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First Great Western 125's diverts from Cornwall/Devon for the Easter Weekend - "1036 Exeter St Davids - Waterloo" via Warminster then the South Western main line from Salisbury due to the Reading closure for the Easter four days.

  

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_District

  

The Lake District, also commonly known as The Lakes or (particularly as an adjective) Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England. A popular holiday destination, it is famous not only for its lakes, forests and mountains (or fells), but also for its associations with the early 19th century poetry and writings of William Wordsworth and the other Lake Poets.

Historically shared by the counties of Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire, the Lake District now lies entirely within the modern county of Cumbria. All the land in England higher than three thousand feet above sea level lies within the National Park, including Scafell Pike, the highest mountain in England. It also contains the deepest and longest lakes in England, Wastwater and Windermere, respectively.

  

Lake District National Park

  

Lake District National Park (shown as number 2) in a map of National Parks in England and Wales.

The Lake District National Park includes nearly all of the Lake District, though the town of Kendal and the Lakeland Peninsulas are currently outside the Park boundary.

The area, which was designated a National Park on 9 May 1951 (less than a month after the first UK National Park designation — the Peak District), is the most visited national park in the United Kingdom with 15.8 million annual visitors and more than 23 million annual day visits,[1] the largest of the thirteen National Parks in England and Wales, and the second largest in the UK after the Cairngorms.[2] Its aim is to protect the landscape by restricting unwelcome change by industry or commerce. Most of the land in the Park is in private ownership. The National Trust owns about a quarter of the total area (including some lakes and land of significant landscape value), United Utilities owns eight per cent and 3.9% belongs to the Lake District National Park Authority. The National Park Authority is based at offices in Kendal. It runs a visitor centre on Windermere at a former country house called Brockhole,[3] Coniston Boating Centre and Information Centres.

In common with all other National Parks in England, there is no restriction on entry to, or movement within the park along public routes, but access to cultivated land is usually restricted to public footpaths.

The lakes and mountains combine to form impressive scenery. Farmland and settlement add aesthetic value to the natural scenery with an ecology modified by human influence for millennia and including important wildlife habitats. The Lake District has failed to be approved as a natural World Heritage Site, because of human activities, such as commercial forestry, which have adversely impacted the park's assessment. Another bid is being prepared for World Heritage Status, this time in the category of cultural landscape.

  

Proposed extension to National Park

  

In December 2009, Natural England proposed extending the National Park in the direction of the Yorkshire Dales National Park.[5] This would include land of high landscape value in the Lune Valley. The proposal was opposed by Cumbria County Council who said it would lead to less democratic control and would make local housing less affordable.[6] A public inquiry is being held into the proposals which will require a decision by the Secretary of State.

  

Human geography

  

General

  

The precise extent of the Lake District was not defined traditionally, but is slightly larger than that of the National Park, the total area of which is about 885 square miles (2,292 km2). The Park extends just over 32 miles (52 km) from east to west and nearly 40 miles (64 km) from north to south,[8] with areas such as the Lake District Peninsulas to the south lying outside the National Park.

  

Settlement

  

The Lake District is one of the most highly populated national parks. There are, however, only a handful of major settlements within this mountainous area, the towns of Keswick, Windermere, Ambleside, and Bowness-on-Windermere being the four largest. Significant towns immediately outside the boundary of the national park include Barrow-in-Furness, Kendal, Ulverston, Cockermouth, Penrith, and Grange-over-Sands; each of these has important economic links with the area. Villages such as Coniston, Threlkeld, Glenridding, Pooley Bridge, Broughton-in-Furness, Grasmere, Newby Bridge, Staveley, Lindale, Gosforth and Hawkshead act as more local centres. The economies of almost all are intimately linked with tourism. Beyond these are a scatter of hamlets and innumerable isolated farmsteads, some of which are still tied to agriculture, others now function as part of the tourist economy.

  

Communications

  

Roads

  

The Lake District National Park is almost contained within a box of trunk routes. It is flanked to the east by the A6 road which runs from Kendal to Penrith). The A590 which connects the M6 to Cumbria's largest town, Barrow-in-Furness, and the A5092 trunk roads cut across its southern fringes and the A66 trunk road between Penrith and Workington cuts across its northern edge. Finally the A595 trunk road runs through the coastal plains to the west of the area linking the A66 with the A5092.

Besides these, a few A roads penetrate the area itself, notably the A591 which runs northwestwards from Kendal to Windermere and then on to Keswick. It continues up the east side of Bassenthwaite Lake. "The A591, Grasmere, Lake District" was short-listed in the 2011 Google Street View awards in the Most Romantic Street category. The A593 and A5084 link the Ambleside and Coniston areas with the A590 to the south whilst the A592 and A5074 similarly link Windermere with the A590. The A592 also continues northwards from Windermere to Ullswater and Penrith by way of the Kirkstone Pass.

Some of those valleys which are not penetrated by A roads are served by B roads. The B5289 serves Lorton Vale and Buttermere and links via the Honister Pass with Borrowdale. The B5292 ascends the Whinlatter Pass from Lorton Vale before dropping down to Braithwaite near Keswick. The B5322 serves the valley of St John's in the Vale whilst Great Langdale is served by the B5343. Other valleys such as Little Langdale, Eskdale and Dunnerdale are served by minor roads. The latter connects with the former two by way of the Wrynose and Hardknott passes respectively - both of these passes are known for their steep gradients and are one of the most popular climbs in the United Kingdom for cycling enthusiasts.[11] A minor road through the Newlands Valley connects via Newlands Hause with the B5289 at Buttermere. Wasdale is served by a cul-de-sac minor road as is Longsleddale and the valleys at Haweswater and Kentmere. There are intricate networks of minor roads in the lower-lying southern part of the area connecting numerous communities between Kendal, Windermere and Coniston.

  

Railways and ferries

  

The West Coast Main Line skirts the eastern edge of the Lake District and the Cumbrian Coast Line passes through the southern and western fringes of the area. A single line, the Windermere Branch Line, penetrates from Kendal to Windermere via Staveley. Lines once served Broughton-in-Furness and Coniston and another ran from Penrith to Cockermouth via Keswick but each of these was abandoned in the 1960s. The track of the latter has been adopted in part for use by the improved A66 trunk road.

The narrow gauge Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway runs from Ravenglass on the west coast up Eskdale as far as Dalegarth Station near the hamlet of Boot, catering for tourists. Another heritage railway, the Lakeside and Haverthwaite Railway runs between the two villages encompassed within its name, tourists being able to connect with the Windermere passenger ferry at Lakeside.

A vehicle-carrying cable ferry, the Windermere Ferry runs frequent services across Windermere. There are also seasonal passenger ferries on Coniston Water, Derwent Water and Ullswater.

  

Physical geography

  

As the highest ground in England, Scafell Pike naturally has a very extensive view, ranging from the Mourne Mountains in Northern Ireland to Snowdonia in Wales. The Lake District takes the form of a roughly circular upland massif deeply dissected by a broadly radial pattern of major valleys whose character is largely the product of repeated glaciations over the last 2 million years. Most of these valleys display the U-shape cross-section, characteristic of glacial origin and often contain elongate lakes occupying sizeable bedrock hollows often with tracts of relatively flat ground at their heads. Smaller lakes known as tarns occupy glacial cirques at higher elevations. It is the abundance of both which has led to the area becoming known as the Lake District.

The mountains of the Lake District are also known as the "Cumbrian Mountains", although this name is less frequently used than terms like "the Lake District" or "the Lakeland Fells". Many of the higher fells are rocky in character, whilst moorland predominates at lower altitude. Vegetation cover across better drained areas includes bracken and heather though much of the land is boggy, due to the high rainfall. Deciduous native woodland occurs on many steeper slopes below the tree line but with native oak supplemented by extensive conifer plantations in many areas, particularly Grisedale Forest in the generally lower southern part of the area.

  

Valleys

  

The principal radial valleys are (clockwise from the south) those of Dunnerdale, Eskdale, Wasdale, Ennerdale, Lorton Vale and the Buttermere valley, the Derwent Valley and Borrowdale, the valleys containing Ullswater and Haweswater, Longsleddale, the Kentmere valley and those radiating from the head of Windermere including Great Langdale. The valleys serve to break the mountains up into separate blocks which have been described by various authors in different ways. The most frequently encountered approach is that made popular by Alfred Wainwright who published seven separate area guides to the Lakeland Fells.

  

Woodlands

  

Below the tree line are wooded areas, including British and European native oak woodlands and introduced softwood plantations. The woodlands provide habitats for native English wildlife. The native red squirrel is found in the Lake District and in a few other parts of England. In parts of the Lake District the rainfall is higher than in any other part of England. This gives Atlantic mosses, ferns, lichen, and liverworts the chance to grow. There is some ancient woodland in the National Park. Management of the woodlands varies: some are coppiced, some pollarded, some left to grow naturally, and some provide grazing and shelter.

  

Hills (Fells)

  

The four highest mountains in the Lake District exceed 3000 ft (914m). These are;

 

Scafell Pike, 978 m (3,210 ft),

Scafell, 965 m (3,162 ft),

Helvellyn, 951 m (3,118 ft) and

Skiddaw, 931 m (3,054 ft).

  

Northern Fells

  

The Northern Fells are a readily defined range of hills contained within a 13 km diameter circle between Keswick in the southwest and Caldbeck in the northeast. They culminate in the 931 m (3054 ft) peak of Skiddaw. Other notable peaks are those of Blencathra (also known as Saddleback) (868m / 2848 ft) and Carrock Fell. Bassenthwaite Lake occupies the valley between this massif and the North Western Fells.

 

North Western Fells

  

The North Western Fells lie between Borrowdale and Bassenthwaite Lake to the east and Buttermere and Lorton Vale to the west. Their southernmost point is at Honister Pass. This area includes the Derwent Fells above the Newlands Valley and hills to the north amongst which are Dale Head, Robinson. To the north stand Grasmoor - highest in the range at 852 m (2795 ft), Grisedale Pike and the hills around the valley of Coledale, and in the far north-west is Thornthwaite Forest and Lord's Seat. The fells in this area are rounded Skiddaw Slate, with few tarns and relatively few rock faces.

  

Western Fells

  

The Western Fells lie between Buttermere and Wasdale, with Sty Head forming the apex of a large triangle. Ennerdale bisects the area, which consists of the High Stile ridge north of Ennerdale, the Loweswater Fells in the far north west, the Pillar group in the south west, and Great Gable (2,949 feet or 899 metres) near Sty Head. Other tops include Seatallan, Haystacks and Kirk Fell. This area is craggy and steep, with the impressive pinnacle of Pillar Rock its showpiece. Wastwater, located in this part, is England's deepest lake.

  

Central Fells

  

The Central Fells are lower in elevation than surrounding areas of fell, peaking at 762 m (2500 ft) at High Raise. They take the form of a ridge running between Derwent Water in the west and Thirlmere in the east, from Keswick in the north to Langdale Pikes in the south. A spur extends southeast to Loughrigg Fell above Ambleside. The central ridge running north over High Seat is exceptionally boggy.

  

Eastern Fells

  

The Eastern Fells consist of a long north-to-south ridge—the Helvellyn range, running from Clough Head to Seat Sandal with the 3,118-foot (950 m) Helvellyn at its highest point. The western slopes of these summits tend to be grassy, with rocky corries and crags on the eastern side. The Fairfield group lies to the south of the range, and forms a similar pattern with towering rock faces and hidden valleys spilling into the Patterdale valley. It culminates in the height of Red Screes overlooking the Kirkstone Pass.

  

Far Eastern Fells

  

The Far Eastern Fells refer to all of the Lakeland fells to the east of Ullswater and the A592 road running south to Windermere. At 828 m (2,717 ft), the peak known as High Street is the highest point on a complex ridge which runs broadly north-south and overlooks the hidden valley of Haweswater to its east. In the north of this region are the lower fells of Martindale Common and Bampton Common whilst in the south are the fells overlooking the Kentmere valley. Further to the east, beyond Mardale and Longsleddale is Shap Fell, an extensive area consisting of high moorland, more rolling and Pennine in nature than the mountains to the west.

  

Southern Fells

  

The Southern Fells occupy the southwestern quarter of the Lake District. They can be regarded as comprising a northern grouping between Wasdale, Eskdale and the two Langdale valleys, a southeastern group east of Dunnerdale and south of Little Langdale and a southwestern group bounded by Eskdale to the north and Dunnerdale to the east.

The first group includes England's highest mountains; Scafell Pike in the centre, at 3,209 feet (978 m) and Scafell one mile (1.6 km) to the south-west. Though it is slightly lower it has a 700-foot (210 m) rockface, Scafell Crag on its northern side. It also includes the Wastwater Screes overlooking Wasdale, the Glaramara ridge overlooking Borrowdale, the three tops of Crinkle Crags, Bowfell and Esk Pike. The core of the area is drained by the infant River Esk. Collectively these are some of the Lake District's most rugged hillsides.

The second group, otherwise known as the Furness Fells or Coniston Fells, have as their northern boundary the steep and narrow Hardknott and Wrynose Passes.

The third group to the west of the Duddon includes Harter Fell and the long ridge leading over Whitfell to Black Combe and the sea. The south of this region consists of lower forests and knolls, with Kirkby Moor on the southern boundary. The south-western Lake District ends near the Furness peninsula and Barrow-in-Furness, a town which many Lake District residents rely on for basic amenities.

  

South Eastern area

  

The south-eastern area is the territory between Coniston Water and Windermere and east of Windermere towards Kendal and south to Lindale. There are no high summits in this area which is mainly low hills, knolls and limestone cuestas such as Gummer's How and Whitbarrow. Indeed it rises only as high as 333m at Top o' Selside east of Coniston Water; The wide expanse of Grizedale Forest stands between the two lakes. Kendal and Morecambe Bay stand at the eastern and southern edges of the area.

  

Lakes

  

Only one of the lakes in the Lake District is called by that name, Bassenthwaite Lake. All the others such as Windermere, Coniston Water, Ullswater and Buttermere are meres, tarns and waters, with mere being the least common and water being the most common. The major lakes and reservoirs in the National Park are given below.

Bassenthwaite Lake

Brotherswater

Buttermere

Coniston Water

Crummock Water

Derwent Water

Devoke Water

Elter Water

Ennerdale Water

Esthwaite Water

Grasmere

Haweswater Reservoir

Hayeswater

Loweswater

Rydal Water

Thirlmere

Ullswater

Wast Water

Windermere

  

Geology

  

The Lake District's geology is very complex but well-studied.[12] A granite batholith beneath the area is responsible for this upland massif, its relatively low density causing the area to be 'buoyed up'. The granite can be seen at the surface as the Ennerdale, Skiddaw, Carrock Fell, Eskdale and Shap granites.

Broadly speaking the area can be divided into three bands, the divisions between which run southwest to northeast. Generally speaking the rocks become younger from northwest to southeast. The northwestern band is composed of early to mid Ordovician sedimentary rocks – largely mudstones and siltstones of marine origin. Together they comprise the Skiddaw Group and include the rocks traditionally known as the Skiddaw Slates. Their friability generally leads to mountains with relatively smooth slopes such as Skiddaw itself.

The central band is a mix of volcanic and sedimentary rocks of mid to late Ordovician age comprising the lavas and tuffs of the Borrowdale Volcanic Group, erupted as the former Iapetus ocean was subducted beneath what is now the Scottish border during the Caledonian orogeny. The northern central peaks, such as Great Rigg, were produced by considerable lava flows. These lava eruptions were followed by a series of pyroclastic eruptions which produced a series of calderas, one of which includes present-day Scafell Pike. These pyroclastic rocks give rise to the craggy landscapes typical of the central fells.[13]'

The southeastern band comprises the mudstones and wackes of the Windermere Supergroup and which includes (successively) the rocks of the Dent, Stockdale, Tranearth, Coniston and Kendal Groups. These are generally a little less resistant to erosion than the rocks sequence to the north and underlie much of the lower landscapes around Coniston and Windermere.

Later intrusions have formed individual outcrops of igneous rock in each of these groups. Around the edges of these Ordovician and Silurian rocks on the northern, eastern and southern fringes of the area is a semi-continuous outcrop of Carboniferous Limestone seen most spectacularly at places like Whitbarrow Scar and Scout Scar.

  

Climate

  

The Lake District's location on the north west coast of England, coupled with its mountainous geography, makes it the dampest part of England. The UK Met Office reports average annual precipitation of more than 2,000 millimetres (80 in), but with very large local variation. Although the entire region receives above average rainfall, there is a wide disparity between the amount of rainfall in the western and eastern lakes, as the Lake District experiences relief rainfall. Seathwaite in Borrowdale is the wettest inhabited place in England with an average of 3,300 millimetres (130 in) of rain a year,[16] while nearby Sprinkling Tarn is even wetter, recording over 5,000 millimetres (200 in) per year; by contrast, Keswick, at the end of Borrowdale receives 1,470 millimetres (60 in) every year, and Penrith (just outside the Lake District) only 870 millimetres (30 in). March to June tend to be the driest months, with October to January the wettest, but at low levels there is relatively little difference between months.

Although sheltered valleys experience gales on an average of only five days a year, the Lake District is generally very windy with the coastal areas having 20 days of gales, and the fell tops around 100 days of gales per year. The maritime climate means that the Lake District experiences relatively moderate temperature variations through the year. Mean temperature in the valleys ranges from about 3 °C (37 °F) in January to around 15 °C (59 °F) in July. (By comparison, Moscow, at the same latitude, ranges from −10 °C to 19 °C/14 °F to 66 °F).

The relatively low height of most of the fells means that, while snow is expected during the winter, they can be free of snow at any time of the year. Normally, significant snow fall only occurs between November and April. On average, snow falls on Helvellyn 67 days per year. During the year, valleys typically experience 20 days with snow falling, a further 200 wet days, and 145 dry days. Hill fog is common at any time of year, and the fells average only around 2.5 hours of sunshine per day, increasing to around 4.1 hours per day on the coastal plains.

  

Wildlife

  

The Lake District is one of the few places in England where red squirrels have a sizeable population.[18]

  

The Lake District is home to a plethora of wildlife, due to its range of varied topography, lakes and forests. It provides a home for the red squirrel and colonies of sundew and butterwort, two of the few carnivorous plants native to Britain. The Lake District is a major sanctuary for the red squirrel and has the largest population in England. It is estimated there are 140,000 red squirrels in the United Kingdom, but are approximately 2.5 million gray squirrels who have displaced the indigenous red population since their introduction to the British Isles.[19]

The Lake District is home to a range of bird species,[20] and the RSPB maintain a reserve in Haweswater.[21] England's only nesting pair of Golden Eagles can be found in the Lake District. The female Golden Eagle has not been seen since 2004 although the male still remains.[22] Conservationists believe he is now the only resident golden eagle in England.[23] Following recolonisation attempts, a pair of ospreys nested in the Lake District for the time in over 150 years near Bassenthwaite Lake during 2001. Osprey's now frequently migrate north from Africa in the spring to nest in the Lake District and a total of 23 chicks have fledged in The Lakes since 2001.[24] Another bird species to have had recolonisation attempts is the Red Kite who have a population approximately 90 in the dense forest areas near Grizedale as of 2012.[25] Conservationists hope the re-introduction will create a large Red Kite population in the Lake District and in North West England where the Red Kite population is low.[26] Other bird species resident to the Lake District include the buzzard, dipper, peregrine and raven.[27] Seasonal birds include the ring ouzel and the redstart.[28]

The lakes of the Lake District support three rare and endangered species of fish: the vendace, which can be found only in Derwent Water and until 2008 in Bassenthwaite Lake.[29] Vendace have struggled in recent years with naturally-occurring algae becoming a threat and the lakes gradually getting warmer in temperature.[30] Vendace have been moved to higher lakes on a number of occasions to preserve the species, notably in 2005 and 2011.[31][32] The Lakes are also home to two other rare species: the schelly, which lives in Brothers Water, Haweswater, Red Tarn and Ullswater, and the Arctic charr, which can be found in Buttermere, Coniston Water, Crummock Water, Ennerdale Water, Haweswater, Loweswater, Thirlmere, Wast Water, and Windermere.

  

The vendace (Coregonus vandesius) is England's rarest species of fish, and is only found in the Lake District.

In recent years, some important changes have been made to fisheries byelaws covering the north-west region of England, to help protect some of the rarest fish species. In 2002, the Environment Agency introduced a new fisheries byelaw, banning the use of all freshwater fish as live or dead bait in 14 of the lakes in the Lake District. Anglers not complying with the new byelaw can face fines of up to £2,500. There are 14 lakes in the Lake District which are affected. These are: Bassenthwaite Lake, Brothers Water, Buttermere, Coniston Water, Crummock Water, Derwent Water, Ennerdale Water, Haweswater, Loweswater, Red Tarn, Thirlmere, Ullswater, Wast Water and Windermere.

The lakes and waters of the Lake District do not naturally support as many species of fish as other similar habitats in the south of the country and elsewhere in Europe. Some fish that do thrive there are particularly at risk from introduction of new species.

The introduction of non-native fish can lead to the predation of the native fish fauna or competition for food. There is also the risk of disease being introduced, which can further threaten native populations. In some cases, the introduced species can disturb the environment so much that it becomes unsuitable for particular fish. For example, a major problem has been found with ruffe. This non-native fish has now been introduced into a number of lakes in recent years. It is known that ruffe eat the eggs of vendace, which are particularly vulnerable because of their long incubation period. This means that they are susceptible to predators for up to 120 days. The eggs of other fish, for example roach, are only at risk for as little as three days.

  

Economy

  

Agriculture and forestry

  

Farming, and in particular sheep farming, has been the major industry in the region since Roman times. The breed most closely associated with the area is the tough Herdwick, with Rough Fell and Swaledale sheep also common. Sheep farming remains important both for the economy of the region and for preserving the landscape which visitors want to see. Features such as dry stone walls, for example, are there as a result of sheep farming. Some land is also used for silage and dairy farming.

The area was badly affected by the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease across the United Kingdom in 2001. The outbreak started in Surrey in February, but had spread to Cumbria by end of March.[33] Thousands of sheep, include the native Herdwick which graze on the fellsides across the District, were destroyed. In replacing the sheep, one problem to overcome was that many of the lost sheep were heafed, that is, they knew their part of the unfenced fell and did not stray, with this knowledge being passed between generations. With all the sheep lost at once, this knowledge has to be re-learnt and some of the fells have had discreet electric fences strung across them for a period of five years, to allow the sheep to "re-heaf".[34] At the time of the outbreak, worries existed about the future of certain species of sheep such as Ryeland and Herdwick in the District,[35] however these fears have been allayed and sheep now occupy the District in abundance.[36]

  

Forestry has also assumed greater importance over the course of the last century with the establishment of extensive conifer plantations around Whinlatter Pass, in Ennerdale and at Grizedale Forest amongst other places. There are extensive plantations of non-native pine trees.

  

Industry

 

With its wealth of rock types and their abundance in the landscape, mining and quarrying have long been significant activities in the Lake District economy. In Neolithic times, the Lake District was a major source of stone axes, examples of which have been found all over Britain. The primary site, on the slopes of the Langdale Pikes, is sometimes described as a "stone axe factory" of the Langdale axe industry. Some of the earliest stone circles in Britain are connected with this industry.

Mining, particularly of copper, lead (often associated with quantities of silver), baryte, graphite and slate, was historically a major Lakeland industry, mainly from the 16th century to the 19th century. Coppiced woodland was used extensively to provide charcoal for smelting. Some mining still takes place today; for example, slate mining continues at the Honister Mines, at the top of Honister Pass. Abandoned mine-workings can be found on fell-sides throughout the district. The locally mined graphite led to the development of the pencil industry, especially around Keswick.

  

In the middle of the 19th century, half the world textile industry's bobbin supply came from the Lake District area. Over the past century, however, tourism has grown rapidly to become the area's primary source of income.

  

Development of tourism

  

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Early visitors to the Lake District, who travelled for the education and pleasure of the journey, include Celia Fiennes who in 1698 undertook a journey the length of England, including riding through Kendal and over Kirkstone Pass into Patterdale. Her experiences and impressions were published in her book Great Journey to Newcastle and Cornwall:

As I walked down at this place I was walled on both sides by those inaccessible high rocky barren hills which hang over one’s head in some places and appear very terrible; and from them springs many little currents of water from the sides and clefts which trickle down to some lower part where it runs swiftly over the stones and shelves in the way, which makes a pleasant rush and murmuring noise and like a snowball is increased by each spring trickling down on either side of those hills, and so descends into the bottoms which are a Moorish ground in which in many places the waters stand, and so form some of those Lakes as it did here.[37]

In 1724, Daniel Defoe published the first volume of A Tour Thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain. He commented on Westmorland that it was:

the wildest, most barren and frightful of any that I have passed over in England, or even Wales itself; the west side, which borders on Cumberland, is indeed bounded by a chain of almost unpassable mountains which, in the language of the country, are called fells.

Towards the end of the 18th century, the area was becoming more popular with travellers. This was partly a result of wars in Continental Europe, restricting the possibility of travel there. In 1778 Father Thomas West produced A Guide to the Lakes, which began the era of modern tourism.

  

West listed "stations"—viewpoints where tourists could enjoy the best views of the landscape, being encouraged to appreciated the formal qualities of the landscape and to apply aesthetic values. At some of these stations, buildings were erected to help this process. The remains of Claife Station (on the western shore Windermere below Claife Heights) can be visited today.

William Wordsworth published his Guide to the Lakes in 1810, and by 1835 it had reached its fifth edition, now called A Guide through the District of the Lakes in the North of England. This book was particularly influential in popularising the region. Wordsworth's favourite valley was Dunnerdale or the Duddon Valley nestling in the south-west of the Lake District.

The railways led to another expansion in tourism. The Kendal and Windermere Railway was the first to penetrate the Lake District, reaching Kendal in 1846 and Windermere in 1847. The line to Coniston opened in 1848 (although until 1857 this was only linked to the national network with ferries between Fleetwood and Barrow-in-Furness); the line from Penrith through Keswick to Cockermouth in 1865; and the line to Lakeside at the foot of Windermere in 1869. The railways, built with traditional industry in mind, brought with them a huge increase in the number of visitors, thus contributing to the growth of the tourism industry. Railway services were supplemented by steamer boats on the major lakes of Ullswater, Windermere, Coniston Water, and Derwent Water.

  

A steamer on Ullswater

  

The growth in tourist numbers continued into the age of the motor car, when railways began to be closed or run down. The formation of the Lake District National Park in 1951 recognised the need to protect the Lake District environment from excessive commercial or industrial exploitation, preserving that which visitors come to see, without any restriction on the movement of people into and around the district. The M6 Motorway helped bring traffic to the Lakes, passing up its eastern flank. The narrow roads present a challenge for traffic flow and, from the 1960s, certain areas have been very congested.

Whilst the roads and railways provided easier access to the area, many people were drawn to the Lakes by the publication of the Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells by Alfred Wainwright. First published between 1952 and 1965, these books provided detailed information on 214 peaks across the region, with carefully hand-drawn maps and panoramas, and also stories and asides which add to the colour of the area. They are still used by many visitors to the area as guides for walking excursions, with the ultimate goal of bagging the complete list of Wainwrights. The famous guides are being revised by Chris Jesty to reflect changes, mainly in valley access and paths.[38]

Since the early 1960s, the National Park Authority has employed rangers to help cope with increasing tourism and development, the first being John Wyatt, who has since written a number of guide books. He was joined two years later by a second, and since then the number of rangers has been rising.

The area has also become associated with writer Beatrix Potter. A number of tourists visit to see her family home, with particularly large numbers coming from Japan.

Tourism has now become the park's major industry, with about 12 million visitors each year, mainly from the UK's larger settlements, China, Japan, Spain, Germany and the US.[39] Windermere Lake Steamers are Cumbria's most popular charging tourist attraction with about 1.35 million paying customers each year, and the local economy is dependent upon tourists. The negative impact of tourism has been seen, however. Soil erosion, caused by walking, is now a significant problem, with millions of pounds being spent to protect over-used paths. In 2006, two Tourist Information Centres in the National Park were closed.

Cultural tourism is becoming an increasingly important part of the wider tourist industry. The Lake District's links with a wealth of artists and writers and its strong history of providing summer theatre performances in the old Blue Box of Century Theatre are strong attractions for visiting tourists. The tradition of theatre is carried on by venues such as Theatre by the Lake in Keswick with its summer season of six plays in repertoire, Christmas and Easter productions, and the many literature, film, mountaineering, jazz and creative arts festivals, such as the Kendal Mountain Festival and the Keswick Mountain Festival.

  

Gastronomy

  

The Lake District has been regarded as one of the best places to eat in Britain.[40] The region has four Michelin Star Restaurants including L'Enclume, Sharrow Bay, Holbeck Ghyll and The Samling in Ambleside. In addition, Cumbria has more microbreweries than any other county in Britain and together with Jennings Brewery supply a variety of ales to pubs and restaurants throughout the region.

  

Literature and art

  

The Lake District is intimately associated with English literature in the 18th and 19th centuries. Thomas Gray was the first to bring the region to attention, when he wrote a journal of his Grand Tour in 1769, but it was William Wordsworth whose poems were most famous and influential. Wordsworth's poem "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud", inspired by the sight of daffodils on the shores of Ullswater, remains one of the most famous in the English language. Out of his long life of eighty years, sixty were spent amid its lakes and mountains, first as a schoolboy at Hawkshead, and afterwards living in Grasmere (1799–1813) and Rydal Mount (1813–50). Wordsworth, Coleridge and Southey became known as the Lake Poets.

The poet and his wife lie buried in the churchyard of Grasmere and very near to them are the remains of Hartley Coleridge (son of the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge), who himself lived for many years in Keswick, Ambleside and Grasmere. Robert Southey, the Poet Laureate and friend of Wordsworth (who would succeed Southey as Laureate in 1843), was a resident of Keswick for forty years (1803–43), and was buried in Crosthwaite churchyard. Samuel Taylor Coleridge lived for some time in Keswick, and also with the Wordsworths at Grasmere. From 1807 to 1815 John Wilson lived at Windermere. Thomas de Quincey spent the greater part of the years 1809 to 1828 at Grasmere, in the first cottage which Wordsworth had inhabited. Ambleside, or its environs, was also the place of residence both of Thomas Arnold, who spent there the vacations of the last ten years of his life and of Harriet Martineau, who built herself a house there in 1845. At Keswick, Mrs Lynn Linton (wife of William James Linton) was born, in 1822. Brantwood, a house beside Coniston Water, was the home of John Ruskin during the last years of his life. His assistant W. G. Collingwood the author, artist and antiquarian lived nearby, and wrote Thorstein of the Mere, set in the Norse period.

In addition to these residents or natives of the Lake District, a variety of other poets and writers made visits to the Lake District or were bound by ties of friendship with those already mentioned above. These include Percy Bysshe Shelley, Sir Walter Scott, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Arthur Hugh Clough, Henry Crabb Robinson, "Conversation" Sharp, Thomas Carlyle, John Keats, Lord Tennyson, Matthew Arnold, Felicia Hemans, and Gerald Massey.

During the early 20th century, the children's author Beatrix Potter was in residence at Hill Top Farm, setting many of her famous Peter Rabbit books in the Lake District. Her life was made into a biopic film, starring Renée Zellweger and Ewan McGregor. Arthur Ransome lived in several areas of the Lake District, and set five of his Swallows and Amazons series of books, published between 1930 and 1947, in a fictionalised Lake District setting. So did Geoffrey Trease with his five Black Banner school stories (1949–56), starting with No Boats on Bannermere.

The novelist Sir Hugh Walpole lived at "Brackenburn" on the lower slopes of Catbells overlooking Derwent Water from 1924 until his death in 1941. Whilst living at "Brackenburn" he wrote The Herries Chronicle detailing the history of a fictional Cumbrian family over two centuries. The noted author and poet Norman Nicholson came from the south-west Lakes, living and writing about Millom in the twentieth century – he was known as the last of the Lake Poets and came close to becoming the Poet Laureate.

Writer and author Melvyn Bragg was brought up in the region and has used it as the setting for some of his work, such as his novel A Time to Dance, later turned into a television drama.

The Lake District has been the setting for crime novels by Reginald Hill, Val McDermid and Martin Edwards. The region is also a recurring theme in Ernest Hemingway's 1926 novella The Torrents of Spring and features prominently in Ian McEwan's Amsterdam, which won the 1998 Booker Prize.

The Lake District is mentioned in Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice; Elizabeth Bennet looks forward to a holiday there with her aunt and uncle and is "excessively disappointed" upon learning they cannot travel that far.

Film director Ken Russell lived in the Keswick/Borrowdale area until 2007[41] and used it in films such as Tommy and Mahler.

The Lake District is the setting for the 1977 Richard Adams novel The Plague Dogs. Adams' knowledge of the area offers the reader a precise view of the natural beauty of the Lake District .

Some students of Arthurian lore identify the Lake District with the Grail kingdom of Listeneise.

The former Keswick School of Industrial Art at Keswick was started by Canon Rawnsley, a friend of John Ruskin.

  

Nomenclature

  

A number of words and phrases are local to the Lake District and are part of the Cumbrian dialect, though many are shared by other northern dialects. These include:

fell – from Old Norse fjallr, brought to England by Viking invaders and close to modern Norwegian fjell and Swedish fjäll meaning mountain

howe – place name from the Old Norse haugr meaning hill, knoll, or mound

tarn – a word that has been taken to mean a small lake situated in a corrie (the local name for which is cove), a local phrase for any small pool of water. The word is derived from the Old Norse, Norwegian and Swedish word tjern/tjärn, meaning small lake

Yan Tan Tethera – the name for a system of sheep counting which was traditionally used in the Lake District. Though now rare, it is still used by some and taught in local schools.

Heaf (a variant of heft), the "home territory" of a flock of sheep.

 

  

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_District

  

The Lake District, also commonly known as The Lakes or (particularly as an adjective) Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England. A popular holiday destination, it is famous not only for its lakes, forests and mountains (or fells), but also for its associations with the early 19th century poetry and writings of William Wordsworth and the other Lake Poets.

Historically shared by the counties of Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire, the Lake District now lies entirely within the modern county of Cumbria. All the land in England higher than three thousand feet above sea level lies within the National Park, including Scafell Pike, the highest mountain in England. It also contains the deepest and longest lakes in England, Wastwater and Windermere, respectively.

  

Lake District National Park

  

Lake District National Park (shown as number 2) in a map of National Parks in England and Wales.

The Lake District National Park includes nearly all of the Lake District, though the town of Kendal and the Lakeland Peninsulas are currently outside the Park boundary.

The area, which was designated a National Park on 9 May 1951 (less than a month after the first UK National Park designation — the Peak District), is the most visited national park in the United Kingdom with 15.8 million annual visitors and more than 23 million annual day visits,[1] the largest of the thirteen National Parks in England and Wales, and the second largest in the UK after the Cairngorms.[2] Its aim is to protect the landscape by restricting unwelcome change by industry or commerce. Most of the land in the Park is in private ownership. The National Trust owns about a quarter of the total area (including some lakes and land of significant landscape value), United Utilities owns eight per cent and 3.9% belongs to the Lake District National Park Authority. The National Park Authority is based at offices in Kendal. It runs a visitor centre on Windermere at a former country house called Brockhole,[3] Coniston Boating Centre and Information Centres.

In common with all other National Parks in England, there is no restriction on entry to, or movement within the park along public routes, but access to cultivated land is usually restricted to public footpaths.

The lakes and mountains combine to form impressive scenery. Farmland and settlement add aesthetic value to the natural scenery with an ecology modified by human influence for millennia and including important wildlife habitats. The Lake District has failed to be approved as a natural World Heritage Site, because of human activities, such as commercial forestry, which have adversely impacted the park's assessment. Another bid is being prepared for World Heritage Status, this time in the category of cultural landscape.

  

Proposed extension to National Park

  

In December 2009, Natural England proposed extending the National Park in the direction of the Yorkshire Dales National Park.[5] This would include land of high landscape value in the Lune Valley. The proposal was opposed by Cumbria County Council who said it would lead to less democratic control and would make local housing less affordable.[6] A public inquiry is being held into the proposals which will require a decision by the Secretary of State.

  

Human geography

  

General

  

The precise extent of the Lake District was not defined traditionally, but is slightly larger than that of the National Park, the total area of which is about 885 square miles (2,292 km2). The Park extends just over 32 miles (52 km) from east to west and nearly 40 miles (64 km) from north to south,[8] with areas such as the Lake District Peninsulas to the south lying outside the National Park.

  

Settlement

  

The Lake District is one of the most highly populated national parks. There are, however, only a handful of major settlements within this mountainous area, the towns of Keswick, Windermere, Ambleside, and Bowness-on-Windermere being the four largest. Significant towns immediately outside the boundary of the national park include Barrow-in-Furness, Kendal, Ulverston, Cockermouth, Penrith, and Grange-over-Sands; each of these has important economic links with the area. Villages such as Coniston, Threlkeld, Glenridding, Pooley Bridge, Broughton-in-Furness, Grasmere, Newby Bridge, Staveley, Lindale, Gosforth and Hawkshead act as more local centres. The economies of almost all are intimately linked with tourism. Beyond these are a scatter of hamlets and innumerable isolated farmsteads, some of which are still tied to agriculture, others now function as part of the tourist economy.

  

Communications

  

Roads

  

The Lake District National Park is almost contained within a box of trunk routes. It is flanked to the east by the A6 road which runs from Kendal to Penrith). The A590 which connects the M6 to Cumbria's largest town, Barrow-in-Furness, and the A5092 trunk roads cut across its southern fringes and the A66 trunk road between Penrith and Workington cuts across its northern edge. Finally the A595 trunk road runs through the coastal plains to the west of the area linking the A66 with the A5092.

Besides these, a few A roads penetrate the area itself, notably the A591 which runs northwestwards from Kendal to Windermere and then on to Keswick. It continues up the east side of Bassenthwaite Lake. "The A591, Grasmere, Lake District" was short-listed in the 2011 Google Street View awards in the Most Romantic Street category. The A593 and A5084 link the Ambleside and Coniston areas with the A590 to the south whilst the A592 and A5074 similarly link Windermere with the A590. The A592 also continues northwards from Windermere to Ullswater and Penrith by way of the Kirkstone Pass.

Some of those valleys which are not penetrated by A roads are served by B roads. The B5289 serves Lorton Vale and Buttermere and links via the Honister Pass with Borrowdale. The B5292 ascends the Whinlatter Pass from Lorton Vale before dropping down to Braithwaite near Keswick. The B5322 serves the valley of St John's in the Vale whilst Great Langdale is served by the B5343. Other valleys such as Little Langdale, Eskdale and Dunnerdale are served by minor roads. The latter connects with the former two by way of the Wrynose and Hardknott passes respectively - both of these passes are known for their steep gradients and are one of the most popular climbs in the United Kingdom for cycling enthusiasts.[11] A minor road through the Newlands Valley connects via Newlands Hause with the B5289 at Buttermere. Wasdale is served by a cul-de-sac minor road as is Longsleddale and the valleys at Haweswater and Kentmere. There are intricate networks of minor roads in the lower-lying southern part of the area connecting numerous communities between Kendal, Windermere and Coniston.

  

Railways and ferries

  

The West Coast Main Line skirts the eastern edge of the Lake District and the Cumbrian Coast Line passes through the southern and western fringes of the area. A single line, the Windermere Branch Line, penetrates from Kendal to Windermere via Staveley. Lines once served Broughton-in-Furness and Coniston and another ran from Penrith to Cockermouth via Keswick but each of these was abandoned in the 1960s. The track of the latter has been adopted in part for use by the improved A66 trunk road.

The narrow gauge Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway runs from Ravenglass on the west coast up Eskdale as far as Dalegarth Station near the hamlet of Boot, catering for tourists. Another heritage railway, the Lakeside and Haverthwaite Railway runs between the two villages encompassed within its name, tourists being able to connect with the Windermere passenger ferry at Lakeside.

A vehicle-carrying cable ferry, the Windermere Ferry runs frequent services across Windermere. There are also seasonal passenger ferries on Coniston Water, Derwent Water and Ullswater.

  

Physical geography

  

As the highest ground in England, Scafell Pike naturally has a very extensive view, ranging from the Mourne Mountains in Northern Ireland to Snowdonia in Wales. The Lake District takes the form of a roughly circular upland massif deeply dissected by a broadly radial pattern of major valleys whose character is largely the product of repeated glaciations over the last 2 million years. Most of these valleys display the U-shape cross-section, characteristic of glacial origin and often contain elongate lakes occupying sizeable bedrock hollows often with tracts of relatively flat ground at their heads. Smaller lakes known as tarns occupy glacial cirques at higher elevations. It is the abundance of both which has led to the area becoming known as the Lake District.

The mountains of the Lake District are also known as the "Cumbrian Mountains", although this name is less frequently used than terms like "the Lake District" or "the Lakeland Fells". Many of the higher fells are rocky in character, whilst moorland predominates at lower altitude. Vegetation cover across better drained areas includes bracken and heather though much of the land is boggy, due to the high rainfall. Deciduous native woodland occurs on many steeper slopes below the tree line but with native oak supplemented by extensive conifer plantations in many areas, particularly Grisedale Forest in the generally lower southern part of the area.

  

Valleys

  

The principal radial valleys are (clockwise from the south) those of Dunnerdale, Eskdale, Wasdale, Ennerdale, Lorton Vale and the Buttermere valley, the Derwent Valley and Borrowdale, the valleys containing Ullswater and Haweswater, Longsleddale, the Kentmere valley and those radiating from the head of Windermere including Great Langdale. The valleys serve to break the mountains up into separate blocks which have been described by various authors in different ways. The most frequently encountered approach is that made popular by Alfred Wainwright who published seven separate area guides to the Lakeland Fells.

  

Woodlands

  

Below the tree line are wooded areas, including British and European native oak woodlands and introduced softwood plantations. The woodlands provide habitats for native English wildlife. The native red squirrel is found in the Lake District and in a few other parts of England. In parts of the Lake District the rainfall is higher than in any other part of England. This gives Atlantic mosses, ferns, lichen, and liverworts the chance to grow. There is some ancient woodland in the National Park. Management of the woodlands varies: some are coppiced, some pollarded, some left to grow naturally, and some provide grazing and shelter.

  

Hills (Fells)

  

The four highest mountains in the Lake District exceed 3000 ft (914m). These are;

 

Scafell Pike, 978 m (3,210 ft),

Scafell, 965 m (3,162 ft),

Helvellyn, 951 m (3,118 ft) and

Skiddaw, 931 m (3,054 ft).

  

Northern Fells

  

The Northern Fells are a readily defined range of hills contained within a 13 km diameter circle between Keswick in the southwest and Caldbeck in the northeast. They culminate in the 931 m (3054 ft) peak of Skiddaw. Other notable peaks are those of Blencathra (also known as Saddleback) (868m / 2848 ft) and Carrock Fell. Bassenthwaite Lake occupies the valley between this massif and the North Western Fells.

 

North Western Fells

  

The North Western Fells lie between Borrowdale and Bassenthwaite Lake to the east and Buttermere and Lorton Vale to the west. Their southernmost point is at Honister Pass. This area includes the Derwent Fells above the Newlands Valley and hills to the north amongst which are Dale Head, Robinson. To the north stand Grasmoor - highest in the range at 852 m (2795 ft), Grisedale Pike and the hills around the valley of Coledale, and in the far north-west is Thornthwaite Forest and Lord's Seat. The fells in this area are rounded Skiddaw Slate, with few tarns and relatively few rock faces.

  

Western Fells

  

The Western Fells lie between Buttermere and Wasdale, with Sty Head forming the apex of a large triangle. Ennerdale bisects the area, which consists of the High Stile ridge north of Ennerdale, the Loweswater Fells in the far north west, the Pillar group in the south west, and Great Gable (2,949 feet or 899 metres) near Sty Head. Other tops include Seatallan, Haystacks and Kirk Fell. This area is craggy and steep, with the impressive pinnacle of Pillar Rock its showpiece. Wastwater, located in this part, is England's deepest lake.

  

Central Fells

  

The Central Fells are lower in elevation than surrounding areas of fell, peaking at 762 m (2500 ft) at High Raise. They take the form of a ridge running between Derwent Water in the west and Thirlmere in the east, from Keswick in the north to Langdale Pikes in the south. A spur extends southeast to Loughrigg Fell above Ambleside. The central ridge running north over High Seat is exceptionally boggy.

  

Eastern Fells

  

The Eastern Fells consist of a long north-to-south ridge—the Helvellyn range, running from Clough Head to Seat Sandal with the 3,118-foot (950 m) Helvellyn at its highest point. The western slopes of these summits tend to be grassy, with rocky corries and crags on the eastern side. The Fairfield group lies to the south of the range, and forms a similar pattern with towering rock faces and hidden valleys spilling into the Patterdale valley. It culminates in the height of Red Screes overlooking the Kirkstone Pass.

  

Far Eastern Fells

  

The Far Eastern Fells refer to all of the Lakeland fells to the east of Ullswater and the A592 road running south to Windermere. At 828 m (2,717 ft), the peak known as High Street is the highest point on a complex ridge which runs broadly north-south and overlooks the hidden valley of Haweswater to its east. In the north of this region are the lower fells of Martindale Common and Bampton Common whilst in the south are the fells overlooking the Kentmere valley. Further to the east, beyond Mardale and Longsleddale is Shap Fell, an extensive area consisting of high moorland, more rolling and Pennine in nature than the mountains to the west.

  

Southern Fells

  

The Southern Fells occupy the southwestern quarter of the Lake District. They can be regarded as comprising a northern grouping between Wasdale, Eskdale and the two Langdale valleys, a southeastern group east of Dunnerdale and south of Little Langdale and a southwestern group bounded by Eskdale to the north and Dunnerdale to the east.

The first group includes England's highest mountains; Scafell Pike in the centre, at 3,209 feet (978 m) and Scafell one mile (1.6 km) to the south-west. Though it is slightly lower it has a 700-foot (210 m) rockface, Scafell Crag on its northern side. It also includes the Wastwater Screes overlooking Wasdale, the Glaramara ridge overlooking Borrowdale, the three tops of Crinkle Crags, Bowfell and Esk Pike. The core of the area is drained by the infant River Esk. Collectively these are some of the Lake District's most rugged hillsides.

The second group, otherwise known as the Furness Fells or Coniston Fells, have as their northern boundary the steep and narrow Hardknott and Wrynose Passes.

The third group to the west of the Duddon includes Harter Fell and the long ridge leading over Whitfell to Black Combe and the sea. The south of this region consists of lower forests and knolls, with Kirkby Moor on the southern boundary. The south-western Lake District ends near the Furness peninsula and Barrow-in-Furness, a town which many Lake District residents rely on for basic amenities.

  

South Eastern area

  

The south-eastern area is the territory between Coniston Water and Windermere and east of Windermere towards Kendal and south to Lindale. There are no high summits in this area which is mainly low hills, knolls and limestone cuestas such as Gummer's How and Whitbarrow. Indeed it rises only as high as 333m at Top o' Selside east of Coniston Water; The wide expanse of Grizedale Forest stands between the two lakes. Kendal and Morecambe Bay stand at the eastern and southern edges of the area.

  

Lakes

  

Only one of the lakes in the Lake District is called by that name, Bassenthwaite Lake. All the others such as Windermere, Coniston Water, Ullswater and Buttermere are meres, tarns and waters, with mere being the least common and water being the most common. The major lakes and reservoirs in the National Park are given below.

Bassenthwaite Lake

Brotherswater

Buttermere

Coniston Water

Crummock Water

Derwent Water

Devoke Water

Elter Water

Ennerdale Water

Esthwaite Water

Grasmere

Haweswater Reservoir

Hayeswater

Loweswater

Rydal Water

Thirlmere

Ullswater

Wast Water

Windermere

  

Geology

  

The Lake District's geology is very complex but well-studied.[12] A granite batholith beneath the area is responsible for this upland massif, its relatively low density causing the area to be 'buoyed up'. The granite can be seen at the surface as the Ennerdale, Skiddaw, Carrock Fell, Eskdale and Shap granites.

Broadly speaking the area can be divided into three bands, the divisions between which run southwest to northeast. Generally speaking the rocks become younger from northwest to southeast. The northwestern band is composed of early to mid Ordovician sedimentary rocks – largely mudstones and siltstones of marine origin. Together they comprise the Skiddaw Group and include the rocks traditionally known as the Skiddaw Slates. Their friability generally leads to mountains with relatively smooth slopes such as Skiddaw itself.

The central band is a mix of volcanic and sedimentary rocks of mid to late Ordovician age comprising the lavas and tuffs of the Borrowdale Volcanic Group, erupted as the former Iapetus ocean was subducted beneath what is now the Scottish border during the Caledonian orogeny. The northern central peaks, such as Great Rigg, were produced by considerable lava flows. These lava eruptions were followed by a series of pyroclastic eruptions which produced a series of calderas, one of which includes present-day Scafell Pike. These pyroclastic rocks give rise to the craggy landscapes typical of the central fells.[13]'

The southeastern band comprises the mudstones and wackes of the Windermere Supergroup and which includes (successively) the rocks of the Dent, Stockdale, Tranearth, Coniston and Kendal Groups. These are generally a little less resistant to erosion than the rocks sequence to the north and underlie much of the lower landscapes around Coniston and Windermere.

Later intrusions have formed individual outcrops of igneous rock in each of these groups. Around the edges of these Ordovician and Silurian rocks on the northern, eastern and southern fringes of the area is a semi-continuous outcrop of Carboniferous Limestone seen most spectacularly at places like Whitbarrow Scar and Scout Scar.

  

Climate

  

The Lake District's location on the north west coast of England, coupled with its mountainous geography, makes it the dampest part of England. The UK Met Office reports average annual precipitation of more than 2,000 millimetres (80 in), but with very large local variation. Although the entire region receives above average rainfall, there is a wide disparity between the amount of rainfall in the western and eastern lakes, as the Lake District experiences relief rainfall. Seathwaite in Borrowdale is the wettest inhabited place in England with an average of 3,300 millimetres (130 in) of rain a year,[16] while nearby Sprinkling Tarn is even wetter, recording over 5,000 millimetres (200 in) per year; by contrast, Keswick, at the end of Borrowdale receives 1,470 millimetres (60 in) every year, and Penrith (just outside the Lake District) only 870 millimetres (30 in). March to June tend to be the driest months, with October to January the wettest, but at low levels there is relatively little difference between months.

Although sheltered valleys experience gales on an average of only five days a year, the Lake District is generally very windy with the coastal areas having 20 days of gales, and the fell tops around 100 days of gales per year. The maritime climate means that the Lake District experiences relatively moderate temperature variations through the year. Mean temperature in the valleys ranges from about 3 °C (37 °F) in January to around 15 °C (59 °F) in July. (By comparison, Moscow, at the same latitude, ranges from −10 °C to 19 °C/14 °F to 66 °F).

The relatively low height of most of the fells means that, while snow is expected during the winter, they can be free of snow at any time of the year. Normally, significant snow fall only occurs between November and April. On average, snow falls on Helvellyn 67 days per year. During the year, valleys typically experience 20 days with snow falling, a further 200 wet days, and 145 dry days. Hill fog is common at any time of year, and the fells average only around 2.5 hours of sunshine per day, increasing to around 4.1 hours per day on the coastal plains.

  

Wildlife

  

The Lake District is one of the few places in England where red squirrels have a sizeable population.[18]

  

The Lake District is home to a plethora of wildlife, due to its range of varied topography, lakes and forests. It provides a home for the red squirrel and colonies of sundew and butterwort, two of the few carnivorous plants native to Britain. The Lake District is a major sanctuary for the red squirrel and has the largest population in England. It is estimated there are 140,000 red squirrels in the United Kingdom, but are approximately 2.5 million gray squirrels who have displaced the indigenous red population since their introduction to the British Isles.[19]

The Lake District is home to a range of bird species,[20] and the RSPB maintain a reserve in Haweswater.[21] England's only nesting pair of Golden Eagles can be found in the Lake District. The female Golden Eagle has not been seen since 2004 although the male still remains.[22] Conservationists believe he is now the only resident golden eagle in England.[23] Following recolonisation attempts, a pair of ospreys nested in the Lake District for the time in over 150 years near Bassenthwaite Lake during 2001. Osprey's now frequently migrate north from Africa in the spring to nest in the Lake District and a total of 23 chicks have fledged in The Lakes since 2001.[24] Another bird species to have had recolonisation attempts is the Red Kite who have a population approximately 90 in the dense forest areas near Grizedale as of 2012.[25] Conservationists hope the re-introduction will create a large Red Kite population in the Lake District and in North West England where the Red Kite population is low.[26] Other bird species resident to the Lake District include the buzzard, dipper, peregrine and raven.[27] Seasonal birds include the ring ouzel and the redstart.[28]

The lakes of the Lake District support three rare and endangered species of fish: the vendace, which can be found only in Derwent Water and until 2008 in Bassenthwaite Lake.[29] Vendace have struggled in recent years with naturally-occurring algae becoming a threat and the lakes gradually getting warmer in temperature.[30] Vendace have been moved to higher lakes on a number of occasions to preserve the species, notably in 2005 and 2011.[31][32] The Lakes are also home to two other rare species: the schelly, which lives in Brothers Water, Haweswater, Red Tarn and Ullswater, and the Arctic charr, which can be found in Buttermere, Coniston Water, Crummock Water, Ennerdale Water, Haweswater, Loweswater, Thirlmere, Wast Water, and Windermere.

  

The vendace (Coregonus vandesius) is England's rarest species of fish, and is only found in the Lake District.

In recent years, some important changes have been made to fisheries byelaws covering the north-west region of England, to help protect some of the rarest fish species. In 2002, the Environment Agency introduced a new fisheries byelaw, banning the use of all freshwater fish as live or dead bait in 14 of the lakes in the Lake District. Anglers not complying with the new byelaw can face fines of up to £2,500. There are 14 lakes in the Lake District which are affected. These are: Bassenthwaite Lake, Brothers Water, Buttermere, Coniston Water, Crummock Water, Derwent Water, Ennerdale Water, Haweswater, Loweswater, Red Tarn, Thirlmere, Ullswater, Wast Water and Windermere.

The lakes and waters of the Lake District do not naturally support as many species of fish as other similar habitats in the south of the country and elsewhere in Europe. Some fish that do thrive there are particularly at risk from introduction of new species.

The introduction of non-native fish can lead to the predation of the native fish fauna or competition for food. There is also the risk of disease being introduced, which can further threaten native populations. In some cases, the introduced species can disturb the environment so much that it becomes unsuitable for particular fish. For example, a major problem has been found with ruffe. This non-native fish has now been introduced into a number of lakes in recent years. It is known that ruffe eat the eggs of vendace, which are particularly vulnerable because of their long incubation period. This means that they are susceptible to predators for up to 120 days. The eggs of other fish, for example roach, are only at risk for as little as three days.

  

Economy

  

Agriculture and forestry

  

Farming, and in particular sheep farming, has been the major industry in the region since Roman times. The breed most closely associated with the area is the tough Herdwick, with Rough Fell and Swaledale sheep also common. Sheep farming remains important both for the economy of the region and for preserving the landscape which visitors want to see. Features such as dry stone walls, for example, are there as a result of sheep farming. Some land is also used for silage and dairy farming.

The area was badly affected by the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease across the United Kingdom in 2001. The outbreak started in Surrey in February, but had spread to Cumbria by end of March.[33] Thousands of sheep, include the native Herdwick which graze on the fellsides across the District, were destroyed. In replacing the sheep, one problem to overcome was that many of the lost sheep were heafed, that is, they knew their part of the unfenced fell and did not stray, with this knowledge being passed between generations. With all the sheep lost at once, this knowledge has to be re-learnt and some of the fells have had discreet electric fences strung across them for a period of five years, to allow the sheep to "re-heaf".[34] At the time of the outbreak, worries existed about the future of certain species of sheep such as Ryeland and Herdwick in the District,[35] however these fears have been allayed and sheep now occupy the District in abundance.[36]

  

Forestry has also assumed greater importance over the course of the last century with the establishment of extensive conifer plantations around Whinlatter Pass, in Ennerdale and at Grizedale Forest amongst other places. There are extensive plantations of non-native pine trees.

  

Industry

 

With its wealth of rock types and their abundance in the landscape, mining and quarrying have long been significant activities in the Lake District economy. In Neolithic times, the Lake District was a major source of stone axes, examples of which have been found all over Britain. The primary site, on the slopes of the Langdale Pikes, is sometimes described as a "stone axe factory" of the Langdale axe industry. Some of the earliest stone circles in Britain are connected with this industry.

Mining, particularly of copper, lead (often associated with quantities of silver), baryte, graphite and slate, was historically a major Lakeland industry, mainly from the 16th century to the 19th century. Coppiced woodland was used extensively to provide charcoal for smelting. Some mining still takes place today; for example, slate mining continues at the Honister Mines, at the top of Honister Pass. Abandoned mine-workings can be found on fell-sides throughout the district. The locally mined graphite led to the development of the pencil industry, especially around Keswick.

  

In the middle of the 19th century, half the world textile industry's bobbin supply came from the Lake District area. Over the past century, however, tourism has grown rapidly to become the area's primary source of income.

  

Development of tourism

  

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Early visitors to the Lake District, who travelled for the education and pleasure of the journey, include Celia Fiennes who in 1698 undertook a journey the length of England, including riding through Kendal and over Kirkstone Pass into Patterdale. Her experiences and impressions were published in her book Great Journey to Newcastle and Cornwall:

As I walked down at this place I was walled on both sides by those inaccessible high rocky barren hills which hang over one’s head in some places and appear very terrible; and from them springs many little currents of water from the sides and clefts which trickle down to some lower part where it runs swiftly over the stones and shelves in the way, which makes a pleasant rush and murmuring noise and like a snowball is increased by each spring trickling down on either side of those hills, and so descends into the bottoms which are a Moorish ground in which in many places the waters stand, and so form some of those Lakes as it did here.[37]

In 1724, Daniel Defoe published the first volume of A Tour Thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain. He commented on Westmorland that it was:

the wildest, most barren and frightful of any that I have passed over in England, or even Wales itself; the west side, which borders on Cumberland, is indeed bounded by a chain of almost unpassable mountains which, in the language of the country, are called fells.

Towards the end of the 18th century, the area was becoming more popular with travellers. This was partly a result of wars in Continental Europe, restricting the possibility of travel there. In 1778 Father Thomas West produced A Guide to the Lakes, which began the era of modern tourism.

  

West listed "stations"—viewpoints where tourists could enjoy the best views of the landscape, being encouraged to appreciated the formal qualities of the landscape and to apply aesthetic values. At some of these stations, buildings were erected to help this process. The remains of Claife Station (on the western shore Windermere below Claife Heights) can be visited today.

William Wordsworth published his Guide to the Lakes in 1810, and by 1835 it had reached its fifth edition, now called A Guide through the District of the Lakes in the North of England. This book was particularly influential in popularising the region. Wordsworth's favourite valley was Dunnerdale or the Duddon Valley nestling in the south-west of the Lake District.

The railways led to another expansion in tourism. The Kendal and Windermere Railway was the first to penetrate the Lake District, reaching Kendal in 1846 and Windermere in 1847. The line to Coniston opened in 1848 (although until 1857 this was only linked to the national network with ferries between Fleetwood and Barrow-in-Furness); the line from Penrith through Keswick to Cockermouth in 1865; and the line to Lakeside at the foot of Windermere in 1869. The railways, built with traditional industry in mind, brought with them a huge increase in the number of visitors, thus contributing to the growth of the tourism industry. Railway services were supplemented by steamer boats on the major lakes of Ullswater, Windermere, Coniston Water, and Derwent Water.

  

A steamer on Ullswater

  

The growth in tourist numbers continued into the age of the motor car, when railways began to be closed or run down. The formation of the Lake District National Park in 1951 recognised the need to protect the Lake District environment from excessive commercial or industrial exploitation, preserving that which visitors come to see, without any restriction on the movement of people into and around the district. The M6 Motorway helped bring traffic to the Lakes, passing up its eastern flank. The narrow roads present a challenge for traffic flow and, from the 1960s, certain areas have been very congested.

Whilst the roads and railways provided easier access to the area, many people were drawn to the Lakes by the publication of the Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells by Alfred Wainwright. First published between 1952 and 1965, these books provided detailed information on 214 peaks across the region, with carefully hand-drawn maps and panoramas, and also stories and asides which add to the colour of the area. They are still used by many visitors to the area as guides for walking excursions, with the ultimate goal of bagging the complete list of Wainwrights. The famous guides are being revised by Chris Jesty to reflect changes, mainly in valley access and paths.[38]

Since the early 1960s, the National Park Authority has employed rangers to help cope with increasing tourism and development, the first being John Wyatt, who has since written a number of guide books. He was joined two years later by a second, and since then the number of rangers has been rising.

The area has also become associated with writer Beatrix Potter. A number of tourists visit to see her family home, with particularly large numbers coming from Japan.

Tourism has now become the park's major industry, with about 12 million visitors each year, mainly from the UK's larger settlements, China, Japan, Spain, Germany and the US.[39] Windermere Lake Steamers are Cumbria's most popular charging tourist attraction with about 1.35 million paying customers each year, and the local economy is dependent upon tourists. The negative impact of tourism has been seen, however. Soil erosion, caused by walking, is now a significant problem, with millions of pounds being spent to protect over-used paths. In 2006, two Tourist Information Centres in the National Park were closed.

Cultural tourism is becoming an increasingly important part of the wider tourist industry. The Lake District's links with a wealth of artists and writers and its strong history of providing summer theatre performances in the old Blue Box of Century Theatre are strong attractions for visiting tourists. The tradition of theatre is carried on by venues such as Theatre by the Lake in Keswick with its summer season of six plays in repertoire, Christmas and Easter productions, and the many literature, film, mountaineering, jazz and creative arts festivals, such as the Kendal Mountain Festival and the Keswick Mountain Festival.

  

Gastronomy

  

The Lake District has been regarded as one of the best places to eat in Britain.[40] The region has four Michelin Star Restaurants including L'Enclume, Sharrow Bay, Holbeck Ghyll and The Samling in Ambleside. In addition, Cumbria has more microbreweries than any other county in Britain and together with Jennings Brewery supply a variety of ales to pubs and restaurants throughout the region.

  

Literature and art

  

The Lake District is intimately associated with English literature in the 18th and 19th centuries. Thomas Gray was the first to bring the region to attention, when he wrote a journal of his Grand Tour in 1769, but it was William Wordsworth whose poems were most famous and influential. Wordsworth's poem "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud", inspired by the sight of daffodils on the shores of Ullswater, remains one of the most famous in the English language. Out of his long life of eighty years, sixty were spent amid its lakes and mountains, first as a schoolboy at Hawkshead, and afterwards living in Grasmere (1799–1813) and Rydal Mount (1813–50). Wordsworth, Coleridge and Southey became known as the Lake Poets.

The poet and his wife lie buried in the churchyard of Grasmere and very near to them are the remains of Hartley Coleridge (son of the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge), who himself lived for many years in Keswick, Ambleside and Grasmere. Robert Southey, the Poet Laureate and friend of Wordsworth (who would succeed Southey as Laureate in 1843), was a resident of Keswick for forty years (1803–43), and was buried in Crosthwaite churchyard. Samuel Taylor Coleridge lived for some time in Keswick, and also with the Wordsworths at Grasmere. From 1807 to 1815 John Wilson lived at Windermere. Thomas de Quincey spent the greater part of the years 1809 to 1828 at Grasmere, in the first cottage which Wordsworth had inhabited. Ambleside, or its environs, was also the place of residence both of Thomas Arnold, who spent there the vacations of the last ten years of his life and of Harriet Martineau, who built herself a house there in 1845. At Keswick, Mrs Lynn Linton (wife of William James Linton) was born, in 1822. Brantwood, a house beside Coniston Water, was the home of John Ruskin during the last years of his life. His assistant W. G. Collingwood the author, artist and antiquarian lived nearby, and wrote Thorstein of the Mere, set in the Norse period.

In addition to these residents or natives of the Lake District, a variety of other poets and writers made visits to the Lake District or were bound by ties of friendship with those already mentioned above. These include Percy Bysshe Shelley, Sir Walter Scott, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Arthur Hugh Clough, Henry Crabb Robinson, "Conversation" Sharp, Thomas Carlyle, John Keats, Lord Tennyson, Matthew Arnold, Felicia Hemans, and Gerald Massey.

During the early 20th century, the children's author Beatrix Potter was in residence at Hill Top Farm, setting many of her famous Peter Rabbit books in the Lake District. Her life was made into a biopic film, starring Renée Zellweger and Ewan McGregor. Arthur Ransome lived in several areas of the Lake District, and set five of his Swallows and Amazons series of books, published between 1930 and 1947, in a fictionalised Lake District setting. So did Geoffrey Trease with his five Black Banner school stories (1949–56), starting with No Boats on Bannermere.

The novelist Sir Hugh Walpole lived at "Brackenburn" on the lower slopes of Catbells overlooking Derwent Water from 1924 until his death in 1941. Whilst living at "Brackenburn" he wrote The Herries Chronicle detailing the history of a fictional Cumbrian family over two centuries. The noted author and poet Norman Nicholson came from the south-west Lakes, living and writing about Millom in the twentieth century – he was known as the last of the Lake Poets and came close to becoming the Poet Laureate.

Writer and author Melvyn Bragg was brought up in the region and has used it as the setting for some of his work, such as his novel A Time to Dance, later turned into a television drama.

The Lake District has been the setting for crime novels by Reginald Hill, Val McDermid and Martin Edwards. The region is also a recurring theme in Ernest Hemingway's 1926 novella The Torrents of Spring and features prominently in Ian McEwan's Amsterdam, which won the 1998 Booker Prize.

The Lake District is mentioned in Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice; Elizabeth Bennet looks forward to a holiday there with her aunt and uncle and is "excessively disappointed" upon learning they cannot travel that far.

Film director Ken Russell lived in the Keswick/Borrowdale area until 2007[41] and used it in films such as Tommy and Mahler.

The Lake District is the setting for the 1977 Richard Adams novel The Plague Dogs. Adams' knowledge of the area offers the reader a precise view of the natural beauty of the Lake District .

Some students of Arthurian lore identify the Lake District with the Grail kingdom of Listeneise.

The former Keswick School of Industrial Art at Keswick was started by Canon Rawnsley, a friend of John Ruskin.

  

Nomenclature

  

A number of words and phrases are local to the Lake District and are part of the Cumbrian dialect, though many are shared by other northern dialects. These include:

fell – from Old Norse fjallr, brought to England by Viking invaders and close to modern Norwegian fjell and Swedish fjäll meaning mountain

howe – place name from the Old Norse haugr meaning hill, knoll, or mound

tarn – a word that has been taken to mean a small lake situated in a corrie (the local name for which is cove), a local phrase for any small pool of water. The word is derived from the Old Norse, Norwegian and Swedish word tjern/tjärn, meaning small lake

Yan Tan Tethera – the name for a system of sheep counting which was traditionally used in the Lake District. Though now rare, it is still used by some and taught in local schools.

Heaf (a variant of heft), the "home territory" of a flock of sheep.

 

Reading station is closed over Easter, and so the West of England train services are being diverted to run via Basingstoke and Woking into London Waterloo.

 

Obviously, this line usually never sees trains operated by anyone other than South West Trains, so it's good to see some variety.

 

Therefore I decided to be a train spotter for a day, and go and stand on a bridge in the freezing cold for ages. Usually, I only take photos of trains if I see something interesting, or am waiting for a train and am bored. Unlike bus spotting, where if you go and stand like an idiot somewhere hoping for something special, you tend to have an idea of when it's due, this seemed to be much less precise. The guys next to me were talking about a diverted freight train, currently running 70 minutes late at the Severn Tunnel. Oh no lol!

 

This is the bit where being a rookie train spotter, I confess I forgot to look at which train it was lol. It's a First Great Western HST heading into Waterloo.

 

All the other spotters on the bridge took a front shot, but I didn't think there was much point as there's no background to show location that way, so I went for a rear shot as the train passes Woking's Centrium and New Central buildings.

 

Twin Bridges, Woking, Surrey.

Visit Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park!

 

Wheel Fun Rentals is a leading provider of fun and unique outdoor recreational vehicles including a complete fleet of bikes that can be enjoyed by single riders or an entire family. Our new fleet of Wheel Fun Rentals bikes – purchased this Spring – are extremely popular with visitors to Irvine Regional Park.

 

Bikes available to rent include the single surrey, deuce coupe, quad sport and chopper. Other bikes also available to rent include tandem bikes, cruiser bikes and kid’s bikes. And, we rent paddle boats too.

 

Children 18 years of age and younger are required to wear a helmet when riding a bike. Children under the age of 13 are required to wear a life jacket when riding a paddle boat. Both helmets and life jackets are provided at no additional cost and are available to any rider or passenger upon request.

 

For more information on these great bikes available for rent, and hours of operation, visit our Web site at www.irvineparkrailroad.com.

 

About Irvine Park Railroad:

Irvine Park Railroad is a one-third scale train that takes both children and adults on a scenic, 12-minute ride through beautiful and scenic Irvine Regional Park. The train ride, which is affordable fun for the entire family, is narrated by the engineer.

 

Other activities inside of the park include Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park paddle boat and bike rentals, the Orange County Zoo and pony rides. Two snack bars serve both hot and cold food.

 

Annual Irvine Park Railroad events include the Easter Eggstravaganza, Anniversary Celebration, Pumpkin Patch and Christmas Train.

 

Irvine Park Railroad has party pavilions and other locations available for rent. These locations are ideal for birthday parties, company picnics, corporate meetings and other special events. We also rent moon bounces for locations inside of Irvine Regional Park.

 

Irvine Regional Park is centrally-located in the foothills of Orange (Orange County). The nearest, major cross streets are Chapman Avenue at Jamboree Boulevard.

 

Find Irvine Park Railroad on Facebook and Twitter (irvineparkrr).

John Maguire's old stomping grounds in London, England.

Some shots of John:

www.flickr.com/search/?user_id=21728045%40N08&sort=da...

 

Click: >

 

en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bethnal_Green

 

BETHNAL-GREEN.

Bethnal-Green made a parish.

 

The very populous and extensive parish of Stepney having before suffered some diminutions, was again abridged in the year 1743, by the separation of the hamlet of Bethnal-Green, which was then by act of parliament made a distinct parish.

 

Situation.

 

Etymology.

 

The Green, from which the hamlet derived its name, lies about half a mile beyond the suburbs. I think it not improbable that Bethnal may have been a corruption of Bathon-Hall; and that it was the residence of the family of Bathon, or Bathonia, who had considerable property at Stepney in the reign of Edward the First (fn. 1).

 

Boundaries.

 

Extent.

 

Nature of land and foil.

 

Brick. Fields.

 

Land-tax.

 

The parish of St. Matthew, Bethnal-Green (fn. 2), extends over a considerable part of the suburbs of the metropolis, and reaches almost to Spitalfields. It is bounded on the north by Hackney; on the east by Stratford-Bow; on the west by St. Leonard's, Shoreditch; and on the south by Christ-church, Spitalfields, and Mile End New Town, a hamlet of Stepney. It appears by an actual survey of the hamlet of Bethnal-Green, (which was co-extensive with the present parish,) made in 1703, that it then contained about 550 acres of land, besides that which was occupied by buildings; this quantity is now somewhat abridged by the great increase of houses within the last five years. There are now about 190 acres of arable, about 160 of grass land, and about 140 occupied by market gardeners: the arable land frequently produces two crops in the year, one of corn and the other of garden vegetables. The soil is for the most part a rich loam. The brick-fields in this parish not only furnish bricks sufficient for the new buildings there, but a considerable quantity also for general sale. Bethnal-Green pays the sum of 1107l. 16s. 9d. to the land-tax, which, in the year 1792, was at the rate of 1s. 4d. in the pound.

 

Weavers.

 

Cotton-manufacture.

 

The town-part of this parish is extremely populous, being inhabited principally by journeymen weavers, who live three or four families in a house, and work at home at their looms and reels for the master weavers in Spitalfields. In St. John-street is an extensive cotton manufacture belonging to Messrs Paty and Byrchall, which was established about the year 1783, and employs from 200 to 300 hands. At the end of Pollard's-row, near the Hackneyroad, is a new manufacture lately established by Messrs. Hegner, Ehrliholtzer, and Co. for making "water-proof flaxen-pipe hose for fire-engines, brewers, ships, &c. they are wove tubular, without seams, and made to any length and of any diameter." The manufacture is yet in its infancy, and at present employs but a few hands.

 

Beggar of Bethnal-Green.

 

The well-known ballad of the Beggar of Bethnal-Green was written in the reign of Queen Elizabeth: the legend is told of the reign of Henry the Third; and Henry de Montfort, (son of the Earl of Leicester,) who was supposed to have fallen at the battle of Evesham, is the hero (fn. 3). Though it is probable that the author might have fixed upon any other spot with equal propriety for the residence of his beggar, the story nevertheless seems to have gained much credit in the village, where it decorates not only the sign-posts of the publicans, but the staff of the parish beadle; and so convinced are some of the inhabitants of its truth, that they shew an ancient house upon the Green as the palace of the blind beggar; and point out two turrets at the extremities of the court wall as the places where he deposited his gains.

 

Kirby Castle.

 

The old mansion above-mentioned, called in the survey of 1703 Bethnal-Green-house, was built in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, by John Kirby, citizen of London. Fleetwood, the recorder of London, in a letter to the lord treasurer (about the year 1578), mentions the death of "John Kirby, who built the fair house upon BethnalGreen, which house, lofty like a castle, occasioned certain rhimes abusive of him and some other city builders of great houses, who had prejudiced themselves thereby; viz. Kirby's Castle, and Fisher's Folly; Spinola's Pleasure, and Meggs's Glory (fn. 4)." This house was afterwards the residence of Sir Hugh Platt, Knt. author of "the Gar"den of Eden," "the Jewell-house of Art and Nature," and other works (fn. 5). Sir William Ryder, Knt. died there in 1669 (fn. 6), it being then his property (fn. 7). It now belongs to James Stratton, Esq. of Hackney, and has for many years been used for the reception of insane persons. It is still called in the writings Kirby Castle.

 

Sir Richard Gresham.

 

Sir Richard Gresham, a citizen of great note in the reign of Henry VIII. and father of the celebrated Sir Thomas Gresham, generally resided at Bethnal-Green (fn. 8). It was in consequence of his suggestion and advice that the convents of St. Thomas and St. Bartholomew were converted into public hospitals (fn. 9).

 

Sir Thomas Grey, Knt. died at his house at Bethnal-Green, August 7, 1570 (fn. 10).

 

Sir Balthazer Gerbier.

 

Sir Balthazer Gerbier, an enterprising projector of the last century, by profession a painter and an architect, but not very eminent as either, opened an academy at Bethnal-Green, anno 1649, in imitation as it should seem of the Museum Minervæ. (fn. 11) Here, in addition to the more common branches of education, he prosessed to teach astronomy, navigation, architecture, perspective, drawing, limning, engraving, sortification, fireworks, military discipline, the art of well speaking and civil conversation, history, constitutions, and maxims of state, and particular dispositions of nations, riding the great horse, scenes, exercises, and magnificent shows (fn. 12). Once a week, at three o'clock in the afternoon, Sir Balthazer gave a public lecture, gratis, on the various sciences which he previously advertised in the newspapers: a few specimens of these advertisements are given in the notes (fn. 13). Any person might speak or read at these public lec tures "on any subject, so that it was on unquestionable principles, warrantable terms, consonant with godliness, and with all due respect to the state (fn. 14)."

 

An account of Sir Balthazer Gerbier's academy was published in 1648, with his portrait prefixed; and in 1649, "the art of well "speaking," being one of the lectures delivered there gratis: this was ridiculed by Butler in his fictitious will of the Earl of Pembroke (fn. 15). Sir Balthazer seems to have been a very visionary schemer (fn. 16). After the failure of his academy, which soon happened (fn. 17), he went to America, where he was ill-treated by the Dutch, and narrowly escaped with his life (fn. 18). He afterwards returned to England, and designed the triumphal arch for the reception of Charles the Second (fn. 19).

 

Robert Ainsworth. William Caflon.

 

Ainsworch, the learned editor of the dictionary which goes by his name, kept an academy at Bethnal-Green (fn. 20). William Caslon, the eminent letter-founder, died at his house there in 1766, some years after he had retired from business (fn. 21).

 

Chapel at Bethnal-Green.

 

At the south-east corner of Bethnal-Green, stood a chapel, (on the site of which is now a private dwelling-house,) called, in the survey of 1703, St. George's chapel; of this I have not been able to obtain any farther information. Newcourt says, that at Bethnal-Green was formerly a chapel; but whether it was a chapel of ease, or only a private chapel, he could not find (fn. 22).

 

Removal of Aldgate.

 

At the same corner of the Green is a house, which lately belonged to Ebenezer Mussell, Esq. who having a taste for antiquities, and being an inhabitant of the parish in which Aldgate stood, (at the time of its removal,) purchased the materials, and carried them to his house at Bethnal-Green, where they are still preserved in an adjoining building.

 

Bishop's-hall.

 

About a quarter of a mile to the east of Bethnal-Green, is the site of an ancient house, called Bishop's-hall, (now converted into two or three tenements,) said by tradition to have been the residence of Bishop Bonner. That it was his property I have no doubt; and there is good reason for supposing that it has been the manor-house of Stepney; for Norden calls "Bushoppe's-hall" the seat of the Lord Wentworth (fn. 23). Bishop Braybroke dates many of his episcopal acts from Stepney; but I have not seen one dated thence by any of his successors; which leads to a supposition that they did not reside there, but leased the house with the manerial estate. In 1594, Bishop's hall was the residence of Sir Hugh Platt, as mentioned before (fn. 24).

 

Church of St. Matthew.

 

The church of St. Matthew Bethnal-Green, which is situated close to the suburbs, was consecrated July 15, 1746. It is built of brick with stone coins, and consists of an oblong square, with galleries on the north, south, and west sides. The communion-table stands within a recess at the east end. At the west end is a small square tower.

 

Tombs in the church and church-yard.

 

In the church are the tombs of John Brookbank, M. A. the first rector, who died in 1747; Mr. Thomas Windle, 1779; Mr. John Cheeseman, 1783; Mr. George Evans, 1791; and William Clarke, Esq. 1791. In the church-yard are those of William Luck, Esq. 1748; the Rev. William Gordon, M. A. the first lecturer, 1749; William Bridgman, Gent. 1760; Lewis Ourry, an emigrant from France, (anno 1701,) and many years an officer in the English army, 1771; Mr. Vincent Beverley, 1772; Captain Isaac Perry, 1773; Francis Campart, Gent. 1773; Elizabeth his relict, afterwards wife of the Rev. Thomas Greaves, vicar of Westoning, (Bedfordshire,) 1778; Mr. Abraham Mason, and Mary his wife, who died the same day, January 22, 1787; Captain William Curling, 1788; and Captain Matthew Curling, 1789.

 

Rectory.

 

The parish church of St. Matthew Bethnal-Green was, by the act of parliament above-mentioned, (viz. 16 Geo. II.) made a rectory, though it has no share in the great tithes, which were reserved to Brazen-Nose College, as patrons of the advowson of Stepney, and are received by the rector of that parish. By the same act it was directed, that the church-wardens should receive all the small tithes, Easter offerings, and all other dues within the parish, (except the surplice fees,) out of which they should pay the rector the sum of 130l. per annum, appropriating the remainder to the repairs of the church, and other parochial uses. The sum of 12l. per annum was reserved to the clerk of the parish of Stepney, as an equivalent for the loss he might sustain by the separation of the hamlet. Before the passing of this act, the rectory of Stepney had been divided by a former act (9 Queen Anne) into two equal portions. This division was by the act of 16 Geo. II. annulled; and it was enacted, that one of the portionists should be presented to the new benefice; and that the rectory of Stepney should for the future remain whole and undivided.

 

The first rector of St. Matthew Bethnal-Green was the Rev. John Brookbank, M. A.; the present rector is the Rev. William Loxham, M. A. who was instituted in 1766. The patronage is vested in the Principal and Fellows of Brazen-Nose College, Oxford.

 

Parish register.

 

The register of this parish is of the same date as the consecration of the church : before that period all entries relating to Bethnal-Green must be looked for in the parish registers at Stepney. The average of baptisms and burials since the year 1780, has been as follows:

 

Average of Baptisms.Average of Burials.

1780–1784373 1/5;307

1784–1789358 1/5;362 2/5;

1790418303

1791432310

1792502352

Comparative state of population.

 

It is to be observed, that the baptisms very much exceed the burials, which is a very unusual circumstance in the villages near London. Upon inquiry I find this is to be attributed to some private burial grounds in the neighbourhood, where the fees are somewhat lower than in that belonging to the church. One of this description has been lately made in the parish near the free-school. When the hamlet of Bethnal-Green was separated from Stepney, it was supposed to contain about 1800 houses; their number is now computed at 3500: the principal increase has been within the last three years: the increase of baptisms during those years bears nearly the same proportion.

 

Instances of longevity.

 

The following instances of longevity occur in the parish clerk's books, in which the ages of the deceased are inserted; Bethnal-Green being within the bills of mortality.

 

"Charles Marratt of Brick-lane, aged 99, buried January 15, 1748–9."

 

"Anne Postel, aged 100, buried October 24, 1749."

 

"Samuel Gates, aged 100, buried March 4, 1749-50."

 

"Margaret Lord, of Lord's Farm, aged 99, buried January 2, 1754."

 

"Bridget Fossett, aged 102, buried April 3, 1757."

 

"Mary Nash, aged 107, buried July 29, 1790."

 

"Mary Twits, aged 98, buried October 2, 1791."

 

There are entries also of one person of 90 and one of 93, buried in 1747;—two of 90, and one of 91, in 1749;—one of 90, in 1751;—one of 93, in 1754;—one of 90, in 1759;—one of 91, and one of 94, in 1761;—one of 91, in 1762;—one of 93, in 1789 (fn. 25);—one of 94, in 1790; two of 90, in 1791;—one of 93, in 1792;—and one of 94, in 1793.

 

Mr. Thomas Barker is said to have died at Bethnal-Green, in June 1762, aged 101 (fn. 26); and Mrs. Anne Hart in February 1765, aged 102. (fn. 27)

 

Benefactions.

 

Free-school.

 

Subscription School

 

Mr. Thomas Parmiter, in the year 1722, left certain estates in Suffolk, now let at 52l. per ann. for the purpose of building and endowing a free-school and alms-house for the benefit of the hamlet of Bethnal-Green. Mrs. Elizabeth Carter gave the ground rent free for the term of 600 years, and 10l. per ann. to educate ten boys. Mr. William Lee gave 10l. per ann. to the school; and Mr. Edward Mayhew 5l. per annum towards clothing the children. The trustees with some savings made an advantageous purchase of a piece of ground called Cambridge Heath in the parish, near the Hackney road, now let on building leases for 95 years, at the rent of 43 l. per ann. They have also a stock of 550l. South Sea annuities. With these funds they are enabled to educate 50 boys, and to supply them with shoes, stockings, and books. The school-master has 50l. per ann. and coals; the six alms-men, 5l. per ann. each, with a certain allowance of coals. A subscription-school has been instituted also in this parish, to which various benefactions have been given to the amount of above 1200l. as appears from the tables in the church (fn. 28). The funds being farther augmented by an annual subscription and occasional charity sermons, 30 boys, and the like number of girls, are thereby clothed, educated, and put out apprentices.

 

Bethnal-Green, containing about seven acres, was purchased by the principal inhabitants in the year 1667, of Lady Wentworth, lady of the manor of Stepney, for the sum of 200l. The property was then vested in trustees, who were to let it to the best advantage, and divide the rents between the poor inhabitants of the Green only, in coals and money. It now produces 34l. 16s. per ann. About three acres of it are inclosed within a nursery-ground.

 

The drapers' and dyers' alms-houses, and those founded by Captain Fisher in 1711, are situated within this parish. The two last have no farther connection with it. The former was founded in 1698, by John Pennell, citizen and draper, for four poor widows of seamen who have been in the service of the East India Company, and are of the parish of Stepney: one of these is always chosen from Bethnal-Green, the endowment having taken place previous to its separation from that parish. The poor of Bethnal-Green are entitled, on the same account, to an interest in Priscilla Coborne's legacy to the widows of seamen, and other benefactions left to Stepney before the year 1743. The average number of poor in the work-house is about 450.

 

On the Green there is a meeting-house for the Presbyterian Dissenters.

 

Burial-ground of the Dutch Jews.

 

Near Ducking-pond-row, within the parish of Bethnal-Green, is a burial-ground of the Dutch Jews belonging to the synagogue at BricklayersHall, in Leadenhall-street. The tombs of the Levites, whose office it is to pour water (in the synagogue) upon the hands of the Cohens, (or those of the tribe of Aaron,) are distinguished by the device of a hand pouring water out of a flagon; those of the tribe of Judah, by the device of two hands with the thumbs joined. The inscriptions are for the most part in Hebrew only. The following is one of the few English epitaphs:

 

Mrs.

 

S earch England or the universe around, A doctress so compleat cannot be found; M edicines prepar'd from herbs remove each ill, P ersect great cures and proclaim her skill: S ome hundreds her assistance frequent claim, O ften recorded by the trump of fame—N ow, reader, see if you can tell her name.

 

Instances of longevity

 

The date is 5550, which corresponds with 1790 of the Christian æra. Among the principal persons interred in this ground are Moses Jacob, founder of the synagogue above-mentioned, who died anno 1781; Lipman Spiar, a rabbi (no date); Dr. Benjamin Wolf Yonker, 1785; Mr. Daniel Mentz, son-in-law to Dr. de Folk, 1788; Michael Jacobs, Esq. 1788; Isaac Abraham, reader of the congregation, 1790; Anne, wife of Moses Levy, merchant, 1790. Two instances of remarkable longevity occur; viz. Mr. Solomon Myers, who died in 1778, aged 98; and Sarah Joseph, who died in 1782, at the age (according to her epitaph) of 107 years and 10 months. The keeper of the burial-ground assured me that she was a year older.

Footnotes

1. Alice de Bathon died 2 Edw. I. seized of 2 messuage, &c. in Stepney, Esch. 2 Ed. I. No. 1. John de Bathonia her son, died 19 Edw. I. Esch. No. 13.

2. Described by that name, and directed to be so called in the act of parliament.

3. Percy's Reliques of Ancient Poetry, vol. ii. p. 162.

4. Stow's Survey of London, edit. 1755. vol. ii. p. 47.

5. Sir Hugh Platt is described as of Kirby Castle, in the epitaph of his son (who died A. D. 1637) at Highgate. In 1594, Sir Hugh lived at the neighbouring house, called Bishop's Hall, as he says himself, in his "Jewell-house of Art and Nature."

6. Funeral certificate.

7. Court-rolls of the manor.

8. Biograph. Brit.

9. Ibid.

10. Funeral certificate.

11. The Museum Minervæ was an academy instituted by Sir Francis Kynaston, (Esquire of the body to Charles the First,) A.D. 1635, in which year the king granted his letters-patent, whereby a house in Covent-garden, which Sir Francis had purchased, and furnished with books, manuscripts, musical and mathematical instruments, paintings, statues, antiques, &c. was appropriated for ever as a college for the education of the young nobility and others, under the name of the Museum Minervæ. Sir Francis Kynaston was made the governor under the title of Regent; Edward May, Thomas Hunt, Nicholas Phiske, John Spidell, Walter Salter, Michael Mason, fellows and professors of philosophy and medicine, music, astronomy, geometry, languages, &c. They had power to elect prosessors also of horsemanship, dancing, painting, engraving, &c.; were made a body corporate, were permitted to use a common seal, and to possess goods and lands in mortmain. Pat. 11 Car. pt. 8. No. 14. Sir Francis Kynaston published the Constitutions of the Museum Minervæ.

12. The terms for teaching all these arts and sciences were 61. per month, of which 3l. was charged for teaching to ride the great horse. Gentlemen were boarded at 3l. per month. No gentleman of age bound to engage to board for more than one month; those of 16 or 18 years old for a quarter of a year. Perfect Diurnal, Feb. 11, 1650.

13. On Wednesday next, the second public gratis lecture concerning cosmography, "with 'other academical entertainments for the lo"vers of learning." Perfect Diurnal, Nov. 23, 1649. Wednesday, 12 Dec. "Lecture "on navigation, succinct orations in Hebrew "on the creation of the world, with an aca"demical entertainment of music, so there be "time for the same." Perfect Diurnal, Dec. 7–14. "The lecture for the next week designed for the ladies and honourable women of this nation on the art of speaking." Perfect Occurrences, Dec. 14. "Sir Balthazer Gerbier desires, that if any lady or virtuous matron will attend his lectures, they will give notice, that they may be the better accommodated according to their quality." Several Proceedings of Parliament, Dec. 21–. Feb. 20, Lecture on music, gratis; when those who are expert in the art have promised to make good what the lecture says in commendation of it." Perfect Diurnal, Feb. 11, &c. 1650. "July 30, was exhibited a Spanish ancient Brazilean course, called Juego de Cannas—the throwing of darts against the desendants with shields, (the ground white, covered with flaming stars: the motto,"sans vouloir mal faire,") with an intermixed seigned fight with the sword, and the running of the ring." Perfect Occurrences, July 27, 1649. Some of the public exercises above-mentioned were in the White Friars, whither Sir Balthazer removed his academy in the winter. In some of his advertisements he complains much of "the extraordinary concourse of unruly people who robbed him, (Tuesday's Journal, Aug. 17, 1649,) and treated with savage rudeness his extraordinary services." Several Proceedings of Parliament, Jan. 11, 1650.

14. Perfect Occurrences, Dec. 14, 1649.

15. "All my other speeches, of what colour soever, I give to help Sir Balthazer's art of well speaking."

16. In one of his advertisements, he prosesses to lend from one shilling to fix, gratis, to such as are in extreme need, and have not wherewithal to endeavour their subsistence; whereas, week by week, they may drive on some trade." In the same advertisement he says, "the rarities heretofore-mentioned in a small printed bill are exposed to sale daily at the academy." Perfect Diurnal, March 4, 1650.

17. Whitlock's Memorials, p. 441.

18. After his return, he advertised a narrative of the ill usage he had received from the Dutch, who killed one of his daughters, wounded another, and threatened his own life. In his advertisement he recommends a settlement in South America, whence might be procured, he says, sugar, tobacco, indigo, cotton, spices, gums, colours, drugs, and dying materials." Mercurius Politicus, Dec. 6–13, 1660.

19. Biograph. Brit.

20. Biograph. Brit. new edit.

21. Biograph. Brit. and Nichols's Anecdotes of Bowyer, p. 317.

22. Repertorium, vol. i. p. 743. I think it does not seem clear that the chapel, with a messuage under the same roof leased by Bishop Bonner, 1 Edw. VI. to Sir Ralph Warren, was this chapel on the Green.

23. P. 17. Lord Wentworth had the manor.

24. See p. 29, note 5.

25. The clerk's books have not been preserved between the years 1762 and 1789.

26. Annual Register.

27. Ibid.

28. The principal benefactors were Mr. James Le Grew, who, in 1778, gave the sum of 100l. 3 per cents.; James Limborough, Esq. in 1783, 300l. 3 per cent. consol. Bank ann.; Mr. Michael Le Mounier in 1783, 50l.; Mr. George Leeds in 1785, 100l. 4 per cent. consol.; Mr. Peter Debeze in 1791, 500l. 3 per cent. New South Sea annuities : all the above benefactions, except Mr. Le Grew's, were by will.

BETHNAL GREEN.

 

Origin of the Name—The Ballad of the Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green—Kirby's Castle—The Bethnal Green Museum—Sir Richard Wallace's Collection—Nichol Street and its Population—The French Hospital in Bethnal Green and its present Site.

 

According to Mr. Lysons, Bethnal Green probably derives its name from the old family of the Bathons, who had possessions in Stepney in the reign of Edward I.

 

The old ballad of "the Beggar of Bethnal Green," written in the reign of Elizabeth, records the popular local legend of the concealment under this disguise of Henry de Montford, son of the redoubtable Earl of Leicester. He was wounded at Evesham, fighting by his father's side, and was found among the dead by a baron's daughter, who sold her jewels to marry him, and assumed with him a beggar's attire, to preserve his life. Their only child, a daughter, was the "Pretty Bessie" of the bailad in Percy.

 

"My father, shee said, is soone to be seene,

The seely blind beggar of Bednall Green,

That daylye sits begging for charitie,

He is the good father of pretty Bessee.

 

"His markes and his tokens are knowen very well,

He alwayes is led with a dogg and a bell;

A seely old man, God knoweth, is hee,

Yet hee is the father of pretty Bessee."

 

The sign-posts at Bethnal Green have for centuries preserved the memory of this story; the beadles' staffs were adorned in accordance with the ballad; and the inhabitants, in the early part of the century, used to boldly point out an ancient house on the Green as the palace of the Blind Beggar, and show two special turrets as the places where he deposited his gains.

 

This old house, called in the Survey of 1703 Bethnal Green House, was in reality built in the reign of Elizabeth by John Kirby, a rich London citizen. He was ridiculed at the time for his extravagance, in some rhymes which classed him with other similar builders, and which ranked Kirby's Castle with "Fisher's Folly, Spinila's Pleasure, and Megse's Glory." It was eventually turned into a madhouse. Sir Richard Gresham, father of the builder of the Royal Exchange, was a frequent resident at Bethnal Green.

 

The opening, in 1872, of an Eastern branch of the South Kensington Museum at Bethnal Green was the result of the untiring efforts of Mr. Cole, aided by Sir Antonio Brady, the Rev. Septimus Hansard, rector of Bethnal Green, and Mr. Clabon, Dr. Millar, and other gentlemen interested in the district, and was crowned with success by the princely liberality of Sir Richard Wallace (the inheritor of the Marquis of Hertford's thirty years' collection of art treasures), who offered to the education committee the loan of all his pictures and many other works of art. The Prince and Princess of Wales were present at the opening of the Museum, which took place June 24, 1872.

 

Sir Richard Wallace's collection, which occupied the whole of the upper galleries, comprised not only an assemblage of ancient and modern paintings in oil, by the greatest masters of past or modern times, a beautiful gallery of water-colour drawings, miniatures, and enamels by French, German, and British artists, but also some fine specimens of bronzes, art porcelain and pottery, statuary, snuffboxes, decorative furniture, and jewellers' and goldsmiths' work. The collection was strongest in Dutch and modern French pictures. Cuyp was represented by eleven pictures, Hobbema by five, Maes by four, Metzu by six, Mieris by nine, Netscher by four, Jan Steen by four, Teniers by five, Vanderneer by six, A. Vandevelde by three, W. Vandevelde by eight, Philip Wouvermans by five, Rubens by eleven, Rembrandt by eleven, Vandyck by six. In the Italian school the collection was deficient in early masters, but there were excellent specimens of Da Vinci, Andrea del Sarto, Carlo Dolce, and Canaletto. Of the Spanish school there were fine specimens of Murillo and Velasquez. The French school was well represented—Greuze by twentytwo works, Watteau by eleven, Boucher by eleven, Lancret by nine, and Fragonard by five. There were forty-one works by Horace Vernet, thirteen by Bellangé, four by Pils, fifteen by Delaroche, five by Ary Scheffer, two by Delacroix, two by Robert Fleury, five by Géricault, six by Prud'hon, twelve by Roqueplan, thirty-one by Decamps, and fifteen by Meissonier.

 

In the English collection Sir Joshua Reynolds stood pre-eminent. His matchless portrait of "Nelly O'Brien" stood out as beautiful and bewitching as ever, though the finer carnations had to some extent flown. The childish innocence of the "Strawberry Girl" found thousands of admirers, though the picture has faded to a disastrous degree; and "Love me, Love my Dog," had crowds of East-end admirers.

 

Among the superb portraits by Reynolds, in his most florid manner, "Lady Elizabeth SeymourConway," and "Frances Countess of Lincoln," daughters of the first Marquis of Hertford, and one of "Mrs. Hoare and Son" (a masterpiece), were the most popular. The mildness and dignity of Reynolds was supplemented by the ineffable grace and charm of Gainsborough. Novices in art were astonished at the naiveté of "Miss Haverfield," one of the most delightful child-portraits ever painted. The fine works of Bonington, a painter of genius little known, astonished those who were ignorant of his works. Among his finest productions at Bethnal Green were "The Ducal Palace at Venice," "The Earl of Surrey and the Fair Geraldine," and "Henri IV. of France and the Spanish Ambassador." This king, to the horror of the proud hidalgo, is carrying his children pick-a-back.

 

Among the French pictures there were eleven first-rate Bouchers. This protégé of Madame de Pompadour was a great favourite with the Marquis, and at Bethnal Green one saw him at his best. There was a portrait of "The Pompadour," quite coquettishly innocent, and those well-known pictures, "The Sleeping Shepherdess," the "Amphitrite," and the "Jupiter disguised as Diana." Three sacred pictures by Philippe de Champagne, showed us French religious art of the most ascetic kind, presenting a striking contrast to the gaiety and license of French art in general. In Greuze we find the affected simplicity and the forced sentiment of the age before the Revolution in its most graceful form, "The Bacchante," "The Broken Mirror," "The Broken Eggs," and the peerless portrait of "Sophie Arnould," enabled even those unacquainted with the charm of this painter to appreciate his merits. Lancret, the contemporary of Boucher, was represented by many works, among which the critics at once decided on the pre-eminence of "The Broken Necklace," and a portrait of the famous dancer, "Mdlle. Camargo." Lepicié was represented by his "Teaching to Read," and "The Breakfast," capital pieces of character. Watteau, that delightful painter of theatrical landscape, was a favourite of the Marquis, and at Bethnal Green appeared his fairy-like "Landscape with Pastoral Groups," his delightful "Conversation Humourieuse," and his inimitable "Arlequin and Colombine." What painter conveys so fully the enjoyment of a fête champêtre or the grace of coquettish woman? A dazzling array of twenty-six Decamps included the ghastly "Execution in the East," and that wonderful sketch of Turkish children, "The Breaking-up of a Constantinople School." The fifteen Paul Delaroche's comprised "The Repose in Egypt," one of the finest pictures in the collection; "The Princes in the Tower hearing the approach of the Murderers," and that powerful picture, "The Last Sickness of Cardinal Mazarin." Amongst the specimens of that high-minded painter, Ary Scheffer, we had the "Francesca da Rimini," one of the most touching of the painter's works, and the "Margaret at the Fountain." Eugene Delacroix, Meissonier, Rosa Bonheur, Horace Vernet, Gaspar and Nicholas Poussin, and many other well-known artists, are also represented in this part of the great collection.

 

"Nichols Street," says a newspaper writer of 1862, writing of Bethnal Green in its coarser aspects, "New Nichols Street, Half Nichols Street, Turvile Street, comprising within the same area numerous blind courts and alleys, form a densely crowded district in Bethnal Green. Among its inhabitants may be found street-vendors of every kind of produce, travellers to fairs, tramps, dog-fanciers, dogstealers, men and women sharpers, shoplifters, and pickpockets. It abounds with the young Arabs of the streets, and its outward moral degradation is at once apparent to any one who passes that way. Here the police are certain to be found, day and night, their presence being required to quell riots and to preserve decency. Sunday is a day much devoted to pet pigeons and to bird-singing clubs; prizes are given to such as excel in note, and a ready sale follows each award. Time thus employed was formerly devoted to cock-fighting. In this locality, twenty-five years ago, an employer of labour, Mr. Jonathan Duthiot, made an attempt to influence the people for good, by the hire of a room for meeting purposes. The first attendance consisted of one person. Persistent efforts were, however, made; other rooms have from time to time been taken and enlarged; there is a hall for Christian instruction, and another for educational purposes; illustrated lectures are delivered; a loanlibrary has been established, also a clothing-club and penny bank, and training-classes for industrial purposes."

 

Mr. Smiles, in his "Huguenots in London," has an interesting page on the old French Hospital in Bethnal Green:—"Among the charitable institutions founded by the refugees for the succour of their distressed fellow-countrymen in England," says Mr. Smiles, "the most important was the French Hospital. This establishment owes its origin to a M. de Gastigny, a French gentleman, who had been Master of the Buckhounds to William III., in Holland, while Prince of Orange. At his death, in 1708, he bequeathed a sum of £1,000 towards founding an hospital, in London, for the relief of distressed French Protestants. The money was placed at interest for eight years, during which successive benefactions were added to the fund. In 1716, a piece of ground in Old Street, St. Luke's, was purchased of the Ironmongers' Company, and a lease was taken from the City of London of some adjoining land, forming altogether an area of about four acres, on which a building was erected, and fitted up for the reception of eighty poor Protestants of the French nation. In 1718, George I. granted a charter of incorporation to the governor and directors of the hospital, under which the Earl of Galway was appointed the first governor. Shortly after, in November, 1718, the opening of the institution was celebrated by a solemn act of religion, and the chapel was consecrated amidst a great concourse of refugees and their descendants, the Rev. Philip Menard, minister of the French chapel of St. James's, conducting the service on the occasion.

 

"From that time the funds of the institution steadily increased. The French merchants of Toulon, who had been prosperous in trade, liberally contributed towards its support, and legacies and donations multiplied. Lord Galway bequeathed a thousand pounds to the hospital, in 1720, and in the following year Baron Hervart de Huningue gave a donation of £4,000. The corporation were placed in the possession of ample means, and they accordingly proceeded to erect additional buildings, in which they were enabled, by the year 1760, to give an asylum to 234 poor people."

 

The French Hospital has recently been removed from its original site to Victoria Park, where a handsome building has been erected as an hospital, for the accommodation of forty men and twenty women, after the designs of Mr. Robert Lewis Roumieu, architect, one of the directors, Mr. Roumieu being himself descended from an illustrious Huguenot family—the Roumieus of Languedoc.

 

A Tudor ballad, the Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green, tells the story of an ostensibly poor man who gave a surprisingly generous dowry for his daughter's wedding. The tale furnishes the parish of Bethnal Green's coat of arms. According to one version of the legend, found in Percy's Reliques of Ancient English Poetry published in 1765, the beggar was said to be Henry, the son of Simon de Montfort, but Percy himself declared that this version was not genuine.[3] The Blind Beggar public house in Whitechapel is reputed to be the site of his begging.

Boxing has a long association with Bethnal Green. Daniel Mendoza, who was champion of England from 1792 to 1795 though born in Aldgate, lived in Paradise Row on the western side of Bethnal Green for 30 years. Since then numerous boxers have been associated with the area, and the local leisure centre, York Hall, remains notable for presentation of boxing bouts.

In 1841, the Anglo-Catholic Nathaniel Woodard, who was to become a highly influential educationalist in the later part of the 19th century, became the curate of the newly created St. Bartholomew's in Bethnal Green. He was a capable pastoral visitor and established a parochial school. In 1843, he got into trouble for preaching a sermon in St. Bartholomew's in which he argued that the Book of Common Prayer should have additional material to provide for confession and absolution and in which he criticised the 'inefficient and Godless clergy' of the Church of England. After examining the text of the sermon, the Bishop of London condemned it as containing 'erroneous and dangerous notions'. As a result, the bishop sent Woodard to be a curate in Clapton.

Visit Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park!

 

Wheel Fun Rentals is a leading provider of fun and unique outdoor recreational vehicles including a complete fleet of bikes that can be enjoyed by single riders or an entire family. Our new fleet of Wheel Fun Rentals bikes – purchased this Spring – are extremely popular with visitors to Irvine Regional Park.

 

Bikes available to rent include the single surrey, deuce coupe, quad sport and chopper. Other bikes also available to rent include tandem bikes, cruiser bikes and kid’s bikes. And, we rent paddle boats too.

 

Children 18 years of age and younger are required to wear a helmet when riding a bike. Children under the age of 13 are required to wear a life jacket when riding a paddle boat. Both helmets and life jackets are provided at no additional cost and are available to any rider or passenger upon request.

 

For more information on these great bikes available for rent, and hours of operation, visit our Web site at www.irvineparkrailroad.com.

 

About Irvine Park Railroad:

Irvine Park Railroad is a one-third scale train that takes both children and adults on a scenic, 12-minute ride through beautiful and scenic Irvine Regional Park. The train ride, which is affordable fun for the entire family, is narrated by the engineer.

 

Other activities inside of the park include Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park paddle boat and bike rentals, the Orange County Zoo and pony rides. Two snack bars serve both hot and cold food.

 

Annual Irvine Park Railroad events include the Easter Eggstravaganza, Anniversary Celebration, Pumpkin Patch and Christmas Train.

 

Irvine Park Railroad has party pavilions and other locations available for rent. These locations are ideal for birthday parties, company picnics, corporate meetings and other special events. We also rent moon bounces for locations inside of Irvine Regional Park.

 

Irvine Regional Park is centrally-located in the foothills of Orange (Orange County). The nearest, major cross streets are Chapman Avenue at Jamboree Boulevard.

 

Find Irvine Park Railroad on Facebook and Twitter (irvineparkrr).

From Box Hill, Surrey looking south towards Crawley, West Sussex.

The Princess Alexandra Statue, located in the Jack Shiel Gardens in the north eastern country town of Alexandra, is the work of English sculptor Charles Summers (1825 – 1878). The Princess Alexandra Statue is made of white Italian marble, and was completed in Rome as part of a commission for Sir William J. Clarke (1831 – 1897) in 1876. Sir William commissioned him to sculpt four large statues in marble of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and the then Prince and Princess of Wales (later Edward VII and Queen Alexandra) for presentation to the Melbourne art gallery. These were completed in 1878. Soon afterwards Charles Summers while on his way to England was taken seriously ill, and died after an operation for acute goitre in Paris. The Princess Alexandra Statue was his last sculpture.

 

Originally located in the grounds of the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, the statue was relocated to Alexandra in 1939 where it was installed in the pretty Jack Shiel Gardens where she is surrounded by beds of roses, her favourite flower. In 1994 the statue was unveiled under a new colonnade, which was financed under the Centennial Awards.

 

Charles Summer was a regular exhibitor at Royal Academy exhibitions; more than 40 of his works were shown between 1849 and 1876. He was a competent sculptor who also created the figures on the ceiling of the council chamber of Melbourne’s Parliament House, a frieze of putti on the old Bank of New South Wales building (now located at Melbourne University) and the recumbent figure of Lady Macleay in Surrey. However it is the memorial to the explorers Burke and Wills on the corner of Collins and Swanston Streets in Melbourne’s heart that he is best known for.

 

Born in 1845, Princess Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia was a Princess of Denmark; one of five sisters (two of whom would also became Queens of Norway and Russia). A beautiful and slender lady with perfect complexion and lovely mannerisms as befitting a queen, Alexandra was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (1841 – 1910) the heir apparent of Queen Victoria when the Danish princess was just sixteen. They married eighteen months later in 1863 in the St George Chapel, Windsor Castle, the same year her father became Christian IX of Denmark and her brother, George, was appointed King of Greece. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has ever held that title, and became generally popular; her style of dress and bearing were copied by fashion-conscious women. On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became King-Emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as Queen-Empress Consort. From Edward's death in 1910 until her own death, she was the Queen Mother. She died of a heart attack just before her 80th birthday in 1925 and was buried in an elaborate tomb next to her husband in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

 

Alexandra is a town in Victoria, Australia. It is located at the junction of the Goulburn Valley Highway (B340) and Maroondah Highway (B360), 26 kilometres west of Eildon. The town was settled in the late 1860s, with a Post Office opening on 15 March 1867 (known until 24 April 1867) as Redgate. The town was originally known as Redgate, or Red Gate Diggings. The current name either derives from Alexandra of Denmark (Queen’s Consort to King Edward VII of England) when given a stature of her to the shire; or from three men named Alexander (Alesander, McGregor, Alexander Don, and Alexander Luckie) who discovered gold in the area in 1866. Charles Jones born Herefordshire also discovered Gold on the Luckie Mine in 1866. He bought a Hotel with John Henry Osborne and was the proprietor of the New York and London Hotel Grant Street Alexandra. The railway to Alexandra arrived in the town via Yea from Tallarook in 1909, and closed on November 18, 1978. The Rubicon Tramway connected Alexandra with the village of Rubicon, at the junction of the Rubicon and Royston Rivers. Today many tourists pass through Alexandra on their way to the Mount Buller ski resort from Melbourne. The town contains the Timber Tramway and Museum (located at the Alexandra Railway Station), and the National Trust classified post office and law courts. There is a local market on the second Saturday of each month from September to May, an annual art show at Easter, an agricultural show and rose festival in November, and the annual Truck, Rod and Ute Show in June.

  

The Princess Alexandra Statue, located in the Jack Shiel Gardens in the north eastern country town of Alexandra, is the work of English sculptor Charles Summers (1825 – 1878). The Princess Alexandra Statue is made of white Italian marble, and was completed in Rome as part of a commission for Sir William J. Clarke (1831 – 1897) in 1876. Sir William commissioned him to sculpt four large statues in marble of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and the then Prince and Princess of Wales (later Edward VII and Queen Alexandra) for presentation to the Melbourne art gallery. These were completed in 1878. Soon afterwards Charles Summers while on his way to England was taken seriously ill, and died after an operation for acute goitre in Paris. The Princess Alexandra Statue was his last sculpture.

 

Originally located in the grounds of the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, the statue was relocated to Alexandra in 1939 where it was installed in the pretty Jack Shiel Gardens where she is surrounded by beds of roses, her favourite flower. In 1994 the statue was unveiled under a new colonnade, which was financed under the Centennial Awards.

 

Charles Summer was a regular exhibitor at Royal Academy exhibitions; more than 40 of his works were shown between 1849 and 1876. He was a competent sculptor who also created the figures on the ceiling of the council chamber of Melbourne’s Parliament House, a frieze of putti on the old Bank of New South Wales building (now located at Melbourne University) and the recumbent figure of Lady Macleay in Surrey. However it is the memorial to the explorers Burke and Wills on the corner of Collins and Swanston Streets in Melbourne’s heart that he is best known for.

 

Born in 1845, Princess Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia was a Princess of Denmark; one of five sisters (two of whom would also became Queens of Norway and Russia). A beautiful and slender lady with perfect complexion and lovely mannerisms as befitting a queen, Alexandra was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (1841 – 1910) the heir apparent of Queen Victoria when the Danish princess was just sixteen. They married eighteen months later in 1863 in the St George Chapel, Windsor Castle, the same year her father became Christian IX of Denmark and her brother, George, was appointed King of Greece. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has ever held that title, and became generally popular; her style of dress and bearing were copied by fashion-conscious women. On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became King-Emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as Queen-Empress Consort. From Edward's death in 1910 until her own death, she was the Queen Mother. She died of a heart attack just before her 80th birthday in 1925 and was buried in an elaborate tomb next to her husband in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

 

Alexandra is a town in Victoria, Australia. It is located at the junction of the Goulburn Valley Highway (B340) and Maroondah Highway (B360), 26 kilometres west of Eildon. The town was settled in the late 1860s, with a Post Office opening on 15 March 1867 (known until 24 April 1867) as Redgate. The town was originally known as Redgate, or Red Gate Diggings. The current name either derives from Alexandra of Denmark (Queen’s Consort to King Edward VII of England) when given a stature of her to the shire; or from three men named Alexander (Alesander, McGregor, Alexander Don, and Alexander Luckie) who discovered gold in the area in 1866. Charles Jones born Herefordshire also discovered Gold on the Luckie Mine in 1866. He bought a Hotel with John Henry Osborne and was the proprietor of the New York and London Hotel Grant Street Alexandra. The railway to Alexandra arrived in the town via Yea from Tallarook in 1909, and closed on November 18, 1978. The Rubicon Tramway connected Alexandra with the village of Rubicon, at the junction of the Rubicon and Royston Rivers. Today many tourists pass through Alexandra on their way to the Mount Buller ski resort from Melbourne. The town contains the Timber Tramway and Museum (located at the Alexandra Railway Station), and the National Trust classified post office and law courts. There is a local market on the second Saturday of each month from September to May, an annual art show at Easter, an agricultural show and rose festival in November, and the annual Truck, Rod and Ute Show in June.

  

The Princess Alexandra Statue, located in the Jack Shiel Gardens in the north eastern country town of Alexandra, is the work of English sculptor Charles Summers (1825 – 1878). The Princess Alexandra Statue is made of white Italian marble, and was completed in Rome as part of a commission for Sir William J. Clarke (1831 – 1897) in 1876. Sir William commissioned him to sculpt four large statues in marble of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and the then Prince and Princess of Wales (later Edward VII and Queen Alexandra) for presentation to the Melbourne art gallery. These were completed in 1878. Soon afterwards Charles Summers while on his way to England was taken seriously ill, and died after an operation for acute goitre in Paris. The Princess Alexandra Statue was his last sculpture.

 

Originally located in the grounds of the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, the statue was relocated to Alexandra in 1939 where it was installed in the pretty Jack Shiel Gardens where she is surrounded by beds of roses, her favourite flower. In 1994 the statue was unveiled under a new colonnade, which was financed under the Centennial Awards.

 

Charles Summer was a regular exhibitor at Royal Academy exhibitions; more than 40 of his works were shown between 1849 and 1876. He was a competent sculptor who also created the figures on the ceiling of the council chamber of Melbourne’s Parliament House, a frieze of putti on the old Bank of New South Wales building (now located at Melbourne University) and the recumbent figure of Lady Macleay in Surrey. However it is the memorial to the explorers Burke and Wills on the corner of Collins and Swanston Streets in Melbourne’s heart that he is best known for.

 

Born in 1845, Princess Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia was a Princess of Denmark; one of five sisters (two of whom would also became Queens of Norway and Russia). A beautiful and slender lady with perfect complexion and lovely mannerisms as befitting a queen, Alexandra was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (1841 – 1910) the heir apparent of Queen Victoria when the Danish princess was just sixteen. They married eighteen months later in 1863 in the St George Chapel, Windsor Castle, the same year her father became Christian IX of Denmark and her brother, George, was appointed King of Greece. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has ever held that title, and became generally popular; her style of dress and bearing were copied by fashion-conscious women. On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became King-Emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as Queen-Empress Consort. From Edward's death in 1910 until her own death, she was the Queen Mother. She died of a heart attack just before her 80th birthday in 1925 and was buried in an elaborate tomb next to her husband in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

 

Alexandra is a town in Victoria, Australia. It is located at the junction of the Goulburn Valley Highway (B340) and Maroondah Highway (B360), 26 kilometres west of Eildon. The town was settled in the late 1860s, with a Post Office opening on 15 March 1867 (known until 24 April 1867) as Redgate. The town was originally known as Redgate, or Red Gate Diggings. The current name either derives from Alexandra of Denmark (Queen’s Consort to King Edward VII of England) when given a stature of her to the shire; or from three men named Alexander (Alesander, McGregor, Alexander Don, and Alexander Luckie) who discovered gold in the area in 1866. Charles Jones born Herefordshire also discovered Gold on the Luckie Mine in 1866. He bought a Hotel with John Henry Osborne and was the proprietor of the New York and London Hotel Grant Street Alexandra. The railway to Alexandra arrived in the town via Yea from Tallarook in 1909, and closed on November 18, 1978. The Rubicon Tramway connected Alexandra with the village of Rubicon, at the junction of the Rubicon and Royston Rivers. Today many tourists pass through Alexandra on their way to the Mount Buller ski resort from Melbourne. The town contains the Timber Tramway and Museum (located at the Alexandra Railway Station), and the National Trust classified post office and law courts. There is a local market on the second Saturday of each month from September to May, an annual art show at Easter, an agricultural show and rose festival in November, and the annual Truck, Rod and Ute Show in June.

  

The Princess Alexandra Statue, located in the Jack Shiel Gardens in the north eastern country town of Alexandra, is the work of English sculptor Charles Summers (1825 – 1878). The Princess Alexandra Statue is made of white Italian marble, and was completed in Rome as part of a commission for Sir William J. Clarke (1831 – 1897) in 1876. Sir William commissioned him to sculpt four large statues in marble of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and the then Prince and Princess of Wales (later Edward VII and Queen Alexandra) for presentation to the Melbourne art gallery. These were completed in 1878. Soon afterwards Charles Summers while on his way to England was taken seriously ill, and died after an operation for acute goitre in Paris. The Princess Alexandra Statue was his last sculpture.

 

Originally located in the grounds of the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, the statue was relocated to Alexandra in 1939 where it was installed in the pretty Jack Shiel Gardens where she is surrounded by beds of roses, her favourite flower. In 1994 the statue was unveiled under a new colonnade, which was financed under the Centennial Awards.

 

Charles Summer was a regular exhibitor at Royal Academy exhibitions; more than 40 of his works were shown between 1849 and 1876. He was a competent sculptor who also created the figures on the ceiling of the council chamber of Melbourne’s Parliament House, a frieze of putti on the old Bank of New South Wales building (now located at Melbourne University) and the recumbent figure of Lady Macleay in Surrey. However it is the memorial to the explorers Burke and Wills on the corner of Collins and Swanston Streets in Melbourne’s heart that he is best known for.

 

Born in 1845, Princess Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia was a Princess of Denmark; one of five sisters (two of whom would also became Queens of Norway and Russia). A beautiful and slender lady with perfect complexion and lovely mannerisms as befitting a queen, Alexandra was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (1841 – 1910) the heir apparent of Queen Victoria when the Danish princess was just sixteen. They married eighteen months later in 1863 in the St George Chapel, Windsor Castle, the same year her father became Christian IX of Denmark and her brother, George, was appointed King of Greece. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has ever held that title, and became generally popular; her style of dress and bearing were copied by fashion-conscious women. On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became King-Emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as Queen-Empress Consort. From Edward's death in 1910 until her own death, she was the Queen Mother. She died of a heart attack just before her 80th birthday in 1925 and was buried in an elaborate tomb next to her husband in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

 

Alexandra is a town in Victoria, Australia. It is located at the junction of the Goulburn Valley Highway (B340) and Maroondah Highway (B360), 26 kilometres west of Eildon. The town was settled in the late 1860s, with a Post Office opening on 15 March 1867 (known until 24 April 1867) as Redgate. The town was originally known as Redgate, or Red Gate Diggings. The current name either derives from Alexandra of Denmark (Queen’s Consort to King Edward VII of England) when given a stature of her to the shire; or from three men named Alexander (Alesander, McGregor, Alexander Don, and Alexander Luckie) who discovered gold in the area in 1866. Charles Jones born Herefordshire also discovered Gold on the Luckie Mine in 1866. He bought a Hotel with John Henry Osborne and was the proprietor of the New York and London Hotel Grant Street Alexandra. The railway to Alexandra arrived in the town via Yea from Tallarook in 1909, and closed on November 18, 1978. The Rubicon Tramway connected Alexandra with the village of Rubicon, at the junction of the Rubicon and Royston Rivers. Today many tourists pass through Alexandra on their way to the Mount Buller ski resort from Melbourne. The town contains the Timber Tramway and Museum (located at the Alexandra Railway Station), and the National Trust classified post office and law courts. There is a local market on the second Saturday of each month from September to May, an annual art show at Easter, an agricultural show and rose festival in November, and the annual Truck, Rod and Ute Show in June.

  

A Carpenter - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

No obvious matches on CWGC

 

Choices from the 1901 Census include am Albert, born circa 1878 Wymondham and now resident Swainsthorpe as a Labourer in Garden, and an Arthur born circa 1884 and now resident Spooner Row as an Ordinary Agricultural Labourer.

 

Updated The Military Genealogy site lists an Arthur Edward, born Sutton, Wymondham, enlisted Wymondham.

 

Armed with this information and checking the CWGC database again, produces this match.

Name: CARPENTER, ARTHUR E.

Rank: Private

Regiment: East Yorkshire Regiment

Unit Text: 12th Bn.

Age: 34

Date of Death: 13/11/1916

Service No: 28210

Additional information: Son of John and Maria Carpenter, of Spooner Row, Wymondham, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: Pier and Face 2 C.

Memorial: THIEPVAL MEMORIAL

CWGC: www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?cas ualty=1542239

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W Carpenter - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

No obvious matches on CWGC

 

No match on Norlink

 

The 1901 Census has a Walter Carpenter, aged 21, resident at “Chain Entry” Wymondham in the household of his parents, Arthur, (aged 48, Teamster on Farm), and Maria, (aged 50), as well as siblings Sydney, (aged 16) and Maud, (aged 14).

 

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S Catlyn - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: CATLYN, SIDNEY

Rank: Private

Regiment: York and Lancaster Regiment Unit Text: 12th Bn.

Age: 21 Date of Death: 01/10/1917 Service No: 235615

Additional information: Son of Leonard James Catlyn, of Church St., Wymondham, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: I. E. 6. Cemetery: ROCLINCOURT MILITARY CEMETERY

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=525727

 

The 1901 Census has Sidney Catlyn, (aged 5) living in the household of his parents at 91 Junction Road, Norwich, although he had been born in Wymondham. His parents were Leonard, (aged 31, a General Carter) and Jane, (aged 31) and sister Laura, (aged 3)/ Also living in the house was Sidney’s uncle, (George, his fathers brother and also a General Carter).

 

www.pals.org.uk/sheffield/

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B Chamberlin - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Possibly

Name: CHAMBERLIN, BEN

Rank: Private

Regiment: Northumberland Fusiliers Unit Text: 1st/4th Bn.

Date of Death: 15/09/1916 Service No: 9018

Grave/Memorial Reference: Pier and Face 10 B 11 B and 12 B. Memorial: THIEPVAL MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=1542979

 

The 1901 Census has Ben Chamberlin, (aged 3) resident at “Plainwood” hethersett, the residence of his parents, William, (aged 40, a G E R Plate Labourer), and Ann Maria, (aged 36). Both parents were from Wymondham, and their older children, William, (aged 15), Lily, (aged 17 and a housemaid domestic) and Charles, (aged 12) were all born there as well. Further siblings, born Hethersett, are Dorothy, (aged 5), Emma, (aged 7), Ernest, (aged 10)and Harry, (aged 9).

 

15th September 1916.

The 4th Bn were faced with an unenviable task. Earlier fighting had left a 'dog-leg' in the front line, therefore the 4th Bns' assembly (Eye) trench was three hundred yards further forward than those of the 47th Divn on the right flank. If the fusiliers did not delay their advance until the 47th Divn were alongside they would be totally exposed to enfilade fire from enemy machine guns sited in the strongpoint on the ridge top at the north west corner of High Wood (Bois De Foureaux). From this strongpoint it was possible for the enemy to rake the ground between the wood and Martinpuich to the west. The strongpoint had been repeatedly attacked in the weeks preceding, but with no success. However, if High Wood was outflanked by the 4th Bn, there was the possibility of capturing trenches eight hundred yards to the rear of the wood and cutting off the enemy units in it. The decision was taken for the 4th Bn to advance at zero hour

 

4th Bn HQ telephoned Bde HQ at 7.14am to report that the first objective had been 'made good'. However, the 4th and 7th Bns had just begun to dig in at the first objective when they came under heavy machine gun and rifle fire from the direction of High Wood. The fusiliers took shelter until it was time to advance on the second objective at 7.20am.

 

At 7.27am Bde HQ received a report from the 4th Bn stating that the advance to the 2nd objective had begun in good order and that the enemy barrage was falling almost entirely in front of the 1st objective.

 

The second objective was captured and fusiliers of the 4th Bn entered the Starfish Line, but enemy fire from both flanks inflicted very heavy casualties on them. Wiith the 47th Divn held up in High Wood and unable to provide any support on the right flank, the 4th Bn were forced to fall back to Hook Trench. The severe difficulties experienced by the 47th Divn, in High Wood, meant that the right flank of the 4th Bn was now dangerously exposed and would had to be carefully guarded from attack. Hook Trench and Bethel Sap were strengthened and made secure.

 

At 9.25am the 4th Bn reported that the enemy had launched a bombing attack on Bethel Sap from the direction of High Wood, this was quickly followed by a request for bombers to be sent forward to assist with the defence

 

Casualties

The 4th Bn sent twenty-two officers and six hundred and ninety-five men into action that morning. The subsequent roll call revealed that 10 officers and 110 men had been killed, 7 officers and 229 men wounded and 143 were missing.

Records show that at least 180 fusiliers from the 4th Bn were actually killed in action or died of wounds during the Battle of Flers-Courcellette.

www.4thbnnf.com/35_160915_flerscourcelette.html

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F Chamberlain - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

No obvious matches on CWGC

 

No match on Norlink

Most likely matches from the 1901 Census are a Frederick (aged 31 and a Bricklayers Labourer), or his son, another Frederick, (aged 9). The family were resident at White Horse Street.

 

Updated F Chamberlain

 

The SDGW database has a Frank Ernest Chamberlain born Wymondham, enlisted Wymondham, who was soldier 20443, Essex Regiment.

 

That soldier on the CWGC database is

Name: CHAMBERLAIN, FRANK ERNEST

Rank: Private

Regiment/Service: Essex Regiment

Unit Text: 1st Bn.

Date of Death: 06/08/1915

Service No: 20443

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 144 to 150 or 229 to 233.

Memorial: HELLES MEMORIAL

CWGC: www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?cas ualty=697018

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J S Childerhouse - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: CHILDERHOUSE, JOHN STEVEN

Rank: Private

Regiment: Coldstream Guards Unit Text: 1st Bn. Age: 31

Date of Death: 28/09/1915 Service No: 7870

Additional information: Son of S. Childerhouse, of London Rd., Wymondham, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 7 and 8. Memorial: LOOS MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=729724

 

The 1901 Census has John Childerhouse, (aged 16, a bricklayers labourer), living at Friarscroft Lane with his parents Stephen Childerhouse, (aged 44, a Railway Labourer) and Laura, (aged 43) and siblings Charles, (aged 12), Gladys (aged 4), and Violet (aged 18, a horse hair weaver).

 

Late in the afternoon of the 27th September, the Guards brigade, with the 1st Coldstream in reserve, were thrown into the battle for the key Hill 70, during the Battle of Loos. With the Irish and Scots Guards being driven back, the Coldstreams were unleashed and joining with the remnants of the other units, pushed on and took the hill. In two days the Guards Brigade had lost 42 officers and 1266 men. By the night of the 27th/28th the front line was stabilising, but this only meant that the German artillery could concentrate their fire on the new allied positions.

 

A follow up attack by the 1st led to the Coldstream’s, already at half strength, being almost annihilated on the 28th.

books.google.co.uk/books?id=OClz6xxwgCUC&pg=PA30&...

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W Chilvers - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

No obvious matches on CWGC

 

Possible match on Norlink

norlink.norfolk.gov.uk/02_Catalogue/02_013_PictureTitleIn...

 

Norlink notes

 

Born at Carleton Rode, 31st May 1898, educated at Bunwell council school. He enlisted 2nd February 1917 and was reported killed in action 8th August 1918. His unit is given as the 7 RWS

 

Name: CHILVERS, WESLEY H. W. EWART GLADSTONE

Rank: Private

Regiment: The Queen's (Royal West Surrey Regiment) Unit Text: 7th Bn.

Age: 20 Date of Death: 08/08/1918 Service No: 205381

Additional information: Son of John and Alice Chilvers, of North St., Carleton Rode, Attleborough, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: I. B. 3. Cemetery: BEACON CEMETERY, SAILLY-LAURETTE

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=185587

 

At the time of the 1901 Census, Wesley Chilvers was living at Banwell Street, Carleton Rode with his parents. There are no obvious other matches,

 

www.chilversgenealogy.co.uk/rollhon.htm

freepages.genealogy.rootsweb.ancestry.com/~chilvers/Carle...

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P Clabburn - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: CLABBURN, PERCY

Rank: Sergeant

Regiment: Canadian Infantry Unit Text: 60th Bn.

Age: 26 Date of Death: 26/11/1916 Service No: 458165

Additional information: Son of George and Martha Clabburn, of Wymondham, Norfolk, England.

Grave/Memorial Reference: III. J. 9. Cemetery: ECOIVRES MILITARY CEMETERY, MONT-ST. ELOI

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=64971

 

At the 1901 Census, Percy, aged 10, was resident on Market Street with his parents George, (aged 41, an Innkeeper) and Martha, (aged 42) as well as siblings, Arthur, (aged 16, Factory Brush?), Henry, (aged 15, Factory Brush?), Ida, (aged 5), and Winifred, (aged 13)

 

Percys Canadian attestation (enlistment) forms can be seen here.

collectionscanada.ca/databases/cef/001042-119.02-e.php?im...

collectionscanada.ca/databases/cef/001042-119.02-e.php?im...

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E Claxton - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: CLAXTON, ERNEST SIDNEY

Rank: Private

Regiment: Essex Regiment Unit Text: 3rd Bn.

Date of Death: 27/10/1918 Service No: 20924

Additional information: Husband of Eunice Eliza Claxton, of Friars Croft Lane, Wymondham.

Grave/Memorial Reference: 2. 95. Cemetery: WYMONDHAM CEMETERY

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=2802744

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T Clements - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: CLEMENTS, THOMAS SAMUEL

Rank: Private

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 8th Bn.

Age: 37 Date of Death: 24/10/1917 Service No: 18619

Additional information: Son of Elizabeth Mary and the late George Samuel Clements, of Wymondham, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: XXX. G. 6A. Cemetery: ETAPLES MILITARY CEMETERY

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=499975

 

Thomas was 19 and a Boot Riveter living on Cock Street, Wymondham with his widowed mother Elizabeth, aged 51 and siblings:-

Ethel........Aged 14......Brush Maker

George......Aged 21.......Blake Machine Operator

John........Aged 16.......Grocers Porter

Julia.......Aged 22.......Laundress

May.........Aged 17.......Brush Maker

Edith (Cook)Aged 29.......Boot Machinist

 

As well as nieces Elizabeth Cook, (aged 11) and Elsie Cook, (aged 1)

 

October 1917

The first three weeks of October were spent on the west bank of the Yser canal, and partly in training for the attack of October 22nd in the Poelcappelle neighbourhood. On the 20th the battalion was in Cane trench ready for the forthcoming attack "

 

It then goes on to decribe the attack which went in on around 5.50am of the 22nd. The Norfolks went first, leapt frogged by the 10th Essex. Despite the mud all the objectives were achieved.

"The triumphant Essex and Norfolks...........tramped back to hear the whole division ...and General Maxse.... singing their paise. "

 

Losses were heavy and this was destined to be the Battalions last great action before it's dissolution. Being split up in the new year to go to the 7th and 9th Norfolks

1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/lofiversion/index.php/t...

 

Although I cannot be certain, after such an attack there would no doubt have been many casualties who would subsequently have died of their wounds. Etaples was not only a training centre but also had several field hospitals nearby and the fatalities from these were buried in the Etaples cemetery.

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A Coldham - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: COLDHAM, ALEXANDER

Rank: Private

Regiment: Machine Gun Corps (Infantry) Unit Text: 117th Coy.

Age: 23 Date of Death: 21/10/1917 Service No: 107254

Additional information: Son of Mr. and Mrs. H. Coldham, of Chapel Lane, Wymondham, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 154 to 159 and 163A. Memorial: TYNE COT MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=840831

 

At the time of the 1901 Census, Alexander, (aged 6) was living on Cock Street, Wymondham with his parents Horace, (aged 32 and a Groom &Gardener) and Gertrude (aged 31) and siblings Ernest, (aged 4), Ethel, (under 1)and Frederick, (aged 1)

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A J Cooke

 

No obvious matches on CWGC

 

No match on Norlink

No obvious match on the 1901 Census.

*******************************************************************

G R Cooke

 

No obvious matches on CWGC

 

No match on Norlink

No obvious match on the 1901 Census.

*******************************************************************

W Cowles - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

No obvious matches on CWGC

 

No match on Norlink

No obvious match on the 1901 Census.

 

On various websites there are references to a Walter Cowles born Wymondham 1878, but as he then goes on to run a small drapers shop in the 1920’s, he would appear not to be our man.

 

Updated see comments 1& 2 below

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D Cross - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Most likely

Name: CROSS, DONALD STUART

Rank: Private

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 1st/4th Bn.

Date of Death: 14/08/1915 Service No: 2052

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 42 to 44. Memorial: HELLES MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=694710

 

No obvious match on the 1901 Census.

 

The diary of Captain Montgomerie, the acting C.O of the 1st/4th notes on this day only that:-

14th. - Our men were now getting exhausted from hard work and lack of food. We sent up some food to them in the early morning. They were well off for water as they had four wells, but they ran considerable risk in getting it.

user.online.be/~snelders/sand.htm

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J B Cross - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: CROSS, JOHN BUCKINGHAM

Rank: Company Quartermaster Serjeant

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 4th Bn.

Age: 51 Date of Death: 01/11/1915 Service No: 2214

Additional information: Son of the late Robert and Sarah Cross, of Wymondham; husband of Laura Cross, of "Fernlea," Norwich Rd., Wymondham, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: D. I. 3. Cemetery: PIETA MILITARY CEMETERY

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=115074

 

The Cemetery is located in Triq Id-Duluri (Our Lady of Sorrows Street), 2 kilometres south-west of Valletta on the road to Sliema. On the edge of the Gwardamanga district, the entrance is on Triq II-Principessa Melita, leading to Triq Tal-Pieta and Msida Sea Front and Creek. Historical Information: From the spring of 1915, the hospitals and convalescent depots established on the islands of Malta and Gozo dealt with over 135,000 sick and wounded, chiefly from the campaigns in Gallipoli and Salonika, although increased submarine activity in the Mediterranean meant that fewer hospital ships were sent to the island from May 1917

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C W Daniels - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Possibly

Name: DANIELS, CECIL WILLIAM

Rank: Second Lieutenant

Regiment: Sherwood Foresters (Notts and Derby Regiment) Age: 25 Date of Death: 04/11/1918

Grave/Memorial Reference: 5. N.G. 614. Cemetery: NORWICH CEMETERY, Norfolk

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=2803104

 

No match on Norlink

 

No obvious match on the 1901 Census.

*****************************************************************

S Doubleday - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Probably

Name: DOUBLEDAY, SAMUEL

Rank: Private

Regiment: Royal Fusiliers Unit Text: 13th Bn.

Date of Death: 11/04/1917 Service No: 11137

Grave/Memorial Reference: Bay 3. Memorial: ARRAS MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=1540460

 

No match in Norlink

 

The 1901 Census has a Samuel Doubleday, (aged 8) living at Spooner Row with his parents Charles, (aged 40, a farmer) and Lavinia (aged 30), as well as siblings Charles, (aged 11) and Rosa, (aged 14), and his uncle, John Wharton, aged 18.

Updated The Military Genealogy site confirms this Samuel was born Sutton and resident Wymondham.

 

******************************************************************

H Dove - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

No obvious matches on CWGC

 

No match on Norlink

 

While there is no obvious match on the 1901 Census, there is a John Dove, aged 11, who is actually listed as John H C Dove. John was born at Wymondham, and at the time of the census was living in Norwich Road, Wymondham with his parents, John, (aged 34, occupation indecipherable) and Eliza A. (aged 33) as well as siblings George, (aged 4), Gladys C C, (aged 1), Hannah, (aged 8) Thomas J (aged 14) and a Robert Thompson, aged 15 who is also listed as a son of John senior.

 

That raises the possibility that this may relate:-

 

Name: DOVE, JOHN H. C.

Rank: Gunner

Regiment/Service: Royal Horse Artillery Unit Text: "W" Bty.

Date of Death: 01/10/1915 Service No: 55578

Memorial: DELHI 1914-1918 WAR MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=1451124

Updated The Military Genealogy site Same confirms that John H C Dove was born Wymondham.

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D Dunham - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Probably

Name: DUNHAM, DOUGLAS ALFRED

Rank: Rifleman

Regiment: Rifle Brigade Unit Text: 7th Bn.

Date of Death: 18/08/1916 Service No: 1196

Grave/Memorial Reference: Pier and Face 16 B and 16 C. Memorial: THIEPVAL MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=755319

 

There are no matches on the 1901 Census for a Douglas Dunham.

Updated The Military Genealogy site confirms that Douglas Arthur Dunham was born Wymondham.

Updated November 2012 The 22 year old Douglas Alfred, born "Weymondham, Norfolk" was recorded serving overseas as a Rifleman in the 4th Battalion, Rifle Brigade, located at The Citadel, Cairo, Egypt.

 

The baptism of a Douglas Arthur, (date of birth not recorded), took place at the church of The Virgin Mary and St Thomas a'Beckett, Wymondham on the 4th September 1887.Parents were Arthur William, a Horse Breaker, and Jessie. The family lived at North Field, Wymondham.

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F G Eastoll - also on Abbey Roll of Honour (F Eastoll)

 

Name: EASTOLL, FREDERICK GEORGE

Rank: Private

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 1st Bn.

Age: 26 Date of Death: 27/07/1916 Service No: 3/10841

Additional information: Husband of the late Alice Eastoll.

Grave/Memorial Reference: Pier and Face 1 C and 1 D. Memorial: THIEPVAL MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=752711

 

The 1901 Census has a Fredrick Eastoll, aged 9 living at Silver Street, Besthorpe, in the household of his grandfather, Robert, (aged 54, an agricultural labourer) and grandmother, Sarah, (aged 50), as well as their children:=

George.............Age 15.............Bricklayers Labourer

Geraldine..........Age 17.............Housemaid Domestic

Philip.............Age 12

 

For a report on the action in which Frederick died see here:-

www.bedfordregiment.org.uk/1stbtn/1stbtn1916appendices.html

 

This was another costly day for the 1st Norfolk’s - a trawl of the CWGC web-sites reveals 86 fatalities on this day.

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E R Edwards - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: EDWARDS, ERNEST RICHARD

Rank: Private

Regiment: Essex Regiment Unit Text: 10th Bn.

Age: 22 Date of Death: 22/10/1917 Service No: 203039

Additional information: Son of W. and Ruth Edwards, of Bellrope Lane, Wymondham, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 98 to 99. Memorial: TYNE COT MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=1631000

 

The 1901 Census has two Ernest’s in Wymondham, but one is shown as Ernest R, and lived on Bellrope Lane, Wymondham. His parents were William R, (age 29, a masons carter) and Ruth E. (aged 27), as well as brother leslie G. (aged 3).

 

The final capture of Poelcapelle and Meunier House by the 10th Essex and a Norfolk Battalion took place on 22nd October 1917

1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/index.php?showtopic=107...

.

The 10th Essex suffered 48 fatalities on this day

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B W Elvin - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: ELVIN, BERNARD WILLIAM

Rank: Private

Regiment: Northamptonshire Regiment Unit Text: 1st Bn.

Age: 20 Date of Death: 03/04/1916 Service No: 17445

Additional information: Son of Charles and Eliza Alice Elvin, of 6, Cemetery Rd., Wymondham, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: III. J. 20. Cemetery: ST. PATRICK'S CEMETERY, LOOS

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=563026

 

No match on Norlink

 

The 1901 Census has a William B. aged 4 living at The Lizard, Wymondham with his parents, Charles, (aged 32, an Assurance Agent), and mother Eliza A. (aged 29), along with siblings Alice M. (aged 8), and Gertrude M. (aged 7). There are two Eliza Elvin’s living at The Lizard - see John Elvin below.

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G W Elvin - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: ELVIN, GEORGE WILLIAM

Rank: Private

Regiment: Border Regiment Unit Text: "B" Coy. 3rd Bn.

Age: 19 Date of Death: 27/10/1916 Service No: 23185

Additional information: Son of Robert and Laura Elvin, of The Lizard, Wymondham, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: III. 5. Cemetery: BARROW-IN-FURNESS CEMETERY

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=372721

 

No match on Norlink

 

The 1901 Census has a George W. aged 3, living at The Lizard, Wymondham with his parents, Robert, (aged 28, a Boot Riveter) and Laura, (aged 25), along with his sister, Laura M.

******************************************************************

John Elvin - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

No obvious matches on CWGC

 

No match on Norlink

 

The 1901 Census has a John Elvin (age 5) living at The Lizard, Wymondham, with his parents John, (age 32, Labourer in a Stone Pit) and Eliza, (age 29) and siblings:-

Florence M...........Age 1

James.................Age 3

 

Updated see comment 6 below

*******************************************************************

H Everett - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Most likely

Name: EVERETT Initials: H G

Rank: Private

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 1st/5th Bn.

Age: 19

Date of Death: 30/10/1917 Service No: 242546

Additional information: Son of Mrs. A. J. Everett, of Tibenham St., Tivetshall, Norwich. Grave/Memorial Reference: XXI. S. 14. Cemetery: BAGHDAD (NORTH GATE) WAR CEMETERY

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=633373

 

No match on Norlink

 

No obvious match on the 1901 Census.

Updated see comment 6 below

******************************************************************

G Farrow - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: FARROW, GEORGE ROBERT

Rank: Private

Regiment: Essex Regiment Unit Text: 1st Bn.

Age: 19 Date of Death: 13/08/1915 Service No: 20605

Additional information: Son of Noah and Harriett Farrow, of Northfield, Wymondham, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 144 to 150 or 229 to 233. Memorial: HELLES MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=682700

 

Another one lost in the sinking of transport Royal Edward

 

A scan of a press cutting regarding the sinking of the transport ship Royal Edward, with a loss of over 1,000 troops and crew.

1914-1918.invisionzone.com/forums/lofiversion/index.php/t...

 

A passage from the History of Norfolk Regiment tells the rest of the story. Colonel Tonge refers to the loss of 300 men, the best draft that ever left Felixstowe. These men volunteered to join the Essex Regiment and appear to have constituted the drafts of June 23 and July 24 1915. They were part of the reinforcements carried by the transport "Royal Edward" which was torpedoed and sunk in the Aegean Sea on August 14th 1915. She sank two and a half minutes after the torpedo struck her.Of the 1,400 men she carried only 600 were saved, and the drowned included all but 18 of the 300 Norfolk men. The men who had had a route march just before leaving Alexandria, were waiting on deck for foot inspection at about 9.20 am. Their lifebelts were down below, and when the ship was unexpectedly struck most of them ran below to fetch the belts. Owing to the ship's sudden heeling over and sinking, these never got up again. Those who escaped were picked up by a hospital ship which responded to the s.o.s. signal.

www.geocities.com/heartland/acres/5564/royaledward.html

**************************************************************

T Fickling - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: FICKLING, THOMAS ROBERT

Rank: Rifleman

Regiment: Rifle Brigade Unit Text: 3rd Bn.

Date of Death: 23/10/1914 Service No: 2127

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 10. Memorial: PLOEGSTEERT MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=872720

 

No match on Norlink

 

There is no obvious match on the 1901 Census There is a Thomas Fickling, born 1847 at Bunwell and now resident in Middlesex as a retired Metropolitan Police Officer, and there still appear to be other Fickling’s in the Bunwell area.

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A Fordham - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

No obvious matches on CWGC

 

No match on Norlink

 

The 1901 Census has an Alfred Fordham, aged 8, who was living at Besthorpe and born at Kenninghall, as a possible match. His parents were George, (aged 44, Team man on Farm) and Elizabeth, (aged 45). Also at the same address were siblings Alice, (aged 12), Ernest, (aged 20, a Great Eastern Railway Porter), Florence, (aged 11), Herbert (aged 17, Horseman on Farm) and Leonard, (aged 7)

Updated see comment 6 below

*******************************************************************

A Forkes - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: FORKES Initials: A B

Rank: Trooper

Regiment: Household Battalion

Date of Death: 11/04/1917 Service No: 1439

Grave/Memorial Reference: G. 11. Cemetery: ATHIES COMMUNAL CEMETERY EXTENSION

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=256890

 

Picture on Norlink

norlink.norfolk.gov.uk/02_Catalogue/02_013_PictureTitleIn...

 

Norlink notes

 

Trooper Forkes was born 6th September 1886 and educated at Wymondham Council school. He enlisted on 23rd October 1916. He died from wounds received in action in France, 11th April 1917

 

At the time of the 1901 Census, Albert, a 14 year old Boot Shop Assistant, was living at Queens Street, Wymondham in the household of his parents, William, (aged 58, a boot maker), and Rhoda Forkes, (aged 54). Also in the household were siblings Earnest Forkes, (age 16, a Grocers assistant), Fred, (aged 12) and William, (aged 18 and a Brush Factory hand)

 

The Scarpe, Arras, Fampoux and Roeux (8th April to 14th May 1917)

The misfortunes of Britain's allies in 1917 dictated circumstances in which three major battles, Arras, 3rd Ypres and Cambrai, were planned and fought. The Household Battalion was involved to the hilt in all three. The French commander Nivelle was replaced by Marshals Foch and Petain in Spring 1917 after part of the French army mutinied. Field Marshall Sir Douglas Haig launched the Arras offensive on Easter Monday 1917 to draw German attention away from the disaster which had overtaken the French army, further South. As a cavalry officer, he saw the mission of cavalry as the exploitation of the eventual break through in the trench war stalemate and put the 3rd Cavalry Division into the attack on the Hindenhurg Line at Monchy le Preux on Easter Monday, 9th April 1917. There was a general advance of the infantry north and south of the 45 foot wide, 6 foot deep Scarpe River flowing east to west through Arras. North of the Scarpe, the Household Battalion, as part of the 10th Brigade in the 4th Infantry Division were allotted the task of advancing along the swampy banks of the muddy little river on the hamlet of Fampoux, (formerly pop. 1,015 but now flattened and enemy held).

While their brothers of The 1st and 2nd Life Guards and Blues rode against barbed wire and machine guns with the 3rd Cavalry Division to Monchy, The Household Battalion stalked towards Fampoux with rifles and bayonets in the sleet. With them were the Warwicks, Seaforth and Royal Irish Fusiliers. It took the Brigade 11 days to take Fampoux and The Household Battalion lost 9 Officers and 166 non Commissioned Officers and Men killed in action. Ahead was the smaller but even more formidable German defence at Roeux at a bend in the river, one mile from Fampoux and 6,000 yards from the Hindenhurg Line itself.

 

www.maxwall.co.uk/army/history.htm

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A J Fulcher - also on Abbey Roll of Honour (A Fulcher)

 

Name: FULCHER, ARTHUR JOHN

Rank: Private

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 1st/4th Bn.

Age: 37 Date of Death: 01/09/1915 Service No: 2243

Additional information: Son of Mrs. Elizabeth Fulcher, of Wymondham, Norfolk, husband of Laura Fulcher, of Damgate Bridge, Wymondham, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 42 to 44. Memorial: HELLES MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=681137

 

The 1st/4th were out of the line at this time, so I can only assume Private Fulcher died of wounds or illness.

user.online.be/~snelders/sand.htm

******************************************************************

G George - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Name: GEORGE, GEORGE

Rank: Private

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 9th Bn.

Age: 19 Date of Death: 30/05/1917 Service No: 29887

Additional information: Son of Esther George, of Wymondham, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: II. B. 26. Cemetery: BARLIN COMMUNAL CEMETERY EXTENSION

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=469971

 

There are no obvious matches on the 1901 Census.

*****************************************************************

V G Goodings - also on Abbey Roll of Honour (as G V Goodings)

 

Name: GOODINGS, VICTOR GEORGE

Rank: Private

Regiment: The Queen's (Royal West Surrey Regiment) Unit Text: 6th Bn. Date of Death: 27/09/1918 Service No: G/67435

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 3. Memorial: VIS-EN-ARTOIS MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=1742907

 

No match on Norlink

 

The 1901 Census has a Victor G.Goodings, aged 1, living at Damgate Street, Wymondham, with his parents, William, (aged 38, a Chimney Sweep) and Elizabeth, (aged 34) and siblings, Ethel M, (aged 7), Lily E, (aged 12), Maud, (aged 10)and Robert W. (aged 14, a Brush Turner)

***************************************************************

F G Heron - also on Abbey Roll of Honour (F Heron)

 

Name: HERON, FREDERICK GEORGE

Rank: Private

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 1st/5th Bn.

Age: 21 Date of Death: 21/08/1915 Service No: 3022

Additional information: Son of George and Sarah Heron, of Vicar St., Wymondham, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 42 to 44. Memorial: HELLES MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=691575

 

The 1901 Census has a Frederick, age 6, living at Pople Street, Wymondham with his parents George, (age 33, a shoe riveter) and Sarah, (aged 29).

 

21st August 1915

 

Having lost over 200 men from the battalion shortly before this on the 12th, the battalion was to lose at least another 36 on this day.

 

***************************************************************

C High - also on Abbey Roll of Honour

 

Most Likely (out of three)

 

Name: HIGH, CHARLES EDWARD

Rank: Private

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 1st Bn.

Date of Death: 18/04/1915 Service No: 3/5246

Memorial Reference: Panel 4. Memorial: YPRES (MENIN GATE) MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=1614040

 

No match on Norlink

 

No obvious match on the 1901 Census.

**************************************************************

W Howes

 

Possibly

Name: HOWES, WALTER SYLVESTER

Rank: Lance Corporal

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 1st/5th Bn.

Date of Death: 02/11/1917 Service No: 240782

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panels 12 to 15. Memorial: JERUSALEM MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=1645682

 

Or

Name: HOWES, WALTER

Rank: Seaman

Service: Royal Naval Reserve Unit Text: H.M.S. "Clan McNaughton."

Age: 48 Date of Death: 03/02/1915 Service No: 6231A

Additional information: Husband of Alice Howes, of 9, Rising Sun Lane, Cattle Market, Norwich.

Grave/Memorial Reference: 14. Memorial: CHATHAM NAVAL MEMORIAL

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=4004305

 

Or

Name: HOWES Initials: W

Rank: Private Regiment/Service: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 2nd Bn.

Date of Death: 07/12/1916 Service No: 7696

Grave/Memorial Reference: Angora Mem. 90. Cemetery: BAGHDAD (NORTH GATE) WAR CEMETERY

www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=633895

 

But there are many others to choose for

 

No match on Norlink

 

The 1901 Census has:-

Walter aged 10, born Wymondham, resident Kimberley Hall, Wymondham

Walter aged 28 born Wymondham, resident White Horse Street, Wymondham

Walter aged 34 born Wymondham, resident 35 Childers Street, Deptford

The Princess Alexandra Statue, located in the Jack Shiel Gardens in the north eastern country town of Alexandra, is the work of English sculptor Charles Summers (1825 – 1878). The Princess Alexandra Statue is made of white Italian marble, and was completed in Rome as part of a commission for Sir William J. Clarke (1831 – 1897) in 1876. Sir William commissioned him to sculpt four large statues in marble of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and the then Prince and Princess of Wales (later Edward VII and Queen Alexandra) for presentation to the Melbourne art gallery. These were completed in 1878. Soon afterwards Charles Summers while on his way to England was taken seriously ill, and died after an operation for acute goitre in Paris. The Princess Alexandra Statue was his last sculpture.

 

Originally located in the grounds of the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, the statue was relocated to Alexandra in 1939 where it was installed in the pretty Jack Shiel Gardens where she is surrounded by beds of roses, her favourite flower. In 1994 the statue was unveiled under a new colonnade, which was financed under the Centennial Awards.

 

Charles Summer was a regular exhibitor at Royal Academy exhibitions; more than 40 of his works were shown between 1849 and 1876. He was a competent sculptor who also created the figures on the ceiling of the council chamber of Melbourne’s Parliament House, a frieze of putti on the old Bank of New South Wales building (now located at Melbourne University) and the recumbent figure of Lady Macleay in Surrey. However it is the memorial to the explorers Burke and Wills on the corner of Collins and Swanston Streets in Melbourne’s heart that he is best known for.

 

Born in 1845, Princess Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia was a Princess of Denmark; one of five sisters (two of whom would also became Queens of Norway and Russia). A beautiful and slender lady with perfect complexion and lovely mannerisms as befitting a queen, Alexandra was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (1841 – 1910) the heir apparent of Queen Victoria when the Danish princess was just sixteen. They married eighteen months later in 1863 in the St George Chapel, Windsor Castle, the same year her father became Christian IX of Denmark and her brother, George, was appointed King of Greece. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has ever held that title, and became generally popular; her style of dress and bearing were copied by fashion-conscious women. On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became King-Emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as Queen-Empress Consort. From Edward's death in 1910 until her own death, she was the Queen Mother. She died of a heart attack just before her 80th birthday in 1925 and was buried in an elaborate tomb next to her husband in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

 

Alexandra is a town in Victoria, Australia. It is located at the junction of the Goulburn Valley Highway (B340) and Maroondah Highway (B360), 26 kilometres west of Eildon. The town was settled in the late 1860s, with a Post Office opening on 15 March 1867 (known until 24 April 1867) as Redgate. The town was originally known as Redgate, or Red Gate Diggings. The current name either derives from Alexandra of Denmark (Queen’s Consort to King Edward VII of England) when given a stature of her to the shire; or from three men named Alexander (Alesander, McGregor, Alexander Don, and Alexander Luckie) who discovered gold in the area in 1866. Charles Jones born Herefordshire also discovered Gold on the Luckie Mine in 1866. He bought a Hotel with John Henry Osborne and was the proprietor of the New York and London Hotel Grant Street Alexandra. The railway to Alexandra arrived in the town via Yea from Tallarook in 1909, and closed on November 18, 1978. The Rubicon Tramway connected Alexandra with the village of Rubicon, at the junction of the Rubicon and Royston Rivers. Today many tourists pass through Alexandra on their way to the Mount Buller ski resort from Melbourne. The town contains the Timber Tramway and Museum (located at the Alexandra Railway Station), and the National Trust classified post office and law courts. There is a local market on the second Saturday of each month from September to May, an annual art show at Easter, an agricultural show and rose festival in November, and the annual Truck, Rod and Ute Show in June.

  

Visit Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park!

 

Wheel Fun Rentals is a leading provider of fun and unique outdoor recreational vehicles including a complete fleet of bikes that can be enjoyed by single riders or an entire family. Our new fleet of Wheel Fun Rentals bikes – purchased this Spring – are extremely popular with visitors to Irvine Regional Park.

 

Bikes available to rent include the single surrey, deuce coupe, quad sport and chopper. Other bikes also available to rent include tandem bikes, cruiser bikes and kid’s bikes. And, we rent paddle boats too.

 

Children 18 years of age and younger are required to wear a helmet when riding a bike. Children under the age of 13 are required to wear a life jacket when riding a paddle boat. Both helmets and life jackets are provided at no additional cost and are available to any rider or passenger upon request.

 

For more information on these great bikes available for rent, and hours of operation, visit our Web site at www.irvineparkrailroad.com.

 

About Irvine Park Railroad:

Irvine Park Railroad is a one-third scale train that takes both children and adults on a scenic, 12-minute ride through beautiful and scenic Irvine Regional Park. The train ride, which is affordable fun for the entire family, is narrated by the engineer.

 

Other activities inside of the park include Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park paddle boat and bike rentals, the Orange County Zoo and pony rides. Two snack bars serve both hot and cold food.

 

Annual Irvine Park Railroad events include the Easter Eggstravaganza, Anniversary Celebration, Pumpkin Patch and Christmas Train.

 

Irvine Park Railroad has party pavilions and other locations available for rent. These locations are ideal for birthday parties, company picnics, corporate meetings and other special events. We also rent moon bounces for locations inside of Irvine Regional Park.

 

Irvine Regional Park is centrally-located in the foothills of Orange (Orange County). The nearest, major cross streets are Chapman Avenue at Jamboree Boulevard.

 

Find Irvine Park Railroad on Facebook and Twitter (irvineparkrr).

Visit Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park!

 

Wheel Fun Rentals is a leading provider of fun and unique outdoor recreational vehicles including a complete fleet of bikes that can be enjoyed by single riders or an entire family. Our new fleet of Wheel Fun Rentals bikes – purchased this Spring – are extremely popular with visitors to Irvine Regional Park.

 

Bikes available to rent include the single surrey, deuce coupe, quad sport and chopper. Other bikes also available to rent include tandem bikes, cruiser bikes and kid’s bikes. And, we rent paddle boats too.

 

Children 18 years of age and younger are required to wear a helmet when riding a bike. Children under the age of 13 are required to wear a life jacket when riding a paddle boat. Both helmets and life jackets are provided at no additional cost and are available to any rider or passenger upon request.

 

For more information on these great bikes available for rent, and hours of operation, visit our Web site at www.irvineparkrailroad.com.

 

About Irvine Park Railroad:

Irvine Park Railroad is a one-third scale train that takes both children and adults on a scenic, 12-minute ride through beautiful and scenic Irvine Regional Park. The train ride, which is affordable fun for the entire family, is narrated by the engineer.

 

Other activities inside of the park include Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park paddle boat and bike rentals, the Orange County Zoo and pony rides. Two snack bars serve both hot and cold food.

 

Annual Irvine Park Railroad events include the Easter Eggstravaganza, Anniversary Celebration, Pumpkin Patch and Christmas Train.

 

Irvine Park Railroad has party pavilions and other locations available for rent. These locations are ideal for birthday parties, company picnics, corporate meetings and other special events. We also rent moon bounces for locations inside of Irvine Regional Park.

 

Irvine Regional Park is centrally-located in the foothills of Orange (Orange County). The nearest, major cross streets are Chapman Avenue at Jamboree Boulevard.

 

Find Irvine Park Railroad on Facebook and Twitter (irvineparkrr).

Visit Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park!

 

Wheel Fun Rentals is a leading provider of fun and unique outdoor recreational vehicles including a complete fleet of bikes that can be enjoyed by single riders or an entire family. Our new fleet of Wheel Fun Rentals bikes – purchased this Spring – are extremely popular with visitors to Irvine Regional Park.

 

Bikes available to rent include the single surrey, deuce coupe, quad sport and chopper. Other bikes also available to rent include tandem bikes, cruiser bikes and kid’s bikes. And, we rent paddle boats too.

 

Children 18 years of age and younger are required to wear a helmet when riding a bike. Children under the age of 13 are required to wear a life jacket when riding a paddle boat. Both helmets and life jackets are provided at no additional cost and are available to any rider or passenger upon request.

 

For more information on these great bikes available for rent, and hours of operation, visit our Web site at www.irvineparkrailroad.com.

 

About Irvine Park Railroad:

Irvine Park Railroad is a one-third scale train that takes both children and adults on a scenic, 12-minute ride through beautiful and scenic Irvine Regional Park. The train ride, which is affordable fun for the entire family, is narrated by the engineer.

 

Other activities inside of the park include Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park paddle boat and bike rentals, the Orange County Zoo and pony rides. Two snack bars serve both hot and cold food.

 

Annual Irvine Park Railroad events include the Easter Eggstravaganza, Anniversary Celebration, Pumpkin Patch and Christmas Train.

 

Irvine Park Railroad has party pavilions and other locations available for rent. These locations are ideal for birthday parties, company picnics, corporate meetings and other special events. We also rent moon bounces for locations inside of Irvine Regional Park.

 

Irvine Regional Park is centrally-located in the foothills of Orange (Orange County). The nearest, major cross streets are Chapman Avenue at Jamboree Boulevard.

 

Find Irvine Park Railroad on Facebook and Twitter (irvineparkrr).

Garvanza was the first town to be founded in Northeast Los Angeles. During the middle of the nineteenth century, Garvanza was a part of the Rancho San Rafael. The area was named for the garbanzo plants which once covered the surrounding hills. Legend has it that Don Julio Verdugo built an adobe nearby and planted these beans in 1833. Later, the adobe was abandoned, but the garbanzos flourished and spread.

 

The 114,000-acre rancho was sold in 1869 for about $1.00 an acre to settle Verdugo's debts. The land north of Meridian Street was purchased by Prudent Beaudry, a future mayor of Los Angeles (1874-76). After several transfers of title, 2,200 acres of the property were acquired in 1883 by Alexander Campbell-Johnston of England. The ranch was used for cattle and sheep raising and general farming.

 

The land south of Meridian Street was purchased by Andrew Glassell and Alfred Chapman. They leased most of the property to sheep raisers Don and Dona Miguel Goldaracena. The present-day Occidental campus was the location of the sheep-shearing corral.

 

The church of the Angeles is the oldest church along the Arroyo Seco. It was built by Francis Campbell-Johnson as a memorial to her husband, Alexander, and a place of worship for the people of Garvanza. The Campbell-Johnston's were early settlers of the area from England. They arranged to purchase 2,200 acres north of Meridian Avenue in 1883, and called it San Rafael Ranch.

 

The Campbell-Johnstons returned to England, while three of their ten sons managed the ranch. The Campbell-Johnston returned to the ranch with his wife early in 1888, but was taken ill and died on January 21. Mrs. Campbell-Johnston returned to England with the remains for burial and while in London decided to build a church to perpetuate the memory of her husband. She selected a site near the town of Garvanza over the objections of friends who thought it should be built either in the Pasadena or Los Angeles. Later the area was annexed by the City of Pasadena.

 

The plans were drawn by Arthur Edmund Street, an English architect and modeled after Holmby St. Mary's Church near Dorky, Surrey, England, Ernest Coxhead, a distinguished local architect, adapted the plans and supervised the construction. The cornerstone was laid on Easter eve, April 20, 1889.

 

The church is faced in sandstone that was hauled from quarries in the San Fernando valley. The interior walls of the church are of red pressed brick, and the ceiling is of redwood.

 

The Princess Alexandra Statue, located in the Jack Shiel Gardens in the north eastern country town of Alexandra, is the work of English sculptor Charles Summers (1825 – 1878). The Princess Alexandra Statue is made of white Italian marble, and was completed in Rome as part of a commission for Sir William J. Clarke (1831 – 1897) in 1876. Sir William commissioned him to sculpt four large statues in marble of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and the then Prince and Princess of Wales (later Edward VII and Queen Alexandra) for presentation to the Melbourne art gallery. These were completed in 1878. Soon afterwards Charles Summers while on his way to England was taken seriously ill, and died after an operation for acute goitre in Paris. The Princess Alexandra Statue was his last sculpture.

 

Originally located in the grounds of the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, the statue was relocated to Alexandra in 1939 where it was installed in the pretty Jack Shiel Gardens where she is surrounded by beds of roses, her favourite flower. In 1994 the statue was unveiled under a new colonnade, which was financed under the Centennial Awards.

 

Charles Summer was a regular exhibitor at Royal Academy exhibitions; more than 40 of his works were shown between 1849 and 1876. He was a competent sculptor who also created the figures on the ceiling of the council chamber of Melbourne’s Parliament House, a frieze of putti on the old Bank of New South Wales building (now located at Melbourne University) and the recumbent figure of Lady Macleay in Surrey. However it is the memorial to the explorers Burke and Wills on the corner of Collins and Swanston Streets in Melbourne’s heart that he is best known for.

 

Born in 1845, Princess Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia was a Princess of Denmark; one of five sisters (two of whom would also became Queens of Norway and Russia). A beautiful and slender lady with perfect complexion and lovely mannerisms as befitting a queen, Alexandra was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (1841 – 1910) the heir apparent of Queen Victoria when the Danish princess was just sixteen. They married eighteen months later in 1863 in the St George Chapel, Windsor Castle, the same year her father became Christian IX of Denmark and her brother, George, was appointed King of Greece. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has ever held that title, and became generally popular; her style of dress and bearing were copied by fashion-conscious women. On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became King-Emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as Queen-Empress Consort. From Edward's death in 1910 until her own death, she was the Queen Mother. She died of a heart attack just before her 80th birthday in 1925 and was buried in an elaborate tomb next to her husband in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

 

Alexandra is a town in Victoria, Australia. It is located at the junction of the Goulburn Valley Highway (B340) and Maroondah Highway (B360), 26 kilometres west of Eildon. The town was settled in the late 1860s, with a Post Office opening on 15 March 1867 (known until 24 April 1867) as Redgate. The town was originally known as Redgate, or Red Gate Diggings. The current name either derives from Alexandra of Denmark (Queen’s Consort to King Edward VII of England) when given a stature of her to the shire; or from three men named Alexander (Alesander, McGregor, Alexander Don, and Alexander Luckie) who discovered gold in the area in 1866. Charles Jones born Herefordshire also discovered Gold on the Luckie Mine in 1866. He bought a Hotel with John Henry Osborne and was the proprietor of the New York and London Hotel Grant Street Alexandra. The railway to Alexandra arrived in the town via Yea from Tallarook in 1909, and closed on November 18, 1978. The Rubicon Tramway connected Alexandra with the village of Rubicon, at the junction of the Rubicon and Royston Rivers. Today many tourists pass through Alexandra on their way to the Mount Buller ski resort from Melbourne. The town contains the Timber Tramway and Museum (located at the Alexandra Railway Station), and the National Trust classified post office and law courts. There is a local market on the second Saturday of each month from September to May, an annual art show at Easter, an agricultural show and rose festival in November, and the annual Truck, Rod and Ute Show in June.

  

The Princess Alexandra Statue, located in the Jack Shiel Gardens in the north eastern country town of Alexandra, is the work of English sculptor Charles Summers (1825 – 1878). The Princess Alexandra Statue is made of white Italian marble, and was completed in Rome as part of a commission for Sir William J. Clarke (1831 – 1897) in 1876. Sir William commissioned him to sculpt four large statues in marble of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and the then Prince and Princess of Wales (later Edward VII and Queen Alexandra) for presentation to the Melbourne art gallery. These were completed in 1878. Soon afterwards Charles Summers while on his way to England was taken seriously ill, and died after an operation for acute goitre in Paris. The Princess Alexandra Statue was his last sculpture.

 

Originally located in the grounds of the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, the statue was relocated to Alexandra in 1939 where it was installed in the pretty Jack Shiel Gardens where she is surrounded by beds of roses, her favourite flower. In 1994 the statue was unveiled under a new colonnade, which was financed under the Centennial Awards.

 

Charles Summer was a regular exhibitor at Royal Academy exhibitions; more than 40 of his works were shown between 1849 and 1876. He was a competent sculptor who also created the figures on the ceiling of the council chamber of Melbourne’s Parliament House, a frieze of putti on the old Bank of New South Wales building (now located at Melbourne University) and the recumbent figure of Lady Macleay in Surrey. However it is the memorial to the explorers Burke and Wills on the corner of Collins and Swanston Streets in Melbourne’s heart that he is best known for.

 

Born in 1845, Princess Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia was a Princess of Denmark; one of five sisters (two of whom would also became Queens of Norway and Russia). A beautiful and slender lady with perfect complexion and lovely mannerisms as befitting a queen, Alexandra was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (1841 – 1910) the heir apparent of Queen Victoria when the Danish princess was just sixteen. They married eighteen months later in 1863 in the St George Chapel, Windsor Castle, the same year her father became Christian IX of Denmark and her brother, George, was appointed King of Greece. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has ever held that title, and became generally popular; her style of dress and bearing were copied by fashion-conscious women. On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became King-Emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as Queen-Empress Consort. From Edward's death in 1910 until her own death, she was the Queen Mother. She died of a heart attack just before her 80th birthday in 1925 and was buried in an elaborate tomb next to her husband in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

 

Alexandra is a town in Victoria, Australia. It is located at the junction of the Goulburn Valley Highway (B340) and Maroondah Highway (B360), 26 kilometres west of Eildon. The town was settled in the late 1860s, with a Post Office opening on 15 March 1867 (known until 24 April 1867) as Redgate. The town was originally known as Redgate, or Red Gate Diggings. The current name either derives from Alexandra of Denmark (Queen’s Consort to King Edward VII of England) when given a stature of her to the shire; or from three men named Alexander (Alesander, McGregor, Alexander Don, and Alexander Luckie) who discovered gold in the area in 1866. Charles Jones born Herefordshire also discovered Gold on the Luckie Mine in 1866. He bought a Hotel with John Henry Osborne and was the proprietor of the New York and London Hotel Grant Street Alexandra. The railway to Alexandra arrived in the town via Yea from Tallarook in 1909, and closed on November 18, 1978. The Rubicon Tramway connected Alexandra with the village of Rubicon, at the junction of the Rubicon and Royston Rivers. Today many tourists pass through Alexandra on their way to the Mount Buller ski resort from Melbourne. The town contains the Timber Tramway and Museum (located at the Alexandra Railway Station), and the National Trust classified post office and law courts. There is a local market on the second Saturday of each month from September to May, an annual art show at Easter, an agricultural show and rose festival in November, and the annual Truck, Rod and Ute Show in June.

  

The Princess Alexandra Statue, located in the Jack Shiel Gardens in the north eastern country town of Alexandra, is the work of English sculptor Charles Summers (1825 – 1878). The Princess Alexandra Statue is made of white Italian marble, and was completed in Rome as part of a commission for Sir William J. Clarke (1831 – 1897) in 1876. Sir William commissioned him to sculpt four large statues in marble of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and the then Prince and Princess of Wales (later Edward VII and Queen Alexandra) for presentation to the Melbourne art gallery. These were completed in 1878. Soon afterwards Charles Summers while on his way to England was taken seriously ill, and died after an operation for acute goitre in Paris. The Princess Alexandra Statue was his last sculpture.

 

Originally located in the grounds of the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, the statue was relocated to Alexandra in 1939 where it was installed in the pretty Jack Shiel Gardens where she is surrounded by beds of roses, her favourite flower. In 1994 the statue was unveiled under a new colonnade, which was financed under the Centennial Awards.

 

Charles Summer was a regular exhibitor at Royal Academy exhibitions; more than 40 of his works were shown between 1849 and 1876. He was a competent sculptor who also created the figures on the ceiling of the council chamber of Melbourne’s Parliament House, a frieze of putti on the old Bank of New South Wales building (now located at Melbourne University) and the recumbent figure of Lady Macleay in Surrey. However it is the memorial to the explorers Burke and Wills on the corner of Collins and Swanston Streets in Melbourne’s heart that he is best known for.

 

Born in 1845, Princess Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia was a Princess of Denmark; one of five sisters (two of whom would also became Queens of Norway and Russia). A beautiful and slender lady with perfect complexion and lovely mannerisms as befitting a queen, Alexandra was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (1841 – 1910) the heir apparent of Queen Victoria when the Danish princess was just sixteen. They married eighteen months later in 1863 in the St George Chapel, Windsor Castle, the same year her father became Christian IX of Denmark and her brother, George, was appointed King of Greece. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has ever held that title, and became generally popular; her style of dress and bearing were copied by fashion-conscious women. On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became King-Emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as Queen-Empress Consort. From Edward's death in 1910 until her own death, she was the Queen Mother. She died of a heart attack just before her 80th birthday in 1925 and was buried in an elaborate tomb next to her husband in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

 

Alexandra is a town in Victoria, Australia. It is located at the junction of the Goulburn Valley Highway (B340) and Maroondah Highway (B360), 26 kilometres west of Eildon. The town was settled in the late 1860s, with a Post Office opening on 15 March 1867 (known until 24 April 1867) as Redgate. The town was originally known as Redgate, or Red Gate Diggings. The current name either derives from Alexandra of Denmark (Queen’s Consort to King Edward VII of England) when given a stature of her to the shire; or from three men named Alexander (Alesander, McGregor, Alexander Don, and Alexander Luckie) who discovered gold in the area in 1866. Charles Jones born Herefordshire also discovered Gold on the Luckie Mine in 1866. He bought a Hotel with John Henry Osborne and was the proprietor of the New York and London Hotel Grant Street Alexandra. The railway to Alexandra arrived in the town via Yea from Tallarook in 1909, and closed on November 18, 1978. The Rubicon Tramway connected Alexandra with the village of Rubicon, at the junction of the Rubicon and Royston Rivers. Today many tourists pass through Alexandra on their way to the Mount Buller ski resort from Melbourne. The town contains the Timber Tramway and Museum (located at the Alexandra Railway Station), and the National Trust classified post office and law courts. There is a local market on the second Saturday of each month from September to May, an annual art show at Easter, an agricultural show and rose festival in November, and the annual Truck, Rod and Ute Show in June.

  

Visit Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park!

 

Wheel Fun Rentals is a leading provider of fun and unique outdoor recreational vehicles including a complete fleet of bikes that can be enjoyed by single riders or an entire family. Our new fleet of Wheel Fun Rentals bikes – purchased this Spring – are extremely popular with visitors to Irvine Regional Park.

 

Bikes available to rent include the single surrey, deuce coupe, quad sport and chopper. Other bikes also available to rent include tandem bikes, cruiser bikes and kid’s bikes. And, we rent paddle boats too.

 

Children 18 years of age and younger are required to wear a helmet when riding a bike. Children under the age of 13 are required to wear a life jacket when riding a paddle boat. Both helmets and life jackets are provided at no additional cost and are available to any rider or passenger upon request.

 

For more information on these great bikes available for rent, and hours of operation, visit our Web site at www.irvineparkrailroad.com.

 

About Irvine Park Railroad:

Irvine Park Railroad is a one-third scale train that takes both children and adults on a scenic, 12-minute ride through beautiful and scenic Irvine Regional Park. The train ride, which is affordable fun for the entire family, is narrated by the engineer.

 

Other activities inside of the park include Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park paddle boat and bike rentals, the Orange County Zoo and pony rides. Two snack bars serve both hot and cold food.

 

Annual Irvine Park Railroad events include the Easter Eggstravaganza, Anniversary Celebration, Pumpkin Patch and Christmas Train.

 

Irvine Park Railroad has party pavilions and other locations available for rent. These locations are ideal for birthday parties, company picnics, corporate meetings and other special events. We also rent moon bounces for locations inside of Irvine Regional Park.

 

Irvine Regional Park is centrally-located in the foothills of Orange (Orange County). The nearest, major cross streets are Chapman Avenue at Jamboree Boulevard.

 

Find Irvine Park Railroad on Facebook and Twitter (irvineparkrr).

Visit Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park!

 

Wheel Fun Rentals is a leading provider of fun and unique outdoor recreational vehicles including a complete fleet of bikes that can be enjoyed by single riders or an entire family. Our new fleet of Wheel Fun Rentals bikes – purchased this Spring – are extremely popular with visitors to Irvine Regional Park.

 

Bikes available to rent include the single surrey, deuce coupe, quad sport and chopper. Other bikes also available to rent include tandem bikes, cruiser bikes and kid’s bikes. And, we rent paddle boats too.

 

Children 18 years of age and younger are required to wear a helmet when riding a bike. Children under the age of 13 are required to wear a life jacket when riding a paddle boat. Both helmets and life jackets are provided at no additional cost and are available to any rider or passenger upon request.

 

For more information on these great bikes available for rent, and hours of operation, visit our Web site at www.irvineparkrailroad.com.

 

About Irvine Park Railroad:

Irvine Park Railroad is a one-third scale train that takes both children and adults on a scenic, 12-minute ride through beautiful and scenic Irvine Regional Park. The train ride, which is affordable fun for the entire family, is narrated by the engineer.

 

Other activities inside of the park include Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park paddle boat and bike rentals, the Orange County Zoo and pony rides. Two snack bars serve both hot and cold food.

 

Annual Irvine Park Railroad events include the Easter Eggstravaganza, Anniversary Celebration, Pumpkin Patch and Christmas Train.

 

Irvine Park Railroad has party pavilions and other locations available for rent. These locations are ideal for birthday parties, company picnics, corporate meetings and other special events. We also rent moon bounces for locations inside of Irvine Regional Park.

 

Irvine Regional Park is centrally-located in the foothills of Orange (Orange County). The nearest, major cross streets are Chapman Avenue at Jamboree Boulevard.

 

Find Irvine Park Railroad on Facebook and Twitter (irvineparkrr).

The Princess Alexandra Statue, located in the Jack Shiel Gardens in the north eastern country town of Alexandra, is the work of English sculptor Charles Summers (1825 – 1878). The Princess Alexandra Statue is made of white Italian marble, and was completed in Rome as part of a commission for Sir William J. Clarke (1831 – 1897) in 1876. Sir William commissioned him to sculpt four large statues in marble of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and the then Prince and Princess of Wales (later Edward VII and Queen Alexandra) for presentation to the Melbourne art gallery. These were completed in 1878. Soon afterwards Charles Summers while on his way to England was taken seriously ill, and died after an operation for acute goitre in Paris. The Princess Alexandra Statue was his last sculpture.

 

Originally located in the grounds of the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, the statue was relocated to Alexandra in 1939 where it was installed in the pretty Jack Shiel Gardens where she is surrounded by beds of roses, her favourite flower. In 1994 the statue was unveiled under a new colonnade, which was financed under the Centennial Awards.

 

Charles Summer was a regular exhibitor at Royal Academy exhibitions; more than 40 of his works were shown between 1849 and 1876. He was a competent sculptor who also created the figures on the ceiling of the council chamber of Melbourne’s Parliament House, a frieze of putti on the old Bank of New South Wales building (now located at Melbourne University) and the recumbent figure of Lady Macleay in Surrey. However it is the memorial to the explorers Burke and Wills on the corner of Collins and Swanston Streets in Melbourne’s heart that he is best known for.

 

Born in 1845, Princess Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia was a Princess of Denmark; one of five sisters (two of whom would also became Queens of Norway and Russia). A beautiful and slender lady with perfect complexion and lovely mannerisms as befitting a queen, Alexandra was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (1841 – 1910) the heir apparent of Queen Victoria when the Danish princess was just sixteen. They married eighteen months later in 1863 in the St George Chapel, Windsor Castle, the same year her father became Christian IX of Denmark and her brother, George, was appointed King of Greece. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has ever held that title, and became generally popular; her style of dress and bearing were copied by fashion-conscious women. On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became King-Emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as Queen-Empress Consort. From Edward's death in 1910 until her own death, she was the Queen Mother. She died of a heart attack just before her 80th birthday in 1925 and was buried in an elaborate tomb next to her husband in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

 

Alexandra is a town in Victoria, Australia. It is located at the junction of the Goulburn Valley Highway (B340) and Maroondah Highway (B360), 26 kilometres west of Eildon. The town was settled in the late 1860s, with a Post Office opening on 15 March 1867 (known until 24 April 1867) as Redgate. The town was originally known as Redgate, or Red Gate Diggings. The current name either derives from Alexandra of Denmark (Queen’s Consort to King Edward VII of England) when given a stature of her to the shire; or from three men named Alexander (Alesander, McGregor, Alexander Don, and Alexander Luckie) who discovered gold in the area in 1866. Charles Jones born Herefordshire also discovered Gold on the Luckie Mine in 1866. He bought a Hotel with John Henry Osborne and was the proprietor of the New York and London Hotel Grant Street Alexandra. The railway to Alexandra arrived in the town via Yea from Tallarook in 1909, and closed on November 18, 1978. The Rubicon Tramway connected Alexandra with the village of Rubicon, at the junction of the Rubicon and Royston Rivers. Today many tourists pass through Alexandra on their way to the Mount Buller ski resort from Melbourne. The town contains the Timber Tramway and Museum (located at the Alexandra Railway Station), and the National Trust classified post office and law courts. There is a local market on the second Saturday of each month from September to May, an annual art show at Easter, an agricultural show and rose festival in November, and the annual Truck, Rod and Ute Show in June.

  

The Princess Alexandra Statue, located in the Jack Shiel Gardens in the north eastern country town of Alexandra, is the work of English sculptor Charles Summers (1825 – 1878). The Princess Alexandra Statue is made of white Italian marble, and was completed in Rome as part of a commission for Sir William J. Clarke (1831 – 1897) in 1876. Sir William commissioned him to sculpt four large statues in marble of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and the then Prince and Princess of Wales (later Edward VII and Queen Alexandra) for presentation to the Melbourne art gallery. These were completed in 1878. Soon afterwards Charles Summers while on his way to England was taken seriously ill, and died after an operation for acute goitre in Paris. The Princess Alexandra Statue was his last sculpture.

 

Originally located in the grounds of the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, the statue was relocated to Alexandra in 1939 where it was installed in the pretty Jack Shiel Gardens where she is surrounded by beds of roses, her favourite flower. In 1994 the statue was unveiled under a new colonnade, which was financed under the Centennial Awards.

 

Charles Summer was a regular exhibitor at Royal Academy exhibitions; more than 40 of his works were shown between 1849 and 1876. He was a competent sculptor who also created the figures on the ceiling of the council chamber of Melbourne’s Parliament House, a frieze of putti on the old Bank of New South Wales building (now located at Melbourne University) and the recumbent figure of Lady Macleay in Surrey. However it is the memorial to the explorers Burke and Wills on the corner of Collins and Swanston Streets in Melbourne’s heart that he is best known for.

 

Born in 1845, Princess Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia was a Princess of Denmark; one of five sisters (two of whom would also became Queens of Norway and Russia). A beautiful and slender lady with perfect complexion and lovely mannerisms as befitting a queen, Alexandra was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (1841 – 1910) the heir apparent of Queen Victoria when the Danish princess was just sixteen. They married eighteen months later in 1863 in the St George Chapel, Windsor Castle, the same year her father became Christian IX of Denmark and her brother, George, was appointed King of Greece. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has ever held that title, and became generally popular; her style of dress and bearing were copied by fashion-conscious women. On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became King-Emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as Queen-Empress Consort. From Edward's death in 1910 until her own death, she was the Queen Mother. She died of a heart attack just before her 80th birthday in 1925 and was buried in an elaborate tomb next to her husband in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

 

Alexandra is a town in Victoria, Australia. It is located at the junction of the Goulburn Valley Highway (B340) and Maroondah Highway (B360), 26 kilometres west of Eildon. The town was settled in the late 1860s, with a Post Office opening on 15 March 1867 (known until 24 April 1867) as Redgate. The town was originally known as Redgate, or Red Gate Diggings. The current name either derives from Alexandra of Denmark (Queen’s Consort to King Edward VII of England) when given a stature of her to the shire; or from three men named Alexander (Alesander, McGregor, Alexander Don, and Alexander Luckie) who discovered gold in the area in 1866. Charles Jones born Herefordshire also discovered Gold on the Luckie Mine in 1866. He bought a Hotel with John Henry Osborne and was the proprietor of the New York and London Hotel Grant Street Alexandra. The railway to Alexandra arrived in the town via Yea from Tallarook in 1909, and closed on November 18, 1978. The Rubicon Tramway connected Alexandra with the village of Rubicon, at the junction of the Rubicon and Royston Rivers. Today many tourists pass through Alexandra on their way to the Mount Buller ski resort from Melbourne. The town contains the Timber Tramway and Museum (located at the Alexandra Railway Station), and the National Trust classified post office and law courts. There is a local market on the second Saturday of each month from September to May, an annual art show at Easter, an agricultural show and rose festival in November, and the annual Truck, Rod and Ute Show in June.

  

Please click the "Magnifying Glass Icon" just above the top right corner of the photo and then click the "View all sizes' button just above the top right corner of the photo to enlarge it for easier viewing and downloading as required.

  

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Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16, UK (9-Part Photo Set)

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01) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 3 April 2010 (Easter Saturday) - Beautiful Pussy Willow Catkin : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/4491522460/

 

02) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 5 April 2008 - Beautiful White Bells (Wood Hyacinth (Hyacinthoides Hispanica)) : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2009/5358825188/

 

03) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 30 March 2008 - Beautiful Blue Bells (Wood Hyacinth (Hyacinthoides Hispanica)) : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/2399175325/

 

04) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 12 February 2011 (2 of 4) - Beautiful & Delicate Lilac Woodland Crocus Flowers : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/5444084852/

 

05) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 15 March 2010 (4 of 4) - Bright and Cheerful Golden Snow Crocus Flowers : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/4437255493/

 

06) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 3 April 2010 (Easter Saturday) - Blooming Lesser Celandine Flowers : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/4490858753/

 

07) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 9 April 2010 - Blooming Cherry Blossom Flowers : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2009/5358017233/

 

08) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 16 April 2010 - Beautiful Flowering Trees Glowing in Warm Early Morning Springtime Sun : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2009/5358003611/

 

09) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 18 April 2010 - Mr. & Mrs. Mallard taking an Early Morning Walk in Warm Springtime Sun : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2009/5358838870/

   

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Offer of Further Information

-----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

1) “The Importance of Trees in Southwark Life” by Kam Hong Leung on 14 May 2009 :

www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/3853306127/

 

2) Russia Dock Woodland - Winner of "Green Flag Award 2009-2010" : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/3913247478/

 

3) The Friends of Russia Dock Woodland - Winner of The 2009 London Tree and Woodland Award : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/4175568737/

 

4) Rebeka Clark (Stave Hill Ecology Park - Site Manager) - Southwark Woman of 2006 ("Active in the Community" Category) : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/2509913931/

 

5) BBC Breathing Places Editor's Compliments :

cid-810e9c86bbce804e.spaces.live.com/blog/cns!810E9C86BBC...

 

6) "Park Life in Surrey Quays", London SE16 - REACH Magazine @ May 2007 :

www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/2510789724/

 

7) "Rotherhithe’s Wild At Heart" - Southwark News @ 26 July 2007 (Page 15) :

www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/2518429045/

    

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Austin R

 

Possibly

Name: AUSTIN, ROBERT

Rank: Lance Corporal

Regiment: Royal Sussex Regiment

Unit Text: 11th Bn.

Age: 20

Date of Death: 31/07/1917

Service No: G/11619

Additional information: Son of Ephraim and Elizabeth Austin, of 23, Napier St., Norwich.

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 20. Memorial: YPRES (MENIN GATE) MEMORIAL

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=925925

 

There is a picture of Robert on Norlink

 

norlink.norfolk.gov.uk/02_Catalogue/02_013_PictureTitleIn...

 

The accompanying notes read:-

Lance Corporal Austin was born at Norwich, 18th June 1897, the son of Mr. & Mrs. Austin, 23 Napier Street, Norwich. He enlisted on 10th May 1916 and was killed 31st July 1917. This photograph was donated by his mother.

 

The 3 year old Robert, born Norwich, is recorded on the 1901 census at 10 Chequers Yard, in the parish of St Michael Coslany. This is the household of his parents, Ephraim, (aged 42 and a shoemaker from Norwich), and Frances E, (aged 44 and a Brushmaker from Norwich). Their other children are:-

Ephraim…………….aged 10.……………born Norwich

Harry………………..aged 9.…………….born Norwich

 

Tuesday 31st July 1917 - Day 1

 

The First Stage of the Third Battle of Ypres began with The Battle of Pilckem Ridge. Third Ypres is more usually called the Battle of Passchendaele. Zero Hour was 3.50am.

 

St. Julian

 

39th Division

 

116 Bde

 

The Division was supported by eight tanks in it’s attack.

 

116 Bde attacked with 11th, 12th and 13th Bns, Royal Sussex Regt and 14th Bn, Hampshire Regt. 13th Sussex captured St. Julian with the aid of the brigades two tanks.

forum.irishmilitaryonline.com/showthread.php?t=11535

 

The Battalion lost a total of 150 Killed, Wounded or Missing on this Day.

battlefields1418.50megs.com/11sussex.htm

 

Contemporary views of the village

www.oucs.ox.ac.uk/ww1lit/collections/item/9098?CISOROOT=%...

 

Barker F

 

Initially too many potential matches on the CWGC database

 

No match on Norlink

 

Possibles from the 1901 census

Frederick, aged u/1, 2 Home Street, Parish St Bartholomew, parents William & Eva (no obvious match 1911 census)

Frederick J, aged 2, Silver Road, Parish St James, parents Frederick & Agnes (Frederick John, still recorded Norwich, 1911 census)

Francis, aged 6, 104 Oak Street, Parish St Martins, parents William and Elizabeth. (still recorded Norwich, 1911 census)

Frank, aged 10, 15 Branford Road, Parish St James, parents Robert and Jemima,( recorded Bedford on the 1911 census)

 

New on the 1911 census

Fredrick, born Norwich, circa 1887

 

Probably, based on the census possibles.

 

Name: BARKER, FRANCIS FREDERIC

Rank: Rifleman

Regiment: King's Royal Rifle Corps

Unit Text: 9th Bn.

Age: 22

Date of Death: 18/08/1917

Service No: R/14432

Additional information: Son of William and Elizabeth Barker, of 104, Oak St., Norwich. Grave/Memorial Reference: I. E. 27. Cemetery: PERTH CEMETERY (CHINA WALL)

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=102964

 

The 6 year old Francis, born Norwich, is recorded at 104 Oak Street, in the Parish of St Martins at Oak. This is the household of his parents, William Robert, (aged 34 and a Shoe Finisher from Norwich), and Elizabeth (aged 36 and from Norwich). Their other children are:-

Har’d (??) Percy…………aged u/1.……………born Norwich

Hilda Clara……………aged 4.…………….born Norwich

William George………aged 7.……………..born Norwich

 

Battle of Passchendaele (Third Ypres)

 

Saturday 18th August 1917 - Day 19

 

Rainfall Nil

 

Hooge

 

14th Division

 

43 Bde

 

14th Div relieved 56th Div overnight.

 

43 Bde then launched a two battalion attack with 6th Bn, Duke of Cornwall’s Light Infantry and 6th Bn, Somerset Light Infantry. The Somersets followed the barrage through Inverness Copse while the Cornwalls to the north came under fire from Fitzclarence Farm and L-Shaped Farm. They withdrew to Inverness Copse where two tanks came up the Menin Road in support. Three German attacks were driven off during the day.

forum.irishmilitaryonline.com/showthread.php?t=11535&...

(8th KRRC were part of 14th Division).

 

Button T E

 

Only T E Button on the CWGC database

 

Name: BUTTON, THOMAS EDWARD

Rank: Private

Regiment: East Surrey Regiment

Unit Text: 8th Bn.

Date of Death: 30/09/1916

Service No: 20319

Grave/Memorial Reference: Pier and Face 6 B and 6 C. Memorial: THIEPVAL MEMORIAL

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=762546

 

There is a picture of Thomas on Norlink, headed 8th East Surreys Regiment

norlink.norfolk.gov.uk/02_Catalogue/02_013_PictureTitleIn...

 

The accompanying notes read:-

Born at Norwich, 10th December 1892 and educated at Angel Road School. Enlisted in March 1916 and killed in action in France, 5th October 1916.

 

There is no other individual listed with the surname Button on the CWGC database who died on the 5th October 1916, so assume this is either a discrepancy on the Norlink notes or the CWGC information.

 

The 8 year old Thomas, born Norwich, is recorded on the 1901 census at 54, Langley Street, in the parish of St Bartholomew. This is the household of his parents, (aged 35 and a “Fitter Up in Boot Trade” from Yarmouth), and Rose, (aged 29 and from Norwich). Their other children are:-

Ethel………………….aged 4.…………….born Norwich

Fred…………………..aged 6.…………….born Norwich

 

Saturday 30th September 1916. Day 92

 

Thiepval

 

A German attack at dawn drove the East Surreys from the southern face and the West Kents from the western face of Schwaben Redoubt. A hand to hand fight ensued during which the East Surreys re-took the lost ground. The Hun held onto the western face. At 4pm the East Surreys attacked and took the northern face of the redoubt while the West Kents and two platoons of 7th Buffs failed to retake the west face. At 9pm the Germans attacked again and drove the East Surreys back to the entrance to Stuff Trench.

forum.irishmilitaryonline.com/showthread.php?t=9058&p...

 

Battalions War diary for the day

qrrarchive.websds.net/PDF/ES00819160914.pdf

Officers - 4 killed, 4 wounded, 1 missing believed killed.

OR’s - 43 killed, 234 wounded, 34 missing

 

The battalion seems to have been providing work parties prior to the 6th, October when it was withdrawn completely. Therefore looks most likely that Private Button died on the 30th, although given the high volumes of OR’s wounded, he may have succumbed to his wounds on that date.

 

Cletheroe A

 

Name: CLETHEROE, ALBERT CRISTMAS

Rank: Corporal

Regiment: Royal Field Artillery

Unit Text: "D" Bty. 95th Bde.

Age: 25

Date of Death: 20/11/1918

Service No: 876017

Additional information: Son of Mrs. A. E. Cletheroe, of 8, St. Lawrence Lane, Pottergate, Norwich.

Grave/Memorial Reference: II. A. 8. Cemetery: CAUDRY BRITISH CEMETERY

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=571592

 

No match on Norlink

 

The 8 year old Albert C, (born Norwich), is recorded on the 1901 census at 8 Chapmans Buildings, Old Palace Road, in the parish of St Bartholomew. This is the household of his parents, Albert, (aged 28 and a Wine Merchants Carter from Norwich), and Lavinia, (aged 30 and from Norwich). Their other children are:-

Dorothy………………aged 9.………….born Norwich

Frank…………………aged 3.………….born Norwich

Harry…………………aged 5.………….born Norwich

May…………………..aged u/1.………..born Norwich

 

The 95th Brigade RFA were the Divisional Infantry unit for the 21st Division.

www.21stdivision1914-18.org/wardiariesandresearch.htm

 

Cropley W

 

Name: CROPLEY, WALTER CHARLES

Rank: Corporal

Service: Royal Engineers

Unit Text: Signals

Secondary Regiment: Royal Garrison Artillery

Secondary Unit Text: attd. 78th Heavy Bty.

Age: 27 Date of Death: 03/04/1918

Service No: 253434

Additional information: Croix de Guerre (Belgium). Son of James and Eliza Cropley, of Norwich; husband of Marion Ellen Cropley, of 8, Distillery Street, Norwich.

Grave/Memorial Reference: C. 14B. Cemetery: BOIS GUILLAUME COMMUNAL CEMETERY EXTENSION

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=121604

 

No match on Norlink

 

The Croix De Guerre was officially gazetted on the 16th April 1918.

www.london-gazette.co.uk/issues/30631/supplements/4530/pa...

 

The 10 year old Walter, (born Norwich), is recorded on the 1901 census at 5 Fishers Lane, in the parish of St Lawrence. This is the household of his parents, James, (aged 61 and a Shopkeeper from Norwich), and Eliza, (aged 51 and from Norwich). They also have a son Frank, aged 13.

 

BOIS GUILLAUME COMMUNAL CEMETERY EXTENSION

The extension adjoins Bois Guillaume Communal Cemetery. It was begun in March 1917 and most of the burials came from No.8 General Hospital, which was quartered at Bois Guillaume in a large country house and grounds.

www.cwgc.org/search/cemetery_details.aspx?cemetery=11901&...

 

Dugdale A E

 

Only A E Dugdale on the CWGC database

 

Name: DUGDALE Initials: A E

Rank: Pioneer

Service: Royal Engineers

Unit Text: 314th Railway Construction Coy.

Date of Death: 28/10/1917

Service No: 308022

Grave/Memorial Reference: II. F. 18. Cemetery: BELGIAN BATTERY CORNER CEMETERY

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=92754

 

No match on Norlink

 

This cemetery occupies a site at a road junction where three batteries of Belgian artillery were positioned in 1915. The cemetery was begun by the 8th Division in June 1917 after the Battle of Messines (although one grave in Plot III, Row A, predates this) and it was used until October 1918, largely for burials from a dressing station in a cottage near by. Almost half of the graves are of casualties who belonged, or were attached, to artillery units.

www.cwgc.org/search/cemetery_details.aspx?cemetery=8900&a...

 

The Great War Roll of Honour confirms this is an Arthur E.

 

The only match on the 1901 census is a 1 year old Arthur, born Norwich, and then residing at 117 Cowgate Street. However, that makes it unlikely that he would have died as a Pioneer in 1917.

 

The 1911 census has an Arthur Ernest, born circa 1881 Norwich, and still recorded in the District. However, the same individual does not appear to be on the Genes Re-united transcription of the 1901 census.

 

Durrant D G

 

Only D G Durrant on the CWGC database

Name: DURRANT, DUDLEY GARTON

Rank: Second Lieutenant

Regiment: Gloucestershire Regiment

Unit Text: "A" Coy. 1st/5th Bn.

Age: 23

Date of Death: 16/08/1916

Additional information: Son of Ellen Mary Durrant, of "Cairnsmore", 6, Langley Avenue, Surbiton, Surrey, and the late Edward Durrant.

Grave/Memorial Reference: Pier and Face 5 A and 5 B. Memorial: THIEPVAL MEMORIAL

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=752447

 

There is a picture of 2nd Lt Durrant on this web-site, which also notes that he was “Killed in action 16th August 1916 - 1/5th Bn 'A' Company. Killed in the night attack on Pozieres Ridge. Aged 23. Born 28th May 1893, in Surbiton, Surrey. Son of Ellen and the late Edward Durrant, of Surbiton, Surrey. Listed on the Thiepval Memorial

glosters.tripod.com/1916off.html

There is nothing to obviously link the Durrant’s to Norwich - Dudley’s mother was from Wiltshire and his father from Chelmsford.

 

However, could be

Name: DURRANT Initials: D

Rank: Private

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment

Unit Text: 2nd Bn.

Date of Death: 30/11/1916

Service No: 8184

Grave/Memorial Reference: Angora Mem. 58. Cemetery: BAGHDAD (NORTH GATE) WAR CEMETERY

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=633279

 

No match on Norlink

 

The Great War Roll of Honour has this soldier down as a David, and gives his rank as Musician.

But the Genes re-united transcriptions of the 1901 and 1911 censuses has no obvious David Durrant with a Norwich connection. There is a Douglas Durrant on the 1901 census, but there is no Douglas listed on either the CWGC database or the Great War Roll of Honour.

 

Farrow F

 

Possibles

Name: FARROW, FREDERICK CHARLES

Rank: Private

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment

Unit Text: 1st Bn.

Age: 24

Date of Death: 25/10/1914

Service No: 317805

Additional information: Son of Mrs. M. A. Farrow, of 22, Foundry Bridge Buildings, Prince of Wales Rd., Norwich.

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 8. Memorial: LE TOURET MEMORIAL

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=859235

 

Name: FARROW, FRANK JOSEPH

Rank: Private

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment

Unit Text: 7th Bn.

Date of Death: 13/10/1915

Service No: 9208

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 30 and 31. Memorial: LOOS MEMORIAL

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=2942213

 

Name: FARROW, FREDERICK

Rank: Private

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment

Unit Text: 1st Bn.

Date of Death: 23/04/1917

Service No: 20943

Grave/Memorial Reference: Bay 3. Memorial: ARRAS MEMORIAL

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=1541839

 

No match on Norlink

 

Possibles from the 1901 census,

 

Frederic, aged 2 months, born Norwich, 31 Adelaide Street, parents Alfred and Catherine

Francis L, aged 7, born Norwich, 72 Dereham Road, mother Annie, maternal grandparents John and Catherine Boulger

Frederick, aged 8, born Norwich, now at 18 Moat Place, Gt Yarmouth, parents Samuel & Eliza

Fred, aged 10, born Norwich, 25 Egyptian Road, Bishops Bridge, parents George & Mary Ann

Frederick W, aged 22, born Norwich, Clerk Mustard Dept, Lock & Key Yard, parents Alfred & Sarah

 

What appears to be the baptism record of the 8 year old Frederick shown above took place on the 4th June 1893 at St Mary’s Ellingham. His date of birth is given as the 31st March 1893. His parents are Frederick Samuel and Eliza, ad the family address is given as Timber Hill, Norwich. The father works as a Saddler.

 

Given all that information, the prime candidate for a casualty with this name from Norwich is the 1st Battalion Man who died 25/10/1914. His age and additional information on the CWGC database would tend to tie in with the individual who was aged 10 on the 1901 census. However, whether it’s the same F Farrow who is commemorated at St Laurences is a moot point.

 

25th October 1914

 

From “The Doings of the 15th Infantry Brigade” by Brig-Gen Count Gleichen:

 

Oct. 25th._ Another lovely warm day of Indian summer. Also of many shells, some falling pretty close to our cottage. The Germans were seen making splendid use of the folds in the ground for driving saps and connecting up their heads into trenches getting nearer and nearer to our lines. And we could do nothing but shell them and snipe them as best we could, but with little result, for artillery observation-posts were almost impossible, and snap-shooting at an occasional head or shovel appearing above ground produced but small results. Three French batteries arrived during the morning and were put under Blanchard's orders in the swampy wood behind Givenchy. Some spasmodic attacks occurred on the trenches east of the village, and the French lost rather heavily; for the Germans got into some of their evacuated trenches and killed the wounded there. A speedy counter-attack, however, drove them out again. The Devons lost two officers (Besley and Quick) and ten men killed and thirty-eight wounded. At 4.50 P.M. I got a message saying large columns of the enemy had been seen by the French issuing from La Bassée and Violaines, and I was ordered peremptorily to be ready to counter-attack at once, with my whole force if required. Sir Horace Smith-Dorrien arrived alone an hour or so afterwards, and I pointed out our situation to him; he entirely concurred in my view, and heartened me up considerably by quite recognising the state of affairs and congratulating us, and especially the Devons, on sticking it out so well.

www.gutenberg.org/cache/epub/22074/pg22074.txt

 

Fields H J

 

No obvious match on CWGC

 

No match on Norlink

 

Possibly

Name: FIELD, HERBERT JOSEPH

Rank: Corporal

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment

Unit Text: 1st/5th Bn.

Date of Death: 12/08/1915

Service No: 2490

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 42 to 44. Memorial: HELLES MEMORIAL

CWGC; www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=695991

 

However, the 1901 census has a 12 year old Herbert J Fields, born Norwich and recorded at 21 Lower Goat Lane, in the Parish of St Gregory. This is the household of his parents, James H, (aged 32 and a Licensed Victualler from Norwich) and Christianah M, (aged 32 and from Norwich). Their other children are:-

Edith M………………….aged 6.…………..born Norwich

George A………………..aged 8.………….born Norwich

 

The same individual does not appear to be on the 1911 census, but there is a Herbert Joseph Field who was born circa 1889 in Norwich, and who is still resident there.. He lives in a household that includes a James Herbert, (born circa 1869), an Edith Alice, (born circa 1895), and a “Cristianna” Mary, (born circa 1869).

 

To date I can’t find any other place laying claim to Corporal Herbert Joseph Field, so the balance of probability at the moment are that the H J Fields and he are the same man.

 

Among the hundreds of thousands of Allied troops sent to Gallipoli were two battalions of the Royal Norfolk Regiment, the 1/4th and the 1/5th (Territorial).

 

The Norfolks left Liverpool aboard the SS Aquitainia on 29 July and arrived at Suvla Bay in Gallipoli on 10 August 1915. Just two days later the 1/5th battalion were ordered to clear Turkish positions on the Anafarta Plain prior to the Allied advance. Their sister battalion, the 1/4th waited in reserve and were not involved in the events that followed. The outcome was typical of the poor planning which characterized the whole campaign. The attack was to be made in broad daylight without adequate maps against the well-prepared Turks, who were firmly dug in along a ridge of hills overlooking the bay. The enemy were armed with machine guns and supported by dozens of snipers, many of them teenage girls, camouflaged and hidden in trees. The Norfolk battalion was made up of 16 officers and 250 men and was led by a veteran of the campaign in the Sudan, Lieutenant-Colonel Sir Horace Proctor-Beauchamp. As they left their positions, the 1/5th battalion were joined by hundreds of other British soldiers from battalions of the Suffolk and Hampshire regiments.

The attack quickly turned into a massacre. For some reason during the advance the Norfolks turned slightly to the right, opening up a gap between them and the other British troops from whom they had become separated. As the exhausted Norfolks fixed bayonets and prepared to charge the Turkish positions on the Kavak Tepe ridge they were picked off by snipers and mown down by machine gun fire. Lt-Col Beauchamp was last seen leading his doomed men into a burning forest from which they never emerged. As night fell the few survivors, wounded and exhausted, began to filter back to the British positions at Suvla Bay. The battalion War Diary held at the National Archives records the following under the date 12 August 1915:

"163rd Brigade made a frontal attack on strong Turkish position. 5th Norfolks on right met a strong opposition and suffered heavily. Lost 22 officers and about 350 men. Held our lines during the night in spite of heavy enemy fire."

 

In December 1915, as the Allies prepared to abandon the campaign, the Commander in Chief of the British forces, Sir Ian Hamilton, sent his "final dispatch from the Dardanelles" to the Secretary of State for War, Lord Kitchener. In it, he accounted for the loss of the Norfolks in the following way. I have underlined the words that seem to emphasize the inexplicable nature of the incident:

"in the course of the fight, there happened a very mysterious thing. Against the yielding forces of the enemy Colonel Sir H. Beauchamp, a bold, self-confident officer, eagerly pressed forward, followed by the best part of the battalion. The fighting grew hotter [and] at this stage many men were wounded or grew exhausted but the Colonel, with 16 officers and 250 men kept pushing forward, driving the enemy before him, nothing more was seen or heard of any of them. They charged into the forest and were lost to sight or sound. Not one of them ever came back"

Hamilton's account must have been based upon reports from British officers who had watched from a distance as the disaster unfolded. One of these was a brigade major, Lt-Col Villiers Stuart, who watched the Norfolk's attack through field glasses. He wrote

"On the evening of 12 August 1915 I was observing the low ground in the neighbourhood of Anafarta Ova, [at] a distance of about 2000 to 2500 yards, when, to my surprise I saw what appeared to be about a battalion of our troops advancing rapidly, and apparently unsupported towards the enemy positions on Kvak Tepe. Knowing that there was a considerable concentration of Turks in a gully, on the left flank of the advance, I anticipated trouble and got the two mountain guns, ready for action to try to protect the left flank of the advancing troops. Almost immediately the Turks debouched from their cover and attacked our men in the flank and rear. It was soon too dark to see the issue of the fight, but at the time I was afraid they would be destroyed."

The actual fate of the battalion was discovered in 1919 at the end of the war when the Commonwealth War Graves Commission began searching the battlefields at Gallipoli for the remains of soldiers. There an investigator discovered a cap badge belonging to a soldier of the Norfolk regiment hidden in sand 800 yards behind the Turkish lines at Suvla Bay. This led the commanding officer to write home triumphantly: "We have found the 5th Norfolks." When this news reached the War Office they sent a chaplain who had served during the campaign back to Gallipoli to investigate. The Rev Charles Pierrepoint Edwards examined the area where the cap badge had been uncovered and found a mass grave containing 180 bodies, from which the remains of 122 were identified as members of the "Vanished Battalion." The remains included those of their commanding officer, Lt-Col Beuchamp, who was identified by the distinctive shoulder flashes on his uniform. Of the 266 officers and men reported as missing, 144 remained unaccounted for, but a number of these had been captured and some had subsequently died in the notorious Turkish prison camps. A few had survived captivity to describe what had really happened, but their stories did not emerge until half a century later.

In his book The Vanished Battalion (1991) McCrery revealed new evidence that explained why the full facts discovered by the clergyman who visited the mass grave were not revealed in 1919. He found there was evidence of an official cover-up but this was not to hide evidence of an extraterrestrial kidnapping. In this case it was to conceal evidence of both a military blunder and a war crime. For it emerged that of the bodies discovered that many had been shot through the head as the Turkish soldiers did not like to take prisoners of war. His evidence was backed up by the story of a British survivor of the massacre, who testified before his death in 1969 that he had seen Turkish soldiers bayoneting wounded and helpless prisoners and shooting others in the wood where the battalion disappeared. The survivor escaped only because of the intervention of a German officer who saved his life and he spent the remainder of the war in a prison camp.

It appears that the Rev Charles Pierrepoint Edwards concealed this disturbing evidence in his report to the War Office so as to spare the feelings of the families and the King, who continued to believe their loved ones died gallantly in battle with the enemy. Furthermore, McCrery points out that Sir Ian Hamilton - the Allied commander responsible for the campaign - had an personal interest in making the disappearance of the battalion appear more mysterious than it actually was. His dispatch to Kitchener suggested the disappearance of the battalion was inexplicable. During the campaign the King personally telegraphed Hamilton asking about the fate of Captain Beck and his Sandringham company. McCrery asks:

"What was he to say? 'Sorry, but I've just sacrificed them all quite needlessly in yet another botched attack?' His best course of action, I believe, was to create an air of mystery and thereby stop any form of enquiry into their loss or his leadership."

Shortly after the disaster at Gallipoli Hamilton was relieved of his command and never offered another. In the years that followed, the story he had set loose would become transformed into a fully-fledged legend of the war and a UFO mystery that simply would not die.

This article was oringally published in UFO Magazine (UK) 2004

www.drdavidclarke.co.uk/vanbat.htm

 

Forkes A B

 

Name: FORKES Initials: A B

Rank: Trooper

Regiment: Household Battalion

Date of Death: 11/04/1917

Service No: 1439

Grave/Memorial Reference: G. 11. Cemetery: ATHIES COMMUNAL CEMETERY EXTENSION

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=256890

 

(The Great War Roll of Honour identifies this soldier as Trooper Albert B Forkes)

 

Athies was captured by the 9th (Scottish) Division, which included the South African Brigade, on 9 April 1917, and from then it remained in Allied hands. ATHIES COMMUNAL CEMETERY contains one Commonwealth burial of the First World War. The adjoining COMMUNAL CEMETERY EXTENSION was begun immediately after the capture of the village and used by field ambulances and fighting units until May 1918, and again in September 1918.

www.cwgc.org/search/cemetery_details.aspx?cemetery=25201&...

 

Norlink has a Trooper Albert Bertie Forkes of the 2nd Life Guards, but the accompanying notes read:

 

Trooper Forkes was born 6th September 1886 and educated at Wymondham Council school. He enlisted on 23rd October 1916. He died from wounds received in action in France, 11th April 1917

norlink.norfolk.gov.uk/02_Catalogue/02_013_PictureTitleIn...

 

The only Albert Forkes listed on the Genes Re-united Transcription of the 1901 Census for England & Wales is a 14 year old Albert, born Wymondham, and recorded at Queens Street, Wymondham. Albert appears on the Wymondham Memorial.

www.flickr.com/photos/43688219@N00/2945548176/

 

My notes from the research done on that memorial are:-

At the time of the 1901 Census, Albert, a 14 year old Boot Shop Assistant, was living at Queens Street, Wymondham in the household of his parents, William, (aged 58, a boot maker), and Rhoda Forkes, (aged 54). Also in the household were siblings Earnest Forkes, (age 16, a Grocers assistant), Fred, (aged 12) and William, (aged 18 and a Brush Factory hand)

 

The Scarpe, Arras, Fampoux and Roeux (8th April to 14th May 1917)

The misfortunes of Britain's allies in 1917 dictated circumstances in which three major battles, Arras, 3rd Ypres and Cambrai, were planned and fought. The Household Battalion was involved to the hilt in all three. The French commander Nivelle was replaced by Marshals Foch and Petain in Spring 1917 after part of the French army mutinied. Field Marshall Sir Douglas Haig launched the Arras offensive on Easter Monday 1917 to draw German attention away from the disaster which had overtaken the French army, further South. As a cavalry officer, he saw the mission of cavalry as the exploitation of the eventual break through in the trench war stalemate and put the 3rd Cavalry Division into the attack on the Hindenhurg Line at Monchy le Preux on Easter Monday, 9th April 1917. There was a general advance of the infantry north and south of the 45 foot wide, 6 foot deep Scarpe River flowing east to west through Arras. North of the Scarpe, the Household Battalion, as part of the 10th Brigade in the 4th Infantry Division were allotted the task of advancing along the swampy banks of the muddy little river on the hamlet of Fampoux, (formerly pop. 1,015 but now flattened and enemy held).

While their brothers of The 1st and 2nd Life Guards and Blues rode against barbed wire and machine guns with the 3rd Cavalry Division to Monchy, The Household Battalion stalked towards Fampoux with rifles and bayonets in the sleet. With them were the Warwicks, Seaforth and Royal Irish Fusiliers. It took the Brigade 11 days to take Fampoux and The Household Battalion lost 9 Officers and 166 non Commissioned Officers and Men killed in action. Ahead was the smaller but even more formidable German defence at Roeux at a bend in the river, one mile from Fampoux and 6,000 yards from the Hindenhurg Line itself.

www.maxwall.co.uk/army/history.htm

 

On the 1911 census, the 24 year old Albert Bertie is still recorded in the District of Forehoe, Norfolk, which covers Wymondham.

 

Griffiths L

 

Possible

Name: GRIFFITHS, LEWIS HERBERT

Rank: Second Lieutenant

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment

Unit Text: 12th (Norfolk Yeo.) Bn.

Age: 21

Date of Death: 11/09/1918

Additional information: Son of Herbert James and Eva Griffiths, of 72, Caernarvon Rd., Norwich.

Grave/Memorial Reference: VIII. O. 9. Cemetery: STRAND MILITARY CEMETERY

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=165177

 

No match on Norlink

 

'Charing Cross' was the name given by the troops to a point at the end of a trench called the Strand, which led into Ploegsteert Wood. In October 1914, two burials were made at this place, close to an Advanced Dressing Station, The cemetery was not used between October 1914 and April 1917, but in April-July 1917 Plots I to VI were completed. Plots VII to X were made after the Armistice, when graves were brought in from some small cemeteries and from the battlefields lying mainly between Wytschaete and Armentieres. The cemetery was in German hands for a few months in 1918, but was very little used by them.

 

The History of the Cemetery on the CWGC site lists a number of the small cemeteries that were concentrated into The Strand Military Cemetery, but only one contained the graves of those who fell in 1918.

 

LA BASSE-VILLE GERMAN CEMETERY, WARNETON (West Flanders), on the road from La Basse-Ville to Warneton, contained the graves of 68 soldiers from the United Kingdom and one from South Africa who died in German hands, April-August, 1918.

www.cwgc.org/search/cemetery_details.aspx?cemetery=16400&...

 

Its unlikely that captured troops , especially an officer, would be retained near the front line for any length of time, so its likely that the bodies buried would either have fallen while fighting and had not been recovered by their own side, or had succumbed to wounds encurred shortly before and had been taken prisoner.

 

While the War Diary of the 12th Norfolks shows them as being in the front line from the night of the 8th/9th September and were actively patrolling by day and night (“and mush useful information about the enemy was obtained”) until relieved on the night of the 13th /14th there is no mention of any casualties.

 

The 4 year old Lewis, (born Norwich), is recorded on the 1901 census at 63 Wellington Road in the Parish of St Thomas. This is the household of his parents, Herbert, (aged 33 and a “Setter out of Joinery” from Norwich), and Eva, (aged 28 and from Norwich).

 

Harris C T

 

Name: HARRIS Initials: C T

Rank: Company Quartermaster Serjeant

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment

Unit Text: 2nd Bn.

Age: 28

Date of Death: 30/09/1916

Service No: 6255

Additional information: Son of William and Emily Harris, of Norwich.

Dead Grave/Memorial Reference: XXI. W. 36. Cemetery: BAGHDAD (NORTH GATE) WAR CEMETERY

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=633722

 

No match on Norlink

 

The Great War Roll of Honour lists this man as Charles T. Harris, and his rank as Acting Sergeant.

 

The 13 year old Charles, (born Norwich), is recorded on the 1901 census at 150 Marlborough Road, in the parish of St James. This is the household of his parents, William, (aged 38 and a Brewers Servant from Norwich), and Emily, (aged 39 and from Norfolk). Their other children are:-

Alice………………aged 2.………….born Norwich

Arthur……………..aged 5.………….born Norwich

Elsie……………….aged u/1.……….born Norwich

Emily………………aged 18.………..born Norwich……Tailoress

Florence……………aged 17.……….born Norwich…….Tailoress

Gertrude……………aged 9.…………born Norwich

 

When war was declared Turkey decided to join in on the German side and this was to lead to three costly campaigns for the British, Gallipoli, Palestine and Mesopotamia. The first of these was the Mesopotamian campaign and it was launched in November 1914 from India. The Ottoman Turks at this time controlled much of the Middle East including modern day Israel, Syria, Jordan, Saudi Arabia and Iraq. The British intention was to come ashore in Mesopotamia (modern day Iraq) and to secure the oilfields around Basra before making any further exploitation. All the troops from this operation were drawn from India and 2nd Norfolks were one of these battalions. They were part of 6 (Indian ) Division that started to come ashore on the Faw peninsular on 6th November 1914. A division of the Indian army at this time was composed of both British and Indian personnel, the majority being Indian. Horace is recorded as having come ashore on 15th November after which the battalion was involved in several battles including the Occupation of Basra on 22nd November. From Basra the British pushed north along the Shat-al Arab waterway to Qurna which was at the confluence of the Tigris and Euphrates rivers and therefore a place of significant strategic importance. The British soldier found conditions in Mesopotamia very uncomfortable with searing heat, flies and, in the early stages, heavy rain that turned everything into a sea of mud. These conditions brought on sickness which, together with battle casualties, severely depleted some units.

With the Turks falling back everywhere the British commander decided to continue the advance in the hope of fomenting a general arab revolt against the Turks. The Norfolk’s division advanced along the Tigris and captured the towns of al Amara and Kut before pausing. All along the advance they had been getting further and further from their supply base at Basra and as they could only effectively be re-supplied by river their position in this respect became serious. However, with Baghdad as the prize Townsend, the British commander, decided to press on and they advanced along the river to a point some 25 miles from Baghdad at Cstesiphon where the Turks roundly beat the British and forced them to withdraw back to Kut. The Turks pursued them and besieged the town from 6th December 1915. Despite two costly relief efforts the garrison was forced to surrender on 29th April 1916, 146 days after they had withdrawn there.

 

The garrison of approximately 3000 British and 6000 Indians surrendered and began their long march into captivity in Turkey.

 

Many prisoners died on the long march north and the conditions at that time of year would have been unbearable and the Turks did not have a good humanitarian record toward prisoners.

www.oldbuckenham-pri.norfolk.procms.co.uk/pages/viewpage....

 

The following newspaper report appeared after letters were received from prisoners.

THE 2nd NORFOLKS PRISONERS OF WAR

To the Editor:

Dear Sir

May I correct one statement in the very interesting letter re 2nd Norfolk Regiment prisoners published in your paper to-day. The writer says that because Quartermaster-Sergeant Niblock had written from Affion Kara Hissar, probably the whole regiment are there. There are only 22 of the men at Affion Kara Hissar. This I have in a letter from an officer in that camp last week. As a matter of fact the men are scattered all over Asia Minor. So far we know the addresses of between 80 to 90 of them. These are at Bilemedix, Airan, Yarbachi Bagdadbaull, Yosgad, Castamouni, Tamara, Affion Kara Hissar and Brussa. By far the biggest number of these are at Yarbachi.

Yours faithfully,

Frances W. Burton

Secretary, Norfolk Regiment Prisoners of War Help Organisation.

www.stephen-stratford.co.uk/pte_wilby.htm

 

After the war ended. The War Graves Commission gathered the bodies of PoW’s from all over the region and re-interred them at the Baghdad North Gate Cemetery.

www.cwgc.org/search/cemetery_details.aspx?cemetery=57303&...

 

Holmes G H

 

Too many potential matches on CWGC

 

However Norlink has a Herbert Holmes of the 15th Royal Irish Rifles. There are no additional notes

norlink.norfolk.gov.uk/02_Catalogue/02_013_PictureTitleIn...

 

Name: HOLMES, HERBERT

Rank: Lance Corporal

Regiment: Royal Irish Rifles

Unit Text: 15th Bn.

Secondary Regiment: Norfolk Regiment Secondary Unit Text: formerly (5575)

Age: 21 Date of Death: 21/03/1918

Service No: 41421

Additional information: Son of Henry Alfred and Ann Holmes, of 82, Trafalgar St., Lakenham, Norwich.

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 74 to 76. Memorial: POZIERES MEMORIAL

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=1582798

 

No obvious G H Holmes with a Norwich connection on the 1901 census. Of the 6 GH Holmes listed on the CWGC database, only one can be ruled out on the grounds of the additional information.

 

If we look for details of Herbert on the 1901 census, we find him, aged 4 and born Norwich, recorded at 82 Trafalgar Steet, in the parish of St Marks, New Lakenham. This is the household of his parents, Henry A, (aged 34 and a Hairdresser from Norwich), and Ann, (aged 31 and from Norwich). Their other children are:-

Arthur…………..aged 8.………….born Norwich

Ernest R………..aged 1.………….born Norwich

 

On 21 March 1918, Second Lieutenant Edward de Wind of the 15th. Battalion, Royal Irish Rifles, who was from Ballycastle, County Down, was awarded the Victoria Cross for holding a strategically important post for 7 hours, repelling repeated attacks until he was killed

homepage.eircom.net/~tipperaryfame/ririfles.htm

 

It was during the First Battle of the Somme on 21 March 1918, at the Racecourse Redoubt, near Groagie, France, that for seven hours, Second Lieutenant De Wind held this important post and though twice wounded and practically single-handed, he maintained his position until another section could be sent to his help.

On two occasions, with two NCOs only, he got out on top under heavy machine-gun and rifle fire and cleared the enemy out of the trench, killing many of them. He continued to repel attack after attack until he was mortally wounded and collapsed.

www.army.mod.uk/infantry/regiments/6221.aspx

 

The 36th (Ulster) Division

Following the battles of the Somme, Messines and Cambrai the Ulster Division found itself badly under its established strength.

 

The Division's five kilometre front lent itself well to defence with a series of low ridges and valleys opposite St Quentin. On the first ridge behind the front line were three redoubts: Boadicea (on the left), Racecourse and Jeanne d'Arc. Behind them in the Battle Zone were three more: Ricardo, Quarry and Station.

Like all of the Divisions that had been moved into the area there was a lot more work to do than simply build redoubts and dig trenches. Roads and communications systems had to be prepared or improved; munitions depots established; everything was labour intensive and the manpower was in short supply.

On the opening day of the German offensive the Battle Zone trenches in some places were still only knee deep.

 

Racecourse Redoubt - 15th Royal Irish Rifles

At the village of Grugies 2nd Lieutenant Edmund de Wind a former soldier in the Canadian Infantry commanded the small garrison at Racecourse Redoubt.

 

The Germans were pressing westwards and the redoubt soon came under severe pressure. De Wind and his men held their own until the early afternoon when finally de Wind was killed. His body was never found and he is commemorated on the Pozières Memorial.

De Wind would be awarded the Victoria Cross for his valour but only after the war had ended and witnesses came home from captivity. He is also commemorated in his home town of Comber in County Down, and by Mount de Wind in his adopted Alberta, Canada.

The London Gazette dated 13th May 1919

For most conspicuous bravery and self-sacrifice on the 21st March 1918, at the Race Course Redoubt, near Grugies. For seven hours he held this most important post, and though twice wounded and practically single-handed, he maintained his position until another section could be got to his help. On two occasions, with two NCOs only, he got out on top under heavy machine gun and rifle fire, and cleared the enemy out of the trench, killing many. He continued to repel attack after attack until he was mortally wounded and collapsed. His valour, self-sacrifice and example were of the highest order.

 

War Diary of the 15th Bn Royal Irish Rifles: 21/22nd March 1918

The diary now deals with the movements of the Battalion details which consisted of transport, personnel of quartermaster's stores, personnel left out of action, other ranks arriving back from leave, from courses and from hospital, together with a draft of 100 other ranks which arrived today. The battalion itself was gone, killed wounded and prisoners. Captain PM Miller MC commanded the little party.

www.webmatters.net/france/ww1_kaiser_05.htm

 

Hopkins L

 

No obvious match on the CWGC database

 

No match on Norlink

 

No obvious match for a L Hopkins on either the 1901 or 1911 census with a Norwich connection.

 

Howes P V

 

Only P V Howes on the CWGC database

 

Name: HOWES Initials: P V

Rank: Private

Regiment: Norfolk Regiment

Unit Text: 8th Bn.

Date of Death: 25/04/1918

Service No: 43231

Grave/Memorial Reference: VI. D. 8. Cemetery: BOUCHOIR NEW BRITISH CEMETERY

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=308517

 

No match on Norlink

 

The Great War Roll of Honour lists this soldier as Percy V.

 

Three possibles on the 1901 census, all of whom have no middle initial \ name on the 1911 census.

Percy, (aged 3) born Norwich, at 8 Lewis Street, Parish St John the Baptist & All Saints, parents James & Susannah

Percy R, (aged 4) born Norwich, at 58 Grant Street, Parish St Bartholomew, parents William & Mary

Percy, (aged 8), born Norwich, at near Holt Road, Hellesdon, parents Harry & Riobina (??)

 

Bouchoir New British Cemetery

 

The village of Bouchoir passed into German hands on 27 March 1918 but was recovered by the 8th Canadian Infantry Brigade on 9 August 1918. The New British Cemetery was made after the Armistice when graves were brought there from several small Commonwealth cemeteries and from the battlefields round Bouchoir and south of the village. Almost all date from March, April or August 1918

www.cwgc.org/search/cemetery_details.aspx?cemetery=31900&...

 

The 8th Battalion had officially ceased to exist by the time of the German Spring Ofensive, with men from the Battalion being allocated to either the 7th or 9th . However, as this only preceded the first phase of the German Spring offensive by a few weeks, its is perhaps not surprising that the official paperwork hadn’t caught up by the time of the second phase, when decimated British & Commonwealth units from the earlier attack were moved into a “quiet” sector, only to find it was the very place planned for the next German assault.

 

In one memoir there is talk of ex-8th Battalion men turning up as replacements for the London Regiment Battalion at the height of the second German offensive.

hastang.co.uk/pdf/Scouting%20on%20the%20Somme.pdf

 

Martin F

 

Too many without further information

 

No match on Norlink

Possibles from the 1901 Census

Frederick, (aged 4) born Norwich, at St Benedicts Back Lane, Parish of St Benedict, parents Benjamin & Laura

Frederick, (aged 15 - Brushmaker), born Southrepps, at 155 Armes Street. Parish of St Bartholomew, parents - only mother Elizabeth listed.

Frank I (aged 23 Grocers Assistant) born Warley Essex at 53 Pembroke Road, parish of St Thomas, married to Gertrude, father of Amy.

 

Possible

Name: MARTIN Initials: F E

Rank: Corporal

Regiment: Royal Berkshire Regiment

Unit Text: Depot Bn.

Date of Death: 15/01/1919

Service No: 11513

Grave/Memorial Reference: 54. 178. Cemetery: NORWICH CEMETERY, Norfolk

CWGC www.cwgc.org/search/casualty_details.aspx?casualty=2803226

 

But 180 other possibles to a lesser degree.

 

Visit Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park!

 

Wheel Fun Rentals is a leading provider of fun and unique outdoor recreational vehicles including a complete fleet of bikes that can be enjoyed by single riders or an entire family. Our new fleet of Wheel Fun Rentals bikes – purchased this Spring – are extremely popular with visitors to Irvine Regional Park.

 

Bikes available to rent include the single surrey, deuce coupe, quad sport and chopper. Other bikes also available to rent include tandem bikes, cruiser bikes and kid’s bikes. And, we rent paddle boats too.

 

Children 18 years of age and younger are required to wear a helmet when riding a bike. Children under the age of 13 are required to wear a life jacket when riding a paddle boat. Both helmets and life jackets are provided at no additional cost and are available to any rider or passenger upon request.

 

For more information on these great bikes available for rent, and hours of operation, visit our Web site at www.irvineparkrailroad.com.

 

About Irvine Park Railroad:

Irvine Park Railroad is a one-third scale train that takes both children and adults on a scenic, 12-minute ride through beautiful and scenic Irvine Regional Park. The train ride, which is affordable fun for the entire family, is narrated by the engineer.

 

Other activities inside of the park include Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park paddle boat and bike rentals, the Orange County Zoo and pony rides. Two snack bars serve both hot and cold food.

 

Annual Irvine Park Railroad events include the Easter Eggstravaganza, Anniversary Celebration, Pumpkin Patch and Christmas Train.

 

Irvine Park Railroad has party pavilions and other locations available for rent. These locations are ideal for birthday parties, company picnics, corporate meetings and other special events. We also rent moon bounces for locations inside of Irvine Regional Park.

 

Irvine Regional Park is centrally-located in the foothills of Orange (Orange County). The nearest, major cross streets are Chapman Avenue at Jamboree Boulevard.

 

Find Irvine Park Railroad on Facebook and Twitter (irvineparkrr).

The Princess Alexandra Statue, located in the Jack Shiel Gardens in the north eastern country town of Alexandra, is the work of English sculptor Charles Summers (1825 – 1878). The Princess Alexandra Statue is made of white Italian marble, and was completed in Rome as part of a commission for Sir William J. Clarke (1831 – 1897) in 1876. Sir William commissioned him to sculpt four large statues in marble of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and the then Prince and Princess of Wales (later Edward VII and Queen Alexandra) for presentation to the Melbourne art gallery. These were completed in 1878. Soon afterwards Charles Summers while on his way to England was taken seriously ill, and died after an operation for acute goitre in Paris. The Princess Alexandra Statue was his last sculpture.

 

Originally located in the grounds of the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, the statue was relocated to Alexandra in 1939 where it was installed in the pretty Jack Shiel Gardens where she is surrounded by beds of roses, her favourite flower. In 1994 the statue was unveiled under a new colonnade, which was financed under the Centennial Awards.

 

Charles Summer was a regular exhibitor at Royal Academy exhibitions; more than 40 of his works were shown between 1849 and 1876. He was a competent sculptor who also created the figures on the ceiling of the council chamber of Melbourne’s Parliament House, a frieze of putti on the old Bank of New South Wales building (now located at Melbourne University) and the recumbent figure of Lady Macleay in Surrey. However it is the memorial to the explorers Burke and Wills on the corner of Collins and Swanston Streets in Melbourne’s heart that he is best known for.

 

Born in 1845, Princess Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia was a Princess of Denmark; one of five sisters (two of whom would also became Queens of Norway and Russia). A beautiful and slender lady with perfect complexion and lovely mannerisms as befitting a queen, Alexandra was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (1841 – 1910) the heir apparent of Queen Victoria when the Danish princess was just sixteen. They married eighteen months later in 1863 in the St George Chapel, Windsor Castle, the same year her father became Christian IX of Denmark and her brother, George, was appointed King of Greece. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has ever held that title, and became generally popular; her style of dress and bearing were copied by fashion-conscious women. On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became King-Emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as Queen-Empress Consort. From Edward's death in 1910 until her own death, she was the Queen Mother. She died of a heart attack just before her 80th birthday in 1925 and was buried in an elaborate tomb next to her husband in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

 

Alexandra is a town in Victoria, Australia. It is located at the junction of the Goulburn Valley Highway (B340) and Maroondah Highway (B360), 26 kilometres west of Eildon. The town was settled in the late 1860s, with a Post Office opening on 15 March 1867 (known until 24 April 1867) as Redgate. The town was originally known as Redgate, or Red Gate Diggings. The current name either derives from Alexandra of Denmark (Queen’s Consort to King Edward VII of England) when given a stature of her to the shire; or from three men named Alexander (Alesander, McGregor, Alexander Don, and Alexander Luckie) who discovered gold in the area in 1866. Charles Jones born Herefordshire also discovered Gold on the Luckie Mine in 1866. He bought a Hotel with John Henry Osborne and was the proprietor of the New York and London Hotel Grant Street Alexandra. The railway to Alexandra arrived in the town via Yea from Tallarook in 1909, and closed on November 18, 1978. The Rubicon Tramway connected Alexandra with the village of Rubicon, at the junction of the Rubicon and Royston Rivers. Today many tourists pass through Alexandra on their way to the Mount Buller ski resort from Melbourne. The town contains the Timber Tramway and Museum (located at the Alexandra Railway Station), and the National Trust classified post office and law courts. There is a local market on the second Saturday of each month from September to May, an annual art show at Easter, an agricultural show and rose festival in November, and the annual Truck, Rod and Ute Show in June.

  

The Princess Alexandra Statue, located in the Jack Shiel Gardens in the north eastern country town of Alexandra, is the work of English sculptor Charles Summers (1825 – 1878). The Princess Alexandra Statue is made of white Italian marble, and was completed in Rome as part of a commission for Sir William J. Clarke (1831 – 1897) in 1876. Sir William commissioned him to sculpt four large statues in marble of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and the then Prince and Princess of Wales (later Edward VII and Queen Alexandra) for presentation to the Melbourne art gallery. These were completed in 1878. Soon afterwards Charles Summers while on his way to England was taken seriously ill, and died after an operation for acute goitre in Paris. The Princess Alexandra Statue was his last sculpture.

 

Originally located in the grounds of the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, the statue was relocated to Alexandra in 1939 where it was installed in the pretty Jack Shiel Gardens where she is surrounded by beds of roses, her favourite flower. In 1994 the statue was unveiled under a new colonnade, which was financed under the Centennial Awards.

 

Charles Summer was a regular exhibitor at Royal Academy exhibitions; more than 40 of his works were shown between 1849 and 1876. He was a competent sculptor who also created the figures on the ceiling of the council chamber of Melbourne’s Parliament House, a frieze of putti on the old Bank of New South Wales building (now located at Melbourne University) and the recumbent figure of Lady Macleay in Surrey. However it is the memorial to the explorers Burke and Wills on the corner of Collins and Swanston Streets in Melbourne’s heart that he is best known for.

 

Born in 1845, Princess Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia was a Princess of Denmark; one of five sisters (two of whom would also became Queens of Norway and Russia). A beautiful and slender lady with perfect complexion and lovely mannerisms as befitting a queen, Alexandra was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (1841 – 1910) the heir apparent of Queen Victoria when the Danish princess was just sixteen. They married eighteen months later in 1863 in the St George Chapel, Windsor Castle, the same year her father became Christian IX of Denmark and her brother, George, was appointed King of Greece. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has ever held that title, and became generally popular; her style of dress and bearing were copied by fashion-conscious women. On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became King-Emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as Queen-Empress Consort. From Edward's death in 1910 until her own death, she was the Queen Mother. She died of a heart attack just before her 80th birthday in 1925 and was buried in an elaborate tomb next to her husband in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

 

Alexandra is a town in Victoria, Australia. It is located at the junction of the Goulburn Valley Highway (B340) and Maroondah Highway (B360), 26 kilometres west of Eildon. The town was settled in the late 1860s, with a Post Office opening on 15 March 1867 (known until 24 April 1867) as Redgate. The town was originally known as Redgate, or Red Gate Diggings. The current name either derives from Alexandra of Denmark (Queen’s Consort to King Edward VII of England) when given a stature of her to the shire; or from three men named Alexander (Alesander, McGregor, Alexander Don, and Alexander Luckie) who discovered gold in the area in 1866. Charles Jones born Herefordshire also discovered Gold on the Luckie Mine in 1866. He bought a Hotel with John Henry Osborne and was the proprietor of the New York and London Hotel Grant Street Alexandra. The railway to Alexandra arrived in the town via Yea from Tallarook in 1909, and closed on November 18, 1978. The Rubicon Tramway connected Alexandra with the village of Rubicon, at the junction of the Rubicon and Royston Rivers. Today many tourists pass through Alexandra on their way to the Mount Buller ski resort from Melbourne. The town contains the Timber Tramway and Museum (located at the Alexandra Railway Station), and the National Trust classified post office and law courts. There is a local market on the second Saturday of each month from September to May, an annual art show at Easter, an agricultural show and rose festival in November, and the annual Truck, Rod and Ute Show in June.

  

The Princess Alexandra Statue, located in the Jack Shiel Gardens in the north eastern country town of Alexandra, is the work of English sculptor Charles Summers (1825 – 1878). The Princess Alexandra Statue is made of white Italian marble, and was completed in Rome as part of a commission for Sir William J. Clarke (1831 – 1897) in 1876. Sir William commissioned him to sculpt four large statues in marble of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and the then Prince and Princess of Wales (later Edward VII and Queen Alexandra) for presentation to the Melbourne art gallery. These were completed in 1878. Soon afterwards Charles Summers while on his way to England was taken seriously ill, and died after an operation for acute goitre in Paris. The Princess Alexandra Statue was his last sculpture.

 

Originally located in the grounds of the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, the statue was relocated to Alexandra in 1939 where it was installed in the pretty Jack Shiel Gardens where she is surrounded by beds of roses, her favourite flower. In 1994 the statue was unveiled under a new colonnade, which was financed under the Centennial Awards.

 

Charles Summer was a regular exhibitor at Royal Academy exhibitions; more than 40 of his works were shown between 1849 and 1876. He was a competent sculptor who also created the figures on the ceiling of the council chamber of Melbourne’s Parliament House, a frieze of putti on the old Bank of New South Wales building (now located at Melbourne University) and the recumbent figure of Lady Macleay in Surrey. However it is the memorial to the explorers Burke and Wills on the corner of Collins and Swanston Streets in Melbourne’s heart that he is best known for.

 

Born in 1845, Princess Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia was a Princess of Denmark; one of five sisters (two of whom would also became Queens of Norway and Russia). A beautiful and slender lady with perfect complexion and lovely mannerisms as befitting a queen, Alexandra was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (1841 – 1910) the heir apparent of Queen Victoria when the Danish princess was just sixteen. They married eighteen months later in 1863 in the St George Chapel, Windsor Castle, the same year her father became Christian IX of Denmark and her brother, George, was appointed King of Greece. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has ever held that title, and became generally popular; her style of dress and bearing were copied by fashion-conscious women. On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became King-Emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as Queen-Empress Consort. From Edward's death in 1910 until her own death, she was the Queen Mother. She died of a heart attack just before her 80th birthday in 1925 and was buried in an elaborate tomb next to her husband in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

 

Alexandra is a town in Victoria, Australia. It is located at the junction of the Goulburn Valley Highway (B340) and Maroondah Highway (B360), 26 kilometres west of Eildon. The town was settled in the late 1860s, with a Post Office opening on 15 March 1867 (known until 24 April 1867) as Redgate. The town was originally known as Redgate, or Red Gate Diggings. The current name either derives from Alexandra of Denmark (Queen’s Consort to King Edward VII of England) when given a stature of her to the shire; or from three men named Alexander (Alesander, McGregor, Alexander Don, and Alexander Luckie) who discovered gold in the area in 1866. Charles Jones born Herefordshire also discovered Gold on the Luckie Mine in 1866. He bought a Hotel with John Henry Osborne and was the proprietor of the New York and London Hotel Grant Street Alexandra. The railway to Alexandra arrived in the town via Yea from Tallarook in 1909, and closed on November 18, 1978. The Rubicon Tramway connected Alexandra with the village of Rubicon, at the junction of the Rubicon and Royston Rivers. Today many tourists pass through Alexandra on their way to the Mount Buller ski resort from Melbourne. The town contains the Timber Tramway and Museum (located at the Alexandra Railway Station), and the National Trust classified post office and law courts. There is a local market on the second Saturday of each month from September to May, an annual art show at Easter, an agricultural show and rose festival in November, and the annual Truck, Rod and Ute Show in June.

  

The Princess Alexandra Statue, located in the Jack Shiel Gardens in the north eastern country town of Alexandra, is the work of English sculptor Charles Summers (1825 – 1878). The Princess Alexandra Statue is made of white Italian marble, and was completed in Rome as part of a commission for Sir William J. Clarke (1831 – 1897) in 1876. Sir William commissioned him to sculpt four large statues in marble of Queen Victoria, Prince Albert, and the then Prince and Princess of Wales (later Edward VII and Queen Alexandra) for presentation to the Melbourne art gallery. These were completed in 1878. Soon afterwards Charles Summers while on his way to England was taken seriously ill, and died after an operation for acute goitre in Paris. The Princess Alexandra Statue was his last sculpture.

 

Originally located in the grounds of the State Library of Victoria in Melbourne, the statue was relocated to Alexandra in 1939 where it was installed in the pretty Jack Shiel Gardens where she is surrounded by beds of roses, her favourite flower. In 1994 the statue was unveiled under a new colonnade, which was financed under the Centennial Awards.

 

Charles Summer was a regular exhibitor at Royal Academy exhibitions; more than 40 of his works were shown between 1849 and 1876. He was a competent sculptor who also created the figures on the ceiling of the council chamber of Melbourne’s Parliament House, a frieze of putti on the old Bank of New South Wales building (now located at Melbourne University) and the recumbent figure of Lady Macleay in Surrey. However it is the memorial to the explorers Burke and Wills on the corner of Collins and Swanston Streets in Melbourne’s heart that he is best known for.

 

Born in 1845, Princess Alexandra Caroline Marie Charlotte Louise Julia was a Princess of Denmark; one of five sisters (two of whom would also became Queens of Norway and Russia). A beautiful and slender lady with perfect complexion and lovely mannerisms as befitting a queen, Alexandra was chosen as the future wife of Albert Edward, Prince of Wales (1841 – 1910) the heir apparent of Queen Victoria when the Danish princess was just sixteen. They married eighteen months later in 1863 in the St George Chapel, Windsor Castle, the same year her father became Christian IX of Denmark and her brother, George, was appointed King of Greece. She was Princess of Wales from 1863 to 1901, the longest anyone has ever held that title, and became generally popular; her style of dress and bearing were copied by fashion-conscious women. On the death of Queen Victoria in 1901, Albert Edward became King-Emperor as Edward VII, with Alexandra as Queen-Empress Consort. From Edward's death in 1910 until her own death, she was the Queen Mother. She died of a heart attack just before her 80th birthday in 1925 and was buried in an elaborate tomb next to her husband in St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle.

 

Alexandra is a town in Victoria, Australia. It is located at the junction of the Goulburn Valley Highway (B340) and Maroondah Highway (B360), 26 kilometres west of Eildon. The town was settled in the late 1860s, with a Post Office opening on 15 March 1867 (known until 24 April 1867) as Redgate. The town was originally known as Redgate, or Red Gate Diggings. The current name either derives from Alexandra of Denmark (Queen’s Consort to King Edward VII of England) when given a stature of her to the shire; or from three men named Alexander (Alesander, McGregor, Alexander Don, and Alexander Luckie) who discovered gold in the area in 1866. Charles Jones born Herefordshire also discovered Gold on the Luckie Mine in 1866. He bought a Hotel with John Henry Osborne and was the proprietor of the New York and London Hotel Grant Street Alexandra. The railway to Alexandra arrived in the town via Yea from Tallarook in 1909, and closed on November 18, 1978. The Rubicon Tramway connected Alexandra with the village of Rubicon, at the junction of the Rubicon and Royston Rivers. Today many tourists pass through Alexandra on their way to the Mount Buller ski resort from Melbourne. The town contains the Timber Tramway and Museum (located at the Alexandra Railway Station), and the National Trust classified post office and law courts. There is a local market on the second Saturday of each month from September to May, an annual art show at Easter, an agricultural show and rose festival in November, and the annual Truck, Rod and Ute Show in June.

  

This canal runs from Basingstoke in Hampshire, South East England, through Surrey to London and was a major transport route in the late 19th and early 20th Centuries. Later it fell into disrepair until a volunteer society set to restoring it, with the help of both Hampshire and Surrey Country Councils, and the restoration was completed in the 1990s. It is now described as one of the most beautiful waterways in England (in its own blurb, I must admit!) and since it actually runs across the bottom of my parents' road it's a popular place to go for after-dinner walks, etc!

 

The view to the West from where we were. I must admit it's pretty nice even now at Easter, before the trees have got their leaves in!

Runnymede is a water-meadow alongside the River Thames in the English county of Surrey, and just over 20 miles (32 km) west of central London. It is notable for its association with the sealing of Magna Carta, and as a consequence is, with its adjoining hillside, the site of memorials. Runnymede Borough is named after the area, Runnymede being at its northernmost point.

 

Topography

 

The name Runnymede refers to land in public and National Trust ownership in the Thames flood plain south-west of the river between Old Windsor and Egham. The area includes (to the west of A308 road) the Long Mede and Runnymede, which together with Coopers Hill Slopes is managed by the National Trust. There is also a narrower strip of land, east of the road and west of the river, known as the Yard Mede. Slightly further downstream from the area shown on the map are (inter alia): a recreational area with a car park; a number of private homes; a large distribution centre; and an hotel.

 

The landscape of Runnymede is characterised as "Thames Basin Lowland", urban fringe. It is a gently undulating vale of small fields interspersed by woods, shaws, ponds, meadows, and heath. The National Trust area is a Site of Nature Conservation Interest (SNCI) which contains a Site of Special Scientific Interest. Both sites are overseen by Runnymede Borough Council.

 

The National Trust holding includes:

 

188 acres (0.76 km2) donated in 1929 set behind a narrow riverside park with occasional benches on the southern river bank, with car and coach parking;

110 acres (0.45 km2) of broadleaved woodland on Coopers Hill Slopes, given in 1963 by the former Egham Urban District Council.

Long Mede is a meadow north of the ancient "mede" (meadow) of Runnymede towards Old Windsor and has been used for centuries to provide good-quality hay from the alluvial pasture. Runnymede itself lies towards Egham. It is likely that Runnymede proper was the site of the sealing of Magna Carta, although the Magna Carta Memorial (see below) stands on Long Mede, and the event is also popularly associated with Magna Carta Island, on the opposite bank of the Thames.

 

Near the Island, on the north-east flood plain, in parkland on the eastern bank of the river, are Ankerwycke and the ruins of the 12th century Priory of St Mary's. The Thames has changed course here occasionally, and these areas may once have been an integral part of Runnymede. Both were acquired by the National Trust in 1998.

 

History

Runnymede's historical significance has been heavily influenced by its proximity to the Roman Road river crossing at nearby Staines-upon-Thames.

 

The name Runnymede may be derived from the Anglo-Saxon runieg (regular meeting) and mede (mead or meadow), describing a place in the meadows used to hold regular meetings. The Witan, Witenagemot or Council of the Anglo-Saxon Kings of the 7th to 11th centuries was held from time to time at Runnymede during the reign of Alfred the Great. The Council met usually in the open air. This political organ was transformed in succeeding years, influencing the creation of England's 13th century parliament.

 

The water-meadow at Runnymede is the most likely location at which, in 1215, King John sealed Magna Carta. The charter indicates Runnymede by name as "Ronimed. inter Windlesoram et Stanes" (between Windsor and Staines). Magna Carta had an impact on common and constitutional law as well as political representation also affecting the development of parliament.

 

Runnymede's association with ideals of democracy, limitation of power, equality and freedom under law has attracted placement there of monuments and commemorative symbols.

 

The last fatal duel in England took place in 1852, on Priest Hill, a continuation of Cooper's Hill by Windsor Great Park.

 

The National Trust land was donated in 1929 by Cara Rogers Broughton and her two sons. The American-born widow of Urban Hanlon Broughton, she was permitted by letter from George V to join her son's new peerage in tribute to her husband and this gift and be officially styled Lady Fairhaven. The gift was given in memory of Urban Broughton. At the time the New Bedford Standard-Times commented "It must be a source of gratification to all Americans, and especially to us here and in Fairhaven, that the presentation of this historic spot as public ground has been brought about by an American woman, an appropriate enough circumstance considering that the great charter underlies the USA's conception of government and human rights."

 

Features

 

Urban H. Broughton Memorials

After the death of Urban Broughton in 1929, Sir Edwin Lutyens was commissioned to design a set of twin memorials consisting of large kiosks and posts or "piers" with stone blocks crowned with laurel wreaths and formalised urns at the Egham end and with lodges and piers at the Windsor end. Lutyens also designed a low wide arch bridge to carry the main road over the Thames to the north, integrating the road layout and bridge design into his plans for the memorials. The southern kiosks were moved to their present location when the M25 motorway was constructed.

 

There are two octagonal kiosks with piers facing each other across the A308 towards Egham. These piers are a shorter version of those adjacent to the lodges either side of the same road towards Old Windsor in the Long Mede. The lodges show typical Lutyens design features with steeply angled roofs, large false chimneys and no rainwater gutters at the eaves.

 

The piers carry similar inscriptions. On one face is the inscription:

 

“ In these Meads on 15th June 1215 King John at the instance of Deputies from the whole community of the Realm granted the Great Charter the earliest of constitutional documents whereunder ancient and cherished customs were confirmed abuses redressed and the administration of justice facilitated new provisions formulated for the preservation of peace and every individual perpetually secured in the free enjoyment of his life and property. ”

and on the other the words:-

 

“ In perpetual memory of Urban Hanlon Broughton 1857 – 1929 of Park Close Englefield Green in the county of Surrey Sometime Member of Parliament These meadows of historic interest on 18th December 1929 were gladly offered to the Nation by his widow Cara Lady Fairhaven and his sons Huttleston Lord Fairhaven and Henry Broughton ”

The memorials were opened in 1932 by the Prince of Wales (Edward VIII) and are Grade II listed buildings.

 

Langham Pond SSSI

  

Langham Pond was created when the meandering River Thames formed an oxbow lake. Its status as a wetland Site of Special Scientific Interest (SSSI) was first notified in 1975 and later reviewed under Section 28 of the Wildlife and Countryside Act 1981 when the protected area was extended to 64 acres (260,000 m2) within Runnymede as managed by the National Trust.

 

The pond and associated meadow form a habitat considered unique in Southern England and of international importance for nature conservation. The flora and fauna include nationally scarce plants and insects including a species of fly unrecorded elsewhere in the United Kingdom.

 

Air Forces Memorial

The Air Forces Memorial commemorates the men and women of the Allied Air Forces who died during the Second World War and records the names of the 20,456 airmen who have no known grave.

 

From the top of the tower visitors can see long views over Windsor, the surrounding counties and aircraft taking off and landing at Heathrow. On a good day visitors can see as far as the Wembley Arch and even the Gherkin in the City of London. The memorial was designed by Sir Edward Maufe, architect of Guildford Cathedral.

 

John F. Kennedy Memorial

The British memorial for U.S. President John F. Kennedy was jointly dedicated in May 1965, by Queen Elizabeth II and Jacqueline Kennedy, prior to a reception for the Kennedy family at Windsor Castle. The memorial consists of a garden and Portland stone memorial tablet inscribed with the famous quote from his Inaugural Address:

 

“ Let every Nation know, whether it wishes us well or ill, that we shall pay any price, bear any burden, meet any hardship, support any friend or oppose any foe, in order to assure the survival and success of liberty. ”

Visitors reach the memorial by treading a steep path of irregular granite steps, intended to symbolise a pilgrimage. There are 50 steps in total. Each step is different from all others, with the entire flight made from 60,000 hand-cut granite setts.[10] Landscape architect Geoffrey Jellicoe designed the garden; sculptor Alan Collins designed and carved the stone inscription. The area of ground on which the memorial is situated was given as a gift to the United States of America by the people of Britain. (Though property ownership was transferred to the federal government of the United States, the area remains under the sovereignty of the United Kingdom.) It is maintained by the Kennedy Memorial Trust, which also sponsors educational scholarships for British students to attend university in the United States.

 

In 1968 the 7-ton stone was damaged by a bomb during a time of anti-Vietnam war demonstrations; it was later repaired by the sculptor.

 

Magna Carta Memorial

Situated in a grassed enclosure. on the lower slopes of Cooper's Hill, this memorial is of a domed classical style monopteros, containing a pillar of English granite on which is inscribed "To commemorate Magna Carta, symbol of Freedom Under Law". The memorial was created by the American Bar Association (ABA) to a design by Sir Edward Maufe R.A., and was unveiled on 18 July 1957 at a ceremony attended by American and English lawyers.

 

Since 1957 representatives of the ABA have visited and rededicated the Memorial, renewing pledges to the Great Charter. In 1971 and 1985 commemorative stones were placed on the Memorial plinth. In July 2000 the ABA came:

 

“ to celebrate Magna Carta, foundation of the rule of law for ages past and for the new millennium. ”

In 2007, on its 50th anniversary, the ABA again visited Runnymede. During its convention it installed as President Charles Rhyne, who devised Law Day, which in the USA represents an annual reaffirmation of faith in the forces of law for peace.

 

In 2008 floodlights were installed to light the memorial at night.

 

In 2015, in anticipation of the 800th anniversary of the sealing of Magna Carta, the two wooden benches at the memorial were replaced by stone benches. On 15 June, the anniversary day, the ABA, accompanied by US Attorney General Loretta Lynch, rededicated the memorial in a ceremony led by HRH The Princess Royal in the presence of Her Majesty the Queen and other members of the Royal family.

 

The Magna Carta Memorial is administered by the Magna Carta Trust, which is chaired by the Master of the Rolls.

 

Ceremonial Tree Plantings

The Duke of Kent together with David K. Diebold, a Minister-Counselor at the US Embassy in London, planted an oak tree adjacent to the Magna Carta Memorial in 1987, as did P. V. Narismha Rao, Prime Minister of the Republic of India. The Prime Minister left a plaque reading:

 

“ As a tribute to the historic Magna Carta, a source of inspiration throughout the world, and as an affirmation of the values of Freedom, Democracy and the Rule of Law which the People of India cherish and have enshrined in their Constitution. March 16, 1994 ”

In 1987 two further oak trees were planted near the Memorial. One, planted by Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II, marked National Tree Week. Another, planted by John O. Marsh, Secretary of the Army of the USA, has a plaque which reads:

 

“ This oak tree, planted with soil from Jamestown, Virginia, the first permanent English settlement in the New World, commemorates the bicentenary of the Constitution of the United States of America. It stands in acknowledgement that the ideals of liberty and justice embodied in the Constitution trace their lineage through institutions of English law to the Magna Carta, sealed at Runnymede on June 15th, 1215. ”

The Jurors

   

The Jurors artwork was commissioned by Surrey County Council and the National Trust to mark the 800th anniversary of the sealing of Magna Carta. The sculptor Hew Locke created 12 bronze chairs each of which is decorated with symbols of past and present struggles for freedom, equality and the rule of law. The artist / sculptor invites participants to sit, reflect upon and discuss the themes represented. In the image the back of the chair nearest the viewer is a representation of Nelson Mandela's prison cell on Robben Island, South Africa. The portrait seen of the further chair is of Lillie Lenton wearing insignia related to the imprisonment and activism of suffragettes.

 

The installation was inaugurated at Runnymede by Prince William during the Magna Carta 800th Anniversary celebrations.

 

Cooper's Hill House

A large house on Cooper's Hill, overlooking Runnymede and the River Thames, has played a number of roles – as the Royal Indian Engineering College; wartime Post Office headquarters; storage for the Statue of Eros during World War II; an emergency teacher training college; Shoreditch College – a centre for craft and handiwork education – and most recently, Brunel University's design school (has removed to Uxbridge Main Campus).

 

Ankerwycke Yew

The revered +1,400 year old Ankerwycke Yew, on the left bank of the river, is also a possible site where Magna Carta may have been sealed. The sacred tree could have been the location of the Witan council and influenced the founding of St Mary's Priory there. This religious site may well have been the preferred neutral meeting place of King John and the barons.

 

Land development proposals threatening the yew led to action resulting in the tree and surrounding estate passing into the protection of the National Trust in 1998.

 

Henry VIII is said to have met Anne Boleyn under the tree in the 1530s.

 

In 1992, botanist and environmental campaigner David Bellamy led a dedication at the yew, stating:

 

“ We the free people of the islands of Great Britain on the 777th anniversary of the signing of Magna Carta do:

Look back and give thanks for the benefits that the signings, sealing and swearing of oaths on that document handed down to us. Look forward to a new age of freedom through sustainability by granting the following rights to all the sons of plants and animals with which we share our islands and our planet.

 

There followed ten pledges to sustain all life forms.

 

Location and access

Runnymede is 20 miles (32 km) west by southwest of the centre of London. It is owned by the National Trust and is open 24 hours, seven days a week, at no charge.

 

Runnymede is accessed via the road or river towpath on foot or by bicycle, or by motor vehicle via the A308 road near Egham about 4 miles (6.4 km) southeast of Windsor. Two car parks (on the A308) adjoin the Windsor entrance (these may be closed in winter due to flooding etc.). Runnymede is also along the Thames Path National Trail. The nearest railway station is Egham. One of the Lutyens lodges at the Windsor entrance to the meadow houses a popular tea room.

 

The Anckerwycke area on the other bank of the river is accessible from the B376 between Wraysbury and Staines (nearest station Wraysbury).

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Runnymede

 

Title: Florists' review [microform]

Identifier: 5205536_17_1

Year: (s)

Authors:

Subjects: Floriculture

Publisher: Chicago : Florists' Pub. Co

Contributing Library: University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

Digitizing Sponsor: University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

  

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About This Book: Catalog Entry

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Text Appearing Before Image:

940 The Weekly Flonsts^ Review* Febhuauy 22, 1U06. nection it should be v.ntlersido'l lliat when a seed firm ine'sares i.p to the standard of the cannors' roqiirenieuts it means considerable oxp.insioi and it is hoped that the canners nill i)ropor- tionateJy expand. CATALCXiUES RECEIVED. [All catalogues nie filed by the Review and are aoresslble to the trade for reference at any time. Following are tho latest arrivals.] Harvey B. Snow, Camden, N. Y., Snow's Annual of Tested Seeds; The Livingston Seed Co., Columbus, O., seeds, plants and bulbs; Montgomery Ward & Co., Chicago, seeds; O. B. Stevens, Shenandoah, la., wholesale price-list of bulbs, plants, etc.; S. W. Pike, St. Charles, 111., wholesale price-list of rooted cuttings; Kellogg-Mackay-Cameron Co., Chicago, a brochure on vacuum heating fuel economy. NOTES FROM ENGLAND. The trade for cut bulb bloom has im- proved somewhat, good cut tulips mak- ing on an average 6 shillings per dozen bunches of twelve blooms. Tulips can be profitably forced at these figures, pro- ' vided no extravagant prices are given for the bulbs. Daffodils are holding their prices. Sicily outdoor daffodils and nar- cissi are arriving in large and daily in- creasing quantities and are making fairly good prices. An unusual feature of the markets this year has been Dutch spiraea in varieties in bloom in 5-inch and GVa-inch pots, nice bushy plants. Of course, the plants are from* retarded clumps. The line is somewhat of an experiment and I am afraid will not prove a financial success. The spirsea will be an expensive article to retard, taking up, as it does, too much space. The spiraea trade has of late years been so very bad that growers would probably have done better to have given it an absolute rest for a few years. Even at Easter the public is quite sick- ened of spira?a. Now that we are to have them practically all the year around they will be more than ever tired of them. Quotations of Lilium Harrisii, Ber- muda grown, are somewhat lower this year. I have a quotation before me which is about as low as has been for some years, but if Hairisii are to be grown at all in quantity in this country thoy will need to be still lower. The retarding of Lilium longifiorum has quite crippled the trade in Harrisii. I.»ongiflorum can now be had in bloom almost all the year round and first-class retarded bulbs can be had at £7 per 1,000 which is very aiiierent from the prices asked by Bermuda growers for Harrisii. Much, however, is still to be learned to make tho retarding process of Lilium longiflorum a certain success, although probable success depends more on tiie skill with which they are handled by the grower than by the retarding. In my travels lately I saw in the south of Lon- don four fine houses of longiflorums growing in 6^,4-inch and 8-inch pots and they were a perfect lot. The grower informed me the bulbs cost not more than £5 per 1,000. A few days later I came across three houses growing near Manchester which were a total failure. The bulbs were planted out in the green- house border and were miserable speci- mens, not more than eight to ten inches high, with hardly a good bloom and many had quite rotted away. The grower as- .serted the bulbs cost some £7 per 1,000 and were a magnificent sample when un- Dahlias Awarded 10 Gold Medals In 1008. 12 In 1004 and 12 in 1005.

 

Text Appearing After Image:

Awarded the Silver Medal by the International Jury at the St. Louis ExpoBition. POT ROOTS FOR SHIPMENT AT ONCE Every section, including the popular CACTUS, -_____^^.^—.^——i.^^—i^_^—^ Show, Fancy, Pompon and Single, at $6.00 per 100 in 25 sorts. Better and newer kinds at $8.00 and $9.00 per 100. These are post free terms. Note this when comparing prices. Terms oash wicii order. TEMPTING BARGAINS Those who prefer to have their goods through a forwarding ^_^___^.^_______^_ house instead of by parcels post can be supplied in every sectioD, including Cactus at $4.00, $5.00 and $6.00 per 100 in 25 sorts. 12 SEEDLING CACTUS DAHLIAS ah 1903 sorts and certificated by the Dahlia Societies ^____^^_^_^__^_^__^^^_^^_ in England: post free for $2.50: Charm, Comet, Dor- othy Vernon, Effective, P. M. Stredwick, Oracle, Mrs. D. Cornish, Mrs. H. L. Bronson, Mrs. J. W. Willcinson, Northern Star, Osprey and Yellow Gem. 1904 SEEDLING CACTUS DAHLIAS a rare opportunity; only a few to offer at $1.25 ___^_^_^^___^^^__^_^^—^^— each, post free in quantities of not less than 4 sorts. Harbor Light, Sybil Green, Edith Groom, Helen Stephens, J. B. Riding, Ella Kraemer, Fairy, Sir A. Lamb, Radium, Antelope, Nero. Alfred Morgan, Thos. Portier. Pearl, Tri- color and Sambo. One each of these 16 novelties post free for $16.00. Terms eash with order. HOBBIES LIMITED Nmr^K'NURSEJIiE. Dereham, Eng. Mention The Beylew when yon write. European Agency British agent for continental house Is open to act as agent in Europe for any good American seed exporting firm desirous of doing business with Europe, especially In seed peas and other vegetable seeds; also as agent for a California seed exporting firm, especially sweet peas. Can supply best of references. Firms desiring an agent in London and Europe kindly communi- cate with No. 69, care of the Florists' Review, Chicago. Mention The Review when you write. 1711 CIC ARAUCARIAS, PALMS. AlALlAO) BAT TREES Finest, cheapest and largest stock in Ghent. Do not fail to order at once. I shall not fail to fill ail orders with care and honesty. Ask for quotations and Wholesale Price List. Liboire Van Steenkiste, Bay Nurseries. GHENT, BELGIUM. Mention The Review when you write. Largest Grower of C A L A N T H U S ^^-o.,r.,.) CHIONODOXA and Miscellaneous Bulbs. Order now for July shipment. Price list on application. W. C. MOUNTAIN, Bulb Grower, CONSTANTINOPUC, TUBKEY. Mention The Review when you write. Wiboltt'sSnowball Cauliflower No.34 CkFFIl No. 34 is the ^■-■-■' best of all Snowballs. Demand it through your seed firms or direct from B. Wlboltt, Hakskov. Denmark Mention The Review when you write. packed. This grower was the most suc- cessful retarded lily of valley grower in the north of England. In retarded longiflorums it is certain a grower needs to iiuow his work thoroughly. J. B. Your paper is invaluable for both the seedsman and florist; we like it and here is a dollar for another year of it. —Jos. A. SCHINDLER & Cc, New Or- leans, La. The Eeview will send Herrington's Chrvsanthenuini Book on receipt of 50 cents. T he Royal Toltenham Nurseries Ltd.^lJrVi",^* Managing Director, A. M. C. VAN DER ELST. Dedemsvaart, Holland Headquarters for Hardy Perennials, araons which are the latest and choicest. 13 acres de- voted for srrowing this line, including Anemone, Aster, Campanula, Delphinium, Funkias, Hem- erocallis, Hepatica, Incarvillea, Iris, Peonies, Phlox decussata und suffruticosa. Primula, Pyrethrum, Tritoma, Hardy Heath, Hardy Ferns Also 6 acres of Daffodils, 12 acres of Conifers, specially young choice varieties to be grown on; 8 acres Rhododendrons, including the best Amer- ican and Alpine varieties; 2 acres Hydrangeas. We make it a point to grow ail the latest novel- ties in these lines. Ask for catalog. Mention The Review when yon write. BULBS! BULBS! Please ask for Wholesale Trade List K. VELTHUYS Hiilegom, Holland BULBS! BULBS! Mention The Review when yon write. DOG BRIARS *'"^ Apple Very , JULIUS HANSEN, per 1000 Seedling, $2.00 transplanted Stocks ^•^^■^'^ $5.00 per 1000. Very well rooted, strong plants. PINNEBERG, GERMANY Hardy Ornamental Trees* Selected Conifers and other well grown hardy plants, grown in large quantity for the American trade; also a good collection of Azaleas. Kalmla, Rhododendrons and other American plants, Roses, Clematis, Fruit Trees, etc. Large quantities shipped annually. Reference—Bassett & Washburn, Chicago. Catalogue on application. W. C. SLOCOCK, Wokiog, Surrey, England. Mention The Review when yon write. LABOEST STOCK OF AXiXi BELGIAN PLANTS! Asaleas, Araucarias, Sweet BaySt Palmst Beg^onias, Gloxinias, etc. LOUIS VAN HOUTTE PERE GHENT, Bel«:ium. T .l-L.^ .M--. M _

  

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Web Link to the last posting of this photo with comments received to date :

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Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16, UK (9-Parts Photo Set)

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01) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 3 April 2010 (Easter Saturday) - Beautiful Pussy Willow Catkin : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/4491522460/

 

02) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 5 April 2008 - Beautiful White Bells (Wood Hyacinth (Hyacinthoides Hispanica)) : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2009/5358825188/

 

03) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 30 March 2008 - Beautiful Blue Bells (Wood Hyacinth (Hyacinthoides Hispanica)) : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/2399175325/

 

04) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 12 February 2011 (2 of 3) - Beautiful & Delicate Lilac Woodland Crocus Flowers : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2011a/5675563318/

 

05) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 15 March 2010 (4 of 4) - Bright and Cheerful Golden Snow Crocus Flowers : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/4437255493/

 

06) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 3 April 2010 (Easter Saturday) - Blooming Lesser Celandine Flowers : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/4490858753/

 

07) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 9 April 2010 - Blooming Cherry Blossom Flowers : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2009/5358017233/

 

08) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 16 April 2010 - Beautiful Flowering Trees Glowing in Warm Early Morning Springtime Sun : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2009/5358003611/

 

09) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 18 April 2010 - Mr. & Mrs. Mallard taking an Early Morning Walk in Warm Springtime Sun : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2009/5358838870/

  

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Beautiful Springtime Crocus Flowers (13-Parts Photo Set)

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FREE information on "Crocus" : en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crocus

 

FREE information on "Crocus Chrysanthus (Snow Crocus)" : en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crocus_chrysanthus

 

FREE information on "Crocus Tommasinianus (Woodland Crocus)" : en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crocus_tommasinianus

 

FREE information on "Crocus Vernus" : en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crocus_vernus

  

01) Beautiful & Delicate "Lilac Woodland Crocus" of Springtime Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 @ 12 February 2011 (1 of 3) : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2009/5477917740/

 

02) Beautiful & Delicate "Lilac Woodland Crocus" of Springtime Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 @ 12 February 2011 (2 of 3) : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2011a/5675563318/

 

03) Beautiful & Delicate "Lilac Woodland Crocus" of Springtime Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 @ 17 February 2011 (3 of 3) : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/5459721113/

 

04) Beautiful White Crocus Vernus Flower Twins of Southwark Park, London SE16 @ 25 February 2011 : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2011a/5675580094/

 

05) Beautiful Lilac Crocus Vernus Flower Twins of Southwark Park, London SE16 @ 24 February 2011 (1 of 2) : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/5500909508/

 

06) Beautiful Lilac Crocus Vernus Flower Twins of Southwark Park, London SE16 @ 24 February 2011 (2 of 2) : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2008/5525328119/

 

07) Golden Heart of a Beautiful Purple Crocus Vernus of Southwark Park @ 24 February 2011 : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/5500481940/

 

08) Bright & Cheerful "Golden Snow Crocus" of Springtime Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 @ 15 March 2010 : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/4437255493/

 

09) A "Purple Crocus Vernus" among "White & Purple Striped Crocus Vernus" in Springtime Southwark Park @ 18 February 2011 : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2011a/5675008943/

 

10) Beautiful Lilac & White Crocus Vernus Flowers of Southwark Park, Rotherhithe, London SE16 @ 24 February 2011 : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2008/5525925550/

 

11) Beautiful Striped Lilac & White Crocus Vernus Flower of Southwark Park, Rotherhithe, London SE16 @ 24 February 2011 : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2008/5525341297/

 

12) Beautiful Lilac & White Crocus Vernus Flower of Southwark Park, Rotherhithe, London SE16 @ 24 February 2011 : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2008/5525355191/

 

13) Beautiful Lilac Crocus Vernus & Golden Snow Crocus Flowers of Southwark Park, London SE16 @ 24 February 2011 : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2008/5525358555/

   

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Offer of Further Information

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1) “The Importance of Trees in Southwark Life” by Kam Hong Leung on 14 May 2009 :

www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/3853306127/

 

2) Russia Dock Woodland - Winner of "Green Flag Award 2009-2010" : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/3913247478/

 

3) The Friends of Russia Dock Woodland - Winner of The 2009 London Tree and Woodland Award : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/4175568737/

 

4) Rebeka Clark (Stave Hill Ecology Park - Site Manager) - Southwark Woman of 2006 ("Active in the Community" Category) : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/2509913931/

 

5) BBC Breathing Places Editor's Compliments :

cid-810e9c86bbce804e.spaces.live.com/blog/cns!810E9C86BBC...

 

6) "Park Life in Surrey Quays", London SE16 - REACH Magazine @ May 2007 :

www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/2510789724/

 

7) "Rotherhithe’s Wild At Heart" - Southwark News @ 26 July 2007 (Page 15) :

www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/2518429045/

  

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Jut Leaving Elsecar on a footplate experience run.

 

Gervase" is a 0-4-0 Vertical Boiler Tank locomotive converted by the Sentinel Locomotive Company in 1928 from a conventional H Class design Manning Wardle Saddle Tank first delivered on 28th December, 1900.

 

When new the locomotive went immediately to the Merstham Grey Stone Lime Works south of Croydon in Surrey. After heavy usage there it was converted into a Sentinel locomotive. During 1940 to 1942 it was loaned the Dorking Lime Works and in 1949 was sold to the Standard Brick Sand Company of Redhill. On 14th June 1962 it went to the Kent and East Sussex Railway and then sold by the K&ESR Locomotive Trust to Resco Railways Ltd in 1979.

 

As opposed to the conventional steam locomotive transmission Sentinel locomotives have a boiler feeding steam to a vertical twin piston and cylinder engine arrangement, similar to a car engine but powered by steam, which powers a chain drive to the locomotive's driving wheels. The engine is capable of producing 100hp at 500rpm.

 

The locomotive was based at the Kent and East Sussex Railway where some boiler work was carried out but then went to the Elsecar Heritage Railway near Barnsley in 2008 where it has been undergoing restoration to working order. It came to David Wright's Locomotive Maintenance Services based at the GCR in September, 2012 for the completion of restoration. Work has involved attention to the horn guides and axleboxes.

 

The work was completed in mid March, 2013 and the locomotive has now run a series of successful trials.

 

Through the generosity of the owner, Mike Hart, the locomotive will operate barke van rides at Loughborough Central during Easter, 2013.

 

After running the inspection saloon to Leicester North for friends and families for those involved in its restoration the locomotive left the GCR on 6th April, 2013.