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The harvest is over and left the colors of Autumn...


The Dão wine, produced in this vineyard, is a high value added product and is one of the endogenous potential of Penalva do Castelo county. On the slopes bathed by the river Dão, which divides the county, the vineyards benefit from specific climate, which, combined with the richness of the soil, allow the production of high quality wines.

"Chemical which occurs naturally in the brain and works like morphine"


Endogenous preferences - Top 10% popular

Danxia landform in Zhangye,China.

Danxia landform, formed from red sandstone and characterised by steep cliffs, which are caused by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces(including weathering and erosion).

--From Wikipedia


Thanks for your visit,comment and fave :-)

Danxia landform in Zhangye,China.

Danxia landform, formed from red sandstone and characterised by steep cliffs, which are caused by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces(including weathering and erosion).

--From Wikipedia


Thanks for your visit,comment and fave :-)

Central coast, Peru.


Museum Fünf Kontinente, Munich.


There's a chronological problem with the dating of this figurine. It revolves around the beads.


Before addressing the problem, it's necessary to examine the exhibit. It consists of a clay figurine of a woman, a beaded ear decoration and one or more strings of beads around the figurine's neck and over her shoulders.


The beads in ear decoration are quite likely made from the shells of Spondylus, or thorny oyster. While Spondylus beads can be white and pink, they're frequently the reddish-orange shade seen here.


"Spondylus is a bivalve mollusk found in warmer waters in Ecuador and along the most northern coast of Peru . . . However, Spondylus shell beads found on the Central Coast of Peru must have arrived there through exchange networks since the shells were only sourced further north. They were traded before the arrival of the Spanish." *


The necklace is the focus of this discussion. The overwhelming percentage of the beads are light brown. It's likely they're made from marine shell, possibly even Spondylus.


However, there are five blue beads interspersed among the light brown beads. They are chevron beads made in Europe.


"Chevron beads are complex multi colored beads with a pattern of blue, white and red. Chevron beads were found throughout Peru but were not endogenous to the region. These beads were manufactured in Venice and can be dated by the distinct colors and number of layers." *


The reason the museum label gives the year 1450 as the latest date when the figurine could have been manufactured is because the Inca are reported to have conquered the Chancay polity in that year.


Let's assume the beads in the necklace were around the figurine's neck when it was discovered and that the objects were undisturbed. If that's correct, the figurine could not have been made before the third decade of the sixteenth century.


Francisco Pizarro captured the Inca emperor in 1532. An influx of Spaniards entered the territory of today's Peru shortly thereafter. They brought with them objects of European material culture, including chevron beads.


If the figurine was made after 1532, it suggests that traditional cultural practices persisted in some form after the arrival of the Spaniards in the early sixteenth century. Either the people who made the figurine managed to evade the Spaniards' campaign against "idolatries," or the campaign had not yet reached the former Chancay culture area when these objects were assembled.


*Source of quoted material about beads:


"Tracing Sixteenth Century Beads in South America to Understand Their Impact on Indigenous Ritual Practices and Material Culture at the Time of the Spanish Conquest."


Kristi May Feinzig


A Thesis in the Field of Anthropology and Archaeology for the Degree of Master of Liberal Arts in Extension Studies


Harvard University

March 2017


The Dão wine, produced in this vineyard, is a high value added product and is one of the endogenous potential of Penalva do Castelo county. On the slopes bathed by the river Dão, which divides the county, the vineyards benefit from specific climate, which, combined with the richness of the soil, allow the production of high quality wines.

Taken with Nikon F5 fitted with Sigma 105mm f2.8 micro lens, Nikon Sb 29S micro flash system. The assembly was mounted on Manfrotto tripod. Film stock was Fujichrome Provia 100. Scanned on Nikon cool scan LS 2000 ED.


Allium sativum, commonly known as garlic, is a species in the onion genus, Allium. Its close relatives include the onion, shallot, leek, chive, and rakkyo. With a history of human use of over 7,000 years, garlic is native to central Asia.

Hippocrates, Galen, Pliny the Elder, and Dioscorides all mention the use of garlic for many conditions, including parasites, respiratory problems, poor digestion, and low energy. Its use in China dates back to 2000 BCE.

Supplementation with garlic extract inhibited vascular calcification in human patients with high blood cholesterol. The known vasodilative effect of garlic is possibly caused by catabolism of garlic-derived polysulfides to hydrogen sulfide in red blood cells (RBCs), a reaction that is dependent on reduced thiols in or on the RBC membrane. Hydrogen sulfide is an endogenous cardioprotective vascular cell-signaling molecule.

A 2012 meta-analysis of randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trials looking at the effects of garlic on serum lipid profiles, found garlic was superior to placebo in reducing serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels. Compared with the placebo groups, serum total cholesterol and triglyceride levels in the garlic groups was reduced by 0.28 (95% CI, −0.45, −0.11) mmol L⁻¹ (P = 0.001) and 0.13 (95% CI, −0.20, −0.06) mmol L⁻¹ (P < 0.001), respectively. Allium sativum has been found to reduce platelet aggregation and hyperlipidemia. ( Wikipedia ).


Danxia landform in Zhangye,China.

Danxia landform, formed from red sandstone and characterised by steep cliffs, which are caused by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces(including weathering and erosion).

--From Wikipedia

Danxia landform in Zhangye,China.

Danxia landform, formed from red sandstone and characterised by steep cliffs, which are caused by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces(including weathering and erosion).

--From Wikipedia




With Monobella grassei baubles.


Merry Christmas et Joyeux Noël to all, especially to Frans, Marie et Jérôme who have helped me so much over the last year.


The Science Bit:

Luminescent springtails have been recognized in the families Neanuridae and Onychiuridae (Harvey, E.N. (1952) Bioluminescence. Academic Press; Haneda, Y. (1955) Luminous organisms of Japan and the Far East. The luminescence of biological systems), but the observations are quite limited. It is not clear whether collembolan luminescence is true bioluminescence (endogenous) or accidental due to ingestion of luminous bacteria or fungi. A Japanese springtail Lobelia spp. (Neanuridae) may be self-luminous. This species is ∼3 mm long, found in leaf litter and emits a continuous weak green light from abdominal tubercles. The biological function this luminescence is unknown, but it may be either for defence or sexual communication, since the luminescence is emitted on stimulation and also occurrs in the sexual phase (Lloyd, J.E. (1978) Insect bioluminescence. Bioluminescence in Action, 241-272).

Impianto di perforazione usato per trivellare il terreno alla profondità di 2000 mt ed arrivare

ad estrarre vapore endogeno

rig used to drill the soil to a depth of 2000 meters and reach

to remove endogenous steam

equipo de perforación utilizada para perforar el suelo a una profundidad de 2000 metros y alcanzar

para eliminar el vapor endógeno

Songbirds sing and raptors rap. Isn't that correct? Well, maybe not. Raptors are fierce predatory birds, while most songbirds subsist on a variety of nectars, seeds, fruits and a few insects. The Loggerhead Shrike is a songbird that lives the life of a raptor but with a strange and almost diabolical twist. This small bird captures prey, ranging from insects to birds, lizards, and even some small mammals. It hunts from fences, posts, and poles, frequently skewering its larger or noxious kills on thorns and barbed wire. It does so in order to facilitate eating its prey. At times it has been known to skewer noxious prey, returning days later to consume them. By that time endogenous toxins have been rendered inactive. One could imagine this shrike serenading its victims before swiftly dispatching them, much like the protagonist of the musical, Sweeny Todd. #LoggerheadShrike

Rapid strata formation in soft sand (field evidence).

Photo of strata formation in soft sand on a beach, created by tidal action of the sea.

Formed in a high tidal event. Stunning evidence which displays multiple strata/layers.


Why this is so important ....

It has long been assumed, ever since the 17th century, that layers/strata observed in sedimentary rocks were built up gradually, layer upon layer, over many years. It certainly seemed logical at the time, from just looking at rocks, that lower layers would always be older than the layers above them, i.e. that lower layers were always laid down first followed, in time, by successive layers on top.

This was assumed to be true and became known as the superposition principle.

It was also assumed that a layer comprising a different material from a previous layer, represented a change in environmental conditions/factors.

These changes in composition of layers or strata were considered to represent different, geological eras on a global scale, spanning millions of years. This formed the basis for the Geologic Column, which is used to date rocks and also fossils. The evolutionary, 'fossil record' was based on the vast ages and assumed geological eras of the Geologic Column.

There was also circular reasoning applied with the assumed age of 'index' fossils (based on evolutionary beliefs & preconceptions) used to date strata in the Geologic Column. Dating strata from the assumed age of (index) fossils (faunal succession) is known as Biostratigraphy.

We now know that, although these assumptions seemed logical, they are not supported by the evidence.

At the time, the mechanics of stratification were not properly known or studied.


An additional factor was that this assumed superposition and uniformitarian model became essential, with the wide acceptance of Darwinism, for the long ages required for progressive microbes-to-human evolution. There was no incentive to question or challenge the superposition, uniformitarian model, because the presumed, fossil 'record' had become dependant on it, and any change in the accepted model would present devastating implications for Darwinism.

This had the unfortunate effect of linking the study of geology so closely to Darwinism, that any study independent of Darwinian considerations was effectively stymied. This link of geology with Darwinian preconceptions is known as biostratigraphy.


Some other field evidence, in various situations, can be observed here:

and also in the links to stunning, experimental evidence, carried out by sedimentologists, given later.


GEOLOGIC PRINCIPLES (established by Nicholas Steno in the 17th Century):

What Nicolas Steno believed about strata formation is the basis of the principle of Superposition and the principle of Original Horizontality.

“Assuming that all rocks and minerals had once been fluid, Nicolas Steno reasoned that rock strata were formed when particles in a fluid such as water fell to the bottom. This process would leave horizontal layers. Thus Steno's principle of original horizontality states that rock layers form in the horizontal position, and any deviations from this horizontal position are due to the rocks being disturbed later.”)


'Bedding plane' describes the surface in between each stratum which are formed during sediment deposition.

“Strata form during sediment deposition, that is, the laying down of sediment. Meanwhile, if a change in current speed or sediment grain size occurs or perhaps the sediment supply is cut off, a bedding plane forms. Bedding planes are surfaces that separate one stratum from another. Bedding planes can also form when the upper part of a sediment layer is eroded away before the next episode of deposition. Strata separated by a bedding plane may have different grain sizes, grain compositions, or colours. Sometimes these other traits are better indicators of stratification as bedding planes may be very subtle.”



Several catastrophic events, flash floods, volcanic eruptions etc. have forced Darwinian, influenced geologists to admit to rapid stratification in some instances. However they claim it is a rare phenomenon, which they have known about for many years, and which does nothing to invalidate the Geologic Column, the fossil record, evolutionary timescale, or any of the old assumptions regarding strata formation, sedimentation and the superposition principle. They fail to face up to the fact that rapid stratification is not an extraordinary phenonemon, but rather the prevailing and normal mechanism of sedimentary deposition whenever and wherever there is moving, sediment-laden water. The experimental evidence demonstrates the mechanism and a mass of field evidence in normal (non-catastrophic) conditions shows it is a normal everyday occurrence.

It is clear from the experimental evidence that the usual process of stratification is - that strata are not formed by horizontal layers being laid on top of each other in succession, as was assumed. But by sediment being sorted in the flowing water and laid down diagonally in the direction of flow. See diagram:


The field evidence (in the image) presented here - of rapid, simultaneous stratification refutes the Superposition Principle and the Principle of Lateral Continuity.


We now know, the Superposition Principle only applies on a rare occasion where sedimentary deposits are laid down in still water.

Superposition is required for the long evolutionary timescale, but the evidence shows it is not the general rule, as was once believed. Most sediment is laid down in moving water, where particle segregation is the general rule, resulting in the simultaneous deposition of strata/layers as shown in the photo.


See many other examples of rapid stratification (with geological features):


Rapid, simultaneous formation of layers/strata, through particle segregation in moving water, is so easily created it has even been described by sedimentologists (working on flume experiments) as a law ...

"Upon filling the tank with water and pouring in sediments, we immediately saw what was to become the rule: The sediments sorted themselves out in very clear layers. This became so common that by the end of two weeks, we jokingly referred to Andrew's law as "It's difficult not to make layers," and Clark's law as "It's easy to make layers." Later on, I proposed the "law" that liquefaction destroys layers, as much to my surprise as that was." Ian Juby,


The example in the photo is the result of normal, everyday tidal action formed in a single incident. Where the water current or movement is more turbulent, violent, or catastrophic, great depths (many metres) of stratified sediment can be laid down in a short time. Certainly not requiring the many millions of years assumed by evolutionists.


The composition of strata formed in any deposition event. is related to whatever materials are in the sediment mix, not to any particular timescale. Whatever is in the mix will be automatically sorted into strata/layers. It could be sand, or other material added from mud slides, erosion of chalk deposits, coastal erosion, volcanic ash etc. Any organic material (potential fossils), alive or dead, engulfed by, or swept into, a turbulent sediment mix, will also be sorted and buried within the rapidly, forming layers.


See many other examples of rapid stratification with geological features:


Stratified, soft sand deposit. demonstrates the rapid, stratification principle.

Important, field evidence which supports the work of the eminent, sedimentologist Dr Guy Berthault MIAS - Member of the International Association of Sedimentologists.

(Dr Berthault's experiments (

And also the experimental work of Dr M.E. Clark (Professor Emeritus, U of Illinois @ Urbana), Andrew Rodenbeck and Dr. Henry Voss, (


Other experimental work:


Location: Sandown, Isle of Wight. Photographed: 08/12/2017

This field evidence demonstrates that multiple strata in sedimentary deposits do not need millions of years to form and can be formed rapidly. This natural example confirms the principle demonstrated by the sedimentation experiments carried out by Dr Guy Berthault and other sedimentologists. It calls into question the standard, multi-million year dating of sedimentary rocks, and the dating of fossils by depth of burial or position in the strata.

Mulltiple strata/layers are evident in this example.


Dr Berthault's experiments ( and other experiments ( and field studies of floods and volcanic action show that, rather than being formed by gradual, slow deposition of sucessive layers superimposed upon previous layers, with the strata or layers representing a particular timescale, particle segregation in moving water or airborne particles can form strata or layers very quickly, frequently, in a single event.

And, most importantly, lower strata are not older than upper strata, they are the same age, having been created in the same sedimentary episode.

Such field studies confirm experiments which have shown that there is no longer any reason to conclude that strata/layers in sedimentary rocks relate to different geological eras and/or a multi-million year timescale. they also show that the relative position of fossils in rocks is not indicative of an order of evolutionary succession. Obviously, the uniformitarian principle, on which the geologic column is based, can no longer be considered valid. And the multi-million, year dating of sedimentary rocks and fossils needs to be reassessed. Rapid deposition of stratified sediments also explains the enigma of polystrate fossils, i.e. large fossils that intersect several strata. In some cases, tree trunk fossils are found which intersect the strata of sedimentary rock up to forty feet in depth. They must have been buried in stratified sediment in a short time (certainly not millions, thousands, or even hundreds of years), or they would have rotted away.


In fact, the vast majority of fossils are found in good, intact condition, which is testament to their rapid burial. You don't get good fossils from gradual burial, because they would be damaged or destroyed by decay, predation or erosion. The existence of so many fossils in sedimentary rock on a global scale is stunning evidence for the rapid depostion of sedimentary rock as the general rule. It is obvious that all rock containing good intact fossils was formed from sediment laid down in a very short time, not millions, or even thousands of years.


See set of photos of other examples of rapid stratification:


Carbon dating of coal should not be possible if it is millions of years old, yet significant amounts of Carbon 14 have been detected in coal and other fossil material, which indicates that it is less than 50,000 years old.


Evolutionists confidently cite multi-million year ages for rocks and fossils, but what most people don't realise is that no one actually knows the age of sedimentary rocks or the fossils found within them. So how are evolutionists so sure of the ages they so confidently quote? The astonishing thing is they aren't. Sedimentary rocks cannot be dated by radiometric methods*, and fossils can only be dated to less than 50,000 years with Carbon 14 dating. The method evolutionists use is based entirely on assumptions. Unbelievably, fossils are dated by the assumed age of rocks, and rocks are dated by the assumed age of fossils, that's right ... it is known as circular reasoning.


* Regarding the radiometric dating of igneous rocks, which is claimed to be relevant to the dating of sedimentary rocks, in an occasional instance there is an igneous intrusion associated with a sedimentary deposit -

Prof. Aubouin says in his Précis de Géologie: "Each radioactive element disintegrates in a characteristic and constant manner, which depends neither on the physical state (no variation with pressure or temperature or any other external constraint) nor on the chemical state (identical for an oxide or a phosphate)."

"Rocks form when magma crystallizes. Crystallisation depends on pressure and temperature, from which radioactivity is independent. So, there is no relationship between radioactivity and crystallisation.

Consequently, radioactivity doesn't date the formation of rocks. Moreover, daughter elements contained in rocks result mainly from radioactivity in magma where gravity separates the heavier parent element, from the lighter daughter element. Thus radiometric dating has no chronological signification." Dr. Guy Berthault


Radiometric dating based on unverifiable assumptions.


Rapid strata formation and rapid erosion at Mount St Helens.


Published papers


Visit the fossil museum:


Just how good are peer reviews of scientific papers?


The neo-Darwinian idea that the human genome consists entirely of an accumulation of billions of mutations is, quite obviously, completely bonkers. Nevertheless, it is compulsorily taught in schools and universities as 'science'.


Dr James Tour - 'The Origin of Life' - Abiogenesis decisively refuted.


Rapid stratification


Further reading:

Geology, the dreadful science.


Polystrate fossils prove rapid stratification. List of polystrate fossils:


Soft tissue, including DNA, found in fossils claimed to be millions of years old. Peer-reviewed journal articles on surviving endogenous biological material including tissue and DNA.


Published paper:


Bijou Creek flood.


Greenland ice core dating.

Those of You interested to watch how they make this special head dress (purely with nature 's products) worn by the ritual dancers can click on the Youtube clicks: ( Hope to bring to you how the artists perform the ritual dance in front of the Goddess another time.. as it is traditionally perfromed in the midnight hours..)


Padayani, also called Padeni, (from the word for military formations) is a traditional folk dance and a ritual art from the central portion of the Indian state of Kerala. A ceremonial dance involving masks, it is an ancient ritual performed in Bhagavati temples. The dance is performed in honor of Goddess Bhadrakaali. Meaning, a 'row of warriors', Padayani is an art form that blends music, dance, theatre, satire, facial masks, and paintings. It is part of worship of Bhadrakali and is staged in temples dedicated to the goddess from mid-December to mid-May. Padayani is unique to central Travancore, comprising the Pathanamthitta-Alappuzha-Kottayam belt of Kerala. Padayani is regarded as a remnant of the Dravidian forms of worship that existed before the advent of Brahmanism.


Padayani is like Theyyam in north kerala. The percussion instruments used in Patayani are patayani thappu, chenda, para and kumbham.


Padyani is a modern form of a ritual dance( Kolam thullal) performed by the magico-medicine men of kerala (particularly Tinta sect of Ganaka community ) . Earlier this elaborate and expensive event was carried out to heal the illnesses not amenable to medical modalities of intervention.In the form of psychic or spiritual healing, it was solely designed, controlled and performed by Tinta endogenous section of Ganaka, as a method of exorcism, This folk art has become a devine ritual tradition in association with festival occasions of Bhagavathy (Bhadrakaali) temples of Kerala.


Since the origin of term padayani relates with military parade or rows of army, it is generally believed that it is evolved from a symbolic past reminiscent of fencing march of martial art (Kalari) by the Nair fighters and their Preceptors -Kalari Asans (Kaniyar Panicker) to frighten the enemy troop and to show their might. Eventually in Kollam, Pathanamthitta, Alappuzha and Kottayam districts of Kerala, the Nair folk became the performers of the modern form of Padayani art, but the design and making of costumes vested with Kaniyar people.

Ron Gutman’s TED U talk is a blast of refreshment.


Wonder how much more often kids smile than adults?


How many bars of chocolate produce the same endogenous endorphins as a smile?


And maybe we see smiles everywhere... =)

Although there are no specific reasons to become an alcoholic, many social, family, environmental, and genetic factors may contribute to its development.


Researchers have shown that the lack of endorphin is hereditary, and thus that there is a genetic predisposition to become addicted to alcohol. Beta-endorphin is a kind of "morphine" released by the brain in response to several situations, such as pain. In this way, beta-endorphins can be considered "endogenous analgesics" to numb or dull pains.


According to José Rico Irles, lecturer of Medicine of the UGR, and head of the research group, this low beta-endorphin level determines whether someone may become an alcoholic. When a subjects' brain with low beta-endorphin levels gets used to the presence of an exogenous surplus, then, when its own production stops, a dependence starts on the external source: alcohol. Source MedicalNewsToday.


The term Anunnaki is often used in ancient texts as referring to a group of gods. The name is a derivative of the names heaven and earth, Anu and Ki but is also translated by some as “those of royal blood” and also “princely offspring”.The name is variously written “a-nuna”, “a-nuna-ke-ne”, or “a-nun-na”, meaning “princely offspring” or “offspring of Anu”. Some even believe the Anunnaki are sons and daughters of the gods, heaven, and earth.ANUNNAKI: DNA Code. They are said to have created or come from the Mesopotamian culture. There are others who believe they are a form of extra-terrestrial beings (reptilian or serpent race) from outer space or sometimes more specifically from the planet Nibiru/Planet X that at one time lived on this planet or still do on another plane of existence. The Anunnaki were served by the Igigi until the Igigi revolted, forcing the Anunnaki to create Mankind. These servants were not slaves; they were held in high regard, and they were created only to relieve the gods of their labour. In the beginning, Mankind had no set lifespan, and so the gods could only control overpopulation via flood, plague, and famine. During the final deluge, the gods wept at the suffering of Mankind, and so Man was given a set lifespan. It is during this deluge that Ziusudra (Noah) survived with his wife on the ark. The story of the final flood can be found in Atra-Hasis and the Epic of Gilgamesh. This is the first myth of the relationship between ENKI- ANU.This is called the Sky God and Earth Mother myth, which illustrates the relationship between the Sky and Earth. There is also a deity called Enlil that controls and watches of the sky as his kingdom. Another counter argument for the Anunnaki theory is the question of “Looking for Gold” and trying to dig gold from planet Earth. If applied to the technology of the Cosmic Era, the idea of looking for gold is ridiculous and absurd since already in the modern era, transmutation has been very possible by using energy from the Vacuum, also known as Luminous Aether. The technology comes from electricity, and is very based on Cosmic technology, meaning that the Anunnaki would’ve already known how to make gold through transmutation of cheap metals, therefore why would they look for gold, in fact they are already a cosmic civilization and missing this key fact that they can perform transmutation from radiant energy, it would demoralize them in the face of the cosmos.The Anunnaki are a race of beings that traveled across into the depths of space. They’ve settled on a planet called Earth. The Anunnaki ruled the race called “Igigi” who worked for the Anunnaki. But after 2500 years of labor, the Igigi rebelled against the Anunnaki. Enki suggested creating a new race. The Anunnaki observed the possibilities, and in a place called Eden, they have created the Human race, mixing clay with the flesh and blood of an Anunnaki so that the new race could have the divine wisdom. Nintu put the dollop into “shells” and nine months later, humankind was born. In the end, the humans proved to be a good workforce. The Annunaki deities were worshiped by the Ancient Sumerians. In the Sumerian religion, they were forbidden to show the Annunaki Gods in their true form, so instead, the Sumerians depicted them as anthropomorphic animals in place of their true form. Later on the Sumerian ethnic group has been replaced by Akkadians then later Babylonians until they’ve been converted to monotheistic religions such as Zoroastrianism and Christianity. The Anunnaki have no defined appearance, although according to the fertile crescent mythology, the Anunnaki are most likely to look like humans in their original forms, but in larger height. The Anunnaki are a shape-shifting race and can mold themselves into many shapes and sizes. According to certain conspiracy theorists, the Sumerian language appears to be the language taught to the humans by the Annunaki, since it’s assumed to be the first language ever written. It has been said that the language of the Annunaki is considered to be pre-Sumerian. If this is true, the closest language to the Annunaki could be Hungarian since, in pre-modern history, many linguists have found many similarities between the Hungarian language and the Sumerian language. The Hungarians are believed to be the exiled remains of the Sumerians, and many legends from ancient Hungarian culture relates to the Annunaki myth. The Manysi and the Khanty ethnic group, like the Hungarians are classified in the “Ugaric” language family and one individual converted to shamanism, into believing the Mansi to be descendants of Sumerians. However, linguistic affinities are also being found between Hebrew, hinting the another link of Sumerian with the Semitic languages, in which biblical scriptures were originally written in. Akkadian was a Semitic language once used often with Sumerian, during the arrival of Akkadians into Iraq. DNA, or deoxyribonucleic acid, is the hereditary material in humans and almost all other organisms. Nearly every cell in a person’s body has the same DNA. Most DNA is located in the cell nucleus (where it is called nuclear DNA), but a small amount of DNA can also be found in the mitochondria. The information in DNA is stored as a code made up of four chemical bases: adenine (A), guanine (G), cytosine (C), and thymine (T). Human DNA consists of about 3 billion bases, and more than 99 percent of those bases are the same in all people. The order, or sequence, of these bases, determines the information available for building and maintaining an organism, similar to the way in which letters of the alphabet appear in a certain order to form words and sentences.

‘Alien’ DNA Strands Discovered in Human Genome

Science has already successfully mapped the human genome and identified the functions of specific genes in hereditary characteristics, such as skin color. But few people know that some of the DNA strands in the human genome are not even human in origin, making them quite “alien.” A recent research paper published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences has revealed that the human genome contains at least nineteen pieces of ancient viral DNA. More so, complete genetic strands of the viruses were found in two percent of the people who were tested.The ancient genetic fragments from viruses found in our genome are known as human endogenous retroviruses, or HERVs. The study examined the genome of 2,500 people across the globe and found genetic markers for HERVs. Approximately eight percent of the DNA in the human body is from viral genetic fragments. These are the DNA strands that became integrated with the human genome and passed on to several generations. Darwin’s theory of evolution has given a very big struggle with the views thought from the world’s religions. The Anunnaki play a key role as a point of Evolutionists, Creationists and Ancient historians meet. The Anunnaki version of creationism was based on ancient excavations of ancient documents and artifacts that support the evidence of ancient civilizations being helped by extraterrestrials. In ancient manuscripts, there are several accounts that imply ancient civilizations having knowledge in advanced science that we humans have just learned in the modern era. The double helix model of the DNA is sometimes linked with the double-helix snake on a road symbol, found commonly among medical symbols. This has been linked to the fact that the snake symbol is based on the DNA model, which is some evidence of ancient historians having knowledge about the DNA genome model. The ancient liturgical texts of Mesopotamia was linked with different passages in the Hebrew Bible, for example, the Epic of Gilgamesh parallels the Noah’s Ark story, and the Genesis in the Torah parallels to the Sumerian creation myth, involving the Annunaki. In Modern Conspiracy Theory, which revolves around subjects like the Illuminati and the secret plans of the world elite such as the NWO, the Anunnaki have gained much interest from conspiracy theorists. The Annunaki are thought to be linked to Reptilians, and have been continuously said to be the same species; however, there is no evidence to support that argument. Humans would be reptilian in nature and most of our world religions would have reptiles rather than giant humans such as seen in the Sumerian tablets of the humanoid Anunnaki. Other than that, there are statements saying the world elite are directly related to the Annunaki, now secretly collaborating a doomsday plot to rid or enslave humanity once again. Humans directly related to the superior Anunnaki have claimed to be the first to discover humanity’s purpose near our creation. The Anunnaki creation myth is annotated to have different views, for instance, some claiming it’s great evidence supporting creationism, and others claiming negative views of the creation myth, viewing the Anunnaki as a malevolent race, wanting to make mankind complete slaves.


Did Giant humans roam Ancient America in the past? Did the Native American’s have a royal class of giant rulers entombed in massive burial mounds?The historical record certainly seems to support this reality. Over a two hundred year period, more than 1000 accounts of seven-foot and taller skeletons have been reported unearthed from ancient burial sites in North America. Newspaper accounts, town and county histories, letters, scientific journals, diaries, photos and Smithsonian ethnology reports have carefully documented this. These skeletons have been reported from coast to coast in burial chambers, stone crypts, caves, ancient battlefields and massive mounds. Strange anatomic anomalies such as double rows of teeth, jawbones so large as to be fit over the face of the finder, and elongated skulls, were documented in virtually every state. Smithsonian scientists identified at least 17 skeletons that stood at over seven feet in their annual reports, including one example that was 8 feet tall, and a skull with a 36-inch circumference (an average human skull has a circumference of about 20 inches). The Smithsonian Institution is mentioned dozens more times as the recipient of enormous skeletons from across the United States. In late 2014, an article from a satirical website claimed that a Supreme Court ruling forced the Smithsonian Institution to admit to the historic destruction of giant skeletons. It was published not long after our Search for the Lost Giants TV show that aired on History Channel. The headline read: “Smithsonian Admits to Destruction of Thousands of Giant Human Skeletons in Early 1900s.” 2 The article was convincing, and this apparent exposé of the National Museum hit a chord with people. Right away, we were inundated with emails from people believing the story was real. In reality, if such a story were true, it would surely be front-page worldwide news. However, when an Internet post is mentioning a startling find and not verifying any of the professionals involved, or real organizations or institutions they belong to, one can quickly conclude that it is a misrepresentation of facts or an outright lie. Maybe someday, however, the Smithsonian will admit to the irony of this story.

The over-willingness to believe seems to be the culprit for such stories gaining life. This is the reality we have had to deal with when researching the strange case of the North American giants, as hoaxes and exaggerations were often reported as truth. This is further complicated by the lack of physical evidence, and the moral and ethical implications of investigating human remains. When the Native American Graves Protection and Repatriation Act (NAGPRA) was passed in 1990, any remaining giant skeletons and bones were removed from public display and buried according to the traditions of individual tribes. We often get asked: “where are the bones?” and we reply: “ask the Smithsonian and the Native Americans.” Even with these obstacles, we have done our best to chase down every account to the end and to be as impartial as possible. The book Giants on Record, is not trying to be a long scientific paper but rather an assemblage of data and documents that have been hidden in libraries and local historical societies, and quietly shunned by orthodox anthropology and archaeology for over a century. The following accounts are part of this forgotten legacy, which carry implications that may someday shake the foundations of American academia. Most of the reports we have uncovered are from well-known newspapers such as The Washington Post and The New York Times, but we begin our analysis with this account from The Worthington Advance (November 18, 1897, pg.3) that describes the ethnological work of the Smithsonian Institution’s Division of Eastern Mounds, and quotes the Director of the Bureau of Ethnology at the time, John Wesley Powell. The image below accompanies the news report, “It is officially recorded that agents of the Bureau of Ethnology have explored more than 2,000 of these mounds. Among the objects found in them were pearls in great numbers and some of very large size… It is a matter of official record that in digging through a mound in Iowa the scientists found the skeleton of a giant, who, judging from actual measurement, must have stood seven feet six inches tall when alive. The bones crumbled to dust when exposed to the air. Around the neck was a collar of bear’s teeth and across the thighs were dozens of small copper beads, which may have once adorned a hunting skirt.” As part of the Search for the Lost Giants show, Jim and fellow researcher James Clary investigated the following account that had this heading:

“An Ancient Ozark Giant Dug Up Near Steelville: Strange discovery made by a boy looking for arrowheads, gives this Missouri Town an absorbing mystery to ponder.” Highlights of the lengthy report from The Steelville Ledger (June 11, 1933) are given: “…he turned up the complete skeleton of an 8 foot giant. The grisly find was brought to Dr. R. C. Parker here and stretched out to its enormous length in a hallway of his office where it has since remained the most startling exhibit Steelville has ever had on public view… An appeal to Dr. Aleš Hrdlička, anthropologist of the National Museum in Washington and celebrated authority on primitive races is expected to help. Dr. Parker has written to him, offering to forward the skull or the whole skeleton, if necessary for scientific study.” Jim and James Clary found the exact location where the 8-foot skeleton was removed, which was from along the north wall of a cave. They met with several relatives of Billy Harmon, who all professed to the legitimacy of the find. They also found where R. C. Parker’s office once was, and ran into an old timer, who was Dr. Parker’s patient in his youth. While reading through the microfilm at the Steelville library, three reports of the find where uncovered, including the photo that shows Les Eaton, a 6-foot man laid out next to the 8-foot skeleton in Dr. Parkers office (see image below).

The Smithsonian Institution is continually linked to giant skeletons, or at least the lack of them. Most of the reports end in something like this: “The bones were shipped to the Smithsonian Institution for further study.” This ongoing problem of the “missing bones” has become a matter of legend, as there are dozens of reports of the Smithsonian receiving artifacts and giant skeletons. Today, however, they deny their existence. We investigate this thoroughly in our book, and conclude that a cover-up may have been instigated in the late 1800s because it did not fit in with their new ideologies of ‘Manifest Destiny’ and ‘Evolution.’ Although the giants were sidelined in the early stages of scientific discovery, they were, thanks to earlier explorers of America, already in the written record. ;As far back as the 1500s when the Spanish navigators were exploring the coast of the Americas, sightings of live giants were being recorded. Three captains of Spanish ships reported these taller-than-average native people on their expeditions to America, as well as Sir Francis Drake, Captain John Smith, a Smithsonian professor, and several other notable eyewitnesses. In 1519, Spanish explorer Alonzo Álvarez de Pineda was mapping the coastline of the Gulf Coast, marking the various rivers, bays, landmarks, and potential ports, declaring that they belonged to the king of Spain. Not far from where the river empties into the Gulf of Mexico he “found a large town, and on both sides of its banks, for a distance of six leagues up its course, some forty native villages.”3 He also noted that other than giants, the tribes also had a race of tiny pygmies. Pineda described the tribes that settled near the Mississippi river as: “A race of giants, from ten to eleven palms in height and a race of pigmies only five or six palms high.” (Webster’s Dictionary defines a palm used as a unit of measurement to range from seven to ten inches, so the giants were at least 6 feet 7 inches to 8 feet tall). On his return from Tampico to the Mississippi, Pineda unknowingly sailed right past a tribe of equally huge Texas Indians.3 A report on the Karankawas, John R. Swanton, of the Bureau of American Ethnology, describes the men as being: “…very tall and well formed…Head-flattening and tattooing were practiced to a considerable extent.” However it was also recorded that they:

“…do not eat men, but roast them only, on account of the cruelties first enacted against their ancestors by the Spanish.”

So that’s OK then! A few years later in 1523, as the Spanish fleet discovered, dominated, and overran the Caribbean Islands, a strange report came forth via historian Peter Martyr who assisted at the Council of the Indies. The account was originally shared by a native who was Christianized and taken to Spain: “The report ran that the natives were white and their king and queen giants, whose bones, while babies, had been softened with an ointment of strange herbs, then kneaded and stretched like wax by masters of the art, leaving the poor objects of their magic half dead, until after repeated manipulations they finally attained their great size.” In early 1521, Francisco Gordillo and Pedro de Quejo undertook a secret voyage from Spain. They sailed over to America and along the Carolina coast to capture Native American slaves, and to scout out potential locations for new Spanish colonies. They managed to capture seventy members of the Chicora tribe to bring back to their homeland: “The chiefs of the province of Chicora, a portion of what is now South Carolina, were famous for their height, which was supposed to prove their royal blood.” While Gordillo and Quejo treated the enigmatic Chicora Indians with treachery, their relationships with the Duhare peoples were much more gentlemanly. This was probably because the inhabitants of Duhare were described as looking European, with red or brown hair, tanned skin and gray eyes. Strangely, for this part of the world, the men had full beards and towered over the Spanish. They did not appear to be Native American. He visited with many of the Native American tribes in the area and recorded their customs, rituals and ways of living. The report on the Duhare stated: “Ayllon says the natives are white men, and his testimony is confirmed by Francisco Chicorana. Their hair is brown and hangs to their heels. They are governed by a king of gigantic size, called Datha, whose wife is as large as himself. They have five children. In place of horses, the king is carried on the shoulders of strong young men, who run with him to the different places he wishes to visit.” The Spanish describe Datha as being the largest man they had ever seen. He had a wife as tall as him. He wore brightly colored paint or tattoos on his skin that distinguished him from the commoners. This was all happening at the same time that the Patagonian giants (pictured below with Dr. Frederick A. Cook in 1898) were being witnessed on the southern tip of South America. For “Giants” became fashionable in the 1500s. In the summer of 1579, just north of San Francisco, Sir Francis Drake recounted his witnessing of living giants in his diary. In 1602, the California Channel Islands were ‘discovered’ by the Spanish, an area that has become a mecca for giantologists. Over 3,000 skeletons were discovered on the islands in the early 1900s, some being between 8 and 9 feet tall. Numerous mysterious reports of skulls containing ‘double rows of teeth’ were also reported on the neighboring islands.Hundreds of skeletal exhumation reports across the United States have demonstrated some very unusual anatomical features. These include macrocephalic (large) skulls, elongated craniums, enormous jaws that were fit over the face of the finders, and double rows of teeth. They come from official Smithsonian reports (with one account describing a third set of teeth), newspaper articles, and letters and journals from doctors and respected members of the local community. The ‘double row of teeth’ phenomenon is what we will briefly look at here, as it has been described in multiple accounts with evidence going as far back as 6,000 years, from the area of the Canadian Great Lakes.

Passion meets Purpose


Although it may be slightly painful, it is important to stretch properly before beginning any exercise to prepare the body for the stress of a work-out and to prevent injury.


An exercise program can stimulate pleasure endorphins in the brain that act as natural pain relievers.


We can often substitute alcohol and drugs for a similar sensation but underestimate the effects that they may have on our bodies and minds in the long term; all drugs, including prescription medications, have adverse effects and although a drug may not be enjoyable after frequent use it can still be hard to reduce a dosage or to stop using it altogether.


Copyright © 2009 - 2017 Tomitheos Photography - All Rights Reserved


fun fact:

endorphins are endogenous opioid polypeptide compounds and are produced by the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus in vertebrates during strenuous exercise and they resemble the opiates in their abilities to produce analgesia and a sense of well-being.


Show up and get the work done. #chuckclose #chasealias #immersionism #endogenous


Show Up and Get the Work Done: From Endogenous Series, 2010 - 2012


Inspiration is for amateurs. The rest of us just show up and get the work done. If you wait around for clouds to part and a bolt of lightning to strike you in the brain, you're not going to make an awful lot of work." -Chuck Close


David S Pollack becomes Chuck Close with the help of some Method Acting skills he attempts to visually and conceptually reinterpret the words and idea of this conceptual artist using this very quote of Mr Close's, Information he has studied and even traits he picked when briefly meeting Chuck as an art dealer in Chelsea before Pollack decided to abandon his Art Dealer to pursue his life's goal to become a Conceptual Artist.


David S Pollack aka Chase Alias hopes to bring to light with his new Endogenous Series how backwards moving our cultural standards have become. As an Immersionist he look back in envy at the freedoms which artists used to be able to express themselves without having to worry about cultural and even legal action being taken against them.


Immersionism is a young art movement which combines Lewittian Conceptualism with Method Acting practices and principles. Stanislavsky and Strasberg Acting Methods which utilize sense memory and affective memory are an Immersionist's base. Lewittian Conceptualism adheres to the ideal that the medium is not the message, the idea becomes a machine that makes the art.


HDR Video Still form an HD Video Screen Capture, Originally Filmed with an HD Flip Camera

Original Art and Prints available at Saatchi Art:

A la derecha España, a la izquierda Portugal (desde donde está hecha esta foto), en el centro el Río Duero: los Arribes del Duero.





Parque Natural de Arribes del Duero


El Parque Natural de Arribes del Duero es el espacio natural protegido que alberga el gran cañón del río Duero en todo su tramo fronterizo, junto a las zonas de valle y de meseta adyacentes. Está situado en el noroeste de la provincia de Salamanca y el suroeste de la provincia de Zamora, en la Comunidad Autónoma de Castilla y León, España.


En esta zona, el curso del río Duero hace de frontera natural entre España y Portugal. La otra orilla se conoce bajo la protección del Parque Natural del Duero Internacional, situado en el sureste del distrito de Braganza y el noreste del distrito de Guarda, Portugal.



Poblado del Salto de Aldeadávila


La característica más destacada de este espacio natural es la grandiosidad paisajística de su territorio. Un espectacular paraje en el que se pueden ver los graníticos cañones fluviales y valles frondosos por los que discurren encajonados los cursos de agua del río Duero y sus afluentes Águeda, Esla, Huebra, Uces y Tormes. Dentro de la demarcación del parque, también se incluye una zona de meseta zamorano-salmatina adyacente a la depresión causada por los ríos.


El alto caudal del Duero, los grandes desniveles de la zona y los numerosos ríos que en ella desembocan, convierten al parque en uno de los puntos de mayor potencial energético de toda la península Ibérica. Por ello, se ha ido construyendo una red de presas y embalses conocida como Saltos del Duero.


La peculiaridad de la orografía hace posible la existencia de un microclima más suave en los valles. Esto contribuye a la diversidad vegetal y convierte al parque en un lugar perfecto para el refugio de numerosos animales, especialmente para las aves.


Es una zona alejada con escasez de infraestructuras que se encuentra en un continuo proceso de despoblación debido al envejecimiento de sus habitantes. Gracias al carácter aislado de estas tierras, se han podido conservar numerosas costumbres y tradiciones como el idioma leonés. En los últimos años, las principales iniciativas inversoras de la zona han venido de la mano del comercio minorista transfronterizo y el turismo. Esta circunstancia ha hecho que sea necesario preservar el hábitat natural y desarrollar las tradiciones socioculturales como propulsores de la economía de la zona.


Tras años de reivindicaciones, el gobierno del país vecino protegió la parte portuguesa del espacio natural el 11 de mayo de 1998 bajo el nombre de Parque Natural del Duero Internacional.[1] El lado español no goza de la misma protección hasta el 11 de abril de 2002, cuando la Junta de Castilla y León incorporó este paraje a su red de parques naturales bajo el nombre de Parque Natural de Arribes del Duero.[2]

[editar] Extensión y territorio

Casa del parque, en el torreón de Sobradillo

Centro de recepción de visitantes, Trabanca

Arribanzos zamoranos, Torregamones

Cascada del Pozo de los Humos, Pereña

Puente de Requejo en Villadepera y Pino

El Duero a su paso por Saucelle


El gran cañón del Duero sirve de frontera natural entre España y Portugal, dividiendo este amplio espacio natural entre estos dos países. El río y sus afluentes son el elemento común y nexo de unión de todo el territorio que se extiende linealmente a lo largo de más de 100 km. La parte española, denominada Parque Natural de Arribes del Duero, se extiende sobre una superficie de aproximadamente 106.105 hectáreas mientras que la parte portuguesa, denominada Parque Natural del Duero Internacional, se extiende sobre una superficie de 85.150 hectáreas. La demarcación de estos parques, protege el territorio que comprende la depresión causada por los ríos y la franja de meseta adyacente. Los dos espacios suman una superficie de 191.255 hectáreas, lo que convierte a esta zona en una de las áreas protegidas más grandes de Europa.

[editar] Demarcación y municipios


La demarcación del parque comprende (total o parcialmente) la superficie de 37 términos municipales:


* 24 pertenecientes a la provincia de Salamanca: Ahigal de los Aceiteros, Aldeadávila de la Ribera, Almendra, Barruecopardo, Bermellar, La Bouza, Cabeza del Caballo, Cerezal de Peñahorcada, La Fregeneda, Hinojosa de Duero, Lumbrales, Masueco, Mieza, La Peña, Pereña de la Ribera, Puerto Seguro, Saldeana, San Felices de los Gallegos, Saucelle, Sobradillo, Trabanca, Villarino de los Aires, Vilvestre y La Zarza de Pumareda.

* 13 pertenecientes a la provincia de Zamora: Argañín, Fariza, Fermoselle, Fonfría, Gamones, Moral de Sayago, Moralina, Pino, Torregamones, Villadepera, Villalcampo, Villar del Buey y Villardiegua de la Ribera.


Durante años se discutió ampliar el área protegida hacia el este, englobando así a la zona del curso del río Tormes desde la presa de Almendra hasta Ledesma. Las características de la fauna y la flora en esta franja son muy similares a las del parque natural. Las zonas de nidificación de muchas especies de rapaces y ciconiiformes protegidas se solapan en ambos lugares. Finalmente se optó por ceñirse al área que hoy conocemos.[cita requerida]


En algunas localidades limítrofes, todavía existe el interés por pertenecer al parque. Olmedo de Camaces, Fuenteliante y Bañobárez solicitaron su inclusión en 2004. De hecho, estos municipios estuvieron incluidos en el anteproyecto del parque natural pero finalmente fueron excluidos de la demarcación definitiva.[3]

[editar] Puntos de referencia y accesos

[editar] Casas del parque


La peculiaridad de ser un parque a caballo entre las provincias de Salamanca y Zamora, tiene su reflejo en que la Junta de Castilla y León lo concibió con dos casas del parque. En estos puntos, se puede investigar sobre la historia, la arquitectura, las tradiciones, los paisajes, la flora o la fauna de estas tierras, pero también se puede consultar sobre rutas, lugares turísticos, restaurantes, alojamiento o diversas actividades organizadas, así como pedir mapas, folletos informativos o calendarios con las fiestas y eventos de la zona. Una de estas casas, está situada en la zamorana localidad de Fermoselle y la otra, en la población salmantina de Sobradillo. Surgen de la necesidad de aportar al visitante un visible punto de referencia, con información especializada desde la que iniciar su visita, y justifican su existencia en el desarrollo y coordinación de múltiples actividades de promoción e interpretación.


* La casa del parque del convento de San Francisco,[4] situada en el zamorano municipio de Fermoselle, tiene las siguientes opciones de acceso:


1. Desde Zamora, por la CL-527 directamente hasta Fermoselle.

2. Desde Salamanca, por la SA-300 hasta Ledesma. Allí se toma la SA-302 hacia Almendra, desde donde se siguen las indicaciones hasta Fermoselle.


* La casa del parque del Torreón de Sobradillo,[5] situada en la torre del homenaje del municipio salmantino de Sobradillo, tiene las siguientes opciones de acceso:


1. Desde Salamanca, por la CL-517 hasta Lumbrales. Allí se toma la DSA-464 hacia Sobradillo.

2. Desde Zamora, por la CL-528 hasta Ledesma. Allí se toma la CL-517 hacia Lumbrales, desde donde se coge la DSA-464 hacia Sobradillo.


En el zamorano municipio de Fariza se encuentran las oficinas del parque. Pertenecen a la Junta de Castilla y León y tienen la finalidad de ser el centro de coordinación de las actividades de conservación de la zona.[6]

[editar] Oficinas municipales de información


Complementariamente, algunos ayuntamientos de la demarcación del parque han creado sus propias oficinas de turismo. Estas instalaciones, por lo general más modestas que las de las casas del parque, también cuentan con información genérica del espacio natural aunque suelen ser especialmente visitadas por aquellos que buscan profundizar en la información de su área territorial de influencia. Existen oficinas de información turística en las localidades de Aldeadávila, Fermoselle, Hinojosa, La Fregeneda, Lumbrales, Torregamones, Trabanca y Villarino.[7] [8]

[editar] Museos


Otros lugares donde se puede estudiar más detenidamente algunos aspectos de la zona, son el museo arqueológico de Lumbrales,[9] las bodegas de Fermoselle, el museo de ecoturismo de Aldeadávila de la Ribera, las ferias agroalimentaria y de artesanía de Trabanca,[10] el museo de la tradición de Moralina,[11] el museo del vino y destilados de Villarino de los Aires, el parque temático de construcciones populares de Trabanca,[12] los museos etnográficos de Fariza, Hinojosa de Duero[13] y Villardiegua, la feria transfronteriza del olivar en Vilvestre, el salón internacional del vino de Trabanca,[14] los museos del aceite de San Felices de los Gallegos y Ahigal de los Aceiteros, la fragua de Trabanca,[15] la feria internacional del queso de Hinojosa de Duero,[16] el taller de alfarería y cerámica de Trabanca, el museo de historia de San Felices de los Gallegos, el museo textil de Lumbrales, los museos harineros de Sobradillo y San Felices de los Gallegos, el museo sacro de Villadepera y el museo casa de los frailes de Vilvestre.[17]

[editar] Etimología


Al estar caracterizada esta zona por ser un crisol de culturas, ha llevado a que este espacio natural reciba numerosos nombres dependiendo de la zona en la que nos encontremos. Denominaciones que en todo caso son de carácter popular y transmitidas de generación en generación.[18]


"Arribes" es una palabra de origen asturleonés derivada del latín "ad ripam" que significa "a la orilla".[19] Este término aparece publicado por primera vez en una obra escrita en 1885.[20] Era utilizado por los naturales de las comarcas salmantinas de El Abadengo y La Ribera para referirse a los cañones del Duero y demás ríos de este territorio. Sin embargo, en las comarcas zamoranas de Sayago y Aliste, esta misma zona se denominaba "Arribas" o "Las Arribas",[21] término que en la actualidad ha ido perdido presencia a favor del término foráneo "Los Arribes", pero ambos siguen siendo utilizados indistintamente en algunas localidades zamoranas. Existe además el término "Arribanzo", con el que los habitantes de la parte zamorana del parque se refieren a los enormes roquedos o gigantescas rocas graníticas que forman el encajonamiento del Duero.[22]


Frente a los nombres locales, es a partir de mediados de los años 70 cuando se ha extendido en la parte zamorana, la denominación masculinizada "Los Arribes", fruto de la fuerte popularidad que le han concedido a la zona los distintos medios de comunicación e instituciones, quienes, ajenos a la terminología local, han influido a los propios habitantes de la zona. De este modo, los zamoranos han generalizado el término Los Arribes mientras que paralelamente en el tiempo, en la parte salmantina se ha comenzado a utilizar cada vez con mayor frecuencia, la versión femenina de este término para referirse a la comarca salmantina de La Ribera, lo que ha implicado la pérdida progresiva de su propio e histórico nombre en favor de la nueva denominación "Las Arribes".[23]


"Arribes", tanto en masculino como en femenino, ha evolucionado en los últimos años para incluir también en su denominación, el paisaje de las zonas aledañas al río como es la franja de meseta más próxima al cañón además de todas las laderas intermedias.

[editar] Orografía


El relieve del parque se caracteriza por la fuerte incisión que presentan los cursos de los ríos Duero y sus afluentes Águeda, Esla, Huebra, Uces y Tormes sobre la meseta central, que constituye la unidad geomorfológica más antigua de la península Ibérica. Los procesos geológicos endógenos junto con la erosión del agua, han dado lugar a este espacio natural de abruptos cañones y valles escarpados por los que discurren encajados los cursos fluviales de estas tierras, estableciendo así la frontera natural entre España y Portugal.


Este inmenso balcón natural con vistas al país vecino, tiene su origen en la era primaria o Paleozoica (600-225 millones de años), cuando la península Ibérica se encontraba bajo el nivel del mar. La orogenia hercínica de esta etapa ocasionó la unión de todas las masas continentales, que se fusionaron formando la Pangea. De este modo, se deformó la litosfera y se produjo la emersión del denominado Macizo Hespérico, una enorme cadena montañosa resultante del choque de las placas, compuesta de granito, pizarra y cuarcita, sobre la que se asienta la actual meseta central y la mayor parte de España. Es por esto por lo que en el cañón del río Duero se pueden ver los denominados arribanzos o gigantescas rocas graníticas.


Durante la era secundaria o Mesozoica (225-68 millones de años), comienza a disgregarse la Pangea y formarse la estructua actual de la corteza. Esta gran masa continental se fragmenta originando la Gondwana por un lado y la Laurasia por otro. La erosión desgasta intensamente las formaciones paleozoicas dando como resultado el paisaje actual de la penillanura zamorano-salmantina. Las profundas capas graníticas, al contactar con los sedimentos paleozoicos, originaron en algunos puntos micacita y gneis.


Finalmente, la era terciaria o Cenozoica (68-1,7 millones de años) es el periodo en el que se produce el progresivo levantamiento del este peninsular, que tiene lugar gracias a la orogenia alpina. La inclinación de la península Ibérica hacia el océano Atlántico determina la orientación hacia éste de la mayoría de los ríos peninsulares incluido el Duero, que tiene que abrirse camino entre la llanura, dando como resultado el inmenso cañón de Arribes del Duero. Por último, con el inicio del período cuaternario comienzan a formarse las terrazas del río debido a las alternancias climáticas de esta etapa.

[editar] Climatología


Existen dos tipos de clima dentro del parque. En las zonas de cañón y valle se puede disfrutar de un microclima mediterráneo que suaviza las temperaturas y contribuye a la diversidad vegetal, mientras que en las zonas de meseta incluidas dentro de la demarcación, se puede observar ya el clima continental propio de la llanura zamorano-salmantina, donde los inviernos son más fríos y acusados. En el observatorio de Mieza, situado a 658 m de altura, se registran 12°C de temperatura media anual mientras que el observatorio de la presa de Saucelle, situado a 162 m de altura, se registran 17°C.


Los inviernos duran aproximadamente dos meses en las proximidades del río ya que la climatología es más suave y húmeda. Esto se debe a que los valles están a salvo del viento y más expuestos al sol. En las zonas de meseta se prolongan durante cinco meses al presentarse una climatología más fría y seca.


Las temperaturas medias del mes más gélido (enero o diciembre), están en torno a 9°C en las zonas de valle mientras que en las zonas de mayor altitud rondan los 5°C. La diferencia más notable entre una zona y otra son las heladas, prácticamente inexistentes en los valles. Esto posibilita el cultivo de olivos, vides, almendros y naranjos, que no son habituales en la meseta.


Durante los veranos, las diferencias no son tan acentuadas puesto que las temperaturas medias del mes más cálido (julio o agosto) son de 27°C en los valles y 25°C en la meseta. Por último, hay que indicar que aunque las temperaturas mínimas en esta época son bastante atenuadas, las máximas suelen ser elevadas, superando con frecuencia los 30°C durante los meses estivales.


Las precipitaciones se distribuyen de una forma muy irregular por todo el parque. La zona más lluviosa es el observatorio de Barruecopardo, con precipitaciones cercanas a los 900 mm, sin embargo el observatorio menos lluvioso se encuentra casualmente apenas a 20 km, en la presa de Saucelle, donde la precipitación anual supera escasamente los 500 mm. En términos generales, las precipitaciones son más abundantes al norte del parque, estando cercanas a los 700 mm en casi toda la demarcación zamorana donde se distribuyen de una forma más regular. Van disminuyendo cuanto más al suroeste nos encontremos.

[editar] Ecosistemas: fauna y flora


La fauna y la flora de este espacio natural brilla por la gran riqueza y variedad de especies que las componen. La singularidad del clima junto con la peculiaridad de la orografía, favorecen la existencia de un ecosistema natural de singular belleza. Las especies animales y vegetales que habitan en el parque natural, constituyen una síntesis de entre las que se pueden encontrar en el clima mediterráneo de los valles y en el clima continental de la meseta. En esta demarcación habitan cerca de 200 especies de aves, unas 47 clases de mamíferos y 21 tipos de reptiles entre una vegetación de tipo mediterráneo.

[editar] Fauna


La diversidad animal es uno de los motivos más importantes por los que la zona se declaró parque natural. Destaca el elevado número de aves, tanto nidificantes como hibernantes. La gran variedad existente se debe a que el cañón del río Duero, las grandes masas forestales y los numerosos cursos fluviales, constituyen en conjunto, el hábitat perfecto para cualquier tipo de ave.

Cigueña negra

Buitre leonado


Milano Real

Águila Real

[editar] Aves más destacadas


En 1990, este paraje natural fue declarado Zona de Especial Protección para las Aves (ZEPA).[24] Las especies protagonistas de este logro son el águila perdicera, el águila real, el alimoche, el búho real, el buitre leonado, la chova piquirroja, la cigüeña negra y el halcón peregrino.


La cigüeña negra es la más emblemática y extendida en la zona. Los huecos y recodos de los llamados arribanzos o roquedos graníticos del Duero, son el lugar elegido para la nidificación de este ave que en España está incluida dentro de las especies con posible peligro de extinción. Es por tanto este espacio natural, un punto clave para la conservación de esta especie. El 22 de junio de 1998, fue designado como Área Crítica para la Conservación de la Cigüeña Negra.[25] Las 20 parejas de cigueña negra que hay en esta zona, suponen el 8% de la población española y el 25% de la de Castilla y León (datos de febrero de 2005).[24]


Las grandes rapaces son las otras nidificantes más significativas e importantes del parque. Entre ellas, la forma del buitre leonado es la más sencilla de reconocer, pues campea a sus anchas por todo el área. En 2005 tenía una población de 550 parejas.[24] También destacan y son relativamente fáciles de reconocer las siluetas del alimoche (75 parejas en 2005),[24] el búho real (25 parejas en 1992),[24] el águila real (24 parejas en 2005),[24] el águila perdicera (17 parejas en 2005),[24] el milano real (9 parejas en 2005)[24] y el halcón peregrino (6 parejas en 2005).[24]


También destacan las poblaciones de chova piquirroja (159 parejas en 2005)[24] y cigueña blanca (115 parejas en 1999).[24]

[editar] Otras aves


Existen otras aves que dependen del resguardo de los arribanzos para criar o simplemente para sobrevivir. La más común es el avión roquero, que a diferencia del de otras zonas, permanece aquí todo el año gracias al microclima de la zona. También se pueden ver por aquí la chova piquirroja, el cuervo, la golondrina dáurica, la grajilla, el roquero solitario y el vencejo real.


En los bosques donde predominan los robles, se encuentran pequeñas poblaciones de arrendajo, becada, camachuelo común, mirlo común, mito, pico menor, pico picapinos, pito real, torcecuello, trepador azul y zorzal común. En los bosques donde predominan las encinas, son más frecuentes los alcaudones comunes, los alcaudones reales, los agateadores, los críalos y los rabilargos.


También es habitual la presencia de rapaces forestales como el águila calzada, el milano negro, el milano real y el ratonero común. Durante la noche son frecuentes el autillo, el búho chico, el cárabo y el chotacabras gris.


En las riberas de los ríos, se puede ver al chorlitejo chico, la focha común, la gallina de agua, la garza real, el martín pescador y el mirlo acuático.

[editar] Mamíferos


Se cuenta con la presencia de ejemplares tan escasos como son el gato montés y el tejón.


Destacada es la presencia de murciélagos, de las que se calcula la presencia de 14 especies. En su proliferación ha tenido especial trascendencia el abrigo proporcionado por los roquedales de los acantilados y el especial clima benigno de la zona.


Uno de los mamíferos cuya presencia despierta un especial interés, por su escasez y galopante regresión en el continente europeo, es la nutria. La construcción de numerosos embalses fue antaño la principal causa de su casi completa desaparición en el Duero, de la que escasamente se ha ido recuperando con el paso del tiempo.


Visitante ocasional del parque es el lobo que, también desde el sector norte, penetra sin haber llegado a mantener una población estable. Otros mamíferos, ya relativamente más abundantes, serían el zorro, jabalí, gineta, conejo, liebre, erizo, comadreja, garduña y lirón careto.


El más destacado de todos los mamíferos que han habitado alguna vez en el parque, es el endémico lince ibérico. Aunque actualmente se da por extinguido en la zona,[26] [27] [28] algunos expertos afirman que en los valles más tranquilos y de vegetación mejor conservada, aún podrían quedar algunos ejemplares.[29] De hecho, aunque no esté demostrada su supervivencia en estas tierras, en la mayoría de los carteles, folletos y webs de promoción y publicidad de la zona, así como en la propia ley de declaración como parque natural, todavía lo incluyen entre sus especies.[2] [30]

[editar] Peces, anfibios y reptiles


Se puede reconocer en torno a una veintena de especies piscícolas en área acuática protegida y, de ellas, algunas son endemismos: barbo ibérico, boga, bermejuela y colmilleja, la pardilla y calandino.


El esturión es otro de los que más escasez de individuos se ha detectado en toda la zona, lo que ha motivado su clasificación como especie "en peligro de extinción". La anguila es también una especie amenazada en la parte española del Duero, ya que solo sobrevive en ríos que desembocan en el Océano Atlántico y los embalses españoles (al contrario que los portugueses) no cuentan con escalas de peces. Frecuentes son también, entre otros, las clásicas carpa, tenca y lucio.


Respecto de los anfibios, las condiciones ambientales no son las más idóneas, ya que el menor número de precipitaciones, a pesar de un mayor rigor termométrico, dificulta la proliferación de los anfibios en el parque. Hasta trece especies se han contabilizado, de las que al menos dos son endémicas: tritón ibérico y sapo partero ibérico. Más abundantes son el sapo común, sapo corredor, tritón jaspeado, rana de san Antonio, y la salamandra común.


Sin embargo, el Parque es un hábitat idóneo para la proliferación de reptiles, tanto por clima como por relieve, siendo los más abundantes el lagarto ocelado, la lagartija colilarga, el bastardo y la culebra escalera. Estos a su vez se han convertido en elementos clave de la alimentación de las rapaces diurnas, por la disminución progresiva de otros animales como conejo y perdiz. Relevante es también la presencia de la salamandra común, amparada por la mayor benignidad climática, junto al galápago europeo y el galápago leproso.

[editar] Flora


La diversidad vegetal está representada por flora de tipo mayoritariamente mediterráneo. La mayoría de los bosques están formados por robles. Coexisten con los de alcornoques y encinas. Las grandes extensiones de matorral están llenas de retamas, piornos, tomillos, jaras, chumberas o enebros.


Gracias al microclima, además es posible el cultivo de plantas y árboles que no son habituales en las vecinas comarcas de la meseta, donde se presenta un clima continental. Esta peculiaridad la representan los olivos, las vides, los almendros, los naranjos y los limoneros, aunque actualmente el número de estas plantaciones es mucho menor que antaño. También se llegó a cultivar caña de azúcar a finales del siglo XIX.[31]


En la actualidad, el cultivo más importante y extendido en la zona, es el de la vid. Destacan las catorce bodegas de Ahigal de los Aceiteros, Fermoselle, Fornillos de Fermoselle, La Fregeneda, Pereña de la Ribera y Villarino de los Aires, que elaboran los vinos de la Denominación de Origen Arribes. También se pueden ver algunos olivares importantes en Ahigal de los Aceiteros, San Felices de los Gallegos y Vilvestre,[32] [33] y quedan varias extensiones de almendros en Hinojosa de Duero, Mieza, Saucelle y más concretamente en La Fregeneda y Vilvestre.[34] Los naranjos también tienen presencia en esta misma zona, sobre todo en Vilvestre.[35] De las extensiones de limoneros, ya sólo quedan algunos árboles individuales.

[editar] Vestigios, demografía y población


Esta zona ha estado habitada desde hace mucho tiempo. Se conservan numerosos vestigios sobre los antiguos pobladores. En la actualidad, la pérdida de población es el gran problema de la zona.

[editar] Hallazgos del antiguo poblamiento

Mula prerromana, Villardiegua

Cabeza del Caballo

La Fregeneda


Numerosas huellas dan fe del antiguo servilismo de esta tierra hacia el hombre. De los vestigios existentes, los más antiguos se han fechado en el paleolítico, como las pinturas rupestres de la cueva de Palla Rubia,[36] situada frente al Pozo de los Humos, en la orilla perteneciente al municipio de Pereña. De la misma época son las pinturas rupestres del Risco de Bermellar,[37] próximo al Puerto de la Molinera.


Del neolítico se conserva el taller de Vilvestre, al que algunos expertos arqueólogos califican como el más importante de España.[37] En él se afilaban las herramientas que posteriormente serían utilizadas en las actividades cotidianas.


La presencia árabe, muy importante en toda la zona, se conserva en la tradición oral leyendas de tesoros, fortalezas y acoso a doncellas... en Pereña de la Ribera, Masueco y Aldeadávila de la Ribera. De esta época también hay restos junto a la Ermita de Nuestra Señora del Castillo en Pereña, y un tramo de cercas árabes del siglo X junto a la Ermita de la Santa en Aldeadávila.

[editar] Población actual


En 2010, la población total de los términos municipales incluidos (total o parcialmente) en la demarcación del parque, era de 16.514 habitantes (INE 2010), mientras que en el año 2000, era de 19.718 habitantes (INE 2000). Como se puede obervar, la población arribeña ha sufrido un descenso importante. Desde los años 60, se da una evolución continuamente negativa en el número de habitantes de esta zona. Esto se debe principalmente al acusado envejecimiento, que viene como consecuencia de la emigración de la juventud hacia las ciudades.


Esta emigración tiene una primera etapa que va desde principios del siglo XX hasta 1950 en la que algunos habitantes parten hacia Argentina y otros países de Iberoamérica. A partir de los años 50 se origina una emigración, aunque tampoco muy importante, hacia Europa occidental y un poco más adelante, en los años 60, se produce el gran boom de la emigración hacia la ciudades españolas más desarrolladas, orientándose sobre todo, hacia Madrid, Cataluña, País Vasco, Valladolid y en menor medida hacia Andalucía y la Comunidad Valenciana.


Veintitrés de los treinta y siete términos municipales incluidos (total o parcialmente) en la demarcación parque, tienen una población inferior a 500 habitantes (INE 2002). Albergan solamente a un tercio de los residentes totales (30,9%) y ocupan una extensión bastante inferior a la mitad de las hectáreas protegidas (39,8%).


Nueve términos municipales (la cuarta parte del total) tienen poblaciones que oscilan entre 500 y 1.000 habitantes (INE 2002). Estos albergan al 32,9% de la población total y ocupan el 36,4% del territorio del parque. Son núcleos de población que sólo se diferencian de los anteriores en el censo, ya que a pesar de tener mayor densidad demográfica que los anteriores, no cuentan con la entidad suficiente como para modificar sus rasgos cualitativos y adquirir un cierto rango en la escala funcional de este tipo de espacios.


Ese mayor rango es atribuible, aunque sólo parcialmente, a los cinco términos municipales que tienen poblaciones superiores a los 1.000 habitantes. Son Aldeadávila de la Ribera, Fermoselle, Fonfría, Lumbrales y Villarino de los Aires (INE 2002). La población censada en ellos cuantifica el 36,2% de la residente y sin embargo representan algo menos de la cuarte parte de la superficie (23,8%). Estas localidades están algo mejor dotadas y es en ellas donde se puede disfrutar de la mayoría de la actividades organizadas de la zona.


Frente a esta tendencia decreciente de la población residente, contrasta el aumento demográfico que se produce en la época estival como consecuencia de la vuelta al pueblo por vacaciones, de la población que emigró y ahora vive en las ciudades. También destaca el número de turistas, que asciende a 90.758 visitantes en 2008, según el servicio de espacios naturales de la consejería de medio ambiente de la Junta de Castilla y León.[38] Una cifra muy elevada en comparación con la del número de personas que vive en estas tierras.

[editar] Lucha contra el despoblamiento


Es importante mencionar las actuaciones llevadas a cabo por los ayuntamientos de la zona para frenar la pérdida de población. En un pleno celebrado el 27 de julio de 2007, en el ayuntamiento de Aldeadávila de la Ribera, se aprobó por unanimidad la concesión de una ayuda de 3.000 euros a las familias censadas en este municipio por cada nacimiento de un hijo[39] mientras que en Trabanca lanzaron una amplia oferta de empleo para 36 profesionales de todo tipo, con la intención de revitalizar y dinamizar económicamente la zona.[40]


El 14 de marzo de 2009, se constituye la Agrupación Europea de Cooperación Territorial Duero-Douro, una institución o asociación con entidad jurídica, que agrupa varios municipios de España y Portugal con la finalidad de organizar, gestionar y llevar a cabo proyectos de cooperación transfronteriza en los ámbitos del desarrollo económico, laboral, medioambiental y turístico.[41]

[editar] Aprovechamiento hidroeléctrico

Presa de Aldeadávila

Artículo principal: Saltos del Duero


El Duero es el tercer río más largo de España y el más caudaloso de la península Ibérica. A su paso por la frontera, su caudal medio es de 570 m³/s.


Siendo éste un territorio alejado y mal comunicado, el río es su principal recurso natural. El alto caudal que posee y el gran desnivel que existe en este tramo, junto con la desembocadura de los ríos Águeda, Esla, Uces, Huebra y Tormes en la zona, son los factores que convierten al parque en un lugar idóneo para el levantamiento de grandes presas y embalses cuyo objetivo sea la obtención energía eléctrica. Por ello, el 16 de agosto de 1927 se firmó un acuerdo hispano-luso en el que se asignó a España el tramo entre las desembocaduras de los ríos Tormes y Huebra, y a Portugal los otros dos tramos de frontera del Duero para la construcción de estos aprovechamientos hidroeléctricos.


Saltos del Duero es el nombre de la empresa que gestionó la construcción de las grandes presas y actualmente es como se conoce al sistema hidroeléctrico que conforman, cuya potencia instalada supera los 3000 megavatios en la parte española. Este factor hace que Castilla y León, con 5657 megavatios, sea la productora de más del 20% de la energía eléctrica de origen hidraúlico de España.

[editar] Gastronomía

Véanse también: Gastronomía de la provincia de Salamanca y Gastronomía de la provincia de Zamora


El arte del buen comer es otro de los atractivos turísticos que ofrece la zona. La calidad de la materia prima y los excelentes modos culinarios, hacen posible la elaboración de una cocina tradicional, rica y variada. Las cinco denominaciones de origen (carne de morucha, garbanzos de Fuentesaúco, jamón de Guijuelo, lenteja de La Armuña y queso zamorano) y las cuatro marcas de garantía (chorizo de Zamora, harina tradicional zamorana, ternera charra, ternera de Aliste y quesos de Arribes) son ejemplo de reconocimiento a la calidad de los productos de las provincias de Salamanca y Zamora.


Los entrantes constituyen una parte esencial y muy característica de esta cocina. Los protagonistas indiscutibles aquí son el embutido, el jamón o el queso. Comparten este puesto con la chanfaina, las patatas revolconas y el hornazo, una especie de empanada rellena de embutidos, muy tradicional de la zona.


Unos huevos fritos con farinato, un potaje, una sencilla ensalada de la huerta o la típica sopa de ajo podrían constituir una primera parte de la degustación, para dar paso a la carta de carnes, que está sin duda entre los platos fuertes de la cocina de estas tierras. Destacan en primer lugar, las especialidades en ternera, cuya calidad reside en la frescura del género y en el tradicional sistema de cría de las ganaderías de la zona, con razas autóctonas de reconocido prestigio como la morucha, sayaguesa o alistana. Menos conocidos, pero de igual virtud, son otros platos como el cordero lechal, el cabrito al horno, los reconocidos guisos de pollo de corral o los asados de costillares de cerdo. Para los que aún continúen buscando alternativas, la cocina arribeña ofrece sus especialidades en bacalao, especialmente asado, o la tenca escabechada así como las lentejas, las alubias o los garbanzos, que también constituyen una parte importante de la comida de la tierra.


Al llegar al postre se pueden degustar dulces típicos como las perrunillas, los repelaos, el piñonate, el bollo maimón, las obleas, los suspiros de monja y el queso de almendra o saborear las naranjas, cerezas, manzanas y peras de la zona.


Además, como en toda buena comida, no puede faltar una buena selección de vinos como los de la recientemente creada Denominación de Origen Arribes o de los ya consolidados caldos de la Denominación de Origen Toro y la Denominación de Origen Tierra del Vino de Zamora.




Sopa de ajo


Huevos con farinato


Bollo maimón

[editar] Lenguas y literatura

Artículos principales: Habla arribeña, habla sayaguesa, idioma leonés e idioma mirandés


Al ser y haber sido ésta una zona aislada y fronteriza, se han podido conservar en mayor o menor grado una larga lista de arraigadas tradiciones, costumbres y peculiaridades autóctonas como es el idioma leonés. De esta forma, en la ribera española todavía son de uso cotidiano por la población de muy avanzada edad, algunas palabras, giros y expresiones en lengua leonesa.


En el vecino concelho portugués de Miranda do Douro, el dialecto derivado del leonés, denominado oficialmente mirandés, goza de protección y reconocimiento legal.[42]

[editar] Miguel de Unamuno quiso dejar presente su visita a la zona, con un lugar dentro de la literatura española más conocida


El famoso escritor bilbaíno Miguel de Unamuno era un enamorado de este espacio natural. Visitó la zona al menos en dos ocasiones. La primera de ellas fue en marzo de 1898 a modo de retiro espiritual. Llegó a Masueco para visitar el Pozo de los Humos. Se acercó al cañón del Duero en Aldeadávila de la Ribera y quiso contemplar las ruinas del Convento de La Verde. También visitó Vilvestre, donde dice que pudo contemplar una de las mejores puestas de sol de todas las que había visto. Habla con gran cariño de todos estos lugares en el relato (1898) que mandó a la revista bilbaína Ecos Literarios.


El escritor visitó la zona por segunda vez en mayo de 1902. En esta visita, Unamuno pudo conocerla más en profundidad. En Por tierras de Portugal y España (1911), aparece una descripción detallada de este espacio natural.

El primer pueblo de La Ribera a donde llegué fue Masueco... Al siguiente día de mi llegada fuimos a ver la cascada de los Humos, en los arribes de uno de los afluentes al Duero... Es singular el atractivo del agua. Estaríase uno las horas muertas contemplándola fluir, dejándose ganar el espíritu por la sensación purísima que su constante curso nos produce. El agua es acaso la que mejor imagen nos ofrece de la quietud en el movimiento, del solemne reposo supremo que del concierto de las carreras de los seres todos surge. En el estanque duerme el agua reflejando al cielo, pero con no menos pureza lo refleja en el cristal de un sosegado río, cuyas aguas, siempre distintas, ofrecen la misma superficie siempre. Y en la cascada misma, por donde se despeña bramando, preséntanos una vena compacta, una columna que acaba por parecer sólida. ¡Enorme fuerza la que sin aparato alguno, con la sencillez del coloso, despliega!... Es una de las más hermosas caídas de agua que pueden verse entre aquellos tajos adustos. Divídese la cascada mayor en dos cuerpos debido a un saliente de la roca, y va a perderse en un remanso de donde surge el vapor que ha valido al paraje el nombre de los Humos. Junto a la inmensa vena líquida, a su abrigo, en las quebraduras y resquicios de la roca, anidan palomas que revolotean en torno del coloso. Este irá desgastando poco apoco el desnivel que le produce, y es seguro que cada año se achica la cascada, aunque sólo sea en un milímetro o en fracción de él. ¡Los siglos que habría necesitado el agua para excavar tales tajos y reducir análogas cascadas!.


Al siguiente día de nuestra visita a los Humos, preparamos la expedición a Laverde... Laverde está en territorio de Aldeadávila de la Ribera, la corte de esta región, la villa para los comarcanos... Dimos... vista al Duero y con él a un paisaje dantesco... En lo alto, apuntados picones que se asoman al abismo, peñas y aserradas crestas; a lo largo, inmensas escotaduras que encajándose de un lado y de otro, en la disposición llamada de cola de milano, forman la garganta por cuyo hondón corre el río. Los enormes cuchillos van perdiéndose en gradación de tintas hasta ir a confundirse con la niebla. Allí arribota, arribota, en la cresta del escarpado frontero, verdean trozos de trigo, nuncios de una campiña serena, y asoma su copa algún que otro arbolito que denuncian a un pueblecillo portugués. Juegos de luz animan la dantesca garganta; peñas en claro se destacan sobre el tono oscuro de las peñas en sombra, y allá en lo alto, dominando al ceñudo paisaje, algún milano se cierne bañándose en luz. Suben del río perezosas nieblas que se agarran a los peñascos, y fingen el alma de éstos que de ellos se desprende con pesar. El Duero, que dibujando su vena central, su líquido senderillo de espuma, corre encajonado en el fondo de estas gargantas, es el mismo que pasa amplio y solemne, abrazando a la feraz llanura y como gozándose en ella, por tierra de Zamora. Todas estas gargantas dantescas son obras de él, obra de la lenta labor del agua terca...


En una de estas laderas del tajo del Duero, en medio de lo que queda de una que debió de ser huerta frondosa, se alzan las ruinas del convento de Laverde, retiro en un tiempo de los religiosos menores. En la portería, sobre la puerta y debajo de un escudo con los cinco estigmas, se lee, enteramente ahumada, esta inscripción: «Entre la vida y la muerte no ai espacio ninguno; en un instante se acaba lo que se vive en el mundo. Año de MDCCLXIX»... Es una pena la que ofrece aquella desolación. Las celdas deshechas y a la intemperie; la yerba creciendo por todas partes; en el claustro un limonero entre maleza, y en el jardín un boscaje de limoneros y de naranjos... Por la parte que mira al río presenta algún aspecto de fortaleza. Lo hermoso es su escenario y su ambiente, los restos de vegetación de que está rodeado. Frente a él se alza una gigantesca piñal (pino) y en lo hondo zumba el Duero enfrenado entre peñascos. Lo más típico es lo que del huerto queda, aquel rincón umbrío de limoneros y naranjos, a cuya sombra rezarían los frailes sus oraciones, descabezarían sus siestas y gozarían de tranquilo sosiego los ancianos retirados ya del todo del mundo... Hubo un tiempo, hasta eso del año 30, en que floreció en su retiro aquel cenobio, ofreciendo en aquella colosal hendidura de la adusta meseta castellana escuela de recogimiento y meditación a los frailes menores durante algún tiempo del año y refugio para su vejez a los que de ellos pedían acabar allí sus días, en el vivo silencio, rezando a la sombra de los limoneros y al compás del murmullo del contenido río.


Es, sí, un silencio vivo el que aquí reina, vivo porque reposa sobre el sempiterno rumor del Duero, que en puro ser continuo acaba por borrarse de la conciencia de quien lo recoge. Allí, en aquel refugio, libertaríanse los espíritus del tiempo, engendrador de cuidados, yendo cada día a hundirse sin ruido con su malicia en la eternidad. ¡Siempre el mismo río, los mismos peñascos siempre, todo inmutable! Cuando lo que nos rodea no cambia, acabamos por no sentimos cambiar, por comprender que es el vivir un morir continuo, que «entre la vida y la muerte no hay espacio ninguno», como reza la inscripción del convento de Laverde... Hay en el camino un punto que se llama el montadero de los frailes; a una peña que forma a modo de un asiento le llaman la silla del guardián. Allí cuentan también que, viniendo Santa Marina perseguida de los moros y cansada del camino, al llegar a una peña, le dijo: «Ábrete, peña cerrada, que viene Marina cansada». En la peña hendida se colocó un altar a la santa, y sobre ella se alzó la capilla de Santa Marina, cercana al convento...

Al siguiente día de nuestra visita a Laverde, fuimos a Vilvestre, un pueblecillo despejado y limpio que se tiende a la falda de una colina coronada por las ruinas de un castillo. Y en Vilvestre nos asomamos a dos picones que dominan los arribes, a Peño Corvo y el Castillo de Narbona, nombre extraño para un desnudo peñasco. Domínase desde ellos, como desde elevada comisa, un sitio en que la barranca se ensancha dulcificándose el paisaje... Al retirarnos al pueblo poníase tras las colinas portuguesas el rojo disco del sol. Fue una de las más hermosas puestas que he visto. El inmenso globo candente, de rojo cereza, se ponía en paz y sin herir la vista, entre nubecillas que a ratos le ocultaban en parte, fingiendo en su encendida esfera paisajes de adustos peñascos, remedo de los que acabamos de ver.




To the right of Spain, left Portugal (from where I took this photo), in downtown Rio Douro: Douro Arribes.





Natural Park of Douro Arribes


Natural Park of Douro Arribes the nature reserve is home to the Grand Canyon of the Duero River in all its border stretch along the valley areas and adjacent plateau. Located in the northwestern province of Salamanca and the southwestern province of Zamora in the Autonomous Community of Castilla y León, Spain.


In this area, the river Douro is the natural border between Spain and Portugal. The other side is known under the umbrella of the International Duero Natural Park, located in the southeastern district of Bragança and the northeastern district of Guarda, Portugal.



Jump populous Aldeadávila


The most striking feature of this natural area is the scenic grandeur of its territory. A spectacular place where you can see the granite lush river canyons and valleys through which run streams encased the Douro River and its tributaries Agueda Esla Huebra, Uces and Tormes. Within the boundary of the park, also includes a plateau area Zamora-salmatina adjacent to the depression caused by rivers.


The high flow of the Douro, the steep slopes of the area and the many rivers that flow into it, turn the park into one of the major points of potential energy of the entire Iberian Peninsula. Therefore, it has been building a network of dams and reservoirs known as Saltos del Duero.


The peculiarity of the terrain makes the existence of a milder microclimate in the valleys. This contributes to plant diversity and makes the park a perfect place for the refuge of many animals, especially birds.


It is a remote area with poor infrastructure that is in a continuous process of depopulation due to the aging of its population. Thanks to the isolated nature of these lands have been preserved many customs and traditions as Leonese language. In recent years, major investment initiatives in the area have become possible with cross-border retail trade and tourism. This has made it necessary to preserve the natural habitat and develop cultural traditions as drivers of the economy of the area.


After years of demands the government of the neighboring country the Portuguese protected natural area on 11 May 1998 under the name of the International Duero Natural Park. [1] The Spanish side did not enjoy the same protection until April 11 2002, when the Junta de Castilla y León joined this site in its network of natural parks under the name of Parque Natural del Duero Arribes [2].

[Edit] Extension and territory

Park House, the tower Sobradillo

Visitor Reception Center, Trabanca

Arribanzos Zamora, Torregamones

Cascada del Pozo de los Hood, Pereña

Requejo Bridge in Villadepera y Pino

The Douro step Saucelle


The Grand Canyon del Duero forms a natural boundary between Spain and Portugal, dividing the large natural area between the two countries. The river and its tributaries are the common and link all the territory that extends linearly along over 100 km. The Spanish called Arribes Natural Park of Douro, extends over an area of approximately 106,105 hectares while the Portuguese called the International Duero Natural Park, covers an area of 85,150 hectares. The demarcation of these parks, protect the borders of the depression caused by the rivers and the adjacent plateau fringe. The two areas have a combined area of 191,255 hectares, making this area one of the largest protected areas in Europe.

[Edit] Demarcation and municipalities


The demarcation of the park is (totally or partially) the area of 37 municipalities:


* 24 belong to the province of Salamanca: Ahigal of oil, Aldeadávila de la Ribera, Almond, Barruecopardo Bermellar, La Bouza, Head of the Horse, Cerezal of Peñahorcada, La Fregeneda, Hinojosa de Duero, Lumbrales, Masueco, Mieza, The Peña, Pereña de la Ribera, Puerto Seguro, Saldeana, San Felices de los Gallegos, Saucelle, Sobradillo, Trabanca, Villarino of Aires, and La Zarza Vilvestre Pumareda.

* 13 belong to the province of Zamora: Argañín, Fariza, Fermoselle, Fonfría, Gamones, Moral de Sayago, Moralina, Pino, Torregamones, Villadepera, Villalcampo, Villar del Buey and Villardiegua de la Ribera.


Discussed for years to expand the protected area to the east, thus encompassing the area of the river Tormes from prey to Ledesma Almond. The characteristics of the fauna and flora in this age are very similar to the natural park. Nesting sites for many species of raptors and protected Ciconiiformes overlap in both places. Finally we decided to stick to the area we know today. [Citation needed]


In some border towns, there is still interest in joining the park. Camaces Olmedo, Bañobárez Fuenteliante and requested its inclusion in 2004. In fact, these municipalities were included in the draft natural park but were eventually excluded from the final demarcation. [3]

[Edit] Reference and Access Points

[Edit] Holiday Park


The peculiarity of being a park straddling the provinces of Salamanca and Zamora, is reflected in the Junta de Castilla y León conceived with two houses of the park. At these points, you can research the history, architecture, traditions, landscapes, flora and fauna of these lands, but can also be found on routes, tourist attractions, restaurants, accommodation and various activities organized and ordering maps, brochures and calendars with festivals and events in the area. One of these houses, is located in Fermosella Zamora and the other in the town of Salamanca in Sobradillo. Arise from the need to provide the visitor with a visible point of reference, specialized information from which to start your visit, and justify their existence in the development and coordination of multiple advocacy and interpretation.


* The Park House Convent of San Francisco, [4] in the municipality of Fermoselle Zamora, has the following access options:


1. From Zamora, by the CL-527 directly to Fermoselle.

2. From Salamanca, the SA-300 to Ledesma. They take the SA-302 toward Almond, where you follow the signs to Fermoselle.


* The house of the Tower of Sobradillo Park, [5] on the tower of the town of Salamanca Sobradillo has the following access options:


1. From Salamanca, by the CL-517 to Lumbrales. There is taken into Sobradillo DSA-464.

2. From Zamora, by the CL-528 to Ledesma. There is taken into Lumbrales CL-517, from where you take the DSA-464 to Sobradillo.


In the municipality of Fariza Zamora are the offices of the park. Belong to the Junta de Castilla y León and are intended to be the focal point for conservation activities in the area. [6]

[Edit] Municipal Information Office


Additionally, some municipalities in the demarcation of the park have created their own tourist offices. These facilities, generally more modest than those of the houses in the park, also have general information of the countryside but are often particularly visited by those seeking in-depth information of its land area of influence. There are tourist information offices in the towns of Aldeadávila, Fermoselle, Hinojosa, La Fregeneda, Lumbrales, Torregamones, Trabanca and Villarino. [7] [8]

[Edit] Museums


Other places where you can explore further some aspects of the area are the archaeological museum of Lumbrales, [9] Fermoselle cellars, the museum's ecotourism Aldeadávila de la Ribera, food fairs and craft Trabanca [10 ] Museum Moralina tradition, [11] the museum of wine and distillates Villarino of Aires, the theme park construction Trabanca popular [12] Fariza ethnographic museums, Hinojosa de Duero [13] and Villardiegua The Olive Fair Vilvestre border, the international fair Trabanca wine, [14] Oil Museum of San Felices de los Gallegos and Ahigal of oil, Trabanca Forge [15] the International Cheese Fair Hinojosa de Duero, [16] and ceramic pottery workshop Trabanca, the history museum of San Felices de los Gallegos, Lumbrales the textile museum, museums Sobradillo Flour and San Felices de los Gallegos, the museum's sacred Villadepera and the museum house of the friars of Vilvestre [17].

[Edit] Etymology


To be characterized this area for being a melting pot of cultures, has led to this natural area receives numerous names depending on the area where we are. Names that are in any case popular character and transmitted from generation to generation. [18]


"Up" is a word derived from Latin origin Leonese ad IRPCAS "which means" the shore. "[19] This term is published for the first time in a work written in 1885. [20] was used by natural Salamanca counties of El Abadengo and La Ribera to refer to the guns of Duero and other rivers of this territory. However, in the counties of Zamora Sayago and Ready, this area was called "Up" or "The Top", [21] term that has now been lost ground in favor of the foreign term "The Top", but both are still used interchangeably in some localities Zamora. There is also the term "Arribanzo", with which the inhabitants of the park Zamora referred to the huge granite rocks and huge boulders that form the narrowing of the Duero. [22]


Faced with local names, is from the mid-70 when it has spread in the Zamora, the masculine name "The Top", the result of the strong popularity which has been attached to the area various media and institutions who, outside the local terminology, have influenced the inhabitants of the area. Thus, the widespread Zamora's term up as parallel in time, in the Salamanca has begun to use more and more frequently, the female version of this term to refer to the Salamanca district of La Ribera, This has meant the progressive loss of its own historic name for the new name "The Above." [23]


"Up", both masculine and feminine, has evolved in recent years to include in its name, the landscape of the areas along the river as is the strip of plateau near the canyon as well as all the intermediate slopes.

[Edit] Terrain


The highlight of the park is characterized by strong incision presents the courses of rivers Duero and its tributaries Agueda Esla Huebra, Uces and Tormes on the central plateau, which is the oldest geomorphological unit of the Iberian Peninsula. Endogenous geological processes with water erosion, have led to this natural area of steep canyons and steep valleys that run embedded by the rivers of this land, thus establishing the natural border between Spain and Portugal.


This immense natural balcony overlooking the neighboring country, has its origin in the primary or Paleozoic era (600-225 million years ago), when the Iberian Peninsula was under sea level. The Hercynian orogeny in this stage resulted in the union of all the continents, which merged to form the Pangea. Thus, the lithosphere is deformed and there was the emergence of the so-called Hesperian Massif, a vast mountain chain resulting from the collision of plates, made of granite, slate and quartzite, which is based on the current central plateau and most Spain. It is for this reason that in the Duero River Gorge can be seen the so-called arribanzos or giant granite rocks.


During the secondary or Mesozoic era (225-68 million years ago), Pangea began to break up the current and form the structure of the crust. This great landmass Gondwana fragments originating the one hand and the other Laurasia. Erosion wears intensely Paleozoic formations resulting in the current landscape of the peneplain Zamora-Salamanca. The deep layers of granite, the contact with the Paleozoic sediments, originated at some points micacita and gneiss.


Finally, the Tertiary or Cenozoic (from 68 to 1.7 million years) is the period that produced the progressive lifting of the eastern peninsula, which takes place through the Alpine Orogeny. The slope of the Iberian peninsula into the Atlantic Ocean it determines the orientation of most of the peninsular rivers including the Duero, which has cut through the plains, resulting in the huge canyon of Arribes del Duero. Finally, with the beginning of the Quaternary period, begin to form the terraces of the river due to climatic alternations of this phase.

[Edit] Climatology


There are two types of climate in the park. In the canyon and valley areas can enjoy a Mediterranean microclimate which makes the temperatures and contributes to plant diversity, whereas in the plateau areas included within the boundary can be observed as the continental climate typical of the plain Zamora -Salamanca, where winters are colder and defendants. In Mieza Observatory, located at 658 m in height, is a 12 ° C mean annual temperature while the observatory Saucelle Dam, located 162 m high, recorded 17 ° C.


The winters last about two months in the vicinity of the river because the weather is mild and wet. This is because the valleys are safe from more exposed to wind and sun. In the plateau areas are extended for five months to present a more cold and dry weather.


The average temperatures of the coldest month (January / December) are around 9 ° C in the valley areas while the higher elevations around 5 ° C. The most notable difference between one area and another frost are virtually nonexistent in the valleys. This allows the cultivation of olive trees, vines, almond and orange trees that are rare on the plateau.


During summer, the differences are not as pronounced as the average temperature of the warmest month (July or August) are 27 ° C in the valleys and 25 ° C on the plateau. Finally, it should be noted that although the minimum temperatures at this time are quite dim, the maximum tends to be high, often exceeding 30 ° C during the summer months.


Rainfall is distributed in a very irregular throughout the park. The wettest area is the Barruecopardo observatory, with rainfall around 900 mm, but less rainfall observatory is just 20 km casually in Saucelle Dam, where annual rainfall rarely exceeds 500 mm. In general, rainfall is most abundant north of the park, with close to 700 mm in most of the Zamora river where they are distributed in a more regular basis. Are decreasing the further south we are.

[Edit] Ecosystems: flora and fauna


The fauna and flora of this natural area is conspicuous by the richness and variety of species composition. The uniqueness of the climate together with the peculiarity of the terrain favors the existence of a natural ecosystem of unique beauty. Plant and animal species that inhabit the natural park, are a synthesis between which can be found in the Mediterranean climate of the valleys and continental climate of the plateau. In this river live about 200 species of birds, some 47 species of mammals and 21 types of reptiles from a Mediterranean-type vegetation.

[Edit] Fauna


Animal diversity is one of the most important reasons why the area was declared a natural park. Highlights the high number of birds nesting and wintering. The existing range because the Duero River Canyon, the large forests and numerous rivers, together form the perfect habitat for any bird.

Black Stork

Griffon Vulture

Egyptian Vulture

Milano Real

Golden Eagle

[Edit] Bird highlights


In 1990, this natural area was declared a Special Protection Area for Birds (SPA). [24] The protagonists of this achievement species are the eagle, golden eagles, Egyptian vultures, owls, the griffon vulture, the Chough Tern, black stork and the peregrine falcon.


The black stork is the most emblematic and widespread in the area. The holes and corners of the so-called arribanzos or granitic rocks of the Duero, are the venue for this bird nesting in Spain is included within species with possible extinction. It is therefore the natural space, a key point for the conservation of this species. On June 22, 1998, was designated as Critical Area for Conservation of the Black Stork. [25] The 20 pairs of black storks are in this area, accounts for 8% of the Spanish population and 25% of that of Castilla and León (as of February 2005). [24]


Large raptors are the other most significant and important nesting in the park. Among them, the shape of vultures is the easiest to recognize, because at home abounds throughout the area. In 2005 had a population of 550 pairs. [24] are excellent and relatively easy to recognize the silhouettes of the Egyptian vulture (75 pairs in 2005), [24] the eagle owl (25 pairs in 1992), [24] the golden eagle (24 pairs in 2005), [24] Bonelli's eagle (17 pairs in 2005), [24] Red Kite (9 pairs in 2005) [24] and the peregrine falcon (6 pairs in 2005). [24]


They also stress the chough population (159 pairs in 2005) [24] and white stork (115 pairs in 1999). [24]

[Edit] Other birds


There are other birds that depend on the receipt of arribanzos to breed or simply to survive. The most common is the airplane rocker, that unlike other areas, stays here all year thanks to the microclimate of the area. You can also see here the chough, crow, swallow dáurica, the jackdaw, the blue rock thrush and real swift.


In forests dominated by oaks, there are small populations jay, woodcock, common finch, blackbird, myth, Lesser Spotted Woodpecker, Great Spotted Woodpecker, woodpecker, wryneck, nuthatch and song thrush. In forests dominated by oaks, are more frequent common shrike, gray shrikes, the agates, raise them and the magpies.


It is also common to find forest birds of prey like the eagle, black kite, red kite and buzzard. During the night are often the tawny owl, the owl, the owl and Nightjar.


On the banks of the rivers, you can see the little ringed plover, the coot, the water fowl, herons, kingfishers and dippers.

[Edit] Mammals


It has the presence of copies are as rare as the bobcat and badger.


Outstanding is the presence of bats, which calculates the presence of 14 species. In their proliferation has special significance shelter provided by the rocky cliffs and the special mild climate of the area.


One of the mammals whose presence arouses special interest, because of its scarcity and soaring regression on the European continent, is the otter. The construction of numerous dams was once the main cause of its almost complete disappearance in the Douro, which has recovered slightly over time.


Occasional visitor of the park is the wolf, also from the north, enters without ever having to maintain a stable population. Other mammals, and relatively more abundant, would be the fox, wild boar, genet, rabbit, hare, hedgehog, weasel, marten and dormouse.


The most prominent of all mammals that have ever lived in the park, is the endemic Iberian lynx. Although now taken for extinct in the area, [26] [27] [28] Some experts say that in the quiet valleys and best preserved vegetation, they may still be some copies. [29] Indeed, although not shown survival in these lands, most of the posters, brochures and websites to promote and advertise the area as well as in the act itself declared a natural park, still include among their species. [2] [30]

[Edit] Fish, amphibians and reptiles


You can recognize about a dozen fish species in protected water area, of which some are endemic: Iberian barbel, vogue, roach and loach, the duck and calandino.


The sturgeon is one of the most shortage of individuals has been detected throughout the area, which has led to its classification as a species "endangered." The eel is also a threatened species in the Spanish part of the Duero, and survives only in rivers that flow into the Atlantic Ocean and the Spanish reservoirs (as opposed to the Portuguese) do not have fish ladders. Frequently they are also, among others, the classic carp, tench and pike.


With regard to amphibians, environmental conditions are not the most suitable, since the lower amount of rainfall, despite the tightening thermometric hinders the proliferation of amphibians in the park. Thirteen species have been recorded, of which at least two are endemic: Newt Iberian Iberian midwife toad. More abundant are the common toad, natterjack toad, marbled newt, frog, St. Anthony, and spotted salamander.


However, the Park is an ideal habitat for the proliferation of reptiles, both emphasized climate as being the most abundant of the lizard, the long-tailed lizard, and snake bastard step. These in turn have become key elements of the diurnal feeding, the progressive decline of other animals like rabbits and partridge. Significant is also the presence of the salamander, covered by more benign climate, together with the European pond turtle and the terrapin.

[Edit] Flora


Plant diversity is represented by mostly Mediterranean-type flora. Most of the forests consist of oak. Coexist with cork and holm oak. Large tracts of scrub are full of brooms, broom, thyme, rock rose, prickly pears and junipers.


Thanks to the microclimate, it is also possible to grow plants and trees that are not common in the neighboring districts of the plateau, which has a continental climate. This peculiarity is represented by the olive trees, vines, almond, orange and lemon trees, but now the number of these plantations is much lower than before. Also came to grow sugar cane in the late nineteenth century. [31]


Currently, the most important and widespread crop in the area, is the vine. Highlight the fourteen wineries Ahigal of oil, Fermoselle, Fornillos the border with La Fregeneda, Pereña of the Bank and Villarino Aires, which produce wines of the Appellation of Origin Arribes. You can also see some important olive Ahigal of Aceiteros, San Felices de los Gallegos and Vilvestre, [32] [33] and there are several extensions of almond Hinojosa de Duero, Mieza Saucelle and more specifically in the Fregeneda and Vilvestre. [34] The orange trees are also present in this zone, especially in Vilvestre. [35] extensions of lemon, there are only a few individual trees.

[Edit] Vestiges, demography and population


This area has been inhabited for a long time. It retains many vestiges of the old settlers. Today, the population loss is the major problem in the area.

[Edit] Findings of the ancient settlement

Mula pre-Roman Villardiegua

Horse Head

The Fregeneda


Many attest to the ancient footprints of this land subservience to man. Of the existing remains, the oldest have been dated to the Paleolithic, such as the cave paintings of Palla Blonde, [36] in front of the Smoke Pit, on the shore in the municipality

Impossible to Understand from Endogenous Series, 2010-2012


Any significance would be impossible to understand. When you do understand, it would be indescribable. Everything is different when there is no meaning. - Ai Weiwei


Impossible to Understand from Endogenous Series, 2010-2012


Chase Alias gets into the mind state of conceptual artists Ai Weiwei particularly embracing his ideals and philosophies about how he feels nudity is not pornography. Perhaps Chase is taking its to a slightly elevated level though. What is he saying about pornography? Certainly nothing more graphic or shocking than his Conceptual Art Photography forefathers did such as Mapplethorpe, Serrano or even Thomas Ruff.


David S Pollack aka Chase Alias hopes to bring to light with his new Endogenous Series how backwards moving our cultural standards have become. As an Immersionist he look back in envy at the freedoms which artists used to be able to express themselves without having to worry about cultural and even legal action being taken against them.


Immersionism is a young art movement which combines Lewittian Conceptualism with Method Acting practices and principles. Stanislavsky and Strasberg Acting Methods which utilize sense memory and affective memory are an Immersionist's base. Lewittian Conceptualism adheres to the ideal that the medium is not the message, the idea becomes a machine that makes the art.


Ai Weiwei. Ai Weiwei's Blog: Writings, Interviews, and Digital Rants, 2006-2009 (Writing Art) (Kindle Locations 1052-1053). Kindle Edition.


HDR Video Screen Capture as played on Adobe Quicktime. Originally capture on a Flip Video


#chasealias #aiweiwei #immersionism #endogenous

The Idea Machine from Endogenous Series, 2010-2012


The Medium is not the Message, the idea brcomes the machine that makes the art. #chasealias




David S Pollack aka Chase Alias hopes to bring to light with his new Endogenous Series how backwards moving our cultural standards have become. As an Immersionist he look back in envy at the freedoms which artists used to be able to express themselves without having to worry about cultural and even legal action being taken against them.


Immersionism is a young art movement which combines Lewittian Conceptualism with Method Acting practices and principles. Stanislavsky and Strasberg Acting Methods which utilize sense memory and affective memory are an Immersionist's base. Lewittian Conceptualism adheres to the ideal that the medium is not the message, the idea becomes a machine that makes the art.


HDR Video Still form an HD Video Screen Capture, Originally Filmed with an HD Flip Camera

A State of Insecurity from Endogenous Series, 2010 - 2012


Our considerations tend to stop at a certain level, on a level that provides a sense of security. How many people willingly locate themselves in a state of insecurity? -Ai WeiWei


Chase Alias attempts to get into the mind state of Conceptual Artists Ai Weiwei particularly embracing some of his ideals and philosophies. This work is particularly inspired by the activist artist's struggles and triumphs throughout the year.


David S Pollack aka Chase Alias hopes to bring to light with his new Endogenous Series how backwards moving our cultural standards have become. As an Immersionist he look back in envy at the freedoms which artists used to be able to express themselves without having to worry about cultural and even legal action being taken against them.


Immersionism is a young art movement which combines Lewittian Conceptualism with Method Acting practices and principles. Stanislavsky and Strasberg Acting Methods which utilize sense memory and affective memory are an Immersionist's base. Lewittian Conceptualism adheres to the ideal that the medium is not the message, the idea becomes a machine that makes the art.


#aiweiwei #chasealias #immersionism


Ai Weiwei. Ai Weiwei's Blog: Writings, Interviews, and Digital Rants, 2006-2009 (Writing Art)

(Medical Xpress)—The human brain's exquisite complexity and power make it a unique evolutionary marvel. One of the brain's more interesting abilities is known as the placebo effect, in which no more than the expectation of relief can lead to analgesia – the relief of pain, anxiety, depression, nausea, and many other aversive states. However, scientists at University of Gothenburg and University of Oslo recently showed that the placebo effect may not be limited to pain reduction, but may also enhance pleasure, or hyperhedonia. The researchers used the placebo effect to improve both painful and pleasant touch sensations in healthy humans – and by comparing brain processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), found that, depending on whether the starting point was painful or pleasant, neurocircuitry associated with emotion and reward underpinned improvement of both pain and pleasant touch by dampening pain but increasing touch pleasantness.


In an interview with Medical Xpress, PhD candidate Dan-Mikael Ellingsen discussed the paper he and his colleagues published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. "In recent years, functional brain imaging studies have shown that expecting a treatment to relieve negative symptoms – like pain, anxiety or unpleasant taste – leads to not only subjective reports of relief, but also suppressed brain activity in sensory circuitry during aversive stimuli, such as noxious heat or touch, threatening images, and unpleasant taste," Ellingsen tells Medical Xpress. "However, both aversive and appetitive experiences – for example, tasty food or a pleasant touch – are affected by context and expectation." Therefore, Ellingsen explains, in forming their hypothesis for this study, the researchers asked whether improvement of good experiences is encoded entirely in higher-level valuation processing, or whether it would mirror the modulation of early stages of sensory processing that is seen for aversive stimuli. "If so, we'd expect such positive sensory signals to be up-regulated, in contrast to the down-regulation of sensory signals we see during placebo-induced reduction of aversive experiences."

In the placebo manipulation procedure, participants were shown a short video documentary convincing them that a nasal spray containing the neuropeptide oxytocin would reduce pain and enhance the pleasantness of pleasant touch. Following this video, they self-administered 10 puffs of a placebo nasal that they were told could contain oxytocin. The pleasant touch stimuli consisted of caress-like light strokes with a soft brush, or a hot/cold pack (resembling a warm hand, applied to the subject's forearm. The pain stimulus was a thermode (~47 degrees Celsius) on the hand.

Ellingsen notes that by comparing brain activation during painful or pleasant touch stimuli after placebo treatment versus no-placebo, the scientists were able to assess differences in activation that was specifically related to having received placebo treatment. "Importantly, the subjective reports showed that, after receiving placebo relative to no-placebo, touch pleasantness was increased while pain unpleasantness was decreased," he adds. "When contrasting placebo and no-placebo on brain activation, we found that sensory activation was increased during pleasant touch stimuli and decreased during painful touch stimuli. In other words, the placebo-induced change in sensory processing reflected the placebo-induced change in subjective reports."


The team also hypothesized that placebo improvement of pleasant touch would recruit the same emotion appraisal neurocircuitry that underpins placebo analgesia. "Neural systems mediating pain and pleasure interact extensively, with pain and pleasure often being mutually inhibitory," Ellingsen says. "For instance," he illustrates, "pleasant stimuli such as music, food, odors, and touch can have analgesic effects – and pain can inhibit pleasure and positive feelings. Further, opioids can induce both potent analgesia and feelings of pleasure." (An opioid is any psychoactive chemical that resembles morphine or other opiate in its pharmacological effects.) Ellingsen points out that previous findings show that relief from pain induces pleasant feelings1,2, and when a normally painful stimulus represents the best possible outcome – that is, when the alternative is even more intense pain3 – it can even become pleasant.

Ellingsen explains that a central element in all placebo effects is that there is an expectation or desire for an improvement, for example, a relief of pain or unpleasantness – and placebo effects have been theorized to arise from a generalized mechanism of reward prediction. This reasoning, he notes, is supported by evidence that placebo responses across modalities – analgesia6, anxiety relief7, and so on – rely on activation of similar neural systems involved in reward and emotion. "In line with this strong link between pleasure and the relief from negative feelings, we hypothesized that improving the pleasantness of an appetitive stimulus would rely on modulatory mechanisms similar to those involved in the improvement of aversive feelings."

A key aspect of the team's research was devising and applying an fMRI crossover study to compare neural processing of placebo hyperhedonia and analgesia. "In order to compare the brain mechanisms of placebo hyperhedonia and analgesia, we assessed the effect of placebo treatment on subjective experiences within the same sensory modality – namely, touch, both pleasant and painful."

A key aspect of the study's analytic design was based on the researchers' knowledge that all dermal information is processed in the same neural pathways – specifically, the sensory thalamus, primary and secondary somatosensory areas, and the posterior insula. "As a result," Ellingsen points out, "we were able to perform two important measurements: we directly compared how expectation of improvement affected the processing of positive and negative somatosensory signals in these pathways, and investigated the effect of higher-level modulatory circuitry on sensory processing of pleasant or painful touch."


Proposed mechanism of placebo analgesia and hyperhedonia. During expectation of hyperhedonia and analgesia, a shared modulatory network up-regulates pleasant touch processing and down-regulates painful touch processing in somatosensory areas, …more

Another factor the scientists had to consider was that the use of subjective rating scales varies widely between individuals (as opposed to a single individual's typical consistency). As a result, these scales are significantly better at detecting changes between placebo and no-placebo within individuals rather than between one group who received placebo and another that received no placebo. "Consequently," Ellingsen explains, "such a design has superior statistical power – that is, a greater ability to detect a true effect."

Further, the potential benefit of a crossover design can be found when the order of treatment – specifically, placebo or no-placebo first – is considered, since it may potentially affect responses. "To control for this potential confounder," notes Ellingsen, "we used a crossover design, that is, half of the subjects got placebo in the first session, and the other half got placebo in the last session." However, he adds, in the analyses they performed, they found that the treatment order had no effect on either subjective placebo improvement or brain activation.

"To our knowledge," Ellingsen continues, "our study is the first to investigate placebo improvement of pleasurable feelings. By directly comparing this effect with the more well-known placebo analgesia effect, we were able to identify both the differences and a potential shared mechanism of these two types of improvement: People with stronger placebo-induced increases in functional coupling between ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and subcortical structures (PAG) reported greater placebo hyperhedonia and analgesia, and had greater analgesic decreases and hyperhedonic increases in somatosensory processing."

Ellingsen says that this finding suggests that endogenous improvement of positive and negative feelings are tightly coupled. "Interestingly, we saw that people with the greatest placebo hyperhedonia responses also had the greatest placebo analgesia responses. Overall, the results provide a piece of the puzzle of how positive expectations affect both positive and negative feelings."

Expanding on the team's findings, Ellingsen describes how the researchers first observed that placebo hyperhedonia was associated with increased activation of a number of cortical and subcortical areas important for placebo analgesia – namely, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, accumbens, amygdala, and the midbrain structures periaqueductal grey and the ventral tegmental area. Not only was there increased activation in these areas after placebo administration compared to no-placebo, Ellingsen adds, but the amount of increase was positively correlated to the magnitude of the reported improvement: Those with largest placebo-induced hyperhedonia and analgesia had the highest placebo-induced activation in these areas. Moreover, those with largest placebo hyperhedonia and analgesia also had the strongest placebo-induced increase in functional connectivity within this circuitry, a measure of how much these areas communicate with each other. "Although our findings show similar patterns of activation between placebo hyperhedonia and analgesia, it's important to point out that they weren't identical. There are likely to be fine-grained differences between these processes within this circuitry that were not identified by this study."

Ellingsen stresses that an important mechanism in placebo analgesia – one that has been replicated several times – is the engagement of the opioid descending modulatory system, which consists of vmPFC, amygdala, and PAG. "When treated with a placebo that is expected to have analgesic effects," Ellingsen explains, "activation of this system suppresses nociceptive" (the neural processes of encoding and processing noxious or painful stimuli) "signaling both in the brain and – since the PAG has descending connections through the rostroventral medulla, RVM, to the spinal dorsal horn, where it can modulate incoming nociceptive signals – at the spinal cord level." Importantly, he notes, placebo analgesia and the activation of this system are reversed when the individual is given the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, indicating that this mechanism is dependent on opioid signaling.

To ask whether this system is involved also in placebo improvement of pleasantness, we assessed the relationship between 1) the placebo-induced change in functional connectivity between the vmPFC and PAG, and 2) placebo-induced change in sensory processing. Strikingly, we found that the co-activation of vmPFC and PAG was related to opposite effects during placebo hyperhedonia and analgesia: During pain, those with strongest increases in functional coupling had the largest decreases in sensory processing, while during pleasant touch, those with strongest functional coupling had the largest sensory increases. We are now planning to investigate whether placebo hyperhedonia, like (most) placebo analgesia, depends on opioid signaling.

Moving forward, Ellingsen says, their study opens up several important questions for future studies:

Does placebo hyperhedonia, similar to analgesia, rely on opioid or dopamine signaling?

Could expectation of hyperhedonia alone have analgesic effects – and vice versa?

Could including information about potential hyperhedonic effects actually boost treatment effects of analgesic drugs?

What is the exact mechanism of the up-regulation of sensory processing in placebo hyperhedonia? Is it entirely central in its action, or could it involve descending facilitation of touch processing at the spinal cord level, which is a component in placebo analgesia4 and nocebo hyperalgesia5?

(A nocebo – the opposite of a placebo – is a harmless substance that creates detrimental effects in a patient who takes it. Likewise, the nocebo effect is the negative expectation-based reaction experienced by a patient who receives a nocebo.)

Regarding other areas of research that might benefit from their study, Ellingsen cites a growing recognition that health care systems need to be remodeled to target placebo mechanisms – and to do so by altering expectations, motivation, treatment context, and the therapist-patient relationship. "In most medical settings, however, the focus is to ease negative symptoms – to relieve pain, nausea, or discomfort – but to attain positive feelings, people have to seek elsewhere, despite our knowledge that positive experiences, like captivating music, pleasant odors, beautiful pictures, pleasant touch, and support from people we care about, can have potent analgesic effects."

If the tightly-coupling expectations of improvement in pleasurable and painful feelings suggested by their results interact in the clinical setting, Ellingsen believes it to be very likely that increasing the focus on positive appetitive effects of medical care (increased life quality, regained ability to enjoy pleasures, and the like) may have potent effects on the relief of negative symptoms. "In general," he concludes, "our findings shed some light on the complex relationship between positive feelings, negative feelings and expectation in the context of medical treatment. We believe our findings are relevant to the field of medical research in general, and promote widening the scope of medical research to improvement of positive experiences and pleasure."

Explore further: Intranasal application of hormone appears to enhance placebo response

More information: Placebo improves pleasure and pain through opposite modulation of sensory processing, PNAS Published online before print October 14, 2013, doi:10.1073/pnas.1305050110


1Relief as a Reward: Hedonic and Neural Responses to Safety from Pain, PLoS ONE 6(4): e17870. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017870

2Opponent appetitive-aversive neural processes underlie predictive learning of pain relief, Nature Neuroscience 8, 1234-1240 (2005),


3The importance of context: When relative relief renders pain

Pleasant, Pain 2013 Mar;154(3):402-10, doi:10.1016/j.pain.2012.11.018

4Direct Evidence for Spinal Cord Involvement in Placebo Analgesia, Science 16 October 2009: Vol. 326 no. 5951 p. 404, doi:10.1126/science.1180142

5Facilitation of Pain in the Human Spinal Cord by Nocebo Treatment, The Journal of Neuroscience, 21 August 2013, 33(34): 13784-13790; doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2191-13.2013

6Placebo-induced changes in FMRI in the anticipation and experience of pain, Science, 303(5661): 1162-1167 (2004), doi:10.1126/science.1093065

7Placebo in emotional processing—induced expectations of anxiety relief activate a generalized modulatory network, Neuron, 46(6), 957-969 (2005), doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.05.023

Journal reference: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences PLoS ONE Nature Neuroscience Pain Science Journal of Neuroscience Neuron

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RENFE: in station Almazan Dehesa, located at kilometer 202.938 of the line from Valladolid to Ariza (closed in 1994, although to the station Dehesa arrived freight trains until late nineties), in 2008 you could see two old Renfe cars in his last days were used for sanitary trains. Theoretically, these cars were moved from Soria to Almazan to be restored by any of the schools workshop promoted by the ADEMA association (Association for the Endogenous Development of Almazán and other Municipalities).


Here we can see the sanitary PPAS-316 car, a sort of mobile primary care center. This car was part of the family of the "Verderones" and was built in 1925 by La Brugeoise, Nicaise et Delcuve for MZA, where he received the number AW-45. In Renfe received the number AA-345 and was later transformed into sanitary car in 1961 by the Renfe itself in its workshops in Madrid Atocha. In this photo you can see its status in 1992, when he was still entire:



RENFE: en la estación de Almazán Dehesa, situada en el PK 202,938 de la línea de Valladolid a Ariza (clausurada en 1994, aunque hasta la estación de Dehesa llegaron trenes de mercancías hasta finales de los noventa), en el año 2008 se podían ver dos antiguos coches de Renfe que en sus últimos tiempos fueron usados para los trenes sanitarios. Teóricamente, estos coches se trasladaron desde Soria hasta Almazán para ser restaurados por alguna de las escuelas-taller promovidas por la asociación ADEMA (Asociación para el Desarrollo Endógeno de Almazán y Otros Municipios).


Aquí podemos ver el coche sanitario PPAS-316, una especie de centro de atención primaria móvil. Este coche formaba parte de la familia de los "Verderones" y fue construido en 1925 por La Brugeoise, Nicaise et Delcuve para MZA, donde recibió el número AW-45. En Renfe recibió el número AA-345 y fue transformado en coche sanitario en 1961 por la propia Renfe en sus talleres de Madrid Atocha. En esta foto puede verse su estado en el año 1992, cuando aún estaba entero:

RENFE: in station Almazan Dehesa, located at kilometer 202.938 of the line from Valladolid to Ariza (closed in 1994, although to the station Dehesa arrived freight trains until late nineties), in 2008 you could see two old Renfe cars in his last days were used for sanitary trains. Theoretically, these cars were moved from Soria to Almazan to be restored for some school-workshop promoted by the ADEMA association (Association for the Endogenous Development of Almazán and other Municipalities).


On the left we see all that remains of the hospital car HH-1, which probably comes from the transformation of a car built in 1922 by the SECN for Betanzos-Ferrol line, operated by Estado. This car was equipped with about thirty stretchers for patient transport. In this other photo we can see its previous state in Soria, eleven years before: And in this other picture, its state when it was still almost complete, 16 years earlier:


To his right is the sanitary PPAS-316 car, a sort of mobile primary care center. This car was part of the family of the "Verderones" and was built in 1925 by La Brugeoise, Nicaise et Delcuve for MZA, where he received the number AW-45. In Renfe received the number AA-345 and was later transformed into sanitary car in 1961 by the Renfe itself in its workshops in Madrid Atocha. In this photo you can see its status in 1992, when he was still entire:



RENFE: en la estación de Almazán Dehesa, situada en el PK 202,938 de la línea de Valladolid a Ariza (clausurada en 1994, aunque hasta la estación de Dehesa llegaron trenes de mercancías hasta finales de los noventa), en el año 2008 se podían ver dos antiguos coches de Renfe que en sus últimos tiempos fueron usados para los trenes sanitarios. Teóricamente, estos coches se trasladaron desde Soria hasta Almazán para ser restaurados por alguna de las escuelas-taller promovidas por la asociación ADEMA (Asociación para el Desarrollo Endógeno de Almazán y Otros Municipios).


A la izquierda vemos los restos del coche hospital HH-1, que probablemente procede de la transformación de un coche construido en 1922 por la SECN para la línea Betanzos-Ferrol, explotada por Estado. Este coche estuvo equipado con una trentena de camillas para el transporte de enfermos. En esta otra foto podemos ver su estado anterior en Soria, once años antes: Y en esta tercera foto, su estado cuando aún estaba casi entero, 16 años antes:


A su derecha está el coche sanitario PPAS-316, una especie de centro de atención primaria móvil. Este coche formaba parte de la familia de los "Verderones" y fue construido en 1925 por La Brugeoise, Nicaise et Delcuve para MZA, donde recibió el número AW-45. En Renfe recibió el número AA-345 y fue transformado en coche sanitario en 1961 por la propia Renfe en sus talleres de Madrid Atocha. En esta foto puede verse su estado en el año 1992, cuando aún estaba entero:

“I have a theory that the truth is never told during the nine-to-five hours.”

― Hunter S. Thompson


from Who I M Seies, 2010 - 2014,

Affective Memory Screen Capture by Immersionist Chase Alias includes Instant Message Conversations.


Unique Digital Work #chasealias #endogenous #theorizeart #screencapture #NewMedia #Immersionist #affectivememory #huntersthompson #art

The Artist Animates: From Endogenous Series, 2010 - 2012


The artist animates his work as a child his toys. -Patti Smith, Just Kids


David S Pollack elucidates the word of Patti Smith so eloquently written in her book "Just Kids". The book delves into the relationship between Smith and artist Robert Mapplethorpe. The influence of Mapplethorpe's controversial art is prevalent in most of Pollack's works especially his series Searching for My Very Own Wagstaff, 2010 -2012.


David S Pollack aka Chase Alias hopes to bring to light with his new Endogenous Series how backwards moving our cultural standards have become. As an Immersionist he look back in envy at the freedoms which artists used to be able to express themselves without having to worry about cultural and even legal action being taken against them.


Immersionism is a young art movement which combines Lewittian Conceptualism with Method Acting practices and principles. Stanislavsky and Strasberg Acting Methods which utilize sense memory and affective memory are an Immersionist's base. Lewittian Conceptualism adheres to the ideal that the medium is not the message, the idea becomes a machine that makes the art.


HDR Video Still form an HD Video Screen Capture, Originally Filmed with an HD Flip Camera


Helosis ruficeps (Ridl.) R.K. Eberwein


In Oct 2007, a group of bird watchers came accross this plants in Penang Island and one of them, Kayev Choong, took a photograph and GPS reading and marked it on the map. A month later, He sent the photo to his friends Peggy Tan, Alastair Bishop, and Hooi Peng Kwan, asking for the name of this plant, thinking that this is probably a ginger (it was indeed growing next to the ginger plant). Hooi and Peggy Tan then seek help from another friend, Dr Chan Ah Lak of Taiping whom was similarly clueless on the identity of the plant and forwarded the photo to me in Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia for the ID. Unfortunately, the email on 20 Nov 2007 was sent to my Yahoo account, the seldom open junk filled old address. It was not until in April 2008 that I discovered and read the email, found by accident when I went looking for archives.


I decided to reply to Dr Chan Ah Lak on 7 May 2008 asking for more information on the plants that I thought was an unknown and strange Balanophora of Gerik, Perak. Dr Chan promptly replied and told me that he has to trace it back the owner of the photograph. Nearly a month later, he wrote back with detail information not only on the owner (Kayev Choong) but forwarded us a map on the locality and the GPS reading of the site in Penang Hill.


At the end of oral examination of Ng Suan Beng, one of my final year students who was working on the Balanophora of Cameron Highlands, I showed him the photograph of "Balanophora from Gerik" and commented that it was not Balanophora. He later confirmed that I was probably of Exorhopala Steen., a genus related to Balanophora based on illustration in Bertel Hansen's paper on Balanophoraceae in the Flora Malesiana.


Data minning then started at UKMB and soon it was discovered that the monotypic Exorhopala ruficeps (Ridley) Steen. was originally described as Rhopalocnemis ruficeps by H.N. Ridley based on the collection from Bukit Penara, Penang with notes that it is also to be found in Taiping's Maxwell Hill. The sspecies was later transfered in 1931 to a new genus, named Exorhopala by the late C.G.G.J. Van Steenis on the basis of the exogenous origin of its inflorescences.


In August 1986, Anton Weber came to Penang and photograph the plant (photos here) for the first time in the original locality and collected a specimen which later studied by Roland K. Eberwein in Vienna. They concluded that this rare root endo-parasite of Malaya is actually belong to South American Helosis, a genus then known only to occur in Mexico, Ecuador, Peru, Costa Rica and Belize. This was based on the fact that the inflorescences of this plant originate endogenously (as in all other Balanophoraceae) with "no volva and the tuber-tissue covering the emerging inflorescence crumbles into pieces" and the inflorescence and flower characters are "neither in full accordance with Rhopalocnemis nor do they justify a genus of its own (Exorhopala)". The species then was transfered to Helosis, which thus the genus becomes transpacific and no longer restricted to Latin America.


Our RRMT was despatch and finally managed to locate and inspect the area and came out witn a fisrt full set of photograph in 13 Aug 2008 and recently returned to site witn better equipment (but still without me who could not make it in both occasion due to severe back-pain). They kindly took home some specimen and I managed to photograph it in the lab.


Presented here is the set of photos taken from Penang. Slide and follow the stream

When I'm wandering around in woodland, I'm quite used to seeing wee Springtails (Collembola sp.) trucking around under logs and so on, but I rarely come across the marine species. When I was on Skye in June, however, there were lots of them in the brackish pools near the beach. It's fascinating to watch them grouping together and breaking off regularly from the main body .... ping, ping, ping .... as though they are being propelled by some extraneous force. They then form either new groups or re-aggregate with the main group, and so it goes on. I saw several pools with them doing this marine dance while I was there. These are a few of them. This species may be Anurida maritima, but that is not definitive.


This is information from Wiki:


"The entire body of the Collembola is covered with white hydrophobic hairs which allow the animal to stay above the surface of the water on which it spends much of its life. Aggregation is an important aspect of collembolan biology, and A. maritima has been shown to produce an aggregating pheromone. Like many intertidal animals, A. maritima moves in rhythm with the tidal cycle, and has an endogenous circatidal rhythm with a period of hours, using visual cues to orient themselves during their movements."



I was wandering along the edge of a sea loch in Argyll, when I came across this little flotilla of Collembola a.k.a. Springtails (Anurida maritima) on the surface of a shallow rock pool. I am used to seeing other species of Collembola on rotting wood and so on, but it always takes me by surprise a bit when I come across this marine species. They are fascinating to watch ... individuals seem to bounce off the main group, as though propelled by an electric charge, and then form either new groups or re-aggregate with the main group.


I found this info on-line:


"The entire body of the Collembola is covered with white hydrophobic hairs which allow the animal to stay above the surface of the water on which it spends much of its life. Aggregation is an important aspect of collembolan biology, and A. maritima has been shown to produce an aggregating pheromone. Like many intertidal animals, A. maritima moves in rhythm with the tidal cycle, and has an endogenous circatidal rhythm with a period of hours, using visual cues to orient themselves during their movements."

Wiki (See info from Frans Janssens for more accurate and current thinking on aggregation, below.)

Danxia landform in Zhangye,China.

Danxia landform, formed from red sandstone and characterised by steep cliffs, which are caused by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces(including weathering and erosion).

--From Wikipedia


Thanks for your visit,comment and fave :-)

Indigenous festival celebrating cultural diversity. The decorations on the hat identity the geographic region of the tribe and its heritage. Ollantaytambo, Puru

Danxia landform in Zhangye,China.

Danxia landform, formed from red sandstone and characterised by steep cliffs, which are caused by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces(including weathering and erosion).

--From Wikipedia


Thanks for your visit,comment and fave :-)

(Anurida maritima) ….. Thanks to Frans Jansenns, an authority on Collembola, for the identification of the species.


"A. maritima is a significant scavenger of the upper intertidal zone, feeding on dead animals, chiefly crustaceans (including barnacles) and molluscs.


Aggregation is an important aspect of collembolan biology, and A. maritima has been shown to produce an aggregating pheromone. Like many intertidal animals, A. maritima moves in rhythm with the tidal cycle, and has an endogenous circatidal rhythm with a period of 12.4 hours, using visual cues to orient themselves during their movements." Wiki

Accacia dealbata (Fabaceae, Mimosoideae: silver wattle, blue wattle). Usually mistakenly called "mimosa" in France (the true mimosa is Mimosa pudica, a small liana originating from Japan). A. dealbata, imported from Australia in 1867 is an invasive species on siliceous soils of south of France. But for us, its blooming signifies the return of spring and is never perceived as a pest. People have integrated the "mimosa" in their culture and most of them think that it is an endogenous species and even a symbol of the French riviera. But it is a true pest for local ecosystems it invades.

It's been really difficult to put this down.


It's the Endorphins (endogenous morphine). The endogenous opioid neuropeptides which are produced by the central nervous system (CNS) and the pituitary gland brought on by Bethesda's new title could be the primary contributor to my lack of sleep.

... of blue springtails (Collembola ….. Anurida maritima) floating on seawater in a rockpool. I usually see these little creatures on the back of rotting logs, and was fascinated to see them all huddled together like this, floating on seawater in a rock pool. The pool was about a foot deep and the 'raft' was about 1.25 inches in diameter, and was casting a distinct shadow on the bottom of the pool.


Thanks to Frans, an authority on Collembola, for the species ID.


"A. maritima is a significant scavenger of the upper intertidal zone, feeding on dead animals, chiefly crustaceans (including barnacles) and molluscs.


Aggregation is an important aspect of collembolan biology, and A. maritima has been shown to produce an aggregating pheromone. Like many intertidal animals, A. maritima moves in rhythm with the tidal cycle, and has an endogenous circatidal rhythm with a period of 12.4 hours, using visual cues to orient themselves during their movements. " (Wiki)

China Danxia is the name given in China to landscapes developed on continental red terrigenous sedimentary beds influenced by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces (including weathering and erosion). The inscribed site comprises six areas found in the sub-tropical zone of south-west China. They are characterized by spectacular red cliffs and a range of erosional landforms, including dramatic natural pillars, towers, ravines, valleys and waterfalls. These rugged landscapes have helped to conserve sub-tropical broad-leaved evergreen forests, and host many species of flora and fauna, about 400 of which are considered rare or threatened.


Danxia Shan, China

August 22, 2010


UNESCO World Heritage Site # 1335

Year of Inscription: 2010


I was wandering along the edge of a sea loch in Argyll, when I came across this little flotilla of Collembola a.k.a. Springtails (Anurida maritima) on the surface of a shallow rock pool.

I am used to seeing other species of Collembola on rotting wood and so on, but it always takes me by surprise a bit when I come across this marine species. They are fascinating to watch ... individuals seem to bounce off the main group, as though propelled by an electric charge, and then form either new groups or re-aggregate with the main group.


I found this info on-line:


"The entire body of the Collembola is covered with white hydrophobic hairs which allow the animal to stay above the surface of the water on which it spends much of its life. Aggregation is an important aspect of collembolan biology, and A. maritima has been shown to produce an aggregating pheromone. Like many intertidal animals, A. maritima moves in rhythm with the tidal cycle, and has an endogenous circatidal rhythm with a period of hours, using visual cues to orient themselves during their movements."


Photographed at the Palo Alto Baylands, Palo Alto, California



From Wikipedia: The song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) is a medium-sized American sparrow. Among the native sparrows in North America, it is easily one of the most abundant, variable and adaptable species.



Adult song sparrows have brown upperparts with dark streaks on the back and are white underneath with dark streaking and a dark brown spot in the middle of the breast. They have a brown cap and a long brown rounded tail. Their face is gray with a streak through the eye. They are highly variable in size across numerous subspecies (for subspecies details, see below). The body length ranges from 11 to 18 cm (4.3 to 7.1 in) and wingspan can range from 18 to 25.4 cm (7.1 to 10.0 in).[2][3] Body mass ranges from 11.9 to 53 g (0.42 to 1.87 oz).[4] The average of all races is 32 g (1.1 oz) but the widespread nominate subspecies (M. m. melodia) weighs only about 22 g (0.78 oz) on average. The maximum lifespan in the wild is 11.3 years.[5] The eggs of the Song sparrow are brown with greenish-white spots. Females lay three to five eggs per clutch, with an average incubation time of 13–15 days before hatching.


In the field, they are most easily confused with the Lincoln's sparrow and the Savannah sparrow. The former can be recognized by its shorter, grayer tail and the differently-patterned head, the brown cheeks forming a clear-cut angular patch. The Savannah sparrow has a forked tail and yellowish flecks on the face when seen up close.


Distribution and life history:

Though a habitat generalist, the Song sparrow favors brushland and marshes, including salt marshes, across most of Canada and the United States. They also thrive in human dominated areas such as in suburbs, agricultural fields, and along roadsides. Permanent residents of the southern half of their range, northern populations of the song sparrow migrate to the southern United States or Mexico during winter and intermingle with the native, non-migratory population. The song sparrow is a very rare vagrant to western Europe, with a few recorded in Great Britain and Norway.


These birds forage on the ground, in shrubs or in very shallow water. They mainly eat insects and seeds. Birds in salt marshes may also eat small crustaceans. They nest either in a sheltered location on the ground or in trees or shrubs.



The song sparrow has been the subject of several studies detailing the physiological reactions of bird species to conditions such as daylight length and differing climatic conditions. Most birds gain mass in their reproductive organs in response to some signal, either internal or external as the breeding season approaches. The exact source of this signal varies from species to species - for some, it is an endogenous process separate from environmental cues, while other species require extensive external signals of changing daylight length and temperature before beginning to increase the mass of their reproductive organs. Male specimens of M. melodia gain significant testicular mass in response both to changes in the daily photoperiod and as a result of endogenous chemical signals.[6] Females also undergo significant ovarian growth in response to both photo-period and endogenous signals. In this way, M. melodia is amongst only a handful of birds that use both external and engodenous signalling to dictate their breeding season. Hormone levels in both males and females were found fluctuate throughout the breeding season, having very high levels in March and late April and then declining until May.[7] These studies suggest that there are multiple factors at work that influence when and how the song sparrow breeds other than just increasing day length.


Due to the myriad subspecies of the song sparrow and the extremely varied climate of southern California, where many of these subspecies make their homes, physiological studies were undertaken to determine how climatic conditions and local environment influenced the bill size of M. melodia subspecies. The bill of a bird is highly important for thermoregulation as the bare surface area makes a perfect place to radiate excess heat or absorb solar energy to maintain homeostasis.[8] Knowing this, comparisons of bill length between individual song sparrows collected in different habitats were made with regard to the primary habitat type or microclimate that they were collected in. Larger beaked subspecies were strongly correlated with hotter microclimates - a correlation that follows from the conditions of Allen's Rule.[9]




Singing in Delaware USA

The sparrow species derives its name from its colorful repertoire of songs. Enthusiasts report that one of the songs heard often in suburban locations closely resembles the opening four notes of Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 5. The male uses a fairly complex song to declare ownership of its territory and attract females.


Singing itself consists of a combination of repeated notes, quickly passing isolated notes, and trills. The songs are very crisp, clear, and precise, making them easily distinguishable by human ears. A particular song is determined not only by pitch and rhythm but also by the timbre of the trills. Although one bird will know many songs—as many as 20 different tunes with as many as 1000 improvised variations on the basic theme,[citation needed]—unlike thrushes, the song sparrow usually repeats the same song many times before switching to a different song.


Song sparrows typically learn their songs from a handful of other birds that have neighboring territories. They are most likely to learn songs that are shared between these neighbors. Ultimately, they will choose a territory close to or replacing the birds that they have learned from. This allows the song sparrows to address their neighbors with songs shared with those neighbors. It has been demonstrated that song sparrows are able to distinguish neighbors from strangers on the basis of song, and also that females are able to distinguish (and prefer) their mate's songs from those of other neighboring birds, and they prefer songs of neighboring birds to those of strangers.


Predators and parasites:

Common predators of the song sparrow include cats, hawks, and owls, however snakes, dogs, and the American kestrel are treated ambiguously, suggesting that they are less of a threat[citation needed]. The song sparrow recognizes enemies by both instinctual and learned patterns (including cultural learning), and adjusts its future behavior based on both its own experiences in encounters, and from watching other birds interact with the enemies. Comparisons of experiments on hand-raised birds to observation of birds in the wild suggest that the fear of owls and hawks is instinctual, but fear of cats is learned.


Song sparrows' nests are parasitized by the brown-headed cowbird. The cowbirds' eggs closely resemble song sparrows' eggs, although the cowbirds' eggs are slightly larger. Song sparrows recognize cowbirds as a threat and attack the cowbirds when they are near the nest. There is some evidence that this behavior is learned rather than instinctual. A more recent study found that the behavior of attacking female cowbirds near nests may actually attract cowbird parasitism because the female cowbirds use such behavior to identify female song sparrows that are more likely to successfully raise a cowbird chick. One study found that while cowbird parasitism did result in more nest failure, overall there were negligible effects on song sparrow populations when cowbirds were introduced to an island. The study pointed to a number of explanatory factors including song sparrows raising multiple broods, and song sparrows' abilities to raise cowbird chicks with their own.



The song sparrow is one of the birds with the most numerous subspecies in North America, and even on a global scale rivals such species as the horned lark, the yellow wagtail, the golden whistler or the island thrush; 52 subspecies were named altogether, of which 24 are now considered valid. It is a cryptic species.




Lab Mice Cured of Cancer after Receiving White Blood Cells from Cancer-Resistant Mice

May 08, 2006


WINSTON-SALEM, N.C. – White blood cells from a strain of cancer-resistant mice cured advanced cancers in ordinary laboratory mice, researchers at Wake Forest University School of Medicine reported today.


"Even highly aggressive forms of malignancy with extremely large tumors were eradicated," Zheng Cui, M.D., Ph.D., and colleagues reported in this week’s on-line edition of Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.


The transplanted white blood cells not only killed existing cancers, but also protected normal mice from what should have been lethal doses of highly aggressive new cancers.


"This is the very first time that this exceptionally aggressive type of cancer was treated successfully," said Cui. "Never before has this been done with any other therapy."


The original studies on the cancer-resistant mice – reported in 2003 – showed that such resistance could be inherited, which had implications for inheritance of resistance in humans, said Mark C. Willingham, M.D., a pathologist and co-investigator. "This study shows that you can use this resistant-cell therapy in mice and that the therapy works. The next step is to understand the exact way in which it works, and perhaps eventually design such a therapy for humans."


The cancer-resistant mice all stem from a single mouse discovered in 1999. "The cancer resistance trait so far has been passed to more than 2,000 descendants in 14 generations," said Cui, associate professor of pathology. It also has been bred into three additional mouse strains. About 40 percent of each generation inherits the protection from cancer.


The original group of cancer-resistant mice, also described in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, successfully fought off a range of virulent transplanted cancers.


"Now we know that we can take white blood cells from this strange mouse and put them into a normal mouse and these cells will still kill cancers," said Willingham, professor of pathology and head of the Section on Tumor Biology. "This is therapy in a mouse that does not have this magical genetic inheritance."


The transplanted white blood cells included natural killer cells, and other white blood cells called neutrophils and macrophages that are part of the body’s "innate immune system." This system forms a first line of host defense against pathogens, such as bacteria.


"Their activation requires no prior exposure, but rather depends on a pre-determined mechanism to recognize specific patterns on the cancer cell surface," the researchers said.


Moreover, preliminary studies show that the white blood cells also kill "endogenous" cancers – cancers that spring up naturally in the body’s own cells.


Cui and Willingham said the research produced many other surprises. For one thing, if a virulent tumor was planted in a normal mouse’s back, and the transplanted white blood cells were injected into the mouse’s abdomen, the cells still found the cancer without harming normal cells. The kind of cancer didn’t seem to matter.


A single injection of cancer-resistant macrophages offered long-term protection for the entire lifespan of the recipient mouse, something very unexpected, they said.


"The potency and selectivity for cancer cells are so high that, if we learned the mechanism, it would give us hope that this would work in humans," said Cui. "This would suggest that cancer cells send out a signal, but normal white blood cells can’t find them."


Cui said the findings "suggest a cancer-host relationship that may point in a new therapeutic direction in which adverse side effects of treatment are minimal."


The next steps include understanding the molecular mechanism. "The real key is finding the mutation, which is an ongoing investigation in collaboration with several other laboratories," said Willingham.


Cui, Willingham and their colleagues also showed that highly purified natural killer cells, macrophages and neutrophils taken from the cancer-resistant mice killed many different types of cancer cells in laboratory studies in test tubes.


Besides Cui and Willingham, the team includes Amy M. Hicks, Ph.D., Anne M. Sanders, B.S., Holly M. Weir, M.S., Wei Du, M.D., and Joseph Kim, B.A., from pathology, Greg Riedlinger, B.S., from cancer biology, Martha A. Alexander-Miller, Ph.D., from microbiology and immunology, Mark J. Pettenati, Ph.D., and C. Von Kap-Herr, M. Sc., from medical genetics, and Andrew J.G. Simpson, Ph.D., and Lloyd J. Old, M.D., of the Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research in New York.


The primary support for the research came from the Cancer Research Institute, a New York based group founded to foster the science of cancer immunology, on the premise that the body's immune system can be mobilized against cancer. The research also had support from the National Cancer Institute and the Charlotte Geyer Foundation.



Media Contacts: Robert Conn, , Shannon Koontz,, or Karen Richardson,, at (336) 716-4587.


Wake Forest University Baptist Medical Center is an academic health system comprised of North Carolina Baptist Hospital and Wake Forest University Health Sciences, which operates the university’s School of Medicine. U.S. News & World Report ranks Wake Forest University School of Medicine 18th in family medicine, 20th in geriatrics, 25th in primary care and 41st in research among the nation's medical schools. It ranks 32nd in research funding by the National Institutes of Health. Almost 150 members of the medical school faculty are listed in Best Doctors in America.


One Possible Reality from Endogenous Series, 2010 - 2012


#chasealias #immersionism #aiweiwei #endogenous


Once photography has broken away from its original function as technique or means for documentation, it is merely a fleeting state of existence that has been transformed into one possible reality. It is this transformation that makes photography a kind of movement and gives it it's distinct significance: it is merely one type of existence. -Ai WeiWei


Ai Weiwei. Ai Weiwei's Blog: Writings, Interviews, and Digital Rants, 2006-2009 (Writing Art)


July 2011

Medium:HDR Video Still

Original Dimensions:34" x 37.6", 320dpi, 32Bits/Channel

Copyright:CC Pollack Images @ Studio ChaseMe


David S Pollack aka Chase Alias hopes to bring to light with his new Endogenous Series how backwards moving our cultural standards have become. As an Immersionist he look back in envy at the freedoms which artists used to be able to express themselves without having to worry about cultural and even legal action being taken against them.


Immersionism is a young art movement which combines Lewittian Conceptualism with Method Acting practices and principles. Stanislavsky and Strasberg Acting Methods which utilize sense memory and affective memory are an Immersionist's base. Lewittian Conceptualism adheres to the ideal that the medium is not the message, the idea becomes a machine that makes the art.


By turning the camera on himself, and selecting the photographic Genre of self-portraiture, David Pollack is attempting to create a canon of works consisting of probing, surprising, and thoughtful images. Although, the majority of his photographs are pictures of him, however, these photographs are most definitely not self-portraits. Rather, Pollack uses himself as a vehicle for commentary on a variety of issues of the modern world. Pollack employs acting, in particular method acting, to create characters and lifestyles in which these characters choose to exist. He employs concepts of method acting to create characters, such as Chase Alias. He lives his life completely immersed in these characters lifestyles for years before building his installations ands then finally photographing himself as these characters.

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