байка́л, Ozero Bajkal, ['ozʲɪrə bʌj'kɑl],in mongolo ed in buriato Dalai-Nor, Mare sacro) è un lago della Siberia meridionale, diviso fra i territori dell'oblast' di Irkutsk e della repubblica di Buriazia. È stato posto sotto la tutela dell'UNESCO come patrimonio dell'umanità nel 1996. Fa parte della lista delle Sette meraviglie della Russia.

 

Il lago Bajkal si estende su una superficie di 31.722 km², che ne fa uno dei maggiori laghi al mondo per superficie; si allunga per 636 km da nord a sud (è il secondo del mondo per lunghezza dopo il lago Tanganica), con una larghezza media di 48 km (massima 79,4 km). La profondità media del lago è di 744 m, con una massima di 1.642 m nella parte centrale. Questi valori ne fanno contemporaneamente il lago d'acqua dolce più profondo del mondo e quello con il volume maggiore (23.615 km3). Contiene un volume d'acqua pressoché equivalente a quello dei cinque grandi laghi americani messi assieme. Si stima che contenga circa il 20% delle riserve d'acqua dolce del pianeta (esclusi i ghiacciai e le calotte polari).

Il lago Bajkal si estende in una zona geologicamente molto tormentata; occupa una zona di sprofondamento (fossa tettonica) molto profonda (la criptodepressione arriva a quasi 1.200 m sotto il livello del mare, dato che il pelo dell'acqua del lago è a circa 450 m s.l.m.), ed è circondato da piccole catene montuose che si allungano tutto intorno alle sue coste: monti del Bajkal, monti del Barguzin, monti Primorskij, monti Chamar-Daban, monti Ulan-Burgasy e, all'estremità settentrionale, l'Altopiano Stanovoj.

 

Il Bajkal riceve le acque di 336 immissari, i maggiori dei quali sono il Selenga (che nasce in Mongolia), il Barguzin, la Verchnjaja Angara (Angara Superiore), la Turka e la Snežnaja; possiede per contro un solo emissario, l'Angara, tramite il quale il lago tributa allo Enisej. Il bacino imbrifero del Bajkal si estende su una superficie di circa 557.000 km².

 

Il Bajkal si trova in una regione dal clima molto duro, con fortissime escursioni termiche fra le stagioni estreme; il lago, con la sua enorme massa d'acqua, esercita una forte azione di mitigazione delle temperature, con il risultato di avere inverni meno freddi ed estati più fresche e umide delle zone circostanti. D'inverno il lago è interessato da un esteso congelamento delle acque superficiali; questi ghiacci, per via della inerzia termica data dalla gran massa d'acqua, tendono a formarsi piuttosto tardi (dicembre) e a fondere completamente solo verso maggio.

Il lago è frequentemente battuto da un forte vento che viene chiamato "sarma" dalle popolazioni locali, che può toccare i 150 km/h.

 

Il lago Bajkal è caratterizzato da un ambiente atipico per un lago: le sue acque sono molto ricche d'ossigeno (soluzione satura al 75%) e anche il punto più profondo è popolato da forme di vita, mentre in altri laghi profondi in varie parti del mondo le forme di vita macroscopica scompaiono oltre i 300 m a causa dell'anossia.

Il lago Bajkal è sede di svariati endemismi.

Nel 1962 erano state censite nel lago e nelle sue vicinanze 1.220 diverse specie animali e vegetali, nel 1978 il numero era cresciuto a 1.400 e da allora ogni anno nuove forme di vita continuano ad essere scoperte. Ad oggi le nuove specie scoperte in loco sono oltre 2.500, di cui il 60% di tipo animale ed il 15% di tipo vegetale. Nel lago vi sono 250 specie di crostacei e ben 52 di pesci, di cui 27 endemiche del Bajkal.

Una delle specie più caratteristiche è la nerpa, la foca del Bajkal (Pusa sibirica), specie endemica di taglia piccola, dal manto grigio scuro, si nutre di pesci, ed è all'apice della catena alimentare del lago Bajkal. Alla fine del secolo scorso la caccia ne aveva drasticamente ridotto il numero, oggi risalito, grazie ad una politica di tutela, ad oltre 75.000 individui.

All'altra estremità della catena alimentare c'è un piccolo crostaceo filtratore del genere Epischura, che costituisce il 97% del plancton e raggiunge una biomassa pari a circa 4 milioni di tonnellate. Questo gamberetto non sopporta una temperatura più elevata di 12 °C, e quindi necessita di una elevata concentrazione di ossigeno, né sopporta una concentrazione salina anche solo leggermente superiore a quella (molto bassa) del lago Bajkal, ossia 100 mg di sali per litro d'acqua.

Alcuni ricercatori ritengono che soprattutto le specie endemiche più piccole si siano evolute dall'antica fauna di un immenso lago salmastro che sembra ricoprisse quasi l'intera Asia centrale agli inizi del Terziario (65 milioni di anni fa). Più tardi, 30 milioni di anni fa, il predetto lago si era frammentato in tanti piccoli laghi salmastri circondati da foreste di tipo tropicale. Una serie di importanti sconvolgimenti tettonici (ancor oggi in loco si verificano oltre 2.000 scosse ogni anno) dovuti alla collisione tra il continente euroasiatico con il sub-continente indiano, formarono una profonda frattura nella crosta terrestre la quale venne progressivamente riempita dalle acque convogliate dalla vasta pianura circostante, il volume d'acqua raccolto equivale alla massa d'acqua trasportabile da tutti i fiumi del pianeta nell'arco di un intero anno.

La fossa di frattura del Bajkal è una delle tipiche strutture geologiche estensionali, particolarmente vistosa perché superficiale, che si formano perpendicolarmente alle catene orogeniche (la catena orogenica in questo caso è quella himalayana).

Alcuni pesci, come la golomjanka (Comephorus baikalensis), e la suddetta foca del Bajkal sembrano essere arrivati in queste acque in epoche più recenti, forse dall'Artico attraverso gli immensi fiumi siberiani.

Nei pressi del lago esiste una riserva naturale nella quale vivono gli zibellini, specie a rischio di estinzione che oggi viene protetta, ed il cui allevamento è monopolio dello Stato russo.

 

Le acque del lago, mai più calde di 14 °C, lasciano filtrare lo sguardo fino a più di 40 m di profondità. Tale purezza è stata a più riprese posta a rischio da svariati eventi:

negli anni settanta, con il progetto per la costruzione della Ferrovia Bajkal-Amur, voluta da Leonid Brežnev per aprire la Siberia allo sfruttamento delle sue materie prime;

attraverso la nascita della città di Severobajkal'sk, 600 km a nord del lago;

riversando nel Bajkal gli scarichi delle industrie di Ulan-Ude (capitale della Buriazia, 350 000 abitanti), attraverso il fiume Selenga;

costruendo, proprio a Bajkal'sk, ad un centinaio di metri dalla riva, un grande impianto di trasformazione del legno e di lavorazione della cellulosa, peraltro contestato dalle popolazioni locali.

Fin dagli anni settanta, a protestare contro l'inquinamento del lago vi fu il biologo Grigorij Galazyj, membro dell' Accademia delle Scienze, ed allora direttore dell' Istituto di limnologia di Irkutsk, successivamente direttore del Museo del Bajkal. Secondo Galazyj "Nessuno dei molti decreti e progetti varati per proteggere il Bajkal è stato messo in atto, ed ogni giorno l'impianto per la lavorazione del legno riversa nel lago 250.000 l di acque di scarico, oltre a consumare 500.000 m³ di legno l'anno".

 

Sulle sponde del lago si sono insediate comunità di credo differente; le religioni principali sono tre: lo "sciamanesimo tibetano", il "buddhismo" ed il cristianesimo ortodosso che fu portata dai russi dopo che Kurbat Ivanov scoprì le acque del lago Bajkal nel 1643.

Il territorio della Buriazia, che è bagnata dal Bajkal per il 60% della linea costiera e la sua gente, i Buriati, furono annessi allo stato russo dai trattati del 1689 e del 1728, quando le terre intorno al Bajkal furono separate dalla Mongolia. Dalla metà del XVII secolo all'inizio del XX il numero di Buriati aumentò da 27.700 a 300.000.

Dopo l'annessione della Buriazia alla Russia la cultura buriata subì le influenze del buddhismo tibetano e della Chiesa Cristiana Ortodossa. I Buriati furono per lo più sottoposti ad un processo di integrazione ad usi e costumi tipicamente russi che li portò ad abbandonare progressivamente il nomadismo unitamente all'agricoltura itinerante, mentre i Buriati dell'est (Transbajkal) subirono l'influenza mongola (ancora oggi diversi gruppi vivono in yurta e sono in gran parte buddhisti). Nel Settecento fu costruito il primo monastero buddhista buriato.

 

Il nome "Buriati" è menzionato per la prima volta in un'opera mongola: infatti costoro sono i discendenti diretti dell'antico popolo nomade dei mongoli ed ancora oggi vivono lungo le sponde del lago; una leggenda locale asserisce che la madre di Gengis Khan fosse nata nel villaggio di Barguzin, sulla riva orientale del lago. I buriati d'inverno sono soliti attraversare il lago ghiacciato (quando la crosta è spessa 1 metro) con i camion poiché in tal modo la distanza fra le città di Irkutsk ed Ulan Ude si accorciano di molto, anche se questa pratica è molto pericolosa.

I Buriati sono soliti pescare l'"omul", specie endemica piuttosto pregiata, unitamente ad altre 52 specie presenti nel lago e svariati tipi di crostacei.

Un'antica credenza popolare afferma che esistono due demoni maligni abitanti delle acque profonde intorno all'isola di Olkhon: "Burkhan" e "Doshkin Nojon", pronti a prendersi le anime dei pescatori durante le tempeste.

Una piccola consuetudine è quella di collocare dei nastrini colorati portafortuna detti "semelga" sopra gli arbusti.

 

La Roccia dello Sciamano.

Trattasi di un masso enorme che spunta appena dalle acque proprio laddove l'Angara lascia il Bajkal.

La Roccia dello Sciamano è protagonista di una leggenda che i buriati imparano a conoscere già in tenera età. Secondo tale leggenda il Grande Uomo Bajkal giunse in questa regione con le sue 337 figlie e decise di fermarsi; mentre dormiva una delle figlie, alla quale i gabbiani avevano raccontato le prodezze di Jenisej, decise di fuggire per correre verso l'uomo-fiume di cui si era innamorata; svegliatosi, il Bajkal scagliò verso la fuggitiva una pietra, la Roccia dello Sciamano appunto.

Chi era sospettato di un crimine veniva posto la sera al di sopra della roccia. Se al mattino era ancora lì e la corrente non l'aveva portato via, costui era innocente e veniva liberato. Tuttavia pare che ciò accadesse di rado, in quanto il fiume Angara possiede delle acque tanto rapide ed irruente che è l'unico fiume della regione a non gelare d'inverno.

 

(from wikipedia.org)

Identifier: ladieshomejourna65janwyet

Title: The Ladies' home journal

Year: 1889 (1880s)

Authors: Wyeth, N. C. (Newell Convers), 1882-1945

Subjects: Women's periodicals Janice Bluestein Longone Culinary Archive

Publisher: Philadelphia : [s.n.]

Contributing Library: Internet Archive

Digitizing Sponsor: Internet Archive

  

View Book Page: Book Viewer

About This Book: Catalog Entry

View All Images: All Images From Book

 

Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

  

Text Appearing Before Image:

Grandmother had a set of irons,and picked the size best suited tothe ironing she had to do. TipToe,with its hinged soleplate, is a largeand small iron in the same iron! .. .Tip the handle forwardand use the Toe as a small iron —without ri-k ol scorching! tip it backand you have a big iron again! Greatestimprovement since iron- went electric!

 

Text Appearing After Image:

mam/m. / I sailplure<I handle ismfortable, always cool,)i acts fingers I mm hums . . • • flt-r/; elements supply iniued heal that smoothes Mic ii ithout pressure . . . Some gifts make work for the bride... but TipToe takes the hard work out of the most tiring of household tasks... spares her energy, frees her from fatigue, gives her extra hours saved for years and years... will be appreciated long after other gifts are forgotten!

  

Note About Images

Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

Here you can see the shorelines of Bangui and Pagudpud of Ilocos Norte , Philippines . Claveria is actually part of Cagayan , Philippines .

 

Pagudpud is a coastal resort town on the northernmost tip of Luzon in the Philippines. According to the latest census, Pagudpud has a population of 20,385 people in 3,804 households.

Its white-sand beaches and crystal-blue water makes Pagudpud a haven for tourists. Maira-Ira Point is also an emerging attraction with its secluded beach known as the Blue Lagoon. Access to this public beach is from a secondary concrete road on the north side of the Maharlika Highway just before approaching the Patapat Viaduct. On the way to the Blue Lagoon, a sea arch can be seen. Coconut trees line much of the town's coast. On a clear day, the Batanes Islands are visible from Patapat National Park.

 

The Patapat Viaduct, elevated 31 meters over sea level, is 1.3 km concrete coastal bridge that connects the Maharlika Highway from Laoag, Ilocos Norte to the Cagayan Valley Region. It rises along the town's coastal mountains, which is the starting point of the Cordillera Mountain Range that snakes through Northern Luzon. It is the 4th longest bridge in the Philippines. Located more than 16 kilometers from the town proper, it offers a scenic view of Pasaleng Bay- a view that leads towards wide and pristine beaches backed by mountains with breathtaking waterfalls Kabigan and Mabaga, along with the many cool, refreshing springs waiting to be discovered within.

  

Olkhon (Ольхон, also transliterated as Olchon) is the third-largest lake-bound island in the world. It is by far the largest island in Lake Baikal in eastern Siberia, with an area of 730 square kilometres (280 sq mi). Structurally, it acts as the southwestern margin of Academician Ridge. The island measures 71.5 kilometres (44.4 mi) in length and 20.8 kilometres (12.9 mi) in width.

 

Olkhon has a dramatic combination of terrain and is rich in archeological landmarks. Steep mountains line its eastern shore, and at 1,276 metres (4,186 ft) above sea level, Mount Zhima is the highest point on the island, peaking at 818 metres (2,684 ft) above the water level of Lake Baikal. The island is large enough to have its own lakes, and features a combination of taiga, steppe and even a small desert. A deep strait separates the island from the land.

The island's appearance is a result of millions of years of tectonic movement resulting in the hollowing of the channel between the land (Small Sea Strait) and the block of stone forming the island. The steep slopes of the mountains show the vertical heave of the earth.

 

The population of the island is less than 1,500 and consists mostly of Buryats, the island's aboriginal people.

 

There are several settlements and five villages on the island: Yalga, Malomorets, Khuzhir, Kharantsi, and Ulan-Khushin. The village of Khuzhir is the administrative capital of Olkhon, designated as such in April 1987, when the Soviet government issued a comprehensive decree protecting Lake Baikal. Khuzhir is home to about 1,200 residents and boasts a museum of local nature and history.

 

Most residents are fishermen, farmers, or cattle-ranchers. Due to an increasing number of tourists from all over the world, many residents work in this sector as well, and tourism has become an important part of the economy in Olkhon.

 

The indigenous Buryats, adherents of shamanism, believe the island to be a spiritual place; one of the groups of deities adhered to in Buryati yellow shamanism is called the oikony noyod, the "thirteen lords of Olkhon. On the western coast, close to Khuzhir, is Baikal's most famous landmark, the Shamanka, or Shaman's Rock. Natives believe that Burkhan, a modern religious cult figure of the Altai peoples, lives in the cave in this rock. The rock is one of nine Asian Most Sacred Places. Olkhon is considered a centre of Kurumchinskay culture of 6th-10th centuries.

The museum at Olkhon, named after Revyakin, exposits on the nature and ethnography of the island, including pipe-smoking and a samovar collection.

 

The island has a long history of human habitation. The original indigenous people were the Kurykans, forefathers of two ethnic groups: the Buryats and Yakuts.

Russian explorers first visited during the 17th century.

 

One of the most important ecological problems of Olkhon Island is the disposal of household waste. At present, the waste is disposed of in large piles in forestry near the village of Khuzhir. The dump is unenclosed, and the tipping process is uncontrolled. Moreover, with recent increases in tourism on the island, new sources of hard rubbish have begun to appear.

 

Another ecological concern affecting the island is the illegal felling of timber by local inhabitants. A complicated net of forestry roads in the areas adjacent to Khuzhir lead to woodland areas on the mountain slopes. Timber is brought out of the forest at night time, and the deforestation is taking its toll on the area.

   

Il Lago Bajkal (in russo: О́зеро Байка́л, Ozero Bajkal, ['ozʲɪrə bʌj'kɑl],in mongolo ed in buriato Dalai-Nor, Mare sacro) è un lago della Siberia meridionale, diviso fra i territori dell'oblast' di Irkutsk e della repubblica di Buriazia. È stato posto sotto la tutela dell'UNESCO come patrimonio dell'umanità nel 1996. Fa parte della lista delle Sette meraviglie della Russia.

 

Il lago Bajkal si estende su una superficie di 31.722 km², che ne fa uno dei maggiori laghi al mondo per superficie; si allunga per 636 km da nord a sud (è il secondo del mondo per lunghezza dopo il lago Tanganica), con una larghezza media di 48 km (massima 79,4 km). La profondità media del lago è di 744 m, con una massima di 1.642 m nella parte centrale. Questi valori ne fanno contemporaneamente il lago d'acqua dolce più profondo del mondo e quello con il volume maggiore (23.615 km3). Contiene un volume d'acqua pressoché equivalente a quello dei cinque grandi laghi americani messi assieme. Si stima che contenga circa il 20% delle riserve d'acqua dolce del pianeta (esclusi i ghiacciai e le calotte polari).

Il lago Bajkal si estende in una zona geologicamente molto tormentata; occupa una zona di sprofondamento (fossa tettonica) molto profonda (la criptodepressione arriva a quasi 1.200 m sotto il livello del mare, dato che il pelo dell'acqua del lago è a circa 450 m s.l.m.), ed è circondato da piccole catene montuose che si allungano tutto intorno alle sue coste: monti del Bajkal, monti del Barguzin, monti Primorskij, monti Chamar-Daban, monti Ulan-Burgasy e, all'estremità settentrionale, l'Altopiano Stanovoj.

 

Il Bajkal riceve le acque di 336 immissari, i maggiori dei quali sono il Selenga (che nasce in Mongolia), il Barguzin, la Verchnjaja Angara (Angara Superiore), la Turka e la Snežnaja; possiede per contro un solo emissario, l'Angara, tramite il quale il lago tributa allo Enisej. Il bacino imbrifero del Bajkal si estende su una superficie di circa 557.000 km².

 

Il Bajkal si trova in una regione dal clima molto duro, con fortissime escursioni termiche fra le stagioni estreme; il lago, con la sua enorme massa d'acqua, esercita una forte azione di mitigazione delle temperature, con il risultato di avere inverni meno freddi ed estati più fresche e umide delle zone circostanti. D'inverno il lago è interessato da un esteso congelamento delle acque superficiali; questi ghiacci, per via della inerzia termica data dalla gran massa d'acqua, tendono a formarsi piuttosto tardi (dicembre) e a fondere completamente solo verso maggio.

Il lago è frequentemente battuto da un forte vento che viene chiamato "sarma" dalle popolazioni locali, che può toccare i 150 km/h.

 

Il lago Bajkal è caratterizzato da un ambiente atipico per un lago: le sue acque sono molto ricche d'ossigeno (soluzione satura al 75%) e anche il punto più profondo è popolato da forme di vita, mentre in altri laghi profondi in varie parti del mondo le forme di vita macroscopica scompaiono oltre i 300 m a causa dell'anossia.

Il lago Bajkal è sede di svariati endemismi.

Nel 1962 erano state censite nel lago e nelle sue vicinanze 1.220 diverse specie animali e vegetali, nel 1978 il numero era cresciuto a 1.400 e da allora ogni anno nuove forme di vita continuano ad essere scoperte. Ad oggi le nuove specie scoperte in loco sono oltre 2.500, di cui il 60% di tipo animale ed il 15% di tipo vegetale. Nel lago vi sono 250 specie di crostacei e ben 52 di pesci, di cui 27 endemiche del Bajkal.

Una delle specie più caratteristiche è la nerpa, la foca del Bajkal (Pusa sibirica), specie endemica di taglia piccola, dal manto grigio scuro, si nutre di pesci, ed è all'apice della catena alimentare del lago Bajkal. Alla fine del secolo scorso la caccia ne aveva drasticamente ridotto il numero, oggi risalito, grazie ad una politica di tutela, ad oltre 75.000 individui.

All'altra estremità della catena alimentare c'è un piccolo crostaceo filtratore del genere Epischura, che costituisce il 97% del plancton e raggiunge una biomassa pari a circa 4 milioni di tonnellate. Questo gamberetto non sopporta una temperatura più elevata di 12 °C, e quindi necessita di una elevata concentrazione di ossigeno, né sopporta una concentrazione salina anche solo leggermente superiore a quella (molto bassa) del lago Bajkal, ossia 100 mg di sali per litro d'acqua.

Alcuni ricercatori ritengono che soprattutto le specie endemiche più piccole si siano evolute dall'antica fauna di un immenso lago salmastro che sembra ricoprisse quasi l'intera Asia centrale agli inizi del Terziario (65 milioni di anni fa). Più tardi, 30 milioni di anni fa, il predetto lago si era frammentato in tanti piccoli laghi salmastri circondati da foreste di tipo tropicale. Una serie di importanti sconvolgimenti tettonici (ancor oggi in loco si verificano oltre 2.000 scosse ogni anno) dovuti alla collisione tra il continente euroasiatico con il sub-continente indiano, formarono una profonda frattura nella crosta terrestre la quale venne progressivamente riempita dalle acque convogliate dalla vasta pianura circostante, il volume d'acqua raccolto equivale alla massa d'acqua trasportabile da tutti i fiumi del pianeta nell'arco di un intero anno.

La fossa di frattura del Bajkal è una delle tipiche strutture geologiche estensionali, particolarmente vistosa perché superficiale, che si formano perpendicolarmente alle catene orogeniche (la catena orogenica in questo caso è quella himalayana).

Alcuni pesci, come la golomjanka (Comephorus baikalensis), e la suddetta foca del Bajkal sembrano essere arrivati in queste acque in epoche più recenti, forse dall'Artico attraverso gli immensi fiumi siberiani.

Nei pressi del lago esiste una riserva naturale nella quale vivono gli zibellini, specie a rischio di estinzione che oggi viene protetta, ed il cui allevamento è monopolio dello Stato russo.

 

Le acque del lago, mai più calde di 14 °C, lasciano filtrare lo sguardo fino a più di 40 m di profondità. Tale purezza è stata a più riprese posta a rischio da svariati eventi:

negli anni settanta, con il progetto per la costruzione della Ferrovia Bajkal-Amur, voluta da Leonid Brežnev per aprire la Siberia allo sfruttamento delle sue materie prime;

attraverso la nascita della città di Severobajkal'sk, 600 km a nord del lago;

riversando nel Bajkal gli scarichi delle industrie di Ulan-Ude (capitale della Buriazia, 350 000 abitanti), attraverso il fiume Selenga;

costruendo, proprio a Bajkal'sk, ad un centinaio di metri dalla riva, un grande impianto di trasformazione del legno e di lavorazione della cellulosa, peraltro contestato dalle popolazioni locali.

Fin dagli anni settanta, a protestare contro l'inquinamento del lago vi fu il biologo Grigorij Galazyj, membro dell' Accademia delle Scienze, ed allora direttore dell' Istituto di limnologia di Irkutsk, successivamente direttore del Museo del Bajkal. Secondo Galazyj "Nessuno dei molti decreti e progetti varati per proteggere il Bajkal è stato messo in atto, ed ogni giorno l'impianto per la lavorazione del legno riversa nel lago 250.000 l di acque di scarico, oltre a consumare 500.000 m³ di legno l'anno".

 

Sulle sponde del lago si sono insediate comunità di credo differente; le religioni principali sono tre: lo "sciamanesimo tibetano", il "buddhismo" ed il cristianesimo ortodosso che fu portata dai russi dopo che Kurbat Ivanov scoprì le acque del lago Bajkal nel 1643.

Il territorio della Buriazia, che è bagnata dal Bajkal per il 60% della linea costiera e la sua gente, i Buriati, furono annessi allo stato russo dai trattati del 1689 e del 1728, quando le terre intorno al Bajkal furono separate dalla Mongolia. Dalla metà del XVII secolo all'inizio del XX il numero di Buriati aumentò da 27.700 a 300.000.

Dopo l'annessione della Buriazia alla Russia la cultura buriata subì le influenze del buddhismo tibetano e della Chiesa Cristiana Ortodossa. I Buriati furono per lo più sottoposti ad un processo di integrazione ad usi e costumi tipicamente russi che li portò ad abbandonare progressivamente il nomadismo unitamente all'agricoltura itinerante, mentre i Buriati dell'est (Transbajkal) subirono l'influenza mongola (ancora oggi diversi gruppi vivono in yurta e sono in gran parte buddhisti). Nel Settecento fu costruito il primo monastero buddhista buriato.

 

Il nome "Buriati" è menzionato per la prima volta in un'opera mongola: infatti costoro sono i discendenti diretti dell'antico popolo nomade dei mongoli ed ancora oggi vivono lungo le sponde del lago; una leggenda locale asserisce che la madre di Gengis Khan fosse nata nel villaggio di Barguzin, sulla riva orientale del lago. I buriati d'inverno sono soliti attraversare il lago ghiacciato (quando la crosta è spessa 1 metro) con i camion poiché in tal modo la distanza fra le città di Irkutsk ed Ulan Ude si accorciano di molto, anche se questa pratica è molto pericolosa.

I Buriati sono soliti pescare l'"omul", specie endemica piuttosto pregiata, unitamente ad altre 52 specie presenti nel lago e svariati tipi di crostacei.

Un'antica credenza popolare afferma che esistono due demoni maligni abitanti delle acque profonde intorno all'isola di Olkhon: "Burkhan" e "Doshkin Nojon", pronti a prendersi le anime dei pescatori durante le tempeste.

Una piccola consuetudine è quella di collocare dei nastrini colorati portafortuna detti "semelga" sopra gli arbusti.

 

La Roccia dello Sciamano.

Trattasi di un masso enorme che spunta appena dalle acque proprio laddove l'Angara lascia il Bajkal.

La Roccia dello Sciamano è protagonista di una leggenda che i buriati imparano a conoscere già in tenera età. Secondo tale leggenda il Grande Uomo Bajkal giunse in questa regione con le sue 337 figlie e decise di fermarsi; mentre dormiva una delle figlie, alla quale i gabbiani avevano raccontato le prodezze di Jenisej, decise di fuggire per correre verso l'uomo-fiume di cui si era innamorata; svegliatosi, il Bajkal scagliò verso la fuggitiva una pietra, la Roccia dello Sciamano appunto.

Chi era sospettato di un crimine veniva posto la sera al di sopra della roccia. Se al mattino era ancora lì e la corrente non l'aveva portato via, costui era innocente e veniva liberato. Tuttavia pare che ciò accadesse di rado, in quanto il fiume Angara possiede delle acque tanto rapide ed irruente che è l'unico fiume della regione a non gelare d'inverno.

 

(from wikipedia.org)

Please note that all the contents in this photostream is copyrighted and protected under the Digital Millennium Copyright Act, any usage of the images without permission will face liability for the infringement.

Some information about singapore

Singapore, officially the Republic of Singapore, is a Southeast Asian city-state off the southern tip of the Malay Peninsula, 137 kilometres (85 mi) north of the equator. An island country made up of 63 islands, it is separated from Malaysia by the Straits of Johor to its north and from Indonesia's Riau Islands by the Singapore Strait to its south. Singapore is highly urbanised but almost half of the country is covered by greenery. More land is being created for development through land reclamation.

 

Singapore had been a part of various local empires since it was first inhabited in the second century AD. Modern Singapore was founded as a trading post of the East India Company by Sir Stamford Raffles in 1819 with permission from the Sultanate of Johor. The British obtained full sovereignty over the island in 1824 and Singapore became one of the British Straits Settlements in 1826. Singapore was occupied by the Japanese in World War II and reverted to British rule after the war. It became internally self-governing in 1959. Singapore united with other former British territories to form Malaysia in 1963 and became a fully independent state two years later after separation from Malaysia. Since then it has had a massive increase in wealth, and is one of the Four Asian Tigers. The economy depends heavily on the industry and service sectors. Singapore is a world leader in several areas: It is the world's fourth-leading financial centre, the world's second-biggest casino gambling market, and the world's third-largest oil refining centre. The port of Singapore is one of the five busiest ports in the world, most notable for being the busiest transshipment port in the world. The country is home to more US dollar millionaire households per capita than any other country. The World Bank notes Singapore as the easiest place in the world to do business. The country has the world's third highest GDP PPP per capita of US$59,936, making Singapore one of the world's wealthiest countries.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia...

  

Singapore Marina Bay is a bay near Central Area in the southern part of Singapore, and lies to the east of the Downtown Core. Marina Bay is set to be a 24/7 destination with endless opportunities for people to “explore new living and lifestyle options, exchange new ideas and information for business, and be entertained by rich leisure and cultural experiences”.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

singapore river..

marina bay.

marina bay sands.

.

  

allaboutmodifiedcars.com/2014/04/13/umbrella-plant-care-p...

  

(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push();

  

The Dwarf Umbrella Tree-more commonly called the Umbrella Plant-is a popular houseplant in many households, far from its native lands in Taiwan and surrounding countries. The Dwarf Umbrella Tree, or Schefflera arboricola, is an...

Good cooking skills are something everyone should have, whether or not you happen to be living alone or located in a sizable family unit. The various benefits associated with cooking include social family time, extra nutrients and vitamins and a lot more funds in your wallet also! This article below can provide some valuable information that may make cooking a pleasure.

 

You could start cooking simple meals away from a cookbook it is possible to borrow through the library. That way you can try different meals that one could prepare and when you find yourself done it is possible to carry it back. Try making three or four in the recipes that interest you probably the most, and present yourself lots of time to perfect your newly acquired skill.

 

If using oil inside your cooking, pour it inside the pan inside an area out of the food. Once the oil reaches the meal it really has been heated up and is ready to roll. It will help to boost and maximize the taste of your own cooking.

 

It is rather crucial that your knives are usually sharp. Knives are in reality more dangerous whenever they get dull, since they get harder to regulate. It is possible to cut yourself simply because you are forcing the knife from the food, utilize a sharp knife.

 

Keep the kitchen knives sharp. Dull knives make cutting difficult, nevertheless in addition, these are dangerous. Wanting to force a blunt blade via a tough root vegetable is more prone to cause a car accident, than quickly dicing and slicing the identical tough root vegetable using a sharp blade.

 

To help make your French-fried potatoes crisper, try leaving the raw potatoes in a few cold water for 30 minutes prior to deciding to fry them. The fibers of raw cut potatoes that were soaked in cold water just before striking the deep fryer, are stronger and will handle the warmth better without breakage.

 

If you're capable of cook, it is possible to provide your household with a lot of benefits. Because these tips showed, cooking can improve various facets of your life, whatever sort of cooking you want, whether it's soul food, down-home favorites or haute cuisine. Obtain is actually a nice option every once in a while, but nothing is superior to food you've made yourself. www.bestpastamaker.org

Revelation 2:10 Do not be afraid of what you are about to suffer. I tell you, the devil will put some of you in prison to test you, and you will suffer persecution for ten days. Be faithful, even to the point of death, and I will give you life as your victor's crown.

  

Bulletin of Christian Persecution

October 2 - October 28, 2011

 

October 2, 2011

Java, Indonesia

The village chief in Mekargalih, along with members of the Islamic Defender Front, expeled Christians from their place of worship for allegedly engaging in "proselytizing" in a predominantly Muslim area. A Christian woman complains, "Police have no guts against this radical group."

 

October 6, 2011

Pakistan (Hat tip to AtlasShrugs)

Last night, Safdar Masih was shot to death; others, including children, were injured. The local Church had bought some land to build an orphanage, but the local land mafia laid claim to it. Police refuses to open an investigation into the affair.

 

October 7, 2011

Pakistan (Hat tip to JihadWatch)

A Christian Pakistani politician accused security forces on Friday, October 7, of refusing to detain Muslim fighters who allegedly shot dead one Christian and injured over 20 others in Pakistan's Punjab province.

 

The murdered Christian, identified as Sabir Masih, was gunned down and "two dozen Christians including children, men and women were seriously injured" when Muslims attacked Christians "to grab a piece of land bought for a social project."

 

Maldives

Shijo Kokkattu, an Indian Catholic from Kerala, has been languishing in a Maldives prison for more than a week because he had a Bible and a rosary at his home. Both items are banned on the archipelago.

 

Islam is state religion in the Maldives. There is no freedom of worship. In 2008, a constitutional amendment denied non-Muslims the right to obtain Maldivian citizenship.

 

Shijo, 30, has taught at Raafainu School on Raa Atoll for the past two years. Recently, whilst transferring some data from his pen drive to the school laptop, he accidentally copied Marian songs and a picture of Mother Mary into the system. Some teachers reported the matter to the police who raided his home and found a Bible and a rosary in his possession.

 

October 8, 2011

Egypt (Hat tip to JihadWatch)

Christians fear pressure from Muslims to obey Islamic law. On her first day to school, 15-year-old Christian student Ferial Habib was stopped at the doorstep of her new high school with clear instructions: either put on a headscarf or no school this year. Habib refused. While most Muslim women in Egypt wear the headscarf, Christians do not, and the move by administrators to force a Christian student to don it was unprecedented.

 

Recent attacks on churches in southern Egypt also illustrate the heat Christians are under. Under Mubarak-era rules, the building of a church or repairs for an existing one required permission from local authorities and the state security agency - a rule not applied to mosques. The rules sought to avoid outbursts of violence from Muslim hard-liners. Since permission was rarely given, Christians at times resorted to building churches in secret, often in parish guesthouses.

 

October 9, 2011

Egypt

Massive clashes that drew in Christians angry over a recent church attack, Muslims, and Egyptian security forces raged over a large section of downtown Cairo Sunday night, leaving at least 19 people dead and more than 150 injured. It was the worst violence since the 18-day uprising that ousted Hosni Mubarak in February.

 

The ongoing clashes lasted late into the night, bringing out a deployment of more than 1,000 security forces and armored vehicles to defend the state television building along the Nile, where the trouble began. The clashes spread to nearby Tahrir Square and the area around it, drawing in thousands of people. They battled each other with rocks and firebombs, some tearing up pavement for ammunition and others collecting stones in boxes.

 

Christians blame Egypt's ruling military council for being too lenient on those behind a spate of anti-Christian attacks since the ouster of Mubarak. The Coptic Christian minority makes up about 10 percent of the country of more than 80 million people. As Egypt undergoes a chaotic power transition and security vacuum in the wake of this year's uprising, Christians are particularly worried about the increasing show of force by the ultraconservative Islamists. More HERE. Video HERE.

 

October 10, 2011

Java, Indonesia

Beni Asri, one of the country's best-known Islamic extremists, arrested after the attack on the Christian church of Solo (Java) last September, has admitted strong links with the leading Muslim cleric Abu Bakar Baasyr. (09/25/2011 At least three killed in a suicide attack on church in Indonesia).

 

Beni Asri has been accused of planning several suicide bombings in Indonesia, and in particular of being the organizer of the attack against the Solo church. Beni Asri was arrested Sept. 30 in his parents' house in Solok, West Sumatra province.

 

Malaysia (hat tip to the ReligionofPeace)

Islamic authorities will provide counselling to a dozen Malaysian Muslims to "restore their belief and faith" after they attended a community dinner at a church hall, a royal sultan said on Monday.

 

The case has triggered worries among officials in Muslim-majority Malaysia that some non-Muslims were trying to convert Muslims. Proselytising of Muslims is punishable by prison terms of various lengths in most Malaysian states.

 

Church officials had repeatedly denied any proselytisation occurred at the dinner, which they described as a multiethnic gathering to celebrate the work of a community organization that worked with women, children and HIV patients. Update HERE.

 

USA/Egypt

From Raymond Ibrahim: Egypt, destroying churches one at a time. What clearer sign that Egypt is turning rabidly Islamist than the fact that hardly a few weeks go by without a church being destroyed, or without protesting Christians being attacked and slaughtered by the military?

 

Egypt (Hat tip to JihadWatch)

Egypt's state television announced on Monday that there are no deaths among the military forces after previously reporting there were during the bloody Sunday clashes between the military and Coptic protesters, saying that it was the fault of the news presenter.

 

State TV, also known as Maspero, is under fire from rights activists for falsely reporting that the Coptic protesters attacked the military forces with weapons, which resulted in the death of at least three soldiers and the called on the Egyptian people to take to the street to help protect the armed forces.

 

The news, when reported on Sunday evening, agitated many Muslims, who took up arms and went to the streets of downtown, clashing with protesters, both Muslims and Coptic Christians, injuring dozens in the worst sectarian violence since the fall of ousted President Hosni Muabrak's regime. State TV also reported that the protesters were armed and initiated the violence that killed the soldiers, which escalated the bloodshed late on Sunday.

 

October 12, 2011

Sudan

Local authorities have threatened to demolish three church buildings in Omdurman as part of a long-standing bid to rid Sudan of Christianity, Christian sources told Compass.

 

Officials from the Ministry of Physical Planning and Public Utilities-Khartoum State appeared at the three church sites in Omdurman, on the Nile River opposite Khartoum, the afternoon of Sept. 11, threatening to demolish the structures if the churches continued to conduct worship services, church leaders said.

 

Church leaders from the three churches in the Madinat al Fath area of Omdurman - the Sudanese Church of Christ, the Episcopal Church of Sudan and the Roman Catholic Church - said they were surprised to see government officials come to their church premises and accuse them of operating churches on government land without permission. The church leaders told Compass the buildings were not located on government land and required no permission.

 

Afghanistan

There aren't any public churchs left standing in Afghanistan, according to the U.S. State Department. So much for religious freedom one decade after the United States first invaded and then overthrew its Taliban regime, costing taxpayers $440 billion and incurring more than 1,700 U.S. military deaths to date.

 

The last public Christian church in Afghanistan was razed back in March 2010, according to the State Department's International Religious Freedom Report, which also states that there are no Christian schools left in the country.

 

October 13, 2011

Pakistan

A 12-year-old Christian girl was kidnapped and repeatedly raped for eight months in Pakistan by a man who then falsified marriage documents with her, it was claimed today.

 

The girl was lured on a shopping trip in Lahore by a friend, before she was driven 120 miles to Tandianwalla and raped by the friend's uncle in January this year.Two days later, she was forced to sign papers consenting to marriage with the man and beaten for refusing to convert from Christianity to Islam. She was then held against her will for eight months, before managing to escape and contact her family.

 

The Asian Human Rights Commission (AHRC) has said the rapists have not been arrested because of their affiliation with a militant Muslim organisation - the Lashkar-e-Tayyaba. It claims the police have refused to order a medical check-up on the girl, and have warned her parents that it would be better for them to hand over the girl to her 'legal' husband or a criminal case would be filed against them. An investigation into the kidnapping found the girl's father reported her disappearance in January and made complaints against her abductors, but police took no action for eight months.

 

October 15, 2011

Egypt

An army crackdown on a protest that killed more than 20 Christians has not only stunned Egyptians, it has left them with deeply torn feelings toward the force seen as the protector of the nation. Even supporters of the ruling military are grappling with the question of how the bloodshed could have happened.

 

Many Egyptians view the military as the last bastion of stability - a force "made up of our own sons," as many often say - and tend to trust it to handle the transition toward a democratic system. So images of army troops wildly running over protesters with armored vehicles have jolted them. Some try to find excuses for the ruling junta or nervously defend it. Intertwined in the reaction are the religious tensions between Egypt's Muslim majority and Christian minority. The fact that victims were Christians has made some less sympathetic or more willing to forgive the army's actions.

 

The violence was the deadliest since the military took over Egypt following the Feb. 11 fall of President Hosni Mubarak - and was a stark contrast to the idealistic sense of Muslim-Christian unity that flourished during the anti-Mubarak uprising.

 

It began Sunday night when thousands of Christians demonstrated outside the state television building, protesting an attack on a church in southern Egypt. Army troops waded in, and armored personnel carriers barreled through the crowds. The violence killed 26 people, including at least 21 Christians, some crushed by vehicles or shot to death. State media said three soldiers were among the dead.

 

In the first official press conference after the violence, the military tried to exonerate itself, blaming the Christians and "hidden hands" for starting the violence, denying its troops shot any protesters or intentionally ran them over. Witnesses said soldiers started the melee. Videos showing soldiers beating and shooting into crowds and armored vehicles seeming to chase protesters cast doubt on the military's account.

 

October 17, 2011

Egypt (hat tip to JihadWatch)

A week after a Maspero protest turned deadly when the army crushed a Coptic demonstration, local papers are taking a tone that suggests the nation's military rulers are not to blame.

 

Most of Monday's papers accuse various actors for the bloodshed that left at least 27 civilians dead and hundreds injured on 9 October. Surprisingly, Prime Minister Essam Sharaf's cabinet doesn't get the biggest share for blame although he was a primary target for criticism following the events. State-sponsored media was also heavily criticized, but now local media is finding another scapegoat. Coptic religious leaders, clergy and intellectuals are responsible not only for the Maspero violence but also for threatening national unity, according to several papers.

 

Nigeria

Violence-weary Christians in Borno state have been further upset to learn of the murder of a Nigerian evangelist by Boko Haram less than three months after the Islamic extremist group killed a Maiduguri pastor.

 

Already shell-shocked from attacks by Boko Haram, which was originally based in Borno state, Christians again took cover after the Aug. 27 shooting of Mark Ojunta, a 36-year-old evangelist from southern Nigeria who was ministering amid the Kotoko people of Nigeria's northeastern state with Calvary Ministries (CAPRO). He was killed in Maiduguri.

 

October 19, 2011

Somalia

Militants from the Islamic extremist al Shabaab beheaded a 17-year-old Somali Christian near Mogadishu last month, a journalist in the Somali capital told Compass.

 

The militants, who have vowed to rid Somalia of Christianity, killed Guled Jama Muktar on Sept. 25 in his home near Deynile, about 20 kilometers (12 miles) from Mogadishu. The Islamic extremist group had been monitoring his family since the Christians arrived in Somalia from Kenya in 2008, said the source in Mogadishu, who requested anonymity.

 

The Islamic militants, who are fighting the transitional government for control of the country, knew from their observations of the family that they were Christians, the source said.

 

Pakistan

Update on Asia Bibi. . . A female prison officer assigned to provide security for a Christian mother of five who was sentenced to death on "blasphemy" charges beat her earlier this month, sources said.

 

Sources in Pakistan's Sheikhupura District Jail said Asia Noreen, also known as Asia Bibi, was beaten on Oct. 5 by a prison officer identified only as Khadeeja, allegedly because of the Muslim officer's anti-Christian bias, while other staff members deployed for her security looked on in silence.

 

Noreen, mother of two children and stepmother to three others, was sentenced to death last November after her conviction for blaspheming Islam's prophet, Muhammad, after a verbal disagreement with some women in the village of Ittanwali, near Lahore.

 

October 23, 2011

Malaysia (hat tip to AtlasShrugs)

Right-wing Malaysian activists on Saturday staged a rally against Christians who 'challenge the sovereignty of Islam', amid fears of growing Islamisation in the multicultural nation.

The gathering of about 2,000 people in Selangor state follows allegations of Christian proselytisation in the Muslim-majority country after religious police raided a Methodist church event in August fearing Muslims were being converted.

 

Newspapers linked to the ruling coalition have also alleged that Christian groups are secretly trying to convert poor Muslims by using welfare such as housing, food and cash.

'Apostasy violates the wishes of Allah, there is no bigger sin,' Yusri Mohamad, the event's chief organiser, told the crowd in Shah Alam, the state capital.

 

October 24, 2011

Nigeria

Nigerian soldiers summoned to stop inter-religious fighting between Muslim and Christian youths last week shot and killed a Christian mother of five in the Yelwa area of Bauchi city, according to family and church sources.

 

Soldiers were called in to restore calm following fighting that broke out at a high school soccer match on Thursday (Oct. 20), and later three Muslim soldiers shot and killed Charity Augustine Agbo and a Christian boy. The circumstances leading to the shooting of the boy, who is unrelated to Agbo, were not immediately known, and his name was not disclosed.

 

Sudan

Emboldened by government calls for a Sudan based on Islamic law since the secession of South Sudan, Muslims long opposed to a church near Khartoum have attacked Christians trying to finish constructing their building, sources said.

 

The Sudanese Church of Christ (SCOC) congregation in Omdurman West, across the Nile River from Khartoum, has continued to meet for Sunday worship in a building without a roof in spite of opposition from area Muslims and local authorities, the sources told Compass. Claiming that Christianity was no longer an accepted religion in the country, Muslims in the Hay al Sawra, Block 29 area of Omdurman West on Aug. 5 attacked SCOC members who were constructing the church building, the sources said.

 

October 25, 2011

Sudan

Sudanese leader Omer Hassan Al-Bashir is rewriting his country's constitution in order to implement shar'ia (Islamic) law.

 

"This new law is going to affect a significant number of Christians who live in places like Khartoum," said Jonathan Rach, International Christian Concern's North Africa specialist. "There are still a significant number of Christians in Sudan … If Al-Bashir introduces this shar'ia law and if he's going to go ahead and adopt an entirely Islamic constitution, Christians and other non-Muslims who live in Sudan will be treated like second-class citizens; they will be dhimmis and they will not have full rights in the freedom of religion."

 

West Java, Indonesia

Members of a church in Bogor, West Java, are determined to continue meeting outside their sealed building each Sunday until they are granted freedom to worship inside it, despite a ban on street meetings issued by the local mayor.

 

Egypt

An Egyptian Military Court ordered that an imprisoned Christian activist be admitted to a mental health hospital to determine whether he's responsible for his actions.

Michael Nabil Sanad was sent to Abbasiya Hospital in Cairo, a facility that specializes in treating seriously ill psychiatric patients.

 

Writer William Weesa said this was very dangerous because "there are many people who were admitted to these hospitals by the security services, who were quite healthy when they went in, but came out as a devastated human beings." Weesa asked that this "farce perpetrated against a prisoner of conscience" be stopped.

 

October 26, 2011

Egypt

The Egyptian military's intent to investigate its own use of force against unarmed Coptic Christians demonstrating on Oct. 9, 2011, raises concerns of a cover-up, according to Human Rights Watch.

The military arrested at least 28 people, mostly Copts, and brought them all before military prosecutors who ordered their detention for 15 days pending an investigation.

 

However, Human Rights Watch interviewed 20 demonstrators who all testified that at least two armored personnel carriers drove recklessly through crowds of Christians; autopsies showed that the massive, metal APCs killed at least 10 demonstrators.

 

"The military cannot investigate itself with any credibility," said Joe Stork, deputy Middle East director at Human Rights Watch. "This had been an essentially peaceful protest until the military used excessive force and military vehicles ran over protesters. The only hope for justice for the victims is an independent civilian-led investigation that the army fully cooperates with and cannot control and that leads to the prosecution of those responsible."

 

October 27, 2011

Pakistan

A petition circling around Canada is calling for Pakistan to drop its blasphemy laws. The Islamic republic's law has grave consequences for the nation's Christians, including some who are facing death for their beliefs.

 

October 28, 2011

Iran

A Muslim convert to Christianity has gone missing since his arrest last week by plain clothes security officer

 

According to Mohabat News, on October 17, 2011, a group of four officers engaged in a commando-style raid on the house of Mr. Arazm, arresting him, then transferring him to an unknown location. The raid took place around 7:30 in the morning local time, just before he left for work.

 

The officers apparently searched the house upside-down and left a mess in their wake. The plainclothes officers confiscated Mr. Arazm's computer hard disk, CDs, pictures, and a number of Bibles. His family was also threatened to remain silent and not to talk about this

(Been away for a while--bear with me as I ramble through an exceptionally long caption today...or just ignore it and enjoy the image).

 

Today marked the start of Christmas season in our household. The tree is up, the myriad of other decorations we have are up, we will be sitting down this evening to watch Elf and The Muppet Christmas Carol, and late this evening, I will be taking the first pictures of our Christmas tree.

 

This season could not have started soon enough for me. I have been waiting all year to post my Christmas pictures, although since the August and October trips, I think I am now less impressed with a lot of these Christmas shots, and I have been editing them for a couple of weeks now. Today's picture is one of my favorites. I know it is nothing all that great photography-wise, but I love it because it captures my favorite feeling of Christmas at Disney so well: being alone in the parks, hearing that background music blast overheard (it's really quite loud when there is no one else around), and just taking in the lights. I actually posted a very similar shot last year (from a different evening), but I decided to edit and post this shot because it is much wider and I think it shows just how much my editing skills have improved over the last year. I previously overlooked this shot last year because I didn't shoot this one as well "the first time" as the linked shot, and because that shot had slight reflections, which I like. So for this shot to start out worse than the linked shot but, in my opinion, finish better, says a lot.

 

Another reason I liked this wide angle view is that it shows something few, if any, other wide shots of large areas I've ever taken have accomplished: it has no people in it. I would be hard pressed to replicate this shot. Even when we're the last guests out of the parks, the place is always crawling with Cast Members. How all of them (besides one single person, who I clone stamped out) are absent from this shot boggles my mind. Finally, reviewing these shots allowed me to reminisce about another feat we haven't accomplished since the Christmas trip: closing two parks in the same evening. That trip, we closed both the Studios and MK the first night, EPCOT and MK the second night, and MK alone the final two nights. For some reason, I'm quite proud of closing two parks in a night. Most people probably don't care...

 

Okay, that's definitely more than enough tooting my own horn. Now, for the faults that these shots from last Christmas have taught me. First, that the 18-200 lens with filter attached is not as sharp as any of my other lenses. Now, I am hardly a pixel peeper, but in some of my older shots, this really is problematic, especially when compared to similar shots from other lenses. It also makes my lust for a 70-200 all the greater (and that's not good). Moreover, with a f/5.6 aperture at 200mm, I don't have much control of depth of field (you'll see this in subsequent shots). Second, that my compositional eye had not evolved as much from August to November of 2008 as I had thought it had. In looking at these shots, a lot of them are still plain "here's a building with no people around" or snapshot type shots. A lot of them are not shots like that, but too many suffer from that problem. It's still a problem I have, but I'm hoping to correct it. Given these problems, I tried to process many of the shots in unique ways, so maybe that will help.

 

Anyway, enough commentary for today. Time to head off and enjoy Christmastime!

 

Check out this article on my blog if you're interested in tips for visiting Walt Disney World at Christmas or seeing tons more Christmas photos!

 

View my Disney Photo Gallery for thousands of Disney photos that aren't on Flickr!

 

DisneyTouristBlog | Facebook | Twitter | Photo Gallery | Google+ | ISO 5571 - Podcast

It's been ages since my last upload, not counting those three from the other days. Lots have happened - this time with the not so usual suspects; death, a cocktail of illnesses and lung infections that seemed to have taken a wicked, incessant keenness on the inhabitants of this household since fall, pregnancy, shock, acceptance and joyous infanticipation, only to be shocked again - cysts have multiplied in my baby's brain... I could go on and on. Point is, I'd have my fill of these right now and despite everything, life is still beautiful out t/here...

 

I realized I just missed my 1 year flickr anniversary. When I started out, I was clueless about how to deal with a camera properly. All I knew was that I appreciated beauty and wanted to capture dear family moments, of documenting the baby-to-childhood metamorphosis of my girls and to perhaps capture some passable nature shots, if lucky. All I could was to point and shoot - well, I still do that but with a bit of conscious regard to adjustments and such. I'm learning slowly I must admit, picking up bits and tips here and there but it always has been fun along the way.

 

Flickr is an enormous reservoir of amazing talents and I'm thankful for all the inspirations. Contacts and wonderful comments brighten my day. Kindness and friendship by dear Mai, Yves, David, Arnel and Zeetz put a smile to my heart lately. Warm thanks to you guys! :))

 

Special thank you shotout to:

 

Love-love ko for nurturing my curiosity and surprising me with my own camera. ♡

 

Kasia for leaving an impression, introducing the world of flickr and photography.

 

V for being there from the beginning on, amazing me with her constant friendship, encouragement and inspiration. :)

 

and finally to Ge, another favorite soul, for his warm, generous heart, for the trust and understanding and the inspirations. :)

  

lovelier on black :)

Script below - Read with Images Sequenced in the Script - JS

 

The Song of Mary Entler by Jim Surkamp

civilwarscholars.com/?p=13488 7888 words

 

The Song of Mary Entler Herrington by Jim Surkamp

 

1_The_Song_of_Mary_Entler

The Song of Mary Louise Entler Herrington (1840-1932)

 

Made possible with the generous, community-minded support of American Public University system, offering a quality, affordable, online education. Interpretations in civilwarscholars.com videos and posts do not in any way reflect modern-day policies and positions of American Public University System. More . . .

 

CHAPTERETTES

Prelude

Flag Dangerous:

Carry the Secret Mail:

The Sad Fate of the Great Western:

A Wartime Shepherdstown Each Day:

A Sidetracked Mission:

“Fraternizing” With the Enemy:

Peacetime – Eternal Tide of Memories:

The Eyes of Age:

 

About the end of the heydays of a great inn; about the innkeeper’s feisty, adventurous – amorous – young daughter during the Civil War who lived to tell about it and see her family’s inn perish

 

PRELUDE:

 

2_The 1850s in Shepherdstown

The 1850s in Shepherdstown: Good Times for Joseph and Mary Entler

 

3_The Entlers boarded travelers

The Entlers boarded travelers and stabled their teams by the score in their Great Western Inn on Shepherdstown’s German Street.

 

As Mary Louise Entler Herrington (hereafter “MLH”) told it:

After my father bought it in 1809, he hung a large sign swung across the pavement at the east corner of the house. A heavy post at the curb supported one side and the other side was fastened to the house.

 

4_In the middle of the sign

In the middle of the sign in large letters that were plainly visible for squares up and down the street was the word, “INN”, and just below that, ‘JOS. ENTLER”.

 

For many years it was a welcome abode to the weary traveler, for then all traveling was by wagon and carriage from Ohio and Kentucky to Baltimore and Washington, where their produce was sold and groceries and other commodities were taken back. All these white-covered wagons were placed in the large grounds and the weary horses were comfortably bedded down and fed in the large stone stables by good trusty colored men.

 

The house was a quaint, 52-foot-long weatherboard house with massive stone steps to both front doors and stone trimmings and steps to the front cellars and long massive stone stiles or (carriage stepping stones).

 

The dining room was 34-feet-long. The ice house was under the dining room and was filled every winter with twenty-five, four-horse wagon loads of ice, which lasted until fall. The ice was from the Potomac River.

 

5_The large fireplace was in the kitchen

The large fireplace was in the kitchen that also had the cranes and pothooks and hangers.

 

Seventeen rooms were in the house and many also had large old-fashioned fireplaces and were finished with high-paneled mantelpieces.

 

In the 1850s children remembered the fancy carriages, with many horses pulling, making the smart, sharp turn from the main streeet to the lane leading to the rear stables.

 

6_lane leading to the rear stables

All circuses stopped at this inn and pitched their tents in the large lot arranging the cages of wild animals around the circle inside and all other wagons outside the tent.

 

Joseph Entler moved his family to Wingerd Cottage in 1858 and leased out the Great Western. Then that all ended – and, so did the Great Western.

 

FLAG DANGEROUS:

 

7_Twenty-one-year-old Mary Louise Entler – in an act of defiance

Twenty-one-year-old Mary Louise Entler – in an act of defiance – and several friends sat in chairs in the big hall of Wingerd Cottage sewing . . and sewing – ripping stars from an American flag mailed to them from New Orleans, that once waved from a ship of Rezin Davis Shepherd’s, as he perhaps thought such a flag might be more trouble to have in New Orleans, as the new war boiled over and Louisiana seceded from the Union in early 1861.

  

8_Mary Entler Herrington retold her past

Mary Licklider, a niece, recalled how Mary Entler Herrington retold her past before dying in 1932:

  

A U.S. flag, probably made of wool bunting fabric was given to four or five young girls (young girls at the time), by Mr.

  

9_Rezin Shepherd

Rezin Shepherd who lived in New Orleans. In the summer he lived at Wild Goose Farm. The flag was one from one of his vessels. It was sent to us by Mr. James Shepherd and was to be converted into a Confederate flag, a work that was dangerous at the time, being in disputed territory. We could work only when our men were in the lines and had to be very cautious then.

  

10_Joseph Entler owned and lived at Wingerd Cottage

My father Joseph Entler owned and lived at Wingerd Cottage during the war and there the flag was made. The location off from town and the large wide hall were ideal places for the work, which took many anxious weeks to complete.

 

11_It was very tedious to rip every seam

It was very tedious to rip every seam of the stripes in such a way as not to ravel the bunting.

 

12_Every star was ripped from the blue field

Every star was ripped from the blue field, and

 

13_then to sew all the red together

then to sew all the red together

 

14_all the white to form the bars red, white, and red

and all the white to form the bars red, white, and red.

  

15_Of course we had a surplus of stars

Of course we had a surplus of stars as the Confederacy was young.

 

After many weeks of work, the flag was finished and a beautiful Confederate flag was ready to be sent through the line to Company B. It was hidden away awaiting a safe transfer. (Mary’s brother – Cato Moore Entler – was with Company B of the 2nd Virginia Infantry).

 

MLH recalled an investigation in the fall of 1861:

 

16_I heard the tramp of cavalry

I heard the tramp of cavalry and clank of swords and sabers. I looked out the window and saw the cottage was surrounded by “Yankee” cavalry.

  

Oh, the flag, what was to be done with it? I heard the officer read orders to my father to search his premises thoroughly for contraband goods. My father seemed to be protesting against the search. But that gave me a little time to take the flag from its hiding place in a chest. The house was surrounded. I could not get out to hide it.

  

I pulled a dress from the wall and put the flag in it and threw the dress carelessly across the back of a chair. Skirts were very wide with deep facings upon them. I put the little flags that we wore on our dresses and letters under the carpet.

  

17_My door was pushed open

My door was pushed open by Capt. Horner of Col. Coles’ Cavalry and the search began. Every bureau drawer and closet was searched, even the grandfather clock where reposed letters to go through the lines. But they were too deep in the bottom of the old clock to be detected. Everything was handled but the blue-striped dress hovering over its precious treasure. It was too insignificant to attract their notice and they gave up the search, but rather in a bad humor. The flag was safe and sent to Company B. That flag would be readily recognized by its many seams and its homemade marks. Now what became of that flag is a mystery.

 

Due to confusion created by units carrying different flags after 1st Manassas, the 30th of October 1861 saw Governor Letcher present every Virginia regiment with a bunting flag. Another private group in Charles Town had had a regimental flag made for the 2nd Virginia infantry regiment that the unit reportedly carried into battle at First Manassas/Bull Run, but was smuggled back to the Rutherfords in Charles Town.

 

CARRY THE SECRET MAIL:

 

18_Carry_Secret_Mail

March, 1862

 

MLH recalled:

19_We collected all letters and concealed them

We collected all letters and concealed them by carefully sewing them between the ruching and dress. It required neatness and patience to make the work look innocent of anything contraband. We started on our march one bright beautiful morning but the roads being soft and muddy and we being not yet accustomed to marching could not get over much ground as rapidly as Stonewall Jackson’s men. The first night was spent at the home of Mr. Foley where another mail was collected. Another bright morning blessed our errand and when the purple shades of evening were gathering in the west we entered Charles Town as leisurely and passed the Union soldiers as indifferently as though we were out for an evening stroll. What a triumph it would have been for them to have secured that mail; how they would have gloated over every sacred sentence in those letters. My heart thrilled with fear at the thought although apparently so indifferent to their presence.

 

20_THE SAD FATE OF THE GREAT WESTERN HOTEL

THE SAD FATE OF THE GREAT WESTERN HOTEL:

 

December 26, 1862: The 12th Pennsylvania cavalry – The Bull Run Racers – crossed over the river ford into town and the (Federal-sympathcizing) refugees all came back from Maryland with a fire in their eyes and revenge for Mort Cookus’ blood (who was shot and killed by Andrew Leopold near Dam No. 4 on November 19th. (The refugees) declared that every Southern man’s house should be burned down. – Gallaher in “The Shepherdstown Register.”

 

MLH:

The property was a hotel (in market for rent at the time). It was taken possession of and occupied by a Pennsylvania Cavalry Company. The extensive grounds in which were apple trees and vegetables were trampled and all the fencing destroyed.

  

21_WARTIME SHEPHERDSTOWN EACH DAY

WARTIME SHEPHERDSTOWN EACH DAY:

  

MLH recalled:

1863 still finds our town disputed territory and a veritable “deserted village” – old men, women, and children with a very few Union men . . . In time of war when both armies have fallen back, a town presents a most desolate and forlorn appearance-the old people, women and children have no definite plans. They stand about in groups writing and talking of the latest battle or the expected skirmishes. Their homes are places to retire from inclement weather rather than to adorn – the table to satisfy hunger rather than the delightful board where sweet companionship mingled with health-giving food.

 

No systematic housekeeping, no aim, no object in performing any household duties. All energy was concentrated in doing for the soldiers. “When our boys come home we will do thus and so” was the oft repeated phrase. Sometimes at the dead of night the report of a pistol shot would warn us that the rebels were in town. But when daylight came we saw only the blue coats patrolling the streets, and they would leave as mysteriously as the rebels.

  

22_THE SIDETRACKED MISSION

THE SIDETRACKED MISSION:

 

23_Mary Entler’s Dangerous Mission Gets Sidetracked

May – 1863 – Mary Entler’s Dangerous Mission Gets Sidetracked

 

24_Raider Andrew Leopold

NOTE Raider Andrew Leopold, whose sister, Sally Zittle, was a friend of Mary Entler, had been captured in late April, 1863 near Berryville and taken to a jail, awaiting trail for murder and other crimes.- JS

 

MLH:

A beautiful May morning, balmy air waiting the perfume of flowers over the country submerged in war. Sparkling dew drops resting in the bosom of such blossoms like tiny tear drops-weeping for the sad hearts made sad by war. God sends beautiful days in war as well as peace- we must remember that.

 

A young prepossessing girl introduced herself to me on this May morning as a sister of Andrew Leopold. She told me her brother had been captured by the Yankees and was confined in Fort McHenry, MD, and that the entreaties of her widowed mother had induced her to try to get through the Federal lines to have an interview with (Confederate) General J.E.B. Stuart in regard to having her brother exchanged as a prisoner of war. . . She had been sent to me by a southern woman who knew I had carried letters through to Charles Town and thought I would accompany the young lady to that place, and acquaint her with friends who would assist her through the lines. I hesitated a moment and she said with tears that his mother had a message from Baltimore that if some powerful influence was not brought to bear immediately that her brother would be executed as a guerilla. That decided the matter.

 

We started off in a one horse carriage for Charles Town. She as a traveler was attired in a brown suit with a cape to match trimmed with quilling around it and a brown straw hat with a veil. I was to spend the day only and was dressed in a blue “Dolly Varden” pattern dress, blue silk bonnet with wide turn over cuffs and concealed in the lining of these cuffs were slips of paper with names of prominent Southern sympathizers who we were to call upon for any assistance. Before starting we concluded it would be better to go under fictitious names – she as Lucy Hamilton, and I as Louise Hamilton, her cousin. And with hearts filled with hope we started off that bright May morning on our errand of mercy.

 

Charles Town was reached in good time. We stopped where we were directed at Mrs. L’s and urged for safety to stay all night here-Lucy to start next morning southward and I to return home would arouse no suspicion. The next morning was quite as beautiful and arrangements were completed when I found she was getting timid about starting off alone. She entreated me to go just as far as Berryville and then she thought she would feel brave enough to travel alone. It was a big undertaking for two young girls as the country was then all excitement and confusion. I finally agreed to go to Berryville. We knew exactly where to stop and whom to see. All was planned before starting from home. I will never forget how beautiful Berryville looked the morning we drove up to the hotel. It was a village embowered in beautiful green trees, blooming flowers. The bees humming in the nectar-laden flowers produced that lazy, peaceful quiet that is so soothing to tired nerves. We made our arrangements with the proprietor and took a stroll through the pretty, cool looking streets.

 

We met Union soldiers and plenty of them but we did not feel any fear of our plans failing. In the evening we called upon the family next to the hotel and had music until late that night. Next morning while arranging to separate we were visited by a Yankee officer saying he wished to know here were were going, and that we must take the oath. At first we refused to take the oath but when we consented to take it he would not let us, but placed us under arrest. What a frustrating of all our plans. How my heart ached for that poor girl. How she had built her hopes on securing the release of her brother on this venture.

 

Under arrest by the Federals, Gen. Milroy flabbergasted:

 

25_head-quarters of General Milroy

MLH:

Winchester reached, we were taken to the head-quarters of General Milroy where we found women, young and old, proud and defiant, now arguing their claims and proclaiming their grievances. One delicate, forlorn-looking widow relating to the General how his men, the Yankees, had taken her cows, her only means of support for her children. He turned from her quickly to my friend and me – if there had been the least disposition on my part to be humble – his exclamation put that feeling to flight and aroused a very rebellious state of mind. “What in the devil are you doing here? If it were not for the women running around the country we would not have so much trouble.” My companion started up with surprise. “General, we did not want to come here. We did not start for this place. Your officers brought us here.” He ran fingers through his mass of snow white hair already standing straight up like the quills of a porcupine and our of the audience chamber he strode without another word. He presented a fine physique, tall, well-proportioned, erect in carriage, a wealth of snow-white hair which suggested from its stand-up appearance that his fingers had a fashion of roaming there when troubles were to be, and plans and problems of great magnitude to be wrought out.

 

26_FRATERNIZING WITH THE ENEMY

FRATERNIZING WITH THE ENEMY:

 

June – 1863:

 

We were soon before the Provost Marshall at Martinsburg awaiting his orders. Next morning we were taken to General Kelly at Harper’s Ferry to await further orders. We were assigned to the best boarding house in the town adjoining the General’s headquarters where a great many of the officers boarded. We had a guard to watch our movements and prevent our escape if we thought of anything of the kind. We were allowed to walk around the town accompanied by the guard and sometimes were invited by officers, to whom we were introduced, to attend concerts and places of amusements but the guard invariably followed behind to the disgust of our gallants. Lucy and I ignored the guard altogether. We did not care how tired he became running over the old hills of Harper’s Ferry after us and many were the taunts and comments we overheard about “secesh” (Confederate-sympathcizing) prisoners.

 

“Miranda!” and the voice startled us – for it came from under the ground – a cottage, vine-clad and embowered in trees and bushes right under our feet on the slope of a hill. (The voice then said: “Here comes the two ‘secesh’ prisoners again trailing that poor tired guard after them as unusual. He looks like he is ready to drop. Much I would follow behind them over these hills.” She lived there under the hill with her beautiful daughter. She had lots and lots of beautiful flowers but not one would she give us after we humbled ourselves to ask for one because we were rebels.

 

At Harper’s Ferry with your five mountains, your bright Potomac, your smiling languid Shenandoah, your historic Jefferson’s Rock and romantic stone steps leading to the temple of God – St. Peter’s Church. In the yard of this church, high above the streets and houses of Harper’s Ferry, the Fifth New York Regiment Band discoursed sweet music every Sunday evening of the six weeks Lucy and I were prisoners. The sweet strains of the “Mocking Bird” as only Henry Frunkenfield could render them, echoed from Loudoun Heights across the great Shenandoah over the beautiful rock-ribbed Potomac of Maryland Heights, back again the mountain breezes wafted them though the streets and windows as if a hundred mocking birds were trilling their soul-felt song.

 

As a piece of fun, we were dressed in fantastic costumes, slipped down a stairway, of which the General had no knowledge to the kitchen, to dance for the cook and her black “Topsy”. The guard was told that we were about to make our escape. He hunted the house over for his prisoners and when he found us he did not recognize us for some time, our disguise was so complete. Two guards questioned us until they were finally convinced that we were not attempting an escape.

 

Sabbath days and week days were all the same at Harper’s Ferry during the war. The soldiers and citizens would promenade the streets. The crowds would send forth their martial airs, dignified and soul-stirring also their merry dance tunes. But this one Sabbath day seemed so different from all others that we had spent at that place. The day was declining and from the description of an Italian sunset, I think the sunset of this evening far surpassed any such Italian scene. The golden rays touched the tree tops and they looked like burnished gold. The strains of music came from the high rocks where St. Peter’s Church rests peacefully. Darts and streaks of gold tips of trees on the mountain tops – the birds twitter and call to their mates in low tones. There is a hush as if all nature were bowed in silent prayer as the twilight settles over the valley. The beauty of this Sabbath will never fade from my memory. It was my last one there as a prisoner. The stillness was soon changed to wild confusion and excitement.

 

Mary Entler Jumps Sides:

 

MLH:

I took the oath of allegiance to the United States in June, 1863 in Baltimore, Maryland to Col. Fish who was in command there at the time. I have passed from Gen’l Lockwood commander at H. Ferry 1863 also from Gen’l Stevenson.

 

MLH:

late August, 1864 – afterwards Company H., 116 Ohio Infantry, Capt. Peters and Col. Washburns Regiment occupied it, and every partition in the front bedrooms were destroyed. Every mantel piece (they were colonial) all but two were burned. The floor in the garrett of the back building was also destroyed. Enough of new window sash and door frames for a house was stored too. cistern and well floors destroyed and cistern filled with bee hives and rubbish. A fine dressed stable with 25 partitioned off, with board partitions-upper story divided off for grain and sleeping quarters for oster. All was torn out and this weakened the roof so that when a snow came it collapsed. A brick carriage house met the same fate. My father Joseph Entler was an old man at the time, and was never after that financially able to put back what was destroyed by the United States soldiers.

 

27_PEACETIME – ETERNAL TIDE OF MEMORIES

PEACETIME – ETERNAL TIDE OF MEMORIES:

 

MLH married on February 15, 1865 in Frederick, Maryland Walter L. Herrington, a ticket-agent on the B&O Railroad at Harper’s Ferry.

 

1870:

They lived in her parents’ home of Wingerd Cottage, her parents having been forcibly retired from inn-keeping. Mary’s husband worked as a photographer then, that same year, died an untimely death.

 

1910: MLH had a dry goods and milliners shop on the south side of German Street.

 

1914: Mary Herrington paid in trust to George Beltzhoover the remaining western half of the lot of the once Great Western Hotel for $400, a sum to be paid to Nellie M. Entler. – December 5, 1914, Deed Book 111, p. 505. – Jefferson County Clerk.

 

1920:

Mary Herrington was seventy-nine years old, living in Shepherdstown with her seventy-two-year-old-sister, Julia M. Miller, and brother, sixty-nine-year-old Lewis Little.

 

On June 20th MLH sold the dual-lot Great Western Inn to relative Harry T. Licklider on the condition that she could still live in the inn her natural life with her brother, “the said Home to consist of four rooms of the first floor and five rooms, including a summer kitchen and garden.” Two years later Licklider felt in arrears with the Swift Corporation and was sued and forced to sell the Great Western lands to pay off the debts. So the inn was gone from the family but MLH could literally live there, literally, on borrowed time.

 

She recalled:

Only the walls of the stables remain today in ruins, covered with Virginia Creeper to screen the ugly scars of the Civil War.

 

1930:

28_Mary L. Herrington was listed as eighty-nine years old

Mary L. Herrington was listed as eighty-nine years old but with her brother, Lewis Little, now listed as head of their house of the south side of German Street between King and Princess Streets near the center of the block, assessed at about $4,000. Mary A. Licklider & Mary Herrington 1930 Census with her interviewer Mary A. Licklider living next door at the home of Edward Licklider, Mary’s father.

 

1932:

Mary Louise Herrington died March 27, 1932, having given much of these recollections to Mary A. Licklider, a descendant of Mary’s brother, Cato Moore Entler. Her marker is in Elmwood Cemetery. That summer, the new owner of the Great Western began massive alterations and reductions.

    

1hairstyle.net/umbrella-plant-care-pruning-tips.html

The Dwarf Umbrella Tree-more commonly called the Umbrella Plant-is a popular houseplant in many households, far from its native lands in Taiwan and surrounding countries. The Dwarf Umbrella Tree, or Schefflera arboricola, is an evergreen shrub whose popularity as a houseplant and use in...

allaboutmodifiedcars.com/2014/04/13/umbrella-plant-care-p...

  

(adsbygoogle = window.adsbygoogle || []).push();

  

The Dwarf Umbrella Tree-more commonly called the Umbrella Plant-is a popular houseplant in many households, far from its native lands in Taiwan and surrounding countries. The Dwarf Umbrella Tree, or Schefflera arboricola, is an...

Olkhon (Ольхон, also transliterated as Olchon) is the third-largest lake-bound island in the world. It is by far the largest island in Lake Baikal in eastern Siberia, with an area of 730 square kilometres (280 sq mi). Structurally, it acts as the southwestern margin of Academician Ridge. The island measures 71.5 kilometres (44.4 mi) in length and 20.8 kilometres (12.9 mi) in width.

 

Olkhon has a dramatic combination of terrain and is rich in archeological landmarks. Steep mountains line its eastern shore, and at 1,276 metres (4,186 ft) above sea level, Mount Zhima is the highest point on the island, peaking at 818 metres (2,684 ft) above the water level of Lake Baikal. The island is large enough to have its own lakes, and features a combination of taiga, steppe and even a small desert. A deep strait separates the island from the land.

The island's appearance is a result of millions of years of tectonic movement resulting in the hollowing of the channel between the land (Small Sea Strait) and the block of stone forming the island. The steep slopes of the mountains show the vertical heave of the earth.

 

The population of the island is less than 1,500 and consists mostly of Buryats, the island's aboriginal people.

 

There are several settlements and five villages on the island: Yalga, Malomorets, Khuzhir, Kharantsi, and Ulan-Khushin. The village of Khuzhir is the administrative capital of Olkhon, designated as such in April 1987, when the Soviet government issued a comprehensive decree protecting Lake Baikal. Khuzhir is home to about 1,200 residents and boasts a museum of local nature and history.

 

Most residents are fishermen, farmers, or cattle-ranchers. Due to an increasing number of tourists from all over the world, many residents work in this sector as well, and tourism has become an important part of the economy in Olkhon.

 

The indigenous Buryats, adherents of shamanism, believe the island to be a spiritual place; one of the groups of deities adhered to in Buryati yellow shamanism is called the oikony noyod, the "thirteen lords of Olkhon. On the western coast, close to Khuzhir, is Baikal's most famous landmark, the Shamanka, or Shaman's Rock. Natives believe that Burkhan, a modern religious cult figure of the Altai peoples, lives in the cave in this rock. The rock is one of nine Asian Most Sacred Places. Olkhon is considered a centre of Kurumchinskay culture of 6th-10th centuries.

The museum at Olkhon, named after Revyakin, exposits on the nature and ethnography of the island, including pipe-smoking and a samovar collection.

 

The island has a long history of human habitation. The original indigenous people were the Kurykans, forefathers of two ethnic groups: the Buryats and Yakuts.

Russian explorers first visited during the 17th century.

 

One of the most important ecological problems of Olkhon Island is the disposal of household waste. At present, the waste is disposed of in large piles in forestry near the village of Khuzhir. The dump is unenclosed, and the tipping process is uncontrolled. Moreover, with recent increases in tourism on the island, new sources of hard rubbish have begun to appear.

 

Another ecological concern affecting the island is the illegal felling of timber by local inhabitants. A complicated net of forestry roads in the areas adjacent to Khuzhir lead to woodland areas on the mountain slopes. Timber is brought out of the forest at night time, and the deforestation is taking its toll on the area.

   

Il Lago Bajkal (in russo: О́зеро Байка́л, Ozero Bajkal, ['ozʲɪrə bʌj'kɑl],in mongolo ed in buriato Dalai-Nor, Mare sacro) è un lago della Siberia meridionale, diviso fra i territori dell'oblast' di Irkutsk e della repubblica di Buriazia. È stato posto sotto la tutela dell'UNESCO come patrimonio dell'umanità nel 1996. Fa parte della lista delle Sette meraviglie della Russia.

 

Il lago Bajkal si estende su una superficie di 31.722 km², che ne fa uno dei maggiori laghi al mondo per superficie; si allunga per 636 km da nord a sud (è il secondo del mondo per lunghezza dopo il lago Tanganica), con una larghezza media di 48 km (massima 79,4 km). La profondità media del lago è di 744 m, con una massima di 1.642 m nella parte centrale. Questi valori ne fanno contemporaneamente il lago d'acqua dolce più profondo del mondo e quello con il volume maggiore (23.615 km3). Contiene un volume d'acqua pressoché equivalente a quello dei cinque grandi laghi americani messi assieme. Si stima che contenga circa il 20% delle riserve d'acqua dolce del pianeta (esclusi i ghiacciai e le calotte polari).

Il lago Bajkal si estende in una zona geologicamente molto tormentata; occupa una zona di sprofondamento (fossa tettonica) molto profonda (la criptodepressione arriva a quasi 1.200 m sotto il livello del mare, dato che il pelo dell'acqua del lago è a circa 450 m s.l.m.), ed è circondato da piccole catene montuose che si allungano tutto intorno alle sue coste: monti del Bajkal, monti del Barguzin, monti Primorskij, monti Chamar-Daban, monti Ulan-Burgasy e, all'estremità settentrionale, l'Altopiano Stanovoj.

 

Il Bajkal riceve le acque di 336 immissari, i maggiori dei quali sono il Selenga (che nasce in Mongolia), il Barguzin, la Verchnjaja Angara (Angara Superiore), la Turka e la Snežnaja; possiede per contro un solo emissario, l'Angara, tramite il quale il lago tributa allo Enisej. Il bacino imbrifero del Bajkal si estende su una superficie di circa 557.000 km².

 

Il Bajkal si trova in una regione dal clima molto duro, con fortissime escursioni termiche fra le stagioni estreme; il lago, con la sua enorme massa d'acqua, esercita una forte azione di mitigazione delle temperature, con il risultato di avere inverni meno freddi ed estati più fresche e umide delle zone circostanti. D'inverno il lago è interessato da un esteso congelamento delle acque superficiali; questi ghiacci, per via della inerzia termica data dalla gran massa d'acqua, tendono a formarsi piuttosto tardi (dicembre) e a fondere completamente solo verso maggio.

Il lago è frequentemente battuto da un forte vento che viene chiamato "sarma" dalle popolazioni locali, che può toccare i 150 km/h.

 

Il lago Bajkal è caratterizzato da un ambiente atipico per un lago: le sue acque sono molto ricche d'ossigeno (soluzione satura al 75%) e anche il punto più profondo è popolato da forme di vita, mentre in altri laghi profondi in varie parti del mondo le forme di vita macroscopica scompaiono oltre i 300 m a causa dell'anossia.

Il lago Bajkal è sede di svariati endemismi.

Nel 1962 erano state censite nel lago e nelle sue vicinanze 1.220 diverse specie animali e vegetali, nel 1978 il numero era cresciuto a 1.400 e da allora ogni anno nuove forme di vita continuano ad essere scoperte. Ad oggi le nuove specie scoperte in loco sono oltre 2.500, di cui il 60% di tipo animale ed il 15% di tipo vegetale. Nel lago vi sono 250 specie di crostacei e ben 52 di pesci, di cui 27 endemiche del Bajkal.

Una delle specie più caratteristiche è la nerpa, la foca del Bajkal (Pusa sibirica), specie endemica di taglia piccola, dal manto grigio scuro, si nutre di pesci, ed è all'apice della catena alimentare del lago Bajkal. Alla fine del secolo scorso la caccia ne aveva drasticamente ridotto il numero, oggi risalito, grazie ad una politica di tutela, ad oltre 75.000 individui.

All'altra estremità della catena alimentare c'è un piccolo crostaceo filtratore del genere Epischura, che costituisce il 97% del plancton e raggiunge una biomassa pari a circa 4 milioni di tonnellate. Questo gamberetto non sopporta una temperatura più elevata di 12 °C, e quindi necessita di una elevata concentrazione di ossigeno, né sopporta una concentrazione salina anche solo leggermente superiore a quella (molto bassa) del lago Bajkal, ossia 100 mg di sali per litro d'acqua.

Alcuni ricercatori ritengono che soprattutto le specie endemiche più piccole si siano evolute dall'antica fauna di un immenso lago salmastro che sembra ricoprisse quasi l'intera Asia centrale agli inizi del Terziario (65 milioni di anni fa). Più tardi, 30 milioni di anni fa, il predetto lago si era frammentato in tanti piccoli laghi salmastri circondati da foreste di tipo tropicale. Una serie di importanti sconvolgimenti tettonici (ancor oggi in loco si verificano oltre 2.000 scosse ogni anno) dovuti alla collisione tra il continente euroasiatico con il sub-continente indiano, formarono una profonda frattura nella crosta terrestre la quale venne progressivamente riempita dalle acque convogliate dalla vasta pianura circostante, il volume d'acqua raccolto equivale alla massa d'acqua trasportabile da tutti i fiumi del pianeta nell'arco di un intero anno.

La fossa di frattura del Bajkal è una delle tipiche strutture geologiche estensionali, particolarmente vistosa perché superficiale, che si formano perpendicolarmente alle catene orogeniche (la catena orogenica in questo caso è quella himalayana).

Alcuni pesci, come la golomjanka (Comephorus baikalensis), e la suddetta foca del Bajkal sembrano essere arrivati in queste acque in epoche più recenti, forse dall'Artico attraverso gli immensi fiumi siberiani.

Nei pressi del lago esiste una riserva naturale nella quale vivono gli zibellini, specie a rischio di estinzione che oggi viene protetta, ed il cui allevamento è monopolio dello Stato russo.

 

Le acque del lago, mai più calde di 14 °C, lasciano filtrare lo sguardo fino a più di 40 m di profondità. Tale purezza è stata a più riprese posta a rischio da svariati eventi:

negli anni settanta, con il progetto per la costruzione della Ferrovia Bajkal-Amur, voluta da Leonid Brežnev per aprire la Siberia allo sfruttamento delle sue materie prime;

attraverso la nascita della città di Severobajkal'sk, 600 km a nord del lago;

riversando nel Bajkal gli scarichi delle industrie di Ulan-Ude (capitale della Buriazia, 350 000 abitanti), attraverso il fiume Selenga;

costruendo, proprio a Bajkal'sk, ad un centinaio di metri dalla riva, un grande impianto di trasformazione del legno e di lavorazione della cellulosa, peraltro contestato dalle popolazioni locali.

Fin dagli anni settanta, a protestare contro l'inquinamento del lago vi fu il biologo Grigorij Galazyj, membro dell' Accademia delle Scienze, ed allora direttore dell' Istituto di limnologia di Irkutsk, successivamente direttore del Museo del Bajkal. Secondo Galazyj "Nessuno dei molti decreti e progetti varati per proteggere il Bajkal è stato messo in atto, ed ogni giorno l'impianto per la lavorazione del legno riversa nel lago 250.000 l di acque di scarico, oltre a consumare 500.000 m³ di legno l'anno".

 

Sulle sponde del lago si sono insediate comunità di credo differente; le religioni principali sono tre: lo "sciamanesimo tibetano", il "buddhismo" ed il cristianesimo ortodosso che fu portata dai russi dopo che Kurbat Ivanov scoprì le acque del lago Bajkal nel 1643.

Il territorio della Buriazia, che è bagnata dal Bajkal per il 60% della linea costiera e la sua gente, i Buriati, furono annessi allo stato russo dai trattati del 1689 e del 1728, quando le terre intorno al Bajkal furono separate dalla Mongolia. Dalla metà del XVII secolo all'inizio del XX il numero di Buriati aumentò da 27.700 a 300.000.

Dopo l'annessione della Buriazia alla Russia la cultura buriata subì le influenze del buddhismo tibetano e della Chiesa Cristiana Ortodossa. I Buriati furono per lo più sottoposti ad un processo di integrazione ad usi e costumi tipicamente russi che li portò ad abbandonare progressivamente il nomadismo unitamente all'agricoltura itinerante, mentre i Buriati dell'est (Transbajkal) subirono l'influenza mongola (ancora oggi diversi gruppi vivono in yurta e sono in gran parte buddhisti). Nel Settecento fu costruito il primo monastero buddhista buriato.

 

Il nome "Buriati" è menzionato per la prima volta in un'opera mongola: infatti costoro sono i discendenti diretti dell'antico popolo nomade dei mongoli ed ancora oggi vivono lungo le sponde del lago; una leggenda locale asserisce che la madre di Gengis Khan fosse nata nel villaggio di Barguzin, sulla riva orientale del lago. I buriati d'inverno sono soliti attraversare il lago ghiacciato (quando la crosta è spessa 1 metro) con i camion poiché in tal modo la distanza fra le città di Irkutsk ed Ulan Ude si accorciano di molto, anche se questa pratica è molto pericolosa.

I Buriati sono soliti pescare l'"omul", specie endemica piuttosto pregiata, unitamente ad altre 52 specie presenti nel lago e svariati tipi di crostacei.

Un'antica credenza popolare afferma che esistono due demoni maligni abitanti delle acque profonde intorno all'isola di Olkhon: "Burkhan" e "Doshkin Nojon", pronti a prendersi le anime dei pescatori durante le tempeste.

Una piccola consuetudine è quella di collocare dei nastrini colorati portafortuna detti "semelga" sopra gli arbusti.

 

La Roccia dello Sciamano.

Trattasi di un masso enorme che spunta appena dalle acque proprio laddove l'Angara lascia il Bajkal.

La Roccia dello Sciamano è protagonista di una leggenda che i buriati imparano a conoscere già in tenera età. Secondo tale leggenda il Grande Uomo Bajkal giunse in questa regione con le sue 337 figlie e decise di fermarsi; mentre dormiva una delle figlie, alla quale i gabbiani avevano raccontato le prodezze di Jenisej, decise di fuggire per correre verso l'uomo-fiume di cui si era innamorata; svegliatosi, il Bajkal scagliò verso la fuggitiva una pietra, la Roccia dello Sciamano appunto.

Chi era sospettato di un crimine veniva posto la sera al di sopra della roccia. Se al mattino era ancora lì e la corrente non l'aveva portato via, costui era innocente e veniva liberato. Tuttavia pare che ciò accadesse di rado, in quanto il fiume Angara possiede delle acque tanto rapide ed irruente che è l'unico fiume della regione a non gelare d'inverno.

 

(from wikipedia.org)

Vanessa cardui is a well-known colourful butterfly, known as the Painted Lady, or in North America as the Cosmopolitan. This butterfly has a strange pattern of flying in a sort of screw shape.

 

The Cynthia group of colourful butterflies, commonly called painted ladies, comprises a subgenus of the genus Vanessa in the Family Nymphalidae. They are well known throughout most of the world.

In general, the Painted Lady is a large butterfly (wing span 5–9 cm (2.0–3.5 in)) identified by the black and white corners of its mainly deep orange, black-spotted wings. It has 5 white spots in the black forewing tips and while the orange areas may be pale here and there, there are no clean white dots in them. The hindwings carry 4 small submarginal eyespots on dorsal and ventral sides. Those on the dorsal side are black, but in the summer morph sometimes small blue pupils are present in some.

 

Larvae feed on Asteraceae spp., including Cirsium, Carduus,Centaurea, Arctium, Helianthus, and Artemisia spp.

 

The painted lady uses over 300 recorded host plants according to the HOSTS database. For raising in the classroom one need only sprout a bed of black oil sunflower seeds, as are used for bird seed. The caterpillars will eat the true adult leave (not the sprouts) and in this way one may inexpensively produce many host plants. Soak the seeds for eight hours in 10% diluted household bleach (1 pt bleach, 9 pts water) to ensure a disease free, even sprouting. Place the seeds upon the surface of the soil and keep moist until they grow roots and can be watered normally.

  

Natural History Museum. Butterfly Pavilion. Los Angeles. California.

1966 -The Queen opens the £10 million Severn Bridge on September 8.

 

Bristol's Mecca Centre opens

 

1966 - Thursday May 19 is a glittering night in Bristol when 800 of the West Country’s VIPs are invited to the opening of the city centre’s brand new £32 million leisure complex on Frogmore Street With a dozen licensed bars, a casino, a cinema, a night club, an ice rink and a thousand plastic palm trees, this is the biggest entertainment palace anywhere in Europe and somewhere to rival the West End of London. There are girls! In bikinis! There’s even pineapple! On sticks! Drivers park their Hillman Imps in the multi-story car park!

 

And, amazingly enough, the venue has been an entertainment centre ever since. Bristol . . . entertainments capital of the South West, and one of the entertainments attractions of Europe. That was the talk of the town when Mecca moved into Bristol, splashed out a fortune and began building the New Entertainments Centre in Frogmore Street, towering over the ancient Hatchet Inn and the Georgian and Regency streets nearby.

 

The New Entertainments Centre wasn't just big, it was enormous and it was what 60s leisure and fun-time were all about, Mecca promised. Here, slap bang in the middle of Bristol, the company was creating the largest entertainment centre in the whole of Europe. A dozen licensed bars, an ice rink, bowling lanes, a casino, a night club, a grand cinema, asumptuous ballroom and, naturally, a multi-storey car park to accommodate all those Zephyr Zodiacs, Anglias, Westminsters, Minis, Victors and Imps etc which would come pouring into town bringing the 5,000 or so customers who would flock to the centre every day.

 

London might have its famous West End. Bristol had its Frogmore Street palace of fun and the opening night of the biggest attraction of all, the Locarno Ballroom, on May 19th was the Night To Crown All First Nights, the Post proudly announced. Sparkling lights, plastic palm trees in shadily-lit bars, a revolving stage, dolly birds in fishnet tights and grass skirts . . . this was glamour a la mid-60s and Bristol loved it.

 

Horace Batchelor

 

1966 - KEYNSHAM became a familiar household name to millions of Radio Luxembourg listeners across Europe in the 1950s and 1960s — thanks to a local betting expert.

 

Self-styled 'football pools king' Horace Batchelor helped punters win a total of more than £12 million between 1948 and 1971 at a time when £75,000 was a fortune and his series of radio ads always mentioned mentioned Keynsham, which Horace would then spell out.

 

Customers followed his unique 'infra draw' tip system, which forecast which matches would be drawn in the pools. He put the otherwise little-known town on the map by spelling out its name letter by letter so listeners would address their applications correctly when ordering tips by post.

 

His ads included genial patter such as: 'Hello, friends — this is Horace Batchelor, the inventor of the fabulous Infra-Draw system. You too can start to win really worthwhile dividends using my method.'

 

Members of the system clubbed together to enter very large permutations with a good chance of winning the pools and then sharing the takings — though each individual only received a small fraction of each big windfall. Horace himself set a world record by personally netting more than 30 first dividends and thousands of second and third dividends.

 

During his heyday up to 5.000 orders a day were delivered via Keynsham to his office in Old Market, Bristol. His first major pools win came in 1948 when he was presented with £11,321 at Bedminster’s Rex Cinema —part of the biggest dividend then paid by Sherman’s Pools.

 

It also included £45,000 which he shared with syndicate members. - By 1955 he had won enough to live in luxury, running three cars and puffing cigars in an 18-room house. He later retired to a 27-bedroom ‘Batchelor pad’ in Bath Road, Saltford, a small village just outside of Keynsham, which he named 'Infra -Grange' after his system.

 

barefoot pop star from Essex

 

September 1966 - This was the week in September 1966 that Sandie Shaw, the 19 year old barefoot pop star from Essex, was nominated to represent Britain in the Eurovision Song Contest.

 

"Puppet on a String" won the contest hands down in Vienna the following year giving the songstress her third UK No. One.

 

Although she hated the song it was a worldwide smash with sales of a million plus.

 

Blackboy Hill

 

In Bristol the local media were concentrating on a battle to save three acres of the precious the Downs destined to be lost to a traffic roundabout at the top of Blackboy Hill. Members of the newly formed Downs Protection Association were determined, with the backing of the Civic Society, to fight the plan to the bitter end.

 

The Civic Society secretary, Mr Marsden-Smedley, told the Post,

 

“It is quite clear that public opinion is against the scheme (and) there is a strong case for saying that it is not legal.

 

“We will be coming out hot and strong against this plan.

 

“We shall follow this through as best we can but without being unpleasant to the Corporation and their officers.”

 

The roundabout was never built.

 

Cumberland Basin complex opened in 1965

 

One bit of traffic management that WAS completed in the 1960s, however, was the £800,000 Ashton Gate complex, a series of bridges and underpasses.

 

Described as the “ one of the most progressive schemes in the country” by the assistant City Engineer, Mr. Willy, the two level interchange was a continuation of Bristol’s £3 million Cumberland Basin complex opened in 1965.

 

The new highway would eventually link up with a yet to be built Long Ashton by-pass.

 

Itchycoo Park

 

1967 - Steve Marriot writes the Small Faces hit Itchycoo Park while staying at the Grand Hotel in Bristol.

 

1967 - In the big, big world of movies he was one of the greatest male stars, she was the greatest box office draw of them all ... and together they formed a superstar pair which wanted Bristol as the TV jewel in their glittering crown.

 

TWW Television

 

The very mention of the names Richard and Elizabeth meant one thing in the Swinging Sixties. Richard'n'Liz, Burton and Taylor, Anthony and Cleopatra. So it was front page news when it became clear that the most colourful couple in movieland's history were seriously contending to take over the TV franchise for Bristol and South Wales. 'Richard Burton told the Evening Post this afternoon: 'I am backing the bid for the West and Wales TV contract. ''Both myself and Miss Elizabeth Taylor are strongly supporting this application' he said. Mr Burton is filming in Nice. 'He leads an international list of stars who have joined in the bid for the contract now held by TWW.

 

'Another star named today as 'very interested' in the consortium bid is Harry Secombe. Film star Stanley Baker and opera singer Geraint Evans have already promised their support. 'Broadcaster Mr John Morgan, spokesman for the group, said this afternoon that Burton's involvement was 'very considerable', both financially and in talent. 'He said Richard Burton was one of the originators of the £3 million bid to oust TWW after almost 10 years.

 

'Faced by a Saturday deadline for their application, the group are putting the finishing touches to their draft programme. 'Mr W.A. Hawkins, chairman of Bristol Evening Post, another group member, said: 'We have all the money we need. The emphasis will be on regional programmes of a high quality. ' 'Important international stars will be used and there will be fewer quiz programmes. We shall keep some but they will be of a higher standard than the present programmes.'

 

'A statement announced: 'The consortium has at no time sought any publicity for their application and has no desire to embarrass the ITA. ' 'However, some details have been published and in order to clear up some speculation we would like to say Mr Richard Burton and Miss Elizabeth Taylor are strongly supporting this application. In fact Mr Burton is one of the originators.'

 

' And they won. Bristol's telly company-owning superstars turned up the following year when TWW was given its marching orders and Harlech TV, later HTV, came into being.

 

She wore the biggest diamond ring anyone had ever see—'It's a present from Richard'—she announced—and HTV had the noisiest, best-publicised launch of all.

 

Baby its Cold Outside

 

January 1967 - was cold - so cold in fact that 80 shivering workers at the Feeder Road works of Newman's Plant and Machinery Division walked out for two hours claiming that it was just too cold to work. One man told the Post: 'Our hands and feet were numb.' As the men drank hot canteen soup in the yard outside and warmed themselves up with a rousing chorus of Baby It's Cold Outside - complete with guitar accompaniment - union reps took up their case with the management.

 

The men warned their bosses that they would down tools again the following day if the works was not made any warmer. But after Gas Board engineers were called in to look at the company's recently-installed £12,000 heating plant, the walk-out ended.

 

1960s train crash, St Anne's station

 

The week's main front page story - and one which led to an inquiry - was a head-to-tail collision between two express trains outside the disused St Anne's station. Eight of the 600 passengers on board were injured, but only one - 29-year-old David Newman - was detained in hospital. He was said to be 'comfortable'. The accident happened when the Paddington to Swansea express ploughed into the rear of the Paddington to Bristol train which had stopped at a signal near St Anne's. The South Wales train had been diverted through here because of a goods derailment at Wapley Common, near Chipping Sodbury.

 

It had run into the back of the stationary train at 20mph, but luckily the luggage coach, which was hoisted high in the air and then crushed, had acted as a buffer and protected the rest of the train from the full impact of the collision.

 

Bristol Rovers V Arsenal

 

Luck came Eastville's way as Rovers were drawn at home to Arsenal in the third round of the FA Cup match of January 28. 'A great draw, ' commented manager Bert Tann. Arsenal had last played The Gas in the Cup in January 1936 when they had crushed the home team 5-1. The result this time? Three-nil to Arsenal before an excitable crowd of some 35,000.

 

Lulsgate's Bristol Airport

 

Other news - included city council approval to spend more than £1 million upgrading Lulsgate's Bristol Airport, despite ongoing controversy over whether it should move to Filton. The money included £750,000 to be spent on extending the main runway. Councillor Charlie Merrett urged the airport committee to stick with Lulsgate, saying: 'So far as the residents of Horfield, Southmead and Henbury are concerned, they don't want VC10s roaring over their heads hour after hour. The place for the airport is Lulsgate.' Councillor Bob Wall pointed out that this was already happening anyway.

 

St Peter's Church

 

St Peter's - the bomb-damaged church lying in the heart of the old Wine Street/Castle Street. shopping area (now Castle Park) - was also in the news and causing not a little controversy.

 

In 1966 a row had broken out when it was revealed that £40,000 was to be spent preserving the gutted church and making the building safe. Although this figure had been reduced to £27,000, the Corporation decided to consult Sir Hugh Casson - who was already working on new museum and art gallery plans for the area - to see if he thought the spending was justified. Sir Hugh said it was, and that furthermore the church tower was an integral part of his scheme for redevelopment. To brick up the ground floors and windows, he added, would be 'visually disastrous'.

 

Bristol Central Commercial School

 

Many people were saddened to learn that Bristol Central Commercial School in Old Market's Redcross Street - which had provided shorthand, typing and bookkeeping courses for young people for some 25 years was to close in the summer. Remaining pupils were to be transferred to Rose Green High School.

 

Two Severnside local landmarks were also going. The ship Vindacatrix, moored at Sharpness since 1939 and which had trained some 75,000 young men for a life in the Merchant Navy, was on her way to a Newport yard to be broken up. And the nearby Severn Railway bridge - badly damaged in a tanker disaster seven years previously - was to be demolished completely at a cost of some £100,000. It was planned for 14 of the trusses to be sent to South America and used on a new bridge there.

 

Some 4,000ft long, the structure - which once connected Severnside with the Forest of Dean - was opened in 1879. Described by Bristol's Chief Constable George Twist as a 'revolution' in crime, it was revealed that Bristol police were to recruit women traffic wardens for the very first time. Thirty extra wardens were to be appointed, with some taking over point duty from police and releasing them to get on with the job of fighting crime. Apparently the women were being introduced not in the interests of equality, but because of the difficulty of finding enough men for the job.

 

32 guineas for 15 days on the Costa Brava

 

Everyone in January 1967 was going holiday mad, with page after page of the Post covered with ads for two-week package breaks. Going with Cooks, you could fly from Bristol to Palma for £55, or to the Austrian Tyrol or the Italian Riviera for £50. A nine-day 'panoramic' coach-tour would set you back a trifling £46 (spending money £41) or, a real bargain this, a 10-day coach trip through the Austrian Tyrol for just £23. Fancy something a bit more restful? Then a seven-day tour by coach through sleepy Irish towns and villages could be yours for just £37. Wallace Arnold Tours were offering even better deals - 32 guineas for 15 days on the Costa Brava, or 54 guineas for 15 days in southern Italy.

 

Bristol's very own travel agents Hourmont were begging you to fly with them - on the 'fastest Viscounts' - to Lido de Jessolo in Italy, Benidorm or Rimini for just £42. Staying at home? Then a trip to see the sights of London by Bristol Greyhound coach (via the motorway!) cost just 33 shillings. (There were 20 shillings to the pound in those good old days.) If you fancied seeing a panto then you could book (five shillings - 25p to 13 shillings) at the Hippodrome to see that popular Aussie folk group The Seekers along with comedian Ted Rogers in Humpty Dumpty. Bath Theatre Royal was putting on Goldilocks And The Three Bears, and Weston's Knightstone Theatre featured Aladdin with Arthur English.

 

Also on in Weston, at the Winter Gardens, was the exciting Alan Price Set. If you fancied something a little more highbrow, then Dickens' A Tale Of Two Cities was on at the Little Theatre. There wasn't much choice to be had at Bristol's cinemas that freezing January - they all seem to have been showing either Dr Zhivago or My Fair Lady. 1968 - The first St Paul’s Carnival is held with the procession trouping past the Lord Mayor of Bristol.

 

The Great Flood - Wednesday 10th July 1968

 

Disaster Day. A date that lives vividly in the memories of those who experienced the Great Flood of ‘68. Heavy rain had been falling for most of the day and by mid-evening, accompanied by thunder and lightning had reached torrential proportions in Bristol and North Somerset.

 

It was in fact, the worst rainstorm to hit the area in over half a century with more than five inches of rain falling in several districts in less than 24 hrs. This enormous storm started as a heavy downpour over Brittany France, reached its peak over Bristol and South West England and finally drenched Holland on Thursday afternoon.

 

Flooding had been occurring throughout the South West from mid-day but the full fury of the flood was felt during the hours of darkness. By 5.am almost every stream, brook and river in the area had burst its banks causing death, devastation and despair on a scale greater than any in living memory.

 

That night, seven people lost their lives, hundreds more suffered a terrifying ordeal of hardship and loss, bridges that had stood for centuries were washed away or severely damaged and countless houses, shops, factories and other properties were engulfed. It was a night that re-kindled the ‘spirit of the blitz’, a night when numerous selfless acts of heroism and community spirit prevailed.

 

As night gave way to day and the full extent of the disaster was revealed, it became obvious that for a great many people life would not return to normal for a number of days yet to come.. . for same it never did.

 

1969 - In April, Brian Trubshaw pilots Concorde 002 on her British maiden flight from Filton to RAF Fairford in Gloucestershire. On emerging from the cockpit he says: 'It was wizard! A cool, calm and collected operation!'

 

Bristol Chronicles 55BC - 1698

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/4018030543/

 

Bristol Chronicles 1700 - 1800

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/4018050357/

 

Bristol Chronicles 1860 - 1889

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/4018832704/

 

Bristol Chronicles 1900 - 1904

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/4018084775/

 

Bristol Chronicles 1905

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/4018856600/

 

Bristol Chronicles 1906

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/4018106799/

 

Bristol Chronicles 1907

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/4018874610/

 

Bristol Chronicles 1908

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/4018880032/

 

Bristol Chronicles 1909

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/4018886444/

 

Bristol Chronicles 1910

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/4018134611/

 

Bristol Chronicles 1911 - 1912

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/4018144717/

 

Bristol Chronicles 1913

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/4019167422/

 

Bristol Chronicles 1914-18

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/4019190082/

 

Bristol Chronicles 1920s

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/4018454647/

 

Bristol Chronicles 1930 - 1933

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/4019227988/

 

Bristol Chronicles 1930s

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/4019249156/

 

Bristol Chronicles 1939-45

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/4019266276/

 

Bristol Chronicles 1946 - 1959

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/4018524565/

 

Bristol Chronicles 1960 - 1965

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/4018547559/

 

Bristol Chronicles 1966 - 1969

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/4019325272/

 

Bristol Chronicles 1970s

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/4018584379/

 

Bristol Chronicles 1980s

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/4018611705/

 

Bristol Chronicles 1990 - 2008

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/4018623003/

Deer puppet made from recycled common household materials, and Makedo connectors.

 

Makedo had asked if I would love to create with their product, and I gladly said yes! I have no financial gains from promoting company or products. My inner child has been having a lot of fun with this construction "toy."

 

Materials used-- Recycled:

 

- 1 64 oz orange juice carton

- 2 aqua color drink straws

- 3 empty paper towel rolls

(one was cut in half for the neck, the 2 other rolls were cut in half for the legs)

- 1 wooden popsicle stick to stabilize the head better

 

Other Materials and Tools used:

 

- Fiskars micro tip scissors (for the tail details)

- regular sturdy scissors for the box cutting

- craft knife for the slits the ears fit into

- clear packing tape for added stability to some joints and cuts

- staple and staplers to connect the legs to the body

- Makedo clips, hinge and connectors (the teal blue and black thingys)

********************************************************************************

You can learn more about this new product here at the intro to my flickr set "Makedo FUN and Design" and on the website here:

 

www.makedo.com.au/

1hairstyle.net/umbrella-plant-care-pruning-tips.html

The Dwarf Umbrella Tree-more commonly called the Umbrella Plant-is a popular houseplant in many households, far from its native lands in Taiwan and surrounding countries. The Dwarf Umbrella Tree, or Schefflera arboricola, is an evergreen shrub whose popularity as a houseplant and use in...

On 1st September 1971 English Electric Type 3 No.6792, complete with shunter's pole and shunter, has arrived from Earsdon Junction for a load of 21 and 24-tonne coal hoppers for tripping to Blyth power station. The Fenwick Colliery branch on the NCB Backworth system goes off to the left of the picture and the BR signalbox can be seen between the locomotives. This controlled the crossover of the NCB and BR lines and associated sidings and branch between Eccles and Fenwick Collieries. Robert Stephenson and Hawthorn 0-6-0 tank '29' (works No.7607 built in 1950) takes a break from shunting the stockpile sidings. Very little of the once extensive Backworth system remained by this time, with Backworth in effect being the end of the Burradon line, all NCB traffic running east to west, coal being sent to the new coal preparation plant at Weetslade near Burradon where a large new coal depot had also been developed during the 1960's to serve Tyneside household coal requirements. This traffic was hauled by Backworth locos which also brought return trains of stone for tipping on the old Backworth 'C' Pit heap. As a result of serious damage at the Backworth Washery in 1970 a new loading bunker was subsequently built and all coal was taken to Weetslade Washery. Fenwick Colliery closed on 31st August 1973 and the railway east of Earsdon junction (as portayed in this image) was lifted. After this closure the building of a new curve eliminated the inconvenience to road traffic on the road into Eccles Colliery, Backworth. This ended the practice of having to haul wagons across the road at Bankfoot cabin and then propelling them, down past the weigh cabin. Backworth had long been a last outpost of steam haulage in the northeast but in January 1976 diesels were introduced and the steam locos put into store to await scrapping or preservation. In 1977 traffic to Weetslade ended and the line to Burradon lifted. The line to the 'C' pit stone heap was also abandoned at this time and stone tipping commenced in a field at the start of the Burradon line, the track being slewed to enable this to commence. The end was now in sight and Eccles Colliery closed in May1980 with all rail traffic ending on 17th July 1980. This brought not only the end to the Backworth railway but also the end of deep mining in Backworth unbroken for over 167 years. As for 6792 (later 37092), it survived until May 1996, when withdrawn from Toton TMD and was disposed of during October 2001 by TJ Thomson at Stockton.

 

© Copyright Gordon Edgar - No unauthorised use.

Warmley & Siston - One Hundred years of history - Part 7 of 7 - 1980 - 1999

 

1980

 

St. Ivel Way was now the most important new industrial area in the Parish. The area had, until a few years earlier, become a wildlife haven when the clay for the nearby pottery was no longer extracted.

 

Fish were introduced to this former clay pit and there was an abundance of newts, toads and dragonflies darting in and out of the bulrushes. In the 1970s, the clay pits were used for landfill and in time the area was used for further development.

 

In 1980 the Barrettine Group of Companies moved on to a 2.8 acre site at the end of St. Ivel Way. Originally, Barrettines began trading in Bristol but in the 1950s moved on to a piece of land in Tower Lane adjacent to William Champions Windmill Tower and Ice House.

 

The Company sold lubricating oils, solvents and allied products, either in large oil drums or small containers which had to be filled by hand. The product range increased dramatically and eventually the company needed a larger site where they could expand. At a time when the country was struggling during the recent depression, Barrettines continued to expand their market and most of the production is now done automatically.

 

Under the management of Colin Bailey and Alan Emery, Barrettine products are becoming a household name and are available both at home and abroad.

 

1981

 

Over the past century, industry has played a crucial role in the parish of Siston and at various times the skyline has been broken by numerous chimney stacks, predominantly associated with the colliery and pottery trades.

 

There were two stacks at Haskins Pottery and four more at the Hollychrome works. The Ochre Works had the tallest, there is one remaining at Webbs Heath. There is one stack near Norman Road, belonging to the Siston Hill Colliery and three connected with Crown Colliery making a total of twelve altogether in the district.

 

The most prominent was the stack between the Crown Colliery and the Midland Spinner, originally called Crown Inn. For half a century, J.W. Hembroughs used this site for offices and stores. In July 1980 they received a quote from J. Dawson and Sons of Clutton for £1,489 for the demolition of the stack, which was becoming unstable in high winds.

 

The stack was built about 1900 by Dawsons from specially curved bricks made at the brickworks across the road. In January 1981 demolition of the stack began. The bricks were hit down inside and taken to be dumped. At that time the clay pit from the pottery opposite was used as the refuse dump for the Kingswood District and it seems fitting that these bricks were returned from the very same ground they had come from eighty years earlier.

 

One of the brick-makers was a local man called Jesse White. He scratched his name and the names of his children on many of the bricks before they were fired. Most of the White bricks went to the tip, but several were saved, two can be seen at Bristol Industrial Museum and ten are in the Kingswood Museum collection.

 

1982

 

The winter of 82 saw extreme weather conditions that once again smashed all records. We became aware for the first time of the phrase Chill Factor, when low temperatures and high winds resulted in chill factors of minus 20 degrees.

 

Heavy snows in January and temperatures which remained below freezing point for six weeks resulted in the worst traffic conditions ever. The roads from Toghill and Kingswood became a sheet of ice, allowing articulated lorries down into the hollow but not up again.

 

Before the traffic was diverted, up to 150 lorries with their crews and cargoes were stranded and a continuous line of vehicles stretched from the Tenniscourt Inn to Wick. The road was now restricted to a single track with a ridge of frozen slush in the centre eighteen inches high. Pictures of this massive column of traffic were sent all around the world and a former resident of Goldney Avenue was amazed to see scenes of Warmley High Street broadcast to her home in Australia.

 

For nearly a week the lorry crews were entertained at the Warmley Community Centre where they were given a warm, dry place to sleep as well as plenty of hot food, all donated freely from the local community.

 

1983

 

The Ochre Works behind Station Road was finally demolished this year. No Ochre had been produced here since the mid-war years. Parts of the site have been occupied by The Warmley Body Works, who built and repaired lorries, coaches and other commercial vehicles. Another section of the old factory was used by Arthur Turner, building contractors, during the 1950s and 1960s.

 

As old industries were disappearing, new ones were badly needed to employ an ever increasing number of men and women. In June 1981, the New Work Trust Co. Ltd., was founded to provide help and assistance to small firms trying to get started in many aspects of business.

 

In 1982 the New Work Trust took over the abandoned Warmley C. of E. School in London Road as their marketing centre. The old building is used for customer presentations, exhibitions, conferences and sales training. By 1983, the school had been gutted and redecorated and began a new lease of life helping to promote these new enterprises. This was the first centre of its kind anywhere in Great Britain dedicated to serving small firms and providing professional assistance in new market opportunities and giving effective sales management.

 

1984

 

In October this year work began in redeveloping the old railway yard and sidings behind Warmley Station. All the station buildings had been cleared in the early 1970s and had remained unoccupied since that time, except for a brief period in 1974 when a group of gypsies set up camp there.

 

At about the same time, Sunway Blinds, who were trading in the former Brains Flour Mill in Chapel Lane, were extending their site onto a section of the Station Yard and building several new warehouse blocks thereby almost doubling their floor space. The rest of the yard was laid out for fifteen houses and one bungalow, appropriately called Station Close.

 

The two remaining sections of Warmley Station have been laid out as one of the main car parks on the rail path. The other piece between the railway and dramroad has been planted with trees and links up with Warmley Forest Park on the old brickyard and clay pits to the east.

 

1985

 

In October 1984, The Ashlands on the boundary between Bridgeyate and Warmley was put up for sale. The Ashlands was described as a substantial and imposing mansion house, standing in its own ground covering 5 acres.

 

The first known resident was Charles Hancock who lived in The Ashlands around the turn of the century. At this time the address is described as Bath Road not London Road as it is today. Other residents include Samuel Ludwig Elistrom, who with other Mormons established a sanctuary at The Ashlands.

 

In 1920, William Wilson Douglas, son of the founder of the famous motorcycle firm moved in. He had taken part in the 1911 Isle of Man T.T. Races and after the Great War was in the U.S.A and Canada promoting the firm. In 1923, at the age of 43, William Douglas tragically died and his family moved away.

 

One of the longest residents at The Ashlands was Albert Edward Palmer who owned a biscuit factory at Fishponds, Bristol. He is remembered locally for the fantastic orchids grown in his greenhouse. In 1953 Albert Palmers flowers were sent to London and used by Queen Elizabeth II at her Coronation.

 

In the 1950s, The Ashlands was divided up into a number of self-contained flats. Since the new owner moved here in 1985, a great deal of work has taken place. A massive boundary wall has been erected and the stables block has made way for a twelve car garage. In the former paddock, a lake has been dug and a helicopter pad installed.

 

Memories of the great flood July 1968

 

Before the storm abated, seven people were to lose their lives, bridges were destroyed, dams were demolished and hundreds of homes and factories were flooded. Siston Brook, which rises above St. Annes pool, very quickly burst its banks and flooding occurred near Little Brook Farm, Goose Green. More flooding occurred around the Midland Spinner. The water was so high in the lower skittle alley, a chair became lodged in the rafters of the building.

 

The Warmley Brook, rising beyond Carsons Factory, created a lake that reached from the bridge in Station Road, Kingswood, to well beyond the bridge in Anchor Road. The fields along Tenniscourt Road were flooded and collected debris created a further blockage to the bridge in Deanery Road, making that road impassable.

 

At Warmley, Crown Gardens had become a collecting point for the deluge which was unable to drain into the brook. That night the ambulance service was called out to rescue frightened elderly people from their bungalows. The village constable, P.C. Doug Hardiman, was almost swept away as he waded through waist deep water.

 

The two tributaries now combined by the Champions Summerhouse in Tower Road North and the caravan park, being on the bed of Champions thirteen acre lake, once again became awash. Some of the caravan dwellers had to be rescued by rowing boats as their homes were threatened.

 

Further downstream the rushing tide of water had picked up a massive tree trunk and, acting like a battering ram, had charged into the dam wall at Willsbridge Mill, breaching the banks and releasing hundreds of thousands of gallons of muddy water. The water tore down the valley in a tidal wave, swamping cars and low lying homes to the depth of several feet.

 

As a permanent reminder of this occasion an inscribed brass plate was erected at the Midland Spinner by landlord, Cyril Hemmings, giving the date and flood level. The plate is opposite the door and about 5' above the floor.

 

1986

 

To the north of Crane Close was a small piece of land recently used by the local council. Originally this plot was the village pound where animals were impounded for straying on Siston Common. The Keeper of the Pound was Jimmy Sandford who lived near the railway arch on the common.

 

When this archaic form of policing was no longer needed Warmley Council took over the site and built a high arched building to house their steam roller. In 1939, the Warmley Fire Auxiliary Service kept their equipment there and after the war the land was used once more solely by Warmley R.D.C.

 

After council reorganisation in 1974, the Stanley Road Depot was no longer needed and the old steam roller building stood unused for much of the time. In 1985, Caple Close was extended over the Warmley Brook and a council housing development was soon springing up.

 

As part of the development, the site of the Stanley Road Depot was needed and in 1986 the old engine shed was demolished. The site of the old village pound is now home for many of the pensioners living in bungalows at Crane Close.

 

1987

 

St. Barnabas Church, Warmley, celebrated its centenary in 1951 and will be looking forward to marking 150 years of religious leadership in the area in the year 2001.

 

The ecclesiastic boundaries of St. Barnabas were set out in 1851 and received the consent of Queen Victoria on the 23rd October 1851. The parish was formed out of the parishes of Siston and Bitton.

 

The boundary follows the small brook east of Cann Lane as far as Cowhorn Hill Bridge. From there it followed a foot path to the southern end of Wraxall Lane and proceeded up the middle of that road and down Grimsbury Road until it reached the main road.

 

The boundary then continued along Made-For-Ever Lane, now Tenniscourt Road, until it reached the crossroads at Fisher Road and thence along Anchor Road to Station Road. From here it goes to the railway bridge and over Goose Green Common as far as Brook Farm, where the boundary follows the brook downstream almost as far as the main road and then easterly between property boundaries towards Webbs Heath and eventually back to the starting point at Bridgeyate.

 

In the 143 years since the church was consecrated there have been thirteen vicars at St. Barnabas, they are:

 

1851 C.J. Stillingfleet-Bowles

1857 James Turner

1860 Thomas Henry Howard

1886 William Augustus Scott

1906 Frederick Rogers

1924 George Henry Dymock

1926 Henry John Say (Hon.Canon)

1944 Ronald Harry Down

1951 Cyril Winch Francis (Prebendary)

1961 Ronald Edgar

1966 John Pearce

1968 William George Parsons MA

1972 John Chilton Poarch BA (Hon.Canon)

1987 George Mitchell (Canon).

 

1988

 

With the growing population surrounding Siston Parish and with greater emphasis on the private motor car, a solution to congested roads was desperately sought. For over a decade, plans for a new East Bristol by-ass have been discussed to provide a connection from Keynsham north to the M4 motorway.

 

There was even a scheme to have an East Bristol Radial Road, which would have been bulit behind the houses in New Cheltenham Road and then on a raised flyover to join the by-pass on Siston Common above Fisher Road. However, this last scheme was abandoned in the 1970s.

 

The first section of the ring road, as the by-pass was to be known, was already under way in the Bromley Heath and Downend areas. In 1988 the section from Deanery Road to Wraxall Road had begun, gouging deep cuttings through the fields of Grimsbury Farm.

 

This exposed thick seams of surface coal left behind by the colliers of the 18th and 19th centuries. Near the Wraxall Road roundabout other important relics from the long forgotten coal industry were unearthed.

 

At Stone Hill a Romano-British settlement was discovered and it will be exciting to see the archaeological finds in 1995 when the final link of the ring road is cut across Siston Common.

 

1989

 

To connect the ringroad with the A420 at Deanery Road, an 80 metre diameter roundabout was constructed. On the 17th April this work began, including the blocking off of Baden Road, building two underpasses and the demolition of four houses opposite Brook Road, formerly known as Cider Mill Farm.

 

The earlier plan included the demolition of the Community Centre but due to local pressure the roundabout was realigned and the Centre saved.

 

Baden Road has now become a cul-de-sac. When Mr. Shepherd of Cider Mill Farm was building the house in Baden Road, he had planned that it should be called Baynton Road, after the 19th century owners of the land but the local authority decided on Baden Road. The underpass near Brook Road comes out almost exactly where Cider Mill Farm stood. In the 19th century, there were many orchards in the district and it would seem logical that the farm was where the apples were processed.

 

During the excavations here, several culverts were identified. One fed water to the spring or level by the bridge and two others were probably links to the Isaac Smith Iron Works. This foundry is marked on a 1750 map and was situated near Kingsfield School.

 

The Community Centre lost much of its field but the sale of this land has enabled two new rooms to be built and opened in this Centenary Year.

 

1990

 

This was the year of the first Kingswood Borough History Festival. The Mayor, Councillor John Lewis, started the event with the launching of The Kingswood Heritage Trail, setting off in the sidecar of a vintage Douglas motorcycle.

 

The Heritage Trail takes in much of which is best in Siston Parish. This, of course, starts in Siston village, with The Court and St. Annes Church. Pausing to view Webbs Heath Farmhouse which has 16th century origins, the visitor may be invited to look for one of the many ghosts that frequent our parish.

 

From here you pass the ruins of Webbs Heath drift mine and onto the Griffin Inn. This public house was built originally as a farmhouse back in the early 18th century. A popular Wednesday Market used to be held at the rear, selling all sorts of agricultural products as well as livestock but in the 1970s the weekly market was abandoned due to changing trends.

 

On now to Warmley station and signal box. The history of the station has already been told, but the signal box deserves some mention. It was built in 1870 and was in use for 100 years, finally becoming redundant when the line closed. It is a good example of that period with the interior unchanged and the control gear complete. It is now included on Kingswoods list of historic buildings.

 

Before leaving the parish, the trail includes Warmley Historic Gardens and Grotto. Again much has been written previously about the great William Champion and his Brassworks but his legacy was to leave behind one of the most unique industrialist gardens in the country. It has recently been included in the English Heritage National List of Historic Gardens, the only one in Kingswood Borough.

 

Warmley Grottoes are considered to be the largest man-made grottoes in the country and are a mysterious network of underground caves and vaulted chambers made from clinker from Champions zinc process. The gardens are the jewel in the crown of Siston and are public open space, giving access to us all.

 

1991

 

The church of St. Anne, in the heart of Siston village, has stood on this site for nearly one thousand years and may even have been established four or five hundred years earlier as a Celtic temple.

 

The Doomsday Book of 1085 records the parish of Siston among the lands of the great Norman warlord, Roger de Berkeley.

 

The leaded font inside Siston Church has been dated to the reign of William Rufus (1087 1100), the son of William the Conqueror. The Tympanum in the South Porch depicts the Tree of Life and is thought to have been carved around 1090 A.D.

 

Siston Church is one of the oldest churches in the Kingswood Borough and it is clear from the above dates that some great religious activity was underway in this rural setting sandwiched between the Royal Hunting Forest of Kingswood and the Royal Palace at Pucklechurch.

 

The present tower of St. Annes was built in the 13th or 14th century and was topped by a parapet. This became unstable earlier this century and had to be removed.

 

The peal of bells that has sounded all around the parish for hundreds of years fell silent in 1929 due to rotten timbers in the belfry. For over half a century the bells remained silent. In 1991, after a great deal of fund raising, the sound of bells once more echoed around the valleys.

 

1992

 

During preparation for the 1947 edition of the Ordinance Survey map, the survey team noticed recesses in the landscape and identified them as being part of a hitherto unknown Roman Road. The road began in Bitton village, went through Winterbourne and onto Gloucester. During excavations for the new Warmley C. of E. School in Poplar Road, part of this road was uncovered.

 

The course of the Roman highway then crossed the railway line at the end of St. Ivel Way, through the vicarage garden, across the field at the top of Winfield Road and then over the top of the hill next to Lodge Farm by Mangotsfield Golf Course.

 

Since 1989, Vizability,in association with the Kingswood Arts umbrella, have been active in promoting the Bristol and Bath Railway Path into a sculpture trail. In 1992, sculptor Gordon Young completed his Gaius Sentius, a drinking fountain in the design of a thirsty legionnaire, drinking from his flask.

 

The sculpture marks the intersection where the Roman Road and the Railway Path cross.

 

To complete the setting there are two tall columns about 50 yards either side of Gaius Sentius marking the course of the road and also a pair of stone benches inscribed 'Bath eight miles' and 'Bristol seven miles'. The funding for these sculptures came from J. Sainsbury plc and Wincanton Distribution.

 

1993

 

The famous play The Ghost Train was written by Arnold Ridley after he had spent some time waiting for a train on the windswept platforms of Mangotsfield Station. Warmley Station has not had any rail traffic passing through since the line was taken up over twenty years previously.

 

In 1993, a set of ghostly silhouettes appeared on the platforms waiting, it would seem, for a train that would never arrive.

 

This was the second piece of art commissioned for the Sculpture Trail in our area. On closer inspection the figures are cleverly designed out of sheet metal and each section depicts images connected with the railway network from the railway clock to a ticket or part of an engine. This piece of modem art is entitled Brief Encounters and is by Steve Joyce working with pupils from Kingsfield School.

 

1994

 

The latest development took place this autumn with the completion of nine new houses in Deanery Road and Deanery Close. The houses are part of a scheme by Kingswood Borough and Knightstone Housing Association to provide much needed new home