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1964 was a year of considerable change in Britain, with the abolition of hanging and a new economic confidence.

 

Culturally, Britannia was ruling the waves with The Beatles, The Kinks and The Rolling Stones topping the charts.

 

Ambitious plans were agreed with the French government for a Channel Tunnel to be built by the end of the decade

 

It was a time of great change as Britain had finally shed its post-war austerity and looked forward with a new confidence and prosperity.

 

The year was one of major upheaval in British history. National Service had been abolished in 1960 but the final troops involved on their compulsory military tour of duty were not sent home until the end of December 1963.

 

Unlike their fathers and grandfathers, teenagers in 1964 were not facing the prospect of a European war and increasing living standards allowed them a disposable income.

 

The Labour leader, Harold Wilson, entered the 1964 campaign determined to end "13 wasted years" under the Tories.

 

The populist Wilson seemed to reflect the public mood for change. The Conservative leader, Sir Alec Douglas-Home, was widely perceived as a distant, awkward aristocrat. Nevertheless, Wilson won only a tiny majority; another election seemed imminent.

 

By the time of the 1964 general election, the Conservative Party had been in power for 13 years. Since Prime Minister Harold Macmillan's election victory in 1959, Conservative fortunes had plummeted.

 

The buoyant economy that led to Macmillan's election was faltering by 1961. The following year, in a bid to restore his popularity, Macmillan sacked seven members of his cabinet in a move dubbed the "Night of the Long Knives". It was a ploy that failed. The Government ran into further problems when Britain's application to join the Common Market was rejected by the French President, Charles de Gaulle.

 

Scandal added to the Government's woes when John Profumo, the Minister for War, was forced to resign after he admitted lying to Parliament over his involvement with the call girl, Christine Keeler. The Government looked tired, embattled and increasingly out of step with the public mood.

 

In 1964, an ailing socialist broadsheet, 'The Daily Herald', was re-launched as 'The Sun' and in 1968 the owners (Reed International) put it up for sale. Of the two bidders (the other being Labour MP, Robert Maxwell), Murdoch won with a bid for £800,000. In 1967 he had already purchased the 'News of the World'.

 

The new 'Sun' re-launched in 1969 and became a spicier version of 'The Mirror'. The very first issue carried a photo of the Rolling Stones with a naked female. Sex was to be the main ingredient of the paper. Soft porn came to fill almost every page together with lurid sex stories. Within 100 days, circulation had jumped from 850,000 to 1.5 million. By 1987 the paper was making £1 million a week These profits were pumped into BSkyB and Fox, subesquently turning them into the two biggest pillars of the Murdoch empire today.

 

What's on TV?

 

The Magic Roundabout, The Rolling Stones, The Beatles, My Fair Lady and The Pink Panther, Mary Poppins was there any other year in the fabulous 1960’s which produced so many entertainment trendsetters as 1964?

 

On TV for the first time, in the domestic comedy Bewitched, the nation was delighted to meet long-suffering Darrin and his

wife Samantha, the most attractive witch to ever ride a broomstick.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=WVIQUjk58Ms

 

The Crossroads motel, which featured Brummie accents for the first time on TV, The Magic Roundabout opened its doors and Dougal, Zebedee and Florence delighted children and adults alike by taking us for a ride on The Magic Roundabout, one of the most successful children’s shows ever seen on TV.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=2zCGjSoZzkY

 

In January, Steptoe and Son, an unlikely comedy written by Ray Galton and Alan Simpson about a family rag and bone business, was declared Britain’s most popular TV show. With battling father and son wonderfully portrayed by Wilfred Bramble and Harry H.Corbett the show went on to become something of an institution. It was claimed that 26 million viewers in 9,653,000 homes had tuned in to the latest series.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=p8a40OZtH0M

 

Labour leader Harold Wilson secretly lobbied the BBC to change the time of popular comedy Steptoe and Son on the night of the 1964 election because he feared working class voters would stay at home and watch the show instead of supporting his candidates.

 

According to new archive footage held by the BBC, Mr Wilson went to the home of BBC Director General Sir Hugh Greene and told him the show could cost him 20 seats.

 

Mr Wilson was leader of the opposition and was seeking to oust the Conservative Prime Minister Alec Douglas Home. The Labour leader thought the planned repeat of the sit-com starring Harry H Corbett and Wilfrid Brambell would hit them badly.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=1JVF1pLoNpE

 

Much excitement was caused when a new TV channel appeared in 1964 and BBC 2 was born. Play School, the first programme to be screened, took us through the window to meet Little Ted and Big Ted, plus kids all-time favourite presenter Johnny Ball, who grew up in Kingswood, Bristol.

 

A lighter, much more transportable TV set, with an 11-inch screen and weighing only 16 lbs, appeared in the shops in August. These sets received BOTH ITV and BBC services on special “rabbits ears” aerials. If you couldn’t afford a telly, and many couldn’t 60 years ago, you could hire one for six shillings and sixpence a week.

 

UK TV Adverts from 1964 Including: Kellogg's Corn Flakes, Dual Floor Polish, Goodyear G8 Tyres, Surf Washing Powder, BSM School Of Motoring, St Bruno Pipe Tobacco, Brolac Paint, Fairy Washing Up Liquid, Body Mist Deodorant and S & H Pink Stamps.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=dcKuOMVcqfI

 

Sport on TV

 

Sports fans weren’t forgotten. On the 22 August 22, they were treated to the voice of Kenneth Wolstenholme and the very first Match of the Day. A paltry 50,000 viewers tuned in to watch Liverpool beat Arsenal 3-2. But very often all the fans got were recorded highlights rather than live action. It didn’t transfer from minority channel BBC 2 to the mainstream BBC 1 until after the World Cup triumph of 1966.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=4ZGixE07jaU

 

1964 was, of course the year of the Tokyo Olympics. We won four gold medals. Mary Rand from Wells (who was also named BBC sports personality of the year) won the long jump, Anne Parker and Lynn Davies the 800 metres and Ken Mathews the 20km race walk.

 

Music

 

1964 was a golden year for pop music. The Rolling Stones, The Dave Clark Five, Liverpool’s The Swinging Blue Jeans, Manchester’s The Hollies and the late Dusty Springfield launched a BBC flagship Top of the Pops. Coming from its first home, a converted Manchester church.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=sUFFRd27YDw

 

The Beatles had by 1964 already toured the country to unbelievably hysterical scenes and were at their peak, scoring number one hits with Can’t buy me Love, A Hard Day’s Night and I Feel Fine. In February Beatle-mania gripped the US as the Fab Four took the place by storm, capturing the first five places in the singles charts as well as the top two positions in the album listings. In July, 10,000 screaming teenage fans thronged London’s West End as Princess Margaret arrived for the Premiere of their first film A Hard Day’s Night.

 

Even before Pan Am flight 101 touched down at JFK Airport in New York it was obvious that The Beatles had already conquered the American market. In January 'I want to hold your hand' sold half a million records in less than a fortnight, and is number one in the USA at the start of February.

 

A crowd of 3,000 screaming fans waits for the arrival of the Fab Four; the LP 'Meet the Beatles' hits number one at the end of January and stays there for almost three months; before they land music stations throughout the country are playing Beatles songs more than anybody else's, and after they land some stations play almost nothing else for days.

 

Once installed in their hotel in New York, The Plaza, the band is to all intents and purposes under siege by fans eager to see them, or seemingly to rip them limb from limb given the chance.

 

The highlight of the brief trip to the USA comes on February 9 , with their appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show. There are 728 seats available for the show; 50,000 apply for them. The Beatles play five songs, opening with 'All my Loving' and closing with 'I Want to Hold your Hand', with much screaming to accompany every note.

 

According to TV ratings company Nielsen their appearance on the show was seen by 73 million viewers. Beatlemania had arrived with a bang.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hlm7JyCHwcE

 

More than 300 people are injured in Liverpool when a crowd of some 150,000 people welcome The Beatles back to their home city.

 

The Beatles gain the Christmas number one for the second year running with I Feel Fine, which has topped the singles charts for the third week running. The Beatles have now had six number ones in the United Kingdom alone.

 

The Rolling Stones, founded by Cheltenham blues fanatic Brian Jones and fronted by the energetic, rubber lips, Mick Jagger, had their first top 10 hit with Not Fade Away.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=W-ycN9EOi8o

 

Talented songwriters, the Davies brothers, came up with the

Kinks’ first hit, You really Got Me, and a sensational young Scots lass with a husky voice called Lulu had a smash with that Isley Brothers favourite Shout.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=-2GmzyeeXnQ

 

For these young people, recently dubbed teenagers, Bob Dylan described the situation pretty accurately when he sang 'The Times They Are A-Changin', released in January 1964.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=abGzxWuLQP8

 

For those wanting to hear more pop music than was available via the BBC (which wasn’t much until Radio One came along)

 

Radio Caroline, the first pirate ship, began broadcasting from

international waters in March. It was legal, just, but the government didn’t like it. In May, the vessel was joined by Radio Atlanta.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=U8xvfBraulg

 

The United Kingdom held a national selection to choose the song that would go to the Eurovision Song Contest 1964. It was held on 7 February 1964 and presented by David Jacobs.

 

"I Love the Little Things" by Matt Monro won the national and went on to come 2nd in the contest.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=EX-ud8sm6Hg

 

Film-goers that memorable year were not disappointed. Sean Connery’s James Bond battled it out with Goldfinger, while Ian Fleming, James Bond’s creator, died of a heart attack in August aged just 56. The big romance of the year was the March marriage of glamorous movie stars Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=SSFE_xqL5Rk

 

UK News

 

In October the Labour Party, with canny pipe- smoking Yorkshireman Harold Wilson at the helm of a national economic plan, regained power after 13 years of Tory rule.

 

1964: 'Great Train Robbers' get 300 years

 

Some of the longest sentences in British criminal history have been imposed on men involved in the so-called "Great Train Robbery".

 

Sentences totalling 307 years were passed on 12 men who stole £2.6m in used bank notes after holding up the night mail train travelling from Glasgow to London last August.

 

The judge at Buckinghamshire Assizes in Aylesbury, Mr Justice Edmund Davies, said it would be "positively evil" if he showed leniency.

 

The robbery was the biggest-ever carried out in Britain.

 

Violent disturbances between Mods and Rockers at Clacton beach

 

Gang fights have gone on in Britain for centuries; but in the mid-1960s a tribal element arrived on the scene in the form of Mods and Rockers.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Rj-OHCusEI

 

Mods were cool: they wore Italian-style suits beneath badge-bedecked parkas; they had carefully coiffed hair; rode Lambretta and Vespa scooters; and listened to new bands like The Who and The Small Faces and ska greats like Prince Buster. Rockers were grungier: they wore leathers as befitted ton-up bikers; had long and often greasy hair; and were fans of Elvis, Buddy Holly and Gene Vincent.

 

The two tribes went to war first – at least in a large scale fight – in Clacton over Easter 1964. But the Whitsun weekend of May 18 and 19 saw things escalate hugely. There were battles in Broadstairs , Bournemouth , Hastings , Margate , Clacton again, and most notably in Brighton . Thousands from each side had gathered in theory for a seaside break that turned into turf battles: deckchairs were a weapon of convenience; flick-knives favoured by many Mods; bike-chains by Rockers.

 

As ever the poor police stood between the factions and had bottles thrown at them.

 

Middle Britain panicked into thinking civilisation was coming to an end. It didn’t; but hundreds of teenagers were fined, and some had short prison sentences for their part in the violence.

 

Moors murders: A missing persons investigation is launched in Fallowfield, Manchester, as police search for twelve-year-old Keith Bennett, who went missing on the previous evening.

 

Peter Anthony Allen, at Walton Prison in Liverpool, and Gwynne Owen Evans, at Strangeways Prison in Manchester, are hanged for the murder of John Alan West on 7 April, the last executions to take place in the British Isles.

 

On the local front, Avonmouth’s 1,500 dockers walked out on strike in January. The same month, the Lord Mayor of Bristol opened the first of five tower blocks to be built at Hartcliffe and in March Mr Marples announced the route of the M5 motorway through Gloucestershire and Somerset. In July, as the school holidays started, it was reported that there were 100 miles of traffic jams on the A38, then still the main route from the Midlands to the South-West.

 

1964 The Cost of Living

 

Television viewing

 

TV Rental for a 17 inch TV from Derwent’s of Park St. was six shillings and six pence (6s 6d) a week and for a giant 19 inch, nine shillings and seven pence. (9s 7d) At John James shops, the best deal in town, a set cost just four shillings if you rented it over three years. New TV’s were expensive in 1964. John James were offering a top 19 inch model with 625 lines for 68 guineas. Average wages at the time were anything from £10 to £15 a week. Having said that you could buy an ordinary model for a modest 29 Guineas. . '

 

Holidays

 

Package holidays had started to boom in 1964. Everybody was mad about them because it gave you the chance to fly for the first time and experience a ‘foreign’ holiday in the sun. "

 

Top Bristol travel agents Hourmont were offering 15 days away in Majorca for £41 -10s or the same time in Benidorn on the Costa Blanca for £43.00. At the cheaper end of the market LEP Travel could offer the same holiday for £29-18-0. Four days in Paris - flying from Lulsgate - would only set you back £19.00.

 

Housing

 

In 1964 you could buy a terraced Victorian house in Totterdown for £1 ,300 or an established house in leafy Westbury Park for about £5,000. Somewhere cosy in Eastville was about £2,000 and an ordinary three-bedroom semi about £3,000. But there were bargains to be had if you had money in the bank and a little foresight. An eight-room house in Clifton-wood, in need of renovation but overlooking the docks, was advertised for £800 — cash in hand only.

 

High street prices

 

A trip to a good hairdressers has always been expensive. In 1964 a perm could cost you 42 shillings, just over £2.00, while that fur trimmed coat from C&As would set you back seven guineas. '

 

Furnishing your house? You could bring home a modern Scandinavian three-piece suite forjust 32 guineas. lf, however, you were happy with an ordinary fireside chair, you’d get one from a department store for £8-10s-0d.

 

A state-of-the-art automatic washing machine, not a twin tub, cost a whopping £50.00.

 

A new baby? Horwoods in Old Market were selling top line prams for £17-19-6.

 

Transport

 

On the Roads in 1964 there were just a few sections of Motorway open but a big construction of the motorway system was underway seeing more sections opening each year.

 

Those actually open in 1964 were as follows:

 

M1 Junctions 5 to 18, M2 Junctions 2 to 5, M4 The Chiswick flyover (Junction 1) and Junctions 5 to 9, M5 Junctions 4 to 8, M6 Junctions 13 to 35, M20 Junctions 5 to 8 and the M45, M63 and M10 were complete.

 

Latest cars on the road in 1964 included the Vauxhall Viva and the Ford Anglia the Cortina also being a very popular car of the time.

 

The Forth Road Bridge was opened and in 1965 the Severn Bridge was opened.

 

If you were lucky enough to fly in 1964 you would of probably flown by BOAC ( British Overseas Airways Corporation ) or BEA (British European Airways ) and the VC 10 was the latest aeroplane.

 

Ford Anglias were all the rage in 1964. A second hand one cost £490.00. A new Mini would set you back about £448 and a popular Triumph Herald £515.

 

Announcement that American car manufacturer Chrysler is taking a substantial share in the British Rootes Group combine, which includes the Hillman, Singer and Sunbeam marques.

 

Daihatsu becomes the first Japanese car-maker to import passenger cars to the United Kingdom, launching its Compagno on the British market.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=VhSXNr4_hUA

 

Beer & Fags

 

Beer was between 1/6 and 2/0 a pint; a double whisky or other spirit was rather more. Indeed, in those days spirit drinkers usually kept out of rounds and bought their own.

 

Smoking was still extremely popular in 1964, nearly 70% of men and around 40% of women smoked. The most popular brand in the UK was "Embassy Filter".

 

One old shilling (1/0) was worth 5 new pence.

 

Government figures show that the average weekly wage is £16. £10 banknotes are issued for the first time since the Second World War.

 

Teen girls' magazine Jackie first published.

 

The final edition of the left-wing Daily Herald newspaper is published. The Sun newspaper goes into circulation, replacing the Daily Herald.

 

Sport

 

Fred Trueman – ‘Fiery Fred’ – was one of England’s greatest cricketers, becoming the first English bowler to take 300 test wickets when he dismissed Australian batsman Neil Hawke in the Oval test of 1964, Colin Cowdray taking the catch at slip.

 

Typically of his career he was coming back after having been dropped for the previous match (at Old Trafford ). This was doubtless partly as he was past his very best – though a mediocre Trueman was better than many subsequent England quicks at the top of their game - partly as he rarely found favour with the gentleman amateurs who still had a major say in the sport both at Yorkshire and in the England set-up.

 

Had he perish the thought been subservient he would probably have played another dozen tests or so.

 

There was little that was conventional about Fred Trueman , except perhaps his classically smooth bowling action.

 

Through his career he regularly managed to get on the wrong side of many blazer-bedecked committee types who ran cricket “In my day” as he would have said with his favourite post-career phrase. As a summariser on Test Match Special he continued to annoy some of the playing establishment, never one to water down deserved criticism, especially of lack of effort, thought or heart – “I don’t know what’s going off” his exasperated response to such moments.

 

Trueman was indefatigable, and achieved his 300 wickets by bending his back – not like some by bending his arm.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=aP9J5akyKTQ

 

Liverpool win the Football League First Division for the sixth time in their history.

 

West Ham United win the FA Cup for the first time in their history, beating Preston North End 3-2 at Wembley Stadium.

 

5 April 1964 - Tottenham captain Danny Blanchflower, 38, announced his retirement from playing.

 

8 April 1964 - Blackburn Rovers are announced as England's participant in the 1964 edition of the International Soccer League.

 

11 April 1964 – Scotland beat England 1–0 in the British Home Championship to leave the two level on four points in the final table. Northern Ireland subsequently defeated Wales to finish level on points with the other two, thus ensuring that the title was shared between three nations.

 

12 April 1964 – The Sunday People publishes allegations that lead to a betting scandal. It reported that Mansfield Town player Jimmy Gauld had, over several years, systematically engaged in match fixing, and that many other players were involved.

 

18 April 1964 – Liverpool beat Arsenal 5–0 at Anfield to secure the title. In their penultimate game of the season, Ipswich Town lose 3–1 to Blackburn Rovers, confirming their relegation two years after winning the League championship.

 

22 April 1964 – Leicester City win the League Cup – their first major trophy – with a 4–3 aggregate victory over Stoke City.

 

25 April 1964 – On the final day of the Second Division season, Leeds United win 2–0 at Charlton Athletic and Sunderland fail to beat Grimsby Town, meaning Leeds were crowned champions.

 

2 May 1964 – West Ham United beat Preston North End 3–2 at Wembley to win the FA Cup for the first time. Trailing 2–1 going into the final minutes of the match, West Ham scored two goals in as many minutes to the deny Preston.

 

Other News

 

All schools in Aberdeen are closed following 136 cases of typhoid being reported.

 

Terence Conran opens the first Habitat store on London's Fulham Road.

 

"Pirate" radio station Radio Sutch begins broadcasting from Shivering Sands Army Fort in the Thames Estuary.

 

Official opening of the UK's first undercover shopping centre, at the Bull Ring, Birmingham.

 

The Post Office Tower in London is completed, although it does not begin operation until October 1965.

 

Some 90% of British households now own a television, compared to around 25% in 1953 and 65% in 1959.

 

The first successful Minicomputer, Digital Equipment Corporation’s 12-bit PDP-8, is marketed.

 

Toy of the year: Mr Potato Head

 

1964 USA

 

1964 as the war in Vietnam and US Congress Authorizes war against N Vietnam more American servicemen were dying, and after three civil rights workers were murdered in Mississippi the president signed the Civil Rights act of 1964 but this did not stop the violence as it continued to increase in many American Cities.

 

Lyndon Johnson was also returned to power after a landslide victory. This was also the year The Beatles took the world and America by storm and Beatlemania went into overdrive as they released a series of number one hits including "I want to hold your hand" , "All my Loving" . Other British groups also found success including The Rolling Stones and The Animals and together with the American Talent of The Supremes and Bob Dylan many say this was one of the greatest years for music in the last century.

 

Also one young loud talented boxer by the name of Cassius Clay won the Boxing World heavyweight championship from Sonny Liston.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=N3PI95z_iMo

 

1964 World Headlines

 

13 Jan - Riots in Calcutta leave more than 100 dead

 

More than 100 people have been killed following Hindu-Muslim rioting in the Indian city of Calcutta.

 

06 Feb - Green light for Channel Tunnel

 

The British and French Governments have announced their commitment to build a tunnel under the English Channel.

 

07 Feb - Beatlemania arrives in the US

 

The four members of the British hit band, the Beatles, have arrived in New York at the start of their first tour of the United States.

 

12 Feb - Deaths follow Cyprus truce breach

 

Fighting between ethnic Turks and Greeks in the disputed island of Cyprus has left at least 16 people dead.

 

25 Feb - Cassius Clay crowned world champion

 

Cassius Clay, 22, has been crowned heavyweight champion of the world after beating Sonny Liston in one of the biggest upsets in boxing's history.

 

29 Feb - Royal baby for leap year day

 

The Queen's cousin, Princess Alexandra, has given birth to a son at her home in Surrey.

 

12 Mar - Hoffa faces eight years behind bars

 

The president of the powerful American Teamsters union has been sentenced to eight years in jail on bribery charges.

 

14 Mar - Jack Ruby sentenced to death

 

Jack Ruby has been sentenced to death after being found guilty of the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald, the alleged assassin of President John F Kennedy.

 

19 Mar - 'Ambitious' plans for south east

 

Three new cities are proposed for south east England as part of the largest regional expansion plan in Britain. The 'new towns' eventually created were Milton Keynes, Havant and Basingstoke.

 

16 Apr - 'Great Train Robbers' get 300 years

 

Some of the longest sentences in British criminal history have been imposed on men involved in the so-called "Great Train Robbery".

 

14 May - Nasser and Khrushchev divert the Nile

 

President Gamal Abdul Nasser of Egypt and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev have marked the first stage in the building of the Aswan High Dam.

 

27 May - Light goes out in India as Nehru dies

 

Jawaharlal Nehru, founder of modern India and its current prime minister, has died suddenly at the age of 74.

 

12 Jun - Nelson Mandela jailed for life

 

The leader of the anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa, Nelson Mandela, has been jailed for life for sabotage

 

17 Jun - Japan trade fair floats into London

 

The first purpose-built floating trade fair has docked at Tilbury in London with 22,000 samples of Japanese goods on board.

 

02 Jul - President Johnson signs Civil Rights Bill

 

The Civil Rights Bill - one of the most important piece of legislation in American history - has become law.

 

04 Aug - Three civil rights activists found dead

 

The bodies of three civil rights workers missing for six weeks have been found buried in a partially constructed dam near Philadelphia, Mississippi.

 

10 Aug - Guns fall silent in Cyprus

 

The United Nations has brokered another ceasefire in Cyprus, defusing the growing crisis between Greek and Turkish Cypriots and heading off the threat of invasion by Turkey.

 

04 Sep - Forth Road Bridge opened

 

The Queen has officially opened Europe's longest suspension bridge linking Edinburgh to Perth across the River Forth.

 

15 Sep - The Sun newspaper is born

 

The Sun newspaper is published today for the first time.

It is replacing the Mirror Group's Daily Herald, which has been losing readers and advertising revenue for several years.

 

28 Sep - Kennedy murder was 'no conspiracy'

 

There was no conspiracy surrounding the death of President Kennedy but there were serious failures by those responsible for his protection, according to a government report.

 

12 Oct - Labour voters are 'bonkers' says Hogg

 

A senior Conservative minister has stolen the show at the Conservative news conference by branding all Labour voters "bonkers".

 

Quintin Hogg, Lord President of the Council and Secretary for Education and Science, made his quip after mounting a stinging attack on Labour's policies.

 

15 Oct - Khrushchev 'retires' as head of USSR

 

Nikita Khrushchev has unexpectedly stepped down as leader of the Soviet Union.

 

25 Oct - President Kaunda takes power in Zambia

 

Zambia has become the ninth African state to gain independence from the British crown.

 

03 Nov - Election triumph for Lyndon B Johnson

 

Lyndon Baines Johnson has been elected president of the United States defeating hard-line Republican Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona by an overwhelming majority.

 

23 Dec - Beeching to leave British Railways

 

The chairman of the British Railways Board is to part company with the organisation and return to his post at Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI).

 

31 Dec - Campbell speeds to double record

 

Donald Campbell has broken the world water speed record, becoming the first man to break the world land and water speed records in the same year.

 

100 most popular hits in the UK singles music charts in 1964

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bx1982r049g

 

01 Jim Reeves - I Love You Because

02 Jim Reeves - I Won't Forget You

03 Roy Orbison - It's Over

04 Roy Orbison - Oh Pretty Woman

05 The Beatles - A Hard Day's Night

06 Cilla Black - You're My World

07 Cilla Black - Anyone Who Had A Heart

08 The Searchers - Needles And Pins

09 The Honeycombs - Have I The Right?

10 Manfred Mann - Do Wah Diddy Diddy

11 Herman's Hermits - I'm Into Something Good

12 Dave Clark Five - Glad All Over

13 The Bachelors - Diane

14 The Rolling Stones - It's All Over Now

15 The Beatles - Can't Buy Me Love

16 Billy J Kramer & The Dakotas - Little Children

17 The Bachelors - I Believe

18 The Beatles - I Want To Hold Your Hand

19 Julie Rogers - The Wedding

20 Peter & Gordon - World Without Love

21 The Four Pennies - Juliet

22 Millie - My Boy Lollipop

23 Brian Poole & The Tremeloes - Someone, Someone

24 The Swinging Blue Jeans - Hippy Hippy Shake

25 Sandie Shaw - (There's) Always Something There To Remind Me

26 The Kinks - You Really Got Me

27 The Searchers - Don't Throw Your Love Away

28 The Supremes - Baby Love

29 Gerry & The Pacemakers - I'm The One

30 The Supremes - Where Did Our Love Go

31 Dave Clark Five - Bits And Pieces

32 The Bachelors - I Wouldn't Trade You For The World

33 The Four Seasons - Rag Doll

34 The Beatles - I Feel Fine

35 The Rolling Stones - Not Fade Away

36 The Animals - House Of The Rising Sun

37 The Hollies - Just One Look

38 Matt Monro - Walk Away

39 The Merseybeats - I Think Of You

40 The Barron Knights - Call Up The Groups

41 Petula Clark - Downtown

42 Gene Pitney - I'm Gonna Be Strong

43 Gene Pitney - Twenty Four Hours From Tulsa

44 PJ Proby - Hold Me

45 Dusty Springfield - I Just Don't Know What To Do With Myself

46 Brenda Lee - As Usual

47 The Kinks - All Day And All Of The Night

48 Dusty Springfield - I Only Want To Be With You

49 The Searchers - When You Walk In The Room

50 Cliff Richard - Constantly

51 Val Doonican - Walk Tall

52 The Rolling Stones - Little Red Rooster

53 The Beatles - She Loves You

54 Mary Wells - My Guy

55 The Nashville Teens - Tobacco Road

56 The Rockin' Berries - He's In Town

57 The Shadows - Rise And Fall Of Flingel Bunt

58 Wayne Fontana & The Mindbenders - Um Um Um Um Um Um

59 The Bachelors - Ramona

60 Cliff Richard - On The Beach

61 The Swinging Blue Jeans - You're No Good

62 Manfred Mann - Sha La La

63 Manfred Mann - 5-4-3-2-1

64 Dave Berry - The Crying Game

65 Doris Day - Move Over Darling

66 The Beach Boys - I Get Around

67 Louis Armstrong - Hello, Dolly!

68 Marianne Faithfull - As Tears Go By

69 Chuck Berry - No Particular Place To Go

70 Dionne Warwick - Walk On By

71 Applejacks - Tell Me When

72 Eden Kane - Boys Cry

73 The Fourmost - A Little Loving

74 Brian Poole & The Tremeloes - Candy Man

75 Gene Pitney - That Girl Belongs To Yesterday

76 The Hollies - Here I Go Again

77 Frank Ifield - Don't Blame Me

78 The Ronettes - Baby I Love You

79 Lulu & The Luvvers - Shout

80 Big Dee Irwin - Swinging On A Star

81 Gerry & The Pacemakers - Don't Let The Sun Catch You Crying

82 The Hollies - We're Through

83 Jim Reeves - There's A Heartache Following Me

84 Dean Martin - Everybody Loves Somebody

85 Gigliola Cinquetti - Non Ho L'Eta Per Amarti

86 Dave Clark Five - Can't You See That She's Mine

87 The Hollies - Stay

88 Freddie & The Dreamers - I Understand

89 Cilla Black - It's For You

90 The Migil Five - Mocking Bird Hill

91 Cliff Richard - Twelfth Of Never

92 Dusty Springfield - Losing You

93 PJ Proby - Together

94 The Animals - I'm Crying

95 Elvis Presley - Kissin' Cousins

96 Peter & Gordon - Nobody I Know

97 Kathy Kirby - Let Me Go Lover

98 Henry Mancini Orchestra - How Soon?

99 The Zombies - She's Not There

100 The Mojos - Everything's Alright

 

Top Twenty TV Shows in 1964 were

 

1. Steptoe and Son (BBC)

2. Sunday Palladium (ITV)

3. Coronation Street (ITV)

4. Dick Powell Theatre (BBC)

5. Take Your Pick (ITV)

6. Royal Variety Show (BBC)

7. No Hiding Place (ITV)

8. Armchair Theatre (ITV)

9. It's Tarbuck (ITV)

10. Crane (ITV)

11. Stars and Garters (ITV)

12. Double Your Money (ITV)

13. Emergency Ward Ten (ITV)

14. Around the Beatles (ITV)

15. Frank Ifield Show (ITV)

16. The Avengers (ITV)

17. Christmas Comedy (ITV)

18. Miss World 1964 (ITV)

19. Max Bygraves (ITV)

20. Love Story (ITV)

 

That Was the Year That Was - 1965

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/17316629146/

 

  

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_District

  

The Lake District, also commonly known as The Lakes or (particularly as an adjective) Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England. A popular holiday destination, it is famous not only for its lakes, forests and mountains (or fells), but also for its associations with the early 19th century poetry and writings of William Wordsworth and the other Lake Poets.

Historically shared by the counties of Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire, the Lake District now lies entirely within the modern county of Cumbria. All the land in England higher than three thousand feet above sea level lies within the National Park, including Scafell Pike, the highest mountain in England. It also contains the deepest and longest lakes in England, Wastwater and Windermere, respectively.

  

Lake District National Park

  

Lake District National Park (shown as number 2) in a map of National Parks in England and Wales.

The Lake District National Park includes nearly all of the Lake District, though the town of Kendal and the Lakeland Peninsulas are currently outside the Park boundary.

The area, which was designated a National Park on 9 May 1951 (less than a month after the first UK National Park designation — the Peak District), is the most visited national park in the United Kingdom with 15.8 million annual visitors and more than 23 million annual day visits,[1] the largest of the thirteen National Parks in England and Wales, and the second largest in the UK after the Cairngorms.[2] Its aim is to protect the landscape by restricting unwelcome change by industry or commerce. Most of the land in the Park is in private ownership. The National Trust owns about a quarter of the total area (including some lakes and land of significant landscape value), United Utilities owns eight per cent and 3.9% belongs to the Lake District National Park Authority. The National Park Authority is based at offices in Kendal. It runs a visitor centre on Windermere at a former country house called Brockhole,[3] Coniston Boating Centre and Information Centres.

In common with all other National Parks in England, there is no restriction on entry to, or movement within the park along public routes, but access to cultivated land is usually restricted to public footpaths.

The lakes and mountains combine to form impressive scenery. Farmland and settlement add aesthetic value to the natural scenery with an ecology modified by human influence for millennia and including important wildlife habitats. The Lake District has failed to be approved as a natural World Heritage Site, because of human activities, such as commercial forestry, which have adversely impacted the park's assessment. Another bid is being prepared for World Heritage Status, this time in the category of cultural landscape.

  

Proposed extension to National Park

  

In December 2009, Natural England proposed extending the National Park in the direction of the Yorkshire Dales National Park.[5] This would include land of high landscape value in the Lune Valley. The proposal was opposed by Cumbria County Council who said it would lead to less democratic control and would make local housing less affordable.[6] A public inquiry is being held into the proposals which will require a decision by the Secretary of State.

  

Human geography

  

General

  

The precise extent of the Lake District was not defined traditionally, but is slightly larger than that of the National Park, the total area of which is about 885 square miles (2,292 km2). The Park extends just over 32 miles (52 km) from east to west and nearly 40 miles (64 km) from north to south,[8] with areas such as the Lake District Peninsulas to the south lying outside the National Park.

  

Settlement

  

The Lake District is one of the most highly populated national parks. There are, however, only a handful of major settlements within this mountainous area, the towns of Keswick, Windermere, Ambleside, and Bowness-on-Windermere being the four largest. Significant towns immediately outside the boundary of the national park include Barrow-in-Furness, Kendal, Ulverston, Cockermouth, Penrith, and Grange-over-Sands; each of these has important economic links with the area. Villages such as Coniston, Threlkeld, Glenridding, Pooley Bridge, Broughton-in-Furness, Grasmere, Newby Bridge, Staveley, Lindale, Gosforth and Hawkshead act as more local centres. The economies of almost all are intimately linked with tourism. Beyond these are a scatter of hamlets and innumerable isolated farmsteads, some of which are still tied to agriculture, others now function as part of the tourist economy.

  

Communications

  

Roads

  

The Lake District National Park is almost contained within a box of trunk routes. It is flanked to the east by the A6 road which runs from Kendal to Penrith). The A590 which connects the M6 to Cumbria's largest town, Barrow-in-Furness, and the A5092 trunk roads cut across its southern fringes and the A66 trunk road between Penrith and Workington cuts across its northern edge. Finally the A595 trunk road runs through the coastal plains to the west of the area linking the A66 with the A5092.

Besides these, a few A roads penetrate the area itself, notably the A591 which runs northwestwards from Kendal to Windermere and then on to Keswick. It continues up the east side of Bassenthwaite Lake. "The A591, Grasmere, Lake District" was short-listed in the 2011 Google Street View awards in the Most Romantic Street category. The A593 and A5084 link the Ambleside and Coniston areas with the A590 to the south whilst the A592 and A5074 similarly link Windermere with the A590. The A592 also continues northwards from Windermere to Ullswater and Penrith by way of the Kirkstone Pass.

Some of those valleys which are not penetrated by A roads are served by B roads. The B5289 serves Lorton Vale and Buttermere and links via the Honister Pass with Borrowdale. The B5292 ascends the Whinlatter Pass from Lorton Vale before dropping down to Braithwaite near Keswick. The B5322 serves the valley of St John's in the Vale whilst Great Langdale is served by the B5343. Other valleys such as Little Langdale, Eskdale and Dunnerdale are served by minor roads. The latter connects with the former two by way of the Wrynose and Hardknott passes respectively - both of these passes are known for their steep gradients and are one of the most popular climbs in the United Kingdom for cycling enthusiasts.[11] A minor road through the Newlands Valley connects via Newlands Hause with the B5289 at Buttermere. Wasdale is served by a cul-de-sac minor road as is Longsleddale and the valleys at Haweswater and Kentmere. There are intricate networks of minor roads in the lower-lying southern part of the area connecting numerous communities between Kendal, Windermere and Coniston.

  

Railways and ferries

  

The West Coast Main Line skirts the eastern edge of the Lake District and the Cumbrian Coast Line passes through the southern and western fringes of the area. A single line, the Windermere Branch Line, penetrates from Kendal to Windermere via Staveley. Lines once served Broughton-in-Furness and Coniston and another ran from Penrith to Cockermouth via Keswick but each of these was abandoned in the 1960s. The track of the latter has been adopted in part for use by the improved A66 trunk road.

The narrow gauge Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway runs from Ravenglass on the west coast up Eskdale as far as Dalegarth Station near the hamlet of Boot, catering for tourists. Another heritage railway, the Lakeside and Haverthwaite Railway runs between the two villages encompassed within its name, tourists being able to connect with the Windermere passenger ferry at Lakeside.

A vehicle-carrying cable ferry, the Windermere Ferry runs frequent services across Windermere. There are also seasonal passenger ferries on Coniston Water, Derwent Water and Ullswater.

  

Physical geography

  

As the highest ground in England, Scafell Pike naturally has a very extensive view, ranging from the Mourne Mountains in Northern Ireland to Snowdonia in Wales. The Lake District takes the form of a roughly circular upland massif deeply dissected by a broadly radial pattern of major valleys whose character is largely the product of repeated glaciations over the last 2 million years. Most of these valleys display the U-shape cross-section, characteristic of glacial origin and often contain elongate lakes occupying sizeable bedrock hollows often with tracts of relatively flat ground at their heads. Smaller lakes known as tarns occupy glacial cirques at higher elevations. It is the abundance of both which has led to the area becoming known as the Lake District.

The mountains of the Lake District are also known as the "Cumbrian Mountains", although this name is less frequently used than terms like "the Lake District" or "the Lakeland Fells". Many of the higher fells are rocky in character, whilst moorland predominates at lower altitude. Vegetation cover across better drained areas includes bracken and heather though much of the land is boggy, due to the high rainfall. Deciduous native woodland occurs on many steeper slopes below the tree line but with native oak supplemented by extensive conifer plantations in many areas, particularly Grisedale Forest in the generally lower southern part of the area.

  

Valleys

  

The principal radial valleys are (clockwise from the south) those of Dunnerdale, Eskdale, Wasdale, Ennerdale, Lorton Vale and the Buttermere valley, the Derwent Valley and Borrowdale, the valleys containing Ullswater and Haweswater, Longsleddale, the Kentmere valley and those radiating from the head of Windermere including Great Langdale. The valleys serve to break the mountains up into separate blocks which have been described by various authors in different ways. The most frequently encountered approach is that made popular by Alfred Wainwright who published seven separate area guides to the Lakeland Fells.

  

Woodlands

  

Below the tree line are wooded areas, including British and European native oak woodlands and introduced softwood plantations. The woodlands provide habitats for native English wildlife. The native red squirrel is found in the Lake District and in a few other parts of England. In parts of the Lake District the rainfall is higher than in any other part of England. This gives Atlantic mosses, ferns, lichen, and liverworts the chance to grow. There is some ancient woodland in the National Park. Management of the woodlands varies: some are coppiced, some pollarded, some left to grow naturally, and some provide grazing and shelter.

  

Hills (Fells)

  

The four highest mountains in the Lake District exceed 3000 ft (914m). These are;

 

Scafell Pike, 978 m (3,210 ft),

Scafell, 965 m (3,162 ft),

Helvellyn, 951 m (3,118 ft) and

Skiddaw, 931 m (3,054 ft).

  

Northern Fells

  

The Northern Fells are a readily defined range of hills contained within a 13 km diameter circle between Keswick in the southwest and Caldbeck in the northeast. They culminate in the 931 m (3054 ft) peak of Skiddaw. Other notable peaks are those of Blencathra (also known as Saddleback) (868m / 2848 ft) and Carrock Fell. Bassenthwaite Lake occupies the valley between this massif and the North Western Fells.

 

North Western Fells

  

The North Western Fells lie between Borrowdale and Bassenthwaite Lake to the east and Buttermere and Lorton Vale to the west. Their southernmost point is at Honister Pass. This area includes the Derwent Fells above the Newlands Valley and hills to the north amongst which are Dale Head, Robinson. To the north stand Grasmoor - highest in the range at 852 m (2795 ft), Grisedale Pike and the hills around the valley of Coledale, and in the far north-west is Thornthwaite Forest and Lord's Seat. The fells in this area are rounded Skiddaw Slate, with few tarns and relatively few rock faces.

  

Western Fells

  

The Western Fells lie between Buttermere and Wasdale, with Sty Head forming the apex of a large triangle. Ennerdale bisects the area, which consists of the High Stile ridge north of Ennerdale, the Loweswater Fells in the far north west, the Pillar group in the south west, and Great Gable (2,949 feet or 899 metres) near Sty Head. Other tops include Seatallan, Haystacks and Kirk Fell. This area is craggy and steep, with the impressive pinnacle of Pillar Rock its showpiece. Wastwater, located in this part, is England's deepest lake.

  

Central Fells

  

The Central Fells are lower in elevation than surrounding areas of fell, peaking at 762 m (2500 ft) at High Raise. They take the form of a ridge running between Derwent Water in the west and Thirlmere in the east, from Keswick in the north to Langdale Pikes in the south. A spur extends southeast to Loughrigg Fell above Ambleside. The central ridge running north over High Seat is exceptionally boggy.

  

Eastern Fells

  

The Eastern Fells consist of a long north-to-south ridge—the Helvellyn range, running from Clough Head to Seat Sandal with the 3,118-foot (950 m) Helvellyn at its highest point. The western slopes of these summits tend to be grassy, with rocky corries and crags on the eastern side. The Fairfield group lies to the south of the range, and forms a similar pattern with towering rock faces and hidden valleys spilling into the Patterdale valley. It culminates in the height of Red Screes overlooking the Kirkstone Pass.

  

Far Eastern Fells

  

The Far Eastern Fells refer to all of the Lakeland fells to the east of Ullswater and the A592 road running south to Windermere. At 828 m (2,717 ft), the peak known as High Street is the highest point on a complex ridge which runs broadly north-south and overlooks the hidden valley of Haweswater to its east. In the north of this region are the lower fells of Martindale Common and Bampton Common whilst in the south are the fells overlooking the Kentmere valley. Further to the east, beyond Mardale and Longsleddale is Shap Fell, an extensive area consisting of high moorland, more rolling and Pennine in nature than the mountains to the west.

  

Southern Fells

  

The Southern Fells occupy the southwestern quarter of the Lake District. They can be regarded as comprising a northern grouping between Wasdale, Eskdale and the two Langdale valleys, a southeastern group east of Dunnerdale and south of Little Langdale and a southwestern group bounded by Eskdale to the north and Dunnerdale to the east.

The first group includes England's highest mountains; Scafell Pike in the centre, at 3,209 feet (978 m) and Scafell one mile (1.6 km) to the south-west. Though it is slightly lower it has a 700-foot (210 m) rockface, Scafell Crag on its northern side. It also includes the Wastwater Screes overlooking Wasdale, the Glaramara ridge overlooking Borrowdale, the three tops of Crinkle Crags, Bowfell and Esk Pike. The core of the area is drained by the infant River Esk. Collectively these are some of the Lake District's most rugged hillsides.

The second group, otherwise known as the Furness Fells or Coniston Fells, have as their northern boundary the steep and narrow Hardknott and Wrynose Passes.

The third group to the west of the Duddon includes Harter Fell and the long ridge leading over Whitfell to Black Combe and the sea. The south of this region consists of lower forests and knolls, with Kirkby Moor on the southern boundary. The south-western Lake District ends near the Furness peninsula and Barrow-in-Furness, a town which many Lake District residents rely on for basic amenities.

  

South Eastern area

  

The south-eastern area is the territory between Coniston Water and Windermere and east of Windermere towards Kendal and south to Lindale. There are no high summits in this area which is mainly low hills, knolls and limestone cuestas such as Gummer's How and Whitbarrow. Indeed it rises only as high as 333m at Top o' Selside east of Coniston Water; The wide expanse of Grizedale Forest stands between the two lakes. Kendal and Morecambe Bay stand at the eastern and southern edges of the area.

  

Lakes

  

Only one of the lakes in the Lake District is called by that name, Bassenthwaite Lake. All the others such as Windermere, Coniston Water, Ullswater and Buttermere are meres, tarns and waters, with mere being the least common and water being the most common. The major lakes and reservoirs in the National Park are given below.

Bassenthwaite Lake

Brotherswater

Buttermere

Coniston Water

Crummock Water

Derwent Water

Devoke Water

Elter Water

Ennerdale Water

Esthwaite Water

Grasmere

Haweswater Reservoir

Hayeswater

Loweswater

Rydal Water

Thirlmere

Ullswater

Wast Water

Windermere

  

Geology

  

The Lake District's geology is very complex but well-studied.[12] A granite batholith beneath the area is responsible for this upland massif, its relatively low density causing the area to be 'buoyed up'. The granite can be seen at the surface as the Ennerdale, Skiddaw, Carrock Fell, Eskdale and Shap granites.

Broadly speaking the area can be divided into three bands, the divisions between which run southwest to northeast. Generally speaking the rocks become younger from northwest to southeast. The northwestern band is composed of early to mid Ordovician sedimentary rocks – largely mudstones and siltstones of marine origin. Together they comprise the Skiddaw Group and include the rocks traditionally known as the Skiddaw Slates. Their friability generally leads to mountains with relatively smooth slopes such as Skiddaw itself.

The central band is a mix of volcanic and sedimentary rocks of mid to late Ordovician age comprising the lavas and tuffs of the Borrowdale Volcanic Group, erupted as the former Iapetus ocean was subducted beneath what is now the Scottish border during the Caledonian orogeny. The northern central peaks, such as Great Rigg, were produced by considerable lava flows. These lava eruptions were followed by a series of pyroclastic eruptions which produced a series of calderas, one of which includes present-day Scafell Pike. These pyroclastic rocks give rise to the craggy landscapes typical of the central fells.[13]'

The southeastern band comprises the mudstones and wackes of the Windermere Supergroup and which includes (successively) the rocks of the Dent, Stockdale, Tranearth, Coniston and Kendal Groups. These are generally a little less resistant to erosion than the rocks sequence to the north and underlie much of the lower landscapes around Coniston and Windermere.

Later intrusions have formed individual outcrops of igneous rock in each of these groups. Around the edges of these Ordovician and Silurian rocks on the northern, eastern and southern fringes of the area is a semi-continuous outcrop of Carboniferous Limestone seen most spectacularly at places like Whitbarrow Scar and Scout Scar.

  

Climate

  

The Lake District's location on the north west coast of England, coupled with its mountainous geography, makes it the dampest part of England. The UK Met Office reports average annual precipitation of more than 2,000 millimetres (80 in), but with very large local variation. Although the entire region receives above average rainfall, there is a wide disparity between the amount of rainfall in the western and eastern lakes, as the Lake District experiences relief rainfall. Seathwaite in Borrowdale is the wettest inhabited place in England with an average of 3,300 millimetres (130 in) of rain a year,[16] while nearby Sprinkling Tarn is even wetter, recording over 5,000 millimetres (200 in) per year; by contrast, Keswick, at the end of Borrowdale receives 1,470 millimetres (60 in) every year, and Penrith (just outside the Lake District) only 870 millimetres (30 in). March to June tend to be the driest months, with October to January the wettest, but at low levels there is relatively little difference between months.

Although sheltered valleys experience gales on an average of only five days a year, the Lake District is generally very windy with the coastal areas having 20 days of gales, and the fell tops around 100 days of gales per year. The maritime climate means that the Lake District experiences relatively moderate temperature variations through the year. Mean temperature in the valleys ranges from about 3 °C (37 °F) in January to around 15 °C (59 °F) in July. (By comparison, Moscow, at the same latitude, ranges from −10 °C to 19 °C/14 °F to 66 °F).

The relatively low height of most of the fells means that, while snow is expected during the winter, they can be free of snow at any time of the year. Normally, significant snow fall only occurs between November and April. On average, snow falls on Helvellyn 67 days per year. During the year, valleys typically experience 20 days with snow falling, a further 200 wet days, and 145 dry days. Hill fog is common at any time of year, and the fells average only around 2.5 hours of sunshine per day, increasing to around 4.1 hours per day on the coastal plains.

  

Wildlife

  

The Lake District is one of the few places in England where red squirrels have a sizeable population.[18]

  

The Lake District is home to a plethora of wildlife, due to its range of varied topography, lakes and forests. It provides a home for the red squirrel and colonies of sundew and butterwort, two of the few carnivorous plants native to Britain. The Lake District is a major sanctuary for the red squirrel and has the largest population in England. It is estimated there are 140,000 red squirrels in the United Kingdom, but are approximately 2.5 million gray squirrels who have displaced the indigenous red population since their introduction to the British Isles.[19]

The Lake District is home to a range of bird species,[20] and the RSPB maintain a reserve in Haweswater.[21] England's only nesting pair of Golden Eagles can be found in the Lake District. The female Golden Eagle has not been seen since 2004 although the male still remains.[22] Conservationists believe he is now the only resident golden eagle in England.[23] Following recolonisation attempts, a pair of ospreys nested in the Lake District for the time in over 150 years near Bassenthwaite Lake during 2001. Osprey's now frequently migrate north from Africa in the spring to nest in the Lake District and a total of 23 chicks have fledged in The Lakes since 2001.[24] Another bird species to have had recolonisation attempts is the Red Kite who have a population approximately 90 in the dense forest areas near Grizedale as of 2012.[25] Conservationists hope the re-introduction will create a large Red Kite population in the Lake District and in North West England where the Red Kite population is low.[26] Other bird species resident to the Lake District include the buzzard, dipper, peregrine and raven.[27] Seasonal birds include the ring ouzel and the redstart.[28]

The lakes of the Lake District support three rare and endangered species of fish: the vendace, which can be found only in Derwent Water and until 2008 in Bassenthwaite Lake.[29] Vendace have struggled in recent years with naturally-occurring algae becoming a threat and the lakes gradually getting warmer in temperature.[30] Vendace have been moved to higher lakes on a number of occasions to preserve the species, notably in 2005 and 2011.[31][32] The Lakes are also home to two other rare species: the schelly, which lives in Brothers Water, Haweswater, Red Tarn and Ullswater, and the Arctic charr, which can be found in Buttermere, Coniston Water, Crummock Water, Ennerdale Water, Haweswater, Loweswater, Thirlmere, Wast Water, and Windermere.

  

The vendace (Coregonus vandesius) is England's rarest species of fish, and is only found in the Lake District.

In recent years, some important changes have been made to fisheries byelaws covering the north-west region of England, to help protect some of the rarest fish species. In 2002, the Environment Agency introduced a new fisheries byelaw, banning the use of all freshwater fish as live or dead bait in 14 of the lakes in the Lake District. Anglers not complying with the new byelaw can face fines of up to £2,500. There are 14 lakes in the Lake District which are affected. These are: Bassenthwaite Lake, Brothers Water, Buttermere, Coniston Water, Crummock Water, Derwent Water, Ennerdale Water, Haweswater, Loweswater, Red Tarn, Thirlmere, Ullswater, Wast Water and Windermere.

The lakes and waters of the Lake District do not naturally support as many species of fish as other similar habitats in the south of the country and elsewhere in Europe. Some fish that do thrive there are particularly at risk from introduction of new species.

The introduction of non-native fish can lead to the predation of the native fish fauna or competition for food. There is also the risk of disease being introduced, which can further threaten native populations. In some cases, the introduced species can disturb the environment so much that it becomes unsuitable for particular fish. For example, a major problem has been found with ruffe. This non-native fish has now been introduced into a number of lakes in recent years. It is known that ruffe eat the eggs of vendace, which are particularly vulnerable because of their long incubation period. This means that they are susceptible to predators for up to 120 days. The eggs of other fish, for example roach, are only at risk for as little as three days.

  

Economy

  

Agriculture and forestry

  

Farming, and in particular sheep farming, has been the major industry in the region since Roman times. The breed most closely associated with the area is the tough Herdwick, with Rough Fell and Swaledale sheep also common. Sheep farming remains important both for the economy of the region and for preserving the landscape which visitors want to see. Features such as dry stone walls, for example, are there as a result of sheep farming. Some land is also used for silage and dairy farming.

The area was badly affected by the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease across the United Kingdom in 2001. The outbreak started in Surrey in February, but had spread to Cumbria by end of March.[33] Thousands of sheep, include the native Herdwick which graze on the fellsides across the District, were destroyed. In replacing the sheep, one problem to overcome was that many of the lost sheep were heafed, that is, they knew their part of the unfenced fell and did not stray, with this knowledge being passed between generations. With all the sheep lost at once, this knowledge has to be re-learnt and some of the fells have had discreet electric fences strung across them for a period of five years, to allow the sheep to "re-heaf".[34] At the time of the outbreak, worries existed about the future of certain species of sheep such as Ryeland and Herdwick in the District,[35] however these fears have been allayed and sheep now occupy the District in abundance.[36]

  

Forestry has also assumed greater importance over the course of the last century with the establishment of extensive conifer plantations around Whinlatter Pass, in Ennerdale and at Grizedale Forest amongst other places. There are extensive plantations of non-native pine trees.

  

Industry

 

With its wealth of rock types and their abundance in the landscape, mining and quarrying have long been significant activities in the Lake District economy. In Neolithic times, the Lake District was a major source of stone axes, examples of which have been found all over Britain. The primary site, on the slopes of the Langdale Pikes, is sometimes described as a "stone axe factory" of the Langdale axe industry. Some of the earliest stone circles in Britain are connected with this industry.

Mining, particularly of copper, lead (often associated with quantities of silver), baryte, graphite and slate, was historically a major Lakeland industry, mainly from the 16th century to the 19th century. Coppiced woodland was used extensively to provide charcoal for smelting. Some mining still takes place today; for example, slate mining continues at the Honister Mines, at the top of Honister Pass. Abandoned mine-workings can be found on fell-sides throughout the district. The locally mined graphite led to the development of the pencil industry, especially around Keswick.

  

In the middle of the 19th century, half the world textile industry's bobbin supply came from the Lake District area. Over the past century, however, tourism has grown rapidly to become the area's primary source of income.

  

Development of tourism

  

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Early visitors to the Lake District, who travelled for the education and pleasure of the journey, include Celia Fiennes who in 1698 undertook a journey the length of England, including riding through Kendal and over Kirkstone Pass into Patterdale. Her experiences and impressions were published in her book Great Journey to Newcastle and Cornwall:

As I walked down at this place I was walled on both sides by those inaccessible high rocky barren hills which hang over one’s head in some places and appear very terrible; and from them springs many little currents of water from the sides and clefts which trickle down to some lower part where it runs swiftly over the stones and shelves in the way, which makes a pleasant rush and murmuring noise and like a snowball is increased by each spring trickling down on either side of those hills, and so descends into the bottoms which are a Moorish ground in which in many places the waters stand, and so form some of those Lakes as it did here.[37]

In 1724, Daniel Defoe published the first volume of A Tour Thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain. He commented on Westmorland that it was:

the wildest, most barren and frightful of any that I have passed over in England, or even Wales itself; the west side, which borders on Cumberland, is indeed bounded by a chain of almost unpassable mountains which, in the language of the country, are called fells.

Towards the end of the 18th century, the area was becoming more popular with travellers. This was partly a result of wars in Continental Europe, restricting the possibility of travel there. In 1778 Father Thomas West produced A Guide to the Lakes, which began the era of modern tourism.

  

West listed "stations"—viewpoints where tourists could enjoy the best views of the landscape, being encouraged to appreciated the formal qualities of the landscape and to apply aesthetic values. At some of these stations, buildings were erected to help this process. The remains of Claife Station (on the western shore Windermere below Claife Heights) can be visited today.

William Wordsworth published his Guide to the Lakes in 1810, and by 1835 it had reached its fifth edition, now called A Guide through the District of the Lakes in the North of England. This book was particularly influential in popularising the region. Wordsworth's favourite valley was Dunnerdale or the Duddon Valley nestling in the south-west of the Lake District.

The railways led to another expansion in tourism. The Kendal and Windermere Railway was the first to penetrate the Lake District, reaching Kendal in 1846 and Windermere in 1847. The line to Coniston opened in 1848 (although until 1857 this was only linked to the national network with ferries between Fleetwood and Barrow-in-Furness); the line from Penrith through Keswick to Cockermouth in 1865; and the line to Lakeside at the foot of Windermere in 1869. The railways, built with traditional industry in mind, brought with them a huge increase in the number of visitors, thus contributing to the growth of the tourism industry. Railway services were supplemented by steamer boats on the major lakes of Ullswater, Windermere, Coniston Water, and Derwent Water.

  

A steamer on Ullswater

  

The growth in tourist numbers continued into the age of the motor car, when railways began to be closed or run down. The formation of the Lake District National Park in 1951 recognised the need to protect the Lake District environment from excessive commercial or industrial exploitation, preserving that which visitors come to see, without any restriction on the movement of people into and around the district. The M6 Motorway helped bring traffic to the Lakes, passing up its eastern flank. The narrow roads present a challenge for traffic flow and, from the 1960s, certain areas have been very congested.

Whilst the roads and railways provided easier access to the area, many people were drawn to the Lakes by the publication of the Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells by Alfred Wainwright. First published between 1952 and 1965, these books provided detailed information on 214 peaks across the region, with carefully hand-drawn maps and panoramas, and also stories and asides which add to the colour of the area. They are still used by many visitors to the area as guides for walking excursions, with the ultimate goal of bagging the complete list of Wainwrights. The famous guides are being revised by Chris Jesty to reflect changes, mainly in valley access and paths.[38]

Since the early 1960s, the National Park Authority has employed rangers to help cope with increasing tourism and development, the first being John Wyatt, who has since written a number of guide books. He was joined two years later by a second, and since then the number of rangers has been rising.

The area has also become associated with writer Beatrix Potter. A number of tourists visit to see her family home, with particularly large numbers coming from Japan.

Tourism has now become the park's major industry, with about 12 million visitors each year, mainly from the UK's larger settlements, China, Japan, Spain, Germany and the US.[39] Windermere Lake Steamers are Cumbria's most popular charging tourist attraction with about 1.35 million paying customers each year, and the local economy is dependent upon tourists. The negative impact of tourism has been seen, however. Soil erosion, caused by walking, is now a significant problem, with millions of pounds being spent to protect over-used paths. In 2006, two Tourist Information Centres in the National Park were closed.

Cultural tourism is becoming an increasingly important part of the wider tourist industry. The Lake District's links with a wealth of artists and writers and its strong history of providing summer theatre performances in the old Blue Box of Century Theatre are strong attractions for visiting tourists. The tradition of theatre is carried on by venues such as Theatre by the Lake in Keswick with its summer season of six plays in repertoire, Christmas and Easter productions, and the many literature, film, mountaineering, jazz and creative arts festivals, such as the Kendal Mountain Festival and the Keswick Mountain Festival.

  

Gastronomy

  

The Lake District has been regarded as one of the best places to eat in Britain.[40] The region has four Michelin Star Restaurants including L'Enclume, Sharrow Bay, Holbeck Ghyll and The Samling in Ambleside. In addition, Cumbria has more microbreweries than any other county in Britain and together with Jennings Brewery supply a variety of ales to pubs and restaurants throughout the region.

  

Literature and art

  

The Lake District is intimately associated with English literature in the 18th and 19th centuries. Thomas Gray was the first to bring the region to attention, when he wrote a journal of his Grand Tour in 1769, but it was William Wordsworth whose poems were most famous and influential. Wordsworth's poem "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud", inspired by the sight of daffodils on the shores of Ullswater, remains one of the most famous in the English language. Out of his long life of eighty years, sixty were spent amid its lakes and mountains, first as a schoolboy at Hawkshead, and afterwards living in Grasmere (1799–1813) and Rydal Mount (1813–50). Wordsworth, Coleridge and Southey became known as the Lake Poets.

The poet and his wife lie buried in the churchyard of Grasmere and very near to them are the remains of Hartley Coleridge (son of the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge), who himself lived for many years in Keswick, Ambleside and Grasmere. Robert Southey, the Poet Laureate and friend of Wordsworth (who would succeed Southey as Laureate in 1843), was a resident of Keswick for forty years (1803–43), and was buried in Crosthwaite churchyard. Samuel Taylor Coleridge lived for some time in Keswick, and also with the Wordsworths at Grasmere. From 1807 to 1815 John Wilson lived at Windermere. Thomas de Quincey spent the greater part of the years 1809 to 1828 at Grasmere, in the first cottage which Wordsworth had inhabited. Ambleside, or its environs, was also the place of residence both of Thomas Arnold, who spent there the vacations of the last ten years of his life and of Harriet Martineau, who built herself a house there in 1845. At Keswick, Mrs Lynn Linton (wife of William James Linton) was born, in 1822. Brantwood, a house beside Coniston Water, was the home of John Ruskin during the last years of his life. His assistant W. G. Collingwood the author, artist and antiquarian lived nearby, and wrote Thorstein of the Mere, set in the Norse period.

In addition to these residents or natives of the Lake District, a variety of other poets and writers made visits to the Lake District or were bound by ties of friendship with those already mentioned above. These include Percy Bysshe Shelley, Sir Walter Scott, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Arthur Hugh Clough, Henry Crabb Robinson, "Conversation" Sharp, Thomas Carlyle, John Keats, Lord Tennyson, Matthew Arnold, Felicia Hemans, and Gerald Massey.

During the early 20th century, the children's author Beatrix Potter was in residence at Hill Top Farm, setting many of her famous Peter Rabbit books in the Lake District. Her life was made into a biopic film, starring Renée Zellweger and Ewan McGregor. Arthur Ransome lived in several areas of the Lake District, and set five of his Swallows and Amazons series of books, published between 1930 and 1947, in a fictionalised Lake District setting. So did Geoffrey Trease with his five Black Banner school stories (1949–56), starting with No Boats on Bannermere.

The novelist Sir Hugh Walpole lived at "Brackenburn" on the lower slopes of Catbells overlooking Derwent Water from 1924 until his death in 1941. Whilst living at "Brackenburn" he wrote The Herries Chronicle detailing the history of a fictional Cumbrian family over two centuries. The noted author and poet Norman Nicholson came from the south-west Lakes, living and writing about Millom in the twentieth century – he was known as the last of the Lake Poets and came close to becoming the Poet Laureate.

Writer and author Melvyn Bragg was brought up in the region and has used it as the setting for some of his work, such as his novel A Time to Dance, later turned into a television drama.

The Lake District has been the setting for crime novels by Reginald Hill, Val McDermid and Martin Edwards. The region is also a recurring theme in Ernest Hemingway's 1926 novella The Torrents of Spring and features prominently in Ian McEwan's Amsterdam, which won the 1998 Booker Prize.

The Lake District is mentioned in Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice; Elizabeth Bennet looks forward to a holiday there with her aunt and uncle and is "excessively disappointed" upon learning they cannot travel that far.

Film director Ken Russell lived in the Keswick/Borrowdale area until 2007[41] and used it in films such as Tommy and Mahler.

The Lake District is the setting for the 1977 Richard Adams novel The Plague Dogs. Adams' knowledge of the area offers the reader a precise view of the natural beauty of the Lake District .

Some students of Arthurian lore identify the Lake District with the Grail kingdom of Listeneise.

The former Keswick School of Industrial Art at Keswick was started by Canon Rawnsley, a friend of John Ruskin.

  

Nomenclature

  

A number of words and phrases are local to the Lake District and are part of the Cumbrian dialect, though many are shared by other northern dialects. These include:

fell – from Old Norse fjallr, brought to England by Viking invaders and close to modern Norwegian fjell and Swedish fjäll meaning mountain

howe – place name from the Old Norse haugr meaning hill, knoll, or mound

tarn – a word that has been taken to mean a small lake situated in a corrie (the local name for which is cove), a local phrase for any small pool of water. The word is derived from the Old Norse, Norwegian and Swedish word tjern/tjärn, meaning small lake

Yan Tan Tethera – the name for a system of sheep counting which was traditionally used in the Lake District. Though now rare, it is still used by some and taught in local schools.

Heaf (a variant of heft), the "home territory" of a flock of sheep.

 

First Great Western 125's diverts from Cornwall/Devon for the Easter Weekend - "1036 Exeter St Davids - Waterloo" via Warminster then the South Western main line from Salisbury due to the Reading closure for the Easter four days.

  

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_District

  

The Lake District, also commonly known as The Lakes or (particularly as an adjective) Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England. A popular holiday destination, it is famous not only for its lakes, forests and mountains (or fells), but also for its associations with the early 19th century poetry and writings of William Wordsworth and the other Lake Poets.

Historically shared by the counties of Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire, the Lake District now lies entirely within the modern county of Cumbria. All the land in England higher than three thousand feet above sea level lies within the National Park, including Scafell Pike, the highest mountain in England. It also contains the deepest and longest lakes in England, Wastwater and Windermere, respectively.

  

Lake District National Park

  

Lake District National Park (shown as number 2) in a map of National Parks in England and Wales.

The Lake District National Park includes nearly all of the Lake District, though the town of Kendal and the Lakeland Peninsulas are currently outside the Park boundary.

The area, which was designated a National Park on 9 May 1951 (less than a month after the first UK National Park designation — the Peak District), is the most visited national park in the United Kingdom with 15.8 million annual visitors and more than 23 million annual day visits,[1] the largest of the thirteen National Parks in England and Wales, and the second largest in the UK after the Cairngorms.[2] Its aim is to protect the landscape by restricting unwelcome change by industry or commerce. Most of the land in the Park is in private ownership. The National Trust owns about a quarter of the total area (including some lakes and land of significant landscape value), United Utilities owns eight per cent and 3.9% belongs to the Lake District National Park Authority. The National Park Authority is based at offices in Kendal. It runs a visitor centre on Windermere at a former country house called Brockhole,[3] Coniston Boating Centre and Information Centres.

In common with all other National Parks in England, there is no restriction on entry to, or movement within the park along public routes, but access to cultivated land is usually restricted to public footpaths.

The lakes and mountains combine to form impressive scenery. Farmland and settlement add aesthetic value to the natural scenery with an ecology modified by human influence for millennia and including important wildlife habitats. The Lake District has failed to be approved as a natural World Heritage Site, because of human activities, such as commercial forestry, which have adversely impacted the park's assessment. Another bid is being prepared for World Heritage Status, this time in the category of cultural landscape.

  

Proposed extension to National Park

  

In December 2009, Natural England proposed extending the National Park in the direction of the Yorkshire Dales National Park.[5] This would include land of high landscape value in the Lune Valley. The proposal was opposed by Cumbria County Council who said it would lead to less democratic control and would make local housing less affordable.[6] A public inquiry is being held into the proposals which will require a decision by the Secretary of State.

  

Human geography

  

General

  

The precise extent of the Lake District was not defined traditionally, but is slightly larger than that of the National Park, the total area of which is about 885 square miles (2,292 km2). The Park extends just over 32 miles (52 km) from east to west and nearly 40 miles (64 km) from north to south,[8] with areas such as the Lake District Peninsulas to the south lying outside the National Park.

  

Settlement

  

The Lake District is one of the most highly populated national parks. There are, however, only a handful of major settlements within this mountainous area, the towns of Keswick, Windermere, Ambleside, and Bowness-on-Windermere being the four largest. Significant towns immediately outside the boundary of the national park include Barrow-in-Furness, Kendal, Ulverston, Cockermouth, Penrith, and Grange-over-Sands; each of these has important economic links with the area. Villages such as Coniston, Threlkeld, Glenridding, Pooley Bridge, Broughton-in-Furness, Grasmere, Newby Bridge, Staveley, Lindale, Gosforth and Hawkshead act as more local centres. The economies of almost all are intimately linked with tourism. Beyond these are a scatter of hamlets and innumerable isolated farmsteads, some of which are still tied to agriculture, others now function as part of the tourist economy.

  

Communications

  

Roads

  

The Lake District National Park is almost contained within a box of trunk routes. It is flanked to the east by the A6 road which runs from Kendal to Penrith). The A590 which connects the M6 to Cumbria's largest town, Barrow-in-Furness, and the A5092 trunk roads cut across its southern fringes and the A66 trunk road between Penrith and Workington cuts across its northern edge. Finally the A595 trunk road runs through the coastal plains to the west of the area linking the A66 with the A5092.

Besides these, a few A roads penetrate the area itself, notably the A591 which runs northwestwards from Kendal to Windermere and then on to Keswick. It continues up the east side of Bassenthwaite Lake. "The A591, Grasmere, Lake District" was short-listed in the 2011 Google Street View awards in the Most Romantic Street category. The A593 and A5084 link the Ambleside and Coniston areas with the A590 to the south whilst the A592 and A5074 similarly link Windermere with the A590. The A592 also continues northwards from Windermere to Ullswater and Penrith by way of the Kirkstone Pass.

Some of those valleys which are not penetrated by A roads are served by B roads. The B5289 serves Lorton Vale and Buttermere and links via the Honister Pass with Borrowdale. The B5292 ascends the Whinlatter Pass from Lorton Vale before dropping down to Braithwaite near Keswick. The B5322 serves the valley of St John's in the Vale whilst Great Langdale is served by the B5343. Other valleys such as Little Langdale, Eskdale and Dunnerdale are served by minor roads. The latter connects with the former two by way of the Wrynose and Hardknott passes respectively - both of these passes are known for their steep gradients and are one of the most popular climbs in the United Kingdom for cycling enthusiasts.[11] A minor road through the Newlands Valley connects via Newlands Hause with the B5289 at Buttermere. Wasdale is served by a cul-de-sac minor road as is Longsleddale and the valleys at Haweswater and Kentmere. There are intricate networks of minor roads in the lower-lying southern part of the area connecting numerous communities between Kendal, Windermere and Coniston.

  

Railways and ferries

  

The West Coast Main Line skirts the eastern edge of the Lake District and the Cumbrian Coast Line passes through the southern and western fringes of the area. A single line, the Windermere Branch Line, penetrates from Kendal to Windermere via Staveley. Lines once served Broughton-in-Furness and Coniston and another ran from Penrith to Cockermouth via Keswick but each of these was abandoned in the 1960s. The track of the latter has been adopted in part for use by the improved A66 trunk road.

The narrow gauge Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway runs from Ravenglass on the west coast up Eskdale as far as Dalegarth Station near the hamlet of Boot, catering for tourists. Another heritage railway, the Lakeside and Haverthwaite Railway runs between the two villages encompassed within its name, tourists being able to connect with the Windermere passenger ferry at Lakeside.

A vehicle-carrying cable ferry, the Windermere Ferry runs frequent services across Windermere. There are also seasonal passenger ferries on Coniston Water, Derwent Water and Ullswater.

  

Physical geography

  

As the highest ground in England, Scafell Pike naturally has a very extensive view, ranging from the Mourne Mountains in Northern Ireland to Snowdonia in Wales. The Lake District takes the form of a roughly circular upland massif deeply dissected by a broadly radial pattern of major valleys whose character is largely the product of repeated glaciations over the last 2 million years. Most of these valleys display the U-shape cross-section, characteristic of glacial origin and often contain elongate lakes occupying sizeable bedrock hollows often with tracts of relatively flat ground at their heads. Smaller lakes known as tarns occupy glacial cirques at higher elevations. It is the abundance of both which has led to the area becoming known as the Lake District.

The mountains of the Lake District are also known as the "Cumbrian Mountains", although this name is less frequently used than terms like "the Lake District" or "the Lakeland Fells". Many of the higher fells are rocky in character, whilst moorland predominates at lower altitude. Vegetation cover across better drained areas includes bracken and heather though much of the land is boggy, due to the high rainfall. Deciduous native woodland occurs on many steeper slopes below the tree line but with native oak supplemented by extensive conifer plantations in many areas, particularly Grisedale Forest in the generally lower southern part of the area.

  

Valleys

  

The principal radial valleys are (clockwise from the south) those of Dunnerdale, Eskdale, Wasdale, Ennerdale, Lorton Vale and the Buttermere valley, the Derwent Valley and Borrowdale, the valleys containing Ullswater and Haweswater, Longsleddale, the Kentmere valley and those radiating from the head of Windermere including Great Langdale. The valleys serve to break the mountains up into separate blocks which have been described by various authors in different ways. The most frequently encountered approach is that made popular by Alfred Wainwright who published seven separate area guides to the Lakeland Fells.

  

Woodlands

  

Below the tree line are wooded areas, including British and European native oak woodlands and introduced softwood plantations. The woodlands provide habitats for native English wildlife. The native red squirrel is found in the Lake District and in a few other parts of England. In parts of the Lake District the rainfall is higher than in any other part of England. This gives Atlantic mosses, ferns, lichen, and liverworts the chance to grow. There is some ancient woodland in the National Park. Management of the woodlands varies: some are coppiced, some pollarded, some left to grow naturally, and some provide grazing and shelter.

  

Hills (Fells)

  

The four highest mountains in the Lake District exceed 3000 ft (914m). These are;

 

Scafell Pike, 978 m (3,210 ft),

Scafell, 965 m (3,162 ft),

Helvellyn, 951 m (3,118 ft) and

Skiddaw, 931 m (3,054 ft).

  

Northern Fells

  

The Northern Fells are a readily defined range of hills contained within a 13 km diameter circle between Keswick in the southwest and Caldbeck in the northeast. They culminate in the 931 m (3054 ft) peak of Skiddaw. Other notable peaks are those of Blencathra (also known as Saddleback) (868m / 2848 ft) and Carrock Fell. Bassenthwaite Lake occupies the valley between this massif and the North Western Fells.

 

North Western Fells

  

The North Western Fells lie between Borrowdale and Bassenthwaite Lake to the east and Buttermere and Lorton Vale to the west. Their southernmost point is at Honister Pass. This area includes the Derwent Fells above the Newlands Valley and hills to the north amongst which are Dale Head, Robinson. To the north stand Grasmoor - highest in the range at 852 m (2795 ft), Grisedale Pike and the hills around the valley of Coledale, and in the far north-west is Thornthwaite Forest and Lord's Seat. The fells in this area are rounded Skiddaw Slate, with few tarns and relatively few rock faces.

  

Western Fells

  

The Western Fells lie between Buttermere and Wasdale, with Sty Head forming the apex of a large triangle. Ennerdale bisects the area, which consists of the High Stile ridge north of Ennerdale, the Loweswater Fells in the far north west, the Pillar group in the south west, and Great Gable (2,949 feet or 899 metres) near Sty Head. Other tops include Seatallan, Haystacks and Kirk Fell. This area is craggy and steep, with the impressive pinnacle of Pillar Rock its showpiece. Wastwater, located in this part, is England's deepest lake.

  

Central Fells

  

The Central Fells are lower in elevation than surrounding areas of fell, peaking at 762 m (2500 ft) at High Raise. They take the form of a ridge running between Derwent Water in the west and Thirlmere in the east, from Keswick in the north to Langdale Pikes in the south. A spur extends southeast to Loughrigg Fell above Ambleside. The central ridge running north over High Seat is exceptionally boggy.

  

Eastern Fells

  

The Eastern Fells consist of a long north-to-south ridge—the Helvellyn range, running from Clough Head to Seat Sandal with the 3,118-foot (950 m) Helvellyn at its highest point. The western slopes of these summits tend to be grassy, with rocky corries and crags on the eastern side. The Fairfield group lies to the south of the range, and forms a similar pattern with towering rock faces and hidden valleys spilling into the Patterdale valley. It culminates in the height of Red Screes overlooking the Kirkstone Pass.

  

Far Eastern Fells

  

The Far Eastern Fells refer to all of the Lakeland fells to the east of Ullswater and the A592 road running south to Windermere. At 828 m (2,717 ft), the peak known as High Street is the highest point on a complex ridge which runs broadly north-south and overlooks the hidden valley of Haweswater to its east. In the north of this region are the lower fells of Martindale Common and Bampton Common whilst in the south are the fells overlooking the Kentmere valley. Further to the east, beyond Mardale and Longsleddale is Shap Fell, an extensive area consisting of high moorland, more rolling and Pennine in nature than the mountains to the west.

  

Southern Fells

  

The Southern Fells occupy the southwestern quarter of the Lake District. They can be regarded as comprising a northern grouping between Wasdale, Eskdale and the two Langdale valleys, a southeastern group east of Dunnerdale and south of Little Langdale and a southwestern group bounded by Eskdale to the north and Dunnerdale to the east.

The first group includes England's highest mountains; Scafell Pike in the centre, at 3,209 feet (978 m) and Scafell one mile (1.6 km) to the south-west. Though it is slightly lower it has a 700-foot (210 m) rockface, Scafell Crag on its northern side. It also includes the Wastwater Screes overlooking Wasdale, the Glaramara ridge overlooking Borrowdale, the three tops of Crinkle Crags, Bowfell and Esk Pike. The core of the area is drained by the infant River Esk. Collectively these are some of the Lake District's most rugged hillsides.

The second group, otherwise known as the Furness Fells or Coniston Fells, have as their northern boundary the steep and narrow Hardknott and Wrynose Passes.

The third group to the west of the Duddon includes Harter Fell and the long ridge leading over Whitfell to Black Combe and the sea. The south of this region consists of lower forests and knolls, with Kirkby Moor on the southern boundary. The south-western Lake District ends near the Furness peninsula and Barrow-in-Furness, a town which many Lake District residents rely on for basic amenities.

  

South Eastern area

  

The south-eastern area is the territory between Coniston Water and Windermere and east of Windermere towards Kendal and south to Lindale. There are no high summits in this area which is mainly low hills, knolls and limestone cuestas such as Gummer's How and Whitbarrow. Indeed it rises only as high as 333m at Top o' Selside east of Coniston Water; The wide expanse of Grizedale Forest stands between the two lakes. Kendal and Morecambe Bay stand at the eastern and southern edges of the area.

  

Lakes

  

Only one of the lakes in the Lake District is called by that name, Bassenthwaite Lake. All the others such as Windermere, Coniston Water, Ullswater and Buttermere are meres, tarns and waters, with mere being the least common and water being the most common. The major lakes and reservoirs in the National Park are given below.

Bassenthwaite Lake

Brotherswater

Buttermere

Coniston Water

Crummock Water

Derwent Water

Devoke Water

Elter Water

Ennerdale Water

Esthwaite Water

Grasmere

Haweswater Reservoir

Hayeswater

Loweswater

Rydal Water

Thirlmere

Ullswater

Wast Water

Windermere

  

Geology

  

The Lake District's geology is very complex but well-studied.[12] A granite batholith beneath the area is responsible for this upland massif, its relatively low density causing the area to be 'buoyed up'. The granite can be seen at the surface as the Ennerdale, Skiddaw, Carrock Fell, Eskdale and Shap granites.

Broadly speaking the area can be divided into three bands, the divisions between which run southwest to northeast. Generally speaking the rocks become younger from northwest to southeast. The northwestern band is composed of early to mid Ordovician sedimentary rocks – largely mudstones and siltstones of marine origin. Together they comprise the Skiddaw Group and include the rocks traditionally known as the Skiddaw Slates. Their friability generally leads to mountains with relatively smooth slopes such as Skiddaw itself.

The central band is a mix of volcanic and sedimentary rocks of mid to late Ordovician age comprising the lavas and tuffs of the Borrowdale Volcanic Group, erupted as the former Iapetus ocean was subducted beneath what is now the Scottish border during the Caledonian orogeny. The northern central peaks, such as Great Rigg, were produced by considerable lava flows. These lava eruptions were followed by a series of pyroclastic eruptions which produced a series of calderas, one of which includes present-day Scafell Pike. These pyroclastic rocks give rise to the craggy landscapes typical of the central fells.[13]'

The southeastern band comprises the mudstones and wackes of the Windermere Supergroup and which includes (successively) the rocks of the Dent, Stockdale, Tranearth, Coniston and Kendal Groups. These are generally a little less resistant to erosion than the rocks sequence to the north and underlie much of the lower landscapes around Coniston and Windermere.

Later intrusions have formed individual outcrops of igneous rock in each of these groups. Around the edges of these Ordovician and Silurian rocks on the northern, eastern and southern fringes of the area is a semi-continuous outcrop of Carboniferous Limestone seen most spectacularly at places like Whitbarrow Scar and Scout Scar.

  

Climate

  

The Lake District's location on the north west coast of England, coupled with its mountainous geography, makes it the dampest part of England. The UK Met Office reports average annual precipitation of more than 2,000 millimetres (80 in), but with very large local variation. Although the entire region receives above average rainfall, there is a wide disparity between the amount of rainfall in the western and eastern lakes, as the Lake District experiences relief rainfall. Seathwaite in Borrowdale is the wettest inhabited place in England with an average of 3,300 millimetres (130 in) of rain a year,[16] while nearby Sprinkling Tarn is even wetter, recording over 5,000 millimetres (200 in) per year; by contrast, Keswick, at the end of Borrowdale receives 1,470 millimetres (60 in) every year, and Penrith (just outside the Lake District) only 870 millimetres (30 in). March to June tend to be the driest months, with October to January the wettest, but at low levels there is relatively little difference between months.

Although sheltered valleys experience gales on an average of only five days a year, the Lake District is generally very windy with the coastal areas having 20 days of gales, and the fell tops around 100 days of gales per year. The maritime climate means that the Lake District experiences relatively moderate temperature variations through the year. Mean temperature in the valleys ranges from about 3 °C (37 °F) in January to around 15 °C (59 °F) in July. (By comparison, Moscow, at the same latitude, ranges from −10 °C to 19 °C/14 °F to 66 °F).

The relatively low height of most of the fells means that, while snow is expected during the winter, they can be free of snow at any time of the year. Normally, significant snow fall only occurs between November and April. On average, snow falls on Helvellyn 67 days per year. During the year, valleys typically experience 20 days with snow falling, a further 200 wet days, and 145 dry days. Hill fog is common at any time of year, and the fells average only around 2.5 hours of sunshine per day, increasing to around 4.1 hours per day on the coastal plains.

  

Wildlife

  

The Lake District is one of the few places in England where red squirrels have a sizeable population.[18]

  

The Lake District is home to a plethora of wildlife, due to its range of varied topography, lakes and forests. It provides a home for the red squirrel and colonies of sundew and butterwort, two of the few carnivorous plants native to Britain. The Lake District is a major sanctuary for the red squirrel and has the largest population in England. It is estimated there are 140,000 red squirrels in the United Kingdom, but are approximately 2.5 million gray squirrels who have displaced the indigenous red population since their introduction to the British Isles.[19]

The Lake District is home to a range of bird species,[20] and the RSPB maintain a reserve in Haweswater.[21] England's only nesting pair of Golden Eagles can be found in the Lake District. The female Golden Eagle has not been seen since 2004 although the male still remains.[22] Conservationists believe he is now the only resident golden eagle in England.[23] Following recolonisation attempts, a pair of ospreys nested in the Lake District for the time in over 150 years near Bassenthwaite Lake during 2001. Osprey's now frequently migrate north from Africa in the spring to nest in the Lake District and a total of 23 chicks have fledged in The Lakes since 2001.[24] Another bird species to have had recolonisation attempts is the Red Kite who have a population approximately 90 in the dense forest areas near Grizedale as of 2012.[25] Conservationists hope the re-introduction will create a large Red Kite population in the Lake District and in North West England where the Red Kite population is low.[26] Other bird species resident to the Lake District include the buzzard, dipper, peregrine and raven.[27] Seasonal birds include the ring ouzel and the redstart.[28]

The lakes of the Lake District support three rare and endangered species of fish: the vendace, which can be found only in Derwent Water and until 2008 in Bassenthwaite Lake.[29] Vendace have struggled in recent years with naturally-occurring algae becoming a threat and the lakes gradually getting warmer in temperature.[30] Vendace have been moved to higher lakes on a number of occasions to preserve the species, notably in 2005 and 2011.[31][32] The Lakes are also home to two other rare species: the schelly, which lives in Brothers Water, Haweswater, Red Tarn and Ullswater, and the Arctic charr, which can be found in Buttermere, Coniston Water, Crummock Water, Ennerdale Water, Haweswater, Loweswater, Thirlmere, Wast Water, and Windermere.

  

The vendace (Coregonus vandesius) is England's rarest species of fish, and is only found in the Lake District.

In recent years, some important changes have been made to fisheries byelaws covering the north-west region of England, to help protect some of the rarest fish species. In 2002, the Environment Agency introduced a new fisheries byelaw, banning the use of all freshwater fish as live or dead bait in 14 of the lakes in the Lake District. Anglers not complying with the new byelaw can face fines of up to £2,500. There are 14 lakes in the Lake District which are affected. These are: Bassenthwaite Lake, Brothers Water, Buttermere, Coniston Water, Crummock Water, Derwent Water, Ennerdale Water, Haweswater, Loweswater, Red Tarn, Thirlmere, Ullswater, Wast Water and Windermere.

The lakes and waters of the Lake District do not naturally support as many species of fish as other similar habitats in the south of the country and elsewhere in Europe. Some fish that do thrive there are particularly at risk from introduction of new species.

The introduction of non-native fish can lead to the predation of the native fish fauna or competition for food. There is also the risk of disease being introduced, which can further threaten native populations. In some cases, the introduced species can disturb the environment so much that it becomes unsuitable for particular fish. For example, a major problem has been found with ruffe. This non-native fish has now been introduced into a number of lakes in recent years. It is known that ruffe eat the eggs of vendace, which are particularly vulnerable because of their long incubation period. This means that they are susceptible to predators for up to 120 days. The eggs of other fish, for example roach, are only at risk for as little as three days.

  

Economy

  

Agriculture and forestry

  

Farming, and in particular sheep farming, has been the major industry in the region since Roman times. The breed most closely associated with the area is the tough Herdwick, with Rough Fell and Swaledale sheep also common. Sheep farming remains important both for the economy of the region and for preserving the landscape which visitors want to see. Features such as dry stone walls, for example, are there as a result of sheep farming. Some land is also used for silage and dairy farming.

The area was badly affected by the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease across the United Kingdom in 2001. The outbreak started in Surrey in February, but had spread to Cumbria by end of March.[33] Thousands of sheep, include the native Herdwick which graze on the fellsides across the District, were destroyed. In replacing the sheep, one problem to overcome was that many of the lost sheep were heafed, that is, they knew their part of the unfenced fell and did not stray, with this knowledge being passed between generations. With all the sheep lost at once, this knowledge has to be re-learnt and some of the fells have had discreet electric fences strung across them for a period of five years, to allow the sheep to "re-heaf".[34] At the time of the outbreak, worries existed about the future of certain species of sheep such as Ryeland and Herdwick in the District,[35] however these fears have been allayed and sheep now occupy the District in abundance.[36]

  

Forestry has also assumed greater importance over the course of the last century with the establishment of extensive conifer plantations around Whinlatter Pass, in Ennerdale and at Grizedale Forest amongst other places. There are extensive plantations of non-native pine trees.

  

Industry

 

With its wealth of rock types and their abundance in the landscape, mining and quarrying have long been significant activities in the Lake District economy. In Neolithic times, the Lake District was a major source of stone axes, examples of which have been found all over Britain. The primary site, on the slopes of the Langdale Pikes, is sometimes described as a "stone axe factory" of the Langdale axe industry. Some of the earliest stone circles in Britain are connected with this industry.

Mining, particularly of copper, lead (often associated with quantities of silver), baryte, graphite and slate, was historically a major Lakeland industry, mainly from the 16th century to the 19th century. Coppiced woodland was used extensively to provide charcoal for smelting. Some mining still takes place today; for example, slate mining continues at the Honister Mines, at the top of Honister Pass. Abandoned mine-workings can be found on fell-sides throughout the district. The locally mined graphite led to the development of the pencil industry, especially around Keswick.

  

In the middle of the 19th century, half the world textile industry's bobbin supply came from the Lake District area. Over the past century, however, tourism has grown rapidly to become the area's primary source of income.

  

Development of tourism

  

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Early visitors to the Lake District, who travelled for the education and pleasure of the journey, include Celia Fiennes who in 1698 undertook a journey the length of England, including riding through Kendal and over Kirkstone Pass into Patterdale. Her experiences and impressions were published in her book Great Journey to Newcastle and Cornwall:

As I walked down at this place I was walled on both sides by those inaccessible high rocky barren hills which hang over one’s head in some places and appear very terrible; and from them springs many little currents of water from the sides and clefts which trickle down to some lower part where it runs swiftly over the stones and shelves in the way, which makes a pleasant rush and murmuring noise and like a snowball is increased by each spring trickling down on either side of those hills, and so descends into the bottoms which are a Moorish ground in which in many places the waters stand, and so form some of those Lakes as it did here.[37]

In 1724, Daniel Defoe published the first volume of A Tour Thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain. He commented on Westmorland that it was:

the wildest, most barren and frightful of any that I have passed over in England, or even Wales itself; the west side, which borders on Cumberland, is indeed bounded by a chain of almost unpassable mountains which, in the language of the country, are called fells.

Towards the end of the 18th century, the area was becoming more popular with travellers. This was partly a result of wars in Continental Europe, restricting the possibility of travel there. In 1778 Father Thomas West produced A Guide to the Lakes, which began the era of modern tourism.

  

West listed "stations"—viewpoints where tourists could enjoy the best views of the landscape, being encouraged to appreciated the formal qualities of the landscape and to apply aesthetic values. At some of these stations, buildings were erected to help this process. The remains of Claife Station (on the western shore Windermere below Claife Heights) can be visited today.

William Wordsworth published his Guide to the Lakes in 1810, and by 1835 it had reached its fifth edition, now called A Guide through the District of the Lakes in the North of England. This book was particularly influential in popularising the region. Wordsworth's favourite valley was Dunnerdale or the Duddon Valley nestling in the south-west of the Lake District.

The railways led to another expansion in tourism. The Kendal and Windermere Railway was the first to penetrate the Lake District, reaching Kendal in 1846 and Windermere in 1847. The line to Coniston opened in 1848 (although until 1857 this was only linked to the national network with ferries between Fleetwood and Barrow-in-Furness); the line from Penrith through Keswick to Cockermouth in 1865; and the line to Lakeside at the foot of Windermere in 1869. The railways, built with traditional industry in mind, brought with them a huge increase in the number of visitors, thus contributing to the growth of the tourism industry. Railway services were supplemented by steamer boats on the major lakes of Ullswater, Windermere, Coniston Water, and Derwent Water.

  

A steamer on Ullswater

  

The growth in tourist numbers continued into the age of the motor car, when railways began to be closed or run down. The formation of the Lake District National Park in 1951 recognised the need to protect the Lake District environment from excessive commercial or industrial exploitation, preserving that which visitors come to see, without any restriction on the movement of people into and around the district. The M6 Motorway helped bring traffic to the Lakes, passing up its eastern flank. The narrow roads present a challenge for traffic flow and, from the 1960s, certain areas have been very congested.

Whilst the roads and railways provided easier access to the area, many people were drawn to the Lakes by the publication of the Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells by Alfred Wainwright. First published between 1952 and 1965, these books provided detailed information on 214 peaks across the region, with carefully hand-drawn maps and panoramas, and also stories and asides which add to the colour of the area. They are still used by many visitors to the area as guides for walking excursions, with the ultimate goal of bagging the complete list of Wainwrights. The famous guides are being revised by Chris Jesty to reflect changes, mainly in valley access and paths.[38]

Since the early 1960s, the National Park Authority has employed rangers to help cope with increasing tourism and development, the first being John Wyatt, who has since written a number of guide books. He was joined two years later by a second, and since then the number of rangers has been rising.

The area has also become associated with writer Beatrix Potter. A number of tourists visit to see her family home, with particularly large numbers coming from Japan.

Tourism has now become the park's major industry, with about 12 million visitors each year, mainly from the UK's larger settlements, China, Japan, Spain, Germany and the US.[39] Windermere Lake Steamers are Cumbria's most popular charging tourist attraction with about 1.35 million paying customers each year, and the local economy is dependent upon tourists. The negative impact of tourism has been seen, however. Soil erosion, caused by walking, is now a significant problem, with millions of pounds being spent to protect over-used paths. In 2006, two Tourist Information Centres in the National Park were closed.

Cultural tourism is becoming an increasingly important part of the wider tourist industry. The Lake District's links with a wealth of artists and writers and its strong history of providing summer theatre performances in the old Blue Box of Century Theatre are strong attractions for visiting tourists. The tradition of theatre is carried on by venues such as Theatre by the Lake in Keswick with its summer season of six plays in repertoire, Christmas and Easter productions, and the many literature, film, mountaineering, jazz and creative arts festivals, such as the Kendal Mountain Festival and the Keswick Mountain Festival.

  

Gastronomy

  

The Lake District has been regarded as one of the best places to eat in Britain.[40] The region has four Michelin Star Restaurants including L'Enclume, Sharrow Bay, Holbeck Ghyll and The Samling in Ambleside. In addition, Cumbria has more microbreweries than any other county in Britain and together with Jennings Brewery supply a variety of ales to pubs and restaurants throughout the region.

  

Literature and art

  

The Lake District is intimately associated with English literature in the 18th and 19th centuries. Thomas Gray was the first to bring the region to attention, when he wrote a journal of his Grand Tour in 1769, but it was William Wordsworth whose poems were most famous and influential. Wordsworth's poem "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud", inspired by the sight of daffodils on the shores of Ullswater, remains one of the most famous in the English language. Out of his long life of eighty years, sixty were spent amid its lakes and mountains, first as a schoolboy at Hawkshead, and afterwards living in Grasmere (1799–1813) and Rydal Mount (1813–50). Wordsworth, Coleridge and Southey became known as the Lake Poets.

The poet and his wife lie buried in the churchyard of Grasmere and very near to them are the remains of Hartley Coleridge (son of the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge), who himself lived for many years in Keswick, Ambleside and Grasmere. Robert Southey, the Poet Laureate and friend of Wordsworth (who would succeed Southey as Laureate in 1843), was a resident of Keswick for forty years (1803–43), and was buried in Crosthwaite churchyard. Samuel Taylor Coleridge lived for some time in Keswick, and also with the Wordsworths at Grasmere. From 1807 to 1815 John Wilson lived at Windermere. Thomas de Quincey spent the greater part of the years 1809 to 1828 at Grasmere, in the first cottage which Wordsworth had inhabited. Ambleside, or its environs, was also the place of residence both of Thomas Arnold, who spent there the vacations of the last ten years of his life and of Harriet Martineau, who built herself a house there in 1845. At Keswick, Mrs Lynn Linton (wife of William James Linton) was born, in 1822. Brantwood, a house beside Coniston Water, was the home of John Ruskin during the last years of his life. His assistant W. G. Collingwood the author, artist and antiquarian lived nearby, and wrote Thorstein of the Mere, set in the Norse period.

In addition to these residents or natives of the Lake District, a variety of other poets and writers made visits to the Lake District or were bound by ties of friendship with those already mentioned above. These include Percy Bysshe Shelley, Sir Walter Scott, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Arthur Hugh Clough, Henry Crabb Robinson, "Conversation" Sharp, Thomas Carlyle, John Keats, Lord Tennyson, Matthew Arnold, Felicia Hemans, and Gerald Massey.

During the early 20th century, the children's author Beatrix Potter was in residence at Hill Top Farm, setting many of her famous Peter Rabbit books in the Lake District. Her life was made into a biopic film, starring Renée Zellweger and Ewan McGregor. Arthur Ransome lived in several areas of the Lake District, and set five of his Swallows and Amazons series of books, published between 1930 and 1947, in a fictionalised Lake District setting. So did Geoffrey Trease with his five Black Banner school stories (1949–56), starting with No Boats on Bannermere.

The novelist Sir Hugh Walpole lived at "Brackenburn" on the lower slopes of Catbells overlooking Derwent Water from 1924 until his death in 1941. Whilst living at "Brackenburn" he wrote The Herries Chronicle detailing the history of a fictional Cumbrian family over two centuries. The noted author and poet Norman Nicholson came from the south-west Lakes, living and writing about Millom in the twentieth century – he was known as the last of the Lake Poets and came close to becoming the Poet Laureate.

Writer and author Melvyn Bragg was brought up in the region and has used it as the setting for some of his work, such as his novel A Time to Dance, later turned into a television drama.

The Lake District has been the setting for crime novels by Reginald Hill, Val McDermid and Martin Edwards. The region is also a recurring theme in Ernest Hemingway's 1926 novella The Torrents of Spring and features prominently in Ian McEwan's Amsterdam, which won the 1998 Booker Prize.

The Lake District is mentioned in Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice; Elizabeth Bennet looks forward to a holiday there with her aunt and uncle and is "excessively disappointed" upon learning they cannot travel that far.

Film director Ken Russell lived in the Keswick/Borrowdale area until 2007[41] and used it in films such as Tommy and Mahler.

The Lake District is the setting for the 1977 Richard Adams novel The Plague Dogs. Adams' knowledge of the area offers the reader a precise view of the natural beauty of the Lake District .

Some students of Arthurian lore identify the Lake District with the Grail kingdom of Listeneise.

The former Keswick School of Industrial Art at Keswick was started by Canon Rawnsley, a friend of John Ruskin.

  

Nomenclature

  

A number of words and phrases are local to the Lake District and are part of the Cumbrian dialect, though many are shared by other northern dialects. These include:

fell – from Old Norse fjallr, brought to England by Viking invaders and close to modern Norwegian fjell and Swedish fjäll meaning mountain

howe – place name from the Old Norse haugr meaning hill, knoll, or mound

tarn – a word that has been taken to mean a small lake situated in a corrie (the local name for which is cove), a local phrase for any small pool of water. The word is derived from the Old Norse, Norwegian and Swedish word tjern/tjärn, meaning small lake

Yan Tan Tethera – the name for a system of sheep counting which was traditionally used in the Lake District. Though now rare, it is still used by some and taught in local schools.

Heaf (a variant of heft), the "home territory" of a flock of sheep.

 

From Box Hill, Surrey looking south towards Crawley, West Sussex.

This memorial is at The National Memorial Arboretum, Alrewas, Staffordshire

ABELL Frederick John Leading Supply Assistant, D/MX 59762 age 20. Son of Frederick & Emily Mary of Elburton, Devon. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

ADSETTS William Isaac Ordinary Seaman (South Africa) D/JX 162206, age 18. Son of Godfrey Marsh & Sarah Marsh Adsetts of East Germiston, Transvall, South Africa. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

ALLEN George Edward Plumber, D/MX, 74014, age 22. Son of James George & Ellen of Penzance. Commemorated Porstmouth

ALLEN Joseph Freeman Stoker D/KX 120899, age 26. Son of Robert Ramsey & Edith nee Freeman of Newcastle on Tyne Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

ALLRIDGE Arthur Ordinary Seaman P/JX 158666, son of Richard of Surrey, Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

ARBUTHNOT Peter Charles Reginald Lieutenant, son of Admiral, Sir Geoffrey, K.C.B., D.S.O., and Lady Arbuthnot of Heyshott, Sussex. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

ARGULUS Edward Albert Leading Telegraphist D/JX 148072. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

ARMOUR Daniel Ordinary Seaman D/JX 175889, age 18. Son of Daniel & Jean Campbell Hill Armour of Ayre. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

ASHTON Charles Master at Arms D/M 39763, age 38. Son of Joseph Henry & Mary, husband of Jean Alice. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

ASPINALL Jack Leading Sick Berth Attendant D/MX 52880, age 28. Son of Herbert & Alice May of Nottingham. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

AUGER Thomas Frederick Ordnance Artificer D/M 34807 age 43. Son of Thomas & Katherine, husband of Rosina Doris of Fortuneswell, Dorsetshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BADCOCK Charles David Edgar Midshipman age 18. Son of Captain (S), K.E. Badcock, D.S.O., D.S.C., Royal Navy< and Mrs Badcock of Westbourne, Sussex. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BAILEY Edward Stoker D/KX 120855, husband of Vera Gladys of Whittering of Northamptonshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BAKER Ernest Able Seaman D/SSX 14972. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BAKER William Cook (S) D/MX 81927, age 25. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BAKER Walter Leading Seaman C/JX 133290. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial, Kent

BAKER Walter James Stoker C/KX 104057, age 24, son of Walter George & Lois Ada of Bonsall, Derbyshire. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

BALDWIN Cornelius Stoker D/KX 120850 age 30. Son of William & Annie Mary of Treforest, Glamorgan. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BALL William Frederick Petty Officer Stoker, P/K 58293 Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

BALLINGER Frederick Petty Officer Stoker D/KX 82115. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BARLOW William Hirst Stoker D/KX 120692. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BARNES Albert James Chief Stoker, D/R 60954, age 41. Son of Albert George & Ada Lucy of Swindon, Wilts, husband of Helen. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BARNETT William Leading Stoker D/KX 76108 age 34. Son of James John & Katie Rosina, husband of Katherine Queenie. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BARTLETT Owen John Able Seaman, D/J 54775. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BARTON Malcolm Roy Ordinary Telegraphist D/JX 216106, age 26. Son of Joseph & Ada of Rudheath, Cheshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BASTABLE Philip Henry Charles Midshipman age 17, son of Charles George & Helen of Newbury, Berkshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BATT William James Chief Shipwright C/M 21758 age 41. Son of William Davis & Florence and father of Pamela Batt of Maidstone. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

BAXTER Ronald Steward P/LX 26414 age 18. Son of Fred & Polly of Great Houghton, Yorkshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BELL Reginald Stoker D/KX 120904 age 26. Son of Richard & Catherine of Maryport Cumberland, husband of Gladys of Maryport. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BELSOM Richard Albert Ordinary Seaman D/JX 240986 age 18. Son of Charles William & Emmeline of Penzance, Cornwall. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BENNETT Alfred Stoker D/KX 111957 age 23. Son of Mrs A of Dudley, Worcestershire, Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BENNETT Edward Donald Leading Seaman C/JX 134095 age 28. Son of Arthur & Mercy, husband of Kathleen Marian of Cromer, Norfolk. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

BENNETT Geoffrey Joiner D/MX 86729 age 27. Son of Arthur & Edith Mary of Cheam, Surrey. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BERRY Philip Arthur Commander age 40. Son of Mr & Mrs A J, husband of Doreen M of Cortington, Wilts. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BEVAN David Richard Lee Sub-Lieutenant age 19. Son of Capt Robert Hesketh & Margaret Frances of Heythrop, Oxfordshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BILLINGTON William Stoker D/KX 120693. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BIRMINGHAM William Ordinary Seaman, P/JX 259255 age 20. Son of William Joseph & Ellen. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

BISBY Bernard Ordinary Seaman P/JX 264850 age 29. Son of George & Lily, husband of Hilda, of Mexborough, Yorkshire. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

BLACK Thomas Fraser Leading Stoker D/KX 90439 age 28. Son of Thomas & Agnes of St Andrew, Fife, husband of Mary Jane Dorward Black of St Andrew. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BLAKE Frederick Charles Able Seaman C/JX 131594. Son of Charles Albert & Alice, husband of Olive Irene. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

BLIGHT James Howard Engine Room Artificer D/MX 60253. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BODDINGTON Fred Able Seaman, D/JX 149811 age 21. Son of Fred & Emily of Abersychan, Monmouthshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BOOTH Alan Victor Ordinary Seaman P/JX 264848. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

BOSLEY George Charles Stanley Ordinary Seaman P/JX 239898. Son of George Henry & Eleanor. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BOWRON Leslie Cambrai Ordinary Seaman C/JX 203013. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

BRABYN Kenneth Arnold Engine Room Artificer C/MX 53082, son of Vernon Arthur & Mary of Slough, Buckinghamshire. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

BRADBURN Ernest Able Seaman D/JX 136378. age 26. Son of Robert & Georgina. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BRADWELL Arnold Harvey Engine Room Artificer D/MX 54821 age 44. Son of Mr & Mrs H of Carisle. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BRANSON Wilfred Frank Chief Petty Officer D/JX 1010916 age 47. Son of Benjamin & Mary, husband of Phyllis Mary of Plymouth and is commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BRANT John Norman Able Seaman D/J 109963 age 32. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BRAUNTON Thomas John Leading Stoker D/KX 93609 age 22. Son of Mr & Mrs Braunton of Torrington. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BRIGHT Reginald Walter Leading Seaman P/J 96562. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BRISTOW Franklin William Able Seaman, D/JX 213706. Son of Joseph William & Alice of Budleigh, Salterton, Devon. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BROOKS James Smith Able Seaman D/JX 126623. Son of William & Annie Smith Brooks of Glasgow, husband of Elizabeth McGhee Brooks of Glasgow. At rest in Tripoli War Cemetery, Libya. 5.D.13

BROUGH Arthur Boy Seaman D/JX 188520 age 16. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BROUGH Caleb Dixon Septimus Chief Petty Officer Telegraphist D/J 107841 age 33, Son of Thomas Hodgson & Mary Elizabeth of Silloth, Cumberland. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BUCKINGHAM William Leading Stoker D/KX 92947 age 22. Son of Daniel & Elizabeth of Clowne, Derbyshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BULL James William Able Seaman, C/JX 225279. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

BULL Robert Thomas George Sick Berth Attendant D/MX 72343. age 24. Son of George & May of Paulton Somerset. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BURDETT George Ordinary Seaman P/JX 264834 age 32. Son of John & Ethel husband of Evelyn of Sheffield. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BURLEY Morris Petty Officer Stoker D/K 66327 age 33. son of Ethel, husband of Ellen. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BURNS Ellick Thomas Eustace Stoker (South Africa) D/KX 77198 age 38. Son of Thomas & Violet Beatrice, husband of Maria Aletta of Cape Town, South Africa. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BURTON Albert Henry Able Seaman C/SSX 18587 son of Albert & Julia of Lichfield, Staffs. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

BUXTON Richard Engine Room Artificer P/SMX 479, age 21. Son of Frederick & Esther of Freshwater, Isle of Wight. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

CAME Edgar Ronald Stoker D/KX 92928. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CAMPBELL Keith Able Seaman (Australia) S 4186 Royal Australian Naval Reserve age 22. Son of Edwin Frank & Charlotte Maria, St Peters New South Wales. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CANTERBURY Fred Able Seaman D/J 94378, age 38. Son of George & Florence, husband of Norah, of Langport, Somerset. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CARROLL Frank Stoker D/KX 1051221, age 21. Son of Thomas William & Isabella of Bradford, Lancashire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CARTER George Leading Stoker D/KX 90731, age 23. Son of Jack & Edith of Stretford, Lancashire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CARTER Thomas Able Seaman D/SSX 21201. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CARTHY James Gerard Petty Officer (Eire) D/JX 136194 age 26. Son of Thomas & Briget of Garriston, Co Dublin. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CARTY John Joseph Petty Officer Telegraphist D/J 31949, age 43. Son of John Joseph & Kathleen, nee Brennan, husband of Dorothy May nee Dixon of Bridlington, Yorkshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CHAMBERLAIN Albert Henry Stoker D/KX 113351. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CHAMBERLAIN Frederick James Leading Seaman C/JX 150941 age 20. Son of Harry Albert & Ethel Maud pf Lowerstoft, Suffolk. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

CHARLES David William Petty Officer, Steward D/LX 21439. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CHARMAN James Percy Leading Steward C/L7820, age 48. Son of Henry Arthur & Fanny Alice, husband of Florence Ivy of Queensborough, Kent. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

CLARK John Campbell Sick Berth Attendant P/MX 64989, age 25. Son of John Campbell & Margaret Clark of Inverness. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

CLAYDEN Victor James Chief Stoker D/KX 65639, age 40. Son of Frederick James & L of High Easter, Essex. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CLEARY Patrick Joseph Coder D?JX 216157. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CLEMM William Edward Stoker D/KX 120653 age 19. Son of Ernest & Louie of Alum Rock, Birmingham. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

COCK Edwin Alfred Boy Telegraphist D/JX 163677. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

COLE Raymond Martin Boy Seaman C/JX 182074 age 17. Son of Frederick John & Beatrice of Walton-on-the-Naze, Essex. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

COLEMAN Ernest Charles Chief Petty Officer D/J 105160 age 36. Son of Charles & Mary Elizabeth, nee Stone, husband of Edith Alma, St Pauls, Bristol. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CONNOR John Stoker D/KX 84606 age 26. Son of John & Mary Ellen of Lower Broughton, Lancashire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CORNISH Reginald Edward Chief Petty Officer Cook (S) D/M 11367 age 44. Son of William & Emma, husband of Mary Ellen of Devonport. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

COSTELLO James Samuel Petty Officer C/SSX 15021 age 25. Son of Alfred Tomas & Florence Agnes of Kennington, London. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

COULTON Richard Trevena Lieutenant age 27. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

COUSINS Ernest George Electrical Artificer C/MX 6875. Son of Arthur Ernest & Violet, of Barnet, Hertfordshire. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

CREEK John Albert Taylor Chief Petty Officer Sick Berth Attendant D/M 16299, age 45. Son of Thomas & Susan, husband of Sarah Emma, of Wyke Regis, Dorsetshire. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

CREGOE Albert Edward Thomas Petty Officer, Stoker D/KX 78510 age 41. Son of Albert James & Elizabeth Emily of Morice Town, Devonport. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CRISP Kenneth Sydney Frank Telegraphist C/JX 172099 age 22. Son of Sydney Ernest & Audrey of Norbury, Surrey. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

CROOK Ernest Lead Seaman D/JX 136848. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CROSSLEY Harold Stoker P/KX 122424 age 26. Son of William & Emma of Moorthorpe, York. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

CUNNINGHAM David Crofton Lieutenant age 28. Son of Colonel T.C. D.S.O., & Mrs H J of Newport, Isle of Wight. Awarded the Goodenough Medal 1935. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CUNNINGHAM Thomas Petty Officer Stoker (South Africa) D/KX 81955 age 39. Husband of Hilda Magdaline of Cape Town, South Africa. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CURTIS Cedric Charles Canteen Assistant (N.A.A.F.I.) age 21 Son of Charles Christopher & Louise Maud of Kettering, Northamptonshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DARCY Richard Ordinary Seaman C/KX 237904 age 23. Mr & Mrs Hugh, husband of Mrs A Darcy, of Widness, Lancs. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

DARTON William George Sidney Petty Officer D/JX 128544 age 31. Son of William & Alice, husband of Amy Elizabeth Louisa, of Rosyth, Fife. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DAULTON Raymond Gill Stoker (South Africa) D/KX 90830, age 23. Husband of Mary Agnes nee Wilson of Cape Town, South Africa. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DAVIES Alan Scourfield Stoker D/KX 118076 age 20. Son of David John & Catherine Jane of Carnarthen. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DAVIES Thomas William Ordinary Seaman D/JX 170904 age 18. Son of Walter Frederick & Emma of Aintree Lancs. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DAY Robert Frank Boy Seaman D/JX 194805 age 17. Son of Frederick Charles & Minnie Ethel of Westward Ho, Devon. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DENNEY Raymond Ordnance Artificer 4th Class C/MX 59500 age 26. Son of John Robert & Minnie, husband of Jeannie McGiffin Denney of Cosham, Hampshire. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

DESOER Allan Ordinary Telegraphist D/JX 216071 age 26. Son of Jack & Eva of Chorley, Lancs. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DIXON James Anthony Telegraphist P/JX 174926. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

DIXON James Burgon Stoker P/SKX 1011. Son of James & Elizabeth of Spitfield, Northumberland. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

DODD William Jeffrey Boy Seaman D/JX 164074 age 17. Son of George & Emily May of Atherstone, Warwickshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DONALDSON James Nolan Able Seaman D/JX 146755 age 22. Son of Jonathan & Anna of Belfast Northern Ireland. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DONALDSON Thomas Able Seaman D/SSX 18078 age 22. Son of William G & Catherine of Stockbridge, Edinburgh. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DONOGHUE Stanley Clifford Able Seaman D/JX 159194, age 18. Son of Frank & Thirza Gladys of Pontymoyle, Monouthshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DONOVAN John Able Seaman D/JX 160025 age 18. Son of John & Nora of Cobh, Co Cork. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DORSOM Herbert Easton Shipwright D/SMX 2141. Son of Sidney Harold & Mabel, husband of Agnes Joyce of Salcombe, Devon. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DOWLE Percy George Stoker C/KX 22238 age 26. Son of Charles James & Hilda May husband of Nancy may of Ashford, Kent. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

DRAKE Kenneth Boy Telegraphist D/JX 175941 age 18. Adopted son of Charles Beck of Chopwell Co Durham. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DUFFY John Alan Wireman D/MX 74324, age 22. Son of Joseph & Ellen of Wallsend, Northumberland. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DUNCAN Harold Able Seaman C/JX 175238 age 21. Son of Arthur & Matilda of Barnet, Hertfordshire. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

DURHAM Victor George Reynold Boy Seaman (South Africa) D/JX 193606. son of John & Murial Mabel of Johannesburg Transval, South Africa. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

EDAMS Edgar Thomas Commissioned Gunner age 41. Son of Robert W & Lillie Mary born 1900 in Gathorpe Leicester. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

EDWARDS Frank Bertram Stoker D/KX 99245 age 22. Son of Frank & Alice of Bristol, husband of Doris Ethel of Knowl Bristol. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

EDWARD Thomas G Ordinary Seaman P/JX 259705 age 25. Son of Evan & Emma of Wrexham, Denbighshire. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

ELDER Alexander Able Seaman D/J 72210 age 41. Son of William & Elizabeth, husband of Elvira Elizabeth of Southend on Sea, Essex. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

ELLIOTT Ernest Henry Ordinary Seaman P/JX 259659 age 29. Son of John Henry & Rosa Jane, husband of Phyllis Sophia of Plymouth. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

ELLIS George Henry Yeoman of Signals D/JX 136117. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

ELSON Dudley Vincent Leading Seaman D/J 74046 age 39. Son of John Barker & Margaret Elson of Battersea, London. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

ENSELL Maurice Austin Standish Midshipman age 18, son of The Revd Charles Standish Ensell B.A & Nellie Aubone Ensell of Chelsea, London. Awarded the Kings Dirk at Royal Navy College, Dartmouth. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

ESTERNUYSE Adriaan Johannes Stoker (South Africa) D/KX 96384 age 21. Son of Anna Debora of Cape Town, South Africa. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

EVANS Edward Thomas Leading Seaman D/JX 138479 age 24. Son of Thomas & Violet of Pontllanfraith Monmouthshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

EVANS John Leading Seaman D/JX 151224 age 21. Son of William & Martha Ann of Newport, Monmouthshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

EVANS John Charles Electrical Artificer D/M 39492 age 31. Son of Frederick Charles & Hilda Louise of Bengeworth, Worcestershire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

EVANS Mosses William Warrant Mechanician age 38. Son of Mosses William & Mary Ann, husband of Lillian Violet of Fareham, Hampshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

EVANS William Henry Petty Officer D/JX 12758. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

FALZON Angel George Francis Assistant Steward (Malta) E/LX 25509 age 20. Son of Luqa Falzon & Domenica nee Azzopardi of Naxxar, Malta. G .C. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

FARISH Robert James Leading Seaman D/JX 153960 age 20. Son of Robert & Eleanor of Kirkbride, Cumberland. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

FELTWELL Thomas George Petty Officer Stoker D/K 61142 age 35. Son of Thomas George & Elizabeth, M.A of Cefn-Y-Bedd, Denbighshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

FENN Charles Ordinary Seaman C/JX 170923. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

FEWINS Arthur Kingsley Engine Room Artificer D/MX 64770 age 22. Son of Archibald Frank & Adeline Pascoe of Plymouth. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

FIELD Ronald Frank George Able Seaman P/JX 206789 age 21. Son of Frank & Eva of Addlestone, Surrey. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

FIELD William Archer Albert Petty Officer Cook (S) D/MX 50456 age 24. Son of William Archer Albert & Lyla, husband of Doreen of Northallerton, Yorkshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

FIELDING George Smith Leading Telegraphist D/SSX 23284 age 21. Son of Benjamin & Edith Maud of Burnley, Lancashire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

FLAHERTY Harold Linnie Leading Seaman D/JX 135801. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

FLETT Arthur Seaman C/X 20880A Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

FLOWERS Ernest Ronald Chief Engine Room Artificer D/MX 47316. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

FORBES David Boulton Midshipman age 18. Son of Walter & Hersey of North Cray, Kent. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

FORD Edward Walter George Supply Chief Petty Officer C/M 39219 age 42. Son of Edward Charles & Emma of Lambeth, London. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

FORREST Alexander James Leading Steward D/LX 21415 age 27. Son of Alexander G & Mary A of Jesmond, Northumberland. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

FORESTER Thomas Leading Stoker P/KX 92758 age 23. Son of George & Mary of Byker, Newcastle under Tyne. Commemorated on the Porstmouth Naval Memorial

FRANCIS William Petty Officer Stoker D/K 63113 age 37. husband of E W of Horsley Cross, Essex. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

FRASER Cameron Lieutenant, Surgeon L.C.R.P., L.R.C.S. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

FREELAND George Edwin Alfred Lieutenant (E) age 37. Son of Edwin & Elizabeth Charlotte, husband of Lily Elizabeth of Bedhampton, Hampshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GAILES Wilfred Wireman D/MX 74318 age 21. Son of Edward & Mary of Dipton, Co Durham. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GARDINER Frank Robert Leading Seaman P/JX 241472 age 35. Son of Robert S & Eleanor, husband of Ruth of fairwater, Glamorgan, Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

GARNER Percival Ordinary Seaman D/JX 204230 age 21. Son of William & Henrietta of West Gorton, Manchester. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GARRY Desmond Joseph Ordinary Seaman (Eire) D/JX 175867 age 18, son of James & Ellen of Inchicore, Co Dublin. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GAUDERN William Harris Engine Room Artificer D/MX 54349 age 26. Son of James Thomas & Violet Helen of Abertillery, Monmouthshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GILL Frank Gavin Stoker (South Africa) D/KX 95897 age 21. Son of Christian John & Adelaide Margaret of Pietermaritzburg, Natal, South Africa. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GILCHRIST Peter Hubert Able Seaman P/JX 239142 age 23. Son of James & Bridget of St Helens, Lancashire. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

GILLINGHAM Alfred Mitchell Leading Seaman D/KX 89265 age 23. Son of Ellen of Clayton-le-Moors, Lancashire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GLANCY John Able Seaman D/SSX 14299 age 38. Son of Alexander & Margaret of Sterling. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GLANVILLE Ernest John Chief Engine Room Artificer D/MX 46529 age 30. son of Jabez & Jane Couch nee Lakeman of Devonport husband of Kathleen Annette Sheila. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GLOVER Charles George Able Seaman D/J 113980 age 34. Son of Mr & Mrs George Glover, husband of Mary of Stonehouse, Plymouth and commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GOFF Sidney Edward Ordinary Seaman P/JX 175957, age 18. Son of Ernest Alfred & Emma Kate of Peterfield, Hampshire. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

GOOD Cecil George Ordinary Seaman P/JX 240610 age 18. Son of Charles George & Beatrice May of Exeter. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

GORE James Alfred Petty Officer Stoker (South Africa) D/KX 79725 age 31. Son of William Thompson & Clara Susannah pf Pretoria, Transvaal, South Africa, husband of Violet Kathleen of swinstown, Cape Privince, South Africa. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GOREY Wallace Maxwell Able Seaman D/JX 130963 age 30. Son of Richard Henry & Jessie Amelia of Folkstone. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GRANT Allistair Macdonald Boy Seaman D/JX 170175 age 17. Son of James & Jessie of Bishopmill, Elgin Morayshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GRANT Michael Edward Leading Cook (S) D/MX 53324 age 24. Son of Joseph & Mary Kate of Holmbush, Cornwall. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GRAY Edwin Wireman D/MX 74325 age 21. Son of Robert W & Dorothy of Percy Main, Northumberland. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GREEN Frank Bishop Petty Officer Stoker (South Africa) D/KX 81357 age 33. Son of Arthur & Martha, husband of Lydia Janet of Observatory, Cape Town, South Africa. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GREEN Kenneth Supply Assistant D/MX 80467. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GREENSMITH Harry Stoker D/KX 92099 age 25. Son of Frank & Margaret Annie, husband of Martha of Shire Green, Yorkshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GRIERSON William Ordinary Seaman P/JX 259662. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

GRIFFITH Henry Evan Petty Officer. D/MX 5154 age 27. Son of Idwal & Arabella of Plymouth, husband of Doreen Elizabeth of Plymouth and is commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GRIFFITHS Robert Arthur Ordinary Telegraphist C/JX 201770 age 21. Son of Robert William & Florence Emily of Hendon, Middlesex. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

GRIFFITHS Trevor Edgar Petty Officer Stoker D/KX 83351 age 29. Son of Thomas Owen & Edith of Ely, Glamorgan. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GRIFFITHS William Leading Stoker D/KX 90632 age 25. Son of David & Sabina. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GRIFFITHS William Edward Able Seaman D/MD/X 2731 age 22. son of Margaret Ann of Edge Hill, Lancashire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GRITTON Thomas Ordinary Seaman P/JX 234978 age 25. Son of Thomas & Florence of Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GUNDY William Gerald Petty Officer Stoker D/KX 85154 age 26. Son of Joseph & Minnie, husband of Gweneth Noreen of Moorswater, Cornwall. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GUTHRIE John William Joiner C/MX 76412 age 24. Son of William John & Mary Jane of Norham, Northumberland. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

HAGUE Douglas Signalman D/JX 211743, age 21. Son of Harry & Gertrude of Sheffield. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HAINES Walter Boy Seaman D/JX 170994 age 17. Son of Thomas & Agnes Ann of Wrexham, Denbighshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HALFORD Jonathan (Jack) James Hartley Ordinary Telegraphist D/JX 166607 age 17. Son of Harry & Elizabeth of Gloster. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HALL Clifford Alfred Stoker (South Africa) D/KX117690. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon Naval War Memorial

HALL John William Stoker (South Africa) D/KX9389. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HALL Edwin Lambeth Leading Stoker D/KX86321 age 25. Son of Mr & Mrs E Giles Hall, Treorchy, Glamorgan. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon Naval Memorial, Devon

HALL Leonard George Ordinary Seaman P/JX256371 age 30. Son of Franckk and Mabel Emily Hall and husband of Rose of Millbrook Bedfordshire. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial, Hampshire

HALL William Alfred Chief Stoker D/K61181 age 41. Son of Mr & Mrs John Hall, husband of Henrietta of Camberwell, London. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon Naval Memorial, Devon

HAMILTON Albert Able Seaman D/SSX26639 age 34. Son of Annie Hamilton Portadown, Nrth. Ireland. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon Naval Memorial, Devon

HANCOCK Christopher Uren Chief Mechanician D/KX79615 age 32. Son of Sidney Ernest and Mary Jane, husband of Josephine Margaret of Stoke Devonport. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon Naval Memorial, Devon

HANDFORD Bertram Charles Leading Cook (S) D/M11821 Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon Naval Memorial, Devon

HANLEY Bernard Harry Boy Seaman D/JX162179 age 17. Son of Harry Newall and Amy, Irlam Lancashire. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon Naval Memorial, Devon

HANNAFORD William Henry Stoker D/KX95529 Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HARBON Reginald Eric Chief Yeoman of Signals D/JX127111 age 32. Son of Mr & Mrs Walton john Harbon and husband Margery Ethel, Redditch Worcestershire. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HARLAND Frederick Able Seaman D/SSX23613 Son of William J D and Prudence of Skinningrove, Yorkshire. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HARPER Frank Stoker D/K58683 Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HARRIS Ernest William Stephen Leading Stoker D/KX1941 age 26 Son of William Charles and Edith Susan, Lipson , Plymouth. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HARRIS Lionel Henry Ordinary Seaman D/JX182102 age 18. Son of William J and Dorothy E, Bradford on Avon, Wiltshire. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HARRIS Thomas Chaplin age 29. Son of John Sage and Emily of Exeter (M.A. Oxon) Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HARRISON David Alfred Charles Stoker D/KX92933 age 22. Son of Alfred Charles and Grace of Plymouth, husband of Olive of Plymouth. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HARRISON Fred Stoker D/KX120756 age 21. Son of Richard Wilding and Maggie Harrison of Darcy Lever, Lancashire. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HARRISON John Amor Stoker D/KX113865 age 19. Son of Thomas Ada Gladys Louise, Droitwich Worcs. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HASSELL John Stoker D/KX123536 age 28. Son of Frank and Annie of Bowden Cheshire and husband of Edna also of Bowden. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HATCHER Sidney George William Stoker C/KX122245 age 25. Son of Sidney and Rebecca, husband of Molly Mable of Cliffe, Kent. Commemorated at Chatham

HATHAWAY Cyril Daniel Petty Officer Telegraphist D/J19026 age 49. Husband of Cissie Olivia May of St Budeaux, Devon. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HAWKINS John Herbert Petty Officer D/SSX14617 age 26. Son of Frederick Morris Hawkins and Hanna Jane, husband of Nora Gwendoline, Taunton Somerset. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HAY Duncan Ernest Gordon Chief Petty Officer D/JX149700 age 45. Son of Alexander and Elsie Forbes Hay, Woodside, Aberdeen. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HEDGES George Herbert Stoker D/KX120578 age 24. Son of Henry and Alice and husband of Elsie, Clapton, London. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HEIGHES John (Jack) William Ordinary Seaman P/JX185053 age 22. Son of James and Bridget, West End, Woking, Surrey. Commemorated at Portsmouth

HENRY Bernard Stoker D/KX119531 age 27. Son of Patrick Joseph and Mary Josephine of Ardwick, Manchester. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HENRY Michael Walker Steward (St Helena) D/LX23392 age 21. Son of Wilfred Vivien and Laura Mildred of Jamestown, Island of St Helena. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HICKS Stanley Stoker D/KX87072 Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HICKSON Joe Stoker D/KX120750 age 38. Son of John and Annie of Smithy Bridge, Lancashire. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

 

Reading station is closed over Easter, and so the West of England train services are being diverted to run via Basingstoke and Woking into London Waterloo.

 

Obviously, this line usually never sees trains operated by anyone other than South West Trains, so it's good to see some variety.

 

Therefore I decided to be a train spotter for a day, and go and stand on a bridge in the freezing cold for ages. Usually, I only take photos of trains if I see something interesting, or am waiting for a train and am bored. Unlike bus spotting, where if you go and stand like an idiot somewhere hoping for something special, you tend to have an idea of when it's due, this seemed to be much less precise. The guys next to me were talking about a diverted freight train, currently running 70 minutes late at the Severn Tunnel. Oh no lol!

 

This is the bit where being a rookie train spotter, I confess I forgot to look at which train it was lol. It's a First Great Western HST heading into Waterloo.

 

All the other spotters on the bridge took a front shot, but I didn't think there was much point as there's no background to show location that way, so I went for a rear shot as the train passes Woking's Centrium and New Central buildings.

 

Twin Bridges, Woking, Surrey.

Built: 12th century.

Listing: grade 1.

 

Historical background.

Chaldon Church is of Saxon Foundation and is recorded in the Charter of Frithwald, dated 727 AD. It came under the overlordship of the King of Mercia who founded Chertsey Abbey in 666 AD. Chertsey Abbey was the first religious settlement in Surrey and was run by Benedictine monks.

 

Some 300 years later, after the death of Edward the Confessor in January 1066, William of Normandy invaded and conquered England and was crowned King at Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day of that year.

 

The Normans set up the Manorial System in England and in 1085 made the Great Survey which resulted in the Domesday Book in which Chaldon is recorded as "Chalvedune, being of two hides (200 acres) and a church". Tollsworth Manor and Chaldon Manor both came under the Charter of Chertsey and remained so until the Dissolution of the Monasteries by King Henry VIII.

 

It is beyond doubt that Chaldon Church is a very ancient church. It still plays an important part in English history, notably by its famous wall painting and its proximity to Chaldon Court, the ancient Manor house of Roger de Covert who, together with Patience Lambert and other notable parishioners is buried here.

 

Structure of the church.

The church consisted originally of a rectangular nave with high walls and a chancel, which might well have been an apse. The west wall is of traditional flint construction and is almost certainly original, and the wall containing the chancel arch may also be. The aisles were opened up by simple Early English arches into the similar high walls - the south aisle in the late 12th century, and the north aisle perhaps 50 years later. The arches of the south aisle have a simple chamfer, while those of the north aisle have a double chamfer. The chancel arch is also Early English, an enlargement of the original archway.

 

Originally there were arches from the chancel to extensions of both aisles, but the northern aisle is walled-up, (and revealed in the 1869 restoration). The south aisle ends at St. Kateryn's Chapel, 13th - 14th centuries, now the Lady Chapel with two scenes from the life of St. Mary in the east window, while the south windows contains some original, very old small glass panes.

 

The north aisle ends in a corresponding chapel which is now shortened, with a pair of windows depicting St Peter and St Paul to the north and a pair of angels in the east window. Both of these windows commemorate the Gardiner family of Rockshaw. The shingled broach spire was added in 1842, and the vestry was built at the same time. The east window of the chancel contains scenes of Christ's Nativity, Crucifixion and Ascension and dates from 1869. There is an Easter sepulchre on the north side with quatrefoils and blank shields from the 15th century.

 

There's a wonderful mural in this church but, unfortunately, my photo of it was poor and thus is not included here. However, there is a rather nifty interactive link to it below.

 

The link has active hotspots, so don't forget to click on them!

 

home.barton.ac.uk/curriculum/humanities/history/a2/unit_f...

 

Visit Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park!

 

Wheel Fun Rentals is a leading provider of fun and unique outdoor recreational vehicles including a complete fleet of bikes that can be enjoyed by single riders or an entire family. Our new fleet of Wheel Fun Rentals bikes – purchased this Spring – are extremely popular with visitors to Irvine Regional Park.

 

Bikes available to rent include the single surrey, deuce coupe, quad sport and chopper. Other bikes also available to rent include tandem bikes, cruiser bikes and kid’s bikes. And, we rent paddle boats too.

 

Children 18 years of age and younger are required to wear a helmet when riding a bike. Children under the age of 13 are required to wear a life jacket when riding a paddle boat. Both helmets and life jackets are provided at no additional cost and are available to any rider or passenger upon request.

 

For more information on these great bikes available for rent, and hours of operation, visit our Web site at www.irvineparkrailroad.com.

 

About Irvine Park Railroad:

Irvine Park Railroad is a one-third scale train that takes both children and adults on a scenic, 12-minute ride through beautiful and scenic Irvine Regional Park. The train ride, which is affordable fun for the entire family, is narrated by the engineer.

 

Other activities inside of the park include Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park paddle boat and bike rentals, the Orange County Zoo and pony rides. Two snack bars serve both hot and cold food.

 

Annual Irvine Park Railroad events include the Easter Eggstravaganza, Anniversary Celebration, Pumpkin Patch and Christmas Train.

 

Irvine Park Railroad has party pavilions and other locations available for rent. These locations are ideal for birthday parties, company picnics, corporate meetings and other special events. We also rent moon bounces for locations inside of Irvine Regional Park.

 

Irvine Regional Park is centrally-located in the foothills of Orange (Orange County). The nearest, major cross streets are Chapman Avenue at Jamboree Boulevard.

 

Find Irvine Park Railroad on Facebook and Twitter (irvineparkrr).

Please click the "Magnifying Glass Icon" just above the top right corner of the photo and then click the "View all sizes' button just above the top right corner of the photo to enlarge it for easier viewing and downloading as required.

 

The photo above is on public display in the "Russia Dock Woodland : Transformation into a Wildlife Haven & Winning The Green Flag Award" Discussion Thread of the "Natural Neighbourhood Flickr Group" (Website : www.flickr.com/groups/1462768@N22/ ) run by the world-famous KEW, The Royal Botanic Garden for showcasing what we are doing at our homes or in our local neighbourhood to help safeguard the diversity of plant and animal life, and celebrate the "International Year of Biodiversity 2010".

 

Web link to "Wikipedia" for free information on "Pussy Willow" : en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pussy_willow

  

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Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16, UK (9-Parts Photo Set)

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01) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 3 April 2010 (Easter Saturday) - Beautiful Pussy Willow Catkin : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/4491522460/

 

02) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 5 April 2008 - Beautiful White Bells (Wood Hyacinth (Hyacinthoides Hispanica)) : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2009/5358825188/

 

03) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 30 March 2008 - Beautiful Blue Bells (Wood Hyacinth (Hyacinthoides Hispanica)) : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/2399175325/

 

04) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 12 February 2011 (2 of 4) - Beautiful & Delicate Lilac Woodland Crocus Flowers : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/5444084852/

 

05) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 15 March 2010 (4 of 4) - Bright and Cheerful Golden Snow Crocus Flowers : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/4437255493/

 

06) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 3 April 2010 (Easter Saturday) - Blooming Lesser Celandine Flowers : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/4490858753/

 

07) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 9 April 2010 - Blooming Cherry Blossom Flowers : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2009/5358017233/

 

08) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 16 April 2010 - Beautiful Flowering Trees Glowing in Warm Early Morning Springtime Sun : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2009/5358003611/

 

09) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 18 April 2010 - Mr. & Mrs. Mallard taking an Early Morning Walk in Warm Springtime Sun : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2009/5358838870/

  

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Offer of Further Information

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1) “The Importance of Trees in Southwark Life” by Kam Hong Leung on 14 May 2009 :

www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/3853306127/

 

2) The Friends of Russia Dock Woodland - Winner of The 2009 London Tree and Woodland Award : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/4175568737/

 

3) Russia Dock Woodland - Winner of "Green Flag Award 2009-2010" : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/3913247478/

  

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Visit Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park!

 

Wheel Fun Rentals is a leading provider of fun and unique outdoor recreational vehicles including a complete fleet of bikes that can be enjoyed by single riders or an entire family. Our new fleet of Wheel Fun Rentals bikes – purchased this Spring – are extremely popular with visitors to Irvine Regional Park.

 

Bikes available to rent include the single surrey, deuce coupe, quad sport and chopper. Other bikes also available to rent include tandem bikes, cruiser bikes and kid’s bikes. And, we rent paddle boats too.

 

Children 18 years of age and younger are required to wear a helmet when riding a bike. Children under the age of 13 are required to wear a life jacket when riding a paddle boat. Both helmets and life jackets are provided at no additional cost and are available to any rider or passenger upon request.

 

For more information on these great bikes available for rent, and hours of operation, visit our Web site at www.irvineparkrailroad.com.

 

About Irvine Park Railroad:

Irvine Park Railroad is a one-third scale train that takes both children and adults on a scenic, 12-minute ride through beautiful and scenic Irvine Regional Park. The train ride, which is affordable fun for the entire family, is narrated by the engineer.

 

Other activities inside of the park include Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park paddle boat and bike rentals, the Orange County Zoo and pony rides. Two snack bars serve both hot and cold food.

 

Annual Irvine Park Railroad events include the Easter Eggstravaganza, Anniversary Celebration, Pumpkin Patch and Christmas Train.

 

Irvine Park Railroad has party pavilions and other locations available for rent. These locations are ideal for birthday parties, company picnics, corporate meetings and other special events. We also rent moon bounces for locations inside of Irvine Regional Park.

 

Irvine Regional Park is centrally-located in the foothills of Orange (Orange County). The nearest, major cross streets are Chapman Avenue at Jamboree Boulevard.

 

Find Irvine Park Railroad on Facebook and Twitter (irvineparkrr).

Visit Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park!

 

Wheel Fun Rentals is a leading provider of fun and unique outdoor recreational vehicles including a complete fleet of bikes that can be enjoyed by single riders or an entire family. Our new fleet of Wheel Fun Rentals bikes – purchased this Spring – are extremely popular with visitors to Irvine Regional Park.

 

Bikes available to rent include the single surrey, deuce coupe, quad sport and chopper. Other bikes also available to rent include tandem bikes, cruiser bikes and kid’s bikes. And, we rent paddle boats too.

 

Children 18 years of age and younger are required to wear a helmet when riding a bike. Children under the age of 13 are required to wear a life jacket when riding a paddle boat. Both helmets and life jackets are provided at no additional cost and are available to any rider or passenger upon request.

 

For more information on these great bikes available for rent, and hours of operation, visit our Web site at www.irvineparkrailroad.com.

 

About Irvine Park Railroad:

Irvine Park Railroad is a one-third scale train that takes both children and adults on a scenic, 12-minute ride through beautiful and scenic Irvine Regional Park. The train ride, which is affordable fun for the entire family, is narrated by the engineer.

 

Other activities inside of the park include Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park paddle boat and bike rentals, the Orange County Zoo and pony rides. Two snack bars serve both hot and cold food.

 

Annual Irvine Park Railroad events include the Easter Eggstravaganza, Anniversary Celebration, Pumpkin Patch and Christmas Train.

 

Irvine Park Railroad has party pavilions and other locations available for rent. These locations are ideal for birthday parties, company picnics, corporate meetings and other special events. We also rent moon bounces for locations inside of Irvine Regional Park.

 

Irvine Regional Park is centrally-located in the foothills of Orange (Orange County). The nearest, major cross streets are Chapman Avenue at Jamboree Boulevard.

 

Find Irvine Park Railroad on Facebook and Twitter (irvineparkrr).

Visit Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park!

 

Wheel Fun Rentals is a leading provider of fun and unique outdoor recreational vehicles including a complete fleet of bikes that can be enjoyed by single riders or an entire family. Our new fleet of Wheel Fun Rentals bikes – purchased this Spring – are extremely popular with visitors to Irvine Regional Park.

 

Bikes available to rent include the single surrey, deuce coupe, quad sport and chopper. Other bikes also available to rent include tandem bikes, cruiser bikes and kid’s bikes. And, we rent paddle boats too.

 

Children 18 years of age and younger are required to wear a helmet when riding a bike. Children under the age of 13 are required to wear a life jacket when riding a paddle boat. Both helmets and life jackets are provided at no additional cost and are available to any rider or passenger upon request.

 

For more information on these great bikes available for rent, and hours of operation, visit our Web site at www.irvineparkrailroad.com.

 

About Irvine Park Railroad:

Irvine Park Railroad is a one-third scale train that takes both children and adults on a scenic, 12-minute ride through beautiful and scenic Irvine Regional Park. The train ride, which is affordable fun for the entire family, is narrated by the engineer.

 

Other activities inside of the park include Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park paddle boat and bike rentals, the Orange County Zoo and pony rides. Two snack bars serve both hot and cold food.

 

Annual Irvine Park Railroad events include the Easter Eggstravaganza, Anniversary Celebration, Pumpkin Patch and Christmas Train.

 

Irvine Park Railroad has party pavilions and other locations available for rent. These locations are ideal for birthday parties, company picnics, corporate meetings and other special events. We also rent moon bounces for locations inside of Irvine Regional Park.

 

Irvine Regional Park is centrally-located in the foothills of Orange (Orange County). The nearest, major cross streets are Chapman Avenue at Jamboree Boulevard.

 

Find Irvine Park Railroad on Facebook and Twitter (irvineparkrr).

John Maguire's old stomping grounds in London, England.

Some shots of John:

www.flickr.com/search/?user_id=21728045%40N08&sort=da...

 

Click: >

 

en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bethnal_Green

 

BETHNAL-GREEN.

Bethnal-Green made a parish.

 

The very populous and extensive parish of Stepney having before suffered some diminutions, was again abridged in the year 1743, by the separation of the hamlet of Bethnal-Green, which was then by act of parliament made a distinct parish.

 

Situation.

 

Etymology.

 

The Green, from which the hamlet derived its name, lies about half a mile beyond the suburbs. I think it not improbable that Bethnal may have been a corruption of Bathon-Hall; and that it was the residence of the family of Bathon, or Bathonia, who had considerable property at Stepney in the reign of Edward the First (fn. 1).

 

Boundaries.

 

Extent.

 

Nature of land and foil.

 

Brick. Fields.

 

Land-tax.

 

The parish of St. Matthew, Bethnal-Green (fn. 2), extends over a considerable part of the suburbs of the metropolis, and reaches almost to Spitalfields. It is bounded on the north by Hackney; on the east by Stratford-Bow; on the west by St. Leonard's, Shoreditch; and on the south by Christ-church, Spitalfields, and Mile End New Town, a hamlet of Stepney. It appears by an actual survey of the hamlet of Bethnal-Green, (which was co-extensive with the present parish,) made in 1703, that it then contained about 550 acres of land, besides that which was occupied by buildings; this quantity is now somewhat abridged by the great increase of houses within the last five years. There are now about 190 acres of arable, about 160 of grass land, and about 140 occupied by market gardeners: the arable land frequently produces two crops in the year, one of corn and the other of garden vegetables. The soil is for the most part a rich loam. The brick-fields in this parish not only furnish bricks sufficient for the new buildings there, but a considerable quantity also for general sale. Bethnal-Green pays the sum of 1107l. 16s. 9d. to the land-tax, which, in the year 1792, was at the rate of 1s. 4d. in the pound.

 

Weavers.

 

Cotton-manufacture.

 

The town-part of this parish is extremely populous, being inhabited principally by journeymen weavers, who live three or four families in a house, and work at home at their looms and reels for the master weavers in Spitalfields. In St. John-street is an extensive cotton manufacture belonging to Messrs Paty and Byrchall, which was established about the year 1783, and employs from 200 to 300 hands. At the end of Pollard's-row, near the Hackneyroad, is a new manufacture lately established by Messrs. Hegner, Ehrliholtzer, and Co. for making "water-proof flaxen-pipe hose for fire-engines, brewers, ships, &c. they are wove tubular, without seams, and made to any length and of any diameter." The manufacture is yet in its infancy, and at present employs but a few hands.

 

Beggar of Bethnal-Green.

 

The well-known ballad of the Beggar of Bethnal-Green was written in the reign of Queen Elizabeth: the legend is told of the reign of Henry the Third; and Henry de Montfort, (son of the Earl of Leicester,) who was supposed to have fallen at the battle of Evesham, is the hero (fn. 3). Though it is probable that the author might have fixed upon any other spot with equal propriety for the residence of his beggar, the story nevertheless seems to have gained much credit in the village, where it decorates not only the sign-posts of the publicans, but the staff of the parish beadle; and so convinced are some of the inhabitants of its truth, that they shew an ancient house upon the Green as the palace of the blind beggar; and point out two turrets at the extremities of the court wall as the places where he deposited his gains.

 

Kirby Castle.

 

The old mansion above-mentioned, called in the survey of 1703 Bethnal-Green-house, was built in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, by John Kirby, citizen of London. Fleetwood, the recorder of London, in a letter to the lord treasurer (about the year 1578), mentions the death of "John Kirby, who built the fair house upon BethnalGreen, which house, lofty like a castle, occasioned certain rhimes abusive of him and some other city builders of great houses, who had prejudiced themselves thereby; viz. Kirby's Castle, and Fisher's Folly; Spinola's Pleasure, and Meggs's Glory (fn. 4)." This house was afterwards the residence of Sir Hugh Platt, Knt. author of "the Gar"den of Eden," "the Jewell-house of Art and Nature," and other works (fn. 5). Sir William Ryder, Knt. died there in 1669 (fn. 6), it being then his property (fn. 7). It now belongs to James Stratton, Esq. of Hackney, and has for many years been used for the reception of insane persons. It is still called in the writings Kirby Castle.

 

Sir Richard Gresham.

 

Sir Richard Gresham, a citizen of great note in the reign of Henry VIII. and father of the celebrated Sir Thomas Gresham, generally resided at Bethnal-Green (fn. 8). It was in consequence of his suggestion and advice that the convents of St. Thomas and St. Bartholomew were converted into public hospitals (fn. 9).

 

Sir Thomas Grey, Knt. died at his house at Bethnal-Green, August 7, 1570 (fn. 10).

 

Sir Balthazer Gerbier.

 

Sir Balthazer Gerbier, an enterprising projector of the last century, by profession a painter and an architect, but not very eminent as either, opened an academy at Bethnal-Green, anno 1649, in imitation as it should seem of the Museum Minervæ. (fn. 11) Here, in addition to the more common branches of education, he prosessed to teach astronomy, navigation, architecture, perspective, drawing, limning, engraving, sortification, fireworks, military discipline, the art of well speaking and civil conversation, history, constitutions, and maxims of state, and particular dispositions of nations, riding the great horse, scenes, exercises, and magnificent shows (fn. 12). Once a week, at three o'clock in the afternoon, Sir Balthazer gave a public lecture, gratis, on the various sciences which he previously advertised in the newspapers: a few specimens of these advertisements are given in the notes (fn. 13). Any person might speak or read at these public lec tures "on any subject, so that it was on unquestionable principles, warrantable terms, consonant with godliness, and with all due respect to the state (fn. 14)."

 

An account of Sir Balthazer Gerbier's academy was published in 1648, with his portrait prefixed; and in 1649, "the art of well "speaking," being one of the lectures delivered there gratis: this was ridiculed by Butler in his fictitious will of the Earl of Pembroke (fn. 15). Sir Balthazer seems to have been a very visionary schemer (fn. 16). After the failure of his academy, which soon happened (fn. 17), he went to America, where he was ill-treated by the Dutch, and narrowly escaped with his life (fn. 18). He afterwards returned to England, and designed the triumphal arch for the reception of Charles the Second (fn. 19).

 

Robert Ainsworth. William Caflon.

 

Ainsworch, the learned editor of the dictionary which goes by his name, kept an academy at Bethnal-Green (fn. 20). William Caslon, the eminent letter-founder, died at his house there in 1766, some years after he had retired from business (fn. 21).

 

Chapel at Bethnal-Green.

 

At the south-east corner of Bethnal-Green, stood a chapel, (on the site of which is now a private dwelling-house,) called, in the survey of 1703, St. George's chapel; of this I have not been able to obtain any farther information. Newcourt says, that at Bethnal-Green was formerly a chapel; but whether it was a chapel of ease, or only a private chapel, he could not find (fn. 22).

 

Removal of Aldgate.

 

At the same corner of the Green is a house, which lately belonged to Ebenezer Mussell, Esq. who having a taste for antiquities, and being an inhabitant of the parish in which Aldgate stood, (at the time of its removal,) purchased the materials, and carried them to his house at Bethnal-Green, where they are still preserved in an adjoining building.

 

Bishop's-hall.

 

About a quarter of a mile to the east of Bethnal-Green, is the site of an ancient house, called Bishop's-hall, (now converted into two or three tenements,) said by tradition to have been the residence of Bishop Bonner. That it was his property I have no doubt; and there is good reason for supposing that it has been the manor-house of Stepney; for Norden calls "Bushoppe's-hall" the seat of the Lord Wentworth (fn. 23). Bishop Braybroke dates many of his episcopal acts from Stepney; but I have not seen one dated thence by any of his successors; which leads to a supposition that they did not reside there, but leased the house with the manerial estate. In 1594, Bishop's hall was the residence of Sir Hugh Platt, as mentioned before (fn. 24).

 

Church of St. Matthew.

 

The church of St. Matthew Bethnal-Green, which is situated close to the suburbs, was consecrated July 15, 1746. It is built of brick with stone coins, and consists of an oblong square, with galleries on the north, south, and west sides. The communion-table stands within a recess at the east end. At the west end is a small square tower.

 

Tombs in the church and church-yard.

 

In the church are the tombs of John Brookbank, M. A. the first rector, who died in 1747; Mr. Thomas Windle, 1779; Mr. John Cheeseman, 1783; Mr. George Evans, 1791; and William Clarke, Esq. 1791. In the church-yard are those of William Luck, Esq. 1748; the Rev. William Gordon, M. A. the first lecturer, 1749; William Bridgman, Gent. 1760; Lewis Ourry, an emigrant from France, (anno 1701,) and many years an officer in the English army, 1771; Mr. Vincent Beverley, 1772; Captain Isaac Perry, 1773; Francis Campart, Gent. 1773; Elizabeth his relict, afterwards wife of the Rev. Thomas Greaves, vicar of Westoning, (Bedfordshire,) 1778; Mr. Abraham Mason, and Mary his wife, who died the same day, January 22, 1787; Captain William Curling, 1788; and Captain Matthew Curling, 1789.

 

Rectory.

 

The parish church of St. Matthew Bethnal-Green was, by the act of parliament above-mentioned, (viz. 16 Geo. II.) made a rectory, though it has no share in the great tithes, which were reserved to Brazen-Nose College, as patrons of the advowson of Stepney, and are received by the rector of that parish. By the same act it was directed, that the church-wardens should receive all the small tithes, Easter offerings, and all other dues within the parish, (except the surplice fees,) out of which they should pay the rector the sum of 130l. per annum, appropriating the remainder to the repairs of the church, and other parochial uses. The sum of 12l. per annum was reserved to the clerk of the parish of Stepney, as an equivalent for the loss he might sustain by the separation of the hamlet. Before the passing of this act, the rectory of Stepney had been divided by a former act (9 Queen Anne) into two equal portions. This division was by the act of 16 Geo. II. annulled; and it was enacted, that one of the portionists should be presented to the new benefice; and that the rectory of Stepney should for the future remain whole and undivided.

 

The first rector of St. Matthew Bethnal-Green was the Rev. John Brookbank, M. A.; the present rector is the Rev. William Loxham, M. A. who was instituted in 1766. The patronage is vested in the Principal and Fellows of Brazen-Nose College, Oxford.

 

Parish register.

 

The register of this parish is of the same date as the consecration of the church : before that period all entries relating to Bethnal-Green must be looked for in the parish registers at Stepney. The average of baptisms and burials since the year 1780, has been as follows:

 

Average of Baptisms.Average of Burials.

1780–1784373 1/5;307

1784–1789358 1/5;362 2/5;

1790418303

1791432310

1792502352

Comparative state of population.

 

It is to be observed, that the baptisms very much exceed the burials, which is a very unusual circumstance in the villages near London. Upon inquiry I find this is to be attributed to some private burial grounds in the neighbourhood, where the fees are somewhat lower than in that belonging to the church. One of this description has been lately made in the parish near the free-school. When the hamlet of Bethnal-Green was separated from Stepney, it was supposed to contain about 1800 houses; their number is now computed at 3500: the principal increase has been within the last three years: the increase of baptisms during those years bears nearly the same proportion.

 

Instances of longevity.

 

The following instances of longevity occur in the parish clerk's books, in which the ages of the deceased are inserted; Bethnal-Green being within the bills of mortality.

 

"Charles Marratt of Brick-lane, aged 99, buried January 15, 1748–9."

 

"Anne Postel, aged 100, buried October 24, 1749."

 

"Samuel Gates, aged 100, buried March 4, 1749-50."

 

"Margaret Lord, of Lord's Farm, aged 99, buried January 2, 1754."

 

"Bridget Fossett, aged 102, buried April 3, 1757."

 

"Mary Nash, aged 107, buried July 29, 1790."

 

"Mary Twits, aged 98, buried October 2, 1791."

 

There are entries also of one person of 90 and one of 93, buried in 1747;—two of 90, and one of 91, in 1749;—one of 90, in 1751;—one of 93, in 1754;—one of 90, in 1759;—one of 91, and one of 94, in 1761;—one of 91, in 1762;—one of 93, in 1789 (fn. 25);—one of 94, in 1790; two of 90, in 1791;—one of 93, in 1792;—and one of 94, in 1793.

 

Mr. Thomas Barker is said to have died at Bethnal-Green, in June 1762, aged 101 (fn. 26); and Mrs. Anne Hart in February 1765, aged 102. (fn. 27)

 

Benefactions.

 

Free-school.

 

Subscription School

 

Mr. Thomas Parmiter, in the year 1722, left certain estates in Suffolk, now let at 52l. per ann. for the purpose of building and endowing a free-school and alms-house for the benefit of the hamlet of Bethnal-Green. Mrs. Elizabeth Carter gave the ground rent free for the term of 600 years, and 10l. per ann. to educate ten boys. Mr. William Lee gave 10l. per ann. to the school; and Mr. Edward Mayhew 5l. per annum towards clothing the children. The trustees with some savings made an advantageous purchase of a piece of ground called Cambridge Heath in the parish, near the Hackney road, now let on building leases for 95 years, at the rent of 43 l. per ann. They have also a stock of 550l. South Sea annuities. With these funds they are enabled to educate 50 boys, and to supply them with shoes, stockings, and books. The school-master has 50l. per ann. and coals; the six alms-men, 5l. per ann. each, with a certain allowance of coals. A subscription-school has been instituted also in this parish, to which various benefactions have been given to the amount of above 1200l. as appears from the tables in the church (fn. 28). The funds being farther augmented by an annual subscription and occasional charity sermons, 30 boys, and the like number of girls, are thereby clothed, educated, and put out apprentices.

 

Bethnal-Green, containing about seven acres, was purchased by the principal inhabitants in the year 1667, of Lady Wentworth, lady of the manor of Stepney, for the sum of 200l. The property was then vested in trustees, who were to let it to the best advantage, and divide the rents between the poor inhabitants of the Green only, in coals and money. It now produces 34l. 16s. per ann. About three acres of it are inclosed within a nursery-ground.

 

The drapers' and dyers' alms-houses, and those founded by Captain Fisher in 1711, are situated within this parish. The two last have no farther connection with it. The former was founded in 1698, by John Pennell, citizen and draper, for four poor widows of seamen who have been in the service of the East India Company, and are of the parish of Stepney: one of these is always chosen from Bethnal-Green, the endowment having taken place previous to its separation from that parish. The poor of Bethnal-Green are entitled, on the same account, to an interest in Priscilla Coborne's legacy to the widows of seamen, and other benefactions left to Stepney before the year 1743. The average number of poor in the work-house is about 450.

 

On the Green there is a meeting-house for the Presbyterian Dissenters.

 

Burial-ground of the Dutch Jews.

 

Near Ducking-pond-row, within the parish of Bethnal-Green, is a burial-ground of the Dutch Jews belonging to the synagogue at BricklayersHall, in Leadenhall-street. The tombs of the Levites, whose office it is to pour water (in the synagogue) upon the hands of the Cohens, (or those of the tribe of Aaron,) are distinguished by the device of a hand pouring water out of a flagon; those of the tribe of Judah, by the device of two hands with the thumbs joined. The inscriptions are for the most part in Hebrew only. The following is one of the few English epitaphs:

 

Mrs.

 

S earch England or the universe around, A doctress so compleat cannot be found; M edicines prepar'd from herbs remove each ill, P ersect great cures and proclaim her skill: S ome hundreds her assistance frequent claim, O ften recorded by the trump of fame—N ow, reader, see if you can tell her name.

 

Instances of longevity

 

The date is 5550, which corresponds with 1790 of the Christian æra. Among the principal persons interred in this ground are Moses Jacob, founder of the synagogue above-mentioned, who died anno 1781; Lipman Spiar, a rabbi (no date); Dr. Benjamin Wolf Yonker, 1785; Mr. Daniel Mentz, son-in-law to Dr. de Folk, 1788; Michael Jacobs, Esq. 1788; Isaac Abraham, reader of the congregation, 1790; Anne, wife of Moses Levy, merchant, 1790. Two instances of remarkable longevity occur; viz. Mr. Solomon Myers, who died in 1778, aged 98; and Sarah Joseph, who died in 1782, at the age (according to her epitaph) of 107 years and 10 months. The keeper of the burial-ground assured me that she was a year older.

Footnotes

1. Alice de Bathon died 2 Edw. I. seized of 2 messuage, &c. in Stepney, Esch. 2 Ed. I. No. 1. John de Bathonia her son, died 19 Edw. I. Esch. No. 13.

2. Described by that name, and directed to be so called in the act of parliament.

3. Percy's Reliques of Ancient Poetry, vol. ii. p. 162.

4. Stow's Survey of London, edit. 1755. vol. ii. p. 47.

5. Sir Hugh Platt is described as of Kirby Castle, in the epitaph of his son (who died A. D. 1637) at Highgate. In 1594, Sir Hugh lived at the neighbouring house, called Bishop's Hall, as he says himself, in his "Jewell-house of Art and Nature."

6. Funeral certificate.

7. Court-rolls of the manor.

8. Biograph. Brit.

9. Ibid.

10. Funeral certificate.

11. The Museum Minervæ was an academy instituted by Sir Francis Kynaston, (Esquire of the body to Charles the First,) A.D. 1635, in which year the king granted his letters-patent, whereby a house in Covent-garden, which Sir Francis had purchased, and furnished with books, manuscripts, musical and mathematical instruments, paintings, statues, antiques, &c. was appropriated for ever as a college for the education of the young nobility and others, under the name of the Museum Minervæ. Sir Francis Kynaston was made the governor under the title of Regent; Edward May, Thomas Hunt, Nicholas Phiske, John Spidell, Walter Salter, Michael Mason, fellows and professors of philosophy and medicine, music, astronomy, geometry, languages, &c. They had power to elect prosessors also of horsemanship, dancing, painting, engraving, &c.; were made a body corporate, were permitted to use a common seal, and to possess goods and lands in mortmain. Pat. 11 Car. pt. 8. No. 14. Sir Francis Kynaston published the Constitutions of the Museum Minervæ.

12. The terms for teaching all these arts and sciences were 61. per month, of which 3l. was charged for teaching to ride the great horse. Gentlemen were boarded at 3l. per month. No gentleman of age bound to engage to board for more than one month; those of 16 or 18 years old for a quarter of a year. Perfect Diurnal, Feb. 11, 1650.

13. On Wednesday next, the second public gratis lecture concerning cosmography, "with 'other academical entertainments for the lo"vers of learning." Perfect Diurnal, Nov. 23, 1649. Wednesday, 12 Dec. "Lecture "on navigation, succinct orations in Hebrew "on the creation of the world, with an aca"demical entertainment of music, so there be "time for the same." Perfect Diurnal, Dec. 7–14. "The lecture for the next week designed for the ladies and honourable women of this nation on the art of speaking." Perfect Occurrences, Dec. 14. "Sir Balthazer Gerbier desires, that if any lady or virtuous matron will attend his lectures, they will give notice, that they may be the better accommodated according to their quality." Several Proceedings of Parliament, Dec. 21–. Feb. 20, Lecture on music, gratis; when those who are expert in the art have promised to make good what the lecture says in commendation of it." Perfect Diurnal, Feb. 11, &c. 1650. "July 30, was exhibited a Spanish ancient Brazilean course, called Juego de Cannas—the throwing of darts against the desendants with shields, (the ground white, covered with flaming stars: the motto,"sans vouloir mal faire,") with an intermixed seigned fight with the sword, and the running of the ring." Perfect Occurrences, July 27, 1649. Some of the public exercises above-mentioned were in the White Friars, whither Sir Balthazer removed his academy in the winter. In some of his advertisements he complains much of "the extraordinary concourse of unruly people who robbed him, (Tuesday's Journal, Aug. 17, 1649,) and treated with savage rudeness his extraordinary services." Several Proceedings of Parliament, Jan. 11, 1650.

14. Perfect Occurrences, Dec. 14, 1649.

15. "All my other speeches, of what colour soever, I give to help Sir Balthazer's art of well speaking."

16. In one of his advertisements, he prosesses to lend from one shilling to fix, gratis, to such as are in extreme need, and have not wherewithal to endeavour their subsistence; whereas, week by week, they may drive on some trade." In the same advertisement he says, "the rarities heretofore-mentioned in a small printed bill are exposed to sale daily at the academy." Perfect Diurnal, March 4, 1650.

17. Whitlock's Memorials, p. 441.

18. After his return, he advertised a narrative of the ill usage he had received from the Dutch, who killed one of his daughters, wounded another, and threatened his own life. In his advertisement he recommends a settlement in South America, whence might be procured, he says, sugar, tobacco, indigo, cotton, spices, gums, colours, drugs, and dying materials." Mercurius Politicus, Dec. 6–13, 1660.

19. Biograph. Brit.

20. Biograph. Brit. new edit.

21. Biograph. Brit. and Nichols's Anecdotes of Bowyer, p. 317.

22. Repertorium, vol. i. p. 743. I think it does not seem clear that the chapel, with a messuage under the same roof leased by Bishop Bonner, 1 Edw. VI. to Sir Ralph Warren, was this chapel on the Green.

23. P. 17. Lord Wentworth had the manor.

24. See p. 29, note 5.

25. The clerk's books have not been preserved between the years 1762 and 1789.

26. Annual Register.

27. Ibid.

28. The principal benefactors were Mr. James Le Grew, who, in 1778, gave the sum of 100l. 3 per cents.; James Limborough, Esq. in 1783, 300l. 3 per cent. consol. Bank ann.; Mr. Michael Le Mounier in 1783, 50l.; Mr. George Leeds in 1785, 100l. 4 per cent. consol.; Mr. Peter Debeze in 1791, 500l. 3 per cent. New South Sea annuities : all the above benefactions, except Mr. Le Grew's, were by will.

BETHNAL GREEN.

 

Origin of the Name—The Ballad of the Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green—Kirby's Castle—The Bethnal Green Museum—Sir Richard Wallace's Collection—Nichol Street and its Population—The French Hospital in Bethnal Green and its present Site.

 

According to Mr. Lysons, Bethnal Green probably derives its name from the old family of the Bathons, who had possessions in Stepney in the reign of Edward I.

 

The old ballad of "the Beggar of Bethnal Green," written in the reign of Elizabeth, records the popular local legend of the concealment under this disguise of Henry de Montford, son of the redoubtable Earl of Leicester. He was wounded at Evesham, fighting by his father's side, and was found among the dead by a baron's daughter, who sold her jewels to marry him, and assumed with him a beggar's attire, to preserve his life. Their only child, a daughter, was the "Pretty Bessie" of the bailad in Percy.

 

"My father, shee said, is soone to be seene,

The seely blind beggar of Bednall Green,

That daylye sits begging for charitie,

He is the good father of pretty Bessee.

 

"His markes and his tokens are knowen very well,

He alwayes is led with a dogg and a bell;

A seely old man, God knoweth, is hee,

Yet hee is the father of pretty Bessee."

 

The sign-posts at Bethnal Green have for centuries preserved the memory of this story; the beadles' staffs were adorned in accordance with the ballad; and the inhabitants, in the early part of the century, used to boldly point out an ancient house on the Green as the palace of the Blind Beggar, and show two special turrets as the places where he deposited his gains.

 

This old house, called in the Survey of 1703 Bethnal Green House, was in reality built in the reign of Elizabeth by John Kirby, a rich London citizen. He was ridiculed at the time for his extravagance, in some rhymes which classed him with other similar builders, and which ranked Kirby's Castle with "Fisher's Folly, Spinila's Pleasure, and Megse's Glory." It was eventually turned into a madhouse. Sir Richard Gresham, father of the builder of the Royal Exchange, was a frequent resident at Bethnal Green.

 

The opening, in 1872, of an Eastern branch of the South Kensington Museum at Bethnal Green was the result of the untiring efforts of Mr. Cole, aided by Sir Antonio Brady, the Rev. Septimus Hansard, rector of Bethnal Green, and Mr. Clabon, Dr. Millar, and other gentlemen interested in the district, and was crowned with success by the princely liberality of Sir Richard Wallace (the inheritor of the Marquis of Hertford's thirty years' collection of art treasures), who offered to the education committee the loan of all his pictures and many other works of art. The Prince and Princess of Wales were present at the opening of the Museum, which took place June 24, 1872.

 

Sir Richard Wallace's collection, which occupied the whole of the upper galleries, comprised not only an assemblage of ancient and modern paintings in oil, by the greatest masters of past or modern times, a beautiful gallery of water-colour drawings, miniatures, and enamels by French, German, and British artists, but also some fine specimens of bronzes, art porcelain and pottery, statuary, snuffboxes, decorative furniture, and jewellers' and goldsmiths' work. The collection was strongest in Dutch and modern French pictures. Cuyp was represented by eleven pictures, Hobbema by five, Maes by four, Metzu by six, Mieris by nine, Netscher by four, Jan Steen by four, Teniers by five, Vanderneer by six, A. Vandevelde by three, W. Vandevelde by eight, Philip Wouvermans by five, Rubens by eleven, Rembrandt by eleven, Vandyck by six. In the Italian school the collection was deficient in early masters, but there were excellent specimens of Da Vinci, Andrea del Sarto, Carlo Dolce, and Canaletto. Of the Spanish school there were fine specimens of Murillo and Velasquez. The French school was well represented—Greuze by twentytwo works, Watteau by eleven, Boucher by eleven, Lancret by nine, and Fragonard by five. There were forty-one works by Horace Vernet, thirteen by Bellangé, four by Pils, fifteen by Delaroche, five by Ary Scheffer, two by Delacroix, two by Robert Fleury, five by Géricault, six by Prud'hon, twelve by Roqueplan, thirty-one by Decamps, and fifteen by Meissonier.

 

In the English collection Sir Joshua Reynolds stood pre-eminent. His matchless portrait of "Nelly O'Brien" stood out as beautiful and bewitching as ever, though the finer carnations had to some extent flown. The childish innocence of the "Strawberry Girl" found thousands of admirers, though the picture has faded to a disastrous degree; and "Love me, Love my Dog," had crowds of East-end admirers.

 

Among the superb portraits by Reynolds, in his most florid manner, "Lady Elizabeth SeymourConway," and "Frances Countess of Lincoln," daughters of the first Marquis of Hertford, and one of "Mrs. Hoare and Son" (a masterpiece), were the most popular. The mildness and dignity of Reynolds was supplemented by the ineffable grace and charm of Gainsborough. Novices in art were astonished at the naiveté of "Miss Haverfield," one of the most delightful child-portraits ever painted. The fine works of Bonington, a painter of genius little known, astonished those who were ignorant of his works. Among his finest productions at Bethnal Green were "The Ducal Palace at Venice," "The Earl of Surrey and the Fair Geraldine," and "Henri IV. of France and the Spanish Ambassador." This king, to the horror of the proud hidalgo, is carrying his children pick-a-back.

 

Among the French pictures there were eleven first-rate Bouchers. This protégé of Madame de Pompadour was a great favourite with the Marquis, and at Bethnal Green one saw him at his best. There was a portrait of "The Pompadour," quite coquettishly innocent, and those well-known pictures, "The Sleeping Shepherdess," the "Amphitrite," and the "Jupiter disguised as Diana." Three sacred pictures by Philippe de Champagne, showed us French religious art of the most ascetic kind, presenting a striking contrast to the gaiety and license of French art in general. In Greuze we find the affected simplicity and the forced sentiment of the age before the Revolution in its most graceful form, "The Bacchante," "The Broken Mirror," "The Broken Eggs," and the peerless portrait of "Sophie Arnould," enabled even those unacquainted with the charm of this painter to appreciate his merits. Lancret, the contemporary of Boucher, was represented by many works, among which the critics at once decided on the pre-eminence of "The Broken Necklace," and a portrait of the famous dancer, "Mdlle. Camargo." Lepicié was represented by his "Teaching to Read," and "The Breakfast," capital pieces of character. Watteau, that delightful painter of theatrical landscape, was a favourite of the Marquis, and at Bethnal Green appeared his fairy-like "Landscape with Pastoral Groups," his delightful "Conversation Humourieuse," and his inimitable "Arlequin and Colombine." What painter conveys so fully the enjoyment of a fête champêtre or the grace of coquettish woman? A dazzling array of twenty-six Decamps included the ghastly "Execution in the East," and that wonderful sketch of Turkish children, "The Breaking-up of a Constantinople School." The fifteen Paul Delaroche's comprised "The Repose in Egypt," one of the finest pictures in the collection; "The Princes in the Tower hearing the approach of the Murderers," and that powerful picture, "The Last Sickness of Cardinal Mazarin." Amongst the specimens of that high-minded painter, Ary Scheffer, we had the "Francesca da Rimini," one of the most touching of the painter's works, and the "Margaret at the Fountain." Eugene Delacroix, Meissonier, Rosa Bonheur, Horace Vernet, Gaspar and Nicholas Poussin, and many other well-known artists, are also represented in this part of the great collection.

 

"Nichols Street," says a newspaper writer of 1862, writing of Bethnal Green in its coarser aspects, "New Nichols Street, Half Nichols Street, Turvile Street, comprising within the same area numerous blind courts and alleys, form a densely crowded district in Bethnal Green. Among its inhabitants may be found street-vendors of every kind of produce, travellers to fairs, tramps, dog-fanciers, dogstealers, men and women sharpers, shoplifters, and pickpockets. It abounds with the young Arabs of the streets, and its outward moral degradation is at once apparent to any one who passes that way. Here the police are certain to be found, day and night, their presence being required to quell riots and to preserve decency. Sunday is a day much devoted to pet pigeons and to bird-singing clubs; prizes are given to such as excel in note, and a ready sale follows each award. Time thus employed was formerly devoted to cock-fighting. In this locality, twenty-five years ago, an employer of labour, Mr. Jonathan Duthiot, made an attempt to influence the people for good, by the hire of a room for meeting purposes. The first attendance consisted of one person. Persistent efforts were, however, made; other rooms have from time to time been taken and enlarged; there is a hall for Christian instruction, and another for educational purposes; illustrated lectures are delivered; a loanlibrary has been established, also a clothing-club and penny bank, and training-classes for industrial purposes."

 

Mr. Smiles, in his "Huguenots in London," has an interesting page on the old French Hospital in Bethnal Green:—"Among the charitable institutions founded by the refugees for the succour of their distressed fellow-countrymen in England," says Mr. Smiles, "the most important was the French Hospital. This establishment owes its origin to a M. de Gastigny, a French gentleman, who had been Master of the Buckhounds to William III., in Holland, while Prince of Orange. At his death, in 1708, he bequeathed a sum of £1,000 towards founding an hospital, in London, for the relief of distressed French Protestants. The money was placed at interest for eight years, during which successive benefactions were added to the fund. In 1716, a piece of ground in Old Street, St. Luke's, was purchased of the Ironmongers' Company, and a lease was taken from the City of London of some adjoining land, forming altogether an area of about four acres, on which a building was erected, and fitted up for the reception of eighty poor Protestants of the French nation. In 1718, George I. granted a charter of incorporation to the governor and directors of the hospital, under which the Earl of Galway was appointed the first governor. Shortly after, in November, 1718, the opening of the institution was celebrated by a solemn act of religion, and the chapel was consecrated amidst a great concourse of refugees and their descendants, the Rev. Philip Menard, minister of the French chapel of St. James's, conducting the service on the occasion.

 

"From that time the funds of the institution steadily increased. The French merchants of Toulon, who had been prosperous in trade, liberally contributed towards its support, and legacies and donations multiplied. Lord Galway bequeathed a thousand pounds to the hospital, in 1720, and in the following year Baron Hervart de Huningue gave a donation of £4,000. The corporation were placed in the possession of ample means, and they accordingly proceeded to erect additional buildings, in which they were enabled, by the year 1760, to give an asylum to 234 poor people."

 

The French Hospital has recently been removed from its original site to Victoria Park, where a handsome building has been erected as an hospital, for the accommodation of forty men and twenty women, after the designs of Mr. Robert Lewis Roumieu, architect, one of the directors, Mr. Roumieu being himself descended from an illustrious Huguenot family—the Roumieus of Languedoc.

 

A Tudor ballad, the Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green, tells the story of an ostensibly poor man who gave a surprisingly generous dowry for his daughter's wedding. The tale furnishes the parish of Bethnal Green's coat of arms. According to one version of the legend, found in Percy's Reliques of Ancient English Poetry published in 1765, the beggar was said to be Henry, the son of Simon de Montfort, but Percy himself declared that this version was not genuine.[3] The Blind Beggar public house in Whitechapel is reputed to be the site of his begging.

Boxing has a long association with Bethnal Green. Daniel Mendoza, who was champion of England from 1792 to 1795 though born in Aldgate, lived in Paradise Row on the western side of Bethnal Green for 30 years. Since then numerous boxers have been associated with the area, and the local leisure centre, York Hall, remains notable for presentation of boxing bouts.

In 1841, the Anglo-Catholic Nathaniel Woodard, who was to become a highly influential educationalist in the later part of the 19th century, became the curate of the newly created St. Bartholomew's in Bethnal Green. He was a capable pastoral visitor and established a parochial school. In 1843, he got into trouble for preaching a sermon in St. Bartholomew's in which he argued that the Book of Common Prayer should have additional material to provide for confession and absolution and in which he criticised the 'inefficient and Godless clergy' of the Church of England. After examining the text of the sermon, the Bishop of London condemned it as containing 'erroneous and dangerous notions'. As a result, the bishop sent Woodard to be a curate in Clapton.

Highest Explore Position #30 and the Explore Front Page ~ On April 11th 2009.

 

Common Pheasant - British Wildlife Centre, Surrey, England - Sunday April 5th 2009.

Click here to see the Larger image

 

Click here to see My most interesting images

 

I danced on a Friday when the sky turned black

It's hard to dance with the devil on your back

They buried my body & they thought I'd gone

But I am the Dance & I still go on!

 

Dance then, wherever you may be

I am the Lord of the Dance, said He!

And I'll lead you all, wherever you may be

And I'll lead you all in the Dance, said He!

 

Well, tiss Good Friday here in most parts of the world, so religious or not, I wish you a wonderful day and hope you all have a great next four days of celebrations. Easter is a time of death and new beginnings hence the reason we have eggs on Sunday...so for all those having a bad time at the moment, I hope you manage to have a new start to your lives and better things come along for you soon...this is especially for my friend Martina ~ www.flickr.com/photos/14616031@N08/ ~ who is having a bad time at the moment, I hope your feeling better soon my friend..:)

 

Anyhoo...I'm staying in London today, because I didn't want to get up at silly O'clock to drive down to Colchester, I'll do that tomorrow...so I'll be able to eat all my hot cross buns myself....I'm all heart..lol

I'll be spending the next three days away, so I will have limited Internet access, so forgive me if I can't stop by all your wonderful streams...I'll try catching up next Tuesday...so if I don't see you all before, have a wonderful Easter break and don't eat too much chocolate...:)))

  

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia ~ The Common Pheasant (Phasianus colchicus), is a bird in the pheasant family (Phasianidae). It is native to Asia and has been widely introduced elsewhere as a game bird. In parts of its range, namely in places where none of its relatives occur such as in Europe (where it is naturalized), it is simply known as the "pheasant". It has the smallest known[when?] genome of all living amniotes, only 0.97pg (970 million base pairs)

It is a well-known gamebird, among those of more than regional importance perhaps the most widespread and ancient one in the whole world. The Common Pheasant is one of the world's most hunted birds; it has been introduced for that purpose to many regions, and is also common on game farms where it is commercially farmed for this purpose. "Ring-necked Pheasant" is a collective name for a number of subspecies and their crossbreeds. These were commonly used for introduction purposes, and today the Ring-necked Pheasant is the state bird of South Dakota, one of only three US state birds that is not a species native to the United States.

 

The Green Pheasant (P. versicolor) of Japan is sometimes placed as subspecies within the Common Pheasant. Though the species produce fertile hybrids wherever they coexist, this is simply a typical feature among Galloanseres, in which postzygotic isolating mechanisms are slight compared to most other birds. The species apparently have somewhat different ecological requirements and at least in its typical habitat the Green outcompetes the Common Pheasant; introduction of the present species to Japan has therefore largely failed.

 

Description ~ There are many colour forms of the male Common Pheasant, ranging in colour from nearly white to almost black in some melanistic examples. These are due to captive breeding and hybridization between subspecies and with the Green Pheasant, reinforced by continually releases of stock from varying sources to the wild. For example, the "Ring-necked Pheasants" common in Europe, North America and Australia do not pertain to any specific taxon, they rather represent a stereotyped hybrid swarm.

The adult male Common Pheasant of the nominate subspecies Phasianus colchicus colchicus is 76-89 cm in length with a long brown streaked black tail, accounting for almost 50 cm of the total length. The body plumage is barred bright gold and brown plumage with green, purple and white markings. The head is bottle green with a small crest and distinctive red wattles. P. c. colchicus and some other races lack a white neck ring.

The female (hen) is much less showy, with a duller mottled brown plumage all over and measuring 53-63 cm long including a tail of around 20 cm. Juvenile birds have the appearance of the female with a shorter tail until young males begin to grow characteristic bright feathers on the breast, head and back at about 10 weeks after hatching.

The Green Pheasant (P. versicolor) is very similar, and hybridizaton makes individual birds' identities often difficult to determine. Green Pheasant males are shorter-tailed on average and have a darker plumage that is uniformly bottle-green on the breast and belly; they always lack a neck ring. Their females are darker, with many black dots on the breast and belly.

In addition, various color mutations are commonly encoutered, mainly melanistic (black) and flavistic (isabelline or fawn) specimens. The former are rather common in some areas and are named Tenebrosus Pheasant (P. colchicus var. tenebrosus).

 

Taxonomy and systematics ~ This species was first scientifically described by Linnaeus in his Systema naturae in 1758 under its current scientific name. The Common Pheasant is distinct enough from any other species known to Linnaeus for a laconic [Phasianus] rufus, capîte caeruleo - "a red pheasant with blue head" - to serve as entirely sufficient description. Moreover, the bird had been extensively discussed before Linnaeus established binomial nomenclature. His sources are the Ornithologia of Ulisse Aldrovandi, Giovanni Pietro Olina's Uccelliera, John Ray's Synopsis methodica Avium & Piscium, and A natural history of the birds by Eleazar Albin. In these - essentially the bulk of the ornithology textbooks of his day - the species is simply named "the pheasant" in the books' respective languages. Whereas in other species, such as the Eastern Meadowlark, Linnaeus felt it warranted to cite plumage details from his sources, in the Common Pheasant's case he referred to the reason of the bird's fame: principum mensis dicatur[verification needed]. The type locality is given simply as "Africa, Asia".

However, the bird does not occur in Africa, except perhaps in Linnaeus' time in Mediterranean coastal areas where they might have been introduced during the Roman Empire. The type locality was later fixed to the Rioni River where the westernmost population occurs. These birds, until the Modern Era, constituted the bulk of the introduced stock in Europe; the birds described by Linnaeus' sources, though typically belonging to such early introductions, would certainly have more alleles in common with the transcaucasian population than with others. The scientific name means "Pheasant from Colchis", colchicus referring to that region in the Caucasus.[9] The Ancient Greek etymon for the English word pheasant is Φασιανὸς ὂρνις (Phasianos ornis) "the bird of the river Phasis", a river in Colchis (now the Rion in Georgia).[10] Although Linnaeus included many Galliformes in his genus Phasianius - such as the domestic chicken and its wild ancestor the Red Junglefowl -, today only the Common and the Green Pheasant are placed in this genus. As the latter was not known to Linnaeus in 1758, the Common Pheasant is naturally the type species of Phasianus.

In the USA, Common Pheasants are widely known as "Chinese Pheasants" - though they are not the only pheasant species from China, nor the only Chinese pheasant that was attempted to introduce to North America, it is the only such bird that is common and widespread nowadays. More colloquial North American names include "chinks" or, in Montana, "phezzens". In China, meanwhile, the species is properly called zhi ji (雉鸡) - "pheasant-fowl" -, essentially implying the same as the English name "Common Pheasant". Like elsewhere, P. colchicus is such a familiar bird in China that it is usually just referred to as shan ji (山雞), "mountain chicken", a Chinese term for pheasants in general.

The Princess Alexandra Statue, located in the Jack Shiel Gardens in the north eastern country town of Alexandra, is the work of English sculptor Charles Summers (1825 – 1878). The Princess Alexandra Statue is made of white Italian marble, and was completed in Rome as part of a commission for Sir William J. Clarke (1831 – 1897) in 1876. Sir William commissioned him to sculpt four large statues in marble of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and the then Prince and Princess of Wales (later Edward VII and Queen Alexandra) for presentation to the Melbourne art gallery. These were completed in 1878. Soon afterwards Charles Summers while on his way to England was taken seriously ill, and died after an operation for acute goitre in Paris. The Princess Alexandra Statue was his last sculpture.

 

Originally located in the grounds of the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, the statue was relocated to Alexandra in 1939 where it was installed in the pretty Jack Shiel Gardens where she is surrounded by beds of roses, her favourite flower. In 1994 the statue was unveiled under a new colonnade, which was financed under the Centennial Awards.

 

Charles Summer was a regular exhibitor at Royal Academy exhibitions; more than 40 of his works were shown between 1849 and 1876. He was a competent sculptor who also created the figures on the ceiling of the council chamber of Melbourne’s Parliament House, a frieze of putti on the old Bank of New South Wales building (now located at Melbourne University) and the recumbent figure of Lady Macleay in Surrey. However it is the memorial to the explorers Burke and Wills on the corner of Collins and Swanston Streets in Melbourne’s heart that he is best known for.

 

Born in 1845, Princess Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia was a Princess of Denmark; one of five sisters (two of whom would also became Queens of Norway and Russia). A beautiful and slender lady with perfect complexion and lovely mannerisms as befitting a queen, Alexandra was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (1841 – 1910) the heir apparent of Queen Victoria when the Danish princess was just sixteen. They married eighteen months later in 1863 in the St George Chapel, Windsor Castle, the same year her father became Christian IX of Denmark and her brother, George, was appointed King of Greece. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has ever held that title, and became generally popular; her style of dress and bearing were copied by fashion-conscious women. On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became King-Emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as Queen-Empress Consort. From Edward's death in 1910 until her own death, she was the Queen Mother. She died of a heart attack just before her 80th birthday in 1925 and was buried in an elaborate tomb next to her husband in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

 

Alexandra is a town in Victoria, Australia. It is located at the junction of the Goulburn Valley Highway (B340) and Maroondah Highway (B360), 26 kilometres west of Eildon. The town was settled in the late 1860s, with a Post Office opening on 15 March 1867 (known until 24 April 1867) as Redgate. The town was originally known as Redgate, or Red Gate Diggings. The current name either derives from Alexandra of Denmark (Queen’s Consort to King Edward VII of England) when given a stature of her to the shire; or from three men named Alexander (Alesander, McGregor, Alexander Don, and Alexander Luckie) who discovered gold in the area in 1866. Charles Jones born Herefordshire also discovered Gold on the Luckie Mine in 1866. He bought a Hotel with John Henry Osborne and was the proprietor of the New York and London Hotel Grant Street Alexandra. The railway to Alexandra arrived in the town via Yea from Tallarook in 1909, and closed on November 18, 1978. The Rubicon Tramway connected Alexandra with the village of Rubicon, at the junction of the Rubicon and Royston Rivers. Today many tourists pass through Alexandra on their way to the Mount Buller ski resort from Melbourne. The town contains the Timber Tramway and Museum (located at the Alexandra Railway Station), and the National Trust classified post office and law courts. There is a local market on the second Saturday of each month from September to May, an annual art show at Easter, an agricultural show and rose festival in November, and the annual Truck, Rod and Ute Show in June.

  

BACONSTHORPE 1914 - 1919

 

After doing my research, I found that the Roll of Honour site (RoH) has also done research on the memorials for those who died.

www.roll-of-honour.com/Norfolk/Baconsthorpe.html

  

William Barnes……………Died

 

No obvious match on the CWGC database - I found a Canadian soldier who’s parents are recorded as living at Cley, but his parents first names are different to those recorded below. Otherwise there are too many W \William Barnes with no age or additional information, at least two of which served with the Norfolk Regiment and so probably had a connection with the county. The Roll of Honour site was also unable to identifiy this individual.

 

No match on Norlink

 

The 1901 Census has an 8 year old William, (born Langham) recorded at School Lane, Baconsthorpe, This is the household of his parents, Matthew. (aged 40 and a Yardman on Farm from Langham), and Martha, (aged 44 and from Langham). Their other children are:-

Ephraim…….aged 24...born Langham……Agricultural Labourer

Ernest……….aged 6.…born Calthorpe

Florence,,,,,,,,,aged 15...born Langham

Frederic……..aged 1,,,,,born

George………aged u/1..born Baconsthorpe

Henry………aged 11.….born Langham

Matthew……aged 10.…born Langham

 

Fortunately I had also taken a walk round the churchyard, and although large parts had been fenced off, one headstone caught my eye.

 

In loving memory of Martha Elizabeth,

The beloved wife of Matthew Barnes,

Died October 7th 1914

Aged 57 years,

 

Also William Barnes son of the above

2nd Norfolk Regiment

Who fell in battle in Mesopotamia

April 12th 1916, aged 23 years

 

That leads us to this man

 

Name: BARNES Initials: W Nationality: United Kingdom Rank: Private Regiment/Service: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 2nd Bn. Date of Death: 11/04/1916 Service No: 19471 Casualty Type: Commonwealth War Dead Grave/Memorial Reference: XXII. B. 16. Cemetery: AMARA WAR CEMETERY

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=627383

 

Note the discrepancy of a day in the date of death between the headstone and the CWGC entry.

 

The Siege of Kut

During the siege of Kut which lasted for 5 months aircraft were first used to try and drop supplies to the garrison. The aircraft could not carry enough supplies some were shot down and the attempt ended in failure. The Turks used aircraft more successfully in bombing the town, many troops having been wounded were then killed in hospital by an air raid. Several attempts were made to break out across the river on floating bridges, but as the river was in flood at this time of the year the attempts failed. Radio contact with the outside world was kept up until the end.

Towards the end of the siege the daily ration for British troops was reduced to ten ounces of bread and one pound of horse or mule flesh. Indian troops who refused to eat flesh were dying of scurvy at the rate of 10 to 20 a day. In all 1746 people died during the siege from wounds or disease.

Kut falls

On 29 April 1916 Kut surrendered to the Turks. After agreeing terms, Townshend marched his troops out into captivity, and certain death for most of them.

www.stephen-stratford.co.uk/pte_wilby.htm

 

F Barnes MM & Croix De Guerre (Belg)

 

Suspect this is the Frederic referred to above

 

F Bond

 

While there isn’t immediately an obvious match on the 1901 Census, the high level search on the 1911 returns three individuals which it associates with Baconsthorpe. I can’t see the detail, but as none of them where born there, I can only assume they are now living there.

 

The three individuals are:

Frederick, born circa 1877 at Holt

Annie, born circa 1877 at Icklingham, Suffolk

Clifford, born 1907, Holt.

The unconfirmed suspicion has to be that they are a family.

 

Frederick may have been a bit old for frontline service, although I’ve come across private soldiers well into their forties in the later years of the war. There were however, home defense units, not dissimilar to the “Dad’s Army” of WW11, who assisted with guarding strategic points.

 

The same individual is recorded on the 1901 census as a boarder at “Kirber Villa”, 1 Heathcote Road, Epsom, Surrey. His profession is given as carpenter. There is a group of boarders from the North Norfolk area who are from similar trades, so possibly they had all gone together in search of work.

 

Richard Cletheroe………….Died

 

Name: CLETHEROE, ARTHUR WILLIAM RICHARD

Rank: Private

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 1st/5th Bn.

Age: 21 Date of Death: 19/04/1917

Service No: 240202

Additional information: Son of Arthur Edward and Alice Ann Cletheroe, of Baconsthorpe Hall, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: XXIII. C. 2. Cemetery: GAZA WAR CEMETERY

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=649742

There is a picture of Arthur in the Norlink Archive.

norlink.norfolk.gov.uk/02_Catalogue/02_013_PictureTitleIn...

 

The accompanying notes read:-

Born at Bodham, 10th March 1896, Private Cletheroe was from Baconsthorpe Hall. He was educated at Baconsthorpe and enlisted 5th August 1914. He was killed at the Battle of Gaza in Palestine, 19th April 1917 and buried at Gaza Military Cemetery.

 

The 1901 Census has the 5 year old Richard, (Born Bodham), recorded at Baconsthorpe, (no specific address). This is the household of his uncle, Stephen Cletheroe, (aged 45 and a farmer from Baconsthorpe), and aunt, Maria, (aged 44 and from Thornage). Richard doesn’t appear to be on the 1911 census, although Stephen and Maria are.

 

19th April 1917 During the 2nd Battle of Gaza,

 

Facing the Tank Redoubt was the 161st Brigade of the 54th Division. To their right were the two Australian battalions (1st and 3rd) of the Imperial Camel Corps Brigade who had dismounted about 4,000 yards from their objective. As the infantry went in to attack at 7.30am they were joined by a single tank called "The Nutty" which attracted a lot of shell fire. The tank followed a wayward path towards the redoubt on the summit of a knoll where it was fired on point blank by four field guns until it was stopped and set alight in the middle of the position.

The infantry and the 1st Camel Battalion, having suffered heavy casualties on their approach, now made a bayonet charge against the trenches. About 30 "Camels" and 20 of the British infantry (soldiers of the 5th (territorial Battalion of the Norfolk Regiment) reached the redoubt, then occupied by around 600 Turks who immediately broke and fled towards their second line of defences to the rear.

The British and Australians held on unsupported for about two hours by which time most had been wounded. With no reinforcements at hand and a Turkish counter-attack imminent, the survivors endeavoured to escape back to their own lines.

To the right (west) of Tank Redoubt, the 3rd Camel Battalion, advancing in the gap between two redoubts, actually made the furthest advance of the battle, crossing the Gaza-Beersheba Road and occupying a pair of low hills (dubbed "Jack" and "Jill"). As the advances on their flanks faltered, the "Camels" were forced to retreat to avoid being isolated.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_Gaza

 

More than a thousand one hundred of the men of the 54th posted killed wounded or missing were from the two Norfolk regiment battalions, equating to 75% of their strength. Eastern Daily Press "Sunday" section May 5, 2007

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_Battle_of_Gaza

 

G Cletheroe

 

There is no obvious match for a G Cletheroe on the Genes Reunited transcriptions of the 1901 or 1911 Censuses for England and Wales, with a Baconsthorpe connection.

 

George Cooper…………….Died

 

Norlink has a potential match in a George Alfred Cooper born Alby, who served in the Royal Berkshire Regiment.

norlink.norfolk.gov.uk/02_Catalogue/02_013_PictureTitleIn...

 

The accompanying notes read

Born at Alby, 8th May 1893, Private Cooper enlisted in September 1914. He was killed in action Festubert, France, 5th January 1915.

 

There is a George born Baconsthorpe circa 1892 and still resident in the same district on the 1911 Census.. There is no George Cooper born Alby - just a Charles D, born circa 1892, and a Jonathan, born circa 1895 on the 1911 census, However there is one born circa 1894 on the 1901 Census, so looks like the Norlink picture is for a different person.

 

The 1901 Census has a George R Cooper, aged 9 and born Baconsthorpe, recorded at Baconsthorpe, (no specific address). This is the household of his parents, James, (aged 43 and a farmer from Upper Sheringham), and Phyllis, (aged 48 and from Baconsthorpe). Their other children are:

Phyllis………..aged 15.…..born Baconsthorpe

Richard F…….aged 19.…..born Baconsthorpe…..Teamster on Farm

 

The CWGC has 5 G R Coopers recorded, all of which can be fairly safely eliminated - the two shown as George R have parents with different names. Of the three simply shown as as G.R,, two, an officer in the Royal Berks who died in 1916 and a private in the Coldstream Guards who died in 1918, do not appear on the Great War Roll of Honour under the first name George. The final candidate, another G R with no age or additional details, was a Lance Bombardier in the Royal Garrison Artillery who died in 1919. He is buried at Royton, Lancashire in the UK. I would have thought it more likely that he would have been returned to his hometown - I’m not an authority on the UK military forces, but I can’t think of many military bases round there, and a quick scan of the 38 other records for this cemetery indicates that nearly all have an obvious link with the Royton\Oldham area and the WW1 burials come from a wide variety of units..

 

That unfortunately leaves us with a large number of G. Coopers on the CWGC database,

 

Postscript. The Roll of Honour site believes it is possibly this individual.

Name: COOPER, GEORGE

Rank: Private Regiment/Service: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 1st Bn.

Age: 27 Date of Death: 25/05/1918 Service No: 17401

Additional information: Son of Charles and Harriet Cooper, of North Barningham, Norfolk.

Memorial Reference: Panel 3. Memorial: PLOEGSTEERT MEMORIAL

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=1641963

However, as we can see, parents names are different to the individual on the census.

 

J Cooper

 

Possibly the James, father of George, recorded above. There is a Walter J, born circa 1905 at Baconsthorpe on the 1911 Census.

 

S Cooper

 

The 1911 Census has a Samuel Cooper, born circa 1885 at Baconsthorpe and still resident in the Erpingham District which covers the village.

On the 1901 Census, the 17 year Samuel, (born Baconsthorpe and an Agricultural Labourer), is recorded at Church Cottages, Bodham. This is the household of his parents, Samuel, (aged 43 and an Ordinary Agricultural Labourer and from Sheringham), and Easter, (aged 39 and from Erpingham). Their other children are:-

Agnes……………..aged 10.………born Bodham

Ann……………….aged 22.………born Shurton

Eliza………………aged 5.………..born Bodham

Ethel………………aged 14.………born Baconsthorpe

John……………….aged 13.………born Bodham…..Ordinary Agricultural Labourer

Matilda……………aged 11.………born Bodham

Robert…………….aged 3.…………born Bodham

William……………aged 19.………born Beckham…Ordinary Agricultural Labourer

 

F Cooper

 

The 1901 Census has a Frederick Cooper, aged 2 months and born Baconsthorpe, recorded at Baconsthorpe, (no specific address). This is the household of his parents, Walter, (aged 28 and a Bricklayer from Upper Sheringham) and Gertie, (aged 26 and from Attleborough). Their other children are Daisy, (aged 1) and Ivy, (aged 3), both born Baconsthorpe.

 

R Crarey

 

On the 1911 Census we have five individuals with the surname Crarey who are associated with Baconsthorpe. As none of them were born there, it must be assumed they are now living there. They are:-

Harriet Crarey born circa 1868 at Cleator, Cumberland

William Crarey born circa 1870 at Dalton in Furness, Lancashire

Raymond Crarey born circa 1901 at Whittlebury, Northamptonshire

Cuthbert Crarey born circa 1903 at Tilney St Lawrence, Norfolk

Gwendoline Crarey born circa 1905 at Birmingham, Warwickshire

 

The 1901 census confirms they are a family, and provides an explanation of why the family moved around. There is no Raymond recorded, but there is a William R.D, aged 8 months, born Whittlebury, Northamptonshire, and now living at West Field, Tilney St Lawrence, Norfolk. This is the household of his parents, William, (aged 31, and a Board School Headmaster from Dalton), and Harriet, (aged 33, and a Teacher from Cleaton). The Crarey’s have a live in servant, Selina Mallett.

 

Fred Dew……………….Died

 

Name: DEW, FREDERICK BENJAMIN

Rank: Private

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 2nd Bn.

Age: 23 Date of Death: 26/03/1916

Service No: 13993

Additional information: Son of Mr. B. Dew, of Baconsthorpe, Norfolk; husband of Brenda M. Dew, of Hingham, Norwich.

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 10. Memorial: BASRA MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=864652

 

No match on Norlink

 

The 1911 Census has a Frederick born circa 1893 in Baconsthorpe, and still recorded in the district of Erpingham. On the 1901 census, the 8 year old Frederic, (Born Baconsthorpe), is recorded at The Street, Baconsthorpe. This is the household of his parents, Benjamin, (aged 31 and a General Labourer from Baconsthorpe), and Rosetta, (aged 30 and from Baconsthorpe). Their other children are:-

Alice……………….aged 7.………….born Baconsthorpe

Hilda……………….aged 1.………….born Baconsthorpe

Horace………………aged 6.…………born Baconsthorpe

Marian………………aged 4.…………born Baconsthorpe

 

Frederick is probably one of the Norfolk men who died during the final days of the siege of Kut, (although far more would die on the subsequent march into captivity). He may possibly have been one of those outside as a composite unit, the Norsets, consisting of available drafts and recovered sick and wounded from the two parent battalions of the Norfolks and Dorsets, who were fighting to break the siege.

 

www.stephen-stratford.co.uk/pte_wilby.htm

1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/lofiversion/index.php/t...

 

Horace Dew…………..Died

 

Name: DEW Initials: H E

Rank: Corporal Regiment: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 7th Bn.

Date of Death: 30/05/1916 Service No: 12576

Grave/Memorial Reference: I. F. 45. Cemetery: LAPUGNOY MILITARY CEMETERY

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=54022

 

Genes Re-united site confirms this was a Horace.

 

Lapugnoy Military Cemetery

 

The first burials were made in Plot I of the cemetery in September 1915, but it was most heavily used during the Battle of Arras, which began in April 1917. The dead were brought to the cemetery from casualty clearing stations, chiefly the 18th and the 23rd at Lapugnoy and Lozinghem

www.cwgc.org/search/cemetery_details.aspx?cemetery=5501&a...

 

No match on Norlink

 

The 1911 Census has a Horace born circa 1895 in Baconsthorpe, and still recorded in the district of Erpingham. See Frederick above for family details

 

J Gorbould

 

The 1911 has three Gorbould’s associated with Baconsthorpe. Again, as none are born there, I can only assume that they are now living there. The three individuals are:-

James, born circa 1884 at Wroxham.

Harriet, born circa 1886 at Thorpe Hamlet, Norwich.

Dorothy, born circa 1910 at Wroxham.

 

On the 1901 census, the 18 year old James, (born Wroxham and now employed as a Yardman on a Farm), is recorded at The Street, Wroxham. This is the household of his widowed mother, Mary, (age 54 and from Salhouse). Also resident are Mary’s children:-

Ethel…….aged 16.…born Wroxham…..General Domestic Servant

Mary…….aged 14.…born Wroxham…………Dressmaker

Robert…..aged 21.…born Wroxham…..Malsters Labourer

 

E Hazlewood

 

The 1901 Census has a 5 year old Edwin, (born Baconsthorpe), who is recorded at Fairstead, Gressenhall. This is the household of his Grand-Parents, James Purple, (aged 61 and a Farm Labourer from Longham(poss Langham?)), and Jane Purple, (aged 63 and from the St Julian area of Norwich).

 

Under the census details for Henry Smith, below, there is a 19 year old Laura Hazlewood, who is recorded as a General Domestic Servant. Laura is recorded as being from Baconsthorpe.

 

William Jarvis………….Died

 

As there was no obvious William Jarvis associated on the 1901 or 1911 census with Baconsthorpe, I initially thought it was a Willie Reginald Jarvis from Langham, who died in the Middle East in 1918 while serving with the 1st/4th Norfolks CWGC.http://www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=1645773

His parents were Herbert and Martha.

 

No match on Norlink

 

However, I then discovered the Roll of Honour had identified another individual who was much more likely.

Name: JARVIS Initials: W T

Rank: Private Regiment/Service: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 7th Bn.

Age: 20 Date of Death: 20/09/1917 Service No: 19515

Additional information: Son of Alfred and Ann Jarvis, of Baconsthorpe, Holt, Norfolk. Grave/Memorial Reference: V. B. 6. Cemetery: DUISANS BRITISH CEMETERY, ETRUN

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=169980

 

The 1911 Census lists an Arthur William Jarvis, born circa 1902 at Baconsthorpe, and still resident in the District of Erpingham which covers the village. Other Jarvis’s are:-

Mary Beatrice, born circa 1878 at Baconsthorpe

Sidney, born circa 1890 at North Walsham

Thomas John, born circa 1904 at Baconsthorpe.

 

There is no obvious William who’s parents are an Alfred and Ann born circa 1897 / 1898

On the Genes re-united transcript of the 1901 and 1911 Censuses.

 

The battalion appears to have been in action near Monchy, and there seems to be a steady but small number of casualties over the period 19th to the 23rd - 7 on the 19th for example.

 

Robert Jermy…………………Died

 

CWGC has only one R Jermy

Name: JERMY Initials: R

Rank: Rifleman

Regiment/Service: London Regiment (Queen Victoria's Rifles) Unit Text: 9th Bn.

Date of Death: 04/07/1918 Service No: 392969

Grave/Memorial Reference: C. 10. Cemetery: BAVELINCOURT COMMUNAL CEMETERY

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=587482

 

Norlink has a Robert Jermy, but tenuous link to Baconsthorpe

norlink.norfolk.gov.uk/02_Catalogue/02_013_PictureTitleIn...

 

Acconpanying notes are

Rifleman Jermy was born at Blofield on 13th July 1891, and was educated at Blofield and Holt schools. He enlisted on 11th March 1916 and was killed in action in France on 4th July 1918

 

The 1911 Census has a Robert Jermy, born circa 1892 at Strumpshaw and now registered in the District of Erpingham which covers the village of Baconsthorpe. The other Jermys in the same District are:

Emma Jane, born circa 1869 at Lingwood.

Robert, born circa 1871 at Hemblington

Maude, born circa 1893 at Blofied

Clifford born circa 1911 at Baconsthorpe.

 

The 1901 Census has a 9 year old Robert, (Born Blofield), recorded at Holt Road, Thornage. This was the household of his parents, Robert, (aged 29 and a Teamman on Farm from Hemblington) and Jane, (aged 30 and from Lingwood). They also have a daughter, Maud, (aged 8 and from Blofield)

 

9th Battalion London Regiment was affiliated to the Royal Fusiliers, and was part of the 175 Brigade, 58th Division at the time of Robert’s death.

www.warpath.orbat.com/divs/58_div.htm

  

Fred Knowles…………………..Died

 

Possibly

Name: KNOWLES Initials: F J

Rank: Private Regiment/Service: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 2nd Bn.

Date of Death: 22/04/1916 Service No: 18830

Grave/Memorial Reference: XXII. D. 13. Cemetery: AMARA WAR CEMETERY

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=629143

 

Genes reunited copy of the Great War Roll of Honour confirms that this Norfolk Regiment man was a Frederick J.

No match on Norlink

 

The 1911 Census has only a Sidney Knowles recorded at Baconsthorpe. The 1901 Census has a 21 year old Fred H.Knowles, born North Walsham, and now resident at the Green Grocers Shop, Baker Street, Sheringham. There is also a Frederick Knowles, born Hunworth, and now recorded working as an Ostler at The Hasting Arms , Melton Constable. I have no firm way of establing whether either of the two individuals are the same as the CWGC man, and whether any of them are the Fred Knowles on the Baconsthorpe Roll of Honour.

 

See William Barnes and Frederick Dew above for details of the siege of Kut.

 

G Pentney

 

The 7 year old George, born Baconsthorpe, is recorded on the 1901 Census at Baconsthorpe, although with no specific address. This is the household of his parents, Robert, (aged 37 and a Stock Feeder on a Farm from Baconsthorpe), and Susanna, (aged 31 and from West Beckham.). Their other children are:-

Effie…………..aged 6.…………..born Baconthorpe

Frances……….aged 1.…………..born Baconsthorpe

Henrietta……..aged 4.…………..born Baconsthorpe

 

George does not appear to be on the 1911 Census

 

W Reynolds

 

There are four instances of the surname Reynolds linked to Baconsthorpe on the 1911 Census, and none at all on the 1901 Census.

 

The four from 1911 are:

Fred, born circa 1877 at Plumstead, Norfolk

Maggie, born circa 1882 at Barningham

Robert, born circa 1902 at Baconsthorpe

Flossie, born circa 1904 at Baconsthorpe

 

On the 1901 Census, the 24 year old Fred was still single and living with his family “Near the Green”, Plumstead. Among his many siblings was a 14 year old Walter, who was born Plumstead and already working as an Agricultural Labourer,

 

B Savage

 

The 1911 Census has a Bertie Savage, born circa 1897 at Holt and now associated with Baconsthorpe. On the 1901 Census, the four year old Bertie is recorded at Fairstead Row, New Street, Holt. This is the household of his parents, George, (aged 38 and a Roadman from South Raynham), and Charlotte, (aged 34 and from Baconsthorpe)

 

The Smiths of Baconsthorpe

 

The 1911 Census has

Henry Smith, born circa 1898 at Guestwick

Sydney Smith, born circa 1896 at Guestwick

Walton Smith, born circa 1894 at Guestwick

Thomas Smith, born circa 1889 at Winfarthing

 

The 1901 Census has

Sidney, born circa 1895 at Thurgarton now resident Baconsthorpe (Sydney John born Thurgarton circa 1896 is now resident in the district of Walsingham on the 1911 Census)

Henry, born circa 1871 at Baconsthorpe and still resident, (Henry Maslan Smith born circa 1871 at Baconsthorpe appears on the 1911 Census)

 

T Smith

 

Thomas Smith, aged 12, born Thurgarton and employed as a Stockman on Farm, is recorded on the 1901 Census at The Street, Guestwick. This is the household of his parents, Thomas, (aged 41 and a Stockman on a Farm from Burnham Sutton), and Marshanna, (aged 37 and from Guestwick). Their other children are:-

Alice M………aged 14.…..born Burston

George R……..aged 10.….born Burston

Henry J……….aged 3.…..born Guestwick

Herbert……….aged u/1.…born Guestwick

Sidney A……..aged 5.……born Guestwick

Walter………..aged 7.…..born Brandiston

 

O Smith

 

No obvious match on the 1901 or 1911 Census

 

W Smith

 

See T Smith above

 

S Smith

 

See T Smith above

 

Henry Smith……………………Died

 

There was no obvious candidate on the the CWGC at first glance - hundreds of H Smiths. However a review of the 1911 and 1901 Censuses threw up two individuals - a Henry J born 1898 and a Henry Marston born 1871. Now of the two, you’d expect Henry J. to be the more likely to have served, but looking at the numerous candidates matching either H J or Henry J, on the CWGC, there is still no obvious candidate. Under a search for an H M Smith, however, there is this individual.

 

Possibly

Name: SMITH, HENRY MARSTON

Rank: Engineman

Service: Royal Naval Reserve Unit Text: H.M. Drifter "Hilary II."

Date of Death: 25/03/1916 Service No: 2508TS

Grave/Memorial Reference: 19. Memorial: CHATHAM NAVAL MEMORIAL

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=3051664

 

No match on Norlink

 

On the 1901 Census, the 30 year old Henry is recorded as a farmer, at Manor Farm , Baconsthorpe, the village of his birth. Unfortunately he is already a widower. The household is made up by a live in servant, Laura Hazlewood, aged 19 and from Baconsthorpe.

 

The RoH site gives us this candidate, which its sources, (probably “Soldiers who died in the Great War”), state was born Baconsthorpe and enlisted Norwich.

.

Name: SMITH, HENRY JOHN Initials: H J

Rank: Private Regiment/Service: Middlesex Regiment Unit Text: 2nd Bn.

Date of Death: 01/08/1917 Service No: TF/203340

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 49 and 51. Memorial: YPRES (MENIN GATE) MEMORIAL

 

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=917408

 

31st July 1917 Battle of Passchendaele (3rd Ypres) commences

 

Hooge

 

8th Division

 

23 Bde

2nd Bn West Yorkshire Regt and 2nd Bn Devonshire Regt attacked here, supported by 2nd Scotish Rifles and 2nd Middlesex Regt respectively.

 

Both attacking battalions reached their objective, the Yorks taking Ziel House. The support units then passed through, with the Scottish Rifles taking Jaffa Trench despite heavy fire from Kit and Kat Blockhouses. The blockhouses were also captured.

 

This brigade was also forced back to Westhoek Ridge.

 

1st August 1917

 

Frezenberg

 

At 3.30pm under cover of smoke and artillery, the Germans attacked along the Ypres-Roulers Railway line, the boundary between 15th and 8th Divisions. North of the railway artillery stopped the Germans but to the south the 8th Div was forced back, exposing the right flank of 15th Div which was held by 8/10th Gordon Highlanders. The Gordons left fell back to North Station Buildings while the right was reinforced by 6/7th Royal Scots Fusiliers and 11th Argyll & Sutherland Highlanders. The three battalions were ordered to retake the Black Line which they did at 9pm.

 

Westhoek

 

25th Div relieved 8th Div.

 

forum.irishmilitaryonline.com/showthread.php?t=11535

 

F Thaxter………………………….

 

The 1911 census has a Frederick James, born circa 1893 in Baconsthorpe, and still registered in the District of Erpingham that covers the village.

 

The 8 year old Frederick, born Baconsthorpe is still recorded in the village, possibly at Long Lane, (the curse of census takers handwriting strikes again). This is the household of his parents, Joseph, (aged 52 and a Farmer and Vermin killer from Lingwood), and Maria, (aged 53 and from Norwich). Their other children are:-

Alice L……..aged 28 (Single)…..born Shirkleby, York

Arthur………aged 19.………….born Shirkleby, York…..Carpenter

Harry……….aged 15.………….born (poss) Larling, Norfolk….Farmers Son

Robert………aged 22.………….born Shirkleby, York……Farmers Son

 

Frank Thursby………………..Died

 

Norlink has a picture of an Earl Francis Thursby of the Border Regiment.

norlink.norfolk.gov.uk/02_Catalogue/02_013_PictureTitleIn...

The accompanying notes read

Private Thursby was born in Upper Holloway, London, on 18th July 1897. He was educated at Baconsthorpe, Norfolk. He enlisted on 29th May 1915, and was killed in action in Flanders on 4th October 1917

 

Name: THURSBY, EARL FRANCIS

Rank: Private Regiment/Service: Border Regiment Unit Text: 2nd Bn.

Age: 21 Date of Death: 04/10/1917 Service No: 21246

Additional information: Son of Mrs. E. M. Thursby, of Lower Gresham, Norwich. Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 85 to 86. Memorial: TYNE COT MEMORIAL

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=827749

 

The 1911 Census has four Thursby’s associated with Baconsthorpe. They are:-

Fenn Waller, born circa 1854 at Sheingham, Norfolk.

Leiza Mary, born circa 1859 at Islington, London

Earl Francis Zeats, born circa 1897 at Hornsey, London

Cecle Samuel Phypps, born circa 1903 at Holt, Norfolk

 

The 1901 Census has Earle F Y Smith, (aged 4, born Islington, London), recorded at 26 Enfield Road, Hornsey. This is the household of his parents, Fenn Waller Thursby, (aged 48 and a Carpenter from Sheringham), and Eliza M.Thursby (aged 42 and from Islington). Interestingly, one of their other children is an Ethel G. Smith, (aged 11, born Hornsey) who is described as an adopted daughter - I wonder if Earle is adopted as well.

 

Their other children are:

Eliza L…………….aged 20.…………born Islington

Elizabeth M……….aged 19.…………born Islington

 

The RoH site advises that he was an ex-Norfolk Regiment man

 

Today marks the start of the Battle of Broodseinde.

 

Zero Hour was set for 6 am.

 

Polygon Wood

 

7th Div

 

20 Bde

8th Bn, Devonshire Regt led the attack reaching the first objective in good time. 2nd Bn, Gordon Highlanders then took over but they strayed left keeping in touch with the Australians on the left flank. 2nd Bn, Border Regt was then brought up to fill the gap on the Gordon’s right.

forum.irishmilitaryonline.com/showthread.php?t=11535&...

 

J Underwood

 

The 1911 Census has 3 individuals with the surname Underwood associated with Baconsthorpe.

Jebi A, born circa 1860 in France

William, born circa 1883 in France

J S born circa 1887 in France

 

On the 1901 Census, we have a John G,, aged 14, born at Nice, France, and recorded as a Boarder at Riverlyn House, Hoveringham, Nottinghamshire. William is recorded living with a maiden aunt, Alice Morgan at 151 Church Street, Chelsea and working as a “Discount Clerk” - presumably something in the financial world rather than the Victorian equivalent of Pound land J

 

J Williamson

 

There are no Williamson’s associated with Baconsthorpe on the 1911 or the 1901 Census. There are a number recorded elsewhere in the Erpingham District, including two James.

 

W Wilkes-Walker

 

Wilkes-Walker doesn’t appear to be a name that appears at all on either the 1901 or 1911 Census, however the search engine provided by Genes Re-united on their transcriptions of these documents isn’t particularly good on hyphenated surnames.

  

Oxtails, Jersey Royal Potatoes, Spring salad of pea shoots tomato and Asparagus

 

Traditionally grown Jersey Royal Potatoes (thanks to the Ark - Slow Food UK)

 

Jersey’s early new potato and it’s most famous export can be found in most British supermarkets in the season – Easter to June.

 

They are small kidney-shaped potatoes with fragile, papery skins that rub off easily. Jersey Royals are graded into three sizes – ware, small ware and mids (the smallest). The texture is firm and waxy with an excellent nutty, earthy flavour. The distinctive flavour (which many attribute to the fertiliser), coupled with the fact that they are the first "new" potatoes of the year within the UK, has created a high demand for Jersey Royals. This demand has created its own problems, most notably the use of polythene to force the potatoes even earlier in the year.

 

Jersey has grown potatoes commercially since the early 19th Century, and was already exporting them to the British mainland in the days of sailing ships. In 1880, a Jersey potato grower called Hugh de la Haye saw, in the window of a potato merchant’s store, some comical looking potatoes with an unusually high number of sprouts, which were being shown off as an amusing curiosity.

He cut them up, and planted the pieces, each with its own sprout, in his garden. When he dug them up at harvest time, and boiled them, he found the taste much superior to his commercial farming crop. So he saved some as seed potatoes, harvested again the next season, gave his friends seed potatoes, and within a few years the so-called ‘Jersey Fluke’ potato was being sold commercially.

 

This was the high tide of British Imperialism in the late Victorian era, when anything good, or above average was christened ‘royal’ in respectful tribute to the Queen, so very soon the Jersey Fluke had become the Royal Jersey Fluke, and, for the past 100 years or so, the Jersey Royal.

 

Traditionally they were grown on steep south facing coastal slopes (Côtils), and of necessity could only be planted and harvested by hand. On flatter ground they can be mechanically harvested. Potatoes grown as a monoculture require chemicals to prevent disease. Traditionally they were grown in rotation, especially on dairy farms, where the manure was used for fertiliser. The other traditional fertiliser is "vraic" (seaweed).

 

For around 70 –80 years it had no competition within Britain. It was earlier than anything that mainland Britain could produce. However, by the 1960s and 1970s, potatoes were being imported from far-flung climes, thus the Jersey Royal was no longer ‘the earliest potato’ in UK retail outlets, and that helps to explain the decline of the Jersey Royal – a decline that is now beginning to accelerate.

 

The decline of the Royal is due almost entirely to globalised trading. In its heyday, it was the earliest potato you could buy. Now no longer – new potatoes come from Israel, Egypt, and a host of other places. They have lost their uniqueness. The Island has only about half a dozen commercial customers now for its crop – the giant supermarket chains, which buy 90 per cent of the crop.

There are still a very few farmers, who combine a herd of dairy cattle with a potato crop, and likewise a very few farmers, who fertilise their fields with vraic – Jersey seaweed, the natural fertiliser of Jersey fields throughout history. Again, there are a very few farmers who take the trouble to harvest the steepest sloping slopes (côtils), which, like vineyards, catch the early sun. It is these farmers that we have included within the Ark and whose potatoes shone through in blind tastings against those grown under polythene.

 

Most are sold only on the island, but one grower, Richard and Nicky Le Boutillier of Woodlands Farm, Jersey, who now sell Jersey Royals direct to customers in the UK via the internet: www.holmegrown.com

 

slowfoodark.com/Cms/Page/jersey

 

Contact:

 

For more information contact Alasdair Crosby, acrosby@live.co.uk

  

The Princess Alexandra Statue, located in the Jack Shiel Gardens in the north eastern country town of Alexandra, is the work of English sculptor Charles Summers (1825 – 1878). The Princess Alexandra Statue is made of white Italian marble, and was completed in Rome as part of a commission for Sir William J. Clarke (1831 – 1897) in 1876. Sir William commissioned him to sculpt four large statues in marble of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and the then Prince and Princess of Wales (later Edward VII and Queen Alexandra) for presentation to the Melbourne art gallery. These were completed in 1878. Soon afterwards Charles Summers while on his way to England was taken seriously ill, and died after an operation for acute goitre in Paris. The Princess Alexandra Statue was his last sculpture.

 

Originally located in the grounds of the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, the statue was relocated to Alexandra in 1939 where it was installed in the pretty Jack Shiel Gardens where she is surrounded by beds of roses, her favourite flower. In 1994 the statue was unveiled under a new colonnade, which was financed under the Centennial Awards.

 

Charles Summer was a regular exhibitor at Royal Academy exhibitions; more than 40 of his works were shown between 1849 and 1876. He was a competent sculptor who also created the figures on the ceiling of the council chamber of Melbourne’s Parliament House, a frieze of putti on the old Bank of New South Wales building (now located at Melbourne University) and the recumbent figure of Lady Macleay in Surrey. However it is the memorial to the explorers Burke and Wills on the corner of Collins and Swanston Streets in Melbourne’s heart that he is best known for.

 

Born in 1845, Princess Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia was a Princess of Denmark; one of five sisters (two of whom would also became Queens of Norway and Russia). A beautiful and slender lady with perfect complexion and lovely mannerisms as befitting a queen, Alexandra was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (1841 – 1910) the heir apparent of Queen Victoria when the Danish princess was just sixteen. They married eighteen months later in 1863 in the St George Chapel, Windsor Castle, the same year her father became Christian IX of Denmark and her brother, George, was appointed King of Greece. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has ever held that title, and became generally popular; her style of dress and bearing were copied by fashion-conscious women. On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became King-Emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as Queen-Empress Consort. From Edward's death in 1910 until her own death, she was the Queen Mother. She died of a heart attack just before her 80th birthday in 1925 and was buried in an elaborate tomb next to her husband in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

 

Alexandra is a town in Victoria, Australia. It is located at the junction of the Goulburn Valley Highway (B340) and Maroondah Highway (B360), 26 kilometres west of Eildon. The town was settled in the late 1860s, with a Post Office opening on 15 March 1867 (known until 24 April 1867) as Redgate. The town was originally known as Redgate, or Red Gate Diggings. The current name either derives from Alexandra of Denmark (Queen’s Consort to King Edward VII of England) when given a stature of her to the shire; or from three men named Alexander (Alesander, McGregor, Alexander Don, and Alexander Luckie) who discovered gold in the area in 1866. Charles Jones born Herefordshire also discovered Gold on the Luckie Mine in 1866. He bought a Hotel with John Henry Osborne and was the proprietor of the New York and London Hotel Grant Street Alexandra. The railway to Alexandra arrived in the town via Yea from Tallarook in 1909, and closed on November 18, 1978. The Rubicon Tramway connected Alexandra with the village of Rubicon, at the junction of the Rubicon and Royston Rivers. Today many tourists pass through Alexandra on their way to the Mount Buller ski resort from Melbourne. The town contains the Timber Tramway and Museum (located at the Alexandra Railway Station), and the National Trust classified post office and law courts. There is a local market on the second Saturday of each month from September to May, an annual art show at Easter, an agricultural show and rose festival in November, and the annual Truck, Rod and Ute Show in June.

  

The Princess Alexandra Statue, located in the Jack Shiel Gardens in the north eastern country town of Alexandra, is the work of English sculptor Charles Summers (1825 – 1878). The Princess Alexandra Statue is made of white Italian marble, and was completed in Rome as part of a commission for Sir William J. Clarke (1831 – 1897) in 1876. Sir William commissioned him to sculpt four large statues in marble of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and the then Prince and Princess of Wales (later Edward VII and Queen Alexandra) for presentation to the Melbourne art gallery. These were completed in 1878. Soon afterwards Charles Summers while on his way to England was taken seriously ill, and died after an operation for acute goitre in Paris. The Princess Alexandra Statue was his last sculpture.

 

Originally located in the grounds of the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, the statue was relocated to Alexandra in 1939 where it was installed in the pretty Jack Shiel Gardens where she is surrounded by beds of roses, her favourite flower. In 1994 the statue was unveiled under a new colonnade, which was financed under the Centennial Awards.

 

Charles Summer was a regular exhibitor at Royal Academy exhibitions; more than 40 of his works were shown between 1849 and 1876. He was a competent sculptor who also created the figures on the ceiling of the council chamber of Melbourne’s Parliament House, a frieze of putti on the old Bank of New South Wales building (now located at Melbourne University) and the recumbent figure of Lady Macleay in Surrey. However it is the memorial to the explorers Burke and Wills on the corner of Collins and Swanston Streets in Melbourne’s heart that he is best known for.

 

Born in 1845, Princess Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia was a Princess of Denmark; one of five sisters (two of whom would also became Queens of Norway and Russia). A beautiful and slender lady with perfect complexion and lovely mannerisms as befitting a queen, Alexandra was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (1841 – 1910) the heir apparent of Queen Victoria when the Danish princess was just sixteen. They married eighteen months later in 1863 in the St George Chapel, Windsor Castle, the same year her father became Christian IX of Denmark and her brother, George, was appointed King of Greece. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has ever held that title, and became generally popular; her style of dress and bearing were copied by fashion-conscious women. On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became King-Emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as Queen-Empress Consort. From Edward's death in 1910 until her own death, she was the Queen Mother. She died of a heart attack just before her 80th birthday in 1925 and was buried in an elaborate tomb next to her husband in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

 

Alexandra is a town in Victoria, Australia. It is located at the junction of the Goulburn Valley Highway (B340) and Maroondah Highway (B360), 26 kilometres west of Eildon. The town was settled in the late 1860s, with a Post Office opening on 15 March 1867 (known until 24 April 1867) as Redgate. The town was originally known as Redgate, or Red Gate Diggings. The current name either derives from Alexandra of Denmark (Queen’s Consort to King Edward VII of England) when given a stature of her to the shire; or from three men named Alexander (Alesander, McGregor, Alexander Don, and Alexander Luckie) who discovered gold in the area in 1866. Charles Jones born Herefordshire also discovered Gold on the Luckie Mine in 1866. He bought a Hotel with John Henry Osborne and was the proprietor of the New York and London Hotel Grant Street Alexandra. The railway to Alexandra arrived in the town via Yea from Tallarook in 1909, and closed on November 18, 1978. The Rubicon Tramway connected Alexandra with the village of Rubicon, at the junction of the Rubicon and Royston Rivers. Today many tourists pass through Alexandra on their way to the Mount Buller ski resort from Melbourne. The town contains the Timber Tramway and Museum (located at the Alexandra Railway Station), and the National Trust classified post office and law courts. There is a local market on the second Saturday of each month from September to May, an annual art show at Easter, an agricultural show and rose festival in November, and the annual Truck, Rod and Ute Show in June.

  

The Princess Alexandra Statue, located in the Jack Shiel Gardens in the north eastern country town of Alexandra, is the work of English sculptor Charles Summers (1825 – 1878). The Princess Alexandra Statue is made of white Italian marble, and was completed in Rome as part of a commission for Sir William J. Clarke (1831 – 1897) in 1876. Sir William commissioned him to sculpt four large statues in marble of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and the then Prince and Princess of Wales (later Edward VII and Queen Alexandra) for presentation to the Melbourne art gallery. These were completed in 1878. Soon afterwards Charles Summers while on his way to England was taken seriously ill, and died after an operation for acute goitre in Paris. The Princess Alexandra Statue was his last sculpture.

 

Originally located in the grounds of the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, the statue was relocated to Alexandra in 1939 where it was installed in the pretty Jack Shiel Gardens where she is surrounded by beds of roses, her favourite flower. In 1994 the statue was unveiled under a new colonnade, which was financed under the Centennial Awards.

 

Charles Summer was a regular exhibitor at Royal Academy exhibitions; more than 40 of his works were shown between 1849 and 1876. He was a competent sculptor who also created the figures on the ceiling of the council chamber of Melbourne’s Parliament House, a frieze of putti on the old Bank of New South Wales building (now located at Melbourne University) and the recumbent figure of Lady Macleay in Surrey. However it is the memorial to the explorers Burke and Wills on the corner of Collins and Swanston Streets in Melbourne’s heart that he is best known for.

 

Born in 1845, Princess Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia was a Princess of Denmark; one of five sisters (two of whom would also became Queens of Norway and Russia). A beautiful and slender lady with perfect complexion and lovely mannerisms as befitting a queen, Alexandra was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (1841 – 1910) the heir apparent of Queen Victoria when the Danish princess was just sixteen. They married eighteen months later in 1863 in the St George Chapel, Windsor Castle, the same year her father became Christian IX of Denmark and her brother, George, was appointed King of Greece. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has ever held that title, and became generally popular; her style of dress and bearing were copied by fashion-conscious women. On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became King-Emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as Queen-Empress Consort. From Edward's death in 1910 until her own death, she was the Queen Mother. She died of a heart attack just before her 80th birthday in 1925 and was buried in an elaborate tomb next to her husband in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

 

Alexandra is a town in Victoria, Australia. It is located at the junction of the Goulburn Valley Highway (B340) and Maroondah Highway (B360), 26 kilometres west of Eildon. The town was settled in the late 1860s, with a Post Office opening on 15 March 1867 (known until 24 April 1867) as Redgate. The town was originally known as Redgate, or Red Gate Diggings. The current name either derives from Alexandra of Denmark (Queen’s Consort to King Edward VII of England) when given a stature of her to the shire; or from three men named Alexander (Alesander, McGregor, Alexander Don, and Alexander Luckie) who discovered gold in the area in 1866. Charles Jones born Herefordshire also discovered Gold on the Luckie Mine in 1866. He bought a Hotel with John Henry Osborne and was the proprietor of the New York and London Hotel Grant Street Alexandra. The railway to Alexandra arrived in the town via Yea from Tallarook in 1909, and closed on November 18, 1978. The Rubicon Tramway connected Alexandra with the village of Rubicon, at the junction of the Rubicon and Royston Rivers. Today many tourists pass through Alexandra on their way to the Mount Buller ski resort from Melbourne. The town contains the Timber Tramway and Museum (located at the Alexandra Railway Station), and the National Trust classified post office and law courts. There is a local market on the second Saturday of each month from September to May, an annual art show at Easter, an agricultural show and rose festival in November, and the annual Truck, Rod and Ute Show in June.

  

The Princess Alexandra Statue, located in the Jack Shiel Gardens in the north eastern country town of Alexandra, is the work of English sculptor Charles Summers (1825 – 1878). The Princess Alexandra Statue is made of white Italian marble, and was completed in Rome as part of a commission for Sir William J. Clarke (1831 – 1897) in 1876. Sir William commissioned him to sculpt four large statues in marble of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and the then Prince and Princess of Wales (later Edward VII and Queen Alexandra) for presentation to the Melbourne art gallery. These were completed in 1878. Soon afterwards Charles Summers while on his way to England was taken seriously ill, and died after an operation for acute goitre in Paris. The Princess Alexandra Statue was his last sculpture.

 

Originally located in the grounds of the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, the statue was relocated to Alexandra in 1939 where it was installed in the pretty Jack Shiel Gardens where she is surrounded by beds of roses, her favourite flower. In 1994 the statue was unveiled under a new colonnade, which was financed under the Centennial Awards.

 

Charles Summer was a regular exhibitor at Royal Academy exhibitions; more than 40 of his works were shown between 1849 and 1876. He was a competent sculptor who also created the figures on the ceiling of the council chamber of Melbourne’s Parliament House, a frieze of putti on the old Bank of New South Wales building (now located at Melbourne University) and the recumbent figure of Lady Macleay in Surrey. However it is the memorial to the explorers Burke and Wills on the corner of Collins and Swanston Streets in Melbourne’s heart that he is best known for.

 

Born in 1845, Princess Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia was a Princess of Denmark; one of five sisters (two of whom would also became Queens of Norway and Russia). A beautiful and slender lady with perfect complexion and lovely mannerisms as befitting a queen, Alexandra was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (1841 – 1910) the heir apparent of Queen Victoria when the Danish princess was just sixteen. They married eighteen months later in 1863 in the St George Chapel, Windsor Castle, the same year her father became Christian IX of Denmark and her brother, George, was appointed King of Greece. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has ever held that title, and became generally popular; her style of dress and bearing were copied by fashion-conscious women. On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became King-Emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as Queen-Empress Consort. From Edward's death in 1910 until her own death, she was the Queen Mother. She died of a heart attack just before her 80th birthday in 1925 and was buried in an elaborate tomb next to her husband in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

 

Alexandra is a town in Victoria, Australia. It is located at the junction of the Goulburn Valley Highway (B340) and Maroondah Highway (B360), 26 kilometres west of Eildon. The town was settled in the late 1860s, with a Post Office opening on 15 March 1867 (known until 24 April 1867) as Redgate. The town was originally known as Redgate, or Red Gate Diggings. The current name either derives from Alexandra of Denmark (Queen’s Consort to King Edward VII of England) when given a stature of her to the shire; or from three men named Alexander (Alesander, McGregor, Alexander Don, and Alexander Luckie) who discovered gold in the area in 1866. Charles Jones born Herefordshire also discovered Gold on the Luckie Mine in 1866. He bought a Hotel with John Henry Osborne and was the proprietor of the New York and London Hotel Grant Street Alexandra. The railway to Alexandra arrived in the town via Yea from Tallarook in 1909, and closed on November 18, 1978. The Rubicon Tramway connected Alexandra with the village of Rubicon, at the junction of the Rubicon and Royston Rivers. Today many tourists pass through Alexandra on their way to the Mount Buller ski resort from Melbourne. The town contains the Timber Tramway and Museum (located at the Alexandra Railway Station), and the National Trust classified post office and law courts. There is a local market on the second Saturday of each month from September to May, an annual art show at Easter, an agricultural show and rose festival in November, and the annual Truck, Rod and Ute Show in June.

  

A Carpenter - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

No obvious matches on CWGC

 

Choices from the 1901 Census include am Albert, born circa 1878 Wymondham and now resident Swainsthorpe as a Labourer in Garden, and an Arthur born circa 1884 and now resident Spooner Row as an Ordinary Agricultural Labourer.

 

Updated The Military Genealogy site lists an Arthur Edward, born Sutton, Wymondham, enlisted Wymondham.

 

Armed with this information and checking the CWGC database again, produces this match.

Name: CARPENTER, ARTHUR E.

Rank: Private

Regiment: East Yorkshire Regiment

Unit Text: 12th Bn.

Age: 34

Date of Death: 13/11/1916

Service No: 28210

Additional information: Son of John and Maria Carpenter, of Spooner Row, Wymondham, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: Pier and Face 2 C.

Memorial: THIEPVAL MEMORIAL

CWGC: www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?cas ualty=1542239

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W Carpenter - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

No obvious matches on CWGC

 

No match on Norlink

 

The 1901 Census has a Walter Carpenter, aged 21, resident at “Chain Entry” Wymondham in the household of his parents, Arthur, (aged 48, Teamster on Farm), and Maria, (aged 50), as well as siblings Sydney, (aged 16) and Maud, (aged 14).

 

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S Catlyn - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: CATLYN, SIDNEY

Rank: Private

Regiment: York and Lancaster Regiment Unit Text: 12th Bn.

Age: 21 Date of Death: 01/10/1917 Service No: 235615

Additional information: Son of Leonard James Catlyn, of Church St., Wymondham, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: I. E. 6. Cemetery: ROCLINCOURT MILITARY CEMETERY

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=525727

 

The 1901 Census has Sidney Catlyn, (aged 5) living in the household of his parents at 91 Junction Road, Norwich, although he had been born in Wymondham. His parents were Leonard, (aged 31, a General Carter) and Jane, (aged 31) and sister Laura, (aged 3)/ Also living in the house was Sidney’s uncle, (George, his fathers brother and also a General Carter).

 

www.pals.org.uk/sheffield/

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B Chamberlin - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Possibly

Name: CHAMBERLIN, BEN

Rank: Private

Regiment: Northumberland Fusiliers Unit Text: 1st/4th Bn.

Date of Death: 15/09/1916 Service No: 9018

Grave/Memorial Reference: Pier and Face 10 B 11 B and 12 B. Memorial: THIEPVAL MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=1542979

 

The 1901 Census has Ben Chamberlin, (aged 3) resident at “Plainwood” hethersett, the residence of his parents, William, (aged 40, a G E R Plate Labourer), and Ann Maria, (aged 36). Both parents were from Wymondham, and their older children, William, (aged 15), Lily, (aged 17 and a housemaid domestic) and Charles, (aged 12) were all born there as well. Further siblings, born Hethersett, are Dorothy, (aged 5), Emma, (aged 7), Ernest, (aged 10)and Harry, (aged 9).

 

15th September 1916.

The 4th Bn were faced with an unenviable task. Earlier fighting had left a 'dog-leg' in the front line, therefore the 4th Bns' assembly (Eye) trench was three hundred yards further forward than those of the 47th Divn on the right flank. If the fusiliers did not delay their advance until the 47th Divn were alongside they would be totally exposed to enfilade fire from enemy machine guns sited in the strongpoint on the ridge top at the north west corner of High Wood (Bois De Foureaux). From this strongpoint it was possible for the enemy to rake the ground between the wood and Martinpuich to the west. The strongpoint had been repeatedly attacked in the weeks preceding, but with no success. However, if High Wood was outflanked by the 4th Bn, there was the possibility of capturing trenches eight hundred yards to the rear of the wood and cutting off the enemy units in it. The decision was taken for the 4th Bn to advance at zero hour

 

4th Bn HQ telephoned Bde HQ at 7.14am to report that the first objective had been 'made good'. However, the 4th and 7th Bns had just begun to dig in at the first objective when they came under heavy machine gun and rifle fire from the direction of High Wood. The fusiliers took shelter until it was time to advance on the second objective at 7.20am.

 

At 7.27am Bde HQ received a report from the 4th Bn stating that the advance to the 2nd objective had begun in good order and that the enemy barrage was falling almost entirely in front of the 1st objective.

 

The second objective was captured and fusiliers of the 4th Bn entered the Starfish Line, but enemy fire from both flanks inflicted very heavy casualties on them. Wiith the 47th Divn held up in High Wood and unable to provide any support on the right flank, the 4th Bn were forced to fall back to Hook Trench. The severe difficulties experienced by the 47th Divn, in High Wood, meant that the right flank of the 4th Bn was now dangerously exposed and would had to be carefully guarded from attack. Hook Trench and Bethel Sap were strengthened and made secure.

 

At 9.25am the 4th Bn reported that the enemy had launched a bombing attack on Bethel Sap from the direction of High Wood, this was quickly followed by a request for bombers to be sent forward to assist with the defence

 

Casualties

The 4th Bn sent twenty-two officers and six hundred and ninety-five men into action that morning. The subsequent roll call revealed that 10 officers and 110 men had been killed, 7 officers and 229 men wounded and 143 were missing.

Records show that at least 180 fusiliers from the 4th Bn were actually killed in action or died of wounds during the Battle of Flers-Courcellette.

www.4thbnnf.com/35_160915_flerscourcelette.html

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F Chamberlain - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

No obvious matches on CWGC

 

No match on Norlink

Most likely matches from the 1901 Census are a Frederick (aged 31 and a Bricklayers Labourer), or his son, another Frederick, (aged 9). The family were resident at White Horse Street.

 

Updated F Chamberlain

 

The SDGW database has a Frank Ernest Chamberlain born Wymondham, enlisted Wymondham, who was soldier 20443, Essex Regiment.

 

That soldier on the CWGC database is

Name: CHAMBERLAIN, FRANK ERNEST

Rank: Private

Regiment/Service: Essex Regiment

Unit Text: 1st Bn.

Date of Death: 06/08/1915

Service No: 20443

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 144 to 150 or 229 to 233.

Memorial: HELLES MEMORIAL

CWGC: www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?cas ualty=697018

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J S Childerhouse - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: CHILDERHOUSE, JOHN STEVEN

Rank: Private

Regiment: Coldstream Guards Unit Text: 1st Bn. Age: 31

Date of Death: 28/09/1915 Service No: 7870

Additional information: Son of S. Childerhouse, of London Rd., Wymondham, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 7 and 8. Memorial: LOOS MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=729724

 

The 1901 Census has John Childerhouse, (aged 16, a bricklayers labourer), living at Friarscroft Lane with his parents Stephen Childerhouse, (aged 44, a Railway Labourer) and Laura, (aged 43) and siblings Charles, (aged 12), Gladys (aged 4), and Violet (aged 18, a horse hair weaver).

 

Late in the afternoon of the 27th September, the Guards brigade, with the 1st Coldstream in reserve, were thrown into the battle for the key Hill 70, during the Battle of Loos. With the Irish and Scots Guards being driven back, the Coldstreams were unleashed and joining with the remnants of the other units, pushed on and took the hill. In two days the Guards Brigade had lost 42 officers and 1266 men. By the night of the 27th/28th the front line was stabilising, but this only meant that the German artillery could concentrate their fire on the new allied positions.

 

A follow up attack by the 1st led to the Coldstream’s, already at half strength, being almost annihilated on the 28th.

books.google.co.uk/books?id=OClz6xxwgCUC&pg=PA30&...

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W Chilvers - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

No obvious matches on CWGC

 

Possible match on Norlink

norlink.norfolk.gov.uk/02_Catalogue/02_013_PictureTitleIn...

 

Norlink notes

 

Born at Carleton Rode, 31st May 1898, educated at Bunwell council school. He enlisted 2nd February 1917 and was reported killed in action 8th August 1918. His unit is given as the 7 RWS

 

Name: CHILVERS, WESLEY H. W. EWART GLADSTONE

Rank: Private

Regiment: The Queen's (Royal West Surrey Regiment) Unit Text: 7th Bn.

Age: 20 Date of Death: 08/08/1918 Service No: 205381

Additional information: Son of John and Alice Chilvers, of North St., Carleton Rode, Attleborough, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: I. B. 3. Cemetery: BEACON CEMETERY, SAILLY-LAURETTE

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=185587

 

At the time of the 1901 Census, Wesley Chilvers was living at Banwell Street, Carleton Rode with his parents. There are no obvious other matches,

 

www.chilversgenealogy.co.uk/rollhon.htm

freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~chilvers/Carle...

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P Clabburn - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: CLABBURN, PERCY

Rank: Sergeant

Regiment: Canadian Infantry Unit Text: 60th Bn.

Age: 26 Date of Death: 26/11/1916 Service No: 458165

Additional information: Son of George and Martha Clabburn, of Wymondham, Norfolk, England.

Grave/Memorial Reference: III. J. 9. Cemetery: ECOIVRES MILITARY CEMETERY, MONT-ST. ELOI

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=64971

 

At the 1901 Census, Percy, aged 10, was resident on Market Street with his parents George, (aged 41, an Innkeeper) and Martha, (aged 42) as well as siblings, Arthur, (aged 16, Factory Brush?), Henry, (aged 15, Factory Brush?), Ida, (aged 5), and Winifred, (aged 13)

 

Percys Canadian attestation (enlistment) forms can be seen here.

collectionscanada.ca/databases/cef/001042-119.02-e.php?im...

collectionscanada.ca/databases/cef/001042-119.02-e.php?im...

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E Claxton - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: CLAXTON, ERNEST SIDNEY

Rank: Private

Regiment: Essex Regiment Unit Text: 3rd Bn.

Date of Death: 27/10/1918 Service No: 20924

Additional information: Husband of Eunice Eliza Claxton, of Friars Croft Lane, Wymondham.

Grave/Memorial Reference: 2. 95. Cemetery: WYMONDHAM CEMETERY

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=2802744

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T Clements - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: CLEMENTS, THOMAS SAMUEL

Rank: Private

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 8th Bn.

Age: 37 Date of Death: 24/10/1917 Service No: 18619

Additional information: Son of Elizabeth Mary and the late George Samuel Clements, of Wymondham, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: XXX. G. 6A. Cemetery: ETAPLES MILITARY CEMETERY

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=499975

 

Thomas was 19 and a Boot Riveter living on Cock Street, Wymondham with his widowed mother Elizabeth, aged 51 and siblings:-

Ethel........Aged 14......Brush Maker

George......Aged 21.......Blake Machine Operator

John........Aged 16.......Grocers Porter

Julia.......Aged 22.......Laundress

May.........Aged 17.......Brush Maker

Edith (Cook)Aged 29.......Boot Machinist

 

As well as nieces Elizabeth Cook, (aged 11) and Elsie Cook, (aged 1)

 

October 1917

The first three weeks of October were spent on the west bank of the Yser canal, and partly in training for the attack of October 22nd in the Poelcappelle neighbourhood. On the 20th the battalion was in Cane trench ready for the forthcoming attack "

 

It then goes on to decribe the attack which went in on around 5.50am of the 22nd. The Norfolks went first, leapt frogged by the 10th Essex. Despite the mud all the objectives were achieved.

"The triumphant Essex and Norfolks...........tramped back to hear the whole division ...and General Maxse.... singing their paise. "

 

Losses were heavy and this was destined to be the Battalions last great action before it's dissolution. Being split up in the new year to go to the 7th and 9th Norfolks

1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/lofiversion/index.php/t...

 

Although I cannot be certain, after such an attack there would no doubt have been many casualties who would subsequently have died of their wounds. Etaples was not only a training centre but also had several field hospitals nearby and the fatalities from these were buried in the Etaples cemetery.

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A Coldham - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: COLDHAM, ALEXANDER

Rank: Private

Regiment: Machine Gun Corps (Infantry) Unit Text: 117th Coy.

Age: 23 Date of Death: 21/10/1917 Service No: 107254

Additional information: Son of Mr. and Mrs. H. Coldham, of Chapel Lane, Wymondham, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 154 to 159 and 163A. Memorial: TYNE COT MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=840831

 

At the time of the 1901 Census, Alexander, (aged 6) was living on Cock Street, Wymondham with his parents Horace, (aged 32 and a Groom &Gardener) and Gertrude (aged 31) and siblings Ernest, (aged 4), Ethel, (under 1)and Frederick, (aged 1)

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A J Cooke

 

No obvious matches on CWGC

 

No match on Norlink

No obvious match on the 1901 Census.

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G R Cooke

 

No obvious matches on CWGC

 

No match on Norlink

No obvious match on the 1901 Census.

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W Cowles - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

No obvious matches on CWGC

 

No match on Norlink

No obvious match on the 1901 Census.

 

On various websites there are references to a Walter Cowles born Wymondham 1878, but as he then goes on to run a small drapers shop in the 1920’s, he would appear not to be our man.

 

Updated see comments 1& 2 below

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D Cross - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Most likely

Name: CROSS, DONALD STUART

Rank: Private

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 1st/4th Bn.

Date of Death: 14/08/1915 Service No: 2052

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 42 to 44. Memorial: HELLES MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=694710

 

No obvious match on the 1901 Census.

 

The diary of Captain Montgomerie, the acting C.O of the 1st/4th notes on this day only that:-

14th. - Our men were now getting exhausted from hard work and lack of food. We sent up some food to them in the early morning. They were well off for water as they had four wells, but they ran considerable risk in getting it.

user.online.be/~snelders/sand.htm

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J B Cross - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: CROSS, JOHN BUCKINGHAM

Rank: Company Quartermaster Serjeant

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 4th Bn.

Age: 51 Date of Death: 01/11/1915 Service No: 2214

Additional information: Son of the late Robert and Sarah Cross, of Wymondham; husband of Laura Cross, of "Fernlea," Norwich Rd., Wymondham, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: D. I. 3. Cemetery: PIETA MILITARY CEMETERY

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=115074

 

The Cemetery is located in Triq Id-Duluri (Our Lady of Sorrows Street), 2 kilometres south-west of Valletta on the road to Sliema. On the edge of the Gwardamanga district, the entrance is on Triq II-Principessa Melita, leading to Triq Tal-Pieta and Msida Sea Front and Creek. Historical Information: From the spring of 1915, the hospitals and convalescent depots established on the islands of Malta and Gozo dealt with over 135,000 sick and wounded, chiefly from the campaigns in Gallipoli and Salonika, although increased submarine activity in the Mediterranean meant that fewer hospital ships were sent to the island from May 1917

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C W Daniels - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Possibly

Name: DANIELS, CECIL WILLIAM

Rank: Second Lieutenant

Regiment: Sherwood Foresters (Notts and Derby Regiment) Age: 25 Date of Death: 04/11/1918

Grave/Memorial Reference: 5. N.G. 614. Cemetery: NORWICH CEMETERY, Norfolk

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=2803104

 

No match on Norlink

 

No obvious match on the 1901 Census.

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S Doubleday - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Probably

Name: DOUBLEDAY, SAMUEL

Rank: Private

Regiment: Royal Fusiliers Unit Text: 13th Bn.

Date of Death: 11/04/1917 Service No: 11137

Grave/Memorial Reference: Bay 3. Memorial: ARRAS MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=1540460

 

No match in Norlink

 

The 1901 Census has a Samuel Doubleday, (aged 8) living at Spooner Row with his parents Charles, (aged 40, a farmer) and Lavinia (aged 30), as well as siblings Charles, (aged 11) and Rosa, (aged 14), and his uncle, John Wharton, aged 18.

Updated The Military Genealogy site confirms this Samuel was born Sutton and resident Wymondham.

 

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H Dove - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

No obvious matches on CWGC

 

No match on Norlink

 

While there is no obvious match on the 1901 Census, there is a John Dove, aged 11, who is actually listed as John H C Dove. John was born at Wymondham, and at the time of the census was living in Norwich Road, Wymondham with his parents, John, (aged 34, occupation indecipherable) and Eliza A. (aged 33) as well as siblings George, (aged 4), Gladys C C, (aged 1), Hannah, (aged 8) Thomas J (aged 14) and a Robert Thompson, aged 15 who is also listed as a son of John senior.

 

That raises the possibility that this may relate:-

 

Name: DOVE, JOHN H. C.

Rank: Gunner

Regiment/Service: Royal Horse Artillery Unit Text: "W" Bty.

Date of Death: 01/10/1915 Service No: 55578

Memorial: DELHI 1914-1918 WAR MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=1451124

Updated The Military Genealogy site Same confirms that John H C Dove was born Wymondham.

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D Dunham - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Probably

Name: DUNHAM, DOUGLAS ALFRED

Rank: Rifleman

Regiment: Rifle Brigade Unit Text: 7th Bn.

Date of Death: 18/08/1916 Service No: 1196

Grave/Memorial Reference: Pier and Face 16 B and 16 C. Memorial: THIEPVAL MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=755319

 

There are no matches on the 1901 Census for a Douglas Dunham.

Updated The Military Genealogy site confirms that Douglas Arthur Dunham was born Wymondham.

Updated November 2012 The 22 year old Douglas Alfred, born "Weymondham, Norfolk" was recorded serving overseas as a Rifleman in the 4th Battalion, Rifle Brigade, located at The Citadel, Cairo, Egypt.

 

The baptism of a Douglas Arthur, (date of birth not recorded), took place at the church of The Virgin Mary and St Thomas a'Beckett, Wymondham on the 4th September 1887.Parents were Arthur William, a Horse Breaker, and Jessie. The family lived at North Field, Wymondham.

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F G Eastoll - also on Abbey Roll of Honour (F Eastoll)

 

Name: EASTOLL, FREDERICK GEORGE

Rank: Private

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 1st Bn.

Age: 26 Date of Death: 27/07/1916 Service No: 3/10841

Additional information: Husband of the late Alice Eastoll.

Grave/Memorial Reference: Pier and Face 1 C and 1 D. Memorial: THIEPVAL MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=752711

 

The 1901 Census has a Fredrick Eastoll, aged 9 living at Silver Street, Besthorpe, in the household of his grandfather, Robert, (aged 54, an agricultural labourer) and grandmother, Sarah, (aged 50), as well as their children:=

George.............Age 15.............Bricklayers Labourer

Geraldine..........Age 17.............Housemaid Domestic

Philip.............Age 12

 

For a report on the action in which Frederick died see here:-

www.bedfordregiment.org.uk/1stbtn/1stbtn1916appendices.html

 

This was another costly day for the 1st Norfolk’s - a trawl of the CWGC web-sites reveals 86 fatalities on this day.

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E R Edwards - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: EDWARDS, ERNEST RICHARD

Rank: Private

Regiment: Essex Regiment Unit Text: 10th Bn.

Age: 22 Date of Death: 22/10/1917 Service No: 203039

Additional information: Son of W. and Ruth Edwards, of Bellrope Lane, Wymondham, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 98 to 99. Memorial: TYNE COT MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=1631000

 

The 1901 Census has two Ernest’s in Wymondham, but one is shown as Ernest R, and lived on Bellrope Lane, Wymondham. His parents were William R, (age 29, a masons carter) and Ruth E. (aged 27), as well as brother leslie G. (aged 3).

 

The final capture of Poelcapelle and Meunier House by the 10th Essex and a Norfolk Battalion took place on 22nd October 1917

1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=107...

.

The 10th Essex suffered 48 fatalities on this day

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B W Elvin - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: ELVIN, BERNARD WILLIAM

Rank: Private

Regiment: Northamptonshire Regiment Unit Text: 1st Bn.

Age: 20 Date of Death: 03/04/1916 Service No: 17445

Additional information: Son of Charles and Eliza Alice Elvin, of 6, Cemetery Rd., Wymondham, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: III. J. 20. Cemetery: ST. PATRICK'S CEMETERY, LOOS

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=563026

 

No match on Norlink

 

The 1901 Census has a William B. aged 4 living at The Lizard, Wymondham with his parents, Charles, (aged 32, an Assurance Agent), and mother Eliza A. (aged 29), along with siblings Alice M. (aged 8), and Gertrude M. (aged 7). There are two Eliza Elvin’s living at The Lizard - see John Elvin below.

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G W Elvin - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: ELVIN, GEORGE WILLIAM

Rank: Private

Regiment: Border Regiment Unit Text: "B" Coy. 3rd Bn.

Age: 19 Date of Death: 27/10/1916 Service No: 23185

Additional information: Son of Robert and Laura Elvin, of The Lizard, Wymondham, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: III. 5. Cemetery: BARROW-IN-FURNESS CEMETERY

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=372721

 

No match on Norlink

 

The 1901 Census has a George W. aged 3, living at The Lizard, Wymondham with his parents, Robert, (aged 28, a Boot Riveter) and Laura, (aged 25), along with his sister, Laura M.

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John Elvin - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

No obvious matches on CWGC

 

No match on Norlink

 

The 1901 Census has a John Elvin (age 5) living at The Lizard, Wymondham, with his parents John, (age 32, Labourer in a Stone Pit) and Eliza, (age 29) and siblings:-

Florence M...........Age 1

James.................Age 3

 

Updated see comment 6 below

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H Everett - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Most likely

Name: EVERETT Initials: H G

Rank: Private

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 1st/5th Bn.

Age: 19

Date of Death: 30/10/1917 Service No: 242546

Additional information: Son of Mrs. A. J. Everett, of Tibenham St., Tivetshall, Norwich. Grave/Memorial Reference: XXI. S. 14. Cemetery: BAGHDAD (NORTH GATE) WAR CEMETERY

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=633373

 

No match on Norlink

 

No obvious match on the 1901 Census.

Updated see comment 6 below

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G Farrow - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: FARROW, GEORGE ROBERT

Rank: Private

Regiment: Essex Regiment Unit Text: 1st Bn.

Age: 19 Date of Death: 13/08/1915 Service No: 20605

Additional information: Son of Noah and Harriett Farrow, of Northfield, Wymondham, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 144 to 150 or 229 to 233. Memorial: HELLES MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=682700

 

Another one lost in the sinking of transport Royal Edward

 

A scan of a press cutting regarding the sinking of the transport ship Royal Edward, with a loss of over 1,000 troops and crew.

1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/lofiversion/index.php/t...

 

A passage from the History of Norfolk Regiment tells the rest of the story. Colonel Tonge refers to the loss of 300 men, the best draft that ever left Felixstowe. These men volunteered to join the Essex Regiment and appear to have constituted the drafts of June 23 and July 24 1915. They were part of the reinforcements carried by the transport "Royal Edward" which was torpedoed and sunk in the Aegean Sea on August 14th 1915. She sank two and a half minutes after the torpedo struck her.Of the 1,400 men she carried only 600 were saved, and the drowned included all but 18 of the 300 Norfolk men. The men who had had a route march just before leaving Alexandria, were waiting on deck for foot inspection at about 9.20 am. Their lifebelts were down below, and when the ship was unexpectedly struck most of them ran below to fetch the belts. Owing to the ship's sudden heeling over and sinking, these never got up again. Those who escaped were picked up by a hospital ship which responded to the s.o.s. signal.

www.geocities.com/heartland/acres/5564/royaledward.html

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T Fickling - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: FICKLING, THOMAS ROBERT

Rank: Rifleman

Regiment: Rifle Brigade Unit Text: 3rd Bn.

Date of Death: 23/10/1914 Service No: 2127

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 10. Memorial: PLOEGSTEERT MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=872720

 

No match on Norlink

 

There is no obvious match on the 1901 Census There is a Thomas Fickling, born 1847 at Bunwell and now resident in Middlesex as a retired Metropolitan Police Officer, and there still appear to be other Fickling’s in the Bunwell area.

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A Fordham - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

No obvious matches on CWGC

 

No match on Norlink

 

The 1901 Census has an Alfred Fordham, aged 8, who was living at Besthorpe and born at Kenninghall, as a possible match. His parents were George, (aged 44, Team man on Farm) and Elizabeth, (aged 45). Also at the same address were siblings Alice, (aged 12), Ernest, (aged 20, a Great Eastern Railway Porter), Florence, (aged 11), Herbert (aged 17, Horseman on Farm) and Leonard, (aged 7)

Updated see comment 6 below

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A Forkes - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: FORKES Initials: A B

Rank: Trooper

Regiment: Household Battalion

Date of Death: 11/04/1917 Service No: 1439

Grave/Memorial Reference: G. 11. Cemetery: ATHIES COMMUNAL CEMETERY EXTENSION

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=256890

 

Picture on Norlink

norlink.norfolk.gov.uk/02_Catalogue/02_013_PictureTitleIn...

 

Norlink notes

 

Trooper Forkes was born 6th September 1886 and educated at Wymondham Council school. He enlisted on 23rd October 1916. He died from wounds received in action in France, 11th April 1917

 

At the time of the 1901 Census, Albert, a 14 year old Boot Shop Assistant, was living at Queens Street, Wymondham in the household of his parents, William, (aged 58, a boot maker), and Rhoda Forkes, (aged 54). Also in the household were siblings Earnest Forkes, (age 16, a Grocers assistant), Fred, (aged 12) and William, (aged 18 and a Brush Factory hand)

 

The Scarpe, Arras, Fampoux and Roeux (8th April to 14th May 1917)

The misfortunes of Britain's allies in 1917 dictated circumstances in which three major battles, Arras, 3rd Ypres and Cambrai, were planned and fought. The Household Battalion was involved to the hilt in all three. The French commander Nivelle was replaced by Marshals Foch and Petain in Spring 1917 after part of the French army mutinied. Field Marshall Sir Douglas Haig launched the Arras offensive on Easter Monday 1917 to draw German attention away from the disaster which had overtaken the French army, further South. As a cavalry officer, he saw the mission of cavalry as the exploitation of the eventual break through in the trench war stalemate and put the 3rd Cavalry Division into the attack on the Hindenhurg Line at Monchy le Preux on Easter Monday, 9th April 1917. There was a general advance of the infantry north and south of the 45 foot wide, 6 foot deep Scarpe River flowing east to west through Arras. North of the Scarpe, the Household Battalion, as part of the 10th Brigade in the 4th Infantry Division were allotted the task of advancing along the swampy banks of the muddy little river on the hamlet of Fampoux, (formerly pop. 1,015 but now flattened and enemy held).

While their brothers of The 1st and 2nd Life Guards and Blues rode against barbed wire and machine guns with the 3rd Cavalry Division to Monchy, The Household Battalion stalked towards Fampoux with rifles and bayonets in the sleet. With them were the Warwicks, Seaforth and Royal Irish Fusiliers. It took the Brigade 11 days to take Fampoux and The Household Battalion lost 9 Officers and 166 non Commissioned Officers and Men killed in action. Ahead was the smaller but even more formidable German defence at Roeux at a bend in the river, one mile from Fampoux and 6,000 yards from the Hindenhurg Line itself.

 

www.maxwall.co.uk/army/history.htm

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A J Fulcher - also on Abbey Roll of Honour (A Fulcher)

 

Name: FULCHER, ARTHUR JOHN

Rank: Private

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 1st/4th Bn.

Age: 37 Date of Death: 01/09/1915 Service No: 2243

Additional information: Son of Mrs. Elizabeth Fulcher, of Wymondham, Norfolk, husband of Laura Fulcher, of Damgate Bridge, Wymondham, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 42 to 44. Memorial: HELLES MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=681137

 

The 1st/4th were out of the line at this time, so I can only assume Private Fulcher died of wounds or illness.

user.online.be/~snelders/sand.htm

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G George - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: GEORGE, GEORGE

Rank: Private

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 9th Bn.

Age: 19 Date of Death: 30/05/1917 Service No: 29887

Additional information: Son of Esther George, of Wymondham, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: II. B. 26. Cemetery: BARLIN COMMUNAL CEMETERY EXTENSION

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=469971

 

There are no obvious matches on the 1901 Census.

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V G Goodings - also on Abbey Roll of Honour (as G V Goodings)

 

Name: GOODINGS, VICTOR GEORGE

Rank: Private

Regiment: The Queen's (Royal West Surrey Regiment) Unit Text: 6th Bn. Date of Death: 27/09/1918 Service No: G/67435

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 3. Memorial: VIS-EN-ARTOIS MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=1742907

 

No match on Norlink

 

The 1901 Census has a Victor G.Goodings, aged 1, living at Damgate Street, Wymondham, with his parents, William, (aged 38, a Chimney Sweep) and Elizabeth, (aged 34) and siblings, Ethel M, (aged 7), Lily E, (aged 12), Maud, (aged 10)and Robert W. (aged 14, a Brush Turner)

***************************************************************

F G Heron - also on Abbey Roll of Honour (F Heron)

 

Name: HERON, FREDERICK GEORGE

Rank: Private

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 1st/5th Bn.

Age: 21 Date of Death: 21/08/1915 Service No: 3022

Additional information: Son of George and Sarah Heron, of Vicar St., Wymondham, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 42 to 44. Memorial: HELLES MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=691575

 

The 1901 Census has a Frederick, age 6, living at Pople Street, Wymondham with his parents George, (age 33, a shoe riveter) and Sarah, (aged 29).

 

21st August 1915

 

Having lost over 200 men from the battalion shortly before this on the 12th, the battalion was to lose at least another 36 on this day.

 

***************************************************************

C High - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Most Likely (out of three)

 

Name: HIGH, CHARLES EDWARD

Rank: Private

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 1st Bn.

Date of Death: 18/04/1915 Service No: 3/5246

Memorial Reference: Panel 4. Memorial: YPRES (MENIN GATE) MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=1614040

 

No match on Norlink

 

No obvious match on the 1901 Census.

**************************************************************

W Howes

 

Possibly

Name: HOWES, WALTER SYLVESTER

Rank: Lance Corporal

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 1st/5th Bn.

Date of Death: 02/11/1917 Service No: 240782

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panels 12 to 15. Memorial: JERUSALEM MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=1645682

 

Or

Name: HOWES, WALTER

Rank: Seaman

Service: Royal Naval Reserve Unit Text: H.M.S. "Clan McNaughton."

Age: 48 Date of Death: 03/02/1915 Service No: 6231A

Additional information: Husband of Alice Howes, of 9, Rising Sun Lane, Cattle Market, Norwich.

Grave/Memorial Reference: 14. Memorial: CHATHAM NAVAL MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=4004305

 

Or

Name: HOWES Initials: W

Rank: Private Regiment/Service: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 2nd Bn.

Date of Death: 07/12/1916 Service No: 7696

Grave/Memorial Reference: Angora Mem. 90. Cemetery: BAGHDAD (NORTH GATE) WAR CEMETERY

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=633895

 

But there are many others to choose for

 

No match on Norlink

 

The 1901 Census has:-

Walter aged 10, born Wymondham, resident Kimberley Hall, Wymondham

Walter aged 28 born Wymondham, resident White Horse Street, Wymondham

Walter aged 34 born Wymondham, resident 35 Childers Street, Deptford

The Princess Alexandra Statue, located in the Jack Shiel Gardens in the north eastern country town of Alexandra, is the work of English sculptor Charles Summers (1825 – 1878). The Princess Alexandra Statue is made of white Italian marble, and was completed in Rome as part of a commission for Sir William J. Clarke (1831 – 1897) in 1876. Sir William commissioned him to sculpt four large statues in marble of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and the then Prince and Princess of Wales (later Edward VII and Queen Alexandra) for presentation to the Melbourne art gallery. These were completed in 1878. Soon afterwards Charles Summers while on his way to England was taken seriously ill, and died after an operation for acute goitre in Paris. The Princess Alexandra Statue was his last sculpture.

 

Originally located in the grounds of the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, the statue was relocated to Alexandra in 1939 where it was installed in the pretty Jack Shiel Gardens where she is surrounded by beds of roses, her favourite flower. In 1994 the statue was unveiled under a new colonnade, which was financed under the Centennial Awards.

 

Charles Summer was a regular exhibitor at Royal Academy exhibitions; more than 40 of his works were shown between 1849 and 1876. He was a competent sculptor who also created the figures on the ceiling of the council chamber of Melbourne’s Parliament House, a frieze of putti on the old Bank of New South Wales building (now located at Melbourne University) and the recumbent figure of Lady Macleay in Surrey. However it is the memorial to the explorers Burke and Wills on the corner of Collins and Swanston Streets in Melbourne’s heart that he is best known for.

 

Born in 1845, Princess Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia was a Princess of Denmark; one of five sisters (two of whom would also became Queens of Norway and Russia). A beautiful and slender lady with perfect complexion and lovely mannerisms as befitting a queen, Alexandra was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (1841 – 1910) the heir apparent of Queen Victoria when the Danish princess was just sixteen. They married eighteen months later in 1863 in the St George Chapel, Windsor Castle, the same year her father became Christian IX of Denmark and her brother, George, was appointed King of Greece. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has ever held that title, and became generally popular; her style of dress and bearing were copied by fashion-conscious women. On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became King-Emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as Queen-Empress Consort. From Edward's death in 1910 until her own death, she was the Queen Mother. She died of a heart attack just before her 80th birthday in 1925 and was buried in an elaborate tomb next to her husband in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

 

Alexandra is a town in Victoria, Australia. It is located at the junction of the Goulburn Valley Highway (B340) and Maroondah Highway (B360), 26 kilometres west of Eildon. The town was settled in the late 1860s, with a Post Office opening on 15 March 1867 (known until 24 April 1867) as Redgate. The town was originally known as Redgate, or Red Gate Diggings. The current name either derives from Alexandra of Denmark (Queen’s Consort to King Edward VII of England) when given a stature of her to the shire; or from three men named Alexander (Alesander, McGregor, Alexander Don, and Alexander Luckie) who discovered gold in the area in 1866. Charles Jones born Herefordshire also discovered Gold on the Luckie Mine in 1866. He bought a Hotel with John Henry Osborne and was the proprietor of the New York and London Hotel Grant Street Alexandra. The railway to Alexandra arrived in the town via Yea from Tallarook in 1909, and closed on November 18, 1978. The Rubicon Tramway connected Alexandra with the village of Rubicon, at the junction of the Rubicon and Royston Rivers. Today many tourists pass through Alexandra on their way to the Mount Buller ski resort from Melbourne. The town contains the Timber Tramway and Museum (located at the Alexandra Railway Station), and the National Trust classified post office and law courts. There is a local market on the second Saturday of each month from September to May, an annual art show at Easter, an agricultural show and rose festival in November, and the annual Truck, Rod and Ute Show in June.

  

The Princess Alexandra Statue, located in the Jack Shiel Gardens in the north eastern country town of Alexandra, is the work of English sculptor Charles Summers (1825 – 1878). The Princess Alexandra Statue is made of white Italian marble, and was completed in Rome as part of a commission for Sir William J. Clarke (1831 – 1897) in 1876. Sir William commissioned him to sculpt four large statues in marble of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and the then Prince and Princess of Wales (later Edward VII and Queen Alexandra) for presentation to the Melbourne art gallery. These were completed in 1878. Soon afterwards Charles Summers while on his way to England was taken seriously ill, and died after an operation for acute goitre in Paris. The Princess Alexandra Statue was his last sculpture.

 

Originally located in the grounds of the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, the statue was relocated to Alexandra in 1939 where it was installed in the pretty Jack Shiel Gardens where she is surrounded by beds of roses, her favourite flower. In 1994 the statue was unveiled under a new colonnade, which was financed under the Centennial Awards.

 

Charles Summer was a regular exhibitor at Royal Academy exhibitions; more than 40 of his works were shown between 1849 and 1876. He was a competent sculptor who also created the figures on the ceiling of the council chamber of Melbourne’s Parliament House, a frieze of putti on the old Bank of New South Wales building (now located at Melbourne University) and the recumbent figure of Lady Macleay in Surrey. However it is the memorial to the explorers Burke and Wills on the corner of Collins and Swanston Streets in Melbourne’s heart that he is best known for.

 

Born in 1845, Princess Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia was a Princess of Denmark; one of five sisters (two of whom would also became Queens of Norway and Russia). A beautiful and slender lady with perfect complexion and lovely mannerisms as befitting a queen, Alexandra was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (1841 – 1910) the heir apparent of Queen Victoria when the Danish princess was just sixteen. They married eighteen months later in 1863 in the St George Chapel, Windsor Castle, the same year her father became Christian IX of Denmark and her brother, George, was appointed King of Greece. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has ever held that title, and became generally popular; her style of dress and bearing were copied by fashion-conscious women. On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became King-Emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as Queen-Empress Consort. From Edward's death in 1910 until her own death, she was the Queen Mother. She died of a heart attack just before her 80th birthday in 1925 and was buried in an elaborate tomb next to her husband in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

 

Alexandra is a town in Victoria, Australia. It is located at the junction of the Goulburn Valley Highway (B340) and Maroondah Highway (B360), 26 kilometres west of Eildon. The town was settled in the late 1860s, with a Post Office opening on 15 March 1867 (known until 24 April 1867) as Redgate. The town was originally known as Redgate, or Red Gate Diggings. The current name either derives from Alexandra of Denmark (Queen’s Consort to King Edward VII of England) when given a stature of her to the shire; or from three men named Alexander (Alesander, McGregor, Alexander Don, and Alexander Luckie) who discovered gold in the area in 1866. Charles Jones born Herefordshire also discovered Gold on the Luckie Mine in 1866. He bought a Hotel with John Henry Osborne and was the proprietor of the New York and London Hotel Grant Street Alexandra. The railway to Alexandra arrived in the town via Yea from Tallarook in 1909, and closed on November 18, 1978. The Rubicon Tramway connected Alexandra with the village of Rubicon, at the junction of the Rubicon and Royston Rivers. Today many tourists pass through Alexandra on their way to the Mount Buller ski resort from Melbourne. The town contains the Timber Tramway and Museum (located at the Alexandra Railway Station), and the National Trust classified post office and law courts. There is a local market on the second Saturday of each month from September to May, an annual art show at Easter, an agricultural show and rose festival in November, and the annual Truck, Rod and Ute Show in June.

  

Visit Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park!

 

Wheel Fun Rentals is a leading provider of fun and unique outdoor recreational vehicles including a complete fleet of bikes that can be enjoyed by single riders or an entire family. Our new fleet of Wheel Fun Rentals bikes – purchased this Spring – are extremely popular with visitors to Irvine Regional Park.

 

Bikes available to rent include the single surrey, deuce coupe, quad sport and chopper. Other bikes also available to rent include tandem bikes, cruiser bikes and kid’s bikes. And, we rent paddle boats too.

 

Children 18 years of age and younger are required to wear a helmet when riding a bike. Children under the age of 13 are required to wear a life jacket when riding a paddle boat. Both helmets and life jackets are provided at no additional cost and are available to any rider or passenger upon request.

 

For more information on these great bikes available for rent, and hours of operation, visit our Web site at www.irvineparkrailroad.com.

 

About Irvine Park Railroad:

Irvine Park Railroad is a one-third scale train that takes both children and adults on a scenic, 12-minute ride through beautiful and scenic Irvine Regional Park. The train ride, which is affordable fun for the entire family, is narrated by the engineer.

 

Other activities inside of the park include Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park paddle boat and bike rentals, the Orange County Zoo and pony rides. Two snack bars serve both hot and cold food.

 

Annual Irvine Park Railroad events include the Easter Eggstravaganza, Anniversary Celebration, Pumpkin Patch and Christmas Train.

 

Irvine Park Railroad has party pavilions and other locations available for rent. These locations are ideal for birthday parties, company picnics, corporate meetings and other special events. We also rent moon bounces for locations inside of Irvine Regional Park.

 

Irvine Regional Park is centrally-located in the foothills of Orange (Orange County). The nearest, major cross streets are Chapman Avenue at Jamboree Boulevard.

 

Find Irvine Park Railroad on Facebook and Twitter (irvineparkrr).

The Princess Alexandra Statue, located in the Jack Shiel Gardens in the north eastern country town of Alexandra, is the work of English sculptor Charles Summers (1825 – 1878). The Princess Alexandra Statue is made of white Italian marble, and was completed in Rome as part of a commission for Sir William J. Clarke (1831 – 1897) in 1876. Sir William commissioned him to sculpt four large statues in marble of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and the then Prince and Princess of Wales (later Edward VII and Queen Alexandra) for presentation to the Melbourne art gallery. These were completed in 1878. Soon afterwards Charles Summers while on his way to England was taken seriously ill, and died after an operation for acute goitre in Paris. The Princess Alexandra Statue was his last sculpture.

 

Originally located in the grounds of the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, the statue was relocated to Alexandra in 1939 where it was installed in the pretty Jack Shiel Gardens where she is surrounded by beds of roses, her favourite flower. In 1994 the statue was unveiled under a new colonnade, which was financed under the Centennial Awards.

 

Charles Summer was a regular exhibitor at Royal Academy exhibitions; more than 40 of his works were shown between 1849 and 1876. He was a competent sculptor who also created the figures on the ceiling of the council chamber of Melbourne’s Parliament House, a frieze of putti on the old Bank of New South Wales building (now located at Melbourne University) and the recumbent figure of Lady Macleay in Surrey. However it is the memorial to the explorers Burke and Wills on the corner of Collins and Swanston Streets in Melbourne’s heart that he is best known for.

 

Born in 1845, Princess Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia was a Princess of Denmark; one of five sisters (two of whom would also became Queens of Norway and Russia). A beautiful and slender lady with perfect complexion and lovely mannerisms as befitting a queen, Alexandra was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (1841 – 1910) the heir apparent of Queen Victoria when the Danish princess was just sixteen. They married eighteen months later in 1863 in the St George Chapel, Windsor Castle, the same year her father became Christian IX of Denmark and her brother, George, was appointed King of Greece. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has ever held that title, and became generally popular; her style of dress and bearing were copied by fashion-conscious women. On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became King-Emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as Queen-Empress Consort. From Edward's death in 1910 until her own death, she was the Queen Mother. She died of a heart attack just before her 80th birthday in 1925 and was buried in an elaborate tomb next to her husband in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

 

Alexandra is a town in Victoria, Australia. It is located at the junction of the Goulburn Valley Highway (B340) and Maroondah Highway (B360), 26 kilometres west of Eildon. The town was settled in the late 1860s, with a Post Office opening on 15 March 1867 (known until 24 April 1867) as Redgate. The town was originally known as Redgate, or Red Gate Diggings. The current name either derives from Alexandra of Denmark (Queen’s Consort to King Edward VII of England) when given a stature of her to the shire; or from three men named Alexander (Alesander, McGregor, Alexander Don, and Alexander Luckie) who discovered gold in the area in 1866. Charles Jones born Herefordshire also discovered Gold on the Luckie Mine in 1866. He bought a Hotel with John Henry Osborne and was the proprietor of the New York and London Hotel Grant Street Alexandra. The railway to Alexandra arrived in the town via Yea from Tallarook in 1909, and closed on November 18, 1978. The Rubicon Tramway connected Alexandra with the village of Rubicon, at the junction of the Rubicon and Royston Rivers. Today many tourists pass through Alexandra on their way to the Mount Buller ski resort from Melbourne. The town contains the Timber Tramway and Museum (located at the Alexandra Railway Station), and the National Trust classified post office and law courts. There is a local market on the second Saturday of each month from September to May, an annual art show at Easter, an agricultural show and rose festival in November, and the annual Truck, Rod and Ute Show in June.

  

Visit Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park!

 

Wheel Fun Rentals is a leading provider of fun and unique outdoor recreational vehicles including a complete fleet of bikes that can be enjoyed by single riders or an entire family. Our new fleet of Wheel Fun Rentals bikes – purchased this Spring – are extremely popular with visitors to Irvine Regional Park.

 

Bikes available to rent include the single surrey, deuce coupe, quad sport and chopper. Other bikes also available to rent include tandem bikes, cruiser bikes and kid’s bikes. And, we rent paddle boats too.

 

Children 18 years of age and younger are required to wear a helmet when riding a bike. Children under the age of 13 are required to wear a life jacket when riding a paddle boat. Both helmets and life jackets are provided at no additional cost and are available to any rider or passenger upon request.

 

For more information on these great bikes available for rent, and hours of operation, visit our Web site at www.irvineparkrailroad.com.

 

About Irvine Park Railroad:

Irvine Park Railroad is a one-third scale train that takes both children and adults on a scenic, 12-minute ride through beautiful and scenic Irvine Regional Park. The train ride, which is affordable fun for the entire family, is narrated by the engineer.

 

Other activities inside of the park include Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park paddle boat and bike rentals, the Orange County Zoo and pony rides. Two snack bars serve both hot and cold food.

 

Annual Irvine Park Railroad events include the Easter Eggstravaganza, Anniversary Celebration, Pumpkin Patch and Christmas Train.

 

Irvine Park Railroad has party pavilions and other locations available for rent. These locations are ideal for birthday parties, company picnics, corporate meetings and other special events. We also rent moon bounces for locations inside of Irvine Regional Park.

 

Irvine Regional Park is centrally-located in the foothills of Orange (Orange County). The nearest, major cross streets are Chapman Avenue at Jamboree Boulevard.

 

Find Irvine Park Railroad on Facebook and Twitter (irvineparkrr).

The Princess Alexandra Statue, located in the Jack Shiel Gardens in the north eastern country town of Alexandra, is the work of English sculptor Charles Summers (1825 – 1878). The Princess Alexandra Statue is made of white Italian marble, and was completed in Rome as part of a commission for Sir William J. Clarke (1831 – 1897) in 1876. Sir William commissioned him to sculpt four large statues in marble of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and the then Prince and Princess of Wales (later Edward VII and Queen Alexandra) for presentation to the Melbourne art gallery. These were completed in 1878. Soon afterwards Charles Summers while on his way to England was taken seriously ill, and died after an operation for acute goitre in Paris. The Princess Alexandra Statue was his last sculpture.

 

Originally located in the grounds of the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, the statue was relocated to Alexandra in 1939 where it was installed in the pretty Jack Shiel Gardens where she is surrounded by beds of roses, her favourite flower. In 1994 the statue was unveiled under a new colonnade, which was financed under the Centennial Awards.

 

Charles Summer was a regular exhibitor at Royal Academy exhibitions; more than 40 of his works were shown between 1849 and 1876. He was a competent sculptor who also created the figures on the ceiling of the council chamber of Melbourne’s Parliament House, a frieze of putti on the old Bank of New South Wales building (now located at Melbourne University) and the recumbent figure of Lady Macleay in Surrey. However it is the memorial to the explorers Burke and Wills on the corner of Collins and Swanston Streets in Melbourne’s heart that he is best known for.

 

Born in 1845, Princess Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia was a Princess of Denmark; one of five sisters (two of whom would also became Queens of Norway and Russia). A beautiful and slender lady with perfect complexion and lovely mannerisms as befitting a queen, Alexandra was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (1841 – 1910) the heir apparent of Queen Victoria when the Danish princess was just sixteen. They married eighteen months later in 1863 in the St George Chapel, Windsor Castle, the same year her father became Christian IX of Denmark and her brother, George, was appointed King of Greece. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has ever held that title, and became generally popular; her style of dress and bearing were copied by fashion-conscious women. On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became King-Emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as Queen-Empress Consort. From Edward's death in 1910 until her own death, she was the Queen Mother. She died of a heart attack just before her 80th birthday in 1925 and was buried in an elaborate tomb next to her husband in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

 

Alexandra is a town in Victoria, Australia. It is located at the junction of the Goulburn Valley Highway (B340) and Maroondah Highway (B360), 26 kilometres west of Eildon. The town was settled in the late 1860s, with a Post Office opening on 15 March 1867 (known until 24 April 1867) as Redgate. The town was originally known as Redgate, or Red Gate Diggings. The current name either derives from Alexandra of Denmark (Queen’s Consort to King Edward VII of England) when given a stature of her to the shire; or from three men named Alexander (Alesander, McGregor, Alexander Don, and Alexander Luckie) who discovered gold in the area in 1866. Charles Jones born Herefordshire also discovered Gold on the Luckie Mine in 1866. He bought a Hotel with John Henry Osborne and was the proprietor of the New York and London Hotel Grant Street Alexandra. The railway to Alexandra arrived in the town via Yea from Tallarook in 1909, and closed on November 18, 1978. The Rubicon Tramway connected Alexandra with the village of Rubicon, at the junction of the Rubicon and Royston Rivers. Today many tourists pass through Alexandra on their way to the Mount Buller ski resort from Melbourne. The town contains the Timber Tramway and Museum (located at the Alexandra Railway Station), and the National Trust classified post office and law courts. There is a local market on the second Saturday of each month from September to May, an annual art show at Easter, an agricultural show and rose festival in November, and the annual Truck, Rod and Ute Show in June.

  

Visit Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park!

 

Wheel Fun Rentals is a leading provider of fun and unique outdoor recreational vehicles including a complete fleet of bikes that can be enjoyed by single riders or an entire family. Our new fleet of Wheel Fun Rentals bikes – purchased this Spring – are extremely popular with visitors to Irvine Regional Park.

 

Bikes available to rent include the single surrey, deuce coupe, quad sport and chopper. Other bikes also available to rent include tandem bikes, cruiser bikes and kid’s bikes. And, we rent paddle boats too.

 

Children 18 years of age and younger are required to wear a helmet when riding a bike. Children under the age of 13 are required to wear a life jacket when riding a paddle boat. Both helmets and life jackets are provided at no additional cost and are available to any rider or passenger upon request.

 

For more information on these great bikes available for rent, and hours of operation, visit our Web site at www.irvineparkrailroad.com.

 

About Irvine Park Railroad:

Irvine Park Railroad is a one-third scale train that takes both children and adults on a scenic, 12-minute ride through beautiful and scenic Irvine Regional Park. The train ride, which is affordable fun for the entire family, is narrated by the engineer.

 

Other activities inside of the park include Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park paddle boat and bike rentals, the Orange County Zoo and pony rides. Two snack bars serve both hot and cold food.

 

Annual Irvine Park Railroad events include the Easter Eggstravaganza, Anniversary Celebration, Pumpkin Patch and Christmas Train.

 

Irvine Park Railroad has party pavilions and other locations available for rent. These locations are ideal for birthday parties, company picnics, corporate meetings and other special events. We also rent moon bounces for locations inside of Irvine Regional Park.

 

Irvine Regional Park is centrally-located in the foothills of Orange (Orange County). The nearest, major cross streets are Chapman Avenue at Jamboree Boulevard.

 

Find Irvine Park Railroad on Facebook and Twitter (irvineparkrr).

Visit Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park!

 

Wheel Fun Rentals is a leading provider of fun and unique outdoor recreational vehicles including a complete fleet of bikes that can be enjoyed by single riders or an entire family. Our new fleet of Wheel Fun Rentals bikes – purchased this Spring – are extremely popular with visitors to Irvine Regional Park.

 

Bikes available to rent include the single surrey, deuce coupe, quad sport and chopper. Other bikes also available to rent include tandem bikes, cruiser bikes and kid’s bikes. And, we rent paddle boats too.

 

Children 18 years of age and younger are required to wear a helmet when riding a bike. Children under the age of 13 are required to wear a life jacket when riding a paddle boat. Both helmets and life jackets are provided at no additional cost and are available to any rider or passenger upon request.

 

For more information on these great bikes available for rent, and hours of operation, visit our Web site at www.irvineparkrailroad.com.

 

About Irvine Park Railroad:

Irvine Park Railroad is a one-third scale train that takes both children and adults on a scenic, 12-minute ride through beautiful and scenic Irvine Regional Park. The train ride, which is affordable fun for the entire family, is narrated by the engineer.

 

Other activities inside of the park include Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park paddle boat and bike rentals, the Orange County Zoo and pony rides. Two snack bars serve both hot and cold food.

 

Annual Irvine Park Railroad events include the Easter Eggstravaganza, Anniversary Celebration, Pumpkin Patch and Christmas Train.

 

Irvine Park Railroad has party pavilions and other locations available for rent. These locations are ideal for birthday parties, company picnics, corporate meetings and other special events. We also rent moon bounces for locations inside of Irvine Regional Park.

 

Irvine Regional Park is centrally-located in the foothills of Orange (Orange County). The nearest, major cross streets are Chapman Avenue at Jamboree Boulevard.

 

Find Irvine Park Railroad on Facebook and Twitter (irvineparkrr).

Visit Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park!

 

Wheel Fun Rentals is a leading provider of fun and unique outdoor recreational vehicles including a complete fleet of bikes that can be enjoyed by single riders or an entire family. Our new fleet of Wheel Fun Rentals bikes – purchased this Spring – are extremely popular with visitors to Irvine Regional Park.

 

Bikes available to rent include the single surrey, deuce coupe, quad sport and chopper. Other bikes also available to rent include tandem bikes, cruiser bikes and kid’s bikes. And, we rent paddle boats too.

 

Children 18 years of age and younger are required to wear a helmet when riding a bike. Children under the age of 13 are required to wear a life jacket when riding a paddle boat. Both helmets and life jackets are provided at no additional cost and are available to any rider or passenger upon request.

 

For more information on these great bikes available for rent, and hours of operation, visit our Web site at www.irvineparkrailroad.com.

 

About Irvine Park Railroad:

Irvine Park Railroad is a one-third scale train that takes both children and adults on a scenic, 12-minute ride through beautiful and scenic Irvine Regional Park. The train ride, which is affordable fun for the entire family, is narrated by the engineer.

 

Other activities inside of the park include Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park paddle boat and bike rentals, the Orange County Zoo and pony rides. Two snack bars serve both hot and cold food.

 

Annual Irvine Park Railroad events include the Easter Eggstravaganza, Anniversary Celebration, Pumpkin Patch and Christmas Train.

 

Irvine Park Railroad has party pavilions and other locations available for rent. These locations are ideal for birthday parties, company picnics, corporate meetings and other special events. We also rent moon bounces for locations inside of Irvine Regional Park.

 

Irvine Regional Park is centrally-located in the foothills of Orange (Orange County). The nearest, major cross streets are Chapman Avenue at Jamboree Boulevard.

 

Find Irvine Park Railroad on Facebook and Twitter (irvineparkrr).

Please click the "Magnifying Glass Icon" just above the top right corner of the photo and then click the "View all sizes' button just above the top right corner of the photo to enlarge it for easier viewing and downloading as required.

   

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Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16, UK (9-Part Photo Set)

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01) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 3 April 2010 (Easter Saturday) - Beautiful Pussy Willow Catkin : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/4491522460/

 

02) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 5 April 2008 - Beautiful White Bells (Wood Hyacinth (Hyacinthoides Hispanica)) : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2009/5358825188/

 

03) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 30 March 2008 - Beautiful Blue Bells (Wood Hyacinth (Hyacinthoides Hispanica)) : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/2399175325/

 

04) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 12 February 2011 (2 of 4) - Beautiful & Delicate Lilac Woodland Crocus Flowers : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/5444084852/

 

05) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 15 March 2010 (4 of 4) - Bright and Cheerful Golden Snow Crocus Flowers : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/4437255493/

 

06) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 3 April 2010 (Easter Saturday) - Blooming Lesser Celandine Flowers : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/4490858753/

 

07) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 9 April 2010 - Blooming Cherry Blossom Flowers : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2009/5358017233/

 

08) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 16 April 2010 - Beautiful Flowering Trees Glowing in Warm Early Morning Springtime Sun : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2009/5358003611/

 

09) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 18 April 2010 - Mr. & Mrs. Mallard taking an Early Morning Walk in Warm Springtime Sun : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2009/5358838870/

   

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Offer of Further Information

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1) “The Importance of Trees in Southwark Life” by Kam Hong Leung on 14 May 2009 :

www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/3853306127/

 

2) Russia Dock Woodland - Winner of "Green Flag Award 2009-2010" : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/3913247478/

 

3) The Friends of Russia Dock Woodland - Winner of The 2009 London Tree and Woodland Award : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/4175568737/

 

4) Rebeka Clark (Stave Hill Ecology Park - Site Manager) - Southwark Woman of 2006 ("Active in the Community" Category) : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/2509913931/

 

5) BBC Breathing Places Editor's Compliments :

cid-810e9c86bbce804e.spaces.live.com/blog/cns!810E9C86BBC...

 

6) "Park Life in Surrey Quays", London SE16 - REACH Magazine @ May 2007 :

www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/2510789724/

 

7) "Rotherhithe’s Wild At Heart" - Southwark News @ 26 July 2007 (Page 15) :

www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/2518429045/

    

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Visit Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park!

 

Wheel Fun Rentals is a leading provider of fun and unique outdoor recreational vehicles including a complete fleet of bikes that can be enjoyed by single riders or an entire family. Our new fleet of Wheel Fun Rentals bikes – purchased this Spring – are extremely popular with visitors to Irvine Regional Park.

 

Bikes available to rent include the single surrey, deuce coupe, quad sport and chopper. Other bikes also available to rent include tandem bikes, cruiser bikes and kid’s bikes. And, we rent paddle boats too.

 

Children 18 years of age and younger are required to wear a helmet when riding a bike. Children under the age of 13 are required to wear a life jacket when riding a paddle boat. Both helmets and life jackets are provided at no additional cost and are available to any rider or passenger upon request.

 

For more information on these great bikes available for rent, and hours of operation, visit our Web site at www.irvineparkrailroad.com.

 

About Irvine Park Railroad:

Irvine Park Railroad is a one-third scale train that takes both children and adults on a scenic, 12-minute ride through beautiful and scenic Irvine Regional Park. The train ride, which is affordable fun for the entire family, is narrated by the engineer.

 

Other activities inside of the park include Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park paddle boat and bike rentals, the Orange County Zoo and pony rides. Two snack bars serve both hot and cold food.

 

Annual Irvine Park Railroad events include the Easter Eggstravaganza, Anniversary Celebration, Pumpkin Patch and Christmas Train.

 

Irvine Park Railroad has party pavilions and other locations available for rent. These locations are ideal for birthday parties, company picnics, corporate meetings and other special events. We also rent moon bounces for locations inside of Irvine Regional Park.

 

Irvine Regional Park is centrally-located in the foothills of Orange (Orange County). The nearest, major cross streets are Chapman Avenue at Jamboree Boulevard.

 

Find Irvine Park Railroad on Facebook and Twitter (irvineparkrr).

Visit Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park!

 

Wheel Fun Rentals is a leading provider of fun and unique outdoor recreational vehicles including a complete fleet of bikes that can be enjoyed by single riders or an entire family. Our new fleet of Wheel Fun Rentals bikes – purchased this Spring – are extremely popular with visitors to Irvine Regional Park.

 

Bikes available to rent include the single surrey, deuce coupe, quad sport and chopper. Other bikes also available to rent include tandem bikes, cruiser bikes and kid’s bikes. And, we rent paddle boats too.

 

Children 18 years of age and younger are required to wear a helmet when riding a bike. Children under the age of 13 are required to wear a life jacket when riding a paddle boat. Both helmets and life jackets are provided at no additional cost and are available to any rider or passenger upon request.

 

For more information on these great bikes available for rent, and hours of operation, visit our Web site at www.irvineparkrailroad.com.

 

About Irvine Park Railroad:

Irvine Park Railroad is a one-third scale train that takes both children and adults on a scenic, 12-minute ride through beautiful and scenic Irvine Regional Park. The train ride, which is affordable fun for the entire family, is narrated by the engineer.

 

Other activities inside of the park include Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park paddle boat and bike rentals, the Orange County Zoo and pony rides. Two snack bars serve both hot and cold food.

 

Annual Irvine Park Railroad events include the Easter Eggstravaganza, Anniversary Celebration, Pumpkin Patch and Christmas Train.

 

Irvine Park Railroad has party pavilions and other locations available for rent. These locations are ideal for birthday parties, company picnics, corporate meetings and other special events. We also rent moon bounces for locations inside of Irvine Regional Park.

 

Irvine Regional Park is centrally-located in the foothills of Orange (Orange County). The nearest, major cross streets are Chapman Avenue at Jamboree Boulevard.

 

Find Irvine Park Railroad on Facebook and Twitter (irvineparkrr).