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Danxia landform in Zhangye,China.

Danxia landform, formed from red sandstone and characterised by steep cliffs, which are caused by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces(including weathering and erosion).

--From Wikipedia


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Danxia landform in Zhangye,China.

Danxia landform, formed from red sandstone and characterised by steep cliffs, which are caused by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces(including weathering and erosion).

--From Wikipedia


Thanks for your visit,comment and fave :-)

Danxia landform in Zhangye,China.

Danxia landform, formed from red sandstone and characterised by steep cliffs, which are caused by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces(including weathering and erosion).

--From Wikipedia


Thanks for your visit,comment and fave :-)

Danxia landform in Zhangye,China.

Danxia landform, formed from red sandstone and characterised by steep cliffs, which are caused by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces(including weathering and erosion).

--From Wikipedia

Taken with Nikon F5 fitted with Sigma 105mm f2.8 micro lens, Nikon Sb 29S micro flash system. The assembly was mounted on Manfrotto tripod. Film stock was Fujichrome Provia 100. Scanned on Nikon cool scan LS 2000 ED.


Allium sativum, commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion genus, Allium. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive, and rakkyo. With a history of human use of over 7,000 years, garlic is native to central Asia.

Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China dates back to 2000 BCE.

Supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol. The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells (RBCs), a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.

A 2012 meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials looking at the effects of garlic on serum lipid profiles, found garlic was superior to placebo in reducing serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Compared with the placebo groups, serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the garlic groups was reduced by 0.28 (95% CI, −0.45, −0.11) mmol L⁻¹ (P = 0.001) and 0.13 (95% CI, −0.20, −0.06) mmol L⁻¹ (P < 0.001), respectively. Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation and hyperlipidemia. ( Wikipedia ).





Danxia landform in Zhangye,China.

Danxia landform, formed from red sandstone and characterised by steep cliffs, which are caused by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces(including weathering and erosion).

--From Wikipedia


Thanks for your visit,comment and fave :-)

Danxia landform in Zhangye,China.

Danxia landform, formed from red sandstone and characterised by steep cliffs, which are caused by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces(including weathering and erosion).

--From Wikipedia

"Chemical which occurs naturally in the brain and works like morphine"


Endogenous preferences - Top 10% popular

Show up and get the work done. #chuckclose #chasealias #immersionism #endogenous


Show Up and Get the Work Done: From Endogenous Series, 2010 - 2012


Inspiration is for amateurs. The rest of us just show up and get the work done. If you wait around for clouds to part and a bolt of lightning to strike you in the brain, you're not going to make an awful lot of work." -Chuck Close


David S Pollack becomes Chuck Close with the help of some Method Acting skills he attempts to visually and conceptually reinterpret the words and idea of this conceptual artist using this very quote of Mr Close's, Information he has studied and even traits he picked when briefly meeting Chuck as an art dealer in Chelsea before Pollack decided to abandon his Art Dealer to pursue his life's goal to become a Conceptual Artist.


David S Pollack aka Chase Alias hopes to bring to light with his new Endogenous Series how backwards moving our cultural standards have become. As an Immersionist he look back in envy at the freedoms which artists used to be able to express themselves without having to worry about cultural and even legal action being taken against them.


Immersionism is a young art movement which combines Lewittian Conceptualism with Method Acting practices and principles. Stanislavsky and Strasberg Acting Methods which utilize sense memory and affective memory are an Immersionist's base. Lewittian Conceptualism adheres to the ideal that the medium is not the message, the idea becomes a machine that makes the art.


HDR Video Still form an HD Video Screen Capture, Originally Filmed with an HD Flip Camera

Original Art and Prints available at Saatchi Art:

Impianto di perforazione usato per trivellare il terreno alla profondità di 2000 mt ed arrivare

ad estrarre vapore endogeno

rig used to drill the soil to a depth of 2000 meters and reach

to remove endogenous steam

equipo de perforación utilizada para perforar el suelo a una profundidad de 2000 metros y alcanzar

para eliminar el vapor endógeno

The value of "interpretation" is that through it, one might expose reality, or explain oneself. -Ai WeiWei


from Who I M Seies, 2010 - 2014, Affective Memory Screen Capture by Immersionist Chase Alias includes Instant Message Conversations.


Unique Digital Work #chasealias #endogenous #theorizeart #screencapture #NewMedia #Immersionist




Ron Gutman’s TED U talk is a blast of refreshment.


Wonder how much more often kids smile than adults?


How many bars of chocolate produce the same endogenous endorphins as a smile?


And maybe we see smiles everywhere... =)

The harvest is over and left the colors of Autumn...


The Dão wine, produced in this vineyard, is a high value added product and is one of the endogenous potential of Penalva do Castelo county. On the slopes bathed by the river Dão, which divides the county, the vineyards benefit from specific climate, which, combined with the richness of the soil, allow the production of high quality wines.

China Danxia is the name given in China to landscapes developed on continental red terrigenous sedimentary beds influenced by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces (including weathering and erosion). The inscribed site comprises six areas found in the sub-tropical zone of south-west China. They are characterized by spectacular red cliffs and a range of erosional landforms, including dramatic natural pillars, towers, ravines, valleys and waterfalls. These rugged landscapes have helped to conserve sub-tropical broad-leaved evergreen forests, and host many species of flora and fauna, about 400 of which are considered rare or threatened.


Danxia Shan, China

August 22, 2010


UNESCO World Heritage Site # 1335

Year of Inscription: 2010


Although there are no specific reasons to become an alcoholic, many social, family, environmental, and genetic factors may contribute to its development.


Researchers have shown that the lack of endorphin is hereditary, and thus that there is a genetic predisposition to become addicted to alcohol. Beta-endorphin is a kind of "morphine" released by the brain in response to several situations, such as pain. In this way, beta-endorphins can be considered "endogenous analgesics" to numb or dull pains.


According to José Rico Irles, lecturer of Medicine of the UGR, and head of the research group, this low beta-endorphin level determines whether someone may become an alcoholic. When a subjects' brain with low beta-endorphin levels gets used to the presence of an exogenous surplus, then, when its own production stops, a dependence starts on the external source: alcohol. Source MedicalNewsToday.


The actor creates with his own flesh and blood all those things which all the arts try in some way to describe.

-Lee Strasberg


from Who I M Seies, 2010 - 2014,

Affective Memory Screen Capture by Immersionist Chase Alias includes Instant Message Conversations.


Unique Digital Work #chasealias #endogenous #theorizeart #screencapture #NewMedia #Immersionist #affectivememory #huntersthompson #art

Impossible to Understand from Endogenous Series, 2010-2012


Any significance would be impossible to understand. When you do understand, it would be indescribable. Everything is different when there is no meaning. - Ai Weiwei


Impossible to Understand from Endogenous Series, 2010-2012


Chase Alias gets into the mind state of conceptual artists Ai Weiwei particularly embracing his ideals and philosophies about how he feels nudity is not pornography. Perhaps Chase is taking its to a slightly elevated level though. What is he saying about pornography? Certainly nothing more graphic or shocking than his Conceptual Art Photography forefathers did such as Mapplethorpe, Serrano or even Thomas Ruff.


David S Pollack aka Chase Alias hopes to bring to light with his new Endogenous Series how backwards moving our cultural standards have become. As an Immersionist he look back in envy at the freedoms which artists used to be able to express themselves without having to worry about cultural and even legal action being taken against them.


Immersionism is a young art movement which combines Lewittian Conceptualism with Method Acting practices and principles. Stanislavsky and Strasberg Acting Methods which utilize sense memory and affective memory are an Immersionist's base. Lewittian Conceptualism adheres to the ideal that the medium is not the message, the idea becomes a machine that makes the art.


Ai Weiwei. Ai Weiwei's Blog: Writings, Interviews, and Digital Rants, 2006-2009 (Writing Art) (Kindle Locations 1052-1053). Kindle Edition.


HDR Video Screen Capture as played on Adobe Quicktime. Originally capture on a Flip Video


#chasealias #aiweiwei #immersionism #endogenous

China Danxia is the name given in China to landscapes developed on continental red terrigenous sedimentary beds influenced by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces (including weathering and erosion). The inscribed site comprises six areas found in the sub-tropical zone of south-west China. They are characterized by spectacular red cliffs and a range of erosional landforms, including dramatic natural pillars, towers, ravines, valleys and waterfalls. These rugged landscapes have helped to conserve sub-tropical broad-leaved evergreen forests, and host many species of flora and fauna, about 400 of which are considered rare or threatened.

Passion meets Purpose


Although it may be slightly painful, it is important to stretch properly before beginning any exercise to prepare the body for the stress of a work-out and to prevent injury.


An exercise program can stimulate pleasure endorphins in the brain that act as natural pain relievers.


We can often substitute alcohol and drugs for a similar sensation but underestimate the effects that they may have on our bodies and minds in the long term; all drugs, including prescription medications, have adverse effects and although a drug may not be enjoyable after frequent use it can still be hard to reduce a dosage or to stop using it altogether.


Copyright :copyright: 2009 - 2017 Tomitheos Photography - All Rights Reserved


fun fact:

endorphins are endogenous opioid polypeptide compounds and are produced by the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus in vertebrates during strenuous exercise and they resemble the opiates in their abilities to produce analgesia and a sense of well-being.


Il milionesimo bambino rifugiato non è solo un numero: è un bambino reale. Dovremmo fermarci e chiederci come possiamo, in tutta coscienza, continuare a ignorare e deludere i bambini della Siria.

Anthony Lake. Direttore generale Unicef


The millionth refugee child is not just a number: it's a real baby. We should stop and ask ourselves how we can, in good conscience, continue to ignore and disappoint the children of Syria.

Anthony Lake. Director General of UNICEF

The Dão wine, produced in this vineyard, is a high value added product and is one of the endogenous potential of Penalva do Castelo county. On the slopes bathed by the river Dão, which divides the county, the vineyards benefit from specific climate, which, combined with the richness of the soil, allow the production of high quality wines.

Those of You interested to watch how they make this special head dress (purely with nature 's products) worn by the ritual dancers can click on the Youtube clicks: ( Hope to bring to you how the artists perform the ritual dance in front of the Goddess another time.. as it is traditionally perfromed in the midnight hours..)


Padayani, also called Padeni, (from the word for military formations) is a traditional folk dance and a ritual art from the central portion of the Indian state of Kerala. A ceremonial dance involving masks, it is an ancient ritual performed in Bhagavati temples. The dance is performed in honor of Goddess Bhadrakaali. Meaning, a 'row of warriors', Padayani is an art form that blends music, dance, theatre, satire, facial masks, and paintings. It is part of worship of Bhadrakali and is staged in temples dedicated to the goddess from mid-December to mid-May. Padayani is unique to central Travancore, comprising the Pathanamthitta-Alappuzha-Kottayam belt of Kerala. Padayani is regarded as a remnant of the Dravidian forms of worship that existed before the advent of Brahmanism.


Padayani is like Theyyam in north kerala. The percussion instruments used in Patayani are patayani thappu, chenda, para and kumbham.


Padyani is a modern form of a ritual dance( Kolam thullal) performed by the magico-medicine men of kerala (particularly Tinta sect of Ganaka community ) . Earlier this elaborate and expensive event was carried out to heal the illnesses not amenable to medical modalities of intervention.In the form of psychic or spiritual healing, it was solely designed, controlled and performed by Tinta endogenous section of Ganaka, as a method of exorcism, This folk art has become a devine ritual tradition in association with festival occasions of Bhagavathy (Bhadrakaali) temples of Kerala.


Since the origin of term padayani relates with military parade or rows of army, it is generally believed that it is evolved from a symbolic past reminiscent of fencing march of martial art (Kalari) by the Nair fighters and their Preceptors -Kalari Asans (Kaniyar Panicker) to frighten the enemy troop and to show their might. Eventually in Kollam, Pathanamthitta, Alappuzha and Kottayam districts of Kerala, the Nair folk became the performers of the modern form of Padayani art, but the design and making of costumes vested with Kaniyar people.

“I have a theory that the truth is never told during the nine-to-five hours.”

― Hunter S. Thompson


from Who I M Seies, 2010 - 2014,

Affective Memory Screen Capture by Immersionist Chase Alias includes Instant Message Conversations.


Unique Digital Work #chasealias #endogenous #theorizeart #screencapture #NewMedia #Immersionist #affectivememory #huntersthompson #art

CareQuest Pharmacy is best amongst other spots for Bio- identical hormones replacement treatment (BHRT) center, where our register pharmacists care each of our patients independently. In this procedure our specialists are utilizing some hormones that are indistinguishable on a molecular level with endogenous hormones in patent body.




The #1 Bestselling Photo Essay & Artist Biography in 2010 on Amazon, 25 Lessons I’ve Learned about Photography...Life!, is now available with 25 Spectacular New York City street photos. It is the perfect holiday gift for your favorite photographer, aspiring artist, job seeker, soul searcher or anyone who just needs a little inspiration.




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October 18, 2007, New York City:


Entendiendo El Minotauro


Ya sé que quiere decir “joder”

Ya sé lo que es ser—animal

Ya sé como es ser la mitad del hombre que fue Picasso

Ya sé el secreto del Minotauro

Ya sé como es ser el tigre, el oso, el león... (Oh, my!)

¡Ya sé como es ser chingón!


I know what it is like to be a Centaur now.

Now, I know liminal, I understand the pain

of lusting after the Lapith, I can comprehend

the intrinsic struggle between the deep-seated

and the high-minded ideals of men.


For last night, in shameless congregation

with the animal in me, I grew a tail

and a snout; my knuckles grew out,

and, for a moment, I believe I even

had horns.


I may never recover.

Now, I may forever be at the behest

of the moon pulling, tugging,

piquing out the estrus in me.


I am afraid.

I fear the inevitable emptiness,

left by this deluge of endorphins

that washed and poured and sloshed

through me last night.


The consequence of

cannabinoids upon endogenous opioids,

a long draw of tetrahydrocannabinol

mixed with an overflow of oxyytocin—

perhaps, it will serve to cleanse my soul,

withdrawal being that necessary evil,

the price we must pay for the ineffable,

for the priceless experience of ecstasy.


Regardless, it was well worth the costs.


Because last night I was reminded:

Perfection is inherently ephemeral.

We must live a life of perfect moments;

for only foolish humans futilely pursue

a perfection that is everlasting.


Why pay the price of war

when love can be had for free?


Make love, not war

Faites l’amour, non la guerre

Fate l’amore non fate la Guerra

Haz el amor y no la Guerra.






Read more essays, stories, musings, poems and prose like this at Literary Central!.


As the world burns, Mother Earth will react accordingly. Or should it be entitled, Meet Lilith, our new Mother Earth. Forgive me for sounding overdramatic and/or paranoid, but I hope we can collectively wake up to the reality that we are being systematically enslaved and destroyed along with the living planet.

Many aspects of the following articles very relevant based on current events and events in my own lilfe, as well as to the image. I realize this following information does not come with scientific methodology and a means to prove it one way or another but "esoteric scientific knowledge of all types and for use in all kinds of purposes has been suppressed over the past thousands of years, particularly technology to be used in the Great Plan of harnessing and controlling all the residents" thus the mind should be tempered with messages from the heart and intuition is not to be ignored. I provide it for everyone's consideration at the very least.


Might be interesting to note that as I was reading this information, jet aircraft were flying constantly over my home for about 5 minutes one after the next, one after the next after the next, as if to antagonize me. Earlier in the day a helicopter had buzzed the house. Not like it hasn't happened to me before, but it's been a while. I intend to endeavor for the truth until the very end of me.


The Defeminization of Womanhood

By Peter Farley


Recently we have come to understand just one more level to which the darkside is going to make sure of its conquest not only of planet Earth, but also of the planet’s unique position in Creation, that of having a direct portal through to the very heart of Creation Itself—the central Universe.


The stripping of the DNA that causes diminishing effect in the various immune system functions offered by the human being's body is not the only stealing of ‘energies’ the darkside has in store for us.


02/24/2006 00:09 AM

Dear Sofia,


You were the dark queen in charge of the energy stolen from the earthlings back when they were a people still spread throughout the universe.


Your gathering of their energies was to be used as a weapon to catalyze the opening of a portal able to incorporate all of their energy patterns/signatures into one single being capable of monitoring/manipulating the populace of the whole planet. This would be in order to bring about the monitoring of the corruption, and of the isle of corrupted ones and of the energy beings constructed by the darkside awaiting the transfusion of this energy for their transformation into further aberrations of darkness.


The aberrations of darkness in turn are the corrupted (sold-out) angels/people destined to overrun the planet and prepare it for the coming of the dark mother energy, and her stepping into Gaia's place, stealing the Planet/Planetary Consciousness/Planetary Mother Identity Energy Form in and through the process.


HAROON, Creator Mother of The Central Universe

The latest Russian scientific research shows that there is evidence for a whole new type of medicine in which DNA can be influenced and reprogrammed by words and frequencies WITHOUT cutting out and replacing single genes. Only 10% of our DNA is being used for building proteins. It is this subset of DNA that is of interest to western researchers and is being examined and categorized. The other 90% are considered "junk DNA."


Russian researchers, however, convinced that nature was not dumb, joined linguists and geneticists in a venture to explore that 90% of "junk DNA." According to there findings, our DNA is not only responsible for the construction of our body but also serves as data storage and communication. The Russian linguists found that the genetic code —especially in the apparent "useless" 90%— follows the same rules as all our human languages.


To this end they compared the rules of syntax (the way in which words are put together to form phrases and sentences), semantics (the study of meaning in language forms) and the basic rules of grammar. They found that the alkalines of our DNA follow a regular grammar and do have set rules just like our languages. Therefore, human languages did not appear coincidentally but are a reflection of our inherent DNA (as explained in Volume 1 of Where Were You Before The Tree of Life?)


The Russian biophysicist and molecular biologist Pjotr Garjajev and his colleagues also explored the vibrational behavior of DNA. In brief the bottom line was: "Living chromosomes function just like a holographic computer using endogenous DNA laser radiation." This means that they managed, for example, to modulate certain frequency patterns (sound) onto a laser-like ray which influenced DNA frequency and thus the genetic information itself.


Since the basic structure of DNA-alkaline pairs and of language (as explained earlier) is of the same structure, no DNA decoding is necessary. One can simply use words and sentences of the human language! This, too, was experimentally proven! Living DNA substance (in living tissue, not in vitro) will always react to language-modulated laser rays and even to radio waves, if the proper frequencies (sound) are being used. This finally and scientifically explains why affirmations, hypnosis and the like can have such strong effects on humans and their bodies. It is entirely normal and natural for our DNA to react to language.(


02/24/2006 01:04 AM

Dear Peter,


Please look through and decide by yourself on how to deal with these issues.


Sofia is patterned with the DNA of a Dark Mother Incarnation on planet Earth. She is the one capable of bringing through the army or darkness's energy and opening the gates for the energy of Dark Mother to incarnate on Planet Earth, pushing/splitting Gaia away from its present Heart.


The energy that she brings along with herself is that of a corruptor of the highest level, for she is about to bring on the energy that would convert a whole planet. Her intent, as that of her dark mentors, is to destroy the connection that Lightworkers have to the Light, and bring about a shroud of darkness that will engage them in the terrible attempt to clear Earth of any Energies trying to heal the darkness already installed here which are trying to disrupt the ascension . . .


The energy she carries along with her will be activated when you least expect it. It is necessary to disable the DNA patterns responsible for allowing her to channel this type of energy altogether Lucifer seeded the dark mother principle on her womb, so that she gives birth to the "darkness in man" by working as a channel of the energy on to the Grid, which would then transmit it to people.


There are also dark men entitled to play a role similar to Sofia's on Earth. These men are drawn to women like her, and darkness wants them to be together to increase the dark energies and the portal for them to come into earth. Again it is on the DNA that much of these connections to darkness and the ability to channel it, takes place.


DNA healing is very much harmed by chemtrails, in order to avoid healing/change into Light-attuned DNA, and healthy physical bodies that emanate "positive" energy patterns.


The energy that she has brought about so far was repressed by herself in an attempt to keep the darkness contained within her Being.


Like others, the darkness will spring forth as she develops and becomes more aware of who she is, in the process of her spiritual healing. It is important that the connection she has to darkness is permanently disabled (this was successfully achieved –Peter) and permanently turned to Light so that the Light she attracts and channels will be able to keep away the darkness that will be sent to reactivate the dark DNA sequences. . .


Her healing is also of extreme importance to you because of her closeness and how she is able to aid you in your mission here.


The Luciferian exact words when sending her to Earth, from Kochab (see other articles on the planet of Darkness) were:


"Go now my dear, for you are the serpent that will encoil Planet Earth, and corrupt its essence, turning Gaia away from her children and making it the Dark Whore House that we deem it to become.


“Once you have accomplished this task my dear child, you will be taken back to the core of the planet where Gaia once resided, and you will then be turned into the very Dark Mother that runs the Planetary portal into the Heart of Creation and the Father's Essence will be yours to command...


Go now, your time is running out already. You are to channel Dark Mother's energy from our Sortha energy form and turn it into the grid crystals that will enable the population’s sensitivity to this type of energy. As the humans become sensitive to this depraved energy pattern, they will automatically lower Gaia's defenses against outside darkness.


And then we will become able to send in more energy to your physical form, opening an enormous portal that will allow the conversion of Gaia into an empty rock, and then the ultimate possession by the Dark Mother, which will be guided by your conscious energy form!!"


If she chooses for the Light then she will be able to heal most of Earth's negative programming regarding the female energy blockages, and also to strengthen Gaia's defenses against darkness and the female energy corruption. People will be recieve healing energy, female healed-energy, and this will allow for the weak points to be fixed.


(The Spiritual Hierarchy's Council of The Light, through RAJ and HAROON's guided words and contribution from Arehmzell also).

There were women like her sent to many planets, and while Sofia is the main one responsible for Earth, and more directly linked to Gaia's energies; there are other Dark Mother candidates in case she goes to the Light, and there are also specific dark mother incarnation women for each race on Earth. From each planetary seed, they attempted to seed here a dark mother, to better link the alien energies here on Earth to the darkness that seeks to control it. These women can be stopped and healed, even through the healing of the Grid points to where they are connected. They must choose to become healed in order for this to happen, and the choice is theirs alone.


Each of these women, like Sofia, has around 3-4 men in their lives that are there to keep them under control and dark, and also false friends, including women who they will think are on the same side as them, but that’s a lie and meant to keep them in less than the Light they seek.


People seem to grow increasingly sick with this darkness that has now been trying to pull them even further, some people perceive it and will steer clear from these energies, or at least try and search for a way to become free of it (the darkness). . .


--from HAROON and RAJ

(through André)

IN working with some of these ‘mother energy’ Beings and their ‘controllers lately we have found that not only do the darkside seek to steal the female essence from the very high spiritual and angelic energy ‘people’ here on planet Earth (in order to create their own Dark Mother), but they are also able to steal the spiritual essence of those who do not go along with their plans, and even to imprison (further) the Higher Self of those who actively go against their planning. Is all this possible? Yes, it’s all in the junk DNA as scientists like to term it:


“The lost Enochian knowledge reveals the mother tongue as a "language of Light". Known to the ancients as HIBURU, it is the primal seed language, introduced at the beginning of this time cycle. Modern research confirms, the most ancient form Hebrew to be a natural language, the alphabetic forms emerging from the phosphene flare patterns of the brain. The same shapes, in fact, born of a spinning vortex. It is a true language of light, coursing through our very nervous system.


“Encoding the natural waveform geometries of the physical world, Hiburu is a harmonic language, mimicking the waveform properties of light. The "keys" Enoch speaks of, turn out to be sound keys, keys to be vibratory matrix of reality itself, the mythic "Power of the World". The Enochian knowledge describes sonic equations, encoded within the ancient mantras and god names, capable of directly affecting the nervous system and producing profound effect of healing and higher consciousness states.


“As the ancient texts declare, "If you would speak with the gods you must first learn the language of the gods."


“DNA, the ancient cabalistic "Tree Of Life" portrayed in the Biblical Torah, is now coming to be viewed as a live vibrating structure, rather than a fixed tape recording. Many modern scientists, regard DNA as a shimmering, waveform configuration, able to be modified by light, radiation, magnetic fields or sonic pulses. The legacy of Thoth/Enoch suggests this "language of Light", the harmonic science of the ancients, could actually affect DNA.


“The evidence in Egypt, indicates this was the grand 6,000 year genetic experiment attempted by the Egyptians, the quest for immortality and the stars, a quest described by the great ones of old, a quest initiated by Gilgamesh so very long ago. The Egyptians were not fixated on the afterlife, as thought by early Christian translators but, focused on creating a higher type of human. Along with many ancient cultures, they believed DNA came from the stars and was destined to return.


“The knowledge of Thoth/Enoch implies humans are meant to evolve beyond our present terrestrial form, as the Bible tells us, "we may become greater than angels". The Egyptians record stories of the "Star Walkers", occasional individuals who, like Enoch, traveled "beyond the Great Eye of Orion" and returned, to walk like gods amongst men. Despite the bleaching of semi-divine beings from modern consciousness, could it be possible, as the ancient texts insist, we are destined to "become as gods"? are the Mayan "Lords of Light" and the Egyptian/Tibetan "Shining Ones" really a higher form of human?


“According to many earth legends, such beings are supposed to return regularly, at the beginning and end of each time cycle, the 13,000 year half-point of our solar system’s 26,000 year zodiacal orbit around galaxy centre. Because of conditions on our galactic orbit, these 13,000 year intervals or "worlds", seem to be separated by cataclysmic upheaval. . .” (from The Secrets of Thoth and The Keys of Enoch By Paul White October '99 email:


So the experiences we are having in helping reprogram people’s DNA to turn them away from their dark programming is a reality. The work we have been doing for the past few months on the ‘male’ and ‘female’ grid lines is also having an effect. While it seems like a futuristic science-fiction novel, the war is taking place around you. As stated before, cities such as Albuquerque, NM; and Tuscon, Az, have had much of their consciousness level stolen just as these individuals have also had it stolen through their DNA. Friends living outside these towns concur that they feel different when in the town and feel ‘better’ when they have left. Other cities around the world are now also feeling this same effect of having their consciousness gradually stolen by the manipulation and reprogramming of the grid/ley lines of the planet.


Our understanding of this stealing of the female essence has further deepened with our growing realization that much of the female essence on this planet has also now been tainted—and the primary ingredient in this stripping away of ‘femininity’ very noticeable in women since the 1960s is aspartame (Nutrasweet). A brief ‘history’ of aspartame can be found at


It’s real effect began long before in its use supposedly as a crowd-control ingredient researched by the Nazis during World War II, and its most dangerous side effect is in the exact reprogramming of this divine language of Light existing at the core Matrix (or mother center) of our Being, the destruction and reprogramming of our DNA.


Aspartame is an rDNA derivative, a combination of two amino acids (long supplied by a pair of Maryland biotechnology firms: Genex Corp. of Rockville and Purification Engineering in Baltimore.)3 The Pentagon once listed it in an inventory of prospective biochemical warfare weapons submitted to Congress.4 But instead of poisoning enemy populations, the "food additive" is currently marketed as a sweetening agent in some 1200 food products (mainly targeted at women as a ‘diet aid’ –when women only seem to grow more obese through its use or inversely, more anorexic.)


The fact that 320 aspartame fed rats developed six brain tumors by seventy-six weeks indicates what some say is an “incredible and unprecedented” occurrence. Not to mention that within the final twenty-eight weeks of the study six more brain tumors occurred in the aspartame fed group.


“Two ‘anonymous’ emails sent to seemed to come from someone in the know on the subject of chemtrails. These e-mails talk about the "culling" of the population. This is a word I, too, have been given in guidance as another aspect of the chemtrails. It is also a word used in these e-mails as being attributed to a four-star Admiral in the Office of Naval Intelligence.


“One of these e-mails has been titled ‘The Great Dying -- The Real Reason Behind Chemtrails.’ It speaks of the overall scope and agenda behind Chemtrails (Operation Clover Leaf, Operation Red Sky, Operation Rain Dance being the code names for these operations), and harkens back to what it calls the beginnings “way back in the late 1950s” with fluoridation, aspartame, and illegal street narcotics.” It also speaks of the fact that the agenda is “at the 80% completion point in these CT operations” (when the e-mails were written) with the final completion date to be “by March of 2001.”


“The e-mails list as the main and ancillary operational objectives of Chemtrails of Operation Red Sky to be: “Phase One main objective: Creative cleavages in spatial perceptions. Creating blockage in the brain of the interaction of various amino acids that relate to higher consciousness and the increase of dopamine in the brain producing a listless, euphoric state of lower, reactive mind. (Thereby trapping us in the third dimension—the choice of the lower plane energy as talked about in my previous article on Choice.)


“To understand this objective necessitates an understanding of the human Soul, the spiritual Self and the connection between the two as related to the endocrine system functioning within each human host, and remembering what Dr. Fox said about our immune and endocrine systems showing the most evidence of these changes—these seeming to be the most important targets of the chemtrail’s ingredients.


“The endocrine system is the group of specialized organs and body tissues that produce, store, and secrete chemical substances known as hormones. As the body's chemical messengers, hormones transfer information and instructions from one set of cells to another. Because of the hormones they produce, endocrine organs have a great deal of influence over the body. Among their many jobs are regulating the body's growth and development, controlling the function of various tissues, supporting pregnancy and other reproductive functions, and regulating metabolism.


“Endocrine organs are sometimes called ductless glands because they have no ducts connecting them to specific body parts. The hormones they secrete are released directly into the bloodstream.


“The primary glands comprising the endocrine system are the hypothalamus, pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal body, and reproductive glands—the ovary and testis. The pancreas, an organ often associated with the digestive system, is also considered part of the endocrine system.


“The hypothalamus, found deep within the brain, directly controls the pituitary gland (also known to be the source of psychic vision or what spiritualists call “the third eye,” that which sees inter-dimensionally). It is sometimes described as the coordinator of the endocrine system. When information reaching the brain indicates that changes are needed somewhere in the body, nerve cells in the hypothalamus secrete body chemicals that either stimulate or suppress hormone secretions from the pituitary gland. Acting as liaison between the brain and the pituitary gland, the hypothalamus is the primary link between the endocrine and nervous systems (remembering that viruses commonly travel through the nervous system). If changes are to take place in the body, then this system is also the guardian over those changes as well as being the director of them. To genetically manipulate mankind through the ingredients in the chemtrails, one must first suppress the endocrine system, and second, the natural defenses of the immune system—the two most directly targeted areas of chemtrail spraying.” (from Volume 4 of Where Were You Before The Tree of Life by Peter Farley)


“As many know, I lectured in the UK the end of August and Sept, 2001 and provided many records the UK had not seen. Aspartame was approved in the UK through a business deal between Searle and Professor Paul Turner.


“When Parliament found out, there was a big blowout, but the order was not rescinded. Therefore, the UK did not know that in the beginning the FDA had asked for the indictment of Searle, but two U.S. prosecutors hired on with the defense team and the statute of limitations expired. For 16 years the FDA refused to approve aspartame because of the brain tumors [created through its use] but Searle hired Donald Rumsfeld (now Secretary of Defense) who said he would call in his markers and get it approved anyway. . . Aspartame which was never proven safe and in original studies triggered brain, mammary, uterine, ovarian, testicular, thyroid and pancreatic tumors, as well as grand mal seizures, should never have been approved. (See UPI 8 month investigation of aspartame on” (From Volume 5 of Where Were You Before The Tree of Life?)


“The dangers of aspartame poisoning have been a well-guarded secret since the 1980s. The research and history of aspartame is conclusive as a cause of illness and toxic reactions in the human body. Aspartame is a dangerous chemical food additive, and its use during pregnancy and by children is one of the greatest modern tragedies of all.


“Why haven't you heard about aspartame poisoning before? Partly because the diet industry is worth trillions of American dollars to corporations, and they want to protect their profits by keeping the truth behind aspartame's dangers hidden from the public. When NutraSweet® was introduced for the 'second' time in 1981, a diet craze revolutionized America's eating protocols and a well-oiled money machine was set into motion changing modern lifestyles.


“After more than twenty years of aspartame use, the number of its victims is rapidly piling up, and people are figuring out for themselves that aspartame is at the root of their health problems. Patients are teaching their doctors about this nutritional peril, and they are healing themselves with little to no support from traditional medicine.”




It would take more time than I have to fully document this subject as we are discovering it through our work with various people around the world in the healing situation while also trying to fight for our own physical and spiritual survival and train others to do the same.. Suffice to say it is of utmost importance that every woman be made aware that they are the targets of the most insidious side of this warfare – the destruction of that essence which makes them who they are.


See also


In service, Peter



Lilith Unveiled

Part 1



Posted by THoTH

Article by Thothmoses III aka MAD

Murky depths await us where we now tread.


The path leads us into the darkest regions of myth, though we have a torch of knowledge, and a compass of understanding to guide our way through the carnivorous caverns and lurking jaws of time and space.


Just as angels, and saviors, and prophets of the world have found their universal sanctuary in the mountainous cave structures of history, so too have the beasts of the shadows hid and calculated their moments of influence and manipulation upon an unsuspecting world. Among the variety of tools, artwork, weaponry, pottery and sculptures attributed to our Cavite’ ancestors, so too do we find a large number of carven idols designated in honor of the shining goddess figure.


Hundreds of statues have been found around the world which depict veneration of an icon of the Cosmic Mother. From caves in Turkey, Persia, and Europe, all the way to India, Japan, and Australia; it is apparent that the cave dwelling people worshiped the symbol of the goddess.


Before the early societies of agricultural herdsmen from 10,000-5000BC, our ‘primitive’ civilization was based upon religious ideals dedicated to a variety of creatures in the animal kingdom, ancestor worship, the respectful honoring of death and rebirth, as well as the universal deities of the lunar goddess and the solar god. The representations are that of human, anthropomorphic, or androgynous forms, and represent the material connection to time, essence, and rebirth of the cosmic cycles. The planets and stars themselves were worshiped in constellations of astrological significance, as astrology is one of the eldest of the world’s religions. Twenty thousand years ago, fertility cults were among the first organized civilizations coming down from the mountainous regions.


This goddess, found in the stone dens of our genealogical forebearers, has been widely recognized to symbolize the Roman figure of Venus. She is known throughout the ancient world as the representative of not only love and devotion, but also of war and bloodshed. Venus has been worshiped throughout the earliest of our cultures as a prime symbol of reverence to the Mesopotamia and Egyptian peoples, recognized as both the morning and evening star.


The Sumerian savior goddess, Inana, was often times depicted as a harlot star worshiped at dawn by temple prostitutes as she made her way through the night’s sky looking for a suitor. The Egyptian Isis and Babylonian Ishtar were associated with Venus (the morning star) as well, and Isis and the Virgin Mary both have the distinct classification of being known as ’Stella Maris’, or the ‘Star of the Sea’; alternatively understood as the North Star.


This was a key point of recognition for ancient sailors and travelers who were making their way home from long journeys of trade or warfare at sea. This Pole Star, or Polaris, was crucial to the directional alignments and voyages of many ancient peoples. To fully understand the ideal of the Lilith figure in classical and modern mythology, it is important to realize that not only does she relate to her own unique title and classification, but finds association with a variety of other mother figures and saviors who helped to pave the way to both ‘enlightenment’ and terror; sometimes in the same breath. From Inana to Isis, Ishtar to Athena, Gorgon-Medusa, Venus, Ashtoreth, Diana, and even the Biblical Virgin Mary, all have a genus relationship to the coinciding myths of the demonic goddess Lilith.


Lilith in a Season of Creatures:


Lilith was the most important succubus from Hebrew folklore. A succubus is a female demon who arrives, usually at night-time, in order to tempt the sleep state of men with erotic dreams, and suck the life force from their bodies. Alternatively, an Incubus is a male demon who hunts the energies of woman while they sleep. While the Jewish Talmud texts mentions Lilith on multiple accounts, the Christian Bible speaks of her only once, in Isaiah 34:13, when yielding a barren, desert wasteland, stating: “And Lilith shall repose there”.


While she may not be mentioned prevalently in the Christian Bible, her origins are undeniably tied to the figure of Adam and the Garden of Eden in Genesis. According to Hebrew lore, Lilith was the first wife of Adam, who unlike Eve, was created at the same time as Adam and not merely from his rib bone. The myths state that Lilith was cast out of the Garden of Eden for a variety of reasons, among them the fact that she would not yield authority to her husband, Adam, nor to Adam’s sexual urges in taking the missionary position, instead insisting that she be on top during sexual intercourse. Another belief is that Lilith was banned from Eden for having eaten her first child and a variety of other sinister implications. Because of this and her refusal to be submissive, she was banished from the Garden whereby she took refuge in a forbidden cave at the edge of the Red Sea.


While Lilith has origins within the Kabbalah, the Talmud, and loose associations with the Bible, she undoubtedly makes her initial appearance as the Sumerian goddess of dark winds, Lil, and the Babylonian demoness Lilitu. The Lilitu was a handmaiden to the savior goddess Inana, known to stand at the gateway of Inana’s temple and invite worshipers to enter the inner sanctum for blessings and sexual delights. (Temple prostitution was common-place in ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt, as well as to the Hindus.)


Eventually, in her role as handmaiden, Lilitu becomes obsessed with abducting infant children and drinking their blood in order to steal away their precious life force. It was believed that by the Jewish practice of circumcision, Lilith would not harm infants in their crib. In this role she is mentioned as a negative entity in the Sumerian ‘Epic of Gilgamesh’. In the ancient tale of Gilgamesh and the Huluppu Tree, Lilith takes up residence in the sacred tree of Inana on the banks of the Euphrates. The hero Gilgamesh sees this deception and makes her retreat into the desert wastelands.


Lilah is also the Hebrew word for ‘night’, her name related to lilim, literally meaning ‘demon’. Lilit is the Hebrew word designated for a nocturnal screech owl. In the Canaanite rituals she was also known as Baalat, or the ‘divine lady,’ who was a female version to the Egyptian/Babylonian Baal, Bel, Apis, and Osiris. Another role is that of the god Ashtoreth, who could take on the duel position of being both male and female entities depending on the time period and region of worship.


Lilith is still worshiped in the modern era in the form of Beltane/Mayday rituals which take place from May 1st-5th. The midnight hour on April 30th starts the ‘pagan’ festivities known as ‘Lilith’s Eve’, in dedication to this demoness. There is a Greek version of Lilith as the goddess Lamia, who bore children to Zeus; after which, the children were murdered by Hera in a fit of jealousy. To exact revenge, Lamia becomes a mass murderer of children and joins forces with the demon daughters of Hecate known as the Empusae. These beings were known to tempt men with erotic dreams during sleep and steal away their life force, not only through metaphysical means, but also by stealing their semen during orgasm.


In the Zohar, the principle text of the mystical Kabbalah, it suggests that Lilith’s powers are at their peak during the waning of the moon. She is often depicted as a dark, yet radiant vixen of the night, with luxuriously flowing black hair, a milky and fair complexion, and eyes which shine as the moon doth shine. Another Hebrew name of Lilith is that of Agrat bat Mahalat, who was said to be the governess over 180,000 different races of demons.


She would often tempt Talmudic scholars with erotic dreams, driving them insane and stealing their souls. Lilith, while being a goddess of fertility and sexuality, was also connected with being the bringer of bareness and desert wastelands. Her sacred flowers were that of the rose, and the poppy, used for making opium. In classic occult tradition the red rose represents female sexuality, while the white rose is the metaphor of the pure, or virgin goddess. In this relation it should be noted that in the ancient Canaanite ritual sacrifices to Ashtoreth and Baal, red rose petals were sprinkled on the consecrated altar before blood was shed. After the sacrifice had taken place, white petals were scattered in order to represent the new found purity believed to have been born from human or animal sacrifice.


When Lilith was banished from Eden, she was reported to have fled into a hidden cave along the banks of the Red Sea, after which she breeds a multitude of demonic races and curses upon the earth. In fact, Lilith is known as the mother of all shape-shifting creatures and forms of demonic entity, including Vampires, Fairies, Elves, Trolls, Ogres, and a vast variety of other blood-drinking beasts and supernatural forms throughout mythology. Tradition even holds that once Cain was cast from the Garden for sacrificing his brother, Abel, to the supreme god Yahweh, he met Lilith in her cave, and thus according to some researchers, Cain is the father of all Vampire races.


While Lilith was known for having sexual exploits with a variety of demons to create her ‘Satanic’ offspring (in Muslim legend Lilith is even said to have mated with Satan in order to produce the mysterious race of Djinn, or ‘Genies’ of the magic lamp), she was also believed to have the ability to give birth to one-hundred beastly children each day with her main consort, the demon-god Samael, or alternatively, Asmodeus. In the folklore of witchcraft Lilith is one of the figures associated with ‘drawing down the moon’, and she was said to meet with other witches and succubi at the “Mountains of Darkness.” Astute researcher of witchcraft, Rosemary Ellen Guiley, states in her book ‘Encyclopedia of Witches and Witchcraft’:


“In addition to Jewish folklore, the Lilith demon appears in Iranian, Babylonian, Mexican, Greek, Arab, English, German, Oriental and north American Indian legends. She is sometimes associated with other characters in legend and myth, including the Queen of Sheba and Helen of Troy. In medieval Europe she was often portrayed as the wife, concubine or grandmother of Satan. In the late 17th Century she was described as a screech owl, blind by day, who sucked the breasts or navels of young children or the dugs of goats.”


In Hebrew the name Asmodeus literally means ‘evil spirit’. He was the king of demons noted for having three heads that faced in three different directions, and in this sense he is a physical form of the Luciferian Trinity. One head is depicted as a bull, one as a ram, and the third head was that of a hideous ogre. His legs and feet were that of a rooster, and he often rode on a fire breathing lion.


The feet of the cock represents ritual sacrifice and signifies high stature for demonic entities. Asmodeus is primarily the god of unsatiable lust, but is also associated with wrath and revenge. He usually appears as a apparitional spirit in bedrooms, almost always materializing in hybrid form. He is also said to be, in actuality, the fallen angel Samael. There are many tales in which this demon king is recognized as one of the main enemies of King Solomon.


In one instance, Solomon and Asmodeus are having a philosophical discussion about the nature of good and evil, when Asmodeus tricks the usually wise Solomon into removing his magical ring. The demon king laughs in triumph and throws the magical ring into the sea, after which Solomon immediately finds himself in another life as a lowly beggar. One night, while Solomon is preparing dinner for his new king, he cuts into a fish and out pops the magical ring from the fish’s stomach. Once Solomon puts the ring back on, he resumes his previous life as the King of the Israelites, awakening in his bed to find it had all only been a dream. Despite the fact that Asmodeus sought to destroy Solomon, the Hebrew king learned a valuable lesson from the demon lord in this instance.


Just as Asmodeus is often interchangeable with Satan himself in some traditions, and is a representative of the deadly sin of lust, so too are the other entities of the seven deadly sins sometimes interconnected with the being known as ‘Satan’. The seven deadly sins were first classified by St. Gregory in the 6th Century. Aside from Asmodeus, the deadly sins are as follows: Pride-Lucifer, Avarice-Mammon, Envy-Leviathan, Gluttony-Beelzelbub, Anger-Satan, and Sloth-Belphegor. Opposing these negative characteristics are Pride-Humility, Avarice-Sufficiency, Lust-Chastity, Envy-Charity, Gluttony-Sobriety, Anger-Patience, and Sloth-Diligence. It is apparent that many of these demons are merely different names for Lucifer, and Beelzebub, lord of the flies, and Belphegor, are variations of the Babylonian sun god Bel. Beelzebub comes from the Semitic Zebub which means “a fly”, and the figure of Baal-Sebul became the “Lord of the Flies”.


Lilith too is a noted adversary of King Solomon, as she appears to him one night in order to tempt him while he is studying the holy texts. She appears in a voluptuous sexual form to try and persuade Solomon to lay with her, but upon Solomon dragging the demoness before a mirror, she cast no reflection and quickly retreated at the realization that she had no form. As punishment for her unnatural crimes against humanity, the children of Lilith were scattered across all the planes of space and time; some even bound to their own dimension in order to keep them from dwelling in the earthly realms. A quick note about the Hebrew Solomon- the root of Sol equates with the meaning of the word ‘Sun’, as does the holy capital city of Sion. In this sense we have the ‘wisdom’ and light of the sun which scatters out the forces of ‘darkness’ represented by Lilith and her demonic husband Asmodeus.


As already mentioned, along with Lilith there is a long line of females and figures that take on a very Lilithinian role in their respective cultures and religions. The Hebrew-Babylonian Ashtoreth is one example, as are the Greek Gorgon-Medusa, Venus, Aphrodite and Artemis. They all take on specific characteristics of Lilith, and vice-verse. Medusa, an opposing composite of the goddess Athena, and possibly the most well known of the Lilithinian counterparts, was said to have the horrible face of a gorgon, long flowing hair made of serpents, and could turn men to stone if they gazed upon her hideous features.


However, Medusa was not always a hideous demon, but was once a beautiful woman who claimed to be even more gorgeous than the goddess Athena herself. One day, at the temple of Athena, Medusa was raped by the god Neptune. Out of bitter anger at this defilement of her sacred altar, Athena cursed Medusa to be a disgusting beast with hair made from a serpent’s nest. Medusa became a feared and powerful enemy to many of the lesser Greek gods, but was eventually defeated by Perseus when he battled her with a mirrored shield (created by the Olympian god of the black-smiths, Hephaistos), in which Medusa saw her own reflection and was turned to stone. This ties in heavily with the myth of Solomon besting Lilith with a mirror that made her flee his presence. While some goddesses such as Inana, Isis, Artemis, Semiramis, Aphrodite, Diana and Venus might be more fluently recognized and worshiped through a mass variety of cults in ancient cultures, it is Lilith who holds the distinct classification of being the mother of all demons.


The ancient Semitic goddess Astarte, or Ashtoreth, is another figure connected with the rituals to Lilith and the burning of effigies on the full moon, and the birth of spring time. Ashtoreth is the goddess of fertility, war, love, and the keeper of ancient secrets and is typically shown as wearing a horned headdress. She was the Babylonian counterpart to Ishtar; Solomon even built a temple in honor of her near Jerusalem.


To the Amorites, and Phoenicians, this figure was known as the mother goddess Aserah, or ‘Lady Aserah of the sea’; much as Isis and the Virgin Mary are known as the ‘Star of the Sea’. Her name literally translates as ‘grove’. She is directly related to the god Baal (The Lord), and even puts one of her own offspring on the throne of this god as his representative (similar to the Isis/Osiris/Horus triad in Egyptian mythology). Aserah is the prime Canaanite and Phoenician goddess of fertility, ritual, and human sacrifice. Enormous horned, wooden statues were erected in her honor. She is seen as the main competition, along with Baal worship, to the monotheistic Hebrew god Yahweh.


Baal, or Bel, himself is the earth bound offspring of the supreme god El, or Chronos to the Greeks, and Saturn to the Romans. Other titles attributed to this god are Dagon and Molech. His name meant “Time”, and to many different cultures he represented the superior deity of worship. Much as the Egyptian Amon-Re, the Indian Brahma, or Hebrew Yahweh were the epitome of the GOD of ‘Light’ and solar energies, the figure of Molech (worshiped in the modern era by the Elite Bohemian Grove society out of Sonoma County, California) would seem to be a marriage between the lunar elements of Ashtoreth (Lilith), and the solar aspects of Baal/El (the ‘negative’ or lunar characteristics connected with the Owl, and the solar elements being related to the Bull).


The horns were depicted upon both male and female gods dating back into Egypt and Sumeria and are seen as very sacred icons, at least symbolically, as they represent not only the annual regeneration, but also the phases of the moon and celestial cycles. Like Athena, Artemis, and Lilith, the sacred animal of Ashtoreth is that of the owl. This would make sense in the fact that lilit is the Hebrew word designated for a nocturnal screech owl. In many ways, the rituals dedicated to Ashtoreth are similar to those held in the honor of Ishtar, Aphrodite, or even the early worship of the Virgin Mary. We can also witness the parallels between the ‘fall’ of Lilith, and Adam and Eve in the Garden of Eden. Guiley describes her in ‘The Encyclopedia of Witches and Witchcraft’ as:


“....One of the oldest Middle Eastern aspects of the Goddess, dating to the Neolithic and Bronze ages. Tammuz is identified as her son/consort, as he is with Ishtar. According to myth, Astarte descended to earth as a fiery star, landing near Byblos in a lake at Alphaca, the site where the original Tammuz was said to have died.”


One of the first known temples of worship to the name of Astarte comes from 1478BC. She is intimately connected with child sacrifice rituals, much in the way Lilith is noted as being akin to the “old hag” who steals children away from their parents, or smothers them to death in their cribs.


The demonic entity known as Belial (Bel/Baal), was one of the most powerful and important Generals in Satan’s army. He controlled 80 legions of demons consisting of 6,666 demons per legion. Belial was especially important to the priests and magicians of Turkey who would set up burnt offerings to this entity. Similar to Asmodeus, he is responsible for creating pain and suffering in the hearts of humanity through lust, sexual perversion, and guilt. Though, unlike Asmodeus who was generally hideous in appearance, Belial was said to have been a beautiful angel with a soft and trust-worthy voice. Belial’s name is often used as a synonym for the Antichrist, Satan, or the ‘Sons of Belial’.


An unmistakable influence from the Orient and the Hindu culture is that of the deadly goddess Kali, which means both ‘black’, as well as ‘time’. Like cults set up to the Lilith ideal all over the world, the Indian temple of Calcutta is still devoted to this day primarily to that of Kali worship. This entity is seen as the destroyer and the one who will ultimately, and in great chaos, bring about the end of our current age. According to the Indian epics, our current age is the last in a long line of cycles, and due to the workings of Kali,‘God’, time, and in fact all reality will be destroyed by both the deterioration of the physical and meta-physical realms.


The Indian cycles are known as Yugas, and according to the teachings there have been four separate cycles consisting of five-thousand years each. With the passing of each cycle, entropy increases. Many believe that 2012AD will be the finalization of this great age, in which all will be destroyed by Kali’s mystical sword, and reset back to the first age of ultimate truth. All around the world, this Revelation cycle is referred to as “The Great Purification”, and the Mayans also set this time of 2012 as the shift in consciousness; for better or worse. Occultist Madam Helena Blavatsky states of Kali in her 1877 work, ‘Isis Unveiled’:


“Even the four ages of the Hindu chronology contain a far more philosophical idea than appears on the surface. It defines them according to both the psychological or mental and the physical states of man during their period. Crita-yug, the age of silver, or that of fire00the period of supremacy of man and of giants and the songs of God; Dwapara-yug, the age of bronze–a mixture already of purity and impurity (spirit and matter) the age of doubt; and at last our own, the Kali-yug, or age of iron, of darkness, misery, and sorrow. In this age, Vishnu had to incarnate himself in Christna (Krishna), in order to save humanity from the goddess Kali, consort of Siva, the all-annihilating–the goddess of death, destruction, and human misery. Kali is the best emblem to represent the “fall of man;” the falling of spirit into the degradation of matter, with all its terrific results. We have to rid ourselves of Kali before we can reach “Moksha,” or Nirvana, the abode of blessed peace and spirit.


“With the Buddhists the last incarnation is the fifth. When Maitree-Buddha (Meitreya) comes, then our present world will be destroyed, and a new and better one will replace it. The four arms of every Hindu deity are the emblems of the four proceeding manifestations of our earth from its invisible state, while its head typifies the fifth and last Kalki-Avatar, when this world be destoryed, and the power of Budh–Wisdom (With the Hindus of Brahma), will be again called into requisition to manifest itself–as a Logos–to create a future world.”


As with Lilith, Kali is the goddess of hideous beauty. She has four arms and dried black skin that hangs on her like funeral garb. She wears jewelry, necklaces, and a headdress made of human body parts, as well as holding a sword and shield made of human bones. Her face is hideous and smeared with blood, and she is usually depicted as a dancing figure with a human head dangling from one of her hands. Like Lilith, the sacred flower of Kali is the rose which she wears around her neck in the “rosary of mantras.”


In many circles of witchcraft, a child that is born for the purpose of ritual human sacrifice is known as ‘Rosemary’s Baby’; also the name of a classic horror film by the same title. This is reminiscent of the Catholic rosary associated with the Virgin Mary, and the mysterious secret society known as the Rosicrucian Order, whose very symbol is that of a rose. According to the specifications of Masonic architects and Templars, there are hundreds of churches set up with stain glass windows depicting the feminine quality of the blood rose. Below is an ancient Indian poem dedicated to the destructive, and regenerative powers of the goddess Kali:


“I am the dance of death that is

Behind all life

The ultimate horror

The ultimate ecstacy

I am existence

I am the dance of destruction that

Will end this world

The timeless void

The formless devouring mouth

I am rebirth

Let me dance you to death

Let me dance you to life

Will you walk through your fears to dance with me?

Will you let me cut off your head

And drink your blood?

Then will you cut off mine?

Will you face all the horror

All the pain

All the sorrow

And say “yes?”

I am all that you dread

All that terrifies

I am your fear

Will you meet me?”


The Great Plan – and the Darkside’s Last Attempts Parts 1-8

By Peter Farley With Sue Ann Mikrut


Long before Christopher Columbus discovered America, the Iroquois had established their own League of Nations. We know now that the principles upon which their federation was founded directly influenced the drafting of the United States Constitution. It is also certain that the design of our nation\'s Great Seal, depicting a pyramid and an eye in a triangle, is a blueprint of America\'s future as envisioned by our founding fathers.


Long before either of these institutions came into being, however, there was what has always been called ‘The Great Plan’ for the future of planet Earth, and indeed for this corner of Creation in general. This Great Plan laid out for those who followed the darkside, what was to happen at every stage of the game now called world history.


A modern-day proponent of the New Age and the Secret Brotherhood\'s plan for a New World Order is Robert Hieronimus. In his book America\'s Secret Destiny, he traces the so-called spiritual vision of America\'s founding fathers and the Plan\'s eventual coming to fruition in what we call the New World Order and the New Age Movement (both of which are fairly synonymous). He stresses that the founding fathers of America had the equivalent of \"Masters\" and were pupils in a sense, much like today\'s powerful Elite have Masters and Gurus, following the teachings of the one codex handed down from generation to generation known simply as ‘The Great Plan’.


According to the Rosicrucians and Theosophists, there are great Beings supporting this divine plan and they are referred to as masters of the physical and spiritual planes. The evolution of America and its role in this Great Plan it is said owes much to the seed thoughts of four masters—Kuthumi, El Morya, Rogoczy, and Djwhal Khul. Some of the founders of America may actually have been consciously or unconsciously students of these teachers, just as some contemporary Americans are also pupils of these masters. In fact, the motto of this hierarchy of world teachers is identical with that of America\'s destiny in the Plan—‘the brotherhood of man and the Fatherhood of God’.


Another writer, though this time from another camp, confirms the assertions of Hieronimus. Willy Peterson writes: \"In order to reach their aims of world unity and thus engage the whole world in service to the Plan, \"enlightened\" Freemasons and New Agers have been pushing for collectivist motifs that promote monistic pantheism and unity. This is why the chief instigators to the globalist League of Nations and the United Nations have been Theosophists, trying to work out the plan. This is why the verbiage and aims at the U.N. is for world peace and brotherhood. It is a spiritual undertaking in a secular world. The Lucis Trust has had three think-tanks located at the U.N. Plaza in New York for around fifty years. No wonder the former Assistant Secretary General to the U.N., Robert Muller, is a devoted disciple of Alice Bailey, whose book, A Treatise on White Magic, forms the basis for the Robert Muller schools.” (The Leavening) []


These people are called the torchbearers or lightbearers of the New World Order [as opposed to Lightworkers—Peter] and follow a ‘spiritual’ plan that has been traced to the time of Nimrod and the Tower of Babel, up through to the Illuminati and onwards. It is \"a loosely-knit world conspiracy,\" writes David Allen Lewis, \"a so called Network of Illuminists.\"


\"Whether the Illuminati have one special organization that is its original descendant... we can be very sure that its philosophical torchbearers are represented by literally hundreds of organizations and individuals in many diverse realms.\" (Dark Angels of Light)


Part 2

Speaking from his New World Order stance, Robert Hieronimus says that America\'s Great Seal can be seen as a blueprint for the elevation of consciousness; in part, that we must transform ourselves before we can change the world, and that it is during the process of self-transformation that we can catch a glimpse of what part we are to play in national and global transformation.\"


The mandala of the New World Order and Illuminati control as he describes it is \"Annuit Coeptis—He has Blessed our Beginning\", \"Novus Ordo Seclorum—New Order of the Ages\". While the All-Seeing Eye is that of Horus, the resurrected Egyptian Sun God, biblically referred to as Lucifer, the angel of light.


Like a politician’s words, it all sounds very nice as long as you’re one of the ones who will benefit from this New Order, or belong to one of the myriad fraternities who derive their power and energies from same, but how far back does this entire Great Plan of the New World Order go? Umberto Ecco alludes to its longevity in his novel about the Templars, Focault’s Pendulum:


\"...modern days; the problems of psychology, physiology, and the many \'missing links\' which have so perplexed scientists of late, are all in the hands of secret fraternities. This mystery must be unveiled some day...The answers are there. They may be found on the time worn granite pages of cave-temples, on sphinxes, propylons, and obelisks. They have stood there for untold ages, and neither the rude assault of time, nor the still ruder assault of Christian hands, have succeeded in obliterating their records…And so stand these monuments like mute forgotten sentinels on the threshold of that unseen world, whose gates are thrown open but to a few elect…they will disclose their riddles to none but the legates of those by whom they were entrusted with the MYSTERY. The cold, stony lips of the once vocal Memnon, and of these hardy sphinxes, keep their secrets well. Who will unseal them? Who of our modern, materialistic dwarfs and unbelieving Sadducees will dare to lift the VEIL of Isis?\"


This allegiance to the Great Plan is the main reason we see Luciferic designs incorporated into the government centers in Washington D.C., as well as in every major city around the country. Freemasonry, the modern-day incarnation of the ancient mystery schools, has been Lucifer’s central religion – his political arm, comparing as it does so closely with Mormonism which took over from Catholicism as the religious arm. It is the root of the darkside’s control system, these the two darkest forces on the planet, the twin pillars of control with Lucifer’s energy once holding the place of being the third ‘uniting, supporting, balancing’ factor. And, while Lucifer Himself and Thoth may have since healed, those forces they had set in motion now remain to carry out what they can of the original Great Plan. In fact, it is about their last hope as things have dramatically shifted on the planet in favor of planetary ascension and of the forces of Light gradually succeeding in taking control. Though this has not yet manifested in the physical plane as much as many of us would like, it is working its way down as the darkside’s control over the planetary grid system and the portals in and out of the planet return to their rightful owners.


Part 3

Lucifer’s was the willpower and Thoth’s the genius to instigate the whole grander plan for all of Creation, but with both of Them now gone the dark hierarchy still remain to carry out what they can in an attempt to stave off complete disintegration of all that has been so laboriously won so far. And so the war still goes on . . .a struggle of the wills of those left in power to continue against a growing desire for everything in this Universe to return to the way things were supposed to be in the original plan of its Creator.


“Few men will anything very strongly, and out of these few, only a tiny minority are capable of combining strength of will with unwavering continuity. Most human beings are spasmodic and intermittent creatures, who like above everything the pleasures of mental indolence. It is for this reason that a strenuous and unwearying will sometimes becomes so tremendous a power, almost a hypnotic force.” [Bryce]


“Lucifer has always been the highest mythological incarnation of this intense personal will, and the great men who have embodied it upon the stage of history participated, to some extent, in his satanic strength and magnificence. It is because of his strength and magnificence, so very different from our own weakness and mental squalor, that we continue to hark back nostalgically to the biographies of such men as Alexander, Caesar, Napoleon, and that, as each new imitator of Lucifer arises, we prostrate ourselves before him, begging him to save us,” said Aldous Huxley. But when Lucifer is gone, when His Darth Vader-like commander, Thoth, has also returned with His master for healing, who then is left to carry on?


Manly Hall claimed that it was the Atlanteans who devised this plan—the “Great Plan”—which would guide world events for millennia to come and that it included a mysterious blueprint of what would later become America. Hall said that ancient Egyptian secret societies had inherited this Great Plan and were well aware of the existence of the land mass in the Western hemisphere which we now call America, long before it was “discovered” by Columbus.


”The explorers who opened the New World operated from a master plan and were agents of re-discovery rather than discoverers.” (Hall, Manly P. America’s Assignment with Destiny The Philosophical Research Society: LA 1951 P 49-50).


The one thing the Great Plan didn’t take into account was the power of one man standing up against them, one man with an intense personal will, following his Highest Guidance and, like the flapping of the butterfly’s wings, creating chaos in their plans. This had happened before when Nefretiri destroyed Akhenaton’s plans to open the Earth’s portals for the darkside energies with which he was connected to be reunited. It happened again when René d’Anjou stopped the completion of the final Gothic Cathedral of which Rosslyn Chapel is but a part. Like the rebels portrayed in the Star Wars saga, there have been, all along the way, thorns in the darkside’s side, the Light fighting back against the complete overtaking of the darkside of everything in this area of Creation.


Part 4

Whether anyone could have foreseen that the darkside’s Great Plan would fail, no one can really say. Visions of a future where that darkside plan had not come to fruition have been seen as a possibility, however, for centuries. This scenario includes what we are all awaiting now, the coming (and to some extent already here) Earth changes and planetary ascension process once thought to be impossible, as well as the general chaos occurring from which the New World Order does not arise to take over and impress their version of Order upon everyone.


In a recent article in the newspaper, a senior CIA personnel says that they’re planning to \"push beyond the traditional boundaries of intelligence\" by asking Hollywood for help in fighting terrorism. To do this, the CIA ran a round-table discussion with 10 science-fiction authors so intelligence analysts could see how they came up with their plots. If life is beginning to seem more like something out of a futuristic science-fiction movie, then perhaps this kind of alliance is why. One should now be very careful about not only what they watch and listen to, but also what the subliminal programming involved is as well.


Indeed it would seem like science-fiction to most people to think that a small elite group could take over an entire planet and hope to control 6 billion people. Perhaps it is not so far-fetched as we might think, however, especially given the 100,000 years it has taken to put the New World Order\'s Great Plan into action. Writes Aluna Joy Yak\'in:


\"For over 20 years the Star Elders have shared various visions. These visions were based in the past, present day, and our future. Over the last few weeks another vision came and though it didn\'t seem to have any relation to the others, a series of visions lit up like a string of lights. In Mexico many years back, I woke up with the story of why the Maya and other South American civilizations were conquered so easily. I was told why Columbus, Montago, Pissaro, Cortez and all the other conquerors were able to take down entire empires with so few men, horses and weapons. Let\'s face it, how many men and horses could they cram on one of those little ships anyway and not to mention that they were in weakened states of health when they arrived. We know what the history books say, but this is what the Star Elders share about this time and what it means to us today.


\"In time and space there are time openings - sort of time rips, or time viruses. Sometimes Earth passes through one, or a series of these openings. When we enter into one of these rare places it is possible for lower dimensions to enter higher ones without doing the necessary preparation or spiritual work. When this happens it imposes a lower nature onto a higher dimension. In order to balance the situation the higher worlds usually fall, and the lower ones gain more power than they know how to handle. This was the case of the Conquistadors and the Americas.


\"This vision was also a warning to us at this important time. It was revealed that we will enter a similar time or space. It is important that we finish our spiritual work and purge our negative egos (outside egos) so as not to damage the next dimension with our lower natures. I was shown that we must enter this next world in a state of surrender and allow the next world to be our teacher. In other words, park your egos at the door folks, after all we do not want to become the next Cortez or Columbus while entering into the next phase of the process.\"


This explains what I\'ve been teaching for years about the efforts of the darkside to use the portals or windows to the Universe that open during the coming ascension process in order to escape not only into other dimensions, but into the very Matrix of Creation Itself. This war is not solely Mankind vs. The New World Order, but Creation vs. the darkside in every possible way. More is also written in my works about time waves and the higher-level dimensions falling as they once did in Atlantis because of being invaded by ‘energies’ from the lower dimensions.


The Great Plan – and the Darkside’s Last Attempts Part 5-8

By Peter Farley with Sue Ann Mikrut


The shift spoken of is the coming ascension process of much of the 3rd dimension back into the higher states of being– the 5th dimension in particular. We have come to the place we have all been waiting for. We are about to embark on the shift of the ages but much work both individually and planet-wide, still needs to be done, esp

The Icelandic horse are everywhere on the Island and have been bred to survive the windy cold environment. They have short legs and two unique gaits. They are an endogenous population that has low resistance to outside equine diseases. So now other horses (and I think other livestock) are not allowed to be imported to Iceland and once they leave the Island cannot return.

One Possible Reality from Endogenous Series, 2010 - 2012


#chasealias #immersionism #aiweiwei #endogenous


Once photography has broken away from its original function as technique or means for documentation, it is merely a fleeting state of existence that has been transformed into one possible reality. It is this transformation that makes photography a kind of movement and gives it it's distinct significance: it is merely one type of existence. -Ai WeiWei


Ai Weiwei. Ai Weiwei's Blog: Writings, Interviews, and Digital Rants, 2006-2009 (Writing Art)


July 2011

Medium:HDR Video Still

Original Dimensions:34" x 37.6", 320dpi, 32Bits/Channel

Copyright:CC Pollack Images @ Studio ChaseMe


David S Pollack aka Chase Alias hopes to bring to light with his new Endogenous Series how backwards moving our cultural standards have become. As an Immersionist he look back in envy at the freedoms which artists used to be able to express themselves without having to worry about cultural and even legal action being taken against them.


Immersionism is a young art movement which combines Lewittian Conceptualism with Method Acting practices and principles. Stanislavsky and Strasberg Acting Methods which utilize sense memory and affective memory are an Immersionist's base. Lewittian Conceptualism adheres to the ideal that the medium is not the message, the idea becomes a machine that makes the art.


By turning the camera on himself, and selecting the photographic Genre of self-portraiture, David Pollack is attempting to create a canon of works consisting of probing, surprising, and thoughtful images. Although, the majority of his photographs are pictures of him, however, these photographs are most definitely not self-portraits. Rather, Pollack uses himself as a vehicle for commentary on a variety of issues of the modern world. Pollack employs acting, in particular method acting, to create characters and lifestyles in which these characters choose to exist. He employs concepts of method acting to create characters, such as Chase Alias. He lives his life completely immersed in these characters lifestyles for years before building his installations ands then finally photographing himself as these characters.

Identifier: industrialresour03debo

Title: The industrial resources, etc., of the southern and western states: embracing a view of their commerce, agriculture, manufactures, internal improvements, slave and free labor, slavery institutions, products, etc., of the South, together with historical and statistical sketches of the different states and cities of the Union--statistics of the United States commerce and manufactures, from the earliest periods, compared with other leading powers--the results of the different census returns since 1790, and returns of the census of 1850, on population, agriculture and general industry, etc., with an appendix

Year: 1853 (1850s)

Authors: De Bow, J. D. B. (James Dunwoody Brownson), 1820-1867

Subjects: Industries -- Southern States Manufactures -- United States Slavery -- United States Southern States -- Economic conditions West (U.S.) -- Economic conditions United States -- Statistics

Publisher: New Orleans, The office of De Bow's review

Contributing Library: New York Public Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN


View Book Page: Book Viewer

About This Book: Catalog Entry

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Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.


Text Appearing Before Image:

tlie vegetable kingdom which be-long to the endogenous class, all its repre-sentatives being of most humble growth. Thegrasses, for instance, are endogenous; andsome of our larger grasses, as the wheat orbarley, may be taken as the typeof the endoge-nous vegetable produce in temperate regions. It is in vain, however, to examine, in thestem of our bumble grasses, for pal[)able in-dications of the endogenous mode (d growth.For this purpose a section of .some tropicalendogen,—the bamboo, or sugar-cane, forexainple,—shoidd be made. This sectioneif carefully examined, will clearly indicatethe prominent feature in the structure of anendogenous plant. ■Y-r-:- *>.. It will be seen there is no appenrance ofconcentric rings, indicative each of a yearsrowth, but the whole cellular and vascularstructure forms one confused mass. For the purpose of fully appreciating thedifference between an exogenous and an en-dogenous stem, the cane section may be com-pared with another of oak or hazel.


Text Appearing After Image:

The difference between the two will benow marked; here the indications of peri- 220 SUGAR MANUFACTURE, ETC. pheral depositions of tissue are so clear, eachdeposition corresponding with one summer,that, by counting the number of existing rings,the age of the exogenous plant may frequentlybe told. Besides the ditference of the mode ofgrowth between endogenous and exogenousgrasses, a difference on which are founded thedistinctive terms of botanical arrangement,there exist others no less invariable, and wellmarked. All exogenous plants are providedwith reticulated leaves, whilst the leaves ofall endogenous plants are merely traversed bystraight veins; this distinction will be wellappreciated on making a comparision betweenan oak leaf and a leaf of barley or wheat. Again, all exogenous plants possess awell-defined bark, wood, and pith ; whilst inendogenous plants no such defined arrange-ment exists;—one part merging into the otherby insensible gradations. Other distinctionsbetween endogeindustrialresour03debo


Note About Images

Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

Ancient Roraima known also as "The Lost World" guards many botanical and zoological species endogenous to this place, because of the isolation in which they developed .A beautiful and strange world in Venezuela border with Brasil and Guyana

Ebola virus (EBOV, formerly designated Zaire ebolavirus) is the sole member of the Zaire ebolavirus species, and the most dangerous of the five known viruses within the genus Ebolavirus.[1] Four of the five known ebolaviruses cause a severe and often fatal hemorrhagic fever in humans and other primates, known as Ebola virus disease. The virus and its species were both originally named for Zaire (now the Democratic Republic of Congo), the country where it was first described,[1] and was at first suspected to be a new "strain" of the closely related Marburg virus;[2][3] the virus (but not its species) was renamed to "Ebola virus" in 2010 to avoid confusion. The species is a virological taxon species included in the genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae (whose members are called Filovirus[4]), order Mononegavirales.[1] The Zaire ebolavirus species is also the type species (reference or example species) for ebolavirus. Its natural reservoir is believed to be bats, particularly fruit bats, and it is primarily transmitted between humans and from animals to humans, through body fluids.


The EBOV genome is approximately 19,000 base pairs long. It encodes seven structural proteins: nucleoprotein (NP), polymerase cofactor (VP35), (VP40), GP, transcription activator (VP30), VP24, and RNA polymerase (L).[5] Its is difficult to study due to the virulent nature of the virus.


Because of its high mortality rate, EBOV is also listed a select agent, World Health Organization Risk Group 4 Pathogen (requiring Biosafety Level 4-equivalent containment), a U.S. National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases Category A Priority Pathogen, U.S. CDC Centers for Disease Control and Prevention Category A Bioterrorism Agent, and listed as a Biological Agent for Export Control by the Australia Group.

EBOV carries a negative-sense RNA genome in virions that are cylindrical/tubular, and contain viral envelope, matrix, and nucleocapsid components. The overall cylinders are generally approx. 80 nm in diameter, and having a virally encoded glycoprotein (GP) projecting as 7-10 nm long spikes from its lipid bilayer surface.[6][not specific enough to verify] The cylinders are of variable length, typically 800 nm, but sometimes up to 1000 nm long. The outer viral envelope of the virion is derived by budding from domains of host cell membrane into which the GP spikes have been inserted during their biosynthesis.[citation needed] Individual GP molecules appear with spacings of about 10 nm.[citation needed] Viral proteins VP40 and VP24 are located between the envelope and the nucleocapsid (see following), in the matrix space.[7] At the center of the virion structure is the nucleocapsid, which is composed of a series of viral proteins attached to a 18–19 kb linear, negative-sense RNA without 3′-polyadenylation or 5′-capping (see following);[citation needed] the RNA is helically wound and complexed with the NP, VP35, VP30, and L proteins;[8][better source needed] this helix has a diameter of 80 nm and contains a central channel of 20–30 nm in diameter.


The overall shape of the virions after purification and visualization (e.g., by ultracentrifugation and electron microscopy, respectively) varies considerably; simple cylinders are far less prevalent than structures showing reversed direction, branches, and loops (i.e., U-, shepherd's crook-, 9- or eye bolt-shapes, or other or circular/coiled appearances), the origin of which may be in the laboratory techniques applied.[9] The characteristic "threadlike" structure is, however, a more general morphologic characteristic of filoviruses (alongside their GP-decorated viral envelope, RNA nucleocapsid, etc.)

Each virion contains one molecule of linear, single-stranded, negative-sense RNA, 18,959 to 18,961 nucleotides in length. The 3′ terminus is not polyadenylated and the 5′ end is not capped. It was found that 472 nucleotides from the 3' end and 731 nucleotides from the 5' end are sufficient for replication.[9] It codes for seven structural proteins and one non-structural protein. The gene order is 3′ – leader – NP – VP35 – VP40 – GP/sGP – VP30 – VP24 – L – trailer – 5′; with the leader and trailer being non-transcribed regions, which carry important signals to control transcription, replication, and packaging of the viral genomes into new virions. The genomic material by itself is not infectious, because viral proteins, among them the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase, are necessary to transcribe the viral genome into mRNAs because it is a negative sense RNA virus, as well as for replication of the viral genome. Sections of the NP and the L genes from filoviruses have been identified as endogenous in the genomes of several groups of small mammals.[10]

There are two candidates for host cell entry proteins. The first is the host-encoded Niemann–Pick C1 (NPC1), a cholesterol transporter protein, appears to be essential for entry of Ebola virions into the host cell, and for its ultimate replication.[11][12] In one study, mice that were heterozygous for NPC1 were shown to be protected from lethal challenge with mouse-adapted Ebola virus.[ambiguous][jargon][11] In another study, small molecules were shown to inhibit Ebola virus infection by preventing viral envelope glycoprotein (GP) from binding to NPC1.[12][13] Hence, NPC1 was shown to be critical to entry of this filovirus, because it mediates infection by binding directly to viral GP.[12]


When cells from Niemann Pick Type C patients lacking this transporter were exposed to Ebola virus in the laboratory, the cells survived and appeared impervious to the virus, further indicating that Ebola relies on NPC1 to enter cells;[citation needed] mutations in the NPC1 gene in humans were conjectured as a possible mode to make some individuals resistant to this deadly viral disease.[citation needed][speculation?] The same studies[which?] described similar results regarding NPC1's role in virus entry for Marburg virus, a related filovirus. A further study has also presented evidence that NPC1 is critical receptor mediating Ebola infection via its direct binding to the viral GP, and that it is the second "lysosomal" domain of NPC1 that mediates this binding.[14]


The second candidate is TIM-1 (aka HAVCR1).[15] TIM-1 was shown to bind to the receptor binding domain of the EBOV glycoprotein, to increase the receptivity of Vero cells. Silencing its effect with siRNA prevented infection of Vero cells. TIM1 is expressed in tissues known to be seriously impacted by EBOV lysis (trachea, cornea, and conjunctiva). A monoclonal antibody against the IgV domain of TIM-1, ARD5, blocked EBOV binding and infection.


Together, these studies suggest NPC1 and TIM-1 may be potential therapeutic targets for an Ebola anti-viral drug and as a basis for a rapid field diagnostic assay.

Being acellular, viruses such as Ebola do not replicate through any type of cell division; rather, they use a combination of host- and virally encoded enzymes, alongside host cell structures, to produce multiple copies of themselves; these then self-assemble into viral macromolecular structures in the host cell.[8][better source needed] The virus completes a set of steps when infecting each individual cell:[citation needed]


The virus begins its attack by attaching to host receptors through the glycoprotein (GP) surface peplomer and is endocytosed into macropinosomes in the host cell.[16][non-primary source needed] To penetrate the cell, the viral membrane fuses with vesicle membrane, and the nucleocapsid is released into the cytoplasm. Encapsidated, negative-sense genomic ssRNA is used as a template for the synthesis (3'-5') of polyadenylated, monocistronic mRNAs[jargon] and, using the host cell's ribosomes, tRNA molecules, etc., the mRNA is translated into individual viral proteins.


These viral proteins are processed, a glycoprotein precursor (GP0) is cleaved to GP1 and GP2, which are then heavily glycosylated using cellular enzymes and substrates. These two molecules assemble, first into heterodimers, and then into trimers to give the surface peplomers. Secreted glycoprotein (sGP) precursor is cleaved to sGP and delta peptide, both of which are released from the cell.[citation needed] As viral protein levels rise, a switch occurs from translation to replication. Using the negative-sense genomic RNA as a template, a complementary +ssRNA is synthesized; this is then used as a template for the synthesis of new genomic (-)ssRNA, which is rapidly encapsidated.


The newly formed nucleocapsids and envelope proteins associate at the host cell's plasma membrane; budding occurs, destroying the cell.

Ebolavirus is a zoonotic pathogen. Intermediary hosts have been reported to be "various species of fruit bats [...] throughout central and sub-Saharan Africa", but infection in bats has not been proven yet.[17] End hosts are humans and great apes, infected through bat contact or through other end hosts. Pigs on the Philippine islands have been reported to be infected with Restonvirus, so other interim or amplifying hosts may exist.[17]

Ebola virus is one of the four ebolaviruses known to cause disease in humans. It has the highest case-fatality rate of these ebolaviruses, averaging 83% since first described in 1976, although fatality rates up to 90% have been recorded in one epidemic (2002–03). There have also been more outbreaks of ebola virus than of any other ebolavirus. The first outbreak occurred on 26 August 1976 in Yambuku.[18] The first recorded case was Mabalo Lokela, a 44‑year-old schoolteacher. The symptoms resembled malaria, and subsequent patients received quinine. Transmission has been attributed to reuse of unsterilized needles and close personal contact.

Zaire ebolavirus is pronounced /zɑːˈɪər iːˈboʊləvaɪərəs/ (zah-eer ee-boh-lə-vy-rəs). Strictly speaking, the pronunciation of "Ebola virus" (/iːˌboʊlə ˈvaɪərəs/) should be distinct from that of the genus-level taxonomic designation "ebolavirus/Ebolavirus/ebolavirus", as "Ebola" is named for the tributary of the Congo River that is pronounced "Ébola" in French,[19] whereas "ebola-virus" is an "artificial contraction" of the words "Ebola" and "virus," written without a diacritical mark for ease of use by scientific databases and English speakers. According to the rules for taxon naming established by the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses (ICTV), the name Zaire ebolavirus is always to be capitalized, italicized, and to be preceded by the word "species". The names of its members (Zaire ebolaviruses) are to be capitalized, are not italicized, and used without articles.[1]


Ebola virus (abbreviated EBOV) was first described in 1976.[2][3][20] Today, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses lists the virus as the single member of the species Zaire ebolavirus, which is included into the genus Ebolavirus, family Filoviridae, order Mononegavirales. The name Ebola virus is derived from the Ebola River — a river that was at first thought to be in close proximity to the area in Democratic Republic of Congo, previously called Zaire, where the first recorded Ebola virus disease outbreak occurred — and the taxonomic suffix virus.[1]


The species was introduced in 1998 as Zaire Ebola virus.[21][22] In 2002, the name was changed to Zaire ebolavirus.[23][24

Ebola virus was first introduced as a possible new "strain" of Marburg virus in 1977 by two different research teams.[2][3] At the same time, a third team introduced the name Ebola virus.[20] In 2000, the virus name was changed to Zaire Ebola virus,[25][26] and in 2002 to Zaire ebolavirus.[23][24] However, most scientific articles continued to refer to Ebola virus or used the terms Ebola virus and Zaire ebolavirus in parallel. Consequently, in 2010, the name Ebola virus was reinstated.[1] Previous abbreviations for the virus were EBOV-Z (for Ebola virus Zaire) and most recently ZEBOV (for Zaire Ebola virus or Zaire ebolavirus). In 2010, EBOV was reinstated as the abbreviation for the virus.

To be considered a member of the species Zaire ebolavirus, a virus of the genus Ebolavirus is required to fulfill certain requirements:[1]


it is found in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Gabon, or the Republic of the Congo

it has a genome with two or three gene overlaps (VP35/VP40, GP/VP30, VP24/L)

it has a genomic sequence that differs from the type virus by less than 30%

Furthermore, the virus' genome cannot diverge from that of the variant Mayinga (EBOV/May) by more than 10% at the nucleotide level for it to be considered an Ebola virus.[1]

"I try to see myself as a sacrifice, just to show the kids they ain't the only ones who up at night." -Kid Cudi


from Who I M Seies, 2010 - 2014,

Affective Memory Screen Capture by Immersionist Chase Alias includes Instant Message Conversations.


Unique Digital Work #chasealias #endogenous #theorizeart #screencapture #NewMedia #Immersionist




(Medical Xpress)—The human brain's exquisite complexity and power make it a unique evolutionary marvel. One of the brain's more interesting abilities is known as the placebo effect, in which no more than the expectation of relief can lead to analgesia – the relief of pain, anxiety, depression, nausea, and many other aversive states. However, scientists at University of Gothenburg and University of Oslo recently showed that the placebo effect may not be limited to pain reduction, but may also enhance pleasure, or hyperhedonia. The researchers used the placebo effect to improve both painful and pleasant touch sensations in healthy humans – and by comparing brain processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), found that, depending on whether the starting point was painful or pleasant, neurocircuitry associated with emotion and reward underpinned improvement of both pain and pleasant touch by dampening pain but increasing touch pleasantness.


In an interview with Medical Xpress, PhD candidate Dan-Mikael Ellingsen discussed the paper he and his colleagues published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. "In recent years, functional brain imaging studies have shown that expecting a treatment to relieve negative symptoms – like pain, anxiety or unpleasant taste – leads to not only subjective reports of relief, but also suppressed brain activity in sensory circuitry during aversive stimuli, such as noxious heat or touch, threatening images, and unpleasant taste," Ellingsen tells Medical Xpress. "However, both aversive and appetitive experiences – for example, tasty food or a pleasant touch – are affected by context and expectation." Therefore, Ellingsen explains, in forming their hypothesis for this study, the researchers asked whether improvement of good experiences is encoded entirely in higher-level valuation processing, or whether it would mirror the modulation of early stages of sensory processing that is seen for aversive stimuli. "If so, we'd expect such positive sensory signals to be up-regulated, in contrast to the down-regulation of sensory signals we see during placebo-induced reduction of aversive experiences."

In the placebo manipulation procedure, participants were shown a short video documentary convincing them that a nasal spray containing the neuropeptide oxytocin would reduce pain and enhance the pleasantness of pleasant touch. Following this video, they self-administered 10 puffs of a placebo nasal that they were told could contain oxytocin. The pleasant touch stimuli consisted of caress-like light strokes with a soft brush, or a hot/cold pack (resembling a warm hand, applied to the subject's forearm. The pain stimulus was a thermode (~47 degrees Celsius) on the hand.

Ellingsen notes that by comparing brain activation during painful or pleasant touch stimuli after placebo treatment versus no-placebo, the scientists were able to assess differences in activation that was specifically related to having received placebo treatment. "Importantly, the subjective reports showed that, after receiving placebo relative to no-placebo, touch pleasantness was increased while pain unpleasantness was decreased," he adds. "When contrasting placebo and no-placebo on brain activation, we found that sensory activation was increased during pleasant touch stimuli and decreased during painful touch stimuli. In other words, the placebo-induced change in sensory processing reflected the placebo-induced change in subjective reports."


The team also hypothesized that placebo improvement of pleasant touch would recruit the same emotion appraisal neurocircuitry that underpins placebo analgesia. "Neural systems mediating pain and pleasure interact extensively, with pain and pleasure often being mutually inhibitory," Ellingsen says. "For instance," he illustrates, "pleasant stimuli such as music, food, odors, and touch can have analgesic effects – and pain can inhibit pleasure and positive feelings. Further, opioids can induce both potent analgesia and feelings of pleasure." (An opioid is any psychoactive chemical that resembles morphine or other opiate in its pharmacological effects.) Ellingsen points out that previous findings show that relief from pain induces pleasant feelings1,2, and when a normally painful stimulus represents the best possible outcome – that is, when the alternative is even more intense pain3 – it can even become pleasant.

Ellingsen explains that a central element in all placebo effects is that there is an expectation or desire for an improvement, for example, a relief of pain or unpleasantness – and placebo effects have been theorized to arise from a generalized mechanism of reward prediction. This reasoning, he notes, is supported by evidence that placebo responses across modalities – analgesia6, anxiety relief7, and so on – rely on activation of similar neural systems involved in reward and emotion. "In line with this strong link between pleasure and the relief from negative feelings, we hypothesized that improving the pleasantness of an appetitive stimulus would rely on modulatory mechanisms similar to those involved in the improvement of aversive feelings."

A key aspect of the team's research was devising and applying an fMRI crossover study to compare neural processing of placebo hyperhedonia and analgesia. "In order to compare the brain mechanisms of placebo hyperhedonia and analgesia, we assessed the effect of placebo treatment on subjective experiences within the same sensory modality – namely, touch, both pleasant and painful."

A key aspect of the study's analytic design was based on the researchers' knowledge that all dermal information is processed in the same neural pathways – specifically, the sensory thalamus, primary and secondary somatosensory areas, and the posterior insula. "As a result," Ellingsen points out, "we were able to perform two important measurements: we directly compared how expectation of improvement affected the processing of positive and negative somatosensory signals in these pathways, and investigated the effect of higher-level modulatory circuitry on sensory processing of pleasant or painful touch."


Proposed mechanism of placebo analgesia and hyperhedonia. During expectation of hyperhedonia and analgesia, a shared modulatory network up-regulates pleasant touch processing and down-regulates painful touch processing in somatosensory areas, …more

Another factor the scientists had to consider was that the use of subjective rating scales varies widely between individuals (as opposed to a single individual's typical consistency). As a result, these scales are significantly better at detecting changes between placebo and no-placebo within individuals rather than between one group who received placebo and another that received no placebo. "Consequently," Ellingsen explains, "such a design has superior statistical power – that is, a greater ability to detect a true effect."

Further, the potential benefit of a crossover design can be found when the order of treatment – specifically, placebo or no-placebo first – is considered, since it may potentially affect responses. "To control for this potential confounder," notes Ellingsen, "we used a crossover design, that is, half of the subjects got placebo in the first session, and the other half got placebo in the last session." However, he adds, in the analyses they performed, they found that the treatment order had no effect on either subjective placebo improvement or brain activation.

"To our knowledge," Ellingsen continues, "our study is the first to investigate placebo improvement of pleasurable feelings. By directly comparing this effect with the more well-known placebo analgesia effect, we were able to identify both the differences and a potential shared mechanism of these two types of improvement: People with stronger placebo-induced increases in functional coupling between ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and subcortical structures (PAG) reported greater placebo hyperhedonia and analgesia, and had greater analgesic decreases and hyperhedonic increases in somatosensory processing."

Ellingsen says that this finding suggests that endogenous improvement of positive and negative feelings are tightly coupled. "Interestingly, we saw that people with the greatest placebo hyperhedonia responses also had the greatest placebo analgesia responses. Overall, the results provide a piece of the puzzle of how positive expectations affect both positive and negative feelings."

Expanding on the team's findings, Ellingsen describes how the researchers first observed that placebo hyperhedonia was associated with increased activation of a number of cortical and subcortical areas important for placebo analgesia – namely, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, accumbens, amygdala, and the midbrain structures periaqueductal grey and the ventral tegmental area. Not only was there increased activation in these areas after placebo administration compared to no-placebo, Ellingsen adds, but the amount of increase was positively correlated to the magnitude of the reported improvement: Those with largest placebo-induced hyperhedonia and analgesia had the highest placebo-induced activation in these areas. Moreover, those with largest placebo hyperhedonia and analgesia also had the strongest placebo-induced increase in functional connectivity within this circuitry, a measure of how much these areas communicate with each other. "Although our findings show similar patterns of activation between placebo hyperhedonia and analgesia, it's important to point out that they weren't identical. There are likely to be fine-grained differences between these processes within this circuitry that were not identified by this study."

Ellingsen stresses that an important mechanism in placebo analgesia – one that has been replicated several times – is the engagement of the opioid descending modulatory system, which consists of vmPFC, amygdala, and PAG. "When treated with a placebo that is expected to have analgesic effects," Ellingsen explains, "activation of this system suppresses nociceptive" (the neural processes of encoding and processing noxious or painful stimuli) "signaling both in the brain and – since the PAG has descending connections through the rostroventral medulla, RVM, to the spinal dorsal horn, where it can modulate incoming nociceptive signals – at the spinal cord level." Importantly, he notes, placebo analgesia and the activation of this system are reversed when the individual is given the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, indicating that this mechanism is dependent on opioid signaling.

To ask whether this system is involved also in placebo improvement of pleasantness, we assessed the relationship between 1) the placebo-induced change in functional connectivity between the vmPFC and PAG, and 2) placebo-induced change in sensory processing. Strikingly, we found that the co-activation of vmPFC and PAG was related to opposite effects during placebo hyperhedonia and analgesia: During pain, those with strongest increases in functional coupling had the largest decreases in sensory processing, while during pleasant touch, those with strongest functional coupling had the largest sensory increases. We are now planning to investigate whether placebo hyperhedonia, like (most) placebo analgesia, depends on opioid signaling.

Moving forward, Ellingsen says, their study opens up several important questions for future studies:

Does placebo hyperhedonia, similar to analgesia, rely on opioid or dopamine signaling?

Could expectation of hyperhedonia alone have analgesic effects – and vice versa?

Could including information about potential hyperhedonic effects actually boost treatment effects of analgesic drugs?

What is the exact mechanism of the up-regulation of sensory processing in placebo hyperhedonia? Is it entirely central in its action, or could it involve descending facilitation of touch processing at the spinal cord level, which is a component in placebo analgesia4 and nocebo hyperalgesia5?

(A nocebo – the opposite of a placebo – is a harmless substance that creates detrimental effects in a patient who takes it. Likewise, the nocebo effect is the negative expectation-based reaction experienced by a patient who receives a nocebo.)

Regarding other areas of research that might benefit from their study, Ellingsen cites a growing recognition that health care systems need to be remodeled to target placebo mechanisms – and to do so by altering expectations, motivation, treatment context, and the therapist-patient relationship. "In most medical settings, however, the focus is to ease negative symptoms – to relieve pain, nausea, or discomfort – but to attain positive feelings, people have to seek elsewhere, despite our knowledge that positive experiences, like captivating music, pleasant odors, beautiful pictures, pleasant touch, and support from people we care about, can have potent analgesic effects."

If the tightly-coupling expectations of improvement in pleasurable and painful feelings suggested by their results interact in the clinical setting, Ellingsen believes it to be very likely that increasing the focus on positive appetitive effects of medical care (increased life quality, regained ability to enjoy pleasures, and the like) may have potent effects on the relief of negative symptoms. "In general," he concludes, "our findings shed some light on the complex relationship between positive feelings, negative feelings and expectation in the context of medical treatment. We believe our findings are relevant to the field of medical research in general, and promote widening the scope of medical research to improvement of positive experiences and pleasure."

Explore further: Intranasal application of hormone appears to enhance placebo response

More information: Placebo improves pleasure and pain through opposite modulation of sensory processing, PNAS Published online before print October 14, 2013, doi:10.1073/pnas.1305050110


1Relief as a Reward: Hedonic and Neural Responses to Safety from Pain, PLoS ONE 6(4): e17870. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017870

2Opponent appetitive-aversive neural processes underlie predictive learning of pain relief, Nature Neuroscience 8, 1234-1240 (2005),


3The importance of context: When relative relief renders pain

Pleasant, Pain 2013 Mar;154(3):402-10, doi:10.1016/j.pain.2012.11.018

4Direct Evidence for Spinal Cord Involvement in Placebo Analgesia, Science 16 October 2009: Vol. 326 no. 5951 p. 404, doi:10.1126/science.1180142

5Facilitation of Pain in the Human Spinal Cord by Nocebo Treatment, The Journal of Neuroscience, 21 August 2013, 33(34): 13784-13790; doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2191-13.2013

6Placebo-induced changes in FMRI in the anticipation and experience of pain, Science, 303(5661): 1162-1167 (2004), doi:10.1126/science.1093065

7Placebo in emotional processing—induced expectations of anxiety relief activate a generalized modulatory network, Neuron, 46(6), 957-969 (2005), doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.05.023

Journal reference: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences PLoS ONE Nature Neuroscience Pain Science Journal of Neuroscience Neuron

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The combination of increasingly complex high-risk financial instruments (unknown, under-acknowledged, under-estimated and/or misunderstood by public and private policy sector workers at all levels of governance) and a thriving culture of testosterone-driven traders with their hands firmly on the throttle of oil-dependent muscle vehicles, flooring-it on shared virtual highways with silently condoned (albeit) unwritten permission and even enthusiastic encouragement to exceed safe speed limits, the exponential growth in wealth of the upper quintile of the upper quintile accompanied by the exponential increase in poverty of the lower quintile of the lower quintile, the global expansion and implementation of the belief-system based on unfettered, self-regulated market political economies (loosely called market liberalism although best-served by political conservatism) promulgated around the planet through mass media content packaged to sell imagery of the invisible hand of the market as the right hand of the new secular god surrounded by soldiers of the user-pay, private-is-better, blame-the-poor, monetize-everything, blame-the-ill, social-justice-vs-economic-efficiency, base-minumum-wage-on-pin-money-workers, minimum-government, trickle-down-affect, legal-but-not-ethical, group-think-culture led by the Triad of Mises-Friedman-Hayek has led to market chaos that is not theoretical but Really Real.


According to Dan Mitchell's article Trading on Testosterone" in the New York Times, "Movements in financial markets are correlated to the levels of hormones in the bodies of male traders, according to a study by two researchers from the University of Cambridge."


The Adobe Photoshop image was created by adding the Suit to the bull and layering my own mortgage meltdown digitage with the article's illustration by Alex Eben Meyer in the New York Times. I saved this as a transparent .png file. (I am unsure of the licensing for the NYT image.) [1]


This is twisted curve in the winding road of ancient arguments that prohibited participation of hormone-driven women (emotional versus logical, intuitive versus deductive, feelings versus reason) in pivotal positions of decision-making.


read more | digg story


Does this mean the invisible hand of the market should be wearing a glove? Should the use of Viagra be monitored on the trading floor?




1. In response to the interesting question from Ray Randall re: Creative Commons Licensing of this images which he used here : and here Ray is using CC for the first time and was confused and concerned about following Web 2.0 etiquette. It can be confusing.


This image is my digital collage or mashup as described above which is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.5 Canada License. Most of my Flickr images are under the Creative Commons License lets authors, scientists, artists, and educators easily mark their creative work with the freedoms they want it to carry while legally remixing and reusing fragments of the work of others.


When you add a Flickr image to your blog through Flickr's menu options, it automatically generates this code (I've replaced with [ and ])

[div style="float:right;margin-left:10px;margin-bottom:10px;"][a title="photo sharing" href=""><img style="border:solid 2px #000000;" src="" alt="" /][/a]


[span style="font-size:.9em;margin-top:0;"]

[a href=""]Bull Wrestling Bear Markets: Testosterone-driven[/a]


Originally uploaded by [a href=""]ocean.flynn[/a]



By using Flickr's code the image is linked to image, artist and textual info.


I notice a lot of people bypass this and simply thank oceanflynn or Maureen Flynn-Burhoe which is fine for me because Google makes the link. It wouldn't if your name was not as easily identified by Google. And this method is not really Flickr-friendly.


However, Flickr has its own set of rules which requires that the live link to the Flickr-hosted image. This also accesses the accompanying explanatory text which describes how I added my own original mashups as well as remixing and reusing some of the work of other artists.

If you follow my links to the NYT's article you can see where the bull and bear originate. I put the bull in a Wall Street suit and tie and added my own original Adobe Photoshop image which was quite timely and involved. When you crop to include only the bear and bull, it is possible that it borrows too heavily from the original NYT's article illustration.


Webliography and Bibliography

Coates, J. M. and J. Herbert. 2008. "Endogenous steroids and financial risk taking on a London trading floor." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.


Emarketer. 2008-03-18. "Online Advertisers To Spend Through Turbulence."


Flynn-Burhoe, Maureen. 2008-04-19. "Complex Financial Instruments and Testosterone-Driven Trading: Algorithm of Market Chaos."


Mitchell, Dan. 2008-04-19. "Trading on Testosterone." New York Times. 5tvolz permalink


Palmer, Jason. 2008-04-14. "Traders' raging hormones cause stock market swings."


Rubel, Steve. 2008-04-17. "Study: A Billion Dollars in Internet Advertising is Wasted." Micro Persuasion.


Rubel, Steve. 2008-04-19. Twitter.




1. Algorithm: a "problem-solving procedure: a logical step-by-step procedure for solving a mathematical problem in a finite number of steps, often involving repetition of the same basic operation" or a "problem-solving computer program: a logical sequence of steps for solving a problem, often written out as a flow chart, that can be translated into a computer program," a term used in the late 17th century. It is an alteration, "after Greek arithmos "number," of algorism, via Old French and medieval Latin based on the Arabic al-Ḵwārizmī , the name of the 9th century mathematician who introduced algorithms to the West." See MSC (1998-2005) Encarta.


Photographed at the Palo Alto Baylands, Palo Alto, California



From Wikipedia: The song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) is a medium-sized American sparrow. Among the native sparrows in North America, it is easily one of the most abundant, variable and adaptable species.



Adult song sparrows have brown upperparts with dark streaks on the back and are white underneath with dark streaking and a dark brown spot in the middle of the breast. They have a brown cap and a long brown rounded tail. Their face is gray with a streak through the eye. They are highly variable in size across numerous subspecies (for subspecies details, see below). The body length ranges from 11 to 18 cm (4.3 to 7.1 in) and wingspan can range from 18 to 25.4 cm (7.1 to 10.0 in).[2][3] Body mass ranges from 11.9 to 53 g (0.42 to 1.87 oz).[4] The average of all races is 32 g (1.1 oz) but the widespread nominate subspecies (M. m. melodia) weighs only about 22 g (0.78 oz) on average. The maximum lifespan in the wild is 11.3 years.[5] The eggs of the Song sparrow are brown with greenish-white spots. Females lay three to five eggs per clutch, with an average incubation time of 13–15 days before hatching.


In the field, they are most easily confused with the Lincoln's sparrow and the Savannah sparrow. The former can be recognized by its shorter, grayer tail and the differently-patterned head, the brown cheeks forming a clear-cut angular patch. The Savannah sparrow has a forked tail and yellowish flecks on the face when seen up close.


Distribution and life history:

Though a habitat generalist, the Song sparrow favors brushland and marshes, including salt marshes, across most of Canada and the United States. They also thrive in human dominated areas such as in suburbs, agricultural fields, and along roadsides. Permanent residents of the southern half of their range, northern populations of the song sparrow migrate to the southern United States or Mexico during winter and intermingle with the native, non-migratory population. The song sparrow is a very rare vagrant to western Europe, with a few recorded in Great Britain and Norway.


These birds forage on the ground, in shrubs or in very shallow water. They mainly eat insects and seeds. Birds in salt marshes may also eat small crustaceans. They nest either in a sheltered location on the ground or in trees or shrubs.



The song sparrow has been the subject of several studies detailing the physiological reactions of bird species to conditions such as daylight length and differing climatic conditions. Most birds gain mass in their reproductive organs in response to some signal, either internal or external as the breeding season approaches. The exact source of this signal varies from species to species - for some, it is an endogenous process separate from environmental cues, while other species require extensive external signals of changing daylight length and temperature before beginning to increase the mass of their reproductive organs. Male specimens of M. melodia gain significant testicular mass in response both to changes in the daily photoperiod and as a result of endogenous chemical signals.[6] Females also undergo significant ovarian growth in response to both photo-period and endogenous signals. In this way, M. melodia is amongst only a handful of birds that use both external and engodenous signalling to dictate their breeding season. Hormone levels in both males and females were found fluctuate throughout the breeding season, having very high levels in March and late April and then declining until May.[7] These studies suggest that there are multiple factors at work that influence when and how the song sparrow breeds other than just increasing day length.


Due to the myriad subspecies of the song sparrow and the extremely varied climate of southern California, where many of these subspecies make their homes, physiological studies were undertaken to determine how climatic conditions and local environment influenced the bill size of M. melodia subspecies. The bill of a bird is highly important for thermoregulation as the bare surface area makes a perfect place to radiate excess heat or absorb solar energy to maintain homeostasis.[8] Knowing this, comparisons of bill length between individual song sparrows collected in different habitats were made with regard to the primary habitat type or microclimate that they were collected in. Larger beaked subspecies were strongly correlated with hotter microclimates - a correlation that follows from the conditions of Allen's Rule.[9]




Singing in Delaware USA

The sparrow species derives its name from its colorful repertoire of songs. Enthusiasts report that one of the songs heard often in suburban locations closely resembles the opening four notes of Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 5. The male uses a fairly complex song to declare ownership of its territory and attract females.


Singing itself consists of a combination of repeated notes, quickly passing isolated notes, and trills. The songs are very crisp, clear, and precise, making them easily distinguishable by human ears. A particular song is determined not only by pitch and rhythm but also by the timbre of the trills. Although one bird will know many songs—as many as 20 different tunes with as many as 1000 improvised variations on the basic theme,[citation needed]—unlike thrushes, the song sparrow usually repeats the same song many times before switching to a different song.


Song sparrows typically learn their songs from a handful of other birds that have neighboring territories. They are most likely to learn songs that are shared between these neighbors. Ultimately, they will choose a territory close to or replacing the birds that they have learned from. This allows the song sparrows to address their neighbors with songs shared with those neighbors. It has been demonstrated that song sparrows are able to distinguish neighbors from strangers on the basis of song, and also that females are able to distinguish (and prefer) their mate's songs from those of other neighboring birds, and they prefer songs of neighboring birds to those of strangers.


Predators and parasites:

Common predators of the song sparrow include cats, hawks, and owls, however snakes, dogs, and the American kestrel are treated ambiguously, suggesting that they are less of a threat[citation needed]. The song sparrow recognizes enemies by both instinctual and learned patterns (including cultural learning), and adjusts its future behavior based on both its own experiences in encounters, and from watching other birds interact with the enemies. Comparisons of experiments on hand-raised birds to observation of birds in the wild suggest that the fear of owls and hawks is instinctual, but fear of cats is learned.


Song sparrows' nests are parasitized by the brown-headed cowbird. The cowbirds' eggs closely resemble song sparrows' eggs, although the cowbirds' eggs are slightly larger. Song sparrows recognize cowbirds as a threat and attack the cowbirds when they are near the nest. There is some evidence that this behavior is learned rather than instinctual. A more recent study found that the behavior of attacking female cowbirds near nests may actually attract cowbird parasitism because the female cowbirds use such behavior to identify female song sparrows that are more likely to successfully raise a cowbird chick. One study found that while cowbird parasitism did result in more nest failure, overall there were negligible effects on song sparrow populations when cowbirds were introduced to an island. The study pointed to a number of explanatory factors including song sparrows raising multiple broods, and song sparrows' abilities to raise cowbird chicks with their own.



The song sparrow is one of the birds with the most numerous subspecies in North America, and even on a global scale rivals such species as the horned lark, the yellow wagtail, the golden whistler or the island thrush; 52 subspecies were named altogether, of which 24 are now considered valid. It is a cryptic species.



Identifier: botanicalclassbo00noll

Title: The Botanical Class-Book and Flora of Pennsylvania

Year: 1852 (1850s)

Authors: Noll, Henry R.

Subjects: Botany. Botany--Pennsylvania.

Publisher: Lewisburg, Pa.: O. N. Worden, Printer.

Contributing Library: Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, McLean Library

Digitizing Sponsor: LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation


View Book Page: Book Viewer

About This Book: Catalog Entry

View All Images: All Images From Book


Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.


Text Appearing Before Image:

but these diversities arc reducible to two general plants, whichlay the foundation of the first grand distinction of Floweringplants into Exogens and Exdogens. 24 EXOGENOUS STEMS. 70. The difference between the two, as to the structureof their stems, is briefly this. Thosfi of Exogenous plantsincrease in diameter by the annual formation of a new layerof wood, which is deposited between the preceding layer andthe bark; i^othtr words the wood increases by annual addi-tions to the outside. Flowering plants whose stems grow inthis way are called Exogenous Plants orExogens (outsidegrowers.) 71. In stems of the Endogenous structure the new woodymatter is deposited within the old, and towards the centre,which becoming more and more occupied with woody fibresas the stem grows older, causes a gradual distention of thewhole, thereby increasing its diameter, the new wood pushingthe old outward,. Accordingly the plants of this division arecalled Endogons (inside growers.) EXOGENOUS STEMS. 19. 20.


Text Appearing After Image:

i. 72. The stem of an Exogen, Fig. 19, is composed of threeseparate parts, the pith, wood, and bark. The pith (medulla.)occupies the centre of the plant, consisting of spongy cellulartissue, at first abounding with nutritive matter for the nour-ishment of the terminating buds, but as the plant advancesin age it becomes dry and much reduced in volume. It issurrounded by a narrow Eone of vascular tissue, called the EXOGENOUS STEMh). lh medullarv sriEATinNO, which is composed of woody fibreand spiral vessels and is the only part of the stem in whichthese latter occur. 73. The Wood consists of ligneous fibre, vasiform tissueand ducts, arranged in concentric row3 or laycr0 pervaded bythin, firm, plates of condensed cellular tissue passing fromthe pith through the medullary sheath to the bark, denomi-nated medullary rays, Fig. 19, which aie epiite conspicuousin vertical sections of the oak, or the maple, where they aresometimes called Silver grain. The number of zones or layersin a stem is


Note About Images

Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

A State of Insecurity from Endogenous Series, 2010 - 2012


Our considerations tend to stop at a certain level, on a level that provides a sense of security. How many people willingly locate themselves in a state of insecurity? -Ai WeiWei


Chase Alias attempts to get into the mind state of Conceptual Artists Ai Weiwei particularly embracing some of his ideals and philosophies. This work is particularly inspired by the activist artist's struggles and triumphs throughout the year.


David S Pollack aka Chase Alias hopes to bring to light with his new Endogenous Series how backwards moving our cultural standards have become. As an Immersionist he look back in envy at the freedoms which artists used to be able to express themselves without having to worry about cultural and even legal action being taken against them.


Immersionism is a young art movement which combines Lewittian Conceptualism with Method Acting practices and principles. Stanislavsky and Strasberg Acting Methods which utilize sense memory and affective memory are an Immersionist's base. Lewittian Conceptualism adheres to the ideal that the medium is not the message, the idea becomes a machine that makes the art.


#aiweiwei #chasealias #immersionism


Ai Weiwei. Ai Weiwei's Blog: Writings, Interviews, and Digital Rants, 2006-2009 (Writing Art)

Endogenous Formation of Limit Order Books: Dynamics Between Trades. Gayduk, Nadtochiy #q-fin

Hand stitched and bound shibori techniques on habotai silk


Image: Pinegate Photographics, Cardiff


Endogenous, meaning ‘from within’, refers to her own Endogenous Depression, but also to the act of giving her inner-most feelings a physical form. This series of sculptures has become the means by which she externalises her continuing battle with depression. Whilst the sculptures represent her inner self, bound by the constraints of depression, their inherent purity and beauty are a testament to the new confidence and inner peace she has gained through her art.


The act of hand stitching and binding the fabric is as important to her as the resulting sculpture. The concept of “the hand healing the mind” is a significant aspect of her work; the repetitive rhythmical action of stitching or binding the cloth being a meditative one. By becoming “one with the cloth” one is taken out of oneself. The act of engaging with the cloth removes one from depressive self-absorption. The realisation of her own depression has led to her preoccupation with how other sufferers envision their own condition. Her resolve is to explore/record these through an extensive series of sculptural pieces.


Her work records the actions found within shibori; stitching, binding, gathering, manipulating and folding - not through the expected dye process, but purely as texture and form. It was whilst in Japan as part of her Embroiderers' Guild mature scholarship studies (May/June 2002) that she first observed the artisans who had spent their entire lives manipulating cloth prior to its being dyed. As a trained musician, she was fascinated to see that the repetitive shibori actions were not only represented on the cloth as pattern and texture, but were also imprinted upon the artisans hands and minds. She wished to learn more about these traditional techniques in order that these skills would not be lost with the passing generations, whilst at the same time developing her own personal shibori vocabulary suitable for the 21st Century.

A la derecha España, a la izquierda Portugal (desde donde está hecha esta foto), en el centro el Río Duero: los Arribes del Duero.





Parque Natural de Arribes del Duero


El Parque Natural de Arribes del Duero es el espacio natural protegido que alberga el gran cañón del río Duero en todo su tramo fronterizo, junto a las zonas de valle y de meseta adyacentes. Está situado en el noroeste de la provincia de Salamanca y el suroeste de la provincia de Zamora, en la Comunidad Autónoma de Castilla y León, España.


En esta zona, el curso del río Duero hace de frontera natural entre España y Portugal. La otra orilla se conoce bajo la protección del Parque Natural del Duero Internacional, situado en el sureste del distrito de Braganza y el noreste del distrito de Guarda, Portugal.



Poblado del Salto de Aldeadávila


La característica más destacada de este espacio natural es la grandiosidad paisajística de su territorio. Un espectacular paraje en el que se pueden ver los graníticos cañones fluviales y valles frondosos por los que discurren encajonados los cursos de agua del río Duero y sus afluentes Águeda, Esla, Huebra, Uces y Tormes. Dentro de la demarcación del parque, también se incluye una zona de meseta zamorano-salmatina adyacente a la depresión causada por los ríos.


El alto caudal del Duero, los grandes desniveles de la zona y los numerosos ríos que en ella desembocan, convierten al parque en uno de los puntos de mayor potencial energético de toda la península Ibérica. Por ello, se ha ido construyendo una red de presas y embalses conocida como Saltos del Duero.


La peculiaridad de la orografía hace posible la existencia de un microclima más suave en los valles. Esto contribuye a la diversidad vegetal y convierte al parque en un lugar perfecto para el refugio de numerosos animales, especialmente para las aves.


Es una zona alejada con escasez de infraestructuras que se encuentra en un continuo proceso de despoblación debido al envejecimiento de sus habitantes. Gracias al carácter aislado de estas tierras, se han podido conservar numerosas costumbres y tradiciones como el idioma leonés. En los últimos años, las principales iniciativas inversoras de la zona han venido de la mano del comercio minorista transfronterizo y el turismo. Esta circunstancia ha hecho que sea necesario preservar el hábitat natural y desarrollar las tradiciones socioculturales como propulsores de la economía de la zona.


Tras años de reivindicaciones, el gobierno del país vecino protegió la parte portuguesa del espacio natural el 11 de mayo de 1998 bajo el nombre de Parque Natural del Duero Internacional.[1] El lado español no goza de la misma protección hasta el 11 de abril de 2002, cuando la Junta de Castilla y León incorporó este paraje a su red de parques naturales bajo el nombre de Parque Natural de Arribes del Duero.[2]

[editar] Extensión y territorio

Casa del parque, en el torreón de Sobradillo

Centro de recepción de visitantes, Trabanca

Arribanzos zamoranos, Torregamones

Cascada del Pozo de los Humos, Pereña

Puente de Requejo en Villadepera y Pino

El Duero a su paso por Saucelle


El gran cañón del Duero sirve de frontera natural entre España y Portugal, dividiendo este amplio espacio natural entre estos dos países. El río y sus afluentes son el elemento común y nexo de unión de todo el territorio que se extiende linealmente a lo largo de más de 100 km. La parte española, denominada Parque Natural de Arribes del Duero, se extiende sobre una superficie de aproximadamente 106.105 hectáreas mientras que la parte portuguesa, denominada Parque Natural del Duero Internacional, se extiende sobre una superficie de 85.150 hectáreas. La demarcación de estos parques, protege el territorio que comprende la depresión causada por los ríos y la franja de meseta adyacente. Los dos espacios suman una superficie de 191.255 hectáreas, lo que convierte a esta zona en una de las áreas protegidas más grandes de Europa.

[editar] Demarcación y municipios


La demarcación del parque comprende (total o parcialmente) la superficie de 37 términos municipales:


* 24 pertenecientes a la provincia de Salamanca: Ahigal de los Aceiteros, Aldeadávila de la Ribera, Almendra, Barruecopardo, Bermellar, La Bouza, Cabeza del Caballo, Cerezal de Peñahorcada, La Fregeneda, Hinojosa de Duero, Lumbrales, Masueco, Mieza, La Peña, Pereña de la Ribera, Puerto Seguro, Saldeana, San Felices de los Gallegos, Saucelle, Sobradillo, Trabanca, Villarino de los Aires, Vilvestre y La Zarza de Pumareda.

* 13 pertenecientes a la provincia de Zamora: Argañín, Fariza, Fermoselle, Fonfría, Gamones, Moral de Sayago, Moralina, Pino, Torregamones, Villadepera, Villalcampo, Villar del Buey y Villardiegua de la Ribera.


Durante años se discutió ampliar el área protegida hacia el este, englobando así a la zona del curso del río Tormes desde la presa de Almendra hasta Ledesma. Las características de la fauna y la flora en esta franja son muy similares a las del parque natural. Las zonas de nidificación de muchas especies de rapaces y ciconiiformes protegidas se solapan en ambos lugares. Finalmente se optó por ceñirse al área que hoy conocemos.[cita requerida]


En algunas localidades limítrofes, todavía existe el interés por pertenecer al parque. Olmedo de Camaces, Fuenteliante y Bañobárez solicitaron su inclusión en 2004. De hecho, estos municipios estuvieron incluidos en el anteproyecto del parque natural pero finalmente fueron excluidos de la demarcación definitiva.[3]

[editar] Puntos de referencia y accesos

[editar] Casas del parque


La peculiaridad de ser un parque a caballo entre las provincias de Salamanca y Zamora, tiene su reflejo en que la Junta de Castilla y León lo concibió con dos casas del parque. En estos puntos, se puede investigar sobre la historia, la arquitectura, las tradiciones, los paisajes, la flora o la fauna de estas tierras, pero también se puede consultar sobre rutas, lugares turísticos, restaurantes, alojamiento o diversas actividades organizadas, así como pedir mapas, folletos informativos o calendarios con las fiestas y eventos de la zona. Una de estas casas, está situada en la zamorana localidad de Fermoselle y la otra, en la población salmantina de Sobradillo. Surgen de la necesidad de aportar al visitante un visible punto de referencia, con información especializada desde la que iniciar su visita, y justifican su existencia en el desarrollo y coordinación de múltiples actividades de promoción e interpretación.


* La casa del parque del convento de San Francisco,[4] situada en el zamorano municipio de Fermoselle, tiene las siguientes opciones de acceso:


1. Desde Zamora, por la CL-527 directamente hasta Fermoselle.

2. Desde Salamanca, por la SA-300 hasta Ledesma. Allí se toma la SA-302 hacia Almendra, desde donde se siguen las indicaciones hasta Fermoselle.


* La casa del parque del Torreón de Sobradillo,[5] situada en la torre del homenaje del municipio salmantino de Sobradillo, tiene las siguientes opciones de acceso:


1. Desde Salamanca, por la CL-517 hasta Lumbrales. Allí se toma la DSA-464 hacia Sobradillo.

2. Desde Zamora, por la CL-528 hasta Ledesma. Allí se toma la CL-517 hacia Lumbrales, desde donde se coge la DSA-464 hacia Sobradillo.


En el zamorano municipio de Fariza se encuentran las oficinas del parque. Pertenecen a la Junta de Castilla y León y tienen la finalidad de ser el centro de coordinación de las actividades de conservación de la zona.[6]

[editar] Oficinas municipales de información


Complementariamente, algunos ayuntamientos de la demarcación del parque han creado sus propias oficinas de turismo. Estas instalaciones, por lo general más modestas que las de las casas del parque, también cuentan con información genérica del espacio natural aunque suelen ser especialmente visitadas por aquellos que buscan profundizar en la información de su área territorial de influencia. Existen oficinas de información turística en las localidades de Aldeadávila, Fermoselle, Hinojosa, La Fregeneda, Lumbrales, Torregamones, Trabanca y Villarino.[7] [8]

[editar] Museos


Otros lugares donde se puede estudiar más detenidamente algunos aspectos de la zona, son el museo arqueológico de Lumbrales,[9] las bodegas de Fermoselle, el museo de ecoturismo de Aldeadávila de la Ribera, las ferias agroalimentaria y de artesanía de Trabanca,[10] el museo de la tradición de Moralina,[11] el museo del vino y destilados de Villarino de los Aires, el parque temático de construcciones populares de Trabanca,[12] los museos etnográficos de Fariza, Hinojosa de Duero[13] y Villardiegua, la feria transfronteriza del olivar en Vilvestre, el salón internacional del vino de Trabanca,[14] los museos del aceite de San Felices de los Gallegos y Ahigal de los Aceiteros, la fragua de Trabanca,[15] la feria internacional del queso de Hinojosa de Duero,[16] el taller de alfarería y cerámica de Trabanca, el museo de historia de San Felices de los Gallegos, el museo textil de Lumbrales, los museos harineros de Sobradillo y San Felices de los Gallegos, el museo sacro de Villadepera y el museo casa de los frailes de Vilvestre.[17]

[editar] Etimología


Al estar caracterizada esta zona por ser un crisol de culturas, ha llevado a que este espacio natural reciba numerosos nombres dependiendo de la zona en la que nos encontremos. Denominaciones que en todo caso son de carácter popular y transmitidas de generación en generación.[18]


"Arribes" es una palabra de origen asturleonés derivada del latín "ad ripam" que significa "a la orilla".[19] Este término aparece publicado por primera vez en una obra escrita en 1885.[20] Era utilizado por los naturales de las comarcas salmantinas de El Abadengo y La Ribera para referirse a los cañones del Duero y demás ríos de este territorio. Sin embargo, en las comarcas zamoranas de Sayago y Aliste, esta misma zona se denominaba "Arribas" o "Las Arribas",[21] término que en la actualidad ha ido perdido presencia a favor del término foráneo "Los Arribes", pero ambos siguen siendo utilizados indistintamente en algunas localidades zamoranas. Existe además el término "Arribanzo", con el que los habitantes de la parte zamorana del parque se refieren a los enormes roquedos o gigantescas rocas graníticas que forman el encajonamiento del Duero.[22]


Frente a los nombres locales, es a partir de mediados de los años 70 cuando se ha extendido en la parte zamorana, la denominación masculinizada "Los Arribes", fruto de la fuerte popularidad que le han concedido a la zona los distintos medios de comunicación e instituciones, quienes, ajenos a la terminología local, han influido a los propios habitantes de la zona. De este modo, los zamoranos han generalizado el término Los Arribes mientras que paralelamente en el tiempo, en la parte salmantina se ha comenzado a utilizar cada vez con mayor frecuencia, la versión femenina de este término para referirse a la comarca salmantina de La Ribera, lo que ha implicado la pérdida progresiva de su propio e histórico nombre en favor de la nueva denominación "Las Arribes".[23]


"Arribes", tanto en masculino como en femenino, ha evolucionado en los últimos años para incluir también en su denominación, el paisaje de las zonas aledañas al río como es la franja de meseta más próxima al cañón además de todas las laderas intermedias.

[editar] Orografía


El relieve del parque se caracteriza por la fuerte incisión que presentan los cursos de los ríos Duero y sus afluentes Águeda, Esla, Huebra, Uces y Tormes sobre la meseta central, que constituye la unidad geomorfológica más antigua de la península Ibérica. Los procesos geológicos endógenos junto con la erosión del agua, han dado lugar a este espacio natural de abruptos cañones y valles escarpados por los que discurren encajados los cursos fluviales de estas tierras, estableciendo así la frontera natural entre España y Portugal.


Este inmenso balcón natural con vistas al país vecino, tiene su origen en la era primaria o Paleozoica (600-225 millones de años), cuando la península Ibérica se encontraba bajo el nivel del mar. La orogenia hercínica de esta etapa ocasionó la unión de todas las masas continentales, que se fusionaron formando la Pangea. De este modo, se deformó la litosfera y se produjo la emersión del denominado Macizo Hespérico, una enorme cadena montañosa resultante del choque de las placas, compuesta de granito, pizarra y cuarcita, sobre la que se asienta la actual meseta central y la mayor parte de España. Es por esto por lo que en el cañón del río Duero se pueden ver los denominados arribanzos o gigantescas rocas graníticas.


Durante la era secundaria o Mesozoica (225-68 millones de años), comienza a disgregarse la Pangea y formarse la estructua actual de la corteza. Esta gran masa continental se fragmenta originando la Gondwana por un lado y la Laurasia por otro. La erosión desgasta intensamente las formaciones paleozoicas dando como resultado el paisaje actual de la penillanura zamorano-salmantina. Las profundas capas graníticas, al contactar con los sedimentos paleozoicos, originaron en algunos puntos micacita y gneis.


Finalmente, la era terciaria o Cenozoica (68-1,7 millones de años) es el periodo en el que se produce el progresivo levantamiento del este peninsular, que tiene lugar gracias a la orogenia alpina. La inclinación de la península Ibérica hacia el océano Atlántico determina la orientación hacia éste de la mayoría de los ríos peninsulares incluido el Duero, que tiene que abrirse camino entre la llanura, dando como resultado el inmenso cañón de Arribes del Duero. Por último, con el inicio del período cuaternario comienzan a formarse las terrazas del río debido a las alternancias climáticas de esta etapa.

[editar] Climatología


Existen dos tipos de clima dentro del parque. En las zonas de cañón y valle se puede disfrutar de un microclima mediterráneo que suaviza las temperaturas y contribuye a la diversidad vegetal, mientras que en las zonas de meseta incluidas dentro de la demarcación, se puede observar ya el clima continental propio de la llanura zamorano-salmantina, donde los inviernos son más fríos y acusados. En el observatorio de Mieza, situado a 658 m de altura, se registran 12°C de temperatura media anual mientras que el observatorio de la presa de Saucelle, situado a 162 m de altura, se registran 17°C.


Los inviernos duran aproximadamente dos meses en las proximidades del río ya que la climatología es más suave y húmeda. Esto se debe a que los valles están a salvo del viento y más expuestos al sol. En las zonas de meseta se prolongan durante cinco meses al presentarse una climatología más fría y seca.


Las temperaturas medias del mes más gélido (enero o diciembre), están en torno a 9°C en las zonas de valle mientras que en las zonas de mayor altitud rondan los 5°C. La diferencia más notable entre una zona y otra son las heladas, prácticamente inexistentes en los valles. Esto posibilita el cultivo de olivos, vides, almendros y naranjos, que no son habituales en la meseta.


Durante los veranos, las diferencias no son tan acentuadas puesto que las temperaturas medias del mes más cálido (julio o agosto) son de 27°C en los valles y 25°C en la meseta. Por último, hay que indicar que aunque las temperaturas mínimas en esta época son bastante atenuadas, las máximas suelen ser elevadas, superando con frecuencia los 30°C durante los meses estivales.


Las precipitaciones se distribuyen de una forma muy irregular por todo el parque. La zona más lluviosa es el observatorio de Barruecopardo, con precipitaciones cercanas a los 900 mm, sin embargo el observatorio menos lluvioso se encuentra casualmente apenas a 20 km, en la presa de Saucelle, donde la precipitación anual supera escasamente los 500 mm. En términos generales, las precipitaciones son más abundantes al norte del parque, estando cercanas a los 700 mm en casi toda la demarcación zamorana donde se distribuyen de una forma más regular. Van disminuyendo cuanto más al suroeste nos encontremos.

[editar] Ecosistemas: fauna y flora


La fauna y la flora de este espacio natural brilla por la gran riqueza y variedad de especies que las componen. La singularidad del clima junto con la peculiaridad de la orografía, favorecen la existencia de un ecosistema natural de singular belleza. Las especies animales y vegetales que habitan en el parque natural, constituyen una síntesis de entre las que se pueden encontrar en el clima mediterráneo de los valles y en el clima continental de la meseta. En esta demarcación habitan cerca de 200 especies de aves, unas 47 clases de mamíferos y 21 tipos de reptiles entre una vegetación de tipo mediterráneo.

[editar] Fauna


La diversidad animal es uno de los motivos más importantes por los que la zona se declaró parque natural. Destaca el elevado número de aves, tanto nidificantes como hibernantes. La gran variedad existente se debe a que el cañón del río Duero, las grandes masas forestales y los numerosos cursos fluviales, constituyen en conjunto, el hábitat perfecto para cualquier tipo de ave.

Cigueña negra

Buitre leonado


Milano Real

Águila Real

[editar] Aves más destacadas


En 1990, este paraje natural fue declarado Zona de Especial Protección para las Aves (ZEPA).[24] Las especies protagonistas de este logro son el águila perdicera, el águila real, el alimoche, el búho real, el buitre leonado, la chova piquirroja, la cigüeña negra y el halcón peregrino.


La cigüeña negra es la más emblemática y extendida en la zona. Los huecos y recodos de los llamados arribanzos o roquedos graníticos del Duero, son el lugar elegido para la nidificación de este ave que en España está incluida dentro de las especies con posible peligro de extinción. Es por tanto este espacio natural, un punto clave para la conservación de esta especie. El 22 de junio de 1998, fue designado como Área Crítica para la Conservación de la Cigüeña Negra.[25] Las 20 parejas de cigueña negra que hay en esta zona, suponen el 8% de la población española y el 25% de la de Castilla y León (datos de febrero de 2005).[24]


Las grandes rapaces son las otras nidificantes más significativas e importantes del parque. Entre ellas, la forma del buitre leonado es la más sencilla de reconocer, pues campea a sus anchas por todo el área. En 2005 tenía una población de 550 parejas.[24] También destacan y son relativamente fáciles de reconocer las siluetas del alimoche (75 parejas en 2005),[24] el búho real (25 parejas en 1992),[24] el águila real (24 parejas en 2005),[24] el águila perdicera (17 parejas en 2005),[24] el milano real (9 parejas en 2005)[24] y el halcón peregrino (6 parejas en 2005).[24]


También destacan las poblaciones de chova piquirroja (159 parejas en 2005)[24] y cigueña blanca (115 parejas en 1999).[24]

[editar] Otras aves


Existen otras aves que dependen del resguardo de los arribanzos para criar o simplemente para sobrevivir. La más común es el avión roquero, que a diferencia del de otras zonas, permanece aquí todo el año gracias al microclima de la zona. También se pueden ver por aquí la chova piquirroja, el cuervo, la golondrina dáurica, la grajilla, el roquero solitario y el vencejo real.


En los bosques donde predominan los robles, se encuentran pequeñas poblaciones de arrendajo, becada, camachuelo común, mirlo común, mito, pico menor, pico picapinos, pito real, torcecuello, trepador azul y zorzal común. En los bosques donde predominan las encinas, son más frecuentes los alcaudones comunes, los alcaudones reales, los agateadores, los críalos y los rabilargos.


También es habitual la presencia de rapaces forestales como el águila calzada, el milano negro, el milano real y el ratonero común. Durante la noche son frecuentes el autillo, el búho chico, el cárabo y el chotacabras gris.


En las riberas de los ríos, se puede ver al chorlitejo chico, la focha común, la gallina de agua, la garza real, el martín pescador y el mirlo acuático.

[editar] Mamíferos


Se cuenta con la presencia de ejemplares tan escasos como son el gato montés y el tejón.


Destacada es la presencia de murciélagos, de las que se calcula la presencia de 14 especies. En su proliferación ha tenido especial trascendencia el abrigo proporcionado por los roquedales de los acantilados y el especial clima benigno de la zona.


Uno de los mamíferos cuya presencia despierta un especial interés, por su escasez y galopante regresión en el continente europeo, es la nutria. La construcción de numerosos embalses fue antaño la principal causa de su casi completa desaparición en el Duero, de la que escasamente se ha ido recuperando con el paso del tiempo.


Visitante ocasional del parque es el lobo que, también desde el sector norte, penetra sin haber llegado a mantener una población estable. Otros mamíferos, ya relativamente más abundantes, serían el zorro, jabalí, gineta, conejo, liebre, erizo, comadreja, garduña y lirón careto.


El más destacado de todos los mamíferos que han habitado alguna vez en el parque, es el endémico lince ibérico. Aunque actualmente se da por extinguido en la zona,[26] [27] [28] algunos expertos afirman que en los valles más tranquilos y de vegetación mejor conservada, aún podrían quedar algunos ejemplares.[29] De hecho, aunque no esté demostrada su supervivencia en estas tierras, en la mayoría de los carteles, folletos y webs de promoción y publicidad de la zona, así como en la propia ley de declaración como parque natural, todavía lo incluyen entre sus especies.[2] [30]

[editar] Peces, anfibios y reptiles


Se puede reconocer en torno a una veintena de especies piscícolas en área acuática protegida y, de ellas, algunas son endemismos: barbo ibérico, boga, bermejuela y colmilleja, la pardilla y calandino.


El esturión es otro de los que más escasez de individuos se ha detectado en toda la zona, lo que ha motivado su clasificación como especie "en peligro de extinción". La anguila es también una especie amenazada en la parte española del Duero, ya que solo sobrevive en ríos que desembocan en el Océano Atlántico y los embalses españoles (al contrario que los portugueses) no cuentan con escalas de peces. Frecuentes son también, entre otros, las clásicas carpa, tenca y lucio.


Respecto de los anfibios, las condiciones ambientales no son las más idóneas, ya que el menor número de precipitaciones, a pesar de un mayor rigor termométrico, dificulta la proliferación de los anfibios en el parque. Hasta trece especies se han contabilizado, de las que al menos dos son endémicas: tritón ibérico y sapo partero ibérico. Más abundantes son el sapo común, sapo corredor, tritón jaspeado, rana de san Antonio, y la salamandra común.


Sin embargo, el Parque es un hábitat idóneo para la proliferación de reptiles, tanto por clima como por relieve, siendo los más abundantes el lagarto ocelado, la lagartija colilarga, el bastardo y la culebra escalera. Estos a su vez se han convertido en elementos clave de la alimentación de las rapaces diurnas, por la disminución progresiva de otros animales como conejo y perdiz. Relevante es también la presencia de la salamandra común, amparada por la mayor benignidad climática, junto al galápago europeo y el galápago leproso.

[editar] Flora


La diversidad vegetal está representada por flora de tipo mayoritariamente mediterráneo. La mayoría de los bosques están formados por robles. Coexisten con los de alcornoques y encinas. Las grandes extensiones de matorral están llenas de retamas, piornos, tomillos, jaras, chumberas o enebros.


Gracias al microclima, además es posible el cultivo de plantas y árboles que no son habituales en las vecinas comarcas de la meseta, donde se presenta un clima continental. Esta peculiaridad la representan los olivos, las vides, los almendros, los naranjos y los limoneros, aunque actualmente el número de estas plantaciones es mucho menor que antaño. También se llegó a cultivar caña de azúcar a finales del siglo XIX.[31]


En la actualidad, el cultivo más importante y extendido en la zona, es el de la vid. Destacan las catorce bodegas de Ahigal de los Aceiteros, Fermoselle, Fornillos de Fermoselle, La Fregeneda, Pereña de la Ribera y Villarino de los Aires, que elaboran los vinos de la Denominación de Origen Arribes. También se pueden ver algunos olivares importantes en Ahigal de los Aceiteros, San Felices de los Gallegos y Vilvestre,[32] [33] y quedan varias extensiones de almendros en Hinojosa de Duero, Mieza, Saucelle y más concretamente en La Fregeneda y Vilvestre.[34] Los naranjos también tienen presencia en esta misma zona, sobre todo en Vilvestre.[35] De las extensiones de limoneros, ya sólo quedan algunos árboles individuales.

[editar] Vestigios, demografía y población


Esta zona ha estado habitada desde hace mucho tiempo. Se conservan numerosos vestigios sobre los antiguos pobladores. En la actualidad, la pérdida de población es el gran problema de la zona.

[editar] Hallazgos del antiguo poblamiento

Mula prerromana, Villardiegua

Cabeza del Caballo

La Fregeneda


Numerosas huellas dan fe del antiguo servilismo de esta tierra hacia el hombre. De los vestigios existentes, los más antiguos se han fechado en el paleolítico, como las pinturas rupestres de la cueva de Palla Rubia,[36] situada frente al Pozo de los Humos, en la orilla perteneciente al municipio de Pereña. De la misma época son las pinturas rupestres del Risco de Bermellar,[37] próximo al Puerto de la Molinera.


Del neolítico se conserva el taller de Vilvestre, al que algunos expertos arqueólogos califican como el más importante de España.[37] En él se afilaban las herramientas que posteriormente serían utilizadas en las actividades cotidianas.


La presencia árabe, muy importante en toda la zona, se conserva en la tradición oral leyendas de tesoros, fortalezas y acoso a doncellas... en Pereña de la Ribera, Masueco y Aldeadávila de la Ribera. De esta época también hay restos junto a la Ermita de Nuestra Señora del Castillo en Pereña, y un tramo de cercas árabes del siglo X junto a la Ermita de la Santa en Aldeadávila.

[editar] Población actual


En 2010, la población total de los términos municipales incluidos (total o parcialmente) en la demarcación del parque, era de 16.514 habitantes (INE 2010), mientras que en el año 2000, era de 19.718 habitantes (INE 2000). Como se puede obervar, la población arribeña ha sufrido un descenso importante. Desde los años 60, se da una evolución continuamente negativa en el número de habitantes de esta zona. Esto se debe principalmente al acusado envejecimiento, que viene como consecuencia de la emigración de la juventud hacia las ciudades.


Esta emigración tiene una primera etapa que va desde principios del siglo XX hasta 1950 en la que algunos habitantes parten hacia Argentina y otros países de Iberoamérica. A partir de los años 50 se origina una emigración, aunque tampoco muy importante, hacia Europa occidental y un poco más adelante, en los años 60, se produce el gran boom de la emigración hacia la ciudades españolas más desarrolladas, orientándose sobre todo, hacia Madrid, Cataluña, País Vasco, Valladolid y en menor medida hacia Andalucía y la Comunidad Valenciana.


Veintitrés de los treinta y siete términos municipales incluidos (total o parcialmente) en la demarcación parque, tienen una población inferior a 500 habitantes (INE 2002). Albergan solamente a un tercio de los residentes totales (30,9%) y ocupan una extensión bastante inferior a la mitad de las hectáreas protegidas (39,8%).


Nueve términos municipales (la cuarta parte del total) tienen poblaciones que oscilan entre 500 y 1.000 habitantes (INE 2002). Estos albergan al 32,9% de la población total y ocupan el 36,4% del territorio del parque. Son núcleos de población que sólo se diferencian de los anteriores en el censo, ya que a pesar de tener mayor densidad demográfica que los anteriores, no cuentan con la entidad suficiente como para modificar sus rasgos cualitativos y adquirir un cierto rango en la escala funcional de este tipo de espacios.


Ese mayor rango es atribuible, aunque sólo parcialmente, a los cinco términos municipales que tienen poblaciones superiores a los 1.000 habitantes. Son Aldeadávila de la Ribera, Fermoselle, Fonfría, Lumbrales y Villarino de los Aires (INE 2002). La población censada en ellos cuantifica el 36,2% de la residente y sin embargo representan algo menos de la cuarte parte de la superficie (23,8%). Estas localidades están algo mejor dotadas y es en ellas donde se puede disfrutar de la mayoría de la actividades organizadas de la zona.


Frente a esta tendencia decreciente de la población residente, contrasta el aumento demográfico que se produce en la época estival como consecuencia de la vuelta al pueblo por vacaciones, de la población que emigró y ahora vive en las ciudades. También destaca el número de turistas, que asciende a 90.758 visitantes en 2008, según el servicio de espacios naturales de la consejería de medio ambiente de la Junta de Castilla y León.[38] Una cifra muy elevada en comparación con la del número de personas que vive en estas tierras.

[editar] Lucha contra el despoblamiento


Es importante mencionar las actuaciones llevadas a cabo por los ayuntamientos de la zona para frenar la pérdida de población. En un pleno celebrado el 27 de julio de 2007, en el ayuntamiento de Aldeadávila de la Ribera, se aprobó por unanimidad la concesión de una ayuda de 3.000 euros a las familias censadas en este municipio por cada nacimiento de un hijo[39] mientras que en Trabanca lanzaron una amplia oferta de empleo para 36 profesionales de todo tipo, con la intención de revitalizar y dinamizar económicamente la zona.[40]


El 14 de marzo de 2009, se constituye la Agrupación Europea de Cooperación Territorial Duero-Douro, una institución o asociación con entidad jurídica, que agrupa varios municipios de España y Portugal con la finalidad de organizar, gestionar y llevar a cabo proyectos de cooperación transfronteriza en los ámbitos del desarrollo económico, laboral, medioambiental y turístico.[41]

[editar] Aprovechamiento hidroeléctrico

Presa de Aldeadávila

Artículo principal: Saltos del Duero


El Duero es el tercer río más largo de España y el más caudaloso de la península Ibérica. A su paso por la frontera, su caudal medio es de 570 m³/s.


Siendo éste un territorio alejado y mal comunicado, el río es su principal recurso natural. El alto caudal que posee y el gran desnivel que existe en este tramo, junto con la desembocadura de los ríos Águeda, Esla, Uces, Huebra y Tormes en la zona, son los factores que convierten al parque en un lugar idóneo para el levantamiento de grandes presas y embalses cuyo objetivo sea la obtención energía eléctrica. Por ello, el 16 de agosto de 1927 se firmó un acuerdo hispano-luso en el que se asignó a España el tramo entre las desembocaduras de los ríos Tormes y Huebra, y a Portugal los otros dos tramos de frontera del Duero para la construcción de estos aprovechamientos hidroeléctricos.


Saltos del Duero es el nombre de la empresa que gestionó la construcción de las grandes presas y actualmente es como se conoce al sistema hidroeléctrico que conforman, cuya potencia instalada supera los 3000 megavatios en la parte española. Este factor hace que Castilla y León, con 5657 megavatios, sea la productora de más del 20% de la energía eléctrica de origen hidraúlico de España.

[editar] Gastronomía

Véanse también: Gastronomía de la provincia de Salamanca y Gastronomía de la provincia de Zamora


El arte del buen comer es otro de los atractivos turísticos que ofrece la zona. La calidad de la materia prima y los excelentes modos culinarios, hacen posible la elaboración de una cocina tradicional, rica y variada. Las cinco denominaciones de origen (carne de morucha, garbanzos de Fuentesaúco, jamón de Guijuelo, lenteja de La Armuña y queso zamorano) y las cuatro marcas de garantía (chorizo de Zamora, harina tradicional zamorana, ternera charra, ternera de Aliste y quesos de Arribes) son ejemplo de reconocimiento a la calidad de los productos de las provincias de Salamanca y Zamora.


Los entrantes constituyen una parte esencial y muy característica de esta cocina. Los protagonistas indiscutibles aquí son el embutido, el jamón o el queso. Comparten este puesto con la chanfaina, las patatas revolconas y el hornazo, una especie de empanada rellena de embutidos, muy tradicional de la zona.


Unos huevos fritos con farinato, un potaje, una sencilla ensalada de la huerta o la típica sopa de ajo podrían constituir una primera parte de la degustación, para dar paso a la carta de carnes, que está sin duda entre los platos fuertes de la cocina de estas tierras. Destacan en primer lugar, las especialidades en ternera, cuya calidad reside en la frescura del género y en el tradicional sistema de cría de las ganaderías de la zona, con razas autóctonas de reconocido prestigio como la morucha, sayaguesa o alistana. Menos conocidos, pero de igual virtud, son otros platos como el cordero lechal, el cabrito al horno, los reconocidos guisos de pollo de corral o los asados de costillares de cerdo. Para los que aún continúen buscando alternativas, la cocina arribeña ofrece sus especialidades en bacalao, especialmente asado, o la tenca escabechada así como las lentejas, las alubias o los garbanzos, que también constituyen una parte importante de la comida de la tierra.


Al llegar al postre se pueden degustar dulces típicos como las perrunillas, los repelaos, el piñonate, el bollo maimón, las obleas, los suspiros de monja y el queso de almendra o saborear las naranjas, cerezas, manzanas y peras de la zona.


Además, como en toda buena comida, no puede faltar una buena selección de vinos como los de la recientemente creada Denominación de Origen Arribes o de los ya consolidados caldos de la Denominación de Origen Toro y la Denominación de Origen Tierra del Vino de Zamora.




Sopa de ajo


Huevos con farinato


Bollo maimón

[editar] Lenguas y literatura

Artículos principales: Habla arribeña, habla sayaguesa, idioma leonés e idioma mirandés


Al ser y haber sido ésta una zona aislada y fronteriza, se han podido conservar en mayor o menor grado una larga lista de arraigadas tradiciones, costumbres y peculiaridades autóctonas como es el idioma leonés. De esta forma, en la ribera española todavía son de uso cotidiano por la población de muy avanzada edad, algunas palabras, giros y expresiones en lengua leonesa.


En el vecino concelho portugués de Miranda do Douro, el dialecto derivado del leonés, denominado oficialmente mirandés, goza de protección y reconocimiento legal.[42]

[editar] Miguel de Unamuno quiso dejar presente su visita a la zona, con un lugar dentro de la literatura española más conocida


El famoso escritor bilbaíno Miguel de Unamuno era un enamorado de este espacio natural. Visitó la zona al menos en dos ocasiones. La primera de ellas fue en marzo de 1898 a modo de retiro espiritual. Llegó a Masueco para visitar el Pozo de los Humos. Se acercó al cañón del Duero en Aldeadávila de la Ribera y quiso contemplar las ruinas del Convento de La Verde. También visitó Vilvestre, donde dice que pudo contemplar una de las mejores puestas de sol de todas las que había visto. Habla con gran cariño de todos estos lugares en el relato (1898) que mandó a la revista bilbaína Ecos Literarios.


El escritor visitó la zona por segunda vez en mayo de 1902. En esta visita, Unamuno pudo conocerla más en profundidad. En Por tierras de Portugal y España (1911), aparece una descripción detallada de este espacio natural.

El primer pueblo de La Ribera a donde llegué fue Masueco... Al siguiente día de mi llegada fuimos a ver la cascada de los Humos, en los arribes de uno de los afluentes al Duero... Es singular el atractivo del agua. Estaríase uno las horas muertas contemplándola fluir, dejándose ganar el espíritu por la sensación purísima que su constante curso nos produce. El agua es acaso la que mejor imagen nos ofrece de la quietud en el movimiento, del solemne reposo supremo que del concierto de las carreras de los seres todos surge. En el estanque duerme el agua reflejando al cielo, pero con no menos pureza lo refleja en el cristal de un sosegado río, cuyas aguas, siempre distintas, ofrecen la misma superficie siempre. Y en la cascada misma, por donde se despeña bramando, preséntanos una vena compacta, una columna que acaba por parecer sólida. ¡Enorme fuerza la que sin aparato alguno, con la sencillez del coloso, despliega!... Es una de las más hermosas caídas de agua que pueden verse entre aquellos tajos adustos. Divídese la cascada mayor en dos cuerpos debido a un saliente de la roca, y va a perderse en un remanso de donde surge el vapor que ha valido al paraje el nombre de los Humos. Junto a la inmensa vena líquida, a su abrigo, en las quebraduras y resquicios de la roca, anidan palomas que revolotean en torno del coloso. Este irá desgastando poco apoco el desnivel que le produce, y es seguro que cada año se achica la cascada, aunque sólo sea en un milímetro o en fracción de él. ¡Los siglos que habría necesitado el agua para excavar tales tajos y reducir análogas cascadas!.


Al siguiente día de nuestra visita a los Humos, preparamos la expedición a Laverde... Laverde está en territorio de Aldeadávila de la Ribera, la corte de esta región, la villa para los comarcanos... Dimos... vista al Duero y con él a un paisaje dantesco... En lo alto, apuntados picones que se asoman al abismo, peñas y aserradas crestas; a lo largo, inmensas escotaduras que encajándose de un lado y de otro, en la disposición llamada de cola de milano, forman la garganta por cuyo hondón corre el río. Los enormes cuchillos van perdiéndose en gradación de tintas hasta ir a confundirse con la niebla. Allí arribota, arribota, en la cresta del escarpado frontero, verdean trozos de trigo, nuncios de una campiña serena, y asoma su copa algún que otro arbolito que denuncian a un pueblecillo portugués. Juegos de luz animan la dantesca garganta; peñas en claro se destacan sobre el tono oscuro de las peñas en sombra, y allá en lo alto, dominando al ceñudo paisaje, algún milano se cierne bañándose en luz. Suben del río perezosas nieblas que se agarran a los peñascos, y fingen el alma de éstos que de ellos se desprende con pesar. El Duero, que dibujando su vena central, su líquido senderillo de espuma, corre encajonado en el fondo de estas gargantas, es el mismo que pasa amplio y solemne, abrazando a la feraz llanura y como gozándose en ella, por tierra de Zamora. Todas estas gargantas dantescas son obras de él, obra de la lenta labor del agua terca...


En una de estas laderas del tajo del Duero, en medio de lo que queda de una que debió de ser huerta frondosa, se alzan las ruinas del convento de Laverde, retiro en un tiempo de los religiosos menores. En la portería, sobre la puerta y debajo de un escudo con los cinco estigmas, se lee, enteramente ahumada, esta inscripción: «Entre la vida y la muerte no ai espacio ninguno; en un instante se acaba lo que se vive en el mundo. Año de MDCCLXIX»... Es una pena la que ofrece aquella desolación. Las celdas deshechas y a la intemperie; la yerba creciendo por todas partes; en el claustro un limonero entre maleza, y en el jardín un boscaje de limoneros y de naranjos... Por la parte que mira al río presenta algún aspecto de fortaleza. Lo hermoso es su escenario y su ambiente, los restos de vegetación de que está rodeado. Frente a él se alza una gigantesca piñal (pino) y en lo hondo zumba el Duero enfrenado entre peñascos. Lo más típico es lo que del huerto queda, aquel rincón umbrío de limoneros y naranjos, a cuya sombra rezarían los frailes sus oraciones, descabezarían sus siestas y gozarían de tranquilo sosiego los ancianos retirados ya del todo del mundo... Hubo un tiempo, hasta eso del año 30, en que floreció en su retiro aquel cenobio, ofreciendo en aquella colosal hendidura de la adusta meseta castellana escuela de recogimiento y meditación a los frailes menores durante algún tiempo del año y refugio para su vejez a los que de ellos pedían acabar allí sus días, en el vivo silencio, rezando a la sombra de los limoneros y al compás del murmullo del contenido río.


Es, sí, un silencio vivo el que aquí reina, vivo porque reposa sobre el sempiterno rumor del Duero, que en puro ser continuo acaba por borrarse de la conciencia de quien lo recoge. Allí, en aquel refugio, libertaríanse los espíritus del tiempo, engendrador de cuidados, yendo cada día a hundirse sin ruido con su malicia en la eternidad. ¡Siempre el mismo río, los mismos peñascos siempre, todo inmutable! Cuando lo que nos rodea no cambia, acabamos por no sentimos cambiar, por comprender que es el vivir un morir continuo, que «entre la vida y la muerte no hay espacio ninguno», como reza la inscripción del convento de Laverde... Hay en el camino un punto que se llama el montadero de los frailes; a una peña que forma a modo de un asiento le llaman la silla del guardián. Allí cuentan también que, viniendo Santa Marina perseguida de los moros y cansada del camino, al llegar a una peña, le dijo: «Ábrete, peña cerrada, que viene Marina cansada». En la peña hendida se colocó un altar a la santa, y sobre ella se alzó la capilla de Santa Marina, cercana al convento...

Al siguiente día de nuestra visita a Laverde, fuimos a Vilvestre, un pueblecillo despejado y limpio que se tiende a la falda de una colina coronada por las ruinas de un castillo. Y en Vilvestre nos asomamos a dos picones que dominan los arribes, a Peño Corvo y el Castillo de Narbona, nombre extraño para un desnudo peñasco. Domínase desde ellos, como desde elevada comisa, un sitio en que la barranca se ensancha dulcificándose el paisaje... Al retirarnos al pueblo poníase tras las colinas portuguesas el rojo disco del sol. Fue una de las más hermosas puestas que he visto. El inmenso globo candente, de rojo cereza, se ponía en paz y sin herir la vista, entre nubecillas que a ratos le ocultaban en parte, fingiendo en su encendida esfera paisajes de adustos peñascos, remedo de los que acabamos de ver.




To the right of Spain, left Portugal (from where I took this photo), in downtown Rio Douro: Douro Arribes.





Natural Park of Douro Arribes


Natural Park of Douro Arribes the nature reserve is home to the Grand Canyon of the Duero River in all its border stretch along the valley areas and adjacent plateau. Located in the northwestern province of Salamanca and the southwestern province of Zamora in the Autonomous Community of Castilla y León, Spain.


In this area, the river Douro is the natural border between Spain and Portugal. The other side is known under the umbrella of the International Duero Natural Park, located in the southeastern district of Bragança and the northeastern district of Guarda, Portugal.



Jump populous Aldeadávila


The most striking feature of this natural area is the scenic grandeur of its territory. A spectacular place where you can see the granite lush river canyons and valleys through which run streams encased the Douro River and its tributaries Agueda Esla Huebra, Uces and Tormes. Within the boundary of the park, also includes a plateau area Zamora-salmatina adjacent to the depression caused by rivers.


The high flow of the Douro, the steep slopes of the area and the many rivers that flow into it, turn the park into one of the major points of potential energy of the entire Iberian Peninsula. Therefore, it has been building a network of dams and reservoirs known as Saltos del Duero.


The peculiarity of the terrain makes the existence of a milder microclimate in the valleys. This contributes to plant diversity and makes the park a perfect place for the refuge of many animals, especially birds.


It is a remote area with poor infrastructure that is in a continuous process of depopulation due to the aging of its population. Thanks to the isolated nature of these lands have been preserved many customs and traditions as Leonese language. In recent years, major investment initiatives in the area have become possible with cross-border retail trade and tourism. This has made it necessary to preserve the natural habitat and develop cultural traditions as drivers of the economy of the area.


After years of demands the government of the neighboring country the Portuguese protected natural area on 11 May 1998 under the name of the International Duero Natural Park. [1] The Spanish side did not enjoy the same protection until April 11 2002, when the Junta de Castilla y León joined this site in its network of natural parks under the name of Parque Natural del Duero Arribes [2].

[Edit] Extension and territory

Park House, the tower Sobradillo

Visitor Reception Center, Trabanca

Arribanzos Zamora, Torregamones

Cascada del Pozo de los Hood, Pereña

Requejo Bridge in Villadepera y Pino

The Douro step Saucelle


The Grand Canyon del Duero forms a natural boundary between Spain and Portugal, dividing the large natural area between the two countries. The river and its tributaries are the common and link all the territory that extends linearly along over 100 km. The Spanish called Arribes Natural Park of Douro, extends over an area of approximately 106,105 hectares while the Portuguese called the International Duero Natural Park, covers an area of 85,150 hectares. The demarcation of these parks, protect the borders of the depression caused by the rivers and the adjacent plateau fringe. The two areas have a combined area of 191,255 hectares, making this area one of the largest protected areas in Europe.

[Edit] Demarcation and municipalities


The demarcation of the park is (totally or partially) the area of 37 municipalities:


* 24 belong to the province of Salamanca: Ahigal of oil, Aldeadávila de la Ribera, Almond, Barruecopardo Bermellar, La Bouza, Head of the Horse, Cerezal of Peñahorcada, La Fregeneda, Hinojosa de Duero, Lumbrales, Masueco, Mieza, The Peña, Pereña de la Ribera, Puerto Seguro, Saldeana, San Felices de los Gallegos, Saucelle, Sobradillo, Trabanca, Villarino of Aires, and La Zarza Vilvestre Pumareda.

* 13 belong to the province of Zamora: Argañín, Fariza, Fermoselle, Fonfría, Gamones, Moral de Sayago, Moralina, Pino, Torregamones, Villadepera, Villalcampo, Villar del Buey and Villardiegua de la Ribera.


Discussed for years to expand the protected area to the east, thus encompassing the area of the river Tormes from prey to Ledesma Almond. The characteristics of the fauna and flora in this age are very similar to the natural park. Nesting sites for many species of raptors and protected Ciconiiformes overlap in both places. Finally we decided to stick to the area we know today. [Citation needed]


In some border towns, there is still interest in joining the park. Camaces Olmedo, Bañobárez Fuenteliante and requested its inclusion in 2004. In fact, these municipalities were included in the draft natural park but were eventually excluded from the final demarcation. [3]

[Edit] Reference and Access Points

[Edit] Holiday Park


The peculiarity of being a park straddling the provinces of Salamanca and Zamora, is reflected in the Junta de Castilla y León conceived with two houses of the park. At these points, you can research the history, architecture, traditions, landscapes, flora and fauna of these lands, but can also be found on routes, tourist attractions, restaurants, accommodation and various activities organized and ordering maps, brochures and calendars with festivals and events in the area. One of these houses, is located in Fermosella Zamora and the other in the town of Salamanca in Sobradillo. Arise from the need to provide the visitor with a visible point of reference, specialized information from which to start your visit, and justify their existence in the development and coordination of multiple advocacy and interpretation.


* The Park House Convent of San Francisco, [4] in the municipality of Fermoselle Zamora, has the following access options:


1. From Zamora, by the CL-527 directly to Fermoselle.

2. From Salamanca, the SA-300 to Ledesma. They take the SA-302 toward Almond, where you follow the signs to Fermoselle.


* The house of the Tower of Sobradillo Park, [5] on the tower of the town of Salamanca Sobradillo has the following access options:


1. From Salamanca, by the CL-517 to Lumbrales. There is taken into Sobradillo DSA-464.

2. From Zamora, by the CL-528 to Ledesma. There is taken into Lumbrales CL-517, from where you take the DSA-464 to Sobradillo.


In the municipality of Fariza Zamora are the offices of the park. Belong to the Junta de Castilla y León and are intended to be the focal point for conservation activities in the area. [6]

[Edit] Municipal Information Office


Additionally, some municipalities in the demarcation of the park have created their own tourist offices. These facilities, generally more modest than those of the houses in the park, also have general information of the countryside but are often particularly visited by those seeking in-depth information of its land area of influence. There are tourist information offices in the towns of Aldeadávila, Fermoselle, Hinojosa, La Fregeneda, Lumbrales, Torregamones, Trabanca and Villarino. [7] [8]

[Edit] Museums


Other places where you can explore further some aspects of the area are the archaeological museum of Lumbrales, [9] Fermoselle cellars, the museum's ecotourism Aldeadávila de la Ribera, food fairs and craft Trabanca [10 ] Museum Moralina tradition, [11] the museum of wine and distillates Villarino of Aires, the theme park construction Trabanca popular [12] Fariza ethnographic museums, Hinojosa de Duero [13] and Villardiegua The Olive Fair Vilvestre border, the international fair Trabanca wine, [14] Oil Museum of San Felices de los Gallegos and Ahigal of oil, Trabanca Forge [15] the International Cheese Fair Hinojosa de Duero, [16] and ceramic pottery workshop Trabanca, the history museum of San Felices de los Gallegos, Lumbrales the textile museum, museums Sobradillo Flour and San Felices de los Gallegos, the museum's sacred Villadepera and the museum house of the friars of Vilvestre [17].

[Edit] Etymology


To be characterized this area for being a melting pot of cultures, has led to this natural area receives numerous names depending on the area where we are. Names that are in any case popular character and transmitted from generation to generation. [18]


"Up" is a word derived from Latin origin Leonese ad IRPCAS "which means" the shore. "[19] This term is published for the first time in a work written in 1885. [20] was used by natural Salamanca counties of El Abadengo and La Ribera to refer to the guns of Duero and other rivers of this territory. However, in the counties of Zamora Sayago and Ready, this area was called "Up" or "The Top", [21] term that has now been lost ground in favor of the foreign term "The Top", but both are still used interchangeably in some localities Zamora. There is also the term "Arribanzo", with which the inhabitants of the park Zamora referred to the huge granite rocks and huge boulders that form the narrowing of the Duero. [22]


Faced with local names, is from the mid-70 when it has spread in the Zamora, the masculine name "The Top", the result of the strong popularity which has been attached to the area various media and institutions who, outside the local terminology, have influenced the inhabitants of the area. Thus, the widespread Zamora's term up as parallel in time, in the Salamanca has begun to use more and more frequently, the female version of this term to refer to the Salamanca district of La Ribera, This has meant the progressive loss of its own historic name for the new name "The Above." [23]


"Up", both masculine and feminine, has evolved in recent years to include in its name, the landscape of the areas along the river as is the strip of plateau near the canyon as well as all the intermediate slopes.

[Edit] Terrain


The highlight of the park is characterized by strong incision presents the courses of rivers Duero and its tributaries Agueda Esla Huebra, Uces and Tormes on the central plateau, which is the oldest geomorphological unit of the Iberian Peninsula. Endogenous geological processes with water erosion, have led to this natural area of steep canyons and steep valleys that run embedded by the rivers of this land, thus establishing the natural border between Spain and Portugal.


This immense natural balcony overlooking the neighboring country, has its origin in the primary or Paleozoic era (600-225 million years ago), when the Iberian Peninsula was under sea level. The Hercynian orogeny in this stage resulted in the union of all the continents, which merged to form the Pangea. Thus, the lithosphere is deformed and there was the emergence of the so-called Hesperian Massif, a vast mountain chain resulting from the collision of plates, made of granite, slate and quartzite, which is based on the current central plateau and most Spain. It is for this reason that in the Duero River Gorge can be seen the so-called arribanzos or giant granite rocks.


During the secondary or Mesozoic era (225-68 million years ago), Pangea began to break up the current and form the structure of the crust. This great landmass Gondwana fragments originating the one hand and the other Laurasia. Erosion wears intensely Paleozoic formations resulting in the current landscape of the peneplain Zamora-Salamanca. The deep layers of granite, the contact with the Paleozoic sediments, originated at some points micacita and gneiss.


Finally, the Tertiary or Cenozoic (from 68 to 1.7 million years) is the period that produced the progressive lifting of the eastern peninsula, which takes place through the Alpine Orogeny. The slope of the Iberian peninsula into the Atlantic Ocean it determines the orientation of most of the peninsular rivers including the Duero, which has cut through the plains, resulting in the huge canyon of Arribes del Duero. Finally, with the beginning of the Quaternary period, begin to form the terraces of the river due to climatic alternations of this phase.

[Edit] Climatology


There are two types of climate in the park. In the canyon and valley areas can enjoy a Mediterranean microclimate which makes the temperatures and contributes to plant diversity, whereas in the plateau areas included within the boundary can be observed as the continental climate typical of the plain Zamora -Salamanca, where winters are colder and defendants. In Mieza Observatory, located at 658 m in height, is a 12 ° C mean annual temperature while the observatory Saucelle Dam, located 162 m high, recorded 17 ° C.


The winters last about two months in the vicinity of the river because the weather is mild and wet. This is because the valleys are safe from more exposed to wind and sun. In the plateau areas are extended for five months to present a more cold and dry weather.


The average temperatures of the coldest month (January / December) are around 9 ° C in the valley areas while the higher elevations around 5 ° C. The most notable difference between one area and another frost are virtually nonexistent in the valleys. This allows the cultivation of olive trees, vines, almond and orange trees that are rare on the plateau.


During summer, the differences are not as pronounced as the average temperature of the warmest month (July or August) are 27 ° C in the valleys and 25 ° C on the plateau. Finally, it should be noted that although the minimum temperatures at this time are quite dim, the maximum tends to be high, often exceeding 30 ° C during the summer months.


Rainfall is distributed in a very irregular throughout the park. The wettest area is the Barruecopardo observatory, with rainfall around 900 mm, but less rainfall observatory is just 20 km casually in Saucelle Dam, where annual rainfall rarely exceeds 500 mm. In general, rainfall is most abundant north of the park, with close to 700 mm in most of the Zamora river where they are distributed in a more regular basis. Are decreasing the further south we are.

[Edit] Ecosystems: flora and fauna


The fauna and flora of this natural area is conspicuous by the richness and variety of species composition. The uniqueness of the climate together with the peculiarity of the terrain favors the existence of a natural ecosystem of unique beauty. Plant and animal species that inhabit the natural park, are a synthesis between which can be found in the Mediterranean climate of the valleys and continental climate of the plateau. In this river live about 200 species of birds, some 47 species of mammals and 21 types of reptiles from a Mediterranean-type vegetation.

[Edit] Fauna


Animal diversity is one of the most important reasons why the area was declared a natural park. Highlights the high number of birds nesting and wintering. The existing range because the Duero River Canyon, the large forests and numerous rivers, together form the perfect habitat for any bird.

Black Stork

Griffon Vulture

Egyptian Vulture

Milano Real

Golden Eagle

[Edit] Bird highlights


In 1990, this natural area was declared a Special Protection Area for Birds (SPA). [24] The protagonists of this achievement species are the eagle, golden eagles, Egyptian vultures, owls, the griffon vulture, the Chough Tern, black stork and the peregrine falcon.


The black stork is the most emblematic and widespread in the area. The holes and corners of the so-called arribanzos or granitic rocks of the Duero, are the venue for this bird nesting in Spain is included within species with possible extinction. It is therefore the natural space, a key point for the conservation of this species. On June 22, 1998, was designated as Critical Area for Conservation of the Black Stork. [25] The 20 pairs of black storks are in this area, accounts for 8% of the Spanish population and 25% of that of Castilla and León (as of February 2005). [24]


Large raptors are the other most significant and important nesting in the park. Among them, the shape of vultures is the easiest to recognize, because at home abounds throughout the area. In 2005 had a population of 550 pairs. [24] are excellent and relatively easy to recognize the silhouettes of the Egyptian vulture (75 pairs in 2005), [24] the eagle owl (25 pairs in 1992), [24] the golden eagle (24 pairs in 2005), [24] Bonelli's eagle (17 pairs in 2005), [24] Red Kite (9 pairs in 2005) [24] and the peregrine falcon (6 pairs in 2005). [24]


They also stress the chough population (159 pairs in 2005) [24] and white stork (115 pairs in 1999). [24]

[Edit] Other birds


There are other birds that depend on the receipt of arribanzos to breed or simply to survive. The most common is the airplane rocker, that unlike other areas, stays here all year thanks to the microclimate of the area. You can also see here the chough, crow, swallow dáurica, the jackdaw, the blue rock thrush and real swift.


In forests dominated by oaks, there are small populations jay, woodcock, common finch, blackbird, myth, Lesser Spotted Woodpecker, Great Spotted Woodpecker, woodpecker, wryneck, nuthatch and song thrush. In forests dominated by oaks, are more frequent common shrike, gray shrikes, the agates, raise them and the magpies.


It is also common to find forest birds of prey like the eagle, black kite, red kite and buzzard. During the night are often the tawny owl, the owl, the owl and Nightjar.


On the banks of the rivers, you can see the little ringed plover, the coot, the water fowl, herons, kingfishers and dippers.

[Edit] Mammals


It has the presence of copies are as rare as the bobcat and badger.


Outstanding is the presence of bats, which calculates the presence of 14 species. In their proliferation has special significance shelter provided by the rocky cliffs and the special mild climate of the area.


One of the mammals whose presence arouses special interest, because of its scarcity and soaring regression on the European continent, is the otter. The construction of numerous dams was once the main cause of its almost complete disappearance in the Douro, which has recovered slightly over time.


Occasional visitor of the park is the wolf, also from the north, enters without ever having to maintain a stable population. Other mammals, and relatively more abundant, would be the fox, wild boar, genet, rabbit, hare, hedgehog, weasel, marten and dormouse.


The most prominent of all mammals that have ever lived in the park, is the endemic Iberian lynx. Although now taken for extinct in the area, [26] [27] [28] Some experts say that in the quiet valleys and best preserved vegetation, they may still be some copies. [29] Indeed, although not shown survival in these lands, most of the posters, brochures and websites to promote and advertise the area as well as in the act itself declared a natural park, still include among their species. [2] [30]

[Edit] Fish, amphibians and reptiles


You can recognize about a dozen fish species in protected water area, of which some are endemic: Iberian barbel, vogue, roach and loach, the duck and calandino.


The sturgeon is one of the most shortage of individuals has been detected throughout the area, which has led to its classification as a species "endangered." The eel is also a threatened species in the Spanish part of the Duero, and survives only in rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean and the Spanish reservoirs (as opposed to the Portuguese) do not have fish ladders. Frequently they are also, among others, the classic carp, tench and pike.


With regard to amphibians, environmental conditions are not the most suitable, since the lower amount of rainfall, despite the tightening thermometric hinders the proliferation of amphibians in the park. Thirteen species have been recorded, of which at least two are endemic: Newt Iberian Iberian midwife toad. More abundant are the common toad, natterjack toad, marbled newt, frog, St. Anthony, and spotted salamander.


However, the Park is an ideal habitat for the proliferation of reptiles, both emphasized climate as being the most abundant of the lizard, the long-tailed lizard, and snake bastard step. These in turn have become key elements of the diurnal feeding, the progressive decline of other animals like rabbits and partridge. Significant is also the presence of the salamander, covered by more benign climate, together with the European pond turtle and the terrapin.

[Edit] Flora


Plant diversity is represented by mostly Mediterranean-type flora. Most of the forests consist of oak. Coexist with cork and holm oak. Large tracts of scrub are full of brooms, broom, thyme, rock rose, prickly pears and junipers.


Thanks to the microclimate, it is also possible to grow plants and trees that are not common in the neighboring districts of the plateau, which has a continental climate. This peculiarity is represented by the olive trees, vines, almond, orange and lemon trees, but now the number of these plantations is much lower than before. Also came to grow sugar cane in the late nineteenth century. [31]


Currently, the most important and widespread crop in the area, is the vine. Highlight the fourteen wineries Ahigal of oil, Fermoselle, Fornillos the border with La Fregeneda, Pereña of the Bank and Villarino Aires, which produce wines of the Appellation of Origin Arribes. You can also see some important olive Ahigal of Aceiteros, San Felices de los Gallegos and Vilvestre, [32] [33] and there are several extensions of almond Hinojosa de Duero, Mieza Saucelle and more specifically in the Fregeneda and Vilvestre. [34] The orange trees are also present in this zone, especially in Vilvestre. [35] extensions of lemon, there are only a few individual trees.

[Edit] Vestiges, demography and population


This area has been inhabited for a long time. It retains many vestiges of the old settlers. Today, the population loss is the major problem in the area.

[Edit] Findings of the ancient settlement

Mula pre-Roman Villardiegua

Horse Head

The Fregeneda


Many attest to the ancient footprints of this land subservience to man. Of the existing remains, the oldest have been dated to the Paleolithic, such as the cave paintings of Palla Blonde, [36] in front of the Smoke Pit, on the shore in the municipality

Tribulus terrestris


Famiglia: Zygophyllaceae


E’ diffuso in tutto il mondo nelle zone aride o sub-desertiche

Il nome scientifico latino Tribulus, deriva del Greco τρίβολος, originalmente era un’arma passiva a 4 punte usata dagli antichi romani, nel suo significato botanico è stato usato da Plinio il vecchio nella sua Historia naturalis (21, 91) per designare il fruto di questa pianta a forma di tetraedo che ricorda vagamente il tribolo, ma anche di altre piante come per esempio: (Trapa natans, la Castagna d’acqua) e da Virgilio nelle Georgiche (1, 53).

Il tribulus è considerata una pianta molto importante per il suo contenuto di sostanze particolari, usato nelle varie medicine popolari, dall’Europa alla Cina e all’India, come afrodisiaco e protezioen del fegato.

Da questa pianta si estrae un importante integratore capace di acrescere la massa muscolare e viene usata nella fisioterapia “uficiale” per la cura di alcune patologie legate alla sfera sessuale.



il Tribulus terrestris divenne famoso nella metà degli anni novanta nel Nord America, dopo che gli atleti olimpionici dell’est europeo confessarono di averla utilizzata per migliore le loro prestazioni atletiche, di base. Ii composti attivi del tribulus terrestris si chiamano saponine steroidee e si trovano principalmente nelle sue parti aeree mentre i glicosidi furistanol e lo sprirostanol (due delle suddette composizioni), pare siano legati alla produzione endogena del testosterone, diidrosterone, dell’ormone luteinizzante (LH) e del deidroepiandrosterone (DHEA).


Tribulus terrestris


Family: Zygophyllaceae


And 'spread around the world in arid or semi-arid

The Latin scientific name Tribulus, drift Greek τρίβολος, originally was a weapon passive 4-point used by the ancient Romans, in his botanical significance was used by Pliny the Elder in his Naturalis Historia (21, 91) to designate the fruto of this plant in the form of a tetrahedron that vaguely resembles the tribble, but also of other plants such as: (Trapa natans, the water chestnut) and Virgil in the Georgics (1, 53).

Tribulus is considered a very important plant for its content of particular substances, used in various folk medicines, from Europe to China and India, as an aphrodisiac and protezioen of the liver.

Since this plant is extracted an important supplement capable of acrescere muscle mass and is used in physiotherapy "Oficial" for the treatment of certain diseases related to the sexual sphere.



tribulus terrestris became known in the mid-nineties in North America after Eastern European Olympic athletes confessed to having employed it to better their athletic performance, basic. Ii active compounds of tribulus terrestris are called steroidal saponins and are found mainly in its aerial parts while the glycosides furistanol and sprirostanol (two of these compositions), it seems to be related to the endogenous production of testosterone, diidrosterone, luteinizing hormone (LH) and dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA).


Tribulus terrestris

Familia: Zygophyllaceae

está presente en todo el mundo en zonas áridas o semi-áridas

El nombre científico en latín Tribulus, deriva τρίβολος griego, originalmente era un arma pasiva 4 puntos utilizada por los antiguos romanos, en su interés botánico fue utilizado por Plinio el Viejo en su Naturalis Historia (21, 91) para designar el Fruto de esta planta en la forma de un tetraedro que se parece vagamente la tribble, sino también de otras plantas, tales como: (Trapa natans, la castaña de agua) y Virgilio en las Geórgicas (1, 53).

Tribulus es considerada una planta muy importante por su contenido de sustancias particulares, que se utiliza en varios medicamentos populares, desde Europa a China y la India, como un afrodisíaco y protezioen del hígado.

Dado que esta planta se extrae un suplemento importante capaz de masa muscular acrescere y se utiliza en fisioterapia "Oficial" para el tratamiento de algunas enfermedades relacionadas con la esfera sexual.



El Tribulus terrestris se conoció a mediados de los años noventa en América del Norte después de los atletas olímpicos de Europa del Este confesaron haber empleado a mejorar su rendimiento deportivo, básico. Ii compuestos activos de tribulus terrestris son llamados saponinas esteroides y se encuentran principalmente en su parte aérea, mientras que el glucósidos furistanol y sprirostanol (dos de estas composiciones), parece estar relacionada con la producción endógena de testosterona, diidrosterone, hormona luteinizante (LH) y dehidroepiandrosterona


Identifier: botanicalclassbo00noll

Title: The Botanical Class-Book and Flora of Pennsylvania

Year: 1852 (1850s)

Authors: Noll, Henry R.

Subjects: Botany. Botany--Pennsylvania.

Publisher: Lewisburg, Pa.: O. N. Worden, Printer.

Contributing Library: Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, McLean Library

Digitizing Sponsor: LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation


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Text Appearing Before Image:

he petiole is branched. In a truly com-pound leaf the separate blades or leaflets are generally articu-lated, (jointed) with the main petiole, and fall off separatelyjust as the petiole separates from the stem, as in the Walnut,while the divisions of a simple leaf, however deep they maybe, never fall off separately. VENATION. 98. The projecting lines on the under surface of a leaf aretermed veins, and their distribution Venation. The veins aredistributed through the blade in two principal modes, calledthe parallel-veined, and the reticulated or net-veined. Inparallel-veined leaves (Fig. 21.) the veinsdivideat once wherethey enter the blade and run parallel with each other to theapex, connected only by simple transverse veinlets; or thepetiole is continued into the blade in the form of one or moreprincipal or coarser veins, which send off smaller veins on both. 32 FORM OF LEAVES. sides, running parallel with each other, connected by simpletransverse veinlets, (Fig- 22.) 21. 22. 23. 24.


Text Appearing After Image:

99. Parallel-veinod or nerved leaves are characteristicof Endogenous Plants; while reticulated leaves are almostuniversal in Exogenous Plants. In reticulated leaves the petiole is prolonged into the leafin the form of the midvein or several primary branches,dividing and subdividing into branchlets, which unite again,and, by their frequent inosculations, form a kind of network,as in Fig. 23. 100. There are two varieties of reticulated leaves thatdeserve particular attention, the feather-veined and radiate-veined. In the feather-veined leaf, (Fig. 24) a single strongrib forming a continuation of the petiole runs directly throughthe middle of the blade to the apex, giving off at intervalslateral veinlets, as in the Beech, Chestnut, &c. In radiate-veined leaves (Fig. 23) the vessels divide st the apex of thepetiole into three or more portions cr ribs of nearly equal size,which are usually divergent, each giving off veins andveinlets like the single rib of a feather-veined leaf. Ex.Map


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the islands are 20 miles off the mainland, so something like 80 endogenous species evolved.

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