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The Chesapeake and Ohio 614 on display in Clifton Forge, Virginia. For a versus video comparing this engine and Milwaukee Road 261:

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=ozFErjgIHeE

 

For a black and white photo:

 

www.flickr.com/photos/33031095@N03/25823072261/

 

See my videos!

www.youtube.com/user/844steamtrain

 

See my other interesting videos!

www.bitchute.com/844steamtrain/

 

See my alternative website to facebook!

www.minds.com/844steamtrain

 

If you enjoy my photos, feel free to share, favorite and thanks for viewing!

The Chesapeake and Ohio 614 on display in Clifton Forge, Virginia. For a black and white photo:

 

www.flickr.com/photos/33031095@N03/25256839924/

 

See my videos!

www.youtube.com/user/844steamtrain

 

See my other interesting videos!

www.bitchute.com/844steamtrain/

 

See my alternative website to facebook!

www.minds.com/844steamtrain

 

If you enjoy my photos, feel free to favorite, share, and thanks for viewing!

Union Pacific 844 on one of it's first runs after being down for several years. For a video of this engine passing by the location in this photo:

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=uv4zYIfDgdQ

 

For a black and white photo:

 

www.flickr.com/photos/33031095@N03/29380119706/

 

See my videos!

www.youtube.com/user/844steamtrain

 

See my other interesting videos!

www.bitchute.com/844steamtrain/

 

See my alternative website to facebook!

www.minds.com/844steamtrain

 

If you enjoy my photos, feel free to favorite, share and thanks for viewing!

The Santa Fe 5017 on display Green Bay, Wisconsin. This is a 2-10-4 Texas type.

 

For a versus video comparing the Santa Fe 5000 with Texas and Pacific 610:

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=2IVOcUW7ELk

 

For a Black and White photo:

 

www.flickr.com/photos/33031095@N03/27634661655/

 

See my videos!

www.youtube.com/user/844steamtrain

 

See my other interesting videos!

www.bitchute.com/844steamtrain/

 

See my alternative website to facebook!

www.minds.com/844steamtrain

  

If you enjoy my photos, feel free to favorite, share, and thanks for viewing!

The C&O 2789 on display at the Hoosier Valley Railroad Museum in North Judson, Indiana. Currently undergoing a very slow restoration.

 

For a black and white photo:

 

www.flickr.com/photos/33031095@N03/29728062063/

 

See my videos!

www.youtube.com/user/844steamtrain

 

See my other interesting videos!

www.bitchute.com/844steamtrain/

 

See my alternative website to facebook!

www.minds.com/844steamtrain

 

If you enjoy my photos, feel free to favorite, share, and thanks for viewing!

The Norfolk and Western 2156 on display in Roanoke, Virginia. In simple expansion mode, this is the most powerful reciprocating steam engine in the world.

 

For a versus video comparing this one and UP 4014:

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=bppNbigH-lg

 

See my videos!

www.youtube.com/user/844steamtrain

 

See my other interesting videos!

www.bitchute.com/844steamtrain/

 

See my alternative website to facebook!

www.minds.com/844steamtrain

 

If you enjoy my photos, feel free to favorite, share, and thanks for viewing!

Santa Fe 5000 on display in Amarillo, Texas. This is a 2-10-4 Texas type, and some restoration work has been done.

 

For a versus video comparing this engine with Texas and Pacific 610:

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=2IVOcUW7ELk

 

See my videos!

www.youtube.com/user/844steamtrain

 

See my other interesting videos!

www.bitchute.com/844steamtrain/

 

See my alternative website to facebook!

www.minds.com/844steamtrain

 

If you enjoy my photos, feel free to favorite, share, and thanks for viewing!

Union Pacific 844 on one of it's first runs after being down for several years. For a video of this engine passing by the location in this photo:

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=uv4zYIfDgdQ

 

See my videos!

www.youtube.com/user/844steamtrain

 

See my other interesting videos!

www.bitchute.com/844steamtrain/

 

See my alternative website to facebook!

www.minds.com/844steamtrain

 

If you enjoy my photos, feel free to favorite, share, and thanks for viewing!

UP 4006 on display in St. Louis, Missouri. For a video of all eight surviving UP Big Boys:

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q_BBp8Omzow

 

For a photo of Union Pacific Big Boy 4012:

 

www.flickr.com/photos/33031095@N03/24853845350/

 

See my videos!

www.youtube.com/user/844steamtrain

 

See my other interesting videos!

www.bitchute.com/844steamtrain/

 

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www.minds.com/844steamtrain

 

If you enjoy my photos, feel free to favorite, share, and thanks for viewing!

SP&S 700 on the holiday express 2014. Oaks Park, Oregon

 

For a video of this large engine puffing hard in bad weather:

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=3rKmr8VDPM4

 

See my videos!

www.youtube.com/user/844steamtrain

 

See my other interesting videos!

www.bitchute.com/844steamtrain/

 

See my alternative website to facebook!

www.minds.com/844steamtrain

 

If you enjoy my photos, feel free to favorite, share, and thanks for viewing!

The C&O 2789 on display at the Hoosier Valley Railroad Museum in North Judson, Indiana. Currently undergoing a very slow restoration.

 

See my videos!

www.youtube.com/user/844steamtrain

 

See my other interesting videos!

www.bitchute.com/844steamtrain/

 

See my alternative website to facebook!

www.minds.com/844steamtrain

 

If you enjoy my photos, feel free to favorite, share, and thanks for viewing!

Union Pacific 4017 on display in Green Bay, Wisconsin. For a video of all eight surviving Union Pacific Big Boys:

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q_BBp8Omzow

 

For a photo of Union Pacific Big Boy 4018:

 

www.flickr.com/photos/33031095@N03/25187533216/

 

See my videos!

www.youtube.com/user/844steamtrain

 

See my other interesting videos!

www.bitchute.com/844steamtrain/

 

See my alternative website to facebook!

www.minds.com/844steamtrain

 

If you enjoy my photos, feel free to favorite, share, and thanks for viewing!

The SP&S 700 departing in a cloud of steam at Oaks Park, Oregon. For a video of 700 on the Holiday Express 2014:

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=3rKmr8VDPM4

 

See my videos!

www.youtube.com/user/844steamtrain

 

See my other interesting videos!

www.bitchute.com/844steamtrain/

 

See my alternative website to facebook!

www.minds.com/844steamtrain

 

If you enjoy my photos, feel free to favorite, share, and thanks for viewing!

  

Google Trends Proves That Beards Aren't Dead (Or Even Dying).

 

Predicting the death of the beard has become an annual tradition for so-called style experts all over the internet.

 

Here are three tips to stay at the top of the beard game.

 

1. Don't be afraid to try a new style

 

One of the worst things we can do is get complacent with our style.

 

If your beard starts to look tired and dated, it makes you look like you have stopped caring, even stopped paying attention to the world around you.

 

Even a moderate style change can make a huge difference.

 

If you've been keeping a 3 or 4 inch beard, try keeping the same style, but bringing it down a couple of inches so that it more closely hugs your face.

 

Tighten up your look by keeping it short along the sides of the face, fade it into your hair at the sideburn, and make sure you're taking care of stray hairs by trimming regularly.

 

Had a goatee for years? Let your full beard grow out. Give it a bit of length and make sure you are grooming it daily. If you can't make it work, keep the full beard but try a stubble length.

 

If you're rocking a full beard, the possibilities are endless, but a more sleek, refined style like the Verdi is an easy first step into shaping your beard.

 

2. Pay attention to the little things

 

Attention to detail can make or break a man.

 

When people see that there are fly away hairs, a poorly trimmed (or not at all trimmed) neckline, or that you simply do not groom your beard at all, they're going to assume the worst.

 

If you can't even give your beard the attention it deserves, they'll think you don't pay attention in other areas of life, too.

 

Imagine the consequences when you're interviewing for a better job. Or trying to impress a potential mate.

 

You could lose out on a job or business opportunity, and even a relationship, because of your bad beard habits, so create a daily routine and make it a habit.

 

3. Condition daily with a balm or oil

 

Perhaps the most important method of your grooming routine, the foundation on which everything else rests, is the daily conditioning of your facial hair using a balm or an oil.

 

If you do nothing else, you will see significant results just from giving your beard a bit of moisturization.

 

Of course a balm helps control your beard and allows you to style it while keeping stray hairs in place, but your personal preference will dictate whether you use balm or oil.

 

The health, the shine, the overall cleanliness of your beard will be evident to all who look at it if you simply apply a bit of a natural moisturizing conditioner every morning.

 

Beards are not dead.

 

And that means more men than ever will be growing beards.

 

It's no longer enough to just grow a beard. You need a good beard to keep up with the competition. Get serious about your grooming habits and make sure that the more beards other men grow, the more yours stands out.

 

-------------------------

Candid street shot Toronto, Canada.

Climate Emergency

Countries where a climate emergency has been declared, either for the entire country (dark blue) or only for some subdivisions (light blue), as of October 2019.

A climate emergency declaration or declaring a climate emergency is an action taken by governments and scientists[1] to acknowledge humanity is in a climate emergency. The first such declaration was made in December 2016.[2] Since then over 1,400 local governments in 28 countries have made climate emergency declarations (as of 23 February 2020). [3]

 

Once a government makes a declaration the next step for the declaring government to set priorities to mitigate climate change, prior to ultimately entering a state of emergency or equivalent.[4]

 

In declaring a climate emergency, a government admits that global warming exists and that the measures taken up to this point are not enough to limit the changes brought by it. The decision stresses the need for the government and administration to devise measures that try and stop human-caused global warming.

 

The declarations can be made on different levels, for example at a national or local government level, and they can differ in depth and detail in their guidelines. The term climate emergency does not only describe formal decisions, but also includes actions to avert climate breakdown. This is supposed to justify and focus them. The specific term "emergency" is used to assign priority to the topic, and to generate a mindset of urgency.

 

The term “climate emergency” has been promoted by climate activists and pro-climate action politicians to add a sense of urgency for responding to a long-term problem.[7]

 

Term

Climate emergency as a term was used in protests against climate change before 2010 (e.g. the "Climate-Emergency-Rally" in Melbourne in June 2009[8]). In 2017 the city council of Darebin adopted multiple measures named "Darebin Climate Emergency Plan". On December 4th, 2018, the Club of Rome presented their "Climate Emergency Plan", which included 10 high-priority measures to limit global warming[9]. With the rise of movements like Extinction Rebellion[10] and Fridays For Future the concern has been picked up by various governments.

 

Multiple European cities and communities who declared a climate emergency are simultaneously members of the Klima-Bündnis (German for climate alliance), which obligates them to lower their CO2 emissions by 10% every five years.

 

Oxford Dictionary chose climate emergency as the word of the year 2019 and defines the term as "a situation in which urgent action is required to reduce or halt climate change and avoid potentially irreversible environmental damage resulting from it." Usage of the term soared more than 10,000% between September 2018 and September 2019.[11]

 

History

 

Australian climate activists demand the declaration of a climate emergency on 13 June 2009 at the "Climate Emergency Rally" during the annual Earth day in Melbourne, Australia

 

"Climate Emergency" declared on a banner on 22 April 2017 at the annual March for Science in Melbourne, Australia

Early stages

Encouraged by the campaigners behind a Climate Emergency Declaration petition, which had been launched in Australia in May 2026, the first governmental declaration of a climate emergency in the world was put forward by Trent McCarthy, an Australian Greens Councillor at the City of Darebin in Melbourne, Australia. The city declared a climate emergency on 5 December 2016.[12][13][14] In August 2017, Darebin decided upon a catalogue of actions in a "Darebin Climate Emergency Plan".[15][16] Darebin's declaration was followed by Hoboken in New Jersey and Berkeley, California.[13][14]

 

Hearing of these developments in 2018, UK Green Party politician Carla Denyer, then a member of Bristol City Council, took the lead role in bringing about Bristol City Council's declaration of a climate emergency.[17] This was the first such declaration by in Europe, and has been widely credited as a breakthrough moment for cities and national parliaments beginning to declare climate emergency.[18][19][13][14] Denyer's motion was described in the UK newspaper The Independent as 'the historic first motion' which by July 2019 had been 'copied by more than 400 local authorities and parliaments'.[20]

  

"Climate angel" with a poster "This is an emergency" at the "Extinction Rebellion" protests on 22 March 2019 in Melbourne, Australia

 

Demanding a "Klimanotstand" (English: Climate Emergency) at Helvetiaplatz [de] in Bern, Switzerland on 24 May 2019

On 28th April 2019, the Scottish Parliament declared a climate emergency, making Scotland the first country to do so. [21] This was quickly followed by the National Assembly for Wales on the 29th April [22] and then the Parliament of the United Kingdom for the UK as whole in 1st May.[23]

 

Subsequent developments

Pope Francis declared a climate emergency in June 2019.[24] The Pope also called for a "radical energy transition" away from fossil fuels towards renewable energy sources, and urged leaders to "hear the increasingly desperate cries of the earth and its poor."[24] He also argued against "the continued search for new fossil fuel reserves" and stated that "fossil fuels should remain underground."[24]

 

On 10 July 2019, networks representing more than 7,000 higher and further education institutions from six continents announced that they are declaring a Climate Emergency, and agreed to undertake a three-point plan to address the crisis through their work with students.[25] Some statements were criticized for not including specific measures.[26]

 

In June 2019, Councillor Trent McCarthy of the City of Darebin brought together councillors and parliamentarians in Australia and around the world for two online link-ups to connect the work of climate emergency-declared councils and governments. Following these link-ups and a successful motion at the National General Assembly of Local Government, McCarthy announced the formation of Climate Emergency Australia, a new network of Australian governments and councils advocating for a climate emergency response.

 

Representative Earl Blumenauer of Oregon believes the US government should declare a climate emergency.[27] Blumenauer's proposed legislation is supported by 2020 US Presidential candidate Bernie Sanders, as well as Congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez.[27]

 

In 2019, according to an eight-country poll, a majority of the public recognise the climate crisis as an “emergency” and say politicians are failing to tackle the problem, backing the interests of big oil over the wellbeing of ordinary people. The survey found that climate breakdown is viewed as the most important issue facing the world in seven out of the eight countries surveyed.[28]

 

In September 2013, the Australian Medical Association officially declared climate change a public health emergency.[29] The AMA noted that climate change will cause "higher mortality and morbidity from heat stress; injury and mortality from increasingly severe weather events; increases in the transmission of vector-borne diseases; food insecurity resulting from declines in agricultural outputs; [and] a higher incidence of mental-ill health."[29] The AMA has called on the Australian Government to adopt a carbon budget; reduce emissions; and transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy, among other proposals to mitigate the health impacts of climate change.[29]

 

The Australian Greens Party is calling on the federal Parliament to declare a climate emergency. Greens MP for Melbourne, Adam Bandt, welcomed the UK Parliament's declaration of a climate emergency and argued that Australia should follow their lead.[30] In October 2019, an official e-petition to the Australian Parliament calling for the declaration of a climate emergency, received more than 400,000 signatories (.[31][32][33] This is the single most popular online Parliamentary petition in Australia.[33] Former federal Liberal Party leader John Hewson has publicly urged for a conscience vote in the Parliament on the climate emergency, despite the Liberal Party's current position on climate change.[34] He also stated that "it was an emergency 30 years ago".[34]

 

In October 2019, the Australian Labor Party supported the Greens Party's policy to declare a climate emergency, however the proposition failed with the rejection of the Morrison Government.[35] The motion was supported by independent members Zali Steggall, Helen Haines and Andrew Wilkie, as well as Centre Alliance.[34]

 

On 5 November 2019 the journal BioScience published an article endorsed by further 11,000 scientists from 153 nations, that states Climate Emergency (“We declare clearly and unequivocally that planet Earth is facing a climate emergency”) and that the world's people face “untold suffering due to the climate crisis” unless there are major transformations to global society.[36][36]

 

In November 2019 the Oxford Dictionaries made the term climate emergency Word of the Year.

 

On 14-15 February 2020 the first National Climate Emergency Summit was held at the city hall in Melbourne, Australia. It was a sold out event with 2,000 attendees and 100 speakers.[37][38]

 

Recent development

 

Beginning in early 2019, Google trends data shows a growth in "climate emergency" searches (shown in red), concurrently with growth in searches for "climate crisis" (shown in blue).

Development in the EU

On 28 November 2019, the European Parliament declared a climate emergency.[39][40] The EU represents 27 member states.

 

Germany

The state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) started a campaign on 10 March 2019 called "NRW erklärt den Klimanotstand" (North-Rhine-Westphalia declares a climate emergency), where they urged local communities to do so. The first community to declare a climate emergency was Konstanz in Baden-Wurttemberg, on 2 May 2019.

 

The government of NRW called the declaration of a climate emergency a "symbolic measure", which does not give any "special rights" to the declaring community.

 

List of countries and dependencies

Parliamentary or Government declaration

Scotland (28 April 2019)[41]

Wales (29 April 2019)[42]

United Kingdom (1 May 2019 - Parliament)[43]

Jersey (2 May 2019)[44]

Republic of Ireland (9 May 2019)[45]

Isle of Man (10 May 2019 – Government, 18 June 2019 – Parliament)[46]

Portugal (7 June 2019)[47][48]

Holy See (June 2019)[24]

Canada (17 June 2019)[49][50]

France (27 June 2019)[51]

Argentina (17 July 2019)[52][53]

Spain (17 September 2019 – Parlament, 21 January 2020 – Government)[54][55][56]

Austria (25 September 2019)[57]

Malta (22 October 2019)[58]

Bangladesh (13 November 2019)[59]

Andorra (23 January 2020)[60]

Maldives (12 February 2020)[61]

European Union member states

Austria (28 November 2019)[39]

Belgium (28 November 2019)[39]

Bulgaria (28 November 2019)[39]

Croatia (28 November 2019)[39]

Cyprus (28 November 2019)[39]

Czech Republic (28 November 2019)[39]

Denmark (28 November 2019)[39]

Estonia (28 November 2019)[39]

Finland (28 November 2019)[39]

France (28 November 2019)[39]

Germany (28 November 2019)[39]

Greece (28 November 2019)[39]

Hungary (28 November 2019)[39]

Ireland (28 November 2019)[39]

Italy (28 November 2019)[39]

Latvia (28 November 2019)[39]

Lithuania (28 November 2019)[39]

Luxembourg (28 November 2019)[39]

Malta (28 November 2019)[39]

Netherlands (28 November 2019)[39]

Poland (28 November 2019)[39]

Portugal (28 November 2019)[39]

Romania (28 November 2019)[39]

Slovakia (28 November 2019)[39]

Slovenia (28 November 2019)[39]

Spain (28 November 2019)[39]

Sweden (28 November 2019)[39]

United Kingdom (28 November 2019)[39]

 

States and local administrations

Ambox current red.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2019)

In Australia: Most notably South Australia (September 2019), [62] Darebin (5 December 2016),[15][16] Melbourne (June 2019),[63] Sydney (June 2019),[64] Adelaide (August 2019),[65] and more than 17 towns (30 April 2019).[66][67]

In the United States: at least 29 towns,[68][citation needed] most notably New York City (26 June 2019),[69] Hayward (15 January 2019), San Francisco and Chico (2 April 2019).[70]

In Canada: 384 towns (May 2019).[71]

In France: Mulhouse (9 May 2019)[71] and Paris.[72]

In Spain: Catalonia region (7 May 2019),[73] Euskadi region,[74] Canary Islands region[75], Balearic Islands region[76] and the cities of San Cristóbal de La Laguna,[77] Seville,[78] Castro Urdiales,[79] Zaragoza, Salobreña, Lanzarote, El Rosario, Puerto de la Cruz,[80] Sagunto,[81] Zamora[82], Madrid.[83] and Barcelona.[84]

In Italy: 28 towns, among others the town of Acri (29 April 2019),[85] the town of Milano,[86] the Metropolitan City of Naples (May 2019)[87] and the town of Lucca.[88][89]

In Switzerland: the cantons of Basel-Stadt, Jura and Vaud and the cities of Liestal, Olten and Delemont.[71]

In Germany: 68 towns, among others Konstanz, Heidelberg, Kiel, Münster, Erlangen, Bochum, Aachen, Saarbrücken, Wiesbaden, Leverkusen, Marburg, Düsseldorf, Bonn, Cologne, Karlsruhe, Potsdam, Berlin, Leipzig and Munich.[90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99][100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108]

In New Zealand: Canterbury region,[109] and the city of Nelson (16 May 2019);[110] Auckland (11 June 2019);[111] Wellington (20 June 2019).[112]

In Netherlands: the city of Amsterdam.[113]

In Austria: the towns and municipalities Michaelerberg-Pruggern (13 June 2019),[114] Perchtoldsdorf (18 June 2019),[115] Traiskirchen (24 June 2019),[116] Steyregg (4 July 2019)[117] and the state Vorarlberg (4 July 2019).[118]

In Czechia: the 6th District of Prague (13 June 2019).[119] the 7th District of Prague (22 May 2019).[120]

In Philippines: the town of Bacolod.[121]

In Poland: the cities of Warsaw[122] and Kraków.[123]

In Slovakia: the city of Zlaté Moravce (18 September 2019).[124]

In Belgium: the city of Brussels (23 September 2019).[125]

In Japan: the prefecture of Nagano (December 2019),[126] the cities of Iki[127][128] and Kamakura.[129]

In Chile: the city of Hualpén.[130]

In Hungary: the city of Budapest[131]

In Brazil the city of Recife.[132]

In South Korea the South Chungcheong Province[133]

See also

Climate change in New York City

Climate crisis

World Scientists' Warning to Humanity

Climate Emergency

 

A climate emergency declaration or declaring a climate emergency is an action taken by governments and scientists[1] to acknowledge humanity is in a climate emergency. The first such declaration was made in December 2016.[2] Since then over 1,400 local governments in 28 countries have made climate emergency declarations (as of 23 February 2020). [3]

 

Once a government makes a declaration the next step for the declaring government to set priorities to mitigate climate change, prior to ultimately entering a state of emergency or equivalent.[4]

 

In declaring a climate emergency, a government admits that global warming exists and that the measures taken up to this point are not enough to limit the changes brought by it. The decision stresses the need for the government and administration to devise measures that try and stop human-caused global warming.

 

The declarations can be made on different levels, for example at a national or local government level, and they can differ in depth and detail in their guidelines. The term climate emergency does not only describe formal decisions, but also includes actions to avert climate breakdown. This is supposed to justify and focus them. The specific term "emergency" is used to assign priority to the topic, and to generate a mindset of urgency.

 

The term “climate emergency” has been promoted by climate activists and pro-climate action politicians to add a sense of urgency for responding to a long-term problem.[7]

 

Term

Climate emergency as a term was used in protests against climate change before 2010 (e.g. the "Climate-Emergency-Rally" in Melbourne in June 2009[8]). In 2017 the city council of Darebin adopted multiple measures named "Darebin Climate Emergency Plan". On December 4th, 2018, the Club of Rome presented their "Climate Emergency Plan", which included 10 high-priority measures to limit global warming[9]. With the rise of movements like Extinction Rebellion[10] and Fridays For Future the concern has been picked up by various governments.

 

Multiple European cities and communities who declared a climate emergency are simultaneously members of the Klima-Bündnis (German for climate alliance), which obligates them to lower their CO2 emissions by 10% every five years.

 

Oxford Dictionary chose climate emergency as the word of the year 2019 and defines the term as "a situation in which urgent action is required to reduce or halt climate change and avoid potentially irreversible environmental damage resulting from it." Usage of the term soared more than 10,000% between September 2018 and September 2019.[11]

 

History

 

Australian climate activists demand the declaration of a climate emergency on 13 June 2009 at the "Climate Emergency Rally" during the annual Earth day in Melbourne, Australia

 

"Climate Emergency" declared on a banner on 22 April 2017 at the annual March for Science in Melbourne, Australia

Early stages

Encouraged by the campaigners behind a Climate Emergency Declaration petition, which had been launched in Australia in May 2026, the first governmental declaration of a climate emergency in the world was put forward by Trent McCarthy, an Australian Greens Councillor at the City of Darebin in Melbourne, Australia. The city declared a climate emergency on 5 December 2016.[12][13][14] In August 2017, Darebin decided upon a catalogue of actions in a "Darebin Climate Emergency Plan".[15][16] Darebin's declaration was followed by Hoboken in New Jersey and Berkeley, California.[13][14]

 

Hearing of these developments in 2018, UK Green Party politician Carla Denyer, then a member of Bristol City Council, took the lead role in bringing about Bristol City Council's declaration of a climate emergency.[17] This was the first such declaration by in Europe, and has been widely credited as a breakthrough moment for cities and national parliaments beginning to declare climate emergency.[18][19][13][14] Denyer's motion was described in the UK newspaper The Independent as 'the historic first motion' which by July 2019 had been 'copied by more than 400 local authorities and parliaments'.[20]

  

"Climate angel" with a poster "This is an emergency" at the "Extinction Rebellion" protests on 22 March 2019 in Melbourne, Australia

 

Demanding a "Klimanotstand" (English: Climate Emergency) at Helvetiaplatz [de] in Bern, Switzerland on 24 May 2019

On 28th April 2019, the Scottish Parliament declared a climate emergency, making Scotland the first country to do so. [21] This was quickly followed by the National Assembly for Wales on the 29th April [22] and then the Parliament of the United Kingdom for the UK as whole in 1st May.[23]

 

Subsequent developments

Pope Francis declared a climate emergency in June 2019.[24] The Pope also called for a "radical energy transition" away from fossil fuels towards renewable energy sources, and urged leaders to "hear the increasingly desperate cries of the earth and its poor."[24] He also argued against "the continued search for new fossil fuel reserves" and stated that "fossil fuels should remain underground."[24]

 

On 10 July 2019, networks representing more than 7,000 higher and further education institutions from six continents announced that they are declaring a Climate Emergency, and agreed to undertake a three-point plan to address the crisis through their work with students.[25] Some statements were criticized for not including specific measures.[26]

 

In June 2019, Councillor Trent McCarthy of the City of Darebin brought together councillors and parliamentarians in Australia and around the world for two online link-ups to connect the work of climate emergency-declared councils and governments. Following these link-ups and a successful motion at the National General Assembly of Local Government, McCarthy announced the formation of Climate Emergency Australia, a new network of Australian governments and councils advocating for a climate emergency response.

 

Representative Earl Blumenauer of Oregon believes the US government should declare a climate emergency.[27] Blumenauer's proposed legislation is supported by 2020 US Presidential candidate Bernie Sanders, as well as Congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez.[27]

 

In 2019, according to an eight-country poll, a majority of the public recognise the climate crisis as an “emergency” and say politicians are failing to tackle the problem, backing the interests of big oil over the wellbeing of ordinary people. The survey found that climate breakdown is viewed as the most important issue facing the world in seven out of the eight countries surveyed.[28]

 

In September 2013, the Australian Medical Association officially declared climate change a public health emergency.[29] The AMA noted that climate change will cause "higher mortality and morbidity from heat stress; injury and mortality from increasingly severe weather events; increases in the transmission of vector-borne diseases; food insecurity resulting from declines in agricultural outputs; [and] a higher incidence of mental-ill health."[29] The AMA has called on the Australian Government to adopt a carbon budget; reduce emissions; and transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy, among other proposals to mitigate the health impacts of climate change.[29]

 

The Australian Greens Party is calling on the federal Parliament to declare a climate emergency. Greens MP for Melbourne, Adam Bandt, welcomed the UK Parliament's declaration of a climate emergency and argued that Australia should follow their lead.[30] In October 2019, an official e-petition to the Australian Parliament calling for the declaration of a climate emergency, received more than 400,000 signatories (.[31][32][33] This is the single most popular online Parliamentary petition in Australia.[33] Former federal Liberal Party leader John Hewson has publicly urged for a conscience vote in the Parliament on the climate emergency, despite the Liberal Party's current position on climate change.[34] He also stated that "it was an emergency 30 years ago".[34]

 

In October 2019, the Australian Labor Party supported the Greens Party's policy to declare a climate emergency, however the proposition failed with the rejection of the Morrison Government.[35] The motion was supported by independent members Zali Steggall, Helen Haines and Andrew Wilkie, as well as Centre Alliance.[34]

 

On 5 November 2019 the journal BioScience published an article endorsed by further 11,000 scientists from 153 nations, that states Climate Emergency (“We declare clearly and unequivocally that planet Earth is facing a climate emergency”) and that the world's people face “untold suffering due to the climate crisis” unless there are major transformations to global society.[36][36]

 

In November 2019 the Oxford Dictionaries made the term climate emergency Word of the Year.

 

On 14-15 February 2020 the first National Climate Emergency Summit was held at the city hall in Melbourne, Australia. It was a sold out event with 2,000 attendees and 100 speakers.[37][38]

 

Recent development

 

Beginning in early 2019, Google trends data shows a growth in "climate emergency" searches (shown in red), concurrently with growth in searches for "climate crisis" (shown in blue).

Development in the EU

On 28 November 2019, the European Parliament declared a climate emergency.[39][40] The EU represents 27 member states.

 

Germany

The state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) started a campaign on 10 March 2019 called "NRW erklärt den Klimanotstand" (North-Rhine-Westphalia declares a climate emergency), where they urged local communities to do so. The first community to declare a climate emergency was Konstanz in Baden-Wurttemberg, on 2 May 2019.

 

The government of NRW called the declaration of a climate emergency a "symbolic measure", which does not give any "special rights" to the declaring community.

 

List of countries and dependencies

Parliamentary or Government declaration

Scotland (28 April 2019)[41]

Wales (29 April 2019)[42]

United Kingdom (1 May 2019 - Parliament)[43]

Jersey (2 May 2019)[44]

Republic of Ireland (9 May 2019)[45]

Isle of Man (10 May 2019 – Government, 18 June 2019 – Parliament)[46]

Portugal (7 June 2019)[47][48]

Holy See (June 2019)[24]

Canada (17 June 2019)[49][50]

France (27 June 2019)[51]

Argentina (17 July 2019)[52][53]

Spain (17 September 2019 – Parlament, 21 January 2020 – Government)[54][55][56]

Austria (25 September 2019)[57]

Malta (22 October 2019)[58]

Bangladesh (13 November 2019)[59]

Andorra (23 January 2020)[60]

Maldives (12 February 2020)[61]

European Union member states

Austria (28 November 2019)[39]

Belgium (28 November 2019)[39]

Bulgaria (28 November 2019)[39]

Croatia (28 November 2019)[39]

Cyprus (28 November 2019)[39]

Czech Republic (28 November 2019)[39]

Denmark (28 November 2019)[39]

Estonia (28 November 2019)[39]

Finland (28 November 2019)[39]

France (28 November 2019)[39]

Germany (28 November 2019)[39]

Greece (28 November 2019)[39]

Hungary (28 November 2019)[39]

Ireland (28 November 2019)[39]

Italy (28 November 2019)[39]

Latvia (28 November 2019)[39]

Lithuania (28 November 2019)[39]

Luxembourg (28 November 2019)[39]

Malta (28 November 2019)[39]

Netherlands (28 November 2019)[39]

Poland (28 November 2019)[39]

Portugal (28 November 2019)[39]

Romania (28 November 2019)[39]

Slovakia (28 November 2019)[39]

Slovenia (28 November 2019)[39]

Spain (28 November 2019)[39]

Sweden (28 November 2019)[39]

United Kingdom (28 November 2019)[39]

 

States and local administrations

Ambox current red.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2019)

In Australia: Most notably South Australia (September 2019), [62] Darebin (5 December 2016),[15][16] Melbourne (June 2019),[63] Sydney (June 2019),[64] Adelaide (August 2019),[65] and more than 17 towns (30 April 2019).[66][67]

In the United States: at least 29 towns,[68][citation needed] most notably New York City (26 June 2019),[69] Hayward (15 January 2019), San Francisco and Chico (2 April 2019).[70]

In Canada: 384 towns (May 2019).[71]

In France: Mulhouse (9 May 2019)[71] and Paris.[72]

In Spain: Catalonia region (7 May 2019),[73] Euskadi region,[74] Canary Islands region[75], Balearic Islands region[76] and the cities of San Cristóbal de La Laguna,[77] Seville,[78] Castro Urdiales,[79] Zaragoza, Salobreña, Lanzarote, El Rosario, Puerto de la Cruz,[80] Sagunto,[81] Zamora[82], Madrid.[83] and Barcelona.[84]

In Italy: 28 towns, among others the town of Acri (29 April 2019),[85] the town of Milano,[86] the Metropolitan City of Naples (May 2019)[87] and the town of Lucca.[88][89]

In Switzerland: the cantons of Basel-Stadt, Jura and Vaud and the cities of Liestal, Olten and Delemont.[71]

In Germany: 68 towns, among others Konstanz, Heidelberg, Kiel, Münster, Erlangen, Bochum, Aachen, Saarbrücken, Wiesbaden, Leverkusen, Marburg, Düsseldorf, Bonn, Cologne, Karlsruhe, Potsdam, Berlin, Leipzig and Munich.[90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99][100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108]

In New Zealand: Canterbury region,[109] and the city of Nelson (16 May 2019);[110] Auckland (11 June 2019);[111] Wellington (20 June 2019).[112]

In Netherlands: the city of Amsterdam.[113]

In Austria: the towns and municipalities Michaelerberg-Pruggern (13 June 2019),[114] Perchtoldsdorf (18 June 2019),[115] Traiskirchen (24 June 2019),[116] Steyregg (4 July 2019)[117] and the state Vorarlberg (4 July 2019).[118]

In Czechia: the 6th District of Prague (13 June 2019).[119] the 7th District of Prague (22 May 2019).[120]

In Philippines: the town of Bacolod.[121]

In Poland: the cities of Warsaw[122] and Kraków.[123]

In Slovakia: the city of Zlaté Moravce (18 September 2019).[124]

In Belgium: the city of Brussels (23 September 2019).[125]

In Japan: the prefecture of Nagano (December 2019),[126] the cities of Iki[127][128] and Kamakura.[129]

In Chile: the city of Hualpén.[130]

In Hungary: the city of Budapest[131]

In Brazil the city of Recife.[132]

In South Korea the South Chungcheong Province[133]

See also

Climate change in New York City

Climate crisis

World Scientists' Warning to Humanity

 

Café racer

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

(Redirected from Cafe racer)

 

Jump to: navigation, search

     

Triton: Triumph engine and Norton Featherbed frame

A café racer (/ˈkæf reɪsər/ KAF-ray-sər or less commonly /ˈkæfi ˌreɪsər/ KA-fi-RAY-sər) is a light-weight, lightly-powered motorcycle optimized for speed and handling rather than comfort — and optimized for quick rides over short distances.[1][2] With bodywork and control layout recalling early 1960's Grand Prix road racing motorcycles, café racers are noted for their low slung racing handlebars, prominent seat cowling and elongated fuel tanks, often with indentations to allow the rider's knees to grip the tank.[3]

 

The term itself developed among British motorcycle enthusiasts of the early 1960s, specifically the Rocker or "Ton-Up Boys" subculture where the bikes were used for short, quick rides between cafés — in other words, drinking establishments.[4][3][5][6]

 

In 1973, US freelance writer Wallace Wyss, contributing to Popular Mechanics magazine, wrote that the term café racer was originally used derogatorily in Europe to describe a "motorcyclist who played at being an Isle of Man road racer" and was in fact "someone who owned a racy machine but merely parked it near his table at the local outdoor cafe."[7]

 

In 2014, journalist Ben Stewart described the café racer as a "look made popular when European kids stripped down their small-displacement bikes to zip from one café hangout to another."[8]

  

Contents [hide]

1 Typical configuration

2 Evolution

3 Subculture

4 See also

5 References

6 Further reading

7 External links

  

Typical configuration[edit]

     

1962 racing motorcycle AJS 7R 350cc, on display at Gruber Museum in Weiler im Allgäu, Bavaria, Germany

    

BSA Goldstar 500 café racer

In addition to its characteristic light-weight and lightly-powered engine and distinctive bodywork, the café racer typically featured distinctive ergonomics.

 

Low, narrow handlebars — known as clip-ons (two separate bars that bolt directly to each fork tube), clubman or ace bars (one piece bars that attach to the standard mounting location but drop down and forward)[4] — enabled the rider to "tuck in", reducing wind resistance and improving control. Along with rearward located seat, the posture often required rearsets, or rear-set footrests and foot controls, again typical of racing motorcycles of the era.[9] Distinctive half or full race-style fairings were sometimes mounted to the forks or frame.[7]

 

The bikes featured minimalist styling, engines tuned for maximum speed and light road handling. A well-known example was "The Triton", a homemade combination of Norton Featherbed frame and Triumph Bonneville engine. It used a common and fast racing engine combined with a well-handling frame, the Featherbed frame by Norton Motorcycles.[9] Those with less money could opt for a "Tribsa"—the Triumph engine in a BSA frame. Other combinations such as the "Norvin" (a Vincent V-Twin engine in a Featherbed frame) and racing frames by Rickman or Seeley were also adopted for road use.[10]

 

Evolution[edit]

     

1977 Harley-Davidson XLCR

Café racer styling evolved throughout the time of their popularity. By the mid-1970s, Japanese bikes had overtaken British bikes in the marketplace, and the look of real Grand Prix racing bikes had changed. The hand-made, frequently unpainted aluminium racing fuel tanks of the 1960s had evolved into square, narrow, fibreglass tanks. Increasingly, three-cylinder Kawasaki two-strokes, four-cylinder four-stroke Kawasaki Z1, and four-cylinder Hondas were the basis for café racer conversions. By 1977, a number of manufacturers had taken notice of the café racer boom and were producing factory café racers, such as the well-received Moto Guzzi Le Mans[11] and the unpopular but unforgettable Harley-Davidson XLCR.[12][13][14] A Japanese thumper introduced in the late 1980s (to disappointing sales) the Honda GB500 'Tourist Trophy' emulated British café racers of the 1960s.[15]

 

In the mid-1970s, riders continued to modify standard production motorcycles into so-called "café racers" by simply equipping them with clubman bars and a small fairing around the headlight. A number of European manufacturers, including Benelli, BMW, Bultaco and Derbi produced factory "café" variants of their standard motorcycles in this manner,[16] without any modifications made to make them faster or more powerful,[17] a trend that continues today.[18][19]

 

Subculture[edit]

     

1960s Rockers under canopy outside Busy Bee Café, Watford, England, UK.

    

Suzuki S40 customised in a café racer style[20][21]

    

Honda CB 400 Four café racer

Rockers were a young and rebellious rock and roll counterculture[22] who wanted a fast, personalised and distinctive bike to travel between transport cafés along the newly built arterial motorways in and around British towns and cities.[23][24][25] Biker lore has it that the goal of many was to be able to reach 100 miles per hour (160 km/h)—called simply "the ton"—along such a route where the rider would leave from a café, race to a predetermined point and back to the café before a single song could play on the jukebox, called record-racing. But author Mike Seate contends that record-racing is a myth, the story having originated in an episode of the BBC Dixon of Dock Green television show.[26] Café racers are remembered as being especially fond of rockabilly music and their image is now embedded in today's rockabilly culture.[27][28]

 

The sub-culture continues to evolve with modern café racers taking style elements of the American Greaser, the British Rocker and modern motorcycle rider to create an global style all their own.[8][29] Google Trends shows that, since 2010, the number of searches for the term 'cafe racer' has increased by approximately a factor of three relative to the total number of Google searches.[30]

 

See also[edit]

59 Club

Ace Cafe London

Outline of motorcycles and motorcycling

 

References[edit]

 

1.Jump up ^ The Listener (British Broadcasting Corporation) 85: p.373. 1971.

2.Jump up ^ James Adam Bolton (November–December 2010). "Moto Guzzi T3 Special". Motorcycle Classics. Retrieved October 11, 2009.

3.^ Jump up to: a b Pratt, Paul Richard (April 1963). "A Trip Through North America". American Motorcycling (American Motorcycle Association) XVII (No.4): p.20. Retrieved 26 December 2014. "The American 'Cafe Racer' rides with 'ape' type handlebars as high as possible in order to attract attention whereas, in direct contrast his British brother rides with the handlebars as low as possible in a feeble attempt to emulate racer John Surtees. One thing they do have in common is the making of excessive noise."

4.^ Jump up to: a b Travis R. Wright (29 July 2009). "Highway stars". Detroit Metro Times. Retrieved 26 December 2014. "What about the so-called café racer — that low-profile vintage motorcycle rider who looks as if he just rode away from the Marquee Club circa '62? His motorcycle is minimal and slim-lined, unlike the mainstream Harleys and those angular sport bikes you're used to seeing on the road."

5.Jump up ^ Cafe Society (DVD). Sewickley, PA: Beaverbrook. 2009. ASIN B002L3OVJ0. "From their origins on the streets of 1950s England, the cafe racer has become one of the world's most desirable and distinctive motorcycles."

6.Jump up ^ "The History of Café Racers". Cafe Racer TV. Discovery Communications. 12 October 2010. Retrieved 26 December 2014. "The café racer movement may have been born in London in the 1950s, but it has developed into a subculture encompassing a desire for speed, a love of rock and roll, and ultimately an enduring love for a motorcycle that’s being revived worldwide."

7.^ Jump up to: a b Wyss, Wally (September 1973). "How to fit a fairing and ride a racer!". Popular Mechanics (The Hearst Corporation) 140 (No.3): p.166. Retrieved 26 December 2014. "The American trend toward cafe racers caught most of the world's bikemakers by surprise and, at this writing, only Triumph has anything that approaches a cafe racer—a new model called the Hurricane that has a seat-molded-into-the-gas-tank one-piece unit designed by American fairing designer Craig Vetter."

8.^ Jump up to: a b Stewart, Ben (20 June 2014). "You Should Build Your Own Retro Café Racer". Popular Mechanics. Hearst Communication. Retrieved 25 December 2014. "Take a look around the hippest neighborhoods across the country and you'll see motorcycles that look like something out of an old Steve McQueen movie—retro, minimalist, and tough."

9.^ Jump up to: a b Melling, Frank (26 September 2004). "Classic bikes: DIY Tritons". Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group). Retrieved 26 December 2014. "Originally, cost was a major influence. In 1965, a good engine from the ill-handling Triumph Tiger 110 cost £30. Another £30 bought a rough Norton Model 50 or ES2, which provided not only the frame but the gearbox, clutch, suspension and brakes."

10.Jump up ^ Egan, Peter (2009). Leanings 2: Great Stories by America's Favorite Motorcycle Writer. Minneapolis: Motorbooks. ISBN 9780760337165.

11.Jump up ^ "The 50 Greatest Motorcycles of All Time". Complex Magazine. New York: Complex Media. 28 March 2011. Retrieved 29 December 2014. "The sinister Le Mans was an immediate hit when launched in 1976."

12.Jump up ^ Brown, Roland. "Harley-Davidson XLCR". Motorcycle Classics (Premier issue). Retrieved August 24, 2009. "The Harley-Davidson XLCR was Willie G. Davidson's one and only brush with the cafe racer set, and it created a classic for all time"

13.Jump up ^ Lindsay, Brooke (5 November 2006). "Harley’s Sportster: From a Wild Child to a Grown-Up in 50 Years". New York Times. Retrieved 29 December 2014. "As grim as those days were in terms of performance, it was an era that produced two of the Sportsters considered most unusual and sought-after by collectors, the 1977-78 XLCR Cafe Racer and the 1983-85 XR1000. Both of these racebike-inspired models were risky departures for Harley, and both originally languished unsold in showrooms long after production concluded."

14.Jump up ^ Welsh, Jonathan (16 March 2012). "New Era for 'Hogs?' Harley-Davidson Styling Chief To Retire". Wall Street Journal (Dow Jones & Company). Driver’s Seat blog. Retrieved 29 December 2014. "His road-race-styled Café Racer built from 1977 to 1979 was a departure and a famous flop. However, the sleek bikes are now coveted by collectors."

15.Jump up ^ Backus, Richard (2011). "Honda GB500 Under the Radar". Motorcycle Classics (Ogden Publications) (January/February). Retrieved 29 December 2014. "Ducati, Triumph, Guzzi and others have enjoyed considerable success with repli-bikes in recent years, so maybe the Honda was just 10 years ahead of its time. 'Simplicity and grace are never out of style,' wrote Peter Egan in Cycle World’s 1989 review of the GB500, 'and the GB is a simple, handsome bike.'"

16.Jump up ^ Welsh, Jonathan (29 March 2010). "Moto Guzzi Cafe Classic: Retro, But Not Painfully So". Wall Street Journal (Dow Jones & Company). Driver’s Seat blog. Retrieved 29 December 2014. "The Cafe is based on the V7 Classic that came out about a year ago. The differences are cosmetic, but significant. The Cafe’s exhaust pipes are swept upwards and its it handlebars are low, “clip-on” style that give it the look of a vintage racer."

17.Jump up ^ Welsh, Jonathan (3 August 2011). "Moto Guzzi V7 Racer: A Test Ride". Wall Street Journal (Dow Jones & Company). Driver’s Seat blog. Retrieved 29 December 2014. "Its low, compact shape, racy down-turned handlebars and spoke wheels give it the look of a vintage grand prix bike while jewel-like details from the engine to the foot pegs suggest a hand-built custom machine. But it is really a dressed up version of the Italian company’s earlier mass-market V7 Classic."

18.Jump up ^ "Top 10 production café racers". Visordown. Immediate Media Company Ltd. 18 December 2013. Retrieved 27 December 2014. "Café racers are an odd phenomenon. They’re popular enough to inspire endless shed-built specials and even dedicated websites, magazines and TV shows, but when it comes to strolling into a showroom and buying one, the options are surprisingly thin on the ground."

19.Jump up ^ Plowright, Adam (23 December 2013). "Retro revival: Café racers are back!". Independent Online (Cape Town: Independent Newspapers (Pty) Limited). Retrieved 27 December 2014.

20.Jump up ^ "Ryca CS-1 cafe racer", BikeEXIF, Mar 13, 2012

21.Jump up ^ "Ryca CS-1 – Suzuki S40 Cafe Conversion by Paul Crowe", The Kneeslider, 2014

22.Jump up ^ Clinton, Jane (30 January 2011). "Old Rockers in tune with Mods". Daily Express (London: Northern and Shell Media Publications). Retrieved 27 December 2014. "Lenny Paterson, 61, who was a Rocker back in the Sixties and remains one at heart recalls the sense of being outcasts and rebels. 'Often you wouldn’t be allowed into cafes or bars with a leather jacket,' says the father of three who lives in Wallington, near Croydon, where he runs his own spare parts business."

23.Jump up ^ "Ray Pickrell". The Telegraph (Telegraph Media Group Limited). Obituaries. 1 May 2006. Retrieved 27 December 2014. "Those were the days of the 'rockers', and Ray learned to ride fast on the north London roads around the Ace Cafe and the Busy Bee where fellow bikers used to hold impromptu races."

24.Jump up ^ "Leader of the pack". Western Daily Press (Bristol: Local World). This is Somerset. 30 January 2009. Retrieved 27 December 2014. "Now aged 89, Father Bill, as he was known in east London, was one of the founders of the world famous 59 Club – the home of hordes of tearaway rockers, the hoodies of the day, who used to scream around London's North Circular on their Triumphs, Nortons and BSAs, terrifying the populace and causing retired majors to splutter into their sherry."

25.Jump up ^ McEwen, Charles; Brooke, Lindsay et al. (3 June 2011). "The Books of Summer, Awaiting Your Armchair". New York Times (The New York Times Company). Retrieved 27 December 2014. "Built in the 1930s on the busy North Circular Road, the open-all-night Ace [Cafe] was a haven for truckers and other nighthawks, serving up tea, coffee and thFe usual 30-weight diner fare. By the 1950s Ace regulars began to include a new breed of motorcyclist, mostly young, looking for a place to gather with their mates. They would listen to the jukebox rock 'n' roll and explore their machines' speed potential on the surrounding roads."

26.Jump up ^ McDermott, Jim (3 February 2009). "Cafe Racer Rave Up". Superbikeplanet.com. Hardscrabble Media LLC. Retrieved 27 December 2014.

27.Jump up ^ Jensen, Eric (5 November 2011). "Rose-coloured goggles: throb of the wild lures cafe racers back in time". Sydney Morning Herald (Fairfax Media). Retrieved 29 December 2014. "Mr Travis has noticed a rise in cafe-racer culture in the past few years - the motorcycle scene that grew out of rockabilly."

28.Jump up ^ Fullerton, Georgia (8 May 2014). "Throttle Roll motors into The Vic". City Hub (Sydney: Alternative Media Group of Australia). Retrieved 27 December 2014. "Throttle Roll promotor, Mark Hawwa, says the partnership between rock ‘n’ roll and motorbikes is an important one: 'The reason I brought in rock ‘n’ roll to the actual event is that back in the ’60s that was the music that these guys were listening to. The roots of the Cafe Racer comes back to rock ‘n’ roll music. Young guys on motorbikes, the pin-up girls and the guys with their slicked back hair-dos. It’s all just a whole lot of fun.'"

29.Jump up ^ Koutsoukis, Jason (9 December 2014). "Keep the motor running". Sydney Morning Herald (Fairfax Media). Retrieved 27 December 2014. "'The cafe racer culture is a phenomenon, not just in Australia, but around the world,' says motorcycle adventurer Rennie Scaysbrook, editor of Australia's Free Wheeling magazine, who spent 10 days last year riding an Enfield across the mountains of Nepal."

30.Jump up ^ "Interest over time: cafe racer". Google Trends. Retrieved May 24, 2014.

 

Further reading[edit]

 

Steven E. Alford; Suzanne Ferriss (2007). Motorcycle. London: Reaktion. ISBN 9781861893451. Retrieved 26 December 2014.

Beale, Paul; Partridge, Eric (28 December 1993). Fergusson, Rosalind, ed. Shorter Slang Dictionary (Paperback). London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0415088664. Retrieved 26 December 2014.

Clay, Mike. (1988) Café Racers: Rockers, Rock 'n' Roll and the Coffee-bar Cult. London: Osprey Publishing. ISBN 0-85045-677-0

Cloesen, Uli (15 October 2014). Italian Cafe Racers. Dorchester: Veloce Publishing. ISBN 9781845847494.

D'Orléans, Paul and Lichter, Michael. Café Racers: Speed, Style, and Ton-Up Culture. Motorbooks, 2014 ISBN 978-0760345825

Duckworth, Mick (2011). Ace Times Speed Thrills and Tea Spills, a Cafe and Culture. UK: Redline Books. ISBN 9780955527869.

King, Anthony D. (26 April 1984). Buildings and Society: Essays on the Social Development of the Built Environment (Paperback) (Reprint ed.). London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0710202345. Retrieved 26 December 2014.

Puxley, Ray (2004). Britslang: An Uncensored A-Z of the People's Language, Including Rhyming Slang. London: Robson. ISBN 9781861057280.

Seate, Mike (2008). Café Racer: The Motorcycle: Featherbeds, clip-ons, rear-sets and the making of a ton-up boy. Stillwater , MN: Parker House. ISBN 0979689198.

Walker, Alastair. The Café Racer Phenomenon. 2009 Veloce Publishing ISBN 978-1-84584-264-2

Walker, Mick (1994). Cafe Racers of the 1960s. Wiltshire: Crowood Press. ISBN 1872004199.

Walker, Mick (2001). Cafe Racers of the 1970s (Reprint ed.). Wiltshire: Crowood Press. ISBN 1847972837.

 

External links[edit]

 

Wikimedia Commons has media related to Café racer .

Café racer at the Open Directory Project

Classic Motorcycles at DMOZ

  

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Climate Emergency

 

A climate emergency declaration or declaring a climate emergency is an action taken by governments and scientists[1] to acknowledge humanity is in a climate emergency. The first such declaration was made in December 2016.[2] Since then over 1,400 local governments in 28 countries have made climate emergency declarations (as of 23 February 2020). [3]

 

Once a government makes a declaration the next step for the declaring government to set priorities to mitigate climate change, prior to ultimately entering a state of emergency or equivalent.[4]

 

In declaring a climate emergency, a government admits that global warming exists and that the measures taken up to this point are not enough to limit the changes brought by it. The decision stresses the need for the government and administration to devise measures that try and stop human-caused global warming.

 

The declarations can be made on different levels, for example at a national or local government level, and they can differ in depth and detail in their guidelines. The term climate emergency does not only describe formal decisions, but also includes actions to avert climate breakdown. This is supposed to justify and focus them. The specific term "emergency" is used to assign priority to the topic, and to generate a mindset of urgency.

 

The term “climate emergency” has been promoted by climate activists and pro-climate action politicians to add a sense of urgency for responding to a long-term problem.[7]

 

Term

Climate emergency as a term was used in protests against climate change before 2010 (e.g. the "Climate-Emergency-Rally" in Melbourne in June 2009[8]). In 2017 the city council of Darebin adopted multiple measures named "Darebin Climate Emergency Plan". On December 4th, 2018, the Club of Rome presented their "Climate Emergency Plan", which included 10 high-priority measures to limit global warming[9]. With the rise of movements like Extinction Rebellion[10] and Fridays For Future the concern has been picked up by various governments.

 

Multiple European cities and communities who declared a climate emergency are simultaneously members of the Klima-Bündnis (German for climate alliance), which obligates them to lower their CO2 emissions by 10% every five years.

 

Oxford Dictionary chose climate emergency as the word of the year 2019 and defines the term as "a situation in which urgent action is required to reduce or halt climate change and avoid potentially irreversible environmental damage resulting from it." Usage of the term soared more than 10,000% between September 2018 and September 2019.[11]

 

History

 

Australian climate activists demand the declaration of a climate emergency on 13 June 2009 at the "Climate Emergency Rally" during the annual Earth day in Melbourne, Australia

 

"Climate Emergency" declared on a banner on 22 April 2017 at the annual March for Science in Melbourne, Australia

Early stages

Encouraged by the campaigners behind a Climate Emergency Declaration petition, which had been launched in Australia in May 2026, the first governmental declaration of a climate emergency in the world was put forward by Trent McCarthy, an Australian Greens Councillor at the City of Darebin in Melbourne, Australia. The city declared a climate emergency on 5 December 2016.[12][13][14] In August 2017, Darebin decided upon a catalogue of actions in a "Darebin Climate Emergency Plan".[15][16] Darebin's declaration was followed by Hoboken in New Jersey and Berkeley, California.[13][14]

 

Hearing of these developments in 2018, UK Green Party politician Carla Denyer, then a member of Bristol City Council, took the lead role in bringing about Bristol City Council's declaration of a climate emergency.[17] This was the first such declaration by in Europe, and has been widely credited as a breakthrough moment for cities and national parliaments beginning to declare climate emergency.[18][19][13][14] Denyer's motion was described in the UK newspaper The Independent as 'the historic first motion' which by July 2019 had been 'copied by more than 400 local authorities and parliaments'.[20]

  

"Climate angel" with a poster "This is an emergency" at the "Extinction Rebellion" protests on 22 March 2019 in Melbourne, Australia

 

Demanding a "Klimanotstand" (English: Climate Emergency) at Helvetiaplatz [de] in Bern, Switzerland on 24 May 2019

On 28th April 2019, the Scottish Parliament declared a climate emergency, making Scotland the first country to do so. [21] This was quickly followed by the National Assembly for Wales on the 29th April [22] and then the Parliament of the United Kingdom for the UK as whole in 1st May.[23]

 

Subsequent developments

Pope Francis declared a climate emergency in June 2019.[24] The Pope also called for a "radical energy transition" away from fossil fuels towards renewable energy sources, and urged leaders to "hear the increasingly desperate cries of the earth and its poor."[24] He also argued against "the continued search for new fossil fuel reserves" and stated that "fossil fuels should remain underground."[24]

 

On 10 July 2019, networks representing more than 7,000 higher and further education institutions from six continents announced that they are declaring a Climate Emergency, and agreed to undertake a three-point plan to address the crisis through their work with students.[25] Some statements were criticized for not including specific measures.[26]

 

In June 2019, Councillor Trent McCarthy of the City of Darebin brought together councillors and parliamentarians in Australia and around the world for two online link-ups to connect the work of climate emergency-declared councils and governments. Following these link-ups and a successful motion at the National General Assembly of Local Government, McCarthy announced the formation of Climate Emergency Australia, a new network of Australian governments and councils advocating for a climate emergency response.

 

Representative Earl Blumenauer of Oregon believes the US government should declare a climate emergency.[27] Blumenauer's proposed legislation is supported by 2020 US Presidential candidate Bernie Sanders, as well as Congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez.[27]

 

In 2019, according to an eight-country poll, a majority of the public recognise the climate crisis as an “emergency” and say politicians are failing to tackle the problem, backing the interests of big oil over the wellbeing of ordinary people. The survey found that climate breakdown is viewed as the most important issue facing the world in seven out of the eight countries surveyed.[28]

 

In September 2013, the Australian Medical Association officially declared climate change a public health emergency.[29] The AMA noted that climate change will cause "higher mortality and morbidity from heat stress; injury and mortality from increasingly severe weather events; increases in the transmission of vector-borne diseases; food insecurity resulting from declines in agricultural outputs; [and] a higher incidence of mental-ill health."[29] The AMA has called on the Australian Government to adopt a carbon budget; reduce emissions; and transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy, among other proposals to mitigate the health impacts of climate change.[29]

 

The Australian Greens Party is calling on the federal Parliament to declare a climate emergency. Greens MP for Melbourne, Adam Bandt, welcomed the UK Parliament's declaration of a climate emergency and argued that Australia should follow their lead.[30] In October 2019, an official e-petition to the Australian Parliament calling for the declaration of a climate emergency, received more than 400,000 signatories (.[31][32][33] This is the single most popular online Parliamentary petition in Australia.[33] Former federal Liberal Party leader John Hewson has publicly urged for a conscience vote in the Parliament on the climate emergency, despite the Liberal Party's current position on climate change.[34] He also stated that "it was an emergency 30 years ago".[34]

 

In October 2019, the Australian Labor Party supported the Greens Party's policy to declare a climate emergency, however the proposition failed with the rejection of the Morrison Government.[35] The motion was supported by independent members Zali Steggall, Helen Haines and Andrew Wilkie, as well as Centre Alliance.[34]

 

On 5 November 2019 the journal BioScience published an article endorsed by further 11,000 scientists from 153 nations, that states Climate Emergency (“We declare clearly and unequivocally that planet Earth is facing a climate emergency”) and that the world's people face “untold suffering due to the climate crisis” unless there are major transformations to global society.[36][36]

 

In November 2019 the Oxford Dictionaries made the term climate emergency Word of the Year.

 

On 14-15 February 2020 the first National Climate Emergency Summit was held at the city hall in Melbourne, Australia. It was a sold out event with 2,000 attendees and 100 speakers.[37][38]

 

Recent development

 

Beginning in early 2019, Google trends data shows a growth in "climate emergency" searches (shown in red), concurrently with growth in searches for "climate crisis" (shown in blue).

Development in the EU

On 28 November 2019, the European Parliament declared a climate emergency.[39][40] The EU represents 27 member states.

 

Germany

The state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) started a campaign on 10 March 2019 called "NRW erklärt den Klimanotstand" (North-Rhine-Westphalia declares a climate emergency), where they urged local communities to do so. The first community to declare a climate emergency was Konstanz in Baden-Wurttemberg, on 2 May 2019.

 

The government of NRW called the declaration of a climate emergency a "symbolic measure", which does not give any "special rights" to the declaring community.

 

List of countries and dependencies

Parliamentary or Government declaration

Scotland (28 April 2019)[41]

Wales (29 April 2019)[42]

United Kingdom (1 May 2019 - Parliament)[43]

Jersey (2 May 2019)[44]

Republic of Ireland (9 May 2019)[45]

Isle of Man (10 May 2019 – Government, 18 June 2019 – Parliament)[46]

Portugal (7 June 2019)[47][48]

Holy See (June 2019)[24]

Canada (17 June 2019)[49][50]

France (27 June 2019)[51]

Argentina (17 July 2019)[52][53]

Spain (17 September 2019 – Parlament, 21 January 2020 – Government)[54][55][56]

Austria (25 September 2019)[57]

Malta (22 October 2019)[58]

Bangladesh (13 November 2019)[59]

Andorra (23 January 2020)[60]

Maldives (12 February 2020)[61]

European Union member states

Austria (28 November 2019)[39]

Belgium (28 November 2019)[39]

Bulgaria (28 November 2019)[39]

Croatia (28 November 2019)[39]

Cyprus (28 November 2019)[39]

Czech Republic (28 November 2019)[39]

Denmark (28 November 2019)[39]

Estonia (28 November 2019)[39]

Finland (28 November 2019)[39]

France (28 November 2019)[39]

Germany (28 November 2019)[39]

Greece (28 November 2019)[39]

Hungary (28 November 2019)[39]

Ireland (28 November 2019)[39]

Italy (28 November 2019)[39]

Latvia (28 November 2019)[39]

Lithuania (28 November 2019)[39]

Luxembourg (28 November 2019)[39]

Malta (28 November 2019)[39]

Netherlands (28 November 2019)[39]

Poland (28 November 2019)[39]

Portugal (28 November 2019)[39]

Romania (28 November 2019)[39]

Slovakia (28 November 2019)[39]

Slovenia (28 November 2019)[39]

Spain (28 November 2019)[39]

Sweden (28 November 2019)[39]

United Kingdom (28 November 2019)[39]

 

States and local administrations

Ambox current red.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2019)

In Australia: Most notably South Australia (September 2019), [62] Darebin (5 December 2016),[15][16] Melbourne (June 2019),[63] Sydney (June 2019),[64] Adelaide (August 2019),[65] and more than 17 towns (30 April 2019).[66][67]

In the United States: at least 29 towns,[68][citation needed] most notably New York City (26 June 2019),[69] Hayward (15 January 2019), San Francisco and Chico (2 April 2019).[70]

In Canada: 384 towns (May 2019).[71]

In France: Mulhouse (9 May 2019)[71] and Paris.[72]

In Spain: Catalonia region (7 May 2019),[73] Euskadi region,[74] Canary Islands region[75], Balearic Islands region[76] and the cities of San Cristóbal de La Laguna,[77] Seville,[78] Castro Urdiales,[79] Zaragoza, Salobreña, Lanzarote, El Rosario, Puerto de la Cruz,[80] Sagunto,[81] Zamora[82], Madrid.[83] and Barcelona.[84]

In Italy: 28 towns, among others the town of Acri (29 April 2019),[85] the town of Milano,[86] the Metropolitan City of Naples (May 2019)[87] and the town of Lucca.[88][89]

In Switzerland: the cantons of Basel-Stadt, Jura and Vaud and the cities of Liestal, Olten and Delemont.[71]

In Germany: 68 towns, among others Konstanz, Heidelberg, Kiel, Münster, Erlangen, Bochum, Aachen, Saarbrücken, Wiesbaden, Leverkusen, Marburg, Düsseldorf, Bonn, Cologne, Karlsruhe, Potsdam, Berlin, Leipzig and Munich.[90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99][100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108]

In New Zealand: Canterbury region,[109] and the city of Nelson (16 May 2019);[110] Auckland (11 June 2019);[111] Wellington (20 June 2019).[112]

In Netherlands: the city of Amsterdam.[113]

In Austria: the towns and municipalities Michaelerberg-Pruggern (13 June 2019),[114] Perchtoldsdorf (18 June 2019),[115] Traiskirchen (24 June 2019),[116] Steyregg (4 July 2019)[117] and the state Vorarlberg (4 July 2019).[118]

In Czechia: the 6th District of Prague (13 June 2019).[119] the 7th District of Prague (22 May 2019).[120]

In Philippines: the town of Bacolod.[121]

In Poland: the cities of Warsaw[122] and Kraków.[123]

In Slovakia: the city of Zlaté Moravce (18 September 2019).[124]

In Belgium: the city of Brussels (23 September 2019).[125]

In Japan: the prefecture of Nagano (December 2019),[126] the cities of Iki[127][128] and Kamakura.[129]

In Chile: the city of Hualpén.[130]

In Hungary: the city of Budapest[131]

In Brazil the city of Recife.[132]

In South Korea the South Chungcheong Province[133]

See also

Climate change in New York City

Climate crisis

World Scientists' Warning to Humanity

Climate Emergency

 

A climate emergency declaration or declaring a climate emergency is an action taken by governments and scientists[1] to acknowledge humanity is in a climate emergency. The first such declaration was made in December 2016.[2] Since then over 1,400 local governments in 28 countries have made climate emergency declarations (as of 23 February 2020). [3]

 

Once a government makes a declaration the next step for the declaring government to set priorities to mitigate climate change, prior to ultimately entering a state of emergency or equivalent.[4]

 

In declaring a climate emergency, a government admits that global warming exists and that the measures taken up to this point are not enough to limit the changes brought by it. The decision stresses the need for the government and administration to devise measures that try and stop human-caused global warming.

 

The declarations can be made on different levels, for example at a national or local government level, and they can differ in depth and detail in their guidelines. The term climate emergency does not only describe formal decisions, but also includes actions to avert climate breakdown. This is supposed to justify and focus them. The specific term "emergency" is used to assign priority to the topic, and to generate a mindset of urgency.

 

The term “climate emergency” has been promoted by climate activists and pro-climate action politicians to add a sense of urgency for responding to a long-term problem.[7]

 

Term

Climate emergency as a term was used in protests against climate change before 2010 (e.g. the "Climate-Emergency-Rally" in Melbourne in June 2009[8]). In 2017 the city council of Darebin adopted multiple measures named "Darebin Climate Emergency Plan". On December 4th, 2018, the Club of Rome presented their "Climate Emergency Plan", which included 10 high-priority measures to limit global warming[9]. With the rise of movements like Extinction Rebellion[10] and Fridays For Future the concern has been picked up by various governments.

 

Multiple European cities and communities who declared a climate emergency are simultaneously members of the Klima-Bündnis (German for climate alliance), which obligates them to lower their CO2 emissions by 10% every five years.

 

Oxford Dictionary chose climate emergency as the word of the year 2019 and defines the term as "a situation in which urgent action is required to reduce or halt climate change and avoid potentially irreversible environmental damage resulting from it." Usage of the term soared more than 10,000% between September 2018 and September 2019.[11]

 

History

 

Australian climate activists demand the declaration of a climate emergency on 13 June 2009 at the "Climate Emergency Rally" during the annual Earth day in Melbourne, Australia

 

"Climate Emergency" declared on a banner on 22 April 2017 at the annual March for Science in Melbourne, Australia

Early stages

Encouraged by the campaigners behind a Climate Emergency Declaration petition, which had been launched in Australia in May 2026, the first governmental declaration of a climate emergency in the world was put forward by Trent McCarthy, an Australian Greens Councillor at the City of Darebin in Melbourne, Australia. The city declared a climate emergency on 5 December 2016.[12][13][14] In August 2017, Darebin decided upon a catalogue of actions in a "Darebin Climate Emergency Plan".[15][16] Darebin's declaration was followed by Hoboken in New Jersey and Berkeley, California.[13][14]

 

Hearing of these developments in 2018, UK Green Party politician Carla Denyer, then a member of Bristol City Council, took the lead role in bringing about Bristol City Council's declaration of a climate emergency.[17] This was the first such declaration by in Europe, and has been widely credited as a breakthrough moment for cities and national parliaments beginning to declare climate emergency.[18][19][13][14] Denyer's motion was described in the UK newspaper The Independent as 'the historic first motion' which by July 2019 had been 'copied by more than 400 local authorities and parliaments'.[20]

  

"Climate angel" with a poster "This is an emergency" at the "Extinction Rebellion" protests on 22 March 2019 in Melbourne, Australia

 

Demanding a "Klimanotstand" (English: Climate Emergency) at Helvetiaplatz [de] in Bern, Switzerland on 24 May 2019

On 28th April 2019, the Scottish Parliament declared a climate emergency, making Scotland the first country to do so. [21] This was quickly followed by the National Assembly for Wales on the 29th April [22] and then the Parliament of the United Kingdom for the UK as whole in 1st May.[23]

 

Subsequent developments

Pope Francis declared a climate emergency in June 2019.[24] The Pope also called for a "radical energy transition" away from fossil fuels towards renewable energy sources, and urged leaders to "hear the increasingly desperate cries of the earth and its poor."[24] He also argued against "the continued search for new fossil fuel reserves" and stated that "fossil fuels should remain underground."[24]

 

On 10 July 2019, networks representing more than 7,000 higher and further education institutions from six continents announced that they are declaring a Climate Emergency, and agreed to undertake a three-point plan to address the crisis through their work with students.[25] Some statements were criticized for not including specific measures.[26]

 

In June 2019, Councillor Trent McCarthy of the City of Darebin brought together councillors and parliamentarians in Australia and around the world for two online link-ups to connect the work of climate emergency-declared councils and governments. Following these link-ups and a successful motion at the National General Assembly of Local Government, McCarthy announced the formation of Climate Emergency Australia, a new network of Australian governments and councils advocating for a climate emergency response.

 

Representative Earl Blumenauer of Oregon believes the US government should declare a climate emergency.[27] Blumenauer's proposed legislation is supported by 2020 US Presidential candidate Bernie Sanders, as well as Congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez.[27]

 

In 2019, according to an eight-country poll, a majority of the public recognise the climate crisis as an “emergency” and say politicians are failing to tackle the problem, backing the interests of big oil over the wellbeing of ordinary people. The survey found that climate breakdown is viewed as the most important issue facing the world in seven out of the eight countries surveyed.[28]

 

In September 2013, the Australian Medical Association officially declared climate change a public health emergency.[29] The AMA noted that climate change will cause "higher mortality and morbidity from heat stress; injury and mortality from increasingly severe weather events; increases in the transmission of vector-borne diseases; food insecurity resulting from declines in agricultural outputs; [and] a higher incidence of mental-ill health."[29] The AMA has called on the Australian Government to adopt a carbon budget; reduce emissions; and transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy, among other proposals to mitigate the health impacts of climate change.[29]

 

The Australian Greens Party is calling on the federal Parliament to declare a climate emergency. Greens MP for Melbourne, Adam Bandt, welcomed the UK Parliament's declaration of a climate emergency and argued that Australia should follow their lead.[30] In October 2019, an official e-petition to the Australian Parliament calling for the declaration of a climate emergency, received more than 400,000 signatories (.[31][32][33] This is the single most popular online Parliamentary petition in Australia.[33] Former federal Liberal Party leader John Hewson has publicly urged for a conscience vote in the Parliament on the climate emergency, despite the Liberal Party's current position on climate change.[34] He also stated that "it was an emergency 30 years ago".[34]

 

In October 2019, the Australian Labor Party supported the Greens Party's policy to declare a climate emergency, however the proposition failed with the rejection of the Morrison Government.[35] The motion was supported by independent members Zali Steggall, Helen Haines and Andrew Wilkie, as well as Centre Alliance.[34]

 

On 5 November 2019 the journal BioScience published an article endorsed by further 11,000 scientists from 153 nations, that states Climate Emergency (“We declare clearly and unequivocally that planet Earth is facing a climate emergency”) and that the world's people face “untold suffering due to the climate crisis” unless there are major transformations to global society.[36][36]

 

In November 2019 the Oxford Dictionaries made the term climate emergency Word of the Year.

 

On 14-15 February 2020 the first National Climate Emergency Summit was held at the city hall in Melbourne, Australia. It was a sold out event with 2,000 attendees and 100 speakers.[37][38]

 

Recent development

 

Beginning in early 2019, Google trends data shows a growth in "climate emergency" searches (shown in red), concurrently with growth in searches for "climate crisis" (shown in blue).

Development in the EU

On 28 November 2019, the European Parliament declared a climate emergency.[39][40] The EU represents 27 member states.

 

Germany

The state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) started a campaign on 10 March 2019 called "NRW erklärt den Klimanotstand" (North-Rhine-Westphalia declares a climate emergency), where they urged local communities to do so. The first community to declare a climate emergency was Konstanz in Baden-Wurttemberg, on 2 May 2019.

 

The government of NRW called the declaration of a climate emergency a "symbolic measure", which does not give any "special rights" to the declaring community.

 

List of countries and dependencies

Parliamentary or Government declaration

Scotland (28 April 2019)[41]

Wales (29 April 2019)[42]

United Kingdom (1 May 2019 - Parliament)[43]

Jersey (2 May 2019)[44]

Republic of Ireland (9 May 2019)[45]

Isle of Man (10 May 2019 – Government, 18 June 2019 – Parliament)[46]

Portugal (7 June 2019)[47][48]

Holy See (June 2019)[24]

Canada (17 June 2019)[49][50]

France (27 June 2019)[51]

Argentina (17 July 2019)[52][53]

Spain (17 September 2019 – Parlament, 21 January 2020 – Government)[54][55][56]

Austria (25 September 2019)[57]

Malta (22 October 2019)[58]

Bangladesh (13 November 2019)[59]

Andorra (23 January 2020)[60]

Maldives (12 February 2020)[61]

European Union member states

Austria (28 November 2019)[39]

Belgium (28 November 2019)[39]

Bulgaria (28 November 2019)[39]

Croatia (28 November 2019)[39]

Cyprus (28 November 2019)[39]

Czech Republic (28 November 2019)[39]

Denmark (28 November 2019)[39]

Estonia (28 November 2019)[39]

Finland (28 November 2019)[39]

France (28 November 2019)[39]

Germany (28 November 2019)[39]

Greece (28 November 2019)[39]

Hungary (28 November 2019)[39]

Ireland (28 November 2019)[39]

Italy (28 November 2019)[39]

Latvia (28 November 2019)[39]

Lithuania (28 November 2019)[39]

Luxembourg (28 November 2019)[39]

Malta (28 November 2019)[39]

Netherlands (28 November 2019)[39]

Poland (28 November 2019)[39]

Portugal (28 November 2019)[39]

Romania (28 November 2019)[39]

Slovakia (28 November 2019)[39]

Slovenia (28 November 2019)[39]

Spain (28 November 2019)[39]

Sweden (28 November 2019)[39]

United Kingdom (28 November 2019)[39]

 

States and local administrations

Ambox current red.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2019)

In Australia: Most notably South Australia (September 2019), [62] Darebin (5 December 2016),[15][16] Melbourne (June 2019),[63] Sydney (June 2019),[64] Adelaide (August 2019),[65] and more than 17 towns (30 April 2019).[66][67]

In the United States: at least 29 towns,[68][citation needed] most notably New York City (26 June 2019),[69] Hayward (15 January 2019), San Francisco and Chico (2 April 2019).[70]

In Canada: 384 towns (May 2019).[71]

In France: Mulhouse (9 May 2019)[71] and Paris.[72]

In Spain: Catalonia region (7 May 2019),[73] Euskadi region,[74] Canary Islands region[75], Balearic Islands region[76] and the cities of San Cristóbal de La Laguna,[77] Seville,[78] Castro Urdiales,[79] Zaragoza, Salobreña, Lanzarote, El Rosario, Puerto de la Cruz,[80] Sagunto,[81] Zamora[82], Madrid.[83] and Barcelona.[84]

In Italy: 28 towns, among others the town of Acri (29 April 2019),[85] the town of Milano,[86] the Metropolitan City of Naples (May 2019)[87] and the town of Lucca.[88][89]

In Switzerland: the cantons of Basel-Stadt, Jura and Vaud and the cities of Liestal, Olten and Delemont.[71]

In Germany: 68 towns, among others Konstanz, Heidelberg, Kiel, Münster, Erlangen, Bochum, Aachen, Saarbrücken, Wiesbaden, Leverkusen, Marburg, Düsseldorf, Bonn, Cologne, Karlsruhe, Potsdam, Berlin, Leipzig and Munich.[90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99][100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108]

In New Zealand: Canterbury region,[109] and the city of Nelson (16 May 2019);[110] Auckland (11 June 2019);[111] Wellington (20 June 2019).[112]

In Netherlands: the city of Amsterdam.[113]

In Austria: the towns and municipalities Michaelerberg-Pruggern (13 June 2019),[114] Perchtoldsdorf (18 June 2019),[115] Traiskirchen (24 June 2019),[116] Steyregg (4 July 2019)[117] and the state Vorarlberg (4 July 2019).[118]

In Czechia: the 6th District of Prague (13 June 2019).[119] the 7th District of Prague (22 May 2019).[120]

In Philippines: the town of Bacolod.[121]

In Poland: the cities of Warsaw[122] and Kraków.[123]

In Slovakia: the city of Zlaté Moravce (18 September 2019).[124]

In Belgium: the city of Brussels (23 September 2019).[125]

In Japan: the prefecture of Nagano (December 2019),[126] the cities of Iki[127][128] and Kamakura.[129]

In Chile: the city of Hualpén.[130]

In Hungary: the city of Budapest[131]

In Brazil the city of Recife.[132]

In South Korea the South Chungcheong Province[133]

See also

Climate change in New York City

Climate crisis

World Scientists' Warning to Humanity

Climate Emergency

 

A climate emergency declaration or declaring a climate emergency is an action taken by governments and scientists[1] to acknowledge humanity is in a climate emergency. The first such declaration was made in December 2016.[2] Since then over 1,400 local governments in 28 countries have made climate emergency declarations (as of 23 February 2020). [3]

 

Once a government makes a declaration the next step for the declaring government to set priorities to mitigate climate change, prior to ultimately entering a state of emergency or equivalent.[4]

 

In declaring a climate emergency, a government admits that global warming exists and that the measures taken up to this point are not enough to limit the changes brought by it. The decision stresses the need for the government and administration to devise measures that try and stop human-caused global warming.

 

The declarations can be made on different levels, for example at a national or local government level, and they can differ in depth and detail in their guidelines. The term climate emergency does not only describe formal decisions, but also includes actions to avert climate breakdown. This is supposed to justify and focus them. The specific term "emergency" is used to assign priority to the topic, and to generate a mindset of urgency.

 

The term “climate emergency” has been promoted by climate activists and pro-climate action politicians to add a sense of urgency for responding to a long-term problem.[7]

 

Term

Climate emergency as a term was used in protests against climate change before 2010 (e.g. the "Climate-Emergency-Rally" in Melbourne in June 2009[8]). In 2017 the city council of Darebin adopted multiple measures named "Darebin Climate Emergency Plan". On December 4th, 2018, the Club of Rome presented their "Climate Emergency Plan", which included 10 high-priority measures to limit global warming[9]. With the rise of movements like Extinction Rebellion[10] and Fridays For Future the concern has been picked up by various governments.

 

Multiple European cities and communities who declared a climate emergency are simultaneously members of the Klima-Bündnis (German for climate alliance), which obligates them to lower their CO2 emissions by 10% every five years.

 

Oxford Dictionary chose climate emergency as the word of the year 2019 and defines the term as "a situation in which urgent action is required to reduce or halt climate change and avoid potentially irreversible environmental damage resulting from it." Usage of the term soared more than 10,000% between September 2018 and September 2019.[11]

 

History

 

Australian climate activists demand the declaration of a climate emergency on 13 June 2009 at the "Climate Emergency Rally" during the annual Earth day in Melbourne, Australia

 

"Climate Emergency" declared on a banner on 22 April 2017 at the annual March for Science in Melbourne, Australia

Early stages

Encouraged by the campaigners behind a Climate Emergency Declaration petition, which had been launched in Australia in May 2026, the first governmental declaration of a climate emergency in the world was put forward by Trent McCarthy, an Australian Greens Councillor at the City of Darebin in Melbourne, Australia. The city declared a climate emergency on 5 December 2016.[12][13][14] In August 2017, Darebin decided upon a catalogue of actions in a "Darebin Climate Emergency Plan".[15][16] Darebin's declaration was followed by Hoboken in New Jersey and Berkeley, California.[13][14]

 

Hearing of these developments in 2018, UK Green Party politician Carla Denyer, then a member of Bristol City Council, took the lead role in bringing about Bristol City Council's declaration of a climate emergency.[17] This was the first such declaration by in Europe, and has been widely credited as a breakthrough moment for cities and national parliaments beginning to declare climate emergency.[18][19][13][14] Denyer's motion was described in the UK newspaper The Independent as 'the historic first motion' which by July 2019 had been 'copied by more than 400 local authorities and parliaments'.[20]

  

"Climate angel" with a poster "This is an emergency" at the "Extinction Rebellion" protests on 22 March 2019 in Melbourne, Australia

 

Demanding a "Klimanotstand" (English: Climate Emergency) at Helvetiaplatz [de] in Bern, Switzerland on 24 May 2019

On 28th April 2019, the Scottish Parliament declared a climate emergency, making Scotland the first country to do so. [21] This was quickly followed by the National Assembly for Wales on the 29th April [22] and then the Parliament of the United Kingdom for the UK as whole in 1st May.[23]

 

Subsequent developments

Pope Francis declared a climate emergency in June 2019.[24] The Pope also called for a "radical energy transition" away from fossil fuels towards renewable energy sources, and urged leaders to "hear the increasingly desperate cries of the earth and its poor."[24] He also argued against "the continued search for new fossil fuel reserves" and stated that "fossil fuels should remain underground."[24]

 

On 10 July 2019, networks representing more than 7,000 higher and further education institutions from six continents announced that they are declaring a Climate Emergency, and agreed to undertake a three-point plan to address the crisis through their work with students.[25] Some statements were criticized for not including specific measures.[26]

 

In June 2019, Councillor Trent McCarthy of the City of Darebin brought together councillors and parliamentarians in Australia and around the world for two online link-ups to connect the work of climate emergency-declared councils and governments. Following these link-ups and a successful motion at the National General Assembly of Local Government, McCarthy announced the formation of Climate Emergency Australia, a new network of Australian governments and councils advocating for a climate emergency response.

 

Representative Earl Blumenauer of Oregon believes the US government should declare a climate emergency.[27] Blumenauer's proposed legislation is supported by 2020 US Presidential candidate Bernie Sanders, as well as Congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez.[27]

 

In 2019, according to an eight-country poll, a majority of the public recognise the climate crisis as an “emergency” and say politicians are failing to tackle the problem, backing the interests of big oil over the wellbeing of ordinary people. The survey found that climate breakdown is viewed as the most important issue facing the world in seven out of the eight countries surveyed.[28]

 

In September 2013, the Australian Medical Association officially declared climate change a public health emergency.[29] The AMA noted that climate change will cause "higher mortality and morbidity from heat stress; injury and mortality from increasingly severe weather events; increases in the transmission of vector-borne diseases; food insecurity resulting from declines in agricultural outputs; [and] a higher incidence of mental-ill health."[29] The AMA has called on the Australian Government to adopt a carbon budget; reduce emissions; and transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy, among other proposals to mitigate the health impacts of climate change.[29]

 

The Australian Greens Party is calling on the federal Parliament to declare a climate emergency. Greens MP for Melbourne, Adam Bandt, welcomed the UK Parliament's declaration of a climate emergency and argued that Australia should follow their lead.[30] In October 2019, an official e-petition to the Australian Parliament calling for the declaration of a climate emergency, received more than 400,000 signatories (.[31][32][33] This is the single most popular online Parliamentary petition in Australia.[33] Former federal Liberal Party leader John Hewson has publicly urged for a conscience vote in the Parliament on the climate emergency, despite the Liberal Party's current position on climate change.[34] He also stated that "it was an emergency 30 years ago".[34]

 

In October 2019, the Australian Labor Party supported the Greens Party's policy to declare a climate emergency, however the proposition failed with the rejection of the Morrison Government.[35] The motion was supported by independent members Zali Steggall, Helen Haines and Andrew Wilkie, as well as Centre Alliance.[34]

 

On 5 November 2019 the journal BioScience published an article endorsed by further 11,000 scientists from 153 nations, that states Climate Emergency (“We declare clearly and unequivocally that planet Earth is facing a climate emergency”) and that the world's people face “untold suffering due to the climate crisis” unless there are major transformations to global society.[36][36]

 

In November 2019 the Oxford Dictionaries made the term climate emergency Word of the Year.

 

On 14-15 February 2020 the first National Climate Emergency Summit was held at the city hall in Melbourne, Australia. It was a sold out event with 2,000 attendees and 100 speakers.[37][38]

 

Recent development

 

Beginning in early 2019, Google trends data shows a growth in "climate emergency" searches (shown in red), concurrently with growth in searches for "climate crisis" (shown in blue).

Development in the EU

On 28 November 2019, the European Parliament declared a climate emergency.[39][40] The EU represents 27 member states.

 

Germany

The state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) started a campaign on 10 March 2019 called "NRW erklärt den Klimanotstand" (North-Rhine-Westphalia declares a climate emergency), where they urged local communities to do so. The first community to declare a climate emergency was Konstanz in Baden-Wurttemberg, on 2 May 2019.

 

The government of NRW called the declaration of a climate emergency a "symbolic measure", which does not give any "special rights" to the declaring community.

 

List of countries and dependencies

Parliamentary or Government declaration

Scotland (28 April 2019)[41]

Wales (29 April 2019)[42]

United Kingdom (1 May 2019 - Parliament)[43]

Jersey (2 May 2019)[44]

Republic of Ireland (9 May 2019)[45]

Isle of Man (10 May 2019 – Government, 18 June 2019 – Parliament)[46]

Portugal (7 June 2019)[47][48]

Holy See (June 2019)[24]

Canada (17 June 2019)[49][50]

France (27 June 2019)[51]

Argentina (17 July 2019)[52][53]

Spain (17 September 2019 – Parlament, 21 January 2020 – Government)[54][55][56]

Austria (25 September 2019)[57]

Malta (22 October 2019)[58]

Bangladesh (13 November 2019)[59]

Andorra (23 January 2020)[60]

Maldives (12 February 2020)[61]

European Union member states

Austria (28 November 2019)[39]

Belgium (28 November 2019)[39]

Bulgaria (28 November 2019)[39]

Croatia (28 November 2019)[39]

Cyprus (28 November 2019)[39]

Czech Republic (28 November 2019)[39]

Denmark (28 November 2019)[39]

Estonia (28 November 2019)[39]

Finland (28 November 2019)[39]

France (28 November 2019)[39]

Germany (28 November 2019)[39]

Greece (28 November 2019)[39]

Hungary (28 November 2019)[39]

Ireland (28 November 2019)[39]

Italy (28 November 2019)[39]

Latvia (28 November 2019)[39]

Lithuania (28 November 2019)[39]

Luxembourg (28 November 2019)[39]

Malta (28 November 2019)[39]

Netherlands (28 November 2019)[39]

Poland (28 November 2019)[39]

Portugal (28 November 2019)[39]

Romania (28 November 2019)[39]

Slovakia (28 November 2019)[39]

Slovenia (28 November 2019)[39]

Spain (28 November 2019)[39]

Sweden (28 November 2019)[39]

United Kingdom (28 November 2019)[39]

 

States and local administrations

Ambox current red.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2019)

In Australia: Most notably South Australia (September 2019), [62] Darebin (5 December 2016),[15][16] Melbourne (June 2019),[63] Sydney (June 2019),[64] Adelaide (August 2019),[65] and more than 17 towns (30 April 2019).[66][67]

In the United States: at least 29 towns,[68][citation needed] most notably New York City (26 June 2019),[69] Hayward (15 January 2019), San Francisco and Chico (2 April 2019).[70]

In Canada: 384 towns (May 2019).[71]

In France: Mulhouse (9 May 2019)[71] and Paris.[72]

In Spain: Catalonia region (7 May 2019),[73] Euskadi region,[74] Canary Islands region[75], Balearic Islands region[76] and the cities of San Cristóbal de La Laguna,[77] Seville,[78] Castro Urdiales,[79] Zaragoza, Salobreña, Lanzarote, El Rosario, Puerto de la Cruz,[80] Sagunto,[81] Zamora[82], Madrid.[83] and Barcelona.[84]

In Italy: 28 towns, among others the town of Acri (29 April 2019),[85] the town of Milano,[86] the Metropolitan City of Naples (May 2019)[87] and the town of Lucca.[88][89]

In Switzerland: the cantons of Basel-Stadt, Jura and Vaud and the cities of Liestal, Olten and Delemont.[71]

In Germany: 68 towns, among others Konstanz, Heidelberg, Kiel, Münster, Erlangen, Bochum, Aachen, Saarbrücken, Wiesbaden, Leverkusen, Marburg, Düsseldorf, Bonn, Cologne, Karlsruhe, Potsdam, Berlin, Leipzig and Munich.[90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99][100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108]

In New Zealand: Canterbury region,[109] and the city of Nelson (16 May 2019);[110] Auckland (11 June 2019);[111] Wellington (20 June 2019).[112]

In Netherlands: the city of Amsterdam.[113]

In Austria: the towns and municipalities Michaelerberg-Pruggern (13 June 2019),[114] Perchtoldsdorf (18 June 2019),[115] Traiskirchen (24 June 2019),[116] Steyregg (4 July 2019)[117] and the state Vorarlberg (4 July 2019).[118]

In Czechia: the 6th District of Prague (13 June 2019).[119] the 7th District of Prague (22 May 2019).[120]

In Philippines: the town of Bacolod.[121]

In Poland: the cities of Warsaw[122] and Kraków.[123]

In Slovakia: the city of Zlaté Moravce (18 September 2019).[124]

In Belgium: the city of Brussels (23 September 2019).[125]

In Japan: the prefecture of Nagano (December 2019),[126] the cities of Iki[127][128] and Kamakura.[129]

In Chile: the city of Hualpén.[130]

In Hungary: the city of Budapest[131]

In Brazil the city of Recife.[132]

In South Korea the South Chungcheong Province[133]

See also

Climate change in New York City

Climate crisis

World Scientists' Warning to Humanity

What is Climate Change and Global Warming and How Does it Affect Us:

 

www.joboneforhumanity.org/global_warming?gclid=CjwKCAjw8J...

 

Climate Emergency

 

A climate emergency declaration or declaring a climate emergency is an action taken by governments and scientists[1] to acknowledge humanity is in a climate emergency. The first such declaration was made in December 2016.[2] Since then over 1,400 local governments in 28 countries have made climate emergency declarations (as of 23 February 2020). [3]

 

Once a government makes a declaration the next step for the declaring government to set priorities to mitigate climate change, prior to ultimately entering a state of emergency or equivalent.[4]

 

In declaring a climate emergency, a government admits that global warming exists and that the measures taken up to this point are not enough to limit the changes brought by it. The decision stresses the need for the government and administration to devise measures that try and stop human-caused global warming.

 

The declarations can be made on different levels, for example at a national or local government level, and they can differ in depth and detail in their guidelines. The term climate emergency does not only describe formal decisions, but also includes actions to avert climate breakdown. This is supposed to justify and focus them. The specific term "emergency" is used to assign priority to the topic, and to generate a mindset of urgency.

 

The term “climate emergency” has been promoted by climate activists and pro-climate action politicians to add a sense of urgency for responding to a long-term problem.[7]

 

Term

Climate emergency as a term was used in protests against climate change before 2010 (e.g. the "Climate-Emergency-Rally" in Melbourne in June 2009[8]). In 2017 the city council of Darebin adopted multiple measures named "Darebin Climate Emergency Plan". On December 4th, 2018, the Club of Rome presented their "Climate Emergency Plan", which included 10 high-priority measures to limit global warming[9]. With the rise of movements like Extinction Rebellion[10] and Fridays For Future the concern has been picked up by various governments.

 

Multiple European cities and communities who declared a climate emergency are simultaneously members of the Klima-Bündnis (German for climate alliance), which obligates them to lower their CO2 emissions by 10% every five years.

 

Oxford Dictionary chose climate emergency as the word of the year 2019 and defines the term as "a situation in which urgent action is required to reduce or halt climate change and avoid potentially irreversible environmental damage resulting from it." Usage of the term soared more than 10,000% between September 2018 and September 2019.[11]

 

History

 

Australian climate activists demand the declaration of a climate emergency on 13 June 2009 at the "Climate Emergency Rally" during the annual Earth day in Melbourne, Australia

 

"Climate Emergency" declared on a banner on 22 April 2017 at the annual March for Science in Melbourne, Australia

Early stages

Encouraged by the campaigners behind a Climate Emergency Declaration petition, which had been launched in Australia in May 2026, the first governmental declaration of a climate emergency in the world was put forward by Trent McCarthy, an Australian Greens Councillor at the City of Darebin in Melbourne, Australia. The city declared a climate emergency on 5 December 2016.[12][13][14] In August 2017, Darebin decided upon a catalogue of actions in a "Darebin Climate Emergency Plan".[15][16] Darebin's declaration was followed by Hoboken in New Jersey and Berkeley, California.[13][14]

 

Hearing of these developments in 2018, UK Green Party politician Carla Denyer, then a member of Bristol City Council, took the lead role in bringing about Bristol City Council's declaration of a climate emergency.[17] This was the first such declaration by in Europe, and has been widely credited as a breakthrough moment for cities and national parliaments beginning to declare climate emergency.[18][19][13][14] Denyer's motion was described in the UK newspaper The Independent as 'the historic first motion' which by July 2019 had been 'copied by more than 400 local authorities and parliaments'.[20]

  

"Climate angel" with a poster "This is an emergency" at the "Extinction Rebellion" protests on 22 March 2019 in Melbourne, Australia

 

Demanding a "Klimanotstand" (English: Climate Emergency) at Helvetiaplatz [de] in Bern, Switzerland on 24 May 2019

On 28th April 2019, the Scottish Parliament declared a climate emergency, making Scotland the first country to do so. [21] This was quickly followed by the National Assembly for Wales on the 29th April [22] and then the Parliament of the United Kingdom for the UK as whole in 1st May.[23]

 

Subsequent developments

Pope Francis declared a climate emergency in June 2019.[24] The Pope also called for a "radical energy transition" away from fossil fuels towards renewable energy sources, and urged leaders to "hear the increasingly desperate cries of the earth and its poor."[24] He also argued against "the continued search for new fossil fuel reserves" and stated that "fossil fuels should remain underground."[24]

 

On 10 July 2019, networks representing more than 7,000 higher and further education institutions from six continents announced that they are declaring a Climate Emergency, and agreed to undertake a three-point plan to address the crisis through their work with students.[25] Some statements were criticized for not including specific measures.[26]

 

In June 2019, Councillor Trent McCarthy of the City of Darebin brought together councillors and parliamentarians in Australia and around the world for two online link-ups to connect the work of climate emergency-declared councils and governments. Following these link-ups and a successful motion at the National General Assembly of Local Government, McCarthy announced the formation of Climate Emergency Australia, a new network of Australian governments and councils advocating for a climate emergency response.

 

Representative Earl Blumenauer of Oregon believes the US government should declare a climate emergency.[27] Blumenauer's proposed legislation is supported by 2020 US Presidential candidate Bernie Sanders, as well as Congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez.[27]

 

In 2019, according to an eight-country poll, a majority of the public recognise the climate crisis as an “emergency” and say politicians are failing to tackle the problem, backing the interests of big oil over the wellbeing of ordinary people. The survey found that climate breakdown is viewed as the most important issue facing the world in seven out of the eight countries surveyed.[28]

 

In September 2013, the Australian Medical Association officially declared climate change a public health emergency.[29] The AMA noted that climate change will cause "higher mortality and morbidity from heat stress; injury and mortality from increasingly severe weather events; increases in the transmission of vector-borne diseases; food insecurity resulting from declines in agricultural outputs; [and] a higher incidence of mental-ill health."[29] The AMA has called on the Australian Government to adopt a carbon budget; reduce emissions; and transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy, among other proposals to mitigate the health impacts of climate change.[29]

 

The Australian Greens Party is calling on the federal Parliament to declare a climate emergency. Greens MP for Melbourne, Adam Bandt, welcomed the UK Parliament's declaration of a climate emergency and argued that Australia should follow their lead.[30] In October 2019, an official e-petition to the Australian Parliament calling for the declaration of a climate emergency, received more than 400,000 signatories (.[31][32][33] This is the single most popular online Parliamentary petition in Australia.[33] Former federal Liberal Party leader John Hewson has publicly urged for a conscience vote in the Parliament on the climate emergency, despite the Liberal Party's current position on climate change.[34] He also stated that "it was an emergency 30 years ago".[34]

 

In October 2019, the Australian Labor Party supported the Greens Party's policy to declare a climate emergency, however the proposition failed with the rejection of the Morrison Government.[35] The motion was supported by independent members Zali Steggall, Helen Haines and Andrew Wilkie, as well as Centre Alliance.[34]

 

On 5 November 2019 the journal BioScience published an article endorsed by further 11,000 scientists from 153 nations, that states Climate Emergency (“We declare clearly and unequivocally that planet Earth is facing a climate emergency”) and that the world's people face “untold suffering due to the climate crisis” unless there are major transformations to global society.[36][36]

 

In November 2019 the Oxford Dictionaries made the term climate emergency Word of the Year.

 

On 14-15 February 2020 the first National Climate Emergency Summit was held at the city hall in Melbourne, Australia. It was a sold out event with 2,000 attendees and 100 speakers.[37][38]

 

Recent development

 

Beginning in early 2019, Google trends data shows a growth in "climate emergency" searches (shown in red), concurrently with growth in searches for "climate crisis" (shown in blue).

Development in the EU

On 28 November 2019, the European Parliament declared a climate emergency.[39][40] The EU represents 27 member states.

 

Germany

The state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) started a campaign on 10 March 2019 called "NRW erklärt den Klimanotstand" (North-Rhine-Westphalia declares a climate emergency), where they urged local communities to do so. The first community to declare a climate emergency was Konstanz in Baden-Wurttemberg, on 2 May 2019.

 

The government of NRW called the declaration of a climate emergency a "symbolic measure", which does not give any "special rights" to the declaring community.

 

List of countries and dependencies

Parliamentary or Government declaration

Scotland (28 April 2019)[41]

Wales (29 April 2019)[42]

United Kingdom (1 May 2019 - Parliament)[43]

Jersey (2 May 2019)[44]

Republic of Ireland (9 May 2019)[45]

Isle of Man (10 May 2019 – Government, 18 June 2019 – Parliament)[46]

Portugal (7 June 2019)[47][48]

Holy See (June 2019)[24]

Canada (17 June 2019)[49][50]

France (27 June 2019)[51]

Argentina (17 July 2019)[52][53]

Spain (17 September 2019 – Parlament, 21 January 2020 – Government)[54][55][56]

Austria (25 September 2019)[57]

Malta (22 October 2019)[58]

Bangladesh (13 November 2019)[59]

Andorra (23 January 2020)[60]

Maldives (12 February 2020)[61]

European Union member states

Austria (28 November 2019)[39]

Belgium (28 November 2019)[39]

Bulgaria (28 November 2019)[39]

Croatia (28 November 2019)[39]

Cyprus (28 November 2019)[39]

Czech Republic (28 November 2019)[39]

Denmark (28 November 2019)[39]

Estonia (28 November 2019)[39]

Finland (28 November 2019)[39]

France (28 November 2019)[39]

Germany (28 November 2019)[39]

Greece (28 November 2019)[39]

Hungary (28 November 2019)[39]

Ireland (28 November 2019)[39]

Italy (28 November 2019)[39]

Latvia (28 November 2019)[39]

Lithuania (28 November 2019)[39]

Luxembourg (28 November 2019)[39]

Malta (28 November 2019)[39]

Netherlands (28 November 2019)[39]

Poland (28 November 2019)[39]

Portugal (28 November 2019)[39]

Romania (28 November 2019)[39]

Slovakia (28 November 2019)[39]

Slovenia (28 November 2019)[39]

Spain (28 November 2019)[39]

Sweden (28 November 2019)[39]

United Kingdom (28 November 2019)[39]

 

States and local administrations

Ambox current red.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2019)

In Australia: Most notably South Australia (September 2019), [62] Darebin (5 December 2016),[15][16] Melbourne (June 2019),[63] Sydney (June 2019),[64] Adelaide (August 2019),[65] and more than 17 towns (30 April 2019).[66][67]

In the United States: at least 29 towns,[68][citation needed] most notably New York City (26 June 2019),[69] Hayward (15 January 2019), San Francisco and Chico (2 April 2019).[70]

In Canada: 384 towns (May 2019).[71]

In France: Mulhouse (9 May 2019)[71] and Paris.[72]

In Spain: Catalonia region (7 May 2019),[73] Euskadi region,[74] Canary Islands region[75], Balearic Islands region[76] and the cities of San Cristóbal de La Laguna,[77] Seville,[78] Castro Urdiales,[79] Zaragoza, Salobreña, Lanzarote, El Rosario, Puerto de la Cruz,[80] Sagunto,[81] Zamora[82], Madrid.[83] and Barcelona.[84]

In Italy: 28 towns, among others the town of Acri (29 April 2019),[85] the town of Milano,[86] the Metropolitan City of Naples (May 2019)[87] and the town of Lucca.[88][89]

In Switzerland: the cantons of Basel-Stadt, Jura and Vaud and the cities of Liestal, Olten and Delemont.[71]

In Germany: 68 towns, among others Konstanz, Heidelberg, Kiel, Münster, Erlangen, Bochum, Aachen, Saarbrücken, Wiesbaden, Leverkusen, Marburg, Düsseldorf, Bonn, Cologne, Karlsruhe, Potsdam, Berlin, Leipzig and Munich.[90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99][100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108]

In New Zealand: Canterbury region,[109] and the city of Nelson (16 May 2019);[110] Auckland (11 June 2019);[111] Wellington (20 June 2019).[112]

In Netherlands: the city of Amsterdam.[113]

In Austria: the towns and municipalities Michaelerberg-Pruggern (13 June 2019),[114] Perchtoldsdorf (18 June 2019),[115] Traiskirchen (24 June 2019),[116] Steyregg (4 July 2019)[117] and the state Vorarlberg (4 July 2019).[118]

In Czechia: the 6th District of Prague (13 June 2019).[119] the 7th District of Prague (22 May 2019).[120]

In Philippines: the town of Bacolod.[121]

In Poland: the cities of Warsaw[122] and Kraków.[123]

In Slovakia: the city of Zlaté Moravce (18 September 2019).[124]

In Belgium: the city of Brussels (23 September 2019).[125]

In Japan: the prefecture of Nagano (December 2019),[126] the cities of Iki[127][128] and Kamakura.[129]

In Chile: the city of Hualpén.[130]

In Hungary: the city of Budapest[131]

In Brazil the city of Recife.[132]

In South Korea the South Chungcheong Province[133]

The facts you need to know about the Climate Emergency:

 

The science of climate change is well established:

 

Climate change is real and human activities are the main cause. (IPCC)

The concentration of greenhouse gases in the earth’s atmosphere is directly linked to the average global temperature on Earth. (IPCC)

The concentration has been rising steadily, and mean global temperatures along with it, since the time of the Industrial Revolution. (IPCC)

The most abundant greenhouse gas, accounting for about two-thirds of greenhouse gases, carbon dioxide (CO2), is largely the product of burning fossil fuels. (IPCC)

Source: The UN Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) was set up by the World Meteorological Organization (WMO) and United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP) to provide an objective source of scientific information on climate change. In 2013 the IPCC provided a globally peer-reviewed report about the role of human activities in climate change when it released its Fifth Assessment Report. The report was categorical in its conclusion: climate change is real and human activities, largely the release of polluting gases from burning fossil fuel (coal, oil, gas), is the main cause.

 

What are the effects and impacts of climate change?

 

Impacts of a 1.1-degree increase are here today in the increased frequency and magnitude of extreme weather events from heatwaves, droughts, flooding, winter storms, hurricanes and wildfires. (IPCC)

 

The global average temperature in 2019 was 1.1 degrees Celsius above the pre-industrial period, according to the World Meteorological Organization. (WMO.)

2019 concluded a decade of exceptional global heat, retreating ice and record sea levels driven by greenhouse gases produced by human activities. (WMO)

Average temperatures for the five-year (2015-2019) and ten-year (2010-2019) periods are the highest on record. (WMO)

2019 was the second hottest year on record. (WMO)

The total annual global greenhouse gas emissions reached its highest levels in 2018, with no sign of peaking. (EGR, 2019).

Based on today’s insufficient global commitments to reduce climate polluting emissions, emissions are on track to reach 56 Gt CO2e by 2030, over twice what they should be. (EGR, 2019)

What do we need to do to limit global warming and act on climate change?

 

To prevent warming beyond 1.5°C, we need to reduce emissions by 7.6% every year from this year to 2030. (EGR, 2019)

10 years ago, if countries had acted on this science, governments would have needed to reduce emissions by 3.3% each year. Every year we fail to act, the level of difficulty and cost to reduce emissions goes up. (EGR, 2019)

Nations agreed to a legally binding commitment in Paris to limit global temperature rise to no more than 2oC above pre-industrial levels, but also offered national pledges to cut or curb their greenhouse gas emissions by 2030. This is known as the Paris Agreement. The initial pledges of 2015 are insufficient to meet the target, and governments are expected to review and increase these pledges as a key objective this year, 2020.

This review of the Paris Agreement commitments will take place at the 2020 climate change conference known at COP26 in Glasgow, UK in November 2020. This conference will be the most important inter-governmental meeting on the climate crisis since the Paris agreement was passed in 2015.

The success or otherwise of this conference will have stark consequences for the world. If countries cannot agree on sufficient pledges, in another 5 years, the emissions reduction necessary will leap to a near-impossible -15.5% every year. The unlikelihood of achieving this far steeper rate of decarbonization, means the world faces a global temperature increase that will rise above 1.5oC. Every fraction of additional warming above 1.5oC will bring worsening impacts, threatening lives, food sources, livelihoods and economies worldwide.

countries are not on track to fulfill the promises they have made.

Increased commitments can take many forms but overall they must serve to shift countries and economies onto a path of decarbonization, setting targets for net zero carbon, and timelines of how to reach that target, most typically through a rapid acceleration of energy sourced from renewables and a rapid deceleration of fossil fuel dependency.

Why is 1.5oC important?

 

While there will still be serious climate impacts at 1.5°C, this is the level scientists say is associated with less devastating impacts than higher levels of global warming, Every fraction of additional warming beyond 1.5°C will bring worse impacts, threatening lives, livelihoods and economies.

 

At 1.5°C, over 70% of coral reefs will die, but at 2°C all reefs over 99% will be lost.

Insects, vital for pollination of crops and plants, are likely to lose half their habitat at 1.5°C but this becomes almost twice as likely at 2°C .

The Arctic Ocean being completely bare of sea ice in summer would be a once per century likelihood at 1.5°C but this leaps to a once a decade likelihood at 2°C .

Over 6 million people currently live in coastal areas vulnerable to sea level rise at 1.5°C degrees, and at 2°C this would affect 10 million more people by the end of this century.

Sea-level rise will be 100 centimeters higher at 2°C than at 1.5°C.

The frequency and intensity of droughts, storms and extreme weather events are increasingly likely above 1.5°C.

Source: Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)

More 'sex' data from Google Trends, this time from Saudi Arabia.

 

In the top graph you can see that each year around September there are sudden drops followed by peaks. I have picked out the year '2008' in the second graph. As it happens this 'turbulence' is associated with the 'holy' month of Ramadan for Muslims which started in 2008 on the 1st of September and ended on the 30th of September.

 

During this time "Muslims refrain from eating, drinking, smoking, and indulging in anything that is in excess or ill-natured; from dawn until sunset." (source: Wikipedia).

 

Isn't it fascinating that, if Google's time scale is indeed accurate, the time of least 'sex' searches actually falls slightly prior to Ramadan and the peak right in the middle. I haven't checked whether this is a consistent feature for the other years as well but if so it is food for sociologists / psychologists!

 

The time-series for other countries with Muslim majorities such as Jordan, Syria, Lebanon, Egypt, Libya, Algeria, Tunisia, Morocco, Turkey, Indonesia, Bangladesh, Sudan, Yemen, Senegal, United Arab Emirates, Palestinian Territory, Kuwait, Oman, Bahrain, Qatar, Maldives, Afghanistan, Malaysia and Pakistan all show this 'Ramadan-sex search' pattern.

 

Countries in the same region without Muslim majorities such as Israel and India, don't display this pattern.

 

There are Islamic countries where this trend can not be discerned from the data: the Iran data appear to be affected by censorship issues and perhaps national security issues dominate in Iraq. The data for central-Asian countries such as Azerbaijan, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan is either sparse or doesn't show this trend. Interestingly these countries are considered "secular" as they are not "Islamic states" nor is Islam the "state religion" (source Wikipedia)

 

Any thoughts on this? I am curious to hear how Muslims themselves look at this.

 

Climate Emergency

 

A climate emergency declaration or declaring a climate emergency is an action taken by governments and scientists[1] to acknowledge humanity is in a climate emergency. The first such declaration was made in December 2016.[2] Since then over 1,400 local governments in 28 countries have made climate emergency declarations (as of 23 February 2020). [3]

 

Once a government makes a declaration the next step for the declaring government to set priorities to mitigate climate change, prior to ultimately entering a state of emergency or equivalent.[4]

 

In declaring a climate emergency, a government admits that global warming exists and that the measures taken up to this point are not enough to limit the changes brought by it. The decision stresses the need for the government and administration to devise measures that try and stop human-caused global warming.

 

The declarations can be made on different levels, for example at a national or local government level, and they can differ in depth and detail in their guidelines. The term climate emergency does not only describe formal decisions, but also includes actions to avert climate breakdown. This is supposed to justify and focus them. The specific term "emergency" is used to assign priority to the topic, and to generate a mindset of urgency.

 

The term “climate emergency” has been promoted by climate activists and pro-climate action politicians to add a sense of urgency for responding to a long-term problem.[7]

 

Term

Climate emergency as a term was used in protests against climate change before 2010 (e.g. the "Climate-Emergency-Rally" in Melbourne in June 2009[8]). In 2017 the city council of Darebin adopted multiple measures named "Darebin Climate Emergency Plan". On December 4th, 2018, the Club of Rome presented their "Climate Emergency Plan", which included 10 high-priority measures to limit global warming[9]. With the rise of movements like Extinction Rebellion[10] and Fridays For Future the concern has been picked up by various governments.

 

Multiple European cities and communities who declared a climate emergency are simultaneously members of the Klima-Bündnis (German for climate alliance), which obligates them to lower their CO2 emissions by 10% every five years.

 

Oxford Dictionary chose climate emergency as the word of the year 2019 and defines the term as "a situation in which urgent action is required to reduce or halt climate change and avoid potentially irreversible environmental damage resulting from it." Usage of the term soared more than 10,000% between September 2018 and September 2019.[11]

 

History

 

Australian climate activists demand the declaration of a climate emergency on 13 June 2009 at the "Climate Emergency Rally" during the annual Earth day in Melbourne, Australia

 

"Climate Emergency" declared on a banner on 22 April 2017 at the annual March for Science in Melbourne, Australia

Early stages

Encouraged by the campaigners behind a Climate Emergency Declaration petition, which had been launched in Australia in May 2026, the first governmental declaration of a climate emergency in the world was put forward by Trent McCarthy, an Australian Greens Councillor at the City of Darebin in Melbourne, Australia. The city declared a climate emergency on 5 December 2016.[12][13][14] In August 2017, Darebin decided upon a catalogue of actions in a "Darebin Climate Emergency Plan".[15][16] Darebin's declaration was followed by Hoboken in New Jersey and Berkeley, California.[13][14]

 

Hearing of these developments in 2018, UK Green Party politician Carla Denyer, then a member of Bristol City Council, took the lead role in bringing about Bristol City Council's declaration of a climate emergency.[17] This was the first such declaration by in Europe, and has been widely credited as a breakthrough moment for cities and national parliaments beginning to declare climate emergency.[18][19][13][14] Denyer's motion was described in the UK newspaper The Independent as 'the historic first motion' which by July 2019 had been 'copied by more than 400 local authorities and parliaments'.[20]

  

"Climate angel" with a poster "This is an emergency" at the "Extinction Rebellion" protests on 22 March 2019 in Melbourne, Australia

 

Demanding a "Klimanotstand" (English: Climate Emergency) at Helvetiaplatz [de] in Bern, Switzerland on 24 May 2019

On 28th April 2019, the Scottish Parliament declared a climate emergency, making Scotland the first country to do so. [21] This was quickly followed by the National Assembly for Wales on the 29th April [22] and then the Parliament of the United Kingdom for the UK as whole in 1st May.[23]

 

Subsequent developments

Pope Francis declared a climate emergency in June 2019.[24] The Pope also called for a "radical energy transition" away from fossil fuels towards renewable energy sources, and urged leaders to "hear the increasingly desperate cries of the earth and its poor."[24] He also argued against "the continued search for new fossil fuel reserves" and stated that "fossil fuels should remain underground."[24]

 

On 10 July 2019, networks representing more than 7,000 higher and further education institutions from six continents announced that they are declaring a Climate Emergency, and agreed to undertake a three-point plan to address the crisis through their work with students.[25] Some statements were criticized for not including specific measures.[26]

 

In June 2019, Councillor Trent McCarthy of the City of Darebin brought together councillors and parliamentarians in Australia and around the world for two online link-ups to connect the work of climate emergency-declared councils and governments. Following these link-ups and a successful motion at the National General Assembly of Local Government, McCarthy announced the formation of Climate Emergency Australia, a new network of Australian governments and councils advocating for a climate emergency response.

 

Representative Earl Blumenauer of Oregon believes the US government should declare a climate emergency.[27] Blumenauer's proposed legislation is supported by 2020 US Presidential candidate Bernie Sanders, as well as Congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez.[27]

 

In 2019, according to an eight-country poll, a majority of the public recognise the climate crisis as an “emergency” and say politicians are failing to tackle the problem, backing the interests of big oil over the wellbeing of ordinary people. The survey found that climate breakdown is viewed as the most important issue facing the world in seven out of the eight countries surveyed.[28]

 

In September 2013, the Australian Medical Association officially declared climate change a public health emergency.[29] The AMA noted that climate change will cause "higher mortality and morbidity from heat stress; injury and mortality from increasingly severe weather events; increases in the transmission of vector-borne diseases; food insecurity resulting from declines in agricultural outputs; [and] a higher incidence of mental-ill health."[29] The AMA has called on the Australian Government to adopt a carbon budget; reduce emissions; and transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy, among other proposals to mitigate the health impacts of climate change.[29]

 

The Australian Greens Party is calling on the federal Parliament to declare a climate emergency. Greens MP for Melbourne, Adam Bandt, welcomed the UK Parliament's declaration of a climate emergency and argued that Australia should follow their lead.[30] In October 2019, an official e-petition to the Australian Parliament calling for the declaration of a climate emergency, received more than 400,000 signatories (.[31][32][33] This is the single most popular online Parliamentary petition in Australia.[33] Former federal Liberal Party leader John Hewson has publicly urged for a conscience vote in the Parliament on the climate emergency, despite the Liberal Party's current position on climate change.[34] He also stated that "it was an emergency 30 years ago".[34]

 

In October 2019, the Australian Labor Party supported the Greens Party's policy to declare a climate emergency, however the proposition failed with the rejection of the Morrison Government.[35] The motion was supported by independent members Zali Steggall, Helen Haines and Andrew Wilkie, as well as Centre Alliance.[34]

 

On 5 November 2019 the journal BioScience published an article endorsed by further 11,000 scientists from 153 nations, that states Climate Emergency (“We declare clearly and unequivocally that planet Earth is facing a climate emergency”) and that the world's people face “untold suffering due to the climate crisis” unless there are major transformations to global society.[36][36]

 

In November 2019 the Oxford Dictionaries made the term climate emergency Word of the Year.

 

On 14-15 February 2020 the first National Climate Emergency Summit was held at the city hall in Melbourne, Australia. It was a sold out event with 2,000 attendees and 100 speakers.[37][38]

 

Recent development

 

Beginning in early 2019, Google trends data shows a growth in "climate emergency" searches (shown in red), concurrently with growth in searches for "climate crisis" (shown in blue).

Development in the EU

On 28 November 2019, the European Parliament declared a climate emergency.[39][40] The EU represents 27 member states.

 

Germany

The state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) started a campaign on 10 March 2019 called "NRW erklärt den Klimanotstand" (North-Rhine-Westphalia declares a climate emergency), where they urged local communities to do so. The first community to declare a climate emergency was Konstanz in Baden-Wurttemberg, on 2 May 2019.

 

The government of NRW called the declaration of a climate emergency a "symbolic measure", which does not give any "special rights" to the declaring community.

 

List of countries and dependencies

Parliamentary or Government declaration

Scotland (28 April 2019)[41]

Wales (29 April 2019)[42]

United Kingdom (1 May 2019 - Parliament)[43]

Jersey (2 May 2019)[44]

Republic of Ireland (9 May 2019)[45]

Isle of Man (10 May 2019 – Government, 18 June 2019 – Parliament)[46]

Portugal (7 June 2019)[47][48]

Holy See (June 2019)[24]

Canada (17 June 2019)[49][50]

France (27 June 2019)[51]

Argentina (17 July 2019)[52][53]

Spain (17 September 2019 – Parlament, 21 January 2020 – Government)[54][55][56]

Austria (25 September 2019)[57]

Malta (22 October 2019)[58]

Bangladesh (13 November 2019)[59]

Andorra (23 January 2020)[60]

Maldives (12 February 2020)[61]

European Union member states

Austria (28 November 2019)[39]

Belgium (28 November 2019)[39]

Bulgaria (28 November 2019)[39]

Croatia (28 November 2019)[39]

Cyprus (28 November 2019)[39]

Czech Republic (28 November 2019)[39]

Denmark (28 November 2019)[39]

Estonia (28 November 2019)[39]

Finland (28 November 2019)[39]

France (28 November 2019)[39]

Germany (28 November 2019)[39]

Greece (28 November 2019)[39]

Hungary (28 November 2019)[39]

Ireland (28 November 2019)[39]

Italy (28 November 2019)[39]

Latvia (28 November 2019)[39]

Lithuania (28 November 2019)[39]

Luxembourg (28 November 2019)[39]

Malta (28 November 2019)[39]

Netherlands (28 November 2019)[39]

Poland (28 November 2019)[39]

Portugal (28 November 2019)[39]

Romania (28 November 2019)[39]

Slovakia (28 November 2019)[39]

Slovenia (28 November 2019)[39]

Spain (28 November 2019)[39]

Sweden (28 November 2019)[39]

United Kingdom (28 November 2019)[39]

 

States and local administrations

Ambox current red.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2019)

In Australia: Most notably South Australia (September 2019), [62] Darebin (5 December 2016),[15][16] Melbourne (June 2019),[63] Sydney (June 2019),[64] Adelaide (August 2019),[65] and more than 17 towns (30 April 2019).[66][67]

In the United States: at least 29 towns,[68][citation needed] most notably New York City (26 June 2019),[69] Hayward (15 January 2019), San Francisco and Chico (2 April 2019).[70]

In Canada: 384 towns (May 2019).[71]

In France: Mulhouse (9 May 2019)[71] and Paris.[72]

In Spain: Catalonia region (7 May 2019),[73] Euskadi region,[74] Canary Islands region[75], Balearic Islands region[76] and the cities of San Cristóbal de La Laguna,[77] Seville,[78] Castro Urdiales,[79] Zaragoza, Salobreña, Lanzarote, El Rosario, Puerto de la Cruz,[80] Sagunto,[81] Zamora[82], Madrid.[83] and Barcelona.[84]

In Italy: 28 towns, among others the town of Acri (29 April 2019),[85] the town of Milano,[86] the Metropolitan City of Naples (May 2019)[87] and the town of Lucca.[88][89]

In Switzerland: the cantons of Basel-Stadt, Jura and Vaud and the cities of Liestal, Olten and Delemont.[71]

In Germany: 68 towns, among others Konstanz, Heidelberg, Kiel, Münster, Erlangen, Bochum, Aachen, Saarbrücken, Wiesbaden, Leverkusen, Marburg, Düsseldorf, Bonn, Cologne, Karlsruhe, Potsdam, Berlin, Leipzig and Munich.[90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99][100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108]

In New Zealand: Canterbury region,[109] and the city of Nelson (16 May 2019);[110] Auckland (11 June 2019);[111] Wellington (20 June 2019).[112]

In Netherlands: the city of Amsterdam.[113]

In Austria: the towns and municipalities Michaelerberg-Pruggern (13 June 2019),[114] Perchtoldsdorf (18 June 2019),[115] Traiskirchen (24 June 2019),[116] Steyregg (4 July 2019)[117] and the state Vorarlberg (4 July 2019).[118]

In Czechia: the 6th District of Prague (13 June 2019).[119] the 7th District of Prague (22 May 2019).[120]

In Philippines: the town of Bacolod.[121]

In Poland: the cities of Warsaw[122] and Kraków.[123]

In Slovakia: the city of Zlaté Moravce (18 September 2019).[124]

In Belgium: the city of Brussels (23 September 2019).[125]

In Japan: the prefecture of Nagano (December 2019),[126] the cities of Iki[127][128] and Kamakura.[129]

In Chile: the city of Hualpén.[130]

In Hungary: the city of Budapest[131]

In Brazil the city of Recife.[132]

In South Korea the South Chungcheong Province[133]

See also

Climate change in New York City

Climate crisis

World Scientists' Warning to Humanity

Climate Emergency

Countries where a climate emergency has been declared, either for the entire country (dark blue) or only for some subdivisions (light blue), as of October 2019.

A climate emergency declaration or declaring a climate emergency is an action taken by governments and scientists[1] to acknowledge humanity is in a climate emergency. The first such declaration was made in December 2016.[2] Since then over 1,400 local governments in 28 countries have made climate emergency declarations (as of 23 February 2020). [3]

 

Once a government makes a declaration the next step for the declaring government to set priorities to mitigate climate change, prior to ultimately entering a state of emergency or equivalent.[4]

 

In declaring a climate emergency, a government admits that global warming exists and that the measures taken up to this point are not enough to limit the changes brought by it. The decision stresses the need for the government and administration to devise measures that try and stop human-caused global warming.

 

The declarations can be made on different levels, for example at a national or local government level, and they can differ in depth and detail in their guidelines. The term climate emergency does not only describe formal decisions, but also includes actions to avert climate breakdown. This is supposed to justify and focus them. The specific term "emergency" is used to assign priority to the topic, and to generate a mindset of urgency.

 

The term “climate emergency” has been promoted by climate activists and pro-climate action politicians to add a sense of urgency for responding to a long-term problem.[7]

 

Term

Climate emergency as a term was used in protests against climate change before 2010 (e.g. the "Climate-Emergency-Rally" in Melbourne in June 2009[8]). In 2017 the city council of Darebin adopted multiple measures named "Darebin Climate Emergency Plan". On December 4th, 2018, the Club of Rome presented their "Climate Emergency Plan", which included 10 high-priority measures to limit global warming[9]. With the rise of movements like Extinction Rebellion[10] and Fridays For Future the concern has been picked up by various governments.

 

Multiple European cities and communities who declared a climate emergency are simultaneously members of the Klima-Bündnis (German for climate alliance), which obligates them to lower their CO2 emissions by 10% every five years.

 

Oxford Dictionary chose climate emergency as the word of the year 2019 and defines the term as "a situation in which urgent action is required to reduce or halt climate change and avoid potentially irreversible environmental damage resulting from it." Usage of the term soared more than 10,000% between September 2018 and September 2019.[11]

 

History

 

Australian climate activists demand the declaration of a climate emergency on 13 June 2009 at the "Climate Emergency Rally" during the annual Earth day in Melbourne, Australia

 

"Climate Emergency" declared on a banner on 22 April 2017 at the annual March for Science in Melbourne, Australia

Early stages

Encouraged by the campaigners behind a Climate Emergency Declaration petition, which had been launched in Australia in May 2026, the first governmental declaration of a climate emergency in the world was put forward by Trent McCarthy, an Australian Greens Councillor at the City of Darebin in Melbourne, Australia. The city declared a climate emergency on 5 December 2016.[12][13][14] In August 2017, Darebin decided upon a catalogue of actions in a "Darebin Climate Emergency Plan".[15][16] Darebin's declaration was followed by Hoboken in New Jersey and Berkeley, California.[13][14]

 

Hearing of these developments in 2018, UK Green Party politician Carla Denyer, then a member of Bristol City Council, took the lead role in bringing about Bristol City Council's declaration of a climate emergency.[17] This was the first such declaration by in Europe, and has been widely credited as a breakthrough moment for cities and national parliaments beginning to declare climate emergency.[18][19][13][14] Denyer's motion was described in the UK newspaper The Independent as 'the historic first motion' which by July 2019 had been 'copied by more than 400 local authorities and parliaments'.[20]

  

"Climate angel" with a poster "This is an emergency" at the "Extinction Rebellion" protests on 22 March 2019 in Melbourne, Australia

 

Demanding a "Klimanotstand" (English: Climate Emergency) at Helvetiaplatz [de] in Bern, Switzerland on 24 May 2019

On 28th April 2019, the Scottish Parliament declared a climate emergency, making Scotland the first country to do so. [21] This was quickly followed by the National Assembly for Wales on the 29th April [22] and then the Parliament of the United Kingdom for the UK as whole in 1st May.[23]

 

Subsequent developments

Pope Francis declared a climate emergency in June 2019.[24] The Pope also called for a "radical energy transition" away from fossil fuels towards renewable energy sources, and urged leaders to "hear the increasingly desperate cries of the earth and its poor."[24] He also argued against "the continued search for new fossil fuel reserves" and stated that "fossil fuels should remain underground."[24]

 

On 10 July 2019, networks representing more than 7,000 higher and further education institutions from six continents announced that they are declaring a Climate Emergency, and agreed to undertake a three-point plan to address the crisis through their work with students.[25] Some statements were criticized for not including specific measures.[26]

 

In June 2019, Councillor Trent McCarthy of the City of Darebin brought together councillors and parliamentarians in Australia and around the world for two online link-ups to connect the work of climate emergency-declared councils and governments. Following these link-ups and a successful motion at the National General Assembly of Local Government, McCarthy announced the formation of Climate Emergency Australia, a new network of Australian governments and councils advocating for a climate emergency response.

 

Representative Earl Blumenauer of Oregon believes the US government should declare a climate emergency.[27] Blumenauer's proposed legislation is supported by 2020 US Presidential candidate Bernie Sanders, as well as Congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez.[27]

 

In 2019, according to an eight-country poll, a majority of the public recognise the climate crisis as an “emergency” and say politicians are failing to tackle the problem, backing the interests of big oil over the wellbeing of ordinary people. The survey found that climate breakdown is viewed as the most important issue facing the world in seven out of the eight countries surveyed.[28]

 

In September 2013, the Australian Medical Association officially declared climate change a public health emergency.[29] The AMA noted that climate change will cause "higher mortality and morbidity from heat stress; injury and mortality from increasingly severe weather events; increases in the transmission of vector-borne diseases; food insecurity resulting from declines in agricultural outputs; [and] a higher incidence of mental-ill health."[29] The AMA has called on the Australian Government to adopt a carbon budget; reduce emissions; and transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy, among other proposals to mitigate the health impacts of climate change.[29]

 

The Australian Greens Party is calling on the federal Parliament to declare a climate emergency. Greens MP for Melbourne, Adam Bandt, welcomed the UK Parliament's declaration of a climate emergency and argued that Australia should follow their lead.[30] In October 2019, an official e-petition to the Australian Parliament calling for the declaration of a climate emergency, received more than 400,000 signatories (.[31][32][33] This is the single most popular online Parliamentary petition in Australia.[33] Former federal Liberal Party leader John Hewson has publicly urged for a conscience vote in the Parliament on the climate emergency, despite the Liberal Party's current position on climate change.[34] He also stated that "it was an emergency 30 years ago".[34]

 

In October 2019, the Australian Labor Party supported the Greens Party's policy to declare a climate emergency, however the proposition failed with the rejection of the Morrison Government.[35] The motion was supported by independent members Zali Steggall, Helen Haines and Andrew Wilkie, as well as Centre Alliance.[34]

 

On 5 November 2019 the journal BioScience published an article endorsed by further 11,000 scientists from 153 nations, that states Climate Emergency (“We declare clearly and unequivocally that planet Earth is facing a climate emergency”) and that the world's people face “untold suffering due to the climate crisis” unless there are major transformations to global society.[36][36]

 

In November 2019 the Oxford Dictionaries made the term climate emergency Word of the Year.

 

On 14-15 February 2020 the first National Climate Emergency Summit was held at the city hall in Melbourne, Australia. It was a sold out event with 2,000 attendees and 100 speakers.[37][38]

 

Recent development

 

Beginning in early 2019, Google trends data shows a growth in "climate emergency" searches (shown in red), concurrently with growth in searches for "climate crisis" (shown in blue).

Development in the EU

On 28 November 2019, the European Parliament declared a climate emergency.[39][40] The EU represents 27 member states.

 

Germany

The state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) started a campaign on 10 March 2019 called "NRW erklärt den Klimanotstand" (North-Rhine-Westphalia declares a climate emergency), where they urged local communities to do so. The first community to declare a climate emergency was Konstanz in Baden-Wurttemberg, on 2 May 2019.

 

The government of NRW called the declaration of a climate emergency a "symbolic measure", which does not give any "special rights" to the declaring community.

 

List of countries and dependencies

Parliamentary or Government declaration

Scotland (28 April 2019)[41]

Wales (29 April 2019)[42]

United Kingdom (1 May 2019 - Parliament)[43]

Jersey (2 May 2019)[44]

Republic of Ireland (9 May 2019)[45]

Isle of Man (10 May 2019 – Government, 18 June 2019 – Parliament)[46]

Portugal (7 June 2019)[47][48]

Holy See (June 2019)[24]

Canada (17 June 2019)[49][50]

France (27 June 2019)[51]

Argentina (17 July 2019)[52][53]

Spain (17 September 2019 – Parlament, 21 January 2020 – Government)[54][55][56]

Austria (25 September 2019)[57]

Malta (22 October 2019)[58]

Bangladesh (13 November 2019)[59]

Andorra (23 January 2020)[60]

Maldives (12 February 2020)[61]

European Union member states

Austria (28 November 2019)[39]

Belgium (28 November 2019)[39]

Bulgaria (28 November 2019)[39]

Croatia (28 November 2019)[39]

Cyprus (28 November 2019)[39]

Czech Republic (28 November 2019)[39]

Denmark (28 November 2019)[39]

Estonia (28 November 2019)[39]

Finland (28 November 2019)[39]

France (28 November 2019)[39]

Germany (28 November 2019)[39]

Greece (28 November 2019)[39]

Hungary (28 November 2019)[39]

Ireland (28 November 2019)[39]

Italy (28 November 2019)[39]

Latvia (28 November 2019)[39]

Lithuania (28 November 2019)[39]

Luxembourg (28 November 2019)[39]

Malta (28 November 2019)[39]

Netherlands (28 November 2019)[39]

Poland (28 November 2019)[39]

Portugal (28 November 2019)[39]

Romania (28 November 2019)[39]

Slovakia (28 November 2019)[39]

Slovenia (28 November 2019)[39]

Spain (28 November 2019)[39]

Sweden (28 November 2019)[39]

United Kingdom (28 November 2019)[39]

 

States and local administrations

Ambox current red.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2019)

In Australia: Most notably South Australia (September 2019), [62] Darebin (5 December 2016),[15][16] Melbourne (June 2019),[63] Sydney (June 2019),[64] Adelaide (August 2019),[65] and more than 17 towns (30 April 2019).[66][67]

In the United States: at least 29 towns,[68][citation needed] most notably New York City (26 June 2019),[69] Hayward (15 January 2019), San Francisco and Chico (2 April 2019).[70]

In Canada: 384 towns (May 2019).[71]

In France: Mulhouse (9 May 2019)[71] and Paris.[72]

In Spain: Catalonia region (7 May 2019),[73] Euskadi region,[74] Canary Islands region[75], Balearic Islands region[76] and the cities of San Cristóbal de La Laguna,[77] Seville,[78] Castro Urdiales,[79] Zaragoza, Salobreña, Lanzarote, El Rosario, Puerto de la Cruz,[80] Sagunto,[81] Zamora[82], Madrid.[83] and Barcelona.[84]

In Italy: 28 towns, among others the town of Acri (29 April 2019),[85] the town of Milano,[86] the Metropolitan City of Naples (May 2019)[87] and the town of Lucca.[88][89]

In Switzerland: the cantons of Basel-Stadt, Jura and Vaud and the cities of Liestal, Olten and Delemont.[71]

In Germany: 68 towns, among others Konstanz, Heidelberg, Kiel, Münster, Erlangen, Bochum, Aachen, Saarbrücken, Wiesbaden, Leverkusen, Marburg, Düsseldorf, Bonn, Cologne, Karlsruhe, Potsdam, Berlin, Leipzig and Munich.[90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99][100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108]

In New Zealand: Canterbury region,[109] and the city of Nelson (16 May 2019);[110] Auckland (11 June 2019);[111] Wellington (20 June 2019).[112]

In Netherlands: the city of Amsterdam.[113]

In Austria: the towns and municipalities Michaelerberg-Pruggern (13 June 2019),[114] Perchtoldsdorf (18 June 2019),[115] Traiskirchen (24 June 2019),[116] Steyregg (4 July 2019)[117] and the state Vorarlberg (4 July 2019).[118]

In Czechia: the 6th District of Prague (13 June 2019).[119] the 7th District of Prague (22 May 2019).[120]

In Philippines: the town of Bacolod.[121]

In Poland: the cities of Warsaw[122] and Kraków.[123]

In Slovakia: the city of Zlaté Moravce (18 September 2019).[124]

In Belgium: the city of Brussels (23 September 2019).[125]

In Japan: the prefecture of Nagano (December 2019),[126] the cities of Iki[127][128] and Kamakura.[129]

In Chile: the city of Hualpén.[130]

In Hungary: the city of Budapest[131]

In Brazil the city of Recife.[132]

In South Korea the South Chungcheong Province[133]

See also

Climate change in New York City

Climate crisis

World Scientists' Warning to Humanity

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Santa Fe 2912 on display in Pueblo, Colorado. At the time I took this picture, this engine had been recently repainted.

 

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Reading 2124 on display at the Steamtown National Historic Site in Scranton, Pennsylvania.

 

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Union Pacific 4017 on display in Green Bay, Wisconsin. For a video of all eight surviving Union Pacific Big Boys:

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q_BBp8Omzow

 

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Santa Fe 5030 on display in Salvador Perez park in Santa Fe, New Mexico. This is one of the most powerful 2-10-4 steam engines in the world.

 

For a black and white photo:

 

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The Santa Fe 3450 on display in Pomona, California. For a video of this engine's whistle:

 

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Santa Fe 5000 on display in Amarillo, Texas. This is a 2-10-4 Texas type, and some restoration work has been done.

 

For a versus video comparing this engine with Texas and Pacific 610:

 

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SP 4449 with the Holiday express 2016.

 

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Santa Fe 2912 on display in Pueblo, Colorado. At the time I took this picture, this engine had been recently repainted.

 

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The Santa Fe 5017 on display Green Bay, Wisconsin. This is a 2-10-4 Texas type.

 

For a versus video comparing the Santa Fe 5000 with Texas and Pacific 610:

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=2IVOcUW7ELk

 

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The Cotton Belt SSW 819 on display in Pine Bluff, Arkansas. Visit my youtube channel:

 

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This book is a cheat!

It contains a fraudulent description of spanish society using real data from Google Trends.

---

Análisis social absolutamente manipulado a partir de datos reales que ofrece Google Trends.

The final stages of the Norfolk and Western 4-8-4 Class J 611 restoration project. For a Part 1 video of this restoration:

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=axInJiZWES8

 

At the end of each video there is a link to the next part (Part 2, Part 3)

 

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Union Pacific Gas Turbine 26 on display in Ogden, Utah. The Union Pacific 4-8-4 833 is barely visible just behind this one.

 

For a video:

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=_m2DD5D9FI0

 

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www.flickr.com/photos/33031095@N03/32296679806/

 

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UP 4023 on display in Omaha, Nebraska. For a video of all eight surviving Union Pacific Big Boys:

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=Q_BBp8Omzow

 

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Santa Fe 5030 on display in Salvador Perez park in Santa Fe, New Mexico. This is one of the most powerful 2-10-4 steam engines in the world.

 

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Climate Emergency

 

A climate emergency declaration or declaring a climate emergency is an action taken by governments and scientists[1] to acknowledge humanity is in a climate emergency. The first such declaration was made in December 2016.[2] Since then over 1,400 local governments in 28 countries have made climate emergency declarations (as of 23 February 2020). [3]

 

Once a government makes a declaration the next step for the declaring government to set priorities to mitigate climate change, prior to ultimately entering a state of emergency or equivalent.[4]

 

In declaring a climate emergency, a government admits that global warming exists and that the measures taken up to this point are not enough to limit the changes brought by it. The decision stresses the need for the government and administration to devise measures that try and stop human-caused global warming.

 

The declarations can be made on different levels, for example at a national or local government level, and they can differ in depth and detail in their guidelines. The term climate emergency does not only describe formal decisions, but also includes actions to avert climate breakdown. This is supposed to justify and focus them. The specific term "emergency" is used to assign priority to the topic, and to generate a mindset of urgency.

 

The term “climate emergency” has been promoted by climate activists and pro-climate action politicians to add a sense of urgency for responding to a long-term problem.[7]

 

Term

Climate emergency as a term was used in protests against climate change before 2010 (e.g. the "Climate-Emergency-Rally" in Melbourne in June 2009[8]). In 2017 the city council of Darebin adopted multiple measures named "Darebin Climate Emergency Plan". On December 4th, 2018, the Club of Rome presented their "Climate Emergency Plan", which included 10 high-priority measures to limit global warming[9]. With the rise of movements like Extinction Rebellion[10] and Fridays For Future the concern has been picked up by various governments.

 

Multiple European cities and communities who declared a climate emergency are simultaneously members of the Klima-Bündnis (German for climate alliance), which obligates them to lower their CO2 emissions by 10% every five years.

 

Oxford Dictionary chose climate emergency as the word of the year 2019 and defines the term as "a situation in which urgent action is required to reduce or halt climate change and avoid potentially irreversible environmental damage resulting from it." Usage of the term soared more than 10,000% between September 2018 and September 2019.[11]

 

History

 

Australian climate activists demand the declaration of a climate emergency on 13 June 2009 at the "Climate Emergency Rally" during the annual Earth day in Melbourne, Australia

 

"Climate Emergency" declared on a banner on 22 April 2017 at the annual March for Science in Melbourne, Australia

Early stages

Encouraged by the campaigners behind a Climate Emergency Declaration petition, which had been launched in Australia in May 2026, the first governmental declaration of a climate emergency in the world was put forward by Trent McCarthy, an Australian Greens Councillor at the City of Darebin in Melbourne, Australia. The city declared a climate emergency on 5 December 2016.[12][13][14] In August 2017, Darebin decided upon a catalogue of actions in a "Darebin Climate Emergency Plan".[15][16] Darebin's declaration was followed by Hoboken in New Jersey and Berkeley, California.[13][14]

 

Hearing of these developments in 2018, UK Green Party politician Carla Denyer, then a member of Bristol City Council, took the lead role in bringing about Bristol City Council's declaration of a climate emergency.[17] This was the first such declaration by in Europe, and has been widely credited as a breakthrough moment for cities and national parliaments beginning to declare climate emergency.[18][19][13][14] Denyer's motion was described in the UK newspaper The Independent as 'the historic first motion' which by July 2019 had been 'copied by more than 400 local authorities and parliaments'.[20]

  

"Climate angel" with a poster "This is an emergency" at the "Extinction Rebellion" protests on 22 March 2019 in Melbourne, Australia

 

Demanding a "Klimanotstand" (English: Climate Emergency) at Helvetiaplatz [de] in Bern, Switzerland on 24 May 2019

On 28th April 2019, the Scottish Parliament declared a climate emergency, making Scotland the first country to do so. [21] This was quickly followed by the National Assembly for Wales on the 29th April [22] and then the Parliament of the United Kingdom for the UK as whole in 1st May.[23]

 

Subsequent developments

Pope Francis declared a climate emergency in June 2019.[24] The Pope also called for a "radical energy transition" away from fossil fuels towards renewable energy sources, and urged leaders to "hear the increasingly desperate cries of the earth and its poor."[24] He also argued against "the continued search for new fossil fuel reserves" and stated that "fossil fuels should remain underground."[24]

 

On 10 July 2019, networks representing more than 7,000 higher and further education institutions from six continents announced that they are declaring a Climate Emergency, and agreed to undertake a three-point plan to address the crisis through their work with students.[25] Some statements were criticized for not including specific measures.[26]

 

In June 2019, Councillor Trent McCarthy of the City of Darebin brought together councillors and parliamentarians in Australia and around the world for two online link-ups to connect the work of climate emergency-declared councils and governments. Following these link-ups and a successful motion at the National General Assembly of Local Government, McCarthy announced the formation of Climate Emergency Australia, a new network of Australian governments and councils advocating for a climate emergency response.

 

Representative Earl Blumenauer of Oregon believes the US government should declare a climate emergency.[27] Blumenauer's proposed legislation is supported by 2020 US Presidential candidate Bernie Sanders, as well as Congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez.[27]

 

In 2019, according to an eight-country poll, a majority of the public recognise the climate crisis as an “emergency” and say politicians are failing to tackle the problem, backing the interests of big oil over the wellbeing of ordinary people. The survey found that climate breakdown is viewed as the most important issue facing the world in seven out of the eight countries surveyed.[28]

 

In September 2013, the Australian Medical Association officially declared climate change a public health emergency.[29] The AMA noted that climate change will cause "higher mortality and morbidity from heat stress; injury and mortality from increasingly severe weather events; increases in the transmission of vector-borne diseases; food insecurity resulting from declines in agricultural outputs; [and] a higher incidence of mental-ill health."[29] The AMA has called on the Australian Government to adopt a carbon budget; reduce emissions; and transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy, among other proposals to mitigate the health impacts of climate change.[29]

 

The Australian Greens Party is calling on the federal Parliament to declare a climate emergency. Greens MP for Melbourne, Adam Bandt, welcomed the UK Parliament's declaration of a climate emergency and argued that Australia should follow their lead.[30] In October 2019, an official e-petition to the Australian Parliament calling for the declaration of a climate emergency, received more than 400,000 signatories (.[31][32][33] This is the single most popular online Parliamentary petition in Australia.[33] Former federal Liberal Party leader John Hewson has publicly urged for a conscience vote in the Parliament on the climate emergency, despite the Liberal Party's current position on climate change.[34] He also stated that "it was an emergency 30 years ago".[34]

 

In October 2019, the Australian Labor Party supported the Greens Party's policy to declare a climate emergency, however the proposition failed with the rejection of the Morrison Government.[35] The motion was supported by independent members Zali Steggall, Helen Haines and Andrew Wilkie, as well as Centre Alliance.[34]

 

On 5 November 2019 the journal BioScience published an article endorsed by further 11,000 scientists from 153 nations, that states Climate Emergency (“We declare clearly and unequivocally that planet Earth is facing a climate emergency”) and that the world's people face “untold suffering due to the climate crisis” unless there are major transformations to global society.[36][36]

 

In November 2019 the Oxford Dictionaries made the term climate emergency Word of the Year.

 

On 14-15 February 2020 the first National Climate Emergency Summit was held at the city hall in Melbourne, Australia. It was a sold out event with 2,000 attendees and 100 speakers.[37][38]

 

Recent development

 

Beginning in early 2019, Google trends data shows a growth in "climate emergency" searches (shown in red), concurrently with growth in searches for "climate crisis" (shown in blue).

Development in the EU

On 28 November 2019, the European Parliament declared a climate emergency.[39][40] The EU represents 27 member states.

 

Germany

The state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) started a campaign on 10 March 2019 called "NRW erklärt den Klimanotstand" (North-Rhine-Westphalia declares a climate emergency), where they urged local communities to do so. The first community to declare a climate emergency was Konstanz in Baden-Wurttemberg, on 2 May 2019.

 

The government of NRW called the declaration of a climate emergency a "symbolic measure", which does not give any "special rights" to the declaring community.

 

List of countries and dependencies

Parliamentary or Government declaration

Scotland (28 April 2019)[41]

Wales (29 April 2019)[42]

United Kingdom (1 May 2019 - Parliament)[43]

Jersey (2 May 2019)[44]

Republic of Ireland (9 May 2019)[45]

Isle of Man (10 May 2019 – Government, 18 June 2019 – Parliament)[46]

Portugal (7 June 2019)[47][48]

Holy See (June 2019)[24]

Canada (17 June 2019)[49][50]

France (27 June 2019)[51]

Argentina (17 July 2019)[52][53]

Spain (17 September 2019 – Parlament, 21 January 2020 – Government)[54][55][56]

Austria (25 September 2019)[57]

Malta (22 October 2019)[58]

Bangladesh (13 November 2019)[59]

Andorra (23 January 2020)[60]

Maldives (12 February 2020)[61]

European Union member states

Austria (28 November 2019)[39]

Belgium (28 November 2019)[39]

Bulgaria (28 November 2019)[39]

Croatia (28 November 2019)[39]

Cyprus (28 November 2019)[39]

Czech Republic (28 November 2019)[39]

Denmark (28 November 2019)[39]

Estonia (28 November 2019)[39]

Finland (28 November 2019)[39]

France (28 November 2019)[39]

Germany (28 November 2019)[39]

Greece (28 November 2019)[39]

Hungary (28 November 2019)[39]

Ireland (28 November 2019)[39]

Italy (28 November 2019)[39]

Latvia (28 November 2019)[39]

Lithuania (28 November 2019)[39]

Luxembourg (28 November 2019)[39]

Malta (28 November 2019)[39]

Netherlands (28 November 2019)[39]

Poland (28 November 2019)[39]

Portugal (28 November 2019)[39]

Romania (28 November 2019)[39]

Slovakia (28 November 2019)[39]

Slovenia (28 November 2019)[39]

Spain (28 November 2019)[39]

Sweden (28 November 2019)[39]

United Kingdom (28 November 2019)[39]

 

States and local administrations

Ambox current red.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2019)

In Australia: Most notably South Australia (September 2019), [62] Darebin (5 December 2016),[15][16] Melbourne (June 2019),[63] Sydney (June 2019),[64] Adelaide (August 2019),[65] and more than 17 towns (30 April 2019).[66][67]

In the United States: at least 29 towns,[68][citation needed] most notably New York City (26 June 2019),[69] Hayward (15 January 2019), San Francisco and Chico (2 April 2019).[70]

In Canada: 384 towns (May 2019).[71]

In France: Mulhouse (9 May 2019)[71] and Paris.[72]

In Spain: Catalonia region (7 May 2019),[73] Euskadi region,[74] Canary Islands region[75], Balearic Islands region[76] and the cities of San Cristóbal de La Laguna,[77] Seville,[78] Castro Urdiales,[79] Zaragoza, Salobreña, Lanzarote, El Rosario, Puerto de la Cruz,[80] Sagunto,[81] Zamora[82], Madrid.[83] and Barcelona.[84]

In Italy: 28 towns, among others the town of Acri (29 April 2019),[85] the town of Milano,[86] the Metropolitan City of Naples (May 2019)[87] and the town of Lucca.[88][89]

In Switzerland: the cantons of Basel-Stadt, Jura and Vaud and the cities of Liestal, Olten and Delemont.[71]

In Germany: 68 towns, among others Konstanz, Heidelberg, Kiel, Münster, Erlangen, Bochum, Aachen, Saarbrücken, Wiesbaden, Leverkusen, Marburg, Düsseldorf, Bonn, Cologne, Karlsruhe, Potsdam, Berlin, Leipzig and Munich.[90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99][100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108]

In New Zealand: Canterbury region,[109] and the city of Nelson (16 May 2019);[110] Auckland (11 June 2019);[111] Wellington (20 June 2019).[112]

In Netherlands: the city of Amsterdam.[113]

In Austria: the towns and municipalities Michaelerberg-Pruggern (13 June 2019),[114] Perchtoldsdorf (18 June 2019),[115] Traiskirchen (24 June 2019),[116] Steyregg (4 July 2019)[117] and the state Vorarlberg (4 July 2019).[118]

In Czechia: the 6th District of Prague (13 June 2019).[119] the 7th District of Prague (22 May 2019).[120]

In Philippines: the town of Bacolod.[121]

In Poland: the cities of Warsaw[122] and Kraków.[123]

In Slovakia: the city of Zlaté Moravce (18 September 2019).[124]

In Belgium: the city of Brussels (23 September 2019).[125]

In Japan: the prefecture of Nagano (December 2019),[126] the cities of Iki[127][128] and Kamakura.[129]

In Chile: the city of Hualpén.[130]

In Hungary: the city of Budapest[131]

In Brazil the city of Recife.[132]

In South Korea the South Chungcheong Province[133]

See also

Climate change in New York City

Climate crisis

World Scientists' Warning to Humanity

What is Climate Change and Global Warming and How Does it Affect Us:

 

www.joboneforhumanity.org/global_warming?gclid=CjwKCAjw8J...

 

Climate Emergency

 

A climate emergency declaration or declaring a climate emergency is an action taken by governments and scientists[1] to acknowledge humanity is in a climate emergency. The first such declaration was made in December 2016.[2] Since then over 1,400 local governments in 28 countries have made climate emergency declarations (as of 23 February 2020). [3]

 

Once a government makes a declaration the next step for the declaring government to set priorities to mitigate climate change, prior to ultimately entering a state of emergency or equivalent.[4]

 

In declaring a climate emergency, a government admits that global warming exists and that the measures taken up to this point are not enough to limit the changes brought by it. The decision stresses the need for the government and administration to devise measures that try and stop human-caused global warming.

 

The declarations can be made on different levels, for example at a national or local government level, and they can differ in depth and detail in their guidelines. The term climate emergency does not only describe formal decisions, but also includes actions to avert climate breakdown. This is supposed to justify and focus them. The specific term "emergency" is used to assign priority to the topic, and to generate a mindset of urgency.

 

The term “climate emergency” has been promoted by climate activists and pro-climate action politicians to add a sense of urgency for responding to a long-term problem.[7]

 

Term

Climate emergency as a term was used in protests against climate change before 2010 (e.g. the "Climate-Emergency-Rally" in Melbourne in June 2009[8]). In 2017 the city council of Darebin adopted multiple measures named "Darebin Climate Emergency Plan". On December 4th, 2018, the Club of Rome presented their "Climate Emergency Plan", which included 10 high-priority measures to limit global warming[9]. With the rise of movements like Extinction Rebellion[10] and Fridays For Future the concern has been picked up by various governments.

 

Multiple European cities and communities who declared a climate emergency are simultaneously members of the Klima-Bündnis (German for climate alliance), which obligates them to lower their CO2 emissions by 10% every five years.

 

Oxford Dictionary chose climate emergency as the word of the year 2019 and defines the term as "a situation in which urgent action is required to reduce or halt climate change and avoid potentially irreversible environmental damage resulting from it." Usage of the term soared more than 10,000% between September 2018 and September 2019.[11]

 

History

 

Australian climate activists demand the declaration of a climate emergency on 13 June 2009 at the "Climate Emergency Rally" during the annual Earth day in Melbourne, Australia

 

"Climate Emergency" declared on a banner on 22 April 2017 at the annual March for Science in Melbourne, Australia

Early stages

Encouraged by the campaigners behind a Climate Emergency Declaration petition, which had been launched in Australia in May 2026, the first governmental declaration of a climate emergency in the world was put forward by Trent McCarthy, an Australian Greens Councillor at the City of Darebin in Melbourne, Australia. The city declared a climate emergency on 5 December 2016.[12][13][14] In August 2017, Darebin decided upon a catalogue of actions in a "Darebin Climate Emergency Plan".[15][16] Darebin's declaration was followed by Hoboken in New Jersey and Berkeley, California.[13][14]

 

Hearing of these developments in 2018, UK Green Party politician Carla Denyer, then a member of Bristol City Council, took the lead role in bringing about Bristol City Council's declaration of a climate emergency.[17] This was the first such declaration by in Europe, and has been widely credited as a breakthrough moment for cities and national parliaments beginning to declare climate emergency.[18][19][13][14] Denyer's motion was described in the UK newspaper The Independent as 'the historic first motion' which by July 2019 had been 'copied by more than 400 local authorities and parliaments'.[20]

  

"Climate angel" with a poster "This is an emergency" at the "Extinction Rebellion" protests on 22 March 2019 in Melbourne, Australia

 

Demanding a "Klimanotstand" (English: Climate Emergency) at Helvetiaplatz [de] in Bern, Switzerland on 24 May 2019

On 28th April 2019, the Scottish Parliament declared a climate emergency, making Scotland the first country to do so. [21] This was quickly followed by the National Assembly for Wales on the 29th April [22] and then the Parliament of the United Kingdom for the UK as whole in 1st May.[23]

 

Subsequent developments

Pope Francis declared a climate emergency in June 2019.[24] The Pope also called for a "radical energy transition" away from fossil fuels towards renewable energy sources, and urged leaders to "hear the increasingly desperate cries of the earth and its poor."[24] He also argued against "the continued search for new fossil fuel reserves" and stated that "fossil fuels should remain underground."[24]

 

On 10 July 2019, networks representing more than 7,000 higher and further education institutions from six continents announced that they are declaring a Climate Emergency, and agreed to undertake a three-point plan to address the crisis through their work with students.[25] Some statements were criticized for not including specific measures.[26]

 

In June 2019, Councillor Trent McCarthy of the City of Darebin brought together councillors and parliamentarians in Australia and around the world for two online link-ups to connect the work of climate emergency-declared councils and governments. Following these link-ups and a successful motion at the National General Assembly of Local Government, McCarthy announced the formation of Climate Emergency Australia, a new network of Australian governments and councils advocating for a climate emergency response.

 

Representative Earl Blumenauer of Oregon believes the US government should declare a climate emergency.[27] Blumenauer's proposed legislation is supported by 2020 US Presidential candidate Bernie Sanders, as well as Congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez.[27]

 

In 2019, according to an eight-country poll, a majority of the public recognise the climate crisis as an “emergency” and say politicians are failing to tackle the problem, backing the interests of big oil over the wellbeing of ordinary people. The survey found that climate breakdown is viewed as the most important issue facing the world in seven out of the eight countries surveyed.[28]

 

In September 2013, the Australian Medical Association officially declared climate change a public health emergency.[29] The AMA noted that climate change will cause "higher mortality and morbidity from heat stress; injury and mortality from increasingly severe weather events; increases in the transmission of vector-borne diseases; food insecurity resulting from declines in agricultural outputs; [and] a higher incidence of mental-ill health."[29] The AMA has called on the Australian Government to adopt a carbon budget; reduce emissions; and transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy, among other proposals to mitigate the health impacts of climate change.[29]

 

The Australian Greens Party is calling on the federal Parliament to declare a climate emergency. Greens MP for Melbourne, Adam Bandt, welcomed the UK Parliament's declaration of a climate emergency and argued that Australia should follow their lead.[30] In October 2019, an official e-petition to the Australian Parliament calling for the declaration of a climate emergency, received more than 400,000 signatories (.[31][32][33] This is the single most popular online Parliamentary petition in Australia.[33] Former federal Liberal Party leader John Hewson has publicly urged for a conscience vote in the Parliament on the climate emergency, despite the Liberal Party's current position on climate change.[34] He also stated that "it was an emergency 30 years ago".[34]

 

In October 2019, the Australian Labor Party supported the Greens Party's policy to declare a climate emergency, however the proposition failed with the rejection of the Morrison Government.[35] The motion was supported by independent members Zali Steggall, Helen Haines and Andrew Wilkie, as well as Centre Alliance.[34]

 

On 5 November 2019 the journal BioScience published an article endorsed by further 11,000 scientists from 153 nations, that states Climate Emergency (“We declare clearly and unequivocally that planet Earth is facing a climate emergency”) and that the world's people face “untold suffering due to the climate crisis” unless there are major transformations to global society.[36][36]

 

In November 2019 the Oxford Dictionaries made the term climate emergency Word of the Year.

 

On 14-15 February 2020 the first National Climate Emergency Summit was held at the city hall in Melbourne, Australia. It was a sold out event with 2,000 attendees and 100 speakers.[37][38]

 

Recent development

 

Beginning in early 2019, Google trends data shows a growth in "climate emergency" searches (shown in red), concurrently with growth in searches for "climate crisis" (shown in blue).

Development in the EU

On 28 November 2019, the European Parliament declared a climate emergency.[39][40] The EU represents 27 member states.

 

Germany

The state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) started a campaign on 10 March 2019 called "NRW erklärt den Klimanotstand" (North-Rhine-Westphalia declares a climate emergency), where they urged local communities to do so. The first community to declare a climate emergency was Konstanz in Baden-Wurttemberg, on 2 May 2019.

 

The government of NRW called the declaration of a climate emergency a "symbolic measure", which does not give any "special rights" to the declaring community.

 

List of countries and dependencies

Parliamentary or Government declaration

Scotland (28 April 2019)[41]

Wales (29 April 2019)[42]

United Kingdom (1 May 2019 - Parliament)[43]

Jersey (2 May 2019)[44]

Republic of Ireland (9 May 2019)[45]

Isle of Man (10 May 2019 – Government, 18 June 2019 – Parliament)[46]

Portugal (7 June 2019)[47][48]

Holy See (June 2019)[24]

Canada (17 June 2019)[49][50]

France (27 June 2019)[51]

Argentina (17 July 2019)[52][53]

Spain (17 September 2019 – Parlament, 21 January 2020 – Government)[54][55][56]

Austria (25 September 2019)[57]

Malta (22 October 2019)[58]

Bangladesh (13 November 2019)[59]

Andorra (23 January 2020)[60]

Maldives (12 February 2020)[61]

European Union member states

Austria (28 November 2019)[39]

Belgium (28 November 2019)[39]

Bulgaria (28 November 2019)[39]

Croatia (28 November 2019)[39]

Cyprus (28 November 2019)[39]

Czech Republic (28 November 2019)[39]

Denmark (28 November 2019)[39]

Estonia (28 November 2019)[39]

Finland (28 November 2019)[39]

France (28 November 2019)[39]

Germany (28 November 2019)[39]

Greece (28 November 2019)[39]

Hungary (28 November 2019)[39]

Ireland (28 November 2019)[39]

Italy (28 November 2019)[39]

Latvia (28 November 2019)[39]

Lithuania (28 November 2019)[39]

Luxembourg (28 November 2019)[39]

Malta (28 November 2019)[39]

Netherlands (28 November 2019)[39]

Poland (28 November 2019)[39]

Portugal (28 November 2019)[39]

Romania (28 November 2019)[39]

Slovakia (28 November 2019)[39]

Slovenia (28 November 2019)[39]

Spain (28 November 2019)[39]

Sweden (28 November 2019)[39]

United Kingdom (28 November 2019)[39]

 

States and local administrations

Ambox current red.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2019)

In Australia: Most notably South Australia (September 2019), [62] Darebin (5 December 2016),[15][16] Melbourne (June 2019),[63] Sydney (June 2019),[64] Adelaide (August 2019),[65] and more than 17 towns (30 April 2019).[66][67]

In the United States: at least 29 towns,[68][citation needed] most notably New York City (26 June 2019),[69] Hayward (15 January 2019), San Francisco and Chico (2 April 2019).[70]

In Canada: 384 towns (May 2019).[71]

In France: Mulhouse (9 May 2019)[71] and Paris.[72]

In Spain: Catalonia region (7 May 2019),[73] Euskadi region,[74] Canary Islands region[75], Balearic Islands region[76] and the cities of San Cristóbal de La Laguna,[77] Seville,[78] Castro Urdiales,[79] Zaragoza, Salobreña, Lanzarote, El Rosario, Puerto de la Cruz,[80] Sagunto,[81] Zamora[82], Madrid.[83] and Barcelona.[84]

In Italy: 28 towns, among others the town of Acri (29 April 2019),[85] the town of Milano,[86] the Metropolitan City of Naples (May 2019)[87] and the town of Lucca.[88][89]

In Switzerland: the cantons of Basel-Stadt, Jura and Vaud and the cities of Liestal, Olten and Delemont.[71]

In Germany: 68 towns, among others Konstanz, Heidelberg, Kiel, Münster, Erlangen, Bochum, Aachen, Saarbrücken, Wiesbaden, Leverkusen, Marburg, Düsseldorf, Bonn, Cologne, Karlsruhe, Potsdam, Berlin, Leipzig and Munich.[90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99][100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108]

In New Zealand: Canterbury region,[109] and the city of Nelson (16 May 2019);[110] Auckland (11 June 2019);[111] Wellington (20 June 2019).[112]

In Netherlands: the city of Amsterdam.[113]

In Austria: the towns and municipalities Michaelerberg-Pruggern (13 June 2019),[114] Perchtoldsdorf (18 June 2019),[115] Traiskirchen (24 June 2019),[116] Steyregg (4 July 2019)[117] and the state Vorarlberg (4 July 2019).[118]

In Czechia: the 6th District of Prague (13 June 2019).[119] the 7th District of Prague (22 May 2019).[120]

In Philippines: the town of Bacolod.[121]

In Poland: the cities of Warsaw[122] and Kraków.[123]

In Slovakia: the city of Zlaté Moravce (18 September 2019).[124]

In Belgium: the city of Brussels (23 September 2019).[125]

In Japan: the prefecture of Nagano (December 2019),[126] the cities of Iki[127][128] and Kamakura.[129]

In Chile: the city of Hualpén.[130]

In Hungary: the city of Budapest[131]

In Brazil the city of Recife.[132]

In South Korea the South Chungcheong Province[133]

See also

Climate change in New York City

Climate crisis

World Scientists' Warning to Humanity

What is Climate Change and Global Warming and How Does it Affect Us:

 

www.joboneforhumanity.org/global_warming?gclid=CjwKCAjw8J...

 

Climate Emergency

 

A climate emergency declaration or declaring a climate emergency is an action taken by governments and scientists[1] to acknowledge humanity is in a climate emergency. The first such declaration was made in December 2016.[2] Since then over 1,400 local governments in 28 countries have made climate emergency declarations (as of 23 February 2020). [3]

 

Once a government makes a declaration the next step for the declaring government to set priorities to mitigate climate change, prior to ultimately entering a state of emergency or equivalent.[4]

 

In declaring a climate emergency, a government admits that global warming exists and that the measures taken up to this point are not enough to limit the changes brought by it. The decision stresses the need for the government and administration to devise measures that try and stop human-caused global warming.

 

The declarations can be made on different levels, for example at a national or local government level, and they can differ in depth and detail in their guidelines. The term climate emergency does not only describe formal decisions, but also includes actions to avert climate breakdown. This is supposed to justify and focus them. The specific term "emergency" is used to assign priority to the topic, and to generate a mindset of urgency.

 

The term “climate emergency” has been promoted by climate activists and pro-climate action politicians to add a sense of urgency for responding to a long-term problem.[7]

 

Term

Climate emergency as a term was used in protests against climate change before 2010 (e.g. the "Climate-Emergency-Rally" in Melbourne in June 2009[8]). In 2017 the city council of Darebin adopted multiple measures named "Darebin Climate Emergency Plan". On December 4th, 2018, the Club of Rome presented their "Climate Emergency Plan", which included 10 high-priority measures to limit global warming[9]. With the rise of movements like Extinction Rebellion[10] and Fridays For Future the concern has been picked up by various governments.

 

Multiple European cities and communities who declared a climate emergency are simultaneously members of the Klima-Bündnis (German for climate alliance), which obligates them to lower their CO2 emissions by 10% every five years.

 

Oxford Dictionary chose climate emergency as the word of the year 2019 and defines the term as "a situation in which urgent action is required to reduce or halt climate change and avoid potentially irreversible environmental damage resulting from it." Usage of the term soared more than 10,000% between September 2018 and September 2019.[11]

 

History

 

Australian climate activists demand the declaration of a climate emergency on 13 June 2009 at the "Climate Emergency Rally" during the annual Earth day in Melbourne, Australia

 

"Climate Emergency" declared on a banner on 22 April 2017 at the annual March for Science in Melbourne, Australia

Early stages

Encouraged by the campaigners behind a Climate Emergency Declaration petition, which had been launched in Australia in May 2026, the first governmental declaration of a climate emergency in the world was put forward by Trent McCarthy, an Australian Greens Councillor at the City of Darebin in Melbourne, Australia. The city declared a climate emergency on 5 December 2016.[12][13][14] In August 2017, Darebin decided upon a catalogue of actions in a "Darebin Climate Emergency Plan".[15][16] Darebin's declaration was followed by Hoboken in New Jersey and Berkeley, California.[13][14]

 

Hearing of these developments in 2018, UK Green Party politician Carla Denyer, then a member of Bristol City Council, took the lead role in bringing about Bristol City Council's declaration of a climate emergency.[17] This was the first such declaration by in Europe, and has been widely credited as a breakthrough moment for cities and national parliaments beginning to declare climate emergency.[18][19][13][14] Denyer's motion was described in the UK newspaper The Independent as 'the historic first motion' which by July 2019 had been 'copied by more than 400 local authorities and parliaments'.[20]

  

"Climate angel" with a poster "This is an emergency" at the "Extinction Rebellion" protests on 22 March 2019 in Melbourne, Australia

 

Demanding a "Klimanotstand" (English: Climate Emergency) at Helvetiaplatz [de] in Bern, Switzerland on 24 May 2019

On 28th April 2019, the Scottish Parliament declared a climate emergency, making Scotland the first country to do so. [21] This was quickly followed by the National Assembly for Wales on the 29th April [22] and then the Parliament of the United Kingdom for the UK as whole in 1st May.[23]

 

Subsequent developments

Pope Francis declared a climate emergency in June 2019.[24] The Pope also called for a "radical energy transition" away from fossil fuels towards renewable energy sources, and urged leaders to "hear the increasingly desperate cries of the earth and its poor."[24] He also argued against "the continued search for new fossil fuel reserves" and stated that "fossil fuels should remain underground."[24]

 

On 10 July 2019, networks representing more than 7,000 higher and further education institutions from six continents announced that they are declaring a Climate Emergency, and agreed to undertake a three-point plan to address the crisis through their work with students.[25] Some statements were criticized for not including specific measures.[26]

 

In June 2019, Councillor Trent McCarthy of the City of Darebin brought together councillors and parliamentarians in Australia and around the world for two online link-ups to connect the work of climate emergency-declared councils and governments. Following these link-ups and a successful motion at the National General Assembly of Local Government, McCarthy announced the formation of Climate Emergency Australia, a new network of Australian governments and councils advocating for a climate emergency response.

 

Representative Earl Blumenauer of Oregon believes the US government should declare a climate emergency.[27] Blumenauer's proposed legislation is supported by 2020 US Presidential candidate Bernie Sanders, as well as Congresswoman Alexandria Ocasio-Cortez.[27]

 

In 2019, according to an eight-country poll, a majority of the public recognise the climate crisis as an “emergency” and say politicians are failing to tackle the problem, backing the interests of big oil over the wellbeing of ordinary people. The survey found that climate breakdown is viewed as the most important issue facing the world in seven out of the eight countries surveyed.[28]

 

In September 2013, the Australian Medical Association officially declared climate change a public health emergency.[29] The AMA noted that climate change will cause "higher mortality and morbidity from heat stress; injury and mortality from increasingly severe weather events; increases in the transmission of vector-borne diseases; food insecurity resulting from declines in agricultural outputs; [and] a higher incidence of mental-ill health."[29] The AMA has called on the Australian Government to adopt a carbon budget; reduce emissions; and transition from fossil fuels to renewable energy, among other proposals to mitigate the health impacts of climate change.[29]

 

The Australian Greens Party is calling on the federal Parliament to declare a climate emergency. Greens MP for Melbourne, Adam Bandt, welcomed the UK Parliament's declaration of a climate emergency and argued that Australia should follow their lead.[30] In October 2019, an official e-petition to the Australian Parliament calling for the declaration of a climate emergency, received more than 400,000 signatories (.[31][32][33] This is the single most popular online Parliamentary petition in Australia.[33] Former federal Liberal Party leader John Hewson has publicly urged for a conscience vote in the Parliament on the climate emergency, despite the Liberal Party's current position on climate change.[34] He also stated that "it was an emergency 30 years ago".[34]

 

In October 2019, the Australian Labor Party supported the Greens Party's policy to declare a climate emergency, however the proposition failed with the rejection of the Morrison Government.[35] The motion was supported by independent members Zali Steggall, Helen Haines and Andrew Wilkie, as well as Centre Alliance.[34]

 

On 5 November 2019 the journal BioScience published an article endorsed by further 11,000 scientists from 153 nations, that states Climate Emergency (“We declare clearly and unequivocally that planet Earth is facing a climate emergency”) and that the world's people face “untold suffering due to the climate crisis” unless there are major transformations to global society.[36][36]

 

In November 2019 the Oxford Dictionaries made the term climate emergency Word of the Year.

 

On 14-15 February 2020 the first National Climate Emergency Summit was held at the city hall in Melbourne, Australia. It was a sold out event with 2,000 attendees and 100 speakers.[37][38]

 

Recent development

 

Beginning in early 2019, Google trends data shows a growth in "climate emergency" searches (shown in red), concurrently with growth in searches for "climate crisis" (shown in blue).

Development in the EU

On 28 November 2019, the European Parliament declared a climate emergency.[39][40] The EU represents 27 member states.

 

Germany

The state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) started a campaign on 10 March 2019 called "NRW erklärt den Klimanotstand" (North-Rhine-Westphalia declares a climate emergency), where they urged local communities to do so. The first community to declare a climate emergency was Konstanz in Baden-Wurttemberg, on 2 May 2019.

 

The government of NRW called the declaration of a climate emergency a "symbolic measure", which does not give any "special rights" to the declaring community.

 

List of countries and dependencies

Parliamentary or Government declaration

Scotland (28 April 2019)[41]

Wales (29 April 2019)[42]

United Kingdom (1 May 2019 - Parliament)[43]

Jersey (2 May 2019)[44]

Republic of Ireland (9 May 2019)[45]

Isle of Man (10 May 2019 – Government, 18 June 2019 – Parliament)[46]

Portugal (7 June 2019)[47][48]

Holy See (June 2019)[24]

Canada (17 June 2019)[49][50]

France (27 June 2019)[51]

Argentina (17 July 2019)[52][53]

Spain (17 September 2019 – Parlament, 21 January 2020 – Government)[54][55][56]

Austria (25 September 2019)[57]

Malta (22 October 2019)[58]

Bangladesh (13 November 2019)[59]

Andorra (23 January 2020)[60]

Maldives (12 February 2020)[61]

European Union member states

Austria (28 November 2019)[39]

Belgium (28 November 2019)[39]

Bulgaria (28 November 2019)[39]

Croatia (28 November 2019)[39]

Cyprus (28 November 2019)[39]

Czech Republic (28 November 2019)[39]

Denmark (28 November 2019)[39]

Estonia (28 November 2019)[39]

Finland (28 November 2019)[39]

France (28 November 2019)[39]

Germany (28 November 2019)[39]

Greece (28 November 2019)[39]

Hungary (28 November 2019)[39]

Ireland (28 November 2019)[39]

Italy (28 November 2019)[39]

Latvia (28 November 2019)[39]

Lithuania (28 November 2019)[39]

Luxembourg (28 November 2019)[39]

Malta (28 November 2019)[39]

Netherlands (28 November 2019)[39]

Poland (28 November 2019)[39]

Portugal (28 November 2019)[39]

Romania (28 November 2019)[39]

Slovakia (28 November 2019)[39]

Slovenia (28 November 2019)[39]

Spain (28 November 2019)[39]

Sweden (28 November 2019)[39]

United Kingdom (28 November 2019)[39]

 

States and local administrations

Ambox current red.svg

This section needs to be updated. Please update this article to reflect recent events or newly available information. (October 2019)

In Australia: Most notably South Australia (September 2019), [62] Darebin (5 December 2016),[15][16] Melbourne (June 2019),[63] Sydney (June 2019),[64] Adelaide (August 2019),[65] and more than 17 towns (30 April 2019).[66][67]

In the United States: at least 29 towns,[68][citation needed] most notably New York City (26 June 2019),[69] Hayward (15 January 2019), San Francisco and Chico (2 April 2019).[70]

In Canada: 384 towns (May 2019).[71]

In France: Mulhouse (9 May 2019)[71] and Paris.[72]

In Spain: Catalonia region (7 May 2019),[73] Euskadi region,[74] Canary Islands region[75], Balearic Islands region[76] and the cities of San Cristóbal de La Laguna,[77] Seville,[78] Castro Urdiales,[79] Zaragoza, Salobreña, Lanzarote, El Rosario, Puerto de la Cruz,[80] Sagunto,[81] Zamora[82], Madrid.[83] and Barcelona.[84]

In Italy: 28 towns, among others the town of Acri (29 April 2019),[85] the town of Milano,[86] the Metropolitan City of Naples (May 2019)[87] and the town of Lucca.[88][89]

In Switzerland: the cantons of Basel-Stadt, Jura and Vaud and the cities of Liestal, Olten and Delemont.[71]

In Germany: 68 towns, among others Konstanz, Heidelberg, Kiel, Münster, Erlangen, Bochum, Aachen, Saarbrücken, Wiesbaden, Leverkusen, Marburg, Düsseldorf, Bonn, Cologne, Karlsruhe, Potsdam, Berlin, Leipzig and Munich.[90][91][92][93][94][95][96][97][98][99][100][101][102][103][104][105][106][107][108]

In New Zealand: Canterbury region,[109] and the city of Nelson (16 May 2019);[110] Auckland (11 June 2019);[111] Wellington (20 June 2019).[112]

In Netherlands: the city of Amsterdam.[113]

In Austria: the towns and municipalities Michaelerberg-Pruggern (13 June 2019),[114] Perchtoldsdorf (18 June 2019),[115] Traiskirchen (24 June 2019),[116] Steyregg (4 July 2019)[117] and the state Vorarlberg (4 July 2019).[118]

In Czechia: the 6th District of Prague (13 June 2019).[119] the 7th District of Prague (22 May 2019).[120]

In Philippines: the town of Bacolod.[121]

In Poland: the cities of Warsaw[122] and Kraków.[123]

In Slovakia: the city of Zlaté Moravce (18 September 2019).[124]

In Belgium: the city of Brussels (23 September 2019).[125]

In Japan: the prefecture of Nagano (December 2019),[126] the cities of Iki[127][128] and Kamakura.[129]

In Chile: the city of Hualpén.[130]

In Hungary: the city of Budapest[131]

In Brazil the city of Recife.[132]

In South Korea the South Chungcheong Province[133]

See also

Climate change in New York City

Climate crisis

World Scientists' Warning to Humanity

.NET平台下Ajax框架搜索量趋势记录(中国)

Google trends screen with popularity of Ledja and Leđa (back, wroten on two different ways) words in Ex-Yu countries: Serbian, Croatian, Bosnian, Slovenian languages. What people search the most on Google. Data made for SEoptimizacija website so if you use photo, please link to SEoptimizacija.com

Aaron Hernandez Pictures & Photos Before Charged Murdered. He is in top searches of Google Trend.

Flickr Tagging - Top tips on the Best ways to Tag your Pictures to Maximise Views

Today, a blog on tagging through Flickr.

 

Tagging is an important part of getting your pictures seen and found. There are other sites that tell you why tagging is so important. Below, I've set out a few ways to super charge your tags.

 

75 is the magic number

 

Flickr allows seventy five tags per uploaded picture. Use them all and you will have a very powerful combination of words for any search engine to search for. Sounds obvious but very few users seem to max out their tags. Why not try it?

 

My picture tags tend to be found through a Flickr search, Google and Yahoo. These should be your main targets for speculative viewings.

  

Combine words in tags? pink pink yellow EXPLORE

 

Is it better to have a tag saying "pink flower" or separately pink and flower. The short answer, in my opinion, is use both methods for you keywords. Separating the words means if someone just searches for pink or flower, they may find your shot. This is much more likely than a combined search. If someone does do a combined search, you've covered that one off too. On top of this, when Google spiders your site it will find multiple occurrences of your key words, which is good news for your page ranking.

 

An excellent study on the science behind this can be found here.

 

Mega title

 

Google puts heavy emphasis on words in the title and so does Flickr when searching for keywords. Make sure you pick the words in the title wisely - what will most drive people to your picture.

 

The shot below regularly gets visits - months after I first posted it. Why?

 

Hairy balls

 

Its titled "Hairy Balls"!

  

Combined power of key words across your site

 

Even stronger - combine keywords in the title, description and tags. Provided you don't over do it, featuring your key words in all of these locations will really increase their relevance. You could even go crazy and include the key words in notes on the picture and comments under the picture. Hey, go mad and make your Flickr name the key word!

 

A master of this is Kevin Dooley - check out his thoughts on the subject of tags.

 

Hot tags and related tags

 

Flicker gives you a great head-start in finding terms. Flickr's popular tags page lists out hot tags in the last 24 hours and last seven days plus the all time most popular tags.

 

First, look at the hot tags. Do any immediately relate to your picture? For example, yesterday's date is almost always a hot tag Feb4 is hot today, and Feb3, Feb2 and Feb1 were all popular this week. Why add? Because its listed as a hot tag, people will search for it - its a self fulfilling prophecy.

 

Still in the hot tags, you are also likely to see mysterious terms like hff, hpps and tigf. These are the terms the insiders in Flickr use to flag up ceratin types of post. If you are unsure of what they mean, do a bit of detective work. Click on the tag and search for the most interesting pictures with the tag. It will soon become apparent that, for example, hff stands for Happy Furry Friday - Flickr fans post animals on this day with this tag, the cuter the better! So join in. Take a picture of you pooch or moggy, upload and tag.

 

All time most popular tags gives you a simple list of the words people have used to describe their pictures. If you see any that relate to your picture, use them. Word of warning - because they are so popular, your picture will be competing against hundreds of other pictures. So don't just rely on these - you need to be unique.

 

Flickr will also do your the favour of telling you related tags to yours, simply search for a tag and related tags will be thrown up. Searching for Green Goblin through popular tags gives you spiderman, marvel, toys, toy, marvelcomics, green, goblin, hulk, actionfigure, comics. Copy and paste as relevant.

 

Beware the Green Goblin

 

Give them what they want

 

Certain words are searched for more than others.

 

Google Zeitgeist may offer inspiration. The Hot Trends section lists the 100 hottest search trends on Google today. If people are searching on Google, they can find it on Flickr. If any of the terms in Hot Trends relate to your upload, add them.

 

For example, today - a top 3 hot trend is 'World Nude Day'. Immediately, I thought that my photograph of Eve (below) needed world, nude, day added as tags.

 

Eve

 

You might find this article on the most popular search terms on Google last year will provide you with further food for thought.

  

Sourcing tags

 

Sometimes you have a mental blank - 75 tags is very tall order after all. The key is to do a tiny bit of research.

 

First stop, Thesaurus.com - type in a tag you can think of. The shot below might be described as a pile of green cars.

 

Traffic pile-up EXPLORED

 

After a trip to Thesaurus.com it becomes a heap, collection,accumulation, aggregate, aggregation, amassment, assemblage, assortment, bank, barrel, buildup, chunk, conglomeration, drift, gob, great deal, hill, hoard, hunk, jumble, lump, mass, mound, mountain, much, ocean, oodles*, pack, peck, pyramid, quantity, shock, stack, stockpile of emerald, apple, aquamarine, beryl, chartreuse, fir, forest, grass, jade, kelly, lime, malachite, moss, olive, pea, peacock, pine, sage, sap, sea, spinach, verdigris, vert, viridian, willow.

 

The great thing here is that you can copy the list and paste straight into your tags list. Instant vocabulary explosion!

 

Clearly, you might want to delete some of the less relevant terms but this is a great way of topping up to 75.

 

Once you've filled up here, next stops should be Wikipedia.org, Google and Yahoo - with each, search using a key word and then pick and choose any word that springs out to you.

 

Tag geography

 

I'm English. I think in English and tag in English. Flicker is global and its users global. Google Trends lists the nations that search most for the term Flickr as:

 

1. Malaysia

2. United Kingdom

3. Singapore

4. Italy

5. United States

6. Ireland

7. Canada

8. Spain

9. Taiwan

10. Philippines

 

So only five out of ten speak English as their first language. To turn yourself international, head over to Babel Fish on Yahoo or better, NiceTranslator, add your most relevant tags to your photos, pick English to Italian and to Pile, Green, Cars you can add automobili, verdi, mucchio.

 

Instantly, your multi-lingual and could be sipping an Expresso in Rome rather than snowed in in Stevenage. This is such an overlooked area of Flickr - its time for you to think more globally.

 

Niche tags

 

Some topics are very well represented on Flickr - sunsets, kittens and flowers are pretty well covered. One key to the longevity of your pictures is to make them niche and tag them. Search for obscure terms to see what images already exist - if there's a gap - fill it.

 

One of my favourite searches if for the most interesting pictures on Flickr tagged with the word "Boring". Some great shots can be found here.

 

Warning: Hazards to Interestingness

 

There are some who believe that cetain tags damage your chance of interestingness. Words that are offensive or inappropriate may well be screened out or you risk being classified as an adult themed site. Common sense is required.

 

Its also rumoured that the Explore alogorithym will score you higher or lower depending on your tags. For example, if every person uses the tag Bokeh, Flickr may rate each Bokeh picture against each other to find the most interesting. Using unusual or interesting tags is your best weapon against this kind of competition if you're focussed on getting explored.

 

Now you are armed - get tagging. Let me know any ideas you have for getting more of the best out of tagging.

 

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