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The Blower of Saint leu, Reunion Island, France. The swell rushes into a fault of lava flow and lifts a big geyser

Le Souffleur de Saint-Leu, Île de la Réunion, France. La houle s'engouffre dans une faille de coulée de lave et soulève un grand geyser

Erik Kottzen's shows for Tuesday 25th, 2017.

 

7:30PM SLT - SolarWinds Music - Hearts and Music for Maxx (Maxx Sabretooth Fund- raiser).

TP:http://maps.secondlife.com/…/Atlantis%20World%…/207/182/2630

 

~Let the music flow through you~

Vocal Coach, Songwriter, Guitarist, Drummer, Bassist

Bringing to Second Life his vast experience, Erik's shows are in English and described as beautiful, groovy, retro to modern, heart touching and rocking featuring pop, rock, hard rock, metal, 80's, 90's, Today, covering bands from Led Zeppelin, Aerosmith, Black Sabbath, Guns'N'Roses, Journey, Metallica, Mr. Big, Whitesnake, Queen to Originals and more.:skull:

  

The Causey Arch is a bridge near Stanley in County Durham. It is the world’s oldest surviving railway bridge.

 

It was built in 1725-26 by stonemason Ralph Wood, funded by a conglomeration of coal-owners known as the "'Grand Allies'" (founded by Colonel Liddell and the Hon. Charles Montague) at a cost of £12,000. Two tracks crossed the Arch: one (the main way) to take coal to the River Tyne, and the other (the bye way) for the returning the empty wagons. Over nine hundred horse-drawn wagons crossed the arch each day using the Tanfield Railway.

 

At the time the bridge was completed in 1726, it was the longest single span bridge in the country, a record it held for thirty years until 1756 when a bridge was built in Pontypridd, Wales.

 

An inscription on a sundial at the site reads "Ra. Wood, mason, 1727". Use of the Arch declined when Tanfield Colliery was destroyed by fire in 1739.

 

The Arch was restored and reinforced in the 1980s. There are a series of scenic public paths around the area and the Causey Burn which runs underneath it. The quarry near the bridge is a popular spot for local rock climbers.

 

Causey Burn itself flows into Beamish Burn which then flows into the River Team eventually discharging into the River Tyne.

 

© Angela M. Lobefaro

All Rights Reserved

RIPRODUZIONE RISERVATA

   

taken near Borgodale - Piedmont - Italy - August '07

  

Pls take a look at the Interview with Agedsenator

  

Dear Friends

 

I am very busy with my being a volunteer

I am organizing again a fund raising event in Biella (my home town) for:

this project:

STOP AIDS AT BIRTH

 

The major Cesvi campaign to defeat Hiv/Aids in Sub-Saharan Africa.

www.cesvi.eu/index.php?pagina=pagina_generica.php&id=720

 

www.cesvi.eu/index.php

www.cesvi.org

Now my project is on line on the official CESVI site! wow!:

www.cesvi.org/?pagina=pagina_generica.php&id=1264

  

Therefore when I will visit your great shots, often I will just leave a fave, with no comment nor invites.

 

-------------------------------

     

Interestingness shots

50 Most interesting slide show

 

btw : link to my PUBLISHED shots

 

Subscribe to my stream

   

Join me on Facebook | Google+ | Twitter | 500px | Instagram

 

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Iceland Waterfalls are perhaps the country's most recognizable series of attractions. They're everywhere! Its collection of waterfalls rivals any other country in sheer power and raw beauty. The falls range from powerful and wide river-type monsters like Dettifoss, Gullfoss, and Goðafoss to tall and narrow ones like Glymur, Háifoss, and Hengifoss. Moreover, the country sports classic waterfalls such as the rectangular Skógafoss as well as unique waterfalls such as the trapezoidal Dynjandi. And these are just the famous ones! There are countless other waterfalls tumbling by the Ring Road as well as many more that don't even have formal names!

 

Gullfoss may be Iceland's most popular waterfall. This spectacular two-tiered waterfall (with each tier dropping at right angles to each other) falls a total of 32m while spanning the entire width of the Hvítá River. The upper tier drops about 11m while the lower tier drops 21m. Mist wafts up from the lower tier due to the quantity of falling water. It's one of the three major attractions on the Golden Circle Tour and Route, which is very doable as a day trip out of Reykjavík. It's hard to believe that this waterfall almost disappeared due to the desire for hydroelectricity by various interests. In some fortuitous bit of misfortune (if you're the investor) and lack of funds, attempts were unsuccessful and the falls was eventually sold to the state of Iceland. Despite further interest to utilize the river by the state, it was eventually conserved. A more romantic story depicted the daughter (named Sigríður Tómasdottir) of the landowner who was about to sell his land (including the falls) threatened to throw herself into the falls if the land was sold. As a result, the father pulled out of the deal and the falls was made a reserve and the rest was history. It's said that this isn't true, but nonetheless there is a memorial at the falls commemorating Sigríður Tómasdottir.

 

This is less usual view of the waterfall that I've taken on top "viewing platform". Use of my B+W 3.0ND filter allowed me 32sec during daylight. It turned the waterfall in river of silk, milk like flow. The late afternoon light and interesting sky just finished it nicely.

 

Camera Model: Canon EOS 5D Mark II, Lens: EF17-40mm f/4L USM, Photo Focal length: 22.00 mm, Aperture: 14, Exposure time: 32.0 s, ISO: 125

 

All rights reserved - Copyright :copyright: Lucie Debelkova - www.luciedebelkova.com

 

All images are exclusive property and may not be copied, downloaded, reproduced, transmitted, manipulated or used in any way without expressed, written permission of the photographer.

Just dashed up to Yosemite with some friends a whim for a weekend of winter wonderland. We shot sunrises on 4 hours of sleep when it was -4F outside, realfeel -18...and wouldn't have given it up for anything.

  

I thought I'd seen it all after I shot Midwinter Night's Dream last January, but yesterday morning's color, light, fresh snow, and crepuscular rays just left me humbled and speechless.

  

Yeah, I had a 20-page paper due tonight and three finals in the next three days.

...so what? I will let nothing stand between me and my dreams!!

 

As many of you know, I'm a 21 year-old upcoming artist and I need all the help I can get. This trip, along with all the others I've taken recently, was funded completely by donations I've received this holiday season from people like you. $100 can send me on a weekend trip; a single $200 donation covered my entire 6-day Oregon trip. If you're interested, you can find links on my website, on the About pages. Happy holidays and all the best to you!

  

- Jeff

  

www.landESCAPEphotography.com

^ I'm a young (21 year-old) photographer and really appreciate help and donations of any amount.

  

You can also follow my posts on Facebook.

  

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please, pretty please, don't use this copyrighted image without my permission. if you're interested in prints, licensing, or just being extra awesome, check out my profile.

  

P.S. Press "F" then "L" to make your wildest dreams come true :)

   

The Blower of Saint Joseph, Reunion Island, France. The swell rushes into a fault of lava flow and lifts a big geyser

Le Souffleur de Saint-Joseph, Île de la Réunion, France. La houle s'engouffre dans une faille de coulée de lave et soulève un grand geyser

Don't use this image on any media without my permission.

© All rights reserved.

 

HDR

 

Venezia Gondola's Parking - ITALY

 

Venezia En la Antigüedad esta región estaba habitada por el pueblo véneto. Cuando los germanos empezaron a invadir Italia en el siglo V, los habitantes de algunas ciudades se refugiaron en estas islas. Se establecieron y llegaron a tener su propio gobierno presidido por 12 tribunos, tantos como islas principales había. Casi desde el principio esta comunidad fue autónoma y obtuvo su independencia en el siglo IX, el gobierno de la ciudad lo ostenta un dux o dogo, cargo de carácter vitalicio, no hereditario.

 

En la Alta Edad Media, Venecia se expandió gracias al control del comercio con Oriente y a los beneficios que esto suponía, expandiéndose por el mar Adriático. El apogeo de Venecia alcanzó su cénit en la primera mitad del siglo XV, cuando los venecianos comenzaron su expansión por Italia, como respuesta al amenazador avance de Gian Galeazzo Visconti, duque de Milán.

 

Venecia supo aprovecharse de todos los cambios que ocurrieron en el Occidente:

Acertó al aliarse con los francos contra los longobardos.

Acertó al aliarse con el Imperio Bizantino contra los normandos.

Acertó en su benevolencia y tolerancia con el Islam, de manera que al estar el Imperio Bizantino en guerra con los árabes éste no podía traficar sin gran riesgo y fue entonces cuando las naves venecianas iban a Alejandría, Beirut y Jaffa, monopolizando aquel comercio.

La toma de Constantinopla por los turcos en 1453 marcó el principio de la decadencia. El descubrimiento de América desplazó las corrientes comerciales y Venecia se vio obligada a sostener una lucha agotadora contra los turcos. En 1797, fue invadida por las tropas de Napoleón. A la firma del tratado de Campoformio, se repartió el territorio de la República entre Francia y Austria.

 

Venecia está rodeada de lagunas de poco fondo; eso le valió siempre como gran defensa. En sus aguas encallaban fácilmente las naves que no conocían los fondos, así es que era como una ciudad atrincherada dentro de grandes murallas.

 

Venezia In antiquity this region was inhabited by the Venetian people. When the Germans started to invade Italy in the V century, the inhabitants of some cities took refuge on these islands. Were established and came to have its own government headed by 12 galleries, as many as there were major islands. Almost from the beginning the community was autonomous and was granted its independence in the ninth century, the city government holds a rioja or Doge Doge, a position for life, not inherited.

 

In the High Middle Ages, Venice was expanded through the control of trade with the East and the benefits that this entailed, expanding on the Adriatic Sea. The heyday of Venice reached its peak in the first half of the fifteenth century, when Venetians began its expansion in Italy, as a response to the threatening advance of Gian Galeazzo Visconti, Duke of Milan.

 

Venice was able to take advantage of all the changes that occurred in the West:

Andalusia successful alliance with the Franks against the Lombards.

Andalusia successful alliance with the Byzantine Empire against the Normans.

In his benevolence and tolerance of Islam, so that when the Byzantine Empire in its war with the Arabs could not without great risk to traffic and it was then when the Venetian ships were going to Alexandria, Beirut and Jaffa, that monopolize trade.

The taking of Constantinople by the Turks in 1453 marked the beginning of the decline. The discovery of America trade flows went to Venice was forced to hold an exhausting struggle against the Turks. In 1797, it was invaded by Napoleon's troops. In signing the treaty Campoformio, the territory was divided between the Republic of France and Austria.

 

Venice lagoon is surrounded by little background, it provided him as a great defense. Easily bogged down in its waters the ships had no knowledge of funds, so it was like a town entrenched in large walls.

This old bridge in need of some repair goes over Mill Stream which is a man made stream and then flows into the River Frome. A £15,000 funding boost from SITA Trust for the Dorchester Mill Stream project was given to help improve the wildlife.

The incorporated Village of Saranac Lake is located in the Adirondacks, a jagged outcropping of mountainous peaks sliced by rapid-flowing streams and dotted with clear glacial lakes, which juts up out of the glacial plains of upstate New York. Six million acres of this rugged country and its isolated valley hamlets are part of the Adirondack Park, where 2.5 million acres of state-owned forest land have been protected as "forever wild" since as early as 1885. Deep in the heart of this wilderness, in a sheltered valley crossed by the winding Saranac River, lies "the little city of the Adirondacks."

 

The modern village of Saranac Lake is still the largest settlement within the Adirondacks. Its political boundaries cross both county and town borders: two-thirds of the village lies within the town of Harrietstown, in Franklin County; while the remaining third is split between the towns of North Elba and St. Armand in Essex County.

The Episcopal Church of St. Luke the Beloved Physician, built in 1878, is Saranac Lake's first church. The church was established in 1877, with services held in the Berkeley House by Reverend John Lundy, who began a fund drive that was taken over by Dr. Trudeau after Lundy left. Trudeau carried the building project to completion, and served as treasurer and warden for thirty-eight years.

 

The plans were a gift from Richard Mitchell Upjohn (1828-1903), son of the architect of Trinity Church in New York City. The church was built — at today's 136 Main Street — by local contractor R. Eugene Woodruff; construction began in May 1878 and was completed in January 1879. The church was expanded in the 1890s with the addition of a rectory and a parish hall that served as the village library for fifteen years starting in 1892.

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The Grade I Listed Carlisle Cathedral, Carlisle, Cumbria.

 

Work on Carlisle Cathedral began in 1122, during the reign of King Henry I, as a community of Canons Regular following the reform of the Abbey of Arrouaise in France, which followed a strict form of the canonical life, influenced by the ascetic practices of the Cistercians. Many large churches of Augustinian foundation were built in England during this period as the Archbishop of Canterbury, William de Corbeil, was a member of this order, but Carlisle is one of only four Augustinian churches in England to become a cathedral, most monastic cathedrals being Benedictine. The church was begun by Athelwold, an Englishman, who became the first prior. In 1133, the church was raised to the status of cathedral and Athelwold became the first Bishop of Carlisle (1133–55). In 1233, the cathedral priory community were joined by two friaries in the city. A Dominican friary and a Franciscan friary were founded close to the cathedral. The building was refurbished in the 13th and 14th centuries, receiving impetus from the presence of the court of Edward I in 1307.

 

In the 15th and early 16th centuries, the monastic buildings were renewed. With the Dissolution of the Monasteries from 1536, and the establishment by Henry VIII of the Church of England as the country's official church, the Dominican and Franciscan friaries were dissolved and Carlisle, along with the other monastic cathedrals, was run by a secular chapter like the cathedrals at Lincoln and York, which practice has continued to this day. During the time of the English Civil War, a portion of the nave of the cathedral was demolished by the Scottish Presbyterian Army in order to use the stone to reinforce Carlisle Castle. Between 1853 and 1870 Carlisle Cathedral was restored by Ewan Christian.

 

Carlisle Cathedral was commenced in 1123 as a monastic church, possibly on the foundations of an earlier church, in the Norman architectural style with solid masonry, large round piers, round arches and smallish round headed windows. These features may still be seen in the south transept and the remaining two bays of the nave, which are now used as the Chapel of the Border Regiment. The stone is the local red sandstone, which has discoloured almost to black on parts of the exterior.

 

In the 13th century, the choir of the cathedral was rebuilt in the Gothic style, wider than the original and on a different axis. However, the new work was severely damaged in a fire in 1292, and the work was recommenced. By 1322 the arcades and the easternmost bay were complete, with the elaborate tracery and glass of the east window being in place by about 1350. The upper stages of the walls were finished, probably by the architect John Lewen who died in about 1398. The Gothic arcade has richly moulded arches with dog's tooth decoration, and the twelve capitals are carved with vegetation along with small lively figures representing the labours of the months.

 

The choir is roofed by a fine wooden barrel vault dating from the 14th century. In 1856 this was restored and repainted to a new design by Owen Jones. It is thought the eastern bays of the cathedral never received a stone vault because at some point the central spire blew down, and funds were required to rebuild the damaged tower and north transept, completed in about 1420. The most significant architectural feature of Carlisle Cathedral is its East Window. The tracery of this window is in the most complex of English Gothic styles, Flowing Decorated Gothic. It is the largest and most complex such window in England, being 51 feet high and 26 feet wide.

 

February 2014

 

Taken at high tide after the wettest winter on record after 487cm of rainfall. I kept needing to move back as the river flowed out onto the path, however it was quite a gently flow hence the strength of the reflections.

 

Richmond Bridge is an 18th-century stone arch bridge that crosses the River Thames at Richmond, connecting the two halves of the present-day London Borough of Richmond upon Thames. It was designed by James Paine and Kenton Couse.

The bridge, which is a Grade I listed, was built between 1774 and 1777, as a replacement for a ferry crossing which connected Richmond town centre on the east bank with its neighbouring district of East Twickenham to the west. Its construction was privately funded by a tontine scheme, for which tolls were charged until 1859.

 

Because the river meanders from its general West to East direction, flowing from Southeast to Northwest in this part of London, what would otherwise be known as the North and South banks are often referred to as the "Middlesex" (Twickenham) and "Surrey" (Richmond) banks respectively, named after the historic counties to which each side once belonged.

The bridge was widened and slightly flattened in 1937–40, but otherwise still conforms to its original design. The eighth Thames bridge to be built in what is now Greater London, it is today the oldest surviving Thames bridge in London.

The first British canals were built in Roman times as irrigation or land drainage canals or short connecting spurs between navigable rivers, such as the Foss Dyke, Car Dyke or Bourne-Morton Canal; all in Lincolnshire

  

A spate of building projects, such as castles, monasteries and churches, led to the improvement of rivers for the transportation of building materials. Various Acts of Parliament were passed regulating transportation of goods, tolls and horse towpaths for various rivers. These included the rivers Severn, Witham, Trent and Yorkshire Ouse. The first Act for navigational improvement in England was in 1425, for improvement of the river Lea, a major tributary of the River Thames.

 

In the post-medieval period some natural waterways were 'canalised' or improved for boat traffic, in the 16th century. The first Act of Parliament was obtained by the City of Canterbury, in 1515, to extend navigation on the River Stour in Kent, followed by the River Exe in 1539, which led to the construction in 1566 of a new channel, the Exeter Canal. Simple flash locks were provided to regulate the flow of water and allow loaded boats to pass through shallow waters by admitting a rush of water, but these were not purpose-built canals as we understand them today.

 

The transport system that existed before the canals were built consisted of either coastal shipping or horses and carts struggling along mostly un-surfaced mud roads (although there were some surfaced Turnpike roads). There was also a small amount of traffic carried along navigable rivers. In the 17th century, as early industry started to expand, this transport situation was highly unsatisfactory. The restrictions of coastal shipping and river transport were obvious and horses and carts could only carry one or two tons of cargo at a time. The poor state of most of the roads meant that they could often become unusable after heavy rain. Because of the small loads that could be carried, supply of essential commodities such as coal, and iron ore were limited, and this kept prices high and restricted economic growth. One horse-drawn canal barge could carry about thirty tonnes at a time, faster than road transport and at half the cost.

 

Some 29 river navigation improvements took place in the 16th and 17th centuries. The government of King James established the Oxford-Burcot Commission in 1605 which began to improve the system of locks and weirs on the River Thames, which were opened between Oxford and Abingdon by 1635. In 1635 Sir Richard Weston was appointed to develop the River Wey Navigation, making Guildford accessible by 1653. In 1670 the Stamford Canal opened, indistinguishable from 18th century examples with a dedicated cut and double-door locks. In 1699 legislation was passed to permit the Aire & Calder Navigation which was opened 1703, and the Trent Navigation which was built by George Hayne and opened in 1712. Subsequently, the Kennet built by John Hore opened in 1723, the Mersey and Irwell opened in 1725, and the Bristol Avon in 1727. John Smeaton was the engineer of the Calder & Hebble which opened in 1758, and a series of eight pound locks was built to replace flash locks on the River Thames between Maidenhead and Reading, beginning in 1772.

The net effect of these was to bring most of England, with the notable exceptions of Birmingham and Staffordshire, within 15 miles (24 km) of a waterway

The British canal system of water transport played a vital role in the United Kingdom's Industrial Revolution at a time when roads were only just emerging from the medieval mud and long trains of pack horses were the only means of "mass" transit by road of raw materials and finished products (it was no accident that amongst the first canal promoters were the pottery manufacturers of Staffordshire). The UK was the first country to acquire a nationwide canal network.

 

Canals came into being because the Industrial Revolution (which began in Britain during the mid-18th century) demanded an economic and reliable way to transport goods and commodities in large quantities. Some 29 river navigation improvements took place in the 16th and 17th centuries starting with the Thames locks and the River Wey Navigation. The biggest growth was in the so-called "narrow" canals which extended water transport to the emerging industrial areas of the Staffordshire potteries and Birmingham as well as a network of canals joining Yorkshire and Lancashire and extending to London.

 

The 19th century saw some major new canals such as the Caledonian Canal and the Manchester Ship Canal. By the second half of the 19th century, many canals were increasingly becoming owned by railway companies or competing with them, and many were in decline, with decreases in mile-ton charges to try to remain competitive. After this the less successful canals (particularly narrow-locked canals, whose boats could only carry about thirty tons) failed quickly.

 

The 20th century brought competition from road-haulage, and only the strongest canals survived until the Second World War. After the war, decline of trade on all remaining canals was rapid, and by the mid 1960s only a token traffic was left, even on the widest and most industrial waterways.

In the 1960s the infant canal leisure industry was only just sufficient to prevent the closure of the still-open canals, but then the pressure to maintain canals for leisure purposes increased. From the 1970s onwards, increasing numbers of closed canals were restored by enthusiast volunteers. The success of these projects has led to the funding and use of contractors to complete large restoration projects and complex civil engineering projects such as the restoration of the Victorian Anderton Boat Lift and the new Falkirk Wheel rotating lift.

 

Restoration projects by volunteer-led groups continue. There is now a substantial network of interconnecting, fully navigable canals across the country. In places, serious plans are in progress by the Environment Agency and British Waterways Board for building new canals to expand the network, link isolated sections, and create new leisure opportunities for navigating 'canal rings', for example: the Fens Waterways Link and the Bedford and Milton Keynes Waterway.

 

Shropshire Union Canal at Backford Cross Cheshire 2014

 

gear. After sitting idle for an eternity stuck under the dirt near downtown Seattle the support infrastructure is starting to deteriorate. The only thing flowing is the money from the taxpayers who have to fund this humongous boondoggle. No timetable is set for repairs to get it working again much less a final completion of the tunnel bore project itself.

View On Black

I have reprocessed this photo by applying the 'cade processing' work flow in it. This photo are currently used by few organizations and foundations for their awareness programmes.

 

Photographer's note on Siblings' LOVE:

 

I feel for this pair of siblings.

 

This young boy was protecting his little brother (or sister..as i can't tell) by shielding him using his body. And this little baby brother was so comfortably sleeping on his thighs.

 

The boy was so tired. And he dozed off. But if you move near him, he would be so alert and straight away shielding his brother with his shirt and cover his own face with his hand.

 

He has such shame in him and perhaps he did not want his little brother to be exposed to the same guilt and shame. I feel so sad for him. He is my hero who sacrificed for his brother.

 

Anyway, I walked towards him and gave him a pat on the shoulder and stroke his dirty hair. It was a gesture of telling him I care and I appreciated his care for his brother.

  

Roaring Brook Falls is Connecticut's highest single drop waterfall. The waterfall is 80 feet. The waterfall is longer than pictured here. I had to take it in 3 sections because I had to use my 50 mm prime because for some bizarre reason I bought my polarizer filter for this lens. LOL Hopefully at some point I can stitch them together.

 

If anyone would like to visit these falls, OMG, I hope you are in good shape. I took the path that led to the left side of the falls and that path was straight up. I got to a point that I could barely put one foot in front of the other. LOL My husband came along with me and he chose to wait at the bottom. That is a good thing because he doesn't like heights and I had to photograph this from an extremely steep bank. I believe it is a gorge cut out from the Ice Age. A photo just does not do justice for this magnificent waterfall. I will definitely go back and I expect in the Autumn this will be even more beautiful.

 

"Arrowheads tell of early men who hunted the woodlands and fished the watercourse of what came to be known as Roaring Brook on West Mountain (southern extension of Peck Mountain) in Cheshire. Foundation stones tell of an old mill powered by the falling water of this stream. Tumble-down rock walls tell of early farmers. Cedar stumps tell of former pastures now overgrown with encroached forest. Earlier Cheshire residents could tell of coaches and buggies that brought holiday visitors to view the impressive 80-foot, aptly named, cascades that in flood can be heard a mile away.

 

For many years benevolent stewardship of this natural area was in private hands. Then came a time when possible fragmentation threatened to alter the character of the area. But this threat also provided an opportunity for a portion of the area to be taken into the public domain. Recognizing this opportunity, the Cheshire Land Trust enthusiastically sought and received support from local residents, town officials, students, and civic groups. It contributed funds of its own and catalyzed the acquisition of other resources from two local garden clubs. Significant gifts were received from Lawrence Copeland (owner of the property) and the George Dudley Seymour Trust, the Town of Cheshire, through its Parks and Recreation Department, shared further funding with the federal Heritage Conservation and Recreation Services, and so the natural area of Roaring Brook became a town-owned facility on December 7, 1978.

 

The watercourse draws upon a significant watershed on top of the basalt ridge. Its stream drops off the ridge in a main waterfall with similar cascades above and below; it flows on as a braided stream on an old delta, continuing on to join Willow Brook and Mill River." Written by Tom Pool, 1979

 

source- www.cheshirelandtrust.org/roaring-brook.htm

 

Taken in Chesire Connecticut.

  

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Nothing personal, but I will no longer be returning favs or comments on Sims, (second life or whatever they call that) or other digital artwork that is not photography at all as I honestly don't know much about it and I am not really interested in anything but photography on Flickr.

 

:copyright: ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

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COPYRIGHT- Skyelyte Photography

 

None of my images may be downloaded, copied, reproduced, manipulated or used on websites, blogs or other media or used in any way without my explicit written permission. THANK YOU!

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Looking from Miller Bridge down the River Kent in Kendal, Cumbria.

 

The River Kent is a short river which originates in hills surrounding Kentmere, and flows for around 20 miles (32 km) into the north of Morecambe Bay. The Lake District National Park includes the upper reaches of the river within its boundaries.

 

The river passes through Kentmere, Staveley, Burneside, Kendal and Sedgwick. Near Sedgwick, the river passes through a rock gorge which produces a number of low waterfalls. This section is popular with kayakers as it offers high quality whitewater for several days after rain.

 

The village of Arnside lies alongside the Kent estuary. On high spring tides, a tidal bore known as the Arnside Bore forms in the estuary opposite Arnside. The wave is often about 0.5m high.

 

Near the source of the river is Kentmere Reservoir, which was constructed in the mid-19th century to control the flow of the river for the benefit of water mills. The river was used to power numerous mills in the past, including two at Staveley, Kentmere water mill, and also the James Cropper paper factory at Burneside. One of the weirs at Staveley produces electricity for Staveley Mill Yard via a micro hydro scheme. There is also scope for micro hydro upstream at Kentmere.

 

The river is a designated Special Area of Conservation, primarily as an important habitat for the endangered White-clawed Crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes). Fish species include salmon and trout. In the twentieth century fish ladders were constructed alongside the dams of mill-ponds to allow migratory fish to swim up to Kentmere. In 2013 DEFRA funding was announced for eel passes at Stramongate weir in Kendal and Basinghyll fish counter.

 

... just because I'm Kurdish ...

 

Iraqi Kurdistan

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  

Capital

(and largest city) Erbil

36°11′N 44°00′E / 36.183, 44

Official languages Kurdish[1]

Government Parliamentary democracy

- President Massoud Barzani

- Prime Minister Nechervan Idris Barzani

- Deputy Prime Minister Omer Fattah Hussain

Formation of Autonomous Region

- Autonomy accord agreement signed March 11, 1970

- Autonomy accord collapsed March, 1974

- Gained de facto independence October, 1991

- The TAL recognized the autonomy of the KRG as full sovereignty. January 30, 2005

Area

- Total 80,000 km2 (117th)

30,888 sq mi

Population

- 2008 estimate 7,000,000 (108th)

- Density 40/km2 (166th)

15/sq mi

GDP (PPP) 2007 estimate

- Total 27 billion (not ranked)

- Per capita $5,500 (not ranked)

HDI (As of 2006) n/a (n/a) (not ranked)

Currency Iraqi Dinar is the offical currency, American Dollar widely accepted in all business transactions (IQD)

Time zone (UTC+3)

- Summer (DST) (UTC+4)

Internet TLD Various

Calling code 964

Iraqi Kurdistan Region (Kurdish: هه رێمى كوردستان عێراق, Herêmi Kurdistan Iraq, Arabic:إقليم كردستان العراق , Iqlĩm Kurdistãn al-‘Irāq , also Southern Kurdistan and in Kurdish: باشووری کوردستان ) is an autonomous,[2] federally recognized political, ethnic and economic region of Iraq. It borders Iran to the east, Turkey to the north, and Syria to the west and the rest of Iraq to the South. Its capital is the city of Erbil, known in Kurdish as Hewlêr.

 

Etymology

The name Kurdistan literally means Land of the Kurds. The term Kurd in turn is derived from the Latin word Cordueni, i.e. the of the ancient Kingdom of Corduene, which became a Roman province in 66 BC.

 

In the Iraqi Constitution, it is referred to as Kurdistan Region.[3]. The regional government refers to it as Kurdistan-Iraq (or simply Kurdistan region) but avoids using Iraqi Kurdistan.[4] The full name of the local government is "Kurdistan Regional Government" (abbrev: KRG.)

 

Kurds also refer to the region as Kurdistana Başûr (South Kurdistan) or Başûrî Kurdistan (Southern Kurdistan or South of Kurdistan) referring to its geographical location within the whole of the greater Kurdistan region.

 

During the Baath Party administration in the '70s and '80s, the region was called "Kurdish Autonomous Region".

  

[edit] History

 

[edit] Ottoman Period

Main articles: Ottoman Empire, Mamluk rule in Iraq, Mesopotamian campaign, and Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire

The area today known as Iraqi Kurdistan was formerly ruled by three principalities of Baban, Badinan and Soran. In 1831, the direct Ottoman rule was imposed and lasted until World War I, during which the Ottomans sided with Germany and the Central Powers.

  

[edit] British Mandate

During World War I the British and French divided Western Asia in the Sykes-Picot Agreement. The Treaty of Sèvres, which was ratified in the Treaty of Lausanne, led to the advent of modern Western Asia and Republic of Turkey. The League of Nations granted France mandates over Syria and Lebanon and granted the United Kingdom mandates over Iraq and Palestine (which then consisted of two autonomous regions: Palestine and Transjordan). Parts of the Ottoman Empire on the Arabian Peninsula became parts of what are today Saudi Arabia and Yemen.

  

[edit] Kurdish revolts

On December 1, 1918, during a meeting in Sulaymaniyah with Colonel Arnold Wilson, the Acting Civil Commissioner for Mesopotamia, Kurdish leaders called for British support for a united and independent Kurdistan under British protection. Between 1919 and 1922, Shaikh Mahmud Barzanji, an influential Kurdish leader based in Sulaymaniyah, formed a Kurdish government and led two revolts against the British rule. It took the British authorities two years to put down his uprisings. The first revolt began on May 22, 1919 with the arrest of British officials in Sulaymaniyah and it quickly spread to Mosul and Erbil. The British employed aerial bombardments, artillery, ground combat, and on one occasion, chemical gas, in an attempt to quell the uprising.[5] Then the British exiled Mahmoud to India. In July 1920, 62 tribal leaders of the region, called for the independence of Kurdistan under a British mandate. The objection of the British to Kurdish self-rule sprang from the fear that success of an independent Kurdish area would tempt the two Arab areas of Baghdad and Basra to follow suit, hence endangering the direct British control over all Mesopotamia. In 1922, Britain restored Shaikh Mahmoud to power, hoping that he would organize the Kurds to act as a buffer against the Turks, who had territorial claims over Mosul and Kirkuk. Shaikh Mahmoud declared a Kurdish Kingdom with himself as King, though later he agreed to limited autonomy within the new state of Iraq. In 1930, following the announcement of the admission of Iraq to the League of Nations, Shaikh Mahmoud started a third uprising which was suppressed with British air and ground forces.[6][7]

 

By 1927, the Barzani clan had become vocal supporters of Kurdish rights in Iraq. In 1929, the Barzani demanded the formation of a Kurdish province in northern Iraq. Emboldened by these demands, in 1931 Kurdish notables petitioned the League of Nations to set up an independent Kurdish government. Under pressure from the Iraqi government and the British, the most influential leader of the clan, Mustafa Barzani was forced into exile in Iran in 1945. Later he moved to the Soviet Union after the collapse of the Republic of Mahabad in 1946.[8]

  

[edit] Barzani Revolts 1960-1975 and their Aftermath

After the military coup by Abdul Karim Qasim in 1958, Barzani was able to return from exile and set up his own political party, Kurdistan Democratic Party, which was granted legal status in 1960. Soon afterwards, Qasim incited the Baradost and Zebari tribes against Barzani. In June 1961, Barzani led his first revolt against the Iraqi government with the aim of securing Kurdish autonomy. Due to the disarray in the Iraqi Army after the 1958 coup, Qasim's government was not able to subdue the insurrection. This stalemate irritated powerful factions within the military and is said to be one of the main reasons behind the Baathist coup against Qasim in February 1963. Abdul Salam Arif declared a ceasefire in February 1964 which provoked a split among Kurdish urban radicals on one hand and traditional forces led by Barzani on the other. Barzani agreed to the ceasefire and fired the radicals from the party. Despite this, the government in Baghdad tried once more to defeat Barzani's movement by force. This campaign failed in 1966, when Barzani forces defeated the Iraqi Army near Rawanduz. After this, Arif announced a 12-point peace program in June 1966, which was not implemented due to the overthrow of Arif in a 1968 coup by the Baath Party. The Baath government started a campaign to end the Kurdish insurrection, which stalled in 1969. This can be partly attributed to the internal power struggle in Baghdad and also tensions with Iran. Moreover, the Soviets pressured the Iraqis to come to terms with Barzani. A peace plan was announced in March 1970 and provided for broader Kurdish autonomy. The plan also gave Kurds representation in government bodies, to be implemented in four years.[9] Despite this, the Iraqi government embarked on an Arabization program in the oil rich regions of Kirkuk and Khanaqin in the same period.[10] In the following years, Baghdad government overcame its internal divisions and concluded a treaty of friendship with the Soviet Union in April 1972 and ended its isolation within the Arab world. On the other hand, Kurds remained dependent on the Iranian military support and could do little to strengthen their forces.

  

[edit] The Algiers Agreement

In 1974, Iraqi government began a new offensive against the Kurds and pushed them close to the border with Iran. Iraq informed Tehran that it was willing to satisfy other Iranian demands in return for an end to its aid to the Kurds. With mediation by Algerian President Houari Boumédiènne, Iran and Iraq reached a comprehensive settlement in March 1975 known as the Algiers Pact. The agreement left the Kurds helpless and Tehran cut supplies to the Kurdish movement. Barzani fled to Iran with many of his supporters. Others surrendered en masse and the rebellion ended after a few days. As a result Iraqi government extended its control over the northern region after 15 years and in order to secure its influence, started an Arabization program by moving Arabs to the oil fields in Kurdistan, particularly the ones around Kirkuk.[11] The repressive measures carried out by the government against the Kurds after the Algiers agreement led to renewed clashes between the Iraqi Army and Kurdish guerrillas in 1977. In 1978 and 1979, 600 Kurdish villages were burned down and around 200,000 Kurds were deported to the other parts of the country.[12]

  

[edit] Iran–Iraq War and Anfal Campaign

During the Iran–Iraq War, the Iraqi government again implemented anti-Kurdish policies and a de facto civil war broke out. Iraq was widely-condemned by the international community, but was never seriously punished for oppressive measures, including the use of chemical weapons against the Kurds, which resulted in thousands of deaths. (See Halabja poison gas attack.)

 

The Al-Anfal Campaign constituted a systematic genocide of the Kurdish people in Iraq. From March 29, 1987 until April 23, 1989, Iraqi army under the command of Ali Hassan al-Majid carried out a genocidal campaign against the Kurds, characterized by the following human rights violations: The widespread use of chemical weapons, the wholesale destruction of some 2,000 villages, and slaughter of around 50,000 rural Kurds, by the most conservative estimates. The large Kurdish town of Qala Dizeh (population 70,000) was completely destroyed by the Iraqi army. The campaign also included Arabization of Kirkuk, a program to drive Kurds out of the oil-rich city and replace them with Arab settlers from central and southern Iraq.[13] Kurdish sources report the number of dead to be greater than 182,000.[14]

  

[edit] After the Persian Gulf War

The Kurdistan Region was originally established in 1970 as the Kurdish Autonomous Region following the agreement of an Autonomy Accord between the government of Iraq and leaders of the Iraqi Kurdish community. A Legislative Assembly was established in the city of Erbil with theoretical authority over the Kurdish-populated governorates of Erbil, Dahuk and As Sulaymaniyah. In practice, however, the assembly created in 1970 was under the control of Iraqi President Saddam Hussein until the 1991 uprising against his rule following the end of the Persian Gulf War. Concern for safety of Kurdish refugees was reflected in the United Nations Security Council Resolution 688 which gave birth to a safe haven, in which U.S. and British air power protected a Kurdish zone inside Iraq.[15] (see Operation Provide Comfort). While the no-fly zone covered Dahuk and Erbil, it left out Sulaymaniyah and Kirkuk. Then following several bloody clashes between Iraqi forces and Kurdish troops, an uneasy and shaky balance of power was reached, and the Iraqi government withdrew its military and other personnel from the region in October 1991. At the same time, Iraq imposed an economic blockade over the region, reducing its oil and food supplies.[16] The region thus gained de facto independence, being ruled by the two principal Kurdish parties – the Kurdish Democratic Party and the Patriotic Union of Kurdistan – outside the control of Baghdad. The region has its own flag and national anthem.

 

Elections held in June 1992 produced an inconclusive outcome, with the assembly divided almost equally between the two main parties and their allies. During this period, the Kurds were subjected to a double embargo: one imposed by the United Nations on Iraq and one imposed by Saddam Hussein on their region. The severe economic hardships caused by the embargoes, fueled tensions between the two dominant political parties: Kurdistan Democratic Party of Iraq (KDP) and Patriotic Union of Kurdistan (PUK) over control of trade routes and resources.[17] This led to internecine and intra-Kurdish conflict and warfare between 1994 and 1996. After 1996, 13% of the Iraqi oil sales were allocated for Iraqi Kurdistan and this led to a relative prosperity in the region.[18] Direct United States mediation led the two parties to a formal ceasefire in Washington Agreement in September 1998. It is also argued that the Oil for Food Program from 1997 onward had an important effect on cessation of hostilities.[19] Kurdish parties joined forces against the Iraqi government in the Operation Iraqi Freedom in Spring 2003. The Kurdish military forces known as peshmerga played a key role in the overthrow of the former Iraqi government.[20]

 

KDP and PUK have united to form an alliance with several smaller parties, and the Kurdish alliance has 53 deputies in the new Baghdad parliament, while the Kurdish Islamic Union has 5. PUK-leader Jalal Talabani has been elected President of the new Iraqi administration, while KDP leader Massoud Barzani is President of the Kurdistan Regional Government.

  

[edit] Politics

Main article: Kurdistan Regional Government

 

President George W. Bush talks to reporters as he welcomes Massoud Barzani, the President of the Kurdistan Regional Government of Iraq, to the Oval Office at the White House, Tuesday, Oct 25, 2005.Since 1992, the Kurdistan Regional Government (KRG) has been based in Erbil. The KRG has a parliament, elected by popular vote, called the Iraqi Kurdistan National Assembly, and a cabinet composed of the KDP, the PUK and their allies (Iraqi Communist Party, the Socialist Party of Kurdistan etc.). Nechervan Idris Barzani has been prime minister of the KRG since 1999.

 

After the 2003 Invasion of Iraq Kurdish politicians were represented in the Iraqi governing council. On January 30, 2005 three elections were held in the region: 1) for Transitional National Assembly of Iraq 2) for Iraqi Kurdistan National Assembly and 3) for provincial councils.[21] The Law of Administration for the State of Iraq for the Transitional Period recognized the autonomy of the Kurdistan Regional Government during the interim between "full sovereignty" and the adoption of a permanent constitution.

 

The Kurdistan Regional Government currently has constitutionally recognised authority over the provinces of Erbil, Dahuk, and As Sulaymaniyah, as well as de facto authority over half of Kirkuk (at-Ta'mim) province and parts of Diyala, Salah ad-Din and Ninawa provinces.

  

[edit] Economy

The Kurdistan region's economy is dominated by the oil industry, agriculture and tourism[22]. Due to relative peace in the region it has a more developed economy in comparison to other parts of Iraq.

 

Prior to the removal of Saddam Hussein, the Kurdistan Regional Government received approximately 13% of the revenues from Iraq's Oil-for-Food Program. By the time of the US invasion of Iraq in 2003, the program had disbursed $8.35 billion to the KRG. Iraqi Kurdistan's food security allowed for substantially more of the funds to be spent on development projects than in the rest of Iraq. By the program's end in 2003 $4 billion of the KRG's oil-for-food funds remained unspent.

 

Following the removal of Saddam Hussein's administration and the subsequent violence, the three provinces fully under the Kurdistan Regional Government's control were the only three in Iraq to be ranked "secure" by the US military. The relative security and stability of the region has allowed the KRG to sign a number of investment contracts with foreign companies. In 2006 the first new oil well since the invasion of Iraq was drilled in the Kurdistan region by the Norwegian energy company DNO. Initial indications are that the oil field contains at least 100 million barrels (16,000,000 m3) of oil and will be pumping 5,000 bpd by early 2007. The KRG has signed exploration agreements with two other oil companies, Canada's Western Oil Sands and the UK's Sterling Energy.

 

The stability of the Kurdistan region has allowed it to achieve a higher level of development than other regions in Iraq. In 2004 the per capita income was 25% higher than in the rest of Iraq. Two international airports at Erbil (see Erbil International Airport and Sulaymaniyah (see Sulaimaniyah International Airport) both operate flights to Middle Eastern and European destinations. The government continues to receive a portion of the revenue from Iraq's oil exports, and the government will soon implement a unified foreign investment law. The KRG also has plans to build a media city in Erbil and free trade zones near the borders of Turkey and Iran.

 

The region still gets a cut from Iraqi-Turkish trade, plus subsidies from the United States[citation needed] and Israel[citation needed].

 

Since 2003, the stronger economy of Kurdistan has attracted around 20,000 workers from other parts of Iraq.[23] According to Iraqi president Jalal Talabani, since 2003 the number of millionaires in the Kurdish city of Silêmani has increased from 12 to 2000, reflecting the financial and economic growth of the region.[24]

  

[edit] Geography

 

A popular waterfall near Erbil.The Iraqi Kurdistan is largely mountainous, with the highest point being a 3,611 m (11,847 ft) point known locally as Cheekah Dar (black tent). There are many rivers flowing and running through mountains of the region making it distinguished by its fertile lands, plentiful water, picturesque nature.

 

The mountainous nature of Kurdistan, the difference of temperatures in its various parts, and its wealth of waters, make Kurdistan a land of agriculture and tourism. In addition to various minerals, oil in particular, which for a long time was being extracted via pipeline only in Kurdistan through Iraq.

 

The largest lake in the region is Lake Dukan.

 

The term "Northern Iraq" is a bit of a geographical ambiguity in usage. "North" typically refers to the Kurdistan Region. "Center" and "South" or "Center-South" when individually referring to the other areas of Iraq or the rest of the country that is not the Kurdistan Region. Most media sources continually refer to "North" and "Northern Iraq" as anywhere north of Baghdad.

  

[edit] Governorates

Iraqi Kurdistan is divided among seven governorates of which currently three are under the control of the Kurdistan Regional Government. These governorates are called in Kurdish parêzge. Particularly in Iraqi government documents, the term governorate is preferred:

  

Autonomous Region KurdistanThe governorates wholly under the Kurdistan Regional Government are:

1. As Sulaymaniyah (Slêmanî)

2. Erbil (Hewlêr)

3. Dahuk (Duhok)

Main article: Kirkuk status referendum, 2008

The governorates claimed totally or in part by the Kurdistan Regional Government are:

4. Kirkuk (Kerkûk) - (all)

5. Diyala - Kifri Khanaqin and Baladrooz districts

6. Ninawa - Akra, Shekhan, Al-Shikhan, Al-Hamdaniya, Tel Kaif, Tall Afar and Sinjar districts

7. Salah ad Din - Tooz district

8. Wasit - Badrah district

A referendum was scheduled to be held on 15 November 2007 to determine whether these governorates, or parts of them, will be included in the Kurdish Regional Government. The referendum is intended to cover all districts of Kirkuk Governorate, the Khanaquin and Kifri districts of Diyala Governorate, the Touz-Khur-Mati district of Salah ad Din Governorate, and the Akra and Shekan districts of Ninewa Governorate. This referendum has been postponed, first to 31 December 2007, and subsequently for up to a further six months. Kurds insist that the referendum be held as soon as possible.

  

[edit] Demographics

 

Ethnic and religious distribution of Iraq.The population is about 5-6 million. 95% of these are Kurdish Muslims who are Sunnis. There are also significant numbers of Yazidis, Kakeyís, Jews and Christians. Kurds comprise the ethnic majority in the region (about 95%) while the Turkmen, Assyrians, Armenians and Arabs who reside particularly in the western part of the area make up the rest.

  

[edit] Culture

Main article: Kurdish culture

 

A Kurdish woman makes breadKurdish culture is a group of distinctive cultural traits practiced by Kurdish people. The Kurdish culture is a legacy from the various ancient peoples who shaped modern Kurds and their society, but primarily of two layers of indigenous (Hurrian), and of the ancient Iranic (Medes).

 

Among their neighbours, the Kurdish culture is closest to Iranian culture . For example they celebrate Newroz as the new year day, which is celebrated on March 21. It is the first day of the month of Xakelêwe in Kurdish calendar and the first day of spring.[25]

  

[edit] Music

Main article: Kurdish music

Traditionally, there are three types of Kurdish classical performers - storytellers (çîrokbêj), minstrels (stranbêj) and bards (dengbêj). There was no specific music related to the Kurdish princely courts, and instead, music performed in night gatherings (şevbihêrk) is considered classical. Several musical forms are found in this genre. Many songs are epic in nature, such as the popular lawiks which are heroic ballads recounting the tales of Kurdish heroes of the past like Saladin. Heyrans are love ballads usually expressing the melancholy of separation and unfulfilled love. Lawje is a form of religious music and Payizoks are songs performed specifically in autumn. Love songs, dance music, wedding and other celebratory songs (dîlok/narînk), erotic poetry and work songs are also popular.

  

[edit] Military

Main article: Peshmerga

Peshmerga is the term used by Kurds to refer to armed Kurdish fighters, they have been labelled by some as freedom fighters. Literally meaning "those who face death" (pêş front + merg death e is) the peshmerga forces of Kurdistan have been around since the advent of the Kurdish independence movement in the early 1920s, following the collapse of the Ottoman and Qajar empires which had jointly ruled over the area known today as Kurdistan.

 

Peshmerga forces also played a significant role with coalition troops in the war against the Ba'ath government in Northern Iraq.

 

What this blackbird will not be able to do: Beatles "Blackbird - Rehearsal Take" (youtube, 2:12)

 

Matthäus Passion oder die anderen Evangelien oder scheintot, oder: eine jener Interpretationen, die sich aus dem Koran ergeben, die hier aufgezeigt werden:

"Jesus und der Islam. E01: Die Kreuzigung im Koran"

(arte / youtube 52:37)

 

Frühlingsfest bemalte Eier, Osterratschen, Hasen, Schokolade, Marzipan, Lebkuchen, Bisquit, Pinze, Colomba Pasquale, die italienische Ostertaube, Osterschinken im Brotteig...

 

Part of: "res noscenda note notiz sketch skizze material sammlung collection entwurf überlegung gedanke brainstorming musterbogen schnittmuster zwischenbilanz bestandsaufnahme rückschau vorschau" Frühlingsfest // anti-sakrale Kunst Ostern Palmsonntag Beginn Karwoche - Religion = Zwangsneurose (nach Freud) ⊃ Wiederholung ≠ Kreativität

 

9.4. 2017 #egg #ei #vogelei #vogel #blackbird #amsel #bird #fund #found #find #wiese #rasen #meadow #lawn #grass #löwenzahn #dandelion #Easter #ostern #pessach #passah #feier #fest #matthäus #matthäuspassion #fasten #palmsonntag #osterei #kleingarten #schrebergarten #allotment #garten #garden #blatt #leaf #flower #blume #blossom #blühen #verblühen #pflanze #plant #schwarz #black #weiß #white #grey #gray #grau #b&w #blau #blue #türkis #braun #brown #ebony #ebenholz #gelb #yellow #brennessel #green #grün #dead #tot #karwoche #off-white #passion #frühling #spring #week #woche

  

The Weir on the River Don at Sprotbrough, Near Doncaster, South Yorkshire. A possible source of hydro electric power with funding being looked for by the Don Gorge Strategic Partnership (DGSP)..

 

The River Kent in Kendal, Cumbria.

 

The Miller Bridge, formerly named Mill Bridge, was erected in 1818 to the design of John Rennie. It was a replacement of earlier bridges, one of which was destroyed by a flood. It joins New Road and Aynam Road.

 

The River Kent is a short river which originates in hills surrounding Kentmere, and flows for around 20 miles (32 km) into the north of Morecambe Bay. The Lake District National Park includes the upper reaches of the river within its boundaries.

 

The river passes through Kentmere, Staveley, Burneside, Kendal and Sedgwick. Near Sedgwick, the river passes through a rock gorge which produces a number of low waterfalls. This section is popular with kayakers as it offers high quality whitewater for several days after rain.

 

The village of Arnside lies alongside the Kent estuary. On high spring tides, a tidal bore known as the Arnside Bore forms in the estuary opposite Arnside. The wave is often about 0.5m high.

 

Near the source of the river is Kentmere Reservoir, which was constructed in the mid-19th century to control the flow of the river for the benefit of water mills. The river was used to power numerous mills in the past, including two at Staveley, Kentmere water mill, and also the James Cropper paper factory at Burneside. One of the weirs at Staveley produces electricity for Staveley Mill Yard via a micro hydro scheme. There is also scope for micro hydro upstream at Kentmere.

 

The river is a designated Special Area of Conservation, primarily as an important habitat for the endangered White-clawed Crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes). Fish species include salmon and trout. In the twentieth century fish ladders were constructed alongside the dams of mill-ponds to allow migratory fish to swim up to Kentmere. In 2013 DEFRA funding was announced for eel passes at Stramongate weir in Kendal and Basinghyll fish counter.

 

Photo Copyright 2012, dynamo.photography.

All rights reserved, no use without license

 

++++++ from Wikipedia +++++++++

 

Hagia Sophia (/ˈhɑːɡiə soʊˈfiːə/; from the Greek: Αγία Σοφία, pronounced [aˈʝia soˈfia], "Holy Wisdom"; Latin: Sancta Sophia or Sancta Sapientia; Turkish: Ayasofya) was a Greek Orthodox Christian patriarchal basilica (church), later an imperial mosque, and is now a museum (Ayasofya Müzesi) in Istanbul, Turkey. The Roman Empire's first Christian Cathedral, from the date of its construction in 537 AD, and until 1453, it served as an Eastern Orthodox cathedral and seat of the Patriarch of Constantinople,[1] except between 1204 and 1261, when it was converted by the Fourth Crusaders to a Roman Catholic cathedral under the Latin Empire. The building was later converted into an Ottoman mosque from 29 May 1453 until 1931. It was then secularized and opened as a museum on 1 February 1935.[2] Famous in particular for its massive dome, it is considered the epitome of Byzantine architecture[3] and is said to have "changed the history of architecture".[4] It remained the world's largest cathedral for nearly a thousand years, until Seville Cathedral was completed in 1520.

 

The current building was originally constructed as a church between 532 and 537 on the orders of the Byzantine Emperor Justinian I and was the third Church of the Holy Wisdom to occupy the site, the previous two having been destroyed by rioters. It was designed by the Greek geometers Isidore of Miletus and Anthemius of Tralles.[5] The church was dedicated to the Wisdom of God, the Logos, the second person of the Trinity,[6] its patronal feast taking place on 25 December, the commemoration of the birth of the incarnation of the Logos in Christ.[6] Although sometimes referred to as Sancta Sophia (as though it were named after Sophia the Martyr), sophia being the phonetic spelling in Latin of the Greek word for wisdom, its full name in Greek is Ναὸς της Αγίας τοῦ Θεού Σοφίας, Naos tēs Hagias tou Theou Sophias, "Shrine of the Holy Wisdom of God".[7][8] The church contained a large collection of relics and featured, among other things, a 15-metre (49 ft) silver iconostasis.[citation needed] The focal point of the Eastern Orthodox Church for nearly one thousand years, the building witnessed the excommunication of Patriarch Michael I Cerularius on the part of Humbert of Silva Candida, the papal envoy of Pope Leo IX in 1054, an act that is commonly considered the start of the East–West Schism.

 

In 1453, Constantinople was conquered by the Ottoman Empire under Mehmed the Conqueror, who ordered this main church of Orthodox Christianity converted into a mosque. Although some parts of the city of Constantinople were falling into disrepair, the cathedral was maintained with an amount of money set aside for this purpose. Nevertheless, the Christian cathedral made a strong impression on the new Ottoman rulers and they decided to convert it into a mosque.[9][10] The bells, altar, iconostasis, and other relics were destroyed and the mosaics depicting Jesus, his Mother Mary, Christian saints and angels were also destroyed or plastered over. Islamic features—such as the mihrab, minbar, and four minarets—were added. It remained a mosque until 1931, when it was closed to the public for four years. It was re-opened in 1935 as a museum by the Republic of Turkey. Hagia Sophia was, as of 2014, the second-most visited museum in Turkey, attracting almost 3.3 million visitors annually.[11] According to data released by the Turkish Culture and Tourism Ministry, Hagia Sophia was Turkey's most visited tourist attraction in 2015.[12]

 

From its initial conversion until the construction of the nearby Sultan Ahmed Mosque (Blue Mosque of Istanbul) in 1616, it was the principal mosque of Istanbul. The Byzantine architecture of the Hagia Sophia served as inspiration for many other Ottoman mosques, such as the aforementioned mosque, the Şehzade Mosque, the Süleymaniye Mosque, the Rüstem Pasha Mosque and the Kılıç Ali Pasha Complex.

 

Contents

 

1 History

1.1 Church of Constantius II

1.2 Church of Theodosius II

1.3 Basilica of the Hagia Sophia (current structure)

1.4 Mosque (1453–1935)

1.4.1 Renovation of 1847

1.5 Museum (1935–present)

2 Architecture

2.1 Narthex and portals

2.2 Upper Gallery

2.3 Dome

2.4 Minarets

3 Notable elements and decorations

3.1 Loge of the Empress

3.2 Lustration urns

3.3 Marble Door

3.4 Wishing column

3.5 Mosaics

3.5.1 19th-century restoration

3.5.2 20th-century restoration

3.5.3 Imperial Gate mosaic

3.5.4 Southwestern entrance mosaic

3.5.5 Apse mosaics

3.5.6 Emperor Alexander mosaic

3.5.7 Empress Zoe mosaic

3.5.8 Comnenus mosaic

3.5.9 Deësis mosaic

3.5.10 Northern tympanum mosaics

4 Other burials

5 Gallery

6 See also

7 References

8 Bibliography

9 Further reading

9.1 Articles

9.2 Mosaics

10 External links

 

History

Church of Constantius II

 

The first church on the site was known as the Μεγάλη Ἐκκλησία (Megálē Ekklēsíā, "Great Church"), or in Latin "Magna Ecclesia",[13][14] because of its larger dimensions in comparison to the contemporary churches in the City.[6] Inaugurated on 15 February 360 (during the reign of Constantius II) by the Arian bishop Eudoxius of Antioch,[15] it was built next to the area where the imperial palace was being developed. The nearby Hagia Eirene ("Holy Peace") church was completed earlier and served as cathedral until the Great Church was completed. Both churches acted together as the principal churches of the Byzantine Empire.

 

Writing in 440, Socrates of Constantinople claimed that the church was built by Constantius II, who was working on it in 346.[15] A tradition which is not older than the 7th or 8th century, reports that the edifice was built by Constantine the Great.[15] Zonaras reconciles the two opinions, writing that Constantius had repaired the edifice consecrated by Eusebius of Nicomedia, after it had collapsed.[15] Since Eusebius was bishop of Constantinople from 339 to 341, and Constantine died in 337, it seems possible that the first church was erected by the latter.[15] The edifice was built as a traditional Latin colonnaded basilica with galleries and a wooden roof. It was preceded by an atrium. It was claimed to be one of the world's most outstanding monuments at the time.

 

The Patriarch of Constantinople John Chrysostom came into a conflict with Empress Aelia Eudoxia, wife of the emperor Arcadius, and was sent into exile on 20 June 404. During the subsequent riots, this first church was largely burned down.[15] Nothing remains of the first church today.

Church of Theodosius II

 

A second church on the site was ordered by Theodosius II, who inaugurated it on 10 October 415. The basilica with a wooden roof was built by architect Rufinus. A fire started during the tumult of the Nika Revolt and burned the second Hagia Sophia to the ground on 13–14 January 532.

 

Several marble blocks from the second church survive to the present; among them are reliefs depicting 12 lambs representing the 12 apostles. Originally part of a monumental front entrance, they now reside in an excavation pit adjacent to the museum's entrance after they were discovered in 1935 beneath the western courtyard by A. M. Schneider. Further digging was forsaken for fear of impinging on the integrity of the building.

Remains of the second Hagia Sophia

     

Basilica of the Hagia Sophia (current structure)

Hagia Sophia

Construction of church depicted in codex Manasses Chronicle (14th century)

 

On 23 February 532, only a few weeks after the destruction of the second basilica, Emperor Justinian I decided to build a third and entirely different basilica, larger and more majestic than its predecessors.

 

Justinian chose physicist Isidore of Miletus and mathematician Anthemius of Tralles as architects; Anthemius, however, died within the first year of the endeavor. The construction is described in the Byzantine historian Procopius' On Buildings (Peri ktismatōn, Latin: De aedificiis). Columns and other marbles were brought from all over the empire, throughout the Mediterranean. The idea of these columns being spoils from cities such as Rome and Ephesus is a later invention.[16] Even though they were made specifically for Hagia Sophia, the columns show variations in size.[17] More than ten thousand people were employed. This new church was contemporaneously recognized as a major work of architecture. The theories of Heron of Alexandria may have been utilized to address the challenges presented by building such an expansive dome over so large a space.[citation needed] The emperor, together with the Patriarch Menas, inaugurated the new basilica on 27 December 537 – 5 years and 10 months after construction start – with much pomp.[18][19][20] The mosaics inside the church were, however, only completed under the reign of Emperor Justin II (565–578).

 

Hagia Sophia was the seat of the Orthodox patriarch of Constantinople and a principal setting for Byzantine imperial ceremonies, such as coronations. Like other churches throughout Christendom, the basilica offered sanctuary from persecution to outlaws.

 

Earthquakes in August 553 and on 14 December 557 caused cracks in the main dome and eastern half-dome. The main dome collapsed completely during a subsequent earthquake on 7 May 558,[21] destroying the ambon, altar, and ciborium. The collapse was due mainly to the unfeasibly high bearing load and to the enormous shear load of the dome, which was too flat.[18] These caused the deformation of the piers which sustained the dome.[18] The emperor ordered an immediate restoration. He entrusted it to Isidorus the Younger, nephew of Isidore of Miletus, who used lighter materials and elevated the dome by "30 feet"[18] (about 6.25 meters or 20.5 feet)[clarification needed] – giving the building its current interior height of 55.6 meters (182 ft).[22] Moreover, Isidorus changed the dome type, erecting a ribbed dome with pendentives, whose diameter lay between 32.7 and 33.5 m.[18] Under Justinian's orders, eight Corinthian columns were disassembled from Baalbek, Lebanon, and shipped to Constantinople around 560.[23] This reconstruction, giving the church its present 6th-century form, was completed in 562. The Byzantine poet Paul the Silentiary composed a long epic poem (still extant), known as Ekphrasis, for the rededication of the basilica presided over by Patriarch Eutychius on 23 December 562.

The vaulting of the nave. (annotations)

 

In 726, the emperor Leo the Isaurian issued a series of edicts against the veneration of images, ordering the army to destroy all icons – ushering in the period of Byzantine iconoclasm. At that time, all religious pictures and statues were removed from the Hagia Sophia. After a brief reprieve under Empress Irene (797–802), the iconoclasts made a comeback. The Emperor Theophilus (829–842) had two-winged bronze doors with his monograms installed at the southern entrance of the church.

 

The basilica suffered damage, first in a great fire in 859, and again in an earthquake on 8 January 869, that made one of the half-domes collapse. Emperor Basil I ordered the church repaired.

 

After the great earthquake of 25 October 989, which collapsed the Western dome arch, Emperor Basil II asked for the Armenian architect Trdat, creator of the cathedrals of Ani and Argina, to direct the repairs.[24] He erected again and reinforced the fallen dome arch, and rebuilt the west side of the dome with 15 dome ribs.[25] The extent of the damage required six years of repair and reconstruction; the church was re-opened on 13 May 994. At the end of the reconstruction, the church's decorations were renovated, including the addition of four immense paintings of cherubs; a new depiction of Christ on the dome; a burial cloth of Christ shown on Fridays, and on the apse a new depiction of the Virgin Mary holding Jesus, between the apostles Peter and Paul.[26] On the great side arches were painted the prophets and the teachers of the church.[26]

 

In his book De caerimoniis aulae Byzantinae ("Book of Ceremonies"), Emperor Constantine VII (913–919) wrote a detailed account of the ceremonies held in the Hagia Sophia by the emperor and the patriarch.

 

Upon the capture of Constantinople during the Fourth Crusade, the church was ransacked and desecrated by the Crusaders, as described by the Byzantine historian Niketas Choniates. During the Latin occupation of Constantinople (1204–1261) the church became a Roman Catholic cathedral. Baldwin I of Constantinople was crowned emperor on 16 May 1204 in Hagia Sophia, at a ceremony which closely followed Byzantine practices. Enrico Dandolo, the Doge of Venice who commanded the sack and invasion of the city by the Latin Crusaders in 1204, is buried inside the church, probably in the upper Eastern gallery. In the 19th century an Italian restoration team placed a cenotaph marker near the probable location, which is still visible today. The marker is frequently mistaken by tourists as being a medieval marker of the actual tomb of the doge. The real tomb was destroyed by the Ottomans after the conquest of Constantinople in 1453 and subsequent conversion of Hagia Sophia into a mosque.[27]

 

After the recapture in 1261 by the Byzantines, the church was in a dilapidated state. In 1317, emperor Andronicus II ordered four new buttresses (Pyramídas, Greek: "Πυραμίδας") to be built in the eastern and northern parts of the church, financing them with the inheritance of his deceased wife, Irene.[28] New cracks developed in the dome after the earthquake of October 1344, and several parts of the building collapsed on 19 May 1346; consequently, the church was closed until 1354, when repairs were undertaken by architects Astras and Peralta.

Mosque (1453–1935)

 

Constantinople fell to the attacking Ottoman forces on the 29th of May in 1453. In accordance with the traditional custom at the time, Sultan Mehmet II allowed his troops and his entourage three full days of unbridled pillage and looting in the city shortly after it was captured. Once the three days passed, he would then claim its remaining contents for himself.[29][30] Hagia Sophia was not exempted from the pillage and looting and specifically became its focal point as the invaders believed it to contain the greatest treasures and valuables of the city.[31] Shortly after Constantinople's defenses collapsed and the Ottoman troops entered the city victoriously, the pillagers and looters made their way to the Hagia Sophia and battered down its doors before storming in.[32] All throughout the period of the siege of Constantinople, the trapped worshipers of the city participated in the Divine Liturgy and Prayer of the Hours at the Hagia Sophia and the church formed a safe-haven and a refuge for many of those who were unable to contribute to the city's defense, which comprised women, children, the elderly and the sick and the wounded.[33][34] Being hopelessly trapped in the church, the many congregants and yet more refugees inside became spoils-of-war to be divided amongst the triumphant invaders. The building was significantly desecrated and looted to a large extent, with the helpless occupants who sought shelter within the church being either enslaved, physically and sexually violated or simply slaughtered.[31] While most of the elderly and the infirm/wounded and sick were killed, a vast number of women and girls were raped and the remainder (mainly teenage males and young boys) were chained up and sold off into slavery.[32] The church's priests and religious personnel continued to perform Christian rites, prayers and ceremonies until finally being forced to stop by the invaders.[32] When Sultan Mehmet II and his accompanying entourage entered the church, he insisted that it should be converted into a mosque at once. One of the ulama present then climbed up the church's pulpit and recited out the Shahada, thus marking the beginning of the gradual conversion of the church into a mosque.[28][35]

Fountain (Şadırvan) for ritual ablutions

 

As described by several Western visitors (such as the Córdoban nobleman Pero Tafur[36] and the Florentine Cristoforo Buondelmonti),[37] the church was in a dilapidated state, with several of its doors fallen from their hinges; Mehmed II ordered a renovation as well as the conversion. Mehmet attended the first Friday prayer in the mosque on 1 June 1453.[38] Aya Sofya became the first imperial mosque of Istanbul.[39] To the corresponding Waqf were endowed most of the existing houses in the city and the area of the future Topkapı Palace.[28] From 1478, 2,360 shops, 1,300 houses, 4 caravanserais, 30 boza shops, and 23 shops of sheep heads and trotters gave their income to the foundation.[40] Through the imperial charters of 1520 (AH 926) and 1547 (AH 954) shops and parts of the Grand Bazaar and other markets were added to the foundation.[28]

 

Before 1481 a small minaret was erected on the southwest corner of the building, above the stair tower.[28] Later, the subsequent sultan, Bayezid II (1481–1512), built another minaret at the northeast corner.[28] One of these collapsed after the earthquake of 1509,[28] and around the middle of the 16th century they were both replaced by two diagonally opposite minarets built at the east and west corners of the edifice.[28]

The mihrab located in the apse where the altar used to stand, pointing towards Mecca

 

In the 16th century the sultan Suleiman the Magnificent (1520–1566) brought back two colossal candlesticks from his conquest of Hungary. They were placed on either side of the mihrab. During the reign of Selim II (1566–1574), the building started showing signs of fatigue and was extensively strengthened with the addition of structural supports to its exterior by Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan, who was also an earthquake engineer.[41] In addition to strengthening the historic Byzantine structure, Sinan built the two additional large minarets at the western end of the building, the original sultan's lodge, and the Türbe (mausoleum) of Selim II to the southeast of the building in 1576-7 / AH 984. In order to do that, parts of the Patriarchate at the south corner of the building were pulled down the previous year.[28] Moreover, the golden crescent was mounted on the top of the dome,[28] while a respect zone 35 arşin (about 24 m) wide was imposed around the building, pulling down all the houses which in the meantime had nested around it.[28] Later his türbe hosted also 43 tombs of Ottoman princes.[28] In 1594 / AH 1004 Mimar (court architect) Davud Ağa built the türbe of Murad III (1574–1595), where the Sultan and his Valide, Safiye Sultan were later buried.[28] The octagonal mausoleum of their son Mehmed III (1595–1603) and his Valide was built next to it in 1608 / AH 1017 by royal architect Dalgiç Mehmet Aĝa.[42] His son Mustafa I (1617–1618; 1622–1623) converted the baptistery into his türbe.[42]

 

Murad III had also two large alabaster Hellenistic urns transported from Pergamon and placed on two sides of the nave.[28]

 

In 1717, under Sultan Ahmed III (1703–1730), the crumbling plaster of the interior was renovated, contributing indirectly to the preservation of many mosaics, which otherwise would have been destroyed by mosque workers.[42] In fact, it was usual for them to sell mosaics stones – believed to be talismans – to the visitors.[42] Sultan Mahmud I ordered the restoration of the building in 1739 and added a medrese (a Koranic school, now the library of the museum), an Imaret (soup kitchen for distribution to the poor) and a library, and in 1740 a Şadirvan (fountain for ritual ablutions), thus transforming it into a külliye, i.e. a social complex. At the same time a new sultan's lodge and a new mihrab were built inside.

Renovation of 1847

 

Restoration of the Hagia Sophia was ordered by Sultan Abdülmecid and completed by eight hundred workers between 1847 and 1849, under the supervision of the Swiss-Italian architect brothers Gaspare and Giuseppe Fossati. The brothers consolidated the dome and vaults, straightened the columns, and revised the decoration of the exterior and the interior of the building. The mosaics in the upper gallery were exposed and cleaned, although many were re-covered "for protection against further damage". The old chandeliers were replaced by new pendant ones. New gigantic circular-framed disks or medallions were hung on columns. These were inscribed with the names of Allah, Muhammad, the first four caliphs Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali, and the two grandchildren of Muhammad: Hassan and Hussain, by the calligrapher Kazasker Mustafa İzzed Effendi (1801–1877). In 1850 the architects Fossati built a new sultan's lodge or loge in a Neo-Byzantine style connected to the royal pavilion behind the mosque. They also renovated the minbar and mihrab. Outside the main building, the minarets were repaired and altered so that they were of equal height.[43][44] A timekeeper's building and a new madrasah were built. When the restoration was finished, the mosque was re-opened with ceremonial pomp on 13 July 1849.[citation needed]

Museum (1935–present)

The interior undergoing restoration

 

In 1935, the first Turkish President and founder of the Republic of Turkey, Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, transformed the building into a museum. The carpets were removed and marble floor decorations such as the Omphalion appeared for the first time in centuries, while the white plaster covering many of the mosaics was removed. Nevertheless, the condition of the structure deteriorated, and the World Monuments Fund placed Hagia Sophia on 1996 World Monuments Watch, and again in 1998. The building's copper roof had cracked, causing water to leak down over the fragile frescoes and mosaics. Moisture entered from below as well. Rising ground water had raised the level of humidity within the monument, creating an unstable environment for stone and paint. The WMF secured a series of grants from 1997 to 2002 for the restoration of the dome. The first stage of work involved the structural stabilization and repair of the cracked roof, which was undertaken with the participation of the Turkish Ministry of Culture. The second phase, the preservation of the dome's interior, afforded the opportunity to employ and train young Turkish conservators in the care of mosaics. By 2006, the WMF project was complete, though many other areas of Hagia Sophia continue to require significant stability improvement, restoration and conservation.[45] Haghia Sophia is currently (2014) the second most visited museum in Turkey, attracting almost 3.3 million visitors annually.[11]

 

Although use of the complex as a place of worship (mosque or church) was strictly prohibited,[46] in 2006 the Turkish government allowed the allocation of a small room in the museum complex to be used as a prayer room for Christian and Muslim museum staff,[47] and since 2013 from the minarets of the museum the muezzin sings the call to prayer twice per day, in the afternoon.[48]

 

In 2007, Greek American politician Chris Spirou launched an international organization "Free Agia Sophia Council" championing the cause of restoring the building to its original function as a Christian church.[49][50][51] Since the early 2010s, several campaigns and government high officials, notably Turkey's deputy prime minister Bülent Arınç in November 2013, have been demanding that Hagia Sophia be converted into a mosque again.[52][53][54] In 2015, in retaliation for the acknowledgment by Pope Francis of the Armenian Genocide, the Mufti of Ankara, Mefail Hızlı, stated that he believes the conversion of Hagia Sophia into a mosque will be accelerated.[55][56]

 

On July 1, 2016, Muslim prayers were held again in the Hagia Sophia for the first time in 85 years.[57]

 

On May 13, 2017, a large group of people organized by the Anatolia Youth Association (AGD), gathered in front of Hagia Sophia and prayed the morning prayer with a call for the reconversion of the museum into a mosque.[58] On June 21, 2017, Presidency of Religious Affairs (Diyanet) organized a special program, which included the recitation of the Quran and prayers in Hagia Sofia, to mark the Laylat al-Qadr, the program was broadcast live by state-run television TRT.[59]

Architecture

Section of a "restored" design

a) Plan of the gallery (upper half)

b) Plan of the ground floor (lower half)

 

Hagia Sophia is one of the greatest surviving examples of Byzantine architecture.[3] Its interior is decorated with mosaics and marble pillars and coverings of great artistic value. The temple itself was so richly and artistically decorated that Justinian proclaimed, "Solomon, I have outdone thee!" (Νενίκηκά σε Σολομών). Justinian himself had overseen the completion of the greatest cathedral ever built up to that time, and it was to remain the largest cathedral for 1,000 years up until the completion of the cathedral in Seville in Spain.[60]

 

Justinian's basilica was at once the culminating architectural achievement of late antiquity and the first masterpiece of Byzantine architecture. Its influence, both architecturally and liturgically, was widespread and enduring in the Eastern Orthodox, Roman Catholic, and Muslim worlds alike.

 

The vast interior has a complex structure. The nave is covered by a central dome which at its maximum is 55.6 m (182 ft 5 in) from floor level and rests on an arcade of 40 arched windows. Repairs to its structure have left the dome somewhat elliptical, with the diameter varying between 31.24 and 30.86 m (102 ft 6 in and 101 ft 3 in).

 

At the western entrance side and eastern liturgical side, there are arched openings extended by half domes of identical diameter to the central dome, carried on smaller semi-domed exedras; a hierarchy of dome-headed elements built up to create a vast oblong interior crowned by the central dome, with a clear span of 76.2 m (250 ft).[3]

 

Interior surfaces are sheathed with polychrome marbles, green and white with purple porphyry, and gold mosaics. The exterior, clad in stucco, was tinted yellow and red during restorations in the 19th century at the direction of the Fossati architects.

Narthex and portals

 

The Imperial Gate was the main entrance between the exo- and esonarthex. It was reserved exclusively for the Emperor. The Byzantine mosaic above the portal depicts Christ and an unnamed emperor. A long ramp from the northern part of the outer narthex leads up to the upper gallery.

Upper Gallery

West side of the upper gallery

 

The upper gallery is laid out in a horseshoe shape that encloses the nave until the apse. Several mosaics are preserved in the upper gallery, an area traditionally reserved for the Empress and her court. The best-preserved mosaics are located in the southern part of the gallery.

 

The upper gallery contains runic graffiti presumed to be from the Varangian Guard.[citation needed]

Dome

Cupola dome, semi-dome, and apse

View upward to domes. See Commons file for annotations.

 

The dome of Hagia Sophia has spurred particular interest for many art historians, architects and engineers because of the innovative way the original architects envisioned it. The dome is carried on four spherical triangular pendentives, one of the first large-scale uses of them. The pendentives are the corners of the square base of the dome, which curve upwards into the dome to support it, restraining the lateral forces of the dome and allowing its weight to flow downwards.[61][62] They were reinforced with large buttresses during Byzantine and later during Ottoman times, under the guidance of the architect Sinan. A total of 24 buttresses were added.[63]

 

The weight of the dome remained a problem for most of the building's existence. The original cupola collapsed entirely after the earthquake of 558; in 563 a new dome was built by Isidore the younger, a nephew of Isidore of Miletus. Unlike the original, this included 40 ribs and was slightly taller, in order to lower the lateral forces on the church walls. A larger section of the second dome collapsed as well, in two episodes, so that today only two sections of the present dome, in the north and south side, still date from the 562 reconstruction. Of the whole dome's 40 ribs, the surviving north section contains eight ribs, while the south section includes six ribs.[64]

 

Although this design stabilizes the dome and the surrounding walls and arches, the actual construction of the walls of Hagia Sophia weakened the overall structure. The bricklayers used more mortar than brick, weakening the walls. The structure would have been more stable if the builders at least let the mortar cure before they began the next layer; however, they did not do this. When the dome was erected, its weight caused the walls to lean outward because of the wet mortar underneath. When Isidore the Younger rebuilt the fallen cupola, he had first to build up the interior of the walls to make them vertical again. Additionally, the architect raised the height of the rebuilt dome by approximately six m (20 feet) so that the lateral forces would not be as strong and its weight would be transmitted more effectively down into the walls. Moreover, he shaped the new cupola like a scalloped shell or the inside of an umbrella, with ribs that extend from the top down to the base. These ribs allow the weight of the dome to flow between the windows, down the pendentives, and ultimately to the foundation.[citation needed]

 

Hagia Sophia is famous for the light that reflects everywhere in the interior of the nave, giving the dome the appearance of hovering above. This effect was achieved by inserting forty windows around the base of the original structure. Moreover, the insertion of the windows in the dome structure lowers its weight.[citation needed]

Minarets

 

The minarets were an Ottoman addition, and not part of the original church's Byzantine design. One of the minarets (at southwest) was built from red brick while the other three were built from white limestone and sandstone, of which the slender northeast column was erected by Sultan Bayezid II while the two larger minarets to the west were erected by Sultan Selim II and designed by the famous Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan.[65]

Notable elements and decorations

 

Originally, under Justinian's reign, the interior decorations consisted of abstract designs on marble slabs on the walls and floors, as well as mosaics on the curving vaults. Of these mosaics, one can still see the two archangels Gabriel and Michael in the spandrels of the bema. There were already a few figurative decorations, as attested by the eulogy of Paul the Silentiary. The spandrels of the gallery are revetted in opus sectile, showing patterns and figures of flowers and birds in precisely cut pieces of white marble set against a background of black marble. In later stages figurative mosaics were added, which were destroyed during the iconoclastic controversy (726–843). Present mosaics are from the post-iconoclastic period. The number of treasures, relics and miracle-working, painted icons of the Hagia Sophia grew progressively richer into an amazing collection.

 

Apart from the mosaics, a large number of figurative decorations were added during the second half of the 9th century: an image of Christ in the central dome; Orthodox saints, prophets and Church Fathers in the tympana below; historical figures connected with this church, such as Patriarch Ignatius; some scenes from the gospel in the galleries. Basil II let artists paint on each of the four pendentives a giant six-winged Cherub.[26] The Ottomans covered their face with a golden halo,[26] but in 2009 one of them was restored to the original state.[66]

Loge of the Empress

 

The Loge of the Empress is located in the centre of the upper enclosure, or gallery, of the Hagia Sophia. From there the empress and the court-ladies would watch the proceedings down below. A round, green stone marks the spot where the throne of the empress stood.[67][68]

Lustration urns

 

Two huge marble lustration (ritual purification) urns were brought from Pergamon during the reign of Sultan Murad III. From the Hellenistic period, they are carved from single blocks of marble.[28]

Marble Door

 

The Marble Door inside the Hagia Sophia is located in the southern upper enclosure, or gallery. It was used by the participants in synods, they entered and left the meeting chamber through this door.

Wishing column

 

At the northwest of the building there is a column with a hole in the middle covered by bronze plates. This column goes by different names; the perspiring column, the wishing column, the sweating column or the crying column. The column is said to be damp when touched and have supernatural powers.[69] The legend states that since St. Gregory the Miracle Worker appeared at the column in year 1200, the column is moist. It is believed that touching the moisture cures many illnesses.[70][71]

Notable elements of the Hagia Sophia

The Loge of the Empress. The columns are made of green Thessalian stone.

Lustration urn from Pergamon

Marble Door

The wishing column

Mosaics

Ceiling decoration showing original Christian cross still visible through the later aniconic decoration

 

The church was richly decorated with mosaics throughout the centuries. They either depicted the Virgin Mother, Jesus, saints, or emperors and empresses. Other parts were decorated in a purely decorative style with geometric patterns.

 

The mosaics however for their most part date to after the end of the Byzantine Iconoclasm of 800 AD.

 

During the Sack of Constantinople in 1204, the Latin Crusaders vandalized valuable items in every important Byzantine structure of the city, including the golden mosaics of the Hagia Sophia. Many of these items were shipped to Venice, whose Doge, Enrico Dandolo, had organized the invasion and sack of Constantinople after an agreement with Prince Alexios Angelos, the son of a deposed Byzantine emperor.

19th-century restoration

 

Following the building's conversion into a mosque in 1453, many of its mosaics were covered with plaster, due to Islam's ban on representational imagery. This process was not completed at once, and reports exist from the 17th century in which travellers note that they could still see Christian images in the former church. In 1847–49, the building was restored by two Swiss-Italian Fossati brothers, Gaspare and Giuseppe, and Sultan Abdülmecid allowed them to also document any mosaics they might discover during this process which were later archived in Swiss libraries.[72] This work did not include repairing the mosaics and after recording the details about an image, the Fossatis painted it over again. The Fossatis restored the mosaics of the two hexapteryga (singular Greek: ἑεξαπτέρυγον, pr. hexapterygon, six-winged angel; it is uncertain whether they are seraphim or cherubim) located on the two east pendentives, covering their faces again before the end of the restoration.[73] The other two placed on the west pendentives are copies in paint created by the Fossatis, since they could find no surviving remains of them.[73] As in this case, the architects reproduced in paint damaged decorative mosaic patterns, sometimes redesigning them in the process. The Fossati records are the primary sources about a number of mosaic images now believed to have been completely or partially destroyed in the 1894 Istanbul earthquake. These include a mosaic over a now-unidentified Door of the Poor, a large image of a jewel-encrusted cross, and a large number of images of angels, saints, patriarchs, and church fathers. Most of the missing images were located in the building's two tympana.

 

One mosaic they documented is Christ Pantocrator in a circle, which would indicate it to be a ceiling mosaic, possibly even of the main dome which was later covered and painted over with Islamic calligraphy that expounds God as the light of the universe. The drawings of the Hagia Sophia mosaics are today kept in the Cantonal Archive of Ticino.[74]

20th-century restoration

 

A large number of mosaics were uncovered in the 1930s by a team from the Byzantine Institute of America led by Thomas Whittemore. The team chose to let a number of simple cross images remain covered by plaster, but uncovered all major mosaics found.

 

Because of its long history as both a church and a mosque, a particular challenge arises in the restoration process. Christian iconographic mosaics can be uncovered, but often at the expense of important and historic Islamic art. Restorers have attempted to maintain a balance between both Christian and Islamic cultures. In particular, much controversy rests upon whether the Islamic calligraphy on the dome of the cathedral should be removed, in order to permit the underlying Pantocrator mosaic of Christ as Master of the World, to be exhibited (assuming the mosaic still exists).[75]

Imperial Gate mosaic

Imperial gate mosaic

 

The Imperial Gate mosaic is located in the tympanum above that gate, which was used only by the emperors when entering the church. Based on style analysis, it has been dated to the late 9th or early 10th century. The emperor with a nimbus or halo could possibly represent emperor Leo VI the Wise or his son Constantine VII Porphyrogenitus bowing down before Christ Pantocrator, seated on a jeweled throne, giving His blessing and holding in His left hand an open book.[76] The text on the book reads as follows: "Peace be with you. I am the light of the world". (John 20:19; 20:26; 8:12) On each side of Christ's shoulders is a circular medallion: on His left the Archangel Gabriel, holding a staff, on His right His Mother Mary.[77]

Looking from Victoria Bridge which carries Sandes Avenue down the River Kent in Kendal, Cumbria.

 

The original wooden bridge connecting the town and the castle corn mill was repeatedly carried away by floods until 1743, when it was rebuilt entirely in stone.

 

The present bridge was designed by the architect Francis Webster for a new canal which terminated in Kendal, where the canal head basin included covered wharves, warehouses, stables and workers’ cottages. He also designed the bridge over Castle Mill head-race, the house seen opposite (originally the offices and showrooms of a marble-polishing mill, and the iron railings on this side. The foundation stone was laid in May 1818; the bridge was opened in November 1818, and the canal operating by June 1819.

 

The River Kent is a short river which originates in hills surrounding Kentmere, and flows for around 20 miles (32 km) into the north of Morecambe Bay. The Lake District National Park includes the upper reaches of the river within its boundaries.

 

The river passes through Kentmere, Staveley, Burneside, Kendal and Sedgwick. Near Sedgwick, the river passes through a rock gorge which produces a number of low waterfalls. This section is popular with kayakers as it offers high quality whitewater for several days after rain.

 

The village of Arnside lies alongside the Kent estuary. On high spring tides, a tidal bore known as the Arnside Bore forms in the estuary opposite Arnside. The wave is often about 0.5m high.

 

Near the source of the river is Kentmere Reservoir, which was constructed in the mid-19th century to control the flow of the river for the benefit of water mills. The river was used to power numerous mills in the past, including two at Staveley, Kentmere water mill, and also the James Cropper paper factory at Burneside. One of the weirs at Staveley produces electricity for Staveley Mill Yard via a micro hydro scheme. There is also scope for micro hydro upstream at Kentmere.

 

The river is a designated Special Area of Conservation, primarily as an important habitat for the endangered White-clawed Crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes). Fish species include salmon and trout. In the twentieth century fish ladders were constructed alongside the dams of mill-ponds to allow migratory fish to swim up to Kentmere. In 2013 DEFRA funding was announced for eel passes at Stramongate weir in Kendal and Basinghyll fish counter.

 

Information partly gained from www.visitcumbria.com/sl/kendal-bridges/

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sefton_Park

   

Sefton Park is a public park in south Liverpool, England. The park is in a district of the same name within the Liverpool City Council Ward of Mossley Hill, and roughly within the historic bounds of the large area of Toxteth Park. Neighbouring districts include modern-day Toxteth, Aigburth, Mossley Hill, and St Michael's Hamlet.

The park is 235 acres (0.95 km2) in area[1] and has been designated a Grade II* Historic Park by English Heritage[citation needed] making it one of three such parks in the city, along with the nearby Princes Park and St James Cemetery.

   

History

 

The site of the park was once within the boundaries of the 2,300-acre (9.3 km2) Royal Deer Park of Toxteth which became "disparked" in 1591. The land eventually came under the control of the Earl of Sefton.

As Toxteth rapidly grew, the green fields and woodland of Toxteth Park grew into narrow streets and courts packed tiny uninhabitable houses where the air was stagnant, there was little or no sanitation and running water consisted of one tap in the middle of the court. At the same time there was demand for large aristocratic mansions in the South of Liverpool. In 1862 the Borough Council Engineer recommended a site for this development. An Act of Parliament[which?] in 1864 permitted corporations to borrow sums of money up to half a million pounds to be repaid over thirty years. This allowed steps to be taken towards the purchase of land for Sefton Park. In 1867 the Council purchased 375 acres (1.52 km2) of land for the development of the park for £250,000 from the Earl of Sefton.

Even though it was recognised by politicians that clean, fresh open spaces were now regarded as necessity there was an outcry from the public that £250,000 was extravagant and wasteful. As with neighbouring Princes Park plots of land on the perimeter were sold for housing which helped in the funding of the layout of the park.

Soon after, a European competition was launched to design a grand park. 29 entries were received and the competition was won by a French landscape architect Édouard André with work on the design also undertaken by Liverpool architect Lewis Hornblower. The park was opened on 20 May 1872 by Prince Arthur who dedicated it "for the health and enjoyment of the townspeople".

 

The Park design is based on circular, oval and marginal footpaths, framing the green spaces, with two natural watercourses flowing into the 7-acre (0.028 km2) man-made lake. Hornblower’s designs for the park lodges and entrances were elaborate structures, and included follies[specify], shelters and boathouses. The parkland itself included a deer park and the strong water theme was reflected by the presence of pools, waterfalls and stepping stones. The Park, its exclusive villas and ornamentation reflected the grandeur of the City during its mid Victorian period when Liverpool was the second city of the Empire.

The perimeter road's outer edge is lined with Victorian buildings constructed to around 1890, and Edwardian houses. Additional development of the park continued with the construction of the iron bridge in 1873.

The park had a gallops[specify] which led to it being nicknamed "the Hyde Park of the North" but was always referred to by locals as "The Jockey Sands".[citation needed]

A major park improvement programme was undertaken in 1983 prior to International Garden Festival.

   

Sporting uses

 

Sefton Park Cricket Club moved their ground to the park in 1876 and WG Grace was amongst the three Gloucestershire players who made up a "South of England" team who won there in 1877. The park also has tennis courts, a bowling green, a popular jogging circuit and local league football is a regular weekend fixture. It is also used every November to hold the European Cross Country Championships trial races for the British team.

  

Entertainment uses

 

The park has also been a site for Royal Liverpool Philharmonic Orchestra's summer pops season, Africa Oyé and the Moscow State Circus. Bands have also played at the park in the 80s such as Echo and the Bunneymen.

   

Restoration

 

In 2005 the park received provisional approval for a major £5 million Heritage Lottery funded renovation project which involves the refurbishment and improvement of many of the park's features. The work began in June 2007 was expected to be completed in summer 2009. This work was very controversial with some regular users of the park as it included destroying trees and breeding sites of birds.[2] The work led to the formation of the "Friends of Sefton Park" campaigns.

   

Notable features of the park

 

Palm House

 

This is a Grade II* three-tier dome conservatory palm house designed and built by MacKenzie and Moncur of Edinburgh which opened in 1896. Liverpool millionaire Henry Yates Thompson (the great nephew of the founder of Princes Park) gifted £10,000 to the city to fund the construction. It was designed in the tradition of Joseph Paxton's glass houses and was stocked originally with a rich collection of exotic plants.

During the Liverpool Blitz of May 1941 a bomb fell nearby and shattered the glass. It was reglazed in 1950 at a cost of £6,163 with costs covered by War Restoration funds. A period of decline and deterioration culminated in its closure in the 1980s on grounds of safety.

In June 1992, a public meeting was held highlighting the dereliction and calling for restoration. A petition was presented to the City Council by what had become the "Save the Palm House" campaign. A public fund raising campaign was established, with a "sponsor a pane" programme generating over £35,000. This led directly to the conversion of Save the Palm House into a registered charity (Friends of Sefton Park Palm House). The Palm House was partially repaired and reopened in 1993. It was fully restored at a cost of £3.5 million with Heritage Lottery and European funding and reopened in September 2001. It is now both a popular visitor attraction offering free and paid-for public entertainment and is venue for hire.

The eight ‘corners’ of the Palm House are marked by statues by the French sculptor Leon-Joseph Chavalliaud. These include explorers Captain Cook, Christopher Columbus, navigators Gerardus Mercator and Henry the Navigator, botanists and explorers Charles Darwin, Carl Linnaeus and John Parkinson and landscape architect Andre le Notre. Inside the Palm House are two sculptures by Benjamin Edward Spence "Highland Mary" and "The Angel's Whisper".

The grounds of the Palm House feature a statue of Peter Pan which was one of the last works by the British sculptor Sir George Frampton. This is Grade II listed and is a replica of a similar statue given as a gift for the visiting public to Kensington Gardens by author J.M. Barrie. The statue was donated to the park by George Audley in 1928 and was unveiled in the presence of Barrie. It originally sat in Sefton Park but was damaged in the 1990s. It was restored at Liverpool's Conservation Centre, and returned to the more secure location of the Palm House's grounds in December 2005.

   

Shaftesbury Memorial and Eros Fountain

 

This is Grade II listed and situated in the centre of the Park next to the cafe and former site of the aviary. The fountain, made from bronze and aluminium, was unveiled in 1932 and is a replica of a memorial to Lord Shaftesbury created by Sir Alfred Gilbert in London's Piccadilly Circus. It was restored in 2008 with a new aluminium Eros statue replacing the original which now resides in Liverpool's Conservation Centre.

   

Grotto

 

An artificial cave also known as Old Nick's Caves. This was built around 1870 by French rockwork specialist M. Combaz. It includes a waterfall which flows into a mirror pond.

  

Other statues and facilities

 

The park features a Gothic drinking fountain and several prominent statues including a memorial to William Rathbone V by Sir Thomas Brock unveiled in 1887, and an obelisk, the Samuel Smith memorial located by the principal entrance to the Park. There is a bandstand, popular since the Victorian era, which is said[by whom?] to be the inspiration for The Beatles' song Sgt Peppers Lonely Hearts Club Band. An iron bridge was opened in 1873 which spans the Fairy Glen. There is a cafe in the centre of the park called the Aviary Cafe and a pirate themed children's play area opened in 2009.

  

Former features of the park

 

Aviary

An aviary was introduced to the park in 1901 and was home to many exotic birds. After falling into disuse in the 1990s, the old cages were removed during the restoration project and replaced with a new curved viewing point overlooking new outside planting.

 

The Concert

The park also boasted a small open-air theatre – "The Concert" – near the café which featured singers, magicians and talent contests to entertain local children during the summer holidays. This was removed in the 1970s.

 

Boating lake

The lake was a popular venue for boating until the 1970s, with a jetty and boat hire facilities. The lake was totally emptied in 2007 for the extensive renovation work and all of the fish (which included specimen weights of carp, tench, roach, pike and golden orf)[citation needed] were caught with large nets and sent to various locations across the UK. Following its restoration, the lake was refilled in 2010. Turtles have also been spotted in the lake.

  

Others

There was a small pirate ship located in one of the lakes until the early 1990s when it was removed due to falling into disrepair.

 

Money-fund assets fell by $2 billion in 9th weekly drop

Wall Street Journal. (Eastern edition). New York, N.Y.: Feb 4, 1983. pg. 2

 

Assets of money funds fell $2 billion in one week, to $197.4 billion, continuing the outflow of funds into the new bank and thrift MMAs. Although the ICI predicts that rates on the bank accounts will fall to the extent that the money lost to the MMAs will flow back to the funds, banks are now offering 8-10.5% whereas average fund yields are 7.81% (seven-day) and 7.93% (30-day).

Looking towards Miller Bridge down the River Kent in Kendal, Cumbria.

 

The Miller Bridge, formerly named Mill Bridge, was erected in 1818 to the design of John Rennie. It was a replacement of earlier bridges, one of which was destroyed by a flood. It joins New Road and Aynam Road.

 

The River Kent is a short river which originates in hills surrounding Kentmere, and flows for around 20 miles (32 km) into the north of Morecambe Bay. The Lake District National Park includes the upper reaches of the river within its boundaries.

 

The river passes through Kentmere, Staveley, Burneside, Kendal and Sedgwick. Near Sedgwick, the river passes through a rock gorge which produces a number of low waterfalls. This section is popular with kayakers as it offers high quality whitewater for several days after rain.

 

The village of Arnside lies alongside the Kent estuary. On high spring tides, a tidal bore known as the Arnside Bore forms in the estuary opposite Arnside. The wave is often about 0.5m high.

 

Near the source of the river is Kentmere Reservoir, which was constructed in the mid-19th century to control the flow of the river for the benefit of water mills. The river was used to power numerous mills in the past, including two at Staveley, Kentmere water mill, and also the James Cropper paper factory at Burneside. One of the weirs at Staveley produces electricity for Staveley Mill Yard via a micro hydro scheme. There is also scope for micro hydro upstream at Kentmere.

 

The river is a designated Special Area of Conservation, primarily as an important habitat for the endangered White-clawed Crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes). Fish species include salmon and trout. In the twentieth century fish ladders were constructed alongside the dams of mill-ponds to allow migratory fish to swim up to Kentmere. In 2013 DEFRA funding was announced for eel passes at Stramongate weir in Kendal and Basinghyll fish counter.

 

Information partly gained from www.visitcumbria.com/sl/kendal-bridges/

 

The Slipway, Underfall Yard, Bristol Harbourside.

In the early C19th, the engineer, William Jessop was engaged by the Bristol Dock Company to create a non-tidal Floating Harbour to combat continuing problems with ships being grounded at low tide. With his system, which was completed in 1809, water was trapped behind lock gates so ships could remain floating at all times, unaffected by the state of the tide on the river. Part of the project included building a dam at the Underfall Yard with a weir to allow surplus river water to flow into the New Cut, an excavation that by-passed the Floating Harbour and joined the River Avon near Temple Meads.

 

The docks' maintenance facility was established on the land exposed by the damming of the river to construct the harbour and remains sited at this location to the present day.

 

By the 1830s the Floating Harbour was suffering from severe silting and Isambard Kingdom Brunel devised the underfall sluices as a solution.

 

The Bristol Docks Company never achieved commercial success and was taken over by Bristol City Council in 1848. In 1880 the Council bought the Slipway and yard to enlarge the docks' maintenance facilities.

 

The 'Underfall' system was re-built in the 1880s, with longer sluices, and the yard above was enlarged. Brunel's method of silt disposal is still in operation today, but the silt is carried in mud barges or pumped to the sluices through a quayside pipe system from the more efficient modern 'Cutter-Suction' dredgers.

 

During the C20th the western parts of the yard were leased to P & A Campbell Ltd, operators of the White Funnel Line of paddle steamers as a maintenance base. The yards have been little altered recently except for the replacement of the three-storey 'A' block over the sluice paddle room resulting from bomb damage in World War II.

 

Underfall Yard has been refurbished under the management of the Underfall Restoration Trust thanks to Lottery money, European funding and financial support from Bristol City Council. Since the 1990s £500,000 has been spent on regenerating the slip and restoring buildings around the boatyard.

 

Based at the yard at the moment are two wooden boat builders, a blacksmith, a ship rigger, a composites specialist, a narrow boat outfitter and a joiner.

For best results, LARGE view and read BELOW out loud. Enjoy much both please.

WARNINGS: Laughter ahead soon, maybe even from conservative YOU!

 

The Prodigal Son - in the Key of F

 

Feeling footloose and frisky, a featherbrained fellow forced his father to

fork over his farthings. Fast he flew to foreign fields and frittered his

family's fortune, feasting fabulously with floozies and faithless friends.

Flooded with flattery he financed a full-fledged fling of "funny foam" and

fast food.

   

Fleeced by his fellows in folly, facing famine, and feeling faintly fuzzy, he

found himself a feed-flinger in a filthy foreign farmyard. Feeling frail and

fairly famished, he fain would have filled his frame with foraged food from

the fodder fragments.

   

"Fooey," he figured, "my father's flunkies fare far fancier," the frazzled

fugitive fumed feverishly, facing the facts. Finally, frustrated from

failure and filled with foreboding (but following his feelings) he fled from

the filthy foreign farmyard.

   

Faraway, the father focused on the fretful familiar form in the field and

flew to him and fondly flung his forearms around the fatigued fugitive.

 

Falling at his father's feet, the fugitive floundered forlornly, "Father, I

have flunked and fruitlessly forfeited family favor."

   

Finally, the faithful Father, forbidding and forestalling further flinching,

frantically flagged the flunkies to fetch forth the finest fatling and fix a

feast.

   

Faithfully, the father's first-born was in a fertile field fixing fences

while father and fugitive were feeling festive. The foreman felt fantastic

as he flashed the fortunate news of a familiar family face that had forsaken

fatal foolishness. Forty-four feet from the farmhouse the first-born found a

farmhand fixing a fatling.

   

Frowning and finding fault, he found father and fumed, "Floozies and foam

from frittered family funds and you fix a feast following the fugitive's

folderol?" The first-born's fury flashed, but fussing was futile. The frugal

first-born felt it was fitting to feel "favored" for his faithfulness and

fidelity to family, father, and farm. In foolhardy fashion, he faulted the

father for failing to furnish a fatling and feast for his friends. His folly

was not in feeling fit for feast and fatling for friends; rather his flaw was

in his feeling about the fairness of the festival for the found fugitive.

 

His fundamental fallacy was a fixation on favoritism, not forgiveness. Any

focus on feeling "favored" will fester and friction will force the faded

facade to fall. Frankly, the father felt the frigid first-born's frugality

of forgiveness was formidable and frightful. But the father's former

faithful fortitude and fearless forbearance to forgive both fugitive and

first-born flourishes.

   

The farsighted father figured, "Such fidelity is fine, but what forbids

fervent festivity for the fugitive that is found? Unfurl the flags and

finery, let fun and frolic freely flow. Former failure is forgotten, folly is

forsaken. Forgiveness forms the foundation for future fortune."

   

Four facets of the father's fathomless fondness for faltering fugitives are:

1) Forgiveness

2) Forever faithful friendship

3) Fadeless love, and

4) A facility for forgetting flaws

 

__________________

www.brainyquote.com/quotes/authors/s/simone_weil.html

Simone Weil, French Philosopher Quotes

Birth: Feb. 3, 1909 and Aug. 24, 1943 Died

 

A self-respecting nation is ready for anything, including war, except for a renunciation of its option to make war.

 

A test of what is real is that it is hard and rough. Joys are found in it, not pleasure. What is pleasant belongs to dreams.

 

All sins are attempts to fill voids.

 

EXPLORE # ___ on Friday, May 30, 2008; # 192, # 229, & # 474 on 05-31-2008

The Grade I Listed Carlisle Cathedral, Carlisle, Cumbria.

 

Carlisle Cathedral was begun in 1122, during the reign of King Henry I, as a community of Canons Regular following the reform of the Abbey of Arrouaise in France, which followed a strict form of the canonical life, influenced by the ascetic practices of the Cistercians. Many large churches of Augustinian foundation were built in England during this period as the Archbishop of Canterbury, William de Corbeil, was a member of this order, but Carlisle is one of only four Augustinian churches in England to become a cathedral, most monastic cathedrals being Benedictine. The church was begun by Athelwold, an Englishman, who became the first prior. In 1133, the church was raised to the status of cathedral and Athelwold became the first Bishop of Carlisle (1133–55). In 1233, the cathedral priory community were joined by two friaries in the city. A Dominican friary and a Franciscan friary were founded close to the cathedral. The building was refurbished in the 13th and 14th centuries, receiving impetus from the presence of the court of Edward I in 1307.

 

In the 15th and early 16th centuries, the monastic buildings were renewed. With the Dissolution of the Monasteries from 1536, and the establishment by Henry VIII of the Church of England as the country's official church, the Dominican and Franciscan friaries were dissolved and Carlisle, along with the other monastic cathedrals, was run by a secular chapter like the cathedrals at Lincoln and York, which practice has continued to this day. During the time of the English Civil War, a portion of the nave of the cathedral was demolished by the Scottish Presbyterian Army in order to use the stone to reinforce Carlisle Castle. Between 1853 and 1870 Carlisle Cathedral was restored by Ewan Christian.

 

Carlisle Cathedral was commenced in 1123 as a monastic church, possibly on the foundations of an earlier church, in the Norman architectural style with solid masonry, large round piers, round arches and smallish round headed windows. These features may still be seen in the south transept and the remaining two bays of the nave, which are now used as the Chapel of the Border Regiment. The stone is the local red sandstone, which has discoloured almost to black on parts of the exterior.

 

In the 13th century, the choir of the cathedral was rebuilt in the Gothic style, wider than the original and on a different axis. However, the new work was severely damaged in a fire in 1292, and the work was recommenced. By 1322 the arcades and the easternmost bay were complete, with the elaborate tracery and glass of the east window being in place by about 1350. The upper stages of the walls were finished, probably by the architect John Lewen who died in about 1398. The Gothic arcade has richly moulded arches with dog's tooth decoration, and the twelve capitals are carved with vegetation along with small lively figures representing the labours of the months.

 

The choir is roofed by a fine wooden barrel vault dating from the 14th century. In 1856 this was restored and repainted to a new design by Owen Jones. It is thought the eastern bays of the cathedral never received a stone vault because at some point the central spire blew down, and funds were required to rebuild the damaged tower and north transept, completed in about 1420. The most significant architectural feature of Carlisle Cathedral is its East Window. The tracery of this window is in the most complex of English Gothic styles, Flowing Decorated Gothic. It is the largest and most complex such window in England, being 51 feet high and 26 feet wide.

 

A chance visit with a young Taiwanese lady one humid but cool Summer day, clouds overhead give ominous warning of an approaching typhoon. She and photographer escape the approaching storm, travelling back through time to a warm Autumn day at Changgyeonggung Palace. The year is 1696: King Sukjong en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sukjong_of_Joseon is in love with consort Choi Suk-Bin. A timeless melody that spans the centuries plays: Yiruma, "A River Flows in You" www.youtube.com/watch?v=F-4wUfZD6oc

Look and listen harder, the sights and sound of Joseon flow through nearby courtyards:

www.youtube.com/watch?v=LnymZBPluss

 

YOU CAN VISIT AND HELP at : www.thedogcafela.com/ See dog café video. ABC NEWS story at: abcnews.go.com/Lifestyle/los-angeles-woman-campaigns-city...

 

Feel free to contribute to the effort to fund the new humane setting for dog and people alike.

 

Traditional / jazz fusion, to the spirit of the Asian lady:

Recurrence - Oriental Express 오리엔탈익스프레스

www.youtube.com/watch?v=OFCniSjp0_M&NR=1

 

Special thanks to April Chen for stock photo of lady aprilsheepstock.deviantart.com/

 

Background - A park at Changgyeonggung Palace, Seoul in Autumn. english.visitkorea.or.kr/enu/SI/SI_EN_3_1_1_1.jsp?cid=264350

  

 

Simonopetra Monastery or Simonos Petra (Greek: Σιμωνόπετρα or Σίμωνος Πέτρα) is one of the many monasteries that occupy the peninsula commonly called Mount Athos. It is dedicated to the Nativity of Christ. It is ranked thirteenth in the hierarchical order of the Mount Athos monasteries located on the peninsula. While the origins of a monastery founded by Blessed Simon the Myrrh-flowing that may have been the beginnings of the existing monastery are clouded in the mists of time, the recorded establishment of the present monastery around 1368 is credited to the Serbian prince Ioannis (Joan, Jovan) Uglješa. The monastery has through the years experienced changing fortunes as it has weathered various political and leadership issues and natural disasters. With the formation of a number of metochia during the twentieth century the monastery is weathering the latest disastrous fire of 1990.

 

Early Origins

 

Establishment of settlements of hermits on Athos began in the later part of the first millennium. Organized monastic communities, while maintaining close relations with Athos, were restricted to the neighboring Halkidiki area. As the numbers of monks increased in the Athos area, the use of the expression "holy mountain" began to appear. This expression had been in use for many areas where sizable communities of monks grew. Formal recognition of the Athonite and neighboring coenobium communities was by Basil I in 857 who granted imperial privileges to the communities that protected the monks from tax collectors. Emperor Romanus I Lecepenus, in 941, then introduced annual grants for the monks at Athos. As the tenth century progressed further imperial support was given to anchorite communities at Athos. By the turn of the millennium Mt. Athos was a large and economically strong community with prestige and influence in Constantinople.

 

History

 

The origins of Simonopetra monastery on Mt. Athos before Prince Ioannis Ugljesa has relied upon information in the Life of the Blessed Simon and writings of Bp. Porfiry (Porphirios) Uspensky. These discuss the existence of a "Monastery of Simon" on Mt. Athos in the tenth and eleventh centuries. Other than the paucity of information about this "Monastery of Simon" and the later note of construction of the monastery on Simon's rock little is known of the intervening years other than conjecture based upon tradition attached to the Blessed Simon and the similarity of the name. In the event a monastery of Simonopetra was completed around 1257, and the reputation of the monastery attracted many monks.

 

In the intervening years the monastery declined until Prince Ioannis Ugljesa, impressed with the reputation of the Blessed Simon, petitioned Cyril Lucaris, Patriarch of Constantinople, to reactivate the empty monastery. With this permission, Ugljesa immediately built an entire monastery, but, after a brief period of prosperity, Athos and the monastery entered into the chaos and ruin of the ascendency of the Ottoman Turks over the area. Most records of this period were destroyed in a great fire of 1580. Yet, the monastery had functioned without interruption. On December 11, 1580, the monastery suffered total destruction by fire killing many of the monks. The survivors, however, were able to save the coffers of the monastery, which apparently were considerable as the Simonopetra monks were able to buy the assets and administration of a neighboring monastery, Xenophontos Monastery as a temporary home. As rebuilding the monastery required consideration funds, the abbot, Evyenios, journeyed to Wallachia in 1587 to raise money. Earlier in 1566, the Great Postelnik Gheorma in Wallachia had donated the Monastery of St Nicholas in the suburbs of Bucharest to Simonopetra monastery as a metochi. In the meantime the rebuilding of the monastery at Mt. Athos continued so that by 1586 the monks were back in their own monastery.

 

On June 8, 1622, Simonopetra experienced a second fire. However, this one only caused minor damage, and by 1623, the abbot, Timotheos, dedicated the restored katholikon. After this time the monastery appeared to enter a period of decline. By 1745 the population of the monastery had decreased to five. Finally, in 1762, the monastery was closed and taken over by the central administration of Athos (the Great Mese) to satisfy its creditors. In the meantime, Fr. Ioasaph of Mytilene managed to raise enough funds to buy back the monastery's metochia and restore parts of the monastery. However, the revival was accompanied by apparent financial wrongdoings that brought Patriarch Kallinikos into assert control and eventually assign a new abbot, Dionysios.

 

This period of chaos continued when the effects of the Greek independence movement caused the occupation of Mt. Athos by the Turks. While the monastery continued to function, the high taxation by the Turks and looting resulted in the departure of all the monks by 1823. After the Turks departed in 1830, the monastery returned to a life of constant turmoil. This turmoil continued until the destructive fire of May 27, 1891. Through the efforts of the abbot, Neophytos, and both with the cooperation and demands of the Russian Church Simonopetra was again restored and was flourishing by the turn of the century.

 

Under the leadership of Abbot Ieronymos, Simonopetra continued to flourish. But, after his retirement to the metochi of the Ascension in Athens in 1931, the Simonopetra monastery began another decline both intellectually and spiritually. By the time of his death in 1957, the decline of monasticism on Mt. Athos, as well as Simonopetra, was well advanced as depopulation of the monasteries continued. In 1973 a rebirth began at Simonopetra when a large group of monks under the leadership of Abbot Aimilianos Vafeidis arrived from the Monastery of the Transfiguration at Meteora. Subsequently a number of metochia were established under the guidance of the monks of Simonopetra, including three in France. Again Simonopetra was faced with the destruction of monastery property by a fire that started on August 14, 1990, on Mt. Athos that lasted 14 days. This again presented a challenge for the monks.

 

Recordings

 

In recent years, the monastery has become world-renowned for its high-quality recordings of traditional Byzantine chant in Greek and has a growing discography.

 

Hymns from the Psalter (1990)

O Pure Virgin (Agni Partheni) (1990)

Divine Liturgy (1999)

Great Vespers (1999)

Paraklesis (1999)

Service of Saint Simon (1999)

Sunday Matins (Orthros) (1999)

Service of St. Silouan the Athonite (2004)

A capture of the famous Graff Estate Vineyards in Stellbosch.

 

The early history of South African wine can be traced to the founding of a supply station at the Cape of Good Hope by the Dutch East India Company. Jan van Riebeeck was given the task of managing the station and planting vineyards to produce wine and grapes in the Wijnberg (Wine mountain Area); that could be used to ward off scurvy for sailors continuing on their voyages along the spice route. In 1685, another Cape Governor, Simon van der Stel, purchased a large 750-hectare (1,900-acre) estate, founding what later became the world-renowned Constantia wine estate. In the 19th century, South Africa fell under British rule which proved lucrative for the wine industry as South African wine flowed into the British market. This prosperity lasted until the 1860s when the Cobden-Chevalier Treaty signed by the Palmerston government and France reduced the preferential tariffs that benefited South African wine in favor of French wine exports.

 

Following the devastation from the phylloxera epidemic in the late 19th century, many vineyards were replanted with high yielding grape varieties such as Cinsaut. By the early 1900s there was a large glut of wine, creating a wine lake effect which led some producers to pour their unsaleable wine into local rivers and streams. The depressed prices caused by this out-of-balance supply and demand dynamic prompted the South African government to fund the formation of the Koöperatieve Wijnbouwers Vereniging van Zuid-Afrika Bpkt (KWV) in 1918. Initially started as a co-operative, the KWV soon grew in power and prominence, setting policies and prices for the entire South African wine industry. To deal with the wine glut the KWV restricted yields and set minimum prices, encouraging the production of brandy and fortified wines.

 

For much of the 20th century, the wine industry of South Africa received very little attention on the worldwide stage. Its isolation was further deepened by boycotts of South African products in protest at the country's system of Apartheid. It wasn't until the late 1980s and 1990s when Apartheid was ended and the world's export market opened up that South African wines began to experience a renaissance. With a steep learning curve, many producers in South Africa quickly adopted new viticultural and winemaking technologies. The presence of flying winemakers from abroad brought international influences and focus on well known varieties such as Shiraz, Cabernet Sauvignon and Chardonnay. The reorganization of the powerful KWV co-operative into a private business further sparked innovation and improvement in quality. Vineyard owners had previously relied on KWV's price-fixing structure, that bought their excess grapes for distillation. Now they had to shift their focus to quality wine production in order to compete. In 1990, less than 30% of all the grapes harvested were used for wine aimed at the consumer market, with the remaining 70% being discarded, distilled into brandy or sold as table grapes and juice. By 2003 these proportions had reversed, with more than 70% of the grapes harvested that year reaching the consumer market as wine.

Meiji Shrine (明治神宮), located in Shibuya, Tokyo, is the Shinto shrine that is dedicated to the deified spirits of Emperor Meiji and his wife, Empress Shōken.

 

After the emperor's death in 1912, the Japanese Diet passed a resolution to commemorate his role in the Meiji Restoration. An iris garden in an area of Tokyo where Emperor Meiji and Empress Shōken had been known to visit was chosen as the building's location.

 

Construction began in 1915 under Itō Chūta, and the shrine was built in the traditional nagare-zukuri style and is made up primarily of Japanese cypress and copper. It was formally dedicated in 1920, completed in 1921, and its grounds officially finished by 1926. Until 1946, the Meiji Shrine was officially designated one of the Kanpei-taisha (官幣大社), meaning that it stood in the first rank of government supported shrines.

 

The original building was destroyed during the Tokyo air raids of World War II. The present iteration of the shrine was funded through a public fund raising effort and completed in October, 1958.

 

Meiji Shrine was brought into the flow of current events with the 2009 visit of United States Secretary of State Hillary Clinton. After arriving in Tokyo on her first foreign trip representing the newly elected President Barack Obama, she made her way to this shrine in advance of meetings with Japan's leaders to show her "respect toward history and the culture of Japan."

 

In January 2010, German Foreign Minister Guido Westerwelle demonstrated the same respect when he concluded his visit to Japan with a visit of the shrine.

 

Meiji Shrine is located in a forest that covers an area of 700,000 square-meters (about 175 acres). This area is covered by an evergreen forest that consists of 120,000 trees of 365 different species, which were donated by people from all parts of Japan when the shrine was established. The forest is visited by many as a recreation and relaxation area in the center of Tokyo. The shrine itself is composed of two major areas:

 

The Naien is the inner precinct, which is centered on the shrine buildings and includes a treasure museum that houses articles of the Emperor and Empress. The treasure museum is built in the Azekurazukuri style.

 

The Gaien is the outer precinct, which includes the Meiji Memorial Picture Gallery that houses a collection of 80 large murals illustrative of the events in the lives of the Emperor and his consort. It also includes a variety of sports facilities, including the National Stadium (Meiji Jingu Gaien Stadium and later, since 1956, on the same site Tokyo Olympic Stadium), the Meiji Memorial Hall, which was originally used for governmental meetings, including discussions surrounding the drafting of the Meiji Constitution in the late 19th century. Today it is used for Shinto weddings.

 

from wikipedia.org

The River Kent in Kendal, Cumbria.

 

The Miller Bridge, formerly named Mill Bridge, was erected in 1818 to the design of John Rennie. It was a replacement of earlier bridges, one of which was destroyed by a flood. It joins New Road and Aynam Road.

 

The River Kent is a short river which originates in hills surrounding Kentmere, and flows for around 20 miles (32 km) into the north of Morecambe Bay. The Lake District National Park includes the upper reaches of the river within its boundaries.

 

The river passes through Kentmere, Staveley, Burneside, Kendal and Sedgwick. Near Sedgwick, the river passes through a rock gorge which produces a number of low waterfalls. This section is popular with kayakers as it offers high quality whitewater for several days after rain.

 

The village of Arnside lies alongside the Kent estuary. On high spring tides, a tidal bore known as the Arnside Bore forms in the estuary opposite Arnside. The wave is often about 0.5m high.

 

Near the source of the river is Kentmere Reservoir, which was constructed in the mid-19th century to control the flow of the river for the benefit of water mills. The river was used to power numerous mills in the past, including two at Staveley, Kentmere water mill, and also the James Cropper paper factory at Burneside. One of the weirs at Staveley produces electricity for Staveley Mill Yard via a micro hydro scheme. There is also scope for micro hydro upstream at Kentmere.

 

The river is a designated Special Area of Conservation, primarily as an important habitat for the endangered White-clawed Crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes). Fish species include salmon and trout. In the twentieth century fish ladders were constructed alongside the dams of mill-ponds to allow migratory fish to swim up to Kentmere. In 2013 DEFRA funding was announced for eel passes at Stramongate weir in Kendal and Basinghyll fish counter.

 

The Grade I Listed Carlisle Cathedral, Carlisle, Cumbria.

 

Carlisle Cathedral was begun in 1122, during the reign of King Henry I, as a community of Canons Regular following the reform of the Abbey of Arrouaise in France, which followed a strict form of the canonical life, influenced by the ascetic practices of the Cistercians. Many large churches of Augustinian foundation were built in England during this period as the Archbishop of Canterbury, William de Corbeil, was a member of this order, but Carlisle is one of only four Augustinian churches in England to become a cathedral, most monastic cathedrals being Benedictine. The church was begun by Athelwold, an Englishman, who became the first prior. In 1133, the church was raised to the status of cathedral and Athelwold became the first Bishop of Carlisle (1133–55). In 1233, the cathedral priory community were joined by two friaries in the city. A Dominican friary and a Franciscan friary were founded close to the cathedral. The building was refurbished in the 13th and 14th centuries, receiving impetus from the presence of the court of Edward I in 1307.

 

In the 15th and early 16th centuries, the monastic buildings were renewed. With the Dissolution of the Monasteries from 1536, and the establishment by Henry VIII of the Church of England as the country's official church, the Dominican and Franciscan friaries were dissolved and Carlisle, along with the other monastic cathedrals, was run by a secular chapter like the cathedrals at Lincoln and York, which practice has continued to this day. During the time of the English Civil War, a portion of the nave of the cathedral was demolished by the Scottish Presbyterian Army in order to use the stone to reinforce Carlisle Castle. Between 1853 and 1870 Carlisle Cathedral was restored by Ewan Christian.

 

Carlisle Cathedral was commenced in 1123 as a monastic church, possibly on the foundations of an earlier church, in the Norman architectural style with solid masonry, large round piers, round arches and smallish round headed windows. These features may still be seen in the south transept and the remaining two bays of the nave, which are now used as the Chapel of the Border Regiment. The stone is the local red sandstone, which has discoloured almost to black on parts of the exterior.

 

In the 13th century, the choir of the cathedral was rebuilt in the Gothic style, wider than the original and on a different axis. However, the new work was severely damaged in a fire in 1292, and the work was recommenced. By 1322 the arcades and the easternmost bay were complete, with the elaborate tracery and glass of the east window being in place by about 1350. The upper stages of the walls were finished, probably by the architect John Lewen who died in about 1398. The Gothic arcade has richly moulded arches with dog's tooth decoration, and the twelve capitals are carved with vegetation along with small lively figures representing the labours of the months.

 

The choir is roofed by a fine wooden barrel vault dating from the 14th century. In 1856 this was restored and repainted to a new design by Owen Jones. It is thought the eastern bays of the cathedral never received a stone vault because at some point the central spire blew down, and funds were required to rebuild the damaged tower and north transept, completed in about 1420. The most significant architectural feature of Carlisle Cathedral is its East Window. The tracery of this window is in the most complex of English Gothic styles, Flowing Decorated Gothic. It is the largest and most complex such window in England, being 51 feet high and 26 feet wide.

 

Looking from Stramongate Bridge down the River Kent in Kendal, Cumbria.

 

The River Kent is a short river which originates in hills surrounding Kentmere, and flows for around 20 miles (32 km) into the north of Morecambe Bay. The Lake District National Park includes the upper reaches of the river within its boundaries.

 

The river passes through Kentmere, Staveley, Burneside, Kendal and Sedgwick. Near Sedgwick, the river passes through a rock gorge which produces a number of low waterfalls. This section is popular with kayakers as it offers high quality whitewater for several days after rain.

 

The village of Arnside lies alongside the Kent estuary. On high spring tides, a tidal bore known as the Arnside Bore forms in the estuary opposite Arnside. The wave is often about 0.5m high.

 

Near the source of the river is Kentmere Reservoir, which was constructed in the mid-19th century to control the flow of the river for the benefit of water mills. The river was used to power numerous mills in the past, including two at Staveley, Kentmere water mill, and also the James Cropper paper factory at Burneside. One of the weirs at Staveley produces electricity for Staveley Mill Yard via a micro hydro scheme. There is also scope for micro hydro upstream at Kentmere.

 

The river is a designated Special Area of Conservation, primarily as an important habitat for the endangered White-clawed Crayfish (Austropotamobius pallipes). Fish species include salmon and trout. In the twentieth century fish ladders were constructed alongside the dams of mill-ponds to allow migratory fish to swim up to Kentmere. In 2013 DEFRA funding was announced for eel passes at Stramongate weir in Kendal and Basinghyll fish counter.

 

The Grade I Listed Carlisle Cathedral, Carlisle, Cumbria.

 

Carlisle Cathedral was begun in 1122, during the reign of King Henry I, as a community of Canons Regular following the reform of the Abbey of Arrouaise in France, which followed a strict form of the canonical life, influenced by the ascetic practices of the Cistercians. Many large churches of Augustinian foundation were built in England during this period as the Archbishop of Canterbury, William de Corbeil, was a member of this order, but Carlisle is one of only four Augustinian churches in England to become a cathedral, most monastic cathedrals being Benedictine. The church was begun by Athelwold, an Englishman, who became the first prior. In 1133, the church was raised to the status of cathedral and Athelwold became the first Bishop of Carlisle (1133–55). In 1233, the cathedral priory community were joined by two friaries in the city. A Dominican friary and a Franciscan friary were founded close to the cathedral. The building was refurbished in the 13th and 14th centuries, receiving impetus from the presence of the court of Edward I in 1307.

 

In the 15th and early 16th centuries, the monastic buildings were renewed. With the Dissolution of the Monasteries from 1536, and the establishment by Henry VIII of the Church of England as the country's official church, the Dominican and Franciscan friaries were dissolved and Carlisle, along with the other monastic cathedrals, was run by a secular chapter like the cathedrals at Lincoln and York, which practice has continued to this day. During the time of the English Civil War, a portion of the nave of the cathedral was demolished by the Scottish Presbyterian Army in order to use the stone to reinforce Carlisle Castle. Between 1853 and 1870 Carlisle Cathedral was restored by Ewan Christian.

 

Carlisle Cathedral was commenced in 1123 as a monastic church, possibly on the foundations of an earlier church, in the Norman architectural style with solid masonry, large round piers, round arches and smallish round headed windows. These features may still be seen in the south transept and the remaining two bays of the nave, which are now used as the Chapel of the Border Regiment. The stone is the local red sandstone, which has discoloured almost to black on parts of the exterior.

 

In the 13th century, the choir of the cathedral was rebuilt in the Gothic style, wider than the original and on a different axis. However, the new work was severely damaged in a fire in 1292, and the work was recommenced. By 1322 the arcades and the easternmost bay were complete, with the elaborate tracery and glass of the east window being in place by about 1350. The upper stages of the walls were finished, probably by the architect John Lewen who died in about 1398. The Gothic arcade has richly moulded arches with dog's tooth decoration, and the twelve capitals are carved with vegetation along with small lively figures representing the labours of the months.

 

The choir is roofed by a fine wooden barrel vault dating from the 14th century. In 1856 this was restored and repainted to a new design by Owen Jones. It is thought the eastern bays of the cathedral never received a stone vault because at some point the central spire blew down, and funds were required to rebuild the damaged tower and north transept, completed in about 1420. The most significant architectural feature of Carlisle Cathedral is its East Window. The tracery of this window is in the most complex of English Gothic styles, Flowing Decorated Gothic. It is the largest and most complex such window in England, being 51 feet high and 26 feet wide.

 

New Years day walk around Stanley Park in Vancouver BC included a swing by Beaver Lake this year.

 

Beaver Lake is an important part of Stanley Park's ecology, a popular recreational site, and of cultural and spiritual significance to Coast Salish First Nations. But Beaver Lake is rapidly filling with sediment – and could disappear by 2020 – due to human impacts over the past 150 years, such as:

Clear-cut logging, Construction of the Stanley Park Causeway, walking trails, and small dam on Beaver Creek and introduction of invasive plant species.

As one of Vancouver's few freshwater lakes, enhancing Beaver Lake is an important, short-term priority for the Vancouver Park Board. Plans are being readied to remove thousands of tonnes of sediment from the lake in the heart of Vancouver’s Stanley Park.

 

“It’s been a manhandled park in many ways, but it is still a great place to see native plant and animal species and natural systems at work,” said Patricia Thomson, executive director of the Stanley Park Ecological Society (SPES).

 

Consultant AquaTerra Environmental has completed an assessment of the lake, its wildlife and vegetation and developed options for restoration. The plan identified the lake’s infilling as a top priority for restoration to halt “unacceptable loss of biodiversity and esthetic amenity. The forest environment and terrestrial wildlife were rated in fair condition, but the park’s aquatic environment is in serious decline. During the summer months, only a few patches of open water remain, with much of the lake’s original 6.7-hectare area covered with grassy humps and shrubs and floating weed mats.

 

Complicating the restoration plan is the return of beavers to Beaver Lake, five of them in all.

On one hand, the open water that does exist in Beaver Lake is maintained by the beavers around their lodge. But the industrious rodents also continually dam the outflow creek in an effort to further flood the lake, threatening the blue-listed cutthroat trout, a vulnerable species that needs steady water flow to survive. Municipal water keeps the lake topped up and feeds the stream, but the drainage outlet has to be cleared of wood and mud regularly.

 

Planning is underway to restore the creek as viable salmon and trout habitat using funds from a creative sentencing fine levied against Kinder Morgan for a 2007 oil spill. But creating an environment that will support salmonids and spawning may require the lake to be deepened.

 

The lake was last dredged in 1929, the beginning of a decade of road and path building that physically altered the area. Fragrant lilies were introduced in celebration of the 40th Jubilee of Dutch Queen Wilhelmina in 1938, the same year the causeway was completed.

 

Another significant human intervention is virtually assured. In 2011 the park commissioners agreed that to do nothing would be unacceptable, explaining that the aquatics systems and riparian area is just to important to the park’s biodiversity. A bog on the lake’s south side will likely remain relatively untouched. The society (SPES) has been removing hemlock trees and other plants that were overgrowing the bog and plans are in place to build a boardwalk that will allow better public access.

I know what you are thinking.

I know what you have thought.

I know what you are taking.

I know what you have bought.

 

.

Yesterday, starting around 4 AM I was at the Wat Po Tong, not far from our place.

Maybe 2 klicks at most. ...Just did a google search and the one they indacated is Not the Temple out here.

 

Stay with me please, .... inside one of the buildings there is a line of monks sitting cross legged in their chiffon robes chanting in a sing song unison .

Sweet sounds of jungle birds mixed in with the chanting from the monks echoed through the ancient buildings and statues scattered around the temple grounds.

 

Forgoing my desire to find something dangerous with flashing fangs or dripping poison I spotted a small discarded object that called out to me.

 

Being a Buddhist I picked a couple small red flowers from a near by bush, got down on bended knee, placed the flowers with the monks icon and pressed my palms together as I bowed my head.

When I opened my eyes and slowly raised up I knew the words had not fallen on deaf ears.

No matter how many layers of tin foil I wrap around my pointy little head this monk can penetrate my thoughts with ease.

 

Come Christmas time he will know who's been naughty and who's been nice.

 

For a 6 inch high monk he seems to stand a head above the tallest of men.

 

. ...Hope you all are enjoying the holiday spirit and can spend time with family and friends....

 

It is customary to send out a Christmas letter letting everyone know what has been going on in your life for the last 12 months .

This is my attempt to do just that and I'm not sure just where to start or stop but here goes.

This time last year I was up in Laos sorting out my visa/passport as to acquire another visa for reentry back into Thailand.

Being unemployed at the time put me back on the tourist visa border run nightmare making repeated runs in and out of Laos and Cambodia.This turns into a very expensive route to follow but at times it's the only path available.

Around the end of April my wife and I were downtown Bangkok applying for yet another passport on my behalf due to no more room for visa's as all the pages had been used up. Even with all the extra pages added there was no more room.

I had a broken foot at the time so we were just taking it slow and enjoying the show while resting in the many small parks that gave us a place to sit and relax in the shade while waiting the ten days required for a new passport.

Out of know where a call came in saying I had a job teaching and they expected me there two days earlier.

Not the job I was looking for but a job nun the less as funds were, or had hit the bottom of the barrel, so off we went back home before the passport was finished. Next day I reported to work to find there was a set of stairs to navigate. 40-60 cement steps which are climbed at least a dozen times a day in the humid tropical heat.Did it and no one but my wife and myself knew I had a broken foot.

Now the international news has surely broadcasted the flooding problems here in Thailand so you are all aware of the devastating situation.

The river we live on came up to our door but did not breach the threshold. Took a week or so but finally receded to everyone's relief.Everything of importance was packed and ready to move up to higher ground just in case, but like i said we were very lucky.

Many here in Thailand have not been so fortunate and lost everything, homes, jobs, automobiles, motorcycles, household items and lives.

For the last 2 1/2 months we have taken in up to 40 family members that had lost everything. Adults, kids, dogs, parents, grandparents, aunts and uncles all camped out at our makeshift refugee center.We set up showers and supplied all the daily needs for them. These are all good hard working people that showed up with only the torn and soiled clothes on their backs.Most of their homes were under 2-3 meters of very foul polluted water.Not to mention the snakes and crocodiles.

The snake problem has been a continuous on going problem here as well. 1-2 King Cobras killed a day right by the house and porch. High river water pushes them right to the front door.

On a lighter note none of the family has died from the floods but somewhere around 700 other Thais were not so fortunate. The rains have stopped and flood water in some areas have started to go down giving many a chance to return home and start the massive clean up.

.

I guess that brings us back to the original topic once again, what we have been up to for 12 months.

This text is the shortest version we could come up with as things change at a rapid pase around here.

For example, the military coups, unrest and riots in the streets, closing of international airports due to take overs, unprecedented flooding and deaths.It's all part of the deal and to survive one must go with the flow, or not.

  

Once again wishing you all a Happy Holiday Season .. Jon and Family in Thailand ..;-)

.

.

Nikon D300, Nikkor 17-55 2.8.

 

.

Please,

No Awards, Invites,Large Logos or Copy an Pastes.

  

.

.

The Knossos bull fresco. This famous relief fresco of a charging bull, from the North Bastion at the Palace of Knossos can be found at the Heraklion Archaeological Museum, a museum located in Heraklion on Crete. It is one of the greatest museums in Greece and the best in the world for Minoan art, as it contains the most notable and complete collection of artifacts of the Minoan civilization of Crete.

 

The highly sophisticated Minoans which were Europe's first great civilization built the Palace of Knossos, the legendary home of King Minos which is connected with thrilling legends, such as the myth of the Labyrinth, with the Minotaur and the story of Daidalos and Ikaros. Crete is Greece's largest island and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean.

 

The museum began in 1883 as a simple collection of antiquities. A dedicated building was constructed from 1904 to 1912 at the instigation of two Cretan archaeologists, Iosif Hatzidakis and Stefanos Xanthoudidis. After three destructive earthquakes in 1926, 1930, and 1935, the museum nearly collapsed. The director of the Heraklion Museum was then Spyridon Marinatos, who made great efforts to find funds and persuade the locals and the central government alike that a new solid building was needed. In 1935, Marinatos succeeded in engaging Patroklos Karantinos to build a sturdy structure that has withstood both natural disasters and the bombing that accompanied the German invasion in 1941. Although the museum was damaged during World War II, the collection survived intact and again became accessible to the public in 1952. A new wing was added in 1964.

 

The Herakleion Archaeological Museum is one of the largest and most important museums in Greece, and among the most important museums in Europe. It houses representative artifacts from all the periods of Cretan prehistory and history, covering a chronological span of over 5,500 years from the Neolithic period to Roman times. The singularly important Minoan collection contains unique examples of Minoan art, many of them true masterpieces. The Herakleion Museum is rightly considered as the museum of Minoan culture par excellence worldwide.

 

The museum, located in the town centre, was built between 1937 and 1940 by architect Patroklos Karantinos on a site previously occupied by the Roman Catholic monastery of Saint-Francis which was destroyed by earthquake in 1856. The museum's antiseismic building is an important example of modernist architecture and was awarded a Bauhaus commendation. Karantinos applied the principles of modern architecture to the specific needs of a museum by providing good lighting from the skylights above and along the top of the walls, and facilitating the easy flow of large groups of people. He also anticipated future extensions to the museum. The colours and construction materials, such as the veined polychrome marbles, recall certain Minoan wall-paintings which imitate marble revetment. The two-storeyed building has large exhibition spaces, laboratories, a drawing room, a library, offices and a special department, the so-called Scientific Collection, where numerous finds are stored and studied.

 

The museum shop, run by the Archaeological Receipts Fund, sells museum copies, books, postcards and slides. There is also a cafe.

 

The Herakleion Archaeological Museum is a Special Regional Service of the Ministry of Culture and its purpose is to acquire, safeguard, conserve, record, study, publish, display and promote Cretan artefacts from the Prehistoric to the Late Roman periods. The museum organizes temporary exhibitions in Greece and abroad, collaborates with scientific and scholarly institutions, and houses a variety of cultural events.

 

For more information please visit en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heraklion_Archaeological_Museum

 

Crete (Greek: Κρήτη, Kríti ['kriti]; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece.The capital and the largest city of Crete is Heraklion. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits (such as its own poetry, and music).

 

Crete was once the center of the Minoan civilization (c. 2700–1420 BC), which is currently regarded as the earliest recorded civilization in Europe. The island is first referred to as Kaptara in texts from the Syrian city of Mari dating from the 18th century BC, repeated later in Neo-Assyrian records and the Bible (Caphtor). It was also known in ancient Egyptian as Keftiu, strongly suggesting some form similar to both was the Minoan name for the island.

 

The current name of Crete is thought to be first attested in Mycenaean Greek texts written in Linear B, through the words ke-re-te (*Krētes; later Greek: Κρῆτες, plural of Κρής), and ke-re-si-jo (*Krēsijos; later Greek: ρήσιος), "Cretan". In Ancient Greek, the name Crete (Κρήτη) first appears in Homer's Odyssey. Its etymology is unknown. One speculative proposal derives it from a hypothetical Luvian word *kursatta (cf. kursawar "island", kursattar "cutting, sliver"). In Latin, it became Creta.

 

The original Arabic name of Crete was Iqrīṭiš (Arabic: اقريطش‎ < (της) Κρήτης), but after the Emirate of Crete's establishment of its new capital at ربض الخندقRabḍ al-Ḫandaq (modern Iraklion), both the city and the island became known as Χάνδαξ (Khandhax) or Χάνδακας (Khandhakas), which gave Latin and Venetian Candia, from which French Candie and English Candy or Candia. Under Ottoman rule, in Ottoman Turkish, Crete was called Girit (كريت).

 

For more information please visit en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crete

 

This is Islam's fourth most holiest site

  

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mosque_of_Uqba

  

The Great Mosque of Kairouan (جامع القيروان الأكبر), also known as the Mosque of Uqba (Arabic: جامع عقبة‎), is one of the most important mosques in Tunisia, situated in the UNESCO World Heritage town of Kairouan.

Built by the Arab general Uqba ibn Nafi from 670 AD (the year 50 according to the Islamic calendar) at the founding of the city of Kairouan, the mosque is spread over a surface area of 9,000 square metres and it is one of the oldest places of worship in the Islamic world, as well as a model for all later mosques in the Maghreb.[1] The Great Mosque of Kairouan is one of the most impressive and largest Islamic monuments in North Africa,[2] its perimeter is almost equal to 405 metres (1,328 feet). This vast space contains a hypostyle prayer hall, a huge marble-paved courtyard and a massive square minaret. In addition to its spiritual prestige,[3] the Mosque of Uqba is one of the masterpieces of both architecture and Islamic art.[4][5][6]

Under the Aghlabids (9th century), huge works gave the mosque its present aspect.[7] The fame of the Mosque of Uqba and of the other holy sites at Kairouan helped the city to develop and repopulate increasingly. The university, consisting of scholars who taught in the mosque, was a centre of education both in Islamic thought and in the secular sciences.[8] Its role can be compared to that of the University of Paris in the Middle Ages.[9] With the decline of the city of Kairouan from the mid 11th century, the centre of intellectual thought moved to the University of Ez-Zitouna in Tunis.

  

Location and general aspect

  

Located in the north-east of the medina of Kairouan, the mosque is in the intramural district of Houmat al-Jami (literally "area of the Great Mosque").[11] This location corresponded originally to the heart of the urban fabric of the city founded by Uqba ibn Nafi.

But because of the specific nature of the land, crossed by several tributaries of the wadis, the urban development of the city stretched southwards. Then there are the upheavals of Kairouan following Hilalian's invasions in 449 AH (or 1057 AD) and which led to the decline of the city. For all these reasons, the mosque (which occupies the same place since its founding in 670) is not any more situated in the center of the medina, and is thereby positioned on the extremity, near the walls.

The building is a vast irregular quadrilateral, longer (with 127.60 meters) from the eastern side than on the opposite side (with 125.20 meters) and less wide (with 72.70 meters) on the north side (in the middle of which stands the minaret) that the opposite side (with 78 meters). It covers a total area of 9000 m2.

From the outside, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is a fortress-like building, which required as much by its massive ocher walls of 1.90 meters thick composed of well-worked stones, courses of rubble stone and courses of baked bricks,[12] as the square angle towers measuring 4.25 meters on each side and the solid and projecting buttresses that support and bind. More than a defensive role, the buttresses and towers full serve more to enhance the stability of the mosque built on a soil subject to compaction.[13] Although a seemingly harsh, the external facades, punctuated with powerful buttresses and towering porches, some of which are surmounted by cupolas, give to the sanctuary a striking aspect characterized by majestic sobriety.

  

History

  

Evolution

  

At the foundation of Kairouan in 670, the Arab general and conqueror Uqba Ibn Nafi (himself the founder of the city) chose the site of his mosque in the center of the city, near the headquarters of the governor. Around 690, shortly after its construction, the mosque was destroyed[15] during the occupation of Kairouan by the Berbers, originally conducted by Kusaila. It was rebuilt by the Ghassanid general Hasan ibn al-Nu'man in 703.[16] With the gradual increase of the population of Kairouan and the consequent increase in the number of faithful, Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik, Umayyad Caliph in Damascus, charged his governor Bishr ibn Safwan to carry out development work in the city which include the renovation and expansion of the mosque around the years 724–728.[17] In view of its expansion, he pulled down the mosque and rebuilt it with the exception of the mihrab. It was under his auspices that the construction of the minaret began.[18] In 774, a new reconstruction accompanied by modifications and embellishments[19] took place under the direction of the Abbasid governor Yazid Ibn Hatim.[20]

Plan architect of the building.

  

Under the rule of Aghlabid sovereigns, Kairouan was at its apogee, and the mosque profited from this period of stability and prosperity. In 836, Ziadet-Allah I reconstructed the mosque once more:[21] this is when the building acquired, at least in its entirety, the appearance we see today.[22][23] At the same time, the mihrab's ribbed dome on squinches was raised.[24] Around 862-863, Abul Ibrahim enlarged the oratory, with three bays to the north, and added the cupola over the arched portico which precedes the prayer hall.[25] In 875 Ibrahim II built another three bays, thereby reducing the size of the courtyard which was further limited on the three other sides by the addition of double galleries.[26]

The current state of the mosque can be traced back to the reign of Aghlabids—no element is earlier than the ninth century besides the mihrab—except for some partial restorations and a few later additions made in 1025 during the reign of Zirids,[27] 1248 and 1293-1294 under the reign of Hafsids,[28] 1618 at the time of mouradites beys,[29] in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century. In 1967, major restoration works, executed during five years and conducted under the direction of the National Institute of Archeology and Art, were achieved throughout the monument, and were ended with an official reopening of the mosque during the celebration of Mawlid of 1972.[30]

  

Host stories

  

Several centuries after its founding, the Great Mosque of Kairouan is the subject of numerous descriptions by Arab historians and geographers in the Middle Ages. The stories concern mainly the different phases of construction and expansion of the sanctuary, and the successive contributions of many princes to the interior decoration (mihrab, minbar, ceilings, etc.). Among the authors who have written on the subject and whose stories have survived[31] are Al-Bakri (Andalusian geographer and historian who died in 1094 and who devoted a sufficiently detailed account of the history of the mosque in his book Description of Septentrional Africa), Al-Nuwayri (historian who died in Egypt, 1332) and Ibn Nagi (scholar and historian of Kairouan who died around 1435).

On additions and embellishments made to the building by the Aghlabid sovereign Abul Ibrahim, Ibn Nagi gives the following account :

« He built in the mosque of Kairouan the cupola that rises over the entrance to the central nave, together with the two colonnades which flank it from both sides, and the galleries were paved by him. He then made the mihrab. »[22]

  

Among the Western travelers, poets and writers who visited Kairouan, some of them leave impressions and testimonies sometimes tinged with emotion or admiration on the mosque. From the eighteenth century, the French doctor and naturalist John Andrew Peyssonnel, conducting a study trip to 1724, during the reign of sovereign Al-Husayn Bey I, underlines the reputation of the mosque as a deemed center of religious and secular studies :

« The Great Mosque is dedicated to Uqba, where there is a famous college where we will study the remotest corners of this kingdom : are taught reading and writing of Arabic grammar, laws and religion. There are large rents for the maintenance of teachers. »[32]

At the same time,the doctor and Anglican priest Thomas Shaw (1692–1751),[33] touring the Tunis Regency and passes through Kairouan in 1727, described the mosque as that : " which is considered the most beautiful and the most sacred of Berberian territories ", evoking for example : " an almost unbelievable number of granite columns ".[34]

At the end of the nineteenth century, the French writer Guy de Maupassant expresses in his book La vie errante (The Wandering Life), his fascination with the majestic architecture of the Great Mosque of Kairouan as well as the effect created by countless columns : " The unique harmony of this temple consists in the proportion and the number of these slender shafts upholding the building, filling, peopling, and making it what it is, create its grace and greatness. Their colorful multitude gives the eye the impression of unlimited ".[35] Early in the twentieth century, the Austrian poet Rainer Maria Rilke describes his admiration for the impressive minaret :

« Is there a more beautiful than this still preserved old tower, the minaret, in Islamic architecture ? In the history of Art, its three-storey minaret is considered such a masterpiece and a model among the most prestigious monuments of Muslim architecture. »

  

Architecture and decoration

  

Exterior

  

Enclosure

  

Today, the enclosure of the Great Mosque of Kairouan is pierced by nine gates (six opening on the courtyard, two opening on the prayer hall and a ninth allows access to the maqsura) some of them, such as Bab Al-Ma (Gate of water) located on the western facade, are preceded by salient porches flanked by buttresses and surmounted by ribbed domes based on square tholobate which are porting squinches with three vaults.[12][37] However, Arab geographers and historians of the Middle Ages Al-Muqaddasi and Al-Bakri reported the existence, around the tenth and eleventh centuries, of about ten gates named differently from today. This reflects the fact that, unlike the rest of the mosque, the enclosure has undergone significant changes to ensure the stability of the building (adding many buttresses). Thus, some entries have been sealed, while others were kept.[12]

During the thirteenth century, new gates were opened, the most remarkable, Bab Lalla Rihana dated from 1293, is located on the eastern wall of the enclosure.[12] The monumental entrance, work of the Hafsid sovereign Abu Hafs `Umar ibn Yahya (reign from 1284 to 1295),[38] is entered in a salient square, flanked by ancient columns supporting Horseshoe arches and covered by a dome on squinches.[12] The front facade of the porch has a large horseshoe arch relied on two marble columns and surmounted by a frieze adorned with a blind arcade, all crowned by serrated merlons (in a sawtooth arrangement).[39] Despite its construction at the end of the thirteenth century, Bab Lalla Rihana blends well with all of the building mainly dating from the ninth century.[39]

Enclosure and gates of the Mosque of Uqba

  

Courtyard

  

The courtyard is a vast trapezoidal area whose interior dimensions are approximately 65 by 50 meters.[40] It is surrounded on all its four sides by a portico with double rows of arches, opened by slightly horseshoe arches supported by columns in various marbles, in granite or in porphyry, reused from Roman, Early Christian or Byzantine monuments particularly from Carthage.[14] Access to the courtyard by six side entrances dating from the ninth and thirteenth centuries.

The portico on the south side of the courtyard, near the prayer hall, includes in its middle a large dressed stone pointed horseshoe arch which rests on ancient columns of white veined marble with Corinthian capitals. This porch of seven meters high is topped with a square base upon which rests a semi-spherical ribbed dome ; the latter is ribbed with sharp-edged ribs. The intermediary area, the dodecagonal drum of the dome, is pierced by sixteen small rectangular windows set into rounded niches.[41] The great central arch of the south portico, is flanked on each side by six rhythmically arranged horseshoe arches, which fall on twin columns backed by pillars.[42] Overall, the proportions and general layout of the facade of the south portico, with its thirteen arches of which that in the middle constitutes a sort of triumphal arch crowned with a cupola, form an ensemble with " a powerful air of majesty ", according to the French historian and sociologist Paul Sebag (1919–2004).[43]

Courtyard area and porticoes

  

Details of the courtyard

  

The combination formed by the courtyard and the galleries that surround it covers an immense area whose dimensions are about 90 meters long and 72 meters in width.[44] The northern part of the courtyard is paved with flagstones while the rest of the floor is almost entirely composed of white marble slabs. Near its center is an horizontal sundial, bearing an inscription in naskhi engraved on the marble dating from 1258 AH (which corresponds to the year 1843) and which is accessed by a little staircase ; it determines the time of prayers. The rainwater collector or impluvium, probably the work of the Muradid Bey Mohamed Bey al-Mouradi (1686–1696), is an ingenious system that ensures the capture (with the slightly sloping surface of the courtyard) then filtering stormwater at a central basin furnished with horseshoe arches sculpted in white marble.[45] Freed from its impurities, the water flows into an underground cistern supported by seven meters high pillars. In the courtyard there are also several water wells some of which are placed side by side. Their edges, obtained from the lower parts of ancient cored columns,[46] support the string grooves back the buckets.

  

Minaret

  

A square stone tower rises high above a wall.

  

The minaret, which occupies the center of the northern facade of the complex's enclosure, is 31.5 meters tall and is seated on a square base of 10.7 meters on each side.[47] It is located inside the enclosure and does not have direct access from the outside. It consists of three tapering levels, the last of which is topped with a small ribbed dome that was most probably built later than the rest of the tower.[48] The first and second stories are surmounted by rounded merlons which are pierced by arrowslits. The minaret served as a watchtower, as well as to call the faithful to prayer.[48]

The door giving access to the minaret is framed by a lintel and jambs made of recycled carved friezes of antique origin.[49] There are stone blocks from the Roman period that bear Latin inscriptions. Their use probably dates to the work done under the Umayyad governor Bishr ibn Safwan in about 725 AD, and they have been reused at the base of the tower.[49] The greater part of the minaret dates from the time of the Aghlabid princes in the ninth century. It consists of regular layers of carefully cut rubble stone, thus giving the work a stylistically admirable homogeneity and unity.[50]

The interior includes a staircase of 129 steps, surmounted by a barrel vault, which gives access to the terraces and the first tier of the minaret. The courtyard facade (or south facade) of the tower is pierced with windows that provide light and ventilation,[51] while the other three facades—facing north, east and west—are pierced with small openings in the form of arrowslits.[47] The minaret, in its present aspect, dates largely from the early ninth century, about 836 AD. It is the oldest minaret in the Muslim world,[52][53] and it is also the world's oldest minaret still standing.[54]

Due to its age and its architectural features, the minaret of the Great Mosque of Kairouan is the prototype for all the minarets of the western Islamic world : it served as a model in both North Africa and in Andalusia.[55] Despite its massive form and austere decoration, it nevertheless presents a harmonious structure and a majestic appearance.[51][56]

Minaret

  

Domes

  

The Mosque has several domes, the largest being over the mihrab and the entrance to the prayer hall from the courtyard. The dome of the mihrab is based on an octagonal drum with slightly concave sides, raised on a square base, decorated on each of its three southern, Easter and western faces with five flat-bottomed niches surmounted by five semi-circular arches,[24][57] the niche in the middle is cut by a lobed oculus enrolled in a circular frame. This dome, whose construction goes back to the first half of the ninth century (towards 836), is one of the oldest and most remarkable domes in the western Islamic world.[58]

  

Interior

  

Prayer hall

  

The prayer hall is located on the southern side of the courtyard ; and is accessed by 17 carved wooden doors. A portico with double row of arches precede the spacious prayer hall, which takes the shape of a rectangle of 70.6 meters in width and 37.5 meters depth.[59]

  

The hypostyle hall is divided into 17 aisles of eight bays, the central nave is wider, as well as the bay along the wall of the qibla.[60] They cross with right angle in front of the mihrab, this device, named "T shape", which is also found in two Iraqi mosques in Samarra (around 847) has been adopted in many North African and Andalusian mosques where it became a feature.[61]

The central nave, a sort of triumphal alley which leads to the mihrab,[62] is significantly higher and wider than the other sixteen aisles of the prayer hall. It is bordered on each side of a double row of arches rested on twin columns and surmounted by a carved plaster decoration consisting of floral and geometric patterns.[63]

Enlightened by impressive chandeliers which are applied in countless small glass lamps,[64] the nave opens into the south portico of the courtyard by a monumental delicately carved wooden door, made in 1828 under the reign of the Husainids.[65] This sumptuous door, which has four leaves richly carved with geometric motifs embossed on the bottom of foliages and interlacing stars, is decorated at the typanum by a stylized vase from which emerge winding stems and leaves.[66] The other doors of the prayer hall, some of which date from the time of the Hafsids,[67] are distinguished by their decoration which consists essentially of geometric patterns (hexagonal, octagonal, rectangular patterns, etc.).[59]

  

Columns and ceiling

  

In the prayer hall, the 414 columns of marble, granite or porphyry[68] (among more than 500 columns in the whole mosque),[69] taken from ancient sites in the country such as Sbeïtla, Carthage, Hadrumetum and Chemtou,[59] support the horseshoe arches. A legend says they could not count them without going blind.[70] The capitals resting on the column shafts offer a wide variety of shapes and styles (Corinthian, Ionic, Composite, etc..).[59] Some capitals were carved for the mosque, but others come from Roman or Byzantine buildings (dating from the second to sixth century) and were reused. According to the German archaeologist Christian Ewert, the special arrangement of reused columns and capitals surrounding the mihrab obeys to a well-defined program and would draw symbolically the plan of the Dome of the Rock.[71] The shafts of the columns are carved in marble of different colors and different backgrounds. Those in white marble come from Italy,[59] some shafts located in the area of the mihrab are in red Porphyry imported from Egypt,[72] while those made of greenish or pink marble are from quarries of Chemtou, in the north-west of current Tunisia.[59] Although the shafts are of varying heights, the columns are ingeniously arranged to support fallen arches harmoniously. The height difference is compensated by the development of variable bases, capitals and crossbeams ; a number of these crossbeams are in cedar wood.[59] The wooden rods, which usually sink to the base of the transom, connect the columns together and maintain the spacing of the arches, thus enhancing the stability of all structures which support the ceiling of the prayer hall.[73]

  

The covering of the prayer hall consists of painted ceilings decorated with vegetal motifs and two domes : one raised at the beginning of the central nave and the other in front of the mihrab. The latter, which its hemispherical cap is cut by 24 concave grooves radiating around the top,[74] is based on ridged horns shaped shell and a drum pierced by eight circular windows which are inserted between sixteen niches grouped by two.[57][75] The niches are covered with carved stone panels, finely adorned with characteristic geometric, vegetal and floral patterns of the Aghlabid decorative repertoire : shells, cusped arches, rosettes, vine-leaf, etc.[57] From the outside, the dome of the mihrab is based on an octagonal drum with slightly concave sides, raised on a square base, decorated on each of its three southern, Easter and western faces with five flat-bottomed niches surmounted by five semi-circular arches,[24][57] the niche in the middle is cut by a lobed oculus enrolled in a circular frame.

  

The painted ceilings are a unique ensemble of planks, beams and brackets, illustrating almost thousand years of the history of painting on wood in Tunisia. Wooden brackets offer a wide variety of style and decor in the shape of a crow or a grasshopper with wings or fixed, they are characterized by a setting that combines floral painted or carved, with grooves. The oldest boards date back to the Aghlabid period (ninth century) and are decorated with scrolls and rosettes on a red background consists of squares with concave sides in which are inscribed four-petaled flowers in green and blue, and those performed by the Zirid Dynasty (eleventh century) are characterized by inscriptions in black kufic writing with gold rim and the uprights of the letters end with lobed florets, all on a brown background adorned with simple floral patterns.

The boards painted under the Hafsid period (during the thirteenth century) offers a floral decor consists of white and blue arches entwined with lobed green. The latest, dated the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries (mostly dating from the time of the Muradid Beys), are distinguished by an epigraphic decoration consists of long black and red texts on olive green background to those painted from 1618 to 1619, under the reign of Murad I Bey (1613-1631), while those back to the eighteenth century have inscriptions in white naskhi script on an orange background.[76]

  

Mihrab and minbar

  

Close view of the mihrab, whose current state dates from the ninth century

The mihrab, which indicates the Qibla (direction of Mecca), in front of which stands the imam during the prayer, is located in the middle of the southern wall of the prayer hall. It is formed by an oven-shaped niche framed by two marble columns and topped by a painted wooden half-cupola. The niche of the mihrab is two meters long, 4.5 meters high and 1.6 meters deep.[77]

The mosque's mihrab, whose decor is a remarkable witness of Muslim art in the early centuries of Islam, is distinguished by its harmonious composition and the quality of its ornaments. Considered as the oldest example of concave mihrab, it dates in its present state to 862-863 AD.[78]

  

Upper Part of The Mihrab

  

It is surrounded at its upper part by 139 lusterware tiles (with a metallic sheen), each one is 21.1 centimeters square and they are arranged on the diagonal in a chessboard pattern. Divided into two groups, they are dated from the beginning of the second half of the ninth century but it is not determined with certainty whether they were made in Baghdad or in Kairouan by a Baghdadi artisan, the controversy over the origin of this precious collection agitates the specialists. These tiles are mainly decorated with floral and plant motifs (stylized flowers, palm leaves and asymmetrical leaves on bottom hatch and checkered) belong to two series : one polychrome characterized by a greater richness of tones ranging from light gold to light, dark or ocher yellow, and from brick-red to brown lacquer, the other monochrome is a beautiful luster that goes from smoked gold to green gold. The coating around them is decorated with blue plant motifs dating from the eighteenth century or the first half of the nineteenth century. The horseshoe arch of the mihrab, stilted and broken at the top, rest on two columns of red marble with yellow veins, which surmounted with Byzantine style capitals that carry two crossbeams carved with floral patterns, each one is decorated with a Kufic inscription in relief.

  

Detail of the marble cladding

  

The wall of the mihrab is covered with 28 panels of white marble, carved and pierced, which have a wide variety of plant and geometric patterns including the stylized grape leaf, the flower and the shell. Behind the openwork hint, there is an oldest niche on which several assumptions were formulated. If one refers to the story of Al-Bakri, an Andalusian historian and geographer of the eleventh century, it is the mihrab which would be done by Uqba Ibn Nafi, the founder of Kairouan, whereas Lucien Golvin shares the view that it is not an old mihrab but hardly a begun construction which may serve to support marble panels and either goes back to work of Ziadet Allah I (817-838) or to those of Abul Ibrahim around the years 862-863.[79] Above the marble cladding, the mihrab niche is crowned with a half dome-shaped vault made of manchineel bentwood. Covered with a thick coating completely painted, the concavity of the arch is decorated with intertwined scrolls enveloping stylized five-lobed vine leaves, three-lobed florets and sharp clusters, all in yellow on midnight blue background.[80]

The minbar, situated on the right of the mihrab, is used by the imam during the Friday or Eids sermons, is a staircase-shaped pulpit with an upper seat, reached by eleven steps, and measuring 3.93 meters length to 3.31 meters in height. Dated from the ninth century (about 862) and erected under the reign of the sixth Aghlabid ruler Abul Ibrahim (856-863), it is made in teak wood imported from India.[81] Among all the pulpits of the Muslim world, it is certainly the oldest example of minbar still preserved today.[82] Probably made by cabinetmakers of Kairouan (some researchers also refer to Baghdad), it consists of an assembly of more than 300 finely carved wood pieces with an exceptional ornamental wealth (vegetal and geometric patterns refer to the Umayyad and Abbasid models), among which about 90 rectangular panels carved with plenty of pine cones, grape leaves, thin and flexible stems, lanceolate fruits and various geometric shapes (squares, diamonds, stars, etc.). The upper edge of the minbar ramp is adorned with a rich and graceful vegetal decoration composed of alternately arranged foliated scrolls, each one containing a spread vine-leaf and a cluster of grapes. In the early twentieth century, the minbar had a painstaking restoration. Although more than eleven centuries of existence, all panels, with the exception of nine, are originals and are in a good state of conservation, the fineness of the execution of the minbar makes it a great masterpiece of Islamic wood carving referring to Paul Sebag.[83] This old chair of the ninth century is still in its original location, next to the mihrab.

  

Maqsura

  

The maqsura, located near the minbar, consists of a fence bounding a private enclosure that allows the sovereign and his senior officials to follow the solemn prayer of Friday without mingling with the faithful. Jewel of the art of woodwork produced during the reign of the Zirid prince Al-Muizz ibn Badis and dated from the first half of the eleventh century, it is considered the oldest still in place in the Islamic world. It is a cedar wood fence finely sculpted and carved on three sides with various geometric motifs measuring 2.8 meters tall, eight meters long and six meters wide.[84] Its main adornment is a frieze that crowns calligraphy, the latter surmounted by a line of pointed openwork merlons, features an inscription in flowery kufic character carved on the background of interlacing plants. Carefully executed in relief, it represents one of the most beautiful epigraphic bands of Islamic art.[84]

The library is near located, accessible by a door which the jambs and the lintel are carved in marble, adorned with a frieze of floral decoration. The library window is marked by an elegant setting that has two columns flanking the opening, which is a horseshoe arch topped by six blind arches and crowned by a series of berms sawtooth.[85]

  

Artworks

  

The Mosque of Uqba, one of the few religious buildings of Islam has remained intact almost all of its architectural and decorative elements, is due to the richness of its repertoire which is a veritable museum of Islamic decorative art and architecture. Most of the works on which rests the reputation of the mosque are still conserved in situ while a certain number of them have joined the collections of the Raqqada National Museum of Islamic Art ; Raqqada is located about ten kilometers southwest of Kairouan.

From the library of the mosque comes a large collection of calligraphic scrolls and manuscripts, the oldest dating back to the second half of the ninth century. This valuable collection, observed from the late nineteenth century by the French orientalists Octave Houdas and René Basset who mention in their report on their scientific mission in Tunisia published in the Journal of African correspondence in 1882, comprises according to the inventory established at the time of the Hafsids (circa 1293-1294) several Qur'ans and books of fiqh that concern mainly the Maliki fiqh and its sources. These are the oldest fund of Maliki legal literature to have survived.[86]

  

Among the finest works of this series, the pages of the Blue Qur'an, currently exhibited at Raqqada National Museum of Islamic Art, from a famous Qur'an in the second half of the fourth century of the Hegira (the tenth century) most of which is preserved in Tunisia and the rest scattered in museums and private collections worldwide. Featuring kufic character suras are written in gold on vellum dyed with indigo, they are distinguished by a compact graph with no marks for vowels. The beginning of each surah is indicated by a band consisting of a golden stylized leafy foliage, dotted with red and blue, while the verses are separated by silver rosettes. Other scrolls and calligraphic Qur'ans, as that known as the Hadinah's Qur'an, copied and illuminated by the calligrapher Ali ibn Ahmad al-Warraq for the governess of the Zirid prince Al-Muizz ibn Badis at about 1020 AD, were also in the library before being transferred to Raqqada museum. This collection is a unique source for studying the history and evolution of calligraphy of medieval manuscripts in the Maghreb, covering the period from the ninth to the eleventh century.

Other works of art such as the crowns of light (circular chandeliers) made in cast bronze, dating from the Fatimid-Zirid period (around tenth-early eleventh century), originally belonged to the furniture of the mosque. These polycandelons, now scattered in various Tunisian museums including Raqqada, consist of three chains supporting a perforated brass plate, which has a central circular ring around which radiate 18 equidistant poles connected by many horseshoe arches and equipped for each of two landmarks flared. The three chains, connected by a suspension ring, are each fixed to the plate by an almond-shaped finial. The crowns of light are marked by Byzantine influence to which the Kairouanese artisan brought the specificities of Islamic decorative repertoire (geometric and floral motifs).[

  

Role in Muslim civilization

  

At the time of its greatest splendor, between the ninth and eleventh centuries AD, Kairouan was one of the greatest centers of Islamic civilization and its reputation as a hotbed of scholarship covered the entire Maghreb. During this period, the Great Mosque of Kairouan was both a place of prayer and a center for teaching Islamic sciences under the Maliki current. One may conceivably compare its role to that of the University of Paris during the Middle Ages.

In addition to studies on the deepening of religious thought and Maliki jurisprudence, the mosque also hosted various courses in secular subjects such as mathematics, astronomy, medicine and botany. The transmission of knowledge was assured by prominent scholars and theologians which included Sahnun ibn Sa'id and Asad ibn al-Furat, eminent jurists who contributed greatly to the dissemination of the Maliki thought, Ishaq ibn Imran and Ibn al-Jazzar in medicine, Abu Sahl al-Kairouani and Abd al-Monim al-Kindi in mathematics. Thus the mosque, headquarters of a prestigious university with a large library containing a large number of scientific and theological works, was the most remarkable intellectual and cultural center in North Africa during the ninth, tenth and eleventh centuries

This magnificent memorial sits on a hill overlooking Stonehaven Bay, I have viewed it many times from a distance when visiting the bay though today 2/7/17 I made my way up the path from Donnattor Castle to the site, I am truly delighted that I did , hopefully I have captured what I saw that day in a way that conveys the feeling I had when taking in the scenery around the memorial, the history and hero's it honours, well worth the effort to visit and pay respect to the soldiers who have died to give us all peace in our time.

 

Stonehaven War Memorial

 

Stonehaven’s War Memorial is a particularly noticeable monument, standing on top of the Black Hill just south of the town. It is often thought of as being in a poor state of repair but this is the way it was designed to look – as unfinished or ruined as the lives of those it commemorates.

 

It was designed by John Ellis an architect from Aberdeen who designed quite a few notable houses in the Northeast as well as some other war memorials.

 

Whether it was Mr. Ellis’s choice of design or someone else’s we can only guess at but we can certainly appreciate its constant presence on our skyline. Tourists and strangers may think it’s a folly, a temple or a mausoleum but they certainly notice it, speak about it and remember it and, surely, that is what it was meant to do.

 

Stonehaven could be said to have been a little hesitant about its war memorial, as it was one of the last to be built in the area. The process did not start late, in fact the Town Council discussed it in 1917 and again in January 1918, but nothing was decided. By early 1920 comments were appearing in The Mearns Leader, the local paper, about the fact that “In other counties, almost every little village, and every church, has raised some token of remembrance”. In late February, in response to public feeling an open meeting was called and a lot of ideas were proposed and discussed.

 

These included, siting a memorial on the Market Square, as this was a popular meeting place.

 

A Memorial Park or Hospital was also suggested to commemorate the fallen. The Black Hill was put forward as a site for a cairn and park or a rock garden as it was “Where the Men o’ Mearns kept watch and ward over their homes in troubled times”, and, “which has been from time immemorial the rallying ground for defence of the coast”.

 

By the end of the evening, when a vote was taken, the meeting seemed to favour a park in some form.

 

A committee of sixteen was formed and instructed to go ahead and put things in motion.

 

Months passed. Other memorials were planned and built at Muchalls, St Cyrus, Portlethan, Catterline, Cookney, Durris, Arbuthnott, Fordoun, Banchory, at the local school Mackie Academy and at the various local churches, but not a word was heard or read about Stonehavens Town memorial.

 

It would seem as if the issue had been forgotten about, as at a Town Council meeting in April 1921the councillors were not too sure as to who was on the committee.

 

Discontent and embarrassment about the situation was made very apparent by some of those present. Something must have worked at that, or a subsequent meeting because, two months later in July, the architect John Ellis had been engaged and had produced two drawings of how he saw the two main ideas.

 

They were displayed in the window of Hugh Ramsey the Drapers on the Square. One drawing was for a cross, made in granite to be located on the ‘plain steans’ at the side of the market buildings on the square. The other was for a memorial like “a ruined temple” built in the early Doric style of architecture for the top of the Black Hill. The idea of a memorial park or hospital would seem to have failed for various reasons.

 

After an initial burst of enthusiasm for the cross on the square, the Black Hill plan gained favour and soon had the wholehearted support of the public and councillors. At a rather poorly attended public meeting on Friday 8th July1921 the plan for the Black Hill was given 99% support and the hope was that building work would start the following spring.

 

Maybe the population thought that their presence was not required,as everyone was in agreement as to which plan was best, but as the Mearns Leader put it the next week “When one remembers that over 200 men, from Stonehaven alone, gave their lives, it is not very gratifying to know that less than 100 persons -- of whom a goodly number were ex-servicemen -- thought it worth while to attend” and ”100 persons out of a total population of over 4000 is not creditable to a town whose sons made so great a sacrifice”.

 

The editorial chastisement would seem to have had an effect, but in the wrong way.

 

The Memorial issue is not mentioned in the paper for eight months, so, on the 3rd of March 1922 the paper fired another broadside stating “People are becoming impatient about the war memorial.

 

It is four years since war ended and the community has done nothing. Not one single official scheme for the raising of funds has been started or is due to commence. It is twelve months since the public meeting decided on which scheme it favoured but since then nothing has been done except by individuals and societies outside the committee. The public is heartily sick of the situation ”.

 

This piece of editorial would seem to have hit a nerve as, the following week, the paper included: -an engraving of the finished Memorial, an appeal for contributions to the Memorial Fund and a promise to publish a list of all the contributors, but it did add ” It will, no doubt, come as somewhat of a surprise to most people to learn that nearly £600 has already been subscribed “. The report went on to say that the committee felt that as so much money had come in in such a short time, the building work could start as soon as possible. The total cost was estimated at £2000.

 

When Lady Cowdray, who owned most of the land around Stonehaven, heard of the plan for the memorial on the Black Hill, she made arrangements donate that piece of land to the community. So the way was clear to finally start on the building work.

 

Once the fundraising started it took off well. There were dances, concerts, whist drives, bazaars and a mock trial by the debating society.

 

Personal donations flowed in and special arrangements were made for children to donate a penny per week. A special film show was held at the Queens Cinema in Allardice Street, which produced £17-5/-. The weekly list shows that a pair of stockings raised 7/6d, as did the sale of a bicycle frame. A torch light procession brought in £5-1/4., and the list shows “proceeds of pig £3-13/6.“

 

We are not told if the pig was alive or dead, in one piece or many. Twenty-seven pounds was raised by the sale of articles made by the soldiers at St.Leonards Hospital (now the hotel).

 

The regular appearance of these lists no doubt helped to keep up enthusiasm. By the end of March the total raised was £791. In April it rose to £1089:00, and May saw it clear £1140 !!.

 

After that, however, the pace of fund raising slowed slightly and it took to the end of July to clear £1200. In late September an outstanding contribution of £400 (the largest single amount donated) was given by the St. Leonards Auxiliary Hospital Subscribers that brought the total up to £1662.

 

The final £486:7/11. came mainly from Lady Cowdray who donated £300. The total donated was £2148: 7/11. and this would appear to have been raised within one year. No mean feat!

 

On the 31 March 1922 the Mearns Leader reported that there was “every likelihood of work beginning, in connection with, the erection of the War Memorial in the near future”. The paper also reported that, once started, the building work would not take long and an unveiling would hopefully take place in the Autumn. However it wasn’t until around mid May that the granite block for the centre was ordered.

 

However despite a ‘making rapid progress’ report in June, by late August it seems that the granite suppliers were having difficulty in obtaining the right size of block in the type of stone specified, so the unveiling was put back to the following Spring.

 

The main bulk of the memorial is sandstone and it was quarried locally, more or less immediately below where the memorial sits. The old harbour quarry was located beyond where the boat park now is, to the south of the bay. There used to be a roadway round to it so getting the stone to the site was not difficult but the sea has taken its bite there. The Stonehaven Heritage Society’s records show that Alexander Adamson, Builder and Cement Worker, Garvock Street, Lauencekirk was paid £1175 for the building work.

 

The red swead granite block (which is white) for the centre, weighs10.5 tons and was supplied by Bower and Florence, The Spittal Granite Works, Aberdeen and cost £291:13/6.Four thousand and ninety nine lead letters were needed to make up the 162 names and cost £170:15/10.

 

The four iron seats that are still there cost £3 each and were made by Allardyce the blacksmiths in David Street, and £47: 10/- was paid to Jas. Burnett & Sons, Sawmillers for the wire fence, posts and gate to surround the whole area.

 

The wording on the stonework is unusual; possibly more suited to a city memorial. Around the outside of the lintels are the names of some of the outstanding battles of the First World War; Mons, Jutland, Gallipoli, Zeebrugge, Marne, Somme, Vimy and Ypres.

 

On the inside of the lintels is cut the quotation from Sankey’s ‘Student in Arms’ – “One by one death challenged them, they smiled in his grim visage and refused to be dismayed”.

 

Certainly a big step away from some inscriptions that seem to lack any inspiration or individualism.

 

Finally the day arrived- Sunday, 20th May 1923, at 3 o’clock. The unveiling and dedication of Stonehaven’s War Memorial.

 

A procession formed up in the town square some time before the appointed hour.

 

It consisted of ex-service men, territorials, the Provost, Magistrates, the Town Council, Church Councils, the War Memorial Committee, various other public bodies representatives and a pipe band from Aberdeen.

 

They set off from the square and marched through the town up to the Black Hill via the Bervie Braes. Relatives of the fallen were accommodated in a special enclosure to one side of the steps that lead up to the gate of the Memorial.

 

Eight sentries were posted outside the memorial one at the base of each pillar their rifles reversed out of respect. There followed the dedication service with hymns and speeches and Lady Cowdray performing the unveiling. Then a wreath was laid and the last post was sounded followed by the National Anthem.

 

A poem composed specially for the memorial by Prof. John G.McKendrick of Maxiburn, Bath Street was read out at the very end of the service.

 

So eventually Stonehaven got its memorial, unique, unlike any other.

 

Thank you to the owner of this information gathered from the internet on the memorials history.

This famous fresco depicting the ladies of the court from the Palace of Knossos can be found at the Heraklion Archaeological Museum, a museum located in Heraklion on Crete. It is one of the greatest museums in Greece and the best in the world for Minoan art, as it contains the most notable and complete collection of artifacts of the Minoan civilization of Crete. Crete is Greece's largest island and the fifth largest island in the Mediterranean.

 

The highly sophisticated Minoans which were Europe's first great civilization built the Palace of Knossos, the legendary home of King Minos which is connected with thrilling legends, such as the myth of the Labyrinth, with the Minotaur and the story of Daidalos and Ikaros.

 

The museum began in 1883 as a simple collection of antiquities. A dedicated building was constructed from 1904 to 1912 at the instigation of two Cretan archaeologists, Iosif Hatzidakis and Stefanos Xanthoudidis. After three destructive earthquakes in 1926, 1930, and 1935, the museum nearly collapsed. The director of the Heraklion Museum was then Spyridon Marinatos, who made great efforts to find funds and persuade the locals and the central government alike that a new solid building was needed. In 1935, Marinatos succeeded in engaging Patroklos Karantinos to build a sturdy structure that has withstood both natural disasters and the bombing that accompanied the German invasion in 1941. Although the museum was damaged during World War II, the collection survived intact and again became accessible to the public in 1952. A new wing was added in 1964.

 

The Herakleion Archaeological Museum is one of the largest and most important museums in Greece, and among the most important museums in Europe. It houses representative artifacts from all the periods of Cretan prehistory and history, covering a chronological span of over 5,500 years from the Neolithic period to Roman times. The singularly important Minoan collection contains unique examples of Minoan art, many of them true masterpieces.

 

The Herakleion Museum is rightly considered as the museum of Minoan culture par excellence worldwide. The museum, located in the town centre, was built between 1937 and 1940 by architect Patroklos Karantinos on a site previously occupied by the Roman Catholic monastery of Saint-Francis which was destroyed by earthquake in 1856. The museum's antiseismic building is an important example of modernist architecture and was awarded a Bauhaus commendation. Karantinos applied the principles of modern architecture to the specific needs of a museum by providing good lighting from the skylights above and along the top of the walls, and facilitating the easy flow of large groups of people. He also anticipated future extensions to the museum. The colours and construction materials, such as the veined polychrome marbles, recall certain Minoan wall-paintings which imitate marble revetment. The two-storeyed building has large exhibition spaces, laboratories, a drawing room, a library, offices and a special department, the so-called Scientific Collection, where numerous finds are stored and studied. The museum shop, run by the Archaeological Receipts Fund, sells museum copies, books, postcards and slides. There is also a cafe.

 

The Herakleion Archaeological Museum is a Special Regional Service of the Ministry of Culture and its purpose is to acquire, safeguard, conserve, record, study, publish, display and promote Cretan artefacts from the Prehistoric to the Late Roman periods. The museum organizes temporary exhibitions in Greece and abroad, collaborates with scientific and scholarly institutions, and houses a variety of cultural events.

 

For more information please visit en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heraklion_Archaeological_Museum

 

Crete (Greek: Κρήτη, Kríti ['kriti]; Ancient Greek: Κρήτη, Krḗtē) is the largest and most populous of the Greek islands, the fifth-largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, and one of the thirteen administrative regions of Greece.The capital and the largest city of Crete is Heraklion. It forms a significant part of the economy and cultural heritage of Greece while retaining its own local cultural traits (such as its own poetry, and music). Crete was once the center of the Minoan civilization (c. 2700–1420 BC), which is currently regarded as the earliest recorded civilization in Europe.

 

The island is first referred to as Kaptara in texts from the Syrian city of Mari dating from the 18th century BC, repeated later in Neo-Assyrian records and the Bible (Caphtor). It was also known in ancient Egyptian as Keftiu, strongly suggesting some form similar to both was the Minoan name for the island.

 

The current name of Crete is thought to be first attested in Mycenaean Greek texts written in Linear B, through the words ke-re-te (*Krētes; later Greek: Κρῆτες, plural of Κρής),[4] and ke-re-si-jo (*Krēsijos; later Greek: Κρήσιος), "Cretan". In Ancient Greek, the name Crete (Κρήτη) first appears in Homer's Odyssey.[8] Its etymology is unknown. One speculative proposal derives it from a hypothetical Luvian word *kursatta (cf. kursawar "island", kursattar "cutting, sliver").[9] In Latin, it became Creta.

 

The original Arabic name of Crete was Iqrīṭiš (Arabic: اقريطش‎ < (της) Κρήτης), but after the Emirate of Crete's establishment of its new capital at ربض الخندقRabḍ al-Ḫandaq (modern Iraklion), both the city and the island became known as Χάνδαξ (Khandhax) or Χάνδακας (Khandhakas), which gave Latin and Venetian Candia, from which French Candie and English Candy or Candia. Under Ottoman rule, in Ottoman Turkish, Crete was called Girit (كريت).

 

For more information please visit en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crete

   

Yellowstone National Park (Arapaho: Henihco'oo or Héetíhco'oo) is a national park located primarily in the U.S. state of Wyoming, although it also extends into Montana and Idaho. It was established by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, 1872. Yellowstone, widely held to be the first national park in the world, is known for its wildlife and its many geothermal features, especially Old Faithful Geyser, one of the most popular features in the park. It has many types of ecosystems, but the subalpine forest is most abundant. It is part of the South Central Rockies forests ecoregion.

 

Yellowstone National Park spans an area of 3,468.4 square miles (8,983 km2), comprising lakes, canyons, rivers and mountain ranges. Yellowstone Lake is one of the largest high-altitude lakes in North America and is centered over the Yellowstone Caldera, the largest supervolcano on the continent. The caldera is considered an active volcano. It has erupted with tremendous force several times in the last two million years. Half of the world's geothermal features are in Yellowstone, fueled by this ongoing volcanism. Lava flows and rocks from volcanic eruptions cover most of the land area of Yellowstone. The park is the centerpiece of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, the largest remaining nearly-intact ecosystem in the Earth's northern temperate zone.

 

Hundreds of species of mammals, birds, fish and reptiles have been documented, including several that are either endangered or threatened. The vast forests and grasslands also include unique species of plants. Yellowstone Park is the largest and most famous megafauna location in the Continental United States. Grizzly bears, wolves, and free-ranging herds of bison and elk live in the park. The Yellowstone Park bison herd is the oldest and largest public bison herd in the United States. Forest fires occur in the park each year; in the large forest fires of 1988, nearly one third of the park was burnt. Yellowstone has numerous recreational opportunities, including hiking, camping, boating, fishing and sightseeing. Paved roads provide close access to the major geothermal areas as well as some of the lakes and waterfalls. During the winter, visitors often access the park by way of guided tours that use either snow coaches or snowmobiles.

 

The park is located at the headwaters of the Yellowstone River, from which it takes its historical name. Near the end of the 18th century, French trappers named the river "Roche Jaune", which is probably a translation of the Hidatsa name "Mi tsi a-da-zi" (Rock Yellow River). Later, American trappers rendered the French name in English as "Yellow Stone". Although it is commonly believed that the river was named for the yellow rocks seen in the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, the Native American name source is not clear.

 

The first detailed expedition to the Yellowstone area was the Cook–Folsom–Peterson Expedition of 1869, which consisted of three privately funded explorers. The Folsom party followed the Yellowstone River to Yellowstone Lake. The members of the Folsom party kept a journal and based on the information it reported, a party of Montana residents organized the Washburn-Langford-Doane Expedition in 1870. It was headed by the surveyor-general of Montana Henry Washburn, and included Nathaniel P. Langford (who later became known as "National Park" Langford) and a U.S. Army detachment commanded by Lt. Gustavus Doane.

 

The expedition spent about a month exploring the region, collecting specimens and naming sites of interest. A Montana writer and lawyer named Cornelius Hedges, who had been a member of the Washburn expedition, proposed that the region should be set aside and protected as a national park; he wrote a number of detailed articles about his observations for the Helena Herald newspaper between 1870 and 1871. Hedges essentially restated comments made in October 1865 by acting Montana Territorial Governor Thomas Francis Meagher, who had previously commented that the region should be protected. Others made similar suggestions. In an 1871 letter from Jay Cooke to Ferdinand V. Hayden, Cooke wrote that his friend, Congressman William D. Kelley had also suggested "Congress pass a bill reserving the Great Geyser Basin as a public park forever".

 

By 1915, 1,000 automobiles per year were entering the park, resulting in conflicts with horses and horse-drawn transportation. Horse travel on roads was eventually prohibited.

 

The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), a New Deal relief agency for young men, played a major role between 1933 and 1942 in developing Yellowstone facilities. CCC projects included reforestation, campground development of many of the park's trails and campgrounds, trail construction, fire hazard reduction, and fire-fighting work. The CCC built the majority of the early visitor centers, campgrounds and the current system of park roads.

 

During World War II, tourist travel fell sharply, staffing was cut, and many facilities fell into disrepair. By the 1950s, visitation increased tremendously in Yellowstone and other national parks. To accommodate the increased visitation, park officials implemented Mission 66, an effort to modernize and expand park service facilities. Planned to be completed by 1966, in honor of the 50th anniversary of the founding of the National Park Service, Mission 66 construction diverged from the traditional log cabin style with design features of a modern style. During the late 1980s, most construction styles in Yellowstone reverted to the more traditional designs. After the enormous forest fires of 1988 damaged much of Grant Village, structures there were rebuilt in the traditional style. The visitor center at Canyon Village, which opened in 2006, incorporates a more traditional design as well.

A large arch made of irregular-shaped natural stone over a road

 

The 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake just west of Yellowstone at Hebgen Lake damaged roads and some structures in the park. In the northwest section of the park, new geysers were found, and many existing hot springs became turbid. It was the most powerful earthquake to hit the region in recorded history.

 

In 1963, after several years of public controversy regarding the forced reduction of the elk population in Yellowstone, United States Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall appointed an advisory board to collect scientific data to inform future wildlife management of the national parks. In a paper known as the Leopold Report, the committee observed that culling programs at other national parks had been ineffective, and recommended management of Yellowstone's elk population.

 

The wildfires during the summer of 1988 were the largest in the history of the park. Approximately 793,880 acres (321,272 ha; 1,240 sq mi) or 36% of the parkland was impacted by the fires, leading to a systematic re-evaluation of fire management policies. The fire season of 1988 was considered normal until a combination of drought and heat by mid-July contributed to an extreme fire danger. On "Black Saturday", August 20, 1988, strong winds expanded the fires rapidly, and more than 150,000 acres (61,000 ha; 230 sq mi) burned.

 

The expansive cultural history of the park has been documented by the 1,000 archeological sites that have been discovered. The park has 1,106 historic structures and features, and of these Obsidian Cliff and five buildings have been designated National Historic Landmarks. Yellowstone was designated an International Biosphere Reserve on October 26, 1976, and a UN World Heritage Site on September 8, 1978. The park was placed on the List of World Heritage in Danger from 1995 to 2003 due to the effects of tourism, infection of wildlife, and issues with invasive species. In 2010, Yellowstone National Park was honored with its own quarter under the America the Beautiful Quarters Program.

Heritage and Research Center

 

The Heritage and Research Center is located at Gardiner, Montana, near the north entrance to the park. The center is home to the Yellowstone National Park's museum collection, archives, research library, historian, archeology lab, and herbarium. The Yellowstone National Park Archives maintain collections of historical records of Yellowstone and the National Park Service. The collection includes the administrative records of Yellowstone, as well as resource management records, records from major projects, and donated manuscripts and personal papers. The archives are affiliated with the National Archives and Records Administration.

 

Approximately 96 percent of the land area of Yellowstone National Park is located within the state of Wyoming. Another three percent is within Montana, with the remaining one percent in Idaho. The park is 63 miles (101 km) north to south, and 54 miles (87 km) west to east by air. Yellowstone is 2,219,789 acres (898,317 ha; 3,468.420 sq mi) in area, larger than the states of Rhode Island or Delaware. Rivers and lakes cover five percent of the land area, with the largest water body being Yellowstone Lake at 87,040 acres (35,220 ha; 136.00 sq mi). Yellowstone Lake is up to 400 feet (120 m) deep and has 110 miles (180 km) of shoreline. At an elevation of 7,733 feet (2,357 m) above sea level, Yellowstone Lake is the largest high altitude lake in North America. Forests comprise 80 percent of the land area of the park; most of the rest is grassland.

 

The Continental Divide of North America runs diagonally through the southwestern part of the park. The divide is a topographic feature that separates Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean water drainages. About one third of the park lies on the west side of the divide. The origins of the Yellowstone and Snake Rivers are near each other but on opposite sides of the divide. As a result, the waters of the Snake River flow to the Pacific Ocean, while those of the Yellowstone find their way to the Atlantic Ocean via the Gulf of Mexico.

 

The park sits on the Yellowstone Plateau, at an average elevation of 8,000 feet (2,400 m) above sea level. The plateau is bounded on nearly all sides by mountain ranges of the Middle Rocky Mountains, which range from 9,000 to 11,000 feet (2,700 to 3,400 m) in elevation. The highest point in the park is atop Eagle Peak (11,358 feet or 3,462 metres) and the lowest is along Reese Creek (5,282 feet or 1,610 metres). Nearby mountain ranges include the Gallatin Range to the northwest, the Beartooth Mountains in the north, the Absaroka Range to the east, and the Teton Range and the Madison Range to the southwest and west. The most prominent summit on the Yellowstone Plateau is Mount Washburn at 10,243 feet (3,122 m).

 

Yellowstone National Park has one of the world's largest petrified forests, trees which were long ago buried by ash and soil and transformed from wood to mineral materials. This ash and other volcanic debris, are believed to have come from the park area itself. This is largely due to the fact that Yellowstone is actually a massive caldera of a supervolcano. There are 290 waterfalls of at least 15 feet (4.6 m) in the park, the highest being the Lower Falls of the Yellowstone River at 308 feet (94 m).

 

Three deep canyons are located in the park, cut through the volcanic tuff of the Yellowstone Plateau by rivers over the last 640,000 years. The Lewis River flows through Lewis Canyon in the south, and the Yellowstone River has carved two colorful canyons, the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone and the Black Canyon of the Yellowstone in its journey north.

 

Yellowstone is at the northeastern end of the Snake River Plain, a great U-shaped arc through the mountains that extends from Boise, Idaho some 400 miles (640 km) to the west. This feature traces the route of the North American Plate over the last 17 million years as it was transported by plate tectonics across a stationary mantle hotspot. The landscape of present-day Yellowstone National Park is the most recent manifestation of this hotspot below the crust of the Earth.

 

The Yellowstone Caldera is the largest volcanic system in North America. It has been termed a "supervolcano" because the caldera was formed by exceptionally large explosive eruptions. The magma chamber that lies under Yellowstone is estimated to be a single connected chamber, about 37 miles (60 km) long, 18 miles (29 km) wide, and 3 to 7 miles (5 to 12 km) deep. The current caldera was created by a cataclysmic eruption that occurred 640,000 years ago, which released more than 240 cubic miles (1,000 km³) of ash, rock and pyroclastic materials. This eruption was more than 1,000 times larger than the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. It produced a caldera nearly five eighths of a mile (1 km) deep and 45 by 28 miles (72 by 45 km) in area and deposited the Lava Creek Tuff, a welded tuff geologic formation. The most violent known eruption, which occurred 2.1 million years ago, ejected 588 cubic miles (2,450 km³) of volcanic material and created the rock formation known as the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff and created the Island Park Caldera. A smaller eruption ejected 67 cubic miles (280 km³) of material 1.3 million years ago, forming the Henry's Fork Caldera and depositing the Mesa Falls Tuff.

 

Each of the three climactic eruptions released vast amounts of ash that blanketed much of central North America, falling many hundreds of miles away. The amount of ash and gases released into the atmosphere probably caused significant impacts to world weather patterns and led to the extinction of some species, primarily in North America.

Wooden walkways allow visitors to closely approach the Grand Prismatic Spring.

 

A subsequent caldera-forming eruption occurred about 160,000 years ago. It formed the relatively small caldera that contains the West Thumb of Yellowstone Lake. Since the last supereruption, a series of smaller eruptive cycles between 640,000 and 70,000 years ago, has nearly filled in the Yellowstone Caldera with >80 different eruptions of rhyolitic lavas such as those that can be seen at Obsidian Cliffs and basaltic lavas which can be viewed at Sheepeater Cliff. Lava strata are most easily seen at the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, where the Yellowstone River continues to carve into the ancient lava flows. The canyon is a classic V-shaped valley, indicative of river-type erosion rather than erosion caused by glaciation.

 

Each eruption is part of an eruptive cycle that climaxes with the partial collapse of the roof of the volcano's partially emptied magma chamber. This creates a collapsed depression, called a caldera, and releases vast amounts of volcanic material, usually through fissures that ring the caldera. The time between the last three cataclysmic eruptions in the Yellowstone area has ranged from 600,000 to 800,000 years, but the small number of such climactic eruptions cannot be used to make an accurate prediction for future volcanic events.

 

The most famous geyser in the park, and perhaps the world, is Old Faithful Geyser, located in Upper Geyser Basin. Castle Geyser, Lion Geyser and Beehive Geyser are in the same basin. The park contains the largest active geyser in the world—Steamboat Geyser in the Norris Geyser Basin. A study that was completed in 2011 found that at least 1283 geysers have erupted in Yellowstone. Of these, an average of 465 are active in a given year. Yellowstone contains at least 10,000 geothermal features altogether. Half the geothermal features and two-thirds of the world's geysers are concentrated in Yellowstone.

 

In May 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, Yellowstone National Park, and the University of Utah created the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), a partnership for long-term monitoring of the geological processes of the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field, for disseminating information concerning the potential hazards of this geologically active region.

 

In 2003, changes at the Norris Geyser Basin resulted in the temporary closure of some trails in the basin. New fumaroles were observed, and several geysers showed enhanced activity and increasing water temperatures. Several geysers became so hot that they were transformed into purely steaming features; the water had become superheated and they could no longer erupt normally. This coincided with the release of reports of a multiple year United States Geological Survey research project which mapped the bottom of Yellowstone Lake and identified a structural dome that had uplifted at some time in the past. Research indicated that these uplifts posed no immediate threat of a volcanic eruption, since they may have developed long ago, and there had been no temperature increase found near the uplifts. On March 10, 2004, a biologist discovered 5 dead bison which apparently had inhaled toxic geothermal gases trapped in the Norris Geyser Basin by a seasonal atmospheric inversion. This was closely followed by an upsurge of earthquake activity in April 2004. In 2006, it was reported that the Mallard Lake Dome and the Sour Creek Dome— areas that have long been known to show significant changes in their ground movement— had risen at a rate of 1.5 to 2.4 inches (3.8 to 6.1 cm) per year from mid–2004 through 2006. As of late 2007, the uplift has continued at a reduced rate. These events inspired a great deal of media attention and speculation about the geologic future of the region. Experts responded to the conjecture by informing the public that there was no increased risk of a volcanic eruption in the near future. However, these changes demonstrate the dynamic nature of the Yellowstone hydrothermal system.

 

Yellowstone experiences thousands of small earthquakes every year, virtually all of which are undetectable to people. There have been six earthquakes with at least magnitude 6 or greater in historical times, including a 7.5‑magnitude quake that struck just outside the northwest boundary of the park in 1959. This quake triggered a huge landslide, which caused a partial dam collapse on Hebgen Lake; immediately downstream, the sediment from the landslide dammed the river and created a new lake, known as Earthquake Lake. Twenty-eight people were killed, and property damage was extensive in the immediate region. The earthquake caused some geysers in the northwestern section of the park to erupt, large cracks in the ground formed and emitted steam, and some hot springs that normally have clear water turned muddy. A 6.1‑magnitude earthquake struck inside the park on June 30, 1975, but damage was minimal.

 

For three months in 1985, 3,000 minor earthquakes were detected in the northwestern section of the park, during what has been referred to as an earthquake swarm, and has been attributed to minor subsidence of the Yellowstone caldera. Beginning on April 30, 2007, 16 small earthquakes with magnitudes up to 2.7 occurred in the Yellowstone Caldera for several days. These swarms of earthquakes are common, and there have been 70 such swarms between 1983 and 2008. In December 2008, over 250 earthquakes were measured over a four-day span under Yellowstone Lake, the largest measuring a magnitude of 3.9. In January 2010, more than 250 earthquakes were detected over a two-day period. Seismic activity in Yellowstone National Park continues and is reported hourly by the Earthquake Hazards Program of the U.S. Geological Survey.

 

On March 30, 2014, a magnitude 4.8 earthquake struck almost the very middle of Yellowstone near the Norris Basin at 6.34am; reports indicated no damage. This was the biggest earthquake to hit the park since February 22, 1980.

 

Over 1,700 species of trees and other vascular plants are native to the park. Another 170 species are considered to be exotic species and are non-native. Of the eight conifer tree species documented, Lodgepole Pine forests cover 80% of the total forested areas. Other conifers, such as Subalpine Fir, Engelmann Spruce, Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir and Whitebark Pine, are found in scattered groves throughout the park. As of 2007, the whitebark pine is threatened by a fungus known as white pine blister rust; however, this is mostly confined to forests well to the north and west. In Yellowstone, about seven percent of the whitebark pine species have been impacted with the fungus, compared to nearly complete infestations in northwestern Montana. Quaking Aspen and willows are the most common species of deciduous trees. The aspen forests have declined significantly since the early 20th century, but scientists at Oregon State University attribute recent recovery of the aspen to the reintroduction of wolves which has changed the grazing habits of local elk.

 

There are dozens of species of flowering plants that have been identified, most of which bloom between the months of May and September. The Yellowstone Sand Verbena is a rare flowering plant found only in Yellowstone. It is closely related to species usually found in much warmer climates, making the sand verbena an enigma. The estimated 8,000 examples of this rare flowering plant all make their home in the sandy soils on the shores of Yellowstone Lake, well above the waterline.

 

In Yellowstone's hot waters, bacteria form mats of bizarre shapes consisting of trillions of individuals. These bacteria are some of the most primitive life forms on earth. Flies and other arthropods live on the mats, even in the middle of the bitterly cold winters. Initially, scientists thought that microbes there gained sustenance only from sulfur. In 2005 researchers from the University of Colorado at Boulder discovered that the sustenance for at least some of the diverse hyperthermophilic species is molecular hydrogen.

 

Thermus aquaticus is a bacterium found in the Yellowstone hot springs that produces an important enzyme (Taq polymerase) that is easily replicated in the lab and is useful in replicating DNA as part of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process. The retrieval of these bacteria can be achieved with no impact to the ecosystem. Other bacteria in the Yellowstone hot springs may also prove useful to scientists who are searching for cures for various diseases.

 

Non-native plants sometimes threaten native species by using up nutrient resources. Though exotic species are most commonly found in areas with the greatest human visitation, such as near roads and at major tourist areas, they have also spread into the backcountry. Generally, most exotic species are controlled by pulling the plants out of the soil or by spraying, both of which are time consuming and expensive.

  

Yellowstone is widely considered to be the finest megafauna wildlife habitat in the lower 48 states. There are almost 60 species of mammals in the park, including the gray wolf, the threatened lynx, and grizzly bears. Other large mammals include the bison (often referred to as buffalo), black bear, elk, moose, mule deer, white-tailed deer, mountain goat, pronghorn, bighorn sheep, and mountain lion.

Bison graze near a hot spring

 

The Yellowstone Park bison herd is the largest public herd of American bison in the United States. The relatively large bison populations are a concern for ranchers, who fear that the species can transmit bovine diseases to their domesticated cousins. In fact, about half of Yellowstone's bison have been exposed to brucellosis, a bacterial disease that came to North America with European cattle that may cause cattle to miscarry. The disease has little effect on park bison, and no reported case of transmission from wild bison to domestic livestock has been filed. However, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has stated that bison are the "likely source" of the spread of the disease in cattle in Wyoming and North Dakota. Elk also carry the disease and are believed to have transmitted the infection to horses and cattle. Bison once numbered between 30 and 60 million individuals throughout North America, and Yellowstone remains one of their last strongholds. Their populations had increased from less than 50 in the park in 1902 to 4,000 by 2003. The Yellowstone Park bison herd reached a peak in 2005 with 4,900 animals. Despite a summer estimated population of 4,700 in 2007, the number dropped to 3,000 in 2008 after a harsh winter and controversial brucellosis management sending hundreds to slaughter. The Yellowstone Park bison herd is believed to be one of only four free roaming and genetically pure herds on public lands in North America. The other three herds are the Henry Mountains bison herd of Utah, at Wind Cave National Park in South Dakota and on Elk Island in Alberta.

Elk Mother Nursing Her Calf

 

To combat the perceived threat of brucellosis transmission to cattle, national park personnel regularly harass bison herds back into the park when they venture outside of the area's borders. During the winter of 1996–97, the bison herd was so large that 1,079 bison that had exited the park were shot or sent to slaughter. Animal rights activists argue that this is a cruel practice and that the possibility for disease transmission is not as great as some ranchers maintain. Ecologists point out that the bison are merely traveling to seasonal grazing areas that lie within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem that have been converted to cattle grazing, some of which are within National Forests and are leased to private ranchers. APHIS has stated that with vaccinations and other means, brucellosis can be eliminated from the bison and elk herds throughout Yellowstone.

A reintroduced northwestern wolf in Yellowstone National Park

 

Starting in 1914, in an effort to protect elk populations, the U.S. Congress appropriated funds to be used for the purposes of "destroying wolves, prairie dogs, and other animals injurious to agriculture and animal husbandry" on public lands. Park Service hunters carried out these orders, and by 1926 they had killed 136 wolves, and wolves were virtually eliminated from Yellowstone. Further exterminations continued until the National Park Service ended the practice in 1935. With the passing of the Endangered Species Act in 1973, the wolf was one of the first mammal species listed. After the wolves were extirpated from Yellowstone, the coyote then became the park's top canine predator. However, the coyote is not able to bring down large animals, and the result of this lack of a top predator on these populations was a marked increase in lame and sick megafauna.

Bison in Yellowstone National Park

 

By the 1990s, the Federal government had reversed its views on wolves. In a controversial decision by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (which oversees threatened and endangered species), northwestern wolves, imported from Canada, were reintroduced into the park. Reintroduction efforts have been successful with populations remaining relatively stable. A survey conducted in 2005 reported that there were 13 wolf packs, totaling 118 individuals in Yellowstone and 326 in the entire ecosystem. These park figures were lower than those reported in 2004 but may be attributable to wolf migration to other nearby areas as suggested by the substantial increase in the Montana population during that interval. Almost all the wolves documented were descended from the 66 wolves reintroduced in 1995–96. The recovery of populations throughout the states of Wyoming, Montana and Idaho has been so successful that on February 27, 2008, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service removed the Northern Rocky Mountain wolf population from the endangered species list.

 

An estimated 600 grizzly bears live in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, with more than half of the population living within Yellowstone. The grizzly is currently listed as a threatened species, however the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has announced that they intend to take it off the endangered species list for the Yellowstone region but will likely keep it listed in areas where it has not yet recovered fully. Opponents of delisting the grizzly are concerned that states might once again allow hunting and that better conservation measures need to be implemented to ensure a sustainable population. Black bears are common in the park and were a park symbol due to visitor interaction with the bears starting in 1910. Feeding and close contact with bears has not been permitted since the 1960s to reduce their desire for human foods. Yellowstone is one of the few places in the United States where black bears can be seen coexisting with grizzly bears. Black bear observations occur most often in the park's northern ranges and in the Bechler area which is in the park's southwestern corner.

 

Population figures for elk are in excess of 30,000—the largest population of any large mammal species in Yellowstone. The northern herd has decreased enormously since the mid‑1990s; this has been attributed to wolf predation and causal effects such as elk using more forested regions to evade predation, consequently making it harder for researchers to accurately count them. The northern herd migrates west into southwestern Montana in the winter. The southern herd migrates southward, and the majority of these elk winter on the National Elk Refuge, immediately southeast of Grand Teton National Park. The southern herd migration is the largest mammalian migration remaining in the U.S. outside of Alaska.

 

In 2003 the tracks of one female lynx and her cub were spotted and followed for over 2 miles (3.2 km). Fecal material and other evidence obtained were tested and confirmed to be those of a lynx. No visual confirmation was made, however. Lynx have not been seen in Yellowstone since 1998, though DNA taken from hair samples obtained in 2001 confirmed that lynx were at least transient to the park. Other less commonly seen mammals include the mountain lion and wolverine. The mountain lion has an estimated population of only 25 individuals parkwide. The wolverine is another rare park mammal, and accurate population figures for this species are not known. These uncommon and rare mammals provide insight into the health of protected lands such as Yellowstone and help managers make determinations as to how best to preserve habitats.

 

Eighteen species of fish live in Yellowstone, including the core range of the Yellowstone cutthroat trout—a fish highly sought by anglers. The Yellowstone cutthroat trout has faced several threats since the 1980s, including the suspected illegal introduction into Yellowstone Lake of lake trout, an invasive species which consume the smaller cutthroat trout. Although lake trout were established in Shoshone and Lewis lakes in the Snake River drainage from U.S. Government stocking operations in 1890, it was never officially introduced into the Yellowstone River drainage. The cutthroat trout has also faced an ongoing drought, as well as the accidental introduction of a parasite—whirling disease—which causes a terminal nervous system disease in younger fish. Since 2001, all native sport fish species caught in Yellowstone waterways are subject to a catch and release law. Yellowstone is also home to six species of reptiles, such as the painted turtle and Prairie rattlesnake, and four species of amphibians, including the Boreal Chorus Frog.

 

311 species of birds have been reported, almost half of which nest in Yellowstone. As of 1999, twenty-six pairs of nesting bald eagles have been documented. Extremely rare sightings of whooping cranes have been recorded, however only three examples of this species are known to live in the Rocky Mountains, out of 385 known worldwide. Other birds, considered to be species of special concern because of their rarity in Yellowstone, include the common loon, harlequin duck, osprey, peregrine falcon and the trumpeter swan.

 

As wildfire is a natural part of most ecosystems, plants that are indigenous to Yellowstone have adapted in a variety of ways. Douglas-fir have a thick bark which protects the inner section of the tree from most fires. Lodgepole Pines —the most common tree species in the park— generally have cones that are only opened by the heat of fire. Their seeds are held in place by a tough resin, and fire assists in melting the resin, allowing the seeds to disperse. Fire clears out dead and downed wood, providing fewer obstacles for lodgepole pines to flourish. Subalpine Fir, Engelmann Spruce, Whitebark Pine, and other species tend to grow in colder and moister areas, where fire is less likely to occur. Aspen trees sprout new growth from their roots, and even if a severe fire kills the tree above ground, the roots often survive unharmed because they are insulated from the heat by soil. The National Park Service estimates that in natural conditions, grasslands in Yellowstone burned an average of every 20 to 25 years, while forests in the park would experience fire about every 300 years.

 

About thirty-five natural forest fires are ignited each year by lightning, while another six to ten are started by people— in most cases by accident. Yellowstone National Park has three fire lookout towers, each staffed by trained fire fighters. The easiest one to reach is atop Mount Washburn, though it is closed to the public. The park also monitors fire from the air and relies on visitor reports of smoke and/or flames. Fire towers are staffed almost continuously from late June to mid-September— the primary fire season. Fires burn with the greatest intensity in the late afternoon and evening. Few fires burn more than 100 acres (40 ha), and the vast majority of fires reach only a little over an acre (0.5 ha) before they burn themselves out. Fire management focuses on monitoring dead and down wood quantities, soil and tree moisture, and the weather, to determine those areas most vulnerable to fire should one ignite. Current policy is to suppress all human caused fires and to evaluate natural fires, examining the benefit or detriment they may pose on the ecosystem. If a fire is considered to be an immediate threat to people and structures, or will burn out of control, then fire suppression is performed.

 

In an effort to minimize the chances of out of control fires and threats to people and structures, park employees do more than just monitor the potential for fire. Controlled burns are prescribed fires which are deliberately started to remove dead timber under conditions which allow fire fighters an opportunity to carefully control where and how much wood is consumed. Natural fires are sometimes considered prescribed fires if they are left to burn. In Yellowstone, unlike some other parks, there have been very few fires deliberately started by employees as prescribed burns. However, over the last 30 years, over 300 natural fires have been allowed to burn naturally. In addition, fire fighters remove dead and down wood and other hazards from areas where they will be a potential fire threat to lives and property, reducing the chances of fire danger in these areas. Fire monitors also regulate fire through educational services to the public and have been known to temporarily ban campfires from campgrounds during periods of high fire danger. The common notion in early United States land management policies was that all forest fires were bad. Fire was seen as a purely destructive force and there was little understanding that it was an integral part of the ecosystem. Consequently, until the 1970s, when a better understanding of wildfire was developed, all fires were suppressed. This led to an increase in dead and dying forests, which would later provide the fuel load for fires that would be much harder, and in some cases, impossible to control. Fire Management Plans were implemented, detailing that natural fires should be allowed to burn if they posed no immediate threat to lives and property.

 

1988 started with a wet spring season although by summer, drought began moving in throughout the northern Rockies, creating the driest year on record to that point. Grasses and plants which grew well in the early summer from the abundant spring moisture produced plenty of grass, which soon turned to dry tinder. The National Park Service began firefighting efforts to keep the fires under control, but the extreme drought made suppression difficult. Between July 15 and 21, 1988, fires quickly spread from 8,500 acres (3,400 ha; 13.3 sq mi) throughout the entire Yellowstone region, which included areas outside the park, to 99,000 acres (40,000 ha; 155 sq mi) on the park land alone. By the end of the month, the fires were out of control. Large fires burned together, and on August 20, 1988, the single worst day of the fires, more than 150,000 acres (61,000 ha; 230 sq mi) were consumed. Seven large fires were responsible for 95% of the 793,000 acres (321,000 ha; 1,239 sq mi) that were burned over the next couple of months. A total of 25,000 firefighters and U.S. military forces participated in the suppression efforts, at a cost of 120 million dollars. By the time winter brought snow that helped extinguish the last flames, the fires had destroyed 67 structures and caused several million dollars in damage. Though no civilian lives were lost, two personnel associated with the firefighting efforts were killed.

 

Contrary to media reports and speculation at the time, the fires killed very few park animals— surveys indicated that only about 345 elk (of an estimated 40,000–50,000), 36 deer, 12 moose, 6 black bears, and 9 bison had perished. Changes in fire management policies were implemented by land management agencies throughout the United States, based on knowledge gained from the 1988 fires and the evaluation of scientists and experts from various fields. By 1992, Yellowstone had adopted a new fire management plan which observed stricter guidelines for the management of natural fires.

 

from Wikipedia

  

Amongst the barbed gorse and the hard boulders are the dead and dying. The daffodils are falling.

 

Stonehaven’s War Memorial is a particularly noticeable monument, standing on top of the Black Hill just south of the town. It is often thought of as being in a poor state of repair but this is the way it was designed to look – as unfinished or ruined as the lives of those it commemorates.

 

It was designed by John Ellis an architect from Aberdeen who designed quite a few notable houses in the Northeast as well as some other war memorials.

Whether it was Mr. Ellis’s choice of design or someone else’s we can only guess at but we can certainly appreciate its constant presence on our skyline. Tourists and strangers may think it’s a folly, a temple or a mausoleum but they certainly notice it, speak about it and remember it and, surely, that is what it was meant to do.

 

Stonehaven could be said to have been a little hesitant about its war memorial, as it was one of the last to be built in the area. The process did not start late, in fact the Town Council discussed it in 1917 and again in January 1918, but nothing was decided. By early 1920 comments were appearing in The Mearns Leader, the local paper, about the fact that “In other counties, almost every little village, and every church, has raised some token of remembrance”. In late February, in response to public feeling an open meeting was called and a lot of ideas were proposed and discussed.

 

These included, siting a memorial on the Market Square, as this was a popular meeting place.

 

A Memorial Park or Hospital was also suggested to commemorate the fallen. The Black Hill was put forward as a site for a cairn and park or a rock garden as it was “Where the Men o’ Mearns kept watch and ward over their homes in troubled times”, and, “which has been from time immemorial the rallying ground for defence of the coast”.

By the end of the evening, when a vote was taken, the meeting seemed to favour a park in some form.

 

A committee of sixteen was formed and instructed to go ahead and put things in motion.

 

Months passed. Other memorials were planned and built at Muchalls, St Cyrus, Portlethan, Catterline, Cookney, Durris, Arbuthnott, Fordoun, Banchory, at the local school Mackie Academy and at the various local churches, but not a word was heard or read about Stonehavens Town memorial.

It would seem as if the issue had been forgotten about, as at a Town Council meeting in April 1921the councillors were not too sure as to who was on the committee.

Discontent and embarrassment about the situation was made very apparent by some of those present. Something must have worked at that, or a subsequent meeting because, two months later in July, the architect John Ellis had been engaged and had produced two drawings of how he saw the two main ideas.

They were displayed in the window of Hugh Ramsey the Drapers on the Square. One drawing was for a cross, made in granite to be located on the ‘plain steans’ at the side of the market buildings on the square. The other was for a memorial like “a ruined temple” built in the early Doric style of architecture for the top of the Black Hill. The idea of a memorial park or hospital would seem to have failed for various reasons.

 

After an initial burst of enthusiasm for the cross on the square, the Black Hill plan gained favour and soon had the wholehearted support of the public and councillors. At a rather poorly attended public meeting on Friday 8th July1921 the plan for the Black Hill was given 99% support and the hope was that building work would start the following spring.

 

Maybe the population thought that their presence was not required,as everyone was in agreement as to which plan was best, but as the Mearns Leader put it the next week “When one remembers that over 200 men, from Stonehaven alone, gave their lives, it is not very gratifying to know that less than 100 persons -- of whom a goodly number were ex-servicemen -- thought it worth while to attend” and ”100 persons out of a total population of over 4000 is not creditable to a town whose sons made so great a sacrifice”.

The editorial chastisement would seem to have had an effect, but in the wrong way.

 

The Memorial issue is not mentioned in the paper for eight months, so, on the 3rd of March 1922 the paper fired another broadside stating “People are becoming impatient about the war memorial.

It is four years since war ended and the community has done nothing. Not one single official scheme for the raising of funds has been started or is due to commence. It is twelve months since the public meeting decided on which scheme it favoured but since then nothing has been done except by individuals and societies outside the committee. The public is heartily sick of the situation ”.

This piece of editorial would seem to have hit a nerve as, the following week, the paper included: -an engraving of the finished Memorial, an appeal for contributions to the Memorial Fund and a promise to publish a list of all the contributors, but it did add ” It will, no doubt, come as somewhat of a surprise to most people to learn that nearly £600 has already been subscribed “. The report went on to say that the committee felt that as so much money had come in in such a short time, the building work could start as soon as possible. The total cost was estimated at £2000.

 

When Lady Cowdray, who owned most of the land around Stonehaven, heard of the plan for the memorial on the Black Hill, she made arrangements donate that piece of land to the community. So the way was clear to finally start on the building work.

 

Once the fundraising started it took off well. There were dances, concerts, whist drives, bazaars and a mock trial by the debating society.

Personal donations flowed in and special arrangements were made for children to donate a penny per week. A special film show was held at the Queens Cinema in Allardice Street, which produced £17-5/-. The weekly list shows that a pair of stockings raised 7/6d, as did the sale of a bicycle frame. A torch light procession brought in £5-1/4., and the list shows “proceeds of pig £3-13/6.“

We are not told if the pig was alive or dead, in one piece or many. Twenty-seven pounds was raised by the sale of articles made by the soldiers at St.Leonards Hospital (now the hotel).

The regular appearance of these lists no doubt helped to keep up enthusiasm. By the end of March the total raised was £791. In April it rose to £1089:00, and May saw it clear £1140 !!.

 

After that, however, the pace of fund raising slowed slightly and it took to the end of July to clear £1200. In late September an outstanding contribution of £400 (the largest single amount donated) was given by the St. Leonards Auxiliary Hospital Subscribers that brought the total up to £1662.

The final £486:7/11. came mainly from Lady Cowdray who donated £300. The total donated was £2148: 7/11. and this would appear to have been raised within one year. No mean feat!

 

On the 31 March 1922 the Mearns Leader reported that there was “every likelihood of work beginning, in connection with, the erection of the War Memorial in the near future”. The paper also reported that, once started, the building work would not take long and an unveiling would hopefully take place in the Autumn. However it wasn’t until around mid May that the granite block for the centre was ordered.

However despite a ‘making rapid progress’ report in June, by late August it seems that the granite suppliers were having difficulty in obtaining the right size of block in the type of stone specified, so the unveiling was put back to the following Spring.

 

The main bulk of the memorial is sandstone and it was quarried locally, more or less immediately below where the memorial sits. The old harbour quarry was located beyond where the boat park now is, to the south of the bay. There used to be a roadway round to it so getting the stone to the site was not difficult but the sea has taken its bite there. The Stonehaven Heritage Society’s records show that Alexander Adamson, Builder and Cement Worker, Garvock Street, Lauencekirk was paid £1175 for the building work.

The red swead granite block (which is white) for the centre, weighs10.5 tons and was supplied by Bower and Florence, The Spittal Granite Works, Aberdeen and cost £291:13/6.Four thousand and ninety nine lead letters were needed to make up the 162 names and cost £170:15/10.

The four iron seats that are still there cost £3 each and were made by Allardyce the blacksmiths in David Street, and £47: 10/- was paid to Jas. Burnett & Sons, Sawmillers for the wire fence, posts and gate to surround the whole area.

 

The wording on the stonework is unusual; possibly more suited to a city memorial. Around the outside of the lintels are the names of some of the outstanding battles of the First World War; Mons, Jutland, Gallipoli, Zeebrugge, Marne, Somme, Vimy and Ypres.

On the inside of the lintels is cut the quotation from Sankey’s ‘Student in Arms’ – “One by one death challenged them, they smiled in his grim visage and refused to be dismayed”.

Certainly a big step away from some inscriptions that seem to lack any inspiration or individualism.

Finally the day arrived- Sunday, 20th May 1923, at 3 o’clock. The unveiling and dedication of Stonehaven’s War Memorial.

 

A procession formed up in the town square some time before the appointed hour.

It consisted of ex-service men, territorials, the Provost, Magistrates, the Town Council, Church Councils, the War Memorial Committee, various other public bodies representatives and a pipe band from Aberdeen.

 

They set off from the square and marched through the town up to the Black Hill via the Bervie Braes. Relatives of the fallen were accommodated in a special enclosure to one side of the steps that lead up to the gate of the Memorial.

Eight sentries were posted outside the memorial one at the base of each pillar their rifles reversed out of respect. There followed the dedication service with hymns and speeches and Lady Cowdray performing the unveiling. Then a wreath was laid and the last post was sounded followed by the National Anthem.

A poem composed specially for the memorial by Prof. John G.McKendrick of Maxiburn, Bath Street was read out at the very end of the service.

 

So eventually Stonehaven got its memorial, unique, unlike any other.

The extravagant monastery that was funded by the wealth and trade that flowed from the Portugal’s colonies during the 16th century. The site was closely associated with the early Portuguese explores, as it was the location that Vasco da Gama spent his last night before his epic voyage to India.

Washington DC

March 2011

Stitched 180 Degree View

 

Original 12628 x 2370:

www.flickr.com/photos/thegforcers/5591490936/sizes/o/in/p...

 

[Best Viewed Large for Details - or view "ORIGINAL" for details around the tidal Basin]

 

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HISTORY OF THE CHERRY TREES

www.nps.gov/cherry/index.htm

The plantings of cherry trees originated in 1912 as a gift of friendship to the People of the United States from the People of Japan. In Japan, the flowering cherry tree, or "Sakura," is an exalted flowering plant. The beauty of the cherry blossom is a potent symbol equated with the evanescence of human life and epitomizes the transformation of Japanese culture throughout the ages.

 

1885: Mrs. Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore, upon returning to Washington from her first visit to Japan, approached the U.S. Army Superintendent of the Office of Public Buildings and Grounds, with the proposal that cherry trees be planted one day along the reclaimed Potomac waterfront. Her request fell on deaf ears. Over the next twenty-four years, Mrs. Scidmore approached every new superintendent, but her idea met with no success.

 

1906: Dr. David Fairchild, plant explorer and U.S. Department of Agriculture official, imported seventy-five flowering cherry trees and twenty-five single-flowered weeping types from the Yokohama Nursery Company in Japan. He planted these on a hillside on his own property in Chevy Chase, Maryland, where he attempted to test their hardiness.

 

1907: The Fairchilds, pleased with the success of the trees, began to promote Japanese flowering cherry trees as the ideal type of tree to plant along avenues in the Washington area. Friends of the Fairchilds also became interested and on September 26, arrangements were completed with the Chevy Chase Land Company to order three hundred Oriental cherry trees for the Chevy Chase area.

 

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1908: Dr. David Fairchild gave cherry saplings to children from each District of Columbia school to plant in their schoolyard for the observance of Arbor Day. In closing his Arbor Day lecture, Dr. Fairchild expressed an appeal that the "Speedway" (no longer existing, but marked by portions of Independence and Maine Avenues, SW and East and West Basin Drives, SW, around the Tidal Basin) be transformed into a "Field of Cherries." In attendance was Eliza Scidmore, to whom he referred later as a great authority on Japan.

 

1909: Mrs. Scidmore decided to try to raise the money required to purchase the cherry trees and then donate them to the city. As a matter of course, Mrs. Scidmore sent a note outlining her plan to the new first lady, Helen Herron Taft. Mrs. Taft had lived in Japan and was familiar with the beauty of the flowering cherry trees. Two days later the first lady responded:

 

The White House, Washington

 

April 7, 1909

 

Thank you very much for your suggestion about the cherry trees. I have taken the matter up and am promised the trees, but I thought perhaps it would be best to make an avenue of them, extending down to the turn in the road, as the other part is still too rough to do any planting. Of course, they could not reflect in the water, but the effect would be very lovely of the long avenue. Let me know what you think about this.

  

Sincerely yours,

Helen H. Taft

 

April 8: The day after Mrs. Taft's letter of April 7, Dr. Jokichi Takamine, the Japanese chemist who discovered adrenaline and takadiastase, was in Washington with Mr. Midzuno, Japanese consul in New York. When he was told that Washington was to have Japanese cherry trees planted along the Speedway, he asked whether Mrs. Taft would accept a donation of an additional two thousand trees to fill out the area. Mr. Midzuno thought it was a fine idea and suggested that the trees be given in the name of the City of Tokyo. Dr. Takamine and Mr. Midzuno met with the first lady, who accepted the offer of the 2,000 trees.

 

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April 13: Five days after Mrs. Taft's request, the Superintendent of the Office of Public Buildings and Grounds, Colonel Spencer Cosby, U.S. Army, initiated the purchase of ninety Fugenzo Cherry Trees (Prunus serrulata "Fugenzo") from Hoopes Brothers and Thomas Co., West Chester, PA.

 

The trees were planted along the Potomac River from the site of the Lincoln Memorial southward toward East Potomac Park. After planting, it was discovered that the trees were not named correctly. The trees were determined to be the cultivar Shirofugen (Prunus serrulata "Shirofugen") and have since disappeared.

 

August 30: The Japanese Embassy informed the Department of State that the City of Tokyo intended to donate to the United States two thousand cherry trees to be planted along the Potomac River.

 

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December 10: Two thousand cherry trees arrived in Seattle, Washington from Japan.

 

1910: On January 6, the two thousand trees arrived in Washington, D.C.

 

January 19: To everyone's dismay, an inspection team from the Department of Agriculture discovered that the trees were infested with insects and nematodes, and were diseased. To protect American growers, the department concluded that the trees must be destroyed.

 

January 28: President William Howard Taft granted his consent to burn the trees.

 

The probable diplomatic setback was alleviated by letters from the Secretary of State to the Japanese Ambassador expressing the deep regret of all concerned. Dr. Takamine and the Mayor of Tokyo, Yukio Ozaki, met the distressing news with determination and good will.

 

Dr. Takamine again donated the money for the trees, whose number had been increased to 3,020. The scions for these trees were taken in December 1910 from the famous collection along the bank of the Arakawa River in Adachi Ward, a suburb of Tokyo, and grafted onto specially selected understock produced in Itami City, Hyogo Prefecture.

 

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January 29: a newspaper article in the Evening Star mentions that “about a dozen” of the “buggiest trees” were saved for further study, and “planted out in the experimental plot of the bureau, and there will be an expert entomologist with a dark lantern, and a butterfly net, cyanide bottle and other lethal weapons placed on guard over the trees, to see what sort of bugs develop”.

  

1912: February 14, 3,020 cherry trees from twelve varieties were shipped from Yokohama on board the S.S. Awa Maru, bound for Seattle. Upon arrival, they were transferred to insulated freight cars for the shipment to Washington. D.C.

  

March 26: 3,020 cherry trees arrived in Washington, D.C. The trees were comprised of the following varieties:

  

"Somei-Yoshino" ...................................1,800

"Ari ake"....................................................100

"Fugen-zo".................................................120

"Fuku-roku-ju"............................................ 50

"Gyo-i-ko".................................................. 20

 

(The Gyoiko were all planted on the White House Grounds)

  

"Ichiyo".....................................................160

"Jo­nioi".......................................................80

"Kwan-zan"...............................................350

"Mikuruma­gayeshi"....................................20

"Shira-yuki".............................................. 130

"Surugadai­nioi"...........................................50

"Taki­nioi"..................................................140

  

Total........................................................3,020

 

March 27: Helen Herron Taft and the Viscountess Chinda, wife of the Japanese Ambassador, planted two Yoshino cherry trees on the northern bank of the Tidal Basin, about 125 feet south of what is now Independence Avenue, SW. At the conclusion of the ceremony, the first lady presented a bouquet of "American Beauty" roses to Viscountess Chinda. Washington's renowned National Cherry Blossom Festival grew from this simple ceremony, witnessed by just a few persons. These two original trees still stand several hundred yards west of the John Paul Jones Memorial, located at the terminus of 17th Street, SW. Situated near the bases of the trees is a large bronze plaque which commemorates the occasion.

 

1913 -­ 1920: Workmen continued planting Yoshino trees around the Tidal Basin. The cherry trees of the other eleven varieties and the remaining Yoshino trees were planted in East Potomac Park.

 

1927: April 16, the original planting of Japanese cherry trees was commemorated by a re-enactment of the event by Washington school children.

 

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1934: The District of Columbia Commissioners sponsored a three-day celebration.

 

1935: The first "Cherry Blossom Festival" was sponsored jointly by many civic groups and became an annual event in subsequent years.

 

1938: So prominent were the cherry trees that a group of indignant women chained themselves together near them in a political statement against President Franklin D. Roosevelt. They sought to stop the workmen who were preparing to clear ground for the construction of the Thomas Jefferson Memorial. A compromise was reached wherein more trees would be planted along the south side of the Tidal Basin to frame the memorial.

 

1940: Cherry Blossom Pageant was introduced

 

1941: December 11, four cherry trees were cut down in suspected retaliation for the Japanese attack against the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. The exact reason for the vandalism never was substantiated. In hopes of preventing future damage during the Second World War, the trees were referred to as the "Oriental" flowering cherry trees.

 

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1948: Cherry Blossom Princesses were selected from each State of the Union as well as from each federal territory. From these princesses, a queen was chosen to reign during the festival.

1952: The famed cherry tree grove along the Arakawa River near Tokyo, parent stock for Washington's first trees, had fallen into decline during World War II. Japan requested help to restore the grove in the Adachi Ward, and the National Park Service shipped budwood from descendants of those same trees back to Tokyo in an effort to restore the original site.

 

1954: March 30, Sadao Iguchi, the Japanese Ambassador to the United States, presented a 300-year-old Japanese Stone Lantern to the City of Washington to commemorate the 100th anniversary of the first Treaty of Peace, Amity and Commerce between the United States and Japan signed by Commodore Mathew Perry at Yokohama on March 31, 1854. The lantern, made of granite, is eight feet high and weighs approximately two tons. The National Cherry Blossom Festival officially is opened by the lighting of the lantern.

 

1957: Mr. Yositaka Mikimoto, President of Mikimoto Pearls, Inc., donated the Mikimoto Pearl Crown that is used at the coronation of the National Cherry Blossom Festival Queen on the night of the Grand Ball. The crown contains more than two pounds of gold and has 1,585 pearls. This magnificent crown is ceremonial, and because of its weight the young lady, who is crowned Queen, will wear the famous piece for just a few moments. She is given a miniature crown of gold, with a pearl topping each point, to wear for the remainder of the evening and to keep thereafter as her own.

 

1958: April 18, the Japanese Pagoda, hewn out of rough stone, was placed on the southwest bank of the Tidal Basin and dedicated. It was presented as a gift to the City of Washington, D.C., by the Mayor of Yokohama to "symbolize the spirit of friendship between the United States of America manifested in the Treaty of Peace, Amity and Commerce signed at Yokohama on March 31, 1854..."

 

1965: The Japanese Government made another generous gift of 3,800 Yoshino trees to another first lady devoted to the beautification of Washington, Lady Bird Johnson, wife of President Lyndon Baines Johnson. American-grown this time, many of these are planted on the grounds of the Washington Monument. Lady Bird Johnson and Mrs. Ryuji Takeuchi, wife of Japan's Ambassador, reenacted the planting ceremony of 1912.

 

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1982: Approximately eight hundred cuttings from the Tidal Basin Yoshino trees were collected by Japanese horticulturists to retain the genetic characteristics of the trees and replace trees destroyed in Japan when the course of a river was changed. Other exchanges and gifts have benefited both cities. Through this cycle of giving, the cherry trees have fulfilled their role as a symbol and an agent of friendship.

 

1986 to 1988: A total of 676 new cherry trees were planted at a cost of over $101,000 in private funds donated to the National Park Service to restore the number of trees to what they were at the time of the original gift.

 

1994: The National Cherry Blossom Festival was expanded from one week to two weeks.

 

1996: March 27, signing of the Sister River Agreement between the Potomac, which flows through Washington, D.C., and the Arakawa, which originates on scenic Mt. Kobushi in Saitama Prefecture.

 

1997: June 17, in cooperation with the United States National Arboretum, cuttings were taken from the documented, surviving 1912 Yoshino cherry trees shipment, to ensure preservation of the trees' genetic lineage. These trees will be used in subsequent replacement plantings to preserve the genetic heritage of the grove.

 

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1999: November 15, Fifty trees, propagated from the 1,400+ year old "Usuzumi" cherry tree growing in the village of Itasho Neo in Gifu Prefecture of Japan, were planted in West Potomac Park. It is said that the 26th Emperor Keitai of Japan planted the tree 1,500 years ago to celebrate his ascension to the throne. The "Usuzumi" tree was declared a National Treasure of Japan in 1922.

 

2002 - 2006: Four hundred trees, propagated from the surviving trees from the 1912 donation, were planted to ensure that the genetic lineage of the original trees is continued.

 

The first British canals were built in Roman times as irrigation or land drainage canals or short connecting spurs between navigable rivers, such as the Foss Dyke, Car Dyke or Bourne-Morton Canal; all in Lincolnshire

  

A spate of building projects, such as castles, monasteries and churches, led to the improvement of rivers for the transportation of building materials. Various Acts of Parliament were passed regulating transportation of goods, tolls and horse towpaths for various rivers. These included the rivers Severn, Witham, Trent and Yorkshire Ouse. The first Act for navigational improvement in England was in 1425, for improvement of the river Lea, a major tributary of the River Thames

  

In the post-medieval period some natural waterways were 'canalised' or improved for boat traffic, in the 16th century. The first Act of Parliament was obtained by the City of Canterbury, in 1515, to extend navigation on the River Stour in Kent, followed by the River Exe in 1539, which led to the construction in 1566 of a new channel, the Exeter Canal. Simple flash locks were provided to regulate the flow of water and allow loaded boats to pass through shallow waters by admitting a rush of water, but these were not purpose-built canals as we understand them today.

 

The transport system that existed before the canals were built consisted of either coastal shipping or horses and carts struggling along mostly un-surfaced mud roads (although there were some surfaced Turnpike roads). There was also a small amount of traffic carried along navigable rivers. In the 17th century, as early industry started to expand, this transport situation was highly unsatisfactory. The restrictions of coastal shipping and river transport were obvious and horses and carts could only carry one or two tons of cargo at a time. The poor state of most of the roads meant that they could often become unusable after heavy rain. Because of the small loads that could be carried, supply of essential commodities such as coal, and iron ore were limited, and this kept prices high and restricted economic growth. One horse-drawn canal barge could carry about thirty tonnes at a time, faster than road transport and at half the cost.

 

Some 29 river navigation improvements took place in the 16th and 17th centuries. The government of King James established the Oxford-Burcot Commission in 1605 which began to improve the system of locks and weirs on the River Thames, which were opened between Oxford and Abingdon by 1635. In 1635 Sir Richard Weston was appointed to develop the River Wey Navigation, making Guildford accessible by 1653. In 1670 the Stamford Canal opened, indistinguishable from 18th century examples with a dedicated cut and double-door locks. In 1699 legislation was passed to permit the Aire & Calder Navigation which was opened 1703, and the Trent Navigation which was built by George Hayne and opened in 1712. Subsequently, the Kennet built by John Hore opened in 1723, the Mersey and Irwell opened in 1725, and the Bristol Avon in 1727. John Smeaton was the engineer of the Calder & Hebble which opened in 1758, and a series of eight pound locks was built to replace flash locks on the River Thames between Maidenhead and Reading, beginning in 1772.

The net effect of these was to bring most of England, with the notable exceptions of Birmingham and Staffordshire, within 15 miles (24 km) of a waterway

The British canal system of water transport played a vital role in the United Kingdom's Industrial Revolution at a time when roads were only just emerging from the medieval mud and long trains of pack horses were the only means of "mass" transit by road of raw materials and finished products (it was no accident that amongst the first canal promoters were the pottery manufacturers of Staffordshire). The UK was the first country to acquire a nationwide canal network.

 

Canals came into being because the Industrial Revolution (which began in Britain during the mid-18th century) demanded an economic and reliable way to transport goods and commodities in large quantities. Some 29 river navigation improvements took place in the 16th and 17th centuries starting with the Thames locks and the River Wey Navigation. The biggest growth was in the so-called "narrow" canals which extended water transport to the emerging industrial areas of the Staffordshire potteries and Birmingham as well as a network of canals joining Yorkshire and Lancashire and extending to London.

 

The 19th century saw some major new canals such as the Caledonian Canal and the Manchester Ship Canal. By the second half of the 19th century, many canals were increasingly becoming owned by railway companies or competing with them, and many were in decline, with decreases in mile-ton charges to try to remain competitive. After this the less successful canals (particularly narrow-locked canals, whose boats could only carry about thirty tons) failed quickly.

 

The 20th century brought competition from road-haulage, and only the strongest canals survived until the Second World War. After the war, decline of trade on all remaining canals was rapid, and by the mid 1960s only a token traffic was left, even on the widest and most industrial waterways.

In the 1960s the infant canal leisure industry was only just sufficient to prevent the closure of the still-open canals, but then the pressure to maintain canals for leisure purposes increased. From the 1970s onwards, increasing numbers of closed canals were restored by enthusiast volunteers. The success of these projects has led to the funding and use of contractors to complete large restoration projects and complex civil engineering projects such as the restoration of the Victorian Anderton Boat Lift and the new Falkirk Wheel rotating lift.

 

Restoration projects by volunteer-led groups continue. There is now a substantial network of interconnecting, fully navigable canals across the country. In places, serious plans are in progress by the Environment Agency and British Waterways Board for building new canals to expand the network, link isolated sections, and create new leisure opportunities for navigating 'canal rings', for example: the Fens Waterways Link and the Bedford and Milton Keynes Waterway.

 

Shropshire Union Canal at Wervin Cheshire Spring 2015

 

The Dwarves dug too greedily and too deep. You know what they awoke in the darkness of Khazad-dum… shadow and flame.

 

Far below the mining town of Gilman sits the Eagle/Belden Mine. This is the site where toxins entered the Eagle River heavily polluting this scenic valley. The EPA declared this entire area a super fund site but no real work has been done since 2007 when retaining walls were put up to catch the poisins leaching from the mine.

 

Just a mere 15 miles away the same Eagle River flows through the beautiful City of Vail Colorado where parents let there children play in this river. I doubt they would allow this if they had any idea what was flowing into it.

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photo by: Roman Kajzer @FotoManiacNYC

  

MODEL

 

A model (from Middle French modelle) is a person with a role either to promote, display, or advertise commercial products (notably fashion clothing) or to serve as a visual aide for people who are creating works of art or to pose for photography.

 

Modelling ("modeling" in American English) is considered to be different from other types of public performance, such as acting or dancing. Although the difference between modelling and performing is not always clear, appearing in a film or a play is not generally considered to be "modelling".

 

Types of modelling include: fashion, glamour, fitness, bikini, fine art, body-part, promotional and commercial print models. Models are featured in a variety of media formats including: books, magazines, films, newspapers, internet and TV. Fashion models are sometimes featured in films: (Looker), reality TV shows (America's Next Top Model, The Janice Dickinson Modeling Agency), and music videos: ("Freedom! '90", "Wicked Game", "Daughters", and "Blurred Lines").

 

Celebrities, including actors, singers, sports personalities and reality TV stars, frequently take modelling contracts in addition to their regular work.

 

HISTORY OF MODELING

 

Early years

 

Modelling as a profession was first established in 1853 by Charles Frederick Worth, the "father of haute couture", when he asked his wife, Marie Vernet Worth, to model the clothes he designed. The term "house model" was coined to describe this type of work. Eventually, this became common practice for Parisian fashion houses. There were no standard physical measurement requirements for a model, and most designers would use women of varying sizes to demonstrate variety in their designs.

 

With the development of fashion photography, the modelling profession expanded to photo modelling. Models remained fairly anonymous, and relatively poorly paid, until the late 1950's. One of the first well-known models was Lisa Fonssagrives, who was very popular in the 1930's. Fonssagrives appeared on over 200 Vogue covers, and her name recognition led to the importance of Vogue in shaping the careers of fashion models. In 1946, Ford Models was established by Eileen and Gerard Ford in New York; it is one of the oldest model agencies in the world. One of the most popular models during the 1940's was Jinx Falkenburg who was paid $25 per hour, a large sum at the time. During the 1940's and 1950's, Wilhelmina Cooper, Jean Patchett, Dovima, Dorian Leigh, Suzy Parker, Evelyn Tripp, Carmen Dell'Orefice, and Lisa Fonssagrives dominated fashion. Dorothea Church was among the first black models in the industry to gain notoriety in Paris. However, these models were unknown outside the fashion community. Compared to today's models, the models of the 1950's were more voluptuous. Wilhelmina Cooper's measurements were 38"-24"-36" whereas Chanel Iman's measurements are 32"-23"-33".

 

The 1960s and the beginning of the industry

 

In the 1960's, the modelling world began to establish modelling agencies. Throughout Europe, secretarial services acted as models' agents charging them weekly rates for their messages and bookings. For the most part, models were responsible for their own billing. In Germany, agents were not allowed to work for a percentage of a person's earnings, so referred to themselves as secretaries. With the exception of a few models travelling to Paris or New York, travelling was relatively unheard of for a model. Most models only worked in one market due to different labor laws governing modelling in various countries. In the 1960's, Italy had many fashion houses and fashion magazines but was in dire need of models. Italian agencies would often coerce models to return to Italy without work visas by withholding their pay. They would also pay their models in cash, which models would have to hide from customs agents. It was not uncommon for models staying in hotels such as La Louisiana in Paris or the Arena in Milan to have their hotel rooms raided by the police looking for their work visas. It was rumored that competing agencies were behind the raids. This led many agencies to form worldwide chains; for example, the Marilyn Agency has branches in Paris and New York.

 

By the late 1960's, London was considered the best market in Europe due to its more organised and innovative approach to modelling. It was during this period that models began to become household names. Models like: Jean Shrimpton, Joanna Lumley, Tania Mallet, Celia Hammond, Twiggy, Penelope Tree, and Pauline Stone dominated the London fashion scene and were well paid, unlike their predecessors. Twiggy became The Face of '66 at the age of 16. At this time, model agencies were not as restrictive about the models they represented, although it was uncommon for them to sign shorter models. Twiggy, who stood at 5 feet 6 inches (168 cm) with a 32" bust and had a boy's haircut, is credited with changing model ideals. At that time, she earned £80 an hour, while the average wage was £15 a week.

 

In 1967, seven of the top model agents in London formed the Association of London Model Agents. The formation of this association helped legitimize modelling and changed the fashion industry. Even with a more professional attitude towards modelling, models were still expected to have their hair and makeup done before they arrived at a shoot. Meanwhile, agencies took responsibility for a model's promotional materials and branding. That same year, former top fashion model Wilhelmina Cooper opened up her own fashion agency with her husband called Wilhelmina Models. By 1968, FM Agency and Models 1 were established and represented models in a similar way that agencies do today. By the late 1960's, models were treated better and were making better wages. One of the innovators, Ford Models, was the first agency to advance models money they were owed and would often allow teen models, who did not live locally, to reside in their house, a precursor to model housing.

 

The 1970's and 1980's

 

The innovations of the 1960's flowed into the 1970's fashion scene. As a result of model industry associations and standards, model agencies became more business minded, and more thought went into a model's promotional materials. By this time, agencies were starting to pay for a model's publicity. In the early 1970's, Scandinavia had many tall, leggy, blonde-haired, blue-eyed models and not enough clients. It was during this time that Ford Models pioneered scouting. They would spend time working with agencies holding modelling contests. This was the precursor to the Ford Models Supermodel of the World competition which was established in 1980. Ford also focused their attentions on Brazil which had a wide array of seemingly "exotic" models, which eventually led to establishment of Ford Models Brazil. It was also during this time that the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue debuted. The magazine set a trend by photographing "bigger and healthier" California models, and printing their names by their photos, thus turning many of them into household names and establishing the issue as a hallmark of supermodel status.

 

The 1970's marked numerous milestones in fashion. Beverly Johnson was the first African American to appear on the cover of U.S. Vogue in 1974. Models, including Grace Jones, Donyale Luna, Minah Bird, Naomi Sims, and Toukie Smith were some of the top black fashion models who paved the way for black women in fashion. In 1975, Margaux Hemingway landed a then-unprecedented million-dollar contract as the face of Fabergé's Babe perfume and the same year appeared on the cover of Time magazine, labelled one of the "New Beauties," giving further name recognition to fashion models.

 

Many of the world's most prominent modelling agencies were established in the 1970's and early 1980's. These agencies created the standard by which agencies now run. In 1974, Nevs Models was established in London with only a men's board, the first of its kind. Elite Models was founded in Paris in 1975 as well as Friday's Models in Japan. The next year Cal-Carries was established in Singapore, the first of a chain of agencies in Asia. In 1977, Select Model Management opened its doors as well as Why Not Models in Milan. By the 1980's, agencies such as Premier Model Management, Storm Models, Mikas, Marilyn, and Metropolitan Models had been established.

 

By the 1980's, most models were able to make modelling a full-time career. It was common for models to travel abroad and work throughout Europe. As modelling became global, numerous agencies began to think globally. In 1980, Ford Models, the innovator of scouting, introduced the Ford Models Supermodel of the World contest. That same year, John Casablancas opened Elite Models in New York. In 1981, cosmetics companies began contracting top models to lucrative endorsement deals. By 1983, Elite developed its own contest titled the Elite Model Look competition. In New York during the 1980's there were so-called "model wars" in which the Ford and Elite agencies fought over models and campaigns. Models were jumping back and forth between agencies such Elite, Wilhelmina, and Ford. In New York, the late 1980's trend was the boyish look in which models had short cropped hair and looked androgynous. In Europe, the trend was the exact opposite. During this time, a lot of American models who were considered more feminine looking moved abroad. By the mid-1980's, big hair was made popular by some musical groups, and the boyish look was out. The curvaceous models who had been popular in the 1950's and early 1970's were in style again. Models like Patti Hansen earned $200 an hour for print and $2,000 for television plus residuals. It was estimated that Hansen earned about $300,000 a year during the 1980's.

 

The 1990's to present

 

The early 1990's were dominated by the high fashion models of the late 1980's. In 1990, Linda Evangelista famously said to Vogue, "we don't wake up for less than $10,000 a day". Evangelista and her contemporaries, Naomi Campbell, Cindy Crawford, Christy Turlington, Tatjana Patitz and Stephanie Seymour, became arguably the most recognizable models in the world, earning the moniker of "supermodel", and were boosted to global recognition and new heights of wealth for the industry. In 1991, Turlington signed a contract with Maybelline that paid her $800,000 for twelve days' work each year.

 

By the mid‑1990's, the new "heroin chic" movement became popular amongst New York and London editorial clients. While the heroin chic movement was inspired by model Jaime King, who suffered from a heroin addiction, it was Kate Moss who became its poster child through her ads for Calvin Klein. In spite of the heroin chic movement, model Claudia Schiffer earned $12 million. With the popularity of lingerie retailer Victoria's Secret, and the Sports Illustrated Swimsuit Issue, there was a need for healthier-looking supermodels such as Tyra Banks and Heidi Klum to meet commercial modelling demand. The mid‑1990's also saw many Asian countries establishing modelling agencies.

 

By the late 1990's, the heroin chic era had run its course. Teen-inspired clothing infiltrated mainstream fashion, teen pop music was on the rise, and artists such as Britney Spears and Christina Aguilera popularized pleather and bare midriffs. As fashion changed to a more youthful demographic, the models who rose to fame had to be sexier for the digital age. Following Gisele Bundchen's breakthrough, a wave of Brazilian models including Adriana Lima, Alessandra Ambrosio, and Ana Beatriz Barros rose to fame on runways and became popular in commercial modelling throughout the 2000's. Some attribute this to decisions by magazines to replace models with celebrities their covers.

 

In the late 2000's, the Brazilians fell out of favor on the runways. Editorial clients were favoring models with a china-doll or alien look to them, such as Gemma Ward and Lily Cole. During the 2000's, Ford Models and NEXT Model Management were engaged in a legal battle, with each agency alleging that the other was stealing its models.

 

However, the biggest controversy of the 2000's was the health of high-fashion models participating in fashion week. While the health of models had been a concern since the 1970's, there were several high-profile news stories surrounding the deaths of young fashion models due to eating disorders and drug abuse. The British Fashion Council subsequently asked designers to sign a contract stating they would not use models under the age of sixteen. On March 3, 2012, Vogue banned models under the age of sixteen as well as models who appeared to have an eating disorder. Similarly, other countries placed bans on unhealthy, and underage models, including Spain, Italy, and Israel, which all enacted a minimum body mass index (BMI) requirement.

 

The often thin shape of many fashion models has been criticized for warping girls' body image and encouraging eating disorders. Organizers of a fashion show in Madrid in September 2006 turned away models who were judged to be underweight by medical personnel who were on hand. In February 2007, six months after her sister, Luisel Ramos, also a model, died, Uruguayan model Eliana Ramos became the third fashion model to die of malnutrition in six months. The second victim was Ana Carolina Reston. Luisel Ramos died of heart failure caused by anorexia nervosa just after stepping off the catwalk. In 2015, France passed a law requiring models to be declared healthy by a doctor in order to participate in fashion shows. The law also requires re-touched images to be marked as such in magazines.

 

In 2013, New York toughened its child labor law protections for models under the age of eighteen by passing New York Senate Bill No. 5486, which gives underage models the same labor protections afforded to child actors. Key new protections included the following: underage models are not to work before 5:00 pm or after 10:00 pm on school nights, nor were they to work later than 12:30 am on non-school nights; the models may not return to work less than twelve hours after they leave; a pediatric nurse must be on site; models under sixteen must be accompanied by an adult chaperone; parents or guardians of underage models must create a trust fund account into which employers will transfer a minimum of 15% of the child model's gross earnings; and employers must set aside time and a dedicated space for educational instruction.

 

TYPES OF MODELING

 

Runway modelling

 

Runway models showcase clothes from fashion designers, fashion media, and consumers. They are also called "live models" and are self-employed. They are wanted to be over the height of 5'8" for men and 5'6" for women. Runway models work in different locations, constantly travelling between those cities where fashion is well known—London, Milan, New York City, and Paris. Second-tier international fashion center cities include: Rome, Florence, Venice, Brescia, Barcelona, Los Angeles, Tokyo, and Moscow. Cities where catalog work comprises the bulk of fashion packaging, merchandising and marketing work are: Miami, San Francisco, Sydney, Chicago, Toronto, Mexico City, Tokyo, Hamburg, London, and Beijing.

 

The criteria for runway models include certain height and weight requirements. During runway shows, models have to constantly change clothes and makeup. Models walk, turn, and stand in order to demonstrate a garment's key features. Models also go to interviews (called "go and sees") to present their portfolios. The more experience a model has, the more likely she/he is to be hired for a fashion show. A runway model can also work in other areas, such as department store fashion shows, and the most successful models sometimes create their own product lines or go into acting.

 

The British Association of Model Agents (AMA) says that female models should be around 34"-24"-34" and between 5 ft 8 in (173 cm) and 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) tall. The average model is very slender. Those who do not meet the size requirement may try to become a plus-size model. According to the New York Better Business Career Services website, the preferred dimensions for a male model are a height of 5 ft 11 in (180 cm) to 6 ft 2 in (189 cm), a waist of 29–32 in (73.66–81.28 cm) and a chest measurement of 39–40 in (99.06–101.60 cm). Male runway models are notably skinny and well toned.

 

Male and female models must also possess clear skin, healthy hair, and attractive facial features. Stringent weight and body proportion guidelines form the selection criteria by which established, and would‑be, models are judged for their placement suitability, on an ongoing basis. There can be some variation regionally, and by market tier, subject to current prevailing trends at any point, in any era, by agents, agencies and end-clients.

 

Formerly, the required measurements for models were 35"-23.5"-35" in (90-60-90 cm), the alleged measurements of Marilyn Monroe. Today's fashion models tend to have measurements closer to the AMA-recommended shape, but some - such as Afghan model Zohre Esmaeli - still have 35"-23.5"-35" measurements. Although in some fashion centers, a size 00 is more ideal than a size 0.

 

Plus-size models

 

Plus-size models are models who generally have larger measurements than editorial fashion models. The primary use of plus-size models is to appear in advertising and runway shows for plus-size labels. Plus-size models are also engaged in work that is not strictly related to selling large-sized clothing, e.g., stock photography and advertising photography for cosmetics, household and pharmaceutical products and sunglasses, footwear and watches. Therefore, plus-size models do not exclusively wear garments marketed as plus-size clothing. This is especially true when participating in fashion editorials for mainstream fashion magazines. Some plus-size models have appeared in runway shows and campaigns for mainstream retailers and designers such as Gucci, Guess, Jean-Paul Gaultier, Levi's and Versace Jeans.

 

Fit models

 

A fit model works as a sort of live mannequin to give designers and pattern makers feedback on the fit, feel, movement, and drape of a garment to be produced in a given size.

 

Glamour models

 

Glamour modelling focuses on sexuality and thus general requirements are often unclear, being dependent more on each individual case. Glamour models can be any size or shape. There is no industry standard for glamour modelling and it varies greatly by country. For the most part, glamour models are limited to modelling in calendars, men's magazines, such as Playboy, bikini modelling, lingerie modelling, fetish modelling, music videos, and extra work in films. However, some extremely popular glamour models transition into commercial print modelling, appearing in swimwear, bikini and lingerie campaigns.

 

It is widely considered that England created the market for glamour modelling when The Sun established Page 3 in 1969, a section in their newspaper which now features topless models. In the beginning, the newspaper featured sexually suggestive images of Penthouse and Playboy models. It was not until 1970 that models appeared topless. In the 1980's, The Sun's competitors followed suit and produced their own Page 3 sections. It was during this time that glamour models first came to prominence with the likes of Samantha Fox. As a result, the United Kingdom has a very large glamour market and has numerous glamour modelling agencies to this day.

 

It was not until the 1990's that modern glamour modelling was established. During this time, the fashion industry was promoting models with waif bodies and androgynous looking women, which left a void. Several fashion models, who were deemed too commercial, and too curvaceous, were frustrated with industry standards, and took a different approach. Models such as Victoria Silvstedt left the fashion world and began modelling for men's magazines. In the previous decades, posing nude for Playboy resulted in models losing their agencies and endorsements. Playboy was a stepping stone which catapulted the careers of Victoria Silvstedt, Pamela Anderson, and Anna Nicole Smith. Pamela Anderson became so popular from her Playboy spreads that she was able to land roles on Home Improvement and Baywatch.

 

In the mid-1990's, a series of men's magazines were established such as Maxim, FHM, and Stuff. At the same time, magazines including Sweden's Slitz re-branded themselves as men's magazines. Pre-internet, these magazines were popular among men in their late teens and early twenties because they were considered to be more tasteful than their predecessors. With the glamour market growing, fashion moved away from the waifs and onto Brazilian bombshells. The glamour market, which consisted mostly of commercial fashion models and commercial print models, became its own genre due to its popularity. Even in a large market like the United Kingdom, however, glamour models are not usually signed exclusively to one agency as they can not rely financially on one agency to provide them with enough work. It was, and still is, a common practice for glamour models to partake in kiss-and-tell interviews about their dalliances with famous men. The notoriety of their alleged bed-hopping often propels their popularity and they are often promoted by their current or former fling. With Page 3 models becoming fixtures in the British tabloids, glamour models such as Jordan, now known as Katie Price, became household names. By 2004, Page 3 regulars earned anywhere from £30,000 to 40,000, where the average salary of a non-Page 3 model, as of 2011, was between £10,000 and 20,000. In the early 2000's, glamour models, and aspiring glamour models, appeared on reality television shows such as Big Brother to gain fame. Several Big Brother alumni parlayed their fifteen minutes of fame into successful glamour modelling careers. However, the glamour market became saturated by the mid-2000's, and numerous men's magazines including Arena, Stuff and FHM in the United States went under. During this time, there was a growing trend of glamour models, including Kellie Acreman and Lauren Pope, becoming DJs to supplement their income. In a 2012 interview, Keeley Hazell said that going topless is not the best way to achieve success and that "[she] was lucky to be in that 1% of people that get that, and become really successful."

 

Alternative models

 

An alternative model is any model who does not fit into the conventional model types and may include punk, goth, fetish, and tattooed models or models with distinctive attributes. This type of modeling is usually a cross between glamour modeling and art modeling. Publishers such as Goliath Books in Germany introduced alternative models and punk photography to larger audiences. Billi Gordon, then known as Wilbert Anthony Gordon, was the top greeting card model in the world and inspired a cottage industry including greeting cards, T-shirts, fans, stationery, gift bags, etc.

 

Parts models

 

Some models are employed for their body parts. For example, hand models may be used to promote products held in the hand and nail-related products. (e.g. rings, other jewelry or nail polish). They are frequently part of television commercials. Many parts models have exceptionally attractive body parts, but there is also demand for unattractive or unusual looking body parts for particular campaigns.

 

Hands are the most in-demand body parts. Feet models are also in high demand, particularly those who fit sample size shoes. Models are also successful modelling other specific parts including abs, arms, back, bust or chest, legs, and lips. Some petite models (females who are under 5 ft 6 in (1.68 m) and do not qualify as fashion models) have found success in women's body part modelling.

 

Parts model divisions can be found at agencies worldwide. Several agencies solely represent parts models, including Hired Hands in London, Body Parts Models in Los Angeles, Carmen Hand Model Management in New York and Parts Models in New York. Parts Models is the largest parts agency, representing over 300 parts models.

 

Fitness models

 

Fitness modelling focuses on displaying a healthy, toned physique. Fitness models usually have defined muscle groups. The model's body weight is heavier due to muscle weighing more than fat; however, they have a lower body fat percentage because the muscles are toned and sculpted. Fitness models are often used in magazine advertising. Sometimes they are certified personal fitness trainers. However, other fitness models are also athletes and compete as professionals in fitness and figure competitions. There are several agencies in large markets such as New York, London, Germany that have fitness modelling agencies. While there is a large market for these models, most of these agencies are a secondary agency promoting models who typically earn their primary income as commercial models. Plus there are also magazines that gear towards specifically fitness modeling or getting fit and in shape. Fitness Models showcase their fitter side of their bodies on the covers gearing towards specific competitions in fitness and figure competitions.

 

Gravure idols

 

A gravure idol, often abbreviated to gradol, is a Japanese female model who primarily models on magazines, especially men's magazines, photobooks or DVDs.

 

"Gravure" (グラビア) is a Wasei-eigo term derived from "rotogravure", which is a type of intaglio printing process that was once a staple of newspaper photo features. The rotogravure process is still used for commercial printing of magazines, postcards, and cardboard product packaging.

 

Gravure idols appear in a wide range of photography styles and genres. Their photos are largely aimed at male audiences with poses or activities intended to be provocative or suggestive, generally accentuated by an air of playfulness and innocence rather than aggressive sexuality. Although gravure models may sometimes wear clothing that exposes most of their body, they seldom appear fully nude. Gravure models may be as young as pre-teen age up to early thirties. In addition to appearing in mainstream magazines, gravure idols often release their own professional photobooks and DVDs for their fans. Many popular female idols in Japan launched their careers by starting out as gravure idols.

 

Commercial print and on-camera models

 

Commercial print models generally appear in print ads for non-fashion products, and in television commercials. Commercial print models can earn up to $250 an hour. Commercial print models are usually non-exclusive, and primarily work in one location.

 

There are several large fashion agencies that have commercial print divisions, including Ford Models in the United States.

 

Promotional models

 

A promotional model is a model hired to drive consumer demand for a product, service, brand, or concept by directly interacting with potential consumers. The vast majority of promotional models tend to be attractive in physical appearance. They serve to provide information about the product or service and make it appealing to consumers. While the length of interaction may be short, the promotional model delivers a live experience that reflects on the product or service he or she is representing. This form of marketing touches fewer consumers for the cost than traditional advertising media (such as print, radio, and television); however, the consumer's perception of a brand, product, service, or company is often more profoundly affected by a live person-to-person experience.

 

Marketing campaigns that make use of promotional models may take place in stores or shopping malls, at tradeshows, special promotional events, clubs, or even at outdoor public spaces. They are often held at high traffic locations to reach as many consumers as possible, or at venues at which a particular type of target consumer is expected to be present.

 

Spokesmodels

 

"Spokesmodel" is a term used for a model who is employed to be associated with a specific brand in advertisements. A spokesmodel may be a celebrity used only in advertisements (in contrast to a brand ambassador who is also expected to represent the company at various events), but more often the term refers to a model who is not a celebrity in their own right. A classic example of the spokesmodel are the models hired to be the Marlboro Man between 1954 and 1999.

 

Trade show models

 

Trade show models work a trade show floor-space or booth, and represent a company to attendees. Trade show models are typically not regular employees of the company, but are freelancers hired by the company renting the booth space. They are hired for several reasons: trade show models can make a company's booth more visibly distinguishable from the hundreds of other booths with which it competes for attendee attention. They are articulate and quickly learn and explain or disseminate information on the company and its product(s) and service(s). And they can assist a company in handling a large number of attendees which the company might otherwise not have enough employees to accommodate, possibly increasing the number of sales or leads resulting from participation in the show.

 

Atmosphere models

 

Atmosphere models are hired by the producers of themed events to enhance the atmosphere or ambience of their event. They are usually dressed in costumes exemplifying the theme of the event and are often placed strategically in various locations around the venue. It is common for event guests to have their picture taken with atmosphere models. For example, if someone is throwing a "Brazilian Day" celebration, they would hire models dressed in samba costumes and headdresses to stand or walk around the party.

 

Podium models

 

Podium models differ from runway models in that they don't walk down a runway, but rather just stand on an elevated platform during fashion presentation. They are kind of like live mannequins placed in various places throughout an event. Attendees can walk up to the models and inspect and even feel the clothing. Podium Modeling is a practical alternative way of presenting fashion when space is too limited to have a full runway fashion show.

 

Art models

 

Art models pose for any visual artist as part of the creative process. Art models are often paid professionals who provide a reference or inspiration for a work of art that includes the human figure. The most common types of art created using models are figure drawing, figure painting, sculpture and photography, but almost any medium may be used. Although commercial motives dominate over aesthetics in illustration, its artwork commonly employs models. Models are most frequently employed for art classes or by informal groups of experienced artists that gather to share the expense of a model.

 

Instagram models

 

Instagram models are a recent phenomenon due to the rise of social media. These models gain their popularity due to how many followers they have on social media. Some Instagram models gain high-profile modeling gigs and become household names. High-profile model, Jen Selter, kicked off the Instagram model craze. Recently, Anna Faith and Caitlin O'Connor among many others, have had great success as Instagram Models.

  

LINKS:

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Model_(person)

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Modeling_agency

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ring_girl

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Time_for_print

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Model_(art)

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Size_zero

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Plus-size_model

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fit_model

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fitness_and_figure_competition

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cheerleading

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Promotional_model

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sex_in_advertising

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Podium_girl

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Glamour_photography

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Female_body_shape

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Junior_idol

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Korean_pop_idol

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Japanese_idol

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/List_of_Japanese_gravure_idols

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosplay

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Sex_symbol

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pin-up_model

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Celebrity_worship_syndrome

  

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