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Md. Kutubuddin and Md. Mohiuddin Gazi two friends from Sobuj Polli village are listening a radio very carefully. By this radio they always listening the weather reports and bad weather or any upcoming natural disaster news announcement from the metrology station. Area: Ashatuya, Dacope, Khulna.

even amidst the World filled with many status and organizations...but nature awaits for all people to rather represent fatherhood, motherhood, childhood, brotherhood, sisterhood, and elderlyhood in unity of Family Love...for the protection of the welfare of the poor common people...

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This illustration is part of the book Management 3.0.

 

www.management30.com

Shaft indicator and governor remains on one of the winding engines at Hemingfield Colliery.

Musya works on a piece of wall art in Tbilisi, Georgia, Friday, Sept 6, 2019. "I wouldn't consider myself a political activist," says Musya, "but when there are really big problems then I have to be involved. And right now we have a problem of two Georgias. Mostly we have people who want a liberal future and European-styled country, but then you have some who don't and they're crafting this whole thing with what they say is maintaining tradition and religion but is really just a mark for homophobia and fear of the outside."

 

30 years after the fall of the Berlin Wall, how far have Eastern Europe’s youth come?

 

Born in an age of uncertainty, young people in Bosnia & Herzegovina, Ukraine and Georgia are facing new ideas on patriotism, freedom and opportunity. For many young people, it’s not just about choices or opportunities, it’s also a new mindset about deserving and working for something you can be proud of. But this generation, left with a myriad of choices for themselves, are also having to contend with old networks, stereotypes and corruption. UNDP is helping to pave a new landscape in governance, jobs and human rights.

 

Photo: Mackenzie Knowles-Coursin / UNDP

 

Read more: undpeurasia.exposure.co/30-years-after-the-fall-of-the-be...

Puri is a city and a Municipality of Odisha. It is the district headquarters of Puri district, Odisha, eastern India. It is situated on the Bay of Bengal, 60 kilometres south of the state capital of Bhubaneswar. It is also known as Jagannath Puri after the 12th-century Jagannath Temple located in the city. It is one of the original Char Dham pilgrimage sites for Indian Hindus.

 

Puri was known by several names from the ancient times to the present, and locally called as Badadeula. Puri and the Jagannath Temple were invaded 18 times by Hindu and Muslim rulers, starting from the 4th century to the start of the 19th century with the objective of looting the treasures of the temple. Odisha, including Puri and its temple, were under the British Raj from 1803 till India attained independence in August 1947. Even though princely states do not exist in independent India, the heirs of the Gajapati Dynasty of Khurda still perform the ritual duties of the temple. The temple town has many Hindu religious maths or monasteries.

 

The economy of Puri town is dependent on the religious importance of the Jagannath Temple to the extent of nearly 80%. The festivals which contribute to the economy are the 24 held every year in the temple complex, including 13 major festivals; Ratha Yatra and its related festivals are the most important which are attended by millions of people every year. Sand art and applique art are some of the important crafts of the city. Puri is one of the 12 heritage cities chosen by the Government of India for holistic development.

 

GEOGRAPHY AND CLIMATE

GEOGRAPHY

Puri, located on the east coast of India on the Bay of Bengal, is in the center of the district of the same name. It is delimited by the Bay of Bengal on the south east, the Mauza Sipaurubilla on the west, Mauz Gopinathpur in the north and Mauza Balukhand in the east. It is within the 67 kilometres coastal stretch of sandy beaches that extends between Chilika Lake and the south of Puri city. However, the administrative jurisdiction of the Puri Municipality extends over an area of 16.3268 square kilometres spread over 30 wards, which includes a shore line of 5 kilometres.

 

Puri is in the coastal delta of the Mahanadi River on the shores of the Bay of Bengal. In the ancient days it was near to Sisupalgarh (Ashokan Tosali) when the land was drained by a tributary of the River Bhargavi, a branch of the Mahanadi River, which underwent a meandering course creating many arteries altering the estuary, and formed many sand hills. These sand hills could not be "cut through" by the streams. Because of the sand hills, the Bhargavi River flowing to the south of Puri, moved away towards the Chilika Lake. This shift also resulted in the creation of two lagoons known as Sar and Samang on the eastern and northern parts of Puri respectively. Sar lagoon has a length of 8.0 km in an east-west direction and has a width of 3.2 km in north-south direction. The river estuary has a shallow depth of 1.5 m only and the process of siltation is continuing. According to a 15th-century chronicle the stream that flowed at the base of the Blue Mountain or Neelachal was used as the foundation or high plinth of the present temple which was then known as Purushottama, the Supreme Being. A 16th century chronicle attributes filling up of the bed of the river which flowed through the present Grand Road, during the reign of King Narasimha II (1278–1308).

 

CLIMATE

According to the Köppen and Geiger the climate of Puri is classified Aw. The city has moderate and tropical climate. Humidity is fairly high throughout the year. The temperature during summer touches a maximum of 36 °C and during winter it is 17 °C. The average annual rainfall is 1,337 millimetres and the average annual temperature is 26.9 °C.

 

HISTORY

NAMES IN HISTORY

Puri, the holy land of Lord Jaganath, also known popularly as Badadeula in local usage, has many ancient names in the Hindu scriptures such as the Rigveda, Matsya purana, Brahma Purana, Narada Purana, Padma Purana, Skanda Purana, Kapila samhita and Niladrimahodaya. In the Rigveda, in particular, it is mentioned as a place called Purushamandama-grama meaning the place where the Creator deity of the world – Supreme Divinity deified on altar or mandapa was venerated near the coast and prayers offered with vedic hymns. Over time the name got changed to Purushottama Puri and further shortened to Puri and the Purusha became Jagannatha. Close to this place sages like Bhrigu, Atri and Markandeya had their hermitage. Its name is mentioned, conforming to the deity worshipped, as Srikshetra, Purusottama Dhāma, Purusottama Kshetra, Purusottama Puri and Jagannath Puri. Puri is however, a common usage now. It is also known the geographical features of its siting as Shankhakshetra (layout of the town is in the form of a conch shell.), Neelāchala ("blue mountain" a terminology used to name very large sand lagoon over which the temple was built but this name is not in vogue), Neelāchalakshetra, Neelādri, The word 'Puri' in Sanskrit means "town", or 'city' and is cognate with polis in Greek.

 

Another ancient name is Charita as identified by Cunningham which was later spelled as Che-li-ta-lo by Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang.When the present temple was built by the Ganga king Chodangadev in the 11th and 12th centuries it was called Purushottamkshetra. However, the Moghuls, the Marathas and early British rulers called it Purushottama-chhatar or just Chhatar. In Akbar's Ain-i-Akbari and subsequent Muslim historical records it was known as Purushottama. In the Sanskrit drama authored by Murari Mishra in the 8th century it is referred as Purushottama only. It was only after twelfth century Puri came to be known by the shortened form of Jagannatha Puri, named after the deity or in a short form as Puri. In some records pertaining to the British rule, the word 'Jagannath' was used for Puri. It is the only shrine in India, where Radha, along with Lakshmi, Saraswati, Durga, Bhudevi, Sati, Parvati, and Shakti abodes with Krishna, also known as Jagannath.

 

ANCIENT PERIOD

According to the chronicle Madala Panji, in 318 the priests and servitors of the temple spirited away the idols to escape the wrath of the Rashtrakuta King Rakatavahu. The temple's ancient historical records also finds mention in the Brahma Purana and Skanda Purana as having been built by the king Indradyumna of Ujjayani.

 

According to W.J. Wilkinson, in Puri, Buddhism was once a well established practice but later Buddhists were persecuted and Brahmanism became the order of the religious practice in the town; the Buddha deity in now worshipped by the Hindus as Jagannatha. It is also said that some relics of Buddha were placed inside the idol of Jagannath which the Brahmins claimed were the bones of Krishna. Even during Ashoka’s reign in 240 BC Odisha was a Buddhist center and that a tribe known as Lohabahu (barbarians from outside Odisha) converted to Buddhism and built a temple with an idol of Buddha which is now worshipped as Jagannatha. It is also said that Lohabahu deposited some Buddha relics in the precincts of the temple.

 

Construction of the Jagannatha Temple started in 1136 and completed towards the later part of the 12th century. The King of the Ganga dynasty, Anangabhima dedicated his kingdom to the God, then known as the Purushottam-Jagannatha and resolved that from then on he and his descendants would rule under "divine order as Jagannatha's sons and vassals". Even though princely states do not exist in independent India, the heirs of the Gajapati dynasty of Khurda still perform the ritual duties of the temple; the king formally sweeps the road in front of the chariots before the start of the Rathayatra.

 

MEDIEVAL AND EARLY MODERN PERIODS

History of the temple is the history of the town of Puri, which was invaded 18 times during its history to plunder the treasures of the Jagannath Puri temple. The first invasion was in the 8th century by Rastrakuta king Govinda-III (AD 798–814) and the last was in 1881 by the followers of Alekh Religion who did not recognize Jagannath worship. In between, from the 1205 onward there were many invasions of the city and its temple by Muslims of the Afghans and Moghuls descent, known as Yavanas or foreigners; they had mounted attacks to ransack the wealth of the temple rather than for religious reasons. In most of these invasions the idols were taken to safe places by the priests and the servitors of the temple. Destruction of the temple was prevented by timely resistance or surrender by the kings of the region. However, the treasures of the temple were repeatedly looted. Puri is the site of the Govardhana matha, one of the four cardinal institutions established by Adi Shankaracharya, when he visited Puri in 810 and since then it has become an important dham (divine centre) for the Hindus; the others being those at Sringeri, Dwaraka and Jyotirmath. The matha is headed by Jagatguru Shankarachrya. The significance of the four dhams is that the Lord Vishnu takes his dinner at Puri, has his bath at Rameshwaram, spends the night at Dwarka and does penance at Badrinath.

 

Chaitanya Mahaprabhu of Bengal who established the Bhakti movements of India in the sixteenth century, now known by the name the Hare Krishna movement, spent many years as a devotee of Jagannatha at Puri; he is said to have merged his "corporal self" with the deity. There is also a matha of Chaitanya Mahaprabhu here.

 

In the 17th century for the sailors sailing on the east coast of India, the landmark was the temple located in a plaza in the centre of the town which they called the "White Pagoda" while the Konark Sun Temple, 60 kilometres away to the east of Puri, was known as the "Black Pagoda".

 

The iconographic representation of the images in the Jagannath temple are believed to be the forms derived from the worship made by the tribal groups of Sabaras belonging to northern Odisha. These images are replaced at regular intervals as the wood deteriorates. This replacement is a special event carried out ritulistically by special group of carpenters.

 

The town has many Mathas (Monasteries of the various Hindu sects). Among the important mathas is the Emar Matha founded by the Tamil Vaishnav Saint Ramanujacharya in the 12th century AD. At present this matha is located in front of Simhadvara across the eastern corner of the Jagannath Temple is reported to have been built in the 16th century during the reign of Suryavamsi Gajapati. The matha was in the news recently for the large cache of 522 silver slabs unearthded from a closed room.

 

The British conquered Orissa in 1803 and recognizing the importance of the Jagannatha Temple in the life of the people of the state they initially placed an official to look after the temple's affairs and later declared it a district with the same name.

 

MODERN HISTORY

In 1906, Sri Yukteswar an exponent of Kriya Yoga, a resident of Puri, established an ashram in the sea-side town of Puri, naming it "Kararashram" as a spiritual training center. He died on 9 March 1936 and his body is buried in the garden of the ashram.

 

The city is the site of the former summer residence of British Raj built in 1913–14 during the era of governors, the Raj Bhavan.

 

For the people of Puri Lord Jagannath, visualized as Lord Krishna, is synonymous with their city. They believe that the Jagannatha looks after the welfare of the state. However, after the incident of the partial collapse of the Jagannatha Temple, the Amalaka part of the tower on 14 June 1990 people became apprehensive and thought it was not a good omen for the welfare of the State of Odisha. The replacement of the fallen stone by another of the same size and weight (seven tons) had to be done only in the an early morning hours after the gods had woken up after a good nights sleep which was done on 28 February 1991.

 

Puri has been chosen as one of the heritage cities for the Heritage City Development and Augmentation Yojana scheme of the Indian Government. It is one of 12 the heritage cities chosen with "focus on holistic development" to be implemented in 27 months by end of March 2017.

 

Non-Hindus are not permitted to enter the shrines but are allowed to view the temple and the proceedings from the roof of the Raghunandan library within the precincts of the temple for a small donation.

 

DEMOGRAPHICS

As of 2001 India census, Puri city, an urban Agglomeration governed by Municipal Corporation in Orissa state, had a population of 157,610 which increased to 200,564 in 2011. Males, 104,086, females, 96,478, children under 6 years of age, 18,471. The sex ratio is 927 females to 1000 males. Puri has an average literacy rate of 88.03 percent (91.38 percent males and 84.43 percent females). Religion-wise data is not reported.

 

ECONOMY

The economy of Puri is dependent on tourism to the extent of about 80%. The temple is the focal point of the entire area of the town and provides major employment to the people of the town. Agricultural production of rice, ghee, vegetables and so forth of the region meets the huge requirements of the temple, with many settlements aroiund the town exclusively catering to the other religious paraphernalia of the temple. The temple administration employs 6,000 men to perform the rituals. The temple also provides economic sustenance to 20,000 people belonging to 36 orders and 97 classes. The kitchen of the temple which is said to be the largest in the world employs 400 cooks.

 

CITY MANAGEMENT AND GOVERNANCE

Puri Municipality, Puri Konark Development Authority, Public Health Engineering Organisastion, Orissa Water Supply Sewerage Board are some of the principal organizations that are devolved with the responsibility of providing for all the urban needs of civic amenities such as water supply, sewerage, waste management, street lighting, and infrastructure of roads. The major activity which puts maximum presuure on these organizations is the annual event of the Ratha Yatra held for 10 days during July when more than a million people attend the grand event. This event involves to a very large extent the development activities such as infrastructure and amenities to the pilgrims, apart from security to the pilgrims.

 

The civic administration of Puri is the responsibility of the Puri Municipality which came into existence in 1864 in the name of Puri Improvement Trust which got converted into Puri Municipality in 1881. After India's independence in 1947, Orissa Municipal Act-1950 was promulgated entrusting the administration of the city to the Puri Municipality. This body is represented by elected representative with a Chairperson and councilors representing the 30 wards within the municipal limits.

 

LANDMARKS

JAGANNATH TEMPLE AT PURI

The Temple of Jagannath at Puri is one of the major Hindu temples built in the Kalinga style of architecture, in respect of its plan, front view and structural detailing. It is one of the Pancharatha (Five chariots) type consisting of two anurathas, two konakas and one ratha with well-developed pagas. Vimana or Deula is the sanctum sanctorum where the triad (three) deities are deified on the ratnavedi (Throne of Pearls), and over which is the temple tower, known as the rekha deula; the latter is built over a rectangular base of the pidha temples as its roof is made up of pidhas that are sequentially arranged horizontal platforms built in descending order forming a pyramidal shape. The mandapa in front of the sanctum sanctorum is known as Jagamohana where devotees assemble to offer worship. The temple tower with a spire rises to a height of 58 m in height and a flag is unfurled above it fixed over a wheel (chakra). Within the temple complex is the Nata Mandir, a large hall where Garuda stamba (pillar). Chaitanya Mahaprabhu used to stand here and pray. In the interior of the Bhoga Mantap, adjoining the Nata mandir, there is profusion of decorations of sculptures and paintings which narrate the story of Lord Krishna. The temple is built on an elevated platform (of about 39,000 m2 area), 20 ft above the adjoining area. The temple rises to a height of 214 ft above the road level. The temple complex covers an area of 4,3 ha. There is double walled enclosure, rectangular in shape (rising to a height of 20 ft) surrounding the temple complex of which the outer wall is known as Meghanada Prachira, measuring 200 by 192 metres. The inner walled enclosure, known as Kurmabedha. measures 126m x 95m. There are four entry gates (in four cardinal directions to the temple located at the center of the walls in the four directions of the outer circle. These are: the eastern gate called Singhadwara (Lions Gate), the southern gate known as Ashwa Dwara (Horse Gate), the western gate called the Vyaghra Dwara (Tigers Gate) or the Khanja Gate, and the northern gate called the Hathi Dwara or (elephant gate). The four gates symbolize the four fundamental principles of Dharma (right conduct), Jnana (knowledge), Vairagya (renunciation) and Aishwarya (prosperity). The gates are crowned with pyramid shapes structures. There is stone pillar in front of the Singhadwara called the Aruna Stambha {Solar Pillar}, 11 metres in height with 16 faces, made of chlorite stone, at the top of which is mounted an elegant statue of Arun (Sun) in a prayer mode. This pillar was shifted from the Konarak Sun temple. All the gates are decorated with guardian statues in the form of lion, horse mounted men, tigers and elephants in the name and order of the gates. A pillar made of fossilized wood is used for placing lamps as offering. The Lion Gate (Singhadwara) is the main gate to the temple, which guarded by two guardian deities Jaya and Vijaya. The main gates is ascended through 22 steps known as Baisi Pahaca which are revered as it is said to possess "spiritual animation". Children are made to roll down these steps from top to bottom to bring them spiritual happiness. After entering the temple on the left hand side there is huge kitchen where food is prepared in hygienic conditions in huge quantities that it is termed as "the biggest hotel of the world".

 

The legend says that King Indradyumma was directed by Lord Jagannath in a dream to build a temple for him and he built it as directed. However, according to historical records the temple was started some time during the 12th century by King Chodaganga of the Eastern Ganga dynasty. It was however completed by his descendant, Anangabhima Deva, in the 12th century. The wooden images of Jagannath, Balabhadra and Subhadra were then deified here. The temple was under the control of the Hindu rulers up to 1558. Then, when Orissa was occupied by the Afghan Nawab of Bengal, it was brought under the control of the Afghan General Kalapahad. Following the defeat of the Afghan king by Raja Mansingh, the General of Mughal emperor Akbar, the temple became a part of the Mughal empire till 1751 AD. Subsequently it was under the control of the Marathas till 1803. Then, when British Raj took over Orissa, the Puri Raja was entrusted with its to management until 1947.

 

The triad of images in the temple are of Jagannatha, personifying Lord Krishna, Balabhadra, his older brother, and Subhadra his younger sister, which are made of wood (neem) in an unfinished form. The stumps of wood which form the images of the brothers have human arms and that of Subhadra does not have any arms. The heads are large and un-carved and are painted. The faces are made distinct with the large circular shaped eyes.

 

THE PANCHA TIRTHA OF PURI

Hindus consider it essential to bathe in the Pancha Tirtha or the five sacred bathing spots of Puri, India, to complete a pilgrimage to Puri. The five sacred water bodies are the Indradyumana Tank, the Rohini Kunda, the Markandeya Tank, Swetaganga Tank, and the The Sea also called the Mahodadhi is considered a sacred bathing spot in the Swargadwar area. These tanks have perennial sources of supply in the form of rain water and ground water.

 

GUNDICHA TEMPLE

Known as the Garden House of Jagannath, the Gundicha temple stands in the centre of a beautiful garden, surrounded by compound walls on all sides. It lies at a distance of about 3 kilometres to the north east of the Jagannath Temple. The two temples are located at the two ends of the Bada Danda (Grand Avenue) which is the pathway for the Rath Yatra. According to a legend, Gundicha was the wife of King Indradyumna who originally built the Jagannath temple.

 

The temple is built using light-grey sandstone and architecturally, it exemplifies typical Kalinga temple architecture in the Deula style. The complex comprises four components: vimana (tower structure containing the sanctum), jagamohana (assembly hall), nata-mandapa (festival hall) and bhoga-mandapa (hall of offerings). There is also a kitchen connected by a small passage. The temple is set within a garden, and is known as "God's Summer Garden Retreat" or garden house of Jagannath. The entire complex, including garden, is surrounded by a wall which measures 131 m × 98 m with height of 6.1 m.

 

Except for the 9-day Rath Yatra when triad images are worshipped in Gundicha Temple, the rest of the year it remains unoccupied. Tourists can visit the temple after paying an entry fee. Foreigners (prohibited entry in the main temple) are allowed inside this temple during this period. The temple is under the Jagannath Temple Administration, Puri – the governing body of the main temple. A small band of servitors maintain the temple.

 

SWARGADWAR

Swargadwar is the name given to the cremation ground or burning ghat which is located on the shores of the sea were thousands of dead bodies of Hindus are brought from faraway places to cremate. It is a belief that the Chitanya Mahaparabhu disppaeread from this Swargadwar about 500 years back.

 

BEACH

The beach at Puri known as the "Ballighai beach} is 8 km away at the mouth of Nunai River from the town and is fringed by casurian trees. It has golden yellow sand and has pleasant sunshine. Sunrise and sunset are pleasant scenic attractions here. Waves break in at the beach which is long and wide.

 

DISTRICT MUSEUM

The Puri district museum is located on the station road where the exhibits are of different types of garments worn by Lord Jagannath, local sculptures, patachitra (traditional, cloth-based scroll painting) and ancient Palm-leaf manuscripts and local craft work.

 

RAGHUNANDANA LIBRARY

Raghunandana Library is located in the Emmra matha complex (opposite Simhadwara or Lion gate, the main entrance gate). The Jagannatha Aitihasika Gavesana Samiti (Jagannatha Historical Center) is also located here. The library contains ancient palm leaf manuscripts of Jagannatha, His cult and the history of the city. From the roof of the library one gets a picturesque view of the temple complex.

 

FESTIVALS OF PURI

Puri witnesses 24 festivals every year, of which 13 are major festivals. The most important of these is the Rath Yatra or the Car festival held in the month June–July which is attended by more than 1 million people.

 

RATH YATRA AT PURI

The Jagannath triad are usually worshiped in the sanctum of the temple at Puri, but once during the month of Asadha (Rainy Season of Orissa, usually falling in month of June or July), they are brought out onto the Bada Danda (main street of Puri) and travel 3 kilometrer to the Shri Gundicha Temple, in huge chariots (ratha), allowing the public to have darśana (Holy view). This festival is known as Rath Yatra, meaning the journey (yatra) of the chariots (ratha). The yatra starts, according to Hindu calendar Asadha Sukla Dwitiya )the second day of bright fortnight of Asadha (June–July) every year.

 

Historically, the ruling Ganga dynasty instituted the Rath Yatra at the completion of the great temple around 1150 AD. This festival was one of those Hindu festivals that was reported to the Western world very early. In his own account of 1321, Odoric reported how the people put the "idols" on chariots, and the King and Queen and all the people drew them from the "church" with song and music.

 

The Rathas are huge wheeled wooden structures, which are built anew every year and are pulled by the devotees. The chariot for Jagannath is about 14 m high and 35 feet square and takes about 2 months to construct. Th chariot is mounted with 16 wheels, each of 2.1 m diameter. The carvings in the front of the chariot has four wooden horses drawn by Maruti. On its other three faces the wooden carvings are Rama, Surya and Vishnu. The chariot is known as Nandi Ghosha. The roof of the chariot is covered with yellow and golden coloured cloth. The next chariot is that of Balabhadra which is 13 m in height fitted with 14 wheels. The chariot is carved with Satyaki as the charioteer. The carvings on this chariot also include images of Narasimha and Rudra as Jagannath's companions. The next chariot in the order is that of Subhadra, which is 13 m in height supported on 12 wheels, roof covered in black and red colour cloth and the chariot is known as Darpa-Dalaan. The charioteer carved is Arjuna. Other images carved on the chariot are that of Vana Durga, Tara Devi and Chandi Devi. The artists and painters of Puri decorate the cars and paint flower petals and other designs on the wheels, the wood-carved charioteer and horses, and the inverted lotuses on the wall behind the throne. The huge chariots of Jagannath pulled during Rath Yatra is the etymological origin of the English word Juggernaut. The Ratha-Yatra is also termed as the Shri Gundicha yatra and Ghosha yatra

 

CHHERA PAHARA

The Chhera Pahara is a significant ritual associated with the Ratha-Yatra. During the festival, the Gajapati King wears the outfit of a sweeper and sweeps all around the deities and chariots in the Chera Pahara (sweeping with water) ritual. The Gajapati King cleanses the road before the chariots with a gold-handled broom and sprinkles sandalwood water and powder with utmost devotion. As per the custom, although the Gajapati King has been considered the most exalted person in the Kalingan kingdom, he still renders the menial service to Jagannath. This ritual signified that under the lordship of Jagannath, there is no distinction between the powerful sovereign Gajapati King and the most humble devotee.

 

CHADAN YATRA

In Akshaya Tritiya every year the Chandan Yatra festival marks the commencement of the construction of the Chariots of the Rath Yatra. It also marks the celebration of the Hindu new year.

 

SNANA YATRA

On the Purnima day in the month of Jyestha (June) the triad images of the Jagannath temple are ceremonially bathed and decorated every year on the occasion of Snana Yatra. Water for the bath is taken in 108 pots from the Suna kuan (meaning: "golden well") located near the northern gate of the temple. Water is drawn from this well only once in a year for the sole purpose of this religious bath of the deities. After the bath the triad images are dressed in the fashion of the elephant god, Ganesha. Later during the night the original triad images are taken out in a procession back to the main temple but kept at a place known as Anasara pindi. After this the Jhulana Yatra is when proxy images of the deities are taken out in a grand procession for 21 days, cruised over boats in the Narmada tank.

 

ANAVASARA OR ANASARA

Anasara literally means vacation. Every year, the triad images without the Sudarshan after the holy Snana Yatra are taken to a secret altar named Anavasara Ghar Palso known as "Anasara pindi} where they remain for the next dark fortnight (Krishna paksha). Hence devotees are not allowed to view them. Instead of this devotees go to nearby place Brahmagiri to see their beloved lord in the form of four handed form Alarnath a form of Vishnu. Then people get the first glimpse of lord on the day before Rath Yatra, which is called Navayouvana. It is said that the gods suffer from fever after taking ritual detailed bath and they are treated by the special servants named, Daitapatis for 15 days. Daitapatis perform special niti (rite) known as Netrotchhaba (a rite of painting the eyes of the triad). During this period cooked food is not offered to the deities.

 

NAVA KALEVARA

One of the most grandiloquent events associated with the Lord Jagannath, Naba Kalabera takes place when one lunar month of Ashadha is followed by another lunar month of Aashadha, called Adhika Masa (extra month). This can take place in 8, 12 or even 18 years. Literally meaning the "New Body" (Nava = New, Kalevar = Body), the festival is witnessed by as millions of people and the budget for this event exceeds $500,000. The event involves installation of new images in the temple and burial of the old ones in the temple premises at Koili Vaikuntha. The idols that were worshipped in the temple, installed in the year 1996, were replaced by specially made new images made of neem wood during Nabakalebara 2015 ceremony held during July 2015. More than 3 million devotees were expected to visit the temple during the Nabakalebara 2015 held in July.

 

SUNA BESHA

Suna Bhesha also known as Raja or Rajadhiraja bhesha or Raja Bhesha, is an event when the triad images of the Jagannath Temple are adorned with gold jewelry. This event is observed 5 times during a year. It is commonly observed on Magha Purnima (January), Bahuda Ekadashi also known as Asadha Ekadashi (July), Dashahara (Vijyadashami) (October), Karthik Purnima (November), and Pousa Purnima (December). While one such Suna Bhesha event is observed on Bahuda Ekadashi during the Rath Yatra on the chariots placed at the lion's gate or the Singhdwar; the other four Bheshas' are observed inside the temple on the Ratna Singhasana (gem studded altar). On this occasion gold plates are decorated over the hands and feet of Jagannath and Balabhadra; Jagannath is also adorned with a Chakra (disc) made of gold on the right hand while a silver conch adorns the left hand. However, Balabhadra is decorated with a plough made of gold on the left hand while a golden mace adorns his right hand.

 

NILADRI BIJE

Celebrated on Asadha Trayodashi. It marks the end of the 12 days Ratha yatra. The large wooden images of the triad of gods are moved from the chariots and then carried to the sanctum sanctorum, swaying rhythmically, a ritual which is known as pahandi.

 

SAHI YATRA

Considered the world's biggest open-air theatre, the Sahi yatra is an 11 day long traditional cultural theatre festival or folk drama which begins on Ram Navami and ending in Rama avishke (Sanskrit:anointing) every year. The festival includes plays depicting various scenes from the Ramayan. The residents of various localities or Sahis are entrusted the task of performing the drama at the street corners.

  

TRANSPORT

Earlier when roads did not exist people walked or travelled by animal drawn vehicles or carriages along beaten tracks. Up to Calcutta travel was by riverine craft along the Ganges and then by foot or carriages to Puri. It was only during the Maratha rule that the popular Jagannath Sadak (Road) was built around 1790. The East India Company laid the rail track from Calcutta to Puri which became operational in 1898. Puri is now well connected by rail, road and air services. A broad gauge railway line of the South Eastern Railways connects with Puri and Khurda is an important Railway junction. By rail it is about 499 kilometres away from Calcutta and 468 kilometres from Vishakhapatnam. Road network includes NH 203 that links the town with Bhubaneswar, the capital of Odisha which is about 60 kilometres away. NH 203 B connects the town with Satapada via Brahmagiri. Marine drive which is part of NH 203 A connects Puri with Konark. The nearest airport is at Bhubaneswar, about 60 kilometres away from Puri. Puri railway station is among the top hundred booking stations of Indian Railways.

 

ARTS AND CRAFTS

SAND ART

Sand art is a special art form that is created on the beaches of the sea coast of Puri. The art form is attributed to Balaram Das, a poet who lived in the 14th century. He started crafting the sand art forms of the triad deities of the Jagannath Temple at the Puri beach. Now sculptures in sand of various gods and famous people are created by amateur artists which are temporal in nature as they get washed away by waves. This is an art form which has gained international fame in recent years. One of the well known sand artist is Sudarshan Patnaik. He has established the Golden Sand Art Institute in 1995 at the beach to provide training to students interested in this art form.

 

APPLIQUE ART

Applique art work, which is a stitching based craft, unlike embroidery, which was pioneered by the Hatta Maharana of Pipili is widely used in Puri, both for decoration of the deities but also for sale. His family members are employed as darjis or tailors or sebaks by the Maharaja of Puri who prepare articles for decorating the deities in the temple for various festivals and religious ceremonies. These applique works are brightly coloured and patterned fabric in the form of canopies, umbrellas, drapery, carry bags, flags, coberings of dummy horses and cows, and other household textiles which are marketed in Puri. The cloth used are in dark colours of red, black, yellow, green, blue and turquoise blue.

 

CULTURE

Cultural activities, apart from religiuos festivals, held annually are: The Puri Beach Festival held between 5 and 9 November and the Shreeksherta Utsav held from 20 December to 2 January where cultural programmes include unique sand art, display of local and traditional handicrafts and food festival. In addition cultural programmes are held every Saturday for two hours on in second Saturday of the moth at the district Collector's Conference Hall near Sea Beach Polic Station. Apart from Odissi dance, Odiya music, folk dances, and cultural programmes are part of this event. Odishi dance is the cultural heritage of Puri. This dance form originated in Puri in the dances performed Devadasis (Maharis) attached to the Jagannath temple who performed dances in the Natamantapa of the temple to please the deities. Though the devadadsi practice has been discontinued, the dance form has become modern and classical and is widely popular, and many of the Odishi virtuoso artists and gurus (teachers) are from Puri.

 

EDUCATION

SOME OF THE EDUCATIONNAL INSTITUTIONS IN PURI

- Ghanashyama Hemalata Institute of Technology and Management

- Gangadhar Mohapatra Law College, established in 1981[84]

- Extension Unit of Regional Research Institute of Homoeopathy; Puri under Central Council for Research in Homoeopathy (CCRH), New Delhi established in March 2006

- Sri Jagannath Sanskrit Vishwavidyalaya, established in July 1981

- The Industrial Training Institute, a Premier Technical Institution to provide education in skilled, committed & talented technicians, established in 1966 of the Government of India

 

PURI PEOPLE

Gopabandhu Das

Acharya Harihar

Nilakantha Das

Kelucharan Mohapatra

Pankaj Charan Das

Manasi Pradhan

Raghunath Mohapatra

Sudarshan Patnaik

Biswanath Sahinayak

Rituraj Mohanty

 

WIKIPEDIA

Colorforms Series

 

This weekend, I was in a local art supply store and happened upon a reissuance of the classic childrens' art toy, Colorforms. While perusing the box, I wondered whether it would be possible to use the basic, brightly colored, geometric forms to produce a novel method of communicating more complex, adult themes.

A second shot from Exmouth Beach, South Devon, UK. The previous shot was titled Poseidon, due to the fork pointing skywards, this one still to find a title for currently. This shot processed in colour, as I have had a little more time to correct a few colour issues over the previous post.

 

After three years of waiting, it is finally snowing in the county, it's just that we seen to be getting three years worth of snow in one day! Wind too strong to venture out at the moment, but then as Captain Oats said, 'I may be some time...'

The legislative elections were held on February 6 peacefully in this country known as a bastion of stability and democratic governance in Africa. Since 2008, UNDP has supported the modernization and consolidation of electoral system through its support of the National Electoral Commission.

 

UNDP has mobilized 700,000 USD from the Spanish Cooperation, which has given continuity to the activities of the regional project to support the public administration reform , contributing to the consolidation of the National System of Identification and Authenticity Civil (SNIAC). This project which aims to strengthen the infrastructural support of SINIAC, has contributed to the acquisition of equipment for three databases containing biometric information.

 

As a prelude, the UNDP has supported the organization of the first voter registration in Cape Verde using the biometric information. The project contributed also for capacity development by training, approximately 600 trainers and operators kits census at a national level and had as well conduct an extensive information and education campaign in order to sensitized people to realize their participation' s right. The project has also created an integrated database containing biometric information for the election, as well for civil and border services.

 

Capeverdean diaspora has been the subject of special attention. Whith UNDP, the country has implemented a strategy census of its population living abroad, through funds raised from Government of Luxembourg, and reaching more than 30,000 people before the election period.

 

Cape Verde has few natural resources, with a population of 500,000 people distributed in 4000Km2, and a cultivable area of 10%. However, since January 2008, the country was graduated from the category of Least Developed Countries (LDCs) for Middle Income Countries (MICs). This important step recognizes the success of an independent country since 1975 including the choice of development based on human capital, services, new information technologies, tourism, agriculture and fisheries, among others, which have significant reduction of poverty (49% of the population in 1989 to 26.6% in 2007), growth of real GDP per capita (from 902 USD in 1990 to $ 3,306 in 2008), and a significant improvement living conditions of the population. These achievements and successes are attributed to a harmonious political and economic governance, with political stability and, in a context of sustainable peace, because of social and economic development a priority in the national agenda of development.

 

In this context, UNDP plays a catalytic role in cooperation with national agencies within the UN system, particularly the strengthening of national institutions, through the component e-governance "of its Governance program.

Students demanding justice for fellow students murdered by buses on rampage. Abdul Karim Rajib, a second-year student of Humanities department at, and Dia Khanam Meem, a first-year Science student of Shaheed Ramiz Uddin Cantonment School and College were killed on 29th July 2018, when an Uttara-bound bus of “Jabal-e-Noor Paribahan” rammed into a group of students who had been waiting on the road for transport. Road accidents are a frequent and major source of injuries and death in Bangladesh. Students throughout Dhaka city organised protest rallies, demanding safer roads and for justice. This photo was taken at the busy intersection of Manik Mia Avenue and Mirpur Road on 1st August 2018

looks like a prison but it's our city hall :)

Fechado entre 600 a 800 D.C. No especifica el sitio de precedencia pero si senalan su parecido con unas figuras encontradas en una tumba de Palenque Chiapas. El MET de NY dice que su procedencia es Guatemala.

 

Ceramic figurines such as this one record the elaborate and burdensome regalia of Maya rulers. The belt ornament in the shape of a head with three celts is similar to the set of plaques on view here. Maya blue pigment—a combination of indigo and palygorskite, a type of clay—covers the figurine, evoking the green of the quetzal feathers in the headdress and of the jade pectorals, earrings, and belt ornaments. Holding a shield in his left hand, this ruler may be celebrating a military victory or reenacting a triumph.

Las figurillas de cerámica como esta muestran el suntuoso y pesado vestuario de los gobernantes mayas. Un ornamento de jade para cinturón tiene forma de cabeza humana combinada con tres hachas. Este gobernante que sostiene un escudo en su mano izquierda probablemente esté celebrando una victoria militar o recreando una victoria pasada. La figurilla está pintada con Azul Maya, un pigmento compuesto por una combinación de índigo y palygorskita (un tipo de arcilla) evocando así el verde de las plumas de quetzal, tanto en el tocado como en los pectorales de jade, las orejeras y los ornamentos para cinturón. (Description taken from the MET Museum)

Md. Kutubuddin listening a radio carefully. By this radio he always listening the weather reports and announcement of bad weather or any upcoming natural disaster news from the metrology station. Area: Sobuj Polli, Ashatuya, Dacope, Khulna.

taken at the basel governance building.

 

visit my website

 

Vittoria Alliata di Villafranca, Director, DG Regional and Urban Policy, European Commission , Tomislav Donchev, Deputy Prime Minister, Republic of Bulgaria, Mari Kiviniemi, Deputy Secretary-General, OECD and Karmenu Vella, Member of the EC in charge of Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries

© European Union

The Summer Palace (Chinese: 頤和園), is a vast ensemble of lakes, gardens and palaces in Beijing, China. It serves as a popular tourist destination and recreational park. Mainly dominated by Longevity Hill (万寿山) and Kunming Lake (昆明湖), it covers an expanse of 2.9 square kilometers (1.1 sq mi), three-quarters of which is water.

 

Longevity Hill is about 60 meters (200 feet) high and has many buildings positioned in sequence. The front hill is rich with splendid halls and pavilions, while the back hill, in sharp contrast, is quiet with natural beauty. The central Kunming Lake, covering 2.2 square kilometers (540 acres), was entirely man-made and the excavated soil was used to build Longevity Hill.

 

In December 1998, UNESCO included the Summer Palace on its World Heritage List. It declared the Summer Palace "a masterpiece of Chinese landscape garden design. The natural landscape of hills and open water is combined with artificial features such as pavilions, halls, palaces, temples and bridges to form a harmonious ensemble of outstanding aesthetic value".

 

The origins of the Summer Palace date back to the Jurchen-led Jin dynasty in 1153, when the fourth ruler, Wanyan Liang (r. 1150–1161), moved the Jin capital from Huining Prefecture (in present-day Acheng District, Harbin, Heilongjiang) to Yanjing (present-day Beijing). He ordered the construction of a palace in the Fragrant Hills and Jade Spring Hill in the northwest of Beijing.

 

Around 1271, after the Yuan dynasty established its capital in Khanbaliq (present-day Beijing), the engineer Guo Shoujing initiated a waterworks project to direct the water from Shenshan Spring (神山泉) in Baifu Village (白浮村), Changping into the Western Lake (西湖), which would later become Kunming Lake. Guo's aim was to create a water reservoir that would ensure a stable water supply for the palace.

 

In 1494, the Hongzhi Emperor (r. 1487–1505) of the Ming dynasty had a Yuanjing Temple (圓靜寺) built for his wet nurse, Lady Luo, in front of Jar Hill (瓮山), which was later renamed Longevity Hill. The temple fell into disrepair over the years and was abandoned, and the area around the hill became lush with vegetation. The Zhengde Emperor (r. 1505–21), who succeeded the Hongzhi Emperor, built a palace on the banks of the Western Lake and turned the area into an imperial garden. He renamed Jar Hill, "Golden Hill" (金山) and named the lake "Golden Sea" (金海). Both the Zhengde Emperor and the Wanli Emperor (r. 1572–1620) enjoyed taking boat rides on the lake. During the reign of the Tianqi Emperor (r. 1620–27), the court eunuch Wei Zhongxian took the imperial garden as his personal property.

Qing dynasty

 

In the early Qing dynasty, Jar Hill served as the site for horse stables in the imperial palace. Eunuchs who committed offences were sent there to weed and cut grass.

 

In the beginning of the reign of the Qianlong Emperor (r. 1735-1796), many imperial gardens were built in the area around present-day Beijing's Haidian District and accordingly, water consumption increased tremendously. At the time, much of the water stored in the Western Lake came from the freshwater spring on Jade Spring Hill, while a fraction came from the Wanquan River (萬泉河). Any disruption of the water flow from Jade Spring Hill would affect the capital's water transport and water supply systems.

 

Around 1749, the Qianlong Emperor decided to build a palace in the vicinity of Jar Hill and the Western Lake to celebrate the 60th birthday of his mother, Empress Dowager Chongqing. In the name of improving the capital's waterworks system, he ordered the Western Lake to be expanded further west to create two more lakes, Gaoshui Lake (高水湖) and Yangshui Lake (養水湖). The three lakes served not only as a reservoir for the imperial gardens, but also a source of water for the surrounding agricultural areas. The Qianlong Emperor collectively named the three lakes "Kunming Lake" after the Kunming Pool (昆明池) constructed by Emperor Wu (r. 141–187 BCE) in the Han dynasty for the training of his navy. The earth excavated from the expansion of Kunming Lake was used to enlarge Jar Hill, which was renamed "Longevity Hill". The Summer Palace, whose construction was completed in 1764 at a cost of over 4.8 million silver taels, was first named "Qingyiyuan" (清漪園; "Gardens of Clear Ripples"").

 

The design of the Summer Palace was based on a legend in Chinese mythology about three divine mountains in the East Sea, namely Penglai, Fangzhang (方丈) and Yingzhou (瀛洲). The three islands in Kunming Lake – Nanhu Island (南湖島), Tuancheng Island (團城島) and Zaojiantang Island (藻鑒堂島) – were built to represent the three mountains, while the lake itself was based on a blueprint of the West Lake in Hangzhou. Besides, many architectural features in the palace were also built to resemble or imitate various attractions around China. For example: the Phoenix Pier (鳳凰墩) represented Lake Tai; the Jingming Tower (景明樓) resembled Yueyang Tower, Hunan; the Wangchan Pavilion (望蟾閣) resembled Yellow Crane Tower; the shopping streets were designed to imitate those in Suzhou and Yangzhou. The centrepiece of the Summer Palace was the "Great Temple of Gratitude and Longevity" (大報恩延壽寺). There was also a Long Corridor more than 700 metres long which was furnished with artistic decorations. As the palace was not equipped with facilities for long-term staying and daily administration of state affairs, the Qianlong Emperor hardly lived there and only remained there for the day whenever he visited it.

 

As the Qing Empire started declining after the reign of the Daoguang Emperor (r. 1820–1850), the Summer Palace gradually became more neglected and the architectural features on the three islands were ordered to be dismantled because the costs of maintenance were too high.

 

In 1860, the French and British looted the Summer Palace at the end of the Second Opium War and on October 18, 1860 the British burned down the nearby Old Summer Palace (Yuanmingyuan). The destruction of the palace was ordered by Lord Elgin, the British High Commissioner to China, and was undertaken in response to the torture and killing of two British envoys, a journalist for The Times, and their escorts. The destruction of large parts of the Summer Palace still evokes strong emotions among some people in China.

 

Between 1884–95, during the reign of the Guangxu Emperor (r. 1875–1908), Empress Dowager Cixi ordered 22 million silver taels, originally designated for upgrading the Qing navy (the Beiyang Fleet), to be used for reconstructing and enlarging the Summer Palace to celebrate her 60th birthday. As the funds were limited, the construction works were concentrated on the buildings in front of Longevity Hill and the dams around Kunming Lake. The Summer Palace was also given its present-day Chinese name, "Yiheyuan" (頤和園), in 1888.

 

In 1900, towards the end of the Boxer Rebellion, the Summer Palace suffered damaged again when the forces of the Eight-Nation Alliance destroyed the imperial gardens and seized many artifacts stored in the palace. The palace was restored two years later.

Post-Qing dynasty

 

In 1912, following the abdication of Puyi, the Last Emperor, the Summer Palace became the private property of the former imperial family of the Qing Empire. Two years later, the Summer Palace was opened to the public and entry tickets were sold. In 1924, after Puyi was expelled from the Forbidden City by the warlord Feng Yuxiang, the Beijing municipal government took charge of administrating the Summer Palace and turned it into a public park.

 

After 1949, the Summer Palace briefly housed the Central Party School of the Communist Party of China. Many of Mao Zedong's friends and key figures in the Communist Party, such as Liu Yazi and Jiang Qing, also lived there. Since 1953, many major restoration and renovation works have been done on the Summer Palace, which is now open to the public as a tourist attraction and park.

 

In November 1998, the Summer Palace was designated a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. Towards the end of 2006, the Chinese government also started distributing commemorative coins to celebrate the Summer Palace as a cultural relic of the world.

 

The entire Summer Palace is centred around Longevity Hill and Kunming Lake, with the latter covering about three quarters of the area. Most of the important buildings were built along the north–south axis of Longevity Hill, which is divided into the front hill and the back hill. There are three small islands within Kunming Lake: Nanhu Island, Zaojiantang Island and Zhijingge Island. The West Dam of Kunming Lake divides the lake into two. The East Dam was constructed during the reign of the Guangxu Emperor. The attractions in the Summer Palace may be divided into six different sections or scenic areas: the Halls, Longevity Hill, Kunming Lake, the Farming and Weaving Picture Scenic Area, the Long Corridor, and the Central Axis area.

Dragon boats at Summer Palace.jpg

Front Hill

Eastern Palace Gate (东宫门): The main entrance to the Summer Palace. The two bronze lions on either side of the gate are preserved from the Qianlong Emperor's time while the Cloud Dragon Steps in front of the gate are relics from the Old Summer Palace. The three Chinese characters "Yiheyuan" on the sign above the gate were written by the Guangxu Emperor.

Hall of Benevolence and Longevity (仁寿殿): The hall where court sessions were held. It was called "Hall of Good Governance" (勤政殿) in the Qianlong Emperor's time but was given its present-day name by the Guangxu Emperor. The well north of the hall is called "Year-Prolonging Well" (延年井) while the rockery behind the hall was designed to imitate the Lion Grove Garden in Suzhou. The stalactites are relics from the Old Summer Palace.

Hall of Jade Billows (玉澜堂): Located west of the Hall of Benevolence and Longevity. It was the living quarters of the Qing emperors. The Guangxu Emperor was once confined here by Empress Dowager Cixi.

Yiyun Hall (宜芸馆): Located north of the Hall of Jade Billows. It was originally a library in the Qianlong Emperor's time, but became the living quarters of Empress Longyu in the Guangxu Emperor's time. It housed a collection of stone carvings of calligraphy written by the Qianlong Emperor.

Dehe Garden (德和园): Houses the three-storey Great Opera Hall (大戲樓), where opera performances were staged.

Hall of Joy and Longevity (乐寿堂): The living quarters of Empress Dowager Cixi.

Long Corridor (长廊): Stretches from the Hall of Joy and Longevity in the east to Shizhang Pavilion in the west. The entire corridor is 728 metres long and contains artistic decorations, including paintings of famous places in China, and scenes from Chinese mythology and folktales, The Twenty-four Filial Exemplars and the Four Great Classical Novels.

Hall of Dispelling Clouds (排云殿): Situated on the centre of the central axis of Longevity Hill. Originally the Great Temple of Gratitude and Longevity (大報恩延壽寺), it was renovated in 1892 and became a place for Empress Dowager Cixi to receive guests, host grand ceremonies, and celebrate her birthday.

Buddhist Temple at Summer Palace.jpg

Tower of Buddhist Incense (佛香阁): Located right in the centre of the front hill of Longevity Mountain. The tower was originally meant to be a nine-storey Buddhist pagoda built to resemble the Yellow Crane Tower. The Qianlong Emperor ordered the construction to be stopped just after the eighth storey was built. The tower was built on a 20-metre-tall stone base, measures three stories and 41 metres in height, and is supported by eight ironwood pillars. Empress Dowager Cixi visited the tower to offer incense and pray.

Sea of Wisdom (智慧海): Located on the peak of Longevity Hill. It was built from coloured glass and houses over 1,000 statues of Buddhist figures. It was partially damaged during the Cultural Revolution.

Stele of Longevity Hill and Kunming Lake (万寿山昆明湖碑; Wànshòushān Kūnmínghú Bēi): Located east of the Hall of Dispelling Clouds. The stele bears six Chinese characters written by the Qianlong Emperor.

Pavilion of Precious Clouds (宝云阁): Located west of the Tower of Buddhist Incense. It was originally called "Bronze Pavilion" (銅亭) and was built in 1755. The doors and windows were stolen by soldiers from the Eight-Nation Alliance in 1900. In the 1980s, they were purchased by overseas Chinese and donated back to the Summer Palace.

Stone Boat (石舫): The Stone Boat is 96 metres long. The original wooden boat was burnt in 1860 and has been replaced with a marble copy with western style paddle wheels.

 

Oriole-Listening Hall (听鹂馆): Located west of Longevity Hill. It used to be where Empress Dowager Cixi watched opera performancees. The hall is now converted into a restaurant specialising in Qing imperial cuisine.

Huazhongyou (画中游): Located west of Longevity Hill.

East of the Front Hill (前山东部; 前山東部): Has many pavilions and halls.

West of the Front Hill (前山西部): Has many pavilions and halls.

West of the Long Corridor (长廊西端; Chángláng Xīduān): There is a "West Four Hall" (西四廳) located north of Shizhang Pavilion. The Guangxu Emperor's Consort Zhen was confined in the hall by Empress Dowager Cixi. It used to be the west entrance into the Summer Palace during the Qianlong Emperor's time.

 

Back Hill

 

Suzhou Street (苏州街): In 1762, after returning from touring the Jiangnan region, the Qianlong Emperor ordered the construction of a shopping street resembling Shantang Street in Suzhou. The street was destroyed by the British and French in 1860 and was only restored in 1988.

Garden of Harmonious Pleasures (谐趣园): Located in the northeast corner of the Summer Palace. In 1751, when the Qianlong Emperor toured the Jiangnan region, he was so impressed with Jichang Garden in Wuxi that he ordered a Huishan Garden (惠山園) to be built in the Summer Palace and modelled after Jichang Garden. Huishan Garden was renamed "Xiequ Garden" in 1811.

Four Great Regions (四大部洲): Located on the centre of the central axis of the back hill. It was designed to resemble the Samye Monastery in Tibet, and houses statues of Bhaisajyaguru, the Buddha and Amitābha. It was destroyed by the British and French in 1860 but was restored later.

Flower Pavilion and Glass Tower (花承阁琉璃塔): Located east of the back hill. It was destroyed by the British and French in 1860; only the Glass Tower remains. During the Cultural Revolution, the Buddhist statue at the bottom of the tower was disfigured by the Red Guards.

Former Location of Gaichunyuan (赅春园遗址): Located west of the back hill. A small garden was built there during the Qianlong Emperor's time and the emperor also had his personal study room there. Gaichunyuan was mostly destroyed by the British and French in 1860.

Former Location of Qiwang Pavilion (绮望轩遗址): Located west of the back hill beside the lake. A small garden was built there during the Qianlong Emperor's time.

 

Eastern Dam

 

Zhichun Pavilion (知春亭): Located on the east bank of Kunming Lake at the south of the Hall of Jade Billows.

Wenchang Tower (文昌阁): Built to resemble a city gate. It served as an important entry point into the Summer Palace from the east and south during the Qianlong Emperor's time. The Wenchang Hall (文昌院) beside Wenchang Tower displays cultural artefacts from the Summer Palace.

Kuoru Pavilion (廓如亭): Situated in the middle of the eastern dam, east of the 17 Openings Bridge. It covered an area of 130 square metres.

Bronze Ox (铜牛): A bronze statue of an ox built in 1755.

Yelü Chucai Shrine (耶律楚材词): A shrine built by the Qianlong Emperor to commemorate Yelü Chucai, an influential statesman in the Mongol Empire. It was closed down after 2003 and its front section was converted into a souvenir shop.

 

Nanhu Island

 

17-Arch Bridge (十七孔桥): Has 17 different types of arches on it. It incorporates features of the Precious Belt Bridge in Suzhou and the Lugou Bridge in Beijing. The entire bridge is 150 metres long and eight metres wide.

Dragon King Temple (龙王庙; 龍王廟o): A temple built to worship the Dragon King.

Hanxu Hall (涵虚堂; 涵虛堂): Located at the north of Nanhu Island, directly facing the Tower of Buddhist Incense on the north bank.

 

Western Dam

 

Lake Dividing Bridge (界湖桥; 界湖橋): The bridge that separates Kunming Lake from the northern lake.

Jade Belt Bridge (玉带桥; 玉帶橋)

Binfeng Bridge (豳风桥; 豳風橋)

Jingming Tower (景明楼; 景明樓): It was destroyed by the British and French in 1860 and was restored only in 1992. It was designed to imitate Yueyang Tower.

Mirror Bridge (镜桥; 鏡橋)

White Silk Bridge (练桥; 練橋)

Willow Bridge (柳桥; 柳橋): Located most south of the western dam.

Farming and Weaving Picture Scenic Area (耕织图景区; 耕織圖景區): Built during the Qianlong Emperor's time, it was designed to bring to life a scene from the daily lives of peasants. This area was excluded from the Summer Palace after it was renovated by Empress Dowager Cixi. In 1949, the area was occupied by the People's Liberation Army and a paper-making factory was built there. In 2003, the area was incorporated back into the Summer Palace and some old buildings were restored.

 

from Wikipedia

Participatns during the Session "Future-Proofing Governance" at the World Economic Forum, Annual Meeting of the Global Future Councils 2018. Copyright by World Economic Forum / Benedikt von Loebell

Climate Corporate Governance for Financial Institutions - Building resilience to climate change risk

 

During the past decade, with extreme weather causing hundreds of USD billions of

losses per year and the changing climate intensifying the adverse effects of wasteful

practices, environmental considerations have overtaken economic concerns as the

main sources of global risk, according to the World Economic Forum.

 

Financial regulators and the European Union are responding with recommendations

and guidance on the disclosure of climate-related financial risks to help integrate

sustainability into investor portfolio management. Credit rating agencies are

developing new ways to anticipate how climate-related risks could impact businesses

and financial institutions.

But is this enough?

 

To assess whether the financial sector is adequately equipped, the EBRD is brought

together representatives from financial institutions to share their practical experience

of the ‘what’ and ‘how’ of climate-related risk management.

The event discuseed ways to achieve an effective investor-led climate response

via climate corporate governance, standards-based climate finance, climate risk

management, climate-related capital market products.

  

Karmenu Vella, Member of the EC in charge of Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries and Tomislav Donchev, Deputy Prime Minister, Republic of Bulgaria

©EU

Adam Tooze, Shelby Cullom Davis Chair of History, Columbia University, USA, Charles Li, Chief Executive, Hong Kong Exchanges and Clearing (HKEx), Hong Kong SAR, China, David A. Lipton, First Deputy Managing Director, International Monetary Fund (IMF), Washington DC, Haruhiko Kuroda, Governor of the Bank of Japan, Mark Carney, Governor of the Bank of England and Cecilia Skingsley, Deputy Governor of the Central Bank of Sweden (Sveriges Riksbank) speaks during the Session: "Resetting Financial Governance" at the Annual Meeting 2019 of the World Economic Forum in Davos, January 24, 2019. Congress Cenre - Salon. Copyright by World Economic Forum / Valeriano Di Domenico

 

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In December of 2014, Senator Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.) announced the creation of a 12-point Agenda for America to address the nation’s most pressing economic challenges, including rising inequality and decreasing household income for middle class families. This public policy agenda spans infrastructure investment, to addressing climate change, to wage growth, to affordable college and health care, to tax reform, and to expanding programs such as Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid.

 

On February 9, the Center for Effective Public Management at Brookings hosted Senator Sanders, the ranking member of the Senate Budget Committee, to discuss his economic policy ideas to spur growth and rebuild America’s middle class.©Paul Morigi Photography

In December of 2014, Senator Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.) announced the creation of a 12-point Agenda for America to address the nation’s most pressing economic challenges, including rising inequality and decreasing household income for middle class families. This public policy agenda spans infrastructure investment, to addressing climate change, to wage growth, to affordable college and health care, to tax reform, and to expanding programs such as Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid.

 

On February 9, the Center for Effective Public Management at Brookings hosted Senator Sanders, the ranking member of the Senate Budget Committee, to discuss his economic policy ideas to spur growth and rebuild America’s middle class.©Paul Morigi Photography

In December of 2014, Senator Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.) announced the creation of a 12-point Agenda for America to address the nation’s most pressing economic challenges, including rising inequality and decreasing household income for middle class families. This public policy agenda spans infrastructure investment, to addressing climate change, to wage growth, to affordable college and health care, to tax reform, and to expanding programs such as Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid.

 

On February 9, the Center for Effective Public Management at Brookings hosted Senator Sanders, the ranking member of the Senate Budget Committee, to discuss his economic policy ideas to spur growth and rebuild America’s middle class.©Paul Morigi Photography

A performance at the opening of the 2018 Ibrahim Governance Weekend.

Choose your leaders with wisdom and forethought.

To be lead by a coward is to be controlled by all that the coward fears.

To be led by a fool is to be led by the opportunists who control the fool.

To be led by a thief is to offer up your precious treasures to be stolen.

To be led by a liar is to ask to be told lies.

To be led by a tyrant is to sell yourself and those you love into slavery.

 

Octavia E. Butler, Parable of the Talents (Earthseed, #2)

President Alassane Ouattara of Côte d’Ivoire and Mo Ibrahim arrive for the opening of the 2018 Ibrahim Governance Weekend.

In December of 2014, Senator Bernie Sanders (I-Vt.) announced the creation of a 12-point Agenda for America to address the nation’s most pressing economic challenges, including rising inequality and decreasing household income for middle class families. This public policy agenda spans infrastructure investment, to addressing climate change, to wage growth, to affordable college and health care, to tax reform, and to expanding programs such as Social Security, Medicare, and Medicaid.

 

On February 9, the Center for Effective Public Management at Brookings hosted Senator Sanders, the ranking member of the Senate Budget Committee, to discuss his economic policy ideas to spur growth and rebuild America’s middle class.©Paul Morigi Photography

Karmenu Vella, Member of the EC in charge of Environment, Maritime Affairs and Fisheries

©EU

Marietje Schaake, Member of the European Parliament, European Union; Young Global Leaderduring the Session "Future-Proofing Governance" at the World Economic Forum, Annual Meeting of the Global Future Councils 2018. Copyright by World Economic Forum / Benedikt von Loebell

Climate Corporate Governance for Financial Institutions - Building resilience to climate change risk

 

During the past decade, with extreme weather causing hundreds of USD billions of

losses per year and the changing climate intensifying the adverse effects of wasteful

practices, environmental considerations have overtaken economic concerns as the

main sources of global risk, according to the World Economic Forum.

 

Financial regulators and the European Union are responding with recommendations

and guidance on the disclosure of climate-related financial risks to help integrate

sustainability into investor portfolio management. Credit rating agencies are

developing new ways to anticipate how climate-related risks could impact businesses

and financial institutions.

But is this enough?

 

To assess whether the financial sector is adequately equipped, the EBRD is brought

together representatives from financial institutions to share their practical experience

of the ‘what’ and ‘how’ of climate-related risk management.

The event discuseed ways to achieve an effective investor-led climate response

via climate corporate governance, standards-based climate finance, climate risk

management, climate-related capital market products.

  

Climate Corporate Governance for Financial Institutions - Building resilience to climate change risk

 

During the past decade, with extreme weather causing hundreds of USD billions of

losses per year and the changing climate intensifying the adverse effects of wasteful

practices, environmental considerations have overtaken economic concerns as the

main sources of global risk, according to the World Economic Forum.

 

Financial regulators and the European Union are responding with recommendations

and guidance on the disclosure of climate-related financial risks to help integrate

sustainability into investor portfolio management. Credit rating agencies are

developing new ways to anticipate how climate-related risks could impact businesses

and financial institutions.

But is this enough?

 

To assess whether the financial sector is adequately equipped, the EBRD is brought

together representatives from financial institutions to share their practical experience

of the ‘what’ and ‘how’ of climate-related risk management.

The event discuseed ways to achieve an effective investor-led climate response

via climate corporate governance, standards-based climate finance, climate risk

management, climate-related capital market products.

  

Climate Corporate Governance for Financial Institutions - Building resilience to climate change risk

 

During the past decade, with extreme weather causing hundreds of USD billions of

losses per year and the changing climate intensifying the adverse effects of wasteful

practices, environmental considerations have overtaken economic concerns as the

main sources of global risk, according to the World Economic Forum.

 

Financial regulators and the European Union are responding with recommendations

and guidance on the disclosure of climate-related financial risks to help integrate

sustainability into investor portfolio management. Credit rating agencies are

developing new ways to anticipate how climate-related risks could impact businesses

and financial institutions.

But is this enough?

 

To assess whether the financial sector is adequately equipped, the EBRD is brought

together representatives from financial institutions to share their practical experience

of the ‘what’ and ‘how’ of climate-related risk management.

The event discuseed ways to achieve an effective investor-led climate response

via climate corporate governance, standards-based climate finance, climate risk

management, climate-related capital market products.

  

My first presentation on my new (so-called) expertise, IT governance :)

Climate Corporate Governance for Financial Institutions - Building resilience to climate change risk

 

During the past decade, with extreme weather causing hundreds of USD billions of

losses per year and the changing climate intensifying the adverse effects of wasteful

practices, environmental considerations have overtaken economic concerns as the

main sources of global risk, according to the World Economic Forum.

 

Financial regulators and the European Union are responding with recommendations

and guidance on the disclosure of climate-related financial risks to help integrate

sustainability into investor portfolio management. Credit rating agencies are

developing new ways to anticipate how climate-related risks could impact businesses

and financial institutions.

But is this enough?

 

To assess whether the financial sector is adequately equipped, the EBRD is brought

together representatives from financial institutions to share their practical experience

of the ‘what’ and ‘how’ of climate-related risk management.

The event discuseed ways to achieve an effective investor-led climate response

via climate corporate governance, standards-based climate finance, climate risk

management, climate-related capital market products.

  

Participatns during the Session "Future-Proofing Governance" at the World Economic Forum, Annual Meeting of the Global Future Councils 2018. Copyright by World Economic Forum / Benedikt von Loebell

The opening of the 2018 Ibrahim Governance Weekend.

Participatns during the Session "Future-Proofing Governance" at the World Economic Forum, Annual Meeting of the Global Future Councils 2018. Copyright by World Economic Forum / Benedikt von Loebell

Ocotber 16, 2016 - WASHINGTON DC., IMF / World Bank Annual Meetings. "The Governance Gap: Why Does Half the World Distrust Government and What Can We Do About It?" Panelists discuss how to bridge the governance gap and identify tose drivers necessary to improve governance in the 21st century.

Clare Short Chair, Cities Alliance; Former Secretary of State for International Development, UK; Henry Rotich Cabinet Secretary, National Treasury, Kenya; Winnie Byanyima Executive Director of Oxfam International; Adnan Khan Research and Policy Director, International Growth Centre, London School of Economics; Edmund Malesky Professor of Political Economy at Duke University. Photo: Brandon Payne / World Bank

Delegates at the opening of the 2018 Ibrahim Governance Weekend.

Delegates at the opening of the 2018 Ibrahim Governance Weekend.

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