new icn messageflickr-free-ic3d pan white
View allAll Photos Tagged hand+painted+street+number+plaque

Correction Wynd. The House of Correction, founded in 1637 on the initiative of Provost Jaffray, stood nearby until 1711. It provided lodging and employment in the cloth industry for vagrants and delinquents. So called because there was a 'House of Correction' for vagrants and delinquents active between 1637 and 1711 giving lodging and employment within the Cloth Trade. Steps lead down to Correction Wynd from Union Street opposite the building. The lower ground level of Correction Wynd still follows the Medieval street plan of the city. A `House of Correction' was founded on the site in 1637 and stood until 1711. A plaque on the wall of St Nicholas Kirkyard, which lines the left hand side of the Wynd, states that the house `provided lodging and employment in the cloth industry for vagrants and delinquents'. The loading bay and car-park behind No 19 Correction Wynd was formerly the site of St Thomas's Church (later the Free Melville). mcjazz.f2s.com/CorrectionWynd.htm

 

Aberdeen; Scots: Aiberdeen ; Scottish Gaelic: Obar Dheathain; Latin: Aberdonia) is Scotland's third most populous city, one of Scotland's 32 local government council areas and the United Kingdom's 37th most populous built-up area, with an official population estimate of 196,670 for the city of Aberdeen itself and 228,990 for the local authority area. en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aberdeen Nicknames include the Granite City, the Grey City and the Silver City with the Golden Sands. During the mid-18th to mid-20th centuries, Aberdeen's buildings incorporated locally quarried grey granite, which can sparkle like silver because of its high mica content. Since the discovery of North Sea oil in the 1970s, other nicknames have been the Oil Capital of Europe or the Energy Capital of Europe.The area around Aberdeen has been settled since at least 8,000 years ago, when prehistoric villages lay around the mouths of the rivers Dee and Don. The city has a long, sandy coastline and a marine climate. Aberdeen received Royal Burgh status from David I of Scotland (1124–53), transforming the city economically. The city's two universities, the University of Aberdeen, founded in 1495, and Robert Gordon University, which was awarded university status in 1992, make Aberdeen the educational centre of the north-east of Scotland. The traditional industries of fishing, paper-making, shipbuilding, and textiles have been overtaken by the oil industry and Aberdeen's seaport. Aberdeen Heliport is one of the busiest commercial heliports in the world[7] and the seaport is the largest in the north-east of Scotland Aberdeen has won the Britain in Bloom competition a record-breaking ten times and hosts the Aberdeen International Youth Festival, a major international event which attracts up to 1000 of the most talented young performing arts companies. In 2012, Mercer named Aberdeen the 56th most liveable city in the World, as well as the fourth most liveable city in Britain. In 2012, HSBC named Aberdeen as a leading business hub and one of eight 'super cities' spearheading the UK's economy, marking it as the only city in Scotland to receive this accolade.

 

Chowmahalla Palace or Chowmahallat (4 Palaces), is a palace of the Nizams of Hyderabad state. It was the seat of the Asaf Jahi dynasty and was the official residence of the Nizams of Hyderabad while they ruled their state. The palace remains the property of Barkat Ali Khan Mukarram Jah, heir of the Nizams.

  

Details of a typical window ornate with intricate stucco work

In Persian, Chahar means four and in Arabic Mahalat (plural of Mahal) means palaces, hence the name Chowmahallat/four palaces, or four

 

All ceremonial functions including the accession of the Nizams and receptions for the Governor-General were held at this palace.

 

The prestigious UNESCO Asia Pacific Merit award for cultural heritage conservation was presented to Chowmahalla Palace on March 15, 2010. UNESCO representative Takahiko Makino formally handed over the plaque and certificate to Princess Esra, former wife and GPA holder of Prince Mukarram Jah Bahadur

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chowmahalla_Palace

Some may call it memory lane

others may say it's merely the past

there are occasions,

when time calls a premature halt

to the most gracious celebrations

 

of the mystery that went before us

we were not present time tells

a fib of the presence of mind

like a boomerang thrown out of time -

itself untrue to the testiments we find

 

from delving back beyond our days

arches, portico's, ionic supporters

of the elegant welcome in wait

who goes there now?

those generations pass by the iron gate

 

and unto the building history was written

within Bath stone layeth time's ghost

the one that was real enough, it is documented

for it knocked upon the door of proof's presence

a past sighting of evidence frequented

 

such mystery tells a life in half

for the full house is now but a smattering

of bronzed plaques and fillings rendered

the tales of yore handed me

have passed like a family engendered

 

and this point of one more return

will forever be focal

for it holds aloft the story of me

from the unseen to the visualised

like the growth of the family tree

 

it's leaves call like soft whispers in the breeze

lush one minute, falling the next

but forever regenerating from the same root

they are the shade, the light, the reverence

of the lifeblood bearing fruit.

 

by anglia24

09h45: 24/06/2008

©2008anglia24

341 East 143rd Street. Mott Haven, Bronx, New York

 

Summary

 

This firehouse was constructed in 1906-07 to accommodate Hook and Ladder Company 17. which was organized in 1874 to serve the Mott Haven section of the Bronx. One of the first paid firefighting companies in this neighborhood, Ladder 17 replaced an earlier volunteer force, the J.& L. Mott Ladder 2 Company. This brick and stone building, designed by Michael J. Garvin, provided a larger facility for this densely-populated section of the Bronx. Garvin served as Bronx County’s first Commissioner of Buildings and also designed the Bronx County Courthouse (a designated New York City Landmark). Incorporating design elements from the prevailing classical style, Garvin created a solid, three-bay structure with rusticated end piers, carved stone ornament, and a strong cornice, all of which served to anchor the building to the street, as well as to provide an important sense of civic monumentality for the Bronx. In 1948, Engine Company 60, which had been organized in 1895 at 352 East 137th Street, was reassigned to this location and has continued to share the facility with Ladder 17.

 

DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS

 

Firefighting in New York

 

Even in the colonial period, the government ofNew Y ork took the possibility of fire very seriously. Under Dutch rule all men were expected to participate in firefighting activities. After the English took over, the Common Council organized a force of thirty volunteer firefighters in 1737. They operated two Newsham hand pumpers that had recently been imported from London. By 1798, the Fire Department of the City of New York (FDNY), under the supervision of a chief engineer and six subordinates, was officially established by an act of the state legislature.

 

As the city grew, this force was augmented by new volunteer companies. In spite of growing numbers of firefighters and improvements in hoses and water supplies, fire was a significant threat in an increasingly densely built up city. Of particular significance was the “Great Fire” of December 16-17, 1835, which caused more damage to property than any other event in New York City. The damages resulting from several major fires which occurred between 1800 and 1850 led to the establishment of a building code, and an increase in the number of firemen from 600 in 1800 to more than 4.000 in 1865. Despite rapid growth, the department was often criticized for poor performance.“ Intense competition between companies began to hinder firefighting with frequent brawls and acts of sabotage, often at the scenes of fires. During the Civil War, when fire personnel became harder to retain, public support grew for the creation of a professional firefighting force, similar to that which had been established in other cities and to the professional police force that had been created in New York in 1845.

 

In May 1865, the New' York State Legislature established the Metropolitan Fire District, comprising the cities of New York (south of 86th Street) and Brooklyn. The act abolished the volunteer system and created the Metropolitan Fire Department, a paid professional force under the jurisdiction of the state government. By the end of the year, the city's 124 volunteer companies with more than 4,000 men had retired or disbanded, to be replaced by thirty-three engine companies and twelve ladder companies operated by a force of 500 men. Immediate improvements included the use of more steam engines, horses and a somewhat reliable telegraph system. A military model was adopted for the firefighters, which involved the use of specialization, discipline, and merit. By 1870, regular service was extended to the “suburban districts’’ north of 86th Street and expanded still farther north after the annexation of parts of the

 

Bronx in 1874. New techniques and equipment, including taller ladders and stronger steam engines, increased the department’s efficiency, as did the establishment, in 1883, of a training academy for personnel. The growth of the city during this period placed severe demands on the fire department to provide services, and in response the department undertook an ambitious building campaign. The area served by the FDNY nearly doubled after consolidation in 1898, when the departments in Brooklyn and numerous communities in Queens and Staten Island were incorporated into the city. After the turn of the century, the Fire Department acquired more modern apparatus and motorized vehicles, reflecting the need for faster response to fires in taller buildings. Throughout the twentieth century, the department has endeavored to keep up with the evolving city and its firefighting needs.

 

Firehouse Design

 

By the early twentieth century, the firehouse as a building type had evolved from the wooden storage shed used during the seventeenth century to an imposing architectural expression of civic character. As early as 1853, Marriott Field had argued in his City Architecture: Designs for Dwelling Houses, Stores, Hotels, etc. for symbolic architectural expression in municipal buildings, including firehouses. The 1854 Fireman’s Hall, with its highly symbolic ornamentation reflected this approach, using flambeaux, hooks, ladders, and trumpets for its ornament.

 

Between 1880 and 1895, Napoleon LeBrun & Son served as the official architectural firm for the fire department, designing forty-two firehouses in a massive effort to modernize the facilities and to accommodate the growing population of the city. Although the firm’s earliest designs were relatively simple, later buildings were more distinguished and more clearly identifiable as firehouses.

 

While the basic function and requirements of the firehouse were established early in its history, LeBrun is credited with standardizing the program, and introducing some minor, but important, innovations in the plan. Placing the horse stalls in the main part of the ground floor to reduce the time needed for hitching horses to the apparatus was one such innovation. Firehouses were usually located on mid-block sites because these were less expensive than more prominent comer sites. Since the sites were narrow, firehouses tended to be three stories tall, with the apparatus on the ground story and rooms for the company, including dormitory, kitchen and captain’s office, above.

 

After 1895, the department commissioned a number of well-known architects to design firehouses. Influenced by the classical revival which was highly popular throughout the country, New York firms such as Hoppin & Koen, Flagg & Chambers, and Horgan & Slatterly created facades with bold, classical style designs.

 

Growth of The Bronx

 

The site of Hook and Ladder 17 was originally part of the land purchased by two English brothers, Richard and Lewis Morris in 1670. Their extensive holdings in the area became known as Morrisania, and formed part of Westchester County during the late eighteenth and most of the nineteenth centuries. In 1828, Jordan L. Mott, inventor of the coal-burning stove, bought a large tract of land in the southwestern part of Morrisania and established the Mott Haven Iron Works on the Harlem River at Third Avenue and 134th Street. The area around the business was developed with houses for Mott and his workers and became known as Mott Haven. Even though the larger area of Morrisania continued as a quiet, rural district, the section of Mott Haven developed more rapidly because of the expansion of the iron works and the advent of other industrial enterprises attracted by the Mott Haven Canal, which led from the Harlem River north to 138th Street. The New York & Harlem Railroad, incorporated in 1831, expanded over the Harlem River in 1840, bringing goods and people to the industrial community of Mott Haven. As the railroads and streetcars crossed the area, beginning in the 1860s, streets were laid out and land speculation began in earnest.

 

In 1874, the townships of Morrisania. West Farms and Kingsbridge split from Westchester County and became the 23rd and 24,h wards of the City of New York. This area of the Bronx became known as the Annexed District. Beginning in the early 1880s. booster organizations such as the North Side Association advocated for infrastructure improvements; streets were paved, sewers dug, and mass transit lines brought the elevated trains to the Bronx. The el spurred tenement construction.

 

By 1897. just a decade after the el began operation, the once vacant blocks east of Third Avenue were almost completely built over with solid brick buildings. This area held a mixture of building types: single-family town houses built in the late 1880s; multi-story apartment houses, built with increasing frequency in the 1890s; and to complete the picture, various industrial and manufacturing establishments along the neighborhood’s southern fringe.

 

The population of the Bronx grew rapidly. In 1890, there were 89,000 people living in the area of the Bronx known as the North Side; ten years later it had more than doubled to over 200,000. By 1915, the number had increased threefold, to 616,000. As the population and number of new buildings increased, protection from the ever present danger of fire became increasingly important. The firefighters of Hook and Ladder 17 had an vital role in the Mott Haven community.

 

Hook and Ladder Company 17

 

In the mid-nineteenth century, as the Mott Haven Iron Works and the associated residential development expanded, fire protection in Mott Haven became more important. A volunteer company, J. & L. Mott Ladder 2, was established in a three-story wooden building at 2608 Third Avenue. With the annexation of this section of the Bronx to New York in 1874, the volunteer squad was disbanded and replaced with Hook and Ladder 17, at the same location. In 1877, Hook and ladder 17 moved into a rented, four-story, brick stable three blocks away, at 589 East 143rd Street, near Third Avenue. By 1891, Ladder 17 had twelve men and officers stationed at this site, with two horses, and one roller-frame hook-and-ladder truck with a fifty-foot extension ladder. That year they fought 60 fires, out of the total 158 fires that occurred in the entire lower Bronx. The company has remained on the same site in the Bronx for more than 120 years, moving out only from April 1906 to September 1907, while the current firehouse was under construction. During that period the company worked out of 358 Alexander Avenue.

 

In 1907, Hook and Ladder 17 moved into a new, two-bay firehouse, designed by Michael J. Garvin. The two bays allowed sufficient room for a second section of the ladder company, Ladder 17-2. which was organized on March 1,1907.' Ladder Company 17-2 was disbanded in 1915, and later reorganized from 1970 until 1974, during a period of a large number of fires in the South Bronx. Rescue Company 3 occupied the second bay from its initial organization in June 1, 1931 until it moved to a different location in 1948.

 

At that time, Engine Company 60 relocated to 341 - 343 East 143rd Street, joining Ladder Company 17. Engine Company 60 has remained at this site on 143rd Street since 1948 and joined with the members of Ladder Company 17 in 1970 to form “the Green Berets,” an identifying symbol used by the company and worn during parades.

 

Michael J. Garvin (1861-1918)

 

Born in Morrisania, Michael John Garvin lived in the Bronx all his life. He was educated in local public schools and at Manhattan College. In 1885, Garvin was associated with August Schmidt, before establishing his own architectural and civil engineering office at 3307 Third Avenue. He served as the first Commissioner of Buildings for the Bronx and was the borough’s first Under-Sheriff, as well as Executive Member of the Samoset Democratic Club. Garvin was a member of several local political organizations and is best known as the architect of the Bronx County Courthouse located at the intersection of East 161s' Street and Third Avenue (1905-15, a designated New York City Landmark).

 

Description

 

The station house for Ladder Company 17 sits among blocks of tall, modem housing developments. The only other buildings remaining from the period of its construction are the few stores to the west, toward Alexander Avenue.

 

Wide, rusticated piers rise on each side of the building and serve, along with the broad cornice and the stone water table, as a frame for the three bays and three stories of the front facade. Two wide vehicle entrances and a smaller, central pedestrian entrance on the ground story are set within rusticated brickwork and topped by brick voussoirs with stone keystones. A bronze plaque with the names of fire department personnel at the time of construction is located over the pedestrian door. Smaller signs with the words “Engine Company 60,” “ Battalion 14,” and “Ladder Company 17" are located over the voussoirs over each door. A modillioned stone cornice runs across the entire building, separating the first and second stories. It is supported on each end by elaborate consoles and carries a continuous iron railing with a delicate geometric design that fronts the second story windows. Carved stone posts with incised panel designs are located at each end of this railing. Recent signs with the words “Engine Company 60, 100 Years of Service,” “Ladder Company 17, 125 Years of Service” have been hung on this railing. Each of the three large windows at the second story has double-hung window sash and is topped by a continuous stone band course at the lintel level. Above the lintel, at each window is a half-round brick arch with a plain stone keystone. Within each arch, the carved stone ornament is comprised of an oval disk surrounded by a oak leaf swag. Small, carved foliate designs are located at the impost level on each side of the windows. The third story has three, tripartite windows, each with double- hung sash and a fixed transom above each section. Narrow, ornamented metal piers subdivide the sections of each window. A continuous stone sill at this level is marked by carved foliate motifs in a square arrangement at the piers between each window. Separate iron railings front the windows of each bay. A broad stone frieze tops the main section of the building and is embossed with the words: “Hook & Ladder 17." Above this is a projecting, modillioned stone cornice supported on each end by elaborately carved, paired consoles which flank carved shields.

 

A narrow stone parapet with squared chimneys on each end caps the building.

 

The eastern elevation faces a parking lot and is thus visible from the street. It is faced with plain brick. Near the rear of the facade is a small service door behind a simple shed. On the western side, the plain brick facade is visible over the low commercial buildings which are next to the firehouse.

www.facebook.com/pages/The-SmOKing-Camera-Hervey-BaY-dave...

  

This is the Iconic Urangan Pier, Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia,

showing off her new Pylons, the Renovations to our Pier are 3/4 compleate & hopfully will help her last another 100 years

  

Urangan Pier is a historic pier in Urangan, Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

 

It is a former deep-water, cargo-handling facility originally built to facilitate the export of sugar, timber and coal. The pier, served by the extension of the railway line from Pialba,[1] was used for the transfer of cargo between rail and ships. It was built between 1913 and 1917,[2] originally to a length of 1107 metres. The pier was closed in 1985, and 239 metres of it was demolished. However, due to public outcry, 868 metres of the pier was left, and the land was handed to the Hervey Bay City Council.

 

By 2009 the last 220-metre section of the pier had been fully restored, and the original timber pylons had been replaced with steel pylons with a plastic covering

  

The original proposal to establish Urangan as a coal port for the Burrum River mining project did not eventuate due to several factors, mainly because the coal output did not reach original expectations. However, as the Wide Bay area was a chief producer of produce and freight, the Queensland Government made a decision to build a pier at Hervey Bay.

  

A plaque at the Urangan Pier; placed in 1999, commemorating the re-opening of the Urangan Pier.

Construction on the Urangan Pier began in 1913. In order to reach the deep water channel, it was required to extend 1.1 kilometres (0.68 mi) (3690 ft) out to sea. Construction was very slow and finished in 1917. The Urangan railway line also began construction in 1913 and branched off the main railway line at Pialba. This line was extended along the Urangan Pier as it was being constructed. Once it was completed, it served as one of the main ports of Queensland.

 

Sugar was one of the main exports, however had to be transported from as far north as Bundaberg. When the Bundaberg Port was built in 1958, it took over sugar cane exports and the Urangan pier ceased exporting sugar.[5] Timber, general cargo and produce was still exported until 1960, when Caltex built an oil terminal adjacent to the Pier. Soon after this was built, freight, goods and produce exports were stopped and fuel became the only import from the pier.

 

After the last ship docked at the Urangan pier in January 1985, Caltex Oil reversed the process of storage, replacing the system of fuel service from Shipping to bulk supply by rail from the Pinkenba and Colmslie port terminals in Brisbane. This, in turn, lead to the closure of the pier and the Urangan branch line, as neither had a use anymore. At this stage, the pier was in serious need of repairs. A decision was made by the Queensland Government to dismantle the entire pier. Due to large public outcry, rallying and petitions, the demolition of the pier was stopped. In late 1985, the Queensland Government handed the pier to the Hervey Bay City Council. The council pledged to restore the pier, which began in the late 1990s. Restoration included removing the rail tracks from the pier, encasing the wooden pylons with steel, repairing sleepers, repairing hand rails, and repairing lights.

 

In 1999, the pier was restored to a length of 868 meters. It was officially re-opened by the then-governor of Queensland and the mayor of Hervey Bay, Peter Arnison and Bill Brennan (respectively) on the 27th of November, 1999.

  

A model of the pier was made by Mr Harry Coxon in 1917, the same year the original pier was constructed. It is a significant artifact in the Hervey Bay Historical Village & Museum’s collection. Two new models are on display in the Hervey Bay Tourism Visitor Centre and in the Hervey Bay Whale Watch office at the Boat Harbour Marina.[7]

 

Urangan Pier Festival

The first Pier Festival was held in 1986 to help raise funds to save Urangan Pier. Since then it has become a popular fishing competition held annually in September.[3]

 

Pier to Pub Swim

Pier to Pub Ocean Swim Classic is an annual swimming competition held in April since 1999. The 3.4-kilometre (2.1 mi) swim is from Urangan Pier to the jetty opposite the Torquay Hotel, while the 1.6-kilometre (1 mi) short swim, called Splash for Cash, is from the corner of the Esplanade and Alexander Street to the jetty opposite the Torquay Hotel.

 

wikipedia

 

I find this Church to be one of the most interesting and mysterious churches I know . There are a lot of weird things such as a “Cathedral Town” of condos being built all around this immense “decommissioned” Church which was consecrated by Pope John Paul II and was the first ever consecrated in North America. It is now fenced off except for a marketing centre for condos to be built around the church. The church is guarded by private contractors in the security business. They stopped me from photographing the church any closer than the shot here. They are visible and on the job. The church is vacant and locked it has been stripped of it’s status and has no services. It’s congregation has now been moved to another Catholic Church to the north.

 

It is all very mysterious. I always seem to see this church when the weather looks ominous. This day was no exception. So here you have it. Hawks overhead circling the church, security stopping people, condos being marketed on the corner and the Catholic Church shutting it all down… The photograph somehow seems to capture the essence of all these things.

_________________________________

 

Papal Vist, Pope John Paul II; Toronto, July 25th 1984

 

www.cathedraltown.com/the_cathedral.htm

  

The Cathedral of the Transfiguration became the first North American house of worship ever consecrated by a Pope when John Paul II blessed the altar, cornerstone and bronze plaques during his visit to Toronto in September 1984.

 

The Cathedral was planned and built by Stephen B. Roman as a beacon of hope for his fellow Slavs, who were then deprived of freedom, including freedom of religion. Mr. Roman, a prominent breeder of Holstein cattle and mining entrepreneur who died in 1988, financed much of the construction of the Cathedral through his Foundation and conceived its architectural design.

 

The Cathedral, whose bell tower soars 65 metres into the sky, dominates the surrounding landscape and serves as a symbol for Canada's 30,000 Slovak Catholics who are part of the Byzantine Rite, the second largest Rite in the Catholic Church. The three bells, whose combined weight of more than 3,200 kilos makes them the largest in the world, are named after St. Stephen, St. Anne and the Prophet Daniel. As the planned town surrounding it develops, the Cathedral will become a major cultural and pilgrimage centre.

________________________________________________________

 

____________________________

The Catholic Register: Giant Slovak cathedral, blessed by pope, stripped of status in dispute

By Michael Swan

10/5/2006

 

The Catholic Register (www.catholicregister.org)

TORONTO, Canada (The Catholic Register) – One of Canada’s most architecturally impressive and ambitious cathedrals is no longer a cathedral. Bishop John Pazak, spiritual head of Byzantine rite Slovak Catholics in Canada, has removed the blessed sacrament and the antimension, or altar stone, from the Cathedral of the Transfiguration, a giant gold-domed church on the edge of Unionville, north of Toronto.

 

The bishop has also suspended permission for any of his priests to celebrate Mass in the former cathedral and asked the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Toronto not to extend permission to Roman rite priests to celebrate Mass there.

 

Bishop Pazak said he was unable to arrive at a stable, sustainable working relationship with the Slovak Greek Catholic Church Foundation, which owns the property. The foundation is the creation of Stephen Roman, the mining magnate who built the church on his cattle ranch before he died in 1988.

 

“I saw no way of going on unless we can come to some resolution,” Bishop Pazak told The Catholic Register. “Maybe we will, still. I haven’t closed the door, but I want something comprehensive.”

 

Bishop Pazak said the ball is in the foundation’s court and he hoped the two sides could work out a permanent solution in the next year. In the meantime, the cathedral for the Slovak Eparchy of Sts. Cyril and Methodius Canada is St. Mary’s Byzantine Slovak Church on Shaw Street on Toronto’s downtown west side. The modest, wood-frame St. Mary’s was the Slovak cathedral before the Cathedral of the Transfiguration opened.

 

The still unfinished Cathedral of the Transfiguration was Roman’s personal obsession in his final years. He began building the 20-storey-high building on his cattle farm in the early 1980s with the intention of passing it on as his legacy to the Slovak Byzantine-rite Catholic Church.

 

Roman’s sudden death in 1988 left the cathedral in the hands of his heirs, principally Helen Roman-Barber, who sit on the board of the foundation which owns the church.

 

The barely completed foundations of the building were blessed by Pope John Paul II while he visited Canada in 1984, making the one-time seat of the eparchy the only cathedral in Canada to be blessed by a pope.

 

It is also the only Cathedral in Canada not owned by its bishop, or in effect by the diocese it represents.

 

Since Roman’s death the cathedral has become the centerpiece of a 1,200-home subdivision named Cathedraltown, planned by Helen Roman-Barber. Pazak has been seeking ways of extricating the religious function of the cathedral from the Cathedraltown business plan. Foundation spokesman Ed Shiller said he didn’t believe the withdrawal of the bishop changed the Cathedral of the Transfiguration’s status as a cathedral.

 

“The cathedral will continue as a cathedral. Cathedraltown will develop around it,” said Shiller. “It was dedicated by Pope John Paul II, and it will continue to be a cathedral.”

 

But no church can be a cathedral if it’s not the seat of a bishop, said Bishop Pazak.

 

Roman had a close relationship with the first eparch of the Slovaks in Canada, Bishop Michael Rusnak. Since the elder Roman died and uranium prices sank through the 1990s, progress on finishing the inside of the cathedral has been slow. Shiller claims it will take another 10 years to complete the building.

 

“It’s a rough timetable of course, because there are so many variables,” he said. “But there are definitely plans to complete the cathedral.”

 

Shiller would not say why the cathedral can’t be transferred to the Slovak eparchy right away. “There are certain issues that are being worked out. When this is resolved I’m sure that all of Steve Roman’s wishes will be fulfilled. It’s certainly our intent to do that, to fulfil whatever his wishes were,” Shiller said.

 

Shiller also works in corporate public relations for Dennison Mines Inc. and Roman Corp. For years the tiny Slovak Catholic community of between 5,000 and 10,000 in all of Canada has struggled to live up to the enormous scale of the Cathedral of the Transfiguration – which features among other things the second largest peel of bells in the world and a mosaic of approximately five million pieces.

 

Though most live in the greater Toronto area, few Canadian Slovaks lived anywhere near the giant cathedral and getting there was never easy.

 

“It’s got a beautiful site location and everything, but unfortunately many of our people don’t live in this area,” said Bishop Pazak.

 

For now, the congregation which had slowly built up at the cathedral over the last decade is meeting for Mass at St. Volodymyr the Great Ukrainian Catholic Church in Thornhill, or have gone back to the St. Mary’s downtown. There are prayer groups that meet at the abandoned cathedral for non-liturgical prayer, and the foundation has hosted concerts in the building.

 

Bishop Pazak said the cathedral was a situation he inherited when he became bishop in 2001.

 

- - -

 

Republished with permission by Catholic Online from The Catholic Register (www.catholicregister.org ), the largest circulation national Catholic newspaper in Canada, a Catholic Online Preferred Publishing Partner.

Warmley & Siston - One Hundred years of history - Part 4 of 7 - 1940 - 1959

 

1940

 

The Phoney War was now over and the real war was raging in earnest. With more and more local government controls, the Union Offices in Stanley Road were abandoned for more spacious accommodation in Warmley House. Power and fuel rationing were organised from the home of Ernest Williams at 10 Station Road, but food rationing still came from Stanley Road.

 

All the scrap metal was collected, old vehicles, metal fences and even the First World War field gun was taken away for the war effort, saucepans were turned into Spitfires!

 

The second year of the War saw the heaviest bombing in the area. The Magnal Works drew special attention from the Germans, although only incendiary bombs were dropped. During one raid Ernest Williams had gone down to see the damage to Magnals. He later explained, 'I couldnt miss that, it was just like fairy land with all the incendiaries blazing away.'

 

Kingswood was also targeted that night, one young lad exclaimed, 'Its terrible, the whole of Kingswood is on fire!' On the 6th December the worst civilian casualties in the area occurred when a German paramine made a direct hit on an air raid shelter to the rear of the Ambassador Cinema killing three and maiming many others.

 

Had the bomb been forty yards to the west it would have hit the crowded cinema perhaps killing hundreds. Warmley and Siston were directly under the flight path of the Luftwaffe on its horrific raids on Filtons airplane factories.

 

In September the people of this area were treated to the spectacle of one of the fiercest dog fights over Bristol as nine Hawker Hurricanes of 504 Squadron, RAF., fought off what seemed like hundreds of bombers, forcing them to return the way they came.

 

As the retreating pilots passed overhead for the second time that day the area was lucky not to have the remaining contents of the bomb bays emptied here so that the fleeing planes could make better progress on their way back home.

 

1941

 

If the death and destruction of the war were not enough, everyday tragedies were still occurring. In June of this year Ernest Stone, aged only 10, was swimming in the quarry pools near the brickyard on London Road. The day had been hot and the water looked inviting but the sides of the quarry were steep and just below the surface the water was icy cold. Ernest soon found himself in great difficulty and in no time was sucked under and drowned.

 

Queen Mary had moved out of London, and was staying with the Duke of Beaufort at his estate at Badminton for the duration of the war. The Queen made several good-will tours of Carsons Factory and to Douglas Works in Kingswood, to boost the moral of the local workforce.

 

During the Blitz of Bristol in 1940 and 1941, every single fire fighter was called out to assist. Captain Knee and the rest of the Warmley A.F.S. often found themselves in the centre of Bristol helping the Bristol brigades to put out the furnace that was burning the heart of the City Centre.

 

1942

 

After the bombing of Pearl Harbour, the Americans were dragged into the War. Just over the Siston border, opposite Fisher Road, the Americans set up a military camp. This was the first time many local people from this area had seen a real Yankee rather than the actor on the silver screen.

 

When the Americans ventured out for an evenings entertainment it was a great novelty, especially for the girls, to see them in the local public houses.

 

The camp was set up by a black labour unit and these dark skinned G.I.s were then a cause of great curiosity. A little later, the U.S. 1st Army Medical Corps took over and stayed for about two years while they prepared for the big push. In 1944 this unit was involved in the D Day landings and a large number of the men lost their lives.

 

Meanwhile, the Home Guard, part of the 6th Gloucestershire Battalion, were becoming a co-ordinated fighting unit. The most dangerous period had passed. Had the Germans landed in force in 1939 or 1940 the Home Guard would have had little chance to repulse them as they were lacking good weapons and training.

 

With the leadership of Fred Brain and Old Contemptibles like Sergeant Gibbs and Corporal Bill Johnson, the men quickly began to shape up. Weekend manoeuvres and night exercises all helped and on many evenings, the Warmley Home Guard would find themselves attacking units from the surrounding villages, training for the real thing.

 

1943

 

On 15th December, the Vicar of St. Barnabas, the Reverend Hen John Say, passed away aged 71. Just prior to his death, and as a mark of appreciation for his long and faithful service to the Diocese of Bristol, The Reverend Say was made an Honorary Canon of Bristol Cathedral.

 

In his memory, his sister and fellow parishioners placed a beautiful stained glass window in the south east nave of the St. Barnabas Church where he had served for seventeen years.

 

In his Will, Canon Say had left 500 pounds toward the construction of a Church Hall for the Church and its parishioners. Another five years passed before the hall was built, which gave an enormous boost to the social life of the Church and proved to be a tremendous asset to the School as an assembly hall and home to the local Scouts.

 

1944

 

The role of the Vicar of St. Barnabas was filled with the arrival of The Reverend R. Down. During his incumbency the Church, which by now was nearly a hundred years old, was in need of many expensive repairs to its roof and other structures. Large sums were raised to fulfill these needs as well as completing other projects.

 

In the summer of 1944, strange accents and foreign languages were heard in the locality. An Italian P.O.W. camp was set up in Wraxall Road with about seventy prisoners brought in to help on the nearby farms.

 

The Italians were given non-political status and as such were considered harmless. Only a handful of guards were needed and during the evening after a hard days work, the P.O.W.s were allowed out of the camp. It was not an uncommon sight to see several men in their chocolate coloured uniforms strolling the nearby lanes or hear them singing at the tops of their voices in perfect harmony.

 

1945

 

The end of the war was now inevitable, it was only a matter of time. On 9th May, Hitler was dead and Germany had capitulated.

 

There was great excitement and many street parties were organised to celebrate the end of the war in Europe. But the war in the far east was still raging and it wasnt until Victory over Japan (V.J.) Day that the people really let their hair down.

 

The lights were finally turned back on, illuminating the shops and houses surrounding the Memorial Park. There was dancing in the streets and everyone was singing and laughing. An impromptu party began with the musical accompaniment of the 'Warmley Wonders' Clive and Terry Whittock.

 

Soon after, trestle tables and chairs were arranged in the Park in several rows and all the children of the district were given a picnic and party, the like of which had never been seen before. All the stops were pulled out to give the kids a day they would never forget.

 

It was not all joy in this year, there was a price to pay for victory, another eight names had to be added to the list of heroes from our district who made the supreme sacrifice.

 

Only one or two people in each century stand out in local memory. At the tail end of the 19th century, and for nearly half of the 20th century, John Lloyd Vaughan Seymour-Williams could be described as the man who put Warmley firmly on the map.

 

Born in 1868 and educated in Bath, he later joined the firm of solicitors under Mr. W.E. Lawrence, eventually becoming sole partner in the firm of Lawrence, Williams & Co. He was a very energetic and enterprising man, involving himself in many forward looking ventures which were to benefit the area.

 

In recognition for the excellent work he performed, John Seymour-Williams was made a Knight of the British Empire and T.D ,For six years he was on the Gloucestershire County Council and had been on many committees including the Royal Commission on Local Government and the Council for the Preservation of Rural England.

 

He was also on the Council of the Coroners Society and he represented this area as the Coroner of the Lower Division of Gloucestershire. Sir John Seymour-Williams became Clerk to Warmley R.D.C. and Warmley Guardians Committee in 1897. He was responsible for guiding these bodies for forty-eight years.

 

When the estate of Louisa Haskins, widow of Joseph, was sold in 1918, Sir Seymour-Williams was in a position to purchase the Pottery and became Chairman of Haskins Ltd. Warmley Pottery. Sir John lived for many years in the Old Lodge opposite Warmley House and after his death on the 24th January 1945, his widow, Lady Williams, then of the Old Rectory, Siston, made the gift of a splendid pair of gates for St. Barnabas Church, in his memory.

 

1946

 

In the post war years, there was an air of optimism, which been kindled by the solidarity shown through the darkest days of the Second World War.

 

A decision was made to form an Old Boys Association of the Warmley National School.

 

Its first President was the headmaster of the school from 1913 to 1936, Mr. William Moore. Its aims were to promote and maintain cultural, social and recreational activities amongst the members of the association.

 

In the early days, the organisation flourished and the first year ended with a carnival on Siston Common. Money was raised, some of which went to a special prize to be presented at the School Prize-giving for the child with the best character. The early days were the high days and this organisation, that had such potential, eventually faded away and was disbanded in 1953.

 

1947

 

To commemorate the fallen of the Great War, the people of the district marked the occasion with the erection of the stone column and the laying out of Warmley Green as a Memorial Park. A suitable tribute to the men lost in the Second World War was needed and even before that war was concluded plans were afoot to establish a hall in the community in remembrance of these men.

 

After three years of planning and fund raising, the Warmley War Memorial Hall and Community Centre was eventually opened.

 

Since that time, the centre has played a predominant role in the social life of the whole community. In the early years organisations like the Townswomens Guild and the Womens Institute would meet at the centre. There were whist drives and beetle drives and childrens Christmas parties. The centre also held baby shows and carnivals on the adjoining field as well as sports days and bonfires.

 

Theatre groups, Christmas pantomimes and flower shows have all enlightened and enlivened the community. All of these activities have made the building alive. It wasnt just a centre for activities but a centre for the whole community The Community Centre.

 

From the very beginning, the committee with its first Chairman, Bill Bowler, has striven to enrich the lives of the community and this great work has been built upon by later committees and chairmen, namely Alan Chubb, R. Minns, Ron Wakeford, Ernie Hall, Keith Williams, Brian Phillips and its present Chairman, Ron Pyle. It must be with much pride that these first far-sighted and community minded men look back to see that after nearly fifty years something very positive was formed from an event that for many was so tragic.

 

Warmley Community Centre Chairmen

 

Bill Brown 1947-50 Ernie hall 1978-87

Alan Chubb 1950-60 Keith Williams 1987-91

R. Minns 1960-63 Brian Phillips 1991-93

Ron Wakeford 1963-78 Ron Pyle 1993-

 

1948

 

Following the the much deserved retirement of P.C. Charlie Gowing his well worn boots were filled by a succession of P.C.s including P.C. Wheeler. As time went by the old police house in Tower Road was proving unsuitable and by the Late 1960s, when money became available, a purpose built police station with accommodation was built.

 

This was on the corner of Crown Gardens. It was from here that P.C. Stan Wheeler and his family continued to serve the community until his retirement in 1967 when he, in turn, was succeeded by Doug Hardiman.

 

On the 14th October, Warmley C.of E. School had received the news that it had been granted controlled status by the Ministry of Education. This led the way to great reorganisation and improvements at the school. By 1951 the senior boys were transferred to a new Secondary Modern School at High Street, Oldland, with Mr. R. Evans a Welshman appointed as its first headmaster.

 

1949

 

On the 19th August, the news came of the death of Fred Brain. Frederick William Brain was born in 1885 and was the son of Walter Brain, a corn mill owner of Wick. Walter Brain built a massive flour mill, conveniently situated next to the railway sidings in Chapel Lane, Warmley, employing his sons to run the business. In 1921 Walter went into partnership with Coffins, the Bath Mill owner, and in time the firm became known as James Collins, Sons and Brain.

 

The trademark was the Camden sign and the product was used in making extra fine quality bread as well as cattle, pig and poultry rations. Later the firm was controlled by the brothers. Alex Brain was the travelling representative and Fred Brain took control at the mill.

 

In 1918, Fred moved into Warmley House, after purchasing it from the Estate of Louisa Haskins. From the front of the House he could look across the valley to the red bricked mill standing high against the skyline. Throughout his life Fred Brain was a prominent patron of St. Barnabas Church and continued to use the grounds and grottoes of Warmley House as a venue for garden parties and other events to raise funds for the Church.

 

Fred served as choirmaster at the Church but his great love was playing the organ which he did with passion for 28 years. When the instrument was due for an expensive overhaul, it was Fred who contributed a great deal to the cost.

 

1950

 

Another stalwart of the community, who should not be forgotten, was Mr. Joe Clark. Joseph Daniel Clark died on the 18th January 1950 and throughout his life worked hard to improve the lot of others.

 

Joe was elected to the Siston Parish Council in its sixteenth year (1910), the following year achieving the position of Vice-Chairman. In 1920, the Warmley and District Allotments Ltd., was formed with Joe Clark as its first Chairman.

 

The aim of the organisation was to provide seed and agricultural implements for the surrounding farmers and other land users. Shares were issued with the added advantage of a 10% discount for shareholders when they made a purchase.

 

In 1930, Joe became the Chairman of Siston Parish Council, a position he held for a further sixteen years and then, after a short break, he returned to the Chair from 1947 until his death in 1950. Joseph Clark will perhaps be best remembered for his contribution and efforts as a leading member of the team who set up the War Memorial Hall and Community Centre.

 

1951

 

This year marked the Festival of Britain and will always be remembered for the return of the famous poet, Minnie Haskins, to Warmley House, her childhood home.

 

Minnie Louisa Haskins was born in May 1875, the eldest of four daughters of Louisa and Joseph Haskins. At this date Joseph Haskins was still trading as a grocer and living in Warmley Hill. By the 1880s the family had moved to Warmley House where Joseph also owned the Warmley Tower Pottery Manufactory.

 

Minnie was a very energetic member of the Warmley Congregational Chapel and by the end of the century was a Sunday School teacher, leader of the Womens Bible Class and also a founder of the Christian Endeavour Group.

 

In 1908 she published a number of her own poems in a small booklet entitled 'The Desert'. This was to raise funds for missionary work in India. Amongst the many poems was one entitled 'God Knows', which was written in the Balcony Room of Warmley House and inspired by a gloomy vision she had one cold and misty night whilst looking down the drive of the house.

 

For the next thirty years, the poem remained almost unknown but in 1938 the words were printed as a private Christmas card, a copy of which was sent to King George VI. The following Christmas the Empire was at war and in its darkest hour, the King found these words comforting.

 

It was with this verse that he ended his Christmas broadcast. But who wrote this work? No one seemed to know. After much searching it was eventually revealed that the author was none other than Miss Minnie Haskins, by then a retired lecturer living in Sussex.

 

In 1951, at the age of 75, Minnie returned once more, at the invitation of Warmley R.D.C., to Warmley House. She unveiled a plaque on the entrance porch to commemorate the visit and recalled her long lost youth in the house and grounds where she loved to think and play.

 

In 1953, when the King was buried in the Royal Mausoleum at Windsor, a stained-glass window was installed in memory of him. At the foot of it were the words of Miss Haskins that he had quoted in 1939.

 

The message written at Warmley that went all around the world and began:

 

' I said to the Man who stood at the gate of the year,

 

Give me a light that I may tread safely into the unknown

 

And He replied, 'Go out into the darkness

 

And put your hand into the hand of God

 

That shall be to you better than light

 

And safer than the known way...'

 

1952

 

In January 1951. Warmley School re-opened after its Christmas break as a primary school catering for 158 infants and juniors.

 

This was a period of great hope and enterprise for the old Victorian school and by September 1952, with a need to strengthen links between the school and home, the Warmley Parent-Teacher Association was formed. Like all P.TA. groups, the principal aim was to create a better educational institute for the pupils, which this one at Warmley did with great success.

 

In 1960 Warmley was one of the first Primary Schools in the country to have its own television set and many other items were to be presented to the school, courtesy of the P.T.A. It was not all work though, as social activities were also arranged with educational trips to the theatre, coach outings to places of interest, (usually using the services of John Sparkes Coaches of Warmley) and often returning via an historic inn!

 

The high-lights of the school year, besides the Christmas concert, sports day and prize giving, were the social evenings and the summer fair, as these were the main source of revenue. The fairs, a cross between a carnival and a car boot sale, were held on the tennis court if dry or in the church hail if wet and were enjoyed by the stall holders and public alike.

 

The first P.T.A, was chaired by the Headmaster, Mr. R. B. Wintle, and presided over by the Prebendary, C.W. Francis. It would be difficult to name teachers who have influenced the children of the parish the most, however, three names come up over and over again.

 

The first is Mr. William Moore, who was head from 1913 to 1936 whose legacy was the wonderful copper plate handwriting that a generation left school with. The next is Mrs. G.W. Myers, known affectionately as 'Mini-Myers'; although she seemed to be very stern, underneath she was very loving and cared for her little flock.

 

The third of this selection has to be Mr. Arthur Deavin. Arthur had probably worked with more head teachers than any other master. He had many opportunities for promotion but passed them over for the love he had for the school and its pupils. The only way to obtained a headship was to move to another school and that was not for Mr. Deavin.

 

1953

 

King George VI died on 6th February 1952 and the young Princess Elizabeth was thrown into the role she has performed so well now for over forty years.

 

The 2nd June 1953 was the beginning of the new Elizabethan era for the country and everyone joined in the celebrations. Food rationing was by now almost phased out and Coronation parties were being organised everywhere.

 

At the party all the children were presented with their own coronation mug full of sweets. This was a treat indeed! A grand party was held in the canteen of Kingswood Grammar School, to the delight of all who attended. Siston had its own Coronation Queen when Rachel Willmott was crowned. She was the daughter of Lloyd and Winifred Willmott, the newsagents at the corner of High Street and Stanley Road.

 

There was a huge increase in the sale of television sets this year and for many this was the first opportunity to see 'the magic box'. That wet June day was spent with most of the neighbours watching the flickering black and white images of the Coronation followed in the evening by more celebrations.

 

1954

 

Mervyn and Bertha Whittock and their sons Clive and Terry have entertained the local community for over forty years. During the second world war the family, who were then living in Stanley Road, were often called upon to entertain both British and American troops.

 

In one year they performed two hundred shows as well as dinner hour concerts at factories. It was therefore not surprising that they were better known by their stage name of the 'Warmley Wonders'. Clive was the star of the show and had appeared on the same bill as Bing Crosby. He also made broadcasts for the B.B.C., on 'Workers Playtime'.

 

Although the family moved from Stanley Road in the early 50s they still found time to serve on the Entertainment Committee at the Community Centre and to produce concerts like the 'Black & White Minstrel Show'. Even in her 90s Bertha has kept a strong link with the Community and has been Vice Chairlady of Warmley Golden Hour for many years.

 

1955

 

Crown Farm has stood for several hundred years on the east side of Tower Road North, Warmley, adjacent to the junction with Station Road. A 1610 map of Kingswood Forest shows a building called Jeffrayes House, this was possibly Crown Farm. The Jeffrayes in the area greatly upset a Siston parish priest, for in a memorandum of the parish registers for 1625 he wrote, 'Ye Jeffrayes and Tukers of Warmley are rogues, whores and thieves and WT not YT is wicked.'

 

Records show members of the Jefferies family were living in Crown Farm into the 19th century. In the early part of that century the property was purchased by George M. Davidson of Warmley House and subsequently was owned by the Haskins family.

 

At one time Crown Farm was divided into several dwellings. In the late 19th century Crown Farm became the venue for the local Council meetings. This continued until 1900 when the new council offices in Stanley Road were built.

 

At the beginning of the 20th century, Luther Hamblin lived at Crown Farm. He was a haulier and would take leather from Avonmouth to the Kingswood boot factories then return with boots for export.

 

When Mr. Hamblin moved out, Cyril Turner became the tenant of Crown Farm. Farmer Fred Bryant was the last occupier of Crown Farm and after he moved away on Michelmas Day 1955 the buildings rapidly deteriorated and became the target of vandalism. The farm was knocked down in 1956 and the site left for many years. Factories now cover the fields and the site is owned by Mardon Son and Hall.

 

The land around Crown Farm which for so many years was used for grazing now produced a very different product. The head office and factory of the Lawson Mardon Group, Wincanton, Mothers Pride Bakery, Motorway Tyres, Ian Williams Limited, decorators, and Dinky Heel Ltd., fill the site.

 

1956

 

After the reorganisation in the education system in 1948 secondary schools were required for children of eleven years and above.

 

The boys were transferred to High Street, Oldland but it would be several years more before the girls school would be completed. The girls eventually went to a separate establishment in North Street, Oldland, which was to be known as Oldland Secondary Modern School for Girls. This was officially opened in September 1956 with Miss Nicholls as headmistress.

 

1957

 

early part of the century, the area was supplied with bread from a few small bakers, two of which were in Chapel Lane.

 

The older belonged to George Lacey, built around 1905, and was opposite the flour mill. The second bakery was owned by Percy White and his home and ovens were opposite the Congregational Chapel.

 

For over half a century these two men produced most of the loaves needed for Warmley and Siston, and all around the district. At the top of Hill Street, Kingswood, Henry Attwell also had a high-class bakery and bread shop which stood opposite Woodstock Road. However, the days of the small baker were coming to an end.

 

In 1957, Christopher Bell Ltd., a member of the Hovis McDougall Group, opened a massive bakery at the far end of Crown Road. There was nothing like it this side of Bristol.

 

Bread, cakes and many other kinds of confectionery were produced and were sold in shops all around the region. At this time the customer could have bread delivered daily to his door and scores of the familiar red and white vans could be seen passing to and fro from the factory. The little Chipmunk on top of the vans became the Christopher Bell trade mark.

 

In the 1960s Rank took control of the bakery and Mothers Pride bread became the main product. Bread is no longer baked at Warmley and the factory serves only as a warehouse for the container loads of bread brought in from the Midlands.

 

Bit by bit all the fields that were once part of Crown Farm have been covered with warehousing or factories. This year saw the opening of another distribution depot for the confectionery trade.

 

United Biscuits, whose products include Jacobs Biscuits, moved to the lower section of Crown Road, bringing much needed work to the area. The company has had a number of structural changes since the 1950s and the depot at Warmley is now the regional distribution point for the Jacobs Biscuits Group of Companies. Before the decade was over Motorway Tyres and Kraft Products were to set up business here.

 

1959

 

Many things in life we take for granted and some institutions seem always to have been around. Yet a basic service like the Library has had a relatively short history.

 

Warmley Community Centre was set up about fifty years earlier as a Reading Room for the people of the area. Books were in short supply and in great demand. About the same time a lending library was in existence in a shop opposite the Kings Arms in Kingswood run by the two daughters of Isaac Green of Stanley Road.

 

Siston and Warmley has never had its own official library but with the growing population in the Warmley district of Parkwall, a purpose built library was planned.

 

On 4th July 1959, Cadbury Heath Library in School Road, was opened, the first of the new libraries in the area. Prior to this, boxes of books were allocated and distributed, mainly to schools, from Shire Hall in Gloucester. As our parish was almost at the southern-most end of the County and Bristol dealt within its own boundary, the selection was extremely limited compared to the wide range of books and activities offered today.

 

A Woman Inspired by Joyce Gale 2004 Warmley.

 

And I said to the man who stood at the gate of the year,

 

Give me a light that I may tread safely into the unknown

 

And he replied:. Go out into the darkness and put your hand into the Hand

 

Of God. That shall be to you better than light and safer than a known way

 

So I went forth, and finding the Hand of God, trod gladly into the night.

 

Many of us will have heard the above words at some time in our life, written by Minnie Louise Haskins in 1908. Much later to become famous by King George VI reading it as part of his first Christmas message to the nation at the start of the second World War.

 

Minnie was born on 12th May 1875 to Louisa and Joseph Haskins the eldest of four daughters. Her father was then trading as a grocer. By 1880 the family moved to Warmley House and Joseph by now owned the Warmley Tower Pottery Company. Minnie attended Warmley Congregational Chapel becoming a Sunday School Teacher and leader of the Womans bible class and Founder of the Christian Endeavour Group.

 

It was whilst at Warmley House where standing at the upstairs balcony window and looking down the illuminated driveway to the gate that Minnie was inspired to write the words of God Knows which for a while was put away and forgotten.

 

From 1918-1920 Minnie studied at the London School of Economics. Gaining a Social Science certificate and distinction, also a diploma in Sociology with distinction in Philosophy in 1920. She joined the staff of LSE in Social Science Department becoming a tutor in 1934 retiring in 1939 reappointed and continued until 1944.

 

In 1933 she was described as a woman of unusual capacity and character with a rare understanding and sympathy with great love and interest in people Privately Minnie printed her poems and verses The Desert later Through Bed of Stone (1928) A Few People (1932) her other articles and pieces were mainly on industry.

 

King George VI was introduced to God Knows by the Queen mother which was sent to her in a Christmas Card. Minnie was astounded to know her poem was broadcast, although she never heard it herself. The subsequent royalties Minnie donated to charity and by then was living in Sussex.

 

In 1951 aged seventy five Minnie returned to Warmley House, (which was then owned by Warmley Rural District Council who had purchased it in 1940) to unveil a commemorative plaque during the Festival of Britain. This plaque still remains to this day.

 

In 1952 King George VI died and was buried at Windsor Castle and at the foot of a stained glass window in his memory are Minnies words the King had quoted in 1939.

 

Minnie never married and is thought to have died in Crowborough, Sussex in 1957

 

In 1967 the poem was set to music by American Classical Composer Elinor Remick Warren, called The Gate of the Year

 

I said to the man, who stood

 

at the gate of the year

 

Give me a light that I may

 

tread safely into the unknown

 

And he replied Go out into the

 

darkness and put your hand into

 

the hand of God. That shall be to

 

you better than light and safer than a known

 

Way So I went forth, and finding the

 

Hand of God, trod gladly into the night.*

 

And He led me towards the hills

 

and the breaking of day in the lone East.

 

So heart be still

 

What need our little life

 

Our human life to know,

 

If God hath comprehension?

 

In all the dizzy strife

 

Of things both high and low,

 

God hideth his intention.

 

God Knows. His will

 

Is best. The stretch of years

 

Which wind ahead, so dim

 

To our imperfect vision,

 

Are clear to God, Our fears

 

Are premature; In Him

 

All time hath full provision.

 

Then rest; until

 

God moves to lift the veil

 

From our impatient eyes,

 

When, as the sweeter features

 

Of lifes stern face we hail,

 

Fair beyond all surmise

 

Gods thought around His creatures

 

Our minds shall fill.

 

Joyce Gale 2004 Warmley.

 

Source of Research (Memories of Warmley)

 

Daily Telegraph 2002.

 

Pastor Ken Van Schelven USA.who got me on to the research.

Ελληνικα:

 

Μπιγκ Μπεν είναι το ψευδώνυμο για τη μεγάλη καμπάνα και το ρολόι στο βόρειο άκρο του ανακτόρων του Ουεστμίνστερ στο Λονδίνο, και έχει χρησιμοποιηθεί ευρύτερα ώστε να παραπέμπει γενικά στο ρολόι ή τον πύργο του ρολογιού. Είναι το μεγαλύτερο τεσσάρων όψεων chiming ρολόι και ο πύργος του ρολογιού είναι ο τρίτος ψηλότερος στον κόσμο. Γιόρτασε τα 150 χρόνια του στις 31 Μαΐου 2009, κατά την οποία εορταστικές εκδηλώσεις έλαβαν χώρα. Η ανέγερση του πύργου ολοκληρώθηκε τις 10 Απριλίου 1858. Ο πύργος του ρολογιού έχει γίνει ένα από τα πιο γνωστά σύμβολα τόσο του Λονδίνου όσο και της Αγγλίας, συχνά στην "establishing shot" των ταινιών που γυρίζονται στην πόλη.

Ο Πύργος του Ρολογιού [Επεξεργασία]

 

Ο Πύργος του Ρολογιού

 

O τωρινός Πύργος του Ρολογιού αναγέρθηκε ως μέρος του σχεδιασμού του Charles Barry για ένα νέο ανάκτορο, μετά από την καταστροφή του παλιού παλατιού του Westminster από πυρκαγιά το βράδυ της 16ης Οκτωβρίου 1834. Το νέο Κοινοβούλιο χτίστηκε σε νεογοτθικό στιλ. Αν και ο Barry ήταν ο κύριος αρχιτέκτονας του ανακτόρου, στράφηκε στον Αύγουστο Pugin για το σχεδιασμό του Πύργου του Ρολογιού, το οποίο μοιάζει σε νωρίτερα σχέδια του Pugin , συμπεριλαμβανομένου ενός για το Scarisbrick Hall. Ο σχεδιασμός για τον Πύργο του Ρολογιού ήταν το τελευταίο σχέδιο του Pugin πριν από την τελική κάθοδό του στην τρέλα και τον θάνατο, και ο ίδιος ο Pugin έγραψε, κατά το χρόνο της τελευταίας επίσκεψης του Barry για να εισπράξει τα σχέδια: «Εγώ ποτέ δεν δούλεψα τόσο σκληρά στη ζωή μου για τον κ. Barry για αύριο πρόσφερα όλα τα σχέδια για το τελείωμα του καμπαναριού του και αυτό είναι όμορφο ». Ο πύργος είναι σχεδιασμένος στο αγαπημένο γοτθικό σχέδιο του Pugin, και είναι 96,3 μέτρα (316 πόδια) υψηλό (περίπου 16 όροφοι).

 

Το κάτω μέρος 61 μέτρα (200 πόδια) της δομής του Πύργος του Ρολογιού αποτελείται από πλινθοδομή με άμμο χρωματισμένα με Anston επένδυση ασβεστόλιθο. Το υπόλοιπο του ύψους του πύργου είναι πλαισιωμένο κωδωνοστάσιο από χυτοσίδηρο. Ο πύργος είναι θεμελιωμένος σε πέδιλο μήκους 15 μέτρων (49 ​​πόδια), από 3 μ. (9,8 ft) πάχους μπετόν, σε βάθος 4 μέτρα (13 πόδια) κάτω από το επίπεδο του εδάφους. Οι τέσσερις πίνακες του ρολογιού βρίσκεται 55 μέτρα (180 πόδια) πάνω από το έδαφος. Ο εσωτερικός όγκος του πύργου είναι 4.650 κυβικά μέτρα (164.200 κυβικά πόδια).

 

Παρά το γεγονός ότι ένα από τα πιο διάσημα τουριστικά αξιοθέατα του κόσμου, το εσωτερικό του πύργου δεν είναι ανοιχτό σε επισκέπτες από το εξωτερικό, αν και εδρεύει στο Ηνωμένο Βασίλειο είναι σε θέση να οργανώσει εκδρομές (και εκ των προτέρων) μέσω των μελών τους από το Κοινοβούλιο. Ωστόσο, ο πύργος δεν διαθέτει ανελκυστήρα, έτσι ώστε αυτές με συνοδεία πρέπει να ανεβείτε τα 334 σκαλοπάτια από ασβεστόλιθο στην κορυφή.

 

Λόγω των αλλαγών στις συνθήκες του εδάφους από την κατασκευή (κυρίως σήραγγας για την επέκταση γραμμής Jubilee), ο πύργος κλίνει ελαφρώς προς τα βορειοδυτικά, κατά περίπου 220 χιλιοστά (8,66 in) στο καντράν ρολογιού, δίνοντας μια κλίση περίπου 1 / 250.

 

English:

 

Big Ben is the nickname for the great bell of the clock at the north end of the Palace of Westminster in London,[1] and is generally extended to refer to the clock or the clock tower as well.[2] The clock tower holds the largest four-faced chiming clock in the world and is the third-tallest free-standing clock tower.[3] It celebrated its 150th anniversary on 31 May 2009,[4] during which celebratory events took place.[5][6] The tower was completed on 10 April 1858 and has become one of the most prominent symbols of both London and England, often in the establishing shot of films set in the city.

Tower

 

The Palace of Westminster, the Clock Tower and Westminster Bridge

 

The present Clock Tower — metonymously referred to as Big Ben, and historically confused with St Stephen's Tower — was raised as a part of Charles Barry's design for a new palace, after the old Palace of Westminster was largely destroyed by fire on the night of 16 October 1834.[7][8] The new Parliament was built in a Neo-gothic style. Although Barry was the chief architect of the Palace, he turned to Augustus Pugin for the design of the Clock Tower, which resembles earlier Pugin designs, including one for Scarisbrick Hall. The design for the Clock Tower was Pugin's last design before his final descent into madness and death, and Pugin himself wrote, at the time of Barry's last visit to him to collect the drawings: "I never worked so hard in my life for Mr Barry for tomorrow I render all the designs for finishing his bell tower & it is beautiful."[9] The tower is designed in Pugin's celebrated Gothic Revival style, and is 96.3 metres (316 ft) high (roughly 16 stories).[10]

 

The bottom 61 metres (200 ft) of the Clock Tower's structure consists of brickwork with sand coloured Anston limestone cladding. The remainder of the tower's height is a framed spire of cast iron. The tower is founded on a 15-metre (49 ft) square raft, made of 3-metre (9.8 ft) thick concrete, at a depth of 4 metres (13 ft) below ground level. The four clock dials are 55 metres (180 ft) above ground. The interior volume of the tower is 4,650 cubic metres (164,200 cubic feet).

 

Despite being one of the world's most famous tourist attractions, the interior of the tower is not open to overseas visitors, though United Kingdom residents are able to arrange tours (well in advance) through their Member of Parliament.[11] However, the tower has no lift, so those escorted must climb the 334 limestone stairs to the top.[10]

 

Because of changes in ground conditions since construction (notably tunnelling for the Jubilee Line extension), the tower leans slightly to the north-west, by roughly 220 millimetres (8.66 in) at the clock dials, giving an inclination of approximately 1/250.[12][13] Due to thermal effects it oscillates annually by a few millimetres east and west.

Clock

Dials

 

The Clock Tower was once the largest four-faced clock in the world.

 

The dial of the Great Clock of Westminster. The hour hand is 2.7 metres (9 ft) long and the minute hand is 4.3 metres (14 ft) long

 

The clock and dials were designed by Augustus Pugin. The clock dials are set in an iron frame 7 metres (23 ft) in diameter, supporting 312 pieces of opal glass, rather like a stained-glass window. Some of the glass pieces may be removed for inspection of the hands. The surround of the dials is gilded. At the base of each clock dial in gilt letters is the Latin inscription:“DOMINE SALVAM FAC REGINAM NOSTRAM VICTORIAM PRIMAM”

 

Which means O Lord, keep safe our Queen Victoria the First.

 

Movement

 

The Clock Tower at dusk, with The London Eye in the background

 

The clock's movement is famous for its reliability. The designers were the lawyer and amateur horologist Edmund Beckett Denison, and George Airy, the Astronomer Royal. Construction was entrusted to clockmaker Edward John Dent; after his death in 1853 his stepson Frederick Dent completed the work, in 1854.[14] As the Tower was not complete until 1859, Denison had time to experiment: Instead of using the deadbeat escapement and remontoire as originally designed, Denison invented the double three-legged gravity escapement. This escapement provides the best separation between pendulum and clock mechanism. The pendulum is installed within an enclosed windproof box sunk beneath the clockroom. It is 3.9m long, weighs 300 kg and beats every 2 seconds. The clockwork mechanism in a room below weighs 5 tons. On top of the pendulum is a small stack of old penny coins; these are to adjust the time of the clock. Adding a coin has the effect of minutely lifting the position of the pendulum's centre of mass, reducing the effective length of the pendulum rod and hence increasing the rate at which the pendulum swings. Adding or removing a penny will change the clock's speed by 0.4 seconds per day.[6]

 

On 10 May 1941, a German bombing raid damaged two of the clock's dials and sections of the tower's stepped roof and destroyed the House of Commons chamber. Architect Sir Giles Gilbert Scott designed a new five-floor block. Two floors are occupied by the current chamber which was used for the first time on 26 October 1950. Despite the heavy bombing the clock ran accurately and chimed throughout the Blitz.

  

The Big Ben clock tower has been tilting as a result of the excavation of tunnels near Westminster.[15] The tower has tilted an additional 0.9 mm each year since 2003,[16] and the tilt can now be seen by the naked eye.[17]

Malfunctions, breakdowns, and other outages

 

The south clock face being cleaned on 11 August 2007

1916: for two years during World War I, the bells were silenced and the clock face darkened at night to prevent attack by German Zeppelins.[10]

1 Sept. 1939: although the bells continued to ring, the clock faces were darkened at night through World War II to prevent guiding Blitz pilots.[10]

New Year's Eve 1962: The clock slowed due to heavy snow and ice on the long hands, causing the pendulum to detach from the clockwork, as it is designed to do in such circumstances, to avoid serious damage elsewhere in the mechanism—the pendulum continuing to swing freely. Thus it chimed in the new year 10 minutes late.[18]

5 August 1976: First and only major breakdown. The air brake speed regulator of the chiming mechanism broke after more than 100 years of torsional fatigue causing the fully wound 4 ton weight to spin the winding drum out of the movement, causing a large amount of damage. The Great Clock was shut down for a total of 26 days over nine months – it was reactivated on 9 May 1977; this was its longest break in operation since it was built. During this time BBC Radio 4 had to make do with the pips.[19] Although there were minor stoppages from 1977 to 2002 when the maintenance of the clock was carried out by the old firm of clockmakers Thwaites & Reed, these were often repaired within the permitted two hour downtime and not recorded as stoppages. Prior to 1970 the maintenance was carried out by the original firm of Dents and since 2002 by Parliamentary staff.

27 May 2005: the clock stopped at 10:07 pm local time, possibly due to hot weather; temperatures in London had reached an unseasonable 31.8 °C (90 °F). It restarted, but stopped again at 10:20 pm local time and remained still for about 90 minutes before restarting.[20]

29 October 2005: the mechanism was stopped for about 33 hours so the clock and its chimes could be worked on. It was the lengthiest maintenance shutdown in 22 years.[21]

7:00 am 5 June 2006: The clock tower's "Quarter Bells" were taken out of commission for four weeks[22] as a bearing holding one of the quarter bells was damaged from years of wear and needed to be removed for repairs. During this period, BBC Radio 4 broadcast recordings of British bird song followed by the pips in place of the usual chimes.[23]

11 August 2007: Start of 6-week stoppage for maintenance. Bearings in the clock's going train and the "great bell" striker were replaced, for the first time since installation.[24] During the maintenance works, the clock was not driven by the original mechanism, but by an electric motor.[25] Once again, BBC Radio 4 had to make do with the pips during this time.

Bells

Great Bell

 

The second 'Big Ben' (centre) and the Quarter Bells from The Illustrated News of the World 4 December 1858

 

A modern picture of 'Big Ben'

 

The main bell, officially known as the Great Bell, is the largest bell in the tower and part of the Great Clock of Westminster. The bell is better known by the nickname Big Ben.[26]

 

The original bell was a 16.3-tonne (16 ton) hour bell, cast on 6 August 1856 in Stockton-on-Tees by John Warner & Sons.[1] The bell was named in honour of Sir Benjamin Hall, and his name is inscribed on it.[27] However, another theory for the origin of the name is that the bell may have been named after a contemporary heavyweight boxer Benjamin Caunt.[28] It is thought that the bell was originally to be called Victoria or Royal Victoria in honour of Queen Victoria,[29] but that an MP suggested the nickname during a Parliamentary debate; the comment is not recorded in Hansard.

 

Since the tower was not yet finished, the bell was mounted in New Palace Yard. Cast in 1856, the first bell was transported to the tower on a trolley drawn by sixteen horses, with crowds cheering its progress. Unfortunately, it cracked beyond repair while being tested and a replacement had to be made. The bell was recast at the Whitechapel Bell Foundry as a 13.76-tonne (13½ ton) bell.[30][1] This was pulled 200 ft (61 m) up to the Clock Tower’s belfry, a feat that took 18 hours. It is 2.2 metres tall and 2.9 metres wide. This new bell first chimed in July 1859. In September it too cracked under the hammer, a mere two months after it officially went into service. According to the foundry's manager, George Mears, Denison had used a hammer more than twice the maximum weight specified.[1] For three years Big Ben was taken out of commission and the hours were struck on the lowest of the quarter bells until it was reinstalled. To make the repair, a square piece of metal was chipped out from the rim around the crack, and the bell given an eighth of a turn so the new hammer struck in a different place.[1] Big Ben has chimed with an odd twang ever since and is still in use today complete with the crack. At the time of its casting, Big Ben was the largest bell in the British Isles until "Great Paul", a 17 tonne (16¾ ton) bell currently hung in St Paul's Cathedral, was cast in 1881.[31]

Chimes

  

A recording from the BBC World Service radio station of the Westminster Chimes and the twelve strikes of Big Ben, as broadcast at midnight.

 

Along with the Great Bell, the belfry houses four quarter bells which play the Westminster Quarters on the quarter hours. The four quarter bells are G♯, F♯, E, and B. They were cast by John Warner & Sons at their Crescent Foundry in 1857 (G♯, F♯ and B) and 1858 (E). The Foundry was in Jewin Crescent, in what is now known as The Barbican, in the City of London.

 

The Quarter Bells play a 20-chime sequence, 1–4 at quarter past, 5–12 at half past, 13–20 and 1–4 at quarter to, and 5–20 on the hour (which sounds 25 seconds before the main bell tolls the hour). Because the low bell (B) is struck twice in quick succession, there is not enough time to pull a hammer back, and it is supplied with two wrench hammers on opposite sides of the bell. The tune is that of the Cambridge Chimes, first used for the chimes of Great St Mary's church, Cambridge, and supposedly a variation, attributed to William Crotch, on a phrase from Handel's Messiah. The notional words of the chime, again derived from Great St Mary's and in turn an allusion to Psalm 37:23–24, are: "All through this hour/Lord be my guide/And by Thy power/No foot shall slide". They are written on a plaque on the wall of the clock room.[32][33]

 

One of the requirements for the clock was that the first stroke of the hour bell should register the time, correct to within one second per day.[34] So, at twelve o'clock, for example, it is the first of the twelve chimes that signifies the hour.

Nickname

 

Double-decker buses frame a busy Whitehall with Big Ben in the background.

 

The origin of the nickname Big Ben is the subject of some debate. The nickname was applied first to the Great Bell; it may have been named after Sir Benjamin Hall, who oversaw the installation of the Great Bell, or after boxing's English Heavyweight Champion Benjamin Caunt.[1][26][35][36] Now Big Ben is often used, by extension, to refer to the clock, the tower and the bell collectively, although the nickname is not universally accepted as referring to the clock and tower.[2][37][38][39] Some authors of works about the tower, clock and bell sidestep the issue by using the words Big Ben first in the title, then going on to clarify that the subject of the book is the clock and tower as well as the bell.[40][41]

Significance in popular culture

 

The clock has become a symbol of the United Kingdom and London, particularly in the visual media. When a television or film-maker wishes to indicate a generic location in Britain, a popular way to do so is to show an image of the Clock Tower, often with a red double-decker bus or black cab in the foreground.[42] The sound of the clock chiming has also been used this way in audio media, but as the Westminster Quarters are heard from other clocks and other devices, the unique nature of this sound has been considerably diluted.

 

The Clock Tower is a focus of New Year celebrations in the United Kingdom, with radio and TV stations tuning to its chimes to welcome the start of the year. As well, to welcome in 2012, the clock tower itself was lit with fireworks that exploded at every toll of Big Ben. Similarly, on Remembrance Day, the chimes of Big Ben are broadcast to mark the 11th hour of the 11th day of the 11th month and the start of two minutes' silence.

 

Superior part of the clock tower.

 

ITN's News at Ten opening sequence features an image of the Clock Tower with the sound of Big Ben's chimes punctuating the announcement of the news headlines, and has done so on and off for the last 41 years. The Big Ben chimes (known within ITN as "The Bongs") continue to be used during the headlines and all ITV News bulletins use a graphic based on the Westminster clock dial. Big Ben can also be heard striking the hour before some news bulletins on BBC Radio 4 (6 pm and midnight, plus 10 pm on Sundays) and the BBC World Service, a practice that began on 31 December 1923. The sound of the chimes are sent in real time from a microphone permanently installed in the tower and connected by line to Broadcasting House.

 

Londoners who live an appropriate distance from the Clock Tower and Big Ben can, by means of listening to the chimes both live and on the radio or television, hear the bell strike thirteen times on New Year's Eve. This is possible due to what amounts to an offset between live and electronically transmitted chimes since the speed of sound is a lot slower than the speed of radio waves. Guests are invited to count the chimes aloud as the radio is gradually turned down.

 

The Clock Tower has appeared in many films, most notably in the 1978 version of The Thirty Nine Steps, in which the hero Richard Hannay attempted to halt the clock's progress (to prevent a linked bomb detonating) by hanging from the minute hand of its western dial. In the fourth James Bond film Thunderball a mistaken extra strike of Big Ben on the hour is designated by criminal organisation SPECTRE to be the signal that the British Government has acceded to its nuclear extortion demands. The gag phrase "Big Ben! Parliament!" is repeated for comic effect by Chevy Chase in National Lampoon's European Vacation as the depicted family remains stuck on the Lambeth Bridge Roundabout. It was also used in the filming of Shanghai Knights starring Jackie Chan and Owen Wilson, and was depicted as being partially destroyed in the Doctor Who episode "Aliens of London". An animated version of the clock and its inner workings were also used as the setting for the climactic final battle between Basil of Baker Street and his nemesis Ratigan in the Walt Disney animated film The Great Mouse Detective as well as Peter Pan where Peter lands on the clock before they head to Neverland. It is shown being destroyed by a UFO in the film Mars Attacks!, by a prehistoric creature in Gorgo, and by a lightning bolt in the film The Avengers. It is destroyed on purpose and quite graphically in the movie V for Vendetta and is flooded in the film Flood. In Reign of Fire, it is destroyed by dragons. The apparent "thirteen chimes" detailed above was also a major plot device in the Captain Scarlet and the Mysterons episode, "Big Ben Strikes Again".

 

During the 2010 General Election the results of the national exit poll were projected onto the south side of the Clock Tower.

Accolades

 

A survey of 2,000 people found that the tower was the most popular landmark in the United Kingdom.

 

Big Ben was polled as the Most Iconic London Film Location.

 

Source: Wikipedia EL: el.wikipedia.org & EN: en.wikipedia.org

Running across the roof top of the Grand Bazaar pretending to be Daniel Craig in Skyfall.

 

The young man leads us away from Terlikçiler Street deep inside the Grand Bazaar where we had been enjoying our Turkish Coffee and Spiced Apple Cake. He leads us swiftly past covered streets lined with rug emporiums and shops selling silky pashminas and richly embroidered cloth. A riot of colour swirls around us. We dodge tourists ambling along and catch our eyes on the porcelain shops. The colourful bowls towering up in dangerous minarets. We pass shops full of glittering glass lanterns, beaded bracelets and silver and copper kitchenware. Shop after shop of trinkets and treasures. We turn into Yaglikçiler Street which seamlessly spills into Siphai Street before it crashes headlong into Kalpakçilarbasi Street, I blink at the flashing gold jewellery shimmering like the baubles of Aladdin’s Cave in the shops that line our way. I take note of the ceiling designs as a reference, so we will be able to find our way back... a trick I learned in the Medina of Fez in Morocco. I have a great sense of direction but this will assist my efforts in re-tracing our steps later. It is my surest way of finding my way around, that and taking note of the slope of the floor.

 

Our young man leads us out of the Grand Bazaar, turning left into an open arcarde of shops, then left again into another, then right into a lonely alleyway lined with half mannequins (the bottom halves) standing in a silent vigil... each one sporting a different style of jeans. We dive diagonally across a narrow courtyard, dodging a lonely black dog and follow our guide up a narrow flight of concrete stairs. I step to one side to let a tea-boy through with his tray of little glass tea cups. They are empty, tinkling on little red and white china saucers as he descends the stairs, the remnants of the sugar cube packets scrunched up on the sides.

 

We are in the heart of wholesale land now, there is no romance here. An old man sits in a dimly lit corridor with a cigarette balanced between the fingers of his left hand. More topless mannequins line the halls. A fluorescent strip lamp hangs limply from the ceiling and a spaghetti of electrical wires skim around the top of the dirty white walls. Air-conditioning units jut out at odd angles. The murmur of the markets is a distant hum.

 

We are led to a dark corner where our guide knocks loudly on a rusty but solid green metal door. It clanks open to reveal our destination, a dusty icon shop. Dark wood panelling lines the walls and a beam of light from the solitary window washes over the walls of icons. Jesus stares at us blankly from a myriad of plaques. I stare back blankly. My eyes still adjusting to the darkness of the room.

 

I am keen to leave this darkened room and investigate an even a narrower set of concrete stairs I saw leading upward.

 

Later we will carefully pick our way up these stairs and find ourselves on the roof of the Grand Bazaar. Its red terracotta tiles speading out at our feet like a counterpane. One of the oldest covered Bazaars in the world, construction started in 1455, it is now home to over 3,000 shops along its 61 covered streets.

 

We marvel at its history and resist the urge to run across the rooftops like stuntmen from the movies Skyfall or Taken 2. It is blisteringly hot on the roof and we retreat to the cool interior, once more losing ourselves in the melée of tourists.

The Daniel O'Connell Monument was unveiled in 1882. Below the 14 ft bronze statue of O'Connell is a frieze depicting the "Maid of Erin", representing Ireland, with her hand raised, pointing to O'Connell. The frieze features over 30 figures, representing the various strata of Irish society. At the base are four winged Victories. These are often thought to represent the four provinces of Ireland, but in fact represent four virtues attributed to O'Connell - patriotism, courage, eloquence and fidelity. The four provinces are represented by four plaques on the granite plinth. The statue has several bullet holes from the 1916 rebellion.(Sculptor: John Henry Foley)

On Columbus Day, 1932, the Italian-American community celebrated the ground-breaking with an enormous parade. Col. Guido F. Verbeck, head of the Manlius School, was the grand marshal. His father, the late Brig. Gen. William Verbeck, was honored by the King of Italy with a citation as chevalier in the Order of the Crown.

 

Dwight James Baum, a graduate of Syracuse University and nationally known architect, was hired to supervise the design and construction of the monument, while Baldi sculpted the bronze work. Baum attempted to create the ambience of an Italian piazza. The modified obelisk on which the statue of the explorer stands is an ancient Egyptian symbol of power, widely used in civic monuments in Italy. Made of pink granite, it rises 29 feet above the pavement, and rests on a gray and pink granite base comprised of ancient triremes (ships' prows) representing ancient Roman vessels and symbolizing Italy's navigational prowess.

The fountain spouts are creatures of the deep, which, with the brass turtles and stone shells of the fountain, serve as reminders of Columbus' confrontation of the dangers of the sea. The pool's bottom features a navigator's compass in colored pebbles, traditional in Italian grottos and fountains.

Renzo V. Baldi's Columbus is a cast bronze figure eleven feet tall. It depicts the explorer as a young man, long before he sailed to America, looking toward the west, maps and charts in his hand. Baldi's bronze bas-relief plaques depict scenes from the life of Columbus: at the Court of Queen Isabel; arriving in the tropics and; returning to the Court of Spain. Masks of Native American faces function as clasps to hold the four sections of the obelisk together, and celebrate the people who were already in America when Columbus arrived.

Montgomery Street~Columbus Circle Historic District ~NRHP #80004278.

www.facebook.com/pages/The-SmOKing-Camera-Hervey-BaY-dave...

 

A Panoramic stitch of The sun-rising form the Urangan pier

  

Urangan Pier is a historic pier in Urangan, Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

 

It is a former deep-water, cargo-handling facility originally built to facilitate the export of sugar, timber and coal. The pier, served by the extension of the railway line from Pialba,[1] was used for the transfer of cargo between rail and ships. It was built between 1913 and 1917,[2] originally to a length of 1107 metres. The pier was closed in 1985, and 239 metres of it was demolished. However, due to public outcry, 868 metres of the pier was left, and the land was handed to the Hervey Bay City Council.

 

By 2009 the last 220-metre section of the pier had been fully restored, and the original timber pylons had been replaced with steel pylons with a plastic covering

  

The original proposal to establish Urangan as a coal port for the Burrum River mining project did not eventuate due to several factors, mainly because the coal output did not reach original expectations. However, as the Wide Bay area was a chief producer of produce and freight, the Queensland Government made a decision to build a pier at Hervey Bay.

  

A plaque at the Urangan Pier; placed in 1999, commemorating the re-opening of the Urangan Pier.

Construction on the Urangan Pier began in 1913. In order to reach the deep water channel, it was required to extend 1.1 kilometres (0.68 mi) (3690 ft) out to sea. Construction was very slow and finished in 1917. The Urangan railway line also began construction in 1913 and branched off the main railway line at Pialba. This line was extended along the Urangan Pier as it was being constructed. Once it was completed, it served as one of the main ports of Queensland.

 

Sugar was one of the main exports, however had to be transported from as far north as Bundaberg. When the Bundaberg Port was built in 1958, it took over sugar cane exports and the Urangan pier ceased exporting sugar.[5] Timber, general cargo and produce was still exported until 1960, when Caltex built an oil terminal adjacent to the Pier. Soon after this was built, freight, goods and produce exports were stopped and fuel became the only import from the pier.

 

After the last ship docked at the Urangan pier in January 1985, Caltex Oil reversed the process of storage, replacing the system of fuel service from Shipping to bulk supply by rail from the Pinkenba and Colmslie port terminals in Brisbane. This, in turn, lead to the closure of the pier and the Urangan branch line, as neither had a use anymore. At this stage, the pier was in serious need of repairs. A decision was made by the Queensland Government to dismantle the entire pier. Due to large public outcry, rallying and petitions, the demolition of the pier was stopped. In late 1985, the Queensland Government handed the pier to the Hervey Bay City Council. The council pledged to restore the pier, which began in the late 1990s. Restoration included removing the rail tracks from the pier, encasing the wooden pylons with steel, repairing sleepers, repairing hand rails, and repairing lights.

 

In 1999, the pier was restored to a length of 868 meters. It was officially re-opened by the then-governor of Queensland and the mayor of Hervey Bay, Peter Arnison and Bill Brennan (respectively) on the 27th of November, 1999.

  

A model of the pier was made by Mr Harry Coxon in 1917, the same year the original pier was constructed. It is a significant artifact in the Hervey Bay Historical Village & Museum’s collection. Two new models are on display in the Hervey Bay Tourism Visitor Centre and in the Hervey Bay Whale Watch office at the Boat Harbour Marina.[7]

 

Urangan Pier Festival

The first Pier Festival was held in 1986 to help raise funds to save Urangan Pier. Since then it has become a popular fishing competition held annually in September.[3]

 

Pier to Pub Swim

Pier to Pub Ocean Swim Classic is an annual swimming competition held in April since 1999. The 3.4-kilometre (2.1 mi) swim is from Urangan Pier to the jetty opposite the Torquay Hotel, while the 1.6-kilometre (1 mi) short swim, called Splash for Cash, is from the corner of the Esplanade and Alexander Street to the jetty opposite the Torquay Hotel.

 

wikipedia

 

John Lienert: 1924 - 1974

 

John Lienert was a fireman, ironworker, husband, father and artist. Lienert’s work has been viewed by very few people outside of his immediate family since his death in 1974. Lienert began sketching in pencil and charcoal in the 1950s, progressing to water colors and oils. In the 1960s he began sculpting. He started with plaster, then wood, stone and finally metal.

 

In 1966, John Lienert was a Pittsburgh firefighter, stationed on the fireboat, the “Scully.” The “Scully was docked at the bottom of Fourth Street on Pittsburgh’s Southside. To pass the time between fire calls and maintenance duties, he set up a workbench on the dock to do his sculpting. A June 2, 1966 Pittsburgh Post-Gazette article and photo shows him sculpting plaster busts on the shore of the Monongahela River. He was also featured on the “Eleanor Shano” show on local television. Art was Lienert’s passion. Largely self taught, he did take some classes at then Carnegie Tech and the Arts and Crafts Center in Shadyside. He worked in many media and used family members as subjects for some of his work. He displayed at the 3 Rivers Arts Festival at a time when you had to be judged and approved to enter. John used only hand tools in his sculpting, mostly hammer, chisels and knives, never resorting to power tools, until he began welding and brazing his metal sculptures. Family legend is that he scavenged floating logs from the river for some of his busts. His brass figures ranged from small animals to a life size interpretation of Don Quixote

 

John Lienert grew up in Pittsburgh’s Southside and spent his adult life there and in Mount Oliver and Beechview. He was a World War II veteran, having served in Europe. He did scenery design and performed in St. Michael’s Passion Play. He was an avid gardener and loved roses. Lienert was never interested in selling his art, preferring to give a few select pieces to family and friends, keeping most of it. He did have a one man showing at Ye Olde Art Gallery in Alexandria, Virginia. That was in December of 1973. Unfortunately John Lienert passed away at the young age of forty-nine in April of 1974. Since that time no one outside of his immediate family and friends has viewed any of his work. For the first time in thirty-four years Lienert’s paintings and sculptures will be displayed at the Bellevue Art Crawl on May 24. The third floor of the old G C Murphy building will be transformed into an art gallery.

  

John Lienert’s daughter, Shari McGill has a plaque in her Bellevue home that she feels speaks of her father. The author is believed to be Robert Stevenson.

 

THAT MAN

IS A SUCCESS

who has lived well,

laughed often and loved much;

 

who has gained the respect

of intelligent men

and the love of children;

 

who has filled his niche

and accomplished his task;

 

who leaves the world better

than he found it,

whether by an improved poppy,

a perfect poem

or a rescued soul;

 

who never lacked appreciation

of earth’s beauty

or failed to express it;

 

who looked for the best in others

and gave the best he had.

 

Reichsbrücke

Coordinates: 48 ° 13 '42 " N, 16 ° 24' 36" E | |

(Pictures you can see by clicking on the link at the end of page!)

Empire Bridge, seen from the north bank of

Use motor vehicles in the basement underground,

Cyclists, pedestrians

Road train Lassallestraße - Wagramerstraße (B8 )

Location Vienna, between Leopoldstadt (2nd District)

and Danube City (22 nd District)

Prestressed concrete bridge construction, double deck bridge

Total length 865 meters

Width 26.10 meters

Release 8 November 1980

Altitude 157 m above sea level. A.

Card reichsbrücke.png

Location of the Empire Bridge in Vienna

The Empire Bridge is one of Vienna's most famous bridges. It crosses the Danube, the Danube Island and the New Danube and connects the second District of Vienna, Leopoldstadt, with the 22nd District, Danube city. The building extends from Mexico place at Handelskai (2nd district) in a northeasterly direction to the Danube City and the Vienna International Centre (District 22).

The current kingdom bridge (Reichsbrücke) was opened in 1980, it is the third crossing of the Danube in the same axis, which bears the name kingdom bridge. The first Empire Bridge (also: Crown Prince Rudolf bridge when Project: National Highway Bridge), an iron bridge on current five pillars existed from 1876 until 1937. The second Empire Bridge, a chain bridge with two 30-meter high pylons on two river piers, was opened in 1937, it was next to St. Stephen's Cathedral and the Giant Ferris one of the landmarks of the city of Vienna. After the Second World War it was the only intact Danube river crossing downstream of Linz in Austria and became the busiest stretch of road in Austria. On Sunday, the first August 1976 the bridge collapsed in the early morning hours on full width of the Danube into the water. In the accident, which was not foreseeable by the then state of the art, one person was killed. The meaning and emotional charge, which had received the bridge by its colorful past in the Viennese population, increased further by the collapse.

Prehistory

The Danube before regulation (centric is the location of the Reichsbrücke marked)

Some years after the devastating flood of 1830 was considering Emperor Ferdinand I to regulate the Danube and at the same time to build several bridges over the resulting stream bed. The plan was, among other things, a chain bridge approximately at the site of today's Empire bridge, whose construction costs were estimated at two to three million florins. However, these plans came as well as future intentions, build stable bridges over the unregulated Danube, before the Vienna Danube regulation not for execution, the projects went not beyond the planning stage. All bridges over the Danube, whether for road or since 1838 for the Northern Railway, then had rather provisional character. Jochbrücken Those were trestle bridges made ​​of wood, which were regularly swept away by floods or Eisstößen (bumps of ice chunks) and then re-built.

On 12 September 1868 eventually ordered Emperor Franz Joseph I, the nephew and successor of Ferdinand, the regulation of the Danube. At the same time, eventually, should be built "stable bridges". One of them should represent a direct extension of the hunter line (Jägerzeile) (today: Prater Road and the Schwimmschulstraße (now Lassallestraße). With the choice of this location a central urban axis should be continued, which ranged from the Gloriette in Schonbrunn over St. Stephen's Cathedral and the Prater Stern to the Danube. On the other side of the Danube, the bridge should join to the Vienna, Kagraner and Leopold Auer Reichsstrasse (since 1910 Wagramerstraße), which became a major transit route in the northeastern areas of the monarchy. The name of the bridge was accordingly to "Empire Road bridge" set.

First Reichsbrücke - 1876-1937

Crown Prince Rudolf bridge

Since 6 November 1919 : Reichsbrücke

Crown Prince Rudolf bridge since 6 November 1919: Reichsbrücke

Official name of Crown Prince Rudolf Bridge (1876-1919), since then Reichsbrücke

Use vehicles, trams (from 26 June 1898 on the current bridge single track) and pedestrian

crossing of Handelskai, Danube and floodplain

Construction iron lattice structures (river bridge), 341.20 meters

Total length 1019.75 meter (incl. bridge over Handelskai and floodplain)

Width 11.40 meters

Release 21 August 1876

Closure 11 October 1937

Toll 32 cruisers and 64 Heller per vehicle (up to 1904)

The by Franz Joseph commissioned bridge, which the main part of the 2nd district after the regulation of the Danube with the on the left bank lying part of the city Kaisermuehlen, the now Old Danube and the to 1890/1892 independent community of Kagran connected, was navigable from August 1876 to October, 1937. It has been renamed several times: During the construction period it had the preliminary name of Empire Road bridge, after its opening, it was Crown Prince Rudolf bridge. The term "Empire Bridge" but soon won through in general usage, as was said, for example, the stop of the Donauuferbahn (Railway) at the bridge officially Kommunalbad-Reichsbrücke. After the fall of the monarchy on 6 November 1919 it was officially renamed Empire bridge.

With a total length of nearly 1,020 feet, it was at that time the longest bridge connection over the Danube. It was 11.40 meters wide, the road took 7.60 meters and 3.80 meters, the two sidewalks. The original plan had provided a total width of eight fathoms (15.20 meters), the Parliament decided shortly before the start of the construction to reduce the width because of cost reasons.

The bridge consisted of three parts. The so-called Hubertusdamm, protected the March field against flood, and the flood area created in the Danube regulation (inundation) on the north, the left bank of the river was spanned by a stone, 432 meters long inundation bridge, which consisted of 16 sheets of 23 and 39 m width. Handelskai on the southern right bank of the river spanned the so-called Kaibrücke of stone with a length of 90.4 meters and four arches, each 18.96 m width. The actual current bridge was 341.20 meters long and consisted of four individual iron grating structures that rested on five 3.80 meter thick pillars, three of which were in the water. The distance of each pillar was 79.90 meters.

Construction

The current bridge seen from the north, from the left bank (St Stephen's Cathedral in the background); recording before the summer of 1898, there's no tram track

Construction began in August, 1872. Although at that time the stream bed of the Danube had already been largely completed, but not yet flooded. The Empire bridge was then, as the northern railway bridge Stadlauer Bridge and the Emperor Franz Joseph Bridge (later Floridsdorfer bridge), built in dry construction.

The building was designed by the Road and Hydraulic Engineering Department of Imperial Ministry of Interior, whose boss, Undersecretary Mathias Waniek Ritter von Domyslow, was entrusted with the construction management. Total construction cost of 3.7 million guilders. The metal construction had a total weight of 2,193 tons and was manufactured by Schneider & Co in Burgundy of Belgian welding iron.

The two piers on the banks were about five feet below the river bed, which is about eleven meters founded under the riverbed on so-called "blue Viennese Tegel" (a stiff to semi-solid floor similar to the clay which as sedimentary rock is typical for the Vienna basin). The pillars of the two foreland bridges (Kaibrücke and inundation bridge ) were established in shallow coarse gravel.

Of the four Danube bridges built at that time only the kingdom bridge (Reichsbrücke) was not opened to traffic when the new bed of the Danube on 14 April 1875 was flooded. Until 16 months later, on 21 August 1876, the birthday of the Crown Prince Rudolf, opened the Imperial Governor of Lower Austria , Baron Conrad of Sigmund Eybesfeld, representing the emperor, the bridge and gave her in honor of Crown Prince - contrary to the original plan - the name "Crown Prince Rudolf bridge". The opening ceremony was attended by a delegation from Japan, Minister of War Feldzeugmeister Graf Maximilian von Artur Bylandt-Rheidt and mayor of Vienna Cajetan Felder. The governor read a royal resolution, in which Franz Joseph announced the full imperial satisfaction with Oberbauleiter Waniek and several Engineers and Building Officers were awarded the Imperial Knights Cross. As highlight of the celebration the keystone of the last pillar of the ramp was set - under it were built into a cassette several documents, photos of the bridge, coins and medals.

Bridge operation

The Kaibrücke over the Handelskai on the south, the right bank of the Danube, recording c.1907

The bridge ramp and the four brick arches over the Handels on the south, the right bank of the Danube, it ( right) the bridge over the stream, recording from 1876

After the suicide of Crown Prince Rudolf in 1889, the bridge was popularly called "suicide bridge ". It was in the first years of its operation still not a very popular crossing of the Danube. Industry and trade settled slowly to the other side of the Danube. There were also no significant trade routes from north to March Field. Via the Old Danube, which it would have to be crossed, leading to around 1900 only a rickety wooden bridge.

In the first 28 years of its operation, the crossing of the Empire Bridge was charged. 32 cruisers and 64 Heller had to be paid per vehicle, which has been regularly criticized by newspapers in Vienna. Only after the villages north of the Old Danube in the year 1904/1905 than 21st district were incorporated, the crossing was provided free of charge and increased the popularity of the bridge. From 26 June 1898, the bridge was frequented by the tram. The occasion was the 50-year Jubilee of Emperor Franz Joseph. The route went (over the current bridge (Strombrücke) just single track ) for the moment to shooting range (Schießstätte) at Arbeiterstrandbadstraße and was on 22 December 1898 extended until Kagraner place. Operator was the Vienna-Kagraner train (WKB), which initially used for six railcars acquired from Hamburg. In 1904, the traffic operation of Vienna-Street Railways WKB.

The end of the bridge

1910 were counted in Vienna over two million inhabitants. On the left, northern bank of the Danube, more and more settlements and commercial enterprises emerged. This increased both the importance and the traffic on the Empire Bridge. Neither the load nor the total roadway width of less than eight meters were sufficient for this additional burden. 1930 damage was discovered at the bridge, which would have necessitated the refurbishment in the near future. In recent years, their stock weight restrictions has been to protect the bridge. Vienna's city government first planned a conversion of the old kingdom bridge. In 1933, under the federal government of Dollfuss a new building was disposed.

During the three years of construction work had the old bridge remain usable - ie the existing 340 meters long by 4,900-ton Strombrücke was there moved by 26 meters downstream in September 1934, and connected with the banks. The move operation lasted only six hours, the traffic interruption to the reusability lasted three days. The suspended bridge was then three years in operation. Immediately after the opening of its successor bridge it was dismantled.

Second Empire Bridge - 1937-1976

Second Reichsbrücke

The second Empire Bridge, circa 1975

Official name Reichsbrücke, from 11 April 1946 to 18 July 1956 the Red Army Bridge

Use private transport (2 lanes next to the tracks, 2 on the tracks), tram (2 tracks in the middle position), pedestrians (sidewalks 2)

Construction through the air: "Spurious" self-anchored chain bridge with reversed horizontal thrust); broadening of the inundation bridge used since 1876

Total length 1225 meters

Width 26.90 meters (including sidewalks)

Longest span 241.2 meters in the central opening, 60.05 and 61.05 meters in the side openings

Construction September 1934

Release 10 October 1937

Closure 1 August 1976 (collapse)

The second realm bridge had a total length of 1255 meters. The current bridge had a length of 373 meters and a maximum span length of 241.2 meters, the construction of the third largest chain bridge in Europe. It had two pylons made ​​of steel with a height of 30 meters above road top, standing on two piers and with the bridge superstructure burd two steel chains carrying.

The bridge was staged as a symbol of the wealth and size of Vienna. So it was yet in the late 1930s next to St. Stephen's Cathedral and the Giant Ferris emblem for the third city of Vienna declared and served as an internationally used symbol on all promotional literature and invitations to the Vienna Exhibition in 1938.

Competition

First, the Commerce Department announced a precompetitive, although that could win the architects Emil Hoppe and Otto Schonthal, the result of which, however, did not correspond with the Ministry and the City of Vienna. The final competition for the construction of the Empire Bridge was finally announced in Spring 1933 and awarded in November. As architectural advisor to the eight-member jury acted the architect Clemens Holzmeister. The jurors selected from 64 submitted, one of which even provided for a tunnel under the river Danube. The winning project was a chain bridge by architects Siegfried Theiss and Hans Jaksch. This design provided only two pillars standing in the water. Three quarters of the full width of the river should be free spans. The bridge would connect directly to the still-to-use, only to be widened inundation bridge of the first Empire bridge over floodplain and Hubertusdamm.

Construction

Construction began on 26 February 1934, two weeks after the civil war-like battles in February. The cost of 24 million shillings were imposed to one third of the city of Vienna, two-thirds came from the federal budget. There were only Austrian companies involved in the construction. The two pillars were erected in caisson construction.

Soon the first difficulties appeared. The ground, especially in the Danube River, on which the bridge piers and anchor blocks for the chains should be founded, proved to be less viable than the planners had anticipated. It was originally planned to have to shoulder a large part of the weight of the Strombrücke, primarily of the area lying between the pillars middle part of the bridge, of two chains that run on both sides of the two pylons and should be anchored right in the river on heavy, solid anchor blocks of concrete. However, it was feared that this abutment on the Danube soft soil by the large tensile forces of 78.5 million N (8,000 t) per chain would start sliding and could not be adequately anchored in the Danube ground.

Professor Paul Fillunger of the Technical University of Vienna became the largest public critic of the building. He was of the opinion that not only the foundation of the anchor blocks, but also the pillars of the Danube in the soft ground was irresponsible because the bridge would not have the necessary stability. Contrasting opinion was his colleague of professors, soil mechanics Karl von Terzaghi. In his view, the nature of the Danube soil was suitable for the pier foundation. The disagreement was part of a personal feud, which was publicly held. Together with his wife Fillunger took in 1937 due to a disciplinary procedure that ran against him at the Technical University of Vienna his life. The construction of the bridge was rescheduled after the proposals Terzaghis: the chains were not fastened to anchor blocks on the Danube ground, but directly to the two main girders of the steel supporting structure, ie on the bridge itself anchored.

In June 1936, the building was overshadowed by a shipwreck: the people steamer "Vienna" DDSG was driven to a pillar. The ship broke up and sank immediately. Six people were killed.

The final link in the chain was composed of 98 members on 16 November 1936 inserted. Thereafter the lowering of the support stand began to displace the chain in tension. The production of the concrete deck slab of the bridge deck and the installation of sidewalks followed in the spring of 1937, in the summer, the bridge was painted dark green.

From 1 to 3 October 1937 the stress test of the building took place in the stretched chains and the pylons were slightly rotated. Were then driven as a load test 84 trucks and 28 loaded with stones streetcars on the bridge and left to stand there for a few hours. All measurements were running satisfactorily, so that on 4 October the first tram of line number 16 was able to drive over the kingdom bridge. A day later, the bridge was unofficially released for streetcar traffic. To traffic it remained locked up to its opening.

Austro-Fascist propaganda

A labor-and cost-intensive project such as the construction of the bridge was fully in line with the spirit of the Austro-fascist regime: the end of 1933, unemployment stood at 38.5 percent. The construction of the second Empire bridge can therefore be seen as a job creation project, similar to the construction of the Grossglockner High Alpine Road or the Vienna High Road.

On 10 October 1937, the Empire Bridge was officially opened. The corporate state government held a solemn state ceremony with President Wilhelm Miklas, Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg, Cardinal Theodor Innitzer, the Vienna Vice Mayor Fritz Lahr and Trade Minister Taucher who called the new Reich bridge as a "symbol of creating life force of the new Austria". Present were alongside architects, project managers and designers also a delegation of the opus "New Life" of the Fatherland Front, all workers involved in the construction of the construction companies and 10,000 school children. Soldiers of the armed forces lined the shore.

The Viennese city researcher Peter Payer writes about the pompous production:

"Conspicuously, propagated the carefully staged celebration the new model of society of the Austro-fascist government: the ending of the class struggle and overcoming social barriers through meaningful work and cooperation of all professional groups. [ ...] The completion of the bridge was portrayed as unprecedented cultural achievement, as a joint work of all involved". - Peter Payer.

The event was broadcast live on the radio, the newspapers reported widely about it. At the event, postcards, envelopes, and a commemorative stamp was issued and even a "Reichsbrücke song "composed, in which was said:

"A thousand hammers, wheels, files,

thousand hands had to rush

the great work that was!

Salvation of the work that connects,

Hail to the work, healing our land!"

- Empire Bridge Song

The Empire Bridge in the Second World War

During the Second World War the German army used two support pillars of reinforced concrete under the Empire Bridge into the Danube, so that the building would not completely fall into the water when it was hit, but could be repaired. In addition, at each of the two pylons were erected platforms for anti-aircraft guns.

In early April, 1945, in the last days of the war, Soviet armies were moving from the south and west heading to the city center. The fleeing units of the SS blew up in their retreat to the north gradually almost all Vienna Danube bridges.

For the Nordwestbahnbrücke, the Floridsdorfer bridge and the Nordbahnbrücke the "defenders" of Vienna had by Hitler's headquarters on the 8th April 1945 sought the permission for demolition, the Stadlauer Ostbahnbrücke was also blown up without explicit permission. With the Reichsbrücke, however, Hitler had personally for days the blasting ruled out, still yet at 11 April 1945, just on 13 April afternoon allowed, at a time when the southern bridgehead was already occupied by the Red Army, was the northern bridgehead without coverage in their field of fire and the German troops who had retreated to the left bank of the Danube, north west withdrew, for not beeing closed in by the Red Army. There was therefore no chance to blow. The Red Army occupied the evening of the 13th April also the northern bridgehead.

On 11 April, at the height of the battle of Vienna, the Russian troops with armored boats already had been advanced on the Danube to the Reichsbrücke (officially called by the Russians "Object 56") and had obscured the area. They went on the right bank of the Danube, about 500 meters northwest of the bridge, on land and moved slowly to the building.

Decades later, it was unclear why exactly the Empire bridge was not blown up. The Red Army, the Austrian resistance movement O5 as well as members of the armed forces later claimed they just would have prevented the explosion. One version said that, at the Battle of 11 April some soldiers of the Red Army should have gotten to the beachhead, where they destroyed the explosive lines. Another version was that Red Army soldiers were led by a knowledgeable local Vienna sewer worker sneaked through the sewer system of Vienna to the bridge to prevent the demolition. Clarity created in 2012 the analysis of historical sources with the résumé. Ultimately, it was Hitler himself which had prevented demolition of the bridge until the last moment. The Reichsbrücke was now the only intact bridge crossing over the Danube between Linz and the state border. She was thus given a status symbol, it was a sign of the resilience of Austria.

The city council renamed the Empire Bridge on the anniversary of the liberation of Vienna on 11 April 1946 in honor of the liberators "Bridge of the Red Army Bridge". Was also on this occasion by the city government to the left of the bridge driveway in the 2nd district an obelisk (reddish colored lightweight concrete on wood construction) erected with the Soviet Star on the top of which was in German and Russian to read:

"THE HERO WILL

LANDING GUARD SQUAD

AND SAILORS

IN GRATITUDE

THE EXEMPT

VIENNA "

- Obelisk, then plaque on the bridge

The obelisk was removed after 1955. The inscription was then attached on a bronze plaque that was mounted directly to the bridge. The bridge was at 18 July 1956 re-named Reichsbrücke.

Reichsbrücke in the postwar period

To the rebuilding of Floridsdorfer bridge 1946 the Reichsbrücke was the only way to reach Vienna coming from the northeast on the road. Although it was not blown up, it still suffered numerous losses, primarily by shellfire. In 1946, took place the first rehabilitation of war damage of the bridge, ​​from May 1947 work on a larger scale was made. Thereby five hanging rods have been mended and repaired the vault of the inundation bridge. The smoke control ceiling above the Donauuferbahn has been replaced. At seven chain links had to be renewed a total of 26 blades. For this temporary piers were used on barges, which again ate on the river bed. The work was finished in 1952. On the Reichsbrücke originally was wooden heel patch installed, this was 1958-1960 replaced by granite stone pavement, which resulted in an additional load of 4688 kN for each pylon bearing. The enormous, newly ascended individual traffic led more often hinder the tram traffic on the bridge, therefore the tracks in the sixties by blocking lines have been declared not approved for individual traffic of the roadway. Now, congestion of vehicular traffic was the result.

Empire bridge collapse in 1976

The southern, right after the collapse of the banks, recording August 1976

Bridge debris on the north, left bank, recording August 1976

On Sunday, the first August 1976 Reichsbrücke 4:53 to 4:55 clock crashed to almost full length of the main bridge into the water. The first radio announcement was made at 5:00 clock. An eyewitness described the collapse as". The whole bridge has suddenly lifted a foot and then dropped loud crashing on the entire length".

On the Kaibrücke as well as on the Überschwemmungsbrücke (inundation bridge) the carrier collapsed in several places, but both bridges were standing. The Strombrücke itself broke into three parts, the middle part falling into the water as a whole and and the two outer parts obliquely hanging into the water. The south-facing pylon fell downstream and damaged heavily the stern of a passenger ship, the north side pylon collapsed in the other direction on the flood plain.

At the time of the collapse, five people were in four vehicles on the bridge: a bus driver in an urban articulated, two employees of the ÖAMTC in a roadside assistance vehicle, the driver of a Volkswagen Beetle, which had requested the breakdown service because of a defective tire following an accident as well as the driver of a minibus, who was employed as a driver at the ORF. The bus driver crashed his vehicle into the Danube and was rescued unharmed within hours. The ÖAMTC employees and the VW drivers were on that part of the Kaibrücke, which indeed broke and fell, but not completely destroyed, so that they could save themselves by foot. The ORF driver was trapped in his pickup truck and found his dead the day after the collapse.

Within an hour was a quarter of all vehicles of the in Vienna available Fire Brigade on the site of the collapse, it was the alarm given stage IV. Also, police, ambulance and army were represented by large contingents. The on the bridge located water pipes that supplied drinking water to the north of Vienna, put the Handelskai under water. Explosions were also feared because the gas lines running across the bridge were broken. There was on the scene for days strict non-smoking. First, many people were north of the Danube without gas, electricity, water and telephone. Already on the second August was, however, restored the supply.

de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reichsbr%C3%BCcke

www.facebook.com/pages/The-SmOKing-Camera-Hervey-BaY-dave...

  

And a very good morning to you all i hope everyone has a wonderful day : )

 

Image taken at 6am 5th March 2015 at the Urangan Pier, Hervey bay.

 

Urangan Pier is a historic pier in Urangan, Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

 

It is a former deep-water, cargo-handling facility originally built to facilitate the export of sugar, timber and coal. The pier, served by the extension of the railway line from Pialba,[1] was used for the transfer of cargo between rail and ships. It was built between 1913 and 1917,[2] originally to a length of 1107 metres. The pier was closed in 1985, and 239 metres of it was demolished. However, due to public outcry, 868 metres of the pier was left, and the land was handed to the Hervey Bay City Council.

 

By 2009 the last 220-metre section of the pier had been fully restored, and the original timber pylons had been replaced with steel pylons with a plastic covering

  

The original proposal to establish Urangan as a coal port for the Burrum River mining project did not eventuate due to several factors, mainly because the coal output did not reach original expectations. However, as the Wide Bay area was a chief producer of produce and freight, the Queensland Government made a decision to build a pier at Hervey Bay.

  

A plaque at the Urangan Pier; placed in 1999, commemorating the re-opening of the Urangan Pier.

Construction on the Urangan Pier began in 1913. In order to reach the deep water channel, it was required to extend 1.1 kilometres (0.68 mi) (3690 ft) out to sea. Construction was very slow and finished in 1917. The Urangan railway line also began construction in 1913 and branched off the main railway line at Pialba. This line was extended along the Urangan Pier as it was being constructed. Once it was completed, it served as one of the main ports of Queensland.

 

Sugar was one of the main exports, however had to be transported from as far north as Bundaberg. When the Bundaberg Port was built in 1958, it took over sugar cane exports and the Urangan pier ceased exporting sugar.[5] Timber, general cargo and produce was still exported until 1960, when Caltex built an oil terminal adjacent to the Pier. Soon after this was built, freight, goods and produce exports were stopped and fuel became the only import from the pier.

 

After the last ship docked at the Urangan pier in January 1985, Caltex Oil reversed the process of storage, replacing the system of fuel service from Shipping to bulk supply by rail from the Pinkenba and Colmslie port terminals in Brisbane. This, in turn, lead to the closure of the pier and the Urangan branch line, as neither had a use anymore. At this stage, the pier was in serious need of repairs. A decision was made by the Queensland Government to dismantle the entire pier. Due to large public outcry, rallying and petitions, the demolition of the pier was stopped. In late 1985, the Queensland Government handed the pier to the Hervey Bay City Council. The council pledged to restore the pier, which began in the late 1990s. Restoration included removing the rail tracks from the pier, encasing the wooden pylons with steel, repairing sleepers, repairing hand rails, and repairing lights.

 

In 1999, the pier was restored to a length of 868 meters. It was officially re-opened by the then-governor of Queensland and the mayor of Hervey Bay, Peter Arnison and Bill Brennan (respectively) on the 27th of November, 1999.

  

A model of the pier was made by Mr Harry Coxon in 1917, the same year the original pier was constructed. It is a significant artifact in the Hervey Bay Historical Village & Museum’s collection. Two new models are on display in the Hervey Bay Tourism Visitor Centre and in the Hervey Bay Whale Watch office at the Boat Harbour Marina.[7]

 

Urangan Pier Festival

The first Pier Festival was held in 1986 to help raise funds to save Urangan Pier. Since then it has become a popular fishing competition held annually in September.[3]

 

Pier to Pub Swim

Pier to Pub Ocean Swim Classic is an annual swimming competition held in April since 1999. The 3.4-kilometre (2.1 mi) swim is from Urangan Pier to the jetty opposite the Torquay Hotel, while the 1.6-kilometre (1 mi) short swim, called Splash for Cash, is from the corner of the Esplanade and Alexander Street to the jetty opposite the Torquay Hotel.

 

wikipedia

 

Quite possibly the most remarkable street in all Norwich, St Benedict's Street boasts 5 mediaeval churches within its short 500 metre length, and all of them either ruined or redundant.

 

St Laurence is easy to miss, quite a feat for a huge church; you approach the porch down some steep steps. I met who I thought was an old lady climbing down, but she turned out to be one of the volunteers, and she could remember the light and the glory of the church when in use.

 

Inside it is a vast empty space, empty except for a simple aluminium framed greenhouse in the middle of the nave. It was explained this was for the use of locals who used the space to grow seedlings, although to my eyes it hadn't been used for some years.

 

The fittings and furnishings are faded, and the roof looks to be in a worrying state, but after climbing the steep steps to the altar to look back west, it must have been a fine church in its day.

 

-----------------------------------------------

 

One of the staggering experiences of the church explorer in Norwich is the sheer proximity of one church to another. In a little over four hundred yards, you can walk past five redundant medieval churches in the length of St Benedict's Street alone, from the back of St Gregory to the ruin of St Benedict itself. One of these churches, St Swithin, is now the Norwich Arts Centre, while St Gregory and St Margaret have occasional uses for exhibitions and concerts.

That leaves St Laurence, the biggest of the five, a grand and prominent landmark now in the care of the Churches Conservation Trust; without their loving care it would be little more than a rotting corpse. As it is, it is quite the biggest empty shell in the middle of Norwich.

 

It was not always so, of course. This was one of half a dozen large city centre churches completely rebuilt during the 15th century. It took about sixty years, but nevertheless St Laurence is all of a piece, a textbook Perpendicular church. From St Benedict's Street it is not immediately clear quite how vast this building is; it is the third biggest medieval church in Norwich after St Peter Mancroft and St Andrew, bigger even than St Stephen. The clerestory is 12 windows long, and the mighty tower almost 120 feet high.

It is more imposing from Westwick Street, standing high above the street like a fortress. For pedestrians coming into central Norwich from Coslany, it is like a gateway to the city, far more impressive than the city walls. The spired stair turret on the tower is castle-like, especially in George Plunkett's 1938 images.

 

One of the most interesting aspects of the exterior is the west doorway, easily missed and seen only from the narrow St Laurence's Passage. The spandrils feature two exquisitely carved martyrdoms, quite undamaged by time or the hand of iconoclasts. One is that of St Laurence himself, and shows him tied to the gridiron while the fire is prepared (St Laurence being the patron saint of those who cook on barbecues) , and the other is of St Edmund shot full of arrows. You can see them on the left.

Above the passage, the great tower's height is accentuated by the narrowness of the gap to its left. And the unbroken length of the nave and chancel is so high, too; the north side drops away to Westwick Street, and the floor takes this as its level. You step down a flight of stairs into the south porch, which is otherwise hard against the street, thanks to widening for trams in the late 19th century, and then through a 15th century door down into the church itself..

 

The sheer scale of this building is only apparent once you are inside. The roof seems absurdly high, the 1490s hammerbeam roof lost far off in the shadows. The arcades are less elegant than forceful, and the unbroken line, with no chancel arch, marches purposefully eastward.

 

This is all accentuated by the fact that St Laurence is pretty much completely empty. Almost, but not quite. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, St Laurence underwent an extraordinary makeover.

In a city renowned for the excesses of its Anglo-Catholic churches, this was among the highest of the high. The sanctuary had always been raised above the level of the chancel because it goes over a large vault, shown in the old engraving on the left, as at Tunstead. But here the entire easterly third of the building was elevated by the late Victorians into a great platform, a flight of steps leading through a stone screen and then again to the sanctuary, until the altar was fully twelve feet above the floor of the nave.

 

George Plunkett's 1938 image shows the interior with Victorian benches and a passageway accentuating the view east.

The altar and reredos are now gone, but the painted panels that flanked them survive. They depict angels and Saints, but the most curious thing about them is that all the faces are drawn from the life, little Edwardian boys and youths cloaked out in contemporary clothes, but wearing nimbuses and holding gilded symbols, and older men with wings and in armour. It is all at once grotesque and fascinating. The reredos they flanked was the Parish war memorial, so they may be even later than they appear. The screen to the north aisle chapel has panels painted in a similarly naive manner. I strove to understand what it was that had possessed people to do this, but I could not.

 

There is a 15th century font contemporary with the rebuilding of the church, and a scattering of medieval glass has been built into an abstract design in the north aisle chapel. There were brasses, but these were removed; first to St Peter Hungate, and then into storage when the museum there closed.

 

St Laurence was one of the 24 Norwich churches recommended for demolition by the Brooke Report, a shocking possibility that galvanised Lady Harrod and others into forming the Norfolk Churches Trust to defeat the philistines. Under the circumstances, it seems ungrateful for us not to actually do anything with the place. My friend Tom tells me that this church has a wonderful acoustic, and in truth it is hard to see it ever having any use other than for performance or liturgy - it is simply too big for conversion into anything else. Its shell is recognised today as a vital part of the Norwich townscape, and that at least is now safe for future generations; but will it ever again be anything more than a shell?

 

Simon Knott, November 2005

 

www.norfolkchurches.co.uk/norwichlawrence/norwichlawrence...

 

-------------------------------------------

 

St Lawrence’s has a very dramatic site: owing to the steep slope down to the river, on its south side, it stands several feet below street level, but on the north, an equal height above it!

 

St Lawrence was a deacon in 3rd century Rome, who was martyred by being roasted alive on a gridiron.

 

The most notable feature of the exterior is the unique profile of the tower, with its corner turret. This very un-East Anglian feature dates from the restoration of the church in 1893. The tower itself is 112 feet high. The nave and chancel with their clerestorey run without a break under one roof. The clerestorey is faced with freestone. There is a very prominent rood stair turret on the south side, which marks the division between nave and chancel.. The west door has two carved spandrels: one of St Lawrence being roasted on a gridiron, and the other of the martyrdom of St Edmund: the Abbey at Bury St Edmund’s was the original patron of the church. The south door is the original mediæval one.

 

The church has long since been stripped of its furnishings, and now stands as an impressive empty space, flooded with light from the great windows and the clerestorey. With the exception of the font, which is of the 15th century, all the fittings were of late 19th or early 20th century date.

 

These fittings include the flight of seven steps up to the altar, and the reredos, which is a war memorial of 1921. It includes painted panels by Kingston Rudd, though inspection will reveal that many of them are unfinished, and so have a rather ’impressionistic’ effect. The figure painting is very much of the period.

 

The nave and chancel are in fact divided internally, which may indicate that the continuous clerestorey is a later addition. The nave pillars are octagonal, with rounded angles, and their capitals are wavy.

 

The roof is well seen from inside, and dates from 1498. There is some mediæval stained glass in a mosaic in the east window of the south aisle.

 

There were several brasses, but these have been removed to storage. On the east wall of the north aisle, however, is a brass plaque of 1891 to the memory of Sarah Glover, inventor of the Norwich Sol-fa, on which the later Tonic Sol-fa (‘doh, ray, me …’) was based; her father was curate here from 1811 to 1827. Sarah died in 1867, at Great Malvern, where she is buried.

 

The church was a centre of controversy in 1863, when the Rector, Edwin Hillyard, allowed ‘Father Ignatius’ (Joseph Leycester Lyne) and his ‘monks’, who had a house on Elm Hill, to take part in the services. The services were conducted in an extremely Ritualistic manner, with candles, incense, and vestments – all virtually unknown in the Church of England at this time. Large crowds attended for the spectacle, and there were riots in the street outside. Ignatius left Norwich in 1865, but Hillyard stayed until 1876. By then, the classical style reredos had been removed, and also the box pews (chopped up one night by Ignatius and his cohorts), and the altar steps and the screens inserted.

 

After Hillyard left, the church went into a decline, and was united with St Gregory in 1903; it was finally closed in 1968. After many years of uncertainty about its future, it came under the care of the Churches’ Conservation Trust in 19....

 

www.norwich-churches.org/St Lawrence/home.shtm

You Can't Be What You Can't See

Kristen Schell, The Turquoise Table

Hi, I'm Kristen.

Walking with a friend in the dark is better than walking alone in the light. — Helen Keller

 

During [a] frazzled time of life, I managed to squeeze in a conference in my hometown of Austin, Texas. I was drawn to the Verge Conference for people living out the gospel in community, which was exactly what I was longing to do. The Austin Music Hall was jam-packed. Each speaker took the stage for fifteen minutes. The lights went up; they gave their talk. The music started; the lights went down. The routine was fast, like a Twitter stream, pouring out information on discipleship in fifteen-minute chunks.

 

Then the dark stage lit up, shining on Jo Saxton, a respected leader who speaks on helping people see better how to live in community with one another. She wooed me with her British accent, delivering the line that changed everything:

 

“You can’t be what you can’t see.”

 

Jo said it over and over. Or maybe she only said it once, but I heard it over and over. “You can’t be what you can’t see.” Her speech ended, the lights went down, and I sat in that dark auditorium, alone in the crowd.

 

I actually clenched my fists and raised them, duking it out with God while I cried in the dark. As loud music played, I pleaded with God. “I can’t see how to open up my life and home to others! I can’t see how to build community! I can’t see how to love my neighbors! I can’t be what I can’t see, so show me!”

 

Right there, in the middle of the Austin Music Hall, surrounded by 1,200 people, I had a major spiritual meltdown. Then, on massive screens flanking the stage, a documentary started. The film shows an elderly woman walking slowly down cobblestone streets. She enters a food market. The subtitle says, “Ludmilla’s Story.”

 

As I watched the film, I “met” Ludmilla, an eighty-four-year-old widow in Prague. She’s survived two totalitarian regimes and lives in the heart of the most atheistic country in Europe. Yet she placed a small bronze plaque on the outside of her tiny brownstone apartment that reads “Embassy of the Kingdom of Heaven.”

 

The Ministry of Presence

 

Every day Ludmilla opens her home to friends and strangers who need to talk. Sometimes she knows the people who come. Sometimes strangers show up — led by word of mouth. She offers them something small, nothing overdone or extravagant. Tea. A cookie from a tin. A warm, simple gesture of welcome to her table. In a way that is quiet and genuine, Ludmilla listens and prays, and in doing so communicates that her guests matter. At her table, they belong.

 

Fully present, Ludmilla serves more than just cookies and tea. She offers her heart.

 

God answered my prayer to see how to love my neighbors with the story of a woman half the world away who was being the hands and feet of Christ. Her actions were so simple — the antithesis of the frazzled lifestyle I was living. Ludmilla modeled how simple hospitality could be through her ministry of being present. I could see it. Maybe now I could be it.

 

What would it take for me to put a plaque on my door that reads “Embassy of the Kingdom of Heaven”?

 

I’m still the same old me. The person who makes things harder than need be, planning too much, focused on the outcome, trapped in the minutiae of the doing rather than loosening my tight grip on control and resting in the being. But I was beginning to see the vast difference between entertainment and hospitality.

 

I needed a change of heart. Am I fully present? Are my motives for hosting self-serving or genuinely out of care, concern, and love? Am I more concerned with Kristin or with being an ambassador to the kingdom?

 

I really want to be like Ludmilla. Actually, I want to be a guest at her table! She’s a beautiful role model of hospitality. I want to have a simple table spread with abundant love. To offer an atmosphere of joy and peace.

 

A Change of Heart

 

As my heart began to change, pieces of my life started to feel as if they had purpose. Maybe the summer in France with the longing for the table, my new home, and my promise to keep the tradition of neighborhood community going could be melded with the vision of this woman a million miles away to create the kind of inspired hospitality I could live out.

 

The realization hit me: I’d been making it so hard, spinning around on a hamster wheel instead of sitting still, like Ludmilla, focusing on being present. I was doing instead of being, trying hard to execute community, and it seemed so contrived. Ludmilla pointed back to the promise, to the party. Ludmilla took me back to that table in France and its comfortable, leisurely interaction. The Party at the Cove and Ludmilla’s presence were beginning to show me how gathering people at a table can help them belong.

 

If we have no peace, it is because we have forgotten we belong to each other. — Mother Teresa

 

But what could I do in a suburban neighborhood in Texas that would offer the same experience Ludmilla was providing in her tiny Prague apartment? I don’t have the time Ludmilla does to be available to people throughout the day, so I knew whatever I did would look different. But I could feel my heart shifting from confusion to possibilities. I still didn’t have the precise answer, but hope was born.

 

Let’s get real. Neither you nor I have very much in common with an eighty-four-year-old woman in Prague. But that doesn’t let us off the hook. Romans 12:13 remains the same no matter where you live or what stage of life you’re in. You might live in a gated community, apartment complex, rural area, city, or suburb. Maybe you’re single or a grandmother or a mother of eight. Whatever your situation, how can you be present for others? What simple ways can you let people know they matter and create space for people to belong?

 

Ludmilla took every opportunity to open her home and life to others. It wasn’t hard. She didn’t consult Pinterest. She wasn’t frazzled. She was simply open to the people who came to her, making them feel they belonged, right where she lived.

 

I could feel I was on the verge of doing this too, but God knew I needed one more little push. He gave me a dare.

 

Excerpted from The Turquoise Table by Kristen Schell, copyright Kristen Schell.

-----------------------------------

The Penang War Museum. South East Asia's largest WW2 fort.

penang.wikia.com/wiki/Penang_War_Museum

"Museum plaques call me Reverse Flash, but I prefer the name, Professor Zoom..."

 

Those words send a chill through my spine. I freeze in my thoughts. Before I can snap back into reality, the yellow figure slashes my arm. It's right above my open arm. Luckily my suit lessens the damage that could have been done to my arm.

 

He swings back with the staff, but I catch it before it comes in contact with me. He grunts as this happens. While still holding onto the staff I use my other hand to punch his face. He falls back and I throw the staff behind me. Within a second he fades away from my view and reappears with the staff in his hand. This guy is fast.

 

"Oh, you're shocked. How can I move so fast?"

 

He appears behind me and cuts my shoulder.

 

"Haven't learned your true potential yet? I'll fix that."

 

He races out of the room and I follow. He runs all the way out of the building and down the street before I can make it to the door. I've got to catch up. If he's faster than me, he could do whatever he wanted without me being able to stop him. Clark is fast, but he's not as fast as me, so he couldn't deal with him either. I know Wally will be able to become faster than me thanks to him getting his powers at a younger age. He's not here right now, so I'll have to do my best to keep up with this guy.

 

I race towards him. Before I reach him, he speeds off again. Dang it. This man, he's too quick for me.

 

I rush towards him and focus all on my energy into running. I don't know how, but I catch up to him.

 

"Good, now, seeing as you've just now learned how to go this fast. You'll be surprised to see what comes now...".

Satellite view of my hometown, Torrance CA. Growing up in So. Cal. was awesome. I guess we did the normal type of stuff as most kids in the U.S. Californians really aren't the nutcases that the rest of the country thinks we are. And now that I live in Texas, I can confirm that everyone outside of CA thinks Californians are crazies.

On Columbus Day, 1932, the Italian-American community celebrated the ground-breaking with an enormous parade. Col. Guido F. Verbeck, head of the Manlius School, was the grand marshal. His father, the late Brig. Gen. William Verbeck, was honored by the King of Italy with a citation as chevalier in the Order of the Crown.

 

Dwight James Baum, a graduate of Syracuse University and nationally known architect, was hired to supervise the design and construction of the monument, while Baldi sculpted the bronze work. Baum attempted to create the ambience of an Italian piazza. The modified obelisk on which the statue of the explorer stands is an ancient Egyptian symbol of power, widely used in civic monuments in Italy. Made of pink granite, it rises 29 feet above the pavement, and rests on a gray and pink granite base comprised of ancient triremes (ships' prows) representing ancient Roman vessels and symbolizing Italy's navigational prowess.

The fountain spouts are creatures of the deep, which, with the brass turtles and stone shells of the fountain, serve as reminders of Columbus' confrontation of the dangers of the sea. The pool's bottom features a navigator's compass in colored pebbles, traditional in Italian grottos and fountains.

Renzo V. Baldi's Columbus is a cast bronze figure eleven feet tall. It depicts the explorer as a young man, long before he sailed to America, looking toward the west, maps and charts in his hand. Baldi's bronze bas-relief plaques depict scenes from the life of Columbus: at the Court of Queen Isabel; arriving in the tropics and; returning to the Court of Spain. Masks of Native American faces function as clasps to hold the four sections of the obelisk together, and celebrate the people who were already in America when Columbus arrived.

Montgomery Street~Columbus Circle Historic District ~NRHP #80004278.

URANGAN PIER

 

Urangan Pier is a historic pier in Urangan, Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

 

It is a former deep-water, cargo-handling facility originally built to facilitate the export of sugar, timber and coal. The pier, served by the extension of the railway line from Pialba,[1] was used for the transfer of cargo between rail and ships. It was built between 1913 and 1917,[2] originally to a length of 1107 metres. The pier was closed in 1985, and 239 metres of it was demolished. However, due to public outcry, 868 metres of the pier was left, and the land was handed to the Hervey Bay City Council.[3][4]

 

By 2009 the last 220-metre section of the pier had been fully restored, and the original timber pylons had been replaced with steel pylons with a plastic covering. The original proposal to establish Urangan as a coal port for the Burrum River mining project did not eventuate due to several factors, mainly because the coal output did not reach original expectations. However, as the Wide Bay area was a chief producer of produce and freight, the Queensland Government made a decision to build a pier at Hervey Bay.

  

A plaque at the Urangan Pier; placed in 1999, commemorating the re-opening of the Urangan Pier.

Construction on the Urangan Pier began in 1913. In order to reach the deep water channel, it was required to extend 1.1 kilometres (0.68 mi) (3690 ft) out to sea. Construction was very slow and finished in 1917. The Urangan railway line also began construction in 1913 and branched off the main railway line at Pialba. This line was extended along the Urangan Pier as it was being constructed. Once it was completed, it served as one of the main ports of Queensland.

 

Sugar was one of the main exports, however had to be transported from as far north as Bundaberg. When the Bundaberg Port was built in 1958, it took over sugar cane exports and the Urangan pier ceased exporting sugar.[5] Timber, general cargo and produce was still exported until 1960, when Caltex built an oil terminal adjacent to the Pier. Soon after this was built, freight, goods and produce exports were stopped and fuel became the only import from the pier.

 

After the last ship docked at the Urangan pier in January 1985, Caltex Oil reversed the process of storage, replacing the system of fuel service from Shipping to bulk supply by rail from the Pinkenba and Colmslie port terminals in Brisbane. This, in turn, lead to the closure of the pier and the Urangan branch line, as neither had a use anymore. At this stage, the pier was in serious need of repairs. A decision was made by the Queensland Government to dismantle the entire pier. Due to large public outcry, rallying and petitions, the demolition of the pier was stopped. In late 1985, the Queensland Government handed the pier to the Hervey Bay City Council. The council pledged to restore the pier, which began in the late 1990s. Restoration included removing the rail tracks from the pier, encasing the wooden pylons with steel, repairing sleepers, repairing hand rails, and repairing lights.

 

In 1999, the pier was restored to a length of 868 meters. It was officially re-opened by the then-governor of Queensland and the mayor of Hervey Bay, Peter Arnison and Bill Brennan (respectively) on the 27th of November, 1999.[6]

 

Urangan Pier model

A model of the pier was made by Mr Harry Coxon in 1917, the same year the original pier was constructed. It is a significant artifact in the Hervey Bay Historical Village & Museum’s collection. Two new models are on display in the Hervey Bay Tourism Visitor Centre and in the Hervey Bay Whale Watch office at the Boat Harbour Marina.[7]

 

Urangan Pier Festival[edit]

The first Pier Festival was held in 1986 to help raise funds to save Urangan Pier. Since then it has become a popular fishing competition held annually in September.[3]

 

Pier to Pub Swim

Pier to Pub Ocean Swim Classic is an annual swimming competition held in April since 1999. The 3.4-kilometre (2.1 mi) swim is from Urangan Pier to the jetty opposite the Torquay Hotel, while the 1.6-kilometre (1 mi) short swim, called Splash for Cash, is from the corner of the Esplanade and Alexander Street to the jetty opposite the Torquay Hotel.

 

WIKIPEDIA

After throwing a dumbass in blue into a tire pile, I take this crowbar lying in a pile of scrap and stab it through his chest. killing him. The other shithead in green dropped his shotgun that he wasted all the shells on and ran, along with that woman in pink Linda was currently handing her ass to. We chase them deeper into the junkyard until we find them waiting for us at another corner. Waiting with a third guy. He was sitting on a torn-to-shit couch on top of a tire pile. There were torches on both sides of the pile. It's like some kind of throne. Is this guy their leader?

 

"Bloodfall!..."

 

"What, you want an autograph? That's $25. $50 if you want one from the both of us."

 

He doesn't respond. He just gets up off the couch and looks down on us. And holy dick and balls, I have a slightly better look at him and he is easily top 3 of one of the ugliest son a bitches I've ever seen in my life. And coming from me, that's the kind of shit you get a plaque in the mail for or something. He keeps staring at us, me specifically, with this snarl on his face. His teeth were filed down to points like an animal. It's about what he is, I guess. Guy's jacked, though, I'll give him that. Hard not to notice since he seems to have an aversion towards shirts. Maybe be as big as me, even.

 

"I've been waiting for you. They fear your name for miles but not me! I've been wanting to rip you open and eat the flesh off your bones since I first heard your name!"

 

"Oooh, that's a new one! I think...hey L, that's a new one, right? L?...."

 

She doesn't respond. I look at her and her body language...she's surprised. Shocked, even. By this shithead? Really?.....something's up. Now's not the time, though. Gotta take care Krang junior here.

 

"I'll burn you alive! I'll bathe in your blood and drag your body through the street! Then I'll rape your woman and grind her into meat that I'll eat! Gotham belongs to us! Gotham belongs to the Goemul!!"

 

"Wow, put it on pretty thick there, Adonis. But hey, if it's a ass kicking you're looking for..."

 

"J, w-wait!"

 

"What?"

 

"RRAAGGHH!!!"

 

Shit....

 

The story of Margareten

For the first time in 1373 has been an estate named, the in contrast to an "upper court" at the height of the Viennese mountain (Wienerberg) as "lower court" on (today) Margaretenplatz is designated. 1395 donated Rudolf Tirna, an owner of the facility, together with his wife Anna and his brother Louis one to Saint Margaret of Antioch dedicated chapel. As other early mentions of the "Lower Court" and the chapel we find in 1411 the St. Margaretenkapelln to Metzleinstorff, 1548 St. Margareten, 1568 Sandt Margareten and in 1594 hoff to St Margareten. The around this Margaretner Hof in todays area Margaretenplatz - Hofgasse - Schlossgasse emerged estate hamlet constituted the starting point for the development of the suburb. The estate, it is shown on the circular plan of Niklas Meldemann in 1530 armed with a mighty tower, has been at the siege of 1529 of Turkish groups of fighters set on fire - a commemorative plaque on the house Margaretenplatz 3 remembers at it. The court subsequently changed hands several times until it purchsed Olav Nicholas, Archbishop of Gran, 1555 commercially. Olai had the courtyard and the chapel partially rebuild and he layed out a large castle garden.

He appointed settlers to Margareten and founded south of his farm Nikolsdorf. In the middle of the 17th Century, 1647-1667, finally completed the envoy to the Sublime Porte, Johann Rudolf Schmidt von Schwarzhorn the building. In the 1662 appeared "Topographia Archiducatus Austriae Inferioris Modernae" by Georg Matthäus Vischer the present castle is represented as a two-storey building whose siebenachsiger (7-axle) residential wing in the east is reinforced by a corner tower with loggia-like ambulatory and to the west is surmounted by an onion-shape crowned clock tower. In this figure, however, lacks the this very day preserved with mighty rusticaded stones cladded castle portal. After the destruction of the Türkenjahr (Siege of Vienna) 1683 the construction was rebuilt. Already about 1725 had in the front of the castle developed in the run of today Margaretenstraße through building development the methodic rectangular shape of today's Margaret Square.

1727 sold Earl of Sonnau the manorial system Margareten to the city of Vienna. Between 1749 and 1783 was located in the large deserted castle garden, which served partly as a grain field and pasture, the first Mulberry School in Vienna. In the premises of the castle in 1751 a factory of Leonean goods was established, but which burned down in 1768. 1786 Anton Schwarzleithner moved the factory to Mannersdorf (Lower Austria). Thereafter, the entire reality was measured and came up for auction. The largest parcel, the old castle at Margaretenplatz with the adjacent factory building at 23 Schlossgasse, bought the silk ribbon maker and judge of Margareten, Francis Plumper. By a daughter Prallers, Elizabeth, married Pichler, the building complex came into the possession of a book printer family, which to 1869 handled a print shop here. The new factory building at 21 Schlossgasse was purchased by auction by Johann Brauneck who in the same year petitioned for an increase. On the neighbouring to the west to the castle connecting parcel (Margaretenplatz 3) the silk stuff promoter Paul Hochholzer in 1787 by architect Johann Michael Adelpodinger the existing buildings had adapted, over the entrance gate the building inscription of the old castle of 1651 was immured. The to the west adjoining parcel with the in 1783 deconsecrated St Margaret's Chapel acquired the Samtmacher (velvet maker) Leopold Urspringer, who had the chapel demolished and the ground for the construction of a residential building (77 Margaret Street) used. Also the area of ​​the small castle garden that had the Vienna municipal judge Leopold van Ghelen on lease, was parceled out and developed through newly created streets. In the period from 1781 to 1788 arised on the site of the great palace garden in the of the Gartengasse and Schlossgasse on the one hand and Margaretenstraße and Siebenbrunnengasse surrounded territory on the other not less than 41 parcels.

Margaretenplatz as a historical center of Margareten is particularly accentuated by the 1835/36 before the House Margaretenplatz 3 built well, on those square base the by Johann Nepomuk Schaller modelled statue of the over the dragon triumphant hl. Margaret, the eponym of the suburb rises. As part of the regulation of 1886, the Margaret Square fountain was offset by 20m to the southwest, and received its present location .

In the west the square is surrounded by the instead of the in 1883 demolished brewery according to plans of the architects Ferdinand Fellner and Hermann Helmer by builder Joseph Müller for Baroness Amalie Lipthay 1884/85 established Margartenhof. The castle-like complex occupies an extremely important position as regards urban development in the district. Historically, it represents the symbolic succession building of the old, today only in fragments existing Margaretner Castle (Margaretenplatz 2,3). The large residential complex with the street-like designed "Zierhof" is an early example of urban development concepts, which in Vienna otherwise only could unfold in the interwar period.

To the east the Margaretenplatz is dominated by an according to plans of Ferdinand Seif 1898 built monumental palace-like structured tenement, where forms of the Venetian city palace of the 16th Century were used. Buildings of the Gründerzeit round off the Margaretenplatz in the north.

www.bezirksmuseum.at/default/index.php?id=376

"The Unexceptional" series

 

Leica M3 + Summarit 50mm f1.5 + Legacy Pro 400 @ 640 iso + HC-110 B @ 6 1/4 mins (30 sec initial agitation followed by 3 turns on each minute)

 

I was going through some B&W withdrawal !

 

I really don't use this Leica Summarit lens enough, a fantastic lens which gives a nice feel to the images. My version is 50 + years old and in fantastic shape. Many of the reviews you read on this lens say it is OK or too old as newer Leica lenses surpass it .... bullshit ! If you can get your hands on an inexpensive one, grab it !

This image was taken at the early morning golden hour about half hour before sunrise on the Famous Australian land mark the Urangan pier

  

Urangan Pier is a historic pier in Urangan, Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

 

It is a former deep-water, cargo-handling facility originally built to facilitate the export of sugar, timber and coal. The pier, served by the extension of the railway line from Pialba,[1] was used for the transfer of cargo between rail and ships. It was built between 1913 and 1917,[2] originally to a length of 1107 metres. The pier was closed in 1985, and 239 metres of it was demolished. However, due to public outcry, 868 metres of the pier was left, and the land was handed to the Hervey Bay City Council.

 

By 2009 the last 220-metre section of the pier had been fully restored, and the original timber pylons had been replaced with steel pylons with a plastic covering

  

The original proposal to establish Urangan as a coal port for the Burrum River mining project did not eventuate due to several factors, mainly because the coal output did not reach original expectations. However, as the Wide Bay area was a chief producer of produce and freight, the Queensland Government made a decision to build a pier at Hervey Bay.

  

A plaque at the Urangan Pier; placed in 1999, commemorating the re-opening of the Urangan Pier.

Construction on the Urangan Pier began in 1913. In order to reach the deep water channel, it was required to extend 1.1 kilometres (0.68 mi) (3690 ft) out to sea. Construction was very slow and finished in 1917. The Urangan railway line also began construction in 1913 and branched off the main railway line at Pialba. This line was extended along the Urangan Pier as it was being constructed. Once it was completed, it served as one of the main ports of Queensland.

 

Sugar was one of the main exports, however had to be transported from as far north as Bundaberg. When the Bundaberg Port was built in 1958, it took over sugar cane exports and the Urangan pier ceased exporting sugar.[5] Timber, general cargo and produce was still exported until 1960, when Caltex built an oil terminal adjacent to the Pier. Soon after this was built, freight, goods and produce exports were stopped and fuel became the only import from the pier.

 

After the last ship docked at the Urangan pier in January 1985, Caltex Oil reversed the process of storage, replacing the system of fuel service from Shipping to bulk supply by rail from the Pinkenba and Colmslie port terminals in Brisbane. This, in turn, lead to the closure of the pier and the Urangan branch line, as neither had a use anymore. At this stage, the pier was in serious need of repairs. A decision was made by the Queensland Government to dismantle the entire pier. Due to large public outcry, rallying and petitions, the demolition of the pier was stopped. In late 1985, the Queensland Government handed the pier to the Hervey Bay City Council. The council pledged to restore the pier, which began in the late 1990s. Restoration included removing the rail tracks from the pier, encasing the wooden pylons with steel, repairing sleepers, repairing hand rails, and repairing lights.

 

In 1999, the pier was restored to a length of 868 meters. It was officially re-opened by the then-governor of Queensland and the mayor of Hervey Bay, Peter Arnison and Bill Brennan (respectively) on the 27th of November, 1999.

  

A model of the pier was made by Mr Harry Coxon in 1917, the same year the original pier was constructed. It is a significant artifact in the Hervey Bay Historical Village & Museum’s collection. Two new models are on display in the Hervey Bay Tourism Visitor Centre and in the Hervey Bay Whale Watch office at the Boat Harbour Marina.[7]

 

Urangan Pier Festival

The first Pier Festival was held in 1986 to help raise funds to save Urangan Pier. Since then it has become a popular fishing competition held annually in September.[3]

 

Pier to Pub Swim

Pier to Pub Ocean Swim Classic is an annual swimming competition held in April since 1999. The 3.4-kilometre (2.1 mi) swim is from Urangan Pier to the jetty opposite the Torquay Hotel, while the 1.6-kilometre (1 mi) short swim, called Splash for Cash, is from the corner of the Esplanade and Alexander Street to the jetty opposite the Torquay Hotel.

 

wikipedia

 

Reichsbrücke

Coordinates: 48 ° 13 '42 " N, 16 ° 24' 36" E | |

(Pictures you can see by clicking on the link at the end of page!)

Empire Bridge, seen from the north bank of

Use motor vehicles in the basement underground,

Cyclists, pedestrians

Road train Lassallestraße - Wagramerstraße (B8 )

Location Vienna, between Leopoldstadt (2nd District)

and Danube City (22 nd District)

Prestressed concrete bridge construction, double deck bridge

Total length 865 meters

Width 26.10 meters

Release 8 November 1980

Altitude 157 m above sea level. A.

Card reichsbrücke.png

Location of the Empire Bridge in Vienna

The Empire Bridge is one of Vienna's most famous bridges. It crosses the Danube, the Danube Island and the New Danube and connects the second District of Vienna, Leopoldstadt, with the 22nd District, Danube city. The building extends from Mexico place at Handelskai (2nd district) in a northeasterly direction to the Danube City and the Vienna International Centre (District 22).

The current kingdom bridge (Reichsbrücke) was opened in 1980, it is the third crossing of the Danube in the same axis, which bears the name kingdom bridge. The first Empire Bridge (also: Crown Prince Rudolf bridge when Project: National Highway Bridge), an iron bridge on current five pillars existed from 1876 until 1937. The second Empire Bridge, a chain bridge with two 30-meter high pylons on two river piers, was opened in 1937, it was next to St. Stephen's Cathedral and the Giant Ferris one of the landmarks of the city of Vienna. After the Second World War it was the only intact Danube river crossing downstream of Linz in Austria and became the busiest stretch of road in Austria. On Sunday, the first August 1976 the bridge collapsed in the early morning hours on full width of the Danube into the water. In the accident, which was not foreseeable by the then state of the art, one person was killed. The meaning and emotional charge, which had received the bridge by its colorful past in the Viennese population, increased further by the collapse.

Prehistory

The Danube before regulation (centric is the location of the Reichsbrücke marked)

Some years after the devastating flood of 1830 was considering Emperor Ferdinand I to regulate the Danube and at the same time to build several bridges over the resulting stream bed. The plan was, among other things, a chain bridge approximately at the site of today's Empire bridge, whose construction costs were estimated at two to three million florins. However, these plans came as well as future intentions, build stable bridges over the unregulated Danube, before the Vienna Danube regulation not for execution, the projects went not beyond the planning stage. All bridges over the Danube, whether for road or since 1838 for the Northern Railway, then had rather provisional character. Jochbrücken Those were trestle bridges made ​​of wood, which were regularly swept away by floods or Eisstößen (bumps of ice chunks) and then re-built.

On 12 September 1868 eventually ordered Emperor Franz Joseph I, the nephew and successor of Ferdinand, the regulation of the Danube. At the same time, eventually, should be built "stable bridges". One of them should represent a direct extension of the hunter line (Jägerzeile) (today: Prater Road and the Schwimmschulstraße (now Lassallestraße). With the choice of this location a central urban axis should be continued, which ranged from the Gloriette in Schonbrunn over St. Stephen's Cathedral and the Prater Stern to the Danube. On the other side of the Danube, the bridge should join to the Vienna, Kagraner and Leopold Auer Reichsstrasse (since 1910 Wagramerstraße), which became a major transit route in the northeastern areas of the monarchy. The name of the bridge was accordingly to "Empire Road bridge" set.

First Reichsbrücke - 1876-1937

Crown Prince Rudolf bridge

Since 6 November 1919 : Reichsbrücke

Crown Prince Rudolf bridge since 6 November 1919: Reichsbrücke

Official name of Crown Prince Rudolf Bridge (1876-1919), since then Reichsbrücke

Use vehicles, trams (from 26 June 1898 on the current bridge single track) and pedestrian

crossing of Handelskai, Danube and floodplain

Construction iron lattice structures (river bridge), 341.20 meters

Total length 1019.75 meter (incl. bridge over Handelskai and floodplain)

Width 11.40 meters

Release 21 August 1876

Closure 11 October 1937

Toll 32 cruisers and 64 Heller per vehicle (up to 1904)

The by Franz Joseph commissioned bridge, which the main part of the 2nd district after the regulation of the Danube with the on the left bank lying part of the city Kaisermuehlen, the now Old Danube and the to 1890/1892 independent community of Kagran connected, was navigable from August 1876 to October, 1937. It has been renamed several times: During the construction period it had the preliminary name of Empire Road bridge, after its opening, it was Crown Prince Rudolf bridge. The term "Empire Bridge" but soon won through in general usage, as was said, for example, the stop of the Donauuferbahn (Railway) at the bridge officially Kommunalbad-Reichsbrücke. After the fall of the monarchy on 6 November 1919 it was officially renamed Empire bridge.

With a total length of nearly 1,020 feet, it was at that time the longest bridge connection over the Danube. It was 11.40 meters wide, the road took 7.60 meters and 3.80 meters, the two sidewalks. The original plan had provided a total width of eight fathoms (15.20 meters), the Parliament decided shortly before the start of the construction to reduce the width because of cost reasons.

The bridge consisted of three parts. The so-called Hubertusdamm, protected the March field against flood, and the flood area created in the Danube regulation (inundation) on the north, the left bank of the river was spanned by a stone, 432 meters long inundation bridge, which consisted of 16 sheets of 23 and 39 m width. Handelskai on the southern right bank of the river spanned the so-called Kaibrücke of stone with a length of 90.4 meters and four arches, each 18.96 m width. The actual current bridge was 341.20 meters long and consisted of four individual iron grating structures that rested on five 3.80 meter thick pillars, three of which were in the water. The distance of each pillar was 79.90 meters.

Construction

The current bridge seen from the north, from the left bank (St Stephen's Cathedral in the background); recording before the summer of 1898, there's no tram track

Construction began in August, 1872. Although at that time the stream bed of the Danube had already been largely completed, but not yet flooded. The Empire bridge was then, as the northern railway bridge Stadlauer Bridge and the Emperor Franz Joseph Bridge (later Floridsdorfer bridge), built in dry construction.

The building was designed by the Road and Hydraulic Engineering Department of Imperial Ministry of Interior, whose boss, Undersecretary Mathias Waniek Ritter von Domyslow, was entrusted with the construction management. Total construction cost of 3.7 million guilders. The metal construction had a total weight of 2,193 tons and was manufactured by Schneider & Co in Burgundy of Belgian welding iron.

The two piers on the banks were about five feet below the river bed, which is about eleven meters founded under the riverbed on so-called "blue Viennese Tegel" (a stiff to semi-solid floor similar to the clay which as sedimentary rock is typical for the Vienna basin). The pillars of the two foreland bridges (Kaibrücke and inundation bridge ) were established in shallow coarse gravel.

Of the four Danube bridges built at that time only the kingdom bridge (Reichsbrücke) was not opened to traffic when the new bed of the Danube on 14 April 1875 was flooded. Until 16 months later, on 21 August 1876, the birthday of the Crown Prince Rudolf, opened the Imperial Governor of Lower Austria , Baron Conrad of Sigmund Eybesfeld, representing the emperor, the bridge and gave her in honor of Crown Prince - contrary to the original plan - the name "Crown Prince Rudolf bridge". The opening ceremony was attended by a delegation from Japan, Minister of War Feldzeugmeister Graf Maximilian von Artur Bylandt-Rheidt and mayor of Vienna Cajetan Felder. The governor read a royal resolution, in which Franz Joseph announced the full imperial satisfaction with Oberbauleiter Waniek and several Engineers and Building Officers were awarded the Imperial Knights Cross. As highlight of the celebration the keystone of the last pillar of the ramp was set - under it were built into a cassette several documents, photos of the bridge, coins and medals.

Bridge operation

The Kaibrücke over the Handelskai on the south, the right bank of the Danube, recording c.1907

The bridge ramp and the four brick arches over the Handels on the south, the right bank of the Danube, it ( right) the bridge over the stream, recording from 1876

After the suicide of Crown Prince Rudolf in 1889, the bridge was popularly called "suicide bridge ". It was in the first years of its operation still not a very popular crossing of the Danube. Industry and trade settled slowly to the other side of the Danube. There were also no significant trade routes from north to March Field. Via the Old Danube, which it would have to be crossed, leading to around 1900 only a rickety wooden bridge.

In the first 28 years of its operation, the crossing of the Empire Bridge was charged. 32 cruisers and 64 Heller had to be paid per vehicle, which has been regularly criticized by newspapers in Vienna. Only after the villages north of the Old Danube in the year 1904/1905 than 21st district were incorporated, the crossing was provided free of charge and increased the popularity of the bridge. From 26 June 1898, the bridge was frequented by the tram. The occasion was the 50-year Jubilee of Emperor Franz Joseph. The route went (over the current bridge (Strombrücke) just single track ) for the moment to shooting range (Schießstätte) at Arbeiterstrandbadstraße and was on 22 December 1898 extended until Kagraner place. Operator was the Vienna-Kagraner train (WKB), which initially used for six railcars acquired from Hamburg. In 1904, the traffic operation of Vienna-Street Railways WKB.

The end of the bridge

1910 were counted in Vienna over two million inhabitants. On the left, northern bank of the Danube, more and more settlements and commercial enterprises emerged. This increased both the importance and the traffic on the Empire Bridge. Neither the load nor the total roadway width of less than eight meters were sufficient for this additional burden. 1930 damage was discovered at the bridge, which would have necessitated the refurbishment in the near future. In recent years, their stock weight restrictions has been to protect the bridge. Vienna's city government first planned a conversion of the old kingdom bridge. In 1933, under the federal government of Dollfuss a new building was disposed.

During the three years of construction work had the old bridge remain usable - ie the existing 340 meters long by 4,900-ton Strombrücke was there moved by 26 meters downstream in September 1934, and connected with the banks. The move operation lasted only six hours, the traffic interruption to the reusability lasted three days. The suspended bridge was then three years in operation. Immediately after the opening of its successor bridge it was dismantled.

Second Empire Bridge - 1937-1976

Second Reichsbrücke

The second Empire Bridge, circa 1975

Official name Reichsbrücke, from 11 April 1946 to 18 July 1956 the Red Army Bridge

Use private transport (2 lanes next to the tracks, 2 on the tracks), tram (2 tracks in the middle position), pedestrians (sidewalks 2)

Construction through the air: "Spurious" self-anchored chain bridge with reversed horizontal thrust); broadening of the inundation bridge used since 1876

Total length 1225 meters

Width 26.90 meters (including sidewalks)

Longest span 241.2 meters in the central opening, 60.05 and 61.05 meters in the side openings

Construction September 1934

Release 10 October 1937

Closure 1 August 1976 (collapse)

The second realm bridge had a total length of 1255 meters. The current bridge had a length of 373 meters and a maximum span length of 241.2 meters, the construction of the third largest chain bridge in Europe. It had two pylons made ​​of steel with a height of 30 meters above road top, standing on two piers and with the bridge superstructure burd two steel chains carrying.

The bridge was staged as a symbol of the wealth and size of Vienna. So it was yet in the late 1930s next to St. Stephen's Cathedral and the Giant Ferris emblem for the third city of Vienna declared and served as an internationally used symbol on all promotional literature and invitations to the Vienna Exhibition in 1938.

Competition

First, the Commerce Department announced a precompetitive, although that could win the architects Emil Hoppe and Otto Schonthal, the result of which, however, did not correspond with the Ministry and the City of Vienna. The final competition for the construction of the Empire Bridge was finally announced in Spring 1933 and awarded in November. As architectural advisor to the eight-member jury acted the architect Clemens Holzmeister. The jurors selected from 64 submitted, one of which even provided for a tunnel under the river Danube. The winning project was a chain bridge by architects Siegfried Theiss and Hans Jaksch. This design provided only two pillars standing in the water. Three quarters of the full width of the river should be free spans. The bridge would connect directly to the still-to-use, only to be widened inundation bridge of the first Empire bridge over floodplain and Hubertusdamm.

Construction

Construction began on 26 February 1934, two weeks after the civil war-like battles in February. The cost of 24 million shillings were imposed to one third of the city of Vienna, two-thirds came from the federal budget. There were only Austrian companies involved in the construction. The two pillars were erected in caisson construction.

Soon the first difficulties appeared. The ground, especially in the Danube River, on which the bridge piers and anchor blocks for the chains should be founded, proved to be less viable than the planners had anticipated. It was originally planned to have to shoulder a large part of the weight of the Strombrücke, primarily of the area lying between the pillars middle part of the bridge, of two chains that run on both sides of the two pylons and should be anchored right in the river on heavy, solid anchor blocks of concrete. However, it was feared that this abutment on the Danube soft soil by the large tensile forces of 78.5 million N (8,000 t) per chain would start sliding and could not be adequately anchored in the Danube ground.

Professor Paul Fillunger of the Technical University of Vienna became the largest public critic of the building. He was of the opinion that not only the foundation of the anchor blocks, but also the pillars of the Danube in the soft ground was irresponsible because the bridge would not have the necessary stability. Contrasting opinion was his colleague of professors, soil mechanics Karl von Terzaghi. In his view, the nature of the Danube soil was suitable for the pier foundation. The disagreement was part of a personal feud, which was publicly held. Together with his wife Fillunger took in 1937 due to a disciplinary procedure that ran against him at the Technical University of Vienna his life. The construction of the bridge was rescheduled after the proposals Terzaghis: the chains were not fastened to anchor blocks on the Danube ground, but directly to the two main girders of the steel supporting structure, ie on the bridge itself anchored.

In June 1936, the building was overshadowed by a shipwreck: the people steamer "Vienna" DDSG was driven to a pillar. The ship broke up and sank immediately. Six people were killed.

The final link in the chain was composed of 98 members on 16 November 1936 inserted. Thereafter the lowering of the support stand began to displace the chain in tension. The production of the concrete deck slab of the bridge deck and the installation of sidewalks followed in the spring of 1937, in the summer, the bridge was painted dark green.

From 1 to 3 October 1937 the stress test of the building took place in the stretched chains and the pylons were slightly rotated. Were then driven as a load test 84 trucks and 28 loaded with stones streetcars on the bridge and left to stand there for a few hours. All measurements were running satisfactorily, so that on 4 October the first tram of line number 16 was able to drive over the kingdom bridge. A day later, the bridge was unofficially released for streetcar traffic. To traffic it remained locked up to its opening.

Austro-Fascist propaganda

A labor-and cost-intensive project such as the construction of the bridge was fully in line with the spirit of the Austro-fascist regime: the end of 1933, unemployment stood at 38.5 percent. The construction of the second Empire bridge can therefore be seen as a job creation project, similar to the construction of the Grossglockner High Alpine Road or the Vienna High Road.

On 10 October 1937, the Empire Bridge was officially opened. The corporate state government held a solemn state ceremony with President Wilhelm Miklas, Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg, Cardinal Theodor Innitzer, the Vienna Vice Mayor Fritz Lahr and Trade Minister Taucher who called the new Reich bridge as a "symbol of creating life force of the new Austria". Present were alongside architects, project managers and designers also a delegation of the opus "New Life" of the Fatherland Front, all workers involved in the construction of the construction companies and 10,000 school children. Soldiers of the armed forces lined the shore.

The Viennese city researcher Peter Payer writes about the pompous production:

"Conspicuously, propagated the carefully staged celebration the new model of society of the Austro-fascist government: the ending of the class struggle and overcoming social barriers through meaningful work and cooperation of all professional groups. [ ...] The completion of the bridge was portrayed as unprecedented cultural achievement, as a joint work of all involved". - Peter Payer.

The event was broadcast live on the radio, the newspapers reported widely about it. At the event, postcards, envelopes, and a commemorative stamp was issued and even a "Reichsbrücke song "composed, in which was said:

"A thousand hammers, wheels, files,

thousand hands had to rush

the great work that was!

Salvation of the work that connects,

Hail to the work, healing our land!"

- Empire Bridge Song

The Empire Bridge in the Second World War

During the Second World War the German army used two support pillars of reinforced concrete under the Empire Bridge into the Danube, so that the building would not completely fall into the water when it was hit, but could be repaired. In addition, at each of the two pylons were erected platforms for anti-aircraft guns.

In early April, 1945, in the last days of the war, Soviet armies were moving from the south and west heading to the city center. The fleeing units of the SS blew up in their retreat to the north gradually almost all Vienna Danube bridges.

For the Nordwestbahnbrücke, the Floridsdorfer bridge and the Nordbahnbrücke the "defenders" of Vienna had by Hitler's headquarters on the 8th April 1945 sought the permission for demolition, the Stadlauer Ostbahnbrücke was also blown up without explicit permission. With the Reichsbrücke, however, Hitler had personally for days the blasting ruled out, still yet at 11 April 1945, just on 13 April afternoon allowed, at a time when the southern bridgehead was already occupied by the Red Army, was the northern bridgehead without coverage in their field of fire and the German troops who had retreated to the left bank of the Danube, north west withdrew, for not beeing closed in by the Red Army. There was therefore no chance to blow. The Red Army occupied the evening of the 13th April also the northern bridgehead.

On 11 April, at the height of the battle of Vienna, the Russian troops with armored boats already had been advanced on the Danube to the Reichsbrücke (officially called by the Russians "Object 56") and had obscured the area. They went on the right bank of the Danube, about 500 meters northwest of the bridge, on land and moved slowly to the building.

Decades later, it was unclear why exactly the Empire bridge was not blown up. The Red Army, the Austrian resistance movement O5 as well as members of the armed forces later claimed they just would have prevented the explosion. One version said that, at the Battle of 11 April some soldiers of the Red Army should have gotten to the beachhead, where they destroyed the explosive lines. Another version was that Red Army soldiers were led by a knowledgeable local Vienna sewer worker sneaked through the sewer system of Vienna to the bridge to prevent the demolition. Clarity created in 2012 the analysis of historical sources with the résumé. Ultimately, it was Hitler himself which had prevented demolition of the bridge until the last moment. The Reichsbrücke was now the only intact bridge crossing over the Danube between Linz and the state border. She was thus given a status symbol, it was a sign of the resilience of Austria.

The city council renamed the Empire Bridge on the anniversary of the liberation of Vienna on 11 April 1946 in honor of the liberators "Bridge of the Red Army Bridge". Was also on this occasion by the city government to the left of the bridge driveway in the 2nd district an obelisk (reddish colored lightweight concrete on wood construction) erected with the Soviet Star on the top of which was in German and Russian to read:

"THE HERO WILL

LANDING GUARD SQUAD

AND SAILORS

IN GRATITUDE

THE EXEMPT

VIENNA "

- Obelisk, then plaque on the bridge

The obelisk was removed after 1955. The inscription was then attached on a bronze plaque that was mounted directly to the bridge. The bridge was at 18 July 1956 re-named Reichsbrücke.

Reichsbrücke in the postwar period

To the rebuilding of Floridsdorfer bridge 1946 the Reichsbrücke was the only way to reach Vienna coming from the northeast on the road. Although it was not blown up, it still suffered numerous losses, primarily by shellfire. In 1946, took place the first rehabilitation of war damage of the bridge, ​​from May 1947 work on a larger scale was made. Thereby five hanging rods have been mended and repaired the vault of the inundation bridge. The smoke control ceiling above the Donauuferbahn has been replaced. At seven chain links had to be renewed a total of 26 blades. For this temporary piers were used on barges, which again ate on the river bed. The work was finished in 1952. On the Reichsbrücke originally was wooden heel patch installed, this was 1958-1960 replaced by granite stone pavement, which resulted in an additional load of 4688 kN for each pylon bearing. The enormous, newly ascended individual traffic led more often hinder the tram traffic on the bridge, therefore the tracks in the sixties by blocking lines have been declared not approved for individual traffic of the roadway. Now, congestion of vehicular traffic was the result.

Empire bridge collapse in 1976

The southern, right after the collapse of the banks, recording August 1976

Bridge debris on the north, left bank, recording August 1976

On Sunday, the first August 1976 Reichsbrücke 4:53 to 4:55 clock crashed to almost full length of the main bridge into the water. The first radio announcement was made at 5:00 clock. An eyewitness described the collapse as". The whole bridge has suddenly lifted a foot and then dropped loud crashing on the entire length".

On the Kaibrücke as well as on the Überschwemmungsbrücke (inundation bridge) the carrier collapsed in several places, but both bridges were standing. The Strombrücke itself broke into three parts, the middle part falling into the water as a whole and and the two outer parts obliquely hanging into the water. The south-facing pylon fell downstream and damaged heavily the stern of a passenger ship, the north side pylon collapsed in the other direction on the flood plain.

At the time of the collapse, five people were in four vehicles on the bridge: a bus driver in an urban articulated, two employees of the ÖAMTC in a roadside assistance vehicle, the driver of a Volkswagen Beetle, which had requested the breakdown service because of a defective tire following an accident as well as the driver of a minibus, who was employed as a driver at the ORF. The bus driver crashed his vehicle into the Danube and was rescued unharmed within hours. The ÖAMTC employees and the VW drivers were on that part of the Kaibrücke, which indeed broke and fell, but not completely destroyed, so that they could save themselves by foot. The ORF driver was trapped in his pickup truck and found his dead the day after the collapse.

Within an hour was a quarter of all vehicles of the in Vienna available Fire Brigade on the site of the collapse, it was the alarm given stage IV. Also, police, ambulance and army were represented by large contingents. The on the bridge located water pipes that supplied drinking water to the north of Vienna, put the Handelskai under water. Explosions were also feared because the gas lines running across the bridge were broken. There was on the scene for days strict non-smoking. First, many people were north of the Danube without gas, electricity, water and telephone. Already on the second August was, however, restored the supply.

de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reichsbr%C3%BCcke

Warmley & Siston - One Hundred years of history - Part 2 of 7 - 1914 - 1930

 

1914

 

The 4th August 1914 is the day that the British Empire, the largest the world has known, began its decline. Germany had invaded Belgium and Britain, who had sworn to support her along with France, was instantly drawn into the conflict. At midnight on the 4th Britain declared war on Germany. The devastation of little Belgium saw many refugees stream to our safe shores and a number were cared for in Warmley.

 

The reserve army was quickly mobilised. This included Bill Johnson of Tower Road North who soon found himself in the thick of the fighting. At the Battle of Mons, Bill received a 'Blighty' when a machine gun bullet went straight through his thigh and he spent the remainder of the war transporting hand grenades for Cranes Factory.

 

One of the first local men to be killed in action was Private Arthur Bendrey of Bridgeyate. Private Bendrey served with the 1st Gloucesters. He died on the 2nd November and although he has no known grave his name is recorded on the Menin Gate, Ypres.

 

Lord Kitchener, the Hero of Khartoum, was given the task of recruiting a new army and by the end of the month the trickle of volunteers had grown to a torrent. Soon the 12th Battalion of the Gloucestershire Regiment, 'Bristol's Own', was formed.

 

Many fresh faced young men from this area, looking for a quick adventure, found themselves with the 12th. For them the war wouldn't end by Christmas as they thought, but in 1916 at the Battle of the Somme.

 

As the war progressed and all the volunteers had gone, conscription was brought in, taking the cream of the young males away from the local industries. The female population replaced the absent men in offices, factories, farms and the transport systems, proving they could do the job as well, or some times better, than the men. Even St. Barnabas bellringers became an all female team.

 

Douglas Motorcycles of Hanham Road, Kingswood, won an army contract and produced 25,000 machines for the use of dispatch riders in the worst terrain of the Front. The disused spoil heap from the colliery on Siston Common saw hundreds, if not thousands, of machines being tested on its steep crater-like slopes.

 

1915

 

Training for the front sometimes took about eighteen months and in the early years of the war there were not enough camps for these new recruits. It was often the case that soldiers would have no uniforms or weapons and sometimes went home to bed and had to return by first light.

 

In June, the 11th Battalion Gloucestershire Regiment were stationed in the Warmley area. Sometimes six men were billeted in local houses, forming contacts which survived long after the war ended.

 

The local population also had the task of entertaining 'Tommy' until they were moved to other quarters.

 

In July one of the most fierce thunderstorms on record occurred over the district. As the sky blackened on this summer Sunday, the power of the elements was let loose creating a spectacle of noise and lightening to match many a battle across the English Channel.

 

As the thunder and lightening eased a terrific hailstorm started, stones as big as eggs crashed out of the sky, causing damage to crops and property the like of which had never been seen before.

 

The Smith family, who had large greenhouses at their nursery in Stanley Road, had to replace hundreds of panes of glass following the storm.

 

In October the most famous cricketer the world has known, passed away. William Gilbert Grace, who was born at Downend, played many of his early matches against teams from the surrounding villages. He was a practising doctor and may have stood in at the family surgery in the centre of Kingswood where many local people went for a consultation.

 

1916

 

Warmley's principle contribution to the war effort came from Crane's Fireworks Factory, which switched production from fireworks to hand grenades, or Mills Bombs as they were called. In this period the workforce increased to nearly 100, mostly young women, who when filling the boxes of grenades to be shipped to the Front, would often slip a little note for the Tommies to find, and frequently they would receive a reply, sometimes in a foreign language.

 

Ten million grenades passed through Warmley Station during the war which shows what a tremendous effort the firm made throughout the duration of the war.

 

For recreation, these fit young women formed themselves into a tug-of-war team, calling themselves the 'Warmley Grenadiers'. They proved formidable opposition during tournaments in the district, including events at Douglas Sports Days and other challenge matches.

 

1917

 

This was the fourth year of the war, and for one family-in Warmley it could not have been worse. Thomas and Emily Toghill, lived in Tower Road North, next to the Blackhorse Inn. They had raised a large family and when the call to arms came their sons were not slow in coming forward to fight the enemy.

 

The dreaded telegram from the War Office came no less than three times to the door in Tower Road and the grief that fell on the Toghill household was shared by the whole community.

 

Herbert T. (James) Toghill, (201247), Lance Corporal in the 2/4th Battalion Gloucester Regiment, died of wounds, 29.9.1917, aged 25, and is buried at Duisans British Cemetery, France.

 

Lance Corporal H.J. Toghill lost his life half-way up the line on the 29th September (1917).

 

His officer, Capt. Gordon Wansbrough, writing to his relatives said 'Ever since we came out here he has done excellent work, and no one could have done his duty better or more cheerfully.'

 

Joseph Toghill, (16067), Private in the 11th Battalion of the Worcestershire Regiment, died on the 12th February 1917 aged 20 and is buried in the Karasouli Military Cemetery, Greece. The Observer reported on 17.3.1917; news from Salonica of the death in action on the 12th February of Pte Toghill of the Worcesters.... He joined up 18 months ago (Sept.1915), he was killed by a shell instantly. He was 20 years of age..' Joseph was in a machine gun section of the Worcesters.

 

Thomas H. Toghill, (265862), Private of the 1/5th Battalion Gloucester Regiment, was 'Killed in Action' at the age of 23. Thomas was the husband of May L. Toghill of New Cheltenham Road, Kingswood. He has no known grave but is recorded on the Tyne Cot Memorial, Passchendaele, France.

 

There were over three-quarters of a million British men killed in the Great War, and of those only five were called Toghill. A fourth was Samuel Henry Toghill, 3/7495, Private of the 1st Battalion Somerset Light Infantry. He was born in Siston, Glos., and enrolled in Bristol and was 'Killed in Action' in France at Flanders, 27th July 1916. He is remembered on the Kingswood Holy Trinity War Memorial and the High Street School Memorial.

 

1918

 

In the last year of the war things were finally going right for the Allied Armies. The Americans had added their might and after the German offensive in March 1918 had petered out, the end was a foregone conclusion.

 

One of the last to die from our area was Private Albert James Harvey of the Royal Marines. He took part in the courageous blockade of Zeebrugge Harbour. Several hundred marines held off the German defenders as old ships were sunk to seal the entrance to enemy submarines. Private Harvey was mortally wounded and died in hospital in June. He is buried in St. Barnabas graveyard.

 

At 11am on the 11th November the signing of the Armistice took place and thus 'The War To End All Wars' was over. The war cost the lives of 29 former residents of the district, one in eleven of all those who went away were killed in action and another one in five received wounds. A considerable number were permanently mutilated and everyone lost a relative or friend in the conflict.

 

When word of the Armistice reached the Council offices in Stanley Road a large crowd began to gather and in no time banners were produced declaring 'The End' and a procession of elated villagers marched and cheered excitedly around the district.

 

In recognition of the sterling work contributed by the female population, all women over the age of thirty were given the vote for the first time.

 

In June of this year, Moses Brain, who for fifty years was Superintendent of the Congregational Chapel Sunday School, died aged 100. Moses was one of the original founders of the chapel in the 1840's. He was born three years after the Battle of Waterloo and would have known people who worked for William Champion way back in the 1760's. Even today he is remembered with respect and esteem by his many descendants and former pupils.

 

With the ending of the war, Warmley House and estate was put up for auction. The house and grounds were sold to Mr. Fred Brain, who had taken over the flour mill in Chapel Lane. The Haskins Pottery Company, which had closed briefly during the war, was sold to Sir Seymour Williams, Clerk to Warmley Rural District Council, and was managed by his brother-in-law, Mr. Howes.

 

1919

 

Parish elections had been suspended throughout the duration of the war. A Parish Council Meeting was held on 19th January at which it was resolved to erect 'A Memorial to the Boys of the Parish slain in the War'.

 

The Committee included; Rev. Robertson, Rev. Rogers, Messrs. Rawlings, Taylor, Webb, Hembrough, Moore, Williams, Clark, Snell, Brain and Morgan. A fund raising programme was soon put in motion and a variety of activities planned.

 

The Warmley War Memorial Carnival organised a concert in September, with four-hourly performances of acts arranged by Miss Gwendolene Pyle. These included pianoforte duets, comic songs, dancing and even a song by Ben Fussell entitled 'The Village Blacksmith', very appropriate as this was his trade.

 

Earlier in the year some forty girls and young women from The Warmley National School performed their rendition of 'The Enchanted Glen'. The operetta was presented by the school headmaster, Mr. William Moore and his wife, on St. George's Day, April 23rd and 24th . The girls managed to raise a splendid 20, a considerable sum of money in those days.

 

Bridgeyate House, at the bottom of Chesley Hill Common, was 200 years old this year. In 1719, this early Georgian House was built on the Bristol to London Road, then called The Causeway, and is one of the oldest in the district, although in 1919 it was in Wick and Abson Parish.

 

1920

 

Warmley Green was chosen as the site for the new War Memorial and as in 1920 enough money had been raised for it to be constructed, work was soon in progress. Warmley was allocated a German Field Gun to be positioned in front of the memorial, although the angle of the gun was the cause of some controversy as it was pointing directly at the houses opposite.

 

On Saturday the 14th August 1920 the service for the unveiling of the memorial took place. A procession of dignitaries emerged from the Union Offices to the sound of the Warmley Military Band. The Green was packed with the people who had come to witness this solemn occasion. The families and friends, workmates and old school chums, everyone in the village, knew and loved the lads who would never return.

 

There was a brief introduction by Mr. Charles Snell, the Chairman of the Memorial Committee, and at 2 oclock Lady Goldney performed the unveiling ceremony by pulling a cord which released the Union Jack which had covered the inscribed column. At the same time the park, which had newly planted trees and a holly hedge surrounding it, was declared open as a living memorial to the men who gave their lives.

 

The service was completed by a dedication and address from The Venerable J.G. Tetley, Arch deacon of Bristol and the hymn 'Peace, Perfect Peace in this Dark World of Sin' was sung. Finally the sound of the Last Post echoed across the packed assembly and, in time, having their own private memories and prayers, everyone drifted away.

 

1921

 

In September of this year an exciting new development took place furthering the education of the young people in the district. Kingswood Secondary School, as it was known in the early days, was built around a group of buildings abandoned after the war.

 

It took almost the whole of the first term for the new school to settle into any routine. Starting from scratch, all the books and writing materials, as well as the school furniture had to be ordered and allocated. This was successfully achieved by the first headmaster, Capt. Eaton, with a small staff of five teachers.

 

The scholars were divided into three houses; Davies, Fussell and Haskins named after local dignitaries. The latter deserves some special mention, William Haskins was born in Tower Rank in 1853 and was brother of the Pottery owner, Joseph Haskins. Education played an important role in William's life, knowing from his own experience that knowledge was the safest path to success. He was fundamental in supporting many Primary Schools and from his position in the District Education Authority fought for the opening of this school.

 

For the first few years the Secondary School was struggling to find its role but as it grew in size it grew in stature. By the third year there were ten teachers but still as yet had no assembly hall or proper library.

 

Some of the earliest scholars to go through the gates of the school in Brook Road were Millie Underdown, who later taught at Warmley School, and a young lad from Oldland called Bernard Lovell, later to become world renowned for his work at Jodrell Bank in the field of astronomy.

 

1922

 

It was around this time that Siston lost its oldest building which is thought to predate Siston Court. Mound's Court, sometimes called Mounts Court or Moon's Court, is thought to have originally been one of the Royal Hunting Lodges in the Kingswood Forest.

 

Its greatest claim to fame is that Queen Catherine Parr, wife of King Henry VIII, a lady fortunate enough to outlive her husband, kept her Court at Mound's Court for some seven or eight weeks. Why did Queen Catherine stay here and not Siston Court?

 

The answer must surely be that the original Siston Manor House was not fit for a Queen and the present Siston Court was not built until 1598. Perhaps it was the celebrated St. Anns Well, with its healing properties for those suffering from weak eyes, was the reason or the royal visit?

 

Mounds Court remained in the ownership of the Strange family for well over 300 years, a family name that appears in the very earliest parish records circa 1550. However by 1922 the prestigious and ancient building was in a poor state of repair and John Davis, father of the present owner, decided to rebuild the Court.

 

The present building stands on the foundations of the old house and incorporates its original cellar. There are said to be passageways from the cellars that travel great distances.

 

One of the many chimneys which broke the Warmley skyline was demolished this year. John Hembrough, youngest son of W.J. Hembrough, began working for the family firm. One of his first tasks was to help with the demolition of the old colliery stack on the opposite side of the road from their offices.

 

John had to get a number of iron spikes from Ben Fussell, the local blacksmith, which were then driven into the walls, inside the chimney. After climbing up inside, the workers then pulled the top 6-8 feet of brickwork down by ropes. The remaining stones were hit from inside and cleared until the structure was down to ground level.

 

1923

 

Of the 37 names on the Village War Memorial, twenty were former pupils of Warmley National School. As many of the men served with the Gloucestershire Regiments, it was fitting that a 'Gloucesters' man be invited to the ceremony when the school's own memorial was erected.

 

In March, the unveiling was carried out by Lieut. Col. H.L. Baker, Commander of the 4th Battalion Gloucestershire Regiment , and the plaque was dedicated by The Reverend Frederick Rogers of St. Barnabas Church.

 

The first marriage ceremony took place in March at Warmley Congregational Chapel. It wasnt until 1922 that the licence for marriages was given and the first to take their vows were Frank Selman and Doris Gingell.

 

1924

 

With the expansion of Warmley National School, its smaller much older sister establishment at Webbs Heath ceased to be a viable place of education. For generations this tiny school room, barely bigger than a single classroom at Warmley National School, was the nearest place of education for the children of Siston Village, Webbs Heath and Goose Green.

 

It was a sad day for Webbs Heath when the last child crossed the threshold and joined the rest of the areas children at the school in London Road.

 

The school building was a frequent venue for the early Parish Council Meetings as well as being used as a sports pavilion for games on the levelled piece of Common opposite.

 

The Reverend F. Rogers, who had been the vicar of St. Barnabas Church from 1906, passed away this year. He had retired the previous year at the age of seventy and it would appear that no one was able to take his place until this year. However, the Reverend G.H. Dymock took over the role as incumbent of the parish for a brief spell from 1924-1926.

 

1925

 

George Webb could be described as one of those rare individuals in these times, a real local character! George was born in 1842 and at the age of eight started his working life in a nearby coalpit. Inspired by the sounds of brass band music, he taught himself to play the cornet and at the age of thirteen he left the pit. George was now in his element. In a very short time he was able to 'triple tongue' on his cornet and was capable of producing 700 notes to the minute.

 

In 1862, he was the star player of 'The Christie Minstrels'. From this time on he was often on tour but always returned to his roots where he had a wife and young family. Around 1882, George took part in a ceremony when the chimney stack at Haskins Pottery was heightened. When the chimney was completed George stood on the top run and played the National Anthem, God Bless the Prince of Wales and Auld Lang Syne.

 

The cornet was not the only instrument George mastered as he was able to handle many instruments, particularly the trombone. His ability did not stop there as he also became bandmaster to numerous bands but, in particular, the Warmley Military Band. At the turn of the century George Webb had produced scores of compositions for brass bands and his name was familiar all around Britain as well as on the Continent.

 

There is a story that the Black Dyke Mills Band were passing through Warmley station on their way to Bournemouth. They had persuaded the driver to stop the train so as they could meet their hero, George Webb. However, George had prepared a surprise for them and with the aid of a local brass band, the Black Dyke and Warmley Bands marched along the road, playing at full pitch and meeting in the middle of the village.

 

George ended his days with his daughter, Minnie Webb, in Stanley Road, who was a schoolmistress at Cadbury Heath School. One of Georges other children was Bill Webb, the cycle shop owner.

 

1926

 

The post war depression was at its height in 1926 and the unemployed of the Warmley Rural District had to go to the Union Offices in Stanley Road for help in these dire times. Unlike today, money was allocated locally and unemployed men had to pass a demeaning means test before any assistance from the Board was given.

 

There are tales of people who possessed but a few shillings being told to go away and not be a burden on the parish.

 

In this year unemployed workers, who had had enough, staged a demonstration. They marched around the district four abreast and held a protest outside the offices in Stanley Road.

 

There was not a great deal that could be done with the limited funds available; however, the men were employed for three days a week, repairing and rebuilding roads and bridges throughout the district. They also levelled off the old rabbit warrens on Siston Common.

 

Siston Common was formerly known as Syston Warren, a map of 1867 even shows a Warrener's house. These warrens were used to encourage rabbits to breed and feed in this area.

 

The rabbit fur was used in the hat industry and the flesh was sold for the pot. The hat industry had gone into decline at the end of the 19th century and the warrens had become a liability. Scores of these ancient warrens, some several hundred years old, were levelled off. Today only four remain in the area east of Fisher Road. Most people in the area do not know of their existence or their history.

 

No one knows how Warmley got its name but there is a theory that the old hamlet of cottages were in the 'ley' or lee of the warren and became known as Warrenley, if said quickly - Warmley. Over the years Warnley would have become Warmley.

 

Also in 1926 there was an increase in the size of Siston Parish, when the hamlet or village of Bridgeyate was transferred from Wick and Abson Parish to Siston. Until now, the parish boundary ended at the Griffin Inn on one side of the road and Wakeford's Garage on the other. Bridgeyate Common and all the properties that fronted on to it looked to Wick as their administration area. After this date the boundary was moved to the top of Homeapple Hill, bringing parts of Cann Lane and Chesley Hill into Siston parish.

 

1927

 

Blue Lodge stands just within the boundary of Siston Parish, however, the narrow lane leading to it is in Wick and Abson. Standing on top of an isolated hill the Lodge is on one of the most historical areas in the district.

 

Blue Lodge is described as possibly being on the site of one of the old Lodges in the Kingswood Forest. Another likely Hunting Lodge is Lodge Farm near Mangotsfield Golf Course.

 

Records from the early 18th century show that there were three churches in the parish of Siston, St. Annes, St. Bartholomews and St. Cuthberts. St. Annes is the only survivor and some speculation exists on the whereabouts of the other two churches. However, it is possible one of them was next to Blue Lodge, as one of the old field names adjacent to the Lodge was 'Holly Ground' or perhaps

'Holy Ground'.

 

Another ancient mystery is the location of the lost Manor of Churchley, partly in the Parish of Siston and partly in Wick and Abson. Old land documents give more clues, and show William Llewellyn as owning lands in Churchley. Stone monuments in St. Annes show the Llewellyn Family was living at Blue Lodge in the 18th Century.

 

In the last century, Blue Lodge became home for Anna Sewell and her parents. The family lived here in Siston for six years perhaps due to the isolation of Blue Lodge, they were happy years. Anna and her mother, Mary Sewell, did great charitable works with the inhabitants of Wick and became aware of the hardships they had to endure.

 

The Sewells were also conscious of the labours of their beasts of burden. The memories of the people and their horses of Siston were surely inspirationalin the writing of Anna's best known work, 'Black Beauty'.

 

1928

 

Travelling through the district from the east, the first landmark to confront the traveller is the crossroads at the top of Bridgeyate Common. To the right is the Griffin Inn and on the left is the Griffin Garage.

 

In 1928, Ronald J. Wakeford started trading in a garage adjoining the Griffin Inn. This building he quickly out-grew and acquired a piece of land opposite where he constructed his own garage with a much larger forecourt. This was the first modem, purpose built, garage in the area as all the others were adapted from buildings which had formerly had other uses.

 

The garage was well positioned to pick up trade from the four roads leading to the crossroads, as well as from the public house and weekly market opposite. From the early days, the garage has been registered with the RAC., and when M.O.T., tests were introduced the garage quickly acquired the appropriate equipment.

 

Ron Wakeford took a leading role in local politics and was Chairman of Warmley R.D.C. from 1954-55. The social life of the area also benefited from Rons talents and for fifteen years he was Chairman of Warmley Memorial Hall and Community Centre. When the Community Centre's Social Club opened in 1977, Ron became its first President and held this position until 1984.

 

1929

 

The latticed railway footbridge at Warmley Station had deteriorated since its erection thirty years earlier and it was in this year that the Midland Railway replaced it. The new bridge was of a girder construction with iron plates fixed to the sides. This gave a modest protection to the travellers from wind, smoke and steam as they crossed over the passing engines.

 

It was also about this time that a parcel store was added to the station buildings. It is interesting to note that Warmley station buildings were constructed mainly from timber, whereas other stations on the Mangotsfield to Bath line were mostly built of brick or stone.

 

Whether this was a cost cutting exercise by the Midland Railway Company we shall never know but it does seem strange that the Warmley station, serving Wick and Kingswood, was so poorly provided for. Perhaps to make up for this the station's platform gardens were always a picture, the station master and his staff taking a pride in keeping them well tended.

 

1930

 

W.J. Hembroughs & Sons have probably built more of the homes in Siston and Warmley than any other builder. In 1899, William Hembrough moved from Little Brook Farm, Goose Green, to Norman Road. He was general foreman for several large firms and was in charge of the construction of Hanham Road School in 1906.

 

From 1910 to 1919, he was a member of Siston Parish Council and in the latter year became Clerk of Works for Warmley R.D.C.

 

In the 1920s, William Hembrough was working for himself and one of his first major projects was to put a main sewer under London Road. By the end of the decade all four of his sons were working for the business and in 1930 they had become a limited company trading as W.J. Hembrough and Sons.

 

The firm had first leased the Crown Colliery site from Lady Goldney and later bought it outright. Over the years, Hembroughs have employed hundreds of building tradesmen in the district, many of whom started as apprentices and then set up in business on their own account.

 

Properties built by Hembroughs include houses in Siston Park, Church Avenue, London Road, Station Road, Tower Road North, as well as estates at Mangotsfield and elsewhere.

St Michael, Wadenhoe, Northamptonshire

 

Peter raises Dorcas from the dead. Detail of the Dorcas window by Burlison & Grylls, 1923.

 

I cycled on from Pilton along increasingly hilly lanes down into Wadenhoe, which is very much a tourist village with craft galleries, tea shops and two pubs, set beside the lovely Nene. It reminded me of Kersey in Suffolk. As at Kersey, the church is set on a hill above one end of the village which looks as if it might once have been a castle mound, though Pevsner doesn't say so. It was a steep climb up to it on a hot day, but the views to the Nene far below are spectacular.

 

St Michael is a large, ancient church, with an almost entirely Norman tower with a saddle-back roof and a 13th Century church stretching east of it. You step no fewer than seven steps down into the nave from the north porch. Inside, very rough and ready, a delicious interior. There is a good sequence of 1920s glass in the chancel by Burlison & Grylls in memory of the village schoolmistress. They also did the Raising of Lazarus in the east window. A sombre memorial in the north aisle remembers Thomas and Caroline Hunt, residents of Wadenhoe Manor, who were both cruelly shot by banditti near Poestum in Italy in 1824 and interred in one grave in Naples. Almost a century later, another Hunt was killed in the Great War and rmeembered by a brass plaque below.

 

I was a bit concerned about how steep the hill was between the village below and the next church on my itinerary. I had now cycled more than thirty miles in the eighty degree heat, and was beginning to feel it. But I discovered a track to the west of the church which led straight out onto the top of the hill, and so I resumed my journey southwards on to Aldwincle, the biggest village since leaving Oundle. It was the birthplace of John Dryden, and has two medieval churches along its long high street.

 

 

www.facebook.com/pages/The-SmOKing-Camera-Hervey-BaY-dave...

   

And a very good morning to you all i hope everyone has a wonderful day : )

 

Image taken at 5.30am 6th March 2015 at the Urangan Pier, Hervey bay........i just luv B&W

 

Urangan Pier is a historic pier in Urangan, Hervey Bay, Queensland, Australia.

 

It is a former deep-water, cargo-handling facility originally built to facilitate the export of sugar, timber and coal. The pier, served by the extension of the railway line from Pialba,[1] was used for the transfer of cargo between rail and ships. It was built between 1913 and 1917,[2] originally to a length of 1107 metres. The pier was closed in 1985, and 239 metres of it was demolished. However, due to public outcry, 868 metres of the pier was left, and the land was handed to the Hervey Bay City Council.

 

By 2009 the last 220-metre section of the pier had been fully restored, and the original timber pylons had been replaced with steel pylons with a plastic covering

  

The original proposal to establish Urangan as a coal port for the Burrum River mining project did not eventuate due to several factors, mainly because the coal output did not reach original expectations. However, as the Wide Bay area was a chief producer of produce and freight, the Queensland Government made a decision to build a pier at Hervey Bay.

  

A plaque at the Urangan Pier; placed in 1999, commemorating the re-opening of the Urangan Pier.

Construction on the Urangan Pier began in 1913. In order to reach the deep water channel, it was required to extend 1.1 kilometres (0.68 mi) (3690 ft) out to sea. Construction was very slow and finished in 1917. The Urangan railway line also began construction in 1913 and branched off the main railway line at Pialba. This line was extended along the Urangan Pier as it was being constructed. Once it was completed, it served as one of the main ports of Queensland.

 

Sugar was one of the main exports, however had to be transported from as far north as Bundaberg. When the Bundaberg Port was built in 1958, it took over sugar cane exports and the Urangan pier ceased exporting sugar.[5] Timber, general cargo and produce was still exported until 1960, when Caltex built an oil terminal adjacent to the Pier. Soon after this was built, freight, goods and produce exports were stopped and fuel became the only import from the pier.

 

After the last ship docked at the Urangan pier in January 1985, Caltex Oil reversed the process of storage, replacing the system of fuel service from Shipping to bulk supply by rail from the Pinkenba and Colmslie port terminals in Brisbane. This, in turn, lead to the closure of the pier and the Urangan branch line, as neither had a use anymore. At this stage, the pier was in serious need of repairs. A decision was made by the Queensland Government to dismantle the entire pier. Due to large public outcry, rallying and petitions, the demolition of the pier was stopped. In late 1985, the Queensland Government handed the pier to the Hervey Bay City Council. The council pledged to restore the pier, which began in the late 1990s. Restoration included removing the rail tracks from the pier, encasing the wooden pylons with steel, repairing sleepers, repairing hand rails, and repairing lights.

 

In 1999, the pier was restored to a length of 868 meters. It was officially re-opened by the then-governor of Queensland and the mayor of Hervey Bay, Peter Arnison and Bill Brennan (respectively) on the 27th of November, 1999.

  

A model of the pier was made by Mr Harry Coxon in 1917, the same year the original pier was constructed. It is a significant artifact in the Hervey Bay Historical Village & Museum’s collection. Two new models are on display in the Hervey Bay Tourism Visitor Centre and in the Hervey Bay Whale Watch office at the Boat Harbour Marina.[7]

 

Urangan Pier Festival

The first Pier Festival was held in 1986 to help raise funds to save Urangan Pier. Since then it has become a popular fishing competition held annually in September.[3]

 

Pier to Pub Swim

Pier to Pub Ocean Swim Classic is an annual swimming competition held in April since 1999. The 3.4-kilometre (2.1 mi) swim is from Urangan Pier to the jetty opposite the Torquay Hotel, while the 1.6-kilometre (1 mi) short swim, called Splash for Cash, is from the corner of the Esplanade and Alexander Street to the jetty opposite the Torquay Hotel.

 

wikipedia

 

On Columbus Day, 1932, the Italian-American community celebrated the ground-breaking with an enormous parade. Col. Guido F. Verbeck, head of the Manlius School, was the grand marshal. His father, the late Brig. Gen. William Verbeck, was honored by the King of Italy with a citation as chevalier in the Order of the Crown.

 

Dwight James Baum, a graduate of Syracuse University and nationally known architect, was hired to supervise the design and construction of the monument, while Baldi sculpted the bronze work. Baum attempted to create the ambience of an Italian piazza. The modified obelisk on which the statue of the explorer stands is an ancient Egyptian symbol of power, widely used in civic monuments in Italy. Made of pink granite, it rises 29 feet above the pavement, and rests on a gray and pink granite base comprised of ancient triremes (ships' prows) representing ancient Roman vessels and symbolizing Italy's navigational prowess.

The fountain spouts are creatures of the deep, which, with the brass turtles and stone shells of the fountain, serve as reminders of Columbus' confrontation of the dangers of the sea. The pool's bottom features a navigator's compass in colored pebbles, traditional in Italian grottos and fountains.

Renzo V. Baldi's Columbus is a cast bronze figure eleven feet tall. It depicts the explorer as a young man, long before he sailed to America, looking toward the west, maps and charts in his hand. Baldi's bronze bas-relief plaques depict scenes from the life of Columbus: at the Court of Queen Isabel; arriving in the tropics and; returning to the Court of Spain. Masks of Native American faces function as clasps to hold the four sections of the obelisk together, and celebrate the people who were already in America when Columbus arrived.

Montgomery Street~Columbus Circle Historic District ~NRHP #80004278.

Reichsbrücke

Coordinates: 48 ° 13 '42 " N, 16 ° 24' 36" E | |

(Pictures you can see by clicking on the link at the end of page!)

Empire Bridge, seen from the north bank of

Use motor vehicles in the basement underground,

Cyclists, pedestrians

Road train Lassallestraße - Wagramerstraße (B8 )

Location Vienna, between Leopoldstadt (2nd District)

and Danube City (22 nd District)

Prestressed concrete bridge construction, double deck bridge

Total length 865 meters

Width 26.10 meters

Release 8 November 1980

Altitude 157 m above sea level. A.

Card reichsbrücke.png

Location of the Empire Bridge in Vienna

The Empire Bridge is one of Vienna's most famous bridges. It crosses the Danube, the Danube Island and the New Danube and connects the second District of Vienna, Leopoldstadt, with the 22nd District, Danube city. The building extends from Mexico place at Handelskai (2nd district) in a northeasterly direction to the Danube City and the Vienna International Centre (District 22).

The current kingdom bridge (Reichsbrücke) was opened in 1980, it is the third crossing of the Danube in the same axis, which bears the name kingdom bridge. The first Empire Bridge (also: Crown Prince Rudolf bridge when Project: National Highway Bridge), an iron bridge on current five pillars existed from 1876 until 1937. The second Empire Bridge, a chain bridge with two 30-meter high pylons on two river piers, was opened in 1937, it was next to St. Stephen's Cathedral and the Giant Ferris one of the landmarks of the city of Vienna. After the Second World War it was the only intact Danube river crossing downstream of Linz in Austria and became the busiest stretch of road in Austria. On Sunday, the first August 1976 the bridge collapsed in the early morning hours on full width of the Danube into the water. In the accident, which was not foreseeable by the then state of the art, one person was killed. The meaning and emotional charge, which had received the bridge by its colorful past in the Viennese population, increased further by the collapse.

Prehistory

The Danube before regulation (centric is the location of the Reichsbrücke marked)

Some years after the devastating flood of 1830 was considering Emperor Ferdinand I to regulate the Danube and at the same time to build several bridges over the resulting stream bed. The plan was, among other things, a chain bridge approximately at the site of today's Empire bridge, whose construction costs were estimated at two to three million florins. However, these plans came as well as future intentions, build stable bridges over the unregulated Danube, before the Vienna Danube regulation not for execution, the projects went not beyond the planning stage. All bridges over the Danube, whether for road or since 1838 for the Northern Railway, then had rather provisional character. Jochbrücken Those were trestle bridges made ​​of wood, which were regularly swept away by floods or Eisstößen (bumps of ice chunks) and then re-built.

On 12 September 1868 eventually ordered Emperor Franz Joseph I, the nephew and successor of Ferdinand, the regulation of the Danube. At the same time, eventually, should be built "stable bridges". One of them should represent a direct extension of the hunter line (Jägerzeile) (today: Prater Road and the Schwimmschulstraße (now Lassallestraße). With the choice of this location a central urban axis should be continued, which ranged from the Gloriette in Schonbrunn over St. Stephen's Cathedral and the Prater Stern to the Danube. On the other side of the Danube, the bridge should join to the Vienna, Kagraner and Leopold Auer Reichsstrasse (since 1910 Wagramerstraße), which became a major transit route in the northeastern areas of the monarchy. The name of the bridge was accordingly to "Empire Road bridge" set.

First Reichsbrücke - 1876-1937

Crown Prince Rudolf bridge

Since 6 November 1919 : Reichsbrücke

Crown Prince Rudolf bridge since 6 November 1919: Reichsbrücke

Official name of Crown Prince Rudolf Bridge (1876-1919), since then Reichsbrücke

Use vehicles, trams (from 26 June 1898 on the current bridge single track) and pedestrian

crossing of Handelskai, Danube and floodplain

Construction iron lattice structures (river bridge), 341.20 meters

Total length 1019.75 meter (incl. bridge over Handelskai and floodplain)

Width 11.40 meters

Release 21 August 1876

Closure 11 October 1937

Toll 32 cruisers and 64 Heller per vehicle (up to 1904)

The by Franz Joseph commissioned bridge, which the main part of the 2nd district after the regulation of the Danube with the on the left bank lying part of the city Kaisermuehlen, the now Old Danube and the to 1890/1892 independent community of Kagran connected, was navigable from August 1876 to October, 1937. It has been renamed several times: During the construction period it had the preliminary name of Empire Road bridge, after its opening, it was Crown Prince Rudolf bridge. The term "Empire Bridge" but soon won through in general usage, as was said, for example, the stop of the Donauuferbahn (Railway) at the bridge officially Kommunalbad-Reichsbrücke. After the fall of the monarchy on 6 November 1919 it was officially renamed Empire bridge.

With a total length of nearly 1,020 feet, it was at that time the longest bridge connection over the Danube. It was 11.40 meters wide, the road took 7.60 meters and 3.80 meters, the two sidewalks. The original plan had provided a total width of eight fathoms (15.20 meters), the Parliament decided shortly before the start of the construction to reduce the width because of cost reasons.

The bridge consisted of three parts. The so-called Hubertusdamm, protected the March field against flood, and the flood area created in the Danube regulation (inundation) on the north, the left bank of the river was spanned by a stone, 432 meters long inundation bridge, which consisted of 16 sheets of 23 and 39 m width. Handelskai on the southern right bank of the river spanned the so-called Kaibrücke of stone with a length of 90.4 meters and four arches, each 18.96 m width. The actual current bridge was 341.20 meters long and consisted of four individual iron grating structures that rested on five 3.80 meter thick pillars, three of which were in the water. The distance of each pillar was 79.90 meters.

Construction

The current bridge seen from the north, from the left bank (St Stephen's Cathedral in the background); recording before the summer of 1898, there's no tram track

Construction began in August, 1872. Although at that time the stream bed of the Danube had already been largely completed, but not yet flooded. The Empire bridge was then, as the northern railway bridge Stadlauer Bridge and the Emperor Franz Joseph Bridge (later Floridsdorfer bridge), built in dry construction.

The building was designed by the Road and Hydraulic Engineering Department of Imperial Ministry of Interior, whose boss, Undersecretary Mathias Waniek Ritter von Domyslow, was entrusted with the construction management. Total construction cost of 3.7 million guilders. The metal construction had a total weight of 2,193 tons and was manufactured by Schneider & Co in Burgundy of Belgian welding iron.

The two piers on the banks were about five feet below the river bed, which is about eleven meters founded under the riverbed on so-called "blue Viennese Tegel" (a stiff to semi-solid floor similar to the clay which as sedimentary rock is typical for the Vienna basin). The pillars of the two foreland bridges (Kaibrücke and inundation bridge ) were established in shallow coarse gravel.

Of the four Danube bridges built at that time only the kingdom bridge (Reichsbrücke) was not opened to traffic when the new bed of the Danube on 14 April 1875 was flooded. Until 16 months later, on 21 August 1876, the birthday of the Crown Prince Rudolf, opened the Imperial Governor of Lower Austria , Baron Conrad of Sigmund Eybesfeld, representing the emperor, the bridge and gave her in honor of Crown Prince - contrary to the original plan - the name "Crown Prince Rudolf bridge". The opening ceremony was attended by a delegation from Japan, Minister of War Feldzeugmeister Graf Maximilian von Artur Bylandt-Rheidt and mayor of Vienna Cajetan Felder. The governor read a royal resolution, in which Franz Joseph announced the full imperial satisfaction with Oberbauleiter Waniek and several Engineers and Building Officers were awarded the Imperial Knights Cross. As highlight of the celebration the keystone of the last pillar of the ramp was set - under it were built into a cassette several documents, photos of the bridge, coins and medals.

Bridge operation

The Kaibrücke over the Handelskai on the south, the right bank of the Danube, recording c.1907

The bridge ramp and the four brick arches over the Handels on the south, the right bank of the Danube, it ( right) the bridge over the stream, recording from 1876

After the suicide of Crown Prince Rudolf in 1889, the bridge was popularly called "suicide bridge ". It was in the first years of its operation still not a very popular crossing of the Danube. Industry and trade settled slowly to the other side of the Danube. There were also no significant trade routes from north to March Field. Via the Old Danube, which it would have to be crossed, leading to around 1900 only a rickety wooden bridge.

In the first 28 years of its operation, the crossing of the Empire Bridge was charged. 32 cruisers and 64 Heller had to be paid per vehicle, which has been regularly criticized by newspapers in Vienna. Only after the villages north of the Old Danube in the year 1904/1905 than 21st district were incorporated, the crossing was provided free of charge and increased the popularity of the bridge. From 26 June 1898, the bridge was frequented by the tram. The occasion was the 50-year Jubilee of Emperor Franz Joseph. The route went (over the current bridge (Strombrücke) just single track ) for the moment to shooting range (Schießstätte) at Arbeiterstrandbadstraße and was on 22 December 1898 extended until Kagraner place. Operator was the Vienna-Kagraner train (WKB), which initially used for six railcars acquired from Hamburg. In 1904, the traffic operation of Vienna-Street Railways WKB.

The end of the bridge

1910 were counted in Vienna over two million inhabitants. On the left, northern bank of the Danube, more and more settlements and commercial enterprises emerged. This increased both the importance and the traffic on the Empire Bridge. Neither the load nor the total roadway width of less than eight meters were sufficient for this additional burden. 1930 damage was discovered at the bridge, which would have necessitated the refurbishment in the near future. In recent years, their stock weight restrictions has been to protect the bridge. Vienna's city government first planned a conversion of the old kingdom bridge. In 1933, under the federal government of Dollfuss a new building was disposed.

During the three years of construction work had the old bridge remain usable - ie the existing 340 meters long by 4,900-ton Strombrücke was there moved by 26 meters downstream in September 1934, and connected with the banks. The move operation lasted only six hours, the traffic interruption to the reusability lasted three days. The suspended bridge was then three years in operation. Immediately after the opening of its successor bridge it was dismantled.

Second Empire Bridge - 1937-1976

Second Reichsbrücke

The second Empire Bridge, circa 1975

Official name Reichsbrücke, from 11 April 1946 to 18 July 1956 the Red Army Bridge

Use private transport (2 lanes next to the tracks, 2 on the tracks), tram (2 tracks in the middle position), pedestrians (sidewalks 2)

Construction through the air: "Spurious" self-anchored chain bridge with reversed horizontal thrust); broadening of the inundation bridge used since 1876

Total length 1225 meters

Width 26.90 meters (including sidewalks)

Longest span 241.2 meters in the central opening, 60.05 and 61.05 meters in the side openings

Construction September 1934

Release 10 October 1937

Closure 1 August 1976 (collapse)

The second realm bridge had a total length of 1255 meters. The current bridge had a length of 373 meters and a maximum span length of 241.2 meters, the construction of the third largest chain bridge in Europe. It had two pylons made ​​of steel with a height of 30 meters above road top, standing on two piers and with the bridge superstructure burd two steel chains carrying.

The bridge was staged as a symbol of the wealth and size of Vienna. So it was yet in the late 1930s next to St. Stephen's Cathedral and the Giant Ferris emblem for the third city of Vienna declared and served as an internationally used symbol on all promotional literature and invitations to the Vienna Exhibition in 1938.

Competition

First, the Commerce Department announced a precompetitive, although that could win the architects Emil Hoppe and Otto Schonthal, the result of which, however, did not correspond with the Ministry and the City of Vienna. The final competition for the construction of the Empire Bridge was finally announced in Spring 1933 and awarded in November. As architectural advisor to the eight-member jury acted the architect Clemens Holzmeister. The jurors selected from 64 submitted, one of which even provided for a tunnel under the river Danube. The winning project was a chain bridge by architects Siegfried Theiss and Hans Jaksch. This design provided only two pillars standing in the water. Three quarters of the full width of the river should be free spans. The bridge would connect directly to the still-to-use, only to be widened inundation bridge of the first Empire bridge over floodplain and Hubertusdamm.

Construction

Construction began on 26 February 1934, two weeks after the civil war-like battles in February. The cost of 24 million shillings were imposed to one third of the city of Vienna, two-thirds came from the federal budget. There were only Austrian companies involved in the construction. The two pillars were erected in caisson construction.

Soon the first difficulties appeared. The ground, especially in the Danube River, on which the bridge piers and anchor blocks for the chains should be founded, proved to be less viable than the planners had anticipated. It was originally planned to have to shoulder a large part of the weight of the Strombrücke, primarily of the area lying between the pillars middle part of the bridge, of two chains that run on both sides of the two pylons and should be anchored right in the river on heavy, solid anchor blocks of concrete. However, it was feared that this abutment on the Danube soft soil by the large tensile forces of 78.5 million N (8,000 t) per chain would start sliding and could not be adequately anchored in the Danube ground.

Professor Paul Fillunger of the Technical University of Vienna became the largest public critic of the building. He was of the opinion that not only the foundation of the anchor blocks, but also the pillars of the Danube in the soft ground was irresponsible because the bridge would not have the necessary stability. Contrasting opinion was his colleague of professors, soil mechanics Karl von Terzaghi. In his view, the nature of the Danube soil was suitable for the pier foundation. The disagreement was part of a personal feud, which was publicly held. Together with his wife Fillunger took in 1937 due to a disciplinary procedure that ran against him at the Technical University of Vienna his life. The construction of the bridge was rescheduled after the proposals Terzaghis: the chains were not fastened to anchor blocks on the Danube ground, but directly to the two main girders of the steel supporting structure, ie on the bridge itself anchored.

In June 1936, the building was overshadowed by a shipwreck: the people steamer "Vienna" DDSG was driven to a pillar. The ship broke up and sank immediately. Six people were killed.

The final link in the chain was composed of 98 members on 16 November 1936 inserted. Thereafter the lowering of the support stand began to displace the chain in tension. The production of the concrete deck slab of the bridge deck and the installation of sidewalks followed in the spring of 1937, in the summer, the bridge was painted dark green.

From 1 to 3 October 1937 the stress test of the building took place in the stretched chains and the pylons were slightly rotated. Were then driven as a load test 84 trucks and 28 loaded with stones streetcars on the bridge and left to stand there for a few hours. All measurements were running satisfactorily, so that on 4 October the first tram of line number 16 was able to drive over the kingdom bridge. A day later, the bridge was unofficially released for streetcar traffic. To traffic it remained locked up to its opening.

Austro-Fascist propaganda

A labor-and cost-intensive project such as the construction of the bridge was fully in line with the spirit of the Austro-fascist regime: the end of 1933, unemployment stood at 38.5 percent. The construction of the second Empire bridge can therefore be seen as a job creation project, similar to the construction of the Grossglockner High Alpine Road or the Vienna High Road.

On 10 October 1937, the Empire Bridge was officially opened. The corporate state government held a solemn state ceremony with President Wilhelm Miklas, Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg, Cardinal Theodor Innitzer, the Vienna Vice Mayor Fritz Lahr and Trade Minister Taucher who called the new Reich bridge as a "symbol of creating life force of the new Austria". Present were alongside architects, project managers and designers also a delegation of the opus "New Life" of the Fatherland Front, all workers involved in the construction of the construction companies and 10,000 school children. Soldiers of the armed forces lined the shore.

The Viennese city researcher Peter Payer writes about the pompous production:

"Conspicuously, propagated the carefully staged celebration the new model of society of the Austro-fascist government: the ending of the class struggle and overcoming social barriers through meaningful work and cooperation of all professional groups. [ ...] The completion of the bridge was portrayed as unprecedented cultural achievement, as a joint work of all involved". - Peter Payer.

The event was broadcast live on the radio, the newspapers reported widely about it. At the event, postcards, envelopes, and a commemorative stamp was issued and even a "Reichsbrücke song "composed, in which was said:

"A thousand hammers, wheels, files,

thousand hands had to rush

the great work that was!

Salvation of the work that connects,

Hail to the work, healing our land!"

- Empire Bridge Song

The Empire Bridge in the Second World War

During the Second World War the German army used two support pillars of reinforced concrete under the Empire Bridge into the Danube, so that the building would not completely fall into the water when it was hit, but could be repaired. In addition, at each of the two pylons were erected platforms for anti-aircraft guns.

In early April, 1945, in the last days of the war, Soviet armies were moving from the south and west heading to the city center. The fleeing units of the SS blew up in their retreat to the north gradually almost all Vienna Danube bridges.

For the Nordwestbahnbrücke, the Floridsdorfer bridge and the Nordbahnbrücke the "defenders" of Vienna had by Hitler's headquarters on the 8th April 1945 sought the permission for demolition, the Stadlauer Ostbahnbrücke was also blown up without explicit permission. With the Reichsbrücke, however, Hitler had personally for days the blasting ruled out, still yet at 11 April 1945, just on 13 April afternoon allowed, at a time when the southern bridgehead was already occupied by the Red Army, was the northern bridgehead without coverage in their field of fire and the German troops who had retreated to the left bank of the Danube, north west withdrew, for not beeing closed in by the Red Army. There was therefore no chance to blow. The Red Army occupied the evening of the 13th April also the northern bridgehead.

On 11 April, at the height of the battle of Vienna, the Russian troops with armored boats already had been advanced on the Danube to the Reichsbrücke (officially called by the Russians "Object 56") and had obscured the area. They went on the right bank of the Danube, about 500 meters northwest of the bridge, on land and moved slowly to the building.

Decades later, it was unclear why exactly the Empire bridge was not blown up. The Red Army, the Austrian resistance movement O5 as well as members of the armed forces later claimed they just would have prevented the explosion. One version said that, at the Battle of 11 April some soldiers of the Red Army should have gotten to the beachhead, where they destroyed the explosive lines. Another version was that Red Army soldiers were led by a knowledgeable local Vienna sewer worker sneaked through the sewer system of Vienna to the bridge to prevent the demolition. Clarity created in 2012 the analysis of historical sources with the résumé. Ultimately, it was Hitler himself which had prevented demolition of the bridge until the last moment. The Reichsbrücke was now the only intact bridge crossing over the Danube between Linz and the state border. She was thus given a status symbol, it was a sign of the resilience of Austria.

The city council renamed the Empire Bridge on the anniversary of the liberation of Vienna on 11 April 1946 in honor of the liberators "Bridge of the Red Army Bridge". Was also on this occasion by the city government to the left of the bridge driveway in the 2nd district an obelisk (reddish colored lightweight concrete on wood construction) erected with the Soviet Star on the top of which was in German and Russian to read:

"THE HERO WILL

LANDING GUARD SQUAD

AND SAILORS

IN GRATITUDE

THE EXEMPT

VIENNA "

- Obelisk, then plaque on the bridge

The obelisk was removed after 1955. The inscription was then attached on a bronze plaque that was mounted directly to the bridge. The bridge was at 18 July 1956 re-named Reichsbrücke.

Reichsbrücke in the postwar period

To the rebuilding of Floridsdorfer bridge 1946 the Reichsbrücke was the only way to reach Vienna coming from the northeast on the road. Although it was not blown up, it still suffered numerous losses, primarily by shellfire. In 1946, took place the first rehabilitation of war damage of the bridge, ​​from May 1947 work on a larger scale was made. Thereby five hanging rods have been mended and repaired the vault of the inundation bridge. The smoke control ceiling above the Donauuferbahn has been replaced. At seven chain links had to be renewed a total of 26 blades. For this temporary piers were used on barges, which again ate on the river bed. The work was finished in 1952. On the Reichsbrücke originally was wooden heel patch installed, this was 1958-1960 replaced by granite stone pavement, which resulted in an additional load of 4688 kN for each pylon bearing. The enormous, newly ascended individual traffic led more often hinder the tram traffic on the bridge, therefore the tracks in the sixties by blocking lines have been declared not approved for individual traffic of the roadway. Now, congestion of vehicular traffic was the result.

Empire bridge collapse in 1976

The southern, right after the collapse of the banks, recording August 1976

Bridge debris on the north, left bank, recording August 1976

On Sunday, the first August 1976 Reichsbrücke 4:53 to 4:55 clock crashed to almost full length of the main bridge into the water. The first radio announcement was made at 5:00 clock. An eyewitness described the collapse as". The whole bridge has suddenly lifted a foot and then dropped loud crashing on the entire length".

On the Kaibrücke as well as on the Überschwemmungsbrücke (inundation bridge) the carrier collapsed in several places, but both bridges were standing. The Strombrücke itself broke into three parts, the middle part falling into the water as a whole and and the two outer parts obliquely hanging into the water. The south-facing pylon fell downstream and damaged heavily the stern of a passenger ship, the north side pylon collapsed in the other direction on the flood plain.

At the time of the collapse, five people were in four vehicles on the bridge: a bus driver in an urban articulated, two employees of the ÖAMTC in a roadside assistance vehicle, the driver of a Volkswagen Beetle, which had requested the breakdown service because of a defective tire following an accident as well as the driver of a minibus, who was employed as a driver at the ORF. The bus driver crashed his vehicle into the Danube and was rescued unharmed within hours. The ÖAMTC employees and the VW drivers were on that part of the Kaibrücke, which indeed broke and fell, but not completely destroyed, so that they could save themselves by foot. The ORF driver was trapped in his pickup truck and found his dead the day after the collapse.

Within an hour was a quarter of all vehicles of the in Vienna available Fire Brigade on the site of the collapse, it was the alarm given stage IV. Also, police, ambulance and army were represented by large contingents. The on the bridge located water pipes that supplied drinking water to the north of Vienna, put the Handelskai under water. Explosions were also feared because the gas lines running across the bridge were broken. There was on the scene for days strict non-smoking. First, many people were north of the Danube without gas, electricity, water and telephone. Already on the second August was, however, restored the supply.

de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reichsbr%C3%BCcke

Domplatz/Residenzstraße

New residence (Bamberg)

Cathedral Square with the cathedral , and New Age royal household residence

New residence, Vierzehnheiligen (Fourteen Saints) Pavilion

New residence on a model

The new residence is a more winged listed building on Cathedral Square in Upper Franconia Bamberg. It was the former home of Bamberg's prince-bishops. Today the complex consists of sandstone , the State Library and the National Gallery of Bamberg houses .

From the rose garden of the Neue Residenz one has a view to the St. Michael's Church and the rooftops of the citizens-town (Bürgerstadt).

History

The new residence was built with its four-bladed split in two construction phases.

First, from 1602 the two-leaf rear part was built in the Renaissance style and 1697-1703 under Prince-Bishop Lothar Franz von Schönborn the baroque front part under Prince-Bishop Johann Philipp von Gebsattel with the help of Leonhard Dietzenhofer. From 1803 on it was a royal residence .

History since 1803

On 1 June 1815 the residence of Bamberg was scene of one of the last episodes of the Napoleonic era : Louis- Alexandre Berthier, a marshal of Napoleon, found there by fall from an upper window his death. He chose to commit suicide because he did not want to fall into the hands of the approaching Russian army. A plaque in the center of the residence street commemorates the event .

The residence served for the abdicated Greek king pair Otto I and Amalie from 1862 to 1867 and in 1875 as exile.

Yet another time was the new residence for a short time the scene of the Bavarian history, as the elected government in 1919 under Prime Minister dodged Hoffmann and the parliament to Bamberg. The first Bavarian democratic constitution was adopted in the Mirror Hall of harmony on Schiller Square.

See also Munich Soviet Republic

Current usage

State Gallery, Department of German Painting

Showrooms

Rose Garden in May

There are over 40 state rooms, as the marble hall, the mirror room (each with stucco decorations of Antonio Bossi ) and the Imperial Hall. The Emperor's Hall is on the second floor of the middle section. It is fitted with wall and ceiling paintings by Melchior Steidl. Motives are medallions of Roman Emperors, the four ancient empires, a central ceiling representation of good regiment of Sciences ( represented by putti ) and about 16 life-size portraits of Emperors. The ceiling is constructed as a trompe l'oeil (French for deceive the eye).

State Library

The east wing of the new residence is the Bamberg State Library .

State Gallery

The State Gallery in the new residence is a branch gallery of the Bavarian State Painting Collections. Among the most famous paintings in the collection belongs Hans Baldung Grien's painting The Flood. [3]

Rose Garden

The rose garden between the wings of the residence is a resort for locals and visitors to the city. It granted an eastward view of the city landscape and the Jura mountains .

Before installation of the Rose Garden, there were in the 16th Century on the site a Renaissance garden, which was converted in 1733 by Prince- Bishop Friedrich Carl von Schönborn in a baroque garden. The design of the garden was transferred to the renowned architect Balthasar Neumann. By the architect Johann Jakob Michael Küchel the gazebo comes in the rococo style . The sculptures from the ancient mythology of the subject area (origin 1760 and 1761 ) come from Ferdinand Tietz.

On the area enclosed by beech hedges are flower beds where 4500 roses are blooming.

A Erinnerungsmal (commemorative plaque) for Otto I and his wife Amalie with an inscription in Greek and German language is in a blind arch of the wall.

Midtown, Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States

 

240 Central Park South Apartments, built in 1939-40 to the design of Mayer & Whittlesey, is a significant and innovative complex that represents the transition between 1930s Art Deco style apartment towers with courtyards (characteristic of Central Park West) and post-World War II “modernist" apartment houses. It is notable for its modernist near-lack of applied ornament and sophisticated planning. As stated by Architectural Forum in 1941, “the architectural character of these buildings stems directly from the plans... and the fenestration.’' Constructed by the Mayer family's J.H. Taylor Construction Co. for the J.H. Taylor Management Corp.. it was one of Manhattan’s largest luxury apartment projects of its day.

 

The architects were particularly skillful in adapting their plan to a highly prominent and complex site, with frontages along Central Park South. Columbus Circle. Broadway and West 58th Street. The complex consists of a 20-story. C-shaped-in-plan building (with an 8-story tower), facing Central Park, connected by ground-story lobbies and rounded shopfronts (following the diagonal of Broadway) to a 15-story building to the south. Covering only about half of the lot. the buildings provided a maximum amount of light, air. quiet, and corner apartments, which featured cantilevered balconies and views (many of Central Park). Landscaped open space included the entrance court, centra! courtyard and adjacent shops' rooftops, and roof terraces atop both buildings. Clad in an orangish-coiored brick, the buildings were detailed with broad steel-casement windows and the contrasting concrete of the balcony slabs. Amedee Ozenfanf s mosaic “The Quiet City" decorates the front entrance, while rooftop vertical architectural elements enliven the skyline. 240 Central Park South Apartments was marketed with an explicit suburban appeal, and the slogan "Where the Park is Part of the Plan." at a time when Manhattan was losing population to the outer boroughs and suburbs.

 

Lewis Mumford. in The New Yorker in 1940. praised its “ingenious” planning solution, while Architectural Forum called it "one of the best apartment buildings vet produced." Mayer & Whittlesey, founded in 1935 (Mayer, Whittlesey & Glass after 1945). was noted for planning and apartment housing, such as Manhattan Housed 950-51, with Skidmore, Owings& Merrill).

 

DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS

 

The Mavcr Family and J.H. Tavlor Construction Co./J.H Taylor Management Corp. 1

 

By the late 1930s, the J.H Taylor Construction Co. and J.H. Taylor Management Corp. had built, owned, and managed a number of large apartment buildings in New York City. Associated with these firms were members of the prominent German-Jewish Mayer family, who individually and collectively had a long involvement in New York real estate through their activities in architecture, engineering, construction, management, investment, and ownership through various corporate entities. Bernhard Mayer (1852-1929), son of Mayer and Fannie Mayer, was bom in Altdorf, Germany, and immigrated to the United States in 1872. He became a principal in the real estate firm of [LazarusJ Weil & Mayer, with his brother-in-law. Mayer left an estate worth over $2.5 million which, after charitable donations, was left to family members, principally his widow' Sophia Buttenwieser Mayer (1860-1945) and their six children.

 

All three male Mayer siblings were active in real estate and construction, while two sisters also achieved prominence.2 Joseph L.B. Mayer (1885-1939), a real estate agent specializing in Park Avenue properties, w'as an officer and director of the Gruenstein & Mayer Corp., and an officer of the corporations for 875. 1040, and 1069 Park Avenue and 205 East 69lh Street.3 Charles Mayer (1888-1980). a graduate of Columbia University with a degree in civil engineering and a master's degree in engineering (1909). became chief engineer in the construction of apartment and office buildings through his J.H. Taylor Construction Co. (founded 1913),4 as well as a consulting engineer on such projects as Lewisohn Stadium (1915. Arnold W. Brunner; demolished). City College. He also served as president of the J.H Taylor Management Corp. (formed in 1931). Albert Mayer (1897-1981) received a degree in civil engineering from M.I.T. (1919), worked for Charles (1919-35) and was a principal partner in the J.H. Taylor Construction Co. He was one of the architects of the 240 Central Park South Apartments [see belowl. Their sister. Fannie Mayer, married William Kom (1884-1972). who became president of the J.H Taylor Management Corp. and J.H. Taylor Construction Co. Among the J.H. Taylor Construction Co.'s projects were the Jewish Hospital addition (1922-23). Brooklyn; 40 Central Park South Apartments (1941); Lebanon Hospital (1942), the Bronx; and the office building at 1407 Broadway (1950. Kahn & Jacobs).

 

Clara Woollie Mayer (1895-1988). a graduate of Barnard College (1915). did graduate work at Columbia University in 1915-19. and became a student at the New School for Social Research in 1919. She helped to organize a student committee in 1922 to raise funds to assist the school’s then precarious financial situation. A

 

history of the New School states that she Urecruited her mother and several brothers and sisters to the school’s cause. Over the next fifty years only [director] Alvin Johnson played a more important part in the life of the New School.Clara Mayer was appointed a trustee on the school’s board of directors (1924-30), was secretary to the board (1931-46), assistant director of the New School (1931-36), associate director (1937-43), dean of the School of Philosophy and Liberal Arts (1943-60), vice president (1950-62), and dean of the New School (1960-62). The Mayer family contributed $100,000 towards the new building for the New School (1929-31, Joseph Urban). Her brothers’ J.H. Taylor Construction Co. was recruited to construct the building at low cost, and Charles and Albert have been credited with recommending Urban as architect.6 The famous New School auditorium was originally dedicated to the memory of their father. Bernhard Mayer.7 In 1956-59. the Mayer family contributed to the expansion of the New' School, which was designed by Albert Mayer's firm.8

 

Mayer & Whittlesey. Architects

 

Albert Mayer, after working for his brother Charles in construction and engineering, became a registered architect and in 1935 established the firm of Mayer & [Julian H.J Whittlesey, which specialized in the design of apartment buildings. Mayer was well known as a planner and housing consultant in the United States and abroad from the 1930s on. He was a member of the Regional Planning Association of America (1930-33) which influenced the creation of the Greenbelt towns project, and was a founder, with Henry Wright and Lewis Mumford. of the Housing Study Guild (1933) which made recommendations on public housing and advocated large, planned projects, leading to the creation of the U.S. Housing Authonty in 1937. Mayer received the apartment house award from the New York Chapter, American Institute of Architects (A.I.A) in 1941 for Thomeycroft Homes, Forest Hills, Queens, and participated in the design of the Ft. Greene Houses (1942-44. w'ith Clarence Stein, Rosario Candela, Wallace K. Harrison, Ely Jacques Kahn, Andre Fouilhoux, etc.), Brooklyn, for the New York City Housing Authonty. During World War 11, Mayer served in the U.S. Army Corps of Engineers in the construction of airfields, and his meeting of Jawaharlal Nehru led to a number of commissions in India, including a pilot development project for rural villages (1947 on) and the original master plan for Chandigarh, India (1950, with Matthew Nowicki).10 Mayer was an advocate for the rational planning of new towns, which included Kitimat, British Columbia (1951-56, with Clarence Stein). He retired from active architectural practice in 1961, but continued work as a housing consultant and as a professor, and was author of The Urgent Future (1967), in which he discussed his planning philosophies.

 

Julian Hill Whittlesey (1905-1995), bom in Greenwich, Connecticut, was educated in architecture and civil engineering at Yale University, and studied at the Fontainebleau School of Fine Arts, France, and the American School of Classical Studies. Athens. Like Mayer, he was interested in housing issues, and he worked as a consultant to the Resettlement Administration in the 1930s, as an advisor to the U.S. Public Housing Administration, and during World War II designed offices and housing for the military. Whittlesey participated in the design of the James Weldon Johnson Houses (1947-48, with Harry M. Prince and Robert J. Reiley), Park Avenue and East 112,h-1151’' Streets, and the Colonial Park Houses (1951. with Prince and Reiley). He also served as a consultant to the Baltimore and Yonkers Housing Authorities. In the 1960s. he worked as an archaeologist.

 

Mayer & Whittlesey and its successor firms were responsible for the design of a number of notable New York City apartment houses. The innovative 240 Central Park South Apartments (1939-40), an early commission, was built by the J.H. Taylor Construction Co. for the J.H. Taylor Management Corp. It was followed by the 22-story 40 Central Park South Apartments (1941), built by J.H. Taylor Construction Co. for Mayer family relative L. V ictor Weil. In 1945, Mayer & Whittlesey became Mayer, Whittlesey & IM. Milton] Glass. Glass (1906-1993), educated at City College, Columbia and New York Universities, and the Beaux-Arts Institute of Design, worked as a draftsman in a number of architectural offices prior to joining Mayer & Whittlesey, where he was head draftsman in 1940-45. Mayer. Whittlesey & Glass designed the noted 20-story Manhattan House (1950-51, with Skidmore, Owings & Merrill), 200 East 66tM Street, lor the New York Life Insurance Co., which employed the innovations and amenities of 240 Central Park South Apartments on a full-block scale. William J. Conklin (b. 1923) joined Mayer, Whittlesey & Glass in 1951 and became associate partner in charge of design in 1958. The firm was also joined by James S. Rossant. Mayer, Whittlesey & Glass received the medal of honor for large-scale housing and city planning, and an apartment house award, from the New York Chapter, A.I.A. in 1952. The firm designed 220 Central Park South Apartments (1954); New School for Social Research additions (Kaplan and List Buildings)( 1956-59, Conklin in charge of design), 66 West 12lh Street; Butterfield House (1959-62. Conklin and Rossant in charge of design), 37 West 12lh Street;11 Painting Industry Welfare Building (1960. Conklin in charge of design), 45 West 14"’ Street, featunng a glass curtain wall overlaid with a bronze screen; Gala East Harlem Plaza (1960) at the Jefferson Houses. First Avenue and 112th-115U| Streets; and the Premier (1960-63, Conklin in charge of design), 333 East 69th Street. Mayer. Whittlesey & Glass was dissolved in 1961.

 

The firm of Whittlesey & Conklin was formed in 1961 (Whittlesey, Conklin & Rossant after 1965); it developed the master plan for the new town of Reston, Virginia (1962-69). Conklin & Rossant, its successor firm, was established in 1967. Milton Glass began his own firm in 1961 that became Glass & (Elliott M.] Glass in 1966.

 

Columbus Circle and Central Park South

 

Columbus Circle was created at junction of Broadway, Eighth Avenue/Central Park West and West 59th Street (Central Park South). In 1868-71. Broadway had been widened and planted north of 59th Street, becoming known as “the Boulevard,” and by 1870, land was acquired for grander southern comer entrances to Central Park (designed in 1858 by Frederick Law Olmsted and Calvert Vaux).n The Plaza was created at Fifth Avenue and “the Circle" was established at Eighth Avenue. Maps of Central Park from this period indicate that the Circle was intended to have a sculptural focus. The Ladies Pavilion (1871, Vaux & Mould) was originally located at the park's southwest comer at the Circle. “Columbus Circle” came into being in 1892 w>hen the Columbus monument (Gaetano Russo, sculptor) was installed. The Ladies Pavilion was moved into the park and the comer came to be dominated by the Maine Monument (1901-13, Attilio Piccirilli, sculptor; A. Van Buren Magonigle, architect).

 

Central Park South has someli mes been referred to as a “gold coast" of Manhattan due to its advantageous location, facing the south end of Central Park, and the presence of luxurious hotels and apartment houses. In the early 1870s, town houses and mansions for New York's elite began to be constructed along Fifth Avenue and the adjacent blocks of the West 50s. Nearby West 57th Street, between Sixth Avenue and Broadway, has had a distinguished history as a center of the arts and music for over a century. Central Park South, first fully developed in the 1870s-80s, has from the beginning attracted a mix of hotels, residential structures, and institutions, as indicated on Robinson’s A tlas of the City of New York of 1885. Among the more notable were the Fifth Avenue Plaza Hotel (begun by Fife & Campbell; 1888-91, McKim, Mead & White), No. 2; the Hawthorne (1883, Hubert & Pirsson), No. 128; and Central Park Apartments (“Spanish Flats” or “the Navarro”) (1881-83, Hubert & Pirsson), a complex of eight buildings at Nos. 150-180 (all now demolished).

 

In 1885, a law was enacted to limit the height of all new residential construction in New York City to a height of 80 feet (six stones), but hotels and residential hotels were exempted because they were considered commercial properties. Central Park South thus continued to attract such structures. New buildings and institutions along the street at the turn of the century, some by prestigious architects, included the Plaza Hotel (1905-07, Henry J. Hardenbergh), No. 2, one of the world’s great luxury hotels; New York Athletic Club (1899, William A. Cable; demolished), No. 56; Deutscher Verein (German Club)( 1839-91. McKim, Mead & White; demolis' i), No. 112; Catholic Club (1891-92, William Schickt i Co.; demolished), No. 120; and Gainsborough Studios (1907-08, Charles W. Buckham), No. 222, which provided studios and apartments for artists.

 

During the period between the two world wars, many new hotels and apartments were constructed: No. 100 (1916-18, Schwartz & Gross); Plaza Hotel addition (1921, Warren & Wetmore); No. 126-130(1924-25, Schwartz & Gross); the Navarro (1925, J.E.R. Carpenter), No. 112; New York Athletic Club (1927-29, York & Sawyer), No. 180; Barbizon Plaza (1928-30, Lawrence Emmons, with Murgatroyd & Ogden), No. 106; Hampshire House (1927-29; 1931-38. Caughey & Evans), No. 150; Essex House (1929-30, Frank Grad). No. 160-170; Hotel St. Moritz (1929-30. Emery Roth), No. 56; No. 226-230 (1937-38, J.M. Felson); 240 Central Park South Apartments (1939-40); No. 40 (1941); and No. 120 (1941. H.l. Feldman).

 

240 Central Park South Apartments

 

In May 1939, a nearly one-acre site at one of the most visible locations in Manhattan, the entire blockfront along Broadway and Columbus Circle between West 58th and 59"' Streets (across from the southwest comer of Central Park), was purchased by 240 Central Park South. Inc., an entity of the J.H Taylor Management Corp. This site, once seventeen lots, had been assembled between 1881 and 1908 by George Ehret (1835-1927), a German-born brewer. An immigrant to the United States in 1857, Ehret had worked in the Roemelt & Co. (later Hupfel's) Brewery, becoming foreman, prior to establishing his own Hell Gate Brewery in 186 His enormous profits, which were invested in real estate led the New York Times to comment at his death that he “was said at one time to be the largest holder of real estate in New York City” after the Estate of John Jacob Astor. This property, one of only two vacant blockfronts along Broadway between Times Square and Columbus Circle.17 was transferred to the George Ehret Columbus Circle Corp. in April 1927. Apparently initially intended for a roadhouse or hotel it was developed with a large U-shaped, two-story Mission Revival style building that was used for used for automobile-related businesses (with large advertising signs on top).19 The building that had formerly housed Fire Engine Co. No. 23 (by 1885). 233 West 58"' Street, was next-door and aiso part of the assembled site.

 

Mayer & Whittlesey filed plans for an apartment building, expected to cost $1.6 million, in July 1939. According to the Real Estate Record & Guide. 240 Central Park South Apartments was intended as “a permanent headliner of the J.H Taylor Management Corporation's service, and not as a speculative venture.”20 Construction began in September and was completed, in just over a year, in September 1940. The final cost was $4.5 million.21 As built, the project, culled by the New York Herald Tribune “the largest [apartment house] now in construction in Manhattan.”22 was actually two buildings, joined at the ground story, that overlooked a central landscaped courtyard and covered only about half the site. The Real Estate Record commented that “this is probably the lowest land coverage in the city for an apartment project of this size. By sacrificing ground coverage, the builders have been able to incorporate a maximum number of comer suites.”23 The northern building facing Central Park is twenty stories in height, with an eight-story (plus tank house) tower, and is roughly C-shaped in plan around an entrance court. The southern building is fifteen stories. The architects were particularly skillful in adapting their plan to the highly prominent and complex site, and incorporated shops along Columbus Circle/Broadway into the project.

 

The architects said of the design process, “We had what amounted to a design board consisting of the architects, the owner, operating manager, the rental agent and the builder, together with such engineers as might have to be called in from time to time,”24 whose viewpoints and expertise were merged into “agreed decisions" which aimed to take into account factors of economy, progressive planning, and civic-minded architecture. After several schemes were proposed, the two-building solution was adopted and the building heights determined in large part due to elevator requirements. The Multiple Dwelling Law of 1929 had permitted the mechanical venting of public spaces, bathrooms, and kitchens in apartment buildings, resulting in the creation of a new apartment house type in Manhattan that combined the planning aspects of earlier mid-rise courtyard apartment buildings with tall towers. Examples of this type are the San Remo (1929-30, Emery Roth), the Majestic (1930-31. Irwin S. Chanin). and the Century (1931. Chanin). at 145-146. 115. and 25 Central Park West,25 and River House (1931-32. Bottomley, Wagner & White), 435 East 52nd Street. Architect-historian Robert A.M. Stem has stated that “after the collapse of the real-estate market in the Depression, the type was never again seriously pursued, except at 240 Central Park South, which despite the limitations of its courtyard remains a paradigm of the contextually responsible high-rise apartment in Manhattan.”

 

The buildings, clad in an orangish-colored brick, were constructed with steel-skeleton framing (produced by the Bethlehem Steel Corp.) set on reinforced concrete footings, with concrete-slab floors set between fireproofed steel beams. The open space of the complex, called by Buildings & Building Management “one of the most ingenious landscaping programs ever seen in New York.” was done under the supervision of landscape architects Cynthia Wiley and Eleanor Robertson Paepcke. Included in the overall landscaped open space scheme were the northern entrance court; off-street loading area and planting bed along 58th Street; gardens on the ground-story shops’ roofs and central court; a ground-floor conservatory, with a curved glass wall, connecting the lobbies of the two buildings and overlooking the interior gardens; a roof garden on the purposely-lower southern building; and roof terraces on the 2011' story of the northern building.

 

In terms of exterior architectural expression, 240 Central Park South Apartments represents a transition between the usage of the Art Deco, Art Modeme, and Modem Classical styles for New York apartments houses throughout the 1930s and post-World War II “modernism.” According to the New York Herald Tribune, “the architects conceived the idea while studying architecture in Stockholm, Amsterdam, and Vienna.”29 Albert Mayer was quoted on the project's modernist and functionalist aspects:

 

This building will introduce the philosophy of modern architecture, allowing the purpose of the structure and its location to dictate its style. New York has seen great strides in the design of business buildings, where such requirements as entire floors of space have dictated broad bands of windows, but until now little progress has been made in letting the comforts and requirements of the private home guide us in planning large apartment buildings. 30 Architectural Forum further stated on its modernism that The architectural character of these buildings stems directly from the plans as developed on different levels, and the fenestration. There is no applied “architecture. ” The exterior walls are flush, of a brick somewhat darker than the white concrete balcony slabs, whose sharp alternation of light and shadow constitutes the main decorative element of the exterior. 31 While there had been examples of fully modernist apartment buildings in Manhattan, such as the Beaux-Arts Apartments (1929-30. Kenneth M. Murchison and Raymond Hood), 307 and 310 East 44m Street, and Rockefeller Apartments (1935-37, Harrison & Fouilhoux). 17 West 54’" Street and 24 West 55"' Street,32 the modernist architectural approach was more typically seen during this period in public housing projects, garden apartments, and larger planned developments throughout the city.33 240 Central Park South Apartments is an unusual and innovative highrise luxury apartment complex in Manhattan, notable for its architecture, planning, and response to its urban site.

 

The retail shops along the Columbus Circle/Broadway side of the complcx include rounded storefronts staggered along the diagonal property line, adding a nearly Art Moderne style touch to the complex. According to Mayer “in this manner a new maximum in display value will be achieved through architectural beauty instead of at the expense of it. Each shop will enjoy many of the advantages of a comer location.” The main entrance court and Central Park South facade were embellished by a number of features: a glass-fronted lobby and entrance; a blue-grey extruded terra-cotta-block wall along the western side of the court: and the work of “collaborating artists,” according to Architectural Forum,35 apparently a reference to both the abstract mosaic mural entitled “The Quiet City” by Amedee Ozenfant3{l and ceramic plaques (no longer extant) on the Central Park South restaurant facade to the east of the court. An orange extruded terra-cotta-block entrance enframement and green tile inset planter decorate the 58U| Street facade of the southern building. Rooftop vertical architectural elements, such as water tower enclosure, chimneys, and wing walls, enliven the skyline.

 

240 Central Park South Apartments was planned with 326 apartments, ranging in size from one to four rooms. A large number of the apartments face Central Park, while the rest also have views due to the overall layout of the complex. The amenities offered were a mixture of those found in a traditional apartment house with those of an apartment hotel. A restaurant was located on the ground floor facing onto the entrance court. There was interior lobby access to the shops. An off-street loading area along 58Ul Street, partially covered by a roof, allowed for the transfer of goods by a hand truck ramp leading directly into the basement.

 

There were four passenger and two service elevators. Cantilevered balconies (averaging eight feet square) were provided for about 100 apartments above the seventh story facing Central Park and above the tenth or twelfth story in the southern sections of the project. Cantilevered comer windows and wide steel casement windows (in many locations the width of the room) allowed for a maximum of light and air. Most apartments above the sixth story had wood-burning fireplaces. Maid service was available and servants’ lavatories and separate service halls were located on each floor; workrooms, storage rooms, and laundry facilities were provided in the basement. A solarium/recreation room was located on the 20dl story of the northern building. Construction included special sound insulation (including elevators) and insulation against heat from boilers, etc. An independent generating plant provided power for the complex, while a hot water heating system was “the first plant of this type ever introduced in a tower apartment house.”37

 

The marketing appeal of 240 Central Park South Apartments was explicitly suburban. Buildings & Building Management pointed out that the J.H. Taylor Management Corp. was well aware that Manhattan had lost a population of 650,000 over the preceding two-and-a-half decades to the outer boroughs and suburbs.38 In its prospectus and advertising, J.H. Taylor used the slogan “Where the Park is Part of the Plan” in recognition of its site facing Central Park, the project’s own landscaped open space, and the prospective residents’ “wide-spread enthusiasm for out-of-doors life, fresh air, sunshine and vistas of green lawns and trees.”39 Architectural Forum commented that

 

The architects... had formulated certain ideas -and actual plans — as to how people might live and would want to live, if they preferred to live in the inner city, rather than in the suburbs, or if they could be convinced that the city had something less stony and court-yardy to offer than the inner cores of our cities have generally known. Their ideas... included the romantic vistas that our cities afford, but usually give only to the top few floors of their tallest buildings. They included a pattern of gardens, of open-air dining, of solariums, not only for the few fantastically pricedpent-houses and terraces, but for all who decided to live in their buildings. And also an intimation of these, a sense of greenery and openness and refreshment even to passers-by. 40

 

A special mail campaign and newspaper advertisements were particularly successful in attracting tenants. The building was over twenty-five percent rented by May 1940, and was seventy percent rented by August. Starting rents were about $550 a room.

 

Critical Response

 

240 Central Park South Apartments, though not widely noted in the architectural press at the time of its construction (possibly due to the timing between the end of the Depression and World War II), was featured in three notable publications. Lewis Mumford, in The New Yorker in December 1940, opined that

 

The new apartment house... shows that in single projects... the architectural imagination has not gone stale. This one seems to me, at least in form, the finest in its class that has been put up since the Rockefeller apartments, and its interior plan is, I think, superior to theirs. ... The architects... had a very teasing problem. The plot is irregular... Their solution was an ingenious one, which gives the living quarters of their buildings the maximum possible light, air, and quiet. ... the ingenuity of the solution lies in the fact that only the western flanks of these two buildings abut on noisy, raucous Broadway. 41 Mumford additionally admired the “very pleasant orangey back” of the buildings, the breadth of the apartment windows, the extensive use of balconies, the openness of the glass-fronted main entrance, and the Broadway shopfronts, and wrote that “in the difficult matter of terminating a high building, the architects again, by the simplest means, have scored a real success.” The apartment complex was included in the Museum of Modem Art’s Guide to Modern Architecture of 1940 which called it “a conscientious restudying of the apartment house problem, with particular attention to light, air, and view.”43 It was also praised in May 1941 in Architectural Forum:

 

It show s a host of improvements which taken together add up to one of the best apartment buildings yet produced. ... the plan... shows an admirably worked out scheme fora difficult site.

 

The solution is notable for the skill with which a maximum number of rooms have been given a view of the park, and for the flexibility with which various types of living units have been fitted into a standardized structural layout. 44 The complex has been singled out in more recent criticism. Architectural critic Paul Goldberger in the New York Times in 1977 listed the building among “The City's Top 10 [Luxury] Apartment Buildings,” stating that this often-overlooked building at the edge of Columbus Circle contains not only good apartments, but also some splendid urban lessons. ... The apartment house is thoughtful, intelligent, and unpretentious throughout - one of the last pieces of luxury housing in New York about which that can be said. 45 Goldberger further lauded the building in The City Observed: New York (1979):

 

[Central Park South’s j last building is one of its very finest, No. 240... Here, urbanistic concerns were paramount... a complex form consisting of a pair of towers atop a zigzag, garden-topped base was used. The base brings variety to storefronts and rhythm to the building's Columbus Circle facade; the overall massing emphasizes park views and brings individuality to apartment layouts. It is a remarkably sophisticated design, substantially ahead of its time in its knowing response to a difficult urban site. 4(1

 

Robert A.M. Stem wrote in an article in 1980 that 240 Central Park South comes at the point when the transition between traditional and modernist styles strongly affected American practice and produced a number of interesting buildings which, because of the ideological positions the shift forced architects and critics alike to take, have been largely overlooked. 47 Stem later observed in New York 1930 (1987) that It was not its bland facades that lent 240 Central Park South distinction but rather the shaping of the two towers, particularly the northern one, in response to the complex perimeter of the site. Aspects of the courtyard apartment building were combined with those of the skyscraper apartment building to establish both a horizontal and vertical reflection of the city's composition. Terraces began only above the

 

level of the trees in Central Park (high enough to be free of the fumes of the street); roofs were set back not only to conform to zoning requirements but also in consideration of solar orientation and views; and chimneys and mechanical equipment combined with the penthouse suites to produce a lively skyline. At the street level the building respected the varied nature of its locale: a deep, planted courtyard on Central Park South created an elegant pocket of shade, while a vigorous one-story commercial strip along Broadway used curved corners to define the diagonal of the street. The building succeeded... as an exemplar of humane values applied to the problem of high-density city living and as a finely tuned instrument of urbanism. 4S

 

Later History' of 240 Central Park South 49

 

240 Central Park South. Inc., original owner of the property, sold it in May 1976 to Central Park South Associates, an entity of Sarah Korein, a New York real estate mogul known for choice Manhattan properties. Sarah Rabinowitz (c. 1905-1998). born in Germany and raised in Palestine, married Isidor Korein, a Hungarian engineer, and immigrated to New York City in 1923. After the purchase of two apartment buildings in Brooklyn in 1931 and 1941, she entered the Manhattan real estate market after the war with the purchase of 715 Park Avenue. She later bought and sold the Osborne Apartments, the Beresford. Croyden Hotel, Fifth Avenue Hotel, and Schwab House Apartments, and owned the land and/or buildings at Lever House, Equitable Building. 1 Penn Plaza. Delmonico Hotel, Swiss Center, and 220 and 240 Central Park South Apartments.

 

Among the building’s many residents over the years have been Antoine de Saint-Exupery {1941-). later author of The Little Prince (1943); actress Sylvia Miles (since 1968); Albert Mayer (c. 1975 to his death in 1981); Claru Mayer (c. 1975-86); and the fictive Lois Lane in the movie Superman (1978). Directories list an office of the J.H. Taylor Management Corp. here from 1940 to the 1980s.

 

Description

 

240 Central Park South Apartments consists of two buildings, connected at the ground story, overlooking a central landscaped courtyard. The northern building along Centra! Park South is roughly C-shaped in plan around a planted entrance court and is twenty stones in height with an eight-story (plus tank house) lower. The southern building along West 58th Street is fifteen stories. Both buildings are steel-skeleton-framed and faced in orangish Belden Stark brick, with slate sills and concrete cantilevered balconies with original metal railings. A restaurant has been located in the ground-story space east of the entrance court. Retail shops are located on the west

 

side of the entrance court and on the Columbus Circle/Broadway side of the buildings, some with rounded storefronts staggered along the diagonal of the property line. The shops' roofs comprise part of the central courtyard and entrance court. The majority of the original Fenwrought steel casement windows (cantilevered at the comers) survive, mainly in two configurations: 1) central fixed single pane, flanked by casements with upper and lower fixed panes 2) casements with upper and lower fixed panes. Some windows have been replaced. There are also some smaller one- and two-pane windows. Brick replacement, repair, and coating in recent years has resulted in a variety of brick colors.

 

Central Park South Building The northern building of the complex is twenty stones in height, with an eight* story (plus tank house) tower, and is roughly C-shaped in plan around an entrance court [see below'], with a southern wing. A restaurant has been located in the ground-story space cast of the entrance court. Histonc bnck window enframements (with slightly recessed brick) survive, though original ceramic decorative plaques have been removed from the piers. There were originally four bays of windows along Central Park South (with tripartite windows with tripartite transoms, except that at the eastern end. which was bipartite); the comer by the entrance court was originally a glass-fronted inset restaurant entrance with a terra-cotta comer column supporting a slightly projecting shelf canopy. There are currently four large non-historic, single-pane windows with metal surrounds set within the historic enframements and altered former restaurant entrance comer; an entrance with non-historic revolving door and metal-and-glass door was inserted in the second bay from the eastern end (it has a non-histonc canopy). The windows have non-historic awnings. The retail shops located on the west side of the building begin at the west side of the entrance court [see below].

 

There is brick patterning on the lower portions (second to fourth stories) of the northern facades of the two wings. An abstract mosaic mural (“The Quiet City.” by Amedee Ozenfant) is located over the entrance, in two panels above and below the third story. Cantilevered balconies are placed above the seventh story on comers facing Central Park, and above the twelfth story on comers of the southern facade. There are comer windows where there are not balconies, except on the southern wing. The eastern wall of the building is set back from the side lot line above the ground story (which is surmounted by a terrace with its original metal railing); the wall is pierced by window's.

 

The 20“' story has penthouses, the original solan urn/recreation room, and three roof terraces (including one to the south), the eastern one having a pergola. The tower (2P‘ to 28"‘ stones plus tank house) has balconies on the 22"d to 26ll‘ stones of the northern

 

facade; comer terraces on the 27th story of the northern facade; and tank house surmounted by a roofed terrace (now enclosed). The northern facade of the tank house portion of the lower has windows divided by pilasters clad in blue-gray extruded terra-cotta blocks (the lower portion of the east pilaster has been replaced by bntt.). Roofs have chimneys, wing walls, bulkheads, and stairs. Entrance Court The entrance court has a concrete sidewalk leading to the entrance with low retaining walls with aggregate concrete coping, one stone-clad entrance post, tile and flagstone paving to the east with a tree pit and small planting beds, and a planting bed to the west. The original iron railing (lined on the interior with a planting strip) borders the court along the Central Park South sidewalk and is set on a base (now clad in flagstone); the railing originally ended at the entrance area leading to the restaurant, but now extends to the east. A long non-historic entrance canopy extending to the Central Park South sidewalk and non-historic lamp standards have been placed in the court.

 

The original curved one-story bnck-clad entrance pavilion has large fixed panes with transoms and an inset entrance with non-historic double aluminum and glass doors, surmounted by a projecting roof that extends to the east as a canopy, which is supported by a pole. The west wall of the entrance court is clad in blue-gray extruded terra-cotta blocks ( by Atlantic Terra Cotta Co.); this wall was later pierced by two windows. This wall enclosed a one-story shop to the west; the shop is surmounted by a terrace that is bordered on the east and north by the original metal railing. The east wall of the court currently has three non-historic single-pane windows with awnings and an historic three-pane window with tripartite transom at the southeast comer of the court.

 

Shopfronts: Central Park South and Columbus Circle/Broadway Retail shops are located on the western side of the complex, beginning at the comer of Central Park South and continuing along the Columbus Circle/Broadway side of the buildings. Four one-story bays have rounded storefronts staggered along the diagonal of the property line. All of the shopfronts originally had a continuous black signband above a continuous metal band above black-painted glass signbands in the transoms of the shopfronts. The shops' roofs comprised part of the landscaped central courtyard. From north to south:

 

1)The shop on the west side of the entrance court was originally entered through the lobby interior. It was later combined with two shops to the west. The shop at the comer of Central Park South and Columbus Circle has a recessed inset comer entrance (with the building cantilevered over it). Recent shopfront alterations include new brick facing and (in bays east to west on Central Park South): a louver and a metal door with parged transom area: two double-pane windows with anodized aluminum framing; and two triple-pane windows with anodized

 

aluminum framing. The comer entrance has anodized aluminum and glass double doors with a transom and sidelights. The recent brick facing continues on the staggered Columbus Circle/Broadway side, which has multi-pane winaows with anodized aluminum framing. A non-historic awning extends around the comer.

 

2)The shop in the center of the Central Park South building has an inset entrance with a painted metal and glass door and transom, flanked on the north by a glass comer shopfront window and on the south by a projecting glass shopfront window with painted metal framing (both without transoms) set above a brick-and-glassblock bulkhead, and a black glass signband,.

 

3)The shop in the south end of the Central Park South building has an inset entrance with an aluminum and glass door and transom, flanked by projecting glass shopfronts with aluminum framing (without transoms) set above a granite bulkhead. It has a non-historic awning.

 

4)The rounded shopfront has metal window framing (in its original configuration but without a transom) set above its historic brick bulkhead (now painted) with its original openings (formerly windows, now vents), and a non-histonc aluminum door and awning. The shopfront originally had a metal railing above slate coping; there is currently a metal-spike security fence.

 

5)The rounded shopfront has later metal window frami ng (without a transom) set above its historic brick bulkhead with original openings (formerly windows, now vents; the southern one is covered), and a non-histonc aluminum and glass door, awning, and rolldown gates. The shopfront originally had a metal railing above slate coping; there is currently a metal-spike security fence.

 

6)The two northern bays of the southernmost shop are rounded shopfronts with original metal window framing with transoms set above their historic brick bulkheads with original openings (formerly windows, now vents and covered by signs). The portion of the shop in the 58Ul Street building has an angled shopfront with metal framing in its original configuration with transoms set above its historic bnck bulkhead with signs placed in original window openings, and has anodized aluminum and glass entrance doors and transom. The southern piers are covered with painted sheet metal. The rounded bays originally had a metal railing above slate coping; there is currently a metal-spike security fence. The entire shopfront has a continuous non-historic awning.

 

West 58th Street Building The southern building of the complex is fifteen stories in height and is a slightly irregular slab in form. The lobby entrance on 58lh Street has an enframement of orange extruded terra-cotta blocks (by the Atlantic Terra Cotta Co.) (a portion to the east of the entrance has been pierced by an air conditioner, with a brick surround); original signage “235 W 58" and “240 CPS”; and non-historic anodized aluminum and glass doors and box awning. To the west of the lobby entrance is an original glazed green tile inset planter; a doctors’ sign plaque above the planter (in its historic location); and a row of small single-pane windows. To the east of the lobby entrance, multi-pane windows flank an inset office entrance, with a wood and glass door, brick steps, and non-historic iron gate. The ground story is capped by brick patterning.

 

Cantilevered balconies are placed above the tenth story. There are comer windows where there are not balconies. The roof has a garden, a pergola at the west end, and bulkheads.

 

Central Courtyard The central courtyard consists of the area between the Central Park South and 58th Street buildings, as well as the roofs of the one-story shops along Columbus Circle/Broadway. Atop the shops there were originally three raised planting beds, with brick retaining walls. The curved glass wall of the ground-story conservatory (connecting the lobbies of the two buildings) overlooks the courtyard on the west side. The eastern portion of the courtyard is divided by the submerged (zigzag in plan) hand truck ramp (bordered by brick walls) leading to the basement from the off-street loading area on 58"’ Street. To the east of the ramp is a planting bed. and to the west was originally a roughly T-shaped planting bed and two small circular planting beds, both raised with bnck retaining walls. Paths had gravel paving. Portions of the original landscaping scheme survive.

 

58th Street Off-Street Loading Area, Service Entrance, and Planting Bed Off of 58lh Street are a number of original features: a loading area for two trucks, paved with concrete and partially covered by a canopy roof enclosed on the north by a brick wall with metal gates; a brick post at the east end of the loading area at the sidewalk; a service entrance sidewalk with two brick entrance posts of different heights at the street end; and an L-shaped raised planting bed bordered by a brick retaining wall. There was originally a planting strip between the retaining wall and the street sidewalk. Original sidewalk and loading area gates have been removed. This entire area is currently enclosed by non-historic rolldown gates and chainlink fencing; there is also chainlink fencing along the east side of the service entrance sidewalk and above the loading area canopy roof.

 

- From the 2002 NYCLPC Landmark Designation Report

(further information or pictures you can see by clicking on the link at the end of page!)

Stiftskaserne (barracks), Vienna, Stiftgasse

The Stiftskaserne (now officially official building Stiftgasse) in the 7th Vienna's district Neubau is a military building of Vienna. It is located in the Stiftgasse 2-2a, a side street of Mariahilferstraße.

History

17th Century

The Stiftskaserne goes back to a foundation of wealthy Hofkammerrats (Court privy councillor) Johann Konrad Richthausen Freiherr (Baron) von Chaos in favor of orphaned children. In the suburb Laimgrube on one acre was built a house, which was used as a summer home for the children.

1679 along the Mariahilferstraße the so-called Moser tract was built, 1681, the site was surrounded by a wall. During the Second Siege of Vienna the buildings were badly damaged, to 1687 but made ​​habitable again and to 1693 extended by further additions.

After moving the pupils from Chaos'schen foundation house at Kärntner Strasse in Vienna here, the complex was expanded again in 1696 and a private hospital Stöckl (as Stöckl small manor-like buildings with only one floor are referred to, Wikipedia) built, so that the complex from Mariahilferstrasse in the south to the Spittelberg in the north extended.

18th Century

Memorial plaque on the Stiftskaserne

1732 the so-called Moser tract was increased (1875 this building was remodeled according to plans by Eugen Schweigel). On 4 February 1735 handed the Hofbuchhaltereibeamte (official of the Court bookkeeping office) Georg Franz Griener the Court chamber 20,000 guilders over with the purpose from it train young men in the war and engineering sciences. From this foundation developed to 1736 in cooperation with the Chaos'sche foundation a School of Engineering, from which developed an engineering academy. It was left a part of the Foundation building. 1739 the foundation stone for the church was laid. 1746 by the Duchess Maria Teresa of Savoy-Carignan the Savoyard Aristocrat Academy was donated. For this purpose a strip of land was acquired by the Chaos'schen foundation behind the church and the so-called "Academy tract" built - along today's Stiftgasse. At the same time in the area Stiftgasse/Siebensterngasse was built a riding school. This academy was opened in 1749, in 1756 subordinated to Maria Theresa, and in 1776 united with the Theresa Academy.

The by Georg Franz von Griener donated Engineering Academy returned after several changes of residence again in the Chaos'sche orphanage, where it had been started.

19th Century

1851 this Engineering Academy was again moved, this time to Klosterbruck at Znojmo in South Moravia. By 1853 another tract (middle tract or Sappeurtrakt) was built and the building complex turned into Stiftskaserne. In Sappeurtrakt till 1875 the infantery was billeted. The k.u.k. War School from 1859 to 1865 was housed in the Stiftskaserne. The infantry cadet school was in 1869 until its transfer to the infantry cadet school in Breitensee in 1898 also based here. The as well since 1869 in the Stiftskaserne located k.u.k. Technical Military Academy in 1904 came to Mödling into a new building in which today the HTL (Secondary Technical School) Mödling is housed.

20th Century

In the rooms that were once built for the Savoy Academy, the war archive and library from the War Department was transferred. After the two schools had moved out and thus large premises were vacated, there again troops of the Imperial army were billeted and by 1914 several staffs and inspectorates. During the First World War, the Stiftskaserne served as a military hospital of the Imperial and Royal Medical service.

Immediately after the war here units of the people's militia were billeted, but also liquidation offices. Later followed the army (Bundesheer) with infantry units, specialized courses and schools. In 1935, the Stiftskaserne became site for parts of the newly formed Guards Battalion.

View of the flak tower in the courtyard of the Stiftskaserne

During the Nazi era, the German Wehrmacht used the Stiftskaserne and built here 1943-1944 the partner tower of the flak tower in Esterhazy Park. During the occupation, U.S. troops were here stationed, including the military police. After 1955 the army again moved here, later followed also departments of the Ministry of Defense.

Presence

Today in the Stiftskaserne are located the National Defence Academy, the editors of the journals "Österreichische Militärische Zeitschrift" and "Truppendienst", the photographic and film service of the Army, the Command and parts of the Command Support Center, the Austrian Military Library, the Military Ordinariate, the Militärsuperintendentur (Military superintendency) and some departments of the Federal Ministry for National defense. Also, a police inspection of the Federal Police, which has a separate entrance, is housed in the building.

The Stiftskaserne is also name giver of the eponymous, consisting of six Zählsprengeln (census tracts) Zählbezirks (registration district) of the official statistics.

de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Stiftskaserne

The Docks are a dominant feature both of Great Grimsby's geography and economic history, and the Dock Tower, rising 309' above the town, looms over Grimsby and Cleethorpes as a stately reminder of this. Perhaps ironically for such a monumental structure it has been redundant for most of it's life, and as such a doubly suitable symbol for a declining industrial town. In the past it has been proposed that it be dismantled, and only the prohibitive cost has prevented it. Though had such a thing been attempted the people of Grimsby would surely have been up in arms, such is the pride held in the tower.

 

This pride is by no means misplaced. Despite being a functional, industrial building, it was designed and built with an eye for grace and elegance which marries the schools of British Industrial architecture with more classical Renaissance and Moorish influences. The result is tall graceful building, reminiscent of a hugely oversized minaret, but in the red brick of Victorian Railway buildings. The main body of the Tower, which housed the pumping mechanisms for the dock's hydraulic lock gates rises 224', yet at it's base is only 28' square. The main body tapers imperceptible to 26' before flaring out to form a balcony, 200 feet above the town, which held the Tower's huge water tanks. Above this is a second section of the tower, like the first in miniature rising another 57' topped with an octagonal Lantern House a further 37 ft tall. The last 100' of the building are purely decorative.

 

Though Grimsby is famed for it's fishing the Tower was not part of that industry that made the port a boom town as many people believe. Grimsby was founded upon commerce not fishing, and the Tower formed part of the original commercial dock complex, and both the Tower and Grimsby's thriving commercial traffic have survived the towns meteoric economic expansion and decline.

 

At the time of it's construction in 1849 it was the highest building in Lincolnshire and the tallest brick built building in the country, while its single cast iron spiral staircase was the longest in the world1. It is a landmark visible as soon as one surmounts the Wolds twenty miles away at Caistor, and one of the first sights for sailors coming into the Humber (though now the nearby Titan Chimney is more of a signpost for sea traffic).

 

Local legends suggest that the Tower is "Built on cotton wool", that exactly one million bricks went into its construction and that the staircase within has a step for every day of the year. And anyone on the South Bank who lives within sight of the tower can call himself a Grimbarian, even if he lives outside the town limits.

 

The Docks

 

Early History

 

When the first settlers came to Grimsby the town was just boulder clay, rising up at the edges of the salt marshes of the Humber estuary. This was an ideal spot for sea trade, saltmaking and fishing, and on these things the town established itself.

 

The Haven was Grimsby's original natural dock, a small inlet which ran the length of what is now the Alexandra Dock to the Riverhead and on south towards the Wellow area. During the construction of the Riverhead Shopping Centre in the early 1970's and Freshney Place in the early 90's the original 12th and 14th century waterfronts were uncovered here, though now, sadly, they lay amongst the foundations of these neo-vernacular temples of Mammon.

 

Trade in the Middle Ages was good, but by the 17th Century had floundered as the Haven began to silt up. To revitalise trade, and the town, the nearby River Freshney was diverted into the Haven in 1697. However ships could still not land in this harbour, so keels were required to transport goods from ships into the Haven. Because of this while Grimsby had gone into decline Hull Docks had thrived, and in order that Grimsby might take the surplus of this trade and Act was passed in 1796 to form the Grimsby Haven Company and Johnathan Pickernal of Whitby was commissioned to draw up plans for the new docks, and the Haven became a six acre locked dock in 1800, and was to prove to be of great use in the Napoleonic Wars.

 

The Railways and the Cofferdams

 

The construction of the Dock Tower came with the Amalgamate Act of 1846 and the formation of the Grimsby Dock Company, which formulated the plans for a railway into Grimsby and the construction of a new commercial dock and, for the first time, a fish dock. Designed by J M Rendall the two docks were to be built on land reclaimed from the Humber by the construction of a huge cofferdam one and a half miles long, enclosing some 138 acres of new ground and forming a small peninsula. The cofferdams were built by Messrs Lynn of Liverpool. Starting in the spring of 1846, three dams of fir piles were sunk and infilled with chalk and clay, wharves and embankments constructed so that excavation of foundations could be made.

 

In 1848 the Railway was completed connecting Grimsby to the industrial centres of the North. And the docks themselves were begun, built this time by Messers Hutching, Brown and Wright. In addition to Rendell's docks the Grimsby Dock Company commissioned a low power hydraulic water tower to power the huge lock gates of the various docks.

 

On April 18th 1849, with the dams in place and the railway in place, Prince Albert came to lay the foundation stone of the new dock walls. The Prince Consort arrived onto the dockside in a railway carriage pulled not by an engine, but by teams of navvies employed in the docks construction. A public park, Prince Albert gardens, was built at the docks entrance, overlooked by a statue of the Prince himself. With the formalities dispensed with construction of the central pier on which the Dock Tower stand was begun.

 

The Tower

 

Building the Tower

 

The commission to build the Great Grimsby Hydraulic Tower went to a Mr. J.W. Wild. The design fell to Wild upon his return from his grand tour of Egypt, the Mediterranian and the Middle East; some of his notable public buildings were erected in Alexandria and Tehran, and the mark of his travels can be seen in his design. The Tower is based primarily upon the 'Torre de Mangia' clock tower of the Palazzo Pubblico, in Siena, Italy, but Wild combined the feel of this building with the grand scale of the obelisks of Egypt and the minarettes of the great mosques to produce a building of terrific grace, power and beauty.

 

The central pier between the locks upon which the Tower now stands was constructed at the same time as the locks themselves. The pier area was excavated to a depth of 10', whereupon 35' long fir piles were sunk as foundation and the excavated area capped with 2 ft of concrete. The pier sides were lined with spiked firs and the stone walls laid against them, the blocks 5 1/2' x 4 1/2' and 2' thick were then faced with 6" thick York stone flags. A hardcore foundation then filled the internal cavity - rubble, clay and concrete and only then was the ground laid for the building's 28' x 28' footings.

 

As stated earlier, local legend suggests that the tower was built on cotton wool, the origin of this lays in another apocryphal story. During the laying of the foundations for the building problems were incurred when the excavations kept filling with water, no amount of bailing seemed to help, when someone suggested soaking the water up using bails of sheep's wool kept in a dockside warehouse. The bails were employed and found successful, and some say the bails are supposedly there to this day beneath the hardcore footings.

 

The walls that stood on those footings were 28' long and 4' thick and rose a clear 224' 9" to the top of the main tower, by which time they had tapered to an exterior dimension of 26' square and 3ft thick. At this point the building flares out into the beautiful 'balcony' which gives the building much of it's character. It was here 247' up that reservoir tanks holding 30,000 gallons of water were installed. This amount of water a such a height created 100psi of pressure. Above this was the ornamental second tower (57') and lantern House: (37' 10 1/2") which give the building its archetectural grace and symmetry.

 

The bricks from which the building is constructed were manufactured on the site, the clay dug from the marshes which are still a major feature of the town. And so the building sprang from the earth on which it stands, it defines Grimsby not only because of it's imposing presence, but because it is built from it's very soil. It is supposed to be the tallest brick built structure in the world.

 

The building of the Cofferdams, the Tower and the two docks cost a total of £1,050,000.

 

Using the Tower

 

The Dock Tower began it's working life in 1952 when the Royal Dock was completed. The Dock Tower provided hydraulic power for both the lock gates and the operation of 15 cranes along the dockside. The lock gates were made from Oak, Teak and Mahogany and were over 30' high, and require two people to operate them during the 2 and a half minutes it took for them to open. The Tower also provided the fresh water for the whole of the dock site. The source of the Tower's water was a well sunk directly down into the chalk bedrock, deep beneath the bolder clay on which Grimsby stands. This fresh water rose up the tower through a cast iron pipe 200 feet, where it was pumped into a tank by two 10" diameter force pumps on a 25 horse power engine. This gave enough constant hydraulic pressure to suit the docks needs back in the 1800's, and the Tower went on to witness the opening of Grimsby's original fish dock (1857), Fish Dock No. 1(1866), Fish Dock No. 2(1878), Union Dock (1879) and the Alexandra Dock (1880) servicing their needs for power.

 

After two years of operation the Docks and the Tower were officially opened in October 1854 by Queen Victoria. The Queen was accompanied by Prince Albert and the Princess Royal who rode to the top of the tower on the wooden lift inside. Following her visit the Tower became something of a tourist attraction, and visitors could take the 225' lift ride for 6d.

 

In 1892, with the advent of electricity, a second tower was built. This was a small 78' accumulator tower which was capable of providing 8 times as much power. This small castellated building was built in a sympathetic design on the pier to the east of the Dock Tower, where it still stands. After less than 50 years in service the Dock Tower was redundant.

 

In the slightly unhinged fashion of working class men, on various occasions men have dived from the Tower into the Dock, for no better reason than public spectacle. This practice has declined in popularity since the days of human flies, but remained an infrequent but memorable act of bravado until recently.

 

The design and construction of the tower was given a great accolade when it remained structurally unscathed in the 1931 Dogger Bank earthquake the strongest recorded in this country. The tower swayed but did not stray in the quake on the 7th of June 1931 which measured 6.1 on the Richter scale and whose epicentre was 50km off the coast on the Dogger Bank - the ports' neighbouring fishing ground - and some 21km below sea level. A Hull woman died of a heart attack in the quake and Filey Church spire was twisted, and the quake was felt in Ireland, Denmark and France, but this pencil like structure remained intact. Perhaps the cotton wool cushioned the blow.

 

Naturally however the Tower did, and does, need occasional maintenance - a process not without note. In the past, while maintaining the building, sleeplejacks have had to built scaffolds which would hang down precariously from the tower's viewing stage. Postcards of the nineteen thirties show the repair work of the period, with such a three tier scaffold, in progress. One incident occurred between the wars when one steeplejack collapsed on the scaffold during an inspection of work, the logistics of getting him in off the scaffold and down the tower would these days be the stuff of 999 TV documentaries but at the time were taken in the stride of the dock workers on hand, used to dealing with accidents both on boats, in the graving docks and in the filleting sheds.

 

As trade in the port grew apace, the role of the tower was essentially as a valuable landmark for those coming into port. And the ornamental lantern house was used as beacon to guide shipping. The Tower continues to guide shipping in it's way, it's only functional use now being the platform for various radio aerial and satellite dishes. While the port became the busiest in the world the role of the tower as a tourist attraction became of much less importance and the lift was removed before the second world war.

 

Having survived the earthquake, the tower went on to survive the bombing of Grimsby town and docks. During the second world war it survived bombing because of it's usefulness as a sighting post for traffic, this time not maritime but aerial traffic, the Luftwaffe using it as a reference point to fly due west to Liverpool, and so evaided bombing the tower itself. In 1948 a plaque was unveiled by Admiral Holt, dedicated to the crews of the mine sweepers which operated from the port during WWII. Eventually in 19?? the immense water tanks were removed from the top of the tower.

 

Now the building is once again an attraction, though it's current owners, Associated British Ports, are somewhat reluctant to allow access to the building for safety reasons - the cost of adiquate supervision would be prohibitive. Open days are now organised a couple of days a year by the Grimsby Rotary Club2 and visitors can once again go up the tower - now only to the first level - but after climbing two hundred feet up the single spiral staircase, the first level is enough for most! The view is still marvellous, with Grimsby town spread out beneath and the Lincolnshire Wolds to the south, the Humber Bridge off to the west and Spurn Point and the North Sea off to the North east. For those who wish to emulate the brave divers of ears gone by, visitors are even invited to jump off the Tower - although now attached to an abseil rope.

 

Over the last twenty years the building has been recognised as one of cultural importance and part of our industrial heritage. Various preservation orders have been placed upon it at both a local and national level, it now being a grade one listed building. A the town as, finally, seen fit to illuminate the building at night. Marvellous.

 

The tower can be found on the quayside, accessed from the end of Eastside Road, Westside Road or North Quay. 500 yards from New Clee or Grimsby Docks Railway Stations. OS ref TA 278 113.3

from the top of l'Arc de Triomphe, Paris, France

 

Evening falls over the business district of west Paris.

 

Paris was a city I knew well before I ever visited it. As a child I would study street maps, locate buildings I'd heard of, follow convoluted metro journeys. I did the same for Moscow, New York, even London even though I lived barely fifty miles from it. I did not visit France until I was 25, and not Paris until a few years after that. But it was just as I expected.

 

Except, of course, for the gaps in between the places I knew so well. That is why the only way to get to know a city is to walk it. I feel that I have spent most of today walking, a day that started at about half past seven with a double espresso at a corner cafe by the Rue des Levis street market. I took the metro from Villiers to the bizarre Arts et Metiers station,which is like a Terry Gilliam interpretation of a Jules Verne submarine. I changed there and got off at Pont Neuf. The light at this point in the day was fabulous, spilling westwards from beyond the Île de la Cité, and I walked into it along the quai of the Seine to Notre Dame.

 

I had fond memories of Notre Dame from previous visits, but I had not expected it to be quite so busy. It was shoulder to shoulder at the west end, and the interior of the nave had been sectioned off with ropes in a vain attempt to control the crowds. At first, I took many of them to be Japanese, and could not understand why they were being so badly behaved, blocking the gangways, using flash when the signs said not to, talking when the signs said silence. This seemed most un-Japanese like. And when I got close and could hear their voices I realised that, of course, they were not Japanese at all. They were Chinese, and this was a big difference between the Paris I remembered and the Paris I was seeing now, for thirteen years ago who could have imagined that there would be mass Chinese tourism to Western Europe?

 

What else has changed in Paris? Among other things, the fast food adverts carry a health warning - 'for a healthy lie you should eat a balanced diet' and 'everyone should eat five portions of fruit and vegetables a day', and so on.

 

So I shoved my way through the nave as if I was in a dour provincial bus station, and made it into the aisles. Notre Dame is not a huge cathedral, and I decided that I still liked it a lot, despite the crowds. Lots of the visitors were using iPads to record their visits, one girl wandering around with it in front of her face, videoing what she might otherwise have observed. She was experiencing the cathedral through the iPad.

 

I watched her for a while and then headed down the Île to Ste-Chapelle. Here, the walls of 13th century glass are breathtaking in their intimacy. There is a rolling programme, currently in its fifth year, to restore it bit by bit. So far they've done the south side and the east end, and comparing the restored glass to that still awaiting restoration, the result is stunning.

 

I pottered across to the Rive Gauche, and became distracted by second hand book shops for a while, before wandering to St-Severin. This church is like a breath of fresh air after the two giants on the Île de la Cité, a fine medieval church with double aisles, and some fabulous glass. The clerestory contains more 14th century glass than there is in the whole of East Anglia, and the east end is filled with excellent glass of 1970 by Jean Bazaine. Best of all, the 19th Century glass all depicts biblical scenes featuring the real life faces of the donors - this works well in, for example, the 'foot of the cross' scene and the 'suffer the children' scene, but is slightly bizarre in 'the beheading of John the Baptist'.

 

Wandering in this area I found myself increasingly distracted by second hand book and record shops, so it was not for another hour or so that I made it to St-Sulpice. This is a huge late 17th century church as big as a cathedral - imagine St Mary Woolnoth on acid and after a really huge breakfast. And yet, I found I liked it very much indeed, not least because there were lots of people inside, but not tourists. Rather, they were lighting candles, or sitting in thought, or just walking quietly through the vast spaces. And not an iPad in sight.

 

I wandered on past the Jardins du Luxembourg to Rue de L'Odéon. This is a smart street of tall 18th century buildings. Most of them are high end women's fashion shops, but a couple of older book shops survive. It was in this road that Sylvia Beach set up Shakespeare & Co, and a plaque above number 12 remembers the publication of Ulysses.

 

Above number 4 is a plaque remembering Thomas Paine, 'an Englishman by birth, an American by naturalisation, a Frenchman by decree' who lived here during the revolution and wrote The Rights of Man here. Paine was born in East Anglia, at Thetford in Norfolk, spending his schooldays at Diss in the same county. I remember the poet and Singer Patti Smith saying how proud she was that her ancestors came from Larling at this time, almost exactly halfway between Thomas Paine's two towns. Curiously, there is no plaque at number 16, where Ernest Hemingway lived during his years in Paris.

 

I was headed towards the Panthéon, but got distracted yet again by an excellent second hand cd shop specialising in classical music and with a large contemporary section. I bought Francis Bayer's instrumental and vocal works and Charlotte Hug's Neuland for solo viola, both for just 3.50 each. I walked past the Panthéon to St-Etienne du Mont, a fine looking church with a minaretesque tower, and three sets of steps, allowing each door to be reached from the sloping street. At the most southerly steps there were groups of young people taking each other's photographs. They were there for the same reason I was - these are the steps where the drunken Owen Wilson waits to get taken back to the 1920s in Woody Allen's Midnight in Paris. There was even an empty bottle of wine to prove that Wilson had been there.

 

I tried the door of the church, but it was locked. I discovered the uncomfortable truth that the Internet is not always right. It was true that the church had opened at 9.30am and would close at 7.30pm, just as the Internet said. What the Internet omitted to mention, however, was that it was also closed between midday and 4pm. I would have to come back. Oddly, directly opposite the steps where Wilson waits is an English pub called the Bombardier, owned by Charles Wells. Fascinated, I peered inside at the bar, set out in the style of a London pub. Chalked above the bar were the prices. You could get a pint of Courage Directors for 5 euros.Most of the patrons appeared to be young French people.

 

I wandered down through the Sorbonne to Cardinal Moines metro station, and crossed back into north Paris to visit the splendid-looking 19th Century church of St-Antoine, but here discovered exactly the same thing. The church had been open, but had closed for the early afternoon. I walked on down the vast Boulevard Haussmann, and just short of the Arc de Triomphe I was at last rewarded by the church of St-Sacrament. This is on the first floor of a modern building, but contains something rather surprising, certainly not something you see every day. This is the exposed body of a Saint.

 

His name is St Pierre-Julien Eymard, and he founded the order of the Blessed Sacrament. He was made a Saint in the early 1960s. he lies here in a glass casket, like Snow White, albeit more wax than flesh, but still worth seeing.

 

I set out later in the afternoon to see some churches on their second shift, but again things did not work out as planned. I wandered down from Bourse to Notre Dame des Victoires, which the Internet said closed at 7.30pm. I arrived at 6.30pm to watch them locking up. I wandered down past Les Halles to an old favourite, St-Eustache, to find the same thing, although they had an excuse as there was a concert on that night. It took St-Nicholas aux Champs to save the day, still open and not looking ready to close yet. Like St-Severin it has a double aisle right around the apse, but the most striking thing is the sheer height of the nave, dwarfing the aisles and with a clerestory of vast flamboyance windows.

 

I walked as far as Arts et Metiers, caught the metro back to the Place du Concorde, walked down the Champs Élysées to the Arc de Triomphe and climbed to the top to watch the sun set behind Paris, the lights coming on, the shapes fading into darkness, and making of it a city I did not know and had never seen before.

 

You can read my account of my travels at pariswander.blogspot.co.uk.

Reichsbrücke

Coordinates: 48 ° 13 '42 " N, 16 ° 24' 36" E | |

(Pictures you can see by clicking on the link at the end of page!)

Empire Bridge, seen from the north bank of

Use motor vehicles in the basement underground,

Cyclists, pedestrians

Road train Lassallestraße - Wagramerstraße (B8 )

Location Vienna, between Leopoldstadt (2nd District)

and Danube City (22 nd District)

Prestressed concrete bridge construction, double deck bridge

Total length 865 meters

Width 26.10 meters

Release 8 November 1980

Altitude 157 m above sea level. A.

Card reichsbrücke.png

Location of the Empire Bridge in Vienna

The Empire Bridge is one of Vienna's most famous bridges. It crosses the Danube, the Danube Island and the New Danube and connects the second District of Vienna, Leopoldstadt, with the 22nd District, Danube city. The building extends from Mexico place at Handelskai (2nd district) in a northeasterly direction to the Danube City and the Vienna International Centre (District 22).

The current kingdom bridge (Reichsbrücke) was opened in 1980, it is the third crossing of the Danube in the same axis, which bears the name kingdom bridge. The first Empire Bridge (also: Crown Prince Rudolf bridge when Project: National Highway Bridge), an iron bridge on current five pillars existed from 1876 until 1937. The second Empire Bridge, a chain bridge with two 30-meter high pylons on two river piers, was opened in 1937, it was next to St. Stephen's Cathedral and the Giant Ferris one of the landmarks of the city of Vienna. After the Second World War it was the only intact Danube river crossing downstream of Linz in Austria and became the busiest stretch of road in Austria. On Sunday, the first August 1976 the bridge collapsed in the early morning hours on full width of the Danube into the water. In the accident, which was not foreseeable by the then state of the art, one person was killed. The meaning and emotional charge, which had received the bridge by its colorful past in the Viennese population, increased further by the collapse.

Prehistory

The Danube before regulation (centric is the location of the Reichsbrücke marked)

Some years after the devastating flood of 1830 was considering Emperor Ferdinand I to regulate the Danube and at the same time to build several bridges over the resulting stream bed. The plan was, among other things, a chain bridge approximately at the site of today's Empire bridge, whose construction costs were estimated at two to three million florins. However, these plans came as well as future intentions, build stable bridges over the unregulated Danube, before the Vienna Danube regulation not for execution, the projects went not beyond the planning stage. All bridges over the Danube, whether for road or since 1838 for the Northern Railway, then had rather provisional character. Jochbrücken Those were trestle bridges made ​​of wood, which were regularly swept away by floods or Eisstößen (bumps of ice chunks) and then re-built.

On 12 September 1868 eventually ordered Emperor Franz Joseph I, the nephew and successor of Ferdinand, the regulation of the Danube. At the same time, eventually, should be built "stable bridges". One of them should represent a direct extension of the hunter line (Jägerzeile) (today: Prater Road and the Schwimmschulstraße (now Lassallestraße). With the choice of this location a central urban axis should be continued, which ranged from the Gloriette in Schonbrunn over St. Stephen's Cathedral and the Prater Stern to the Danube. On the other side of the Danube, the bridge should join to the Vienna, Kagraner and Leopold Auer Reichsstrasse (since 1910 Wagramerstraße), which became a major transit route in the northeastern areas of the monarchy. The name of the bridge was accordingly to "Empire Road bridge" set.

First Reichsbrücke - 1876-1937

Crown Prince Rudolf bridge

Since 6 November 1919 : Reichsbrücke

Crown Prince Rudolf bridge since 6 November 1919: Reichsbrücke

Official name of Crown Prince Rudolf Bridge (1876-1919), since then Reichsbrücke

Use vehicles, trams (from 26 June 1898 on the current bridge single track) and pedestrian

crossing of Handelskai, Danube and floodplain

Construction iron lattice structures (river bridge), 341.20 meters

Total length 1019.75 meter (incl. bridge over Handelskai and floodplain)

Width 11.40 meters

Release 21 August 1876

Closure 11 October 1937

Toll 32 cruisers and 64 Heller per vehicle (up to 1904)

The by Franz Joseph commissioned bridge, which the main part of the 2nd district after the regulation of the Danube with the on the left bank lying part of the city Kaisermuehlen, the now Old Danube and the to 1890/1892 independent community of Kagran connected, was navigable from August 1876 to October, 1937. It has been renamed several times: During the construction period it had the preliminary name of Empire Road bridge, after its opening, it was Crown Prince Rudolf bridge. The term "Empire Bridge" but soon won through in general usage, as was said, for example, the stop of the Donauuferbahn (Railway) at the bridge officially Kommunalbad-Reichsbrücke. After the fall of the monarchy on 6 November 1919 it was officially renamed Empire bridge.

With a total length of nearly 1,020 feet, it was at that time the longest bridge connection over the Danube. It was 11.40 meters wide, the road took 7.60 meters and 3.80 meters, the two sidewalks. The original plan had provided a total width of eight fathoms (15.20 meters), the Parliament decided shortly before the start of the construction to reduce the width because of cost reasons.

The bridge consisted of three parts. The so-called Hubertusdamm, protected the March field against flood, and the flood area created in the Danube regulation (inundation) on the north, the left bank of the river was spanned by a stone, 432 meters long inundation bridge, which consisted of 16 sheets of 23 and 39 m width. Handelskai on the southern right bank of the river spanned the so-called Kaibrücke of stone with a length of 90.4 meters and four arches, each 18.96 m width. The actual current bridge was 341.20 meters long and consisted of four individual iron grating structures that rested on five 3.80 meter thick pillars, three of which were in the water. The distance of each pillar was 79.90 meters.

Construction

The current bridge seen from the north, from the left bank (St Stephen's Cathedral in the background); recording before the summer of 1898, there's no tram track

Construction began in August, 1872. Although at that time the stream bed of the Danube had already been largely completed, but not yet flooded. The Empire bridge was then, as the northern railway bridge Stadlauer Bridge and the Emperor Franz Joseph Bridge (later Floridsdorfer bridge), built in dry construction.

The building was designed by the Road and Hydraulic Engineering Department of Imperial Ministry of Interior, whose boss, Undersecretary Mathias Waniek Ritter von Domyslow, was entrusted with the construction management. Total construction cost of 3.7 million guilders. The metal construction had a total weight of 2,193 tons and was manufactured by Schneider & Co in Burgundy of Belgian welding iron.

The two piers on the banks were about five feet below the river bed, which is about eleven meters founded under the riverbed on so-called "blue Viennese Tegel" (a stiff to semi-solid floor similar to the clay which as sedimentary rock is typical for the Vienna basin). The pillars of the two foreland bridges (Kaibrücke and inundation bridge ) were established in shallow coarse gravel.

Of the four Danube bridges built at that time only the kingdom bridge (Reichsbrücke) was not opened to traffic when the new bed of the Danube on 14 April 1875 was flooded. Until 16 months later, on 21 August 1876, the birthday of the Crown Prince Rudolf, opened the Imperial Governor of Lower Austria , Baron Conrad of Sigmund Eybesfeld, representing the emperor, the bridge and gave her in honor of Crown Prince - contrary to the original plan - the name "Crown Prince Rudolf bridge". The opening ceremony was attended by a delegation from Japan, Minister of War Feldzeugmeister Graf Maximilian von Artur Bylandt-Rheidt and mayor of Vienna Cajetan Felder. The governor read a royal resolution, in which Franz Joseph announced the full imperial satisfaction with Oberbauleiter Waniek and several Engineers and Building Officers were awarded the Imperial Knights Cross. As highlight of the celebration the keystone of the last pillar of the ramp was set - under it were built into a cassette several documents, photos of the bridge, coins and medals.

Bridge operation

The Kaibrücke over the Handelskai on the south, the right bank of the Danube, recording c.1907

The bridge ramp and the four brick arches over the Handels on the south, the right bank of the Danube, it ( right) the bridge over the stream, recording from 1876

After the suicide of Crown Prince Rudolf in 1889, the bridge was popularly called "suicide bridge ". It was in the first years of its operation still not a very popular crossing of the Danube. Industry and trade settled slowly to the other side of the Danube. There were also no significant trade routes from north to March Field. Via the Old Danube, which it would have to be crossed, leading to around 1900 only a rickety wooden bridge.

In the first 28 years of its operation, the crossing of the Empire Bridge was charged. 32 cruisers and 64 Heller had to be paid per vehicle, which has been regularly criticized by newspapers in Vienna. Only after the villages north of the Old Danube in the year 1904/1905 than 21st district were incorporated, the crossing was provided free of charge and increased the popularity of the bridge. From 26 June 1898, the bridge was frequented by the tram. The occasion was the 50-year Jubilee of Emperor Franz Joseph. The route went (over the current bridge (Strombrücke) just single track ) for the moment to shooting range (Schießstätte) at Arbeiterstrandbadstraße and was on 22 December 1898 extended until Kagraner place. Operator was the Vienna-Kagraner train (WKB), which initially used for six railcars acquired from Hamburg. In 1904, the traffic operation of Vienna-Street Railways WKB.

The end of the bridge

1910 were counted in Vienna over two million inhabitants. On the left, northern bank of the Danube, more and more settlements and commercial enterprises emerged. This increased both the importance and the traffic on the Empire Bridge. Neither the load nor the total roadway width of less than eight meters were sufficient for this additional burden. 1930 damage was discovered at the bridge, which would have necessitated the refurbishment in the near future. In recent years, their stock weight restrictions has been to protect the bridge. Vienna's city government first planned a conversion of the old kingdom bridge. In 1933, under the federal government of Dollfuss a new building was disposed.

During the three years of construction work had the old bridge remain usable - ie the existing 340 meters long by 4,900-ton Strombrücke was there moved by 26 meters downstream in September 1934, and connected with the banks. The move operation lasted only six hours, the traffic interruption to the reusability lasted three days. The suspended bridge was then three years in operation. Immediately after the opening of its successor bridge it was dismantled.

Second Empire Bridge - 1937-1976

Second Reichsbrücke

The second Empire Bridge, circa 1975

Official name Reichsbrücke, from 11 April 1946 to 18 July 1956 the Red Army Bridge

Use private transport (2 lanes next to the tracks, 2 on the tracks), tram (2 tracks in the middle position), pedestrians (sidewalks 2)

Construction through the air: "Spurious" self-anchored chain bridge with reversed horizontal thrust); broadening of the inundation bridge used since 1876

Total length 1225 meters

Width 26.90 meters (including sidewalks)

Longest span 241.2 meters in the central opening, 60.05 and 61.05 meters in the side openings

Construction September 1934

Release 10 October 1937

Closure 1 August 1976 (collapse)

The second realm bridge had a total length of 1255 meters. The current bridge had a length of 373 meters and a maximum span length of 241.2 meters, the construction of the third largest chain bridge in Europe. It had two pylons made ​​of steel with a height of 30 meters above road top, standing on two piers and with the bridge superstructure burd two steel chains carrying.

The bridge was staged as a symbol of the wealth and size of Vienna. So it was yet in the late 1930s next to St. Stephen's Cathedral and the Giant Ferris emblem for the third city of Vienna declared and served as an internationally used symbol on all promotional literature and invitations to the Vienna Exhibition in 1938.

Competition

First, the Commerce Department announced a precompetitive, although that could win the architects Emil Hoppe and Otto Schonthal, the result of which, however, did not correspond with the Ministry and the City of Vienna. The final competition for the construction of the Empire Bridge was finally announced in Spring 1933 and awarded in November. As architectural advisor to the eight-member jury acted the architect Clemens Holzmeister. The jurors selected from 64 submitted, one of which even provided for a tunnel under the river Danube. The winning project was a chain bridge by architects Siegfried Theiss and Hans Jaksch. This design provided only two pillars standing in the water. Three quarters of the full width of the river should be free spans. The bridge would connect directly to the still-to-use, only to be widened inundation bridge of the first Empire bridge over floodplain and Hubertusdamm.

Construction

Construction began on 26 February 1934, two weeks after the civil war-like battles in February. The cost of 24 million shillings were imposed to one third of the city of Vienna, two-thirds came from the federal budget. There were only Austrian companies involved in the construction. The two pillars were erected in caisson construction.

Soon the first difficulties appeared. The ground, especially in the Danube River, on which the bridge piers and anchor blocks for the chains should be founded, proved to be less viable than the planners had anticipated. It was originally planned to have to shoulder a large part of the weight of the Strombrücke, primarily of the area lying between the pillars middle part of the bridge, of two chains that run on both sides of the two pylons and should be anchored right in the river on heavy, solid anchor blocks of concrete. However, it was feared that this abutment on the Danube soft soil by the large tensile forces of 78.5 million N (8,000 t) per chain would start sliding and could not be adequately anchored in the Danube ground.

Professor Paul Fillunger of the Technical University of Vienna became the largest public critic of the building. He was of the opinion that not only the foundation of the anchor blocks, but also the pillars of the Danube in the soft ground was irresponsible because the bridge would not have the necessary stability. Contrasting opinion was his colleague of professors, soil mechanics Karl von Terzaghi. In his view, the nature of the Danube soil was suitable for the pier foundation. The disagreement was part of a personal feud, which was publicly held. Together with his wife Fillunger took in 1937 due to a disciplinary procedure that ran against him at the Technical University of Vienna his life. The construction of the bridge was rescheduled after the proposals Terzaghis: the chains were not fastened to anchor blocks on the Danube ground, but directly to the two main girders of the steel supporting structure, ie on the bridge itself anchored.

In June 1936, the building was overshadowed by a shipwreck: the people steamer "Vienna" DDSG was driven to a pillar. The ship broke up and sank immediately. Six people were killed.

The final link in the chain was composed of 98 members on 16 November 1936 inserted. Thereafter the lowering of the support stand began to displace the chain in tension. The production of the concrete deck slab of the bridge deck and the installation of sidewalks followed in the spring of 1937, in the summer, the bridge was painted dark green.

From 1 to 3 October 1937 the stress test of the building took place in the stretched chains and the pylons were slightly rotated. Were then driven as a load test 84 trucks and 28 loaded with stones streetcars on the bridge and left to stand there for a few hours. All measurements were running satisfactorily, so that on 4 October the first tram of line number 16 was able to drive over the kingdom bridge. A day later, the bridge was unofficially released for streetcar traffic. To traffic it remained locked up to its opening.

Austro-Fascist propaganda

A labor-and cost-intensive project such as the construction of the bridge was fully in line with the spirit of the Austro-fascist regime: the end of 1933, unemployment stood at 38.5 percent. The construction of the second Empire bridge can therefore be seen as a job creation project, similar to the construction of the Grossglockner High Alpine Road or the Vienna High Road.

On 10 October 1937, the Empire Bridge was officially opened. The corporate state government held a solemn state ceremony with President Wilhelm Miklas, Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg, Cardinal Theodor Innitzer, the Vienna Vice Mayor Fritz Lahr and Trade Minister Taucher who called the new Reich bridge as a "symbol of creating life force of the new Austria". Present were alongside architects, project managers and designers also a delegation of the opus "New Life" of the Fatherland Front, all workers involved in the construction of the construction companies and 10,000 school children. Soldiers of the armed forces lined the shore.

The Viennese city researcher Peter Payer writes about the pompous production:

"Conspicuously, propagated the carefully staged celebration the new model of society of the Austro-fascist government: the ending of the class struggle and overcoming social barriers through meaningful work and cooperation of all professional groups. [ ...] The completion of the bridge was portrayed as unprecedented cultural achievement, as a joint work of all involved". - Peter Payer.

The event was broadcast live on the radio, the newspapers reported widely about it. At the event, postcards, envelopes, and a commemorative stamp was issued and even a "Reichsbrücke song "composed, in which was said:

"A thousand hammers, wheels, files,

thousand hands had to rush

the great work that was!

Salvation of the work that connects,

Hail to the work, healing our land!"

- Empire Bridge Song

The Empire Bridge in the Second World War

During the Second World War the German army used two support pillars of reinforced concrete under the Empire B