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George Floyd murdered by police in Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA is just the latest of many Black Men and Women to die in police custody. Chapter 27 by Derek R Ford in this new book documents the killing of Eric Garner in Staten Island New York 17 July 2014. He was choked to death by police. His last words were," I can't breathe I can't breathe I cant breathe".

 

Henri Lefebvre would no doubt say the production of air is racialised under neoliberal capitalism.

 

routledge.com/The-Routledge-Handbook-of-Henri-Lefebvre-Th... #cantbreathe

Delesio Antonio Berni was a figurative artist, born in Rosario, province of Santa Fe, Argentina. He worked as a painter, an illustrator and an engraver. His father, Napoleón Berni, was an immigrant tailor from Italy. His mother, Margarita Picco, was an Argentinian, daughter of Italians settled in Roldán, a nearby town.

 

In 1914, he became an apprentice in the Buxadera and Co. vitraux factory, receiving to Buenos Aires, which was attended even by President Marcelo T. de Alvear.

 

In Paris, he became acquainted with a number of people, such as Louis Aragon, a French writer and one of the leaders of Dada and surrealism, who influenced him artistically and introduced him to André Breton, poet and critic. He also befriended Henri Lefebvre, who initiated him in the reading of Karl Marx. With the combined influence of his friends in politics, and of Giorgio de Chirico's works and René Magritte in the arts, he finally embraced surrealism and Communism. He began helping Aragón in his anti-imperialist struggle in Paris, where Chinese, African, Vietnamese and other minority people were abundant. Berni distributed a newspaper and illustrated other publications. In the meantime, he studied surrealist painting and poetry, and the work of Sigmund Freud. One of his illuminating moments came when he met Tristan Tzara in 1930.

 

His style of surrealism does not resemble Miró's automatism or Dalí's onirism; he instead took Chirico's style and gave it a new content.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Berni

"Simultaneously with this understanding of such organic town pattern, and subsequently to a great extent as a logical consequence of it … there became laid an equally strong groundwork for such an understanding of architecture that even the architectural style-form must express contemporary conditions, and no other conditions."CAMILLO SITTE

 

.This is essentially a look at what works about older cities, and it connects patterns in architecture and planning with patterns of social life. So it has half the equation I think is needed. The other half is how architecture and planning in turn shapes social life in the dialectic that Henri Lefebvre would explore among others. Sitte argues that the changes in the city reflect the changes in social life — in medieval times much of life led on the street, because interiors cold, damp, uncomfortable. From the introduction by Ralph Walker:The growing number of comforts within the modern shelter had, one by one, eliminated the desire for pageantry in the space outside. The underlying idea of the forum and the plaza, through out the ages the focal points of classical and medieval cities, took on less social and political meaning. (vii) But on to Camillo Sitte himself. In the introduction he quotes Artistotle’s summary: ‘A city should be built to give its inhabitants security and happiness.’ Sitte continues.The science of the technician will not suffice to accomplish this. We need, in addition, the talent of the artist. From his words you would know the world has already entered the time of professional planners, architects, what Sitte calls hygienists. He doesn’t argue that they are not needed, but rather that they need to rethink their approach and incorporate, as he says, the artist.Perhaps this study will permit us to find the means of satisfying the three principal requirements of practical city building: to rid the modern systems of blocks and regularly aligned houses; to save as much as possible of that which remains from ancient cities; and in our creation to approach more closely the ideal of the ancient models.Difference between then and now, I wish, as I say he had thought through more of the corollary.Public squares, or plazas, were then of prime necessity, for they were theaters for the principal scenes of public life, which today take place in closed halls. But I like playing with this very different understanding of space that he sees existing in past and present:In brief, the place of the forum in cities corresponds to that of the principal room of a house. It is to the city, so to speak, the principal hall… This is just lovely.The interior temples and monuments are the stone myths of the greek people. The highest poetry and thought are embodied in them.The bulk of the book, however, focuses on the details of public spaces, groupings of building and streets that work. In many ways the chapter headings summarise very nicely Sitte’s arguments.

 

I: The relationship Between Buildings, Monuments and Public Squares

 

This highlights again the importance of the public square in community life, and contrasts the squares that work well from the past with those that don’t from his present:The fundamental difference between the procedures of former times and those of today rests in the fact that we constantly seek the largest space for each little statue. Thus we diminish the effect … instead of augmenting it …

 

II: Open Centers of Public Places

 

This explores the many examples of monuments and fountains that sit not at the centre of the square, or in way of its foot traffic, but off to one side. This also applies to churches — which I confess I find quite odd as I am so used to them sitting in open space in the US and UK. Like Gordon Cullen, though not nearly as explicitly, he is always thinking how people move through space, how they encounter buildings and the public places that surround them. He looks at both stone and emptiness and the way one relates to the other.Buildings built in this way ‘acquire a double worth’. even without being surrounding by a void they offer up different views and compositions. Being written in 1889, this already feels as though it is part of the past, but this is the period when our present is forming — this critique is all too familiar:

 

This rage for isolating everything is truly a modern sickness. R. Baumeister in his manual on city building even raises this to the status of a working principle. He writes, ‘Old buildings ought to be preserved, but we must, so to speak, peel them and preserve them.” The object of this, then, is that by the transformation of surroundings the old buildings should be led to the midst of public places and in the axes of streets. This procedure is used everywhere and with special satisfaction in treating ancient city portals. it is indeed a fine thing to have an isolated city gateway around which we may stroll instead of passing under its arches!

 

Peel them and preserve them — no better way to describe what has been done to too much architecture that should instead be living and peacefully subsiding.

 

III: The Enclosed Character of the Public Square

 

Such a simple rule, one so ignored so often in modern building.

 

‘The old plazas produce a collective harmonious effect because they are uniformly enclosed…In fact, the public square owes its name to this characteristic in an expanse at the center if a city.

 

He looks at how it is enclosed, how street enter into it:

 

Careful study shows that there are many advantages to an arrangement of street openings in the form of turbine arms.

 

It looks clear in the drawing, I think of the great wonderful squares of Prague or Krakow and agree with him on avoiding busy cross sections at each corner.

 

IV: The Form and Expanse of Public Squares

 

He looks at two forms of square — those that are deep and those wide. They set off different building types, deep plazas are better facing a church of slender form, city halls require broader, more expansive ones.

 

… The height of the principal building, measured from the ground to the cornice, should be in proportion to the dimension of the public square measured perpendicularly in the direction of the principal facade.

 

I love this, can’t wait to wander some of the cities he describes in this way:

 

It is truly a delight for the sensitive observer to analyze such a plan and to find the explanation for its wonderful effect, Like all true works of art it continually reveals new beauties and further reason for admiring the methods and resourcefulness of the ancient city builders. (26)

 

V: The Irregularity of Ancient Public Squares

 

The opposite to today’s grids, but Sitte hardly needs to point that out, nor that this is due to their gradual historical development, but this is an important point:

 

Everyone knows from personal experience that these disruptions in symmetry are not unsightly. On the contrary, they arouse our interest as much as they appear natural, and preserve a picturesque character. Few people, however, understand why irregularity can avoid giving an unpleasant appearance. We must study a map to understand it.

 

Always we turn to Italy — Padua, Verona, Florence, Palermo. To give you a taste of the many maps that fill the book:

 

sitte-piazzas

 

VI: Groups of Public Squares

 

The groupings of squares! To an American this is a wonderful extravagance indeed, also wonderful to move from one enclosed, irregular square to another as my European wanderings can attest.

 

On Venice:

 

There is such an expanse of beauty here that no painter has ever conceived an architectural background more perfect than its setting. No theater ever created a more sublime tableau than the spectacle to be enjoyed at Venice. It is truly the seat of a great power, a power of spirit, of art, and of industry which has gathered the treasures of the world upon its vessels…

 

VII: Arrangement of Public Squares in Northern Europe

 

The difference he notes, which I had noted already, was that in Northern Europe churches tend to sit more separately — usually because they have been surrounded by graveyards. (Where was everyone buried in this Italian cities of stone I wonder?) Yet these small churches that form the fabric of the city or town are still generally not fully centered in a square, rather they often set to one side. There is, however, often a large plaza in front to set off the facade. Still, they are approached in various ways that creates interest, surprise, wonder.

  

Sitte doesn’t simply look to the ancient, he likes too the Baroque arrangement of squares, the way that

 

… art came to control vistas of the great three-sided plazas, churches, palaces, formal gardens, sumptuous approaches to important buildings, as well as nature’s masterpieces.

 

This would include the Plaza of the Palazzo Pitti at Florence, that of the Capitol at Rome. Thus:

 

The development of Baroque style differs from the history of earlier styles in that it did not evolve gradually. On the contrary, like modern styles, it came full panoplied from the drawing board as an invention. We cannot, therefore, attribute the banality of modern planning to the fact that it has precisely the same kind of origin. We insist, simply, that the straight line and geometrical patterns should not be made the aims of our planning.

 

The Baroque is the idea of a theatre-type perspective…he gives the example of Würzburg Residence:

 

30006045486_609df0d6b7_k-2

 

He writes:

 

Every modern university or group of public buildings laid out around large and small open spaces generally follows some variant of the Würzburg Residence plan — a large court or yard at the center with smaller courts at either side. (51)

 

Looking at the picture I though god damn, it’s so true.

 

VIII: The Artless and Prosaic Character of Modern City Planning

 

Ha.

 

Open space that should serve everyone actually belongs to the engineer and hygienist. All of the art forms in town building have disappeared one by one so that we have scarcely a memory of them left. (53)

 

IX: Modern Systems

 

Ah, the grid. He writes here at the beginning of the grid. It’s funny looking back, that actually it got much worse than the grid, comparing New York for example, to the suburbs.

 

These systems accomplish nothing except a standardization of street patterns. They are purely mechanical in conception. They reduce the street system to a mere traffic utility, never serving the purposes of art. They make no appeal to the sense of perception, for we can see their features only on a map. (59)

 

He looks at street patterns and traffic — traffic! Ah, 1889, this was just the beginning, but this kind of diagram is also very familiar.

 

fig82-83

 

X: Modern Limitations on Art in City Planning

 

What I like most is that actually this is not just a nostalgic looking backwards, though I wouldn’t fault that too much given the delight that these old city spaces bring and the importance of thinking through just why. Sitte writes:

 

Many of the old structural forms are simply out of the question for modern builders. While that may disturb the sentimental, it should not plunge them into a sterile nostalgia. Decorative construction without vital function is but temporary and of questionable value. Time makes inexorable changes in community life, and these changes alter the original significance of architectural forms.

 

But now more and more, we see how architectural forms result from community life…

 

Great population increases in our modern capitals, more than anything else, have shattered the old forms. With the growth of a city its streets widen and its buildings grow taller and bulkier.

 

Written before the first skyscraper mind.

 

Intense human concentration has meant intense increase in land value, and neither the individual nor the city government can escape the consequences. Subdivision and street opening have proceeded apace, Street after street has been cut through old districts, giving birth to more and more city blocks. (69)

 

This economic understanding of development was unexpected, I’m not sure why though. Still, it is almost uncanny to see the way that Sitte foresaw the architectural and planning future.

 

High land costs encourage greater intensity of land use, and this, in turn, supports certain structural forms. Modern lot plotting tends to exalt the cube motif in architecture.

 

XI: Improved Modern Systems

 

So looking to his future, our present which is one Sitte did his best to prevent and I appreciate that, he writes:

 

Our study has already indicated the obvious need for innovations to overcome the effects of the ill-famed rectangular system. (74)

 

I’m almost glad he didn’t know there would be worse. He didn’t see bureaucratic and state planning as the answer — though private planning wasn’t the answer either.

 

Personal ambition, artistic individuality, and enthusiasm for work of one’s own responsibility are factors that do not fit into public administration. In fact, they are incompatible with official discipline.

 

Sitte foresaw the great wind corridors of our modern times as well:

 

While it is possible for a pedestrian to stroll without discomfort in the old inner city, he is immediately enveloped in clouds of dust when he steps into a modern part of the City. Open plazas, where street openings draw in wind from every direction (like the new City Hall Plaza of Vienna) feature beautiful wind spirals throughout the year…

 

I haven’t yet been to Budapest and Vienna, but Sitte upholds the first, describing Budapest:

 

where stand the finest and most greatly admired urban areas along the Danube, where the river is made a magnificent feature of the City itself. Sooner or later, the Danube can have an equally fine effect on Vienna. … Should, then, a gradual slum development be permitted in the meantime? Should not the senseless and immensely costly rectangular system be abandoned? (85)

 

He really hates rectangles.

 

XII: Artistic Principles in City Planning — An Illustration

 

Again Vienna, always back to Vienna, it was his city after all. But there is much to think on for all cities.

 

writingcities.com/2016/10/01/camillo-sitte-art-building-c...

 

The French Communist Party (PCF) has been a part of the political scene in France since 1920, peaking in strength around the end of World War II. It originated when a majority of members resigned from the socialist French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO) party to set up the French Section of the Communist International (SFIC). The SFIO had been divided over support for French participation in World War I and over whether to join the Communist International (Comintern). The new SFIC defined itself as revolutionary and democratic centralist. Ludovic-Oscar Frossard was its first secretary-general, and Ho Chi Minh was also among the founders. Frossard himself resigned in 1923, and the 1920s saw a number of splits within the party over relations with other left-wing parties and over adherence to the Communist International's dictates. The party gained representation in the French parliament in successive elections, but also promoted strike action and opposed colonialism. Pierre Sémard, leader from 1924 to 1928, sought party unity and alliances with other parties; but leaders including Maurice Thorez (party leader from 1930 to 1964) imposed a Stalinist line from the late 1920s, leading to loss of membership through splits and expulsions, and reduced electoral success. With the rise of Fascism this policy shifted after 1934, and the PCF supported the Popular Front, which came to power under Léon Blum in 1936. The party helped to secure French support for the Spanish Republicans during the Spanish Civil War, and opposed the 1938 Munich agreement with Hitler. During this period the PCF adopted a more patriotic image, and favoured an equal but distinct role for women in the communist movement.The party was banned in 1939 on the outbreak of World War II. Under Comintern direction the PCF opposed the war and may have sabotaged arms production. The leadership, threatened with execution, fled abroad. After the German invasion of 1940 the party failed to persuade the occupiers to legalise its activities, and while denouncing the war as a struggle between imperialists, began to organise opposition to the occupation. When Germany invaded the Soviet Union the next year, the Comintern declared Germany to be an enemy, and the PCF expanded its anti-German activities, forming the National Front movement within the broader Resistance and organising direct action and political assassinations through the armed Francs-Tireurs et Partisans (FTP) group. At the same time the PCF began to work with de Gaulle's "Free France", the London-based government in exile, and later took part in the National Council of the Resistance (CNR).Although the PCF opposed de Gaulle's formation of the Fifth Republic in 1958, the following years saw a rapprochement with other left-wing forces and an increased strength in parliament. With Waldeck Rochet as its new secretary-general, the party supported François Mitterrand's unsuccessful presidential bid in 1965 and started to move apart to a limited extent from the Soviet Union. During the student riots and strikes of May 1968, the party supported the strikes while denouncing the revolutionary student movements. After heavy losses in the ensuing parliamentary elections, the party adopted Georges Marchais as leader and in 1973 entered into a "Common Programme" alliance with Mitterrand's reconstituted Socialist Party (PS). Under the Common Programme, however, the PCF steadily lost ground to the PS, a process that continued after Mitterrand's victory in 1981.Initially allotted a minor share in Mitterrand's government, the PCF resigned in 1984 as the government turned towards fiscal orthodoxy. Under Marchais the party continued loyal to the Soviet Union up to its fall in 1991, and made little move towards "Eurocommunism". Extensive reform of the party's structure and policies had to wait until 1994, when Robert Hue became leader. The party's renunciation of much traditional communist dogma after this did little to stem its declining popularity, although it entered government again in 1997 as part of the Plural Left coalition. Elections in 2002 gave worse results than ever for the PCF, now led by Marie-George Buffet. Under Buffet, the PCF turned away from parliamentary strategy and sought broader social alliances. It condemned the Nicolas Sarkozy government's response to riots in 2005 and adopted a more militant stance towards the European Union. Buffet's attempt to stand in the 2007 presidential election as a common candidate of the "anti-liberal left" had little success. To maintain a presence in parliament after 2007 the party's few remaining deputies had to group together with those from The Greens and others to create the Democratic and Republican Left (GDR). Subsequently a broader electoral coalition, the Left Front (FG), was formed including the PCF, Jean-Luc Mélenchon's Left Party (PG), United Left, and others. The FG has continued up to the present and has brought the French communists somewhat better electoral results, at the price of some tension within the party and with other parties in the FG. With Pierre Laurent as leader since 2010, in a symbolic move the party no longer includes the hammer and sickle logo on its membership cards.The French Communist Party was founded in December 1920 by a split in the socialist French Section of the Workers' International (SFIO), led by the majority of party members who supported membership in the Communist International (or "Komintern") founded in 1919 by Lenin after the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia.The outbreak of World War I in 1914 sparked tensions within the SFIO, when a majority of the SFIO took what left-wing socialists called a "social-chauvinist" line in support of the French war effort. Gradually, anti-war factions gained in influence in the party and Ludovic-Oscar Frossard was elected general secretary in October 1918. Additionally, the success of the Bolshevik Revolution in Russia aroused hope for a similar communist revolution in France among some SFIO members.After the war, the issue of membership in the new Communist International became a major issue for the SFIO. In the spring of 1920, Frossard and Marcel Cachin, director of the party newspaper L'Humanité, were commissioned to meet with Bolshevik leaders in Russia. They observed the second congress of the Communist International, during the course of which Vladimir Lenin set out the 21 conditions for membership. When they returned, Frossard and Cachin recommended that the party join the Communist International.At the SFIO's Tours Congress in December 1920, this opinion was supported by the left-wing faction (Boris Souvarine, Fernand Loriot) and the 'centrist' faction (Ludovic-Oscar Frossard, Marcel Cachin), but opposed by the right-wing faction (Léon Blum). This majority option won three quarters of the votes from party members at the congress. The pro-Kominterm majority founded a new party, known as the French Section of the Communist International (Section française de l'Internationale communiste, SFIC), which accepted the strict conditions for membership.

A majority of socialist parliamentarians and local officeholders were opposed to membership, particularly because of the Communist International's strict democratic centralism and its denunciation of parliamentarianism. These members went on to form a rump SFIO, which had a much smaller membership than the SFIC but which could count on a strong base of officeholders and parliamentarians.The founders of the SFIC took with them the party paper L'Humanité, founded by Jean Jaurès in 1904, which remained tied to the party until the 1990s. In the General Confederation of Labour (CGT) trade unions, the Communist minority split away to form the United General Confederation of Labour (CGTU) in 1922.The new communist party defined itself as a revolutionary party, which used legal as well as clandestine or illegal means. The party organization was run under strict democratic centralist precepts, until the 1990s: the minority factions were compelled to follow the majority faction, any organized factions or contrary opinions were forbidden, while membership was tightly controlled and dissidents often purged from the party.Ho Chi Minh, who would create the Viet Minh in 1941 and then declare the independence of Vietnam, was one of its founding members.In its early years, as the communists fought the SFIO for control of the French left, the new party was weakened and marginalized by a series of splits and expulsions.The "bolshevization" or stalinization imposed by the Communist International, as well as Zinoviev's power over the Communist International, led to internal crises. "Bolshevization" implied not only the adoption of the political strategy of the Communist International but a reorganization of party's structure on the model of the Bolsheviks (discipline, local organization under the shape of "cells", ascent of a young political staff which came from the working-class).The first secretary-general of the PCF, Ludovic-Oscar Frossard, was often reluctant to obey the directives of the Communist International. Indeed, the party leadership was opposed to the strategy of the "proletarian unique front". Furthermore, one of Frossard's internal opponents, Boris Souvarine, was a member of the secretariat of the Communist International. Frossard resigned and left the PCF in 1923 to found a dissident United Communist Party which later became the Communist Socialist Party (but Frossard himself rejoined the SFIO). The general secretariat of the Party was shared by Louis Sellier (center faction) and Albert Treint (left-wing faction). At the same time, Boris Souvarine was expelled from the Communist International and the PCF due to his sympathy for Leon Trotsky.

In the 1924 legislative election, the PCF won 9.8% of the vote and 26 seats, considerably weaker than the SFIO. But under the leadership of the left-wing faction, priority was given to general strikes and revolutionary actions rather than elections. In the French Parliament, the PCF's first elected deputies were opposed to the Cartel des Gauches coalition formed by the SFIO and the Radical Party, which governed between 1924 to 1926.In order to reconcile the various factions of the party, Pierre Sémard, railroad worker and union activist, was chosen as the new secretary-general. He wanted to put an end to sectarianism, which was criticized by communist officeholders and leaders of the CGTU. Most notably, he proposed alliances with other left-wing parties (including the SFIO) in order to combat fascism. This strategy was criticized by the board of the Communist International as "parliamentarist". At the same time, the party campaigned against French colonialism in Morocco (the Rif War), leading to the detention of some PCF members, including Sémard. On his release from prison, he became more and more controversial. Only 11 PCF candidates were elected in the Chamber of Deputies in the 1928 election, although the PCF increased its support to 11%.

In 1927, in the Soviet Union, Josef Stalin sidelined his opponents (Zinoviev, Kamenev and Leon Trotsky) and imposed a strict "class against class" line on the Communist International. In France, a Stalinist committee took control of the PCF . Its most influential figures came from the Communist Youth, notably Henri Barbé and Pierre Célor. They applied the "class against class" political line of the Communist International, denouncing social democracy and the SFIO as akin to bourgeois parties. Simultaneously, the new leadership purged dissidents, like Louis Sellier, former secretary-general, who created the Worker and Peasant Party, which merged with the Communist Socialist Party to form the Party of Proletarian Unity (PUP). By the end of the 1920s, the party contained fewer than 30,000 members.

The collegial leadership of the party was divided between young leaders and more experienced politicians. The secretary for organization, Maurice Thorez, was chosen as the new secretary-general in 1930. In 1931, Barbé and Celor were accused of responsibility for excesses in the "class against class" strategy. Nonetheless, the strategy was continued.Indeed, the Wall Street Crash of 1929 and the Great Depression, which affected France beginning in 1931, caused much anxiety and disturbance, as in other countries. As economic liberalism failed, many were eagerly looking for new solutions. Technocratic ideas were born during this time (Groupe X-Crise), as well as autarky and corporatism in the fascist movement, which advocated union of workers and employers. Some members were attracted to these new ideas, most notably Jacques Doriot. A member of the presidium of the Executive Committee of the Comintern from 1922 onwards, and from 1923 onwards the secretary of the French Federation of Young Communists, later elected to the French Chamber of Deputies from Saint-Denis, he came to advocate an alliance between the Communists and SFIO. Doriot was then expelled in 1934, and with his followers. Afterwards he moved sharply to the right and formed the French Popular Party, which would be one of the most collaborationist parties during the Vichy regime.

The PCF was the main organizer of a counter-exhibition to the 1931 Colonial Exhibition in Paris, called "The Truth about the Colonies". In the first section, it recalled Albert Londres and André Gide's critics of forced labour in the colonies and other crimes of the New Imperialism period; in the second section, it contrasted imperialist colonialism to "the Soviets' policy on nationalities". In 1934 the Tunisian Federation of the PCF became the Tunisian Communist Party.[2]

The PCF suffered substantial loses in the 1932 election, winning only 8% of the vote and 10 seats. The 1932 election saw the victory of another Cartel des gauches. This time, although the PCF did not participate in the coalition, it supported the government from the outside (soutien sans participation), similar to how the Socialists, prior to the First World War, had supported republican and Radical governments without participating.The Communist Party attracted various intellectuals and artists in the 1920s, including André Breton, the leader of the Surrealist movement, Henri Lefebvre (who would be expelled in 1958), Paul Éluard, Louis Aragon, and others.This second Cartel coalition fell following the far-right 6 February 1934 riots, which forced Radical Prime Minister Édouard Daladier to cede power to the conservative Gaston Doumergue. Following this crisis, the PCF, like the whole of the socialist movement, feared that France was on the verge of fascist takeover. Adolf Hitler's rise to power in 1933 and the destruction of the Communist Party of Germany following the 27 February 1933 Reichstag fire led Moscow and Stalin to change course, and adopt the popular front strategy whereby communists were to form anti-fascist coalitions with their erstwhile socialist and bourgeois enemies. Maurice Thorez spearheaded the formation of an alliance with the SFIO, and later the Popular Front in 1936.

During the Popular Front era (after 1934) the PCF rapidly grew in size and influence, its growth fueled by the popularity of the Comintern's Popular Front strategy, which allowed an anti-fascist alliance with the SFIO and the Radical Party. The PCF made substantial gains in the 1934 cantonal elections and established themselves as the dominant political force in working-class municipalities surrounding Paris (the Red Belt) in the 1935 municipal elections.

The Popular Front won the 1936 elections; the PCF itself made major gains - taking 15.3% and 72 seats. SFIO leader Léon Blum formed a Socialist-Radical government, supported from the outside by the PCF. However, the Popular Front government soon collapsed under the strains of domestic financial problems (including inflation) and foreign policy issues (the radicals opposed intervention in the Spanish Civil War while the socialists and communists were in favour), and was replaced by a moderate government led by Édouard Daladier.

As the only major communist party in western Europe that was still legal, the PCF played a major role in supporting the Spanish Second Republic during the Spanish Civil War, alongside the Soviet Union. Blum's government officially maintained a neutral policy of non-intervention, but in practice his government ensured the safe passage of aid and Soviet weapons to the besieged Spanish republicans. The PCF often played a major role in such actions, and it sent a number of French volunteers to fight for the republicans in the International Brigades. At the end of the conflict, the PCF organized humanitarian aid for Spanish refugees.

The PCF's 72 deputies (along with only three others) opposed the ratification of the Munich Accords, signed by Daladier and Neville Chamberlain. The PCF believed that the accords would allow Hitler to turn his attention eastwards, towards the Soviet Union.

On 12 August 1936, a party organization was formed in Madagascar, the Communist Party (French Section of the Communist International) of the Region of Madagascar.[3]

New social positions[edit]

The cross-class coalition of the Popular Front forced the Communists to accept some bourgeois cultural norms they had long ridiculed.[4] These included patriotism, the veterans' sacrifice, the honor of being an army officer, the prestige of the bourgeois, and the leadership of the Socialist Party and the parliamentary Republic. Above all the Communists portrayed themselves as French nationalists. Young Communists dressed in costumes from the revolutionary period and the scholars glorified the Jacobins as heroic predecessors.The Communists in the 1920s saw the need to mobilize young women, but saw them as auxiliaries to male organizations. In the 1930s there was a new model, of a separate but equal role for women. The Party set up the Union des Jeunes Filles de France (UJFF) to appeal to young working women through publications and activities geared to their interests. The Party discarded its original notions of Communist femininity and female political activism as a gender-neutral revolutionary. It issued a new model more attuned to the mood of the late 1930s and one more acceptable to the middle class elements of the Popular Front. It now portrayed the ideal Young Communist as a paragon of moral probity with her commitment to marriage and motherhood, and gender-specific public activism.Under Buffet's leadership after 2003, the PCF shifted away from the PS and Hue's mutation. Instead, it attempted to actively reach out to and embrace social movements, trade unions and non-communist activists as a strategy to counter the PCF's decline. The party sought to create a broader alliance including 'anti-liberal' and anti-capitalist actors from civil society or trade unions.One of the shifts in the PCF's strategy after 2003 came in the form of a more militant Euroscepticism (in 2001, the PCF had only abstained rather than voted against the Treaty of Nice while they were in government). As such, in 2005, the PCF played a leading role in the left-wing NO campaign in the referendum on the Treaty establishing a Constitution for Europe (TCE). The victory of the NO vote, along with a campaign against the Bolkestein directive, earned the party some positive publicity.In 2005, a labour conflict at the SNCM in Marseille, followed by a 4 October 2005 demonstration against the New Employment Contract (CNE) marked the opposition to Dominique de Villepin's right-wing government; Villepin shared his authority with Nicolas Sarkozy, who, as Minister of the Interior and leader of the right-wing Union for a Popular Movement (UMP) was a favourite for the upcoming presidential election. Marie-George Buffet also criticized the government's response to the fall 2005 riots, speaking of a deliberate "strategy of tension" employed by Sarkozy, who had called the youth from the housing projects "scum" (racaille) which needed to be cleaned up with a Kärcher high pressure hose. While most of the Socialist deputies voted for the declaration of a state of emergency during the riots, which lasted until January 2006, the PCF, along with the Greens, opposed it.In 2006, the PCF and other left-wing groups supported protests against the First Employment Contract, which finally forced president Chirac to scrap plans for the bill, aimed at creating a more flexible labour law.

Nevertheless, the PCF's new strategy did not bring about a major electoral recovery. In the 2004 regional elections, the PCF ran some independent lists in the first round - some of them expanded to civil society actors, like Marie-George Buffet's list in Île-de-France. The results were rather positive for the party, which won nearly 11% in Nord-Pas-de-Calais and Picardy, 9% in Auvergne and 7.2% in Île-de-France. In the 2004 cantonal elections, the PCF won 7.8% nationally and 108 seats; a decent performance, although it was below the party's result in previous cantonal elections in 2001 (9.8%) and 1998 (10%). The PCF did poorly in the 2004 European elections, winning only 5.88% and only 2 out of 78 seats.

The new strategy, likewise, also faced internal resistance on two fronts: on the one hand from the party's traditionalist and Marxist-Leninist "orthodox" faction and from the refondateurs/rénovateurs ("refounders" or "rebuilders") who wanted to create a united front with parties and movements on the left of the PS.Buoyed by the success of the left-wing NO campaign in 2005, the PCF and other left-wing nonistes from 2005 attempted to create "anti-liberal collectives" which could run a common 'anti-liberal left' candidate in the 2007 presidential election. Buffet, backed by the PCF (except for the réfondateurs), proposed her candidacy and emerged as the winner in most preparatory votes organized by these collective structures. However, the entire effort soon fell into disarray before collapsing completely. The far-left - represented by Oliver Besancenot (Revolutionary Communist League) and Arlette Laguiller (Workers' Struggle) was unwilling to participate in the efforts to begin with, preferring their own independent candidacies. José Bové, initially a supporter of the anti-liberal collectives, later withdrew from the process and announced his independent candidacy. The PCF's leadership and members voted in favour of maintaining Buffet's candidacy, despite the failure of the anti-liberal collectives and called on other left-wing forces to support her candidacy. This support was not forthcoming, and after a low-key campaign she won only 1.93%, even lower than Robert Hue's 3.4% in the previous presidential election. Once again, the low result meant that the PCF did not meet the 5% threshold for reimbursement of its campaign expenses.The presidential rout was followed by an equally poor performance in the subsequent legislative elections, in which it won only 4.3% of the vote and 15 seats. Having fallen the 20-seat threshold to form its own group in the National Assembly, the PCF was compelled to ally itself with The Greens and other left-wing MPs to form a parliamentary group, called Democratic and Republican Left (GDR). The PCF's poor showing in 2007 weighed a lot on its budget.

 

French Communist Party in Paris 2012

In the 2008 municipal elections, the PCF fared better than expected but nevertheless had contrasted results overall. It gained Dieppe, Saint Claude, Firminy and Vierzon as well as other smaller towns and kept most of its large towns, such as Arles, Bagneux, Bobigny, Champigny-sur-Marne, Echirolles, Fontenay-sous-Bois, Gardanne, Gennevilliers, Givors, Malakoff, Martigues, Nanterre, Stains and Venissieux. However, the PCF lost some key communes in the second round, such as Montreuil, Aubervilliers and particularly Calais, where an UMP candidate ousted the PCF after 37 years. In the cantonal elections on the same day, the PCF won 8.8% and 117 seats, a small increase on the 2004 results.

Left Front (2009- )Marie-George Buffet at the launch of the FG, 2009The PCF, to counter its slow decline, sought to build a broader electoral coalition with other (smaller) left-wing or far-left parties. In October 2008, and again at the PCF's XXXIV Congress in December 2008, the PCF issued a call for the creation of a "civic and progressive front".[23] · [24] The Left Party (PG), led by PS dissident Jean-Luc Mélenchon, and other small parties including the United Left responded positively to the call, forming the Left Front (Front de gauche, FG), at first for the 2009 European Parliament election. The FG has since turned into a permanent electoral coalition, extended for the 2010 regional elections, 2011 cantonal elections, 2012 presidential election and the 2012 legislative election.The FG allowed the PCF to halt its decline, but perhaps with a price. The FG won 6.5% in the 2009 European elections, 5.8% in the 2010 regional elections and 8.9% in the 2011 cantonal elections. However, paying the price of its greater electoral and political independence vis-a-vis the PS, it fell from 185 to 95 regional councillors after the 2010 elections.Nevertheless, the FG strategy caused further tension and even dissent within PCF ranks. Up to the higher echelons of the PCF leadership, some were uneasy with Mélenchon's potential candidacy in the 2012 presidential election and the PCF disagreed with Mélenchon's PG on issues such as participation in PS-led regional executives.[25] In 2010, a number of leading réfondateurs within the PCF (Patrick Braouezec, Jacqueline Fraysse, François Asensi, Roger Martelli...) left the party to join the small Federation for a Social and Ecological Alternative (FASE).

 

At the PCF's XXXV Congress in 2010, Buffet stepped down in favour of Pierre Laurent, a former journalist.

In 2010, the PCF played a leading role in the protests against Éric Woerth's pension reform, which raised the retirement age by two years.On 5 June 2011, the PCF's national delegates approved, with 63.6% against, a resolution which included an endorsement of Mélenchon's candidacy as the FG's candidate in the 2012 presidential election. A few days later, on 16–18 June, an internal primary open to all PCF members was held, ratifying Mélenchon's candidacy. Mélenchon's candidacy for the FG, the position endorsed by the PCF leadership, won 59%. PCF deputy André Chassaigne took 36.8% and Emmanuel Dang Tran, an "orthodox" Communist, won only 4.1%.[26][27] Mélenchon won 11.1% in the first round of the presidential election on 22 April 2012.

The 2012 legislative election in June saw the FG win 6.9%, a result below Mélenchon's first round result but significantly higher than the PCF's result in 2007. Nevertheless, the PCF - which made up the bulk of FG incumbents and candidates - faced a strong challenge from the PS in its strongholds in the first round, and, unexpectedly, found a number of its incumbents place behind the PS candidate in the first round. Applying the traditional rule of "mutual withdrawal", FG/PCF candidates who won less votes than another left-wing candidates withdrew from the runoff. As a result, the FG was left with only 10 seats - 7 of those for the PCF. It was the PCF's worst seat count in its entire history.Despite this defeat, the PCF leadership remains supportive of the FG strategy. Pierre Laurent was reelected unopposed at the XXXVI Congress in February 2013.On the same occasion, the hammer and sickle were removed from party membership cards. Pierre Laurent stated that "It is an established and revered symbol that continues to be used in all of our demonstrations, but it doesn't illustrate the reality of who we are today. It isn't so relevant to a new generation of communists."

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_the_French_Communist_Party

Collage on wood with synthentic hair, aluminum, fabric, plastic and lucite with electric bulb; 210 x 160.5 cm.

 

Delesio Antonio Berni was a figurative artist, born in Rosario, province of Santa Fe, Argentina. He worked as a painter, an illustrator and an engraver. His father, Napoleón Berni, was an immigrant tailor from Italy. His mother, Margarita Picco, was an Argentinian, daughter of Italians settled in Roldán, a nearby town.

 

In 1914, he became an apprentice in the Buxadera and Co. vitraux factory, receiving to Buenos Aires, which was attended even by President Marcelo T. de Alvear.

 

In Paris, he became acquainted with a number of people, such as Louis Aragon, a French writer and one of the leaders of Dada and surrealism, who influenced him artistically and introduced him to André Breton, poet and critic. He also befriended Henri Lefebvre, who initiated him in the reading of Karl Marx. With the combined influence of his friends in politics, and of Giorgio de Chirico's works and René Magritte in the arts, he finally embraced surrealism and Communism. He began helping Aragón in his anti-imperialist struggle in Paris, where Chinese, African, Vietnamese and other minority people were abundant. Berni distributed a newspaper for yellow people and illustrated other publications.[citation needed] In the meantime, he studied surrealist painting and poetry, and the work of Sigmund Freud. One of his illuminating moments came when he met Tristan Tzara in 1930.

 

His style of surrealism does not resemble Miró's automatism or Dalí's onirism; he instead took Chirico's style and gave it a new content.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Berni

 

Woodcut Collage, Medium: Paper; 102 x 50.8 cm.

  

Delesio Antonio Berni was a figurative artist, born in Rosario, province of Santa Fe, Argentina. He worked as a painter, an illustrator and an engraver. His father, Napoleón Berni, was an immigrant tailor from Italy. His mother, Margarita Picco, was an Argentinian, daughter of Italians settled in Roldán, a nearby town.

 

In 1914, he became an apprentice in the Buxadera and Co. vitraux factory, receiving to Buenos Aires, which was attended even by President Marcelo T. de Alvear.

 

In Paris, he became acquainted with a number of people, such as Louis Aragon, a French writer and one of the leaders of Dada and surrealism, who influenced him artistically and introduced him to André Breton, poet and critic. He also befriended Henri Lefebvre, who initiated him in the reading of Karl Marx. With the combined influence of his friends in politics, and of Giorgio de Chirico's works and René Magritte in the arts, he finally embraced surrealism and Communism. He began helping Aragón in his anti-imperialist struggle in Paris, where Chinese, African, Vietnamese and other minority people were abundant. Berni distributed a newspaper and illustrated other publications. In the meantime, he studied surrealist painting and poetry, and the work of Sigmund Freud. One of his illuminating moments came when he met Tristan Tzara in 1930.

 

His style of surrealism does not resemble Miró's automatism or Dalí's onirism; he instead took Chirico's style and gave it a new content.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Berni

    

Wood, steel, iron, aluminum, cardboard, plastic, roots, nails, and enamel; 50 ¾ x 47 ¼ x 157 ½ inches with platform.

  

Delesio Antonio Berni was a figurative artist, born in Rosario, province of Santa Fe, Argentina. He worked as a painter, an illustrator and an engraver. His father, Napoleón Berni, was an immigrant tailor from Italy. His mother, Margarita Picco, was an Argentinian, daughter of Italians settled in Roldán, a nearby town.

 

In 1914, he became an apprentice in the Buxadera and Co. vitraux factory, receiving to Buenos Aires, which was attended even by President Marcelo T. de Alvear.

 

In Paris, he became acquainted with a number of people, such as Louis Aragon, a French writer and one of the leaders of Dada and surrealism, who influenced him artistically and introduced him to André Breton, poet and critic. He also befriended Henri Lefebvre, who initiated him in the reading of Karl Marx. With the combined influence of his friends in politics, and of Giorgio de Chirico's works and René Magritte in the arts, he finally embraced surrealism and Communism. He began helping Aragón in his anti-imperialist struggle in Paris, where Chinese, African, Vietnamese and other minority people were abundant. Berni distributed a newspaper and illustrated other publications. In the meantime, he studied surrealist painting and poetry, and the work of Sigmund Freud. One of his illuminating moments came when he met Tristan Tzara in 1930.

 

His style of surrealism does not resemble Miró's automatism or Dalí's onirism; he instead took Chirico's style and gave it a new content.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Berni

  

Oil on cardboard; 53 x 44 cm.

  

Delesio Antonio Berni was a figurative artist, born in Rosario, province of Santa Fe, Argentina. He worked as a painter, an illustrator and an engraver. His father, Napoleón Berni, was an immigrant tailor from Italy. His mother, Margarita Picco, was an Argentinian, daughter of Italians settled in Roldán, a nearby town.

 

In 1914, he became an apprentice in the Buxadera and Co. vitraux factory, receiving to Buenos Aires, which was attended even by President Marcelo T. de Alvear.

 

In Paris, he became acquainted with a number of people, such as Louis Aragon, a French writer and one of the leaders of Dada and surrealism, who influenced him artistically and introduced him to André Breton, poet and critic. He also befriended Henri Lefebvre, who initiated him in the reading of Karl Marx. With the combined influence of his friends in politics, and of Giorgio de Chirico's works and René Magritte in the arts, he finally embraced surrealism and Communism. He began helping Aragón in his anti-imperialist struggle in Paris, where Chinese, African, Vietnamese and other minority people were abundant. Berni distributed a newspaper and illustrated other publications. In the meantime, he studied surrealist painting and poetry, and the work of Sigmund Freud. One of his illuminating moments came when he met Tristan Tzara in 1930.

 

His style of surrealism does not resemble Miró's automatism or Dalí's onirism; he instead took Chirico's style and gave it a new content.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Berni

  

Oil on canvas; 53 x 72 cm.

  

Delesio Antonio Berni was a figurative artist, born in Rosario, province of Santa Fe, Argentina. He worked as a painter, an illustrator and an engraver. His father, Napoleón Berni, was an immigrant tailor from Italy. His mother, Margarita Picco, was an Argentinian, daughter of Italians settled in Roldán, a nearby town.

 

In 1914, he became an apprentice in the Buxadera and Co. vitraux factory, receiving to Buenos Aires, which was attended even by President Marcelo T. de Alvear.

 

In Paris, he became acquainted with a number of people, such as Louis Aragon, a French writer and one of the leaders of Dada and surrealism, who influenced him artistically and introduced him to André Breton, poet and critic. He also befriended Henri Lefebvre, who initiated him in the reading of Karl Marx. With the combined influence of his friends in politics, and of Giorgio de Chirico's works and René Magritte in the arts, he finally embraced surrealism and Communism. He began helping Aragón in his anti-imperialist struggle in Paris, where Chinese, African, Vietnamese and other minority people were abundant. Berni distributed a newspaper and illustrated other publications. In the meantime, he studied surrealist painting and poetry, and the work of Sigmund Freud. One of his illuminating moments came when he met Tristan Tzara in 1930.

 

His style of surrealism does not resemble Miró's automatism or Dalí's onirism; he instead took Chirico's style and gave it a new content.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Berni

    

Wood, paint, industrial trash, cardboard, scrap metal, and fabric assemblage on board; 129 x 79 x 15 in.

 

Delesio Antonio Berni was a figurative artist, born in Rosario, province of Santa Fe, Argentina. He worked as a painter, an illustrator and an engraver. His father, Napoleón Berni, was an immigrant tailor from Italy. His mother, Margarita Picco, was an Argentinian, daughter of Italians settled in Roldán, a nearby town.

 

In 1914, he became an apprentice in the Buxadera and Co. vitraux factory, receiving to Buenos Aires, which was attended even by President Marcelo T. de Alvear.

 

In Paris, he became acquainted with a number of people, such as Louis Aragon, a French writer and one of the leaders of Dada and surrealism, who influenced him artistically and introduced him to André Breton, poet and critic. He also befriended Henri Lefebvre, who initiated him in the reading of Karl Marx. With the combined influence of his friends in politics, and of Giorgio de Chirico's works and René Magritte in the arts, he finally embraced surrealism and Communism. He began helping Aragón in his anti-imperialist struggle in Paris, where Chinese, African, Vietnamese and other minority people were abundant. Berni distributed a newspaper and illustrated other publications. In the meantime, he studied surrealist painting and poetry, and the work of Sigmund Freud. One of his illuminating moments came when he met Tristan Tzara in 1930.

 

His style of surrealism does not resemble Miró's automatism or Dalí's onirism; he instead took Chirico's style and gave it a new content.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Berni

  

A Brief History of the Everyday

1 January 2006

www.caos201.medadada.net/wp-content/uploads/2016/03/N_Pap...

 

Theory on Demand #5

Spatial Aesthetics, Art, Place, and the Everyday

Author: Nikos Papastergiadis

Publisher: Institute of Network Cultures, Amsterdam 2010

 

..

 

For most of the twentieth century, the concept of the ‘everyday’ lay submerged as a minor concept in the sociological tradition. It was popularised in the 1980s by debates in cultural studies and subsequently introduced into the discourse of contemporary art in the mid to late 1990s.

 

The reclamation of the concept of the everyday followed a period of theoretical hesitation and uncertainty. After decades of intense theoretical contestation over the relationship between art, power and discourse, there was a hiatus in the writing on the significance of the social context of art. The introduction of the concept of the everyday seemed like a neutral concept for addressing the diverse forms of artistic practice. If the relationship between art, politics and theory was at an impasse, then it was assumed that the concept of the everyday could reveal the specific forms of lived experience that shape artistic production and engage politics without introducing a theory with a predetermined ideological agenda.

 

While the popular use of the concept of the everyday may have helped acknowledge the specific location of art and its relation to other social activities, there was little appreciation of its own place within the history of ideas.

 

The concept of the everyday can only appear neutral if its meaning is confined to common-sense uses. At various points in the twentieth century, the concept of the everyday shifted from a mere descriptor of the prosaic elements in social life, to becoming a critical category for not only confronting the materiality and totality of the contemporary culture, but also a means of redefining reality for the purposes of social transformation.

 

The Russian formalists were amongst the first artists to rethink the relationship between art and the everyday.

 

By asserting that art was always in dialectical relation to other cultural developments, they invented new artistic practices which were a direct engagement with the materiality of industry and the forms of the mass media.

 

The shifts in the understanding of the everyday were not confined to the visual artist, for, as John Roberts noted, during the early phases of the Russian Revolution both Lenin and Trotsky recognized the significance of a critical portrayal of the everyday. They believed that literature, film and theatre could stage

 

‘proletarian culture’ from within a new universalist perspective:

 

The everyday was not something that was to be constructed out of a narrow experience of working-class culture, but out of the resources of world culture, to which the forms of European bourgeois culture were a particularly rich contribution and, along with world culture as a whole, the just inheritance of the working class as the vanguard of humanity. 1

 

When placed in relation to the history of the avant-garde, the concept of the everyday also enables the re-evaluation of a series of practices which mainstream culture may have considered trivial or marginal. From the dadaists and the surrealists, to the situationist and fluxus movements, there have been ongoing experiments which sought to subvert the conventional use of the everyday objects and associations in modern art. At the centre of these experiments was not just a documentation of the artefacts and customs of the modern world, but also the joining together of artistic practice with new industrial techniques in order to liberate the creative potential in modern life. These artistic collaborations were seen as a vital counter-force against the homogenisation of culture and the pacification of subjectivity in modernity. The perceptual habits that were developed in urban life were seen as ‘problems’.

 

The early twentieth-century German sociologist Georg Simmel described this muting of critical powers as a corollary of the blasé attitude in the modern city.

 

Maurice Blanchot accentuated this insight when he defined the dominant effect of modern culture as producing ‘boredom’, a form of consciousness in which images lose their form and the ‘citizen in us’ is put to sleep:

 

There results from this a perilous irresponsibility. The everyday, where one lives as though outside the true and the false, is a level of life where what reigns is the refusal to be different, a yet undetermined stir: without responsibility and without authority, without direction and without decision, a storehouse of anarchy, since casting aside all beginning and dismissing all end. This is the everyday. And the man in the street is fundamentally irresponsible; while having always seen everything, he is witness to nothing. He knows all, but cannot answer for it, not through cowardice, but because he takes it all lightly and because he is not really there. Who is there when the man on the street is there?2

 

Through the tactics of shock, juxtaposition and interaction modern artists sought to awaken the ‘citizen in us’.

 

For Blanchot, everyday life had become wrapped in a series of mental, political and cultural straitjackets.

 

Art was seen as a means for exposing the totalitarian underside of the social imaginary and for stimulating critical modes of perception.

 

Attention to the role of the arbitrary and the unconscious in the everyday became invested with political and psychic dimensions.

 

In order to break out of the strictures of convention, the function of art expanded from the transmission of a particular message to the

 

transformation of the viewer’s mode of attention.

 

The avant-garde was to lead in the transformation of everyday consciousness.

 

By representing familiar objects from unexpected positions they not only sought to reveal hidden poetry but also unleash a new revolutionary understanding of reality.

 

These ambitions were to underpin many of the debates on the role of the artist. However, despite a long tradition of avant-garde experimentation, and the repeated efforts to break the divide between popular culture and high art, the concept of the everyday has remained relatively untheorised within the contemporary discourse of art. Most of the theoretical work on the concept of the everyday was undertaken in sociology, philosophy and psychoanalysis.

 

As a sociological concept, the everyday is clearly opposed to other concepts which emphasised structural, transcendental or ahistorical forces.

 

The concept of the everyday was not a retreat or an escape from the social, but a means of rethinking the relationship between the particular and the general, or

 

how attention to the details of daily life can reveal an insight into the broader system.

 

Yet, when applied to art, the concept of the everyday was perceived as being distinctive from earlier theoretical models in that it did not seek to confine the significance of art within the a priori categories of a given political ideology, nor explain art’s meaning according to predetermined psychoanalytic and philosophical categories.

 

To consider art from the perspective of the everyday is to stress that the measure of art is not found by borrowing the yardsticks of other discourses,

 

but rather from its articulation and practices within everyday life.

 

Yet, this aim, which seeks to take us directly into the lifeworld, without the mediation of other discourses, cannot be conducted in pure form.

 

There is never a direct access to the representations of everyday life.

 

Theories of language, culture, and the psyche are always inextricably interwoven in our every effort to represent the details of everyday life.

 

While the concept of the everyday may have appeared as a novel way to articulate the context of artistic practice, it is important to remember that it was embedded in longstanding

 

sociological and philosophical debates on praxis.

 

Within the art historical discourse on

 

‘art and the everyday’ there is a decisive step from the art of living to

 

the politics of social transformation.

 

The critical reaction against realism at the end of the nineteenth century and the associated attempts to expand the subject matter of fine art, were also motivated by a reevaluation of the bourgeois distinctions between the noble and the ordinary, the beautiful and the scarred, the refined and the prosaic.3

 

Champions of modernism like Baudelaire were to stress the vital representation of the ‘everyday’. It is not my aim to illustrate how artists have either grappled with this process, or striven to energise the nodal points between art and the everyday, but rather to contextualise this concept within a number of earlier debates.

 

As Scott McQuire pointed out:

While the term ‘everyday’ has longstanding oppositional connotations, stemming from its usage in Marxist sociology (notably Henri Lefebvre’s 1947 Critique of Everyday Life) and passing, by way of phenomenology and the Situationist International (Raoul Vaneigem’s The Revolution of Everyday Life published in 1967 was the companion volume to Guy Debrord’s Society of the Spectacle), into the doxa of contemporary cultural studies, what it represents has undergone significant mutations in the passage.4

 

The genealogy of the concept of the everyday could be traced much further back, and the net cast more widely.

 

Mike Featherstone finds echoes of the concept from antiquity, and draws on phenomenological as well as Marxist traditions.5

 

The Ancient Greek philosophers paid meticulous attention, and were in ongoing debate, about what made the ‘good life’.

 

In the phenomenological tradition, the term ‘lifeworld’ has a central role, and when Alfred Schutz first introduced it to sociology he defined it in relation to the heterogeneity of attitudes in action and thinking, which were in contrast with the dominant institutionalised actions and rationalised modes of thinking.

 

Agnes Heller’s attempt to synthesise both the phenomenological and Marxist traditions of the everyday lead her to characterise it as

 

‘encompassing different attitudes, including reflective attitudes’.

 

These attitudes are not just those which situate the self and help make sense of the world, but also include those imbued with critical force that are capable of offering a vision of a ‘better world’.

 

In her definition, everyday life is seen as the co-constitution of self and society.

 

It is the aggregate of both the attitudes that shape the self and the processes of shaping the world. 6

 

While the everyday is a sort of amoeba concept, its contents and contours varying according to the content it absorbs and surrounds, it needs to be stressed that

 

it is not somehow outside of theory or politics.

 

The concept of the everyday is not boundless.

 

While it was defined in opposition to the unidirectional or reductive theories of social change, it was not proposed in order to argue that there were spaces which were totally open-ended and free from institutional constraints.

 

The parameters of the everyday can be sharpened by positing its relation to its counter:

 

the non-everyday.

 

In sociology, particularly within the ethnomethodological tradition,7 the concept of the everyday was used to check the use of theory against either a prescriptive modelling of the world, or a totalising abstraction which determines

 

the precise order of causes and consequences.

 

The concept of the everyday also played an important role in the rethinking of the ‘place’ of theory.

 

If we understand theory as operating within, rather than above, or beyond, a specific context, then this perspective, which implicates the process of representation within the structures and institutions of belonging, would enable a level of critique which also attends to the precise configuration of the flows and tensions within social relations.

 

A theory of the everyday is thus located in the in between spaces, the interstices, the margins and the disjunctive zones of the social.

 

The

location and expression of the everyday was identified,

 

for instance, in the way workers seize the moments that break their drudging routines,

 

the discovery of unintended pleasures in mass cultural products,

 

the transformation of a foreign space into the private place called home,

 

or even the deep embrace of a pop song as a personal anthem.

 

The focus of the everyday sought to demonstrate that there were pockets of resistance, tactics of adaptation and reflexive forms of agency which were overlooked by the essentializing and structuralist models of social theory.

 

Given the restless and disruptive dynamic of modernity, it is a modality which is particularly well suited to grasping the experience of displacement and rupture that is symptomatic of our age.

 

The concept of the everyday in critical theory was closely linked to the tension between freedom and

 

alienation in modernity.

 

The more pessimistic veins of Marxist theory,

 

in particular theorists influenced by the negative side of Adorno’s writing on culture, tended to see the everyday, at best, as complicitous with the coercive forces of modernity, or even worse, as an expression of the false political reconciliations that are possible under capitalism.

 

By contrast Henri Lefebvre was among the first to emphasise that the concept of everyday life was a positive supplement to Marx’s concept of alienation.8

 

While recognising that capitalism creates social relations which alienate subjects from their ‘species being’ and from others, Lefebvre also stressed that the concept of everyday life can illuminate the complex ways in which subjects exercise their potential to be emancipatory and critical.

 

Thus, Lefebvre created a new space within the Marxist tradition.

 

For Lefebvre the significance of the concept of the everyday lies in the way

 

it points to overcoming alienation.

 

Lefebvre was convinced that

 

alienation would not be overcome by political change alone.

 

On the contrary, he noted that under Stalinism it deepened.

 

Lefebvre saw the energy within the everyday in luminous terms.

 

Unlike the idealists who expressed nothing but haughty disdain towards the everyday, Lefebvre believed that an imaginative engagement with everyday life could stimulate the desire for social transformation.

 

He stressed that popular art forms like

 

film and photography

 

contained both radical content and presented glimmers of hope

 

for the renewal of a Marxist cultural theory.

 

Lefebvre’s theory of the everyday was, however, limited by the uncritical repetition of two flaws in the Marxist theorization of alienation.

 

First, the theory of self, which served as the counter to alienated subjectivity, presupposed the existence of a unified personality.

 

Second, the privileging of the commodification of labour in the definition of alienation overlooked the domain of

 

noneconomic work.

 

Alienation was thus confined to forms of

 

non-reciprocal relationships between an individual and their work.

 

According to Marx, as value is concentrated in the object of work, and as the worker is perceived as another commodity in the chain of production, there is a process which ensues that leads to the externalisation of the value of production, the estrangement of the worker from the object of work, the undermining of the worker’s sense of worth through production, and the objectification of all social relationships in the workplace.

 

Ultimately, the worker is left feeling alienated from nature, the essence of their own identity, and their consciousness of the totality of all other human relations.

 

Marx thereby argued that the consequences of

 

alienation are the estrangement of the worker from their ‘species being’.

 

In Marx’s dialectic, the space of the everyday was defined as the other side of alienation.

 

It is in the space of the everyday, Marx claimed, that the worker,

 

outside of their oppressive work relations, had a genuine sense of self-worth.

 

In this space,

 

Marx believed that there was the

 

possibility of integrating the

 

fragments of the social world with the essence of identity.

 

Heller also continued this line of argument when she stressed that Marx’s theory of the self assumed a necessary unity between personality and the sphere of action that constitutes society.

 

The integrated self was capable of both recognizing the flux and fragmentation of the social world, and providing a critique through the synthesis between its subjectivity and everyday life.

 

Lefebvre also extends this integrative logic when he defines the concept of the everyday as referring to all the spheres and

 

institutions which in their unity and their totality

 

‘determine the concrete individual’.9

 

From the choice of leisure to the structure of domesticity, Lefebvre draws our attention to the complex means by which social structures are internalized in daily life.

 

This practice of internalization is neither passive nor neutral.

 

The individual actively transforms the external social structures as they integrate them into their everyday life.

 

This process of internalization has a double effect.

 

It transforms the internal private sphere as it incorporates the external structures, and simultaneously creates a dynamic feedback on the shape of the social.

 

The reciprocal relationship between the part and whole is critical in Lefebvre’s theory.

 

He sees

 

‘the humble events of everyday life as having two sides’, 10

 

as being marked by the

arbitrariness of the particular, and carrying an

essence of the social.

 

By tracing the reproduction of the whole in the practice of the part, Lefebvre thought he found a way out of the base–superstructure model, that was stultifying Marxist debates on culture.

 

However, it was also this double linkage between the particular and the general, where the former was seen as both the counter and the isomorph of the latter, which in turn imposed another form of idealism over the everyday.

 

Michel de Certeau’s concept of the everyday goes even further and provides a way of understanding the everyday without idealizing the integrative logic that was central to the Marxist tradition.

 

When de Certeau represents an analogy between the part and the whole, he also suggests a displacement effect.

 

He is more attuned to the sly step towards transformation in every act of internalization.

 

The presence and circulation of a representation ...

tells us nothing about what it is for the users.

 

We must first analyze its manipulation by users who are not its makers.

 

Only then can we gauge the difference or similarity between the production of the image and the secondary production hidden in the process of its utilization. 11

 

It is this investigation of the difference between the laws, rituals and representations imposed by the dominant order, and the subversive practices of compliance, adoption and interpretation by the powerless that fuels Michel de Certeau’s study of social relations.

 

His concern is

not with the intended effects of a social system, but the

 

uses made of it by the people who are operating within it.

 

The politics of the everyday, for de Certeau, is focused towards the micro ways in which people subvert the dominant order.

 

De Certeau tracks two levels of response against the oppressive and homogenising pressures of modernity.

 

First, the ways in which people make ethical responses to the social order, and thereby

 

humanise their relations with each other.

 

Second, in the face of a social order that constitutes the majority of the people at the margin, he also notes the countering techniques by which the weak make an ingenious and devious use of the strong.

 

These tactical responses are necessary, he argues, since the individual is increasingly situated in a position where the social structures are unstable, boundaries are shifting, and the context is too vast and complex to either control or escape.

 

From this perspective, de Certeau’s concept of the everyday is significantly different from Lefebvre’s.

 

Given the complexity and diversity in the social field of the everyday, de Certeau does not claim that the part can carry the essence of the whole.

 

Globalization, through the shift in forms of production, relocation of central command centres, rapid flows of financial and speculative trading across national borders, increasing interpenetration of local cultures by the media industries, and new patterns of migration, has heightened the complexity and fragmentation of the social order.

 

The identity of the social whole can no longer be

 

represented according to neat categories and discrete boundaries.

 

This re-evaluation of the identity of the whole also complicates the

 

representative status of the part.

 

For instance, can art of the everyday represent the lifeworld of the whole nation?

 

Or do we need to

make smaller and

more specific claims about the

relationship between the

particular, which is always a tactical response to a number of conflicting demands, and the whole,

which is already too fragmented and complex to appear as a single unit?

 

At the micro level of everyday life, the individual is now compelled to utilise intelligence, cunning and ruse, both in order to survive and to gain pleasure.

 

‘This mutation makes the text habitable, like a rented apartment.’ 12

 

The metaphor of a house is an apposite one for this exilic epoch.

 

According to de Certeau, our mode of being in this world, that is, our ability to insert ourselves into the present and to make the meaning of our time memorable and affirmative, is like the practice of renting an apartment.

 

The space is borrowed, the structures are given, and the possibility of dwelling is thus not infinite.

 

However, the practice of living is neither closed nor predetermined by the architecture of the building.

 

We enter the apartment with our baggage, furnish it with our memories and hopes, and make changes which give form to our needs and desires.

 

The orders in which our belongings are arranged are like the fingerprints of our social identity.

 

The home is saturated with emotive associations and social meanings, but unlike those from other historical periods, the contemporary home gains its identity from the oscillation between arrival and departure, integration and fragmentation.

 

Bauman characterised our relationship to home in late modernity not in terms of displacement but unplacement. 13

 

Not only are more people living in places which are remote and unfamiliar to them, even those who have not moved are increasingly feeling estranged from their sense of place.

 

The concept of home needs to be fused with the

 

fluid practice of belonging.

 

‘Home is no longer a dwelling but

 

the untold story of life being lived.’14

 

‘Home’ must act as a verb, as well as a noun.

 

For home is no longer confined to either a place in the past, where our sense of origin is fixed to a geographical spot; it also appears as a horizon that eludes the present and compels the search for a new destination.

 

As with all senses of destiny there is an unending effort to approach it but today it never reveals itself in the full and final sense of arrival.

 

The meaning of home now combines the place of origin with the struggle for destiny.

 

To tell the story of the life being lived in the home, we must perform what John Berger calls the ‘bricolage of the soul’.

 

When Gaston Bachelard applied the tools of psychoanalysis to the structure of the house, renaming the garret as the superego, the ground level as the ego, and the basement as id, thereby providing us with topoanalysis, he gave us that first look into the soul of architecture. 15

 

Or was it an insight into the architecture of the soul?

 

Through these figurative techniques Bachelard was to address the practice of making meaning through the assemblage of the fragments that constitute home.

 

Psychoanalysis, which in

 

Freud’s hands was driven to uncover the hidden meanings of the banal and trivial in everyday habits, was lifted out of its therapeutic context by

 

Bachelard and released into

 

the realm of critical poetics.

 

Psychoanalysis can benefit our understanding of the everyday when its application is not just confined to a diagnostic and medical science, but

 

extended to a mode of investigating the psychic drives in the constitution of the social.

 

While all the messy desires and neurotic habits of the everyday cannot be removed by ‘working through’ their origin in the primal sexual scenes, psychoanalysis has opened the door to our understanding of the repressed in everyday life, provided a great epistemic insight into the orders of the psyche, and exposed the unconscious layers that were obscured by the commonplace distinction between truth and lies.

 

In one of his earliest works,

 

Psychopathology of Everyday Life, Freud made the point that something was always left out; something remained unspoken, even when the speaker expressed their views sincerely and to the best of their recollection.

 

The meaning of this elusive ‘something’ was for Freud located in the unconscious.

 

Despite Freud’s determined effort to establish psychoanalysis as a science, it is now most valuable as a creative method for excavating the grit from the silent disavowals and recognising the rub they cause in our experience of the everyday.

 

The utilisation of psychoanalysis and Marxism by the Frankfurt School took an even more decisive role in tracing the ‘itinerary of desire’ in everyday life.

 

Adorno and Horkheimer were conscious of two shifts in the political terrain. Unlike the classical Marxists, they no longer believed that the role of the proletariat resembled that of a vanguard, and they also lost faith in the view that the internal dynamics of history would inevitably lead to the overthrow of the capitalist system. Adorno and Horkheimer sought in psychoanalysis new clues to explain the culture of survival. Their critique against domination and authority was also significantly framed through an emphasis on the redemptive potential of memory. The work of memory was not confined to a nostalgic retreat, but knotted into the emancipatory project of uncovering the elements of subjectivity, and heightening the reflexive attitude that had been suppressed by the instrumental rationalism of the modern world.

 

From the combined perspective of Marx’s theory of alienation and Freud’s theory of repression, it could now be argued that the dynamics of culture and the role of agency could never be reduced to a merely negative or positive expression of material forms of production. If Marx’s great contribution to social theory was to position the intellectual within the site of struggle, it could be said that Freud’s equally significant epistemic insight was the idea that the analyst must offer his or her body, through the act of transference, as a model for uncovering the meanings of the past and transforming the everyday. After Marx and Freud the critical distance between the subject and object was redefined. These theories breathed a sense of hope into our understanding of the levels of freedom in the everyday. It produced a new kind of awareness of our own capacity to be attentive to the possibilities within destiny.

 

The future will be like the past, not in the sense of repetition, but in the sense of having been uncalculated. So one of the aims of analysis is to free people to do nothing to the future but be interested in it. 16

 

The theorist, the analyst and the artist would no longer need to claim an aloofness from the social in order to evoke a radical position. The relationship between the abstract and the concrete could no longer be thought of as, to use Walter Benjamin’s phrase, ‘a one-way street’. The culture of the everyday was not a mechanical part that neatly revolved around the pivots of the dominant order. Most significantly the concept of the everyday was a challenge against the structural determinist tendencies in social theory.

 

According to Peter Burger it also represented the basis for the renewal of both the left and the avant-garde as it reintegrated ‘art into the praxis of life’.17

 

Agents could not be represented as being the mere ‘dupes’ of an overarching ideology. By drawing attention to the intricate and reciprocal relationship between agency and structure, the theories of the everyday rejected the assumption that change could only be imposed from above, or sustained by purely external forces. The everyday became a concept for understanding how the strategies of resistance in the practices of living were not always explicitly oppositional. The heroics and ethics of the everyday did not appear in either titanic stature or saintly guise; rather they were enacted through subtle acts of involvement and displacement. The spirit of resistance did not always come from beyond or above, but also from within.

 

It is important to stress the limits of individual action. Choice is often confused with freedom, and as a consequence the space of the everyday is exaggerated. The sociological debates on agency and the everyday attempted to trace the radial network and critical feedback mechanisms that interconnect individual choice with social structures.

 

An individual’s ability to choose is always framed by a broader context, but these internal practices always impact on the external structures.

 

The flow of influence was thus not seen as emanating only from above, but circulating in turbulent patterns and taking multifarious routes. As people consciously utilise the dominant structures, this creates a double displacement effect: at the micro level their subjectivity is affected, and at the macro the boundaries of the system are modified to accommodate the specific patterns of use. The exterior forces are changed as they are internalised within the individual’s subjectivity, producing both a destabilizing effect on the social structures and a displacement of the prior state of identity. The concept of the everyday is thus part of a tradition in identifying the potential for critical practice, and for offering alternative interpretations on what makes the ‘good life’.

 

The key advantage of the concept of the everyday was that it highlighted the potential for transformation at the level of the individual’s experience. It showed that radical gestures could also be witnessed in the small steps taken by individuals in the course of their everyday lives. However, as Lois McNay observed, cultural theorists began to stretch the emancipatory potential of the everyday and fetishise the micro-revolutionary gestures of individual practices.18

 

According to McNay, the critical dimensions of cultural theory have been disproportionately focused towards the small gestures of the individual. Hybrid identities formed out of the contradictory forces of everyday life were seen as the ideal form of survival, rather than as a critique of the broader structures. By stressing the liberties and pleasures found in ‘counter-cultural’ activities, theorists began to blur the political process of contestation.

 

It elevated the agency of the individual and evaded discussion of the structural limits in the collective assumption of power.

 

..

   

On the horizon, then, at the furthest edge of the possible, it is a matter of producing the space of the human species-the collective (generic) work of the species-on the model of what used to be called "art" ; indeed, it is still so called, but art no longer has any meaning at the level of an "object" isolated by and for the individual.

 

Henri Lefebvre, Openings and Conclusions. from On Installation and Site Specificity (introduction) Erika Suderburg

I came across 'Reading the Everyday' by Joe Moran in our local bookshop last month, it was still there today so I decided to buy it.

 

Joe Moran writes about the culture and representation of our everday life, and references some people I've read before; Siegfried Kracauer, Henri Lefebvre, Michel de Certeau, and Marc Augé; who I haven't read, yet.

 

January 18, 2007 . 0704

Spirit, Experimental Poetry, & 21st Century. edited by Kevin McPherson Eckhoff & Jake Kennedy.

 

Strathroy, fall 2o13.

 

5-1/2 x 8-1/4, 54 sheets white bond perfectbound in PVC white card wrappers, all except inside covers & pp.3 & 6 printed black offset with 3-colour process addition to covers.

 

wraparound cover by Billy Mavreas.

24 contributors ID'd:

Marie Annharte, Jonathan Ball, Ken Belford, Kathleen Brown, Jake Jack-Jacques Dick, Kevin McPherson Eckhoff, Mercedes Eng, Rbert Fitterman, Mark Goldstein, Jake Kennedy, Mat Laporte, Tim Lilburn, Robert Majzels, Billy Mavreas, Andrew McEwan, Shane Neilson, M.Nourbese Philip, Sina Queyras, David Rosenberg, Jerome Rothenberg, Jordan Scott, Fenn Stewart, Jeremy Stewart, Stephan Wagner

 

includes:

i) Editorial Invocation: Hearts are Words Living Inside Everyone's Language-Spirit!, by Kevin McPherson Eckhoff & Jake Kennedy (prose, pp.7-1o; passing reference to Four Horsemen p.8)

ii) Touring the Empty Church: A Poetic (Re)Turn to the Building in bpNichol's Martyrology Book 5 and Caroline Bergvall's Éclat, by Andrew McEwan (prose in 4 parts, pp.12-18, bpNichol referenced throughout & quoted as follows (other quotes on Nichol as well):

–1) 1st epigraph by Nichol p.12, the martyrology book 5 chain 3, lines 197-2o3, last line improperly justified;

(part 1, "In The Production of Space, Henri Lefebvre writes of a historical shift in the", pp.12-13; references only)

(part 2, Walking/Writing the St. Reets, pp.13-15:)

–2) Nichol quoted from Interview: with Ken Norris, p.13;

–3) Frank Davey quoted from Exegesis / Eggs à Jesus: The Martyrology as a Text in Crisis, p.13;

–4) Nichol quoted, as (2) above, p.13;

–5) Nichol quoted, the martyrology book 5 chain 1, lines 292-293 unlineated, p.13;

–6) Nichol quoted, as (2) above, p.13;

–7) Nichol quoted, as (1) above, lines 15-19, spacing ignored, p.13;

–8) Nichol quoted, as (1) above, lines 338-34o, 1st line misplaced, "plane" lopped off the end of the 3rd, p.14;

–9) Nichol quoted from A Note On Reading THE MARTYROLOGY Book V, p.14;

–1o) Ann Munton quoted from Coming to a Head, 'in a head, ahead' of Us All: Connecting with Book 5, p.14;

–11) Nichol quoted, as (1) above, lines 322-324 unlineated, p.15;

(part 3, WEL COME, pp.15-18; passing reference only to Nichol)

(part 4, Turning Back, p.18; referenced only))

 

Collage on paper,written fragments and images from Peter Greenaway, Josef Albers and Robin Evans. Photo montage of The Physical Self (Greenaway) and Waverley Abbey UK.Visual research as part of The Waverley Project/Obscura and Reading Room.

 

On the horizon, then, at the furthest edge of the possible, it is a matter of producing the space of the human species-the collective (generic) work of the species-on the model of what used to be called "art" ; indeed, it is still so called, but art no longer has any meaning at the level of an "object" isolated by and for the individual.

 

Henri Lefebvre, Openings and Conclusions. from On Installation and Site Specificity (introduction) Erika Suderburg

On the horizon, then, at the furthest edge of the possible, it is a matter of producing the space of the human species-the collective (generic) work of the species-on the model of what used to be called "art" ; indeed, it is still so called, but art no longer has any meaning at the level of an "object" isolated by and for the individual.

 

Henri Lefebvre, Openings and Conclusions. from On Installation and Site Specificity (introduction) Erika Suderburg

NOTE: This is a marker for a project that was started on flickr but has been taken off-line for development.

 

These are dangerous and distressing times. I struggle to find hope. I find it in Buddhism and in Marxism. I want to examine the proposition that Marxism and Buddhism can work together. Both are about engaging in socially directed ethical change and both are about becoming more human in the process.

 

I want to examine this proposition in an open-minded and philosophically grounded conversations that will be wide ranging enough to take in creativity, the arts and thinkers who may not be considered philosophers in a traditional sense.

 

Buddhism, dates back to the sixth century BC story of a young Indian prince called Gotama who ventured outside his palace and discovered dukka which I roughly translate as 'the blues'. I see Buddhism as a guide to ethical change. I see the Dharma as a humanist approach to life and its possibilities, as a practical path rather than a search for metaphysical truth. In this light the Four Noble Truths become four enabling tasks. I look to Bodhi College for guidance in my understanding of Buddhism, and take particular interest in their exploration of the convergences and divergences between early Buddhism and western philosophy.

 

Marxism in a contentious subject. I feel the need to return to Marx's own words and reread them with the critical empathy of an old man. I see Marxism as the nineteenth century child of the eighteenth century Enlightenment in Europe. Its aim is to lay bare the laws of motion of capitalist society and to transform them. Human agency freed of religion and guided by philosophy is seen as an active force in a changing and conflicted world.

 

I identify as a Marxist humanist looking towards Buddhism for therapy, emotional intelligence, intellectual stimulation and open conversation. Marxist humanists, broadly speaking, are people who share the view that the humanism of Marx’s early writing stays with him and guides him for the rest of his life and that his work remains relevant to the resolution of current crises. Marx is not responsible for subsequent misinterpretations of his work, he was a man driven by a quest for human flourishing and an enquiring mind, he was a human being whose work is best approached in spirit of critical empathy.

 

The aim of the project is to produce short pieces of writing that may be used spark philosophically grounded conversations between Buddhists and Marxists.

 

The project title is derived from two sources. “After Buddhism” comes from the title of Stephen Batchelor’s book After Buddhism - Rethinking the Dharma for a Secular Age and “Beyond Politics” is a reference to Henri Lefebvre’s book The Sociology of Marx.

 

previously on flickr...

My mind feels like this from all the reading of theories especially Lefebvre Rhytmanalyis. I find it difficult to describe in a paragraph, perhaps because I have not fully grasped it.

 

From my readings I managed to find a pretty powerful quote which I feel describe the situations of social revolt in the middle east.

 

"When relations of power take over relations of alliance, when the rhythms of "the other" make impossible the rhythms of 'the self'. then a total crisis explodes, with the deregulation of all compromises, arhythmy, implosion - explosion of the city and the country"

 

Henri Lefebvre

.

Rue Rambuteau 23/10/2018 19h36

Rue Rambuteau corner Rue Pierre Lescot. The Canopée is there like it has been there forever. In fact it opened in 2016.

 

Rue Rambuteau

The Rue Rambuteau is a street in Paris named after the Count de Rambuteau who started the widening of the road prior to Haussmann's renovation of Paris. Philosopher Henri Lefebvre lived on the street and observed from his window the rhythms of everyday life at the intersection located behind the Centre Georges Pompidou.

Rue Rambuteau is a street in central Paris that connects the neighborhood of Les Halles, in the 1st arrondissement, to the Marais district in the 4th arrondissement. It fronts the Forum of Les Halles and the north side of Centre Georges Pompidou, and marks the boundary between the 3rd and 4th arrondissements. It occupies a special place in the history of Paris, because it is the first street to pierce the medieval center, during the reign of Louis Philippe I, a few years before the great work of Baron Haussmann. Rue Rambuteau has a length of 975 metres and a width of 5.5 to 13 m.

The street starts at Rue des Archives and ends at Rue Coquillière and rue du Jour.

Important buildings in and along this street are Centre Georges Pompidou, the Church of St. Eustache, the Forum of Les Halles and MK2 Beaubourg (cinema).

[ Source and more Info: Wikipedia - Rue Rambuteau ]

Oil on burlap; 108 x 92.3 cm.

 

Delesio Antonio Berni was a figurative artist, born in Rosario, province of Santa Fe, Argentina. He worked as a painter, an illustrator and an engraver. His father, Napoleón Berni, was an immigrant tailor from Italy. His mother, Margarita Picco, was an Argentinian, daughter of Italians settled in Roldán, a nearby town.

 

In 1914, he became an apprentice in the Buxadera and Co. vitraux factory, receiving to Buenos Aires, which was attended even by President Marcelo T. de Alvear.

 

In Paris, he became acquainted with a number of people, such as Louis Aragon, a French writer and one of the leaders of Dada and surrealism, who influenced him artistically and introduced him to André Breton, poet and critic. He also befriended Henri Lefebvre, who initiated him in the reading of Karl Marx. With the combined influence of his friends in politics, and of Giorgio de Chirico's works and René Magritte in the arts, he finally embraced surrealism and Communism. He began helping Aragón in his anti-imperialist struggle in Paris, where Chinese, African, Vietnamese and other minority people were abundant. Berni distributed a newspaper and illustrated other publications. In the meantime, he studied surrealist painting and poetry, and the work of Sigmund Freud. One of his illuminating moments came when he met Tristan Tzara in 1930.

 

His style of surrealism does not resemble Miró's automatism or Dalí's onirism; he instead took Chirico's style and gave it a new content.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Berni

Oil and paper on canvas; 72 x 116 cm.

 

Delesio Antonio Berni was a figurative artist, born in Rosario, province of Santa Fe, Argentina. He worked as a painter, an illustrator and an engraver. His father, Napoleón Berni, was an immigrant tailor from Italy. His mother, Margarita Picco, was an Argentinian, daughter of Italians settled in Roldán, a nearby town.

 

In 1914, he became an apprentice in the Buxadera and Co. vitraux factory, receiving to Buenos Aires, which was attended even by President Marcelo T. de Alvear.

 

In Paris, he became acquainted with a number of people, such as Louis Aragon, a French writer and one of the leaders of Dada and surrealism, who influenced him artistically and introduced him to André Breton, poet and critic. He also befriended Henri Lefebvre, who initiated him in the reading of Karl Marx. With the combined influence of his friends in politics, and of Giorgio de Chirico's works and René Magritte in the arts, he finally embraced surrealism and Communism. He began helping Aragón in his anti-imperialist struggle in Paris, where Chinese, African, Vietnamese and other minority people were abundant. Berni distributed a newspaper and illustrated other publications. In the meantime, he studied surrealist painting and poetry, and the work of Sigmund Freud. One of his illuminating moments came when he met Tristan Tzara in 1930.

 

His style of surrealism does not resemble Miró's automatism or Dalí's onirism; he instead took Chirico's style and gave it a new content.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Berni

 

Oil on canvas.

 

Delesio Antonio Berni was a figurative artist, born in Rosario, province of Santa Fe, Argentina. He worked as a painter, an illustrator and an engraver. His father, Napoleón Berni, was an immigrant tailor from Italy. His mother, Margarita Picco, was an Argentinian, daughter of Italians settled in Roldán, a nearby town.

 

In 1914, he became an apprentice in the Buxadera and Co. vitraux factory, receiving to Buenos Aires, which was attended even by President Marcelo T. de Alvear.

 

In Paris, he became acquainted with a number of people, such as Louis Aragon, a French writer and one of the leaders of Dada and surrealism, who influenced him artistically and introduced him to André Breton, poet and critic. He also befriended Henri Lefebvre, who initiated him in the reading of Karl Marx. With the combined influence of his friends in politics, and of Giorgio de Chirico's works and René Magritte in the arts, he finally embraced surrealism and Communism. He began helping Aragón in his anti-imperialist struggle in Paris, where Chinese, African, Vietnamese and other minority people were abundant. Berni distributed a newspaper and illustrated other publications. In the meantime, he studied surrealist painting and poetry, and the work of Sigmund Freud. One of his illuminating moments came when he met Tristan Tzara in 1930.

 

His style of surrealism does not resemble Miró's automatism or Dalí's onirism; he instead took Chirico's style and gave it a new content.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Berni

 

Oil on canvas; 184.8 x 300.4 cm.

 

Delesio Antonio Berni was a figurative artist, born in Rosario, province of Santa Fe, Argentina. He worked as a painter, an illustrator and an engraver. His father, Napoleón Berni, was an immigrant tailor from Italy. His mother, Margarita Picco, was an Argentinian, daughter of Italians settled in Roldán, a nearby town.

 

In 1914, he became an apprentice in the Buxadera and Co. vitraux factory, receiving to Buenos Aires, which was attended even by President Marcelo T. de Alvear.

 

In Paris, he became acquainted with a number of people, such as Louis Aragon, a French writer and one of the leaders of Dada and surrealism, who influenced him artistically and introduced him to André Breton, poet and critic. He also befriended Henri Lefebvre, who initiated him in the reading of Karl Marx. With the combined influence of his friends in politics, and of Giorgio de Chirico's works and René Magritte in the arts, he finally embraced surrealism and Communism. He began helping Aragón in his anti-imperialist struggle in Paris, where Chinese, African, Vietnamese and other minority people were abundant. Berni distributed a newspaper and illustrated other publications. In the meantime, he studied surrealist painting and poetry, and the work of Sigmund Freud. One of his illuminating moments came when he met Tristan Tzara in 1930.

 

His style of surrealism does not resemble Miró's automatism or Dalí's onirism; he instead took Chirico's style and gave it a new content.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Berni

 

Oil on canvas; 200 x 181 cm.

 

Delesio Antonio Berni was a figurative artist, born in Rosario, province of Santa Fe, Argentina. He worked as a painter, an illustrator and an engraver. His father, Napoleón Berni, was an immigrant tailor from Italy. His mother, Margarita Picco, was an Argentinian, daughter of Italians settled in Roldán, a nearby town.

 

In 1914, he became an apprentice in the Buxadera and Co. vitraux factory, receiving to Buenos Aires, which was attended even by President Marcelo T. de Alvear.

 

In Paris, he became acquainted with a number of people, such as Louis Aragon, a French writer and one of the leaders of Dada and surrealism, who influenced him artistically and introduced him to André Breton, poet and critic. He also befriended Henri Lefebvre, who initiated him in the reading of Karl Marx. With the combined influence of his friends in politics, and of Giorgio de Chirico's works and René Magritte in the arts, he finally embraced surrealism and Communism. He began helping Aragón in his anti-imperialist struggle in Paris, where Chinese, African, Vietnamese and other minority people were abundant. Berni distributed a newspaper and illustrated other publications. In the meantime, he studied surrealist painting and poetry, and the work of Sigmund Freud. One of his illuminating moments came when he met Tristan Tzara in 1930.

 

His style of surrealism does not resemble Miró's automatism or Dalí's onirism; he instead took Chirico's style and gave it a new content.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Berni

 

Tempera on burlap; 218 x 300 cm.

  

Delesio Antonio Berni was a figurative artist, born in Rosario, province of Santa Fe, Argentina. He worked as a painter, an illustrator and an engraver. His father, Napoleón Berni, was an immigrant tailor from Italy. His mother, Margarita Picco, was an Argentinian, daughter of Italians settled in Roldán, a nearby town.

 

In 1914, he became an apprentice in the Buxadera and Co. vitraux factory, receiving to Buenos Aires, which was attended even by President Marcelo T. de Alvear.

 

In Paris, he became acquainted with a number of people, such as Louis Aragon, a French writer and one of the leaders of Dada and surrealism, who influenced him artistically and introduced him to André Breton, poet and critic. He also befriended Henri Lefebvre, who initiated him in the reading of Karl Marx. With the combined influence of his friends in politics, and of Giorgio de Chirico's works and René Magritte in the arts, he finally embraced surrealism and Communism. He began helping Aragón in his anti-imperialist struggle in Paris, where Chinese, African, Vietnamese and other minority people were abundant. Berni distributed a newspaper and illustrated other publications. In the meantime, he studied surrealist painting and poetry, and the work of Sigmund Freud. One of his illuminating moments came when he met Tristan Tzara in 1930.

 

His style of surrealism does not resemble Miró's automatism or Dalí's onirism; he instead took Chirico's style and gave it a new content.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Berni

  

Oil on canvas; 155 x 236.5 cm.

 

Delesio Antonio Berni was a figurative artist, born in Rosario, province of Santa Fe, Argentina. He worked as a painter, an illustrator and an engraver. His father, Napoleón Berni, was an immigrant tailor from Italy. His mother, Margarita Picco, was an Argentinian, daughter of Italians settled in Roldán, a nearby town.

 

In 1914, he became an apprentice in the Buxadera and Co. vitraux factory, receiving to Buenos Aires, which was attended even by President Marcelo T. de Alvear.

 

In Paris, he became acquainted with a number of people, such as Louis Aragon, a French writer and one of the leaders of Dada and surrealism, who influenced him artistically and introduced him to André Breton, poet and critic. He also befriended Henri Lefebvre, who initiated him in the reading of Karl Marx. With the combined influence of his friends in politics, and of Giorgio de Chirico's works and René Magritte in the arts, he finally embraced surrealism and Communism. He began helping Aragón in his anti-imperialist struggle in Paris, where Chinese, African, Vietnamese and other minority people were abundant. Berni distributed a newspaper and illustrated other publications. In the meantime, he studied surrealist painting and poetry, and the work of Sigmund Freud. One of his illuminating moments came when he met Tristan Tzara in 1930.

 

His style of surrealism does not resemble Miró's automatism or Dalí's onirism; he instead took Chirico's style and gave it a new content.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Berni

Biennalist, What Makes A Format Be A Format, May 2020. Courtesy of the artist Thierry Geoffroy. The Biennalist is one of a number of art formats (including Emergency Room and Critical Run) used by the Danish- French artist Thierry Geoffroy/COLONEL to comment on biennales through the production of artworks, ‘guerrilla style’ live on-site debates and interventions. His engagement has been described as ‘flagrantly provocative’ by reflecting on and testing biennale propositions, curatorial thematics and marketing statements, often directly by visualising questions in simply produced and immediate artworks/responses. He has produced sustained provoca- tions over the last two decades to contribute to or start essential debates on subjects ranging from themes such as hypocrisy, colonialism and immigration that engage with certain contextual and local realities, sometimes mirroring ideological and even utopian desires embedded in biennale themes.

 

----

 

by Robert E. D’Souza

Before, During, After Biennale

Robert E. D’Souza

A great deal of this article is based on a close relationship with art biennials1 both in terms of the dynamic overlaps of critical interest as an academic and in terms of my presence as an artist and participant at both the second edition of Kochi-Muziris Biennale2 (KMB) in 2014 in India and the inaugural osloBIENNALEN3 (OB) that launched in May 2019 in Norway. My focus in revisiting some of the texts written about Kochi’s Biennale over nearly a decade and introducing Oslo’s Biennale is to consider particular characteristics of these biennials, tracing back some of their ‘genealogies’ that might allow for reflection on how experiences ‘on the ground’ forged in Kochi become relevant later in Oslo. An awareness of biennial critiques has informed my artistic practice through specific projects End of Empire4 and Migrant Car5 produced for Kochi and Oslo, respectively, and developed to respond to particular local contexts when the projects were realized, testing thematic or propositional claims within the respective frameworks in respect to locality and public space. Both projects were produced locally as part of the performative, public-facing aspect of the work while engaging with local collaborators and agents as part of a social practice developed with respective local communities. Artistic inclusion has afforded me the opportunity to experience first-hand the particular complexities of local participation while engaging directly with biennial formats sitting between the intensity of local scrutiny and played out against wider global biennial discourses and critiques. Working directly with biennial teams involved in developing, producing, communicating, and managing these complex formats also gives some understanding of the internal struggles, pressures and dynamics of the often of the reality in ‘building an art biennial.’ The efforts and resources to even make an event happen are large, while the issues in sustaining and surviving the weight of expectation make the fact that these formats have proliferated quite exceptional. There is, of course, very little detail of biennial experience and certainly space for more research into the ‘practice’ of making art biennials.

 

Much has been written recently about the global development of biennials and any understanding of Kochi’s Biennale is to recognize its historical trajectory located in the body of research, texts, publications, and events about and around biennial phenomena (see the comprehensive Biennial Reader, 2010, that that came from Bergen Biennial Conference in 2009).6 Amongst the many more recent scholarly publications on biennials, Charles Green and Anthony Gardner’s publication Biennials, Triennials, and Documenta: The Exhibitions that Created Contemporary Art (2016) gives a useful historical and contextual framing of the phenomena of the biennial, acting both as a useful reference when locating some of the ‘genealogies of transcultural exchange’ that are pertinent here in terms of biennial editions, especially from the 90’s, that also challenge some conventional narratives on ‘biennalization.’ Importantly Green and Gardner note that there is a research gap that scholars are just beginning to address, and “It is the rapid turnover of biennials and their curators, as well as the diversity of their themes and forms of infrastructure.”7 What their account importantly provides is a route map as to the ‘before’ of developments of biennial characteristics that might give some insight into current essential biennial modes and approaches and a narrative that paves the way for the launch of the biennales in Kochi and Oslo. Importantly, with the KMB there is the possibility of looking at longer consistent narratives because key individuals have worked from its inception—including one of the founders, Bose Krishnamachari, along with trustees and other support staff and osloBIENNALEN curators together as co-curators developing and concluding OSLO PILOT, an experimental two-and-a-half-year research project with publication8 to conceive the format for Oslo’s first Biennale, allowing for the development of sustained research during the five-year period of this Biennale.

 

Before the Kochi-Muziris Biennale

Firstly, in broad strokes, to give some context to my relationship to the KMB is considering the last three decades of visiting India from the UK, witnessing a nation’s contemporary art emerging within a national globalization narrative. Parallel was the country's rapid economic growth, which foreshadowed a growing international interest in Indian arts that has been seen as one of the benefits of the economic reforms of the ‘90s and the concurrent “biennial boom” that was occurring. Some see this period as key to countering Western and European hegemonies, while other see this period as recolonization under the auspices of breaking these hegemonies down. What is clear is that the global proliferation of biennials has challenged the predominance of certain global centers within the art world.

 

In India, this economic liberalization allowed an alignment of commerce, through the art market, of internationally focused artists as ambassadors of a certain idea of a contemporary Indian art world, making artworks that spoke more directly of universally understood issues and aesthetics of globalization. The resultant economic optimism of India in the ‘90s helped shape a boom in investment in contemporary Indian art, paving the way and creating the conditions and international interest for some of those Indian artists and future KMB artist/founders Bose Krishnamachari and Riyas Komu and future artist curators Jitish Kallat, Sudarshan Shetty, and Anita Dube, all benefitting from these changes having developed their international profiles during this period. The critical reception of the KMB and this new international character can be linked intrinsically to this period of expansion in free-market capitalism conflated into a particular globalization identity for India. This new international identity for a generation of Indian artists who defined themselves internationally through this period can be seen to be key in influencing and being represented through Kochi’s development as a biennale.

 

In terms of Green and Gardner’s biennial ‘genealogies,’ Riyas Komu’s invitation as an artist to participate in curator Robert Storr’s 52nd Venice Biennale in 2007 (India did not have its own national pavilion at Venice until 2011) and the Gwangju Emerging Asian Artists Exhibition in South Korea in 2010 are significant precursors to the KMB in 2012. Ranjit Hoskote is an important connecting figure in this narrative writing on biennials and on contemporary Indian art (including Indian Highway, 2008, Serpentine Gallery, London and India: Art Now, 2012, Arken Museum of Modern Art, Denmark). Hoskote also curated the Gwangju Biennale in 2008 and the first Indian pavilion at the Venice Biennale in 2011. Hoskote describes Gwangju as the “biennial of resistance” because of its model of socially and politically led curation which will have certainly influenced some of the positioning of Kochi as a biennial within the political scope of Kerala. Hoskote goes on to allude in a KMB publication in 2012 that, “The gestation period for the Kochi-Muziris Biennale has involved extensive discussions and consultations between the founders and a wide range of participants in global biennale culture: curators, politicians, theorists, critics, managers, artists, civic bureaucrats, industrialists, foundations […] They have acquainted themselves not only with the visible manifestations of such international festivals but also with the vast infrastructure that supports and sustains such endeavours, which usually remains invisible.” 9 As one of the supporters of the KMB, Hoskote would have brought experience to the KMB from his curatorial roles in 2008 in the Gwangju Biennale and the 2011 Venice Biennale in the build-up to the KMB’s development.

 

Some of my own speculations about this particular biennial were informed from a number of conversations with one of the trustees I was working with in Delhi with the complexity of the different internal situations for art in India, the infrastructure available to be able to start such an endeavor, and that this event took place in Kochi, a small southern coastal city more famous for its colonial histories of global spice trading and more recently for tourism. How and why would India launch its first biennial outside of the national confines of the established Delhi-Mumbai axis of Indian contemporary art, and what kind of reaction would this have on a national level, given that India had previously had repeated failed attempts to conceptualize a biennial prior to this endeavor (read Nancy Adajania’s chapter on the now defunct Triennale-India launched in 1968, the failed attempt at India’s international reach through contemporary art)?10

 

It was actually Kerala’s cultural minister that approached established Mumbai-based artists Bose Krishnamachari and Riyas Komu, asking them “to suggest an event that would reaffirm the state’s position on the cultural map,” with the final decision made in the Prime Minister’s office in New Delhi. However, the initial approach by the cultural minister to these two practicing artists was significant. Both Kerala-born, astute to the context they were working in, they took an artist-led approach, forming a community with both participating artists and local residents and traders. It is an approach that has proved distinct for this particular biennial and its relationship to the state. As with any endeavor, there was already a backlash and questions growing in the media and in the Indian art world, already indicating issues at stake in trying to launch an event synonymous with the wider burden of national representation on the global art stage.

 

Writing in the months leading up to the launch of the Kochi-Muziris Biennale, I mused on how India might develop the “situation of art” in India in terms of its global standing in a chapter, “Outside Art: Art, Location and Global Tensions,” speculatively ending with this biennial as a potential opportunity for India to gain some critical notice. Referencing the curatorial note on the Biennale website, one could unpack a particular conceptual conceit that collapsed together a particular local, pre-colonial history of cosmopolitanism. I wrote, “I have considered the motivations behind contemporary artists’ concerns to look beyond the production of artworks towards ideas connecting art with society and everyday life. The new Kochi-Muziris Biennale launching in Kochi in 2012, heralds a return to significant international engagement for India […]. This biennale has set out its international outlook: ‘[t]hrough the celebration of contemporary art from around the world […] invoke the historic cosmopolitan legacy of the ancient port of Muziris’ […] this event might be a key opportunity in India […] to connect internationally on home ground and help banish predisposed ideas of India and its art while bringing artists, curators critics and collectors to India to experience India and its art from the ‘inside’.”11

 

Kochi’s Biennale Effect

  

Kochi-Muziris Biennale poster on an exterior wall in Fort Kochi during the launch of the 1st Kochi-Muziris Biennale, Kochi, India, December 2012. Photograph by Robert E. D’Souza.

Traveling to India from the United Kingdom to visit the launch week of the Kochi-Muziris Biennale in December 2012 (the auspicious date of its launch was set as 12 December 2012), I arrived in Fort Kochi not only as an observer of art but to also consider the Biennale through the lens of critical possibilities posed in earlier writings. Attending the launch was to witness a ‘work in progress’ with delays attributed to the late withdrawal of some of the expected funds from a newly elected state government, sensitized by bitter criticisms from local pressure groups, a paucity of professional art infrastructure, and a highly unionized workforce (a legacy of local histories of socialism and communism). This was coupled with inexperienced and sometimes ill-equipped technical support and specific artistic demands, and the logistics of exhibitions across citywide sites was visibly challenging. The effect of this was not wholly detrimental to the event, lending a grassroots feel and communal problem-solving. It seemed apt in this deeply socialist state to see the visibility of the labor needed in the ‘production’ of art, which, in other circumstances, might have been a less effective avant-garde gesture or performance; seen in Kochi, this was both an honest and a welcome antidote to the self-conscious performance of reality or ‘white cube’ exhibition experience.

 

The result of artists’ abilities to connect and make sense of a place is not lost for some critics on many of the works made in situ at this Biennale. Lefebvre’s12 important insights on the dialectical, rather than oppositional, relationship between the increasing abstraction

 

of space and the ‘production’ of particularities of place, local specificity, and cultural authenticity—a concern that informs many site-oriented art practices today. The curators’ embrace of Kochi for a Biennale takes a certain logic, taking a site that conflates their curatorial history/globalization myth in a post-colonial city where there is already a historic resistance to cultural homogenization. It might be said that the ‘effect’ of the city in itself has been a large influencer on those artists attending, and the best works of those artists invited to produce on-site have been those that have paid heed and attentiveness to the local contexts. A number of projects absorbing and re-encoded colonial historiographies back into art again grounded even international contributions through shared cultural referents anchoring projects into the locality.

 

In terms of audience reception, it is notable that the KMB and the Gwangju Biennale have both been attracting significantly more visitors than the Venice Biennale. These numbers might be attributed to a more expansive audience made up of a larger contingent of local visitors and not just reliant on the middle–class, informed, cultural consumers or wealthy global ‘art tourists.’ The huge local audiences might be considered as another phenomenon and ‘effect’ that critiques the insular nature of many other contemporary art events. The need to engage and to develop a sense of community and opportunities for local inclusion has been important to both Gwangju13 and the KMB, developing new relationships between local audiences and maybe non-art audiences who feel able to engage their curiosity whilst also engaging artists to have a deep engagement with the city and its social and historic fabric.

 

By meeting with artists and organizers, the attended seminars, talks, and performances meant making a collective sense of the ‘biennial experience’ and understanding what was unfolding as a reading of the Biennale’s effect on the locality. A memorable incident that captures a political reality within the local public was an attack on a series of charcoal wall portraits of local Keralites by Australian artist Daniel Connell, which were defaced utilizing burnt coconut husks. The attack was accorded some significance as a particularly localized signal of opposition to the work. The artwork itself was an intervention in public space, with an implied endorsement by the Biennale that could be seen as evidence of a form of cultural imperialism that some locals felt had been brought to Fort Kochi, under the auspices of the Biennale as a “festival of international contemporary art.” This gesture reported as vandalism can be seen as fulfilling the potential for public artworks to be both politicized and localized and, in this case, by subverting the artwork’s and artist’s authority. When considered against Kerala’s active Marxist past, this gesture becomes redolent of the kind of fringe conceptual or performance art and an honest radical gesture in the vein of the politics of Rancière, marking the merging of life into art within this format.

 

In reflection, Kochi has become a good example of an art event that developed from the ground-up, meaning that its format and structure have been aligned with the locality in mind, a criticism aimed at many contemporary biennials that proclaim locality but do not deliver on these promises. In the Biennale’s speaker programme, Let’s Talk, Paul Domela (a previous director of the Liverpool Biennial of Contemporary Art) spoke at the opening symposium of, Site Imaginaries and Sabine Vogel writes that his particular experience of developing a biennial format is responsive to the city but, “In Liverpool the strategy is to not exhibit works that have been selected in advance but to invite artists to create in-situ projects in direct response to local problems,” a strategy Kochi curators have taken to activate the city through the Biennale’s judicious use of space.14

 

Biennale Knowledge

  

Artist unknown, hand painted statement on an exterior wall on a street in Fort Kochi produced during the 1st Kochi-Muziris Biennale, Kochi, India, December 2012. Photograph by Robert E. D’Souza.

By December 2014, the Biennale team was better equipped in terms of skills, experience, and logistics with a better knowledge of the spaces that allowed for a more strategic planning of artworks than time or money previously allowed. Building on early critical success, the second edition of the KMB had to work hard to develop its identity. This was refined further through a more controlled exposition by selected Indian artist Jitish Kallat who developed a curatorial approach based upon synchronically ordered artworks, with the title Whorled Explorations.15 This formed part of the continued development of the Biennale concept to take in the historic navigation of the globe as part of a mapping exercise connecting time, space, and history as a contemporary turn. Kallat built upon the original curatorial proposition of a paradigm of historical cosmopolitanism in the city of Muziris,16 a nod to a pre-globalization India and a critique of conventional historical thinking of globalization as a more recent phenomenon. We held an in-depth interview with Kallat in his Mumbai studio after the second KMB, which provided invaluable insight into his curatorial approach and methodical, systematic, conceptually driven and highly researched approach (see the chapter “Curation As Dialogue” in India’s Biennale Effect: A Politics of Contemporary Art).17

 

As part of Kallat’s second KMB, I contributed to the Biennale both as an artist producing a collateral art installation, End of Empire, and as an academic with colleagues through the Biennale talks programme. Using the basis of observations made in a previous journal article, “The Indian Biennale Effect,”18 produced after the first Biennale provided an opportunity to look at the knowledge gained from the use of the city by the Biennale within the public forum of the Biennale’s History Now seminars and talks. We saw the importance of connecting at multiple nodes of Biennale activity by curating talks that engaged with the contestation of space, thematically focusing on what we saw as a key character of this Biennale. Importantly, we were building mutually beneficial research by seeing a gap within the discourse within the Biennale about its own expansive role in respect to the city and the political ramifications of place and space. My contribution as an artist allowed me to integrate ‘glocal’ ideas of space both through discussion of social practice with producers in Kochi and of opening up the engagement to communities by the Biennale by building more socially orientated projects (see the chapter “End of Empire” in India’s Biennale Effect: A Politics of Contemporary Art).19

 

In continued discussion by Skype interview with Riyas Komu in 2014 leading up to the second KMB, my colleague Sunil Manghani and I discussed the particular descriptions of being a ‘people’s biennale’ and ‘productionist’ in nature that Chris Dercon (an early KMB champion and previous director of Tate Modern) had made. Referencing comments Komu made in a documentary from the start of the Biennale: “He says simply, ‘Stress is there. Artists are putting pressure.’ There is a double sense to his remark. Artists are putting pressure onto the situation and equally are being put under pressure by the circumstances. In contrast to the typical biennale set-up that offers refined exhibition spaces and technical support, Komu describes the scene as a real community, saying ‘it’s almost like an artist camp.’ [...] And what was particularly exciting was that everybody was learning at work. People were being introduced to art, art making and its history as they were working and engaging with artist. We didn’t have the luxury of a team that were already inducted to contemporary art. Even we were learning.” Komu also notes how the best art will survive if we take risks. He suggests the Kochi Biennale itself has “become a kind of synonym for getting artists ready to take risks’ [...] The Biennale gets made again, each time: ‘What happens in every edition of the Biennale’ he suggests, ‘is that risk comes back. Every edition of the Biennale is almost a new project. [...] We start afresh every time’.” 20 The idea of knowledge production through the experience of artists working at the Biennale exemplified a concern with education and learning leading to later initiatives such as a Student Biennale indicative of the ambitions beyond the scope of the Biennale to actively raise issues such as arts education nationally.

 

Performing The Biennale

  

Biennalist, What Makes A Format Be A Format, May 2020. Courtesy of the artist Thierry Geoffroy. The Biennalist is one of a number of art formats (including Emergency Room and Critical Run) used by the Danish- French artist Thierry Geoffroy/COLONEL to comment on biennales through the production of artworks, ‘guerrilla style’ live on-site debates and interventions. His engagement has been described as ‘flagrantly provocative’ by reflecting on and testing biennale propositions, curatorial thematics and marketing statements, often directly by visualising questions in simply produced and immediate artworks/responses. He has produced sustained provoca- tions over the last two decades to contribute to or start essential debates on subjects ranging from themes such as hypocrisy, colonialism and immigration that engage with certain contextual and local realities, sometimes mirroring ideological and even utopian desires embedded in biennale themes.

This section draws on the online review, “Timely Provocations: The 3rd Kochi-Muziris Biennale,” written with my colleague Sunil Manghani for the Biennial Foundation in 2017.

 

We had just published our sustained writings on the KMG in India’s Biennale Effect and were travelling to Kochi to launch the publication and attend the third edition of the Biennale in December 2016. There was a great deal of anticipation as to where this Biennale would attempt to take its audience, testament to the critical interest the Biennale had generated since its inception. If the first Kochi-Muziris Biennale, under the curatorship of its founders Bose Krishnamachari and Riyas Komu, was distinctive for its site-specificity, and the second for Jitish Kallat’s conceptual ‘journey,’ the third edition under the curatorial direction of Sudarshan Shetty was concerned philosophically, materially, and politically with time, and we felt that was arguably the most challenging of the three editions we had visited (a visit to curator Anita Dube’s fourth edition was not possible in 2018 although we connected with her through the Imagined Biennales event we held at Tate Exchange in April 2018 in the run-up to the launch of the fourth Biennale).

 

Moving between the various opening events, you could pick up a mixture of delight and high praise, but also confusion and ambiguity in response to the latter uncertainties: this was precisely what Shetty wanted—that there was no center point, no required navigation, only multiple possibilities; a biennale that unfolds with time and patience. To have visited the previous Biennale was to experience the mapped and precise logic of Jitish Kallat. Shetty’s curatorial ideas were more amorphous and elliptical in description, clearly not wanting to be pinned down. He went on to describe how he saw the Biennale “as existing in process, something which flows, and I wanted to engage artists whose practices will create works that exist not only for the duration of the Biennale, but into the time beyond.”21

 

Under the curatorial title of Forming in the Pupil of an Eye,22 Shetty’s staging of the Kochi Biennale stretched over twelve official venues. Many of the sites, such as Pepper House, Kashi Art Café, and Durbar Hall, have been associated with the Biennale from the start. The iconic Aspinwall House provided the Biennale with its primary site, presenting key infrastructure as well as the opportunity to make more direct curatorial groupings of related works due to its extensive exhibition spaces. A number of new venues also appear in this edition, including the TKM Warehouse: offering large spaces, with ‘white-cube’ rendered walls, this venue has been used with confidence, giving breathing space to just five artists. Out of the ninety-seven artists participating from thirty-five countries, under half were of Indian origin with a high representation of lesser known Indian artists alongside more nationally established artists such as T V Santhosh and Himmat Shah. Notably, there were fewer internationally known artists that might typically draw large crowds perhaps pointing to another expression of confidence, with a more determined move to allow the Biennale to be a site of opportunity for emerging artists.

 

Shetty is much admired for his sensibilities towards art making and materials. The act of making itself is a palpable theme that is picked up in the selection of a number of works. Projects present that produced work over extended durations and also presenting performative works that are true to the process of making and performing can be lost on audiences. Nonetheless, this edition of the Biennale will be remembered for is its turn to the temporal arts. A particularly powerful and demanding work is Padmini Chettur’s Varnam, a contemporary dance production of three hours. Given the complex history of women’s status in India’s hierarchical social structure, along with a defiant feminist movement since the 1970s, and more recent media attention on continued violence towards women, Chettur’s Varnam 23 provides a radical and multiple re-imagining of the female body. It was certainly ambitious to exhibit such performance work and artworks in the making, not least because biennials tend to attract itinerant, international audiences who often only attend for a matter of days. But, again, this formatting and curating of works implies confidence, favoring those audiences who might invest more time in Kochi and also those local to the Biennale. This is one of the key observations from the first Biennale about making key decisions that break with conventional cycles of time, not only in scheduling but in respect to place and locality and the message that this gives locally. In an interview in The Hindu, Shetty discusses how his curatorial approach has evolved through wide-ranging conversations with practitioners in theatre, poetry, film, music, and dance. “I’m not trying to make visual artists out of theatre, music or dance performers,” he explains, but instead, “I’m trying to see how I can keep the integrity of the art form but blur the demarcations.”24

 

For the Curator’s Talk, as part of the opening events, Shetty was in conversation with the philosopher Sundar Sarukkai. The notion of “multiplicity” came up repeatedly, and Sarukkai kept referring to various iterations of the curatorial note (as if somehow there was no definitive version, but only a rich palimpsest of views). Shetty’s recursive (and anti-authorial) interest in conversation presents not a dialectical approach, but rather a multiple, layered gathering of meanings. Interestingly, earlier curatorial statements were much more explicitly conceptual.25 During the curator’s talk, in front of a packed audience at the purpose-built auditorium of Cabral Yard, Shetty appeared reluctant to break away from the intimate dialogue with Sarukkai, uncomfortable perhaps to give definitive or unequivocal answers in the ensuing Q&A session. However, if we read this third iteration of the Biennale as bound to temporalities and multiplicities, you come to accept a much slower engagement than any didactic curatorial statement might allow. We might suggest Shetty’s curatorial practice is revealed as being structured precisely as he wishes us to view the work: as layered, cumulative, shifting, multiple, provocative (even at times duplicitous). Shetty’s focus on the temporality of artworks, art forms, and material processes present a challenge to the biennial format, which typically is anchored by considerations of place and space. Yet, from its inception—and largely due to its artist-led approach—the Kochi Biennale has by no means adopted an ‘off-the-shelf’ model. Outside of the metropolitan sphere, Kochi has allowed for a renewed freedom to experience art, with less separation of art and everyday life; and with artists themselves engaged in the making of the event. Unlike some large-scale art events, which we might characterize as ‘legitimating forces,’ the Kochi Biennale suggests a humble invitation to ‘build it’ rather than be placed within it. At its best, a biennial is greater than a collection of its material objects and sites of display—it bears social connections, it addresses the surrounding local and global politics, it impacts upon educational contexts, and it forges new narratives. All of these things are true of Kochi, and through Shetty’s curatorship we gain further dimensions arising from new provocations of form, content, and time. The question we left with was if Kochi could sustain itself as a progressive force, or whether its own success will place too great a pressure upon it having delivered, with its third and arguably subtlest edition, multiple ways of thinking about this problem, offering as it does a ‘gathering’ of contemporary art that is radically (un)sustainable.

 

Building An Art Biennale

  

Imagined Biennales event, part of Building an Art Biennale at Tate Exchange, London, April 2018. Photograph by Robert E. D’Souza. Tate Exchange at Tate Modern in London is a pioneering programme launched in 2016 working with 66 Associates from the arts, health, education and charitable sectors has been inviting the public to collaborate on an unpreceden- ted scale. The first of its kind anywhere in the world, the programme asks the public to test ideas and explore new perspectives, illuminating the value of art to society.

The following edited interview26 was published at the launch of osloBIENNALEN in May 2019, between myself and Norwegian student Åshild Kristensen Foss, studying at Oslo Metropolitan University and one of the participants in my Migrant Car project who was documenting the production of the car sculpture over a period of one month at the furniture workshop of Eddie King, one of the project collaborators in Grünerløkka27 in Oslo where Foss also lived.

 

AKF: Can you tell me a little bit about the evolution of the project previously titled End of Empire at Kochi-Muziris Biennale, which has become Migrant Car for osloBIENNALEN?

 

ED: I made a version of my car sculpture for Kochi-Muziris Biennale in 2014. Documentary evidence of this work was shown at Tate Modern in London in 2018 as part of an event How to Build an Art Biennale organized by Winchester School of Art in the UK.28 A chance meeting with the curators of osloBIENNALEN that year led to the present invitation. Rethinking the project for the city of Oslo meant new conversations about the concept of art in public space and subsequently the new car-free zone came up. For me, the restrictions placed on this space could be used as a geographical framing device to connect the presence of the car sculpture to the city dynamics, at the same time engaging with local debates. The idea of the car as a visitor suggested contextualizing the city as a host, which led to a discussion about the possibility of renaming the car, thought of as a migrating object—Migrant Car. This opened a wider discussion on the situation of migrants in the city. It would enact the idea of a car on a journey—the actual movement would be a performative gesture in itself—providing this motion was driven by people power, which would also give non-art publics a chance to encounter art in action. Important questions for me were: How might a project such as this promote cultural understanding and ‘forms of exchange’ as part of a strategy contributing to social engagement that would benefit the locality of Oslo, while contributing to a better understanding of peoples and societies within the context of the globalized urban situation that exists here. This led to my invitation to local students to develop participatory projects along the route the car would follow and to work collectively in shaping this journey, while also grounding the project locally. Part of my discussion with the student participants were around current critiques and political dialogues that focus on migration/immigration and “tensions around difference,” and what affective responses might inform attitudes and give voice to those who might feel marginalized in these dialogues.

 

AKF: I like that the underlying political theme in the project is based on engaging with issues in society, but you’re using participation and generosity to disseminate ideas rather than making an overt political statement, though the project title Migrant Car is provocative! Do you want the engagement to generate a learning situation and be a good example of how we can also work together through the dialogues generated by a project?

 

ED: An engagement with socially orientated issues underpins my critical interest in making artwork and has been a focus in my own practice. I don’t believe it is the job of artists to solve social problems, this takes away from the state’s responsibility to improve the social situation for those within a society; imposing this burden on artists distracts from sociopolitical responsibility. I do believe, though, that being socially aware, provocative, and active can be part of an engagement which, for some artists, can be a frame of reference to personally respond to what is happening in their time. In these terms, I really like the quote from Bertolt Brecht that, “Art is not a mirror held up to reality but rather a hammer with which to shape it.” This thinking applies to art becoming a performance that might shape a social reality. The everyday becomes a universal and local language that might bring people closer to the art rather than separate them from it, while revealing new ideas about the familiar. I’m encouraged by the fact that the more successful the project, the less it needs me. I like the blurring that might happen between spectator and participant and that they all might have the potential to be the art. I’m heartened at how the project has grown via the workshop into the local community and beyond. Going back to the project’s genesis, to me it has been interesting to see how ideas tested in the Kochi Biennale and previously considered critically through my research and writing have informed the project. It has now developed more as a durational public participatory performance, with different audiences over time and space, where participants become performers of art, serendipitous guests bringing contingent art ‘actions’ and ‘situations’ into a space, and where the audience become part of a ‘spectacle’ of this art. I’m attracted to the proposition that art in public space might close the distance between art and everyday life, a possibility I think about often. That we might produce a situation for people to rethink their locality through the most subtle of actions, or even simply by moving this object, this Migrant Car, through the streets of Oslo is a possibility of making art accessible and allowing for a testing of a democracy of art.

 

The project Migrant Car represents a project developed with the curators of OB extending both critical experiences and approaches honed through the Kochi Biennale, my academic research into social practices, and through a number of deeply engaged and rigorous conversations to ensure coherence of the project for the locality of Oslo. These conversations and the research generated from Oslo will also contribute to ongoing research into practice and forms a significant personal engagement in a significant and challenging art project that has been meaningfully informed by Kochi research and practice. There are a number of interconnected components developed, built, and performed in public space developed between November 2018 and August 2018 in Oslo. The work comprises a moveable mixed-media sculpture based on a full-sized Hindustan Ambassador car built with local craftsmen whose workshop was transformed into a public-facing space allowing for the production to act as live performance of making the sculpture over an extended period prior to the launch of the Biennale. A documentary was made of the production, later installed in the window of the furniture workshop alongside a film I made of the Indian carpenter who built End of Empire, connecting craftsmen and projects from Kochi to Oslo. After the sculpture left the space, a documentary video was screened as part of a public event for the closing of the project in August 2018 in Oslo. This film documented the production of the sculpture, a community-initiated street party and street parade (this evolved spontaneously out of the project), eight student co-produced temporal projects/performances in Oslo’s car-free zone documented online in a blog,29 and the sculptures invitation to and engagement with events and public spaces in Oslo including Oslo Cathedral during refugee week and the Oslo Pride parade. The project has since moved on to Bergen Kunsthall 3,1430 where it has been re-curated for the locality and will move to Kirkenes later this year to collaborate with art collective Pikene på Broen.31 This final journey across the Norwegian border into Russia will attempt to retrace the journey on bicycles via the Storskorg border post where 5,500 refugees, mostly Syrians, entered Norway via Russia.32 As Migrant Car moves, it continues to creates curatorial possibilities and evolving situations and participations extending the space of the Biennale’s reach while following the logic of the ambitions developed with the curators that supported a temporal work that might challenge ideas of space, time, and locality.

  

Cover of the osloBIENNALEN Prologue Symposium Booklet, What does it mean to launch a Biennial that breaks with the usual ways of addressing space, time and theme? May 2019. Courtesy of osloBIENNALEN. Speakers included: Mikaela Assolent, Dora García, Marius Grønning and Shwetal A. Patel, with guest participants Binna Choi, Chto Delat, Claire Doherty, Jesús Fuenmayor, Lara García, Marianne Heier, Ulrike Neergaard, Paul O’Neill, Farid Rakun, Ruben Steinum, Tereza Stejskalová and Vít Havranek.

Taking the logic of the work is to take sociologist Pierre Bourdieu’s thoughts about the provisions of arts in society and the need for ‘access’ that goes well beyond simple economic considerations, but rather concerns deeper barriers based upon social and cultural grounds. This becomes particularly pertinent within the premises put forward in both Kochi and Oslo Biennales, with both privileging making art more accessible. Access in general is a highly contentious issue and there are clearly structurally, socially, and economically many barriers that separate Indian society, so Kochi’s statement of intent in bringing ‘everyone’ in is highly political and at the same time chimes with a particular progressive socialist political past in the state, not necessarily replicated in wider India. Maybe the choice of Kochi as a base for a biennial starts to make more sense than the hubs of Delhi and Mumbai, as a more egalitarian testing ground for the reception of this Biennale’s format. In the same way, in Oslo I have been supported in developing a collaborative project in an area of the city with particular recent histories of social change and reinvention in the eastern district of Grünerløkka that connects in sociopolitical terms back to Kochi.

 

A three-month period of developing the project prior to the launch of the Biennale meant a swift grounding within the locality/community, building dialogues to localize my approach, and building collaboration while finding common ground and building trust with everyone. OB has importantly developed crucial support structures for artists like myself, which becomes key to making meaningful projects and engagement in a locality, and this included research support, mediation, and production. For the project to be truly localized and collaborative meant that to some extent it would emerge and be determined by actions that came from its own internal dynamics, rather than any top-down, prescriptive, or defined project plan. It becomes a distinct dynamic nature in an unfolding project like this that the biennial format over a more fixed institutional format can accommodate. Of course, this open-ended approach has risks for both artist and sponsor and if an artist’s ambitions and complexity are too high or risk is mitigated out of the project, then both extremes can negate being reflective of the locality. This is one of the key reasons that the biennial format is still relevant as an alternative site to offer the space for risk-taking, for experimentation, for failure. Controls are needed but the right ones for each project, and these need space and time to get right, to interrogate and develop appropriate approaches and strong curatorial support. With OB, there has been an unusually high level of support and discussion in developing projects to ensure viability, coherence, and ambition. Key to my conversations with curators were the unfolding nature of increased engagement from the collaborators, the positive reception and self-organized response from the community in Grünerløkka and the students’ participation and ownership. During the process of this project, a point of collective ownership was reached where the project was as much owned by the collaborators and local community in Grünerløkka as it was a Biennale project.

 

After Biennale

  

Cover of the programme for Art Production within a Locality, Symposium Chapter #1, November 2019. Courtesy of osloBIENNALEN.

In conclusion, those reading this article involved in the arts might consider what ‘after biennale’ might mean now, during the current impacts and restrictions of the COVID-19 global pandemic? It is inevitable that there is widespread reluctance to cancel events sometimes years in the making and with commitments made; finding alternatives, in the main virtual, has become the way forward for now. So, continuing to hold a conference on Contemporary Art Biennials with a title our hegemonic machines in states of emergency might be apt for the current situation. Here the ‘emergency’ is moving well beyond economic impacts and the underlying financial crisis, but ones that will transform an arts sector previously dependent on events, on participation, on bringing audiences together and the global movements of artists and professionals. It will be interesting in particular to consider the usefulness of learning from biennials in cities such as Kochi and Oslo, where the respective Biennales are exploring different ways they might operate locally across multiple sites, creating sustained engagements within their localities, investing in building arts projects that might give a useful or meaningful presence within the fabric of the city, initiatives supporting local artists and placing art in the city as part of everyday life. A different understanding might be made of those biennales that have worked to benefit and privilege those who are more local, to engage in more sustained and sustainable mechanisms with their arts, who look to develop programmes beyond the ‘event’ fixation of many biennales or by opting to work beyond conventional cycles, using outreach and alternative forms of engagement. Oslo is still early in its cycle with twenty-four projects spread throughout its first year with varying temporalities, lifespans, and repetitions. This strategy was developed so that it might allow for increased opportunities especially for those living locally beyond those coming for the traditional ‘biennial spectacle’ that has become synonymous with grand opening events. On the ground, there are criticisms of visibility of the Biennale within the city, and it is clear from my conversations with the curators that they have resisted the impulse to rush to meet expectations without diminishing what was designed as a progressive and open-ended format to benefit locality. Working with time and format might not reach the expectations or experience of art for some in the city but certainly privileging artists in general and the locality are certainly admirable and needed. Of course, there are myriad internal and external forces and pressures at play and, like Kochi, highly informed and engaged publics who want to have their say, but time needs to be given to give the space needed for some of the very issues raised in the framework to play out. Importantly, there is a space for potentially helpful discourse on the arts through formats such as biennials by reconsidering and rethinking particular strategies and practices that might support the emancipation and transformation of public and social space. The contemporary biennial can be seen as an active site for developing innovative approaches in participative arts, community engagements, pedagogic opportunities, as well as a space for broader cultural production, dissemination, and reception. So maybe now more than ever, the repetitive discussions and dialogues on biennial formats might give way to a wider discussion to those of urgent ideas and of artistic possibilities, to catalyze actions and create interventions within a world currently in a state of ‘emergency’ where there is little state imagination, only a shorthand politics of policies of constraint.

 

While Kochi and Oslo have joined well over 300 biennials that exist across the world, we have surely become ever more familiar with this format. In looking forward, we can also look back to reconsider lessons from the past, to revisit the ‘genealogies’ and to look closer so we don’t accept ‘standardization’ just because this is the familiar and easier path. Even in the shadow of a pessimistic prognosis, we might be forgiven for thinking every biennial, every art event, is just one of many, and only more of the same. Indeed, how can anyone operating within these sites of practice (which require a great deal organization, finance, and partnerships) resist the clutches of standardization and homogenization and remain risk-free?

 

Kochi and Oslo face different pressures on different points in their evolutions. Oslo must deal with the inevitable expectations when the format they have proposed doesn’t conform to expectations in much the same way that launching a Biennale in Kochi was initially questioned in India. Kochi, like many biennials, continues to weather critique and scandals but prospers because of a clear commitment to art and place. If, in our contemporary, global circumstance, artistic practice is to be allowed to develop freely, to experiment and deviate from the norm, then I am in no personal doubt that both biennales in Kochi and Oslo are trying to achieve this. The biennial format is still relevant, and even if Oslo faces scrutiny from the artistic community then they like Kochi must build over time the supportive local base to prosper. The focus on benefits to locality, to the passerby, to democratizing access to art, participations might all be seen as derived from essential characteristics of both Kerala’s communist past and Norway’s history of social democracy, both of which can be replayed through these respective biennales. This might be a well-intentioned utopian ideal of the role art might play in contemporary society but isn’t that the role of a biennial to be a site of arts resistance to the perceived status quo, to explore new ways of thinking and acting? We need ambitions more than ever that are rooted in an authentic reflection and the needs of the particularities of time and place. One thing we can be sure of is that real life has offered up the radical character of a pandemic phenomenon, which means we are all trying to understand a situation that is exceptional in its affect and simply accelerates the need for a structural challenge to this current paradigm. Beyond uncertainty, beyond what we might hope are temporary situations, is an opportunity not for the repetition of discourses of the ‘before’ and ‘during’ biennale, but to revisit and make space for not only a more radical imaginary but also a more credible imaginary. The unknown artist in Kochi reminds us of a continued need for ‘artistic consciousness in society,’ which is also a warning to be vigilant, now more than ever as we think to the ‘after.’

 

Robert E. D’Souza is a London-based artist, writer and professor of Critical Practice and co-director of the Critical Practices Research Group at Winchester School of Art at the University of Southampton. He is known for his temporal, site-specific, and participatory/collaborative art projects. His work explores critical practices that engage with a variety of production processes and producers and is supported by his contributions to critical writings around social, political and cultural change, including writing in relation to biennials that includes The Indian Biennale Effect: The Kochi-Muziris Biennale 12/12/12 (Journal of Cultural Politics, Duke University Press, 2013), India’s Biennale Effect: A Politics of Contemporary Art (Routledge, 2016), and “Timely Provocations: The 3rd Kochi-Muziris Biennale” review for The Biennale Foundation (2017). He has contributed with Sunil Manghani and Shwetal A. Patel to a forthcoming publication How to Biennale! The Manual: Making Art Events & Exhibitions in the Age of Institutional Hybridity & Globalisation that was originally part of the workshop, How to Build an Art Biennale at Tate Exchange in 2018 with contributions from Kochi-Muziris Biennale and osloBIENNALEN.

 

Recent projects have been shown in art institutions, biennials, and public spaces in China, India, Spain, and the UK include Outside India at W+K Exp Gallery, Delhi, 2011 and the accompanying publication Outside India: Dialogues and Documents of Art and Social Change (W+K Delhi, 2012); Barcelona Masala: Narratives and Interactions in Cultural Space (Actar, 2013); the installation End of Empire, at the 2nd edition of the Kochi-Muziris Biennale in 2014. His current project Migrant Car launched at the 1st osloBIENNALEN in May 2019, and he is continuing this project working closely with the curators as it moves within Norway in collaboration with other Norwegian art projects and localities. Migrant Car has already been re-curated with the art foundation Bergen Kunstall 3,14 and will continue to the art collective Pikene på Broen later in 2020 (a group of curators and producers based in the northeastern town of Kirkenes). Here, the project will collaborate locally across borders and attempt to travel over the Russian border retracing a particular infamous route that Syrian migrants and refugees have previously taken in their bid to find ways of entering Norway via Russia.

 

Notes and references

 

1 The terms ‘biennale’ and ‘biennial’ are used interchangeably with respect to their use amongst the many written uses in discourse present in this article.

 

2 The Kochi-Muziris Biennale launched in 2012 in the coastal city of Kochi in Kerala, India. The Biennale has been critically hailed and is now considered an influential platform for contemporary art and art education in Asia as well as being the largest art event of its kind in South Asia. It has gone on to be curated in 2014 by Jitish Kallat with Whorled Explorations, in 2016 by Sudarshan Shetty with Forming in the Pupil of the Eye, and in 2018 by Anita Dube with Possibilities for a Non-Alienated Life. The Biennale has a tradition of appointing Indian artists as curators since its inception. The 5th edition of the Biennale is slated to run from December 12, 2020 until April 10, 2021, curated by artist Shubigi Rao.

 

3 osloBIENNALEN FIRST EDITION 2019-2024 has launched a new biennial model—an evolving program of art in public space and the public sphere. During a five-year period, the audience will be able to see and experience projects with varying tempos, rhythms, and time spans. These will take place over a number of sites in Oslo and beyond.

 

4 End of Empire was a collateral project produced in Fort Kochi for the 2nd Kochi-Muziris Biennale. The project extends my research interests in how artistic production might act as a dialogue with other agents of spatial process in the city and how can artistic conventions might be revised to articulate dialogues between art practice and public space. Publicly situating the artwork was a method to rigorously test and extend the local reach of the Biennale, questions I originally raised in my essay “The Indian Biennale Effect” (2013) referencing other critical dialogues on issues of biennial formats in terms of local engagement, relevance, and in reaching local, non-art audiences and communities. This was achieved through a particular methodology of project design, in locating and engaging the makers/producers of the sculpture as active local participants and collaborators and by making the process of production highly visible and documenting this in public space. My intention was to build a temporal and performative ‘living’ artwork as an extension of ‘everyday life.’ As a collateral project, this was significantly the only project working outside of the official designated Biennale structures and spaces in Kochi.

 

5 Migrant Car was developed through invitation from osloBIENNALEN curators, rethinking the previous site-specific project End of Empire, engaging critically with OB’s relationship to locality and community. The complex project engaged and collaborated with local communities, events, places, and people in the city whileconnecting to the interlinked local and international realities that represent the current multicultural and migrant populations of Oslo and the attendant social and political concerns. Focusing on impacts that migration into Norway is having on traditional social structures and modes of relations between different groups, linked to loss of community engagement, the project aimed to find relevant ways for locals to think about migrants by bringing people together across the city by developing situations for new relational possibilities. Central to the project was a number of co-produced projects with local students studying programmes such as Art in Public Space and Art and dissemination at local Universities KHiO and Oslo Met and the use of newly restricted space of the car-free zone in the city.

 

6 Bergen City Council’s plans to establish a biennial for contemporary art in Bergen, Norway in 2007 led to the Bergen Kunsthall organizing an international symposium to study and discuss the status of the biennial as an exhibition model, and also to launch a debate on the plans for a biennial in Bergen. A proposal for a biennial in Bergen was discussed during Bergen Biennial Conference (2009) with the question “To biennial or not to biennial?” by experts and researchers from both academia and the arts leading to the establishing of Bergen Assembly and a triennale launched in 2013. The Bergen Biennial Conference was followed by the publication, The Biennial Reader in 2010.

 

7 Anthony Gardnerand Charles Green, Biennials, Triennials, and Documenta: The Exhibitions that Created Contemporary Art (Chichester, UK: Wiley-Blackwell, 2016), 5.

 

8 Eva González-Sancho and Per Gunnar Eeg-Tverbakk, , OSLO PILOT (2015–17)—a project investigating the role of art in and for the public space—laying the groundwork for Oslo Biennial First Edition (Milan: Mousse Publishing, 2018).

 

9 Ranjit Hoskote, “The Catalytic Role of the Biennale,” in Kochi Muziris Biennale: Against All Odds, ed. Sabin Iqbal (Kottayam: DC Books, 2012), 178–185.

 

10 Nancy Adajania, “Globalism Before Globalisation: The Ambivalent Fate of Triennale India,” in Western Artists and India: Creative Inspirations in Art and Design, ed. Shanay Jhaveri (Bombay: The Shoestring Publisher, 2013), 168-185.

 

11 Robert E. D’Souza, Outside India: Dialogues and Documents of Art and Social Change (Delhi: W+K Publishing, 2012), 157.

 

12 Henri Lefebvre, The Production of Space, trans. Donald Nicholson-Smith (Oxford: Blackwell Publishing, 2009).

 

13 The 7th Gwangju Biennale in South Korea was directed by Okwui Enwezor with co-curators Hyun-jin Kim and Ranjit Hoskote. Widely acknowledged as the spiritual center of the struggle for participatory democracy in South Korea, the city of Gwangju made the first steps toward claiming the political importance of open civil and cultural forums as indicators of a stable democratic sphere by launching the Gwangju Biennale. Enwezor is seen as an important figure in terms of debates on globalization and postcolonialism through biennial formats, directing critically important events such as Documenta11 in 2002 and the Venice Biennale in 2015.

 

14 Sabine B. Vogel, Biennials: Art on a Global Scale (Vienna: Springer, 2010), 64.

 

15 Nandini Thilak and Gautam Das, eds., Whorled Explorations: Kochi-Muziris Biennale 2014 (Kottayam: DC Books, 2016).

 

16 Muziris was an ancient harbor and urban center in the Indian state of Kerala (formerly the Malabar Coast) that dates from at least the 1st century BC. The exact location of Muziris is unknown to historians and archaeologists. The Government of Kerala initiated the Muziris Heritage Project to reinstate the historical and cultural significance of the legendary port of Muziris and is the largest conservation project in India. KMB’s move was strategic to include Muziris within the conceptual conceit of the Biennale name while connecting to a major government-backed heritage project.

 

17 Robert E. D’Souza and Sunil Manghani, “Curation As Dialogue: Jitish Kallat in Conversation,” in India’s Biennale Effect: A Politics of Contemporary Art, eds. Robert E. D’Souza and Sunil Manghani (London: Routledge, 2016), 132–

 

18 Robert E. D’Souza, “The Indian Biennale Effect: The Kochi-Muziris Biennale 2012,” Cultural Politics 9, no. 3 (November 2013).

 

19 Robert E. D’Souza, “End of Empire,” India’s Biennale Effect, 180–

 

20 Robert E. D’Souza and Sunil Manghani, “The Biennale Was Not The Issue: An Interview with Riyas Komu,” India’s Biennale Effect, 84–

 

21 Robert E. D’Souza and Sunil Manghani, “Timely Provocations: The 3rd Kochi-Muziris Biennale,” Biennial Foundation, January 10, 2017, accessed Jun. 5, 2020, www.biennialfoundation.org/2017/01/timely-provocations-th....

 

22 Andreas Koller, Forming in the Pupil of the Eye: Kochi-Muziris Biennale 2016 Guide A-Z, Kochi Biennale Foundation, 2016.

 

23 Padmini Chettur, Indian Foundation for the Arts, accessed May 5, 2020, indiaifa.org/grants-projects/padmini-chettur.html.

 

24 Parvathi Nayar, “The art of conversation,” The Hindu, Oct. 31, 2015, accessed May 8, 2020, www.thehindu.com/todays-paper/tp-features/tp-metroplus/th....

 

25 Biennial Foundation, “Kochi-Muziris Biennale Announces The Curatorial Vision,” accessed May 8, 2020, www.biennialfoundation.org/2016/10/kochi-muziris-biennale....

 

26 Åshild Kristensen Foss and Ed D’Souza Beyond Participation into Art. [booklet within a project folder of artist information available to the public at the Biennial launch May 2019]. Oslo: osloBIENNALEN

 

27 Grünerløkka is a borough in the east of Oslo and is a traditional working-class district known for production in several factories placed here because of the advantages of being located close to the river. There have been shifts in the socioeconomic levels of the district as manufacturing has disappeared, waves of migrants have moved in, and now a gentrification process has taken place in the area.

 

28 The title of Winchester School of Arts’ (University of Southampton) week-long event at Tate Exchange in London in April 2018 led by Professor Sunil Manghani and developed in association with Shwetal A. Patel, the Kochi-Muziris Biennale, and international partners. This programme invited members of the public to engage in activities and debates concerned with the production of contemporary art and the biennial format. The programme was framed around key research conducted around the Kochi-Muziris Biennale, in particular the publication India’s Biennale Effect: A Politics of Contemporary Art (Routledge, 2017). Key to the programme was participation from curators from all three editions of the KMB and a final event, Imagined Biennales, with presentations of speculative ideas for future biennales followed by a live broadcast from the forthcoming curator of the 4th KMB by curator Anita Dube, six months prior to its launch.

 

29 The online blog was initially set up by student participants when it was discovered that the OB web architecture could not host this. A separate archive was produced by the OB to host the archiving of the documentary materials produced by students of their projects with a rich array of material including blog posts, photos, and video material. The blog has been extended to include other collaborations with the project, including time spent in Bergen at Kunstall 3,14 in October 2020 where five projects occurred. See: mcprojects.blog/about-mc-projects/.

 

30 See: www.kunsthall314.art/migrantcar.

 

31 Pikene på Broenis a collective of curators and producers based in the northeastern Norwegian town of Kirkenes, located 15km from the Russian border and 50km from the Finnish border. The town of Kirkenes is ideally placed for cross-border cooperation and cultural exchange in the Arctic. See: www.pikene.no.

 

32 Thomas Nilsen, “Russia will accept return of migrants in busses,” The Barents Observer, Jan. 14, 2016, accessed Jun. 5, 2020,

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Tapio Mäkelä, "Ars Memorativa in the Interactive City: Private Layers, Sublime Technologies in Public Spaces, (ISEA 2006)

 

Lev Manovich, "The Poetics of Augmented Space: Learning from Prada," 2002 [pdf]

 

William J. Mitchell, Me++: The Cyborg Self and the Networked City, MIT Press, 2003

 

Malcolm McCullough, Digital Ground: Architecture, Pervasive Computing, and Environmental Knowing, MIT Press, 2004

 

Trevor Paglen, Blank Spots on the Map: The Dark Geography of the Pentagon's Secret World, Penguin, 2009

 

Paraskevopoulou, Charitos, Rizopoulos, "Location-specific art practices that challenge the traditional conception of mapping," Art Nodes Issue 8

 

David Pinder, Visions of the City: Utopianism, Power and Politics in Twentieth-Century Urbanism, Routledge, 2006

 

Simon Pope, "The Shape of Locative Media," Mute February 9, 2005

 

Howard Rheingold, Smart Mobs: The Next Social Revolution, Basic Books, 2002

 

Irit Rogoff, Terra Infirma: Geography's Visual Culture, Routledge, 2000

 

Simon Sadler, The Situationist City, MIT Press, 1998

 

Alison Sant, "Redefining The Basemap," Intelligent Agent, Volume 6, Number 2

 

Simon Schama, Landscape and Memory, Vintage, 1976

 

Wolfgang Schivelbusch, The Railway Journey: The Industrialization and Perception of Time and Space, University of California Press, 1987

 

Robert Smithson, Robert Smithson: The Collected Writings (Jack Flam, ed.), University of California Press, 1996

 

Rebecca Solnit, Wanderlust, Penguin, 2001

 

Erika Suderburg, Space, Site, Intervention: Situating Installation Art, University of Minnesota Press, 2000

 

Pall Thayer "On narrative, abstract and location: A few words on lacation-based data in art," 2004 [pdf]

 

Nato Thompson (ed), Experimental Geography: Radical Approaches to Landscape, Cartography, and Urbanism

 

Anthony Townsend, "Envisioning the ubiquitous city"

 

Anthony Townsend "Digitally Mediated Urban Space: New Lessons for Design" Praxis (2004) [pdf]

 

Yi-Fu Tuan, Space and Place: The Perspective of Experience, University of Minnesota, 1977

 

Marc Tuters (ed), "Acoustic Space: Trans Cultural Mapping," Riga: The Center for New Media Culture RICX, 2004

 

Marc Tuters and Kazys Varnelis, "Beyond Locative Media," Networked Publics blog

 

Urban Tapestries essay collection

 

Kazys Varnelis and Anne Friedber, Place: Networked Place, Networked Publics blog

 

Kazys Varnelis, The Infrastructural City: Networked Ecologies in Los Angeles, Actar, 2009

 

Robert Venturi, Learning from Las Vegas, MIT Press, 1977

 

Denis Wood, The Power of Maps, Guilford Press, 1992

Maker: A.A.E. Disderi (1819-1889)

Nationality: France

Medium: albumen print

Size: 2.25" x 4"

Location: France

 

Object No. 2012.559

 

Publication:

Jonquieres, La Vielle Photographie depuis Daguerre jusqu'a 1870, Henri Lefebvre, Paris, 1935, pg 61

Camille Recht, Die Alte Photographie, Henri Jonquieres, Paris, 1935, pg 61

The Oxford Companion to the Photograph, Oxford University Press, Oxford, 2005, pg 107

Miquel, La Second Empire, Tresors de la Photographie, Andre Barret, Paris, 1979, pg 55 (similar)

 

Other Collections: MMA

 

Notes: First as president and then as emperor of France, Napoleon took full advantage of his prestige as nephew of Napoleon I. Napoleon III gave France two decades of prosperity under an authoritarian regime. Eugenie, daughter of a Spanish nobleman, influenced her husband in foreign policy and served as regent during his absences.

 

To view our archive organized by themes and subjects, visit: OUR COLLECTIONS

 

For information about reproducing this image, visit: THE HISTORY OF PHOTOGRAPHY ARCHIVE

Oil on canvas; 100 x 79 cm.

  

Delesio Antonio Berni was a figurative artist, born in Rosario, province of Santa Fe, Argentina. He worked as a painter, an illustrator and an engraver. His father, Napoleón Berni, was an immigrant tailor from Italy. His mother, Margarita Picco, was an Argentinian, daughter of Italians settled in Roldán, a nearby town.

 

In 1914, he became an apprentice in the Buxadera and Co. vitraux factory, receiving to Buenos Aires, which was attended even by President Marcelo T. de Alvear.

 

In Paris, he became acquainted with a number of people, such as Louis Aragon, a French writer and one of the leaders of Dada and surrealism, who influenced him artistically and introduced him to André Breton, poet and critic. He also befriended Henri Lefebvre, who initiated him in the reading of Karl Marx. With the combined influence of his friends in politics, and of Giorgio de Chirico's works and René Magritte in the arts, he finally embraced surrealism and Communism. He began helping Aragón in his anti-imperialist struggle in Paris, where Chinese, African, Vietnamese and other minority people were abundant. Berni distributed a newspaper and illustrated other publications. In the meantime, he studied surrealist painting and poetry, and the work of Sigmund Freud. One of his illuminating moments came when he met Tristan Tzara in 1930.

 

His style of surrealism does not resemble Miró's automatism or Dalí's onirism; he instead took Chirico's style and gave it a new content.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Berni

 

Oil on wood; 50 x 34.3 cm.

 

Delesio Antonio Berni was a figurative artist, born in Rosario, province of Santa Fe, Argentina. He worked as a painter, an illustrator and an engraver. His father, Napoleón Berni, was an immigrant tailor from Italy. His mother, Margarita Picco, was an Argentinian, daughter of Italians settled in Roldán, a nearby town.

 

In 1914, he became an apprentice in the Buxadera and Co. vitraux factory, receiving to Buenos Aires, which was attended even by President Marcelo T. de Alvear.

 

In Paris, he became acquainted with a number of people, such as Louis Aragon, a French writer and one of the leaders of Dada and surrealism, who influenced him artistically and introduced him to André Breton, poet and critic. He also befriended Henri Lefebvre, who initiated him in the reading of Karl Marx. With the combined influence of his friends in politics, and of Giorgio de Chirico's works and René Magritte in the arts, he finally embraced surrealism and Communism. He began helping Aragón in his anti-imperialist struggle in Paris, where Chinese, African, Vietnamese and other minority people were abundant. Berni distributed a newspaper and illustrated other publications. In the meantime, he studied surrealist painting and poetry, and the work of Sigmund Freud. One of his illuminating moments came when he met Tristan Tzara in 1930.

 

His style of surrealism does not resemble Miró's automatism or Dalí's onirism; he instead took Chirico's style and gave it a new content.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Antonio_Berni

  

informaciónMañana es DIA LIBRE, encuentro de Arte y Deporte Urbano.

 

puR4 AcCióN Fr33S7yLe!!!

 

Domingo 17 de Octubre de 12 a 23hs.

En caso de lluvia (que no va a pasar) se pasa al 24.

 

Libre acceso! Av Iraola y Libertador.

 

Skate + Rollers + Frisbee + Longboard + BMX + Parkour / Free running + Stencil + Grafitti + Stickers - B-boys / Breakdance + Slackline + Freestyle Soccer + Street Basquetball - Light Juggling + Performance + Instalaciones + Sky runners + Dj's y Vj sets + Mc's Soundsystems

 

Sorteos y premios + Escuelas de disciplinas + Compes + Pic Nic!

  

Una jornada para venir a practicar, entrenar, jugar, pintar, bailar y sudar!

 

Line-up:

 

- Army of Dub - Dub -

www.myspace.com/armyofdub

- DJ Rob - Hip-hop -

- Zion Mc (live) - Dancehall -

- Dub Mutante (live)- Dubstep -

- Relo (Subklub) - Bassline -

soundcloud.com/relo

- Sandoval (live) - Hip Hop Freestyle Mc -

www.myspace.com/sergiosando

- Daleduro - Dubstep -

www.myspace.com/daleduro

- Actitud María Marta (live) - Dancehall -

www.myspace.com/actitudmariamarta

- Le Freak Selector (Folcore Barcelona) - Global Urban Beatz -

myspace.com/lefreakselector

///// Comienzo de visuales //// - Vj Pablo Dsg

www.pablodisegno.tk/

- Kunde - Ghettotech -

www.myspace.com/kundebeat

- Intervencion Lig Lab + Breaking Juggling Crew

www.flickr.com/photos/liglab

- Un Mono Azul - Tropical Bass -

myspace.com/unmonoazul v\

- Beat De Kids (Undertones) - Fidget House -

www.myspace.com/beatdekids

  

Street Art:

 

- Mart Aire

www.airesmart.com.ar/

- Pipa

www.pipasclub.com.ar/

- Federacion Stickboxing (La Wife y compañía)

www.flickr.com/lawife

www.flickr.com/photos/federacion/

- Dardo Malatesta

www.flickr.com/photos/dardo_malatesta/

- Dano Graff

danograff.com.ar/

- Dame

www.flickr.com/photos/damegraffiti/

- Vaps

www.flickr.com/photos/vaporsss/

- Anto

   

Photoshooters

 

- Diego San Martín

diegosanmartinphotos.blogspot.com/

- Whiskii

www.whiskii.com.ar/

- Museo Container

www.flickr.com/photos/museocontainer

- Tremendo Brothers

tremendobrothers.tumblr.com/

- Smiletome

www.flickr.com/photos/phsmiletome/

    

Nuestro blog con toda la data:

dialibre.wordpress.com/

 

Nuestro Grupo Facebook, sumate para estar al día de todo:

www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=401316484459

 

Nuestro Flickr con todas las fotos:

www.flickr.com/photos/dialibre

  

(((((((( Energía en movimiento ))))))))

 

“El derecho a la ciudad no es tan solo el derecho a usarla, sino también el derecho a interpretarla, a identificarnos con ella, a apropiarnos (aunque sea simbólicamente) de sus espacios, a “privatizar” lo público y a “publicitar” lo privado, de manera fluida, espontánea, creativa. Así, se encuentra la recuperación del espacio urbano como espacio vivo, el carácter lúdico de la calle que manifestaba Henri Lefebvre: multiplicidad de usos, multiplicidad de grupos, multiplicidad de significados.” (*)

 

(*) Espacio privado, espacio público: Dialécticas urbanas y construcción de significados.

Sergi Valera.

 

Flyers y diseños by Jugo, Pipa y Brenda Mazza-

informaciónMañana es DIA LIBRE, encuentro de Arte y Deporte Urbano.

 

puR4 AcCióN Fr33S7yLe!!!

 

Domingo 17 de Octubre de 12 a 23hs.

En caso de lluvia (que no va a pasar) se pasa al 24.

 

Libre acceso! Av Iraola y Libertador.

 

Skate + Rollers + Frisbee + Longboard + BMX + Parkour / Free running + Stencil + Grafitti + Stickers - B-boys / Breakdance + Slackline + Freestyle Soccer + Street Basquetball - Light Juggling + Performance + Instalaciones + Sky runners + Dj's y Vj sets + Mc's Soundsystems

 

Sorteos y premios + Escuelas de disciplinas + Compes + Pic Nic!

  

Una jornada para venir a practicar, entrenar, jugar, pintar, bailar y sudar!

 

Line-up:

 

- Army of Dub - Dub -

www.myspace.com/armyofdub

- DJ Rob - Hip-hop -

- Zion Mc (live) - Dancehall -

- Dub Mutante (live)- Dubstep -

- Relo (Subklub) - Bassline -

soundcloud.com/relo

- Sandoval (live) - Hip Hop Freestyle Mc -

www.myspace.com/sergiosando

- Daleduro - Dubstep -

www.myspace.com/daleduro

- Actitud María Marta (live) - Dancehall -

www.myspace.com/actitudmariamarta

- Le Freak Selector (Folcore Barcelona) - Global Urban Beatz -

myspace.com/lefreakselector

///// Comienzo de visuales //// - Vj Pablo Dsg

www.pablodisegno.tk/

- Kunde - Ghettotech -

www.myspace.com/kundebeat

- Intervencion Lig Lab + Breaking Juggling Crew

www.flickr.com/photos/liglab

- Un Mono Azul - Tropical Bass -

myspace.com/unmonoazul v\

- Beat De Kids (Undertones) - Fidget House -

www.myspace.com/beatdekids

  

Street Art:

 

- Mart Aire

www.airesmart.com.ar/

- Pipa

www.pipasclub.com.ar/

- Federacion Stickboxing (La Wife y compañía)

www.flickr.com/lawife

www.flickr.com/photos/federacion/

- Dardo Malatesta

www.flickr.com/photos/dardo_malatesta/

- Dano Graff

danograff.com.ar/

- Dame

www.flickr.com/photos/damegraffiti/

- Vaps

www.flickr.com/photos/vaporsss/

- Anto

   

Photoshooters

 

- Diego San Martín

diegosanmartinphotos.blogspot.com/

- Whiskii

www.whiskii.com.ar/

- Museo Container

www.flickr.com/photos/museocontainer

- Tremendo Brothers

tremendobrothers.tumblr.com/

- Smiletome

www.flickr.com/photos/phsmiletome/

    

Nuestro blog con toda la data:

dialibre.wordpress.com/

 

Nuestro Grupo Facebook, sumate para estar al día de todo:

www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=401316484459

 

Nuestro Flickr con todas las fotos:

www.flickr.com/photos/dialibre

  

(((((((( Energía en movimiento ))))))))

 

“El derecho a la ciudad no es tan solo el derecho a usarla, sino también el derecho a interpretarla, a identificarnos con ella, a apropiarnos (aunque sea simbólicamente) de sus espacios, a “privatizar” lo público y a “publicitar” lo privado, de manera fluida, espontánea, creativa. Así, se encuentra la recuperación del espacio urbano como espacio vivo, el carácter lúdico de la calle que manifestaba Henri Lefebvre: multiplicidad de usos, multiplicidad de grupos, multiplicidad de significados.” (*)

 

(*) Espacio privado, espacio público: Dialécticas urbanas y construcción de significados.

Sergi Valera.

 

Flyers y diseños by Jugo, Pipa y Brenda Mazza-

informaciónMañana es DIA LIBRE, encuentro de Arte y Deporte Urbano.

 

puR4 AcCióN Fr33S7yLe!!!

 

Domingo 17 de Octubre de 12 a 23hs.

En caso de lluvia (que no va a pasar) se pasa al 24.

 

Libre acceso! Av Iraola y Libertador.

 

Skate + Rollers + Frisbee + Longboard + BMX + Parkour / Free running + Stencil + Grafitti + Stickers - B-boys / Breakdance + Slackline + Freestyle Soccer + Street Basquetball - Light Juggling + Performance + Instalaciones + Sky runners + Dj's y Vj sets + Mc's Soundsystems

 

Sorteos y premios + Escuelas de disciplinas + Compes + Pic Nic!

  

Una jornada para venir a practicar, entrenar, jugar, pintar, bailar y sudar!

 

Line-up:

 

- Army of Dub - Dub -

www.myspace.com/armyofdub

- DJ Rob - Hip-hop -

- Zion Mc (live) - Dancehall -

- Dub Mutante (live)- Dubstep -

- Relo (Subklub) - Bassline -

soundcloud.com/relo

- Sandoval (live) - Hip Hop Freestyle Mc -

www.myspace.com/sergiosando

- Daleduro - Dubstep -

www.myspace.com/daleduro

- Actitud María Marta (live) - Dancehall -

www.myspace.com/actitudmariamarta

- Le Freak Selector (Folcore Barcelona) - Global Urban Beatz -

myspace.com/lefreakselector

///// Comienzo de visuales //// - Vj Pablo Dsg

www.pablodisegno.tk/

- Kunde - Ghettotech -

www.myspace.com/kundebeat

- Intervencion Lig Lab + Breaking Juggling Crew

www.flickr.com/photos/liglab

- Un Mono Azul - Tropical Bass -

myspace.com/unmonoazul v\

- Beat De Kids (Undertones) - Fidget House -

www.myspace.com/beatdekids

  

Street Art:

 

- Mart Aire

www.airesmart.com.ar/

- Pipa

www.pipasclub.com.ar/

- Federacion Stickboxing (La Wife y compañía)

www.flickr.com/lawife

www.flickr.com/photos/federacion/

- Dardo Malatesta

www.flickr.com/photos/dardo_malatesta/

- Dano Graff

danograff.com.ar/

- Dame

www.flickr.com/photos/damegraffiti/

- Vaps

www.flickr.com/photos/vaporsss/

- Anto

   

Photoshooters

 

- Diego San Martín

diegosanmartinphotos.blogspot.com/

- Whiskii

www.whiskii.com.ar/

- Museo Container

www.flickr.com/photos/museocontainer

- Tremendo Brothers

tremendobrothers.tumblr.com/

- Smiletome

www.flickr.com/photos/phsmiletome/

    

Nuestro blog con toda la data:

dialibre.wordpress.com/

 

Nuestro Grupo Facebook, sumate para estar al día de todo:

www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=401316484459

 

Nuestro Flickr con todas las fotos:

www.flickr.com/photos/dialibre

  

(((((((( Energía en movimiento ))))))))

 

“El derecho a la ciudad no es tan solo el derecho a usarla, sino también el derecho a interpretarla, a identificarnos con ella, a apropiarnos (aunque sea simbólicamente) de sus espacios, a “privatizar” lo público y a “publicitar” lo privado, de manera fluida, espontánea, creativa. Así, se encuentra la recuperación del espacio urbano como espacio vivo, el carácter lúdico de la calle que manifestaba Henri Lefebvre: multiplicidad de usos, multiplicidad de grupos, multiplicidad de significados.” (*)

 

(*) Espacio privado, espacio público: Dialécticas urbanas y construcción de significados.

Sergi Valera.

 

Flyers y diseños by Jugo, Pipa y Brenda Mazza-

informaciónMañana es DIA LIBRE, encuentro de Arte y Deporte Urbano.

 

puR4 AcCióN Fr33S7yLe!!!

 

Domingo 17 de Octubre de 12 a 23hs.

En caso de lluvia (que no va a pasar) se pasa al 24.

 

Libre acceso! Av Iraola y Libertador.

 

Skate + Rollers + Frisbee + Longboard + BMX + Parkour / Free running + Stencil + Grafitti + Stickers - B-boys / Breakdance + Slackline + Freestyle Soccer + Street Basquetball - Light Juggling + Performance + Instalaciones + Sky runners + Dj's y Vj sets + Mc's Soundsystems

 

Sorteos y premios + Escuelas de disciplinas + Compes + Pic Nic!

  

Una jornada para venir a practicar, entrenar, jugar, pintar, bailar y sudar!

 

Line-up:

 

- Army of Dub - Dub -

www.myspace.com/armyofdub

- DJ Rob - Hip-hop -

- Zion Mc (live) - Dancehall -

- Dub Mutante (live)- Dubstep -

- Relo (Subklub) - Bassline -

soundcloud.com/relo

- Sandoval (live) - Hip Hop Freestyle Mc -

www.myspace.com/sergiosando

- Daleduro - Dubstep -

www.myspace.com/daleduro

- Actitud María Marta (live) - Dancehall -

www.myspace.com/actitudmariamarta

- Le Freak Selector (Folcore Barcelona) - Global Urban Beatz -

myspace.com/lefreakselector

///// Comienzo de visuales //// - Vj Pablo Dsg

www.pablodisegno.tk/

- Kunde - Ghettotech -

www.myspace.com/kundebeat

- Intervencion Lig Lab + Breaking Juggling Crew

www.flickr.com/photos/liglab

- Un Mono Azul - Tropical Bass -

myspace.com/unmonoazul v\

- Beat De Kids (Undertones) - Fidget House -

www.myspace.com/beatdekids

  

Street Art:

 

- Mart Aire

www.airesmart.com.ar/

- Pipa

www.pipasclub.com.ar/

- Federacion Stickboxing (La Wife y compañía)

www.flickr.com/lawife

www.flickr.com/photos/federacion/

- Dardo Malatesta

www.flickr.com/photos/dardo_malatesta/

- Dano Graff

danograff.com.ar/

- Dame

www.flickr.com/photos/damegraffiti/

- Vaps

www.flickr.com/photos/vaporsss/

- Anto

   

Photoshooters

 

- Diego San Martín

diegosanmartinphotos.blogspot.com/

- Whiskii

www.whiskii.com.ar/

- Museo Container

www.flickr.com/photos/museocontainer

- Tremendo Brothers

tremendobrothers.tumblr.com/

- Smiletome

www.flickr.com/photos/phsmiletome/

    

Nuestro blog con toda la data:

dialibre.wordpress.com/

 

Nuestro Grupo Facebook, sumate para estar al día de todo:

www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=401316484459

 

Nuestro Flickr con todas las fotos:

www.flickr.com/photos/dialibre

  

(((((((( Energía en movimiento ))))))))

 

“El derecho a la ciudad no es tan solo el derecho a usarla, sino también el derecho a interpretarla, a identificarnos con ella, a apropiarnos (aunque sea simbólicamente) de sus espacios, a “privatizar” lo público y a “publicitar” lo privado, de manera fluida, espontánea, creativa. Así, se encuentra la recuperación del espacio urbano como espacio vivo, el carácter lúdico de la calle que manifestaba Henri Lefebvre: multiplicidad de usos, multiplicidad de grupos, multiplicidad de significados.” (*)

 

(*) Espacio privado, espacio público: Dialécticas urbanas y construcción de significados.

Sergi Valera.

 

Flyers y diseños by Jugo, Pipa y Brenda Mazza-

informaciónMañana es DIA LIBRE, encuentro de Arte y Deporte Urbano.

 

puR4 AcCióN Fr33S7yLe!!!

 

Domingo 17 de Octubre de 12 a 23hs.

En caso de lluvia (que no va a pasar) se pasa al 24.

 

Libre acceso! Av Iraola y Libertador.

 

Skate + Rollers + Frisbee + Longboard + BMX + Parkour / Free running + Stencil + Grafitti + Stickers - B-boys / Breakdance + Slackline + Freestyle Soccer + Street Basquetball - Light Juggling + Performance + Instalaciones + Sky runners + Dj's y Vj sets + Mc's Soundsystems

 

Sorteos y premios + Escuelas de disciplinas + Compes + Pic Nic!

  

Una jornada para venir a practicar, entrenar, jugar, pintar, bailar y sudar!

 

Line-up:

 

- Army of Dub - Dub -

www.myspace.com/armyofdub

- DJ Rob - Hip-hop -

- Zion Mc (live) - Dancehall -

- Dub Mutante (live)- Dubstep -

- Relo (Subklub) - Bassline -

soundcloud.com/relo

- Sandoval (live) - Hip Hop Freestyle Mc -

www.myspace.com/sergiosando

- Daleduro - Dubstep -

www.myspace.com/daleduro

- Actitud María Marta (live) - Dancehall -

www.myspace.com/actitudmariamarta

- Le Freak Selector (Folcore Barcelona) - Global Urban Beatz -

myspace.com/lefreakselector

///// Comienzo de visuales //// - Vj Pablo Dsg

www.pablodisegno.tk/

- Kunde - Ghettotech -

www.myspace.com/kundebeat

- Intervencion Lig Lab + Breaking Juggling Crew

www.flickr.com/photos/liglab

- Un Mono Azul - Tropical Bass -

myspace.com/unmonoazul v\

- Beat De Kids (Undertones) - Fidget House -

www.myspace.com/beatdekids

  

Street Art:

 

- Mart Aire

www.airesmart.com.ar/

- Pipa

www.pipasclub.com.ar/

- Federacion Stickboxing (La Wife y compañía)

www.flickr.com/lawife

www.flickr.com/photos/federacion/

- Dardo Malatesta

www.flickr.com/photos/dardo_malatesta/

- Dano Graff

danograff.com.ar/

- Dame

www.flickr.com/photos/damegraffiti/

- Vaps

www.flickr.com/photos/vaporsss/

- Anto

   

Photoshooters

 

- Diego San Martín

diegosanmartinphotos.blogspot.com/

- Whiskii

www.whiskii.com.ar/

- Museo Container

www.flickr.com/photos/museocontainer

- Tremendo Brothers

tremendobrothers.tumblr.com/

- Smiletome

www.flickr.com/photos/phsmiletome/

    

Nuestro blog con toda la data:

dialibre.wordpress.com/

 

Nuestro Grupo Facebook, sumate para estar al día de todo:

www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=401316484459

 

Nuestro Flickr con todas las fotos:

www.flickr.com/photos/dialibre

  

(((((((( Energía en movimiento ))))))))

 

“El derecho a la ciudad no es tan solo el derecho a usarla, sino también el derecho a interpretarla, a identificarnos con ella, a apropiarnos (aunque sea simbólicamente) de sus espacios, a “privatizar” lo público y a “publicitar” lo privado, de manera fluida, espontánea, creativa. Así, se encuentra la recuperación del espacio urbano como espacio vivo, el carácter lúdico de la calle que manifestaba Henri Lefebvre: multiplicidad de usos, multiplicidad de grupos, multiplicidad de significados.” (*)

 

(*) Espacio privado, espacio público: Dialécticas urbanas y construcción de significados.

Sergi Valera.

 

Flyers y diseños by Jugo, Pipa y Brenda Mazza-

informaciónMañana es DIA LIBRE, encuentro de Arte y Deporte Urbano.

 

puR4 AcCióN Fr33S7yLe!!!

 

Domingo 17 de Octubre de 12 a 23hs.

En caso de lluvia (que no va a pasar) se pasa al 24.

 

Libre acceso! Av Iraola y Libertador.

 

Skate + Rollers + Frisbee + Longboard + BMX + Parkour / Free running + Stencil + Grafitti + Stickers - B-boys / Breakdance + Slackline + Freestyle Soccer + Street Basquetball - Light Juggling + Performance + Instalaciones + Sky runners + Dj's y Vj sets + Mc's Soundsystems

 

Sorteos y premios + Escuelas de disciplinas + Compes + Pic Nic!

  

Una jornada para venir a practicar, entrenar, jugar, pintar, bailar y sudar!

 

Line-up:

 

- Army of Dub - Dub -

www.myspace.com/armyofdub

- DJ Rob - Hip-hop -

- Zion Mc (live) - Dancehall -

- Dub Mutante (live)- Dubstep -

- Relo (Subklub) - Bassline -

soundcloud.com/relo

- Sandoval (live) - Hip Hop Freestyle Mc -

www.myspace.com/sergiosando

- Daleduro - Dubstep -

www.myspace.com/daleduro

- Actitud María Marta (live) - Dancehall -

www.myspace.com/actitudmariamarta

- Le Freak Selector (Folcore Barcelona) - Global Urban Beatz -

myspace.com/lefreakselector

///// Comienzo de visuales //// - Vj Pablo Dsg

www.pablodisegno.tk/

- Kunde - Ghettotech -

www.myspace.com/kundebeat

- Intervencion Lig Lab + Breaking Juggling Crew

www.flickr.com/photos/liglab

- Un Mono Azul - Tropical Bass -

myspace.com/unmonoazul v\

- Beat De Kids (Undertones) - Fidget House -

www.myspace.com/beatdekids

  

Street Art:

 

- Mart Aire

www.airesmart.com.ar/

- Pipa

www.pipasclub.com.ar/

- Federacion Stickboxing (La Wife y compañía)

www.flickr.com/lawife

www.flickr.com/photos/federacion/

- Dardo Malatesta

www.flickr.com/photos/dardo_malatesta/

- Dano Graff

danograff.com.ar/

- Dame

www.flickr.com/photos/damegraffiti/

- Vaps

www.flickr.com/photos/vaporsss/

- Anto

   

Photoshooters

 

- Diego San Martín

diegosanmartinphotos.blogspot.com/

- Whiskii

www.whiskii.com.ar/

- Museo Container

www.flickr.com/photos/museocontainer

- Tremendo Brothers

tremendobrothers.tumblr.com/

- Smiletome

www.flickr.com/photos/phsmiletome/

    

Nuestro blog con toda la data:

dialibre.wordpress.com/

 

Nuestro Grupo Facebook, sumate para estar al día de todo:

www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=401316484459

 

Nuestro Flickr con todas las fotos:

www.flickr.com/photos/dialibre

  

(((((((( Energía en movimiento ))))))))

 

“El derecho a la ciudad no es tan solo el derecho a usarla, sino también el derecho a interpretarla, a identificarnos con ella, a apropiarnos (aunque sea simbólicamente) de sus espacios, a “privatizar” lo público y a “publicitar” lo privado, de manera fluida, espontánea, creativa. Así, se encuentra la recuperación del espacio urbano como espacio vivo, el carácter lúdico de la calle que manifestaba Henri Lefebvre: multiplicidad de usos, multiplicidad de grupos, multiplicidad de significados.” (*)

 

(*) Espacio privado, espacio público: Dialécticas urbanas y construcción de significados.

Sergi Valera.

 

Flyers y diseños by Jugo, Pipa y Brenda Mazza-

informaciónMañana es DIA LIBRE, encuentro de Arte y Deporte Urbano.

 

puR4 AcCióN Fr33S7yLe!!!

 

Domingo 17 de Octubre de 12 a 23hs.

En caso de lluvia (que no va a pasar) se pasa al 24.

 

Libre acceso! Av Iraola y Libertador.

 

Skate + Rollers + Frisbee + Longboard + BMX + Parkour / Free running + Stencil + Grafitti + Stickers - B-boys / Breakdance + Slackline + Freestyle Soccer + Street Basquetball - Light Juggling + Performance + Instalaciones + Sky runners + Dj's y Vj sets + Mc's Soundsystems

 

Sorteos y premios + Escuelas de disciplinas + Compes + Pic Nic!

  

Una jornada para venir a practicar, entrenar, jugar, pintar, bailar y sudar!

 

Line-up:

 

- Army of Dub - Dub -

www.myspace.com/armyofdub

- DJ Rob - Hip-hop -

- Zion Mc (live) - Dancehall -

- Dub Mutante (live)- Dubstep -

- Relo (Subklub) - Bassline -

soundcloud.com/relo

- Sandoval (live) - Hip Hop Freestyle Mc -

www.myspace.com/sergiosando

- Daleduro - Dubstep -

www.myspace.com/daleduro

- Actitud María Marta (live) - Dancehall -

www.myspace.com/actitudmariamarta

- Le Freak Selector (Folcore Barcelona) - Global Urban Beatz -

myspace.com/lefreakselector

///// Comienzo de visuales //// - Vj Pablo Dsg

www.pablodisegno.tk/

- Kunde - Ghettotech -

www.myspace.com/kundebeat

- Intervencion Lig Lab + Breaking Juggling Crew

www.flickr.com/photos/liglab

- Un Mono Azul - Tropical Bass -

myspace.com/unmonoazul v\

- Beat De Kids (Undertones) - Fidget House -

www.myspace.com/beatdekids

  

Street Art:

 

- Mart Aire

www.airesmart.com.ar/

- Pipa

www.pipasclub.com.ar/

- Federacion Stickboxing (La Wife y compañía)

www.flickr.com/lawife

www.flickr.com/photos/federacion/

- Dardo Malatesta

www.flickr.com/photos/dardo_malatesta/

- Dano Graff

danograff.com.ar/

- Dame

www.flickr.com/photos/damegraffiti/

- Vaps

www.flickr.com/photos/vaporsss/

- Anto

   

Photoshooters

 

- Diego San Martín

diegosanmartinphotos.blogspot.com/

- Whiskii

www.whiskii.com.ar/

- Museo Container

www.flickr.com/photos/museocontainer

- Tremendo Brothers

tremendobrothers.tumblr.com/

- Smiletome

www.flickr.com/photos/phsmiletome/

    

Nuestro blog con toda la data:

dialibre.wordpress.com/

 

Nuestro Grupo Facebook, sumate para estar al día de todo:

www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=401316484459

 

Nuestro Flickr con todas las fotos:

www.flickr.com/photos/dialibre

  

(((((((( Energía en movimiento ))))))))

 

“El derecho a la ciudad no es tan solo el derecho a usarla, sino también el derecho a interpretarla, a identificarnos con ella, a apropiarnos (aunque sea simbólicamente) de sus espacios, a “privatizar” lo público y a “publicitar” lo privado, de manera fluida, espontánea, creativa. Así, se encuentra la recuperación del espacio urbano como espacio vivo, el carácter lúdico de la calle que manifestaba Henri Lefebvre: multiplicidad de usos, multiplicidad de grupos, multiplicidad de significados.” (*)

 

(*) Espacio privado, espacio público: Dialécticas urbanas y construcción de significados.

Sergi Valera.

 

Flyers y diseños by Jugo, Pipa y Brenda Mazza-

informaciónMañana es DIA LIBRE, encuentro de Arte y Deporte Urbano.

 

puR4 AcCióN Fr33S7yLe!!!

 

Domingo 17 de Octubre de 12 a 23hs.

En caso de lluvia (que no va a pasar) se pasa al 24.

 

Libre acceso! Av Iraola y Libertador.

 

Skate + Rollers + Frisbee + Longboard + BMX + Parkour / Free running + Stencil + Grafitti + Stickers - B-boys / Breakdance + Slackline + Freestyle Soccer + Street Basquetball - Light Juggling + Performance + Instalaciones + Sky runners + Dj's y Vj sets + Mc's Soundsystems

 

Sorteos y premios + Escuelas de disciplinas + Compes + Pic Nic!

  

Una jornada para venir a practicar, entrenar, jugar, pintar, bailar y sudar!

 

Line-up:

 

- Army of Dub - Dub -

www.myspace.com/armyofdub

- DJ Rob - Hip-hop -

- Zion Mc (live) - Dancehall -

- Dub Mutante (live)- Dubstep -

- Relo (Subklub) - Bassline -

soundcloud.com/relo

- Sandoval (live) - Hip Hop Freestyle Mc -

www.myspace.com/sergiosando

- Daleduro - Dubstep -

www.myspace.com/daleduro

- Actitud María Marta (live) - Dancehall -

www.myspace.com/actitudmariamarta

- Le Freak Selector (Folcore Barcelona) - Global Urban Beatz -

myspace.com/lefreakselector

///// Comienzo de visuales //// - Vj Pablo Dsg

www.pablodisegno.tk/

- Kunde - Ghettotech -

www.myspace.com/kundebeat

- Intervencion Lig Lab + Breaking Juggling Crew

www.flickr.com/photos/liglab

- Un Mono Azul - Tropical Bass -

myspace.com/unmonoazul v\

- Beat De Kids (Undertones) - Fidget House -

www.myspace.com/beatdekids

  

Street Art:

 

- Mart Aire

www.airesmart.com.ar/

- Pipa

www.pipasclub.com.ar/

- Federacion Stickboxing (La Wife y compañía)

www.flickr.com/lawife

www.flickr.com/photos/federacion/

- Dardo Malatesta

www.flickr.com/photos/dardo_malatesta/

- Dano Graff

danograff.com.ar/

- Dame

www.flickr.com/photos/damegraffiti/

- Vaps

www.flickr.com/photos/vaporsss/

- Anto

   

Photoshooters

 

- Diego San Martín

diegosanmartinphotos.blogspot.com/

- Whiskii

www.whiskii.com.ar/

- Museo Container

www.flickr.com/photos/museocontainer

- Tremendo Brothers

tremendobrothers.tumblr.com/

- Smiletome

www.flickr.com/photos/phsmiletome/

    

Nuestro blog con toda la data:

dialibre.wordpress.com/

 

Nuestro Grupo Facebook, sumate para estar al día de todo:

www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=401316484459

 

Nuestro Flickr con todas las fotos:

www.flickr.com/photos/dialibre

  

(((((((( Energía en movimiento ))))))))

 

“El derecho a la ciudad no es tan solo el derecho a usarla, sino también el derecho a interpretarla, a identificarnos con ella, a apropiarnos (aunque sea simbólicamente) de sus espacios, a “privatizar” lo público y a “publicitar” lo privado, de manera fluida, espontánea, creativa. Así, se encuentra la recuperación del espacio urbano como espacio vivo, el carácter lúdico de la calle que manifestaba Henri Lefebvre: multiplicidad de usos, multiplicidad de grupos, multiplicidad de significados.” (*)

 

(*) Espacio privado, espacio público: Dialécticas urbanas y construcción de significados.

Sergi Valera.

 

Flyers y diseños by Jugo, Pipa y Brenda Mazza-

informaciónMañana es DIA LIBRE, encuentro de Arte y Deporte Urbano.

 

puR4 AcCióN Fr33S7yLe!!!

 

Domingo 17 de Octubre de 12 a 23hs.

En caso de lluvia (que no va a pasar) se pasa al 24.

 

Libre acceso! Av Iraola y Libertador.

 

Skate + Rollers + Frisbee + Longboard + BMX + Parkour / Free running + Stencil + Grafitti + Stickers - B-boys / Breakdance + Slackline + Freestyle Soccer + Street Basquetball - Light Juggling + Performance + Instalaciones + Sky runners + Dj's y Vj sets + Mc's Soundsystems

 

Sorteos y premios + Escuelas de disciplinas + Compes + Pic Nic!

  

Una jornada para venir a practicar, entrenar, jugar, pintar, bailar y sudar!

 

Line-up:

 

- Army of Dub - Dub -

www.myspace.com/armyofdub

- DJ Rob - Hip-hop -

- Zion Mc (live) - Dancehall -

- Dub Mutante (live)- Dubstep -

- Relo (Subklub) - Bassline -

soundcloud.com/relo

- Sandoval (live) - Hip Hop Freestyle Mc -

www.myspace.com/sergiosando

- Daleduro - Dubstep -

www.myspace.com/daleduro

- Actitud María Marta (live) - Dancehall -

www.myspace.com/actitudmariamarta

- Le Freak Selector (Folcore Barcelona) - Global Urban Beatz -

myspace.com/lefreakselector

///// Comienzo de visuales //// - Vj Pablo Dsg

www.pablodisegno.tk/

- Kunde - Ghettotech -

www.myspace.com/kundebeat

- Intervencion Lig Lab + Breaking Juggling Crew

www.flickr.com/photos/liglab

- Un Mono Azul - Tropical Bass -

myspace.com/unmonoazul v\

- Beat De Kids (Undertones) - Fidget House -

www.myspace.com/beatdekids

  

Street Art:

 

- Mart Aire

www.airesmart.com.ar/

- Pipa

www.pipasclub.com.ar/

- Federacion Stickboxing (La Wife y compañía)

www.flickr.com/lawife

www.flickr.com/photos/federacion/

- Dardo Malatesta

www.flickr.com/photos/dardo_malatesta/

- Dano Graff

danograff.com.ar/

- Dame

www.flickr.com/photos/damegraffiti/

- Vaps

www.flickr.com/photos/vaporsss/

- Anto

   

Photoshooters

 

- Diego San Martín

diegosanmartinphotos.blogspot.com/

- Whiskii

www.whiskii.com.ar/

- Museo Container

www.flickr.com/photos/museocontainer

- Tremendo Brothers

tremendobrothers.tumblr.com/

- Smiletome

www.flickr.com/photos/phsmiletome/

    

Nuestro blog con toda la data:

dialibre.wordpress.com/

 

Nuestro Grupo Facebook, sumate para estar al día de todo:

www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=401316484459

 

Nuestro Flickr con todas las fotos:

www.flickr.com/photos/dialibre

  

(((((((( Energía en movimiento ))))))))

 

“El derecho a la ciudad no es tan solo el derecho a usarla, sino también el derecho a interpretarla, a identificarnos con ella, a apropiarnos (aunque sea simbólicamente) de sus espacios, a “privatizar” lo público y a “publicitar” lo privado, de manera fluida, espontánea, creativa. Así, se encuentra la recuperación del espacio urbano como espacio vivo, el carácter lúdico de la calle que manifestaba Henri Lefebvre: multiplicidad de usos, multiplicidad de grupos, multiplicidad de significados.” (*)

 

(*) Espacio privado, espacio público: Dialécticas urbanas y construcción de significados.

Sergi Valera.

 

Flyers y diseños by Jugo, Pipa y Brenda Mazza-

informaciónMañana es DIA LIBRE, encuentro de Arte y Deporte Urbano.

 

puR4 AcCióN Fr33S7yLe!!!

 

Domingo 17 de Octubre de 12 a 23hs.

En caso de lluvia (que no va a pasar) se pasa al 24.

 

Libre acceso! Av Iraola y Libertador.

 

Skate + Rollers + Frisbee + Longboard + BMX + Parkour / Free running + Stencil + Grafitti + Stickers - B-boys / Breakdance + Slackline + Freestyle Soccer + Street Basquetball - Light Juggling + Performance + Instalaciones + Sky runners + Dj's y Vj sets + Mc's Soundsystems

 

Sorteos y premios + Escuelas de disciplinas + Compes + Pic Nic!

  

Una jornada para venir a practicar, entrenar, jugar, pintar, bailar y sudar!

 

Line-up:

 

- Army of Dub - Dub -

www.myspace.com/armyofdub

- DJ Rob - Hip-hop -

- Zion Mc (live) - Dancehall -

- Dub Mutante (live)- Dubstep -

- Relo (Subklub) - Bassline -

soundcloud.com/relo

- Sandoval (live) - Hip Hop Freestyle Mc -

www.myspace.com/sergiosando

- Daleduro - Dubstep -

www.myspace.com/daleduro

- Actitud María Marta (live) - Dancehall -

www.myspace.com/actitudmariamarta

- Le Freak Selector (Folcore Barcelona) - Global Urban Beatz -

myspace.com/lefreakselector

///// Comienzo de visuales //// - Vj Pablo Dsg

www.pablodisegno.tk/

- Kunde - Ghettotech -

www.myspace.com/kundebeat

- Intervencion Lig Lab + Breaking Juggling Crew

www.flickr.com/photos/liglab

- Un Mono Azul - Tropical Bass -

myspace.com/unmonoazul v\

- Beat De Kids (Undertones) - Fidget House -

www.myspace.com/beatdekids

  

Street Art:

 

- Mart Aire

www.airesmart.com.ar/

- Pipa

www.pipasclub.com.ar/

- Federacion Stickboxing (La Wife y compañía)

www.flickr.com/lawife

www.flickr.com/photos/federacion/

- Dardo Malatesta

www.flickr.com/photos/dardo_malatesta/

- Dano Graff

danograff.com.ar/

- Dame

www.flickr.com/photos/damegraffiti/

- Vaps

www.flickr.com/photos/vaporsss/

- Anto

   

Photoshooters

 

- Diego San Martín

diegosanmartinphotos.blogspot.com/

- Whiskii

www.whiskii.com.ar/

- Museo Container

www.flickr.com/photos/museocontainer

- Tremendo Brothers

tremendobrothers.tumblr.com/

- Smiletome

www.flickr.com/photos/phsmiletome/

    

Nuestro blog con toda la data:

dialibre.wordpress.com/

 

Nuestro Grupo Facebook, sumate para estar al día de todo:

www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=401316484459

 

Nuestro Flickr con todas las fotos:

www.flickr.com/photos/dialibre

  

(((((((( Energía en movimiento ))))))))

 

“El derecho a la ciudad no es tan solo el derecho a usarla, sino también el derecho a interpretarla, a identificarnos con ella, a apropiarnos (aunque sea simbólicamente) de sus espacios, a “privatizar” lo público y a “publicitar” lo privado, de manera fluida, espontánea, creativa. Así, se encuentra la recuperación del espacio urbano como espacio vivo, el carácter lúdico de la calle que manifestaba Henri Lefebvre: multiplicidad de usos, multiplicidad de grupos, multiplicidad de significados.” (*)

 

(*) Espacio privado, espacio público: Dialécticas urbanas y construcción de significados.

Sergi Valera.

 

Flyers y diseños by Jugo, Pipa y Brenda Mazza-

informaciónMañana es DIA LIBRE, encuentro de Arte y Deporte Urbano.

 

puR4 AcCióN Fr33S7yLe!!!

 

Domingo 17 de Octubre de 12 a 23hs.

En caso de lluvia (que no va a pasar) se pasa al 24.

 

Libre acceso! Av Iraola y Libertador.

 

Skate + Rollers + Frisbee + Longboard + BMX + Parkour / Free running + Stencil + Grafitti + Stickers - B-boys / Breakdance + Slackline + Freestyle Soccer + Street Basquetball - Light Juggling + Performance + Instalaciones + Sky runners + Dj's y Vj sets + Mc's Soundsystems

 

Sorteos y premios + Escuelas de disciplinas + Compes + Pic Nic!

  

Una jornada para venir a practicar, entrenar, jugar, pintar, bailar y sudar!

 

Line-up:

 

- Army of Dub - Dub -

www.myspace.com/armyofdub

- DJ Rob - Hip-hop -

- Zion Mc (live) - Dancehall -

- Dub Mutante (live)- Dubstep -

- Relo (Subklub) - Bassline -

soundcloud.com/relo

- Sandoval (live) - Hip Hop Freestyle Mc -

www.myspace.com/sergiosando

- Daleduro - Dubstep -

www.myspace.com/daleduro

- Actitud María Marta (live) - Dancehall -

www.myspace.com/actitudmariamarta

- Le Freak Selector (Folcore Barcelona) - Global Urban Beatz -

myspace.com/lefreakselector

///// Comienzo de visuales //// - Vj Pablo Dsg

www.pablodisegno.tk/

- Kunde - Ghettotech -

www.myspace.com/kundebeat

- Intervencion Lig Lab + Breaking Juggling Crew

www.flickr.com/photos/liglab

- Un Mono Azul - Tropical Bass -

myspace.com/unmonoazul v\

- Beat De Kids (Undertones) - Fidget House -

www.myspace.com/beatdekids

  

Street Art:

 

- Mart Aire

www.airesmart.com.ar/

- Pipa

www.pipasclub.com.ar/

- Federacion Stickboxing (La Wife y compañía)

www.flickr.com/lawife

www.flickr.com/photos/federacion/

- Dardo Malatesta

www.flickr.com/photos/dardo_malatesta/

- Dano Graff

danograff.com.ar/

- Dame

www.flickr.com/photos/damegraffiti/

- Vaps

www.flickr.com/photos/vaporsss/

- Anto

   

Photoshooters

 

- Diego San Martín

diegosanmartinphotos.blogspot.com/

- Whiskii

www.whiskii.com.ar/

- Museo Container

www.flickr.com/photos/museocontainer

- Tremendo Brothers

tremendobrothers.tumblr.com/

- Smiletome

www.flickr.com/photos/phsmiletome/

    

Nuestro blog con toda la data:

dialibre.wordpress.com/

 

Nuestro Grupo Facebook, sumate para estar al día de todo:

www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=401316484459

 

Nuestro Flickr con todas las fotos:

www.flickr.com/photos/dialibre

  

(((((((( Energía en movimiento ))))))))

 

“El derecho a la ciudad no es tan solo el derecho a usarla, sino también el derecho a interpretarla, a identificarnos con ella, a apropiarnos (aunque sea simbólicamente) de sus espacios, a “privatizar” lo público y a “publicitar” lo privado, de manera fluida, espontánea, creativa. Así, se encuentra la recuperación del espacio urbano como espacio vivo, el carácter lúdico de la calle que manifestaba Henri Lefebvre: multiplicidad de usos, multiplicidad de grupos, multiplicidad de significados.” (*)

 

(*) Espacio privado, espacio público: Dialécticas urbanas y construcción de significados.

Sergi Valera.

 

Flyers y diseños by Jugo, Pipa y Brenda Mazza-

informaciónMañana es DIA LIBRE, encuentro de Arte y Deporte Urbano.

 

puR4 AcCióN Fr33S7yLe!!!

 

Domingo 17 de Octubre de 12 a 23hs.

En caso de lluvia (que no va a pasar) se pasa al 24.

 

Libre acceso! Av Iraola y Libertador.

 

Skate + Rollers + Frisbee + Longboard + BMX + Parkour / Free running + Stencil + Grafitti + Stickers - B-boys / Breakdance + Slackline + Freestyle Soccer + Street Basquetball - Light Juggling + Performance + Instalaciones + Sky runners + Dj's y Vj sets + Mc's Soundsystems

 

Sorteos y premios + Escuelas de disciplinas + Compes + Pic Nic!

  

Una jornada para venir a practicar, entrenar, jugar, pintar, bailar y sudar!

 

Line-up:

 

- Army of Dub - Dub -

www.myspace.com/armyofdub

- DJ Rob - Hip-hop -

- Zion Mc (live) - Dancehall -

- Dub Mutante (live)- Dubstep -

- Relo (Subklub) - Bassline -

soundcloud.com/relo

- Sandoval (live) - Hip Hop Freestyle Mc -

www.myspace.com/sergiosando

- Daleduro - Dubstep -

www.myspace.com/daleduro

- Actitud María Marta (live) - Dancehall -

www.myspace.com/actitudmariamarta

- Le Freak Selector (Folcore Barcelona) - Global Urban Beatz -

myspace.com/lefreakselector

///// Comienzo de visuales //// - Vj Pablo Dsg

www.pablodisegno.tk/

- Kunde - Ghettotech -

www.myspace.com/kundebeat

- Intervencion Lig Lab + Breaking Juggling Crew

www.flickr.com/photos/liglab

- Un Mono Azul - Tropical Bass -

myspace.com/unmonoazul v\

- Beat De Kids (Undertones) - Fidget House -

www.myspace.com/beatdekids

  

Street Art:

 

- Mart Aire

www.airesmart.com.ar/

- Pipa

www.pipasclub.com.ar/

- Federacion Stickboxing (La Wife y compañía)

www.flickr.com/lawife

www.flickr.com/photos/federacion/

- Dardo Malatesta

www.flickr.com/photos/dardo_malatesta/

- Dano Graff

danograff.com.ar/

- Dame

www.flickr.com/photos/damegraffiti/

- Vaps

www.flickr.com/photos/vaporsss/

- Anto

   

Photoshooters

 

- Diego San Martín

diegosanmartinphotos.blogspot.com/

- Whiskii

www.whiskii.com.ar/

- Museo Container

www.flickr.com/photos/museocontainer

- Tremendo Brothers

tremendobrothers.tumblr.com/

- Smiletome

www.flickr.com/photos/phsmiletome/

    

Nuestro blog con toda la data:

dialibre.wordpress.com/

 

Nuestro Grupo Facebook, sumate para estar al día de todo:

www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=401316484459

 

Nuestro Flickr con todas las fotos:

www.flickr.com/photos/dialibre

  

(((((((( Energía en movimiento ))))))))

 

“El derecho a la ciudad no es tan solo el derecho a usarla, sino también el derecho a interpretarla, a identificarnos con ella, a apropiarnos (aunque sea simbólicamente) de sus espacios, a “privatizar” lo público y a “publicitar” lo privado, de manera fluida, espontánea, creativa. Así, se encuentra la recuperación del espacio urbano como espacio vivo, el carácter lúdico de la calle que manifestaba Henri Lefebvre: multiplicidad de usos, multiplicidad de grupos, multiplicidad de significados.” (*)

 

(*) Espacio privado, espacio público: Dialécticas urbanas y construcción de significados.

Sergi Valera.

 

Flyers y diseños by Jugo, Pipa y Brenda Mazza-

informaciónMañana es DIA LIBRE, encuentro de Arte y Deporte Urbano.

 

puR4 AcCióN Fr33S7yLe!!!

 

Domingo 17 de Octubre de 12 a 23hs.

En caso de lluvia (que no va a pasar) se pasa al 24.

 

Libre acceso! Av Iraola y Libertador.

 

Skate + Rollers + Frisbee + Longboard + BMX + Parkour / Free running + Stencil + Grafitti + Stickers - B-boys / Breakdance + Slackline + Freestyle Soccer + Street Basquetball - Light Juggling + Performance + Instalaciones + Sky runners + Dj's y Vj sets + Mc's Soundsystems

 

Sorteos y premios + Escuelas de disciplinas + Compes + Pic Nic!

  

Una jornada para venir a practicar, entrenar, jugar, pintar, bailar y sudar!

 

Line-up:

 

- Army of Dub - Dub -

www.myspace.com/armyofdub

- DJ Rob - Hip-hop -

- Zion Mc (live) - Dancehall -

- Dub Mutante (live)- Dubstep -

- Relo (Subklub) - Bassline -

soundcloud.com/relo

- Sandoval (live) - Hip Hop Freestyle Mc -

www.myspace.com/sergiosando

- Daleduro - Dubstep -

www.myspace.com/daleduro

- Actitud María Marta (live) - Dancehall -

www.myspace.com/actitudmariamarta

- Le Freak Selector (Folcore Barcelona) - Global Urban Beatz -

myspace.com/lefreakselector

///// Comienzo de visuales //// - Vj Pablo Dsg

www.pablodisegno.tk/

- Kunde - Ghettotech -

www.myspace.com/kundebeat

- Intervencion Lig Lab + Breaking Juggling Crew

www.flickr.com/photos/liglab

- Un Mono Azul - Tropical Bass -

myspace.com/unmonoazul v\

- Beat De Kids (Undertones) - Fidget House -

www.myspace.com/beatdekids

  

Street Art:

 

- Mart Aire

www.airesmart.com.ar/

- Pipa

www.pipasclub.com.ar/

- Federacion Stickboxing (La Wife y compañía)

www.flickr.com/lawife

www.flickr.com/photos/federacion/

- Dardo Malatesta

www.flickr.com/photos/dardo_malatesta/

- Dano Graff

danograff.com.ar/

- Dame

www.flickr.com/photos/damegraffiti/

- Vaps

www.flickr.com/photos/vaporsss/

- Anto

   

Photoshooters

 

- Diego San Martín

diegosanmartinphotos.blogspot.com/

- Whiskii

www.whiskii.com.ar/

- Museo Container

www.flickr.com/photos/museocontainer

- Tremendo Brothers

tremendobrothers.tumblr.com/

- Smiletome

www.flickr.com/photos/phsmiletome/

    

Nuestro blog con toda la data:

dialibre.wordpress.com/

 

Nuestro Grupo Facebook, sumate para estar al día de todo:

www.facebook.com/group.php?gid=401316484459

 

Nuestro Flickr con todas las fotos:

www.flickr.com/photos/dialibre

  

(((((((( Energía en movimiento ))))))))

 

“El derecho a la ciudad no es tan solo el derecho a usarla, sino también el derecho a interpretarla, a identificarnos con ella, a apropiarnos (aunque sea simbólicamente) de sus espacios, a “privatizar” lo público y a “publicitar” lo privado, de manera fluida, espontánea, creativa. Así, se encuentra la recuperación del espacio urbano como espacio vivo, el carácter lúdico de la calle que manifestaba Henri Lefebvre: multiplicidad de usos, multiplicidad de grupos, multiplicidad de significados.” (*)

 

(*) Espacio privado, espacio público: Dialécticas urbanas y construcción de significados.

Sergi Valera.

 

Flyers y diseños by Jugo, Pipa y Brenda Mazza-

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