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Eggs are laid on the undersides of leaves, usually near aphid colonies They are typically yellow, spindleshaped, and standing on end. Figure 7 in NYS IPM fact sheet Beneficial Insects, Family: Coccinelllidae, in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43074. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Damaged areas eventually cork over, resulting in deformed fruit. Figure 7 in NYS IPM fact sheet Redbanded Leafroller (Argyrotaenia velutinana (Walker)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43125. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Injury to fruit falls into several categories: picture is of surface feeding and oviposition wounds from overwintered beetles that can scar and/or misshape the fruit by harvest. Figure 6 in NYS IPM fact sheet Plum Curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43118. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

The legless, cream-colored maggots are elongate, about 7 mm long at maturity, and have a blunt posterior that tapers down to a rounded point containing two black mouth hooks. Figure 3 in NYS IPM fact sheet Apple Maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella (Walsh)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43071. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Feeding injury causes a white mottling of the leaves and with heavy infestations the leaves can become nearly completely white. Figure 5 in NYS IPM fact sheet White Apple Leafhopper (Typhlocyba pomaria McAtree), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43135. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

In front of the hole in which she has laid her egg, the female cuts a crescent-shaped slit which extends beneath the egg cavity so as to leave the egg in a flap of flesh. Figure 3 in NYS IPM fact sheet Plum Curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43118. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

New leaves or shoots that become infected wilt and die quickly, turning dark brown. Figure 1 in NYS IPM fact sheet Mummyberry Disease (Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi (Reade) Honey), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43110. Photo by NYSAES. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

The larvae are narrowly oval with two sickle-shaped mouthparts that pierce the prey and extract fluids. Often the larvae are covered with ''trash," which is actually the bodies of their prey and other debris. Figure 10 in NYS IPM fact sheet Beneficial Insects, Family: Chrysopidae, in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43074. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Adults are 6 to 6.5 mm (0.25 in.) long, oval, and somewhat flattened. A distinguishing characteristic is a small but distinct yellow-tipped triangle in the center of the back, behind the head. Figure 1 in NYS IPM fact sheet Tarnished Plant Bug (Tree Fruit) (Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43133. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Symptoms of Grapevine fanleaf virus including fan-like morphology of an infected leaf (right) compared to a healthy leaf (left). Figure 4a in NYS IPM fact sheet Fanleaf Degeneration/Decline Disease of Grapevines, in eCommons, Cornell University at hdl.handle.net/1813/43094. Photo by M. Fuchs. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Under moist conditions in the early spring, the fungus forms small mushroomlike fruiting bodies from the mummies that have remained on the soil surface. Figure 6 in NYS IPM fact sheet Mummyberry Disease (Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi (Reade) Honey), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43110. Photo by NYSAES. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Damage to the larger fruit by the summer broods is typically shallow and irregular; in contrast, other leafrollers have deeper feeding patterns. Figure 8 in NYS IPM fact sheet Redbanded Leafroller (Argyrotaenia velutinana (Walker)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43125. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

The overwintering eggs give rise to only female aphids known as stem mothers which give birth to living young. Figure 3 in NYS IPM fact sheet Rosy Apple Aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43127. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Males and females are identical. Wingspread ranges from 17- 28 mm (2/a- 1 inch). The forewing is narrow and somewhat triangular; the hind wing is broad and fringed on the trailing edge. Figure 1 in NYS IPM fact sheet American Plum Borer (Euzophera semifuneralis (Walker)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43068. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Young larvae feed on new leaves and flower buds and can often be found inside a rolled leaf or bud cluster. Figure 3 in NYS IPM fact sheet Green Fruitworm (Orthosia hibisci (Guenee)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43106. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

The size, color, skin texture, mantle location, position of the breathing pore, presence or absence of a keel, and the color of the mucus are important characteristics for slug identification. The spotted garden slug is from 13 to 18 cm (5 to 7 in.) long when fully grown. Check out the NYS IPM fact sheet Spotted Garden Slug (Limax maximus L.), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/42387. Photo by D. R. Specker. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Newly hatched larvae are white, with a black head capsule. Mature larvae are dirty white to pink in color, with a reddish brown head capsule. Figure 3 in NYS IPM fact sheet Oriental Fruit Moth (Grapholita molesta (Busck)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43112. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Patchy distribution of Grapevine fanleaf virus-infected vines of V. vinifera cv. Chardonnay with chlorotic leaves in a naturally infected vineyard, as a result of X. index-mediated transmission. Figure 5a in NYS IPM fact sheet Fanleaf Degeneration/Decline Disease of Grapevines, in eCommons, Cornell University at hdl.handle.net/1813/43094. Photo by M. Fuchs. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

The flatheaded appletree borer adult is a short-horned beetle measuring approximately 5/8 inch (15 mm) in length. It is flattened above and vaguely resembles the claterid (click) beetles but has no similar jumping structures. Figure 2 in NYS IPM fact sheet Apple-Boring Beetles (Chrysobothris femorata (Olivier)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43070. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Zetzellia is smaller and less active than the phytoseiids. It is bright yellow, although its gut can take on a reddish hue after feeding. Figure 4 in NYS IPM fact sheet Predatory Mites (Zetzellia mali), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43122. Photo by J. Ogrodnick. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Their feeding gives the mines a tent-like appearance with visible spots where the green tissue has been removed. Figure 6 in NYS IPM fact sheet Spotted Tentiform Leafminer (Phyllonorycter spp.), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43130. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Feeding on the leaves of fruit clusters often results in bunching, stunting, and malformation of the fruit, which becomes noticeable as the fruit develops and renders it unmarketable. Figure 5 in NYS IPM fact sheet Rosy Apple Aphid (Dysaphis plantaginea (Passerini)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43127. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

The size, color, skin texture, mantle location, position of the breathing pore, presence or absence of a keel, and the color of the mucus are important characteristics for slug identification. The spotted garden slug is from 13 to 18 cm (5 to 7 in.) long when fully grown. Check out the NYS IPM fact sheet Spotted Garden Slug (Limax maximus L.), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/42387. Photo by D. R. Specker. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

The larva is small, unmarked, and green to pale yellow, depending on the food consumed. The head capsule and thoracic shield (the hardened plate behind the head) are the same color (green to yellow) as the rest of the body. Figure 3 in NYS IPM fact sheet Redbanded Leafroller (Argyrotaenia velutinana (Walker)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43125. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

To monitor, shake flowers or fruit over lightcolored saucers and count the nymphs caught. Treatment is needed at levels of 1 to 2 nymphs per inflorescence. Figure 8 in NYS IPM fact sheet Tarnished Plant Bug (Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois)), in eCommons, Cornell University at . Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Depressions on the woody cylinder of the trunk of a declining Red Delicious/G.935 tree infected with Apple stem pitting virus and Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus observed after bark removal. Figure 1 in NYS IPM fact sheet Apple Stem Pitting Virus, in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43945. Photo by D. I. Breth & E. M. Tee More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

The banded slug is about 5 cm (2 in.) long when fully grown; it is pale gray with a dark brown or black stripe running along the side of its mantle and continuing along the sides of its body. Check out NYS IPM fact sheet Banded Slug (Arion fasciatus (Nilsson)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/42359. Photo by D. R. Specker. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Symptoms of Grapevine fanleaf virus including short internodes and abnormal bifurcations of an infected shoot (right) compared to a healthy shoot (left). Figure 4e in NYS IPM fact sheet Fanleaf Degeneration/Decline Disease of Grapevines, in eCommons, Cornell University at hdl.handle.net/1813/43094. Photo by M. Fuchs. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

The banded slug is about 5 cm (2 in.) long when fully grown; it is pale gray with a dark brown or black stripe running along the side of its mantle and continuing along the sides of its body. Check out NYS IPM fact sheet Banded Slug (Arion fasciatus (Nilsson)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/42359. Photo by D. R. Specker. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Zetzellia is smaller and less active than the phytoseiids. It is bright yellow, although its gut can take on a reddish hue after feeding. Figure 4 in NYS IPM fact sheet Predatory Mites (Zetzellia mali ), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43122. Photo by J. Ogrodnick. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Eggs are laid in groups of a few to nearly 150, but a typical egg mass usually contains about 40 eggs deposited in oval patches that measure 3.0 by 5.0 mm (1 /16 by 3/16 in.). Figure 2 in NYS IPM fact sheet Redbanded Leafroller (Argyrotaenia velutinana (Walker)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43125. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Mirid bug presence can be determined by tapping limbs with a length of hose or a stick over a tray covered with black cloth. Figure 5 in NYS IPM fact sheet Phytophagous Mirid Bugs (Campylomma verbasci (Meyer) & Atractotomus mali (Meyer)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43117. Photo by D. Kain. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Under wet or humid conditions, blighted tissues may be covered by a light gray or cream-colored powdery mold. Figure 3 in NYS IPM fact sheet Mummyberry Disease (Monilinia vaccinii-corymbosi (Reade) Honey), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43110. Photo by NYSAE. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Adults are pear-shaped, minute (slightly smaller than an ERM adult), and generally a creamy white color, but because their guts take on color from prey, they may appear red or brown. Figure 3 in NYS IPM fact sheet Predatory Mites (Typhlodromus pyri ), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43122. Photo by J. Ogrodnick. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Adults are brown to black in color, cylindrical, and 1cm long. Figure 1 in NYS IPM fact sheet Grape Cane Borer (Amphicerus bicaudatus), in eCommons, Cornell University at hdl.handle.net/1813/43097. Photo by J. Ogrodnick. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Larvae spin silken cocoons in which they pupate. The cocoon also serves as a hibernaculum for the overwintering larva. In heavily infested trees, seemingly live bark can be pulled away to reveal many of these cocoons. Check out NYS IPM fact sheet American Plum Borer (Euzophera semifuneralis (Walker)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43068. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

They typically penetrate the live wood where the current and last year’s growth meet, or at buds on current year wood. Figure 3 in NYS IPM fact sheet Grape Cane Borer (Amphicerus bicaudatus), in eCommons, Cornell University at hdl.handle.net/1813/43097. Photo by J. Ogrodnick. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Generally, later damage to developing fruit is more important than earlier feeding on flower buds. In peaches various deformities known as "catfacing" occur. Figure 6 in NYS IPM fact sheet Tarnished Plant Bug (Tree Fruit) (Lygus lineolaris (Palisot de Beauvois)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43133. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Declining Red Delicious/G.935 trees infected with Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) in a nursery in fall 2015. The budwood used for grafting was the source of the two viruses. Note the stunted growth, browning of leaves, reduced terminal growth or terminal dieback of six infected trees (left of the wooden post) compared to seven healthy trees (right of the wooden post). Figure 1 in NYS IPM fact sheet Apple Chlorotic Leaf Spot Virus, in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43944. Photo by D. I. Breth & E. M. Tee. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

By the end of its third season of feeding, the larva has bored several inches straight up in the trunk and constructed a pupal chamber just beneath the bark surface, where it passes its final winter. Figure 6 in NYS IPM fact sheet Apple-Boring Beetles (Saperda candida Fabricius), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43070. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Terminal feeding on apple is similar to that on peach. Infested apples have a collection of frass at the exit hole of the insect's feeding tunnel, or at the calyx end. It is difficult to distinguish between Oriental fruit moth and codling moth damage. Figure 7 in NYS IPM fact sheet Oriental Fruit Moth (Grapholita molesta (Busck)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43112. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Fruit that are infested when very small often drop. Early-infested peaches that do not drop have obvious entrance holes with frass and gum exuding from them. Figure 5 in NYS IPM fact sheet Oriental Fruit Moth (Grapholita molesta (Busck)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43112. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Newly hatched slugs resemble the adults, but are much smaller (part of an adult appears at the top of the photograph.) Check out the NYS IPM fact sheet Gray Garden Slug (Deroceras reticultatum (Muller)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/42387. Photo by D. R. Specker. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Eggs are laid in jumbled masses along with the waxy filamentous secretions in protected places such as under bark crevices, near pruning cuts, and occasionally in the calyx of fruit. Figure 5 in NYS IPM fact sheet Comstock Mealybug (Pseudococcus comstocki (Kuwana)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43087. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Prior to emergence, the pupa pushes out of the cocoon and to the surface of the burrknot. The amber-colored pupal case often remains on the burrknot after the adult emerges. Figure 7 in NYS IPM fact sheet Dogwood Borer (Synanthedon scitula (Harris)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43088. Photo by J. Ogrodnick & H. Riedl. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Larvae are light cream colored with a black head and caudal (rear) shield. The head and shield become lighter as the larva matures until they are pale brown in the mature fifth-instar stage. The larva increases in size by approximately 1.4 times during each in star so that when mature it is 9 to 11 mm long. Figure 4 in NYS IPM fact sheet European Apple Sawfly (Hoplocampa testudinea (Klug)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43091. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Upon emerging in the spring, they fly to the trees where they feed on the buds, flowers, and newly set fruit. In feeding, the adult cuts a hole in the skin of the fruit and hollows out a cavity about 3 mm deep. Figure 2 in NYS IPM fact sheet Plum Curculio (Conotrachelus nenuphar (Herbst)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43118. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

The first summer brood larvae feed on the surface of developing fruit in late July and early August. Figure 6 in NYS IPM fact sheet Obliquebanded Leafroller (Choristoneura rosaceana (Harris)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43111. Photo by NYSAES, Cornell University. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

Bright green newly emerged adult. Figure 2 in NYS IPM fact sheet Meadow Spittlebug (Philaenus spumarius (L.)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43209. Photo by J. Ogrodnick. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

The nymphs are dark reddish-brown with a bluish-white waxy covering that becomes more extensive in the later instars. Figure 3 in NYS IPM fact sheet Woolly Apple Aphid (Eriosoma lanigerum (Hausmann)), in eCommons, Cornell University at ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/43136. Photo by J. Ogrodnick. More information is on nysipm.cornell.edu/agriculture/fruits and Cornell Fruit Resources fruit.cornell.edu.

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