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Marville - 55600 - Meuse - Lorraine - Grand est - France.

Plan d'eau de la Vallée de l'Othain .

 

Pour se mettre en conformité avec la loi sur l’eau du 30 décembre 2006 et la « continuité écologique », le plan d’eau de Marville, qui intègre la rivière Othain, devrait disparaître à l’horizon 2020.

Photo André Knoerr, Genève. Reproduction autorisée avec mention de la source.

Utilisation commerciale soumise à autorisation spéciale préalable.

 

Le trolleybus Van Hool AG300T 16 traverse le centre ville de Vevey en direction de Villeneuve sur la ligne 201.

Les seize véhicules restants 1...18 (1994-1996) vieillissent bien et leur remplacement n'est prévu qu'à l'horizon 2020.

 

16020

 

Depuis plus de 100 jours le 45ème Président des United States of America démontre quotidiennement son incompétence.

Qu'attend donc le Congrès pour destituer ce malade mental et danger planétaire, dont les milliards de dollars ne lui permettront jamais de s'acheter un cerveau?

STOP TRUMP NOW!

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A couple of shots with the 50mm for a change: looking from the lifts towards platform 1.

 

Aldwych tube station is a closed station on the London Underground, located in the City of Westminster in central London. It was opened in 1907 with the name Strand, after the street on which it is located, and was the terminus and only station on the short Piccadilly line branch from Holborn that was a relic of the merger of two railway schemes. The station building is close to the junction of Strand and Surrey Street, near Aldwych. During its lifetime, the branch was the subject of a number of unrealised extension proposals that would have seen the tunnels through the station extended southwards, usually to Waterloo.

Served by a shuttle train for most of their life and suffering from low passenger numbers, the station and branch were considered for closure several times. A weekday peak hours-only service survived until closure in 1994, when the cost of replacing the lifts was considered too high compared to the income generated.

Disused parts of the station and the running tunnels were used during both World Wars to shelter artworks from London's public galleries and museums from bombing.

The station has long been popular as a filming location and has appeared as itself and as other London Underground stations in a number of films. In recognition of its historical significance, the station is a Grade II listed building.

 

The Great Northern and Strand Railway (GN&SR) first proposed a station in the Strand area in a private bill presented to Parliament in November 1898.[2] The station was to be the southern terminus of an underground railway line planned to run from Wood Green station (now Alexandra Palace) via Finsbury Park and King's Cross and was originally to be located at the corner of Stanhope Street and Holles Street, north of the Strand. When the two streets were scheduled for demolition as part of the London County Council's plans for the construction of Kingsway and Aldwych, the GN&SR moved the location to the junction of the two new roads.[3] Royal Assent to the bill was given and the Great Northern and Strand Railway Act 1899 was enacted on 1 August.[4]

In September 1901, the GN&SR was taken over by the Brompton and Piccadilly Circus Railway (B&PCR), which planned to build an underground line from South Kensington to Piccadilly Circus via Knightsbridge. Both were under the control of Charles Yerkes through his Metropolitan District Electric Traction Company and, in June 1902, were transferred to Yerkes' new holding company, the Underground Electric Railways Company of London (UERL).[5] Neither of the railways had carried out any construction, but the UERL obtained permission for new tunnels between Piccadilly Circus and Holborn to connect the two routes. The companies were formally merged as the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway (GNP&BR) following parliamentary approval in November 1902.[6][7][8] Prior to confirmation of the merger, the GN&SR had sought permission to extend its line southwards from the future junction of Kingsway and Aldwych, under Norfolk Street to a new interchange under the Metropolitan District Railway's station at Temple. The extension was rejected following objections from the Duke of Norfolk under whose land the last part of the proposed tunnels would have run.[9]

In 1903, the GNP&BR sought permission for a branch from Piccadilly Circus to run under Leicester Square, Strand, and Fleet Street and into the City of London. The branch would have passed and interchanged with the already approved Strand station,[10] allowing travel on the GNP&BR from Strand in three directions. The deliberations of a Royal Commission on traffic in London prevented parliamentary consideration of the proposal, which was withdrawn.[11]

In 1905, with the Royal Commission's report about to be published, the GNP&BR returned to Parliament with two bills for consideration. The first bill revived the 1903 proposal for a branch from Piccadilly Circus to the City of London, passing and interchanging with Strand station. The second proposed an extension and relocation of Strand station to the junction of Strand and Surrey Street. From there the line was to continue as a single tunnel under the River Thames to Waterloo. The first bill was again delayed and withdrawn. Of the second, only the relocation of Strand station was permitted.

 

The linking of the GN&SR and B&PCR routes meant that the section of the GN&SR south of Holborn became a branch from the main route. The UERL began constructing the main route in July 1902. Progress was rapid, so that it was largely complete by the Autumn of 1906.[13] Construction of the Holborn to Strand section was delayed while the London County Council constructed Kingsway and the tramway subway running beneath it and while the UERL decided how the junction between the main route and the branch would be arranged at Holborn.[14][note 1]

Strand station was built on the site of the Royal Strand Theatre, which had closed on 13 May 1905 and been demolished. Construction of the station began on 21 October 1905,[16] to a design by the UERL's architect Leslie Green in the UERL house style of a two-storey steel-framed building faced with red glazed terracotta blocks, with wide semi-circular windows on the upper floor.[17] The station building is L-shaped, with two façades separated by the building on the corner of Strand and Surrey Street. The Strand façade is narrow with a single semi-circular window above the entrance. The façade in Surrey Street is wider with a separate entrance and exit and a shop unit. In anticipation of a revival of the extension to Waterloo and the City route, the station was built with three circular lift shafts able to accommodate six trapezium-shaped lifts. Only one of the shafts was fitted out, with two lifts.[18] The other two shafts rose from the lower concourse to the basement of the station, but could have been extended upwards into the space of the shop unit when required. A fourth smaller-diameter shaft accommodated an emergency spiral stair.[19]

The platforms are 92 feet 6 inches (28.19 m) below street level and are 250 feet (76 m) long;[16] shorter than the GNP&BR's standard length of 350 feet (110 m).[20] As with other UERL stations, the platform walls were tiled with distinctive patterns, in this case cream and dark green. Only parts of the platform walls were decorated because it was planned to operate the branch with short trains.[16] Due to the reduced lift provision, a second route between the platforms and lifts was never brought into use and was left in an unfinished condition without tiling.

 

The GNP&BR's main route opened on 15 December 1906, but the Strand branch was not opened until 30 November 1907.[22] Initially, shuttle trains operated to Holborn from the eastern platform into the through platform at Holborn. At peak times, an additional train operated alternately in the branch's western tunnel into the bay platform at Holborn. During the first year of operation, a train for theatregoers operated late on Monday to Saturday evenings from Strand through Holborn and northbound to Finsbury Park; this was discontinued in October 1908.[16]

In March 1908, the off-peak shuttle service began to use the western platform at Strand and the through platform at Holborn, crossing between the two branch tunnels south of Holborn. Low usage led to the withdrawal of the second peak-hour shuttle and the eastern tunnel was taken out of use in 1914.[23][24] On 9 May 1915, three of the Underground stations in the area were renamed and Strand station became Aldwych.[22][note 2] Sunday services ended in April 1917 and, in August of the same year, the eastern tunnel and platform at Aldwych and the bay platform at Holborn were formally closed.[25] A German bombing campaign in September 1917 led the disused platform being used as storage for 300 pictures from the National Gallery until December 1918.

 

In October 1922, the ticket office was replaced by a facility in the lifts.[25] Passenger numbers remained low: when the station was one of a number on the network considered for closure in 1929, its annual usage was 1,069,650 and takings were £4,500.[27][note 3] The branch was again considered for closure in 1933, but remained open.[25]

Wartime efficiency measures led to the branch being closed temporarily on 22 September 1940, shortly after the start of The Blitz, and it was partly fitted out by the City of Westminster as an air-raid shelter. The tunnels between Aldwych and Holborn were used to store items from the British Museum, including the Elgin Marbles. The branch reopened on 1 July 1946, but patronage did not increase.[28] In 1958, the station was one of three that London Transport announced would be closed. Again it survived, but the service was reduced in June 1958 to run only during Monday to Friday peak hours and Saturday morning and early afternoons.[29][note 4] The Saturday service was withdrawn in June 1962.[29]

  

Shelterers inside Aldwych station during the Blitz, 1940.

 

After operating only during peak hours for more than 30 years, the closure announcement came on 4 January 1993. The original 1907 lifts required replacement at a cost of £3 million. This was not justifiable as only 450 passengers used the station each day and it was losing London Regional Transport £150,000 per year. The Secretary of State for Transport granted permission on 1 September 1994 to close the station and the branch closed on 30 September.

 

Although the Piccadilly Circus to City of London branch proposal of 1905 was never revisited after its withdrawal, the early plan to extend the branch south to Waterloo was revived a number of times during the station's life. The extension was considered in 1919 and 1948, but no progress towards constructing the link was made.[28]

In the years after the Second World War, a series of preliminary plans for relieving congestion on the London Underground had considered various east-west routes through the Aldwych area, although other priorities meant that these were never proceeded with. In March 1965, a British Rail and London Transport joint planning committee published "A Railway Plan for London" which proposed a new tube railway, the Fleet line (later renamed the Jubilee line), to join the Bakerloo line at Baker Street then run via Bond Street, Green Park, Charing Cross, Aldwych and into the City of London via Ludgate Circus, Cannon Street and Fenchurch Street before heading into south-east London. An interchange was proposed at Aldwych and a second recommendation of the report was the revival of the link from Aldwych to Waterloo.[31][32] London Transport had already sought parliamentary approval to construct tunnels from Aldwych to Waterloo in November 1964,[33] and in August 1965, parliamentary powers were granted. Detailed planning took place, although public spending cuts led to postponement of the scheme in 1967 before tenders were invited.[29]

Planning of the Fleet line continued and parliamentary approval was given in July 1969 for the first phase of the line, from Baker Street to Charing Cross.[34] Tunnelling began on the £35 million route in February 1972 and the Jubilee line opened north from Charing Cross in May 1979.[35] The tunnels of the approved section continued east of Charing Cross under Strand almost as far as Aldwych station, but no work at Aldwych was undertaken and they were used only as sidings.[36] Funding for the second phase of the work was delayed throughout the 1970s whilst the route beyond Charing Cross was reviewed to consider options for serving anticipated development in the London Docklands area. By 1979, the cost was estimated as £325 million, a six-fold increase from the £51 million estimated in 1970.[37] A further review of alternatives for the Jubilee line was carried out in 1980, which led to the a change of priorities and the postponement of any further effort on the line.[38] When the extension was eventually constructed in the late 1990s it took a different route, south of the River Thames via Westminster, Waterloo and London Bridge to provide a rapid link to Canary Wharf, leaving the tunnels between Green Park and Aldwych redundant.[39]

In July 2005, Ove Arup & Partners produced a report, DLR Horizon 2020 Study, for the Docklands Light Railway (DLR) examining "pragmatic development schemes" to expand and improve the DLR network between 2012 and 2020. One of the proposals was an extension of the DLR from Bank to Charing Cross via City Thameslink and Aldwych. The disused Jubilee line tunnels would be enlarged to accommodate the larger DLR trains and Aldwych station would form the basis for a new station on the line, although requiring considerable reconstruction to accommodate escalators. The estimated cost in 2005 was £232 million for the infrastructure works and the scheme was described as "strongly beneficial" as it was expected to attract passengers from the London Underground's existing east-west routes and from local buses and reduce overcrowding at Bank station. The business case assessment was that the proposal offered high value, although similar values were calculated for other extension proposals from Bank. Further detailed studies were proposed.

 

Because it was a self-contained section of the London Underground which was closed at weekends and for extended periods during weekdays, Aldwych station and the branch line from Holborn were popular locations for filming scenes set on the Tube even before their closure. Since the branch's closure in 1994, its use in film productions has continued, with the station appearing as itself and, with appropriate signage, as other stations on the network.[29] The track and infrastructure are maintained in operational condition, and a train of ex-Northern line 1972 tube stock is permanently stabled on the branch. This train can be driven up and down the branch for filming. The physical connection with the Piccadilly line northbound tracks remains, but requires manual operation.[41]

Films and television productions that have been shot at Aldwych include:

The Gentle Gunman (1952)[29]

Battle of Britain (1969)[42]

Death Line (1972)[29]

Superman IV: The Quest for Peace (1986)[29]

The Krays (1990)[43]

Patriot Games (1994)[43]

Creep (2004)[42]

V for Vendetta (2006)[42]

The Good Shepherd (2006)[42]

Atonement (2007)[42]

28 Weeks Later (2007)[42]

The Edge of Love (2008)[42]

Mr Selfridge (2013) [44]

The pre-war operation of the station features in a pivotal scene in Geoffrey Household's novel Rogue Male, when the pursuit of the protagonist by an enemy agent sees them repeatedly using the shuttle service on the branch line. A chase through Aldwych station ends with the agent's death by electrocution on the track.[45] A much modified and expanded version of the station appears as a level in the video game Tomb Raider III.[46] The music video for The Prodigy's song "Firestarter" was filmed in the disused eastern tunnel and one of the unused lift shafts.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aldwych_tube_station

Atlas is a work between digital arts and visual arts, using real models and VR/AR headsets.

Spectators are invited to build virtual cities using a seed launcher. Each launch causes a house to

grow. The growing houses follow some urbanistic rules, adapting to their environment. These cities

take on a life of their own, with or without the interactions of users, just like living organisms...

 

Credit: Yann Deval

 

Platform 1:I managed to get to the front of the tour to get this shot with no people in it.

 

Aldwych tube station is a closed station on the London Underground, located in the City of Westminster in central London. It was opened in 1907 with the name Strand, after the street on which it is located, and was the terminus and only station on the short Piccadilly line branch from Holborn that was a relic of the merger of two railway schemes. The station building is close to the junction of Strand and Surrey Street, near Aldwych. During its lifetime, the branch was the subject of a number of unrealised extension proposals that would have seen the tunnels through the station extended southwards, usually to Waterloo.

Served by a shuttle train for most of their life and suffering from low passenger numbers, the station and branch were considered for closure several times. A weekday peak hours-only service survived until closure in 1994, when the cost of replacing the lifts was considered too high compared to the income generated.

Disused parts of the station and the running tunnels were used during both World Wars to shelter artworks from London's public galleries and museums from bombing.

The station has long been popular as a filming location and has appeared as itself and as other London Underground stations in a number of films. In recognition of its historical significance, the station is a Grade II listed building.

 

The Great Northern and Strand Railway (GN&SR) first proposed a station in the Strand area in a private bill presented to Parliament in November 1898.[2] The station was to be the southern terminus of an underground railway line planned to run from Wood Green station (now Alexandra Palace) via Finsbury Park and King's Cross and was originally to be located at the corner of Stanhope Street and Holles Street, north of the Strand. When the two streets were scheduled for demolition as part of the London County Council's plans for the construction of Kingsway and Aldwych, the GN&SR moved the location to the junction of the two new roads.[3] Royal Assent to the bill was given and the Great Northern and Strand Railway Act 1899 was enacted on 1 August.[4]

In September 1901, the GN&SR was taken over by the Brompton and Piccadilly Circus Railway (B&PCR), which planned to build an underground line from South Kensington to Piccadilly Circus via Knightsbridge. Both were under the control of Charles Yerkes through his Metropolitan District Electric Traction Company and, in June 1902, were transferred to Yerkes' new holding company, the Underground Electric Railways Company of London (UERL).[5] Neither of the railways had carried out any construction, but the UERL obtained permission for new tunnels between Piccadilly Circus and Holborn to connect the two routes. The companies were formally merged as the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway (GNP&BR) following parliamentary approval in November 1902.[6][7][8] Prior to confirmation of the merger, the GN&SR had sought permission to extend its line southwards from the future junction of Kingsway and Aldwych, under Norfolk Street to a new interchange under the Metropolitan District Railway's station at Temple. The extension was rejected following objections from the Duke of Norfolk under whose land the last part of the proposed tunnels would have run.[9]

In 1903, the GNP&BR sought permission for a branch from Piccadilly Circus to run under Leicester Square, Strand, and Fleet Street and into the City of London. The branch would have passed and interchanged with the already approved Strand station,[10] allowing travel on the GNP&BR from Strand in three directions. The deliberations of a Royal Commission on traffic in London prevented parliamentary consideration of the proposal, which was withdrawn.[11]

In 1905, with the Royal Commission's report about to be published, the GNP&BR returned to Parliament with two bills for consideration. The first bill revived the 1903 proposal for a branch from Piccadilly Circus to the City of London, passing and interchanging with Strand station. The second proposed an extension and relocation of Strand station to the junction of Strand and Surrey Street. From there the line was to continue as a single tunnel under the River Thames to Waterloo. The first bill was again delayed and withdrawn. Of the second, only the relocation of Strand station was permitted.

 

The linking of the GN&SR and B&PCR routes meant that the section of the GN&SR south of Holborn became a branch from the main route. The UERL began constructing the main route in July 1902. Progress was rapid, so that it was largely complete by the Autumn of 1906.[13] Construction of the Holborn to Strand section was delayed while the London County Council constructed Kingsway and the tramway subway running beneath it and while the UERL decided how the junction between the main route and the branch would be arranged at Holborn.[14][note 1]

Strand station was built on the site of the Royal Strand Theatre, which had closed on 13 May 1905 and been demolished. Construction of the station began on 21 October 1905,[16] to a design by the UERL's architect Leslie Green in the UERL house style of a two-storey steel-framed building faced with red glazed terracotta blocks, with wide semi-circular windows on the upper floor.[17] The station building is L-shaped, with two façades separated by the building on the corner of Strand and Surrey Street. The Strand façade is narrow with a single semi-circular window above the entrance. The façade in Surrey Street is wider with a separate entrance and exit and a shop unit. In anticipation of a revival of the extension to Waterloo and the City route, the station was built with three circular lift shafts able to accommodate six trapezium-shaped lifts. Only one of the shafts was fitted out, with two lifts.[18] The other two shafts rose from the lower concourse to the basement of the station, but could have been extended upwards into the space of the shop unit when required. A fourth smaller-diameter shaft accommodated an emergency spiral stair.[19]

The platforms are 92 feet 6 inches (28.19 m) below street level and are 250 feet (76 m) long;[16] shorter than the GNP&BR's standard length of 350 feet (110 m).[20] As with other UERL stations, the platform walls were tiled with distinctive patterns, in this case cream and dark green. Only parts of the platform walls were decorated because it was planned to operate the branch with short trains.[16] Due to the reduced lift provision, a second route between the platforms and lifts was never brought into use and was left in an unfinished condition without tiling.

 

The GNP&BR's main route opened on 15 December 1906, but the Strand branch was not opened until 30 November 1907.[22] Initially, shuttle trains operated to Holborn from the eastern platform into the through platform at Holborn. At peak times, an additional train operated alternately in the branch's western tunnel into the bay platform at Holborn. During the first year of operation, a train for theatregoers operated late on Monday to Saturday evenings from Strand through Holborn and northbound to Finsbury Park; this was discontinued in October 1908.[16]

In March 1908, the off-peak shuttle service began to use the western platform at Strand and the through platform at Holborn, crossing between the two branch tunnels south of Holborn. Low usage led to the withdrawal of the second peak-hour shuttle and the eastern tunnel was taken out of use in 1914.[23][24] On 9 May 1915, three of the Underground stations in the area were renamed and Strand station became Aldwych.[22][note 2] Sunday services ended in April 1917 and, in August of the same year, the eastern tunnel and platform at Aldwych and the bay platform at Holborn were formally closed.[25] A German bombing campaign in September 1917 led the disused platform being used as storage for 300 pictures from the National Gallery until December 1918.

 

In October 1922, the ticket office was replaced by a facility in the lifts.[25] Passenger numbers remained low: when the station was one of a number on the network considered for closure in 1929, its annual usage was 1,069,650 and takings were £4,500.[27][note 3] The branch was again considered for closure in 1933, but remained open.[25]

Wartime efficiency measures led to the branch being closed temporarily on 22 September 1940, shortly after the start of The Blitz, and it was partly fitted out by the City of Westminster as an air-raid shelter. The tunnels between Aldwych and Holborn were used to store items from the British Museum, including the Elgin Marbles. The branch reopened on 1 July 1946, but patronage did not increase.[28] In 1958, the station was one of three that London Transport announced would be closed. Again it survived, but the service was reduced in June 1958 to run only during Monday to Friday peak hours and Saturday morning and early afternoons.[29][note 4] The Saturday service was withdrawn in June 1962.[29]

  

Shelterers inside Aldwych station during the Blitz, 1940.

 

After operating only during peak hours for more than 30 years, the closure announcement came on 4 January 1993. The original 1907 lifts required replacement at a cost of £3 million. This was not justifiable as only 450 passengers used the station each day and it was losing London Regional Transport £150,000 per year. The Secretary of State for Transport granted permission on 1 September 1994 to close the station and the branch closed on 30 September.

 

Although the Piccadilly Circus to City of London branch proposal of 1905 was never revisited after its withdrawal, the early plan to extend the branch south to Waterloo was revived a number of times during the station's life. The extension was considered in 1919 and 1948, but no progress towards constructing the link was made.[28]

In the years after the Second World War, a series of preliminary plans for relieving congestion on the London Underground had considered various east-west routes through the Aldwych area, although other priorities meant that these were never proceeded with. In March 1965, a British Rail and London Transport joint planning committee published "A Railway Plan for London" which proposed a new tube railway, the Fleet line (later renamed the Jubilee line), to join the Bakerloo line at Baker Street then run via Bond Street, Green Park, Charing Cross, Aldwych and into the City of London via Ludgate Circus, Cannon Street and Fenchurch Street before heading into south-east London. An interchange was proposed at Aldwych and a second recommendation of the report was the revival of the link from Aldwych to Waterloo.[31][32] London Transport had already sought parliamentary approval to construct tunnels from Aldwych to Waterloo in November 1964,[33] and in August 1965, parliamentary powers were granted. Detailed planning took place, although public spending cuts led to postponement of the scheme in 1967 before tenders were invited.[29]

Planning of the Fleet line continued and parliamentary approval was given in July 1969 for the first phase of the line, from Baker Street to Charing Cross.[34] Tunnelling began on the £35 million route in February 1972 and the Jubilee line opened north from Charing Cross in May 1979.[35] The tunnels of the approved section continued east of Charing Cross under Strand almost as far as Aldwych station, but no work at Aldwych was undertaken and they were used only as sidings.[36] Funding for the second phase of the work was delayed throughout the 1970s whilst the route beyond Charing Cross was reviewed to consider options for serving anticipated development in the London Docklands area. By 1979, the cost was estimated as £325 million, a six-fold increase from the £51 million estimated in 1970.[37] A further review of alternatives for the Jubilee line was carried out in 1980, which led to the a change of priorities and the postponement of any further effort on the line.[38] When the extension was eventually constructed in the late 1990s it took a different route, south of the River Thames via Westminster, Waterloo and London Bridge to provide a rapid link to Canary Wharf, leaving the tunnels between Green Park and Aldwych redundant.[39]

In July 2005, Ove Arup & Partners produced a report, DLR Horizon 2020 Study, for the Docklands Light Railway (DLR) examining "pragmatic development schemes" to expand and improve the DLR network between 2012 and 2020. One of the proposals was an extension of the DLR from Bank to Charing Cross via City Thameslink and Aldwych. The disused Jubilee line tunnels would be enlarged to accommodate the larger DLR trains and Aldwych station would form the basis for a new station on the line, although requiring considerable reconstruction to accommodate escalators. The estimated cost in 2005 was £232 million for the infrastructure works and the scheme was described as "strongly beneficial" as it was expected to attract passengers from the London Underground's existing east-west routes and from local buses and reduce overcrowding at Bank station. The business case assessment was that the proposal offered high value, although similar values were calculated for other extension proposals from Bank. Further detailed studies were proposed.

 

Because it was a self-contained section of the London Underground which was closed at weekends and for extended periods during weekdays, Aldwych station and the branch line from Holborn were popular locations for filming scenes set on the Tube even before their closure. Since the branch's closure in 1994, its use in film productions has continued, with the station appearing as itself and, with appropriate signage, as other stations on the network.[29] The track and infrastructure are maintained in operational condition, and a train of ex-Northern line 1972 tube stock is permanently stabled on the branch. This train can be driven up and down the branch for filming. The physical connection with the Piccadilly line northbound tracks remains, but requires manual operation.[41]

Films and television productions that have been shot at Aldwych include:

The Gentle Gunman (1952)[29]

Battle of Britain (1969)[42]

Death Line (1972)[29]

Superman IV: The Quest for Peace (1986)[29]

The Krays (1990)[43]

Patriot Games (1994)[43]

Creep (2004)[42]

V for Vendetta (2006)[42]

The Good Shepherd (2006)[42]

Atonement (2007)[42]

28 Weeks Later (2007)[42]

The Edge of Love (2008)[42]

Mr Selfridge (2013) [44]

The pre-war operation of the station features in a pivotal scene in Geoffrey Household's novel Rogue Male, when the pursuit of the protagonist by an enemy agent sees them repeatedly using the shuttle service on the branch line. A chase through Aldwych station ends with the agent's death by electrocution on the track.[45] A much modified and expanded version of the station appears as a level in the video game Tomb Raider III.[46] The music video for The Prodigy's song "Firestarter" was filmed in the disused eastern tunnel and one of the unused lift shafts.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aldwych_tube_station

Two of the guides stand at the end of platform 1 nearest Holborn, as we make our way over to platform 2.

 

Aldwych tube station is a closed station on the London Underground, located in the City of Westminster in central London. It was opened in 1907 with the name Strand, after the street on which it is located, and was the terminus and only station on the short Piccadilly line branch from Holborn that was a relic of the merger of two railway schemes. The station building is close to the junction of Strand and Surrey Street, near Aldwych. During its lifetime, the branch was the subject of a number of unrealised extension proposals that would have seen the tunnels through the station extended southwards, usually to Waterloo.

Served by a shuttle train for most of their life and suffering from low passenger numbers, the station and branch were considered for closure several times. A weekday peak hours-only service survived until closure in 1994, when the cost of replacing the lifts was considered too high compared to the income generated.

Disused parts of the station and the running tunnels were used during both World Wars to shelter artworks from London's public galleries and museums from bombing.

The station has long been popular as a filming location and has appeared as itself and as other London Underground stations in a number of films. In recognition of its historical significance, the station is a Grade II listed building.

 

The Great Northern and Strand Railway (GN&SR) first proposed a station in the Strand area in a private bill presented to Parliament in November 1898.[2] The station was to be the southern terminus of an underground railway line planned to run from Wood Green station (now Alexandra Palace) via Finsbury Park and King's Cross and was originally to be located at the corner of Stanhope Street and Holles Street, north of the Strand. When the two streets were scheduled for demolition as part of the London County Council's plans for the construction of Kingsway and Aldwych, the GN&SR moved the location to the junction of the two new roads.[3] Royal Assent to the bill was given and the Great Northern and Strand Railway Act 1899 was enacted on 1 August.[4]

In September 1901, the GN&SR was taken over by the Brompton and Piccadilly Circus Railway (B&PCR), which planned to build an underground line from South Kensington to Piccadilly Circus via Knightsbridge. Both were under the control of Charles Yerkes through his Metropolitan District Electric Traction Company and, in June 1902, were transferred to Yerkes' new holding company, the Underground Electric Railways Company of London (UERL).[5] Neither of the railways had carried out any construction, but the UERL obtained permission for new tunnels between Piccadilly Circus and Holborn to connect the two routes. The companies were formally merged as the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway (GNP&BR) following parliamentary approval in November 1902.[6][7][8] Prior to confirmation of the merger, the GN&SR had sought permission to extend its line southwards from the future junction of Kingsway and Aldwych, under Norfolk Street to a new interchange under the Metropolitan District Railway's station at Temple. The extension was rejected following objections from the Duke of Norfolk under whose land the last part of the proposed tunnels would have run.[9]

In 1903, the GNP&BR sought permission for a branch from Piccadilly Circus to run under Leicester Square, Strand, and Fleet Street and into the City of London. The branch would have passed and interchanged with the already approved Strand station,[10] allowing travel on the GNP&BR from Strand in three directions. The deliberations of a Royal Commission on traffic in London prevented parliamentary consideration of the proposal, which was withdrawn.[11]

In 1905, with the Royal Commission's report about to be published, the GNP&BR returned to Parliament with two bills for consideration. The first bill revived the 1903 proposal for a branch from Piccadilly Circus to the City of London, passing and interchanging with Strand station. The second proposed an extension and relocation of Strand station to the junction of Strand and Surrey Street. From there the line was to continue as a single tunnel under the River Thames to Waterloo. The first bill was again delayed and withdrawn. Of the second, only the relocation of Strand station was permitted.

 

The linking of the GN&SR and B&PCR routes meant that the section of the GN&SR south of Holborn became a branch from the main route. The UERL began constructing the main route in July 1902. Progress was rapid, so that it was largely complete by the Autumn of 1906.[13] Construction of the Holborn to Strand section was delayed while the London County Council constructed Kingsway and the tramway subway running beneath it and while the UERL decided how the junction between the main route and the branch would be arranged at Holborn.[14][note 1]

Strand station was built on the site of the Royal Strand Theatre, which had closed on 13 May 1905 and been demolished. Construction of the station began on 21 October 1905,[16] to a design by the UERL's architect Leslie Green in the UERL house style of a two-storey steel-framed building faced with red glazed terracotta blocks, with wide semi-circular windows on the upper floor.[17] The station building is L-shaped, with two façades separated by the building on the corner of Strand and Surrey Street. The Strand façade is narrow with a single semi-circular window above the entrance. The façade in Surrey Street is wider with a separate entrance and exit and a shop unit. In anticipation of a revival of the extension to Waterloo and the City route, the station was built with three circular lift shafts able to accommodate six trapezium-shaped lifts. Only one of the shafts was fitted out, with two lifts.[18] The other two shafts rose from the lower concourse to the basement of the station, but could have been extended upwards into the space of the shop unit when required. A fourth smaller-diameter shaft accommodated an emergency spiral stair.[19]

The platforms are 92 feet 6 inches (28.19 m) below street level and are 250 feet (76 m) long;[16] shorter than the GNP&BR's standard length of 350 feet (110 m).[20] As with other UERL stations, the platform walls were tiled with distinctive patterns, in this case cream and dark green. Only parts of the platform walls were decorated because it was planned to operate the branch with short trains.[16] Due to the reduced lift provision, a second route between the platforms and lifts was never brought into use and was left in an unfinished condition without tiling.

 

The GNP&BR's main route opened on 15 December 1906, but the Strand branch was not opened until 30 November 1907.[22] Initially, shuttle trains operated to Holborn from the eastern platform into the through platform at Holborn. At peak times, an additional train operated alternately in the branch's western tunnel into the bay platform at Holborn. During the first year of operation, a train for theatregoers operated late on Monday to Saturday evenings from Strand through Holborn and northbound to Finsbury Park; this was discontinued in October 1908.[16]

In March 1908, the off-peak shuttle service began to use the western platform at Strand and the through platform at Holborn, crossing between the two branch tunnels south of Holborn. Low usage led to the withdrawal of the second peak-hour shuttle and the eastern tunnel was taken out of use in 1914.[23][24] On 9 May 1915, three of the Underground stations in the area were renamed and Strand station became Aldwych.[22][note 2] Sunday services ended in April 1917 and, in August of the same year, the eastern tunnel and platform at Aldwych and the bay platform at Holborn were formally closed.[25] A German bombing campaign in September 1917 led the disused platform being used as storage for 300 pictures from the National Gallery until December 1918.

 

In October 1922, the ticket office was replaced by a facility in the lifts.[25] Passenger numbers remained low: when the station was one of a number on the network considered for closure in 1929, its annual usage was 1,069,650 and takings were £4,500.[27][note 3] The branch was again considered for closure in 1933, but remained open.[25]

Wartime efficiency measures led to the branch being closed temporarily on 22 September 1940, shortly after the start of The Blitz, and it was partly fitted out by the City of Westminster as an air-raid shelter. The tunnels between Aldwych and Holborn were used to store items from the British Museum, including the Elgin Marbles. The branch reopened on 1 July 1946, but patronage did not increase.[28] In 1958, the station was one of three that London Transport announced would be closed. Again it survived, but the service was reduced in June 1958 to run only during Monday to Friday peak hours and Saturday morning and early afternoons.[29][note 4] The Saturday service was withdrawn in June 1962.[29]

  

Shelterers inside Aldwych station during the Blitz, 1940.

 

After operating only during peak hours for more than 30 years, the closure announcement came on 4 January 1993. The original 1907 lifts required replacement at a cost of £3 million. This was not justifiable as only 450 passengers used the station each day and it was losing London Regional Transport £150,000 per year. The Secretary of State for Transport granted permission on 1 September 1994 to close the station and the branch closed on 30 September.

 

Although the Piccadilly Circus to City of London branch proposal of 1905 was never revisited after its withdrawal, the early plan to extend the branch south to Waterloo was revived a number of times during the station's life. The extension was considered in 1919 and 1948, but no progress towards constructing the link was made.[28]

In the years after the Second World War, a series of preliminary plans for relieving congestion on the London Underground had considered various east-west routes through the Aldwych area, although other priorities meant that these were never proceeded with. In March 1965, a British Rail and London Transport joint planning committee published "A Railway Plan for London" which proposed a new tube railway, the Fleet line (later renamed the Jubilee line), to join the Bakerloo line at Baker Street then run via Bond Street, Green Park, Charing Cross, Aldwych and into the City of London via Ludgate Circus, Cannon Street and Fenchurch Street before heading into south-east London. An interchange was proposed at Aldwych and a second recommendation of the report was the revival of the link from Aldwych to Waterloo.[31][32] London Transport had already sought parliamentary approval to construct tunnels from Aldwych to Waterloo in November 1964,[33] and in August 1965, parliamentary powers were granted. Detailed planning took place, although public spending cuts led to postponement of the scheme in 1967 before tenders were invited.[29]

Planning of the Fleet line continued and parliamentary approval was given in July 1969 for the first phase of the line, from Baker Street to Charing Cross.[34] Tunnelling began on the £35 million route in February 1972 and the Jubilee line opened north from Charing Cross in May 1979.[35] The tunnels of the approved section continued east of Charing Cross under Strand almost as far as Aldwych station, but no work at Aldwych was undertaken and they were used only as sidings.[36] Funding for the second phase of the work was delayed throughout the 1970s whilst the route beyond Charing Cross was reviewed to consider options for serving anticipated development in the London Docklands area. By 1979, the cost was estimated as £325 million, a six-fold increase from the £51 million estimated in 1970.[37] A further review of alternatives for the Jubilee line was carried out in 1980, which led to the a change of priorities and the postponement of any further effort on the line.[38] When the extension was eventually constructed in the late 1990s it took a different route, south of the River Thames via Westminster, Waterloo and London Bridge to provide a rapid link to Canary Wharf, leaving the tunnels between Green Park and Aldwych redundant.[39]

In July 2005, Ove Arup & Partners produced a report, DLR Horizon 2020 Study, for the Docklands Light Railway (DLR) examining "pragmatic development schemes" to expand and improve the DLR network between 2012 and 2020. One of the proposals was an extension of the DLR from Bank to Charing Cross via City Thameslink and Aldwych. The disused Jubilee line tunnels would be enlarged to accommodate the larger DLR trains and Aldwych station would form the basis for a new station on the line, although requiring considerable reconstruction to accommodate escalators. The estimated cost in 2005 was £232 million for the infrastructure works and the scheme was described as "strongly beneficial" as it was expected to attract passengers from the London Underground's existing east-west routes and from local buses and reduce overcrowding at Bank station. The business case assessment was that the proposal offered high value, although similar values were calculated for other extension proposals from Bank. Further detailed studies were proposed.

 

Because it was a self-contained section of the London Underground which was closed at weekends and for extended periods during weekdays, Aldwych station and the branch line from Holborn were popular locations for filming scenes set on the Tube even before their closure. Since the branch's closure in 1994, its use in film productions has continued, with the station appearing as itself and, with appropriate signage, as other stations on the network.[29] The track and infrastructure are maintained in operational condition, and a train of ex-Northern line 1972 tube stock is permanently stabled on the branch. This train can be driven up and down the branch for filming. The physical connection with the Piccadilly line northbound tracks remains, but requires manual operation.[41]

Films and television productions that have been shot at Aldwych include:

The Gentle Gunman (1952)[29]

Battle of Britain (1969)[42]

Death Line (1972)[29]

Superman IV: The Quest for Peace (1986)[29]

The Krays (1990)[43]

Patriot Games (1994)[43]

Creep (2004)[42]

V for Vendetta (2006)[42]

The Good Shepherd (2006)[42]

Atonement (2007)[42]

28 Weeks Later (2007)[42]

The Edge of Love (2008)[42]

Mr Selfridge (2013) [44]

The pre-war operation of the station features in a pivotal scene in Geoffrey Household's novel Rogue Male, when the pursuit of the protagonist by an enemy agent sees them repeatedly using the shuttle service on the branch line. A chase through Aldwych station ends with the agent's death by electrocution on the track.[45] A much modified and expanded version of the station appears as a level in the video game Tomb Raider III.[46] The music video for The Prodigy's song "Firestarter" was filmed in the disused eastern tunnel and one of the unused lift shafts.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aldwych_tube_station

Greenland is culturally connected to and economically dependent on living marine resources. They have ensured the survival of the Inuit in Greenland for more than 4000 years, and today they make up about 96 percent of Greenland’s exports. Photo taken in 2017.

 

The Nunataryuk research project aims to assess permafrost thaw along Arctic coastlines, study how it contributes to climate change, understand its impacts on indigenous communities and other people, and develop mitigation and adaptation strategies. The project brings together world-leading specialists in natural science and socio-economics and connects them with stakeholders from around the Arctic coast. Nunataryuk is an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project coordinated by the Alfred Wegener Institute in Potsdam, Germany.

 

This photo has been graciously provided to be used in the GRID-Arendal resources library by: Leneisja Jungsberg / Nunataryuk

Aldwych tube station is a closed station on the London Underground, located in the City of Westminster in central London. It was opened in 1907 with the name Strand, after the street on which it is located, and was the terminus and only station on the short Piccadilly line branch from Holborn that was a relic of the merger of two railway schemes. The station building is close to the junction of Strand and Surrey Street, near Aldwych. During its lifetime, the branch was the subject of a number of unrealised extension proposals that would have seen the tunnels through the station extended southwards, usually to Waterloo.

Served by a shuttle train for most of their life and suffering from low passenger numbers, the station and branch were considered for closure several times. A weekday peak hours-only service survived until closure in 1994, when the cost of replacing the lifts was considered too high compared to the income generated.

Disused parts of the station and the running tunnels were used during both World Wars to shelter artworks from London's public galleries and museums from bombing.

The station has long been popular as a filming location and has appeared as itself and as other London Underground stations in a number of films. In recognition of its historical significance, the station is a Grade II listed building.

 

The Great Northern and Strand Railway (GN&SR) first proposed a station in the Strand area in a private bill presented to Parliament in November 1898.[2] The station was to be the southern terminus of an underground railway line planned to run from Wood Green station (now Alexandra Palace) via Finsbury Park and King's Cross and was originally to be located at the corner of Stanhope Street and Holles Street, north of the Strand. When the two streets were scheduled for demolition as part of the London County Council's plans for the construction of Kingsway and Aldwych, the GN&SR moved the location to the junction of the two new roads.[3] Royal Assent to the bill was given and the Great Northern and Strand Railway Act 1899 was enacted on 1 August.[4]

In September 1901, the GN&SR was taken over by the Brompton and Piccadilly Circus Railway (B&PCR), which planned to build an underground line from South Kensington to Piccadilly Circus via Knightsbridge. Both were under the control of Charles Yerkes through his Metropolitan District Electric Traction Company and, in June 1902, were transferred to Yerkes' new holding company, the Underground Electric Railways Company of London (UERL).[5] Neither of the railways had carried out any construction, but the UERL obtained permission for new tunnels between Piccadilly Circus and Holborn to connect the two routes. The companies were formally merged as the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway (GNP&BR) following parliamentary approval in November 1902.[6][7][8] Prior to confirmation of the merger, the GN&SR had sought permission to extend its line southwards from the future junction of Kingsway and Aldwych, under Norfolk Street to a new interchange under the Metropolitan District Railway's station at Temple. The extension was rejected following objections from the Duke of Norfolk under whose land the last part of the proposed tunnels would have run.[9]

In 1903, the GNP&BR sought permission for a branch from Piccadilly Circus to run under Leicester Square, Strand, and Fleet Street and into the City of London. The branch would have passed and interchanged with the already approved Strand station,[10] allowing travel on the GNP&BR from Strand in three directions. The deliberations of a Royal Commission on traffic in London prevented parliamentary consideration of the proposal, which was withdrawn.[11]

In 1905, with the Royal Commission's report about to be published, the GNP&BR returned to Parliament with two bills for consideration. The first bill revived the 1903 proposal for a branch from Piccadilly Circus to the City of London, passing and interchanging with Strand station. The second proposed an extension and relocation of Strand station to the junction of Strand and Surrey Street. From there the line was to continue as a single tunnel under the River Thames to Waterloo. The first bill was again delayed and withdrawn. Of the second, only the relocation of Strand station was permitted.

 

The linking of the GN&SR and B&PCR routes meant that the section of the GN&SR south of Holborn became a branch from the main route. The UERL began constructing the main route in July 1902. Progress was rapid, so that it was largely complete by the Autumn of 1906.[13] Construction of the Holborn to Strand section was delayed while the London County Council constructed Kingsway and the tramway subway running beneath it and while the UERL decided how the junction between the main route and the branch would be arranged at Holborn.[14][note 1]

Strand station was built on the site of the Royal Strand Theatre, which had closed on 13 May 1905 and been demolished. Construction of the station began on 21 October 1905,[16] to a design by the UERL's architect Leslie Green in the UERL house style of a two-storey steel-framed building faced with red glazed terracotta blocks, with wide semi-circular windows on the upper floor.[17] The station building is L-shaped, with two façades separated by the building on the corner of Strand and Surrey Street. The Strand façade is narrow with a single semi-circular window above the entrance. The façade in Surrey Street is wider with a separate entrance and exit and a shop unit. In anticipation of a revival of the extension to Waterloo and the City route, the station was built with three circular lift shafts able to accommodate six trapezium-shaped lifts. Only one of the shafts was fitted out, with two lifts.[18] The other two shafts rose from the lower concourse to the basement of the station, but could have been extended upwards into the space of the shop unit when required. A fourth smaller-diameter shaft accommodated an emergency spiral stair.[19]

The platforms are 92 feet 6 inches (28.19 m) below street level and are 250 feet (76 m) long;[16] shorter than the GNP&BR's standard length of 350 feet (110 m).[20] As with other UERL stations, the platform walls were tiled with distinctive patterns, in this case cream and dark green. Only parts of the platform walls were decorated because it was planned to operate the branch with short trains.[16] Due to the reduced lift provision, a second route between the platforms and lifts was never brought into use and was left in an unfinished condition without tiling.

 

The GNP&BR's main route opened on 15 December 1906, but the Strand branch was not opened until 30 November 1907.[22] Initially, shuttle trains operated to Holborn from the eastern platform into the through platform at Holborn. At peak times, an additional train operated alternately in the branch's western tunnel into the bay platform at Holborn. During the first year of operation, a train for theatregoers operated late on Monday to Saturday evenings from Strand through Holborn and northbound to Finsbury Park; this was discontinued in October 1908.[16]

In March 1908, the off-peak shuttle service began to use the western platform at Strand and the through platform at Holborn, crossing between the two branch tunnels south of Holborn. Low usage led to the withdrawal of the second peak-hour shuttle and the eastern tunnel was taken out of use in 1914.[23][24] On 9 May 1915, three of the Underground stations in the area were renamed and Strand station became Aldwych.[22][note 2] Sunday services ended in April 1917 and, in August of the same year, the eastern tunnel and platform at Aldwych and the bay platform at Holborn were formally closed.[25] A German bombing campaign in September 1917 led the disused platform being used as storage for 300 pictures from the National Gallery until December 1918.

 

In October 1922, the ticket office was replaced by a facility in the lifts.[25] Passenger numbers remained low: when the station was one of a number on the network considered for closure in 1929, its annual usage was 1,069,650 and takings were £4,500.[27][note 3] The branch was again considered for closure in 1933, but remained open.[25]

Wartime efficiency measures led to the branch being closed temporarily on 22 September 1940, shortly after the start of The Blitz, and it was partly fitted out by the City of Westminster as an air-raid shelter. The tunnels between Aldwych and Holborn were used to store items from the British Museum, including the Elgin Marbles. The branch reopened on 1 July 1946, but patronage did not increase.[28] In 1958, the station was one of three that London Transport announced would be closed. Again it survived, but the service was reduced in June 1958 to run only during Monday to Friday peak hours and Saturday morning and early afternoons.[29][note 4] The Saturday service was withdrawn in June 1962.[29]

  

Shelterers inside Aldwych station during the Blitz, 1940.

 

After operating only during peak hours for more than 30 years, the closure announcement came on 4 January 1993. The original 1907 lifts required replacement at a cost of £3 million. This was not justifiable as only 450 passengers used the station each day and it was losing London Regional Transport £150,000 per year. The Secretary of State for Transport granted permission on 1 September 1994 to close the station and the branch closed on 30 September.

 

Although the Piccadilly Circus to City of London branch proposal of 1905 was never revisited after its withdrawal, the early plan to extend the branch south to Waterloo was revived a number of times during the station's life. The extension was considered in 1919 and 1948, but no progress towards constructing the link was made.[28]

In the years after the Second World War, a series of preliminary plans for relieving congestion on the London Underground had considered various east-west routes through the Aldwych area, although other priorities meant that these were never proceeded with. In March 1965, a British Rail and London Transport joint planning committee published "A Railway Plan for London" which proposed a new tube railway, the Fleet line (later renamed the Jubilee line), to join the Bakerloo line at Baker Street then run via Bond Street, Green Park, Charing Cross, Aldwych and into the City of London via Ludgate Circus, Cannon Street and Fenchurch Street before heading into south-east London. An interchange was proposed at Aldwych and a second recommendation of the report was the revival of the link from Aldwych to Waterloo.[31][32] London Transport had already sought parliamentary approval to construct tunnels from Aldwych to Waterloo in November 1964,[33] and in August 1965, parliamentary powers were granted. Detailed planning took place, although public spending cuts led to postponement of the scheme in 1967 before tenders were invited.[29]

Planning of the Fleet line continued and parliamentary approval was given in July 1969 for the first phase of the line, from Baker Street to Charing Cross.[34] Tunnelling began on the £35 million route in February 1972 and the Jubilee line opened north from Charing Cross in May 1979.[35] The tunnels of the approved section continued east of Charing Cross under Strand almost as far as Aldwych station, but no work at Aldwych was undertaken and they were used only as sidings.[36] Funding for the second phase of the work was delayed throughout the 1970s whilst the route beyond Charing Cross was reviewed to consider options for serving anticipated development in the London Docklands area. By 1979, the cost was estimated as £325 million, a six-fold increase from the £51 million estimated in 1970.[37] A further review of alternatives for the Jubilee line was carried out in 1980, which led to the a change of priorities and the postponement of any further effort on the line.[38] When the extension was eventually constructed in the late 1990s it took a different route, south of the River Thames via Westminster, Waterloo and London Bridge to provide a rapid link to Canary Wharf, leaving the tunnels between Green Park and Aldwych redundant.[39]

In July 2005, Ove Arup & Partners produced a report, DLR Horizon 2020 Study, for the Docklands Light Railway (DLR) examining "pragmatic development schemes" to expand and improve the DLR network between 2012 and 2020. One of the proposals was an extension of the DLR from Bank to Charing Cross via City Thameslink and Aldwych. The disused Jubilee line tunnels would be enlarged to accommodate the larger DLR trains and Aldwych station would form the basis for a new station on the line, although requiring considerable reconstruction to accommodate escalators. The estimated cost in 2005 was £232 million for the infrastructure works and the scheme was described as "strongly beneficial" as it was expected to attract passengers from the London Underground's existing east-west routes and from local buses and reduce overcrowding at Bank station. The business case assessment was that the proposal offered high value, although similar values were calculated for other extension proposals from Bank. Further detailed studies were proposed.

 

Because it was a self-contained section of the London Underground which was closed at weekends and for extended periods during weekdays, Aldwych station and the branch line from Holborn were popular locations for filming scenes set on the Tube even before their closure. Since the branch's closure in 1994, its use in film productions has continued, with the station appearing as itself and, with appropriate signage, as other stations on the network.[29] The track and infrastructure are maintained in operational condition, and a train of ex-Northern line 1972 tube stock is permanently stabled on the branch. This train can be driven up and down the branch for filming. The physical connection with the Piccadilly line northbound tracks remains, but requires manual operation.[41]

Films and television productions that have been shot at Aldwych include:

The Gentle Gunman (1952)[29]

Battle of Britain (1969)[42]

Death Line (1972)[29]

Superman IV: The Quest for Peace (1986)[29]

The Krays (1990)[43]

Patriot Games (1994)[43]

Creep (2004)[42]

V for Vendetta (2006)[42]

The Good Shepherd (2006)[42]

Atonement (2007)[42]

28 Weeks Later (2007)[42]

The Edge of Love (2008)[42]

Mr Selfridge (2013) [44]

The pre-war operation of the station features in a pivotal scene in Geoffrey Household's novel Rogue Male, when the pursuit of the protagonist by an enemy agent sees them repeatedly using the shuttle service on the branch line. A chase through Aldwych station ends with the agent's death by electrocution on the track.[45] A much modified and expanded version of the station appears as a level in the video game Tomb Raider III.[46] The music video for The Prodigy's song "Firestarter" was filmed in the disused eastern tunnel and one of the unused lift shafts.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aldwych_tube_station

Most Arctic communities are located in coastal areas, where climate change is triggering instability and increasing hazard exposure.

 

The Nunataryuk research project aims to assess permafrost thaw along Arctic coastlines, study how it contributes to climate change, understand its impacts on indigenous communities and other people, and develop mitigation and adaptation strategies. The project brings together world-leading specialists in natural science and socio-economics and connects them with stakeholders from around the Arctic coast. Nunataryuk is an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project coordinated by the Alfred Wegener Institute in Potsdam, Germany.

 

This photo has been graciously provided to be used in the GRID-Arendal resources library by: Leneisja Jungsberg / Nunataryuk

The Nunataryuk research project aims to assess permafrost thaw along Arctic coastlines, study how it contributes to climate change, understand its impacts on indigenous communities and other people, and develop mitigation and adaptation strategies. The project brings together world-leading specialists in natural science and socio-economics and connects them with stakeholders from around the Arctic coast. Nunataryuk is an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project coordinated by the Alfred Wegener Institute in Potsdam, Germany.

 

This photo has been graciously provided to be used in the GRID-Arendal resources library by: Leneisja Jungsberg / Nunataryuk

Most infrastructure in the Arctic is built in the coastal zone, an extremely fragile environment. Climate change is triggering coastal instability and increasing hazard exposure. Photo taken in spring 2018.

 

The Nunataryuk research project aims to assess permafrost thaw along Arctic coastlines, study how it contributes to climate change, understand its impacts on indigenous communities and other people, and develop mitigation and adaptation strategies. The project brings together world-leading specialists in natural science and socio-economics and connects them with stakeholders from around the Arctic coast. Nunataryuk is an EU-funded Horizon 2020 project coordinated by the Alfred Wegener Institute in Potsdam, Germany.

 

This photo has been graciously provided to be used in the GRID-Arendal resources library by: Leneisja Jungsberg / Nunataryuk

The steps from platform 1 back up the the lifts and stairs.

 

Aldwych tube station is a closed station on the London Underground, located in the City of Westminster in central London. It was opened in 1907 with the name Strand, after the street on which it is located, and was the terminus and only station on the short Piccadilly line branch from Holborn that was a relic of the merger of two railway schemes. The station building is close to the junction of Strand and Surrey Street, near Aldwych. During its lifetime, the branch was the subject of a number of unrealised extension proposals that would have seen the tunnels through the station extended southwards, usually to Waterloo.

Served by a shuttle train for most of their life and suffering from low passenger numbers, the station and branch were considered for closure several times. A weekday peak hours-only service survived until closure in 1994, when the cost of replacing the lifts was considered too high compared to the income generated.

Disused parts of the station and the running tunnels were used during both World Wars to shelter artworks from London's public galleries and museums from bombing.

The station has long been popular as a filming location and has appeared as itself and as other London Underground stations in a number of films. In recognition of its historical significance, the station is a Grade II listed building.

 

The Great Northern and Strand Railway (GN&SR) first proposed a station in the Strand area in a private bill presented to Parliament in November 1898.[2] The station was to be the southern terminus of an underground railway line planned to run from Wood Green station (now Alexandra Palace) via Finsbury Park and King's Cross and was originally to be located at the corner of Stanhope Street and Holles Street, north of the Strand. When the two streets were scheduled for demolition as part of the London County Council's plans for the construction of Kingsway and Aldwych, the GN&SR moved the location to the junction of the two new roads.[3] Royal Assent to the bill was given and the Great Northern and Strand Railway Act 1899 was enacted on 1 August.[4]

In September 1901, the GN&SR was taken over by the Brompton and Piccadilly Circus Railway (B&PCR), which planned to build an underground line from South Kensington to Piccadilly Circus via Knightsbridge. Both were under the control of Charles Yerkes through his Metropolitan District Electric Traction Company and, in June 1902, were transferred to Yerkes' new holding company, the Underground Electric Railways Company of London (UERL).[5] Neither of the railways had carried out any construction, but the UERL obtained permission for new tunnels between Piccadilly Circus and Holborn to connect the two routes. The companies were formally merged as the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway (GNP&BR) following parliamentary approval in November 1902.[6][7][8] Prior to confirmation of the merger, the GN&SR had sought permission to extend its line southwards from the future junction of Kingsway and Aldwych, under Norfolk Street to a new interchange under the Metropolitan District Railway's station at Temple. The extension was rejected following objections from the Duke of Norfolk under whose land the last part of the proposed tunnels would have run.[9]

In 1903, the GNP&BR sought permission for a branch from Piccadilly Circus to run under Leicester Square, Strand, and Fleet Street and into the City of London. The branch would have passed and interchanged with the already approved Strand station,[10] allowing travel on the GNP&BR from Strand in three directions. The deliberations of a Royal Commission on traffic in London prevented parliamentary consideration of the proposal, which was withdrawn.[11]

In 1905, with the Royal Commission's report about to be published, the GNP&BR returned to Parliament with two bills for consideration. The first bill revived the 1903 proposal for a branch from Piccadilly Circus to the City of London, passing and interchanging with Strand station. The second proposed an extension and relocation of Strand station to the junction of Strand and Surrey Street. From there the line was to continue as a single tunnel under the River Thames to Waterloo. The first bill was again delayed and withdrawn. Of the second, only the relocation of Strand station was permitted.

 

The linking of the GN&SR and B&PCR routes meant that the section of the GN&SR south of Holborn became a branch from the main route. The UERL began constructing the main route in July 1902. Progress was rapid, so that it was largely complete by the Autumn of 1906.[13] Construction of the Holborn to Strand section was delayed while the London County Council constructed Kingsway and the tramway subway running beneath it and while the UERL decided how the junction between the main route and the branch would be arranged at Holborn.[14][note 1]

Strand station was built on the site of the Royal Strand Theatre, which had closed on 13 May 1905 and been demolished. Construction of the station began on 21 October 1905,[16] to a design by the UERL's architect Leslie Green in the UERL house style of a two-storey steel-framed building faced with red glazed terracotta blocks, with wide semi-circular windows on the upper floor.[17] The station building is L-shaped, with two façades separated by the building on the corner of Strand and Surrey Street. The Strand façade is narrow with a single semi-circular window above the entrance. The façade in Surrey Street is wider with a separate entrance and exit and a shop unit. In anticipation of a revival of the extension to Waterloo and the City route, the station was built with three circular lift shafts able to accommodate six trapezium-shaped lifts. Only one of the shafts was fitted out, with two lifts.[18] The other two shafts rose from the lower concourse to the basement of the station, but could have been extended upwards into the space of the shop unit when required. A fourth smaller-diameter shaft accommodated an emergency spiral stair.[19]

The platforms are 92 feet 6 inches (28.19 m) below street level and are 250 feet (76 m) long;[16] shorter than the GNP&BR's standard length of 350 feet (110 m).[20] As with other UERL stations, the platform walls were tiled with distinctive patterns, in this case cream and dark green. Only parts of the platform walls were decorated because it was planned to operate the branch with short trains.[16] Due to the reduced lift provision, a second route between the platforms and lifts was never brought into use and was left in an unfinished condition without tiling.

 

The GNP&BR's main route opened on 15 December 1906, but the Strand branch was not opened until 30 November 1907.[22] Initially, shuttle trains operated to Holborn from the eastern platform into the through platform at Holborn. At peak times, an additional train operated alternately in the branch's western tunnel into the bay platform at Holborn. During the first year of operation, a train for theatregoers operated late on Monday to Saturday evenings from Strand through Holborn and northbound to Finsbury Park; this was discontinued in October 1908.[16]

In March 1908, the off-peak shuttle service began to use the western platform at Strand and the through platform at Holborn, crossing between the two branch tunnels south of Holborn. Low usage led to the withdrawal of the second peak-hour shuttle and the eastern tunnel was taken out of use in 1914.[23][24] On 9 May 1915, three of the Underground stations in the area were renamed and Strand station became Aldwych.[22][note 2] Sunday services ended in April 1917 and, in August of the same year, the eastern tunnel and platform at Aldwych and the bay platform at Holborn were formally closed.[25] A German bombing campaign in September 1917 led the disused platform being used as storage for 300 pictures from the National Gallery until December 1918.

 

In October 1922, the ticket office was replaced by a facility in the lifts.[25] Passenger numbers remained low: when the station was one of a number on the network considered for closure in 1929, its annual usage was 1,069,650 and takings were £4,500.[27][note 3] The branch was again considered for closure in 1933, but remained open.[25]

Wartime efficiency measures led to the branch being closed temporarily on 22 September 1940, shortly after the start of The Blitz, and it was partly fitted out by the City of Westminster as an air-raid shelter. The tunnels between Aldwych and Holborn were used to store items from the British Museum, including the Elgin Marbles. The branch reopened on 1 July 1946, but patronage did not increase.[28] In 1958, the station was one of three that London Transport announced would be closed. Again it survived, but the service was reduced in June 1958 to run only during Monday to Friday peak hours and Saturday morning and early afternoons.[29][note 4] The Saturday service was withdrawn in June 1962.[29]

  

Shelterers inside Aldwych station during the Blitz, 1940.

 

After operating only during peak hours for more than 30 years, the closure announcement came on 4 January 1993. The original 1907 lifts required replacement at a cost of £3 million. This was not justifiable as only 450 passengers used the station each day and it was losing London Regional Transport £150,000 per year. The Secretary of State for Transport granted permission on 1 September 1994 to close the station and the branch closed on 30 September.

 

Although the Piccadilly Circus to City of London branch proposal of 1905 was never revisited after its withdrawal, the early plan to extend the branch south to Waterloo was revived a number of times during the station's life. The extension was considered in 1919 and 1948, but no progress towards constructing the link was made.[28]

In the years after the Second World War, a series of preliminary plans for relieving congestion on the London Underground had considered various east-west routes through the Aldwych area, although other priorities meant that these were never proceeded with. In March 1965, a British Rail and London Transport joint planning committee published "A Railway Plan for London" which proposed a new tube railway, the Fleet line (later renamed the Jubilee line), to join the Bakerloo line at Baker Street then run via Bond Street, Green Park, Charing Cross, Aldwych and into the City of London via Ludgate Circus, Cannon Street and Fenchurch Street before heading into south-east London. An interchange was proposed at Aldwych and a second recommendation of the report was the revival of the link from Aldwych to Waterloo.[31][32] London Transport had already sought parliamentary approval to construct tunnels from Aldwych to Waterloo in November 1964,[33] and in August 1965, parliamentary powers were granted. Detailed planning took place, although public spending cuts led to postponement of the scheme in 1967 before tenders were invited.[29]

Planning of the Fleet line continued and parliamentary approval was given in July 1969 for the first phase of the line, from Baker Street to Charing Cross.[34] Tunnelling began on the £35 million route in February 1972 and the Jubilee line opened north from Charing Cross in May 1979.[35] The tunnels of the approved section continued east of Charing Cross under Strand almost as far as Aldwych station, but no work at Aldwych was undertaken and they were used only as sidings.[36] Funding for the second phase of the work was delayed throughout the 1970s whilst the route beyond Charing Cross was reviewed to consider options for serving anticipated development in the London Docklands area. By 1979, the cost was estimated as £325 million, a six-fold increase from the £51 million estimated in 1970.[37] A further review of alternatives for the Jubilee line was carried out in 1980, which led to the a change of priorities and the postponement of any further effort on the line.[38] When the extension was eventually constructed in the late 1990s it took a different route, south of the River Thames via Westminster, Waterloo and London Bridge to provide a rapid link to Canary Wharf, leaving the tunnels between Green Park and Aldwych redundant.[39]

In July 2005, Ove Arup & Partners produced a report, DLR Horizon 2020 Study, for the Docklands Light Railway (DLR) examining "pragmatic development schemes" to expand and improve the DLR network between 2012 and 2020. One of the proposals was an extension of the DLR from Bank to Charing Cross via City Thameslink and Aldwych. The disused Jubilee line tunnels would be enlarged to accommodate the larger DLR trains and Aldwych station would form the basis for a new station on the line, although requiring considerable reconstruction to accommodate escalators. The estimated cost in 2005 was £232 million for the infrastructure works and the scheme was described as "strongly beneficial" as it was expected to attract passengers from the London Underground's existing east-west routes and from local buses and reduce overcrowding at Bank station. The business case assessment was that the proposal offered high value, although similar values were calculated for other extension proposals from Bank. Further detailed studies were proposed.

 

Because it was a self-contained section of the London Underground which was closed at weekends and for extended periods during weekdays, Aldwych station and the branch line from Holborn were popular locations for filming scenes set on the Tube even before their closure. Since the branch's closure in 1994, its use in film productions has continued, with the station appearing as itself and, with appropriate signage, as other stations on the network.[29] The track and infrastructure are maintained in operational condition, and a train of ex-Northern line 1972 tube stock is permanently stabled on the branch. This train can be driven up and down the branch for filming. The physical connection with the Piccadilly line northbound tracks remains, but requires manual operation.[41]

Films and television productions that have been shot at Aldwych include:

The Gentle Gunman (1952)[29]

Battle of Britain (1969)[42]

Death Line (1972)[29]

Superman IV: The Quest for Peace (1986)[29]

The Krays (1990)[43]

Patriot Games (1994)[43]

Creep (2004)[42]

V for Vendetta (2006)[42]

The Good Shepherd (2006)[42]

Atonement (2007)[42]

28 Weeks Later (2007)[42]

The Edge of Love (2008)[42]

Mr Selfridge (2013) [44]

The pre-war operation of the station features in a pivotal scene in Geoffrey Household's novel Rogue Male, when the pursuit of the protagonist by an enemy agent sees them repeatedly using the shuttle service on the branch line. A chase through Aldwych station ends with the agent's death by electrocution on the track.[45] A much modified and expanded version of the station appears as a level in the video game Tomb Raider III.[46] The music video for The Prodigy's song "Firestarter" was filmed in the disused eastern tunnel and one of the unused lift shafts.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aldwych_tube_station

The bottom of the 160 step staircase; the lifts no longer work. The sign pointing to the Bakerloo Line is left over from the last film to be shot there.

 

Aldwych tube station is a closed station on the London Underground, located in the City of Westminster in central London. It was opened in 1907 with the name Strand, after the street on which it is located, and was the terminus and only station on the short Piccadilly line branch from Holborn that was a relic of the merger of two railway schemes. The station building is close to the junction of Strand and Surrey Street, near Aldwych. During its lifetime, the branch was the subject of a number of unrealised extension proposals that would have seen the tunnels through the station extended southwards, usually to Waterloo.

Served by a shuttle train for most of their life and suffering from low passenger numbers, the station and branch were considered for closure several times. A weekday peak hours-only service survived until closure in 1994, when the cost of replacing the lifts was considered too high compared to the income generated.

Disused parts of the station and the running tunnels were used during both World Wars to shelter artworks from London's public galleries and museums from bombing.

The station has long been popular as a filming location and has appeared as itself and as other London Underground stations in a number of films. In recognition of its historical significance, the station is a Grade II listed building.

 

The Great Northern and Strand Railway (GN&SR) first proposed a station in the Strand area in a private bill presented to Parliament in November 1898.[2] The station was to be the southern terminus of an underground railway line planned to run from Wood Green station (now Alexandra Palace) via Finsbury Park and King's Cross and was originally to be located at the corner of Stanhope Street and Holles Street, north of the Strand. When the two streets were scheduled for demolition as part of the London County Council's plans for the construction of Kingsway and Aldwych, the GN&SR moved the location to the junction of the two new roads.[3] Royal Assent to the bill was given and the Great Northern and Strand Railway Act 1899 was enacted on 1 August.[4]

In September 1901, the GN&SR was taken over by the Brompton and Piccadilly Circus Railway (B&PCR), which planned to build an underground line from South Kensington to Piccadilly Circus via Knightsbridge. Both were under the control of Charles Yerkes through his Metropolitan District Electric Traction Company and, in June 1902, were transferred to Yerkes' new holding company, the Underground Electric Railways Company of London (UERL).[5] Neither of the railways had carried out any construction, but the UERL obtained permission for new tunnels between Piccadilly Circus and Holborn to connect the two routes. The companies were formally merged as the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway (GNP&BR) following parliamentary approval in November 1902.[6][7][8] Prior to confirmation of the merger, the GN&SR had sought permission to extend its line southwards from the future junction of Kingsway and Aldwych, under Norfolk Street to a new interchange under the Metropolitan District Railway's station at Temple. The extension was rejected following objections from the Duke of Norfolk under whose land the last part of the proposed tunnels would have run.[9]

In 1903, the GNP&BR sought permission for a branch from Piccadilly Circus to run under Leicester Square, Strand, and Fleet Street and into the City of London. The branch would have passed and interchanged with the already approved Strand station,[10] allowing travel on the GNP&BR from Strand in three directions. The deliberations of a Royal Commission on traffic in London prevented parliamentary consideration of the proposal, which was withdrawn.[11]

In 1905, with the Royal Commission's report about to be published, the GNP&BR returned to Parliament with two bills for consideration. The first bill revived the 1903 proposal for a branch from Piccadilly Circus to the City of London, passing and interchanging with Strand station. The second proposed an extension and relocation of Strand station to the junction of Strand and Surrey Street. From there the line was to continue as a single tunnel under the River Thames to Waterloo. The first bill was again delayed and withdrawn. Of the second, only the relocation of Strand station was permitted.

 

The linking of the GN&SR and B&PCR routes meant that the section of the GN&SR south of Holborn became a branch from the main route. The UERL began constructing the main route in July 1902. Progress was rapid, so that it was largely complete by the Autumn of 1906.[13] Construction of the Holborn to Strand section was delayed while the London County Council constructed Kingsway and the tramway subway running beneath it and while the UERL decided how the junction between the main route and the branch would be arranged at Holborn.[14][note 1]

Strand station was built on the site of the Royal Strand Theatre, which had closed on 13 May 1905 and been demolished. Construction of the station began on 21 October 1905,[16] to a design by the UERL's architect Leslie Green in the UERL house style of a two-storey steel-framed building faced with red glazed terracotta blocks, with wide semi-circular windows on the upper floor.[17] The station building is L-shaped, with two façades separated by the building on the corner of Strand and Surrey Street. The Strand façade is narrow with a single semi-circular window above the entrance. The façade in Surrey Street is wider with a separate entrance and exit and a shop unit. In anticipation of a revival of the extension to Waterloo and the City route, the station was built with three circular lift shafts able to accommodate six trapezium-shaped lifts. Only one of the shafts was fitted out, with two lifts.[18] The other two shafts rose from the lower concourse to the basement of the station, but could have been extended upwards into the space of the shop unit when required. A fourth smaller-diameter shaft accommodated an emergency spiral stair.[19]

The platforms are 92 feet 6 inches (28.19 m) below street level and are 250 feet (76 m) long;[16] shorter than the GNP&BR's standard length of 350 feet (110 m).[20] As with other UERL stations, the platform walls were tiled with distinctive patterns, in this case cream and dark green. Only parts of the platform walls were decorated because it was planned to operate the branch with short trains.[16] Due to the reduced lift provision, a second route between the platforms and lifts was never brought into use and was left in an unfinished condition without tiling.

 

The GNP&BR's main route opened on 15 December 1906, but the Strand branch was not opened until 30 November 1907.[22] Initially, shuttle trains operated to Holborn from the eastern platform into the through platform at Holborn. At peak times, an additional train operated alternately in the branch's western tunnel into the bay platform at Holborn. During the first year of operation, a train for theatregoers operated late on Monday to Saturday evenings from Strand through Holborn and northbound to Finsbury Park; this was discontinued in October 1908.[16]

In March 1908, the off-peak shuttle service began to use the western platform at Strand and the through platform at Holborn, crossing between the two branch tunnels south of Holborn. Low usage led to the withdrawal of the second peak-hour shuttle and the eastern tunnel was taken out of use in 1914.[23][24] On 9 May 1915, three of the Underground stations in the area were renamed and Strand station became Aldwych.[22][note 2] Sunday services ended in April 1917 and, in August of the same year, the eastern tunnel and platform at Aldwych and the bay platform at Holborn were formally closed.[25] A German bombing campaign in September 1917 led the disused platform being used as storage for 300 pictures from the National Gallery until December 1918.

 

In October 1922, the ticket office was replaced by a facility in the lifts.[25] Passenger numbers remained low: when the station was one of a number on the network considered for closure in 1929, its annual usage was 1,069,650 and takings were £4,500.[27][note 3] The branch was again considered for closure in 1933, but remained open.[25]

Wartime efficiency measures led to the branch being closed temporarily on 22 September 1940, shortly after the start of The Blitz, and it was partly fitted out by the City of Westminster as an air-raid shelter. The tunnels between Aldwych and Holborn were used to store items from the British Museum, including the Elgin Marbles. The branch reopened on 1 July 1946, but patronage did not increase.[28] In 1958, the station was one of three that London Transport announced would be closed. Again it survived, but the service was reduced in June 1958 to run only during Monday to Friday peak hours and Saturday morning and early afternoons.[29][note 4] The Saturday service was withdrawn in June 1962.[29]

  

Shelterers inside Aldwych station during the Blitz, 1940.

 

After operating only during peak hours for more than 30 years, the closure announcement came on 4 January 1993. The original 1907 lifts required replacement at a cost of £3 million. This was not justifiable as only 450 passengers used the station each day and it was losing London Regional Transport £150,000 per year. The Secretary of State for Transport granted permission on 1 September 1994 to close the station and the branch closed on 30 September.

 

Although the Piccadilly Circus to City of London branch proposal of 1905 was never revisited after its withdrawal, the early plan to extend the branch south to Waterloo was revived a number of times during the station's life. The extension was considered in 1919 and 1948, but no progress towards constructing the link was made.[28]

In the years after the Second World War, a series of preliminary plans for relieving congestion on the London Underground had considered various east-west routes through the Aldwych area, although other priorities meant that these were never proceeded with. In March 1965, a British Rail and London Transport joint planning committee published "A Railway Plan for London" which proposed a new tube railway, the Fleet line (later renamed the Jubilee line), to join the Bakerloo line at Baker Street then run via Bond Street, Green Park, Charing Cross, Aldwych and into the City of London via Ludgate Circus, Cannon Street and Fenchurch Street before heading into south-east London. An interchange was proposed at Aldwych and a second recommendation of the report was the revival of the link from Aldwych to Waterloo.[31][32] London Transport had already sought parliamentary approval to construct tunnels from Aldwych to Waterloo in November 1964,[33] and in August 1965, parliamentary powers were granted. Detailed planning took place, although public spending cuts led to postponement of the scheme in 1967 before tenders were invited.[29]

Planning of the Fleet line continued and parliamentary approval was given in July 1969 for the first phase of the line, from Baker Street to Charing Cross.[34] Tunnelling began on the £35 million route in February 1972 and the Jubilee line opened north from Charing Cross in May 1979.[35] The tunnels of the approved section continued east of Charing Cross under Strand almost as far as Aldwych station, but no work at Aldwych was undertaken and they were used only as sidings.[36] Funding for the second phase of the work was delayed throughout the 1970s whilst the route beyond Charing Cross was reviewed to consider options for serving anticipated development in the London Docklands area. By 1979, the cost was estimated as £325 million, a six-fold increase from the £51 million estimated in 1970.[37] A further review of alternatives for the Jubilee line was carried out in 1980, which led to the a change of priorities and the postponement of any further effort on the line.[38] When the extension was eventually constructed in the late 1990s it took a different route, south of the River Thames via Westminster, Waterloo and London Bridge to provide a rapid link to Canary Wharf, leaving the tunnels between Green Park and Aldwych redundant.[39]

In July 2005, Ove Arup & Partners produced a report, DLR Horizon 2020 Study, for the Docklands Light Railway (DLR) examining "pragmatic development schemes" to expand and improve the DLR network between 2012 and 2020. One of the proposals was an extension of the DLR from Bank to Charing Cross via City Thameslink and Aldwych. The disused Jubilee line tunnels would be enlarged to accommodate the larger DLR trains and Aldwych station would form the basis for a new station on the line, although requiring considerable reconstruction to accommodate escalators. The estimated cost in 2005 was £232 million for the infrastructure works and the scheme was described as "strongly beneficial" as it was expected to attract passengers from the London Underground's existing east-west routes and from local buses and reduce overcrowding at Bank station. The business case assessment was that the proposal offered high value, although similar values were calculated for other extension proposals from Bank. Further detailed studies were proposed.

 

Because it was a self-contained section of the London Underground which was closed at weekends and for extended periods during weekdays, Aldwych station and the branch line from Holborn were popular locations for filming scenes set on the Tube even before their closure. Since the branch's closure in 1994, its use in film productions has continued, with the station appearing as itself and, with appropriate signage, as other stations on the network.[29] The track and infrastructure are maintained in operational condition, and a train of ex-Northern line 1972 tube stock is permanently stabled on the branch. This train can be driven up and down the branch for filming. The physical connection with the Piccadilly line northbound tracks remains, but requires manual operation.[41]

Films and television productions that have been shot at Aldwych include:

The Gentle Gunman (1952)[29]

Battle of Britain (1969)[42]

Death Line (1972)[29]

Superman IV: The Quest for Peace (1986)[29]

The Krays (1990)[43]

Patriot Games (1994)[43]

Creep (2004)[42]

V for Vendetta (2006)[42]

The Good Shepherd (2006)[42]

Atonement (2007)[42]

28 Weeks Later (2007)[42]

The Edge of Love (2008)[42]

Mr Selfridge (2013) [44]

The pre-war operation of the station features in a pivotal scene in Geoffrey Household's novel Rogue Male, when the pursuit of the protagonist by an enemy agent sees them repeatedly using the shuttle service on the branch line. A chase through Aldwych station ends with the agent's death by electrocution on the track.[45] A much modified and expanded version of the station appears as a level in the video game Tomb Raider III.[46] The music video for The Prodigy's song "Firestarter" was filmed in the disused eastern tunnel and one of the unused lift shafts.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aldwych_tube_station

Trains would have left through this portal on the short run to Holborn.

 

Aldwych tube station is a closed station on the London Underground, located in the City of Westminster in central London. It was opened in 1907 with the name Strand, after the street on which it is located, and was the terminus and only station on the short Piccadilly line branch from Holborn that was a relic of the merger of two railway schemes. The station building is close to the junction of Strand and Surrey Street, near Aldwych. During its lifetime, the branch was the subject of a number of unrealised extension proposals that would have seen the tunnels through the station extended southwards, usually to Waterloo.

Served by a shuttle train for most of their life and suffering from low passenger numbers, the station and branch were considered for closure several times. A weekday peak hours-only service survived until closure in 1994, when the cost of replacing the lifts was considered too high compared to the income generated.

Disused parts of the station and the running tunnels were used during both World Wars to shelter artworks from London's public galleries and museums from bombing.

The station has long been popular as a filming location and has appeared as itself and as other London Underground stations in a number of films. In recognition of its historical significance, the station is a Grade II listed building.

 

The Great Northern and Strand Railway (GN&SR) first proposed a station in the Strand area in a private bill presented to Parliament in November 1898.[2] The station was to be the southern terminus of an underground railway line planned to run from Wood Green station (now Alexandra Palace) via Finsbury Park and King's Cross and was originally to be located at the corner of Stanhope Street and Holles Street, north of the Strand. When the two streets were scheduled for demolition as part of the London County Council's plans for the construction of Kingsway and Aldwych, the GN&SR moved the location to the junction of the two new roads.[3] Royal Assent to the bill was given and the Great Northern and Strand Railway Act 1899 was enacted on 1 August.[4]

In September 1901, the GN&SR was taken over by the Brompton and Piccadilly Circus Railway (B&PCR), which planned to build an underground line from South Kensington to Piccadilly Circus via Knightsbridge. Both were under the control of Charles Yerkes through his Metropolitan District Electric Traction Company and, in June 1902, were transferred to Yerkes' new holding company, the Underground Electric Railways Company of London (UERL).[5] Neither of the railways had carried out any construction, but the UERL obtained permission for new tunnels between Piccadilly Circus and Holborn to connect the two routes. The companies were formally merged as the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway (GNP&BR) following parliamentary approval in November 1902.[6][7][8] Prior to confirmation of the merger, the GN&SR had sought permission to extend its line southwards from the future junction of Kingsway and Aldwych, under Norfolk Street to a new interchange under the Metropolitan District Railway's station at Temple. The extension was rejected following objections from the Duke of Norfolk under whose land the last part of the proposed tunnels would have run.[9]

In 1903, the GNP&BR sought permission for a branch from Piccadilly Circus to run under Leicester Square, Strand, and Fleet Street and into the City of London. The branch would have passed and interchanged with the already approved Strand station,[10] allowing travel on the GNP&BR from Strand in three directions. The deliberations of a Royal Commission on traffic in London prevented parliamentary consideration of the proposal, which was withdrawn.[11]

In 1905, with the Royal Commission's report about to be published, the GNP&BR returned to Parliament with two bills for consideration. The first bill revived the 1903 proposal for a branch from Piccadilly Circus to the City of London, passing and interchanging with Strand station. The second proposed an extension and relocation of Strand station to the junction of Strand and Surrey Street. From there the line was to continue as a single tunnel under the River Thames to Waterloo. The first bill was again delayed and withdrawn. Of the second, only the relocation of Strand station was permitted.

 

The linking of the GN&SR and B&PCR routes meant that the section of the GN&SR south of Holborn became a branch from the main route. The UERL began constructing the main route in July 1902. Progress was rapid, so that it was largely complete by the Autumn of 1906.[13] Construction of the Holborn to Strand section was delayed while the London County Council constructed Kingsway and the tramway subway running beneath it and while the UERL decided how the junction between the main route and the branch would be arranged at Holborn.[14][note 1]

Strand station was built on the site of the Royal Strand Theatre, which had closed on 13 May 1905 and been demolished. Construction of the station began on 21 October 1905,[16] to a design by the UERL's architect Leslie Green in the UERL house style of a two-storey steel-framed building faced with red glazed terracotta blocks, with wide semi-circular windows on the upper floor.[17] The station building is L-shaped, with two façades separated by the building on the corner of Strand and Surrey Street. The Strand façade is narrow with a single semi-circular window above the entrance. The façade in Surrey Street is wider with a separate entrance and exit and a shop unit. In anticipation of a revival of the extension to Waterloo and the City route, the station was built with three circular lift shafts able to accommodate six trapezium-shaped lifts. Only one of the shafts was fitted out, with two lifts.[18] The other two shafts rose from the lower concourse to the basement of the station, but could have been extended upwards into the space of the shop unit when required. A fourth smaller-diameter shaft accommodated an emergency spiral stair.[19]

The platforms are 92 feet 6 inches (28.19 m) below street level and are 250 feet (76 m) long;[16] shorter than the GNP&BR's standard length of 350 feet (110 m).[20] As with other UERL stations, the platform walls were tiled with distinctive patterns, in this case cream and dark green. Only parts of the platform walls were decorated because it was planned to operate the branch with short trains.[16] Due to the reduced lift provision, a second route between the platforms and lifts was never brought into use and was left in an unfinished condition without tiling.

 

The GNP&BR's main route opened on 15 December 1906, but the Strand branch was not opened until 30 November 1907.[22] Initially, shuttle trains operated to Holborn from the eastern platform into the through platform at Holborn. At peak times, an additional train operated alternately in the branch's western tunnel into the bay platform at Holborn. During the first year of operation, a train for theatregoers operated late on Monday to Saturday evenings from Strand through Holborn and northbound to Finsbury Park; this was discontinued in October 1908.[16]

In March 1908, the off-peak shuttle service began to use the western platform at Strand and the through platform at Holborn, crossing between the two branch tunnels south of Holborn. Low usage led to the withdrawal of the second peak-hour shuttle and the eastern tunnel was taken out of use in 1914.[23][24] On 9 May 1915, three of the Underground stations in the area were renamed and Strand station became Aldwych.[22][note 2] Sunday services ended in April 1917 and, in August of the same year, the eastern tunnel and platform at Aldwych and the bay platform at Holborn were formally closed.[25] A German bombing campaign in September 1917 led the disused platform being used as storage for 300 pictures from the National Gallery until December 1918.

 

In October 1922, the ticket office was replaced by a facility in the lifts.[25] Passenger numbers remained low: when the station was one of a number on the network considered for closure in 1929, its annual usage was 1,069,650 and takings were £4,500.[27][note 3] The branch was again considered for closure in 1933, but remained open.[25]

Wartime efficiency measures led to the branch being closed temporarily on 22 September 1940, shortly after the start of The Blitz, and it was partly fitted out by the City of Westminster as an air-raid shelter. The tunnels between Aldwych and Holborn were used to store items from the British Museum, including the Elgin Marbles. The branch reopened on 1 July 1946, but patronage did not increase.[28] In 1958, the station was one of three that London Transport announced would be closed. Again it survived, but the service was reduced in June 1958 to run only during Monday to Friday peak hours and Saturday morning and early afternoons.[29][note 4] The Saturday service was withdrawn in June 1962.[29]

  

Shelterers inside Aldwych station during the Blitz, 1940.

 

After operating only during peak hours for more than 30 years, the closure announcement came on 4 January 1993. The original 1907 lifts required replacement at a cost of £3 million. This was not justifiable as only 450 passengers used the station each day and it was losing London Regional Transport £150,000 per year. The Secretary of State for Transport granted permission on 1 September 1994 to close the station and the branch closed on 30 September.

 

Although the Piccadilly Circus to City of London branch proposal of 1905 was never revisited after its withdrawal, the early plan to extend the branch south to Waterloo was revived a number of times during the station's life. The extension was considered in 1919 and 1948, but no progress towards constructing the link was made.[28]

In the years after the Second World War, a series of preliminary plans for relieving congestion on the London Underground had considered various east-west routes through the Aldwych area, although other priorities meant that these were never proceeded with. In March 1965, a British Rail and London Transport joint planning committee published "A Railway Plan for London" which proposed a new tube railway, the Fleet line (later renamed the Jubilee line), to join the Bakerloo line at Baker Street then run via Bond Street, Green Park, Charing Cross, Aldwych and into the City of London via Ludgate Circus, Cannon Street and Fenchurch Street before heading into south-east London. An interchange was proposed at Aldwych and a second recommendation of the report was the revival of the link from Aldwych to Waterloo.[31][32] London Transport had already sought parliamentary approval to construct tunnels from Aldwych to Waterloo in November 1964,[33] and in August 1965, parliamentary powers were granted. Detailed planning took place, although public spending cuts led to postponement of the scheme in 1967 before tenders were invited.[29]

Planning of the Fleet line continued and parliamentary approval was given in July 1969 for the first phase of the line, from Baker Street to Charing Cross.[34] Tunnelling began on the £35 million route in February 1972 and the Jubilee line opened north from Charing Cross in May 1979.[35] The tunnels of the approved section continued east of Charing Cross under Strand almost as far as Aldwych station, but no work at Aldwych was undertaken and they were used only as sidings.[36] Funding for the second phase of the work was delayed throughout the 1970s whilst the route beyond Charing Cross was reviewed to consider options for serving anticipated development in the London Docklands area. By 1979, the cost was estimated as £325 million, a six-fold increase from the £51 million estimated in 1970.[37] A further review of alternatives for the Jubilee line was carried out in 1980, which led to the a change of priorities and the postponement of any further effort on the line.[38] When the extension was eventually constructed in the late 1990s it took a different route, south of the River Thames via Westminster, Waterloo and London Bridge to provide a rapid link to Canary Wharf, leaving the tunnels between Green Park and Aldwych redundant.[39]

In July 2005, Ove Arup & Partners produced a report, DLR Horizon 2020 Study, for the Docklands Light Railway (DLR) examining "pragmatic development schemes" to expand and improve the DLR network between 2012 and 2020. One of the proposals was an extension of the DLR from Bank to Charing Cross via City Thameslink and Aldwych. The disused Jubilee line tunnels would be enlarged to accommodate the larger DLR trains and Aldwych station would form the basis for a new station on the line, although requiring considerable reconstruction to accommodate escalators. The estimated cost in 2005 was £232 million for the infrastructure works and the scheme was described as "strongly beneficial" as it was expected to attract passengers from the London Underground's existing east-west routes and from local buses and reduce overcrowding at Bank station. The business case assessment was that the proposal offered high value, although similar values were calculated for other extension proposals from Bank. Further detailed studies were proposed.

 

Because it was a self-contained section of the London Underground which was closed at weekends and for extended periods during weekdays, Aldwych station and the branch line from Holborn were popular locations for filming scenes set on the Tube even before their closure. Since the branch's closure in 1994, its use in film productions has continued, with the station appearing as itself and, with appropriate signage, as other stations on the network.[29] The track and infrastructure are maintained in operational condition, and a train of ex-Northern line 1972 tube stock is permanently stabled on the branch. This train can be driven up and down the branch for filming. The physical connection with the Piccadilly line northbound tracks remains, but requires manual operation.[41]

Films and television productions that have been shot at Aldwych include:

The Gentle Gunman (1952)[29]

Battle of Britain (1969)[42]

Death Line (1972)[29]

Superman IV: The Quest for Peace (1986)[29]

The Krays (1990)[43]

Patriot Games (1994)[43]

Creep (2004)[42]

V for Vendetta (2006)[42]

The Good Shepherd (2006)[42]

Atonement (2007)[42]

28 Weeks Later (2007)[42]

The Edge of Love (2008)[42]

Mr Selfridge (2013) [44]

The pre-war operation of the station features in a pivotal scene in Geoffrey Household's novel Rogue Male, when the pursuit of the protagonist by an enemy agent sees them repeatedly using the shuttle service on the branch line. A chase through Aldwych station ends with the agent's death by electrocution on the track.[45] A much modified and expanded version of the station appears as a level in the video game Tomb Raider III.[46] The music video for The Prodigy's song "Firestarter" was filmed in the disused eastern tunnel and one of the unused lift shafts.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aldwych_tube_station

The only completed passageway leading from the lift shaft to Platform 1.

 

Aldwych tube station is a closed station on the London Underground, located in the City of Westminster in central London. It was opened in 1907 with the name Strand, after the street on which it is located, and was the terminus and only station on the short Piccadilly line branch from Holborn that was a relic of the merger of two railway schemes. The station building is close to the junction of Strand and Surrey Street, near Aldwych. During its lifetime, the branch was the subject of a number of unrealised extension proposals that would have seen the tunnels through the station extended southwards, usually to Waterloo.

Served by a shuttle train for most of their life and suffering from low passenger numbers, the station and branch were considered for closure several times. A weekday peak hours-only service survived until closure in 1994, when the cost of replacing the lifts was considered too high compared to the income generated.

Disused parts of the station and the running tunnels were used during both World Wars to shelter artworks from London's public galleries and museums from bombing.

The station has long been popular as a filming location and has appeared as itself and as other London Underground stations in a number of films. In recognition of its historical significance, the station is a Grade II listed building.

 

The Great Northern and Strand Railway (GN&SR) first proposed a station in the Strand area in a private bill presented to Parliament in November 1898.[2] The station was to be the southern terminus of an underground railway line planned to run from Wood Green station (now Alexandra Palace) via Finsbury Park and King's Cross and was originally to be located at the corner of Stanhope Street and Holles Street, north of the Strand. When the two streets were scheduled for demolition as part of the London County Council's plans for the construction of Kingsway and Aldwych, the GN&SR moved the location to the junction of the two new roads.[3] Royal Assent to the bill was given and the Great Northern and Strand Railway Act 1899 was enacted on 1 August.[4]

In September 1901, the GN&SR was taken over by the Brompton and Piccadilly Circus Railway (B&PCR), which planned to build an underground line from South Kensington to Piccadilly Circus via Knightsbridge. Both were under the control of Charles Yerkes through his Metropolitan District Electric Traction Company and, in June 1902, were transferred to Yerkes' new holding company, the Underground Electric Railways Company of London (UERL).[5] Neither of the railways had carried out any construction, but the UERL obtained permission for new tunnels between Piccadilly Circus and Holborn to connect the two routes. The companies were formally merged as the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway (GNP&BR) following parliamentary approval in November 1902.[6][7][8] Prior to confirmation of the merger, the GN&SR had sought permission to extend its line southwards from the future junction of Kingsway and Aldwych, under Norfolk Street to a new interchange under the Metropolitan District Railway's station at Temple. The extension was rejected following objections from the Duke of Norfolk under whose land the last part of the proposed tunnels would have run.[9]

In 1903, the GNP&BR sought permission for a branch from Piccadilly Circus to run under Leicester Square, Strand, and Fleet Street and into the City of London. The branch would have passed and interchanged with the already approved Strand station,[10] allowing travel on the GNP&BR from Strand in three directions. The deliberations of a Royal Commission on traffic in London prevented parliamentary consideration of the proposal, which was withdrawn.[11]

In 1905, with the Royal Commission's report about to be published, the GNP&BR returned to Parliament with two bills for consideration. The first bill revived the 1903 proposal for a branch from Piccadilly Circus to the City of London, passing and interchanging with Strand station. The second proposed an extension and relocation of Strand station to the junction of Strand and Surrey Street. From there the line was to continue as a single tunnel under the River Thames to Waterloo. The first bill was again delayed and withdrawn. Of the second, only the relocation of Strand station was permitted.

 

The linking of the GN&SR and B&PCR routes meant that the section of the GN&SR south of Holborn became a branch from the main route. The UERL began constructing the main route in July 1902. Progress was rapid, so that it was largely complete by the Autumn of 1906.[13] Construction of the Holborn to Strand section was delayed while the London County Council constructed Kingsway and the tramway subway running beneath it and while the UERL decided how the junction between the main route and the branch would be arranged at Holborn.[14][note 1]

Strand station was built on the site of the Royal Strand Theatre, which had closed on 13 May 1905 and been demolished. Construction of the station began on 21 October 1905,[16] to a design by the UERL's architect Leslie Green in the UERL house style of a two-storey steel-framed building faced with red glazed terracotta blocks, with wide semi-circular windows on the upper floor.[17] The station building is L-shaped, with two façades separated by the building on the corner of Strand and Surrey Street. The Strand façade is narrow with a single semi-circular window above the entrance. The façade in Surrey Street is wider with a separate entrance and exit and a shop unit. In anticipation of a revival of the extension to Waterloo and the City route, the station was built with three circular lift shafts able to accommodate six trapezium-shaped lifts. Only one of the shafts was fitted out, with two lifts.[18] The other two shafts rose from the lower concourse to the basement of the station, but could have been extended upwards into the space of the shop unit when required. A fourth smaller-diameter shaft accommodated an emergency spiral stair.[19]

The platforms are 92 feet 6 inches (28.19 m) below street level and are 250 feet (76 m) long;[16] shorter than the GNP&BR's standard length of 350 feet (110 m).[20] As with other UERL stations, the platform walls were tiled with distinctive patterns, in this case cream and dark green. Only parts of the platform walls were decorated because it was planned to operate the branch with short trains.[16] Due to the reduced lift provision, a second route between the platforms and lifts was never brought into use and was left in an unfinished condition without tiling.

 

The GNP&BR's main route opened on 15 December 1906, but the Strand branch was not opened until 30 November 1907.[22] Initially, shuttle trains operated to Holborn from the eastern platform into the through platform at Holborn. At peak times, an additional train operated alternately in the branch's western tunnel into the bay platform at Holborn. During the first year of operation, a train for theatregoers operated late on Monday to Saturday evenings from Strand through Holborn and northbound to Finsbury Park; this was discontinued in October 1908.[16]

In March 1908, the off-peak shuttle service began to use the western platform at Strand and the through platform at Holborn, crossing between the two branch tunnels south of Holborn. Low usage led to the withdrawal of the second peak-hour shuttle and the eastern tunnel was taken out of use in 1914.[23][24] On 9 May 1915, three of the Underground stations in the area were renamed and Strand station became Aldwych.[22][note 2] Sunday services ended in April 1917 and, in August of the same year, the eastern tunnel and platform at Aldwych and the bay platform at Holborn were formally closed.[25] A German bombing campaign in September 1917 led the disused platform being used as storage for 300 pictures from the National Gallery until December 1918.

 

In October 1922, the ticket office was replaced by a facility in the lifts.[25] Passenger numbers remained low: when the station was one of a number on the network considered for closure in 1929, its annual usage was 1,069,650 and takings were £4,500.[27][note 3] The branch was again considered for closure in 1933, but remained open.[25]

Wartime efficiency measures led to the branch being closed temporarily on 22 September 1940, shortly after the start of The Blitz, and it was partly fitted out by the City of Westminster as an air-raid shelter. The tunnels between Aldwych and Holborn were used to store items from the British Museum, including the Elgin Marbles. The branch reopened on 1 July 1946, but patronage did not increase.[28] In 1958, the station was one of three that London Transport announced would be closed. Again it survived, but the service was reduced in June 1958 to run only during Monday to Friday peak hours and Saturday morning and early afternoons.[29][note 4] The Saturday service was withdrawn in June 1962.[29]

  

Shelterers inside Aldwych station during the Blitz, 1940.

 

After operating only during peak hours for more than 30 years, the closure announcement came on 4 January 1993. The original 1907 lifts required replacement at a cost of £3 million. This was not justifiable as only 450 passengers used the station each day and it was losing London Regional Transport £150,000 per year. The Secretary of State for Transport granted permission on 1 September 1994 to close the station and the branch closed on 30 September.

 

Although the Piccadilly Circus to City of London branch proposal of 1905 was never revisited after its withdrawal, the early plan to extend the branch south to Waterloo was revived a number of times during the station's life. The extension was considered in 1919 and 1948, but no progress towards constructing the link was made.[28]

In the years after the Second World War, a series of preliminary plans for relieving congestion on the London Underground had considered various east-west routes through the Aldwych area, although other priorities meant that these were never proceeded with. In March 1965, a British Rail and London Transport joint planning committee published "A Railway Plan for London" which proposed a new tube railway, the Fleet line (later renamed the Jubilee line), to join the Bakerloo line at Baker Street then run via Bond Street, Green Park, Charing Cross, Aldwych and into the City of London via Ludgate Circus, Cannon Street and Fenchurch Street before heading into south-east London. An interchange was proposed at Aldwych and a second recommendation of the report was the revival of the link from Aldwych to Waterloo.[31][32] London Transport had already sought parliamentary approval to construct tunnels from Aldwych to Waterloo in November 1964,[33] and in August 1965, parliamentary powers were granted. Detailed planning took place, although public spending cuts led to postponement of the scheme in 1967 before tenders were invited.[29]

Planning of the Fleet line continued and parliamentary approval was given in July 1969 for the first phase of the line, from Baker Street to Charing Cross.[34] Tunnelling began on the £35 million route in February 1972 and the Jubilee line opened north from Charing Cross in May 1979.[35] The tunnels of the approved section continued east of Charing Cross under Strand almost as far as Aldwych station, but no work at Aldwych was undertaken and they were used only as sidings.[36] Funding for the second phase of the work was delayed throughout the 1970s whilst the route beyond Charing Cross was reviewed to consider options for serving anticipated development in the London Docklands area. By 1979, the cost was estimated as £325 million, a six-fold increase from the £51 million estimated in 1970.[37] A further review of alternatives for the Jubilee line was carried out in 1980, which led to the a change of priorities and the postponement of any further effort on the line.[38] When the extension was eventually constructed in the late 1990s it took a different route, south of the River Thames via Westminster, Waterloo and London Bridge to provide a rapid link to Canary Wharf, leaving the tunnels between Green Park and Aldwych redundant.[39]

In July 2005, Ove Arup & Partners produced a report, DLR Horizon 2020 Study, for the Docklands Light Railway (DLR) examining "pragmatic development schemes" to expand and improve the DLR network between 2012 and 2020. One of the proposals was an extension of the DLR from Bank to Charing Cross via City Thameslink and Aldwych. The disused Jubilee line tunnels would be enlarged to accommodate the larger DLR trains and Aldwych station would form the basis for a new station on the line, although requiring considerable reconstruction to accommodate escalators. The estimated cost in 2005 was £232 million for the infrastructure works and the scheme was described as "strongly beneficial" as it was expected to attract passengers from the London Underground's existing east-west routes and from local buses and reduce overcrowding at Bank station. The business case assessment was that the proposal offered high value, although similar values were calculated for other extension proposals from Bank. Further detailed studies were proposed.

 

Because it was a self-contained section of the London Underground which was closed at weekends and for extended periods during weekdays, Aldwych station and the branch line from Holborn were popular locations for filming scenes set on the Tube even before their closure. Since the branch's closure in 1994, its use in film productions has continued, with the station appearing as itself and, with appropriate signage, as other stations on the network.[29] The track and infrastructure are maintained in operational condition, and a train of ex-Northern line 1972 tube stock is permanently stabled on the branch. This train can be driven up and down the branch for filming. The physical connection with the Piccadilly line northbound tracks remains, but requires manual operation.[41]

Films and television productions that have been shot at Aldwych include:

The Gentle Gunman (1952)[29]

Battle of Britain (1969)[42]

Death Line (1972)[29]

Superman IV: The Quest for Peace (1986)[29]

The Krays (1990)[43]

Patriot Games (1994)[43]

Creep (2004)[42]

V for Vendetta (2006)[42]

The Good Shepherd (2006)[42]

Atonement (2007)[42]

28 Weeks Later (2007)[42]

The Edge of Love (2008)[42]

Mr Selfridge (2013) [44]

The pre-war operation of the station features in a pivotal scene in Geoffrey Household's novel Rogue Male, when the pursuit of the protagonist by an enemy agent sees them repeatedly using the shuttle service on the branch line. A chase through Aldwych station ends with the agent's death by electrocution on the track.[45] A much modified and expanded version of the station appears as a level in the video game Tomb Raider III.[46] The music video for The Prodigy's song "Firestarter" was filmed in the disused eastern tunnel and one of the unused lift shafts.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aldwych_tube_station

The rest of the tour behind me as I get my shots! This is looking towards the dead end, the track ends about 25m down this tunnel.

 

Aldwych tube station is a closed station on the London Underground, located in the City of Westminster in central London. It was opened in 1907 with the name Strand, after the street on which it is located, and was the terminus and only station on the short Piccadilly line branch from Holborn that was a relic of the merger of two railway schemes. The station building is close to the junction of Strand and Surrey Street, near Aldwych. During its lifetime, the branch was the subject of a number of unrealised extension proposals that would have seen the tunnels through the station extended southwards, usually to Waterloo.

Served by a shuttle train for most of their life and suffering from low passenger numbers, the station and branch were considered for closure several times. A weekday peak hours-only service survived until closure in 1994, when the cost of replacing the lifts was considered too high compared to the income generated.

Disused parts of the station and the running tunnels were used during both World Wars to shelter artworks from London's public galleries and museums from bombing.

The station has long been popular as a filming location and has appeared as itself and as other London Underground stations in a number of films. In recognition of its historical significance, the station is a Grade II listed building.

 

The Great Northern and Strand Railway (GN&SR) first proposed a station in the Strand area in a private bill presented to Parliament in November 1898.[2] The station was to be the southern terminus of an underground railway line planned to run from Wood Green station (now Alexandra Palace) via Finsbury Park and King's Cross and was originally to be located at the corner of Stanhope Street and Holles Street, north of the Strand. When the two streets were scheduled for demolition as part of the London County Council's plans for the construction of Kingsway and Aldwych, the GN&SR moved the location to the junction of the two new roads.[3] Royal Assent to the bill was given and the Great Northern and Strand Railway Act 1899 was enacted on 1 August.[4]

In September 1901, the GN&SR was taken over by the Brompton and Piccadilly Circus Railway (B&PCR), which planned to build an underground line from South Kensington to Piccadilly Circus via Knightsbridge. Both were under the control of Charles Yerkes through his Metropolitan District Electric Traction Company and, in June 1902, were transferred to Yerkes' new holding company, the Underground Electric Railways Company of London (UERL).[5] Neither of the railways had carried out any construction, but the UERL obtained permission for new tunnels between Piccadilly Circus and Holborn to connect the two routes. The companies were formally merged as the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway (GNP&BR) following parliamentary approval in November 1902.[6][7][8] Prior to confirmation of the merger, the GN&SR had sought permission to extend its line southwards from the future junction of Kingsway and Aldwych, under Norfolk Street to a new interchange under the Metropolitan District Railway's station at Temple. The extension was rejected following objections from the Duke of Norfolk under whose land the last part of the proposed tunnels would have run.[9]

In 1903, the GNP&BR sought permission for a branch from Piccadilly Circus to run under Leicester Square, Strand, and Fleet Street and into the City of London. The branch would have passed and interchanged with the already approved Strand station,[10] allowing travel on the GNP&BR from Strand in three directions. The deliberations of a Royal Commission on traffic in London prevented parliamentary consideration of the proposal, which was withdrawn.[11]

In 1905, with the Royal Commission's report about to be published, the GNP&BR returned to Parliament with two bills for consideration. The first bill revived the 1903 proposal for a branch from Piccadilly Circus to the City of London, passing and interchanging with Strand station. The second proposed an extension and relocation of Strand station to the junction of Strand and Surrey Street. From there the line was to continue as a single tunnel under the River Thames to Waterloo. The first bill was again delayed and withdrawn. Of the second, only the relocation of Strand station was permitted.

 

The linking of the GN&SR and B&PCR routes meant that the section of the GN&SR south of Holborn became a branch from the main route. The UERL began constructing the main route in July 1902. Progress was rapid, so that it was largely complete by the Autumn of 1906.[13] Construction of the Holborn to Strand section was delayed while the London County Council constructed Kingsway and the tramway subway running beneath it and while the UERL decided how the junction between the main route and the branch would be arranged at Holborn.[14][note 1]

Strand station was built on the site of the Royal Strand Theatre, which had closed on 13 May 1905 and been demolished. Construction of the station began on 21 October 1905,[16] to a design by the UERL's architect Leslie Green in the UERL house style of a two-storey steel-framed building faced with red glazed terracotta blocks, with wide semi-circular windows on the upper floor.[17] The station building is L-shaped, with two façades separated by the building on the corner of Strand and Surrey Street. The Strand façade is narrow with a single semi-circular window above the entrance. The façade in Surrey Street is wider with a separate entrance and exit and a shop unit. In anticipation of a revival of the extension to Waterloo and the City route, the station was built with three circular lift shafts able to accommodate six trapezium-shaped lifts. Only one of the shafts was fitted out, with two lifts.[18] The other two shafts rose from the lower concourse to the basement of the station, but could have been extended upwards into the space of the shop unit when required. A fourth smaller-diameter shaft accommodated an emergency spiral stair.[19]

The platforms are 92 feet 6 inches (28.19 m) below street level and are 250 feet (76 m) long;[16] shorter than the GNP&BR's standard length of 350 feet (110 m).[20] As with other UERL stations, the platform walls were tiled with distinctive patterns, in this case cream and dark green. Only parts of the platform walls were decorated because it was planned to operate the branch with short trains.[16] Due to the reduced lift provision, a second route between the platforms and lifts was never brought into use and was left in an unfinished condition without tiling.

 

The GNP&BR's main route opened on 15 December 1906, but the Strand branch was not opened until 30 November 1907.[22] Initially, shuttle trains operated to Holborn from the eastern platform into the through platform at Holborn. At peak times, an additional train operated alternately in the branch's western tunnel into the bay platform at Holborn. During the first year of operation, a train for theatregoers operated late on Monday to Saturday evenings from Strand through Holborn and northbound to Finsbury Park; this was discontinued in October 1908.[16]

In March 1908, the off-peak shuttle service began to use the western platform at Strand and the through platform at Holborn, crossing between the two branch tunnels south of Holborn. Low usage led to the withdrawal of the second peak-hour shuttle and the eastern tunnel was taken out of use in 1914.[23][24] On 9 May 1915, three of the Underground stations in the area were renamed and Strand station became Aldwych.[22][note 2] Sunday services ended in April 1917 and, in August of the same year, the eastern tunnel and platform at Aldwych and the bay platform at Holborn were formally closed.[25] A German bombing campaign in September 1917 led the disused platform being used as storage for 300 pictures from the National Gallery until December 1918.

 

In October 1922, the ticket office was replaced by a facility in the lifts.[25] Passenger numbers remained low: when the station was one of a number on the network considered for closure in 1929, its annual usage was 1,069,650 and takings were £4,500.[27][note 3] The branch was again considered for closure in 1933, but remained open.[25]

Wartime efficiency measures led to the branch being closed temporarily on 22 September 1940, shortly after the start of The Blitz, and it was partly fitted out by the City of Westminster as an air-raid shelter. The tunnels between Aldwych and Holborn were used to store items from the British Museum, including the Elgin Marbles. The branch reopened on 1 July 1946, but patronage did not increase.[28] In 1958, the station was one of three that London Transport announced would be closed. Again it survived, but the service was reduced in June 1958 to run only during Monday to Friday peak hours and Saturday morning and early afternoons.[29][note 4] The Saturday service was withdrawn in June 1962.[29]

  

Shelterers inside Aldwych station during the Blitz, 1940.

 

After operating only during peak hours for more than 30 years, the closure announcement came on 4 January 1993. The original 1907 lifts required replacement at a cost of £3 million. This was not justifiable as only 450 passengers used the station each day and it was losing London Regional Transport £150,000 per year. The Secretary of State for Transport granted permission on 1 September 1994 to close the station and the branch closed on 30 September.

 

Although the Piccadilly Circus to City of London branch proposal of 1905 was never revisited after its withdrawal, the early plan to extend the branch south to Waterloo was revived a number of times during the station's life. The extension was considered in 1919 and 1948, but no progress towards constructing the link was made.[28]

In the years after the Second World War, a series of preliminary plans for relieving congestion on the London Underground had considered various east-west routes through the Aldwych area, although other priorities meant that these were never proceeded with. In March 1965, a British Rail and London Transport joint planning committee published "A Railway Plan for London" which proposed a new tube railway, the Fleet line (later renamed the Jubilee line), to join the Bakerloo line at Baker Street then run via Bond Street, Green Park, Charing Cross, Aldwych and into the City of London via Ludgate Circus, Cannon Street and Fenchurch Street before heading into south-east London. An interchange was proposed at Aldwych and a second recommendation of the report was the revival of the link from Aldwych to Waterloo.[31][32] London Transport had already sought parliamentary approval to construct tunnels from Aldwych to Waterloo in November 1964,[33] and in August 1965, parliamentary powers were granted. Detailed planning took place, although public spending cuts led to postponement of the scheme in 1967 before tenders were invited.[29]

Planning of the Fleet line continued and parliamentary approval was given in July 1969 for the first phase of the line, from Baker Street to Charing Cross.[34] Tunnelling began on the £35 million route in February 1972 and the Jubilee line opened north from Charing Cross in May 1979.[35] The tunnels of the approved section continued east of Charing Cross under Strand almost as far as Aldwych station, but no work at Aldwych was undertaken and they were used only as sidings.[36] Funding for the second phase of the work was delayed throughout the 1970s whilst the route beyond Charing Cross was reviewed to consider options for serving anticipated development in the London Docklands area. By 1979, the cost was estimated as £325 million, a six-fold increase from the £51 million estimated in 1970.[37] A further review of alternatives for the Jubilee line was carried out in 1980, which led to the a change of priorities and the postponement of any further effort on the line.[38] When the extension was eventually constructed in the late 1990s it took a different route, south of the River Thames via Westminster, Waterloo and London Bridge to provide a rapid link to Canary Wharf, leaving the tunnels between Green Park and Aldwych redundant.[39]

In July 2005, Ove Arup & Partners produced a report, DLR Horizon 2020 Study, for the Docklands Light Railway (DLR) examining "pragmatic development schemes" to expand and improve the DLR network between 2012 and 2020. One of the proposals was an extension of the DLR from Bank to Charing Cross via City Thameslink and Aldwych. The disused Jubilee line tunnels would be enlarged to accommodate the larger DLR trains and Aldwych station would form the basis for a new station on the line, although requiring considerable reconstruction to accommodate escalators. The estimated cost in 2005 was £232 million for the infrastructure works and the scheme was described as "strongly beneficial" as it was expected to attract passengers from the London Underground's existing east-west routes and from local buses and reduce overcrowding at Bank station. The business case assessment was that the proposal offered high value, although similar values were calculated for other extension proposals from Bank. Further detailed studies were proposed.

 

Because it was a self-contained section of the London Underground which was closed at weekends and for extended periods during weekdays, Aldwych station and the branch line from Holborn were popular locations for filming scenes set on the Tube even before their closure. Since the branch's closure in 1994, its use in film productions has continued, with the station appearing as itself and, with appropriate signage, as other stations on the network.[29] The track and infrastructure are maintained in operational condition, and a train of ex-Northern line 1972 tube stock is permanently stabled on the branch. This train can be driven up and down the branch for filming. The physical connection with the Piccadilly line northbound tracks remains, but requires manual operation.[41]

Films and television productions that have been shot at Aldwych include:

The Gentle Gunman (1952)[29]

Battle of Britain (1969)[42]

Death Line (1972)[29]

Superman IV: The Quest for Peace (1986)[29]

The Krays (1990)[43]

Patriot Games (1994)[43]

Creep (2004)[42]

V for Vendetta (2006)[42]

The Good Shepherd (2006)[42]

Atonement (2007)[42]

28 Weeks Later (2007)[42]

The Edge of Love (2008)[42]

Mr Selfridge (2013) [44]

The pre-war operation of the station features in a pivotal scene in Geoffrey Household's novel Rogue Male, when the pursuit of the protagonist by an enemy agent sees them repeatedly using the shuttle service on the branch line. A chase through Aldwych station ends with the agent's death by electrocution on the track.[45] A much modified and expanded version of the station appears as a level in the video game Tomb Raider III.[46] The music video for The Prodigy's song "Firestarter" was filmed in the disused eastern tunnel and one of the unused lift shafts.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aldwych_tube_station

Other members of the tour crowd round to listen, I get more shots!

 

Aldwych tube station is a closed station on the London Underground, located in the City of Westminster in central London. It was opened in 1907 with the name Strand, after the street on which it is located, and was the terminus and only station on the short Piccadilly line branch from Holborn that was a relic of the merger of two railway schemes. The station building is close to the junction of Strand and Surrey Street, near Aldwych. During its lifetime, the branch was the subject of a number of unrealised extension proposals that would have seen the tunnels through the station extended southwards, usually to Waterloo.

Served by a shuttle train for most of their life and suffering from low passenger numbers, the station and branch were considered for closure several times. A weekday peak hours-only service survived until closure in 1994, when the cost of replacing the lifts was considered too high compared to the income generated.

Disused parts of the station and the running tunnels were used during both World Wars to shelter artworks from London's public galleries and museums from bombing.

The station has long been popular as a filming location and has appeared as itself and as other London Underground stations in a number of films. In recognition of its historical significance, the station is a Grade II listed building.

 

The Great Northern and Strand Railway (GN&SR) first proposed a station in the Strand area in a private bill presented to Parliament in November 1898.[2] The station was to be the southern terminus of an underground railway line planned to run from Wood Green station (now Alexandra Palace) via Finsbury Park and King's Cross and was originally to be located at the corner of Stanhope Street and Holles Street, north of the Strand. When the two streets were scheduled for demolition as part of the London County Council's plans for the construction of Kingsway and Aldwych, the GN&SR moved the location to the junction of the two new roads.[3] Royal Assent to the bill was given and the Great Northern and Strand Railway Act 1899 was enacted on 1 August.[4]

In September 1901, the GN&SR was taken over by the Brompton and Piccadilly Circus Railway (B&PCR), which planned to build an underground line from South Kensington to Piccadilly Circus via Knightsbridge. Both were under the control of Charles Yerkes through his Metropolitan District Electric Traction Company and, in June 1902, were transferred to Yerkes' new holding company, the Underground Electric Railways Company of London (UERL).[5] Neither of the railways had carried out any construction, but the UERL obtained permission for new tunnels between Piccadilly Circus and Holborn to connect the two routes. The companies were formally merged as the Great Northern, Piccadilly and Brompton Railway (GNP&BR) following parliamentary approval in November 1902.[6][7][8] Prior to confirmation of the merger, the GN&SR had sought permission to extend its line southwards from the future junction of Kingsway and Aldwych, under Norfolk Street to a new interchange under the Metropolitan District Railway's station at Temple. The extension was rejected following objections from the Duke of Norfolk under whose land the last part of the proposed tunnels would have run.[9]

In 1903, the GNP&BR sought permission for a branch from Piccadilly Circus to run under Leicester Square, Strand, and Fleet Street and into the City of London. The branch would have passed and interchanged with the already approved Strand station,[10] allowing travel on the GNP&BR from Strand in three directions. The deliberations of a Royal Commission on traffic in London prevented parliamentary consideration of the proposal, which was withdrawn.[11]

In 1905, with the Royal Commission's report about to be published, the GNP&BR returned to Parliament with two bills for consideration. The first bill revived the 1903 proposal for a branch from Piccadilly Circus to the City of London, passing and interchanging with Strand station. The second proposed an extension and relocation of Strand station to the junction of Strand and Surrey Street. From there the line was to continue as a single tunnel under the River Thames to Waterloo. The first bill was again delayed and withdrawn. Of the second, only the relocation of Strand station was permitted.

 

The linking of the GN&SR and B&PCR routes meant that the section of the GN&SR south of Holborn became a branch from the main route. The UERL began constructing the main route in July 1902. Progress was rapid, so that it was largely complete by the Autumn of 1906.[13] Construction of the Holborn to Strand section was delayed while the London County Council constructed Kingsway and the tramway subway running beneath it and while the UERL decided how the junction between the main route and the branch would be arranged at Holborn.[14][note 1]

Strand station was built on the site of the Royal Strand Theatre, which had closed on 13 May 1905 and been demolished. Construction of the station began on 21 October 1905,[16] to a design by the UERL's architect Leslie Green in the UERL house style of a two-storey steel-framed building faced with red glazed terracotta blocks, with wide semi-circular windows on the upper floor.[17] The station building is L-shaped, with two façades separated by the building on the corner of Strand and Surrey Street. The Strand façade is narrow with a single semi-circular window above the entrance. The façade in Surrey Street is wider with a separate entrance and exit and a shop unit. In anticipation of a revival of the extension to Waterloo and the City route, the station was built with three circular lift shafts able to accommodate six trapezium-shaped lifts. Only one of the shafts was fitted out, with two lifts.[18] The other two shafts rose from the lower concourse to the basement of the station, but could have been extended upwards into the space of the shop unit when required. A fourth smaller-diameter shaft accommodated an emergency spiral stair.[19]

The platforms are 92 feet 6 inches (28.19 m) below street level and are 250 feet (76 m) long;[16] shorter than the GNP&BR's standard length of 350 feet (110 m).[20] As with other UERL stations, the platform walls were tiled with distinctive patterns, in this case cream and dark green. Only parts of the platform walls were decorated because it was planned to operate the branch with short trains.[16] Due to the reduced lift provision, a second route between the platforms and lifts was never brought into use and was left in an unfinished condition without tiling.

 

The GNP&BR's main route opened on 15 December 1906, but the Strand branch was not opened until 30 November 1907.[22] Initially, shuttle trains operated to Holborn from the eastern platform into the through platform at Holborn. At peak times, an additional train operated alternately in the branch's western tunnel into the bay platform at Holborn. During the first year of operation, a train for theatregoers operated late on Monday to Saturday evenings from Strand through Holborn and northbound to Finsbury Park; this was discontinued in October 1908.[16]

In March 1908, the off-peak shuttle service began to use the western platform at Strand and the through platform at Holborn, crossing between the two branch tunnels south of Holborn. Low usage led to the withdrawal of the second peak-hour shuttle and the eastern tunnel was taken out of use in 1914.[23][24] On 9 May 1915, three of the Underground stations in the area were renamed and Strand station became Aldwych.[22][note 2] Sunday services ended in April 1917 and, in August of the same year, the eastern tunnel and platform at Aldwych and the bay platform at Holborn were formally closed.[25] A German bombing campaign in September 1917 led the disused platform being used as storage for 300 pictures from the National Gallery until December 1918.

 

In October 1922, the ticket office was replaced by a facility in the lifts.[25] Passenger numbers remained low: when the station was one of a number on the network considered for closure in 1929, its annual usage was 1,069,650 and takings were £4,500.[27][note 3] The branch was again considered for closure in 1933, but remained open.[25]

Wartime efficiency measures led to the branch being closed temporarily on 22 September 1940, shortly after the start of The Blitz, and it was partly fitted out by the City of Westminster as an air-raid shelter. The tunnels between Aldwych and Holborn were used to store items from the British Museum, including the Elgin Marbles. The branch reopened on 1 July 1946, but patronage did not increase.[28] In 1958, the station was one of three that London Transport announced would be closed. Again it survived, but the service was reduced in June 1958 to run only during Monday to Friday peak hours and Saturday morning and early afternoons.[29][note 4] The Saturday service was withdrawn in June 1962.[29]

  

Shelterers inside Aldwych station during the Blitz, 1940.

 

After operating only during peak hours for more than 30 years, the closure announcement came on 4 January 1993. The original 1907 lifts required replacement at a cost of £3 million. This was not justifiable as only 450 passengers used the station each day and it was losing London Regional Transport £150,000 per year. The Secretary of State for Transport granted permission on 1 September 1994 to close the station and the branch closed on 30 September.

 

Although the Piccadilly Circus to City of London branch proposal of 1905 was never revisited after its withdrawal, the early plan to extend the branch south to Waterloo was revived a number of times during the station's life. The extension was considered in 1919 and 1948, but no progress towards constructing the link was made.[28]

In the years after the Second World War, a series of preliminary plans for relieving congestion on the London Underground had considered various east-west routes through the Aldwych area, although other priorities meant that these were never proceeded with. In March 1965, a British Rail and London Transport joint planning committee published "A Railway Plan for London" which proposed a new tube railway, the Fleet line (later renamed the Jubilee line), to join the Bakerloo line at Baker Street then run via Bond Street, Green Park, Charing Cross, Aldwych and into the City of London via Ludgate Circus, Cannon Street and Fenchurch Street before heading into south-east London. An interchange was proposed at Aldwych and a second recommendation of the report was the revival of the link from Aldwych to Waterloo.[31][32] London Transport had already sought parliamentary approval to construct tunnels from Aldwych to Waterloo in November 1964,[33] and in August 1965, parliamentary powers were granted. Detailed planning took place, although public spending cuts led to postponement of the scheme in 1967 before tenders were invited.[29]

Planning of the Fleet line continued and parliamentary approval was given in July 1969 for the first phase of the line, from Baker Street to Charing Cross.[34] Tunnelling began on the £35 million route in February 1972 and the Jubilee line opened north from Charing Cross in May 1979.[35] The tunnels of the approved section continued east of Charing Cross under Strand almost as far as Aldwych station, but no work at Aldwych was undertaken and they were used only as sidings.[36] Funding for the second phase of the work was delayed throughout the 1970s whilst the route beyond Charing Cross was reviewed to consider options for serving anticipated development in the London Docklands area. By 1979, the cost was estimated as £325 million, a six-fold increase from the £51 million estimated in 1970.[37] A further review of alternatives for the Jubilee line was carried out in 1980, which led to the a change of priorities and the postponement of any further effort on the line.[38] When the extension was eventually constructed in the late 1990s it took a different route, south of the River Thames via Westminster, Waterloo and London Bridge to provide a rapid link to Canary Wharf, leaving the tunnels between Green Park and Aldwych redundant.[39]

In July 2005, Ove Arup & Partners produced a report, DLR Horizon 2020 Study, for the Docklands Light Railway (DLR) examining "pragmatic development schemes" to expand and improve the DLR network between 2012 and 2020. One of the proposals was an extension of the DLR from Bank to Charing Cross via City Thameslink and Aldwych. The disused Jubilee line tunnels would be enlarged to accommodate the larger DLR trains and Aldwych station would form the basis for a new station on the line, although requiring considerable reconstruction to accommodate escalators. The estimated cost in 2005 was £232 million for the infrastructure works and the scheme was described as "strongly beneficial" as it was expected to attract passengers from the London Underground's existing east-west routes and from local buses and reduce overcrowding at Bank station. The business case assessment was that the proposal offered high value, although similar values were calculated for other extension proposals from Bank. Further detailed studies were proposed.

 

Because it was a self-contained section of the London Underground which was closed at weekends and for extended periods during weekdays, Aldwych station and the branch line from Holborn were popular locations for filming scenes set on the Tube even before their closure. Since the branch's closure in 1994, its use in film productions has continued, with the station appearing as itself and, with appropriate signage, as other stations on the network.[29] The track and infrastructure are maintained in operational condition, and a train of ex-Northern line 1972 tube stock is permanently stabled on the branch. This train can be driven up and down the branch for filming. The physical connection with the Piccadilly line northbound tracks remains, but requires manual operation.[41]

Films and television productions that have been shot at Aldwych include:

The Gentle Gunman (1952)[29]

Battle of Britain (1969)[42]

Death Line (1972)[29]

Superman IV: The Quest for Peace (1986)[29]

The Krays (1990)[43]

Patriot Games (1994)[43]

Creep (2004)[42]

V for Vendetta (2006)[42]

The Good Shepherd (2006)[42]

Atonement (2007)[42]

28 Weeks Later (2007)[42]

The Edge of Love (2008)[42]

Mr Selfridge (2013) [44]

The pre-war operation of the station features in a pivotal scene in Geoffrey Household's novel Rogue Male, when the pursuit of the protagonist by an enemy agent sees them repeatedly using the shuttle service on the branch line. A chase through Aldwych station ends with the agent's death by electrocution on the track.[45] A much modified and expanded version of the station appears as a level in the video game Tomb Raider III.[46] The music video for The Prodigy's song "Firestarter" was filmed in the disused eastern tunnel and one of the unused lift shafts.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aldwych_tube_station

IBM Research - Zurich together with Prof. Pavlos Lagoudakis at Skolkovo Institute of Science and Technology and Southampton (a collaboration established within the framework of the European Horizon-2020 training network SYNCHRONICS), has succeeded in building the first ever cascadable, all-optical transistor capable of operating at room temperature. The team achieved this by exploiting the material properties of an organic semiconducting polymer. Based on this material, a microcavity was engineered in which an incoming optical signal (a laser beam) can be switched on and off or amplified by another laser beam.

 

The work is featured as a Letter in the latest edition of the peer-reviewed journal Nature Photonics.

 

In this photo, the mounted circular glass chip which contains the optical microresonator for the organic polariton transistor.

 

Photo credit: Thomas Schlund/IBMResearch

PSNC - Poznan Supercomputing and Networking Center (Poland) is affiliated to the Institute of Bioorganic Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences (IBCH PAS) and is an active research and development center specialized in new generation networking, high resolution and immersive media, scientific applications and visualization, clouds, digital libraries and cyber security, as well as technologies, applications and services for Information Society.

 

credit: PSNC

"Printed Paper Actuator" is a new electrical and reversible paper actuator printed by a FDM 3D printer. The actuator is composed of inexpensive materials, such as common paper and off-the-shelf thermoplastic printing filaments. The fabrication process is fast and straightforward, which requires a single layer printing with a desktop FDM printer. Our paper actuator can be easily embedded into everyday objects to enable new types of paper-based shape-changing interfaces that exhibit motion, transformation, and rich interactivities such as pop-up books, toys, origami robots, and lampshades. "Printed Paper Actuator" was awarded with an Honorary Mention at the STARTS Prize 2018.

 

Fotocredit: Morphing Matter Lab at Carnegie Mellon University

The Institute of Isolation is a short film exploring the body beyond Earth’s edge, following Lucy McRae as she tests the effects that extreme experience might have on evolving human capacities. Photo showing Lucy McRae.

 

Fotocredit: Lucy McRae

Mapa criado para em 2010 com linhas de transporte em obras, estudos na ocasião para o horizonte de 2020. The map created for 2010 with transport lines in the works, studies on occasion for the horizon 2020.

Made as a series of virtual experiments, Quantum Fluctuations shows the complexity and transient nature of the most fundamental aspect of reality, the quantum world, which is impossible to observe directly. In the laboratory, elementary particles are observed by measuring the spoils of a proton collision and comparing the findings with data collected from supercomputer simulations. It is perhaps the most indirect method of observation imaginable, a non-representational form of observation mediated by computer simulations.

 

Credit: Markos Kay

For many decades, Gaza has been subjected to extreme situations: three wars in 6 years and under siege for 10 years. This has led to a product and material shortage—especially of construction materials—in the Gaza strip, where construction demand is annually increasing. Simultaneously, ineffective environmental protection policies in industry are having a major environmental impact.

 

Credit: Asmaa Alkhaldi

489 Years is transcribed according to the testimony of a former soldier in South Korea, Kim. It gives us access to the DMZ, and makes us immerse in the heart of the personal memory of a soldier. He tells us his experience in a research mission and the amazing discovery he made in the field full of mines (mines laid by South Korea with no record of where they were placed). He speaks of a place where people are forbidden, a place where nature has totally reclaimed its hold.

 

Fotocredit: Fabrice Gaston

La ligne C1 au coeur des débats. Ce citelis ne sera sûrement plus là, à la mise en service de la ligne C1+ qui sera le BHNS (Bus à Haut Niveau de Service) du réseau TAG à l'horizon 2020. On peut observer les vestiges du trolley qui pourrait faire son grand retour sur cette ligne ou autre.

Citelis 18 n°4418 direction Cité Jean Macé qui arrive à l'arrêt la Revirée situé à Meylan.

The Hellisheiði Power Station (HGPS) is the third-largest geothermal power station in the world. The facility is located in Hengill, southwest Iceland, 11 km (7 mi) from the Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Station. The plant has a capacity of 303 MW of electricity and 133 MWth of hot water for Reykjavik's district heating. HGPS is owned and operated by ON Power, a subsidiary of Reykjavík Energy.

  

Electricity production with two 45 MW turbines commenced in 2006. In 2007, an additional low pressure steam turbine of 33 MW was added. In 2008, two 45 MW turbines were added with steam from Skarðsmýrarfjall Mountain. The hot water plant was introduced in 2010 and the last two high pressure 45 MW turbines were added in 2011. In order to reduce hydrogen sulphide pollution in the capital area a system was added to the plant in 2014 which reinjects non-condensable gases into the ground.

 

The power plant offers educational tours and presentations about sustainable energy as part of its Geothermal Energy Exhibition.

 

A pilot direct air capture facility operated by Climeworks is co-located at this site. It was funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 program, and captures 50 metric tons of carbon dioxide each year. The carbon dioxide is captured, injected into the ground, and mineralized (wiki)

 

L'ancien pont ferroviaire de Bordeaux, la passerelle Saint Jean ou passerelle Eiffel.

Batie de 1858 à 1860, elle avait initialement pour vocation de relier la gare d'Orléans (Compagnie du chemin de fer de Paris à Orléans ou Midi) à la gare Saint Jean (Compagnie des chemins de fer du Midi).

Conception : Stanislas de Laroche-Tolay

Ingénieur en chef : Paul Régnauld

Conduite des travaux : Gustave Eiffel.

Classée au titre des monuments historiques par arrêté du 22 février 2010, elle devrait devenir un franchissement piétonnier du fleuve à l'horizon 2020.

The Hellisheiði Power Station (HGPS) is the third-largest geothermal power station in the world. The facility is located in Hengill, southwest Iceland, 11 km (7 mi) from the Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Station. The plant has a capacity of 303 MW of electricity and 133 MWth of hot water for Reykjavik's district heating. HGPS is owned and operated by ON Power, a subsidiary of Reykjavík Energy.

  

Electricity production with two 45 MW turbines commenced in 2006. In 2007, an additional low pressure steam turbine of 33 MW was added. In 2008, two 45 MW turbines were added with steam from Skarðsmýrarfjall Mountain. The hot water plant was introduced in 2010 and the last two high pressure 45 MW turbines were added in 2011. In order to reduce hydrogen sulphide pollution in the capital area a system was added to the plant in 2014 which reinjects non-condensable gases into the ground.

 

The power plant offers educational tours and presentations about sustainable energy as part of its Geothermal Energy Exhibition.

 

A pilot direct air capture facility operated by Climeworks is co-located at this site. It was funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 program, and captures 50 metric tons of carbon dioxide each year. The carbon dioxide is captured, injected into the ground, and mineralized (wiki)

 

The Hellisheiði Power Station (HGPS) is the third-largest geothermal power station in the world. The facility is located in Hengill, southwest Iceland, 11 km (7 mi) from the Nesjavellir Geothermal Power Station. The plant has a capacity of 303 MW of electricity and 133 MWth of hot water for Reykjavik's district heating. HGPS is owned and operated by ON Power, a subsidiary of Reykjavík Energy.

  

Electricity production with two 45 MW turbines commenced in 2006. In 2007, an additional low pressure steam turbine of 33 MW was added. In 2008, two 45 MW turbines were added with steam from Skarðsmýrarfjall Mountain. The hot water plant was introduced in 2010 and the last two high pressure 45 MW turbines were added in 2011. In order to reduce hydrogen sulphide pollution in the capital area a system was added to the plant in 2014 which reinjects non-condensable gases into the ground.

 

The power plant offers educational tours and presentations about sustainable energy as part of its Geothermal Energy Exhibition.

 

A pilot direct air capture facility operated by Climeworks is co-located at this site. It was funded by the European Union's Horizon 2020 program, and captures 50 metric tons of carbon dioxide each year. The carbon dioxide is captured, injected into the ground, and mineralized (wiki)

 

Secret Theater Ensemble and Tempo Reale work together for a project where sound is conceived as a vibration to be experienced. The study, conducted by the composer Gabriele Marangoni, is intended to be an avant-garde project that breaks down barriers between deaf and hearing people through an artistic product specifically built to be enjoyed by both groups.

Silent is really a visionary journey to the limits of perception, because the audience experiences the presence of a deaf performer and a vocal soloist who produce the sound together.

 

Credit: Gabriele Marangoni

Photo taken in Welzow-Sud, Germany, where there is the largest opencast lignite mine in Europe. The lunar landscape is the result of the excavation activities of the mining industry. Lignite is a high-value high-energy content fossil fuel used by three power plants nearby for a total installed capacity of 4.5 GW. The machinery in the background, named F-60, is the biggest land-based moving structure ever built by mankind with a length of more than 500 metres (like two lying Eiffel towers). After its passage, mountains and canyons of dirt and quaternary sands are left behind. No one blade of grass can grow on those hills for decades. FAO, together with 11 partners, is involved in an Horizon 2020 project for the pre-feasibility assessment of the production of biomass for energy purposes on these contaminated lands. Today, these lands are unsuitable for the production of food. Through an added-value production and soil reclamation techniques, the project aims at restoring basic ecological functions.

©FAO/Marco Colangeli. September 2017

The MX3D bridge project started as a visionary moonshot project, an artist’s dream. Several years later that dream has been solidified in the 3D printed stainless steel bridge. This fully functional pedestrian bridge for the city center of Amsterdam will be completed in 2018, to be placed at its final location soon after. The bridge offers the ultimate proof we can now print large, beautiful, and intelligently designed structures in metals.

 

Amsterdam’s 3D Printed Steel Bridge was awarded the Grand Prize – Innovative Collaboration in the course of the STARTS Prize 2018.

 

credit: Adriaan de Groot

Marville - 55600 - Meuse - Lorraine - Grand est - France.

Plan d'eau de la Vallée de l'Othain .

 

Pour se mettre en conformité avec la loi sur l’eau du 30 décembre 2006 et la « continuité écologique », le plan d’eau de Marville, qui intègre la rivière Othain, devrait disparaître à l’horizon 2020.

Immersify is a European Research & Development consortium funded by the EU’s Horizon 2020 program, connecting the Ars Electronica Futurelab with four other European partners to research the next generation of immersive media. At the 2019 Ars Electronica Festival, Immersify presents selected works at Deep Space 8K.

 

Credit: Philipp Greindl

Immersify is a European Research & Development consortium funded by the EU’s Horizon 2020 program, connecting the Ars Electronica Futurelab with four other European partners to research the next generation of immersive media. At the 2019 Ars Electronica Festival, Immersify presents selected works at Deep Space 8K.

 

Credit: Magdalena Sick-Leitner

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