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Danxia landform in Zhangye,China.

Danxia landform, formed from red sandstone and characterised by steep cliffs, which are caused by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces(including weathering and erosion).

--From Wikipedia

"Chemical which occurs naturally in the brain and works like morphine"


Endogenous preferences - Top 10% popular

Show up and get the work done. #chuckclose #chasealias #immersionism #endogenous


Show Up and Get the Work Done: From Endogenous Series, 2010 - 2012


Inspiration is for amateurs. The rest of us just show up and get the work done. If you wait around for clouds to part and a bolt of lightning to strike you in the brain, you're not going to make an awful lot of work." -Chuck Close


David S Pollack becomes Chuck Close with the help of some Method Acting skills he attempts to visually and conceptually reinterpret the words and idea of this conceptual artist using this very quote of Mr Close's, Information he has studied and even traits he picked when briefly meeting Chuck as an art dealer in Chelsea before Pollack decided to abandon his Art Dealer to pursue his life's goal to become a Conceptual Artist.


David S Pollack aka Chase Alias hopes to bring to light with his new Endogenous Series how backwards moving our cultural standards have become. As an Immersionist he look back in envy at the freedoms which artists used to be able to express themselves without having to worry about cultural and even legal action being taken against them.


Immersionism is a young art movement which combines Lewittian Conceptualism with Method Acting practices and principles. Stanislavsky and Strasberg Acting Methods which utilize sense memory and affective memory are an Immersionist's base. Lewittian Conceptualism adheres to the ideal that the medium is not the message, the idea becomes a machine that makes the art.


HDR Video Still form an HD Video Screen Capture, Originally Filmed with an HD Flip Camera

Original Art and Prints available at Saatchi Art:

Impianto di perforazione usato per trivellare il terreno alla profondità di 2000 mt ed arrivare

ad estrarre vapore endogeno

rig used to drill the soil to a depth of 2000 meters and reach

to remove endogenous steam

equipo de perforación utilizada para perforar el suelo a una profundidad de 2000 metros y alcanzar

para eliminar el vapor endógeno

Pronunciation: \en-ˈdȯr-fən\

Function: noun

Etymology: International Scientific Vocabulary endogenous + metersorphine


Naturally occurring substances released by the brain that resemble opiates, and are theorized to be the brain chemicals that make you feel happy and content.


We're all searching for that high that puts a smile on our face. The tingling sensation that makes us happy and forget our ills if only for a fleeting moment. Some people look for endorphins through illicit or legal drugs, some find it listening to music or playing sports, and some lucky basters find it in the banalities of everyday life.


We can't seem to get enough of it and want more, though it resides in our own bodies for the taking.

Impossible to Understand from Endogenous Series, 2010-2012


Any significance would be impossible to understand. When you do understand, it would be indescribable. Everything is different when there is no meaning. - Ai Weiwei


Impossible to Understand from Endogenous Series, 2010-2012


Chase Alias gets into the mind state of conceptual artists Ai Weiwei particularly embracing his ideals and philosophies about how he feels nudity is not pornography. Perhaps Chase is taking its to a slightly elevated level though. What is he saying about pornography? Certainly nothing more graphic or shocking than his Conceptual Art Photography forefathers did such as Mapplethorpe, Serrano or even Thomas Ruff.


David S Pollack aka Chase Alias hopes to bring to light with his new Endogenous Series how backwards moving our cultural standards have become. As an Immersionist he look back in envy at the freedoms which artists used to be able to express themselves without having to worry about cultural and even legal action being taken against them.


Immersionism is a young art movement which combines Lewittian Conceptualism with Method Acting practices and principles. Stanislavsky and Strasberg Acting Methods which utilize sense memory and affective memory are an Immersionist's base. Lewittian Conceptualism adheres to the ideal that the medium is not the message, the idea becomes a machine that makes the art.


Ai Weiwei. Ai Weiwei's Blog: Writings, Interviews, and Digital Rants, 2006-2009 (Writing Art) (Kindle Locations 1052-1053). Kindle Edition.


HDR Video Screen Capture as played on Adobe Quicktime. Originally capture on a Flip Video


#chasealias #aiweiwei #immersionism #endogenous

Passion meets Purpose


Although it may be slightly painful, it is important to stretch properly before beginning any exercise to prepare the body for the stress of a work-out and to prevent injury.


An exercise program can stimulate pleasure endorphins in the brain that act as natural pain relievers.


We can often substitute alcohol and drugs for a similar sensation but underestimate the effects that they may have on our bodies and minds in the long term; all drugs, including prescription medications, have adverse effects and although a drug may not be enjoyable after frequent use it can still be hard to reduce a dosage or to stop using it altogether.


Copyright © 2009 - 2017 Tomitheos Photography - All Rights Reserved


fun fact:

endorphins are endogenous opioid polypeptide compounds and are produced by the pituitary gland and the hypothalamus in vertebrates during strenuous exercise and they resemble the opiates in their abilities to produce analgesia and a sense of well-being.


“I have a theory that the truth is never told during the nine-to-five hours.”

― Hunter S. Thompson


from Who I M Seies, 2010 - 2014,

Affective Memory Screen Capture by Immersionist Chase Alias includes Instant Message Conversations.


Unique Digital Work #chasealias #endogenous #theorizeart #screencapture #NewMedia #Immersionist #affectivememory #huntersthompson #art

Foreign body giant cell and macrophage reaction to the presence of air in colonic tissue.A similar reaction may occur in the pleura in association with pneumothorax (reactive eosinophilic pleuritis).



The #1 Bestselling Photo Essay & Artist Biography in 2010 on Amazon, 25 Lessons I’ve Learned about Photography...Life!, is now available with 25 Spectacular New York City street photos. It is the perfect holiday gift for your favorite photographer, aspiring artist, job seeker, soul searcher or anyone who just needs a little inspiration.




"The book has been the best $3 investment in my life." PD, New York


"I don't think I've ever read as moving a piece on the craft of photography in my life. Most pieces on photography are more tech manual in approach, this one really touches my's going to really impact my life." Phyllis Johnson, photojournalist and author of Being Frank with Anne


"We received our copies of 25 Lessons today and began reading it as a class - it is truly amazing." Paul Scott, Head of Photography, St. Boniface's Catholic College in Plymouth, UK


Read Other Testimonials and Praise for 25 Lessons


25 Lessons is available as an Amazon e-book and can be given and received by anyone with an e-mail address. Electronic books can be read either on Kindle or on a PC, Mac, iPhone, iPad, BlackBerry, or Android Phone., US

Text only, .99

With photos, .99, UK

Text only,£2.20

With photos, £2.90


For More Information


October 18, 2007, New York City:


Entendiendo El Minotauro


Ya sé que quiere decir “joder”

Ya sé lo que es ser—animal

Ya sé como es ser la mitad del hombre que fue Picasso

Ya sé el secreto del Minotauro

Ya sé como es ser el tigre, el oso, el león... (Oh, my!)

¡Ya sé como es ser chingón!


I know what it is like to be a Centaur now.

Now, I know liminal, I understand the pain

of lusting after the Lapith, I can comprehend

the intrinsic struggle between the deep-seated

and the high-minded ideals of men.


For last night, in shameless congregation

with the animal in me, I grew a tail

and a snout; my knuckles grew out,

and, for a moment, I believe I even

had horns.


I may never recover.

Now, I may forever be at the behest

of the moon pulling, tugging,

piquing out the estrus in me.


I am afraid.

I fear the inevitable emptiness,

left by this deluge of endorphins

that washed and poured and sloshed

through me last night.


The consequence of

cannabinoids upon endogenous opioids,

a long draw of tetrahydrocannabinol

mixed with an overflow of oxyytocin—

perhaps, it will serve to cleanse my soul,

withdrawal being that necessary evil,

the price we must pay for the ineffable,

for the priceless experience of ecstasy.


Regardless, it was well worth the costs.


Because last night I was reminded:

Perfection is inherently ephemeral.

We must live a life of perfect moments;

for only foolish humans futilely pursue

a perfection that is everlasting.


Why pay the price of war

when love can be had for free?


Make love, not war

Faites l’amour, non la guerre

Fate l’amore non fate la Guerra

Haz el amor y no la Guerra.






Read more essays, stories, musings, poems and prose like this at Literary Central!.


Blues, the black dog, bummer, slump, the blue devils, funk, blue funk, the pit, megrims, vapors, slough of despond, melancholia, the hump, down in the dumps, deep in the shit, been down so long it looks like up to me.


* Trouble sleeping or excessive sleeping

* A dramatic change in appetite, often with weight gain or loss

* Fatigue and lack of energy

* Feelings of worthlessness, self-hate, and inappropriate guilt

* Extreme difficulty concentrating

* Agitation, restlessness, and irritability

* Inactivity and withdrawal from usual activities

* Feelings of hopelessness and helplessness

* Recurring thoughts of death or suicide


Unhappiness, discouragement, despair, cheerlessness, demoralisation, gloom, moodiness, melancholy, sadness, oppression, hopelessness, despondency, misery, dejection, downheartedness, helplessness, isolation, wretchedness.


# major depressive disorder

# bipolar disorder

# dysthymic disorder

# cyclothymic disorder

# adjustment disorder with depressed mood

# seasonal affective disorder

# substance-induced mood disorder

# mood disorder due to a general medical condition

# premenstrual dysphoric disorder

# postpartum depression


dysphoria – a state of depression and anhedonia so severe as to require clinical intervention.

affective disorder, emotional disorder, emotional disturbance, major affective disorder -- any mental disorder not caused by detectable organic abnormalities of the brain and in which a major disturbance of emotions is predominant.

agitated depression -- a state of clinical depression in which the person exhibits irritability and restlessness.

anaclitic depression -- severe and progressive depression in infants who lose their mother and do not get a suitable substitute.

dysthymia, dysthymic depression -- mild chronic depression; "I thought she had just been in a bad mood for thirty years, but the doctor called it dysthymia."

endogenous depression -- a state of depression for which there is no apparent precipitating cause.

exogenous depression, reactive depression -- an inappropriate state of depression that is precipitated by events in the person's life (to be distinguished from normal grief).

major depressive episode -- (psychiatry) a state of depression with all the classic symptoms (anhedonia and lethargy and sleep disturbance and despondency and morbid thoughts and feelings of worthlessness and sometimes attempted suicide) but with no known organic dysfunction.

neurotic depression -- a term used for any state of depression that is not psychotic.

psychotic depression - a state of depression so severe that the person loses contact with reality and suffers a variety of functional impairments.

retarded depression -- a state of clinical depression in which the individual is lethargic and slow to initiate action.


The combination of increasingly complex high-risk financial instruments (unknown, under-acknowledged, under-estimated and/or misunderstood by public and private policy sector workers at all levels of governance) and a thriving culture of testosterone-driven traders with their hands firmly on the throttle of oil-dependent muscle vehicles, flooring-it on shared virtual highways with silently condoned (albeit) unwritten permission and even enthusiastic encouragement to exceed safe speed limits, the exponential growth in wealth of the upper quintile of the upper quintile accompanied by the exponential increase in poverty of the lower quintile of the lower quintile, the global expansion and implementation of the belief-system based on unfettered, self-regulated market political economies (loosely called market liberalism although best-served by political conservatism) promulgated around the planet through mass media content packaged to sell imagery of the invisible hand of the market as the right hand of the new secular god surrounded by soldiers of the user-pay, private-is-better, blame-the-poor, monetize-everything, blame-the-ill, social-justice-vs-economic-efficiency, base-minumum-wage-on-pin-money-workers, minimum-government, trickle-down-affect, legal-but-not-ethical, group-think-culture led by the Triad of Mises-Friedman-Hayek has led to market chaos that is not theoretical but Really Real.


According to Dan Mitchell's article Trading on Testosterone" in the New York Times, "Movements in financial markets are correlated to the levels of hormones in the bodies of male traders, according to a study by two researchers from the University of Cambridge."


The Adobe Photoshop image was created by adding the Suit to the bull and layering my own mortgage meltdown digitage with the article's illustration by Alex Eben Meyer in the New York Times. I saved this as a transparent .png file. (I am unsure of the licensing for the NYT image.) [1]


This is twisted curve in the winding road of ancient arguments that prohibited participation of hormone-driven women (emotional versus logical, intuitive versus deductive, feelings versus reason) in pivotal positions of decision-making.


read more | digg story


Does this mean the invisible hand of the market should be wearing a glove? Should the use of Viagra be monitored on the trading floor?




1. In response to the interesting question from Ray Randall re: Creative Commons Licensing of this images which he used here : and here Ray is using CC for the first time and was confused and concerned about following Web 2.0 etiquette. It can be confusing.


This image is my digital collage or mashup as described above which is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-Noncommercial-Share Alike 2.5 Canada License. Most of my Flickr images are under the Creative Commons License lets authors, scientists, artists, and educators easily mark their creative work with the freedoms they want it to carry while legally remixing and reusing fragments of the work of others.


When you add a Flickr image to your blog through Flickr's menu options, it automatically generates this code (I've replaced with [ and ])

[div style="float:right;margin-left:10px;margin-bottom:10px;"][a title="photo sharing" href=""><img style="border:solid 2px #000000;" src="" alt="" /][/a]


[span style="font-size:.9em;margin-top:0;"]

[a href=""]Bull Wrestling Bear Markets: Testosterone-driven[/a]


Originally uploaded by [a href=""]ocean.flynn[/a]



By using Flickr's code the image is linked to image, artist and textual info.


I notice a lot of people bypass this and simply thank oceanflynn or Maureen Flynn-Burhoe which is fine for me because Google makes the link. It wouldn't if your name was not as easily identified by Google. And this method is not really Flickr-friendly.


However, Flickr has its own set of rules which requires that the live link to the Flickr-hosted image. This also accesses the accompanying explanatory text which describes how I added my own original mashups as well as remixing and reusing some of the work of other artists.

If you follow my links to the NYT's article you can see where the bull and bear originate. I put the bull in a Wall Street suit and tie and added my own original Adobe Photoshop image which was quite timely and involved. When you crop to include only the bear and bull, it is possible that it borrows too heavily from the original NYT's article illustration.


Webliography and Bibliography

Coates, J. M. and J. Herbert. 2008. "Endogenous steroids and financial risk taking on a London trading floor." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.


Emarketer. 2008-03-18. "Online Advertisers To Spend Through Turbulence."


Flynn-Burhoe, Maureen. 2008-04-19. "Complex Financial Instruments and Testosterone-Driven Trading: Algorithm of Market Chaos."


Mitchell, Dan. 2008-04-19. "Trading on Testosterone." New York Times. 5tvolz permalink


Palmer, Jason. 2008-04-14. "Traders' raging hormones cause stock market swings."


Rubel, Steve. 2008-04-17. "Study: A Billion Dollars in Internet Advertising is Wasted." Micro Persuasion.


Rubel, Steve. 2008-04-19. Twitter.




1. Algorithm: a "problem-solving procedure: a logical step-by-step procedure for solving a mathematical problem in a finite number of steps, often involving repetition of the same basic operation" or a "problem-solving computer program: a logical sequence of steps for solving a problem, often written out as a flow chart, that can be translated into a computer program," a term used in the late 17th century. It is an alteration, "after Greek arithmos "number," of algorism, via Old French and medieval Latin based on the Arabic al-Ḵwārizmī , the name of the 9th century mathematician who introduced algorithms to the West." See MSC (1998-2005) Encarta.


Identifier: botanicalclassbo00noll

Title: The Botanical Class-Book and Flora of Pennsylvania

Year: 1852 (1850s)

Authors: Noll, Henry R.

Subjects: Botany. Botany--Pennsylvania.

Publisher: Lewisburg, Pa.: O. N. Worden, Printer.

Contributing Library: Pennsylvania Horticultural Society, McLean Library

Digitizing Sponsor: LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation


View Book Page: Book Viewer

About This Book: Catalog Entry

View All Images: All Images From Book


Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.


Text Appearing Before Image:

but these diversities arc reducible to two general plants, whichlay the foundation of the first grand distinction of Floweringplants into Exogens and Exdogens. 24 EXOGENOUS STEMS. 70. The difference between the two, as to the structureof their stems, is briefly this. Thosfi of Exogenous plantsincrease in diameter by the annual formation of a new layerof wood, which is deposited between the preceding layer andthe bark; i^othtr words the wood increases by annual addi-tions to the outside. Flowering plants whose stems grow inthis way are called Exogenous Plants orExogens (outsidegrowers.) 71. In stems of the Endogenous structure the new woodymatter is deposited within the old, and towards the centre,which becoming more and more occupied with woody fibresas the stem grows older, causes a gradual distention of thewhole, thereby increasing its diameter, the new wood pushingthe old outward,. Accordingly the plants of this division arecalled Endogons (inside growers.) EXOGENOUS STEMS. 19. 20.


Text Appearing After Image:

i. 72. The stem of an Exogen, Fig. 19, is composed of threeseparate parts, the pith, wood, and bark. The pith (medulla.)occupies the centre of the plant, consisting of spongy cellulartissue, at first abounding with nutritive matter for the nour-ishment of the terminating buds, but as the plant advancesin age it becomes dry and much reduced in volume. It issurrounded by a narrow Eone of vascular tissue, called the EXOGENOUS STEMh). lh medullarv sriEATinNO, which is composed of woody fibreand spiral vessels and is the only part of the stem in whichthese latter occur. 73. The Wood consists of ligneous fibre, vasiform tissueand ducts, arranged in concentric row3 or laycr0 pervaded bythin, firm, plates of condensed cellular tissue passing fromthe pith through the medullary sheath to the bark, denomi-nated medullary rays, Fig. 19, which aie epiite conspicuousin vertical sections of the oak, or the maple, where they aresometimes called Silver grain. The number of zones or layersin a stem is


Note About Images

Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

"I try to see myself as a sacrifice, just to show the kids they ain't the only ones who up at night." -Kid Cudi


from Who I M Seies, 2010 - 2014,

Affective Memory Screen Capture by Immersionist Chase Alias includes Instant Message Conversations.


Unique Digital Work #chasealias #endogenous #theorizeart #screencapture #NewMedia #Immersionist




A State of Insecurity from Endogenous Series, 2010 - 2012


Our considerations tend to stop at a certain level, on a level that provides a sense of security. How many people willingly locate themselves in a state of insecurity? -Ai WeiWei


Chase Alias attempts to get into the mind state of Conceptual Artists Ai Weiwei particularly embracing some of his ideals and philosophies. This work is particularly inspired by the activist artist's struggles and triumphs throughout the year.


David S Pollack aka Chase Alias hopes to bring to light with his new Endogenous Series how backwards moving our cultural standards have become. As an Immersionist he look back in envy at the freedoms which artists used to be able to express themselves without having to worry about cultural and even legal action being taken against them.


Immersionism is a young art movement which combines Lewittian Conceptualism with Method Acting practices and principles. Stanislavsky and Strasberg Acting Methods which utilize sense memory and affective memory are an Immersionist's base. Lewittian Conceptualism adheres to the ideal that the medium is not the message, the idea becomes a machine that makes the art.


#aiweiwei #chasealias #immersionism


Ai Weiwei. Ai Weiwei's Blog: Writings, Interviews, and Digital Rants, 2006-2009 (Writing Art)

sottotitolo: più o meno.


Più o meno mi barcameno tra chi mi capisce e chi impazzisce per come sono di questi tempi.

Più o meno me la vivo così, tra giorni mutanti farciti di equivoci.

In continuo movimento, per riuscire a ripararmi dal vento, onde evitare di cadere sbattendo.


[Dicono di te: Who are the best enemies we have ever had? According to David Brown in the Washington Post, they are the thousands of endogenous retroviruses that attacked our ancestors for millions of years. In response to their evil invasions, we humans have had to build our rough, tough immune system, which is one of the most amazing creations on the planet. Let's make this your inspirational metaphor for the coming weeks, Gemini. I urge you to welcome the opportunities that your adversaries are going to give you to grow bigger, stronger, and more beautiful.


Dicono di me: "Sometimes the fastest way to get there/ is to go slow," sings Tina Dico in her song "Count to Ten." "Sometimes if you want to hold on/ you've got to let go." That's a ripe oracle for you to meditate on, Aries. As you explore the nuances of its meaning,

*you may discover secrets about how life is always working behind the scenes to balance things out.* You might also see that going to any extreme will often attract the opposite extreme into your life; an excess of yang can lead to yin, and vice versa.]


Be vulnerable like a child foreboding joy. -Chase Alias


#chasealias #immersionism #endogenous


Will Someone please tell me exactly what is so controversial about a Method Actor/Conceptual Artist creating an artwork to promote HIV awareness? Particularly to his own community. My goodness how backwards has our society become?


So this is Christmas, huh. Another year over and a new one about to begin. "What year is it anyway?" Robert thinks to himself. The last few years have all just sorts blurred themselves together in his mind. Bouncing around from house to house and state to state. Going where the cool wond Takes him. Ya dig! In one of Roberts rare moments of clarity he remembers to take his Atripla. "I hope these work this time" he says. He sure is happy with his gay doctor who understands him and his current lifestyle enough to give him the HIV drug prophylactically. Cuz the last few nights have been so unforgettable they remain a blur. With all of these guys throwing around all of these letters, T, C, G and D and no one stopping for a moment to even ask if he's poz. Let alone put on a condom. Condoms in this world are the taboo. What a word, what a christmas. Oh well, thinks robert, here's to a happy New Year.


David S Pollack aka Chase Alias hopes to bring to light with his new Endogenous Series how backwards moving our cultural standards have become. As an Immersionist he look back in envy at the freedoms which artists used to be able to express themselves without having to worry about cultural and even legal action being taken against them.


Immersionism is a young art movement which combines Lewittian Conceptualism with Method Acting practices and principles. Stanislavsky and Strasberg Acting Methods which utilize sense memory and affective memory are an Immersionist's base. Lewittian Conceptualism adheres to the ideal that the medium is not the message, the idea becomes a machine that makes the art.


This is a role being played by Chase Alias an actor. But for way too many young gay men out in the world, lost and alone, they play this role every day. Lets keep our wits about us when we go to blow our minds.


The Idea Machine from Endogenous Series, 2010-2012


The Medium is not the Message, the idea brcomes the machine that makes the art. #chasealias




David S Pollack aka Chase Alias hopes to bring to light with his new Endogenous Series how backwards moving our cultural standards have become. As an Immersionist he look back in envy at the freedoms which artists used to be able to express themselves without having to worry about cultural and even legal action being taken against them.


Immersionism is a young art movement which combines Lewittian Conceptualism with Method Acting practices and principles. Stanislavsky and Strasberg Acting Methods which utilize sense memory and affective memory are an Immersionist's base. Lewittian Conceptualism adheres to the ideal that the medium is not the message, the idea becomes a machine that makes the art.


HDR Video Still form an HD Video Screen Capture, Originally Filmed with an HD Flip Camera


China Danxia is the name given in China to landscapes developed on continental red terrigenous sedimentary beds influenced by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces (including weathering and erosion). The inscribed site comprises six areas found in the sub-tropical zone of south-west China. They are characterized by spectacular red cliffs and a range of erosional landforms, including dramatic natural pillars, towers, ravines, valleys and waterfalls. These rugged landscapes have helped to conserve sub-tropical broad-leaved evergreen forests, and host many species of flora and fauna, about 400 of which are considered rare or threatened.

Antidepressant potential

A clinical trial conducted at Harvard Medical School in the mid-1990s demonstrated that a majority of unipolar non-psychotic patients with major depression refractory to conventional thymoleptic antidepressants could be successfully treated with buprenorphine.[20] See opioids for other (predominantly favorable) experiments with buprenorphine and other opioids for psychological relief. However, psychological distress, such as clinical depression, is currently not an approved indication for the use of any opioid, and legally it falls in to a "grey zone".[21][22] Some doctors nevertheless are realising its potential as an antidepressant in cases where the patient cannot tolerate or is resistant to conventional thymoleptic antidepressants. Both mental and physical pain are regulated by the same chemical networks in the brain. Depression is commonly accompanied by co-morbid pain symptoms. Endogenous opiates, such as endorphins and enkephalins, mediate pain perception in the body. In the brain, they are significantly involved in regulating mood and behavior, and decreasing the perception of pain and depression. Even a partial agonist at the µ-opioid receptor (like buprenophine) releases serotonin and dopamine in the CNS, but to a lesser degree than full agonists do. This slight release of serotonin and dopamine may contribute to the anti-depressant properties of buprenorphine, especially those with a pre-existing mental disorder.

I was wandering along the edge of a sea loch in Argyll, when I came across this little flotilla of Collembola a.k.a. Springtails (Anurida maritima) on the surface of a shallow rock pool. I am used to seeing other species of Collembola on rotting wood and so on, but it always takes me by surprise a bit when I come across this marine species. They are fascinating to watch ... individuals seem to bounce off the main group, as though propelled by an electric charge, and then form either new groups or re-aggregate with the main group.


I found this info on-line:


"The entire body of the Collembola is covered with white hydrophobic hairs which allow the animal to stay above the surface of the water on which it spends much of its life. Aggregation is an important aspect of collembolan biology, and A. maritima has been shown to produce an aggregating pheromone. Like many intertidal animals, A. maritima moves in rhythm with the tidal cycle, and has an endogenous circatidal rhythm with a period of hours, using visual cues to orient themselves during their movements."

Wiki (See info from Frans Janssens for more accurate and current thinking on aggregation, below.)

China Danxia is the name given in China to landscapes developed on continental red terrigenous sedimentary beds influenced by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces (including weathering and erosion). The inscribed site comprises six areas found in the sub-tropical zone of south-west China. They are characterized by spectacular red cliffs and a range of erosional landforms, including dramatic natural pillars, towers, ravines, valleys and waterfalls. These rugged landscapes have helped to conserve sub-tropical broad-leaved evergreen forests, and host many species of flora and fauna, about 400 of which are considered rare or threatened.


Danxia Shan, China

August 22, 2010


UNESCO World Heritage Site # 1335

Year of Inscription: 2010


China Danxia is the name given in China to landscapes developed on continental red terrigenous sedimentary beds influenced by endogenous forces (including uplift) and exogenous forces (including weathering and erosion). The inscribed site comprises six areas found in the sub-tropical zone of south-west China. They are characterized by spectacular red cliffs and a range of erosional landforms, including dramatic natural pillars, towers, ravines, valleys and waterfalls. These rugged landscapes have helped to conserve sub-tropical broad-leaved evergreen forests, and host many species of flora and fauna, about 400 of which are considered rare or threatened.

One Possible Reality from Endogenous Series, 2010 - 2012


#chasealias #immersionism #aiweiwei #endogenous


Once photography has broken away from its original function as technique or means for documentation, it is merely a fleeting state of existence that has been transformed into one possible reality. It is this transformation that makes photography a kind of movement and gives it it's distinct significance: it is merely one type of existence. -Ai WeiWei


Ai Weiwei. Ai Weiwei's Blog: Writings, Interviews, and Digital Rants, 2006-2009 (Writing Art)


July 2011

Medium:HDR Video Still

Original Dimensions:34" x 37.6", 320dpi, 32Bits/Channel

Copyright:CC Pollack Images @ Studio ChaseMe


David S Pollack aka Chase Alias hopes to bring to light with his new Endogenous Series how backwards moving our cultural standards have become. As an Immersionist he look back in envy at the freedoms which artists used to be able to express themselves without having to worry about cultural and even legal action being taken against them.


Immersionism is a young art movement which combines Lewittian Conceptualism with Method Acting practices and principles. Stanislavsky and Strasberg Acting Methods which utilize sense memory and affective memory are an Immersionist's base. Lewittian Conceptualism adheres to the ideal that the medium is not the message, the idea becomes a machine that makes the art.


By turning the camera on himself, and selecting the photographic Genre of self-portraiture, David Pollack is attempting to create a canon of works consisting of probing, surprising, and thoughtful images. Although, the majority of his photographs are pictures of him, however, these photographs are most definitely not self-portraits. Rather, Pollack uses himself as a vehicle for commentary on a variety of issues of the modern world. Pollack employs acting, in particular method acting, to create characters and lifestyles in which these characters choose to exist. He employs concepts of method acting to create characters, such as Chase Alias. He lives his life completely immersed in these characters lifestyles for years before building his installations ands then finally photographing himself as these characters.

The Icelandic horse are everywhere on the Island and have been bred to survive the windy cold environment. They have short legs and two unique gaits. They are an endogenous population that has low resistance to outside equine diseases. So now other horses (and I think other livestock) are not allowed to be imported to Iceland and once they leave the Island cannot return.

Foreign body giant cell reaction to keratin in a pilomatricoma.


Sunday July 5, 2009

Handling stress the right way



Self-pity can spiral downwards into severe depression and suicidal tendencies.


LEE had an unhappy childhood because of his father’s addiction to alcohol and gambling. His father often beat his wife in front of the children.


Lee grew up hating his father. He struggled through his studies and eventually qualified as an accountant. His colleagues noticed he had very low self-esteem as he often compared himself to his peers and felt they were happier and more successful than him.


Things came to a head when Lee missed a promotion. “These people look down on me. I will never get promoted in this company,” Lee told himself. His wife noticed that Lee was depressed and could not sleep well. After quarrelling with his wife, Lee became bitter. “Nobody understands me; they make my life miserable,” he cried to himself.


Cognitive distortion


You may know someone like Lee. So what was going on in his mind? Lee was suffering from a common problem called cognitive distortion. His inner dialogue or self-talk was negative and distorted. For instance, when he said “I will never get promoted in this company” he was, in fact, fortune-telling.

Dr Yong with participants of an earlier seminar.


The futureis unpredictable, yet Lee spoke like as if he knew what would happen, “Fortune-telling” is a type of cognitive distortion. Although cognitive distortions occur primarily in our minds, they can have serious consequences on our body and spirit when the distortions cause us to go into self-centredness and self-pity.


A spirit that is unwell can lead to excessive focus on oneself, or self-centredness. It begins with feelings of self-pity. The symptoms of self-pity include regret, disappointment, envy, jealousy and greediness. Self-pity can spiral precipitously downwards into severe depression with suicidal tendencies.


Of endorphins


Our bodies produce a hormone called endorphin that makes us feel good. Endorphin is actually an abbreviation of “endogenous morphine”.


Morphine is used medicinally to relieve pain, but it also alters perception by producing euphoria and dispelling fear and anxiety.


Endorphins can do the same thing. The only difference is that they are natural and therefore safe (while morphine is addictive).


Endorphins are beneficial because:


* They give us a sense of security and significance;


* They build up our immune system;


* They can help relieve aches and pain; and


* They improve the accuracy of our perception, hence helping us in problem-solving.


If endorphins are so good for us, how can we “get” them? Endorphins are released during physical exercise. However, they don’t last long because the body produces an enzyme called endorphinase that consumes them.


What then can we do to increase levels of endorphins?


According to scientific research, thinking positively will aid the release of endorphins, and vice-versa. One way to understand why an unhappy person would have low levels of endorphins is to look at the fourth property: that endorphins help improve the accuracy and positivity of our perception.


If a person considers half a glass of water as half-empty, then he is not interested in problem-solving. His endorphin level will drop as the mind “informs” the body that he does not need fresh release of endorphins.


On the other hand, when the person focusses positively on the glass as half-full, he enters a problem-solving mode and the mind will inform the body that he requires endorphins.


In real life, a half-empty mindset would be to regret a bad experience from the past and constantly replay that episode in our mind. Self-pity will do that to the individual.


Accepting the past and moving on with renewed hope will strengthen the individual to face tomorrow. Emotionally-excellent individuals do precisely that.


How do they achieve this? In the next article (in StarTwo, July 9), we examine the two basic human needs in our spirit.


Dr Leonard Yong is an educational psychologist. He consults internationally and is now based in Dubai ( He will address the Malaysia Festival of the Mind, jointly organised by Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman, Malaysia Mental Literacy Movement and Kolej Tunku Abdul Rahman, to be held July 10-12 at Utar’s Perak campus in Kampar. Admission is free. For enquiries, call 03-76250328 or e-mail

Hand stitched and bound shibori techniques on habotai silk


Image: Pinegate Photographics, Cardiff


Endogenous, meaning ‘from within’, refers to her own Endogenous Depression, but also to the act of giving her inner-most feelings a physical form. This series of sculptures has become the means by which she externalises her continuing battle with depression. Whilst the sculptures represent her inner self, bound by the constraints of depression, their inherent purity and beauty are a testament to the new confidence and inner peace she has gained through her art.


The act of hand stitching and binding the fabric is as important to her as the resulting sculpture. The concept of “the hand healing the mind” is a significant aspect of her work; the repetitive rhythmical action of stitching or binding the cloth being a meditative one. By becoming “one with the cloth” one is taken out of oneself. The act of engaging with the cloth removes one from depressive self-absorption. The realisation of her own depression has led to her preoccupation with how other sufferers envision their own condition. Her resolve is to explore/record these through an extensive series of sculptural pieces.


Her work records the actions found within shibori; stitching, binding, gathering, manipulating and folding - not through the expected dye process, but purely as texture and form. It was whilst in Japan as part of her Embroiderers' Guild mature scholarship studies (May/June 2002) that she first observed the artisans who had spent their entire lives manipulating cloth prior to its being dyed. As a trained musician, she was fascinated to see that the repetitive shibori actions were not only represented on the cloth as pattern and texture, but were also imprinted upon the artisans hands and minds. She wished to learn more about these traditional techniques in order that these skills would not be lost with the passing generations, whilst at the same time developing her own personal shibori vocabulary suitable for the 21st Century.

(Medical Xpress)—The human brain's exquisite complexity and power make it a unique evolutionary marvel. One of the brain's more interesting abilities is known as the placebo effect, in which no more than the expectation of relief can lead to analgesia – the relief of pain, anxiety, depression, nausea, and many other aversive states. However, scientists at University of Gothenburg and University of Oslo recently showed that the placebo effect may not be limited to pain reduction, but may also enhance pleasure, or hyperhedonia. The researchers used the placebo effect to improve both painful and pleasant touch sensations in healthy humans – and by comparing brain processing using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), found that, depending on whether the starting point was painful or pleasant, neurocircuitry associated with emotion and reward underpinned improvement of both pain and pleasant touch by dampening pain but increasing touch pleasantness.


In an interview with Medical Xpress, PhD candidate Dan-Mikael Ellingsen discussed the paper he and his colleagues published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. "In recent years, functional brain imaging studies have shown that expecting a treatment to relieve negative symptoms – like pain, anxiety or unpleasant taste – leads to not only subjective reports of relief, but also suppressed brain activity in sensory circuitry during aversive stimuli, such as noxious heat or touch, threatening images, and unpleasant taste," Ellingsen tells Medical Xpress. "However, both aversive and appetitive experiences – for example, tasty food or a pleasant touch – are affected by context and expectation." Therefore, Ellingsen explains, in forming their hypothesis for this study, the researchers asked whether improvement of good experiences is encoded entirely in higher-level valuation processing, or whether it would mirror the modulation of early stages of sensory processing that is seen for aversive stimuli. "If so, we'd expect such positive sensory signals to be up-regulated, in contrast to the down-regulation of sensory signals we see during placebo-induced reduction of aversive experiences."

In the placebo manipulation procedure, participants were shown a short video documentary convincing them that a nasal spray containing the neuropeptide oxytocin would reduce pain and enhance the pleasantness of pleasant touch. Following this video, they self-administered 10 puffs of a placebo nasal that they were told could contain oxytocin. The pleasant touch stimuli consisted of caress-like light strokes with a soft brush, or a hot/cold pack (resembling a warm hand, applied to the subject's forearm. The pain stimulus was a thermode (~47 degrees Celsius) on the hand.

Ellingsen notes that by comparing brain activation during painful or pleasant touch stimuli after placebo treatment versus no-placebo, the scientists were able to assess differences in activation that was specifically related to having received placebo treatment. "Importantly, the subjective reports showed that, after receiving placebo relative to no-placebo, touch pleasantness was increased while pain unpleasantness was decreased," he adds. "When contrasting placebo and no-placebo on brain activation, we found that sensory activation was increased during pleasant touch stimuli and decreased during painful touch stimuli. In other words, the placebo-induced change in sensory processing reflected the placebo-induced change in subjective reports."


The team also hypothesized that placebo improvement of pleasant touch would recruit the same emotion appraisal neurocircuitry that underpins placebo analgesia. "Neural systems mediating pain and pleasure interact extensively, with pain and pleasure often being mutually inhibitory," Ellingsen says. "For instance," he illustrates, "pleasant stimuli such as music, food, odors, and touch can have analgesic effects – and pain can inhibit pleasure and positive feelings. Further, opioids can induce both potent analgesia and feelings of pleasure." (An opioid is any psychoactive chemical that resembles morphine or other opiate in its pharmacological effects.) Ellingsen points out that previous findings show that relief from pain induces pleasant feelings1,2, and when a normally painful stimulus represents the best possible outcome – that is, when the alternative is even more intense pain3 – it can even become pleasant.

Ellingsen explains that a central element in all placebo effects is that there is an expectation or desire for an improvement, for example, a relief of pain or unpleasantness – and placebo effects have been theorized to arise from a generalized mechanism of reward prediction. This reasoning, he notes, is supported by evidence that placebo responses across modalities – analgesia6, anxiety relief7, and so on – rely on activation of similar neural systems involved in reward and emotion. "In line with this strong link between pleasure and the relief from negative feelings, we hypothesized that improving the pleasantness of an appetitive stimulus would rely on modulatory mechanisms similar to those involved in the improvement of aversive feelings."

A key aspect of the team's research was devising and applying an fMRI crossover study to compare neural processing of placebo hyperhedonia and analgesia. "In order to compare the brain mechanisms of placebo hyperhedonia and analgesia, we assessed the effect of placebo treatment on subjective experiences within the same sensory modality – namely, touch, both pleasant and painful."

A key aspect of the study's analytic design was based on the researchers' knowledge that all dermal information is processed in the same neural pathways – specifically, the sensory thalamus, primary and secondary somatosensory areas, and the posterior insula. "As a result," Ellingsen points out, "we were able to perform two important measurements: we directly compared how expectation of improvement affected the processing of positive and negative somatosensory signals in these pathways, and investigated the effect of higher-level modulatory circuitry on sensory processing of pleasant or painful touch."


Proposed mechanism of placebo analgesia and hyperhedonia. During expectation of hyperhedonia and analgesia, a shared modulatory network up-regulates pleasant touch processing and down-regulates painful touch processing in somatosensory areas, …more

Another factor the scientists had to consider was that the use of subjective rating scales varies widely between individuals (as opposed to a single individual's typical consistency). As a result, these scales are significantly better at detecting changes between placebo and no-placebo within individuals rather than between one group who received placebo and another that received no placebo. "Consequently," Ellingsen explains, "such a design has superior statistical power – that is, a greater ability to detect a true effect."

Further, the potential benefit of a crossover design can be found when the order of treatment – specifically, placebo or no-placebo first – is considered, since it may potentially affect responses. "To control for this potential confounder," notes Ellingsen, "we used a crossover design, that is, half of the subjects got placebo in the first session, and the other half got placebo in the last session." However, he adds, in the analyses they performed, they found that the treatment order had no effect on either subjective placebo improvement or brain activation.

"To our knowledge," Ellingsen continues, "our study is the first to investigate placebo improvement of pleasurable feelings. By directly comparing this effect with the more well-known placebo analgesia effect, we were able to identify both the differences and a potential shared mechanism of these two types of improvement: People with stronger placebo-induced increases in functional coupling between ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) and subcortical structures (PAG) reported greater placebo hyperhedonia and analgesia, and had greater analgesic decreases and hyperhedonic increases in somatosensory processing."

Ellingsen says that this finding suggests that endogenous improvement of positive and negative feelings are tightly coupled. "Interestingly, we saw that people with the greatest placebo hyperhedonia responses also had the greatest placebo analgesia responses. Overall, the results provide a piece of the puzzle of how positive expectations affect both positive and negative feelings."

Expanding on the team's findings, Ellingsen describes how the researchers first observed that placebo hyperhedonia was associated with increased activation of a number of cortical and subcortical areas important for placebo analgesia – namely, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, accumbens, amygdala, and the midbrain structures periaqueductal grey and the ventral tegmental area. Not only was there increased activation in these areas after placebo administration compared to no-placebo, Ellingsen adds, but the amount of increase was positively correlated to the magnitude of the reported improvement: Those with largest placebo-induced hyperhedonia and analgesia had the highest placebo-induced activation in these areas. Moreover, those with largest placebo hyperhedonia and analgesia also had the strongest placebo-induced increase in functional connectivity within this circuitry, a measure of how much these areas communicate with each other. "Although our findings show similar patterns of activation between placebo hyperhedonia and analgesia, it's important to point out that they weren't identical. There are likely to be fine-grained differences between these processes within this circuitry that were not identified by this study."

Ellingsen stresses that an important mechanism in placebo analgesia – one that has been replicated several times – is the engagement of the opioid descending modulatory system, which consists of vmPFC, amygdala, and PAG. "When treated with a placebo that is expected to have analgesic effects," Ellingsen explains, "activation of this system suppresses nociceptive" (the neural processes of encoding and processing noxious or painful stimuli) "signaling both in the brain and – since the PAG has descending connections through the rostroventral medulla, RVM, to the spinal dorsal horn, where it can modulate incoming nociceptive signals – at the spinal cord level." Importantly, he notes, placebo analgesia and the activation of this system are reversed when the individual is given the opioid receptor antagonist naloxone, indicating that this mechanism is dependent on opioid signaling.

To ask whether this system is involved also in placebo improvement of pleasantness, we assessed the relationship between 1) the placebo-induced change in functional connectivity between the vmPFC and PAG, and 2) placebo-induced change in sensory processing. Strikingly, we found that the co-activation of vmPFC and PAG was related to opposite effects during placebo hyperhedonia and analgesia: During pain, those with strongest increases in functional coupling had the largest decreases in sensory processing, while during pleasant touch, those with strongest functional coupling had the largest sensory increases. We are now planning to investigate whether placebo hyperhedonia, like (most) placebo analgesia, depends on opioid signaling.

Moving forward, Ellingsen says, their study opens up several important questions for future studies:

Does placebo hyperhedonia, similar to analgesia, rely on opioid or dopamine signaling?

Could expectation of hyperhedonia alone have analgesic effects – and vice versa?

Could including information about potential hyperhedonic effects actually boost treatment effects of analgesic drugs?

What is the exact mechanism of the up-regulation of sensory processing in placebo hyperhedonia? Is it entirely central in its action, or could it involve descending facilitation of touch processing at the spinal cord level, which is a component in placebo analgesia4 and nocebo hyperalgesia5?

(A nocebo – the opposite of a placebo – is a harmless substance that creates detrimental effects in a patient who takes it. Likewise, the nocebo effect is the negative expectation-based reaction experienced by a patient who receives a nocebo.)

Regarding other areas of research that might benefit from their study, Ellingsen cites a growing recognition that health care systems need to be remodeled to target placebo mechanisms – and to do so by altering expectations, motivation, treatment context, and the therapist-patient relationship. "In most medical settings, however, the focus is to ease negative symptoms – to relieve pain, nausea, or discomfort – but to attain positive feelings, people have to seek elsewhere, despite our knowledge that positive experiences, like captivating music, pleasant odors, beautiful pictures, pleasant touch, and support from people we care about, can have potent analgesic effects."

If the tightly-coupling expectations of improvement in pleasurable and painful feelings suggested by their results interact in the clinical setting, Ellingsen believes it to be very likely that increasing the focus on positive appetitive effects of medical care (increased life quality, regained ability to enjoy pleasures, and the like) may have potent effects on the relief of negative symptoms. "In general," he concludes, "our findings shed some light on the complex relationship between positive feelings, negative feelings and expectation in the context of medical treatment. We believe our findings are relevant to the field of medical research in general, and promote widening the scope of medical research to improvement of positive experiences and pleasure."

Explore further: Intranasal application of hormone appears to enhance placebo response

More information: Placebo improves pleasure and pain through opposite modulation of sensory processing, PNAS Published online before print October 14, 2013, doi:10.1073/pnas.1305050110


1Relief as a Reward: Hedonic and Neural Responses to Safety from Pain, PLoS ONE 6(4): e17870. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0017870

2Opponent appetitive-aversive neural processes underlie predictive learning of pain relief, Nature Neuroscience 8, 1234-1240 (2005),


3The importance of context: When relative relief renders pain

Pleasant, Pain 2013 Mar;154(3):402-10, doi:10.1016/j.pain.2012.11.018

4Direct Evidence for Spinal Cord Involvement in Placebo Analgesia, Science 16 October 2009: Vol. 326 no. 5951 p. 404, doi:10.1126/science.1180142

5Facilitation of Pain in the Human Spinal Cord by Nocebo Treatment, The Journal of Neuroscience, 21 August 2013, 33(34): 13784-13790; doi:10.1523/JNEUROSCI.2191-13.2013

6Placebo-induced changes in FMRI in the anticipation and experience of pain, Science, 303(5661): 1162-1167 (2004), doi:10.1126/science.1093065

7Placebo in emotional processing—induced expectations of anxiety relief activate a generalized modulatory network, Neuron, 46(6), 957-969 (2005), doi:10.1016/j.neuron.2005.05.023

Journal reference: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences PLoS ONE Nature Neuroscience Pain Science Journal of Neuroscience Neuron

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Many trees afforest the hillside. Are they argan trees, the endogenous tree of southern Morocco from which one presses argan oil?

Endogenous Formation of Limit Order Books: Dynamics Between Trades. Gayduk, Nadtochiy #q-fin

Thanks to Joaofungo for the ID.


There are many species of parasitic fungi which attack specifically insects, often times limiting themselves to one species. The fungi in some cases 'direct' the actions of the its host, forcing them to exhibit certain non-endogenous behaviours resulting in a greater dispersal rate of the fungus. In ants this usually manifests as the ant climbing to a high spot, so that the fungal spores can eject and are more likely to be dispersed.Manu national park, Manu lodge, Amazonian lowlands. Found during a night hike.

Viewing it here is a must.


Hey, flickr!!!


I had the most amazing day today.


I did a shoot with Cynthia (and her brother), are we got some wonderful shots. This is merely a simple portrait of her, but I think she has a quality about her that lightens up any photograph. She is so beautiful, isn't she? ^^ Her skin is flawless, you guys, I hardly had to photoshop any blemishes out.


My life is such a roller coaster, I feel terrible one day, and totally amazing the next to compromise for the previous. But don't we all feel that way? : )


I want a tumblr!

I really do!

I keep stalling, but I am planning to make one soon. The more I look at everyone's blogs, the more excited I get. You are all so creative, my gosh. : )


I can't stop lisening to this song, the singer's voice is so sweet and so beautiful. Thank you, Allison for suggesting I listen to Mars Agro! : )


I hope everyone had a sunny Saturday!


I found this Sacred Datura (Datura innoxia)or Zion Lily near "Weeping Rock" This species is endogenous which wears a poisonous white flower in trumpet that opens only at night.

Songbirds sing and raptors rap. Isn't that correct? Well, maybe not. Raptors are fierce predatory birds, while most songbirds subsist on a variety of nectars, seeds, fruits and a few insects. The Loggerhead Shrike is a songbird that lives the life of a raptor but with a strange and almost diabolical twist. This small bird captures prey, ranging from insects to birds, lizards, and even some small mammals. It hunts from fences, posts, and poles, frequently skewering its larger or noxious kills on thorns and barbed wire. It does so in order to facilitate eating its prey. At times it has been known to skewer noxious prey, returning days later to consume them. By that time endogenous toxins have been rendered inactive. One could imagine this shrike serenading its victims before swiftly dispatching them, much like the protagonist of the musical, Sweeny Todd. #LoggerheadShrike

Endogenous Formation of Limit Order Books: Dynamics Between Trades. Gayduk, Nadtochiy #q-fin

Photographed at the Palo Alto Baylands, Palo Alto, California



From Wikipedia: The song sparrow (Melospiza melodia) is a medium-sized American sparrow. Among the native sparrows in North America, it is easily one of the most abundant, variable and adaptable species.



Adult song sparrows have brown upperparts with dark streaks on the back and are white underneath with dark streaking and a dark brown spot in the middle of the breast. They have a brown cap and a long brown rounded tail. Their face is gray with a streak through the eye. They are highly variable in size across numerous subspecies (for subspecies details, see below). The body length ranges from 11 to 18 cm (4.3 to 7.1 in) and wingspan can range from 18 to 25.4 cm (7.1 to 10.0 in).[2][3] Body mass ranges from 11.9 to 53 g (0.42 to 1.87 oz).[4] The average of all races is 32 g (1.1 oz) but the widespread nominate subspecies (M. m. melodia) weighs only about 22 g (0.78 oz) on average. The maximum lifespan in the wild is 11.3 years.[5] The eggs of the Song sparrow are brown with greenish-white spots. Females lay three to five eggs per clutch, with an average incubation time of 13–15 days before hatching.


In the field, they are most easily confused with the Lincoln's sparrow and the Savannah sparrow. The former can be recognized by its shorter, grayer tail and the differently-patterned head, the brown cheeks forming a clear-cut angular patch. The Savannah sparrow has a forked tail and yellowish flecks on the face when seen up close.


Distribution and life history:

Though a habitat generalist, the Song sparrow favors brushland and marshes, including salt marshes, across most of Canada and the United States. They also thrive in human dominated areas such as in suburbs, agricultural fields, and along roadsides. Permanent residents of the southern half of their range, northern populations of the song sparrow migrate to the southern United States or Mexico during winter and intermingle with the native, non-migratory population. The song sparrow is a very rare vagrant to western Europe, with a few recorded in Great Britain and Norway.


These birds forage on the ground, in shrubs or in very shallow water. They mainly eat insects and seeds. Birds in salt marshes may also eat small crustaceans. They nest either in a sheltered location on the ground or in trees or shrubs.



The song sparrow has been the subject of several studies detailing the physiological reactions of bird species to conditions such as daylight length and differing climatic conditions. Most birds gain mass in their reproductive organs in response to some signal, either internal or external as the breeding season approaches. The exact source of this signal varies from species to species - for some, it is an endogenous process separate from environmental cues, while other species require extensive external signals of changing daylight length and temperature before beginning to increase the mass of their reproductive organs. Male specimens of M. melodia gain significant testicular mass in response both to changes in the daily photoperiod and as a result of endogenous chemical signals.[6] Females also undergo significant ovarian growth in response to both photo-period and endogenous signals. In this way, M. melodia is amongst only a handful of birds that use both external and engodenous signalling to dictate their breeding season. Hormone levels in both males and females were found fluctuate throughout the breeding season, having very high levels in March and late April and then declining until May.[7] These studies suggest that there are multiple factors at work that influence when and how the song sparrow breeds other than just increasing day length.


Due to the myriad subspecies of the song sparrow and the extremely varied climate of southern California, where many of these subspecies make their homes, physiological studies were undertaken to determine how climatic conditions and local environment influenced the bill size of M. melodia subspecies. The bill of a bird is highly important for thermoregulation as the bare surface area makes a perfect place to radiate excess heat or absorb solar energy to maintain homeostasis.[8] Knowing this, comparisons of bill length between individual song sparrows collected in different habitats were made with regard to the primary habitat type or microclimate that they were collected in. Larger beaked subspecies were strongly correlated with hotter microclimates - a correlation that follows from the conditions of Allen's Rule.[9]




Singing in Delaware USA

The sparrow species derives its name from its colorful repertoire of songs. Enthusiasts report that one of the songs heard often in suburban locations closely resembles the opening four notes of Ludwig van Beethoven's Symphony No. 5. The male uses a fairly complex song to declare ownership of its territory and attract females.


Singing itself consists of a combination of repeated notes, quickly passing isolated notes, and trills. The songs are very crisp, clear, and precise, making them easily distinguishable by human ears. A particular song is determined not only by pitch and rhythm but also by the timbre of the trills. Although one bird will know many songs—as many as 20 different tunes with as many as 1000 improvised variations on the basic theme,[citation needed]—unlike thrushes, the song sparrow usually repeats the same song many times before switching to a different song.


Song sparrows typically learn their songs from a handful of other birds that have neighboring territories. They are most likely to learn songs that are shared between these neighbors. Ultimately, they will choose a territory close to or replacing the birds that they have learned from. This allows the song sparrows to address their neighbors with songs shared with those neighbors. It has been demonstrated that song sparrows are able to distinguish neighbors from strangers on the basis of song, and also that females are able to distinguish (and prefer) their mate's songs from those of other neighboring birds, and they prefer songs of neighboring birds to those of strangers.


Predators and parasites:

Common predators of the song sparrow include cats, hawks, and owls, however snakes, dogs, and the American kestrel are treated ambiguously, suggesting that they are less of a threat[citation needed]. The song sparrow recognizes enemies by both instinctual and learned patterns (including cultural learning), and adjusts its future behavior based on both its own experiences in encounters, and from watching other birds interact with the enemies. Comparisons of experiments on hand-raised birds to observation of birds in the wild suggest that the fear of owls and hawks is instinctual, but fear of cats is learned.


Song sparrows' nests are parasitized by the brown-headed cowbird. The cowbirds' eggs closely resemble song sparrows' eggs, although the cowbirds' eggs are slightly larger. Song sparrows recognize cowbirds as a threat and attack the cowbirds when they are near the nest. There is some evidence that this behavior is learned rather than instinctual. A more recent study found that the behavior of attacking female cowbirds near nests may actually attract cowbird parasitism because the female cowbirds use such behavior to identify female song sparrows that are more likely to successfully raise a cowbird chick. One study found that while cowbird parasitism did result in more nest failure, overall there were negligible effects on song sparrow populations when cowbirds were introduced to an island. The study pointed to a number of explanatory factors including song sparrows raising multiple broods, and song sparrows' abilities to raise cowbird chicks with their own.



The song sparrow is one of the birds with the most numerous subspecies in North America, and even on a global scale rivals such species as the horned lark, the yellow wagtail, the golden whistler or the island thrush; 52 subspecies were named altogether, of which 24 are now considered valid. It is a cryptic species.



Fragments of pericolonic fecal matter, the result of colonic perforation due to diverticulitis , incite a severe inflammatory reaction with foreign body giant cells and fibrosis. A fragment of vegetable material is seen at lower left.

Title: The Biological bulletin

Identifier: biologicalbullet189mari

Year: (s)

Authors: Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, Mass. ); Marine Biological Laboratory (Woods Hole, Mass. ). Annual report 1907/08-1952; Lillie, Frank Rattray, 1870-1947; Moore, Carl Richard, 1892-; Redfield, Alfred Clarence, 1890-1983

Subjects: Biology; Zoology; Biology; Marine Biology

Publisher: Woods Hole, Mass. : Marine Biological Laboratory

Contributing Library: MBLWHOI Library

Digitizing Sponsor: MBLWHOI Library


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224 REPORTS FROM THE MBL GENERAL SCIENTIFIC MEETINGS 3-fucose. A -.xond nonreactive compound was identified as a sulfated jjaUctose-linked tetrasaccharide (5). On the basis of these structures, we predict that sponge tissue contains specific sul- fotransferases (sulfo-T) as the biosynthetic enzymes involved in the sulfation process. To explore this possibility, we performed assays for sulfo-T using Triton-extracted sponge microsomes (7.5-12.5 mg/ml) in the presence of chemically defined monosaccharide acceptor substrates at concentrations of 20-320 nM. The co-substrate and active sulfate donor was radiolabeled 3'-phosphoadenosine 5'- phosphosulfate ((35S)PAPS) 7 uM (2145 dpm/pmol) in the presence of pyrophosphatase and sulfatase inhibitors and 10 mAf Mg2+ buffered at pH 6.3. The total volume of the reaction mix- ture was 40 fi\ (6). After incubation for 1 h at 37°, the reaction was terminated by adding 10/jl of 2% sodium borate/20 mM EDTA. Separation of unreacted PAPS from sulfated product was accomplished by thin-layer chromatography using a solvent system containing acetonitrile. water and methanol (4:1:0.2). or high-voltage electrophoresis using 1% sodium borate buffer at pH 9.1. The figures for product yield, expressed as picomoles. were the average of duplicate values from which had been sub- tracted picomoles present in endogenous assays in which acceptor had been omitted. The biosynthesized product was expressed as picomoles per hour per milligram of protein (pmol/h/mg). Acceptor substrates were monosaccharides or derivatized monosaccharides representing sugars known to occur in Micro- dona AP. They included 0-D-fucose, a-L-fucose, j3-r>glucuronide phenyl, /J-phenyl-A'-acetyl-D-glucosamine(GlcNAc), phenyl-/V acetyl-«-r>galactosamine(GalNAc), phenyl-«-D-mannoside and phenyl-^-D-galactoside(Gal). Of these. phenyl-GlcNAc and phenyl-Gal gave measurable product yields, but assays using 5 mM phenyl (phenol) alone were negative. In the case of phenyl- GlcNAc, substrate-product curves generated from assays with graded quantities of acceptor (20 to 320 nmol) demonstrated I mav and A",n values of 50 pmol/h/mg and 1 mM, respectively. The proposed reaction is visualized as follows: GlcNAc-0-phenyl ("S)PAPS 35SO,-0-GlcNAc-0-phenyl + PAP. Final confirmation of the position of the sulfate linkage will require additional detailed analyses of scaled-up quantities of product (6). The cellular localization of sulfated glycan was determined by immunohistochemical techniques on fixed sections of washed Microcionu cell pellets stained with Block 2 primary antibody and horseradish peroxidase-labeled secondary antibody. A mixed pattern of stained and nonstained cells was found, with the most intense staining present intracellularly and on surface membranes of the larger cell population, including cells interpreted as ar- cheocytes (Fig. 1). This finding suggests that immunoseparation of a selected cell cohort may be a useful preparative technique when preparing purified enzyme. In summary, the enzyme activities defined in this study are consistent with earlier findings of sulfated glycan structures (5) and suggest that quantitative recoveries of pure enzymes will be of importance in studying their regulatory role in sponge cell


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100 Jim 100 ^im Figure 1. Comparison ol control licit I and treated (right) sections of washed cell pellet Ironi Microciona prolifera. The cell pellets had been li\ed in formalin-artificial seawater, sectional (? urn), deparatlimied. and stained with Block _ monoclonal primary antibody (1-200) followed by anti- mouse horseradish peroxidase secondary antibody 11-2500) and color development with diaminobenzidine (hematoxylin was the counterstain). A section from winch primary antibody had been omitted shows only counters/allied cell', licit) In contrast to the control, a test slide shows a mixed population ofperoxidasi stained and unstained cells fright). The relative magnifications are indicated by scale bars (bottom left) Many ot the large stained cells resemble an lico, ytcs and cslubit internal as well as peripheral membrane reactivity I'his surface reactivity is visualised particularly well as a /me dark brown line that encircles three large cells in triangular configuration near the middle ol the section toward the bottom Other large cells in this section are sinnlarlv encircled Smaller faintly '-tamed celts may he ehoaiioeyles.


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Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.


utusan malaysia, Ahad, Januari 18, 2009

Wawasan 2020 tergugat


Oleh Noor Azlan Ghazali


INDUSTRI automotif penting bagi pencapaian Wawasan 2020.


Isu kebanjiran pekerja asing terus menjadi perhatian. Perdebatan hangat di Parlimen baru-baru ini, khususnya mengenai lambakan buruh asing, memerlukan perhatian yang lebih serius. Berdasarkan data rasmi, kini sekitar 2.1 juta pekerja asing dilaporkan berada di Malaysia. Kalau diambil kira pendatang tanpa izin, jumlah sebenar mungkin jauh lebih besar.


Proses globalisasi yang meningkatkan keterbukaan ekonomi membolehkan aliran keluar-masuk barangan dan perkhidmatan serta modal dengan jumlah yang lebih besar. Nilai dagangan negara merentas RM1 trilion pada tahun 2006. Pada tahun 2007 jumlah pelaburan asing (FDI) mencecah AS$8.4 bilion melebihi tahap tertinggi yang pernah dicatat iaitu AS$7.3 bilion pada tahun 2006. Kita bangga dan gembira dengan kesan globalisasi ini.


Namun, proses globalisasi tidak hanya terhad pada peningkatan aliran dagangan dan modal sahaja. Malah aliran keluar-masuk pekerja asing juga turut sama meningkat. Dalam tempoh 2000-2007, jumlah kemasukan pekerja asing dalam negara meningkat sebanyak 153 peratus daripada 807,000 kepada dua juta orang. Jauh lebih besar daripada peningkatan jumlah dagangan (7.1 peratus) dan FDI (12.1 peratus) dalam tempoh yang sama.


Memang benar, kita perlu lebih terbuka dan melihat ekonomi dunia sebagai peluang yang perlu dimanfaatkan. Namun, keterbukaan ekonomi perlu dilaksanakan secara strategik dan teratur. Globalisasi adalah proses yang perlu dirancang untuk kita manfaatkannya. Sama seperti menanak nasi, ada proses. Beras dan air perlu disukat, tidak kena sukatan dan besar kecil apinya, nasi mungkin menjadi bubur atau pun mentah dan tidak boleh dimakan.


Negara perlu mempunyai strategi yang komprehensif mencakupi aspek-aspek utama keterbukaan ekonomi untuk kita mengharungi dan memanfaatkan proses globalisasi. Pastinya mengundur ke belakang bukan pilihan yang baik. Kita perlu peta perancangan untuk ke hadapan.


Dalam konteks kemasukan pekerja asing, strategi negara tidak jelas. Peningkatan jumlah buruh asing yang begitu mendadak dan kini membanjiri hampir semua sektor ekonomi adalah satu elemen 'krisis modal insan'.


Krisis ekonomi atau politik mudah dilihat dan difahami kesannya. Krisis modal insan lebih diam sifatnya namun kesannya amat besar. Kalau tidak ditangani dengan segera dan bersungguh-sungguh, bukan tahun 2009 atau 2010 yang dirisaukan tetapi hasrat kita untuk merealisasikan Wawasan 2020 mungkin terjejas.


Daya saing ekonomi terkini memerlukan peralihan model pertumbuhan dari pengeluaran (ekonomi-P) ke pengetahuan (ekonomi-K). Pada tahun 1980-an sehingga pertengahan 1990-an, Malaysia menjadi pilihan utama di kalangan pelabur asing yang mencari lokasi untuk aktiviti pengeluaran mereka bersandarkan tawaran menarik negara kita menyediakan kos input yang rendah, tawaran insentif pelaburan yang menarik serta infrastruktur perindustrian yang moden.


Kini cabaran utama kita ialah peralihan dari ekonomi-P ke ekonomi-K. Keupayaan kita merealisasikan Wawasan 2020 untuk menjadi sebuah negara maju amat tertakluk kepada keupayaan kita mengalihkan asas ekonomi ini. Negara-negara yang berada di tahap daya saing yang tinggi amat menyerlah ciri ekonomi-K mereka. Pada era ekonomi-P, kos buruh yang rendah menjadi tawaran. Era ekonomi-K, modal insan yang berpengetahuan, berdaya inovatif dan kreatif menjadi tarikan.


Mampukah kita menyediakan input utama ekonomi-K ini? Dari sudut ekonomi makro, 'kejayaan' negara menarik minat jutaan buruh asing dari serata dunia merupakan satu 'isyarat' pasaran yang asas ekonomi kita masih belum beralih.


Industri dalam negara secara keseluruhan masih bermain dengan cara lama iaitu bersandarkan kos buruh dan pengeluaran yang rendah. Kita mesti menarik pekerja-K bukan buruh asing. Penerima anugerah Nobel Ekonomi 1992, Profesor Gary Becker, yang merupakan 'guru' kepada konsep pekerja-K menyatakan - pekerja-K bekerja lebih dengan minda daripada tangan mereka.




Pekerja-K tidak terhad kepada pekerjaan atasan atau profesional sahaja. Untuk Malaysia beralih ke ekonomi-K semua kategori pekerjaan perlu berubah. Dalam ekonomi-K, pekerja binaan, perkhidmatan pengangkutan sampah, perkhidmatan pembersihan bangunan, pekerja ladang, perkhidmatan restoran, semuanya perlu mengaplikasikan teknologi moden.


Nilai pekerja-K adalah berasaskan kualiti pengetahuan, daya inovasi dan kemampuan mengaplikasikan teknologi moden. Bagaimana kita menilai sumbangan buruh asing? Minda atau tulang empat kerat mereka? Di samping berusaha menghasilkan modal insan tempatan yang berkualiti, kita seharusnya memanfaatkan proses globalisasi dengan berusaha menarik minat pekerja-K global untuk datang ke Malaysia. Sebaliknya Malaysia kini adalah pengimport bersih buruh asing. Malah yang lebih merisaukan ialah, semakin besar lambakan buruh asing semakin kurang keinginan pekerja-K global untuk memilih Malaysia.


Lambakan buruh asing mengepung ekonomi kita daripada pekerja-K global. Perekonomian ekonomi-K mempunyai ciri yang unik. Modal insan, input utama ekonomi-K mempunyai sifat endogenous. Ia semakin berkualiti dan bernilai apabila diaplikasikan secara intensif dan apabila ia berada dalam kelompok yang sama dalam skala yang besar.


Pekerja-K umpama semut yang mencari gula. Semakin banyak gulanya semakin banyak semut yang mengerumuninya. Lambakan buruh asing mengurangkan manis gula. Semakin ramai yang masuk semakin kuranglah daya tarikan Malaysia untuk menarik minat pekerja-K global. Aliran masuk pekerja asing adalah sebahagian daripada proses globalisasi. Ia memanfaatkan sekiranya pekerja-K yang masuk ke Malaysia bukan buruh asing.


Dalam kategori profesional, ketiadaan pekerja-K dalam skala yang besar juga menjejaskan nilai dan ganjaran untuk pekerja-K sedia ada. Nilai seorang pakar IT di Myanmar jauh lebih rendah daripada nilainya di Lembah Silikon. Nilai angkasawan pertama negara mungkin jauh lebih tinggi sekiranya beliau berada di Pentadbiran Angkasa Lepas dan Aeronautik (NASA) dan bukannya Kementerian Sains, Teknologi dan Inovasi (MOSTI).


Aliran keluar profesional Malaysia ke negara lain semakin meningkat. Pada tahun 2007 dianggarkan seramai 785,000 pekerja mahir Malaysia berkhidmat di luar negara. Dari satu sudut, ada yang berpandangan bahawa ini hanyalah perihal individu yang ingin mendapatkan gaji yang lebih lumayan. Hakikatnya masalah tirisan minda (brain drain) ini adalah satu lagi petunjuk makro bahawa ekonomi negara tidak mampu meletakkan nilai yang sewajarnya pada seorang pekerja-K profesional.


Memang kita bangga apabila pekerja Malaysia khususnya yang dihasilkan oleh sistem pendidikan negara diiktiraf di peringkat antarabangsa. Persoalannya, mengapa pengiktirafan ini lebih cenderung berlaku apabila golongan profesional ini meninggalkan Malaysia dan berada di luar negara? Aliran keluar pekerja-K profesional yang dihasilkan oleh Malaysia tidak sama seperti kita mengeksport barangan buatan Malaysia. Kita sebenarnya rugi. Kita kehilangan input utama ekonomi-K, modal insan yang berkualiti.


Lazimnya perbincangan mengenai modal insan banyak tertumpu pada faktor penawaran (supply-side) yang melibatkan antara lainnya kualiti sistem pendidikan (sekolah, institusi pengajian tinggi dan latihan). Memang wajar. Namun ini sahaja tidak mencukupi. Lambakan buruh asing dan fenomena brain drain mencerminkan kegagalan faktor permintaan. Kelemahan penawaran dan permintaan pekerja-K perlu ditangani secara serentak bagi mengekang 'krisis modal insan' ini daripada menjadi lebih mudarat.


Jumlah buruh asing tiada hadnya. Berjuta masih ada di rantau Asia Tenggara. Malaysia perlu mengelak daripada menjadi pengimport bersih buruh asing. Peralihan ke ekonomi-K memerlukan aktiviti firma (asing dan tempatan) dalam negara beralih ke peringkat rantaian yang lebih tinggi yang mengaplikasikan pengetahuan secara intensif. Inilah Teras 1 Misi Nasional yang digariskan dalam Rancangan malaysia Kesembilan (RMK-9).




Polisi yang lebih berkesan perlu dibentuk bagi merangsang firma untuk berubah. Insentif dan penalti wajar diperkenalkan. Sebagai contoh, perkhidmatan pengangkut sampah yang menggunakan lori pengangkut berteknologi moden wajar diberi insentif. Sebaliknya perkhidmatan yang menggajikan ramai buruh asing dan menggunakan lori biasa yang mengotorkan perlu dihentikan atau dikenakan penalti.


Kelulusan membawa buruh asing masuk ke dalam negara perlu lebih selektif hanya untuk sektor yang benar-benar memerlukan. Penjadualan pengurangan buruh asing secara berperingkat yang diumumkan tidak akan tercapai sekiranya industri kita tidak berganjak ke rantaian pengeluaran yang lebih tinggi.


Wawasan 2020 untuk Malaysia menjadi negara maju tergugat sekiranya Teras 1 Misi Nasional tidak dicapai. Ia semakin parah sekiranya Teras 2 Misi Nasional yang menekankan kewujudan modal insan yang berkualiti, berdaya inovatif dan kreatif serta beretika juga tergendala. Kedua-dua teras Misi Nasional ini mesti di tangani serentak. Ia saling bergantung.


Untuk menjadi sebuah negara maju yang berpendapatan tinggi (Wawasan 2020) polisi pendapatan rendah/pertengahan yang cenderung kepada menjadi 'murah' perlu berubah ke polisi pendapatan tinggi yang mengutamakan 'nilai'. Kemasukan buruh asing dan kesan keseluruhannya perlu dikaji dengan lebih teliti. Kebanjiran buruh asing berkemungkinan menjadikan kos buruh murah. Namun jangan sampai ia membuai kita di siang hari terlena sehingga ufuk Januari 1, 2020 menjelma.


- Prof. Datuk Dr. Noor Azlan Ghazali ialah Pengarah Malaysian Development Insitute (MDI) Unit Perancang Ekonomi (EPU).

'the changing room' by UNStudio


for this year's international architecture biennale in venice UNStudio has produced ‘the changing room’

as part of the exhibition 'out there: architecture beyond building' curated by aaron betsky.


'the UNStudio installation in the arsenale explores the transformative potential of the material world.

just like clothes designers, architects offer alternate looks and identities, age and income-appropriate

shells. these constructions consist of a miscellaneous package of endogenous and exogenous

values; things and ideas that inherently belong to architecture and its traditions, and things and ideas

that do not, but that nevertheless profoundly influence architecture. how to deal with this?

can architecture still have autonomy? according to unstudio the lesson is to ‘switch it on, switch it off’…

to find autonomy in brief moments of liberation.'


Source: Designboom

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