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1964 was a year of considerable change in Britain, with the abolition of hanging and a new economic confidence.

 

Culturally, Britannia was ruling the waves with The Beatles, The Kinks and The Rolling Stones topping the charts.

 

Ambitious plans were agreed with the French government for a Channel Tunnel to be built by the end of the decade.

 

It was a time of great change as Britain had finally shed its post-war austerity and looked forward with a new confidence and prosperity.

 

The year was one of major upheaval in British history. National Service had been abolished in 1960 but the final troops involved on their compulsory military tour of duty were not sent home until the end of December 1963.

 

Unlike their fathers and grandfathers, teenagers in 1964 were not facing the prospect of a European war and increasing living standards allowed them a disposable income.

 

The Labour leader, Harold Wilson, entered the 1964 campaign determined to end "13 wasted years" under the Tories.

 

The populist Wilson seemed to reflect the public mood for change. The Conservative leader, Sir Alec Douglas-Home, was widely perceived as a distant, awkward aristocrat. Nevertheless, Wilson won only a tiny majority; another election seemed imminent.

 

By the time of the 1964 general election, the Conservative Party had been in power for 13 years. Since Prime Minister Harold Macmillan's election victory in 1959, Conservative fortunes had plummeted.

 

The buoyant economy that led to Macmillan's election was faltering by 1961. The following year, in a bid to restore his popularity, Macmillan sacked seven members of his cabinet in a move dubbed the "Night of the Long Knives". It was a ploy that failed. The Government ran into further problems when Britain's application to join the Common Market was rejected by the French President, Charles de Gaulle.

 

Scandal added to the Government's woes when John Profumo, the Minister for War, was forced to resign after he admitted lying to Parliament over his involvement with the call girl, Christine Keeler. The Government looked tired, embattled and increasingly out of step with the public mood.

 

In 1964, an ailing socialist broadsheet, 'The Daily Herald', was re-launched as 'The Sun' and in 1968 the owners (Reed International) put it up for sale. Of the two bidders (the other being Labour MP, Robert Maxwell), Murdoch won with a bid for £800,000. In 1967 he had already purchased the 'News of the World'.

 

The new 'Sun' re-launched in 1969 and became a spicier version of 'The Mirror'. The very first issue carried a photo of the Rolling Stones with a naked female. Sex was to be the main ingredient of the paper. Soft porn came to fill almost every page together with lurid sex stories. Within 100 days, circulation had jumped from 850,000 to 1.5 million. By 1987 the paper was making £1 million a week These profits were pumped into BSkyB and Fox, subesquently turning them into the two biggest pillars of the Murdoch empire today.

 

What's on TV?

 

The Magic Roundabout, The Rolling Stones, The Beatles, My Fair Lady and The Pink Panther, Mary Poppins was there any other year in the fabulous 1960’s which produced so many entertainment trendsetters as 1964?

 

On TV for the first time, in the domestic comedy Bewitched, the nation was delighted to meet long-suffering Darrin and his

wife Samantha, the most attractive witch to ever ride a broomstick.

 

The Crossroads motel, which featured Brummie accents for the first time on TV, The Magic Roundabout opened its doors and Dougal, Zebedee and Florence delighted children and adults alike by taking us for a ride on The Magic Roundabout, one of the most successful children’s shows ever seen on TV.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=2zCGjSoZzkY

 

In January, Steptoe and Son, an unlikely comedy written by Ray Galton and Alan Simpson about a family rag and bone business, was declared Britain’s most popular TV show. With battling father and son wonderfully portrayed by Wilfred Bramble and Harry H.Corbett the show went on to become something of an institution. It was claimed that 26 million viewers in 9,653,000 homes had tuned in to the latest series.

 

Labour leader Harold Wilson secretly lobbied the BBC to change the time of popular comedy Steptoe and Son on the night of the 1964 election because he feared working class voters would stay at home and watch the show instead of supporting his candidates.

 

According to new archive footage held by the BBC, Mr Wilson went to the home of BBC Director General Sir Hugh Greene and told him the show could cost him 20 seats.

 

Mr Wilson was leader of the opposition and was seeking to oust the Conservative Prime Minister Alec Douglas Home. The Labour leader thought the planned repeat of the sit-com starring Harry H Corbett and Wilfrid Brambell would hit them badly.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=JPDgpkf27r8

 

Much excitement was caused when a new TV channel appeared in 1964 and BBC 2 was born. Play School, the first programme to be screened, took us through the window to meet Little Ted and Big Ted, plus kids all-time favourite presenter Johnny Ball, who grew up in Kingswood, Bristol.

 

A lighter, much more transportable TV set, with an 11-inch screen and weighing only 16 lbs, appeared in the shops in August. These sets received BOTH ITV and BBC services on special “rabbits ears” aerials. If you couldn’t afford a telly, and many couldn’t 60 years ago, you could hire one for six shillings and sixpence a week.

 

UK TV Adverts from 1964 Including: Kellogg's Corn Flakes, Dual Floor Polish, Goodyear G8 Tyres, Surf Washing Powder, BSM School Of Motoring, St Bruno Pipe Tobacco, Brolac Paint, Fairy Washing Up Liquid, Body Mist Deodorant and S & H Pink Stamps.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=dcKuOMVcqfI

 

Sport on TV

 

Sports fans weren’t forgotten. On the 22 August 22, they were treated to the voice of Kenneth Wolstenholme and the very first Match of the Day. A paltry 50,000 viewers tuned in to watch Liverpool beat Arsenal 3-2. But very often all the fans got were recorded highlights rather than live action. It didn’t transfer from minority channel BBC 2 to the mainstream BBC 1 until after the World Cup triumph of 1966.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=4ZGixE07jaU

 

1964 was, of course the year of the Tokyo Olympics. We won four gold medals. Mary Rand from Wells (who was also named BBC sports personality of the year) won the long jump, Anne Parker and Lynn Davies the 800 metres and Ken Mathews the 20km race walk.

 

Music

 

1964 was a golden year for pop music. The Rolling Stones, The Dave Clark Five, Liverpool’s The Swinging Blue Jeans, Manchester’s The Hollies and the late Dusty Springfield launched a BBC flagship Top of the Pops. Coming from its first home, a converted Manchester church.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=sUFFRd27YDw

 

The Beatles had by 1964 already toured the country to unbelievably hysterical scenes and were at their peak, scoring number one hits with Can’t buy me Love, A Hard Day’s Night and I Feel Fine. In February Beatle-mania gripped the US as the Fab Four took the place by storm, capturing the first five places in the singles charts as well as the top two positions in the album listings. In July, 10,000 screaming teenage fans thronged London’s West End as Princess Margaret arrived for the Premiere of their first film A Hard Day’s Night.

 

Even before Pan Am flight 101 touched down at JFK Airport in New York it was obvious that The Beatles had already conquered the American market. In January 'I want to hold your hand' sold half a million records in less than a fortnight, and is number one in the USA at the start of February.

 

A crowd of 3,000 screaming fans waits for the arrival of the Fab Four; the LP 'Meet the Beatles' hits number one at the end of January and stays there for almost three months; before they land music stations throughout the country are playing Beatles songs more than anybody else's, and after they land some stations play almost nothing else for days.

 

Once installed in their hotel in New York, The Plaza, the band is to all intents and purposes under siege by fans eager to see them, or seemingly to rip them limb from limb given the chance.

 

The highlight of the brief trip to the USA comes on February 9 , with their appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show. There are 728 seats available for the show; 50,000 apply for them. The Beatles play five songs, opening with 'All my Loving' and closing with 'I Want to Hold your Hand', with much screaming to accompany every note.

 

According to TV ratings company Nielsen their appearance on the show was seen by 73 million viewers. Beatlemania had arrived with a bang.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=Hlm7JyCHwcE

 

More than 300 people are injured in Liverpool when a crowd of some 150,000 people welcome The Beatles back to their home city.

 

The Beatles gain the Christmas number one for the second year running with I Feel Fine, which has topped the singles charts for the third week running. The Beatles have now had six number ones in the United Kingdom alone.

 

The Rolling Stones, founded by Cheltenham blues fanatic Brian Jones and fronted by the energetic, rubber lips, Mick Jagger, had their first top 10 hit with Not Fade Away.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=W-ycN9EOi8o

 

Talented songwriters, the Davies brothers, came up with the

Kinks’ first hit, You really Got Me, and a sensational young Scots lass with a husky voice called Lulu had a smash with that Isley Brothers favourite Shout.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=-2GmzyeeXnQ

 

For these young people, recently dubbed teenagers, Bob Dylan described the situation pretty accurately when he sang 'The Times They Are A-Changin', released in January 1964.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=abGzxWuLQP8

 

For those wanting to hear more pop music than was available via the BBC (which wasn’t much until Radio One came along)

 

Radio Caroline, the first pirate ship, began broadcasting from

international waters in March. It was legal, just, but the government didn’t like it. In May, the vessel was joined by Radio Atlanta.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=U8xvfBraulg

 

The United Kingdom held a national selection to choose the song that would go to the Eurovision Song Contest 1964. It was held on 7 February 1964 and presented by David Jacobs.

 

"I Love the Little Things" by Matt Monro won the national and went on to come 2nd in the contest.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=EX-ud8sm6Hg

 

Film-goers that memorable year were not disappointed. Sean Connery’s James Bond battled it out with Goldfinger, while Ian Fleming, James Bond’s creator, died of a heart attack in August aged just 56. The big romance of the year was the March marriage of glamorous movie stars Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=SSFE_xqL5Rk

 

UK News

 

In October the Labour Party, with canny pipe- smoking Yorkshireman Harold Wilson at the helm of a national economic plan, regained power after 13 years of Tory rule.

 

1964: 'Great Train Robbers' get 300 years

 

Some of the longest sentences in British criminal history have been imposed on men involved in the so-called "Great Train Robbery".

 

Sentences totalling 307 years were passed on 12 men who stole £2.6m in used bank notes after holding up the night mail train travelling from Glasgow to London last August.

 

The judge at Buckinghamshire Assizes in Aylesbury, Mr Justice Edmund Davies, said it would be "positively evil" if he showed leniency.

 

The robbery was the biggest-ever carried out in Britain.

 

Violent disturbances between Mods and Rockers at Clacton beach

 

Gang fights have gone on in Britain for centuries; but in the mid-1960s a tribal element arrived on the scene in the form of Mods and Rockers.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Rj-OHCusEI

 

Mods were cool: they wore Italian-style suits beneath badge-bedecked parkas; they had carefully coiffed hair; rode Lambretta and Vespa scooters; and listened to new bands like The Who and The Small Faces and ska greats like Prince Buster. Rockers were grungier: they wore leathers as befitted ton-up bikers; had long and often greasy hair; and were fans of Elvis, Buddy Holly and Gene Vincent.

 

The two tribes went to war first – at least in a large scale fight – in Clacton over Easter 1964. But the Whitsun weekend of May 18 and 19 saw things escalate hugely. There were battles in Broadstairs , Bournemouth , Hastings , Margate , Clacton again, and most notably in Brighton . Thousands from each side had gathered in theory for a seaside break that turned into turf battles: deckchairs were a weapon of convenience; flick-knives favoured by many Mods; bike-chains by Rockers.

 

As ever the poor police stood between the factions and had bottles thrown at them.

 

Middle Britain panicked into thinking civilisation was coming to an end. It didn’t; but hundreds of teenagers were fined, and some had short prison sentences for their part in the violence.

 

Moors murders: A missing persons investigation is launched in Fallowfield, Manchester, as police search for twelve-year-old Keith Bennett, who went missing on the previous evening.

 

Peter Anthony Allen, at Walton Prison in Liverpool, and Gwynne Owen Evans, at Strangeways Prison in Manchester, are hanged for the murder of John Alan West on 7 April, the last executions to take place in the British Isles.

 

On the local front, Avonmouth’s 1,500 dockers walked out on strike in January. The same month, the Lord Mayor of Bristol opened the first of five tower blocks to be built at Hartcliffe and in March Mr Marples announced the route of the M5 motorway through Gloucestershire and Somerset. In July, as the school holidays started, it was reported that there were 100 miles of traffic jams on the A38, then still the main route from the Midlands to the South-West.

 

1964 The Cost of Living

 

Television viewing

 

TV Rental for a 17 inch TV from Derwent’s of Park St. was six shillings and six pence (6s 6d) a week and for a giant 19 inch, nine shillings and seven pence. (9s 7d) At John James shops, the best deal in town, a set cost just four shillings if you rented it over three years. New TV’s were expensive in 1964. John James were offering a top 19 inch model with 625 lines for 68 guineas. Average wages at the time were anything from £10 to £15 a week. Having said that you could buy an ordinary model for a modest 29 Guineas. . '

 

Holidays

 

Package holidays had started to boom in 1964. Everybody was mad about them because it gave you the chance to fly for the first time and experience a ‘foreign’ holiday in the sun. "

 

Top Bristol travel agents Hourmont were offering 15 days away in Majorca for £41 -10s or the same time in Benidorn on the Costa Blanca for £43.00. At the cheaper end of the market LEP Travel could offer the same holiday for £29-18-0. Four days in Paris - flying from Lulsgate - would only set you back £19.00.

 

Housing

 

In 1964 you could buy a terraced Victorian house in Totterdown for £1 ,300 or an established house in leafy Westbury Park for about £5,000. Somewhere cosy in Eastville was about £2,000 and an ordinary three-bedroom semi about £3,000. But there were bargains to be had if you had money in the bank and a little foresight. An eight-room house in Clifton-wood, in need of renovation but overlooking the docks, was advertised for £800 — cash in hand only.

 

High street prices

 

A trip to a good hairdressers has always been expensive. In 1964 a perm could cost you 42 shillings, just over £2.00, while that fur trimmed coat from C&As would set you back seven guineas. '

 

Furnishing your house? You could bring home a modern Scandinavian three-piece suite forjust 32 guineas. lf, however, you were happy with an ordinary fireside chair, you’d get one from a department store for £8-10s-0d.

 

A state-of-the-art automatic washing machine, not a twin tub, cost a whopping £50.00.

 

A new baby? Horwoods in Old Market were selling top line prams for £17-19-6.

 

Transport

 

On the Roads in 1964 there were just a few sections of Motorway open but a big construction of the motorway system was underway seeing more sections opening each year.

 

Those actually open in 1964 were as follows:

 

M1 Junctions 5 to 18, M2 Junctions 2 to 5, M4 The Chiswick flyover (Junction 1) and Junctions 5 to 9, M5 Junctions 4 to 8, M6 Junctions 13 to 35, M20 Junctions 5 to 8 and the M45, M63 and M10 were complete.

 

Latest cars on the road in 1964 included the Vauxhall Viva and the Ford Anglia the Cortina also being a very popular car of the time.

 

The Forth Road Bridge was opened and in 1965 the Severn Bridge was opened.

 

If you were lucky enough to fly in 1964 you would of probably flown by BOAC ( British Overseas Airways Corporation ) or BEA (British European Airways ) and the VC 10 was the latest aeroplane.

 

Ford Anglias were all the rage in 1964. A second hand one cost £490.00. A new Mini would set you back about £448 and a popular Triumph Herald £515.

 

Announcement that American car manufacturer Chrysler is taking a substantial share in the British Rootes Group combine, which includes the Hillman, Singer and Sunbeam marques.

 

Daihatsu becomes the first Japanese car-maker to import passenger cars to the United Kingdom, launching its Compagno on the British market.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=VhSXNr4_hUA

 

Beer & Fags

 

Beer was between 1/6 and 2/0 a pint; a double whisky or other spirit was rather more. Indeed, in those days spirit drinkers usually kept out of rounds and bought their own.

 

Smoking was still extremely popular in 1964, nearly 70% of men and around 40% of women smoked. The most popular brand in the UK was "Embassy Filter".

 

One old shilling (1/0) was worth 5 new pence.

 

Government figures show that the average weekly wage is £16. £10 banknotes are issued for the first time since the Second World War.

 

Teen girls' magazine Jackie first published.

 

The final edition of the left-wing Daily Herald newspaper is published. The Sun newspaper goes into circulation, replacing the Daily Herald.

 

Sport

 

Fred Trueman – ‘Fiery Fred’ – was one of England’s greatest cricketers, becoming the first English bowler to take 300 test wickets when he dismissed Australian batsman Neil Hawke in the Oval test of 1964, Colin Cowdray taking the catch at slip.

 

Typically of his career he was coming back after having been dropped for the previous match (at Old Trafford ). This was doubtless partly as he was past his very best – though a mediocre Trueman was better than many subsequent England quicks at the top of their game - partly as he rarely found favour with the gentleman amateurs who still had a major say in the sport both at Yorkshire and in the England set-up.

 

Had he perish the thought been subservient he would probably have played another dozen tests or so.

 

There was little that was conventional about Fred Trueman , except perhaps his classically smooth bowling action.

 

Through his career he regularly managed to get on the wrong side of many blazer-bedecked committee types who ran cricket “In my day” as he would have said with his favourite post-career phrase. As a summariser on Test Match Special he continued to annoy some of the playing establishment, never one to water down deserved criticism, especially of lack of effort, thought or heart – “I don’t know what’s going off” his exasperated response to such moments.

 

Trueman was indefatigable, and achieved his 300 wickets by bending his back – not like some by bending his arm.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=aP9J5akyKTQ

 

Liverpool win the Football League First Division for the sixth time in their history.

 

West Ham United win the FA Cup for the first time in their history, beating Preston North End 3-2 at Wembley Stadium.

 

5 April 1964 - Tottenham captain Danny Blanchflower, 38, announced his retirement from playing.

 

8 April 1964 - Blackburn Rovers are announced as England's participant in the 1964 edition of the International Soccer League.

 

11 April 1964 – Scotland beat England 1–0 in the British Home Championship to leave the two level on four points in the final table. Northern Ireland subsequently defeated Wales to finish level on points with the other two, thus ensuring that the title was shared between three nations.

 

12 April 1964 – The Sunday People publishes allegations that lead to a betting scandal. It reported that Mansfield Town player Jimmy Gauld had, over several years, systematically engaged in match fixing, and that many other players were involved.

 

18 April 1964 – Liverpool beat Arsenal 5–0 at Anfield to secure the title. In their penultimate game of the season, Ipswich Town lose 3–1 to Blackburn Rovers, confirming their relegation two years after winning the League championship.

 

22 April 1964 – Leicester City win the League Cup – their first major trophy – with a 4–3 aggregate victory over Stoke City.

 

25 April 1964 – On the final day of the Second Division season, Leeds United win 2–0 at Charlton Athletic and Sunderland fail to beat Grimsby Town, meaning Leeds were crowned champions.

 

2 May 1964 – West Ham United beat Preston North End 3–2 at Wembley to win the FA Cup for the first time. Trailing 2–1 going into the final minutes of the match, West Ham scored two goals in as many minutes to the deny Preston.

 

Other News

 

All schools in Aberdeen are closed following 136 cases of typhoid being reported.

 

Terence Conran opens the first Habitat store on London's Fulham Road.

 

"Pirate" radio station Radio Sutch begins broadcasting from Shivering Sands Army Fort in the Thames Estuary.

 

Official opening of the UK's first undercover shopping centre, at the Bull Ring, Birmingham.

 

The Post Office Tower in London is completed, although it does not begin operation until October 1965.

 

Some 90% of British households now own a television, compared to around 25% in 1953 and 65% in 1959.

 

The first successful Minicomputer, Digital Equipment Corporation’s 12-bit PDP-8, is marketed.

 

Toy of the year: Mr Potato Head

 

1964 USA

 

1964 as the war in Vietnam and US Congress Authorizes war against N Vietnam more American servicemen were dying, and after three civil rights workers were murdered in Mississippi the president signed the Civil Rights act of 1964 but this did not stop the violence as it continued to increase in many American Cities.

 

Lyndon Johnson was also returned to power after a landslide victory. This was also the year The Beatles took the world and America by storm and Beatlemania went into overdrive as they released a series of number one hits including "I want to hold your hand" , "All my Loving" . Other British groups also found success including The Rolling Stones and The Animals and together with the American Talent of The Supremes and Bob Dylan many say this was one of the greatest years for music in the last century.

 

Also one young loud talented boxer by the name of Cassius Clay won the Boxing World heavyweight championship from Sonny Liston.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=N3PI95z_iMo

 

1964 World Headlines

 

13 Jan - Riots in Calcutta leave more than 100 dead

 

More than 100 people have been killed following Hindu-Muslim rioting in the Indian city of Calcutta.

 

06 Feb - Green light for Channel Tunnel

 

The British and French Governments have announced their commitment to build a tunnel under the English Channel.

 

07 Feb - Beatlemania arrives in the US

 

The four members of the British hit band, the Beatles, have arrived in New York at the start of their first tour of the United States.

 

12 Feb - Deaths follow Cyprus truce breach

 

Fighting between ethnic Turks and Greeks in the disputed island of Cyprus has left at least 16 people dead.

 

25 Feb - Cassius Clay crowned world champion

 

Cassius Clay, 22, has been crowned heavyweight champion of the world after beating Sonny Liston in one of the biggest upsets in boxing's history.

 

29 Feb - Royal baby for leap year day

 

The Queen's cousin, Princess Alexandra, has given birth to a son at her home in Surrey.

 

12 Mar - Hoffa faces eight years behind bars

 

The president of the powerful American Teamsters union has been sentenced to eight years in jail on bribery charges.

 

14 Mar - Jack Ruby sentenced to death

 

Jack Ruby has been sentenced to death after being found guilty of the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald, the alleged assassin of President John F Kennedy.

 

19 Mar - 'Ambitious' plans for south east

 

Three new cities are proposed for south east England as part of the largest regional expansion plan in Britain. The 'new towns' eventually created were Milton Keynes, Havant and Basingstoke.

 

16 Apr - 'Great Train Robbers' get 300 years

 

Some of the longest sentences in British criminal history have been imposed on men involved in the so-called "Great Train Robbery".

 

14 May - Nasser and Khrushchev divert the Nile

 

President Gamal Abdul Nasser of Egypt and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev have marked the first stage in the building of the Aswan High Dam.

 

27 May - Light goes out in India as Nehru dies

 

Jawaharlal Nehru, founder of modern India and its current prime minister, has died suddenly at the age of 74.

 

12 Jun - Nelson Mandela jailed for life

 

The leader of the anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa, Nelson Mandela, has been jailed for life for sabotage

 

17 Jun - Japan trade fair floats into London

 

The first purpose-built floating trade fair has docked at Tilbury in London with 22,000 samples of Japanese goods on board.

 

02 Jul - President Johnson signs Civil Rights Bill

 

The Civil Rights Bill - one of the most important piece of legislation in American history - has become law.

 

04 Aug - Three civil rights activists found dead

 

The bodies of three civil rights workers missing for six weeks have been found buried in a partially constructed dam near Philadelphia, Mississippi.

 

10 Aug - Guns fall silent in Cyprus

 

The United Nations has brokered another ceasefire in Cyprus, defusing the growing crisis between Greek and Turkish Cypriots and heading off the threat of invasion by Turkey.

 

04 Sep - Forth Road Bridge opened

 

The Queen has officially opened Europe's longest suspension bridge linking Edinburgh to Perth across the River Forth.

 

15 Sep - The Sun newspaper is born

 

The Sun newspaper is published today for the first time.

It is replacing the Mirror Group's Daily Herald, which has been losing readers and advertising revenue for several years.

 

28 Sep - Kennedy murder was 'no conspiracy'

 

There was no conspiracy surrounding the death of President Kennedy but there were serious failures by those responsible for his protection, according to a government report.

 

12 Oct - Labour voters are 'bonkers' says Hogg

 

A senior Conservative minister has stolen the show at the Conservative news conference by branding all Labour voters "bonkers".

 

Quintin Hogg, Lord President of the Council and Secretary for Education and Science, made his quip after mounting a stinging attack on Labour's policies.

 

15 Oct - Khrushchev 'retires' as head of USSR

 

Nikita Khrushchev has unexpectedly stepped down as leader of the Soviet Union.

 

25 Oct - President Kaunda takes power in Zambia

 

Zambia has become the ninth African state to gain independence from the British crown.

 

03 Nov - Election triumph for Lyndon B Johnson

 

Lyndon Baines Johnson has been elected president of the United States defeating hard-line Republican Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona by an overwhelming majority.

 

23 Dec - Beeching to leave British Railways

 

The chairman of the British Railways Board is to part company with the organisation and return to his post at Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI).

 

31 Dec - Campbell speeds to double record

 

Donald Campbell has broken the world water speed record, becoming the first man to break the world land and water speed records in the same year.

 

100 most popular hits in the UK singles music charts in 1964

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=Bx1982r049g

 

01 Jim Reeves - I Love You Because

02 Jim Reeves - I Won't Forget You

03 Roy Orbison - It's Over

04 Roy Orbison - Oh Pretty Woman

05 The Beatles - A Hard Day's Night

06 Cilla Black - You're My World

07 Cilla Black - Anyone Who Had A Heart

08 The Searchers - Needles And Pins

09 The Honeycombs - Have I The Right?

10 Manfred Mann - Do Wah Diddy Diddy

11 Herman's Hermits - I'm Into Something Good

12 Dave Clark Five - Glad All Over

13 The Bachelors - Diane

14 The Rolling Stones - It's All Over Now

15 The Beatles - Can't Buy Me Love

16 Billy J Kramer & The Dakotas - Little Children

17 The Bachelors - I Believe

18 The Beatles - I Want To Hold Your Hand

19 Julie Rogers - The Wedding

20 Peter & Gordon - World Without Love

21 The Four Pennies - Juliet

22 Millie - My Boy Lollipop

23 Brian Poole & The Tremeloes - Someone, Someone

24 The Swinging Blue Jeans - Hippy Hippy Shake

25 Sandie Shaw - (There's) Always Something There To Remind Me

26 The Kinks - You Really Got Me

27 The Searchers - Don't Throw Your Love Away

28 The Supremes - Baby Love

29 Gerry & The Pacemakers - I'm The One

30 The Supremes - Where Did Our Love Go

31 Dave Clark Five - Bits And Pieces

32 The Bachelors - I Wouldn't Trade You For The World

33 The Four Seasons - Rag Doll

34 The Beatles - I Feel Fine

35 The Rolling Stones - Not Fade Away

36 The Animals - House Of The Rising Sun

37 The Hollies - Just One Look

38 Matt Monro - Walk Away

39 The Merseybeats - I Think Of You

40 The Barron Knights - Call Up The Groups

41 Petula Clark - Downtown

42 Gene Pitney - I'm Gonna Be Strong

43 Gene Pitney - Twenty Four Hours From Tulsa

44 PJ Proby - Hold Me

45 Dusty Springfield - I Just Don't Know What To Do With Myself

46 Brenda Lee - As Usual

47 The Kinks - All Day And All Of The Night

48 Dusty Springfield - I Only Want To Be With You

49 The Searchers - When You Walk In The Room

50 Cliff Richard - Constantly

51 Val Doonican - Walk Tall

52 The Rolling Stones - Little Red Rooster

53 The Beatles - She Loves You

54 Mary Wells - My Guy

55 The Nashville Teens - Tobacco Road

56 The Rockin' Berries - He's In Town

57 The Shadows - Rise And Fall Of Flingel Bunt

58 Wayne Fontana & The Mindbenders - Um Um Um Um Um Um

59 The Bachelors - Ramona

60 Cliff Richard - On The Beach

61 The Swinging Blue Jeans - You're No Good

62 Manfred Mann - Sha La La

63 Manfred Mann - 5-4-3-2-1

64 Dave Berry - The Crying Game

65 Doris Day - Move Over Darling

66 The Beach Boys - I Get Around

67 Louis Armstrong - Hello, Dolly!

68 Marianne Faithfull - As Tears Go By

69 Chuck Berry - No Particular Place To Go

70 Dionne Warwick - Walk On By

71 Applejacks - Tell Me When

72 Eden Kane - Boys Cry

73 The Fourmost - A Little Loving

74 Brian Poole & The Tremeloes - Candy Man

75 Gene Pitney - That Girl Belongs To Yesterday

76 The Hollies - Here I Go Again

77 Frank Ifield - Don't Blame Me

78 The Ronettes - Baby I Love You

79 Lulu & The Luvvers - Shout

80 Big Dee Irwin - Swinging On A Star

81 Gerry & The Pacemakers - Don't Let The Sun Catch You Crying

82 The Hollies - We're Through

83 Jim Reeves - There's A Heartache Following Me

84 Dean Martin - Everybody Loves Somebody

85 Gigliola Cinquetti - Non Ho L'Eta Per Amarti

86 Dave Clark Five - Can't You See That She's Mine

87 The Hollies - Stay

88 Freddie & The Dreamers - I Understand

89 Cilla Black - It's For You

90 The Migil Five - Mocking Bird Hill

91 Cliff Richard - Twelfth Of Never

92 Dusty Springfield - Losing You

93 PJ Proby - Together

94 The Animals - I'm Crying

95 Elvis Presley - Kissin' Cousins

96 Peter & Gordon - Nobody I Know

97 Kathy Kirby - Let Me Go Lover

98 Henry Mancini Orchestra - How Soon?

99 The Zombies - She's Not There

100 The Mojos - Everything's Alright

 

Top Twenty TV Shows in 1964 were

 

1. Steptoe and Son (BBC)

2. Sunday Palladium (ITV)

3. Coronation Street (ITV)

4. Dick Powell Theatre (BBC)

5. Take Your Pick (ITV)

6. Royal Variety Show (BBC)

7. No Hiding Place (ITV)

8. Armchair Theatre (ITV)

9. It's Tarbuck (ITV)

10. Crane (ITV)

11. Stars and Garters (ITV)

12. Double Your Money (ITV)

13. Emergency Ward Ten (ITV)

14. Around the Beatles (ITV)

15. Frank Ifield Show (ITV)

16. The Avengers (ITV)

17. Christmas Comedy (ITV)

18. Miss World 1964 (ITV)

19. Max Bygraves (ITV)

20. Love Story (ITV)

 

That Was the Year That Was - 1965

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/17316629146/

 

  

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_District

  

The Lake District, also commonly known as The Lakes or (particularly as an adjective) Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England. A popular holiday destination, it is famous not only for its lakes, forests and mountains (or fells), but also for its associations with the early 19th century poetry and writings of William Wordsworth and the other Lake Poets.

Historically shared by the counties of Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire, the Lake District now lies entirely within the modern county of Cumbria. All the land in England higher than three thousand feet above sea level lies within the National Park, including Scafell Pike, the highest mountain in England. It also contains the deepest and longest lakes in England, Wastwater and Windermere, respectively.

  

Lake District National Park

  

Lake District National Park (shown as number 2) in a map of National Parks in England and Wales.

The Lake District National Park includes nearly all of the Lake District, though the town of Kendal and the Lakeland Peninsulas are currently outside the Park boundary.

The area, which was designated a National Park on 9 May 1951 (less than a month after the first UK National Park designation — the Peak District), is the most visited national park in the United Kingdom with 15.8 million annual visitors and more than 23 million annual day visits,[1] the largest of the thirteen National Parks in England and Wales, and the second largest in the UK after the Cairngorms.[2] Its aim is to protect the landscape by restricting unwelcome change by industry or commerce. Most of the land in the Park is in private ownership. The National Trust owns about a quarter of the total area (including some lakes and land of significant landscape value), United Utilities owns eight per cent and 3.9% belongs to the Lake District National Park Authority. The National Park Authority is based at offices in Kendal. It runs a visitor centre on Windermere at a former country house called Brockhole,[3] Coniston Boating Centre and Information Centres.

In common with all other National Parks in England, there is no restriction on entry to, or movement within the park along public routes, but access to cultivated land is usually restricted to public footpaths.

The lakes and mountains combine to form impressive scenery. Farmland and settlement add aesthetic value to the natural scenery with an ecology modified by human influence for millennia and including important wildlife habitats. The Lake District has failed to be approved as a natural World Heritage Site, because of human activities, such as commercial forestry, which have adversely impacted the park's assessment. Another bid is being prepared for World Heritage Status, this time in the category of cultural landscape.

  

Proposed extension to National Park

  

In December 2009, Natural England proposed extending the National Park in the direction of the Yorkshire Dales National Park.[5] This would include land of high landscape value in the Lune Valley. The proposal was opposed by Cumbria County Council who said it would lead to less democratic control and would make local housing less affordable.[6] A public inquiry is being held into the proposals which will require a decision by the Secretary of State.

  

Human geography

  

General

  

The precise extent of the Lake District was not defined traditionally, but is slightly larger than that of the National Park, the total area of which is about 885 square miles (2,292 km2). The Park extends just over 32 miles (52 km) from east to west and nearly 40 miles (64 km) from north to south,[8] with areas such as the Lake District Peninsulas to the south lying outside the National Park.

  

Settlement

  

The Lake District is one of the most highly populated national parks. There are, however, only a handful of major settlements within this mountainous area, the towns of Keswick, Windermere, Ambleside, and Bowness-on-Windermere being the four largest. Significant towns immediately outside the boundary of the national park include Barrow-in-Furness, Kendal, Ulverston, Cockermouth, Penrith, and Grange-over-Sands; each of these has important economic links with the area. Villages such as Coniston, Threlkeld, Glenridding, Pooley Bridge, Broughton-in-Furness, Grasmere, Newby Bridge, Staveley, Lindale, Gosforth and Hawkshead act as more local centres. The economies of almost all are intimately linked with tourism. Beyond these are a scatter of hamlets and innumerable isolated farmsteads, some of which are still tied to agriculture, others now function as part of the tourist economy.

  

Communications

  

Roads

  

The Lake District National Park is almost contained within a box of trunk routes. It is flanked to the east by the A6 road which runs from Kendal to Penrith). The A590 which connects the M6 to Cumbria's largest town, Barrow-in-Furness, and the A5092 trunk roads cut across its southern fringes and the A66 trunk road between Penrith and Workington cuts across its northern edge. Finally the A595 trunk road runs through the coastal plains to the west of the area linking the A66 with the A5092.

Besides these, a few A roads penetrate the area itself, notably the A591 which runs northwestwards from Kendal to Windermere and then on to Keswick. It continues up the east side of Bassenthwaite Lake. "The A591, Grasmere, Lake District" was short-listed in the 2011 Google Street View awards in the Most Romantic Street category. The A593 and A5084 link the Ambleside and Coniston areas with the A590 to the south whilst the A592 and A5074 similarly link Windermere with the A590. The A592 also continues northwards from Windermere to Ullswater and Penrith by way of the Kirkstone Pass.

Some of those valleys which are not penetrated by A roads are served by B roads. The B5289 serves Lorton Vale and Buttermere and links via the Honister Pass with Borrowdale. The B5292 ascends the Whinlatter Pass from Lorton Vale before dropping down to Braithwaite near Keswick. The B5322 serves the valley of St John's in the Vale whilst Great Langdale is served by the B5343. Other valleys such as Little Langdale, Eskdale and Dunnerdale are served by minor roads. The latter connects with the former two by way of the Wrynose and Hardknott passes respectively - both of these passes are known for their steep gradients and are one of the most popular climbs in the United Kingdom for cycling enthusiasts.[11] A minor road through the Newlands Valley connects via Newlands Hause with the B5289 at Buttermere. Wasdale is served by a cul-de-sac minor road as is Longsleddale and the valleys at Haweswater and Kentmere. There are intricate networks of minor roads in the lower-lying southern part of the area connecting numerous communities between Kendal, Windermere and Coniston.

  

Railways and ferries

  

The West Coast Main Line skirts the eastern edge of the Lake District and the Cumbrian Coast Line passes through the southern and western fringes of the area. A single line, the Windermere Branch Line, penetrates from Kendal to Windermere via Staveley. Lines once served Broughton-in-Furness and Coniston and another ran from Penrith to Cockermouth via Keswick but each of these was abandoned in the 1960s. The track of the latter has been adopted in part for use by the improved A66 trunk road.

The narrow gauge Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway runs from Ravenglass on the west coast up Eskdale as far as Dalegarth Station near the hamlet of Boot, catering for tourists. Another heritage railway, the Lakeside and Haverthwaite Railway runs between the two villages encompassed within its name, tourists being able to connect with the Windermere passenger ferry at Lakeside.

A vehicle-carrying cable ferry, the Windermere Ferry runs frequent services across Windermere. There are also seasonal passenger ferries on Coniston Water, Derwent Water and Ullswater.

  

Physical geography

  

As the highest ground in England, Scafell Pike naturally has a very extensive view, ranging from the Mourne Mountains in Northern Ireland to Snowdonia in Wales. The Lake District takes the form of a roughly circular upland massif deeply dissected by a broadly radial pattern of major valleys whose character is largely the product of repeated glaciations over the last 2 million years. Most of these valleys display the U-shape cross-section, characteristic of glacial origin and often contain elongate lakes occupying sizeable bedrock hollows often with tracts of relatively flat ground at their heads. Smaller lakes known as tarns occupy glacial cirques at higher elevations. It is the abundance of both which has led to the area becoming known as the Lake District.

The mountains of the Lake District are also known as the "Cumbrian Mountains", although this name is less frequently used than terms like "the Lake District" or "the Lakeland Fells". Many of the higher fells are rocky in character, whilst moorland predominates at lower altitude. Vegetation cover across better drained areas includes bracken and heather though much of the land is boggy, due to the high rainfall. Deciduous native woodland occurs on many steeper slopes below the tree line but with native oak supplemented by extensive conifer plantations in many areas, particularly Grisedale Forest in the generally lower southern part of the area.

  

Valleys

  

The principal radial valleys are (clockwise from the south) those of Dunnerdale, Eskdale, Wasdale, Ennerdale, Lorton Vale and the Buttermere valley, the Derwent Valley and Borrowdale, the valleys containing Ullswater and Haweswater, Longsleddale, the Kentmere valley and those radiating from the head of Windermere including Great Langdale. The valleys serve to break the mountains up into separate blocks which have been described by various authors in different ways. The most frequently encountered approach is that made popular by Alfred Wainwright who published seven separate area guides to the Lakeland Fells.

  

Woodlands

  

Below the tree line are wooded areas, including British and European native oak woodlands and introduced softwood plantations. The woodlands provide habitats for native English wildlife. The native red squirrel is found in the Lake District and in a few other parts of England. In parts of the Lake District the rainfall is higher than in any other part of England. This gives Atlantic mosses, ferns, lichen, and liverworts the chance to grow. There is some ancient woodland in the National Park. Management of the woodlands varies: some are coppiced, some pollarded, some left to grow naturally, and some provide grazing and shelter.

  

Hills (Fells)

  

The four highest mountains in the Lake District exceed 3000 ft (914m). These are;

 

Scafell Pike, 978 m (3,210 ft),

Scafell, 965 m (3,162 ft),

Helvellyn, 951 m (3,118 ft) and

Skiddaw, 931 m (3,054 ft).

  

Northern Fells

  

The Northern Fells are a readily defined range of hills contained within a 13 km diameter circle between Keswick in the southwest and Caldbeck in the northeast. They culminate in the 931 m (3054 ft) peak of Skiddaw. Other notable peaks are those of Blencathra (also known as Saddleback) (868m / 2848 ft) and Carrock Fell. Bassenthwaite Lake occupies the valley between this massif and the North Western Fells.

 

North Western Fells

  

The North Western Fells lie between Borrowdale and Bassenthwaite Lake to the east and Buttermere and Lorton Vale to the west. Their southernmost point is at Honister Pass. This area includes the Derwent Fells above the Newlands Valley and hills to the north amongst which are Dale Head, Robinson. To the north stand Grasmoor - highest in the range at 852 m (2795 ft), Grisedale Pike and the hills around the valley of Coledale, and in the far north-west is Thornthwaite Forest and Lord's Seat. The fells in this area are rounded Skiddaw Slate, with few tarns and relatively few rock faces.

  

Western Fells

  

The Western Fells lie between Buttermere and Wasdale, with Sty Head forming the apex of a large triangle. Ennerdale bisects the area, which consists of the High Stile ridge north of Ennerdale, the Loweswater Fells in the far north west, the Pillar group in the south west, and Great Gable (2,949 feet or 899 metres) near Sty Head. Other tops include Seatallan, Haystacks and Kirk Fell. This area is craggy and steep, with the impressive pinnacle of Pillar Rock its showpiece. Wastwater, located in this part, is England's deepest lake.

  

Central Fells

  

The Central Fells are lower in elevation than surrounding areas of fell, peaking at 762 m (2500 ft) at High Raise. They take the form of a ridge running between Derwent Water in the west and Thirlmere in the east, from Keswick in the north to Langdale Pikes in the south. A spur extends southeast to Loughrigg Fell above Ambleside. The central ridge running north over High Seat is exceptionally boggy.

  

Eastern Fells

  

The Eastern Fells consist of a long north-to-south ridge—the Helvellyn range, running from Clough Head to Seat Sandal with the 3,118-foot (950 m) Helvellyn at its highest point. The western slopes of these summits tend to be grassy, with rocky corries and crags on the eastern side. The Fairfield group lies to the south of the range, and forms a similar pattern with towering rock faces and hidden valleys spilling into the Patterdale valley. It culminates in the height of Red Screes overlooking the Kirkstone Pass.

  

Far Eastern Fells

  

The Far Eastern Fells refer to all of the Lakeland fells to the east of Ullswater and the A592 road running south to Windermere. At 828 m (2,717 ft), the peak known as High Street is the highest point on a complex ridge which runs broadly north-south and overlooks the hidden valley of Haweswater to its east. In the north of this region are the lower fells of Martindale Common and Bampton Common whilst in the south are the fells overlooking the Kentmere valley. Further to the east, beyond Mardale and Longsleddale is Shap Fell, an extensive area consisting of high moorland, more rolling and Pennine in nature than the mountains to the west.

  

Southern Fells

  

The Southern Fells occupy the southwestern quarter of the Lake District. They can be regarded as comprising a northern grouping between Wasdale, Eskdale and the two Langdale valleys, a southeastern group east of Dunnerdale and south of Little Langdale and a southwestern group bounded by Eskdale to the north and Dunnerdale to the east.

The first group includes England's highest mountains; Scafell Pike in the centre, at 3,209 feet (978 m) and Scafell one mile (1.6 km) to the south-west. Though it is slightly lower it has a 700-foot (210 m) rockface, Scafell Crag on its northern side. It also includes the Wastwater Screes overlooking Wasdale, the Glaramara ridge overlooking Borrowdale, the three tops of Crinkle Crags, Bowfell and Esk Pike. The core of the area is drained by the infant River Esk. Collectively these are some of the Lake District's most rugged hillsides.

The second group, otherwise known as the Furness Fells or Coniston Fells, have as their northern boundary the steep and narrow Hardknott and Wrynose Passes.

The third group to the west of the Duddon includes Harter Fell and the long ridge leading over Whitfell to Black Combe and the sea. The south of this region consists of lower forests and knolls, with Kirkby Moor on the southern boundary. The south-western Lake District ends near the Furness peninsula and Barrow-in-Furness, a town which many Lake District residents rely on for basic amenities.

  

South Eastern area

  

The south-eastern area is the territory between Coniston Water and Windermere and east of Windermere towards Kendal and south to Lindale. There are no high summits in this area which is mainly low hills, knolls and limestone cuestas such as Gummer's How and Whitbarrow. Indeed it rises only as high as 333m at Top o' Selside east of Coniston Water; The wide expanse of Grizedale Forest stands between the two lakes. Kendal and Morecambe Bay stand at the eastern and southern edges of the area.

  

Lakes

  

Only one of the lakes in the Lake District is called by that name, Bassenthwaite Lake. All the others such as Windermere, Coniston Water, Ullswater and Buttermere are meres, tarns and waters, with mere being the least common and water being the most common. The major lakes and reservoirs in the National Park are given below.

Bassenthwaite Lake

Brotherswater

Buttermere

Coniston Water

Crummock Water

Derwent Water

Devoke Water

Elter Water

Ennerdale Water

Esthwaite Water

Grasmere

Haweswater Reservoir

Hayeswater

Loweswater

Rydal Water

Thirlmere

Ullswater

Wast Water

Windermere

  

Geology

  

The Lake District's geology is very complex but well-studied.[12] A granite batholith beneath the area is responsible for this upland massif, its relatively low density causing the area to be 'buoyed up'. The granite can be seen at the surface as the Ennerdale, Skiddaw, Carrock Fell, Eskdale and Shap granites.

Broadly speaking the area can be divided into three bands, the divisions between which run southwest to northeast. Generally speaking the rocks become younger from northwest to southeast. The northwestern band is composed of early to mid Ordovician sedimentary rocks – largely mudstones and siltstones of marine origin. Together they comprise the Skiddaw Group and include the rocks traditionally known as the Skiddaw Slates. Their friability generally leads to mountains with relatively smooth slopes such as Skiddaw itself.

The central band is a mix of volcanic and sedimentary rocks of mid to late Ordovician age comprising the lavas and tuffs of the Borrowdale Volcanic Group, erupted as the former Iapetus ocean was subducted beneath what is now the Scottish border during the Caledonian orogeny. The northern central peaks, such as Great Rigg, were produced by considerable lava flows. These lava eruptions were followed by a series of pyroclastic eruptions which produced a series of calderas, one of which includes present-day Scafell Pike. These pyroclastic rocks give rise to the craggy landscapes typical of the central fells.[13]'

The southeastern band comprises the mudstones and wackes of the Windermere Supergroup and which includes (successively) the rocks of the Dent, Stockdale, Tranearth, Coniston and Kendal Groups. These are generally a little less resistant to erosion than the rocks sequence to the north and underlie much of the lower landscapes around Coniston and Windermere.

Later intrusions have formed individual outcrops of igneous rock in each of these groups. Around the edges of these Ordovician and Silurian rocks on the northern, eastern and southern fringes of the area is a semi-continuous outcrop of Carboniferous Limestone seen most spectacularly at places like Whitbarrow Scar and Scout Scar.

  

Climate

  

The Lake District's location on the north west coast of England, coupled with its mountainous geography, makes it the dampest part of England. The UK Met Office reports average annual precipitation of more than 2,000 millimetres (80 in), but with very large local variation. Although the entire region receives above average rainfall, there is a wide disparity between the amount of rainfall in the western and eastern lakes, as the Lake District experiences relief rainfall. Seathwaite in Borrowdale is the wettest inhabited place in England with an average of 3,300 millimetres (130 in) of rain a year,[16] while nearby Sprinkling Tarn is even wetter, recording over 5,000 millimetres (200 in) per year; by contrast, Keswick, at the end of Borrowdale receives 1,470 millimetres (60 in) every year, and Penrith (just outside the Lake District) only 870 millimetres (30 in). March to June tend to be the driest months, with October to January the wettest, but at low levels there is relatively little difference between months.

Although sheltered valleys experience gales on an average of only five days a year, the Lake District is generally very windy with the coastal areas having 20 days of gales, and the fell tops around 100 days of gales per year. The maritime climate means that the Lake District experiences relatively moderate temperature variations through the year. Mean temperature in the valleys ranges from about 3 °C (37 °F) in January to around 15 °C (59 °F) in July. (By comparison, Moscow, at the same latitude, ranges from −10 °C to 19 °C/14 °F to 66 °F).

The relatively low height of most of the fells means that, while snow is expected during the winter, they can be free of snow at any time of the year. Normally, significant snow fall only occurs between November and April. On average, snow falls on Helvellyn 67 days per year. During the year, valleys typically experience 20 days with snow falling, a further 200 wet days, and 145 dry days. Hill fog is common at any time of year, and the fells average only around 2.5 hours of sunshine per day, increasing to around 4.1 hours per day on the coastal plains.

  

Wildlife

  

The Lake District is one of the few places in England where red squirrels have a sizeable population.[18]

  

The Lake District is home to a plethora of wildlife, due to its range of varied topography, lakes and forests. It provides a home for the red squirrel and colonies of sundew and butterwort, two of the few carnivorous plants native to Britain. The Lake District is a major sanctuary for the red squirrel and has the largest population in England. It is estimated there are 140,000 red squirrels in the United Kingdom, but are approximately 2.5 million gray squirrels who have displaced the indigenous red population since their introduction to the British Isles.[19]

The Lake District is home to a range of bird species,[20] and the RSPB maintain a reserve in Haweswater.[21] England's only nesting pair of Golden Eagles can be found in the Lake District. The female Golden Eagle has not been seen since 2004 although the male still remains.[22] Conservationists believe he is now the only resident golden eagle in England.[23] Following recolonisation attempts, a pair of ospreys nested in the Lake District for the time in over 150 years near Bassenthwaite Lake during 2001. Osprey's now frequently migrate north from Africa in the spring to nest in the Lake District and a total of 23 chicks have fledged in The Lakes since 2001.[24] Another bird species to have had recolonisation attempts is the Red Kite who have a population approximately 90 in the dense forest areas near Grizedale as of 2012.[25] Conservationists hope the re-introduction will create a large Red Kite population in the Lake District and in North West England where the Red Kite population is low.[26] Other bird species resident to the Lake District include the buzzard, dipper, peregrine and raven.[27] Seasonal birds include the ring ouzel and the redstart.[28]

The lakes of the Lake District support three rare and endangered species of fish: the vendace, which can be found only in Derwent Water and until 2008 in Bassenthwaite Lake.[29] Vendace have struggled in recent years with naturally-occurring algae becoming a threat and the lakes gradually getting warmer in temperature.[30] Vendace have been moved to higher lakes on a number of occasions to preserve the species, notably in 2005 and 2011.[31][32] The Lakes are also home to two other rare species: the schelly, which lives in Brothers Water, Haweswater, Red Tarn and Ullswater, and the Arctic charr, which can be found in Buttermere, Coniston Water, Crummock Water, Ennerdale Water, Haweswater, Loweswater, Thirlmere, Wast Water, and Windermere.

  

The vendace (Coregonus vandesius) is England's rarest species of fish, and is only found in the Lake District.

In recent years, some important changes have been made to fisheries byelaws covering the north-west region of England, to help protect some of the rarest fish species. In 2002, the Environment Agency introduced a new fisheries byelaw, banning the use of all freshwater fish as live or dead bait in 14 of the lakes in the Lake District. Anglers not complying with the new byelaw can face fines of up to £2,500. There are 14 lakes in the Lake District which are affected. These are: Bassenthwaite Lake, Brothers Water, Buttermere, Coniston Water, Crummock Water, Derwent Water, Ennerdale Water, Haweswater, Loweswater, Red Tarn, Thirlmere, Ullswater, Wast Water and Windermere.

The lakes and waters of the Lake District do not naturally support as many species of fish as other similar habitats in the south of the country and elsewhere in Europe. Some fish that do thrive there are particularly at risk from introduction of new species.

The introduction of non-native fish can lead to the predation of the native fish fauna or competition for food. There is also the risk of disease being introduced, which can further threaten native populations. In some cases, the introduced species can disturb the environment so much that it becomes unsuitable for particular fish. For example, a major problem has been found with ruffe. This non-native fish has now been introduced into a number of lakes in recent years. It is known that ruffe eat the eggs of vendace, which are particularly vulnerable because of their long incubation period. This means that they are susceptible to predators for up to 120 days. The eggs of other fish, for example roach, are only at risk for as little as three days.

  

Economy

  

Agriculture and forestry

  

Farming, and in particular sheep farming, has been the major industry in the region since Roman times. The breed most closely associated with the area is the tough Herdwick, with Rough Fell and Swaledale sheep also common. Sheep farming remains important both for the economy of the region and for preserving the landscape which visitors want to see. Features such as dry stone walls, for example, are there as a result of sheep farming. Some land is also used for silage and dairy farming.

The area was badly affected by the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease across the United Kingdom in 2001. The outbreak started in Surrey in February, but had spread to Cumbria by end of March.[33] Thousands of sheep, include the native Herdwick which graze on the fellsides across the District, were destroyed. In replacing the sheep, one problem to overcome was that many of the lost sheep were heafed, that is, they knew their part of the unfenced fell and did not stray, with this knowledge being passed between generations. With all the sheep lost at once, this knowledge has to be re-learnt and some of the fells have had discreet electric fences strung across them for a period of five years, to allow the sheep to "re-heaf".[34] At the time of the outbreak, worries existed about the future of certain species of sheep such as Ryeland and Herdwick in the District,[35] however these fears have been allayed and sheep now occupy the District in abundance.[36]

  

Forestry has also assumed greater importance over the course of the last century with the establishment of extensive conifer plantations around Whinlatter Pass, in Ennerdale and at Grizedale Forest amongst other places. There are extensive plantations of non-native pine trees.

  

Industry

 

With its wealth of rock types and their abundance in the landscape, mining and quarrying have long been significant activities in the Lake District economy. In Neolithic times, the Lake District was a major source of stone axes, examples of which have been found all over Britain. The primary site, on the slopes of the Langdale Pikes, is sometimes described as a "stone axe factory" of the Langdale axe industry. Some of the earliest stone circles in Britain are connected with this industry.

Mining, particularly of copper, lead (often associated with quantities of silver), baryte, graphite and slate, was historically a major Lakeland industry, mainly from the 16th century to the 19th century. Coppiced woodland was used extensively to provide charcoal for smelting. Some mining still takes place today; for example, slate mining continues at the Honister Mines, at the top of Honister Pass. Abandoned mine-workings can be found on fell-sides throughout the district. The locally mined graphite led to the development of the pencil industry, especially around Keswick.

  

In the middle of the 19th century, half the world textile industry's bobbin supply came from the Lake District area. Over the past century, however, tourism has grown rapidly to become the area's primary source of income.

  

Development of tourism

  

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Early visitors to the Lake District, who travelled for the education and pleasure of the journey, include Celia Fiennes who in 1698 undertook a journey the length of England, including riding through Kendal and over Kirkstone Pass into Patterdale. Her experiences and impressions were published in her book Great Journey to Newcastle and Cornwall:

As I walked down at this place I was walled on both sides by those inaccessible high rocky barren hills which hang over one’s head in some places and appear very terrible; and from them springs many little currents of water from the sides and clefts which trickle down to some lower part where it runs swiftly over the stones and shelves in the way, which makes a pleasant rush and murmuring noise and like a snowball is increased by each spring trickling down on either side of those hills, and so descends into the bottoms which are a Moorish ground in which in many places the waters stand, and so form some of those Lakes as it did here.[37]

In 1724, Daniel Defoe published the first volume of A Tour Thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain. He commented on Westmorland that it was:

the wildest, most barren and frightful of any that I have passed over in England, or even Wales itself; the west side, which borders on Cumberland, is indeed bounded by a chain of almost unpassable mountains which, in the language of the country, are called fells.

Towards the end of the 18th century, the area was becoming more popular with travellers. This was partly a result of wars in Continental Europe, restricting the possibility of travel there. In 1778 Father Thomas West produced A Guide to the Lakes, which began the era of modern tourism.

  

West listed "stations"—viewpoints where tourists could enjoy the best views of the landscape, being encouraged to appreciated the formal qualities of the landscape and to apply aesthetic values. At some of these stations, buildings were erected to help this process. The remains of Claife Station (on the western shore Windermere below Claife Heights) can be visited today.

William Wordsworth published his Guide to the Lakes in 1810, and by 1835 it had reached its fifth edition, now called A Guide through the District of the Lakes in the North of England. This book was particularly influential in popularising the region. Wordsworth's favourite valley was Dunnerdale or the Duddon Valley nestling in the south-west of the Lake District.

The railways led to another expansion in tourism. The Kendal and Windermere Railway was the first to penetrate the Lake District, reaching Kendal in 1846 and Windermere in 1847. The line to Coniston opened in 1848 (although until 1857 this was only linked to the national network with ferries between Fleetwood and Barrow-in-Furness); the line from Penrith through Keswick to Cockermouth in 1865; and the line to Lakeside at the foot of Windermere in 1869. The railways, built with traditional industry in mind, brought with them a huge increase in the number of visitors, thus contributing to the growth of the tourism industry. Railway services were supplemented by steamer boats on the major lakes of Ullswater, Windermere, Coniston Water, and Derwent Water.

  

A steamer on Ullswater

  

The growth in tourist numbers continued into the age of the motor car, when railways began to be closed or run down. The formation of the Lake District National Park in 1951 recognised the need to protect the Lake District environment from excessive commercial or industrial exploitation, preserving that which visitors come to see, without any restriction on the movement of people into and around the district. The M6 Motorway helped bring traffic to the Lakes, passing up its eastern flank. The narrow roads present a challenge for traffic flow and, from the 1960s, certain areas have been very congested.

Whilst the roads and railways provided easier access to the area, many people were drawn to the Lakes by the publication of the Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells by Alfred Wainwright. First published between 1952 and 1965, these books provided detailed information on 214 peaks across the region, with carefully hand-drawn maps and panoramas, and also stories and asides which add to the colour of the area. They are still used by many visitors to the area as guides for walking excursions, with the ultimate goal of bagging the complete list of Wainwrights. The famous guides are being revised by Chris Jesty to reflect changes, mainly in valley access and paths.[38]

Since the early 1960s, the National Park Authority has employed rangers to help cope with increasing tourism and development, the first being John Wyatt, who has since written a number of guide books. He was joined two years later by a second, and since then the number of rangers has been rising.

The area has also become associated with writer Beatrix Potter. A number of tourists visit to see her family home, with particularly large numbers coming from Japan.

Tourism has now become the park's major industry, with about 12 million visitors each year, mainly from the UK's larger settlements, China, Japan, Spain, Germany and the US.[39] Windermere Lake Steamers are Cumbria's most popular charging tourist attraction with about 1.35 million paying customers each year, and the local economy is dependent upon tourists. The negative impact of tourism has been seen, however. Soil erosion, caused by walking, is now a significant problem, with millions of pounds being spent to protect over-used paths. In 2006, two Tourist Information Centres in the National Park were closed.

Cultural tourism is becoming an increasingly important part of the wider tourist industry. The Lake District's links with a wealth of artists and writers and its strong history of providing summer theatre performances in the old Blue Box of Century Theatre are strong attractions for visiting tourists. The tradition of theatre is carried on by venues such as Theatre by the Lake in Keswick with its summer season of six plays in repertoire, Christmas and Easter productions, and the many literature, film, mountaineering, jazz and creative arts festivals, such as the Kendal Mountain Festival and the Keswick Mountain Festival.

  

Gastronomy

  

The Lake District has been regarded as one of the best places to eat in Britain.[40] The region has four Michelin Star Restaurants including L'Enclume, Sharrow Bay, Holbeck Ghyll and The Samling in Ambleside. In addition, Cumbria has more microbreweries than any other county in Britain and together with Jennings Brewery supply a variety of ales to pubs and restaurants throughout the region.

  

Literature and art

  

The Lake District is intimately associated with English literature in the 18th and 19th centuries. Thomas Gray was the first to bring the region to attention, when he wrote a journal of his Grand Tour in 1769, but it was William Wordsworth whose poems were most famous and influential. Wordsworth's poem "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud", inspired by the sight of daffodils on the shores of Ullswater, remains one of the most famous in the English language. Out of his long life of eighty years, sixty were spent amid its lakes and mountains, first as a schoolboy at Hawkshead, and afterwards living in Grasmere (1799–1813) and Rydal Mount (1813–50). Wordsworth, Coleridge and Southey became known as the Lake Poets.

The poet and his wife lie buried in the churchyard of Grasmere and very near to them are the remains of Hartley Coleridge (son of the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge), who himself lived for many years in Keswick, Ambleside and Grasmere. Robert Southey, the Poet Laureate and friend of Wordsworth (who would succeed Southey as Laureate in 1843), was a resident of Keswick for forty years (1803–43), and was buried in Crosthwaite churchyard. Samuel Taylor Coleridge lived for some time in Keswick, and also with the Wordsworths at Grasmere. From 1807 to 1815 John Wilson lived at Windermere. Thomas de Quincey spent the greater part of the years 1809 to 1828 at Grasmere, in the first cottage which Wordsworth had inhabited. Ambleside, or its environs, was also the place of residence both of Thomas Arnold, who spent there the vacations of the last ten years of his life and of Harriet Martineau, who built herself a house there in 1845. At Keswick, Mrs Lynn Linton (wife of William James Linton) was born, in 1822. Brantwood, a house beside Coniston Water, was the home of John Ruskin during the last years of his life. His assistant W. G. Collingwood the author, artist and antiquarian lived nearby, and wrote Thorstein of the Mere, set in the Norse period.

In addition to these residents or natives of the Lake District, a variety of other poets and writers made visits to the Lake District or were bound by ties of friendship with those already mentioned above. These include Percy Bysshe Shelley, Sir Walter Scott, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Arthur Hugh Clough, Henry Crabb Robinson, "Conversation" Sharp, Thomas Carlyle, John Keats, Lord Tennyson, Matthew Arnold, Felicia Hemans, and Gerald Massey.

During the early 20th century, the children's author Beatrix Potter was in residence at Hill Top Farm, setting many of her famous Peter Rabbit books in the Lake District. Her life was made into a biopic film, starring Renée Zellweger and Ewan McGregor. Arthur Ransome lived in several areas of the Lake District, and set five of his Swallows and Amazons series of books, published between 1930 and 1947, in a fictionalised Lake District setting. So did Geoffrey Trease with his five Black Banner school stories (1949–56), starting with No Boats on Bannermere.

The novelist Sir Hugh Walpole lived at "Brackenburn" on the lower slopes of Catbells overlooking Derwent Water from 1924 until his death in 1941. Whilst living at "Brackenburn" he wrote The Herries Chronicle detailing the history of a fictional Cumbrian family over two centuries. The noted author and poet Norman Nicholson came from the south-west Lakes, living and writing about Millom in the twentieth century – he was known as the last of the Lake Poets and came close to becoming the Poet Laureate.

Writer and author Melvyn Bragg was brought up in the region and has used it as the setting for some of his work, such as his novel A Time to Dance, later turned into a television drama.

The Lake District has been the setting for crime novels by Reginald Hill, Val McDermid and Martin Edwards. The region is also a recurring theme in Ernest Hemingway's 1926 novella The Torrents of Spring and features prominently in Ian McEwan's Amsterdam, which won the 1998 Booker Prize.

The Lake District is mentioned in Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice; Elizabeth Bennet looks forward to a holiday there with her aunt and uncle and is "excessively disappointed" upon learning they cannot travel that far.

Film director Ken Russell lived in the Keswick/Borrowdale area until 2007[41] and used it in films such as Tommy and Mahler.

The Lake District is the setting for the 1977 Richard Adams novel The Plague Dogs. Adams' knowledge of the area offers the reader a precise view of the natural beauty of the Lake District .

Some students of Arthurian lore identify the Lake District with the Grail kingdom of Listeneise.

The former Keswick School of Industrial Art at Keswick was started by Canon Rawnsley, a friend of John Ruskin.

  

Nomenclature

  

A number of words and phrases are local to the Lake District and are part of the Cumbrian dialect, though many are shared by other northern dialects. These include:

fell – from Old Norse fjallr, brought to England by Viking invaders and close to modern Norwegian fjell and Swedish fjäll meaning mountain

howe – place name from the Old Norse haugr meaning hill, knoll, or mound

tarn – a word that has been taken to mean a small lake situated in a corrie (the local name for which is cove), a local phrase for any small pool of water. The word is derived from the Old Norse, Norwegian and Swedish word tjern/tjärn, meaning small lake

Yan Tan Tethera – the name for a system of sheep counting which was traditionally used in the Lake District. Though now rare, it is still used by some and taught in local schools.

Heaf (a variant of heft), the "home territory" of a flock of sheep.

 

  

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_District

  

The Lake District, also commonly known as The Lakes or (particularly as an adjective) Lakeland, is a mountainous region in North West England. A popular holiday destination, it is famous not only for its lakes, forests and mountains (or fells), but also for its associations with the early 19th century poetry and writings of William Wordsworth and the other Lake Poets.

Historically shared by the counties of Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire, the Lake District now lies entirely within the modern county of Cumbria. All the land in England higher than three thousand feet above sea level lies within the National Park, including Scafell Pike, the highest mountain in England. It also contains the deepest and longest lakes in England, Wastwater and Windermere, respectively.

  

Lake District National Park

  

Lake District National Park (shown as number 2) in a map of National Parks in England and Wales.

The Lake District National Park includes nearly all of the Lake District, though the town of Kendal and the Lakeland Peninsulas are currently outside the Park boundary.

The area, which was designated a National Park on 9 May 1951 (less than a month after the first UK National Park designation — the Peak District), is the most visited national park in the United Kingdom with 15.8 million annual visitors and more than 23 million annual day visits,[1] the largest of the thirteen National Parks in England and Wales, and the second largest in the UK after the Cairngorms.[2] Its aim is to protect the landscape by restricting unwelcome change by industry or commerce. Most of the land in the Park is in private ownership. The National Trust owns about a quarter of the total area (including some lakes and land of significant landscape value), United Utilities owns eight per cent and 3.9% belongs to the Lake District National Park Authority. The National Park Authority is based at offices in Kendal. It runs a visitor centre on Windermere at a former country house called Brockhole,[3] Coniston Boating Centre and Information Centres.

In common with all other National Parks in England, there is no restriction on entry to, or movement within the park along public routes, but access to cultivated land is usually restricted to public footpaths.

The lakes and mountains combine to form impressive scenery. Farmland and settlement add aesthetic value to the natural scenery with an ecology modified by human influence for millennia and including important wildlife habitats. The Lake District has failed to be approved as a natural World Heritage Site, because of human activities, such as commercial forestry, which have adversely impacted the park's assessment. Another bid is being prepared for World Heritage Status, this time in the category of cultural landscape.

  

Proposed extension to National Park

  

In December 2009, Natural England proposed extending the National Park in the direction of the Yorkshire Dales National Park.[5] This would include land of high landscape value in the Lune Valley. The proposal was opposed by Cumbria County Council who said it would lead to less democratic control and would make local housing less affordable.[6] A public inquiry is being held into the proposals which will require a decision by the Secretary of State.

  

Human geography

  

General

  

The precise extent of the Lake District was not defined traditionally, but is slightly larger than that of the National Park, the total area of which is about 885 square miles (2,292 km2). The Park extends just over 32 miles (52 km) from east to west and nearly 40 miles (64 km) from north to south,[8] with areas such as the Lake District Peninsulas to the south lying outside the National Park.

  

Settlement

  

The Lake District is one of the most highly populated national parks. There are, however, only a handful of major settlements within this mountainous area, the towns of Keswick, Windermere, Ambleside, and Bowness-on-Windermere being the four largest. Significant towns immediately outside the boundary of the national park include Barrow-in-Furness, Kendal, Ulverston, Cockermouth, Penrith, and Grange-over-Sands; each of these has important economic links with the area. Villages such as Coniston, Threlkeld, Glenridding, Pooley Bridge, Broughton-in-Furness, Grasmere, Newby Bridge, Staveley, Lindale, Gosforth and Hawkshead act as more local centres. The economies of almost all are intimately linked with tourism. Beyond these are a scatter of hamlets and innumerable isolated farmsteads, some of which are still tied to agriculture, others now function as part of the tourist economy.

  

Communications

  

Roads

  

The Lake District National Park is almost contained within a box of trunk routes. It is flanked to the east by the A6 road which runs from Kendal to Penrith). The A590 which connects the M6 to Cumbria's largest town, Barrow-in-Furness, and the A5092 trunk roads cut across its southern fringes and the A66 trunk road between Penrith and Workington cuts across its northern edge. Finally the A595 trunk road runs through the coastal plains to the west of the area linking the A66 with the A5092.

Besides these, a few A roads penetrate the area itself, notably the A591 which runs northwestwards from Kendal to Windermere and then on to Keswick. It continues up the east side of Bassenthwaite Lake. "The A591, Grasmere, Lake District" was short-listed in the 2011 Google Street View awards in the Most Romantic Street category. The A593 and A5084 link the Ambleside and Coniston areas with the A590 to the south whilst the A592 and A5074 similarly link Windermere with the A590. The A592 also continues northwards from Windermere to Ullswater and Penrith by way of the Kirkstone Pass.

Some of those valleys which are not penetrated by A roads are served by B roads. The B5289 serves Lorton Vale and Buttermere and links via the Honister Pass with Borrowdale. The B5292 ascends the Whinlatter Pass from Lorton Vale before dropping down to Braithwaite near Keswick. The B5322 serves the valley of St John's in the Vale whilst Great Langdale is served by the B5343. Other valleys such as Little Langdale, Eskdale and Dunnerdale are served by minor roads. The latter connects with the former two by way of the Wrynose and Hardknott passes respectively - both of these passes are known for their steep gradients and are one of the most popular climbs in the United Kingdom for cycling enthusiasts.[11] A minor road through the Newlands Valley connects via Newlands Hause with the B5289 at Buttermere. Wasdale is served by a cul-de-sac minor road as is Longsleddale and the valleys at Haweswater and Kentmere. There are intricate networks of minor roads in the lower-lying southern part of the area connecting numerous communities between Kendal, Windermere and Coniston.

  

Railways and ferries

  

The West Coast Main Line skirts the eastern edge of the Lake District and the Cumbrian Coast Line passes through the southern and western fringes of the area. A single line, the Windermere Branch Line, penetrates from Kendal to Windermere via Staveley. Lines once served Broughton-in-Furness and Coniston and another ran from Penrith to Cockermouth via Keswick but each of these was abandoned in the 1960s. The track of the latter has been adopted in part for use by the improved A66 trunk road.

The narrow gauge Ravenglass and Eskdale Railway runs from Ravenglass on the west coast up Eskdale as far as Dalegarth Station near the hamlet of Boot, catering for tourists. Another heritage railway, the Lakeside and Haverthwaite Railway runs between the two villages encompassed within its name, tourists being able to connect with the Windermere passenger ferry at Lakeside.

A vehicle-carrying cable ferry, the Windermere Ferry runs frequent services across Windermere. There are also seasonal passenger ferries on Coniston Water, Derwent Water and Ullswater.

  

Physical geography

  

As the highest ground in England, Scafell Pike naturally has a very extensive view, ranging from the Mourne Mountains in Northern Ireland to Snowdonia in Wales. The Lake District takes the form of a roughly circular upland massif deeply dissected by a broadly radial pattern of major valleys whose character is largely the product of repeated glaciations over the last 2 million years. Most of these valleys display the U-shape cross-section, characteristic of glacial origin and often contain elongate lakes occupying sizeable bedrock hollows often with tracts of relatively flat ground at their heads. Smaller lakes known as tarns occupy glacial cirques at higher elevations. It is the abundance of both which has led to the area becoming known as the Lake District.

The mountains of the Lake District are also known as the "Cumbrian Mountains", although this name is less frequently used than terms like "the Lake District" or "the Lakeland Fells". Many of the higher fells are rocky in character, whilst moorland predominates at lower altitude. Vegetation cover across better drained areas includes bracken and heather though much of the land is boggy, due to the high rainfall. Deciduous native woodland occurs on many steeper slopes below the tree line but with native oak supplemented by extensive conifer plantations in many areas, particularly Grisedale Forest in the generally lower southern part of the area.

  

Valleys

  

The principal radial valleys are (clockwise from the south) those of Dunnerdale, Eskdale, Wasdale, Ennerdale, Lorton Vale and the Buttermere valley, the Derwent Valley and Borrowdale, the valleys containing Ullswater and Haweswater, Longsleddale, the Kentmere valley and those radiating from the head of Windermere including Great Langdale. The valleys serve to break the mountains up into separate blocks which have been described by various authors in different ways. The most frequently encountered approach is that made popular by Alfred Wainwright who published seven separate area guides to the Lakeland Fells.

  

Woodlands

  

Below the tree line are wooded areas, including British and European native oak woodlands and introduced softwood plantations. The woodlands provide habitats for native English wildlife. The native red squirrel is found in the Lake District and in a few other parts of England. In parts of the Lake District the rainfall is higher than in any other part of England. This gives Atlantic mosses, ferns, lichen, and liverworts the chance to grow. There is some ancient woodland in the National Park. Management of the woodlands varies: some are coppiced, some pollarded, some left to grow naturally, and some provide grazing and shelter.

  

Hills (Fells)

  

The four highest mountains in the Lake District exceed 3000 ft (914m). These are;

 

Scafell Pike, 978 m (3,210 ft),

Scafell, 965 m (3,162 ft),

Helvellyn, 951 m (3,118 ft) and

Skiddaw, 931 m (3,054 ft).

  

Northern Fells

  

The Northern Fells are a readily defined range of hills contained within a 13 km diameter circle between Keswick in the southwest and Caldbeck in the northeast. They culminate in the 931 m (3054 ft) peak of Skiddaw. Other notable peaks are those of Blencathra (also known as Saddleback) (868m / 2848 ft) and Carrock Fell. Bassenthwaite Lake occupies the valley between this massif and the North Western Fells.

 

North Western Fells

  

The North Western Fells lie between Borrowdale and Bassenthwaite Lake to the east and Buttermere and Lorton Vale to the west. Their southernmost point is at Honister Pass. This area includes the Derwent Fells above the Newlands Valley and hills to the north amongst which are Dale Head, Robinson. To the north stand Grasmoor - highest in the range at 852 m (2795 ft), Grisedale Pike and the hills around the valley of Coledale, and in the far north-west is Thornthwaite Forest and Lord's Seat. The fells in this area are rounded Skiddaw Slate, with few tarns and relatively few rock faces.

  

Western Fells

  

The Western Fells lie between Buttermere and Wasdale, with Sty Head forming the apex of a large triangle. Ennerdale bisects the area, which consists of the High Stile ridge north of Ennerdale, the Loweswater Fells in the far north west, the Pillar group in the south west, and Great Gable (2,949 feet or 899 metres) near Sty Head. Other tops include Seatallan, Haystacks and Kirk Fell. This area is craggy and steep, with the impressive pinnacle of Pillar Rock its showpiece. Wastwater, located in this part, is England's deepest lake.

  

Central Fells

  

The Central Fells are lower in elevation than surrounding areas of fell, peaking at 762 m (2500 ft) at High Raise. They take the form of a ridge running between Derwent Water in the west and Thirlmere in the east, from Keswick in the north to Langdale Pikes in the south. A spur extends southeast to Loughrigg Fell above Ambleside. The central ridge running north over High Seat is exceptionally boggy.

  

Eastern Fells

  

The Eastern Fells consist of a long north-to-south ridge—the Helvellyn range, running from Clough Head to Seat Sandal with the 3,118-foot (950 m) Helvellyn at its highest point. The western slopes of these summits tend to be grassy, with rocky corries and crags on the eastern side. The Fairfield group lies to the south of the range, and forms a similar pattern with towering rock faces and hidden valleys spilling into the Patterdale valley. It culminates in the height of Red Screes overlooking the Kirkstone Pass.

  

Far Eastern Fells

  

The Far Eastern Fells refer to all of the Lakeland fells to the east of Ullswater and the A592 road running south to Windermere. At 828 m (2,717 ft), the peak known as High Street is the highest point on a complex ridge which runs broadly north-south and overlooks the hidden valley of Haweswater to its east. In the north of this region are the lower fells of Martindale Common and Bampton Common whilst in the south are the fells overlooking the Kentmere valley. Further to the east, beyond Mardale and Longsleddale is Shap Fell, an extensive area consisting of high moorland, more rolling and Pennine in nature than the mountains to the west.

  

Southern Fells

  

The Southern Fells occupy the southwestern quarter of the Lake District. They can be regarded as comprising a northern grouping between Wasdale, Eskdale and the two Langdale valleys, a southeastern group east of Dunnerdale and south of Little Langdale and a southwestern group bounded by Eskdale to the north and Dunnerdale to the east.

The first group includes England's highest mountains; Scafell Pike in the centre, at 3,209 feet (978 m) and Scafell one mile (1.6 km) to the south-west. Though it is slightly lower it has a 700-foot (210 m) rockface, Scafell Crag on its northern side. It also includes the Wastwater Screes overlooking Wasdale, the Glaramara ridge overlooking Borrowdale, the three tops of Crinkle Crags, Bowfell and Esk Pike. The core of the area is drained by the infant River Esk. Collectively these are some of the Lake District's most rugged hillsides.

The second group, otherwise known as the Furness Fells or Coniston Fells, have as their northern boundary the steep and narrow Hardknott and Wrynose Passes.

The third group to the west of the Duddon includes Harter Fell and the long ridge leading over Whitfell to Black Combe and the sea. The south of this region consists of lower forests and knolls, with Kirkby Moor on the southern boundary. The south-western Lake District ends near the Furness peninsula and Barrow-in-Furness, a town which many Lake District residents rely on for basic amenities.

  

South Eastern area

  

The south-eastern area is the territory between Coniston Water and Windermere and east of Windermere towards Kendal and south to Lindale. There are no high summits in this area which is mainly low hills, knolls and limestone cuestas such as Gummer's How and Whitbarrow. Indeed it rises only as high as 333m at Top o' Selside east of Coniston Water; The wide expanse of Grizedale Forest stands between the two lakes. Kendal and Morecambe Bay stand at the eastern and southern edges of the area.

  

Lakes

  

Only one of the lakes in the Lake District is called by that name, Bassenthwaite Lake. All the others such as Windermere, Coniston Water, Ullswater and Buttermere are meres, tarns and waters, with mere being the least common and water being the most common. The major lakes and reservoirs in the National Park are given below.

Bassenthwaite Lake

Brotherswater

Buttermere

Coniston Water

Crummock Water

Derwent Water

Devoke Water

Elter Water

Ennerdale Water

Esthwaite Water

Grasmere

Haweswater Reservoir

Hayeswater

Loweswater

Rydal Water

Thirlmere

Ullswater

Wast Water

Windermere

  

Geology

  

The Lake District's geology is very complex but well-studied.[12] A granite batholith beneath the area is responsible for this upland massif, its relatively low density causing the area to be 'buoyed up'. The granite can be seen at the surface as the Ennerdale, Skiddaw, Carrock Fell, Eskdale and Shap granites.

Broadly speaking the area can be divided into three bands, the divisions between which run southwest to northeast. Generally speaking the rocks become younger from northwest to southeast. The northwestern band is composed of early to mid Ordovician sedimentary rocks – largely mudstones and siltstones of marine origin. Together they comprise the Skiddaw Group and include the rocks traditionally known as the Skiddaw Slates. Their friability generally leads to mountains with relatively smooth slopes such as Skiddaw itself.

The central band is a mix of volcanic and sedimentary rocks of mid to late Ordovician age comprising the lavas and tuffs of the Borrowdale Volcanic Group, erupted as the former Iapetus ocean was subducted beneath what is now the Scottish border during the Caledonian orogeny. The northern central peaks, such as Great Rigg, were produced by considerable lava flows. These lava eruptions were followed by a series of pyroclastic eruptions which produced a series of calderas, one of which includes present-day Scafell Pike. These pyroclastic rocks give rise to the craggy landscapes typical of the central fells.[13]'

The southeastern band comprises the mudstones and wackes of the Windermere Supergroup and which includes (successively) the rocks of the Dent, Stockdale, Tranearth, Coniston and Kendal Groups. These are generally a little less resistant to erosion than the rocks sequence to the north and underlie much of the lower landscapes around Coniston and Windermere.

Later intrusions have formed individual outcrops of igneous rock in each of these groups. Around the edges of these Ordovician and Silurian rocks on the northern, eastern and southern fringes of the area is a semi-continuous outcrop of Carboniferous Limestone seen most spectacularly at places like Whitbarrow Scar and Scout Scar.

  

Climate

  

The Lake District's location on the north west coast of England, coupled with its mountainous geography, makes it the dampest part of England. The UK Met Office reports average annual precipitation of more than 2,000 millimetres (80 in), but with very large local variation. Although the entire region receives above average rainfall, there is a wide disparity between the amount of rainfall in the western and eastern lakes, as the Lake District experiences relief rainfall. Seathwaite in Borrowdale is the wettest inhabited place in England with an average of 3,300 millimetres (130 in) of rain a year,[16] while nearby Sprinkling Tarn is even wetter, recording over 5,000 millimetres (200 in) per year; by contrast, Keswick, at the end of Borrowdale receives 1,470 millimetres (60 in) every year, and Penrith (just outside the Lake District) only 870 millimetres (30 in). March to June tend to be the driest months, with October to January the wettest, but at low levels there is relatively little difference between months.

Although sheltered valleys experience gales on an average of only five days a year, the Lake District is generally very windy with the coastal areas having 20 days of gales, and the fell tops around 100 days of gales per year. The maritime climate means that the Lake District experiences relatively moderate temperature variations through the year. Mean temperature in the valleys ranges from about 3 °C (37 °F) in January to around 15 °C (59 °F) in July. (By comparison, Moscow, at the same latitude, ranges from −10 °C to 19 °C/14 °F to 66 °F).

The relatively low height of most of the fells means that, while snow is expected during the winter, they can be free of snow at any time of the year. Normally, significant snow fall only occurs between November and April. On average, snow falls on Helvellyn 67 days per year. During the year, valleys typically experience 20 days with snow falling, a further 200 wet days, and 145 dry days. Hill fog is common at any time of year, and the fells average only around 2.5 hours of sunshine per day, increasing to around 4.1 hours per day on the coastal plains.

  

Wildlife

  

The Lake District is one of the few places in England where red squirrels have a sizeable population.[18]

  

The Lake District is home to a plethora of wildlife, due to its range of varied topography, lakes and forests. It provides a home for the red squirrel and colonies of sundew and butterwort, two of the few carnivorous plants native to Britain. The Lake District is a major sanctuary for the red squirrel and has the largest population in England. It is estimated there are 140,000 red squirrels in the United Kingdom, but are approximately 2.5 million gray squirrels who have displaced the indigenous red population since their introduction to the British Isles.[19]

The Lake District is home to a range of bird species,[20] and the RSPB maintain a reserve in Haweswater.[21] England's only nesting pair of Golden Eagles can be found in the Lake District. The female Golden Eagle has not been seen since 2004 although the male still remains.[22] Conservationists believe he is now the only resident golden eagle in England.[23] Following recolonisation attempts, a pair of ospreys nested in the Lake District for the time in over 150 years near Bassenthwaite Lake during 2001. Osprey's now frequently migrate north from Africa in the spring to nest in the Lake District and a total of 23 chicks have fledged in The Lakes since 2001.[24] Another bird species to have had recolonisation attempts is the Red Kite who have a population approximately 90 in the dense forest areas near Grizedale as of 2012.[25] Conservationists hope the re-introduction will create a large Red Kite population in the Lake District and in North West England where the Red Kite population is low.[26] Other bird species resident to the Lake District include the buzzard, dipper, peregrine and raven.[27] Seasonal birds include the ring ouzel and the redstart.[28]

The lakes of the Lake District support three rare and endangered species of fish: the vendace, which can be found only in Derwent Water and until 2008 in Bassenthwaite Lake.[29] Vendace have struggled in recent years with naturally-occurring algae becoming a threat and the lakes gradually getting warmer in temperature.[30] Vendace have been moved to higher lakes on a number of occasions to preserve the species, notably in 2005 and 2011.[31][32] The Lakes are also home to two other rare species: the schelly, which lives in Brothers Water, Haweswater, Red Tarn and Ullswater, and the Arctic charr, which can be found in Buttermere, Coniston Water, Crummock Water, Ennerdale Water, Haweswater, Loweswater, Thirlmere, Wast Water, and Windermere.

  

The vendace (Coregonus vandesius) is England's rarest species of fish, and is only found in the Lake District.

In recent years, some important changes have been made to fisheries byelaws covering the north-west region of England, to help protect some of the rarest fish species. In 2002, the Environment Agency introduced a new fisheries byelaw, banning the use of all freshwater fish as live or dead bait in 14 of the lakes in the Lake District. Anglers not complying with the new byelaw can face fines of up to £2,500. There are 14 lakes in the Lake District which are affected. These are: Bassenthwaite Lake, Brothers Water, Buttermere, Coniston Water, Crummock Water, Derwent Water, Ennerdale Water, Haweswater, Loweswater, Red Tarn, Thirlmere, Ullswater, Wast Water and Windermere.

The lakes and waters of the Lake District do not naturally support as many species of fish as other similar habitats in the south of the country and elsewhere in Europe. Some fish that do thrive there are particularly at risk from introduction of new species.

The introduction of non-native fish can lead to the predation of the native fish fauna or competition for food. There is also the risk of disease being introduced, which can further threaten native populations. In some cases, the introduced species can disturb the environment so much that it becomes unsuitable for particular fish. For example, a major problem has been found with ruffe. This non-native fish has now been introduced into a number of lakes in recent years. It is known that ruffe eat the eggs of vendace, which are particularly vulnerable because of their long incubation period. This means that they are susceptible to predators for up to 120 days. The eggs of other fish, for example roach, are only at risk for as little as three days.

  

Economy

  

Agriculture and forestry

  

Farming, and in particular sheep farming, has been the major industry in the region since Roman times. The breed most closely associated with the area is the tough Herdwick, with Rough Fell and Swaledale sheep also common. Sheep farming remains important both for the economy of the region and for preserving the landscape which visitors want to see. Features such as dry stone walls, for example, are there as a result of sheep farming. Some land is also used for silage and dairy farming.

The area was badly affected by the outbreak of foot-and-mouth disease across the United Kingdom in 2001. The outbreak started in Surrey in February, but had spread to Cumbria by end of March.[33] Thousands of sheep, include the native Herdwick which graze on the fellsides across the District, were destroyed. In replacing the sheep, one problem to overcome was that many of the lost sheep were heafed, that is, they knew their part of the unfenced fell and did not stray, with this knowledge being passed between generations. With all the sheep lost at once, this knowledge has to be re-learnt and some of the fells have had discreet electric fences strung across them for a period of five years, to allow the sheep to "re-heaf".[34] At the time of the outbreak, worries existed about the future of certain species of sheep such as Ryeland and Herdwick in the District,[35] however these fears have been allayed and sheep now occupy the District in abundance.[36]

  

Forestry has also assumed greater importance over the course of the last century with the establishment of extensive conifer plantations around Whinlatter Pass, in Ennerdale and at Grizedale Forest amongst other places. There are extensive plantations of non-native pine trees.

  

Industry

 

With its wealth of rock types and their abundance in the landscape, mining and quarrying have long been significant activities in the Lake District economy. In Neolithic times, the Lake District was a major source of stone axes, examples of which have been found all over Britain. The primary site, on the slopes of the Langdale Pikes, is sometimes described as a "stone axe factory" of the Langdale axe industry. Some of the earliest stone circles in Britain are connected with this industry.

Mining, particularly of copper, lead (often associated with quantities of silver), baryte, graphite and slate, was historically a major Lakeland industry, mainly from the 16th century to the 19th century. Coppiced woodland was used extensively to provide charcoal for smelting. Some mining still takes place today; for example, slate mining continues at the Honister Mines, at the top of Honister Pass. Abandoned mine-workings can be found on fell-sides throughout the district. The locally mined graphite led to the development of the pencil industry, especially around Keswick.

  

In the middle of the 19th century, half the world textile industry's bobbin supply came from the Lake District area. Over the past century, however, tourism has grown rapidly to become the area's primary source of income.

  

Development of tourism

  

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Early visitors to the Lake District, who travelled for the education and pleasure of the journey, include Celia Fiennes who in 1698 undertook a journey the length of England, including riding through Kendal and over Kirkstone Pass into Patterdale. Her experiences and impressions were published in her book Great Journey to Newcastle and Cornwall:

As I walked down at this place I was walled on both sides by those inaccessible high rocky barren hills which hang over one’s head in some places and appear very terrible; and from them springs many little currents of water from the sides and clefts which trickle down to some lower part where it runs swiftly over the stones and shelves in the way, which makes a pleasant rush and murmuring noise and like a snowball is increased by each spring trickling down on either side of those hills, and so descends into the bottoms which are a Moorish ground in which in many places the waters stand, and so form some of those Lakes as it did here.[37]

In 1724, Daniel Defoe published the first volume of A Tour Thro' the Whole Island of Great Britain. He commented on Westmorland that it was:

the wildest, most barren and frightful of any that I have passed over in England, or even Wales itself; the west side, which borders on Cumberland, is indeed bounded by a chain of almost unpassable mountains which, in the language of the country, are called fells.

Towards the end of the 18th century, the area was becoming more popular with travellers. This was partly a result of wars in Continental Europe, restricting the possibility of travel there. In 1778 Father Thomas West produced A Guide to the Lakes, which began the era of modern tourism.

  

West listed "stations"—viewpoints where tourists could enjoy the best views of the landscape, being encouraged to appreciated the formal qualities of the landscape and to apply aesthetic values. At some of these stations, buildings were erected to help this process. The remains of Claife Station (on the western shore Windermere below Claife Heights) can be visited today.

William Wordsworth published his Guide to the Lakes in 1810, and by 1835 it had reached its fifth edition, now called A Guide through the District of the Lakes in the North of England. This book was particularly influential in popularising the region. Wordsworth's favourite valley was Dunnerdale or the Duddon Valley nestling in the south-west of the Lake District.

The railways led to another expansion in tourism. The Kendal and Windermere Railway was the first to penetrate the Lake District, reaching Kendal in 1846 and Windermere in 1847. The line to Coniston opened in 1848 (although until 1857 this was only linked to the national network with ferries between Fleetwood and Barrow-in-Furness); the line from Penrith through Keswick to Cockermouth in 1865; and the line to Lakeside at the foot of Windermere in 1869. The railways, built with traditional industry in mind, brought with them a huge increase in the number of visitors, thus contributing to the growth of the tourism industry. Railway services were supplemented by steamer boats on the major lakes of Ullswater, Windermere, Coniston Water, and Derwent Water.

  

A steamer on Ullswater

  

The growth in tourist numbers continued into the age of the motor car, when railways began to be closed or run down. The formation of the Lake District National Park in 1951 recognised the need to protect the Lake District environment from excessive commercial or industrial exploitation, preserving that which visitors come to see, without any restriction on the movement of people into and around the district. The M6 Motorway helped bring traffic to the Lakes, passing up its eastern flank. The narrow roads present a challenge for traffic flow and, from the 1960s, certain areas have been very congested.

Whilst the roads and railways provided easier access to the area, many people were drawn to the Lakes by the publication of the Pictorial Guide to the Lakeland Fells by Alfred Wainwright. First published between 1952 and 1965, these books provided detailed information on 214 peaks across the region, with carefully hand-drawn maps and panoramas, and also stories and asides which add to the colour of the area. They are still used by many visitors to the area as guides for walking excursions, with the ultimate goal of bagging the complete list of Wainwrights. The famous guides are being revised by Chris Jesty to reflect changes, mainly in valley access and paths.[38]

Since the early 1960s, the National Park Authority has employed rangers to help cope with increasing tourism and development, the first being John Wyatt, who has since written a number of guide books. He was joined two years later by a second, and since then the number of rangers has been rising.

The area has also become associated with writer Beatrix Potter. A number of tourists visit to see her family home, with particularly large numbers coming from Japan.

Tourism has now become the park's major industry, with about 12 million visitors each year, mainly from the UK's larger settlements, China, Japan, Spain, Germany and the US.[39] Windermere Lake Steamers are Cumbria's most popular charging tourist attraction with about 1.35 million paying customers each year, and the local economy is dependent upon tourists. The negative impact of tourism has been seen, however. Soil erosion, caused by walking, is now a significant problem, with millions of pounds being spent to protect over-used paths. In 2006, two Tourist Information Centres in the National Park were closed.

Cultural tourism is becoming an increasingly important part of the wider tourist industry. The Lake District's links with a wealth of artists and writers and its strong history of providing summer theatre performances in the old Blue Box of Century Theatre are strong attractions for visiting tourists. The tradition of theatre is carried on by venues such as Theatre by the Lake in Keswick with its summer season of six plays in repertoire, Christmas and Easter productions, and the many literature, film, mountaineering, jazz and creative arts festivals, such as the Kendal Mountain Festival and the Keswick Mountain Festival.

  

Gastronomy

  

The Lake District has been regarded as one of the best places to eat in Britain.[40] The region has four Michelin Star Restaurants including L'Enclume, Sharrow Bay, Holbeck Ghyll and The Samling in Ambleside. In addition, Cumbria has more microbreweries than any other county in Britain and together with Jennings Brewery supply a variety of ales to pubs and restaurants throughout the region.

  

Literature and art

  

The Lake District is intimately associated with English literature in the 18th and 19th centuries. Thomas Gray was the first to bring the region to attention, when he wrote a journal of his Grand Tour in 1769, but it was William Wordsworth whose poems were most famous and influential. Wordsworth's poem "I Wandered Lonely as a Cloud", inspired by the sight of daffodils on the shores of Ullswater, remains one of the most famous in the English language. Out of his long life of eighty years, sixty were spent amid its lakes and mountains, first as a schoolboy at Hawkshead, and afterwards living in Grasmere (1799–1813) and Rydal Mount (1813–50). Wordsworth, Coleridge and Southey became known as the Lake Poets.

The poet and his wife lie buried in the churchyard of Grasmere and very near to them are the remains of Hartley Coleridge (son of the poet Samuel Taylor Coleridge), who himself lived for many years in Keswick, Ambleside and Grasmere. Robert Southey, the Poet Laureate and friend of Wordsworth (who would succeed Southey as Laureate in 1843), was a resident of Keswick for forty years (1803–43), and was buried in Crosthwaite churchyard. Samuel Taylor Coleridge lived for some time in Keswick, and also with the Wordsworths at Grasmere. From 1807 to 1815 John Wilson lived at Windermere. Thomas de Quincey spent the greater part of the years 1809 to 1828 at Grasmere, in the first cottage which Wordsworth had inhabited. Ambleside, or its environs, was also the place of residence both of Thomas Arnold, who spent there the vacations of the last ten years of his life and of Harriet Martineau, who built herself a house there in 1845. At Keswick, Mrs Lynn Linton (wife of William James Linton) was born, in 1822. Brantwood, a house beside Coniston Water, was the home of John Ruskin during the last years of his life. His assistant W. G. Collingwood the author, artist and antiquarian lived nearby, and wrote Thorstein of the Mere, set in the Norse period.

In addition to these residents or natives of the Lake District, a variety of other poets and writers made visits to the Lake District or were bound by ties of friendship with those already mentioned above. These include Percy Bysshe Shelley, Sir Walter Scott, Nathaniel Hawthorne, Arthur Hugh Clough, Henry Crabb Robinson, "Conversation" Sharp, Thomas Carlyle, John Keats, Lord Tennyson, Matthew Arnold, Felicia Hemans, and Gerald Massey.

During the early 20th century, the children's author Beatrix Potter was in residence at Hill Top Farm, setting many of her famous Peter Rabbit books in the Lake District. Her life was made into a biopic film, starring Renée Zellweger and Ewan McGregor. Arthur Ransome lived in several areas of the Lake District, and set five of his Swallows and Amazons series of books, published between 1930 and 1947, in a fictionalised Lake District setting. So did Geoffrey Trease with his five Black Banner school stories (1949–56), starting with No Boats on Bannermere.

The novelist Sir Hugh Walpole lived at "Brackenburn" on the lower slopes of Catbells overlooking Derwent Water from 1924 until his death in 1941. Whilst living at "Brackenburn" he wrote The Herries Chronicle detailing the history of a fictional Cumbrian family over two centuries. The noted author and poet Norman Nicholson came from the south-west Lakes, living and writing about Millom in the twentieth century – he was known as the last of the Lake Poets and came close to becoming the Poet Laureate.

Writer and author Melvyn Bragg was brought up in the region and has used it as the setting for some of his work, such as his novel A Time to Dance, later turned into a television drama.

The Lake District has been the setting for crime novels by Reginald Hill, Val McDermid and Martin Edwards. The region is also a recurring theme in Ernest Hemingway's 1926 novella The Torrents of Spring and features prominently in Ian McEwan's Amsterdam, which won the 1998 Booker Prize.

The Lake District is mentioned in Jane Austen's Pride and Prejudice; Elizabeth Bennet looks forward to a holiday there with her aunt and uncle and is "excessively disappointed" upon learning they cannot travel that far.

Film director Ken Russell lived in the Keswick/Borrowdale area until 2007[41] and used it in films such as Tommy and Mahler.

The Lake District is the setting for the 1977 Richard Adams novel The Plague Dogs. Adams' knowledge of the area offers the reader a precise view of the natural beauty of the Lake District .

Some students of Arthurian lore identify the Lake District with the Grail kingdom of Listeneise.

The former Keswick School of Industrial Art at Keswick was started by Canon Rawnsley, a friend of John Ruskin.

  

Nomenclature

  

A number of words and phrases are local to the Lake District and are part of the Cumbrian dialect, though many are shared by other northern dialects. These include:

fell – from Old Norse fjallr, brought to England by Viking invaders and close to modern Norwegian fjell and Swedish fjäll meaning mountain

howe – place name from the Old Norse haugr meaning hill, knoll, or mound

tarn – a word that has been taken to mean a small lake situated in a corrie (the local name for which is cove), a local phrase for any small pool of water. The word is derived from the Old Norse, Norwegian and Swedish word tjern/tjärn, meaning small lake

Yan Tan Tethera – the name for a system of sheep counting which was traditionally used in the Lake District. Though now rare, it is still used by some and taught in local schools.

Heaf (a variant of heft), the "home territory" of a flock of sheep.

 

First Great Western 125's diverts from Cornwall/Devon for the Easter Weekend - "1036 Exeter St Davids - Waterloo" via Warminster then the South Western main line from Salisbury due to the Reading closure for the Easter four days.

From Box Hill, Surrey looking south towards Crawley, West Sussex.

This memorial is at The National Memorial Arboretum, Alrewas, Staffordshire

ABELL Frederick John Leading Supply Assistant, D/MX 59762 age 20. Son of Frederick & Emily Mary of Elburton, Devon. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

ADSETTS William Isaac Ordinary Seaman (South Africa) D/JX 162206, age 18. Son of Godfrey Marsh & Sarah Marsh Adsetts of East Germiston, Transvall, South Africa. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

ALLEN George Edward Plumber, D/MX, 74014, age 22. Son of James George & Ellen of Penzance. Commemorated Porstmouth

ALLEN Joseph Freeman Stoker D/KX 120899, age 26. Son of Robert Ramsey & Edith nee Freeman of Newcastle on Tyne Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

ALLRIDGE Arthur Ordinary Seaman P/JX 158666, son of Richard of Surrey, Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

ARBUTHNOT Peter Charles Reginald Lieutenant, son of Admiral, Sir Geoffrey, K.C.B., D.S.O., and Lady Arbuthnot of Heyshott, Sussex. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

ARGULUS Edward Albert Leading Telegraphist D/JX 148072. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

ARMOUR Daniel Ordinary Seaman D/JX 175889, age 18. Son of Daniel & Jean Campbell Hill Armour of Ayre. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

ASHTON Charles Master at Arms D/M 39763, age 38. Son of Joseph Henry & Mary, husband of Jean Alice. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

ASPINALL Jack Leading Sick Berth Attendant D/MX 52880, age 28. Son of Herbert & Alice May of Nottingham. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

AUGER Thomas Frederick Ordnance Artificer D/M 34807 age 43. Son of Thomas & Katherine, husband of Rosina Doris of Fortuneswell, Dorsetshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BADCOCK Charles David Edgar Midshipman age 18. Son of Captain (S), K.E. Badcock, D.S.O., D.S.C., Royal Navy< and Mrs Badcock of Westbourne, Sussex. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BAILEY Edward Stoker D/KX 120855, husband of Vera Gladys of Whittering of Northamptonshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BAKER Ernest Able Seaman D/SSX 14972. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BAKER William Cook (S) D/MX 81927, age 25. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BAKER Walter Leading Seaman C/JX 133290. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial, Kent

BAKER Walter James Stoker C/KX 104057, age 24, son of Walter George & Lois Ada of Bonsall, Derbyshire. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

BALDWIN Cornelius Stoker D/KX 120850 age 30. Son of William & Annie Mary of Treforest, Glamorgan. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BALL William Frederick Petty Officer Stoker, P/K 58293 Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

BALLINGER Frederick Petty Officer Stoker D/KX 82115. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BARLOW William Hirst Stoker D/KX 120692. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BARNES Albert James Chief Stoker, D/R 60954, age 41. Son of Albert George & Ada Lucy of Swindon, Wilts, husband of Helen. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BARNETT William Leading Stoker D/KX 76108 age 34. Son of James John & Katie Rosina, husband of Katherine Queenie. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BARTLETT Owen John Able Seaman, D/J 54775. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BARTON Malcolm Roy Ordinary Telegraphist D/JX 216106, age 26. Son of Joseph & Ada of Rudheath, Cheshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BASTABLE Philip Henry Charles Midshipman age 17, son of Charles George & Helen of Newbury, Berkshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BATT William James Chief Shipwright C/M 21758 age 41. Son of William Davis & Florence and father of Pamela Batt of Maidstone. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

BAXTER Ronald Steward P/LX 26414 age 18. Son of Fred & Polly of Great Houghton, Yorkshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BELL Reginald Stoker D/KX 120904 age 26. Son of Richard & Catherine of Maryport Cumberland, husband of Gladys of Maryport. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BELSOM Richard Albert Ordinary Seaman D/JX 240986 age 18. Son of Charles William & Emmeline of Penzance, Cornwall. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BENNETT Alfred Stoker D/KX 111957 age 23. Son of Mrs A of Dudley, Worcestershire, Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BENNETT Edward Donald Leading Seaman C/JX 134095 age 28. Son of Arthur & Mercy, husband of Kathleen Marian of Cromer, Norfolk. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

BENNETT Geoffrey Joiner D/MX 86729 age 27. Son of Arthur & Edith Mary of Cheam, Surrey. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BERRY Philip Arthur Commander age 40. Son of Mr & Mrs A J, husband of Doreen M of Cortington, Wilts. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BEVAN David Richard Lee Sub-Lieutenant age 19. Son of Capt Robert Hesketh & Margaret Frances of Heythrop, Oxfordshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BILLINGTON William Stoker D/KX 120693. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BIRMINGHAM William Ordinary Seaman, P/JX 259255 age 20. Son of William Joseph & Ellen. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

BISBY Bernard Ordinary Seaman P/JX 264850 age 29. Son of George & Lily, husband of Hilda, of Mexborough, Yorkshire. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

BLACK Thomas Fraser Leading Stoker D/KX 90439 age 28. Son of Thomas & Agnes of St Andrew, Fife, husband of Mary Jane Dorward Black of St Andrew. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BLAKE Frederick Charles Able Seaman C/JX 131594. Son of Charles Albert & Alice, husband of Olive Irene. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

BLIGHT James Howard Engine Room Artificer D/MX 60253. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BODDINGTON Fred Able Seaman, D/JX 149811 age 21. Son of Fred & Emily of Abersychan, Monmouthshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BOOTH Alan Victor Ordinary Seaman P/JX 264848. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

BOSLEY George Charles Stanley Ordinary Seaman P/JX 239898. Son of George Henry & Eleanor. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BOWRON Leslie Cambrai Ordinary Seaman C/JX 203013. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

BRABYN Kenneth Arnold Engine Room Artificer C/MX 53082, son of Vernon Arthur & Mary of Slough, Buckinghamshire. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

BRADBURN Ernest Able Seaman D/JX 136378. age 26. Son of Robert & Georgina. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BRADWELL Arnold Harvey Engine Room Artificer D/MX 54821 age 44. Son of Mr & Mrs H of Carisle. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BRANSON Wilfred Frank Chief Petty Officer D/JX 1010916 age 47. Son of Benjamin & Mary, husband of Phyllis Mary of Plymouth and is commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BRANT John Norman Able Seaman D/J 109963 age 32. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BRAUNTON Thomas John Leading Stoker D/KX 93609 age 22. Son of Mr & Mrs Braunton of Torrington. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BRIGHT Reginald Walter Leading Seaman P/J 96562. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BRISTOW Franklin William Able Seaman, D/JX 213706. Son of Joseph William & Alice of Budleigh, Salterton, Devon. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BROOKS James Smith Able Seaman D/JX 126623. Son of William & Annie Smith Brooks of Glasgow, husband of Elizabeth McGhee Brooks of Glasgow. At rest in Tripoli War Cemetery, Libya. 5.D.13

BROUGH Arthur Boy Seaman D/JX 188520 age 16. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BROUGH Caleb Dixon Septimus Chief Petty Officer Telegraphist D/J 107841 age 33, Son of Thomas Hodgson & Mary Elizabeth of Silloth, Cumberland. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BUCKINGHAM William Leading Stoker D/KX 92947 age 22. Son of Daniel & Elizabeth of Clowne, Derbyshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BULL James William Able Seaman, C/JX 225279. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

BULL Robert Thomas George Sick Berth Attendant D/MX 72343. age 24. Son of George & May of Paulton Somerset. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BURDETT George Ordinary Seaman P/JX 264834 age 32. Son of John & Ethel husband of Evelyn of Sheffield. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BURLEY Morris Petty Officer Stoker D/K 66327 age 33. son of Ethel, husband of Ellen. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BURNS Ellick Thomas Eustace Stoker (South Africa) D/KX 77198 age 38. Son of Thomas & Violet Beatrice, husband of Maria Aletta of Cape Town, South Africa. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

BURTON Albert Henry Able Seaman C/SSX 18587 son of Albert & Julia of Lichfield, Staffs. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

BUXTON Richard Engine Room Artificer P/SMX 479, age 21. Son of Frederick & Esther of Freshwater, Isle of Wight. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

CAME Edgar Ronald Stoker D/KX 92928. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CAMPBELL Keith Able Seaman (Australia) S 4186 Royal Australian Naval Reserve age 22. Son of Edwin Frank & Charlotte Maria, St Peters New South Wales. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CANTERBURY Fred Able Seaman D/J 94378, age 38. Son of George & Florence, husband of Norah, of Langport, Somerset. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CARROLL Frank Stoker D/KX 1051221, age 21. Son of Thomas William & Isabella of Bradford, Lancashire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CARTER George Leading Stoker D/KX 90731, age 23. Son of Jack & Edith of Stretford, Lancashire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CARTER Thomas Able Seaman D/SSX 21201. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CARTHY James Gerard Petty Officer (Eire) D/JX 136194 age 26. Son of Thomas & Briget of Garriston, Co Dublin. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CARTY John Joseph Petty Officer Telegraphist D/J 31949, age 43. Son of John Joseph & Kathleen, nee Brennan, husband of Dorothy May nee Dixon of Bridlington, Yorkshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CHAMBERLAIN Albert Henry Stoker D/KX 113351. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CHAMBERLAIN Frederick James Leading Seaman C/JX 150941 age 20. Son of Harry Albert & Ethel Maud pf Lowerstoft, Suffolk. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

CHARLES David William Petty Officer, Steward D/LX 21439. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CHARMAN James Percy Leading Steward C/L7820, age 48. Son of Henry Arthur & Fanny Alice, husband of Florence Ivy of Queensborough, Kent. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

CLARK John Campbell Sick Berth Attendant P/MX 64989, age 25. Son of John Campbell & Margaret Clark of Inverness. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

CLAYDEN Victor James Chief Stoker D/KX 65639, age 40. Son of Frederick James & L of High Easter, Essex. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CLEARY Patrick Joseph Coder D?JX 216157. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CLEMM William Edward Stoker D/KX 120653 age 19. Son of Ernest & Louie of Alum Rock, Birmingham. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

COCK Edwin Alfred Boy Telegraphist D/JX 163677. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

COLE Raymond Martin Boy Seaman C/JX 182074 age 17. Son of Frederick John & Beatrice of Walton-on-the-Naze, Essex. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

COLEMAN Ernest Charles Chief Petty Officer D/J 105160 age 36. Son of Charles & Mary Elizabeth, nee Stone, husband of Edith Alma, St Pauls, Bristol. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CONNOR John Stoker D/KX 84606 age 26. Son of John & Mary Ellen of Lower Broughton, Lancashire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CORNISH Reginald Edward Chief Petty Officer Cook (S) D/M 11367 age 44. Son of William & Emma, husband of Mary Ellen of Devonport. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

COSTELLO James Samuel Petty Officer C/SSX 15021 age 25. Son of Alfred Tomas & Florence Agnes of Kennington, London. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

COULTON Richard Trevena Lieutenant age 27. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

COUSINS Ernest George Electrical Artificer C/MX 6875. Son of Arthur Ernest & Violet, of Barnet, Hertfordshire. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

CREEK John Albert Taylor Chief Petty Officer Sick Berth Attendant D/M 16299, age 45. Son of Thomas & Susan, husband of Sarah Emma, of Wyke Regis, Dorsetshire. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

CREGOE Albert Edward Thomas Petty Officer, Stoker D/KX 78510 age 41. Son of Albert James & Elizabeth Emily of Morice Town, Devonport. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CRISP Kenneth Sydney Frank Telegraphist C/JX 172099 age 22. Son of Sydney Ernest & Audrey of Norbury, Surrey. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

CROOK Ernest Lead Seaman D/JX 136848. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CROSSLEY Harold Stoker P/KX 122424 age 26. Son of William & Emma of Moorthorpe, York. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

CUNNINGHAM David Crofton Lieutenant age 28. Son of Colonel T.C. D.S.O., & Mrs H J of Newport, Isle of Wight. Awarded the Goodenough Medal 1935. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CUNNINGHAM Thomas Petty Officer Stoker (South Africa) D/KX 81955 age 39. Husband of Hilda Magdaline of Cape Town, South Africa. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

CURTIS Cedric Charles Canteen Assistant (N.A.A.F.I.) age 21 Son of Charles Christopher & Louise Maud of Kettering, Northamptonshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DARCY Richard Ordinary Seaman C/KX 237904 age 23. Mr & Mrs Hugh, husband of Mrs A Darcy, of Widness, Lancs. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

DARTON William George Sidney Petty Officer D/JX 128544 age 31. Son of William & Alice, husband of Amy Elizabeth Louisa, of Rosyth, Fife. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DAULTON Raymond Gill Stoker (South Africa) D/KX 90830, age 23. Husband of Mary Agnes nee Wilson of Cape Town, South Africa. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DAVIES Alan Scourfield Stoker D/KX 118076 age 20. Son of David John & Catherine Jane of Carnarthen. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DAVIES Thomas William Ordinary Seaman D/JX 170904 age 18. Son of Walter Frederick & Emma of Aintree Lancs. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DAY Robert Frank Boy Seaman D/JX 194805 age 17. Son of Frederick Charles & Minnie Ethel of Westward Ho, Devon. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DENNEY Raymond Ordnance Artificer 4th Class C/MX 59500 age 26. Son of John Robert & Minnie, husband of Jeannie McGiffin Denney of Cosham, Hampshire. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

DESOER Allan Ordinary Telegraphist D/JX 216071 age 26. Son of Jack & Eva of Chorley, Lancs. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DIXON James Anthony Telegraphist P/JX 174926. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

DIXON James Burgon Stoker P/SKX 1011. Son of James & Elizabeth of Spitfield, Northumberland. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

DODD William Jeffrey Boy Seaman D/JX 164074 age 17. Son of George & Emily May of Atherstone, Warwickshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DONALDSON James Nolan Able Seaman D/JX 146755 age 22. Son of Jonathan & Anna of Belfast Northern Ireland. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DONALDSON Thomas Able Seaman D/SSX 18078 age 22. Son of William G & Catherine of Stockbridge, Edinburgh. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DONOGHUE Stanley Clifford Able Seaman D/JX 159194, age 18. Son of Frank & Thirza Gladys of Pontymoyle, Monouthshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DONOVAN John Able Seaman D/JX 160025 age 18. Son of John & Nora of Cobh, Co Cork. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DORSOM Herbert Easton Shipwright D/SMX 2141. Son of Sidney Harold & Mabel, husband of Agnes Joyce of Salcombe, Devon. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DOWLE Percy George Stoker C/KX 22238 age 26. Son of Charles James & Hilda May husband of Nancy may of Ashford, Kent. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

DRAKE Kenneth Boy Telegraphist D/JX 175941 age 18. Adopted son of Charles Beck of Chopwell Co Durham. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DUFFY John Alan Wireman D/MX 74324, age 22. Son of Joseph & Ellen of Wallsend, Northumberland. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

DUNCAN Harold Able Seaman C/JX 175238 age 21. Son of Arthur & Matilda of Barnet, Hertfordshire. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

DURHAM Victor George Reynold Boy Seaman (South Africa) D/JX 193606. son of John & Murial Mabel of Johannesburg Transval, South Africa. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

EDAMS Edgar Thomas Commissioned Gunner age 41. Son of Robert W & Lillie Mary born 1900 in Gathorpe Leicester. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

EDWARDS Frank Bertram Stoker D/KX 99245 age 22. Son of Frank & Alice of Bristol, husband of Doris Ethel of Knowl Bristol. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

EDWARD Thomas G Ordinary Seaman P/JX 259705 age 25. Son of Evan & Emma of Wrexham, Denbighshire. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

ELDER Alexander Able Seaman D/J 72210 age 41. Son of William & Elizabeth, husband of Elvira Elizabeth of Southend on Sea, Essex. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

ELLIOTT Ernest Henry Ordinary Seaman P/JX 259659 age 29. Son of John Henry & Rosa Jane, husband of Phyllis Sophia of Plymouth. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

ELLIS George Henry Yeoman of Signals D/JX 136117. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

ELSON Dudley Vincent Leading Seaman D/J 74046 age 39. Son of John Barker & Margaret Elson of Battersea, London. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

ENSELL Maurice Austin Standish Midshipman age 18, son of The Revd Charles Standish Ensell B.A & Nellie Aubone Ensell of Chelsea, London. Awarded the Kings Dirk at Royal Navy College, Dartmouth. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

ESTERNUYSE Adriaan Johannes Stoker (South Africa) D/KX 96384 age 21. Son of Anna Debora of Cape Town, South Africa. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

EVANS Edward Thomas Leading Seaman D/JX 138479 age 24. Son of Thomas & Violet of Pontllanfraith Monmouthshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

EVANS John Leading Seaman D/JX 151224 age 21. Son of William & Martha Ann of Newport, Monmouthshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

EVANS John Charles Electrical Artificer D/M 39492 age 31. Son of Frederick Charles & Hilda Louise of Bengeworth, Worcestershire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

EVANS Mosses William Warrant Mechanician age 38. Son of Mosses William & Mary Ann, husband of Lillian Violet of Fareham, Hampshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

EVANS William Henry Petty Officer D/JX 12758. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

FALZON Angel George Francis Assistant Steward (Malta) E/LX 25509 age 20. Son of Luqa Falzon & Domenica nee Azzopardi of Naxxar, Malta. G .C. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

FARISH Robert James Leading Seaman D/JX 153960 age 20. Son of Robert & Eleanor of Kirkbride, Cumberland. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

FELTWELL Thomas George Petty Officer Stoker D/K 61142 age 35. Son of Thomas George & Elizabeth, M.A of Cefn-Y-Bedd, Denbighshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

FENN Charles Ordinary Seaman C/JX 170923. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

FEWINS Arthur Kingsley Engine Room Artificer D/MX 64770 age 22. Son of Archibald Frank & Adeline Pascoe of Plymouth. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

FIELD Ronald Frank George Able Seaman P/JX 206789 age 21. Son of Frank & Eva of Addlestone, Surrey. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

FIELD William Archer Albert Petty Officer Cook (S) D/MX 50456 age 24. Son of William Archer Albert & Lyla, husband of Doreen of Northallerton, Yorkshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

FIELDING George Smith Leading Telegraphist D/SSX 23284 age 21. Son of Benjamin & Edith Maud of Burnley, Lancashire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

FLAHERTY Harold Linnie Leading Seaman D/JX 135801. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

FLETT Arthur Seaman C/X 20880A Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

FLOWERS Ernest Ronald Chief Engine Room Artificer D/MX 47316. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

FORBES David Boulton Midshipman age 18. Son of Walter & Hersey of North Cray, Kent. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

FORD Edward Walter George Supply Chief Petty Officer C/M 39219 age 42. Son of Edward Charles & Emma of Lambeth, London. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

FORREST Alexander James Leading Steward D/LX 21415 age 27. Son of Alexander G & Mary A of Jesmond, Northumberland. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

FORESTER Thomas Leading Stoker P/KX 92758 age 23. Son of George & Mary of Byker, Newcastle under Tyne. Commemorated on the Porstmouth Naval Memorial

FRANCIS William Petty Officer Stoker D/K 63113 age 37. husband of E W of Horsley Cross, Essex. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

FRASER Cameron Lieutenant, Surgeon L.C.R.P., L.R.C.S. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

FREELAND George Edwin Alfred Lieutenant (E) age 37. Son of Edwin & Elizabeth Charlotte, husband of Lily Elizabeth of Bedhampton, Hampshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GAILES Wilfred Wireman D/MX 74318 age 21. Son of Edward & Mary of Dipton, Co Durham. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GARDINER Frank Robert Leading Seaman P/JX 241472 age 35. Son of Robert S & Eleanor, husband of Ruth of fairwater, Glamorgan, Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

GARNER Percival Ordinary Seaman D/JX 204230 age 21. Son of William & Henrietta of West Gorton, Manchester. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GARRY Desmond Joseph Ordinary Seaman (Eire) D/JX 175867 age 18, son of James & Ellen of Inchicore, Co Dublin. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GAUDERN William Harris Engine Room Artificer D/MX 54349 age 26. Son of James Thomas & Violet Helen of Abertillery, Monmouthshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GILL Frank Gavin Stoker (South Africa) D/KX 95897 age 21. Son of Christian John & Adelaide Margaret of Pietermaritzburg, Natal, South Africa. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GILCHRIST Peter Hubert Able Seaman P/JX 239142 age 23. Son of James & Bridget of St Helens, Lancashire. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

GILLINGHAM Alfred Mitchell Leading Seaman D/KX 89265 age 23. Son of Ellen of Clayton-le-Moors, Lancashire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GLANCY John Able Seaman D/SSX 14299 age 38. Son of Alexander & Margaret of Sterling. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GLANVILLE Ernest John Chief Engine Room Artificer D/MX 46529 age 30. son of Jabez & Jane Couch nee Lakeman of Devonport husband of Kathleen Annette Sheila. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GLOVER Charles George Able Seaman D/J 113980 age 34. Son of Mr & Mrs George Glover, husband of Mary of Stonehouse, Plymouth and commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GOFF Sidney Edward Ordinary Seaman P/JX 175957, age 18. Son of Ernest Alfred & Emma Kate of Peterfield, Hampshire. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

GOOD Cecil George Ordinary Seaman P/JX 240610 age 18. Son of Charles George & Beatrice May of Exeter. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

GORE James Alfred Petty Officer Stoker (South Africa) D/KX 79725 age 31. Son of William Thompson & Clara Susannah pf Pretoria, Transvaal, South Africa, husband of Violet Kathleen of swinstown, Cape Privince, South Africa. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GOREY Wallace Maxwell Able Seaman D/JX 130963 age 30. Son of Richard Henry & Jessie Amelia of Folkstone. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GRANT Allistair Macdonald Boy Seaman D/JX 170175 age 17. Son of James & Jessie of Bishopmill, Elgin Morayshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GRANT Michael Edward Leading Cook (S) D/MX 53324 age 24. Son of Joseph & Mary Kate of Holmbush, Cornwall. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GRAY Edwin Wireman D/MX 74325 age 21. Son of Robert W & Dorothy of Percy Main, Northumberland. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GREEN Frank Bishop Petty Officer Stoker (South Africa) D/KX 81357 age 33. Son of Arthur & Martha, husband of Lydia Janet of Observatory, Cape Town, South Africa. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GREEN Kenneth Supply Assistant D/MX 80467. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GREENSMITH Harry Stoker D/KX 92099 age 25. Son of Frank & Margaret Annie, husband of Martha of Shire Green, Yorkshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GRIERSON William Ordinary Seaman P/JX 259662. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial

GRIFFITH Henry Evan Petty Officer. D/MX 5154 age 27. Son of Idwal & Arabella of Plymouth, husband of Doreen Elizabeth of Plymouth and is commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GRIFFITHS Robert Arthur Ordinary Telegraphist C/JX 201770 age 21. Son of Robert William & Florence Emily of Hendon, Middlesex. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

GRIFFITHS Trevor Edgar Petty Officer Stoker D/KX 83351 age 29. Son of Thomas Owen & Edith of Ely, Glamorgan. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GRIFFITHS William Leading Stoker D/KX 90632 age 25. Son of David & Sabina. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GRIFFITHS William Edward Able Seaman D/MD/X 2731 age 22. son of Margaret Ann of Edge Hill, Lancashire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GRITTON Thomas Ordinary Seaman P/JX 234978 age 25. Son of Thomas & Florence of Stoke on Trent, Staffordshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GUNDY William Gerald Petty Officer Stoker D/KX 85154 age 26. Son of Joseph & Minnie, husband of Gweneth Noreen of Moorswater, Cornwall. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

GUTHRIE John William Joiner C/MX 76412 age 24. Son of William John & Mary Jane of Norham, Northumberland. Commemorated on the Chatham Naval Memorial

HAGUE Douglas Signalman D/JX 211743, age 21. Son of Harry & Gertrude of Sheffield. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HAINES Walter Boy Seaman D/JX 170994 age 17. Son of Thomas & Agnes Ann of Wrexham, Denbighshire. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HALFORD Jonathan (Jack) James Hartley Ordinary Telegraphist D/JX 166607 age 17. Son of Harry & Elizabeth of Gloster. Commemorated on the Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HALL Clifford Alfred Stoker (South Africa) D/KX117690. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon Naval War Memorial

HALL John William Stoker (South Africa) D/KX9389. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HALL Edwin Lambeth Leading Stoker D/KX86321 age 25. Son of Mr & Mrs E Giles Hall, Treorchy, Glamorgan. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon Naval Memorial, Devon

HALL Leonard George Ordinary Seaman P/JX256371 age 30. Son of Franckk and Mabel Emily Hall and husband of Rose of Millbrook Bedfordshire. Commemorated on the Portsmouth Naval Memorial, Hampshire

HALL William Alfred Chief Stoker D/K61181 age 41. Son of Mr & Mrs John Hall, husband of Henrietta of Camberwell, London. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon Naval Memorial, Devon

HAMILTON Albert Able Seaman D/SSX26639 age 34. Son of Annie Hamilton Portadown, Nrth. Ireland. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon Naval Memorial, Devon

HANCOCK Christopher Uren Chief Mechanician D/KX79615 age 32. Son of Sidney Ernest and Mary Jane, husband of Josephine Margaret of Stoke Devonport. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon Naval Memorial, Devon

HANDFORD Bertram Charles Leading Cook (S) D/M11821 Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon Naval Memorial, Devon

HANLEY Bernard Harry Boy Seaman D/JX162179 age 17. Son of Harry Newall and Amy, Irlam Lancashire. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon Naval Memorial, Devon

HANNAFORD William Henry Stoker D/KX95529 Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HARBON Reginald Eric Chief Yeoman of Signals D/JX127111 age 32. Son of Mr & Mrs Walton john Harbon and husband Margery Ethel, Redditch Worcestershire. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HARLAND Frederick Able Seaman D/SSX23613 Son of William J D and Prudence of Skinningrove, Yorkshire. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HARPER Frank Stoker D/K58683 Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HARRIS Ernest William Stephen Leading Stoker D/KX1941 age 26 Son of William Charles and Edith Susan, Lipson , Plymouth. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HARRIS Lionel Henry Ordinary Seaman D/JX182102 age 18. Son of William J and Dorothy E, Bradford on Avon, Wiltshire. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HARRIS Thomas Chaplin age 29. Son of John Sage and Emily of Exeter (M.A. Oxon) Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HARRISON David Alfred Charles Stoker D/KX92933 age 22. Son of Alfred Charles and Grace of Plymouth, husband of Olive of Plymouth. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HARRISON Fred Stoker D/KX120756 age 21. Son of Richard Wilding and Maggie Harrison of Darcy Lever, Lancashire. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HARRISON John Amor Stoker D/KX113865 age 19. Son of Thomas Ada Gladys Louise, Droitwich Worcs. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HASSELL John Stoker D/KX123536 age 28. Son of Frank and Annie of Bowden Cheshire and husband of Edna also of Bowden. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HATCHER Sidney George William Stoker C/KX122245 age 25. Son of Sidney and Rebecca, husband of Molly Mable of Cliffe, Kent. Commemorated at Chatham

HATHAWAY Cyril Daniel Petty Officer Telegraphist D/J19026 age 49. Husband of Cissie Olivia May of St Budeaux, Devon. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HAWKINS John Herbert Petty Officer D/SSX14617 age 26. Son of Frederick Morris Hawkins and Hanna Jane, husband of Nora Gwendoline, Taunton Somerset. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HAY Duncan Ernest Gordon Chief Petty Officer D/JX149700 age 45. Son of Alexander and Elsie Forbes Hay, Woodside, Aberdeen. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HEDGES George Herbert Stoker D/KX120578 age 24. Son of Henry and Alice and husband of Elsie, Clapton, London. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HEIGHES John (Jack) William Ordinary Seaman P/JX185053 age 22. Son of James and Bridget, West End, Woking, Surrey. Commemorated at Portsmouth

HENRY Bernard Stoker D/KX119531 age 27. Son of Patrick Joseph and Mary Josephine of Ardwick, Manchester. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HENRY Michael Walker Steward (St Helena) D/LX23392 age 21. Son of Wilfred Vivien and Laura Mildred of Jamestown, Island of St Helena. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HICKS Stanley Stoker D/KX87072 Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

HICKSON Joe Stoker D/KX120750 age 38. Son of John and Annie of Smithy Bridge, Lancashire. Commemorated Plymouth Naval Memorial, Devon

 

Reading station is closed over Easter, and so the West of England train services are being diverted to run via Basingstoke and Woking into London Waterloo.

 

Obviously, this line usually never sees trains operated by anyone other than South West Trains, so it's good to see some variety.

 

Therefore I decided to be a train spotter for a day, and go and stand on a bridge in the freezing cold for ages. Usually, I only take photos of trains if I see something interesting, or am waiting for a train and am bored. Unlike bus spotting, where if you go and stand like an idiot somewhere hoping for something special, you tend to have an idea of when it's due, this seemed to be much less precise. The guys next to me were talking about a diverted freight train, currently running 70 minutes late at the Severn Tunnel. Oh no lol!

 

This is the bit where being a rookie train spotter, I confess I forgot to look at which train it was lol. It's a First Great Western HST heading into Waterloo.

 

All the other spotters on the bridge took a front shot, but I didn't think there was much point as there's no background to show location that way, so I went for a rear shot as the train passes Woking's Centrium and New Central buildings.

 

Twin Bridges, Woking, Surrey.

Built: 12th century.

Listing: grade 1.

 

Historical background.

Chaldon Church is of Saxon Foundation and is recorded in the Charter of Frithwald, dated 727 AD. It came under the overlordship of the King of Mercia who founded Chertsey Abbey in 666 AD. Chertsey Abbey was the first religious settlement in Surrey and was run by Benedictine monks.

 

Some 300 years later, after the death of Edward the Confessor in January 1066, William of Normandy invaded and conquered England and was crowned King at Westminster Abbey on Christmas Day of that year.

 

The Normans set up the Manorial System in England and in 1085 made the Great Survey which resulted in the Domesday Book in which Chaldon is recorded as "Chalvedune, being of two hides (200 acres) and a church". Tollsworth Manor and Chaldon Manor both came under the Charter of Chertsey and remained so until the Dissolution of the Monasteries by King Henry VIII.

 

It is beyond doubt that Chaldon Church is a very ancient church. It still plays an important part in English history, notably by its famous wall painting and its proximity to Chaldon Court, the ancient Manor house of Roger de Covert who, together with Patience Lambert and other notable parishioners is buried here.

 

Structure of the church.

The church consisted originally of a rectangular nave with high walls and a chancel, which might well have been an apse. The west wall is of traditional flint construction and is almost certainly original, and the wall containing the chancel arch may also be. The aisles were opened up by simple Early English arches into the similar high walls - the south aisle in the late 12th century, and the north aisle perhaps 50 years later. The arches of the south aisle have a simple chamfer, while those of the north aisle have a double chamfer. The chancel arch is also Early English, an enlargement of the original archway.

 

Originally there were arches from the chancel to extensions of both aisles, but the northern aisle is walled-up, (and revealed in the 1869 restoration). The south aisle ends at St. Kateryn's Chapel, 13th - 14th centuries, now the Lady Chapel with two scenes from the life of St. Mary in the east window, while the south windows contains some original, very old small glass panes.

 

The north aisle ends in a corresponding chapel which is now shortened, with a pair of windows depicting St Peter and St Paul to the north and a pair of angels in the east window. Both of these windows commemorate the Gardiner family of Rockshaw. The shingled broach spire was added in 1842, and the vestry was built at the same time. The east window of the chancel contains scenes of Christ's Nativity, Crucifixion and Ascension and dates from 1869. There is an Easter sepulchre on the north side with quatrefoils and blank shields from the 15th century.

 

There's a wonderful mural in this church but, unfortunately, my photo of it was poor and thus is not included here. However, there is a rather nifty interactive link to it below.

 

The link has active hotspots, so don't forget to click on them!

 

home.barton.ac.uk/curriculum/humanities/history/a2/unit_f...

 

Visit Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park!

 

Wheel Fun Rentals is a leading provider of fun and unique outdoor recreational vehicles including a complete fleet of bikes that can be enjoyed by single riders or an entire family. Our new fleet of Wheel Fun Rentals bikes – purchased this Spring – are extremely popular with visitors to Irvine Regional Park.

 

Bikes available to rent include the single surrey, deuce coupe, quad sport and chopper. Other bikes also available to rent include tandem bikes, cruiser bikes and kid’s bikes. And, we rent paddle boats too.

 

Children 18 years of age and younger are required to wear a helmet when riding a bike. Children under the age of 13 are required to wear a life jacket when riding a paddle boat. Both helmets and life jackets are provided at no additional cost and are available to any rider or passenger upon request.

 

For more information on these great bikes available for rent, and hours of operation, visit our Web site at www.irvineparkrailroad.com.

 

About Irvine Park Railroad:

Irvine Park Railroad is a one-third scale train that takes both children and adults on a scenic, 12-minute ride through beautiful and scenic Irvine Regional Park. The train ride, which is affordable fun for the entire family, is narrated by the engineer.

 

Other activities inside of the park include Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park paddle boat and bike rentals, the Orange County Zoo and pony rides. Two snack bars serve both hot and cold food.

 

Annual Irvine Park Railroad events include the Easter Eggstravaganza, Anniversary Celebration, Pumpkin Patch and Christmas Train.

 

Irvine Park Railroad has party pavilions and other locations available for rent. These locations are ideal for birthday parties, company picnics, corporate meetings and other special events. We also rent moon bounces for locations inside of Irvine Regional Park.

 

Irvine Regional Park is centrally-located in the foothills of Orange (Orange County). The nearest, major cross streets are Chapman Avenue at Jamboree Boulevard.

 

Find Irvine Park Railroad on Facebook and Twitter (irvineparkrr).

Please click the "Magnifying Glass Icon" just above the top right corner of the photo and then click the "View all sizes' button just above the top right corner of the photo to enlarge it for easier viewing and downloading as required.

 

The photo above is on public display in the "Russia Dock Woodland : Transformation into a Wildlife Haven & Winning The Green Flag Award" Discussion Thread of the "Natural Neighbourhood Flickr Group" (Website : www.flickr.com/groups/1462768@N22/ ) run by the world-famous KEW, The Royal Botanic Garden for showcasing what we are doing at our homes or in our local neighbourhood to help safeguard the diversity of plant and animal life, and celebrate the "International Year of Biodiversity 2010".

 

Web link to "Wikipedia" for free information on "Pussy Willow" : en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pussy_willow

  

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Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16, UK (9-Parts Photo Set)

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01) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 3 April 2010 (Easter Saturday) - Beautiful Pussy Willow Catkin : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/4491522460/

 

02) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 5 April 2008 - Beautiful White Bells (Wood Hyacinth (Hyacinthoides Hispanica)) : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2009/5358825188/

 

03) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 30 March 2008 - Beautiful Blue Bells (Wood Hyacinth (Hyacinthoides Hispanica)) : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/2399175325/

 

04) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 12 February 2011 (2 of 4) - Beautiful & Delicate Lilac Woodland Crocus Flowers : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/5444084852/

 

05) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 15 March 2010 (4 of 4) - Bright and Cheerful Golden Snow Crocus Flowers : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/4437255493/

 

06) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 3 April 2010 (Easter Saturday) - Blooming Lesser Celandine Flowers : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/4490858753/

 

07) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 9 April 2010 - Blooming Cherry Blossom Flowers : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2009/5358017233/

 

08) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 16 April 2010 - Beautiful Flowering Trees Glowing in Warm Early Morning Springtime Sun : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2009/5358003611/

 

09) Springtime in Russia Dock Woodland, London SE16 on 18 April 2010 - Mr. & Mrs. Mallard taking an Early Morning Walk in Warm Springtime Sun : www.flickr.com/photos/khl2009/5358838870/

  

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Offer of Further Information

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1) “The Importance of Trees in Southwark Life” by Kam Hong Leung on 14 May 2009 :

www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/3853306127/

 

2) The Friends of Russia Dock Woodland - Winner of The 2009 London Tree and Woodland Award : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/4175568737/

 

3) Russia Dock Woodland - Winner of "Green Flag Award 2009-2010" : www.flickr.com/photos/16999050@N00/3913247478/

  

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1964 was a year of considerable change in Britain, with the abolition of hanging and a new economic confidence.

 

Culturally, Britannia was ruling the waves with The Beatles, The Kinks and The Rolling Stones topping the charts.

 

Ambitious plans were agreed with the French government for a Channel Tunnel to be built by the end of the decade.

 

It was a time of great change as Britain had finally shed its post-war austerity and looked forward with a new confidence and prosperity.

 

The year was one of major upheaval in British history. National Service had been abolished in 1960 but the final troops involved on their compulsory military tour of duty were not sent home until the end of December 1963.

 

Unlike their fathers and grandfathers, teenagers in 1964 were not facing the prospect of a European war and increasing living standards allowed them a disposable income.

 

The Labour leader, Harold Wilson, entered the 1964 campaign determined to end "13 wasted years" under the Tories.

 

The populist Wilson seemed to reflect the public mood for change. The Conservative leader, Sir Alec Douglas-Home, was widely perceived as a distant, awkward aristocrat. Nevertheless, Wilson won only a tiny majority; another election seemed imminent.

 

By the time of the 1964 general election, the Conservative Party had been in power for 13 years. Since Prime Minister Harold Macmillan's election victory in 1959, Conservative fortunes had plummeted.

 

The buoyant economy that led to Macmillan's election was faltering by 1961. The following year, in a bid to restore his popularity, Macmillan sacked seven members of his cabinet in a move dubbed the "Night of the Long Knives". It was a ploy that failed. The Government ran into further problems when Britain's application to join the Common Market was rejected by the French President, Charles de Gaulle.

 

Scandal added to the Government's woes when John Profumo, the Minister for War, was forced to resign after he admitted lying to Parliament over his involvement with the call girl, Christine Keeler. The Government looked tired, embattled and increasingly out of step with the public mood.

 

In 1964, an ailing socialist broadsheet, 'The Daily Herald', was re-launched as 'The Sun' and in 1968 the owners (Reed International) put it up for sale. Of the two bidders (the other being Labour MP, Robert Maxwell), Murdoch won with a bid for £800,000. In 1967 he had already purchased the 'News of the World'.

 

The new 'Sun' re-launched in 1969 and became a spicier version of 'The Mirror'. The very first issue carried a photo of the Rolling Stones with a naked female. Sex was to be the main ingredient of the paper. Soft porn came to fill almost every page together with lurid sex stories. Within 100 days, circulation had jumped from 850,000 to 1.5 million. By 1987 the paper was making £1 million a week These profits were pumped into BSkyB and Fox, subesquently turning them into the two biggest pillars of the Murdoch empire today.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=Cg1WHbSkL_Q

 

What's on TV?

 

The Magic Roundabout, The Rolling Stones, The Beatles, My Fair Lady and The Pink Panther, Mary Poppins was there any other year in the fabulous 1960’s which produced so many entertainment trendsetters as 1964?

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=mRybY0XQ8Ig

 

On TV for the first time, in the domestic comedy Bewitched, the nation was delighted to meet long-suffering Darrin and his

wife Samantha, the most attractive witch to ever ride a broomstick.

 

www.dailymotion.com/video/x1iry6w

 

The Crossroads motel, which featured Brummie accents for the first time on TV, The Magic Roundabout opened its doors and Dougal, Zebedee and Florence delighted children and adults alike by taking us for a ride on The Magic Roundabout, one of the most successful children’s shows ever seen on TV.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=6wwSLsuF2HI

 

In January, Steptoe and Son, an unlikely comedy written by Ray Galton and Alan Simpson about a family rag and bone business, was declared Britain’s most popular TV show. With battling father and son wonderfully portrayed by Wilfred Bramble and Harry H.Corbett the show went on to become something of an institution. It was claimed that 26 million viewers in 9,653,000 homes had tuned in to the latest series.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=SZIPpI2XE9s

 

Labour leader Harold Wilson secretly lobbied the BBC to change the time of popular comedy Steptoe and Son on the night of the 1964 election because he feared working class voters would stay at home and watch the show instead of supporting his candidates.

 

According to new archive footage held by the BBC, Mr Wilson went to the home of BBC Director General Sir Hugh Greene and told him the show could cost him 20 seats.

 

Mr Wilson was leader of the opposition and was seeking to oust the Conservative Prime Minister Alec Douglas Home. The Labour leader thought the planned repeat of the sit-com starring Harry H Corbett and Wilfrid Brambell would hit them badly.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=WjTyFeAslpE

 

Much excitement was caused when a new TV channel appeared in 1964 and BBC 2 was born. Play School, the first programme to be screened, took us through the window to meet Little Ted and Big Ted, plus kids all-time favourite presenter Johnny Ball, who grew up in Kingswood, Bristol.

 

A lighter, much more transportable TV set, with an 11-inch screen and weighing only 16 lbs, appeared in the shops in August. These sets received BOTH ITV and BBC services on special “rabbits ears” aerials. If you couldn’t afford a telly, and many couldn’t 60 years ago, you could hire one for six shillings and sixpence a week.

 

UK TV Adverts from 1964 Including: Kellogg's Corn Flakes, Dual Floor Polish, Goodyear G8 Tyres, Surf Washing Powder, BSM School Of Motoring, St Bruno Pipe Tobacco, Brolac Paint, Fairy Washing Up Liquid, Body Mist Deodorant and S & H Pink Stamps.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=dcKuOMVcqfI

 

Sport on TV

 

Sports fans weren’t forgotten. On the 22 August 22, they were treated to the voice of Kenneth Wolstenholme and the very first Match of the Day. A paltry 50,000 viewers tuned in to watch Liverpool beat Arsenal 3-2. But very often all the fans got were recorded highlights rather than live action. It didn’t transfer from minority channel BBC 2 to the mainstream BBC 1 until after the World Cup triumph of 1966.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=NIHPVNWqPPw

 

1964 was, of course the year of the Tokyo Olympics. We won four gold medals. Mary Rand from Wells (who was also named BBC sports personality of the year) won the long jump, Anne Parker and Lynn Davies the 800 metres and Ken Mathews the 20km race walk.

 

Music

 

1964 was a golden year for pop music. The Rolling Stones, The Dave Clark Five, Liverpool’s The Swinging Blue Jeans, Manchester’s The Hollies and the late Dusty Springfield launched a BBC flagship Top of the Pops. Coming from its first home, a converted Manchester church.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=sUFFRd27YDw

 

The Beatles had by 1964 already toured the country to unbelievably hysterical scenes and were at their peak, scoring number one hits with Can’t buy me Love, A Hard Day’s Night and I Feel Fine. In February Beatle-mania gripped the US as the Fab Four took the place by storm, capturing the first five places in the singles charts as well as the top two positions in the album listings. In July, 10,000 screaming teenage fans thronged London’s West End as Princess Margaret arrived for the Premiere of their first film A Hard Day’s Night.

 

Even before Pan Am flight 101 touched down at JFK Airport in New York it was obvious that The Beatles had already conquered the American market. In January 'I want to hold your hand' sold half a million records in less than a fortnight, and is number one in the USA at the start of February.

 

A crowd of 3,000 screaming fans waits for the arrival of the Fab Four; the LP 'Meet the Beatles' hits number one at the end of January and stays there for almost three months; before they land music stations throughout the country are playing Beatles songs more than anybody else's, and after they land some stations play almost nothing else for days.

 

Once installed in their hotel in New York, The Plaza, the band is to all intents and purposes under siege by fans eager to see them, or seemingly to rip them limb from limb given the chance.

 

The highlight of the brief trip to the USA comes on February 9 , with their appearance on the Ed Sullivan Show. There are 728 seats available for the show; 50,000 apply for them. The Beatles play five songs, opening with 'All my Loving' and closing with 'I Want to Hold your Hand', with much screaming to accompany every note.

 

According to TV ratings company Nielsen their appearance on the show was seen by 73 million viewers. Beatlemania had arrived with a bang.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=MG-DXGKDBcA

 

More than 300 people are injured in Liverpool when a crowd of some 150,000 people welcome The Beatles back to their home city.

 

The Beatles gain the Christmas number one for the second year running with I Feel Fine, which has topped the singles charts for the third week running. The Beatles have now had six number ones in the United Kingdom alone.

 

The Rolling Stones, founded by Cheltenham blues fanatic Brian Jones and fronted by the energetic, rubber lips, Mick Jagger, had their first top 10 hit with Not Fade Away.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=W-ycN9EOi8o

 

Talented songwriters, the Davies brothers, came up with the

Kinks’ first hit, You really Got Me, and a sensational young Scots lass with a husky voice called Lulu had a smash with that Isley Brothers favourite Shout.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=-2GmzyeeXnQ

 

For these young people, recently dubbed teenagers, Bob Dylan described the situation pretty accurately when he sang 'The Times They Are A-Changin', released in January 1964.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=T5al0HmR4to

 

For those wanting to hear more pop music than was available via the BBC (which wasn’t much until Radio One came along)

 

Radio Caroline, the first pirate ship, began broadcasting from

international waters in March. It was legal, just, but the government didn’t like it. In May, the vessel was joined by Radio Atlanta.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=U8xvfBraulg

 

The United Kingdom held a national selection to choose the song that would go to the Eurovision Song Contest 1964. It was held on 7 February 1964 and presented by David Jacobs.

 

"I Love the Little Things" by Matt Monro won the national and went on to come 2nd in the contest.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=3CbGadthX_0

 

Film-goers that memorable year were not disappointed. Sean Connery’s James Bond battled it out with Goldfinger, while Ian Fleming, James Bond’s creator, died of a heart attack in August aged just 56. The big romance of the year was the March marriage of glamorous movie stars Elizabeth Taylor and Richard Burton.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=SSFE_xqL5Rk

 

UK News

 

In October the Labour Party, with canny pipe- smoking Yorkshireman Harold Wilson at the helm of a national economic plan, regained power after 13 years of Tory rule.

 

1964: 'Great Train Robbers' get 300 years

 

Some of the longest sentences in British criminal history have been imposed on men involved in the so-called "Great Train Robbery".

 

Sentences totalling 307 years were passed on 12 men who stole £2.6m in used bank notes after holding up the night mail train travelling from Glasgow to London last August.

 

The judge at Buckinghamshire Assizes in Aylesbury, Mr Justice Edmund Davies, said it would be "positively evil" if he showed leniency.

 

The robbery was the biggest-ever carried out in Britain.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=CIZlkJ1miHw

 

Violent disturbances between Mods and Rockers at Clacton beach

 

Gang fights have gone on in Britain for centuries; but in the mid-1960s a tribal element arrived on the scene in the form of Mods and Rockers.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=5Rj-OHCusEI

 

Mods were cool: they wore Italian-style suits beneath badge-bedecked parkas; they had carefully coiffed hair; rode Lambretta and Vespa scooters; and listened to new bands like The Who and The Small Faces and ska greats like Prince Buster. Rockers were grungier: they wore leathers as befitted ton-up bikers; had long and often greasy hair; and were fans of Elvis, Buddy Holly and Gene Vincent.

 

The two tribes went to war first – at least in a large scale fight – in Clacton over Easter 1964. But the Whitsun weekend of May 18 and 19 saw things escalate hugely. There were battles in Broadstairs , Bournemouth , Hastings , Margate , Clacton again, and most notably in Brighton . Thousands from each side had gathered in theory for a seaside break that turned into turf battles: deckchairs were a weapon of convenience; flick-knives favoured by many Mods; bike-chains by Rockers.

 

As ever the poor police stood between the factions and had bottles thrown at them.

 

Middle Britain panicked into thinking civilisation was coming to an end. It didn’t; but hundreds of teenagers were fined, and some had short prison sentences for their part in the violence.

 

Moors murders: A missing persons investigation is launched in Fallowfield, Manchester, as police search for twelve-year-old Keith Bennett, who went missing on the previous evening.

 

Peter Anthony Allen, at Walton Prison in Liverpool, and Gwynne Owen Evans, at Strangeways Prison in Manchester, are hanged for the murder of John Alan West on 7 April, the last executions to take place in the British Isles.

 

On the local front, Avonmouth’s 1,500 dockers walked out on strike in January. The same month, the Lord Mayor of Bristol opened the first of five tower blocks to be built at Hartcliffe and in March Mr Marples announced the route of the M5 motorway through Gloucestershire and Somerset. In July, as the school holidays started, it was reported that there were 100 miles of traffic jams on the A38, then still the main route from the Midlands to the South-West.

 

1964 The Cost of Living

 

Television viewing

 

TV Rental for a 17 inch TV from Derwent’s of Park St. was six shillings and six pence (6s 6d) a week and for a giant 19 inch, nine shillings and seven pence. (9s 7d) At John James shops, the best deal in town, a set cost just four shillings if you rented it over three years. New TV’s were expensive in 1964. John James were offering a top 19 inch model with 625 lines for 68 guineas. Average wages at the time were anything from £10 to £15 a week. Having said that you could buy an ordinary model for a modest 29 Guineas. . '

 

Holidays

 

Package holidays had started to boom in 1964. Everybody was mad about them because it gave you the chance to fly for the first time and experience a ‘foreign’ holiday in the sun. "

 

Top Bristol travel agents Hourmont were offering 15 days away in Majorca for £41 -10s or the same time in Benidorn on the Costa Blanca for £43.00. At the cheaper end of the market LEP Travel could offer the same holiday for £29-18-0. Four days in Paris - flying from Lulsgate - would only set you back £19.00.

 

Housing

 

In 1964 you could buy a terraced Victorian house in Totterdown for £1 ,300 or an established house in leafy Westbury Park for about £5,000. Somewhere cosy in Eastville was about £2,000 and an ordinary three-bedroom semi about £3,000. But there were bargains to be had if you had money in the bank and a little foresight. An eight-room house in Clifton-wood, in need of renovation but overlooking the docks, was advertised for £800 — cash in hand only.

 

High street prices

 

A trip to a good hairdressers has always been expensive. In 1964 a perm could cost you 42 shillings, just over £2.00, while that fur trimmed coat from C&As would set you back seven guineas. '

 

Furnishing your house? You could bring home a modern Scandinavian three-piece suite forjust 32 guineas. lf, however, you were happy with an ordinary fireside chair, you’d get one from a department store for £8-10s-0d.

 

A state-of-the-art automatic washing machine, not a twin tub, cost a whopping £50.00.

 

A new baby? Horwoods in Old Market were selling top line prams for £17-19-6.

 

Transport

 

On the Roads in 1964 there were just a few sections of Motorway open but a big construction of the motorway system was underway seeing more sections opening each year.

 

Those actually open in 1964 were as follows:

 

M1 Junctions 5 to 18, M2 Junctions 2 to 5, M4 The Chiswick flyover (Junction 1) and Junctions 5 to 9, M5 Junctions 4 to 8, M6 Junctions 13 to 35, M20 Junctions 5 to 8 and the M45, M63 and M10 were complete.

 

Latest cars on the road in 1964 included the Vauxhall Viva and the Ford Anglia the Cortina also being a very popular car of the time.

 

The Forth Road Bridge was opened and in 1965 the Severn Bridge was opened.

 

If you were lucky enough to fly in 1964 you would of probably flown by BOAC ( British Overseas Airways Corporation ) or BEA (British European Airways ) and the VC 10 was the latest aeroplane.

 

Ford Anglias were all the rage in 1964. A second hand one cost £490.00. A new Mini would set you back about £448 and a popular Triumph Herald £515.

 

Announcement that American car manufacturer Chrysler is taking a substantial share in the British Rootes Group combine, which includes the Hillman, Singer and Sunbeam marques.

 

Daihatsu becomes the first Japanese car-maker to import passenger cars to the United Kingdom, launching its Compagno on the British market.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=VhSXNr4_hUA

 

Beer & Fags

 

Beer was between 1/6 and 2/0 a pint; a double whisky or other spirit was rather more. Indeed, in those days spirit drinkers usually kept out of rounds and bought their own.

 

Smoking was still extremely popular in 1964, nearly 70% of men and around 40% of women smoked. The most popular brand in the UK was "Embassy Filter".

 

One old shilling (1/0) was worth 5 new pence.

 

Government figures show that the average weekly wage is £16. £10 banknotes are issued for the first time since the Second World War.

 

Teen girls' magazine Jackie first published.

 

The final edition of the left-wing Daily Herald newspaper is published. The Sun newspaper goes into circulation, replacing the Daily Herald.

 

Sport

 

Fred Trueman – ‘Fiery Fred’ – was one of England’s greatest cricketers, becoming the first English bowler to take 300 test wickets when he dismissed Australian batsman Neil Hawke in the Oval test of 1964, Colin Cowdray taking the catch at slip.

 

Typically of his career he was coming back after having been dropped for the previous match (at Old Trafford ). This was doubtless partly as he was past his very best – though a mediocre Trueman was better than many subsequent England quicks at the top of their game - partly as he rarely found favour with the gentleman amateurs who still had a major say in the sport both at Yorkshire and in the England set-up.

 

Had he perish the thought been subservient he would probably have played another dozen tests or so.

 

There was little that was conventional about Fred Trueman , except perhaps his classically smooth bowling action.

 

Through his career he regularly managed to get on the wrong side of many blazer-bedecked committee types who ran cricket “In my day” as he would have said with his favourite post-career phrase. As a summariser on Test Match Special he continued to annoy some of the playing establishment, never one to water down deserved criticism, especially of lack of effort, thought or heart – “I don’t know what’s going off” his exasperated response to such moments.

 

Trueman was indefatigable, and achieved his 300 wickets by bending his back – not like some by bending his arm.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=aP9J5akyKTQ

 

Liverpool win the Football League First Division for the sixth time in their history.

 

West Ham United win the FA Cup for the first time in their history, beating Preston North End 3-2 at Wembley Stadium.

 

5 April 1964 - Tottenham captain Danny Blanchflower, 38, announced his retirement from playing.

 

8 April 1964 - Blackburn Rovers are announced as England's participant in the 1964 edition of the International Soccer League.

 

11 April 1964 – Scotland beat England 1–0 in the British Home Championship to leave the two level on four points in the final table. Northern Ireland subsequently defeated Wales to finish level on points with the other two, thus ensuring that the title was shared between three nations.

 

12 April 1964 – The Sunday People publishes allegations that lead to a betting scandal. It reported that Mansfield Town player Jimmy Gauld had, over several years, systematically engaged in match fixing, and that many other players were involved.

 

18 April 1964 – Liverpool beat Arsenal 5–0 at Anfield to secure the title. In their penultimate game of the season, Ipswich Town lose 3–1 to Blackburn Rovers, confirming their relegation two years after winning the League championship.

 

22 April 1964 – Leicester City win the League Cup – their first major trophy – with a 4–3 aggregate victory over Stoke City.

 

25 April 1964 – On the final day of the Second Division season, Leeds United win 2–0 at Charlton Athletic and Sunderland fail to beat Grimsby Town, meaning Leeds were crowned champions.

 

2 May 1964 – West Ham United beat Preston North End 3–2 at Wembley to win the FA Cup for the first time. Trailing 2–1 going into the final minutes of the match, West Ham scored two goals in as many minutes to the deny Preston.

 

Other News

 

All schools in Aberdeen are closed following 136 cases of typhoid being reported.

 

Terence Conran opens the first Habitat store on London's Fulham Road.

 

"Pirate" radio station Radio Sutch begins broadcasting from Shivering Sands Army Fort in the Thames Estuary.

 

Official opening of the UK's first undercover shopping centre, at the Bull Ring, Birmingham.

 

The Post Office Tower in London is completed, although it does not begin operation until October 1965.

 

Some 90% of British households now own a television, compared to around 25% in 1953 and 65% in 1959.

 

The first successful Minicomputer, Digital Equipment Corporation’s 12-bit PDP-8, is marketed.

 

Toy of the year: Mr Potato Head

 

1964 USA

 

1964 as the war in Vietnam and US Congress Authorizes war against N Vietnam more American servicemen were dying, and after three civil rights workers were murdered in Mississippi the president signed the Civil Rights act of 1964 but this did not stop the violence as it continued to increase in many American Cities.

 

Lyndon Johnson was also returned to power after a landslide victory. This was also the year The Beatles took the world and America by storm and Beatlemania went into overdrive as they released a series of number one hits including "I want to hold your hand" , "All my Loving" . Other British groups also found success including The Rolling Stones and The Animals and together with the American Talent of The Supremes and Bob Dylan many say this was one of the greatest years for music in the last century.

 

Also one young loud talented boxer by the name of Cassius Clay won the Boxing World heavyweight championship from Sonny Liston.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=OezriPEepZs

 

1964 World Headlines

 

13 Jan - Riots in Calcutta leave more than 100 dead

 

More than 100 people have been killed following Hindu-Muslim rioting in the Indian city of Calcutta.

 

06 Feb - Green light for Channel Tunnel

 

The British and French Governments have announced their commitment to build a tunnel under the English Channel.

 

07 Feb - Beatlemania arrives in the US

 

The four members of the British hit band, the Beatles, have arrived in New York at the start of their first tour of the United States.

 

12 Feb - Deaths follow Cyprus truce breach

 

Fighting between ethnic Turks and Greeks in the disputed island of Cyprus has left at least 16 people dead.

 

25 Feb - Cassius Clay crowned world champion

 

Cassius Clay, 22, has been crowned heavyweight champion of the world after beating Sonny Liston in one of the biggest upsets in boxing's history.

 

29 Feb - Royal baby for leap year day

 

The Queen's cousin, Princess Alexandra, has given birth to a son at her home in Surrey.

 

12 Mar - Hoffa faces eight years behind bars

 

The president of the powerful American Teamsters union has been sentenced to eight years in jail on bribery charges.

 

14 Mar - Jack Ruby sentenced to death

 

Jack Ruby has been sentenced to death after being found guilty of the murder of Lee Harvey Oswald, the alleged assassin of President John F Kennedy.

 

19 Mar - 'Ambitious' plans for south east

 

Three new cities are proposed for south east England as part of the largest regional expansion plan in Britain. The 'new towns' eventually created were Milton Keynes, Havant and Basingstoke.

 

16 Apr - 'Great Train Robbers' get 300 years

 

Some of the longest sentences in British criminal history have been imposed on men involved in the so-called "Great Train Robbery".

 

14 May - Nasser and Khrushchev divert the Nile

 

President Gamal Abdul Nasser of Egypt and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev have marked the first stage in the building of the Aswan High Dam.

 

27 May - Light goes out in India as Nehru dies

 

Jawaharlal Nehru, founder of modern India and its current prime minister, has died suddenly at the age of 74.

 

12 Jun - Nelson Mandela jailed for life

 

The leader of the anti-apartheid struggle in South Africa, Nelson Mandela, has been jailed for life for sabotage

 

17 Jun - Japan trade fair floats into London

 

The first purpose-built floating trade fair has docked at Tilbury in London with 22,000 samples of Japanese goods on board.

 

02 Jul - President Johnson signs Civil Rights Bill

 

The Civil Rights Bill - one of the most important piece of legislation in American history - has become law.

 

04 Aug - Three civil rights activists found dead

 

The bodies of three civil rights workers missing for six weeks have been found buried in a partially constructed dam near Philadelphia, Mississippi.

 

10 Aug - Guns fall silent in Cyprus

 

The United Nations has brokered another ceasefire in Cyprus, defusing the growing crisis between Greek and Turkish Cypriots and heading off the threat of invasion by Turkey.

 

04 Sep - Forth Road Bridge opened

 

The Queen has officially opened Europe's longest suspension bridge linking Edinburgh to Perth across the River Forth.

 

15 Sep - The Sun newspaper is born

 

The Sun newspaper is published today for the first time.

It is replacing the Mirror Group's Daily Herald, which has been losing readers and advertising revenue for several years.

 

28 Sep - Kennedy murder was 'no conspiracy'

 

There was no conspiracy surrounding the death of President Kennedy but there were serious failures by those responsible for his protection, according to a government report.

 

12 Oct - Labour voters are 'bonkers' says Hogg

 

A senior Conservative minister has stolen the show at the Conservative news conference by branding all Labour voters "bonkers".

 

Quintin Hogg, Lord President of the Council and Secretary for Education and Science, made his quip after mounting a stinging attack on Labour's policies.

 

15 Oct - Khrushchev 'retires' as head of USSR

 

Nikita Khrushchev has unexpectedly stepped down as leader of the Soviet Union.

 

25 Oct - President Kaunda takes power in Zambia

 

Zambia has become the ninth African state to gain independence from the British crown.

 

03 Nov - Election triumph for Lyndon B Johnson

 

Lyndon Baines Johnson has been elected president of the United States defeating hard-line Republican Senator Barry Goldwater of Arizona by an overwhelming majority.

 

23 Dec - Beeching to leave British Railways

 

The chairman of the British Railways Board is to part company with the organisation and return to his post at Imperial Chemical Industries (ICI).

 

31 Dec - Campbell speeds to double record

 

Donald Campbell has broken the world water speed record, becoming the first man to break the world land and water speed records in the same year.

 

100 most popular hits in the UK singles music charts in 1964

 

01 Jim Reeves - I Love You Because

02 Jim Reeves - I Won't Forget You

03 Roy Orbison - It's Over

04 Roy Orbison - Oh Pretty Woman

05 The Beatles - A Hard Day's Night

06 Cilla Black - You're My World

07 Cilla Black - Anyone Who Had A Heart

08 The Searchers - Needles And Pins

09 The Honeycombs - Have I The Right?

10 Manfred Mann - Do Wah Diddy Diddy

11 Herman's Hermits - I'm Into Something Good

12 Dave Clark Five - Glad All Over

13 The Bachelors - Diane

14 The Rolling Stones - It's All Over Now

15 The Beatles - Can't Buy Me Love

16 Billy J Kramer & The Dakotas - Little Children

17 The Bachelors - I Believe

18 The Beatles - I Want To Hold Your Hand

19 Julie Rogers - The Wedding

20 Peter & Gordon - World Without Love

21 The Four Pennies - Juliet

22 Millie - My Boy Lollipop

23 Brian Poole & The Tremeloes - Someone, Someone

24 The Swinging Blue Jeans - Hippy Hippy Shake

25 Sandie Shaw - (There's) Always Something There To Remind Me

26 The Kinks - You Really Got Me

27 The Searchers - Don't Throw Your Love Away

28 The Supremes - Baby Love

29 Gerry & The Pacemakers - I'm The One

30 The Supremes - Where Did Our Love Go

31 Dave Clark Five - Bits And Pieces

32 The Bachelors - I Wouldn't Trade You For The World

33 The Four Seasons - Rag Doll

34 The Beatles - I Feel Fine

35 The Rolling Stones - Not Fade Away

36 The Animals - House Of The Rising Sun

37 The Hollies - Just One Look

38 Matt Monro - Walk Away

39 The Merseybeats - I Think Of You

40 The Barron Knights - Call Up The Groups

41 Petula Clark - Downtown

42 Gene Pitney - I'm Gonna Be Strong

43 Gene Pitney - Twenty Four Hours From Tulsa

44 PJ Proby - Hold Me

45 Dusty Springfield - I Just Don't Know What To Do With Myself

46 Brenda Lee - As Usual

47 The Kinks - All Day And All Of The Night

48 Dusty Springfield - I Only Want To Be With You

49 The Searchers - When You Walk In The Room

50 Cliff Richard - Constantly

51 Val Doonican - Walk Tall

52 The Rolling Stones - Little Red Rooster

53 The Beatles - She Loves You

54 Mary Wells - My Guy

55 The Nashville Teens - Tobacco Road

56 The Rockin' Berries - He's In Town

57 The Shadows - Rise And Fall Of Flingel Bunt

58 Wayne Fontana & The Mindbenders - Um Um Um Um Um Um

59 The Bachelors - Ramona

60 Cliff Richard - On The Beach

61 The Swinging Blue Jeans - You're No Good

62 Manfred Mann - Sha La La

63 Manfred Mann - 5-4-3-2-1

64 Dave Berry - The Crying Game

65 Doris Day - Move Over Darling

66 The Beach Boys - I Get Around

67 Louis Armstrong - Hello, Dolly!

68 Marianne Faithfull - As Tears Go By

69 Chuck Berry - No Particular Place To Go

70 Dionne Warwick - Walk On By

71 Applejacks - Tell Me When

72 Eden Kane - Boys Cry

73 The Fourmost - A Little Loving

74 Brian Poole & The Tremeloes - Candy Man

75 Gene Pitney - That Girl Belongs To Yesterday

76 The Hollies - Here I Go Again

77 Frank Ifield - Don't Blame Me

78 The Ronettes - Baby I Love You

79 Lulu & The Luvvers - Shout

80 Big Dee Irwin - Swinging On A Star

81 Gerry & The Pacemakers - Don't Let The Sun Catch You Crying

82 The Hollies - We're Through

83 Jim Reeves - There's A Heartache Following Me

84 Dean Martin - Everybody Loves Somebody

85 Gigliola Cinquetti - Non Ho L'Eta Per Amarti

86 Dave Clark Five - Can't You See That She's Mine

87 The Hollies - Stay

88 Freddie & The Dreamers - I Understand

89 Cilla Black - It's For You

90 The Migil Five - Mocking Bird Hill

91 Cliff Richard - Twelfth Of Never

92 Dusty Springfield - Losing You

93 PJ Proby - Together

94 The Animals - I'm Crying

95 Elvis Presley - Kissin' Cousins

96 Peter & Gordon - Nobody I Know

97 Kathy Kirby - Let Me Go Lover

98 Henry Mancini Orchestra - How Soon?

99 The Zombies - She's Not There

100 The Mojos - Everything's Alright

 

Top Twenty TV Shows in 1964 were

 

1. Steptoe and Son (BBC)

2. Sunday Palladium (ITV)

3. Coronation Street (ITV)

4. Dick Powell Theatre (BBC)

5. Take Your Pick (ITV)

6. Royal Variety Show (BBC)

7. No Hiding Place (ITV)

8. Armchair Theatre (ITV)

9. It's Tarbuck (ITV)

10. Crane (ITV)

11. Stars and Garters (ITV)

12. Double Your Money (ITV)

13. Emergency Ward Ten (ITV)

14. Around the Beatles (ITV)

15. Frank Ifield Show (ITV)

16. The Avengers (ITV)

17. Christmas Comedy (ITV)

18. Miss World 1964 (ITV)

19. Max Bygraves (ITV)

20. Love Story (ITV)

Many places like to wear their connections with Charles Dickens visibly, but I find it hard to believe anywhere does it more completely than Blundeston.

 

Blundeston is mentioned in David Copperfield, and there has been a strong movement by the local parish planners to ensure that most street names now have a Dicken connection. I know this a a colleague of mine resisted the overtures to name their new dwellings something Dickensian, but stuck with the family name after all.

 

I also have family connections with Blundeston, and indeed a distant relation is on the war memorial, but he is one of the branch that has an extra D in their name, the first one I have ever seen. My name is very mis-spelt, and the double D variation the most common.

 

Anyway, late one afternoon, I arrive in Blundeston to visit the church, and see, or notice the pound for the first time. Situated on a road junction, the brick-built circular enclosure was once used to corral livestock. It is a rare survivor, and the first time I had noticed it.

 

It is a fine round-towered church, with plenty of interest inside, and the medieval (I guess) glass in the porch the first of many. Some unusual tessellated tiling in the chancel, but the sanctuary is now a book shop and the altar brought forward.The font, at least to my eyes, looks Norman, and is impressive, as is the arts and crafts window, but I guess this is where Simon puts me right on many points.....

 

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"I was born at Blunderstone, in Suffolk. There is nothing half so green as I know anywhere, as the grass of that churchyard; nothing half so shady as its trees; nothing half so quiet as its tombstones. The sheep are feeding there, when I kneel up to look out. Here is our pew in the church. What a high-backed pew! With a window near it, out of which our house can be seen.

I look up at the monumental tablets on the wall, and try to think of Mr Bodgers late of this parish, and what the feelings of Mrs Bodgers must have been, when affliction sore, long time Mr Bodgers bore, and physicians were in vain. I look to the pulpit, and think what a good place it would be to play in, and what a castle it would make, with another boy coming up the stairs to attack it..."

 

- Charles Dickens, David Copperfield

 

Blundeston is these days a very pleasant outer suburb of Lowestoft, although wise planners have kept a cordon sanitaire between it and the rampaging new estates of Oulton and Gunton. Everything here is very trim and polite, although St Mary itself has a rather more primitive air about it. Its narrow, tapering tower rises up sharply beside the steeply banked roof of its nave, for all the world like a Cornish tin mine or Derbyshire mill. This is an ancient building. The tower, at least the lower part, is clearly Saxon, and here inside there are some other ancient details.

 

You step into a church which is much bigger than it might appear from the outside, with a gentle High Church feel to it. The nave was widened in the late medieval period, and although there is no aisle or arcade, the tower has been left offset. The font dates from the 12th century, a plain, octagonal bowl set on 8 relief legs. The tower arch is earlier, and beside it there is a very curious detail. A circular squint hole, about 12 inches across, about 5 feet from the floor in the north-west corner. It is obviously intended to line up with something outside the church, but what, exactly? There is one exactly like it, in the same position, two miles away at Lound. They do not align with each other, though. Perhaps an outdoor Easter sepulchre? or to enable an internal sepulchre to be seen on Good Friday, when the church was out of use?

 

Above the south door, the arms of Charles II are very curious. They have been reused as a hatchment at some point, but the overpainting has faded to reveal the true origin. An altar against the north wall is dedicated to St Andrew, in memory of the nearby former church at Flixton, which was destroyed in a storm early in the 18th century. The font in the churchyard here comes from Flixton, too.

And the memorials? Well, I'm afraid there is no 'Mr Bodgers, late of this parish', and probably never was. The high-backed pews are all gone, and although the pulpit would certainly make an excellent castle, it post-dates Dickens's (and Copperfield's) time. The grass is still lush and green in the churchyard though, and much wilder than the neatly trimmed lawns of the very pleasant houses that surround it.

  

Simon Knott, June 2008

 

www.suffolkchurches.co.uk/Blundeston.htm

 

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Blundeston.

There are two manors here—those of Blundeston Hall, and Gonville's. The former was held by a family which took their name from the place, and retained it, with the patronage of the church, till the end of the reign of Edward III. In the ninth of Edward I., Robert de Blundeston was lord; (fn. 1) and in the twenty-third of Edward III., in the year 1348, there was a conveyance from Osbertus, Rector of the church of Blundeston, and Oliverus de Wysete, to William, the son of Robert de Blundeston, and the heirs of his body, of the manor of Blundeston, with all the lands and appurtenances in Blundeston, Oulton, and Flixton; together with the advowson of the church of the village of Blundeston, with the appurtenances; all which were formerly of Robert de Blundeston; to hold to the said William and the heirs of his body lawfully begotten. From this family the manor and advowson passed to that of Yarmouth; Henry Yarmouth, of Blundeston, presenting to the church in 1438. Humphrey Yarmouth, his descendant, on the 1st of December, 1570, conveyed to William Sydnor the manor of Blundeston, cum pertinentibus, and all other his manors, tenements, liberties, swanmarks, and hereditaments in Blundeston, Corton, Lound, Somerleyton, Flixton, Lowestoft, and Gunton, or elsewhere, and all other his manors and hereditaments, in the said towns, in fee. The manor, &c., and the messuages, were found to be holden of Sir John Heveningham, of his manor of South Leet, in soccage. (fn. 2) The said William Sydnor, by deed indented 6th of October, twenty-sixth of Elizabeth, 1584, in consideration of a jointure to Elizabeth, late wife of Henry Sydnor, his son, and heir apparent, did enfeoff John Read, and others, and their heirs, of a house called Gillam's, and 90 acres of land in Blundeston and Flixton; a meadow of 12 acres in Flixton; a marsh called Wrentham's, and 41 acres of land in Blundeston; two other messuages and 9 acres of land in Blundeston; a house called Chamber's, and 104 acres of land in Henstead. And of the manor called Blundeston; and the manor of Fritton with the appurtenances, to their uses; viz., as to the manor of Blundeston with the appurtenances, to the use of the said William for life; and after to the use of the said Henry, and his heirs male by the said Elizabeth, his wife; and after to the right heirs of the said William. The marriage between the aforesaid Henry Sydnor and Elizabeth was solemnized on the 1st of February, twenty-seventh of Elizabeth. He died during his father's lifetime, in December, 1611. William Sydnor, the father, died on the 26th of August, 1612. By his will, dated the 26th of March, in the same year, being "then of Christ's Church, but late of Blundeston," he gave to the poor of Blundeston, Henstead, Fritton, Belton, Conisford at the Gate (Norwich), Berstete St. John's, 20 shillings to each parish, and to Trowse on this side the Bridge 10 shillings. He desired "his body to be buried in the chauncell of the parishe church of Blundeston." He gave unto Dorothy Sydnor, his daughter, £ 200 of lawful English money, some furniture, and £10 in gold, to be paid within fourteen days; a cup of silver with three feet, and a cover. To Alice Goldsmithe, his daughter, all her mother's apparell, and £10 in gold, &c. Among other bequests, he leaves to William Sydnor, his grandchild, some furniture, and a great carved chest which lately came from Blundeston, and his next best salt-cellar. After leaving annuities to his servants, he directed "that his house in Christ's Church in all things be mayntayned and kept as usually he did for the entertainment of his children; and such of his children and servants as would stay and live orderly, and do their service honestly, during the time of their stay; for which they were to have their wages. The charges of such housekeeping to be defrayed by his executors; and he desired that Dorothy Sydnor, his daughter, during the said month should have the government of the said house." (fn. 3)

 

By an inquisition, held the 30th of August, in the twelfth of James I., when the death of William Sydnor was returned, it was found that William, the son of Henry, his eldest son, then deceased, was his next heir, and of the age of 24 years and more. And that the said William, eldest, was seized in fee of the manor of Blunston, alias Blundeston, with the appurtenances in Blundeston, Corton, Gunton, Lowestoft, Oulton, Ashby, Flixton, Bradwell, Burgh, Fritton, Belton, Herringfleet, Lound, Somerleyton, Hopton, and Gorleston.

 

On the 13th of February, eleventh of James I., William Sydnor, the grandson, in consideration of a marriage with Anne Harborne, did covenant with William Harborne, her father, to convey to him, Sir Anthony Drury, and others, and their heirs, the manor of Fritton, with the appurtenances, in Suffolk, and all lands, tenements, &c., of the said William, in Fritton, or in the towns adjoining, to the use of himself and his heirs until the marriage, and after the marriage to the use of himself and the said Anne, for jointure, and the heirs male of his body, with several remainders over to Robert, Thomas, and Henry, his brothers, Edmund, William, Francis, and Paul Sydnor, his uncles, and the heirs male of every of their several bodies. And after to the use of the right heirs of the said William Sydnor, the grandfather. And the manor of Blundeston, with the rights, members, and appurtenances, in Suffolk, and all lands, tenements, and other hereditaments, &c., of the said William Sydnor, the grandson, in Blundeston, or in the towns adjoining, or any of them, to and for the like uses, and estates, and remainders as before; omitting only the said Anne, and her estates, for life. In the following year a fine was levied in pursuance, by the said William Sydnor, his uncle, and the heirs of Sir Anthony, of the manors of Fritton and Blundeston, with the appurtenances. By the Office of the ninth of Charles I., after the death of William Sydnor, the grandson, it was found that he died, seized, on the 13th of June, eighth of Charles I., 1632, without issue male. By the same Office, Elizabeth, Anne, Sarah, Mary, Hester, Susanna, Abigail, and Lydia, were found to be the daughters and co-heiresses of the said William Sydnor, and that Elizabeth, the eldest, was, at her father's death, under eleven years of age, and all the rest under fourteen years of age. (fn. 4) On the 3rd of July, in the tenth of Charles I., the King, by ind're under the seal of the Court of Wards, granted to Anthony Bury, for a fine of 200 marks, the custody, wardship, and marriages of the said co-heiresses, to his own use. On the 2nd of July, tenth of Charles, the King, by another ind're, under the seal of the said Court, granted and leased to him, in consideration of £10, the manor of Henstead Pierpoind's, and two acres in Blundeston, during the minority of the said co-heiresses, at the yearly rent of £ 2. 6s. 8d. On the 20th of November, in the same year, this Anthony Bury, by ind're, assigned all his interests to Dr. Talbot, who married the said Anne, mother of the said co-heiresses, to his own use, for £330 paid, besides £100 for Bury, to the receiver of the Court of Wards, for leave of the King's fine. In Michaelmas Term, 1640, there was a decree in the Court of Wards, against Sir John Wentworth, who, in his answer to the information of the attorney of the wards on behalf of the said co-heiresses, denied they had the manor of Blundeston, but confessed they had the manor of Gonville's, in Blundeston, and that their father purchased that of one Jettor. But the Court decreed that the said co-heiresses had the manor of Blundeston, and also the manor of Gonville's. And such possession as the father of the said wards had in Blundeston great water, and fishing, is by the decree settled with the wards during their minority, and until livery sued. And Sir John desired not to fish in right of a tenement in Blundeston, which was his father's. As to the wards' suit as touching an hoorde, some lands in Fritton, and other matters, they are left to trial at law.

 

Elizabeth, Anne, Sarah, Mary, Hester, Susanna, Abigail, and Lydia Sydnor, the eight daughters and co-heiresses of William Sydnor, of Blundeston, by fine levied, and recovery suffered, and by deed dated the 19th of December, 1651, conveyed the said manors in Blundeston and Fritton to hold to William Heveningham, Esq., his heirs and assigns, for ever.

 

¶The family of Sydnor, from whom Blundeston thus passed, appears to have originated from — Sydnor, who married a daughter of Sir John Berney, of Reedham, in Norfolk. The following pedigree is derived from an abstract of the title of the estates, sold by the eight daughters and co-heiresses of William Sydnor, made in 1651; except the marriages of the eight daughters, which are added from the abstract continued to 1663, at which time Sarah was married to William Castleton. The other daughters had been all married before that date.

 

William Sydnor, the purchaser of Blundeston, as appears from bequests in his will, left three daughters, namely, Dorothy Sydnor, Alice Sydnor, who married Henry Goldsmith, and left issue Charles Goldsmith; and Elizabeth Sydnor, who married W. Doans, and left a son, William. Henry Sydnor, who died in his father's lifetime, left also three daughters, Elizabeth, Catharine, and Alice.

 

William Heveningham, Esq., who purchased the manors of Blundeston and Fritton of the Sydnors, was in the year 1661 convicted and attainted of high treason, as has been already shown under Mutford, &c. By letters patent, dated 28th September, thirteenth Charles II., the King did give unto Brian, Viscount Cullen, Sir Thomas Fanshaw, Sir Ralph Banks, Knights, Edward Pitt, and Charles Cornwallis, Esqrs., among other manors and lands, the said manors of Blundeston and Fritton; to hold to them, the said Brian, Viscount Cullen, &c., and their heirs, for ever. The said Brian, Viscount Cullen, &c., by their deed-poll, dated 3rd October, thirteenth Charles II., made between them, the said Brian, Viscount Cullen, &c., George, Earl of Bristol, Henry, Earl of Dover, and Margaret Heveningham, wife of the said William Heveningham, which was also signed by His Majesty's sign manual, did declare the use of the aforesaid letters patent to be to the intent that the said Brian, Viscount Cullen, &c., should, either by perception of the profits or sale of the aforesaid manors of Blundeston and Fritton, amongst others, raise £11,000 for the said Earl of Bristol, and several other trusts therein comprised: the remainder to be for the use of the said Mary, wife of the said William. The said William Heveningham, and Mary his wife, in Michaelmas Term, thirteenth Charles II., levied a fine, and suffered a recovery of the said manors of Blundeston and Fritton, inter alia. And by indenture, dated 24th of October, thirteenth of Charles II., the said William and Mary declared that the said fine and recovery should be to the use of the said Brian, Viscount Cullen, Sir Thomas Fanshaw, Sir Ralph Banks, Edward Pitt, and Charles Cornwallis, and their heirs, for ever.

 

In the 10th and 11th of December, 1662, fourteenth of Charles II., appear a lease and release from the Earl of Bristol, Brian, Viscount Cullen, Sir Thomas Fanshaw, Sir Ralph Banks, Edward Pitt, and Charles Cornwallis, unto Sir John Tasburgh, of the manor of Blundeston, and the capital house called Blundeston Hall, and the manor of Fritton, alias Freton Paston's, and all that manor called Blundeston, alias Gunville's, alias Scroope Hall, alias Gunville's Blundeston, with all the rights, members, and appurtenances to the said manors belonging; and the advowson of the churches, rectories, and vicarages of Blundeston and Fritton aforesaid; and courts-leet and view of frank-pledge, &c., to hold to him and his heirs, for ever. Consideration, £4000 in hand, and £4000 to be paid as therein named. On the 27th of December, 1662, the said William Heveningham and Mary his wife did grant, release, and confirm all and every the said manors of Blundeston, Fritton, and Blundeston Gunville's, to the said John Tasburgh, and his heirs, for ever.

 

These estates next passed to the Allins; for, on the 20th July, 1668, are letters of attorney from Thomas Allin, of Lowestoft, Knt., to Richard London, &c., to receive livery of seizin of John Tasburgh, of Bodney, in Norfolk, Esq., of all his manors, messuages, lands and fruits, and hereditaments situated in Blundeston, Fritton, Corton, or any other town adjoining. Sir Thomas Allin held his first court baron for these manors on the 3rd of November, 1668. (fn. 5)

 

On the 9th of July, 1712, the trustees of Richard Allin, under a deed authorizing them to sell lands to satisfy his debts, sold a messuage and about 76 acres of land at Blundeston and Fritton, of the yearly rent of £39. 10s., to Gregory Clarke, for £663; and on the 30th of August following, two other pieces of land, containing 13 acres, of the yearly rent of £5. 10s., to the same Gregory Clarke, for £100. These estates were afterwards purchased by Sir Ashurst Allin, Bart., who resided there; and were by him devised to his daughter, Frances Allin, for life. On the 29th of September, 1714, Blundeston Hall-farm, lands and decoy, of the yearly rent of £217. 2s. 6d., were sold to William Luson, merchant, the consideration money being £3691. 2s. 6d., who devised them to Robert Luson, his son, who, by his will of the 1st of May, 1767, bequeathed them to his eldest daughter, Maria, in fee, who married George Nicholls, Esq., by whom this estate was sold to Robert Woods, who, by his will, dated July 4th, 1780, devised the same to his wife to sell, and in 1791, she conveyed it to Thomas Woods in fee. Other estates in Blundeston were by Robert Luson devised to his second daughter, Hephzibah, who married Nathaniel Rix, Esq. An estate at Blundeston, and Corton, and Lound, he devised to Elizabeth, his daughter, who afterwards married Cammant Money, by whom the second property was sold to J. B. Roe, and the first to J. Manship. (fn. 6) The Decoy farm, at Blundeston, was, by the executors of Robert Luson, under the powers in the will contained, sold to William Berners, Esq., of Woolverstone Hall, whose son, Charles, resold it to Thomas Morse, Esq. (fn. 7) The manor of Fritton, and an estate of the annual value of £173, were sold to Samuel Fuller, Esq., for £ 2660. (fn. 8)

 

The manors of Blundeston Hall and Gunville's united, as will be presently shown, remained with the Allins, and passed with their other estates to the family of Anguish. From the Anguishes they descended to Lord Sydney Osborne, who sold them, in 1844, to Samuel Morton Peto, Esq.

 

The Manor of Gonville's, in Blundeston,

¶was the lordship of John, the son of Nicholas de Gunville or Gonville, in the fourteenth of Edward III., in the month of March in which year is a "note of time" of this manor between the aforesaid John, who is styled the son of Nicholas Gonvyll, chyvaler, and Johan, his wife, complainants, and William de Gonvyll, parson of the church of Thelnethan, John Gonvyll, parson of the church of Lylyng, Osbert, parson of the church of Blundeston, and Thomas de Kalkhyll, deforcients, of 24 messuages, 332 acres of land, 16 acres of meadow, &c., in Gorleston, Louystoft, Barneby, Little Yarmouth, and Hopton, to John, son of Nicholas and Johan, and the heirs of their bodies; and remainder, after the decease of John and Johan, to the right heirs of John, the son of Nicholas. (fn. 9) The manor remained with this ancient line till it passed, in the early part of the fifteenth century, to Sir Robert Herling, Knt., who married Joan or Jane, the heiress of the Gonvilles, as the subjoined pedigree will show.

 

Sir Robert Herling, and Joan his wife, held the manor of Gonville's in 1420, as we learn from an inquisitio ad quod damnum, taken in that year. "Robtus Harlyng, miles, et Johanna, uxor ejus, tempore ultimi pascigii d'ni Henr. Regis nunc ad partes Norman: seiziti fuerunt de mn'o vocat Gunvilles manor: cum p'tin: in villis de Blundeston, Olton, et Flyxton, in d'mico suo ut de feodo." (fn. 10) Sir Robert Herling left a daughter and heiress, Anne, who was thrice married; first, to Sir William Chamberlain, Knight of the Garter; secondly, to Sir Robert Wingfield, Knt., who in 1474 settled, amongst divers manors and estates in Norfolk and Cambridgeshire, the manors of Gnateshall, Corton, Newton, Lound, and Blundeston, with Lound advowson, in Suffolk, on themselves and their trustees. He died seized of these in 1480. In 1492, Anne, his widow, married, thirdly, John, Lord Scroop, of Bolton, who died in 1494. (fn. 11) On her death, without issue, the manor of Gonville's went to Margaret, her father's sister, the wife of Sir Robert Tuddenham, Knt. (fn. 12) On the 4th of April, sixth of James I., Robert Jettor conveyed to William Sydnor the site, manor, or member of a manor, called Blundeston, Gunvilles Blundeston, or Gunvilles cum pertin: and a close called Gunvilles, reputed the site of the said manor, containing six acres; another close called the Home-close, in Blundeston, and four several fish-ponds, with several waters and fishings in Blundeston and Flixton, and with covenant to levy a fine thereof to the use of the said William Sydnor, and his heirs. William Sydnor's eight daughters and co-heiresses conveyed it to William Heveningham. Both manors in this parish being thus united, were granted, with the advowson, to Lady Heveningham's trustees in 1661, as already shown.

 

Early in the seventeenth century, Sir Butts Bacon, created a Baronet on the 29th of July, 1627, possessed an estate and resided at Blundeston. He married Dorothy, daughter of Sir Henry Warner, of Parham, in Suffolk, Knt., and widow of William, second son of Sir Henry Jermyn, Knt., by whom he had three sons, Charles and Clement, who died without issue, and Sir Henry Bacon, his successor. He had also two daughters, Anne, the wife of Henry Kitchingman, of Blundeston Hall, and Dorothy, who married William Peck, of Cove. Sir Butts died in 1661, and his widow in 1679. They lie buried in Blundeston church. Soon after the year 1700, the estate of the Bacons was sold to the Allins of Somerleyton; and in 1770 became the property of Frances, the daughter of the Rev. Ashurst Allin, of whose executors it was purchased by Nicholas Henry Bacon, Esq., the second surviving son of the late Sir Edmund Bacon, Bart., of Raveningham, in Norfolk, who sold it in 1832 to Charles Steward, Esq., an officer in the Honourable East India Company's service, who is the present possessor. He married his first-cousin, Harriet, the only daughter, by his first wife, of Ambrose Harbord Steward, Esq., of Stoke Park, near Ipswich, High Sheriff for Suffolk in 1822, by whom he has an only son, Charles John.

 

The mansion erected on this estate has been termed at different periods Sydnors, and Blundeston Villa, but is now designated Blundeston House. The spot is more celebrated for the loveliness of its scenery than the grandeur of the residence, which is simply a good substantial house, erected in a style of unpretending architecture. But its verdant lawns and ample sparkling lake bear testimony of a long subjection to the hand of taste, which evidently still controls. The domain was many years the residence of the late Rev. Norton Nicholls. Mr. Mathias, an author well known by his 'Observations on the Character and Writings of Gray,' in a letter to a friend, occasioned by the death of this "rare and gifted man," terms his villa here "an oasis." Speaking of what Mr. Nicholls had perfected at Blundeston, he says, "if barbarous taste should not improve it, or some more barbarous land-surveyor level with the soil its beauties and its glories, (it) will remain as one of the most finished scenes of cultivated sylvan delight which this island can offer to our view." An aged pollard oak, and a summer-house placed at the termination of the lake, are said to have been favourite haunts of Gray, who was an occasional guest of Mr. Nicholls at Blundeston. In 1799, this gentleman entertained here the gallant Admiral Duncan, soon after his return to Yarmouth, crowned with the laurels won at Camperdown. Mr. Nicholls died on the 22nd of November, 1809, aged 68, and was buried at Richmond church, in Surrey. The vicinity of Blundeston House, while tenanted by Dr. Saunders, was some years since the scene of an unfortunate accident, which deprived that gentleman of life. Being in the act of reloading his double-barrelled gun, a favourite dog fawning upon him, sprung the trigger of the second barrel, and discharged the contents into his master's body. Dr. Saunders's melancholy fate is recorded in the 'Suffolk Chronicle' of October the 15th, 1814.

 

¶The lake, or Blundeston Great Water, as it is called in ancient writings, was the subject of a dispute in the reign of James I., very similar to that recorded at Ashby, as we learn from the following "exemplification of interrogatories to be administered on the part and behalf of John Ufflet, Gent., Henry Winston, Henry Doughtie, and Anne his wife, Thomas Stares, and Anthony Thornwood, complainants, against William Sydnor, Esq., and Henry Sydnor, Gent., deforcients; and of depositions taken at Lowestoft, on the 15th of March, in the seventh of James I., before Anthony Shardelow, William Southwell, William Cuddon, and Benedict Campe, Gents., by virtue of His Majesty's commission out of the Court of Chancery, to them directed. Richard Burman deposed, inter alia, that he knew the great water in Blundeston, called the common fenne, or common water, and the piece of ground called Hempwater green, containing about three acres; that the said water contained about sixteen or seventeen acres. That the messuage wherein Henry Sydnor then dwelt was sometimes of Maister Yarmouth. That the water and green had always been reputed as common. That the inhabitants fished in the water; wetted their hemp therein, and dried it on the green, and fed their cattle thereon. William Pynne deposed, inter alia, that he did not know that the said William Sydnor or Humphrey Yarmouth had any manor in the said towne; nor that there were more manors therein than the manor of Mr. Jettor, called Gunvilles. Robert Jettor deposed that the water is called the common water of Blundeston in a court-roll of the manor of Blundeston Gonville, dated the thirty-first of Henry VIII., and that he did not know that Mr. Yarmouth, or the defendants, had any manor in Blundeston, or that there was any other manor therein than his, called Blundeston Gonvilles. John Wood deposed, inter alia, that the said William Sydnor had obtained the leases from divers owners of sundry messuages or dwelling-houses in Blundeston, of their interests of their fishing in the said great water about twenty years sithence, and that he had before that sued some of the inhabitants of the said towne for having fished therein. That he and another, then churchwardens of Blundeston, did sell the alders growing in or near the said water, and did convert the money to the reparations of the town-house, and that other inhabitants did take poles, splints, and other wood growing there, &c. That he had heard that Mr. Yarmouth did keep courts in Blundeston, and had tenants therein, and that this deponent did hold of Mr. Sydnor, who had Mr. Yarmouth's estate, three acres of land, &c., and that Mr. Jettor had a manor in Blundeston, &c. Interrogatories to be administered to the witnesses to be produced on the part and behalf of William Sydnor, Esq., and Henry Sydnor, Gent., complainants, against Henry Winston, &c., deforcients. Inter alia. Do you know that Humphrey Yarmouth, Esq., deceased, was seized of the manor of Blundeston in Blundeston, and of land covered with water, containing forty acres, and which, on his death, descended to Henry Yarmouth, his son, also dead; who sold the same to William Sydnor; and that they severally held courts-baron, &c. And whether Humphrey Yarmouth, and Henry Yarmouth, his son, and William Sydnor afterwards, did not present to the living on the death or resignation of the incumbents. If the house wherein Henry Sydnor then dwelt was not called Blundeston Hall in court-rolls and writings. Whether, in the twenty-eighth of Elizabeth, in a controversy between the said William Sydnor, lord of Blundeston, and owner of the water, with the inhabitants as to the same being common or not, the dispute was not referred to Sir Edward Coke, then Attorney-General, and afterwards Chief Justice of the Common Pleas, and to Richard Godfrey, Esq. Whether in the thirty-first of Elizabeth there was not a similar dispute, and that it was amicably settled by the said Henry Winston and certain others of the inhabitants agreeing to release their rights of fishing in the water, and that they should have in lieu thereof, a certain driftway thereto from the highway, near the mansion of the said William Sydnor, and a certain piece of land at the end of the said water, containing three acres, for their use, and the feed thereof; and to wet hemp in the water, and dry the same on the said three acres of land, and might dig the soil and carry it away therefrom, and also from Mill Hill, in Belton Heath, and the timber, &c., growing on the said way for repairing the town-house; and whether the said agreement was not carried into execution; and if complainants did not for twelve years quietly enjoy the water, &c., after the execution of the releases. And whether, before the agreement, the inhabitants had a right to take the land, gravel, &c.; and if complainant did not clear the water, and make a bank, &c., for the fowl to breed, &c."

 

he Church at Blundeston,

which is a rectory dedicated to St. Mary, and now consolidated with the adjoining benefice of Flixton, is valued in the King's books at £13. 6s. 8d. It is a singular edifice, comprising a nave and chancel, with a remarkably high-pitched roof, covered with thatch. The tower, which is circular and small in diameter, rises but little above the ridge of the nave, and looks more like a chimney than a steeple. It exhibits decided marks of Norman erection, and was probably attached to an earlier edifice than the present church, which, apparently incorporating the north wall of the ancient nave, seems raised on a wider ground-plan, thereby bringing the apex of the western gable to the southward of the tower, and producing a very inharmonious effect. The masonry of both nave and chancel is composed of large squared flints, but the walls of the latter bulge outwards in a threatening angle, and foretell a speedy dissolution. The interior is lofty and effective, and very neatly kept; and a carved oaken screen beneath the chancel arch is well deserving of observation. The lower compartments of this screen were in olden days richly painted and gilt, as the accidental discovery of one portion, by the removal of some boards, fortunately evinces. This splendid example of ancient art forms an illustration to the present work, and has been engraved from the faithful pencil of the late Miss Dowson, of Yarmouth. St. Peter pointing to the keys of Heaven and Hell, and an angel with uplifted hands assuring us of our salvation through the passion of Christ, occupy the two compartments of a pointed arch, richly backed by a crimson ground, diapered with gold. There is a stiffness in the attitude of each figure, and a harshness of outline visible here, as in the works of more celebrated artists, even at a later period; but these paintings are, nevertheless, extremely interesting, as illustrating the success of art in England in the fifteenth century. There is a small piscina in the chancel, and some oaken benches in the body of the church of excellent workmanship, and an ancient benetura near the south door. In the tower hang two bells, one of which was brought from the ruinated church of the adjoining village of Flixton. The body of the church, which presents a far less fearful aspect than the chancel, has lately undergone considerable renovation, and is indebted to the zeal of Mr. Steward for the preservation of many of its ancient features.

 

Reginald Wynstone, by his last will, dated the 14th of April, 1438, leaves his body to be buried within the church of Blundeston, and constitutes William Wynstone and John Wynstone, his sons, his executors. In the Lansdowne MSS. (fn. 13) is a note, taken apparently about the year 1573, of several armorial cognizances which then ornamented the windows of this building. "In the chancel windows. Arg. a lion sable. FitzOsbert and Jerningham. Quarterly, arg. and b. quarterly indented, a bend gules. Arg. a cross engrailed gules. Bloundeville, or and b. quarterly, indented, a bend gules, sided with Gurney. Gules, 3 gemelles or, a canton ermine, billetted sable. Sable a cross sarsele or, betwixt four scallops arg. Sable, a chevron arg. between 3 cinquefoils or."—"In the church, gul. a lion argent. Arg. 3 buckles lozengy gules, Jernegan. Gu. and b. pale, on a fess wavy arg., 3 crescents sab. betwixt three crosses pale or. Blundeville and Inglos. Erm. on a chevron sab., 3 crescents or, syded with Nownton. Sir Ed. Jenney, erm. a bend gul. cotised or, quartering sab. a chevr. twyxt 3 buckles argent. Or and g. barre unde. Castell, gu., 3 castells arg. Sab. a chev. gules, droppe or, twixt 3 cinquefoils pserd ermine. Or and b. checke. Paston, Bolaine, Nawton, and Barney, Nawton and Howard. Or 3 chev. gu., on each 3 ermines arg. sided with Nawton. Sampson syded with Felbrig. Felbrig, on his shoulder a mullet arg. Bedingfeld quartering Tuddenham, and one of Knevett single."

 

Monuments.—There is an old floor-stone with a cross, but no other ancient memorials, in this church. Among the more modern are the following:

 

Robertus Snelling, Rector, obt. Sep. 12, 1690, æt. 65. Hic jacet Butts Bacon, Baronettus, Nicholai Bacon, Angliæ Baronetti primi filius septimus, qui obiit Maij 29, 1661. Dorothea Bacon, his widow, obt. Sep. 4, 1679. Arms. Bacon.

 

Elizabeth, daughter of John Burkin, of Burlingham, died Jan. 26, 1735. She was first married to the Rev. Mr. Gregory Clarke, and after his decease to the Rev. Mr. Thomas Carter.

 

¶Samuel Luson, died July 7, 1766, aged 33. Luson bears, quarterly, 1st and 4th, az. and gul., 3 sinister hands arg., 2nd and 3rd, erm., 3 roses. . . . Sarah Keziah Thurtell, died May 29th, 1833, aged 18 years. William Wales, died June 8, 1710, aged 63. Gregory Clarke, Christi minister, died 3 Ides of Jan. 1726, aged 45. William Sydnor, Esq., died 1613. Robert Brown, died Sep. 6, 1813, aged 52 years. Mary, his daughter, Aug. 18, 1812, aged 22 years. Sarah, wife of John Clark, widow of the above Robert Brown, died Nov. 16, 1818, aged 59. Elizabeth, second wife of James Thurtell, of Flixton, died June 15, 1823, aged 75 years. Elizabeth, wife of John Clark, died Jan. 28, 1801, aged 28 years. John Clark, died Oct. 7, 1826, aged 57 years. Stephen Saunders, M. D., born 17th Oct. 1777, died 1st Oct. 1814. Timothy Steward, of Great Yarmouth, died 25th of June, 1836. Mary, his wife, daughter of John Fowler, and Ann, his wife, died 22 Jan. 1837. Arms. Steward, quarterly, 1st and 4th. Or, a fess chequee arg. and az.; 2nd and 3rd, arg., a lion ramp. gules, debruised with a bendlet raguly or, impales Fowler, az. on a fess between 3 lions pass. guard, or, as many crosses patonce sable.

 

The registers of Blundeston commence in 1558. They contain several notices of monies collected by Brief in aid of sufferers by fire in distant parts of England. Among others, "To a loss by fire at ye head of ye Cannon-gate at Edinburgh, in North Britain, Jan. 13, 1708/9, 1s. 6d." The advowson of Blundeston with Flixton was sold in 1844, by Lord Sydney Osborne, to Thomas Morse, Esq., of Blundeston.

 

www.british-history.ac.uk/no-series/suffolk-history-antiq...

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Bikes available to rent include the single surrey, deuce coupe, quad sport and chopper. Other bikes also available to rent include tandem bikes, cruiser bikes and kid’s bikes. And, we rent paddle boats too.

 

Children 18 years of age and younger are required to wear a helmet when riding a bike. Children under the age of 13 are required to wear a life jacket when riding a paddle boat. Both helmets and life jackets are provided at no additional cost and are available to any rider or passenger upon request.

 

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Irvine Park Railroad is a one-third scale train that takes both children and adults on a scenic, 12-minute ride through beautiful and scenic Irvine Regional Park. The train ride, which is affordable fun for the entire family, is narrated by the engineer.

 

Other activities inside of the park include Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park paddle boat and bike rentals, the Orange County Zoo and pony rides. Two snack bars serve both hot and cold food.

 

Annual Irvine Park Railroad events include the Easter Eggstravaganza, Anniversary Celebration, Pumpkin Patch and Christmas Train.

 

Irvine Park Railroad has party pavilions and other locations available for rent. These locations are ideal for birthday parties, company picnics, corporate meetings and other special events. We also rent moon bounces for locations inside of Irvine Regional Park.

 

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Visit Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park!

 

Wheel Fun Rentals is a leading provider of fun and unique outdoor recreational vehicles including a complete fleet of bikes that can be enjoyed by single riders or an entire family. Our new fleet of Wheel Fun Rentals bikes – purchased this Spring – are extremely popular with visitors to Irvine Regional Park.

 

Bikes available to rent include the single surrey, deuce coupe, quad sport and chopper. Other bikes also available to rent include tandem bikes, cruiser bikes and kid’s bikes. And, we rent paddle boats too.

 

Children 18 years of age and younger are required to wear a helmet when riding a bike. Children under the age of 13 are required to wear a life jacket when riding a paddle boat. Both helmets and life jackets are provided at no additional cost and are available to any rider or passenger upon request.

 

For more information on these great bikes available for rent, and hours of operation, visit our Web site at www.irvineparkrailroad.com.

 

About Irvine Park Railroad:

Irvine Park Railroad is a one-third scale train that takes both children and adults on a scenic, 12-minute ride through beautiful and scenic Irvine Regional Park. The train ride, which is affordable fun for the entire family, is narrated by the engineer.

 

Other activities inside of the park include Wheel Fun Rentals® at Irvine Park paddle boat and bike rentals, the Orange County Zoo and pony rides. Two snack bars serve both hot and cold food.

 

Annual Irvine Park Railroad events include the Easter Eggstravaganza, Anniversary Celebration, Pumpkin Patch and Christmas Train.

 

Irvine Park Railroad has party pavilions and other locations available for rent. These locations are ideal for birthday parties, company picnics, corporate meetings and other special events. We also rent moon bounces for locations inside of Irvine Regional Park.

 

Irvine Regional Park is centrally-located in the foothills of Orange (Orange County). The nearest, major cross streets are Chapman Avenue at Jamboree Boulevard.

 

Find Irvine Park Railroad on Facebook and Twitter (irvineparkrr).

Brockdish is one of three parish churches within about a mile that can be seen from the A143, but only the top of the tower is visible when heading north, and only fleetingly. THe only other clue is the truncated Church Lane which cuts across the main road, the name of which indicates the nearby church.

 

I came here at about eleven in the morning, having visited Oulton in Suffolk earlier, and wasn't expecting to find it open to be honest. But I heard the bells being rung, or at least pealing in intermittent intervals, the reason being some people were being given lessons.

 

Three cars were parked in the lane beside the church, which you reach by traveling up a green lane north out of the village before taking the track to the church.

 

The door to the tower, where the bellringers were being taught was ajar, and I could have gone up, but instead I go to the porch to try the door, and finding it open, I go inside lest someone comes and closes it.

 

Soon I am joined inside by the warden who is surprised, but pleased, to find a visitor: she is there to make teas for the ringers, and would I like one?

 

My breath had already been taken away by the tiles in the chancel, which are of exceptional quality. Tiles are something easily overlooked, and indeed many were clearly bought from catalogues, and so many are similar, but when more attention to detail was given, when extra quality was installed, it shines through.

 

-----------------------------------------

 

When I first visited this church in 2005, it was with something of a sinking heart to arrive at the third church in a row that was locked without a keyholder notice. Today, nothing could be further from the truth. In the south porch there is a large notice now which reads Come in and enjoy your church! Fabulous stuff.

The trim graveyard includes some substantial memorials to the Kay family, including one massive structure with an angel under a spire which would not look out of place opposite the Royal Albert Hall. No expense was spared by the Victorians here at Brockdish. The rebuilding was paid for by the Rector, George France, who also advised architect Frederick Marable on exactly what form this vision of the medieval should take. The tower above is curiously un-East Anglian, looking rather unusual surrounded by Norfolk fields. All around the building headstops are splendid, and fine details like faux-consecration crosses on the porch show that France was generally a man who knew what a medieval church should look like.

 

It will not surprise you to learn that St Peter and St Paul is similarly grand on the inside, if a touch severe. France actually devised a church much more Anglo-catholic than we find it today; it was toned down by the militantly low church Kay family later in the century. They took down the rood and replaced it with a simple cross, painting out the figures on the rood screen as well. When I first visited, the very helpful churchwarden who'd opened up for me observed that Brockdish is the only church in Norfolk that has stained glass in every window, which isn't strictly true (Harleston, three miles away, has as well) but we can be thankful that, thanks to the Reverend France's fortunes, it is of a very good quality. The glass seems to have been an ongoing project, because some of it dates from the 1920s. In keeping with low church tradition, the glass depicts mainly Biblical scenes and sayings of Christ rather than Saints, apart from the church's two patron Saints in the east window of the chancel. There are also some roundels in the east window of the south aisle, which appear to be of continental glass. They depict the Adoration of the Magi, the deposition of Christ, what appears to be Paharoah's daughter with the infant Moses, and the heads of St Matthias, St John the Evangelist, and Christ with a Crown of Thorns. However, I suspect that at least some of them are the work of the King workshop of Norwich, and that only the Deposition and the Old Testament scene are genuinely old.

 

If this is rather a gloomy church on a dark day, it is because of the glass in the south clerestory, a surprisingly un-medieval detail - the whole point of a clerestory was to let light reach the rood. The glass here is partly heraldic, partly symbolic. The stalls in the chancel are another faux-medieval detail - there was never a college of Priests here - but they looked suspiciously as if they might contain old bench ends within the woodwork. Not all is false, because the chancel also contains an unusual survival from the earlier church, a tombchest which may have been intended as an Easter Sepulchre.

 

Above all, the atmosphere is at once homely and devotional, not least because of the exceptional quality of the tiled sanctuary, an increasingly rare beast because they were so often removed in the 1960s and 1970s, when Victorian interiors were unfashionable. Brockdish's is spectacular, a splendid example that has caught the attention of 19th century tile enthusiasts and experts nationally.

 

Also tiled is the area beneath the tower, which France had reordered as a baptistery. The font has recently been moved back into the body of the church; presumably, whoever supplies the church's liability insurance had doubts about godparents standing with their backs to the steps down into the nave.

I liked Brockdish church a lot; I don't suppose it gets a lot of visitors, but it is a fine example of what the Victorians did right.

 

Simon Knott, June 2005, revisited and updated July 2010

 

www.norfolkchurches.co.uk/brockdish/brockdish.htm

 

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Is the next adjoining town eastward, through which the great road passes to Yarmouth; on the left hand of which, stands the church, on a hill by itself, there being no house near it but the parsonage, which joins to the east side of the churchyard. The advowson always belonged to the Earl's manor here, with which it now continues.

 

In Norwich Domesday we read, that the rector had a house and 30 acres of land, that it was then valued at 15 marks, and paid as it now doth for synodals 1s. 9d. procurations 6s. 8d. and 12d. Peter-pence. It stands in the King's Books thus:

 

10l. Brokedish rectory. 1l. yearly tenths.

 

And consequently pays first-fruits, and is incapable of augmentation. The church stands included in the glebe, which is much the same in quantity as it was when the aforesaid survey was taken. It is in Norfolk archdeaconry, Redenhall deanery, and Duke of Norfolk's liberty, though he hath no lete, warren, paramountship, or superiour jurisdiction at all in this town, the whole being sold by the family along with the manors of the town.

 

In 1603, there were 103 communicants here, and now there are 50 families, and about 300 inhabitants; it was laid to the ancient tenths at 4l. but had a constant deduction of 14s. on account of lands belonging to the religious, so that the certain payment to each tenth, was 3l. 6s.

 

The Prior of St. Faith at Horsham owned lands here, which were taxed at 2s. 6d. in 1428.

 

The Prior of Thetford monks had lands here of the gift of Richard de Cadomo or Caam, (fn. 1) who gave them his land in Brokedis, and a wood sufficient to maintain 20 swine, in the time of King Henry I. when William Bigot, sewer to that King, gave to this priory all the land of Sileham, which from those monks is now called Monks-hall manor, and the water-mill there; all which Herbert Bishop of Norwich conveyed to his father, in exchange for other lands, he being to hold it in as ample a manner as ever Herbert the chaplain did; and in Ric. the Second's time, the monks bought a piece of marsh ground in Brokedis, to make a way to their mill, which being not contained in the grant of Monks-hall manor from Hen. VIII. to the Duke of Norfolk, William Grice, Esq. and Charles Newcomen, who had a grant of such lands as they could find concealed from the Crown, seized on this as such; and upon their so doing, the owner of the mill was obliged to purchase it of them, by the name of Thetford-Mill-Way, and it hath ever since belonged to, and is constantly repaired by the owner thereof.

 

Rectors of Brockidish.

 

12 - - Robert

 

12 - - Sir Ralf de Creping, rector.

 

1313, Sir Stephen Bygod. The King, for this turn.

 

1324, Nic. le Mareschal. Tho. Earl of Norfolk and Marshal.

 

1326, Mathew Paumer, or Palmer. Ditto. He changed for Canefield-Parva in London diocese with

 

Master Robert de Hales. Ditto.

 

1333, John de Melburn. Ditto.

 

1355, Roger de Wombwell. Lady Eleanor and Thomas de Wingfield, attorneys to Sir John Wingfield, Knt.

 

1356, John Knyght of Exeter. Mary Countess-Marshal, widow of Tho. de Brotherton, who recovered the advowson by the King's writ, against Sir J. Wingfield, Knt. and Thomas his brother, William de Lampet and Alice his wife, and Catherine her sister, and so Wombwell was ejected.

 

1357, John de Esterford. Mary Countess-Marshal. He resigned in

 

1367, to John son of Catherine de Frenge, and he in

 

1368, to John Syward. Sir Walter Lord Manney.

 

1382, John de Balsham, who changed for Stowe St. Michael in Exeter diocese, with

 

Bartholomew Porter. Margaret Marshal, Countess of Norfolk.

 

1405, Sir John Dalyngho of Redcnhall. Eliz. Dutchess of Norf. in right of her dower.

 

1417, he exchanged with Thomes Barry, priest, for the vicarage of Berkyng church in London. John Lancaster, Ric. Sterisacre, and Rob. Southwell, attorneys to John Duke of Norfolk, EarlMarshal and Notyngham, who was beyond the seas. Barry resigned in

 

1422, to Sir Thomas Briggs, priest, who died rector. Ditto.

 

1454, Sir Hen. White, priest. John Duke of Norf. Earl-Marshal and Notingham, Marshal of England, Lord Mowbray, Segrave, and Gower. He resigned in

 

1455, to Sir Thomas Holm, priest. Ditto. And he in

 

1478, to John Nun. The King, as guardian to Richard Duke of York and Norfolk, and Lady Ann his wife, daughter and heir of John late Duke of Norfolk.

 

1491, John Mene; he had a union to hold another benefice.

 

1497, John Rogers, A. M. Eliz. Dutchess of Norfolk. He resigned in

 

1498, to Sir John Fisk, priest, chaplain to the Dutchess. Ditto. At whose death in

 

1511, Sir Robert Gyrlyng, chaplain to Thomas Earl of Surrey, had it of that Earl's gift: he was succeeded by

 

Sir William Flatberry, chaplain to Thomas Duke of Norfolk, who presented him; he resigned in

 

1540, to Sir Nic. Stanton, chaplain to his patron, Tho. Duke of Norf. Lord Treasurer and Earl-Marshal, and was succeeded by

 

William Hide, priest. Ditto. He resigned, and the Duke presented it in

 

1561, to Sir John Inman, priest, who was buried here Aug. 1, 1586.

 

1586, Aug. 4, Master Richard Gibson was instituted, who was buried Oct. 1, 1625; he was presented by Robert Nichols of Cambridge, by purchase of the turn from William le Grice, Gent. and Hester le Grice, wife of Charles le Grice, Gent. true patrons.

 

1625, William Owles, who held it united to Billingford. John Knapp of Brockdish, by grant of this turn. He was succeeded in

 

1645, by Brian Witherel, and he by

 

Mr. James Aldrich, who died rector Nov. 10, 1657, from which time somebody held it without institution, till the Restoration, and then receded, for in

 

1663, May 14, Sir Augustine Palgrave, patron of this turn, in right of Catherine his wife, presented George Fish, on the cession of the last incumbent; he was buried here Oct. 29, 1686.

 

1686, Thomas Palgrave, A.M. buried here March 24, 1724. Fran. Laurence, Gent.

 

1724, Abel Hodges, A.B. he held it united to Tharston, and died in 1729. Richard Meen, apothecary, for this turn.

 

1729, Richard Clark, LL. B. was instituted Dec. 3, and died about six weeks after. Mrs. Ellen Laurence of Castleacre, widow.

 

1730, Alan Fisher. Ditto. He resigned in

 

1738, and was succeeded by Robert Laurence, A. B. of Caius college, who lies buried at the south-east corner of the chancel, and was succeeded in

 

1739, by Francis Blomefield, clerk, the present rector, who holds it united to Fresfield rectory, being presented by Mrs. Ellen Laurence aforesaid.

 

The church is dedicated to the honour of the apostles St. Peter and Paul, and hath a square tower about 16 yards high, part of which was rebuilt with brick in 1714; there are five bells; the third, which is said to have been brought from Pulham in exchange, hath this on it;

 

Sancta Maria ora pro nobis.

 

and on the fourth is this,

 

Uirgo Coronata duc nos ad Regna beata.

 

The nave, chancel, and south isle are leaded, the south porch tiled, and the north porch is ruinated. The roof of this chancel is remarkable for its principals, which are whole trees without any joint, from side to side, and bent in such a rising manner, as to be agreeable to the roof. The chancel is 30 feet long and 20 broad, the nave is 54 feet long and 32 broad, and the south isle is of the same length, and 10 feet broad.

 

At the west end of the nave is a black marble thus inscribed,

 

Here lyeth buried the Body of Richard Wythe Gent. who departed this Life the 6 of Sept. 1671, who lived 64 Years and 4 Months and 9 Days.

 

This family have resided here till lately, ever since Edw. the Third's time, and had a considerable estate here, and the adjacent villages. See their arms, vol. iv. p. 135.

 

Another marble near the desk hath this,

 

Near this Place lays Elizabeth Wife of John Moulton Gent. who died Oct. 31, 1716, aged 32 Years. And here lieth Mary the late Wife of John Moulton, who died March 20, 1717, aged 27 Years. And also here lyeth the Body of John Moulton Gent. who died June 12, 1718, aged 38 Years.

 

Moulton's arms and crest as at vol. iv. p. 501.

 

In a north window are the arms of De la Pole quartering Wingfield.

 

In 1465, Jeffry Wurliche of Brockdish was buried here, and in 1469 John Wurliche was interred in the nave, and left a legacy to pave the bottom of the steeple. In 1518, Henry Bokenham of Brockdish was buried in the church, as were many of the Spaldings, (fn. 2) Withes, Howards, Grices, Tendrings, and Laurences; who were all considerable owners and families of distinction in this town.

 

The chapel at the east end of the south isle was made by Sir Ralf Tendring of Brockdish, Knt. whose arms remain in its east window at this day, once with, and once without, a crescent az. on the fess, viz. az. a fess between two chevrons arg.

 

His altar monument stands against the east wall, north and south, and hath a sort of cupola over it, with a holy-water stope by it, and a pedestal for the image of the saint to which it was dedicated, to stand on, so that it served both for a tomb and an altar; the brass plates of arms and circumscription are lost.

 

On the north side, between the chapel and nave, stands another altar tomb, covered with a most curious marble disrobed of many brass plates of arms and its circumscription, as are several other stones in the nave, isle, and chancel. This is the tomb of John Tendring of Brockdish-hall, Esq. who lived there in 1403, and died in 1436, leaving five daughters his heirs, so that he was the last male of this branch of the Tendrings. Cecily his wife is buried by him.

 

On the east chancel wall, on the south side of the altar, is a white marble monument with this,

 

Obdormit hìc in Domino, lætam in Christo expectans Resurrectionem, Robertus, Roberti Laurence, ac Annæ Uxoris ejus, Filius, hujusce Ecclesiæ de Brockdish in Comitatû Norfolciensi Rector, ejusdem Villæ Dominus, ac Ecclesiæ Patronus, jure hereditario (si vixîsset) Futurus; Sed ah! Fato nimium immaturo abreptus; Cœlestia per Salvatoris merita sperans, Terrestria omnia, Juvenis reliquit. Dec. 31°. Anno æræ Christianæ mdccxxxixo. Ætatis xxvo. Maria, unica Soror et Hæres, Roberti Frankling Generosi Uxor, Fraterni Amoris hoc Testimonium animo grato, Memoriæ Sacrum posuit.

 

1. Laurence, arg. a cross raguled gul. on a chief gul. a lion passant guardant or.

 

2. Aslack, sab. a chevron erm. between three catherine-wheels arg.

 

3. Lany, arg. on a bend between two de-lises gul. a mullet of the field for difference.

 

4. Cooke, or, on a chevron ingrailed gul. a crescent of the field for difference, between three cinquefoils az. on a chief of the second, a lion passant guardant of the first.

 

5. Bohun, gul. a crescent erm. in an orle of martlets or.

 

6. Bardolf, az. three cinquefoils or.

 

7. Ramsey, gul. a chevron between three rams heads caboshed arg.

 

8. as 1.

 

Crest, a griffin seiant proper.

 

Motto, Floreat ut Laurus.

 

On a flat stone under this monument, is a brass plate thus inscribed,

 

Sacrum hoc Memoriæ Roberti Laurence Armigeri, qui obijt xxviijo die Julij 1637, Elizabeth Uxor ejus, Filia Aslak Lany Armigeri posuit.

 

Arms on a brass plate are,

 

Lawrence impaling Lany and his quarterings, viz. 1, Lany. 2, Aslack. 3, Cooke. 4, Bohun. 5, nine de-lises, 3, 3, and 3. 6, Bardolf. 7, Charles. 8, on a chevron three de-lises. 9, Ramsey. 10, Tendring. 11, on a fess two coronets. 12, Wachesam, arg. a fess, in chief two crescents gul. 13, a lion rampant. 14, Lany.

 

There is a picture of this Robert drawn in 1629, æt. 36. He built the hall in 1634; it stands near half a mile north-east of the church, and was placed near the old site of Brockdishe's-hall; the seat of the Tendrings, whose arms, taken out of the old hall when this was built, were fixed in the windows. The arms of this man and his wife, and several of their quarterings, are carved on the wainscot in the rooms.

 

On the south side of the churchyard is an altar tomb covered with a black marble, with the crest and arms of

 

Sayer, or Sawyer, gul. a chief erm. and a chevron between three seamews proper.

 

Crest, a hand holding a dragon's head erased proper.

 

To the Memory of Frances late the wife of Richard Tubby Esq. who departed this Life Dec. 22, 1728, in the 60th Year of her Age.

 

And adjoining is another altar tomb,

 

In Memory of Richard Tubby Esq. (fn. 3) who died Dec. 10th. 1741, in the 80th Year of his Age.

 

There are two other altar tombs in the churchyard, one for Mr. Rich. Chatton, and another for Eliz. daughter of Robert and Eliz. Harper, who died in 1719, aged 8 years.

 

The town takes its name from its situation on the Waveney or Wagheneye, which divides this county from that of Suffolk; the channel of which is now deep and broad, though nothing to what it was at that time, as is evident from the names of places upon this river, as the opposite vill, now called Sileham, (oftentimes wrote Sayl-holm, even to Edw. the Third's time) shows; for I make no doubt, but it was then navigable for large boats and barges to sail up hither, and continued so, till the sea by retiring at Yarmouth, and its course being stopt near Lowestoft, had not that influence on the river so far up, as it had before; which occasioned the water to retire, and leave much land dry on either side of the channel; though it is so good a stream, that it might with ease, even now, be made navigable hither; and it would be a good work, and very advantageous to all the adjacent country. That [Brod-dic] signifies no more than the broad-ditch, is very plain, and that the termination of ò, eau, or water, added to it, makes it the broad ditch of water, is as evident.

 

Before the Confessor's time, this town was in two parts; Bishop Stigand owned one, and the Abbot of Bury the other; the former afterwards was called the Earl's Manor, from the Earls of Norfolk; and the other Brockdishe's-hall, from its ancient lords, who were sirnamed from the town.

 

The superiour jurisdiction, lete, and all royalties, belonged to the Earl's manor, which was always held of the hundred of Earsham, except that part of it which belonged to Bury abbey, and that belonged to the lords of Brockdishe's-hall; but when the Earl's manor was sold by the Duke of Norfolk, with all royalties of gaming, fishing, &c. together with the letes, view of frankpledge, &c. free and exempt from his hundred of Earsham, and the two manors became joined as they now are, the whole centered in the lord of the town, who hath now the sole jurisdiction with the lete, belonging to it; and the whole parish being freehold, on every death or alienation, the new tenant pays a relief of a year's freehold rent, added to the current year: The annual free-rent, without such reliefs, amounting to above 3l. per annum. At the Conqueror's survey the town was seven furlongs long, and five furlongs and four perches broad, and paid 6d. to the geld or tax. At the Confessor's survey, there were 28 freemen here, six of which held half a carucate of land of Bishop Stigand, and the others held 143 acres under the Abbot of Bury, and the Abbot held the whole of Stigand, without whose consent the freemen could neither give away, nor sell their land, but were obliged to pay him 40s. a year free-rent; (fn. 4) and if they omitted paying at the year's end, they forfeited their lands, or paid their rent double; but in the Conqueror's time they paid 16l. per annum by tale. There were two socmen with a carucate of land, two villeins and two bordars here, which were given to Bury abbey along with the adjacent manor of Thorp-Abbots, but were after severed from that manor, and infeoffed by the Abbot of Bury in the lord of Brockdishe's-hall manor, with which it passed ever after. (fn. 5)

 

Brockdish-Earl's Manor, or Brockdish Comitis.

 

This manor always attended the manor of Forncet after it was granted from the Crown to the Bygods, along with the half hundred of Earsham, for which reason I shall refer you to my account of that manor at p. 223, 4. It was mostly part of the dower of the ladies of the several noble families that it passed through, and the living was generally given to their domestick chaplains. In 3 Edward I. the Abbot of Bury tried an action with Roger Bigod, then lord and patron, for the patronage; (fn. 6) pleading that a part of the town belonged to his house, and though they had infeoffed their manor here in the family of the Brockdishes, yet the right in the advowson remained in him; but it appearing that the advowson never belonged to the Abbot's manor, before the feofment was made, but that it wholly was appendant ever since the Confessor's time, to the Earl's manor, the Abbot was cast: notwithstanding which in 1335, Sir John Wingfield, Knt. and Thomas his brother, William de Lampet and Alice his wife, and Catherine her sister, owners of Brockdishe's manor, revived the claim to the advowson; and Thomas de Wingfield, and lady Eleanor wife of Sir John Wingfield, presented here, and put up their arms in the church windows, as patrons, which still remain; but Mary Countess Marshal, who then held this manor in dower, brought her quare impedit, and ejected their clerk; since which time, it constantly attended this manor, being always appendant thereto. In 15 Edw. I. Roger Bigot, then lord, had free-warren in all this town, as belonging to this manor, having not only all the royalties of the town, but also the assise of bread and ale, and amerciaments of all the tenants of his own manor, and of the tenants of Reginald de Brockdish, who were all obliged to do suit once a year at the Earl's view of frankpledge and lete in Brockdish; and it continued in the Norfolk family till 1570, and then Thomas Howard Duke of Norfolk, obtained license from Queen Elizabeth to sell it; it being held in capite or in chief of the Crown, as part of the barony and honour of the said Duke, who accordingly sold the manor, advowson, free-fishery, and all the place or manor-house, and demean lands; together with the lete, view of frankpledge, liberty of free warren, and all other royalties whatsoever, free and exempt from any jurisdiction or payment to his half hundred of Earsham, to

 

Charles le Grice, Esq. of Brockdish, and his heirs, who was descended from Sir Rorert le Grys of Langley in Norfolk, Knt. equerry to Ric. I. and Oliva his wife, whose son, Sir Simon le Grys, Knt. of Thurveton, was alive in 1238, and married Agnes daughter and coheir to Augustine son of Richard de Waxtenesham or Waxham, of Waxham in Norfolk, by whom he had Roger le Grys of Thurton, Esq. who lived in the time of Edward I. whose son Thomas le Grice of Thurton, had Roger le Grice of Brockdish, who lived here in 1392; whose son Thomas left John le Grice his eldest son and heir, who married a Bateman, and lies buried in St. John Baptist's church in Norwich; (see vol. iv. p. 127;) but having no male issue, William le Grice of Brockdish, Esq. son of Robert le Grice of Brockdish, his uncle, inherited; he married Sibill, daughter and sole heir of Edmund Singleton of Wingfield in Suffolk, and had

 

Anthony le Grice of Brockdish, Esq. (fn. 7) who married Margaret, daughter of John Wingfield, Esq. of Dunham, who lived in the place, and died there in 1553, and lies buried in the church, by whom his wife also was interred in 1562. His brother Gilbert Grice of Yarmouth, Gent. (fn. 8) first agreed with the Duke for Brockdish, but died before it was completed; so that Anthony, who was bound with him for performance of the covenants, went on with the purchase for his son,

 

Charles le Grice aforesaid, (fn. 9) to whom it was conveyed: he married two wives; the first was Susan, daughter and heir of Andrew Manfield, Gent. and Jane his wife, who was buried here in 1564; the second was Hester, daughter of Sir George Blagge, Knt. who held the manor for life; and from these two wives descended the numerous branches of the Grices of Brockdish, Norwich, Wakefield in Yorkshire, &c. He was buried in this church April 12, 1575, and was found to hold his manor of the hundred of Earsham, in free soccage, without any rent or service, and not in capite; and Brockdishe's-hall manor of the King, as of his barony of Bury St. Edmund in Suffolk, which lately belonged to the abbey there, in free soccage, without any rent or service, and not in capite, and

 

William le Grice, Esq. was his eldest son and heir, who at the death of his mother-in-law, was possessed of the whole estate; for in 1585, William Howard, then lord of Brockdishe's-hall manor, agreed and sold it to this William, and Henry le Grice his brother, and their heirs; but Howard dying the next year, the purchase was not completed till 1598, when Edw. Coppledick, Gent. and other trustees, brought a writ of entry against John son of the said William Howard, Gent. and had it settled absolutely in the Grices, from which time the two manors have continued joined as they are at this day; by Alice, daughter and heiress of Mr. Eyre of Yarmouth; he left

 

Francis le Grice, Esq. his son and heir, who sold the whole estate, manors, and advowson, to

 

Robert Laurence of Brockdish, Esq. (fn. 10) who married Elizabeth, daughter of Richard, son of Edmund Anguish of Great-Melton, by whom he had

 

Robert Laurence, Esq. his son and heir, who married Elizabeth, daughter of Aslack Lany, who survived him, and remarried in 1640, to Richard Smith, Gent. by whom she had one child, Eliz. buried here in 1641: he died July 24, 1637, and lies buried by the altar as aforesaid: he built the present hall, and had divers children, as Aslak Laurence, Robert, born in 1633, buried in 1635, Samuel Laurence, born in 1635, Ellen, born in 1635, Elizabeth, who married William Reynolds of Great-Massingham, Gent. and

 

Francis Laurence of Brockdish, Esq. his eldest son and heir, who married Ellen, daughter of Thomas Patrick of Castle-acre, Gent. widow of Mathew Halcote of Litcham, Gent. who survived him, and held Brockdish in jointure to her death, which happened Jan. 6, 1741, when she was buried in the nave of Litcham church: they had Frances, and Elizabeth, who died infants; Mary, who died single about 1736, and was buried in the vestry belonging to Castleacre church; Jane, married to Mr. Thomas Shin of Great Dunham, by whom a Thomas, a son, &c. she being dead; Ellen, now widow of Thomas Young of Oxboro, Gent. who died Oct. 1743, leaving issue, the Rev. Mr. Thomas-Patrick Young of Caius college in Cambridge, Benjamin and Mary, and

 

Samuel Lawrence, Gent. their second son, is now alive and single; and

 

Robert Lawrence, Esq. their eldest son and heir, is long since dead, but by Anne daughter of John Meriton, late rector of Oxburgh, his wife, he left one son,

 

Robert Laurence, late rector of Brockdish, who died single, and

 

Mrs. Mary Laurence, his only sister, who is now living, and married to Robert Frankling, Gent. of Lynn in Norfolk, is the present lord in her right, but they have no issue.

 

Brockdishe's-Hall Manor,

 

Belonged to Bury abbey as aforesaid, till the time of Henry I. and then the Abbot infeoffed

 

Sir Stephen de Brockdish in it, from whom it took its present name; he was to hold it at the 4th part of a knight's fee of that abbey: it contained a capital messuage or manor-house, called now Brockdishe's-hall; 105 acres of land in demean, 12 acres of wood, 8 of meadow, and 4l. 13s. 10d. rents of assise; he left it to

 

Jeffery de Brockdish his son, and he to

 

William, his son and heir, who in 1267, by the name of William de Hallehe de Brokedis, or Will. of Brockdish-hall, was found to owe suit and service once in a year with all his tenants, to the lete of the Earl of Norfolk, held here. He left this manor, and the greatest part of his estate in Norwich-Carleton (which he had with Alice Curson his wife) to

 

Thomas, his son and heir, and the rest of it to Nigel de Brockdish, his younger son; (see p. 102;) Thomas left it to

 

Reginald, his eldest son and heir, and he to

 

Sir Stephen de Brockdish, Knt. his son and heir, who was capital bailiff of all the Earl of Norfolk's manors in this county; he was lord about 1329, being succeeded by his son,

 

Stephen, who by Mary Wingfield his wife, had

 

Reginald de Brockdish, his son and heir, (fn. 11) to whom he gave Brockdish-hall manor in Burston, (see vol. i. p. 127, vol. ii. p. 506,) but he dying before his father, was never lord here; his two daughters and heiresses inheriting at his father's death, viz.

 

Alice, married to William de Lampet about 1355, and Catherine some time after, to William son of John de Herdeshull, lord of North Kellesey and Saleby in Lincolnshire, who inherited each a moiety, according to the settlement made by their grandfather, who infeoffed Sir John de Wingfield, Knt. and Eleanor his wife, and Thomas his brother, in trust for them; (fn. 12) soon after, one moiety was settled on Robert Mortimer and Catherine his wife, by John Hemenhale, clerk, and John de Lantony, their trustees; and not long after the whole was united, and belonged to

 

Sir William Tendring of Stokeneyland, Knt. and Margaret his wife, daughter and coheir of Sir Will. Kerdeston of Claxton in Norfolk, Knt. who were succeeded by their son and heir

 

Sir John Tendring of Stokeneyland, Knt. who jointly with Agnes his wife, settled it on

 

Sir Ralf Tendring of Brockdish, Knt. one of their younger sons, who built the old hall (which was pulled down by Robert Lawrence, Esq. when he erected the present house) and the south isle chapel, in which he and Alice his wife are interred; his son,

 

John Tendring of Brockdish, Esq. who was lord here and of Westhall in Colney, (see p. 5,) and was buried in the said chapel, with Cecily his wife, died in 1436, and left five daughrers, coheiresses, viz.

 

Cecily, married to Robert Ashfield of Stowlangetot in Suffolk, Esq.

 

Elizabeth, to Simeon Fincham of Fincham in Norfolk, Esq.

 

Alice, to Robert Morton.

 

Joan, to Henry Hall of Helwinton.

 

Anne, to John Braham of Colney.

 

Who joined and levied a fine and sold it to

 

Thomas Fastolff, Esq. and his heirs; and the year following, they conveyed all their lands, &c. in Wigenhall, Tilney, and Islington, to

 

Sir John Howard, Knt. and his heirs; and vested them in his trustees, who, the year following, purchased the manor of Fastolff to himself and heirs; this Sir John left Brockdish to a younger son,

 

Robert Howard, Esq. who settled here, and by Isabel his wife had

 

William Howard of Brockdish, Esq. who was lord in 1469; he had two wives, Alice and Margaret, from whom came a very numerous issue, but

 

Robert, his son and heir, had this manor, who by Joan his wife had

 

William Howard, his eldest son and heir, who died in 1566, seized of many lands in Cratfield, Huntingfield, Ubbeston, and Bradfield in Suffolk; and of many lands and tenements here, and in Sileham, &c. having sold this manor the year before his death, to the Grices as aforesaid; but upon the sale, he reserved, all other his estate in Brockdish, in which he dwelt, called Howard's Place, situate on the south side of the entrance of Brockdish-street; which house and farm went to

 

John Howard, his son and heir, the issue of whose three daughters, Grace, Margaret, and Elizabeth, failing, it reverted to

 

Mathew, son of William Howard, second brother to the said John Howard their father, whose second son,

 

Mathew Howard, afterwards owned it; and in 1711, it was owned by a Mathew Howard, and now by

 

Mr. Bucknall Howard of London, his kinsman (as I am informed.)

 

The site and demeans of the Earl's manor, now called the place, was sold from the manor by the Grices some time since, and after belonged to Sir Isaac Pennington, alderman of London, (see vol. i. p. 159,) and one of those who sat in judgment on the royal martyr, for which his estate was forfeited at the Restoration, and was given by Car. II. to the Duke of Grafton; and his Grace the present Duke of Grafton, now owns it.

 

the benefactions to this parish are,

 

One close called Algorshegge, containing three acres, (fn. 13) and a grove and dove-house formerly built thereon containing about one acre, at the east end thereof; the whole abutting on the King's highway north, and the glebe of Brockdish rectory west: and one tenement abutting on Brockdish-street south, called Seriches, (fn. 14) with a yard on the north side thereof, were given by John Bakon the younger, of Brockdish, son of John Bakon the elder, of Thorp-Abbots; the clear profits to go yearly to pay the tenths and fifteenths for the parish of Brockdish when laid, and when they are not laid, to repair and adorn the parish church there for ever: his will is proved in 1433. There are always to be 12 feoffees, of such as dwell, or are owners in the parish, and when the majority of them are dead, the survivors are to fill up the vacancies.

 

In 1590, 1 Jan. John Howard, Gent. John Wythe, Gent. William Crickmere and Daniel Spalding, yeomen, officers of Brockdish, with a legacy left to their parish in 1572, by John Sherwood, late of Brokdish, deceased, purchased of John Thruston of Hoxne, Gent. John Thruston his nephew, Thomas Barker, and the inhabitants of Hoxne in Suffolk, one annuity or clear yearly rent-charge of 6s. 8d. issuing out of six acres of land and pasture in Hoxne, in a close called Calston's-close, one head abutting on a way leading from Heckfield-Green to Moles-Cross, towards the east; to the only use and behoof of the poor of Brockdish, to be paid on the first of November in Hoxne church-porch, between 12 and 4 in the afternoon of the same day, with power to distrain and enter immediately for non-payment; the said six acres are warranted to be freehold, and clear of all incumbrances, except another rentcharge of 13s. 4d. granted to Hoxne poor, to be paid at the same day and place

 

In 1592, John Howard of Brockdish sold to the inhabitants there, a cottage called Laune's, lying between the glebes on all parts; this hath been dilapidated many years, but the site still belongs to the parish.

 

From the old Town Book.

 

1553, 1st Queen Mary, paid for a book called a manuel 2s. 6d.; for two days making the altar and the holy-water stope, and for a lock for the font. 1554, paid for the rood 9d. 1555, paid for painting the rood-loft 14d. At the visitation of my Lord Legate 16d. To the organs maker 4d. and for the chalice 26s. 1557, paid for carriage of the Bible to Bocnam 12d. for deliverance of the small books at Harlstone 15d.; the English Bibles and all religious Protestant tracts usually at this time left in the churches for the information and instruction of the common people, being now called in by the Papist Queen. Paid for two images making 5s.; for painting them 16d. for irons for them 8d. But in 1558, as soon as Queen Elizabeth ascended the throne, all these Popish, images, &c. were removed out of the church. Paid for sinking the altar 4d.; carrying out the altar 5d.; mending the communion table 3d.; 1561, paid for the X. Commandments 18d.; for pulling down the rood-loft 14d.; paid Roger Colby repairing the crosse in the street 26s. 8d.; for a lock to the crosse-house, &c.; 1565, for digging the ground and levelling the low altar, (viz. in the south chapel,) and mending the pavement. For makyng the communion cup at Harlston 5s. 4d. besides 6s. 2d. worth of silver more than the old chalice weyed. 1569, paid to Belward the Dean for certifying there is no cover to the cup, 8d. 1657, layd out 19s. 4d. for the relief of Attleburgh, visited with the plague. Laid out 17s. for the repair of the Brockdish part of Sileham bridge, leading over the river to Sileham church. This bridge is now down, through the negligence of both the parishes, though it was of equal service to both, and half of it repaired by each of them. In 1618, the church was wholly new paved and repaired; and in 1619, the pulpit and desk new made, new books, pulpit-cloth, altar-cloth, &c. bought.

 

From the Register:

 

1593, Daniel son of Robert Pennington, Gent. bapt. 13 July. 1626, John Brame, Gent. and Anne Shardelowe, widow, married Sept. 2. 1631, John Blomefield and Elizabeth Briges married May 30. 1666, Roger Rosier, Gent. buried. 1735, Henry Blomefield of Fersfield, Gent. single man, and Elizabeth Bateman of Mendham, single woman, married Feb. 27.

 

www.british-history.ac.uk/topographical-hist-norfolk/vol5...

John Maguire's old stomping grounds in London, England.

Some shots of John:

www.flickr.com/search/?user_id=21728045%40N08&sort=da...

 

Click: >

 

en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bethnal_Green

 

BETHNAL-GREEN.

Bethnal-Green made a parish.

 

The very populous and extensive parish of Stepney having before suffered some diminutions, was again abridged in the year 1743, by the separation of the hamlet of Bethnal-Green, which was then by act of parliament made a distinct parish.

 

Situation.

 

Etymology.

 

The Green, from which the hamlet derived its name, lies about half a mile beyond the suburbs. I think it not improbable that Bethnal may have been a corruption of Bathon-Hall; and that it was the residence of the family of Bathon, or Bathonia, who had considerable property at Stepney in the reign of Edward the First (fn. 1).

 

Boundaries.

 

Extent.

 

Nature of land and foil.

 

Brick. Fields.

 

Land-tax.

 

The parish of St. Matthew, Bethnal-Green (fn. 2), extends over a considerable part of the suburbs of the metropolis, and reaches almost to Spitalfields. It is bounded on the north by Hackney; on the east by Stratford-Bow; on the west by St. Leonard's, Shoreditch; and on the south by Christ-church, Spitalfields, and Mile End New Town, a hamlet of Stepney. It appears by an actual survey of the hamlet of Bethnal-Green, (which was co-extensive with the present parish,) made in 1703, that it then contained about 550 acres of land, besides that which was occupied by buildings; this quantity is now somewhat abridged by the great increase of houses within the last five years. There are now about 190 acres of arable, about 160 of grass land, and about 140 occupied by market gardeners: the arable land frequently produces two crops in the year, one of corn and the other of garden vegetables. The soil is for the most part a rich loam. The brick-fields in this parish not only furnish bricks sufficient for the new buildings there, but a considerable quantity also for general sale. Bethnal-Green pays the sum of 1107l. 16s. 9d. to the land-tax, which, in the year 1792, was at the rate of 1s. 4d. in the pound.

 

Weavers.

 

Cotton-manufacture.

 

The town-part of this parish is extremely populous, being inhabited principally by journeymen weavers, who live three or four families in a house, and work at home at their looms and reels for the master weavers in Spitalfields. In St. John-street is an extensive cotton manufacture belonging to Messrs Paty and Byrchall, which was established about the year 1783, and employs from 200 to 300 hands. At the end of Pollard's-row, near the Hackneyroad, is a new manufacture lately established by Messrs. Hegner, Ehrliholtzer, and Co. for making "water-proof flaxen-pipe hose for fire-engines, brewers, ships, &c. they are wove tubular, without seams, and made to any length and of any diameter." The manufacture is yet in its infancy, and at present employs but a few hands.

 

Beggar of Bethnal-Green.

 

The well-known ballad of the Beggar of Bethnal-Green was written in the reign of Queen Elizabeth: the legend is told of the reign of Henry the Third; and Henry de Montfort, (son of the Earl of Leicester,) who was supposed to have fallen at the battle of Evesham, is the hero (fn. 3). Though it is probable that the author might have fixed upon any other spot with equal propriety for the residence of his beggar, the story nevertheless seems to have gained much credit in the village, where it decorates not only the sign-posts of the publicans, but the staff of the parish beadle; and so convinced are some of the inhabitants of its truth, that they shew an ancient house upon the Green as the palace of the blind beggar; and point out two turrets at the extremities of the court wall as the places where he deposited his gains.

 

Kirby Castle.

 

The old mansion above-mentioned, called in the survey of 1703 Bethnal-Green-house, was built in the reign of Queen Elizabeth, by John Kirby, citizen of London. Fleetwood, the recorder of London, in a letter to the lord treasurer (about the year 1578), mentions the death of "John Kirby, who built the fair house upon BethnalGreen, which house, lofty like a castle, occasioned certain rhimes abusive of him and some other city builders of great houses, who had prejudiced themselves thereby; viz. Kirby's Castle, and Fisher's Folly; Spinola's Pleasure, and Meggs's Glory (fn. 4)." This house was afterwards the residence of Sir Hugh Platt, Knt. author of "the Gar"den of Eden," "the Jewell-house of Art and Nature," and other works (fn. 5). Sir William Ryder, Knt. died there in 1669 (fn. 6), it being then his property (fn. 7). It now belongs to James Stratton, Esq. of Hackney, and has for many years been used for the reception of insane persons. It is still called in the writings Kirby Castle.

 

Sir Richard Gresham.

 

Sir Richard Gresham, a citizen of great note in the reign of Henry VIII. and father of the celebrated Sir Thomas Gresham, generally resided at Bethnal-Green (fn. 8). It was in consequence of his suggestion and advice that the convents of St. Thomas and St. Bartholomew were converted into public hospitals (fn. 9).

 

Sir Thomas Grey, Knt. died at his house at Bethnal-Green, August 7, 1570 (fn. 10).

 

Sir Balthazer Gerbier.

 

Sir Balthazer Gerbier, an enterprising projector of the last century, by profession a painter and an architect, but not very eminent as either, opened an academy at Bethnal-Green, anno 1649, in imitation as it should seem of the Museum Minervæ. (fn. 11) Here, in addition to the more common branches of education, he prosessed to teach astronomy, navigation, architecture, perspective, drawing, limning, engraving, sortification, fireworks, military discipline, the art of well speaking and civil conversation, history, constitutions, and maxims of state, and particular dispositions of nations, riding the great horse, scenes, exercises, and magnificent shows (fn. 12). Once a week, at three o'clock in the afternoon, Sir Balthazer gave a public lecture, gratis, on the various sciences which he previously advertised in the newspapers: a few specimens of these advertisements are given in the notes (fn. 13). Any person might speak or read at these public lec tures "on any subject, so that it was on unquestionable principles, warrantable terms, consonant with godliness, and with all due respect to the state (fn. 14)."

 

An account of Sir Balthazer Gerbier's academy was published in 1648, with his portrait prefixed; and in 1649, "the art of well "speaking," being one of the lectures delivered there gratis: this was ridiculed by Butler in his fictitious will of the Earl of Pembroke (fn. 15). Sir Balthazer seems to have been a very visionary schemer (fn. 16). After the failure of his academy, which soon happened (fn. 17), he went to America, where he was ill-treated by the Dutch, and narrowly escaped with his life (fn. 18). He afterwards returned to England, and designed the triumphal arch for the reception of Charles the Second (fn. 19).

 

Robert Ainsworth. William Caflon.

 

Ainsworch, the learned editor of the dictionary which goes by his name, kept an academy at Bethnal-Green (fn. 20). William Caslon, the eminent letter-founder, died at his house there in 1766, some years after he had retired from business (fn. 21).

 

Chapel at Bethnal-Green.

 

At the south-east corner of Bethnal-Green, stood a chapel, (on the site of which is now a private dwelling-house,) called, in the survey of 1703, St. George's chapel; of this I have not been able to obtain any farther information. Newcourt says, that at Bethnal-Green was formerly a chapel; but whether it was a chapel of ease, or only a private chapel, he could not find (fn. 22).

 

Removal of Aldgate.

 

At the same corner of the Green is a house, which lately belonged to Ebenezer Mussell, Esq. who having a taste for antiquities, and being an inhabitant of the parish in which Aldgate stood, (at the time of its removal,) purchased the materials, and carried them to his house at Bethnal-Green, where they are still preserved in an adjoining building.

 

Bishop's-hall.

 

About a quarter of a mile to the east of Bethnal-Green, is the site of an ancient house, called Bishop's-hall, (now converted into two or three tenements,) said by tradition to have been the residence of Bishop Bonner. That it was his property I have no doubt; and there is good reason for supposing that it has been the manor-house of Stepney; for Norden calls "Bushoppe's-hall" the seat of the Lord Wentworth (fn. 23). Bishop Braybroke dates many of his episcopal acts from Stepney; but I have not seen one dated thence by any of his successors; which leads to a supposition that they did not reside there, but leased the house with the manerial estate. In 1594, Bishop's hall was the residence of Sir Hugh Platt, as mentioned before (fn. 24).

 

Church of St. Matthew.

 

The church of St. Matthew Bethnal-Green, which is situated close to the suburbs, was consecrated July 15, 1746. It is built of brick with stone coins, and consists of an oblong square, with galleries on the north, south, and west sides. The communion-table stands within a recess at the east end. At the west end is a small square tower.

 

Tombs in the church and church-yard.

 

In the church are the tombs of John Brookbank, M. A. the first rector, who died in 1747; Mr. Thomas Windle, 1779; Mr. John Cheeseman, 1783; Mr. George Evans, 1791; and William Clarke, Esq. 1791. In the church-yard are those of William Luck, Esq. 1748; the Rev. William Gordon, M. A. the first lecturer, 1749; William Bridgman, Gent. 1760; Lewis Ourry, an emigrant from France, (anno 1701,) and many years an officer in the English army, 1771; Mr. Vincent Beverley, 1772; Captain Isaac Perry, 1773; Francis Campart, Gent. 1773; Elizabeth his relict, afterwards wife of the Rev. Thomas Greaves, vicar of Westoning, (Bedfordshire,) 1778; Mr. Abraham Mason, and Mary his wife, who died the same day, January 22, 1787; Captain William Curling, 1788; and Captain Matthew Curling, 1789.

 

Rectory.

 

The parish church of St. Matthew Bethnal-Green was, by the act of parliament above-mentioned, (viz. 16 Geo. II.) made a rectory, though it has no share in the great tithes, which were reserved to Brazen-Nose College, as patrons of the advowson of Stepney, and are received by the rector of that parish. By the same act it was directed, that the church-wardens should receive all the small tithes, Easter offerings, and all other dues within the parish, (except the surplice fees,) out of which they should pay the rector the sum of 130l. per annum, appropriating the remainder to the repairs of the church, and other parochial uses. The sum of 12l. per annum was reserved to the clerk of the parish of Stepney, as an equivalent for the loss he might sustain by the separation of the hamlet. Before the passing of this act, the rectory of Stepney had been divided by a former act (9 Queen Anne) into two equal portions. This division was by the act of 16 Geo. II. annulled; and it was enacted, that one of the portionists should be presented to the new benefice; and that the rectory of Stepney should for the future remain whole and undivided.

 

The first rector of St. Matthew Bethnal-Green was the Rev. John Brookbank, M. A.; the present rector is the Rev. William Loxham, M. A. who was instituted in 1766. The patronage is vested in the Principal and Fellows of Brazen-Nose College, Oxford.

 

Parish register.

 

The register of this parish is of the same date as the consecration of the church : before that period all entries relating to Bethnal-Green must be looked for in the parish registers at Stepney. The average of baptisms and burials since the year 1780, has been as follows:

 

Average of Baptisms.Average of Burials.

1780–1784373 1/5;307

1784–1789358 1/5;362 2/5;

1790418303

1791432310

1792502352

Comparative state of population.

 

It is to be observed, that the baptisms very much exceed the burials, which is a very unusual circumstance in the villages near London. Upon inquiry I find this is to be attributed to some private burial grounds in the neighbourhood, where the fees are somewhat lower than in that belonging to the church. One of this description has been lately made in the parish near the free-school. When the hamlet of Bethnal-Green was separated from Stepney, it was supposed to contain about 1800 houses; their number is now computed at 3500: the principal increase has been within the last three years: the increase of baptisms during those years bears nearly the same proportion.

 

Instances of longevity.

 

The following instances of longevity occur in the parish clerk's books, in which the ages of the deceased are inserted; Bethnal-Green being within the bills of mortality.

 

"Charles Marratt of Brick-lane, aged 99, buried January 15, 1748–9."

 

"Anne Postel, aged 100, buried October 24, 1749."

 

"Samuel Gates, aged 100, buried March 4, 1749-50."

 

"Margaret Lord, of Lord's Farm, aged 99, buried January 2, 1754."

 

"Bridget Fossett, aged 102, buried April 3, 1757."

 

"Mary Nash, aged 107, buried July 29, 1790."

 

"Mary Twits, aged 98, buried October 2, 1791."

 

There are entries also of one person of 90 and one of 93, buried in 1747;—two of 90, and one of 91, in 1749;—one of 90, in 1751;—one of 93, in 1754;—one of 90, in 1759;—one of 91, and one of 94, in 1761;—one of 91, in 1762;—one of 93, in 1789 (fn. 25);—one of 94, in 1790; two of 90, in 1791;—one of 93, in 1792;—and one of 94, in 1793.

 

Mr. Thomas Barker is said to have died at Bethnal-Green, in June 1762, aged 101 (fn. 26); and Mrs. Anne Hart in February 1765, aged 102. (fn. 27)

 

Benefactions.

 

Free-school.

 

Subscription School

 

Mr. Thomas Parmiter, in the year 1722, left certain estates in Suffolk, now let at 52l. per ann. for the purpose of building and endowing a free-school and alms-house for the benefit of the hamlet of Bethnal-Green. Mrs. Elizabeth Carter gave the ground rent free for the term of 600 years, and 10l. per ann. to educate ten boys. Mr. William Lee gave 10l. per ann. to the school; and Mr. Edward Mayhew 5l. per annum towards clothing the children. The trustees with some savings made an advantageous purchase of a piece of ground called Cambridge Heath in the parish, near the Hackney road, now let on building leases for 95 years, at the rent of 43 l. per ann. They have also a stock of 550l. South Sea annuities. With these funds they are enabled to educate 50 boys, and to supply them with shoes, stockings, and books. The school-master has 50l. per ann. and coals; the six alms-men, 5l. per ann. each, with a certain allowance of coals. A subscription-school has been instituted also in this parish, to which various benefactions have been given to the amount of above 1200l. as appears from the tables in the church (fn. 28). The funds being farther augmented by an annual subscription and occasional charity sermons, 30 boys, and the like number of girls, are thereby clothed, educated, and put out apprentices.

 

Bethnal-Green, containing about seven acres, was purchased by the principal inhabitants in the year 1667, of Lady Wentworth, lady of the manor of Stepney, for the sum of 200l. The property was then vested in trustees, who were to let it to the best advantage, and divide the rents between the poor inhabitants of the Green only, in coals and money. It now produces 34l. 16s. per ann. About three acres of it are inclosed within a nursery-ground.

 

The drapers' and dyers' alms-houses, and those founded by Captain Fisher in 1711, are situated within this parish. The two last have no farther connection with it. The former was founded in 1698, by John Pennell, citizen and draper, for four poor widows of seamen who have been in the service of the East India Company, and are of the parish of Stepney: one of these is always chosen from Bethnal-Green, the endowment having taken place previous to its separation from that parish. The poor of Bethnal-Green are entitled, on the same account, to an interest in Priscilla Coborne's legacy to the widows of seamen, and other benefactions left to Stepney before the year 1743. The average number of poor in the work-house is about 450.

 

On the Green there is a meeting-house for the Presbyterian Dissenters.

 

Burial-ground of the Dutch Jews.

 

Near Ducking-pond-row, within the parish of Bethnal-Green, is a burial-ground of the Dutch Jews belonging to the synagogue at BricklayersHall, in Leadenhall-street. The tombs of the Levites, whose office it is to pour water (in the synagogue) upon the hands of the Cohens, (or those of the tribe of Aaron,) are distinguished by the device of a hand pouring water out of a flagon; those of the tribe of Judah, by the device of two hands with the thumbs joined. The inscriptions are for the most part in Hebrew only. The following is one of the few English epitaphs:

 

Mrs.

 

S earch England or the universe around, A doctress so compleat cannot be found; M edicines prepar'd from herbs remove each ill, P ersect great cures and proclaim her skill: S ome hundreds her assistance frequent claim, O ften recorded by the trump of fame—N ow, reader, see if you can tell her name.

 

Instances of longevity

 

The date is 5550, which corresponds with 1790 of the Christian æra. Among the principal persons interred in this ground are Moses Jacob, founder of the synagogue above-mentioned, who died anno 1781; Lipman Spiar, a rabbi (no date); Dr. Benjamin Wolf Yonker, 1785; Mr. Daniel Mentz, son-in-law to Dr. de Folk, 1788; Michael Jacobs, Esq. 1788; Isaac Abraham, reader of the congregation, 1790; Anne, wife of Moses Levy, merchant, 1790. Two instances of remarkable longevity occur; viz. Mr. Solomon Myers, who died in 1778, aged 98; and Sarah Joseph, who died in 1782, at the age (according to her epitaph) of 107 years and 10 months. The keeper of the burial-ground assured me that she was a year older.

Footnotes

1. Alice de Bathon died 2 Edw. I. seized of 2 messuage, &c. in Stepney, Esch. 2 Ed. I. No. 1. John de Bathonia her son, died 19 Edw. I. Esch. No. 13.

2. Described by that name, and directed to be so called in the act of parliament.

3. Percy's Reliques of Ancient Poetry, vol. ii. p. 162.

4. Stow's Survey of London, edit. 1755. vol. ii. p. 47.

5. Sir Hugh Platt is described as of Kirby Castle, in the epitaph of his son (who died A. D. 1637) at Highgate. In 1594, Sir Hugh lived at the neighbouring house, called Bishop's Hall, as he says himself, in his "Jewell-house of Art and Nature."

6. Funeral certificate.

7. Court-rolls of the manor.

8. Biograph. Brit.

9. Ibid.

10. Funeral certificate.

11. The Museum Minervæ was an academy instituted by Sir Francis Kynaston, (Esquire of the body to Charles the First,) A.D. 1635, in which year the king granted his letters-patent, whereby a house in Covent-garden, which Sir Francis had purchased, and furnished with books, manuscripts, musical and mathematical instruments, paintings, statues, antiques, &c. was appropriated for ever as a college for the education of the young nobility and others, under the name of the Museum Minervæ. Sir Francis Kynaston was made the governor under the title of Regent; Edward May, Thomas Hunt, Nicholas Phiske, John Spidell, Walter Salter, Michael Mason, fellows and professors of philosophy and medicine, music, astronomy, geometry, languages, &c. They had power to elect prosessors also of horsemanship, dancing, painting, engraving, &c.; were made a body corporate, were permitted to use a common seal, and to possess goods and lands in mortmain. Pat. 11 Car. pt. 8. No. 14. Sir Francis Kynaston published the Constitutions of the Museum Minervæ.

12. The terms for teaching all these arts and sciences were 61. per month, of which 3l. was charged for teaching to ride the great horse. Gentlemen were boarded at 3l. per month. No gentleman of age bound to engage to board for more than one month; those of 16 or 18 years old for a quarter of a year. Perfect Diurnal, Feb. 11, 1650.

13. On Wednesday next, the second public gratis lecture concerning cosmography, "with 'other academical entertainments for the lo"vers of learning." Perfect Diurnal, Nov. 23, 1649. Wednesday, 12 Dec. "Lecture "on navigation, succinct orations in Hebrew "on the creation of the world, with an aca"demical entertainment of music, so there be "time for the same." Perfect Diurnal, Dec. 7–14. "The lecture for the next week designed for the ladies and honourable women of this nation on the art of speaking." Perfect Occurrences, Dec. 14. "Sir Balthazer Gerbier desires, that if any lady or virtuous matron will attend his lectures, they will give notice, that they may be the better accommodated according to their quality." Several Proceedings of Parliament, Dec. 21–. Feb. 20, Lecture on music, gratis; when those who are expert in the art have promised to make good what the lecture says in commendation of it." Perfect Diurnal, Feb. 11, &c. 1650. "July 30, was exhibited a Spanish ancient Brazilean course, called Juego de Cannas—the throwing of darts against the desendants with shields, (the ground white, covered with flaming stars: the motto,"sans vouloir mal faire,") with an intermixed seigned fight with the sword, and the running of the ring." Perfect Occurrences, July 27, 1649. Some of the public exercises above-mentioned were in the White Friars, whither Sir Balthazer removed his academy in the winter. In some of his advertisements he complains much of "the extraordinary concourse of unruly people who robbed him, (Tuesday's Journal, Aug. 17, 1649,) and treated with savage rudeness his extraordinary services." Several Proceedings of Parliament, Jan. 11, 1650.

14. Perfect Occurrences, Dec. 14, 1649.

15. "All my other speeches, of what colour soever, I give to help Sir Balthazer's art of well speaking."

16. In one of his advertisements, he prosesses to lend from one shilling to fix, gratis, to such as are in extreme need, and have not wherewithal to endeavour their subsistence; whereas, week by week, they may drive on some trade." In the same advertisement he says, "the rarities heretofore-mentioned in a small printed bill are exposed to sale daily at the academy." Perfect Diurnal, March 4, 1650.

17. Whitlock's Memorials, p. 441.

18. After his return, he advertised a narrative of the ill usage he had received from the Dutch, who killed one of his daughters, wounded another, and threatened his own life. In his advertisement he recommends a settlement in South America, whence might be procured, he says, sugar, tobacco, indigo, cotton, spices, gums, colours, drugs, and dying materials." Mercurius Politicus, Dec. 6–13, 1660.

19. Biograph. Brit.

20. Biograph. Brit. new edit.

21. Biograph. Brit. and Nichols's Anecdotes of Bowyer, p. 317.

22. Repertorium, vol. i. p. 743. I think it does not seem clear that the chapel, with a messuage under the same roof leased by Bishop Bonner, 1 Edw. VI. to Sir Ralph Warren, was this chapel on the Green.

23. P. 17. Lord Wentworth had the manor.

24. See p. 29, note 5.

25. The clerk's books have not been preserved between the years 1762 and 1789.

26. Annual Register.

27. Ibid.

28. The principal benefactors were Mr. James Le Grew, who, in 1778, gave the sum of 100l. 3 per cents.; James Limborough, Esq. in 1783, 300l. 3 per cent. consol. Bank ann.; Mr. Michael Le Mounier in 1783, 50l.; Mr. George Leeds in 1785, 100l. 4 per cent. consol.; Mr. Peter Debeze in 1791, 500l. 3 per cent. New South Sea annuities : all the above benefactions, except Mr. Le Grew's, were by will.

BETHNAL GREEN.

 

Origin of the Name—The Ballad of the Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green—Kirby's Castle—The Bethnal Green Museum—Sir Richard Wallace's Collection—Nichol Street and its Population—The French Hospital in Bethnal Green and its present Site.

 

According to Mr. Lysons, Bethnal Green probably derives its name from the old family of the Bathons, who had possessions in Stepney in the reign of Edward I.

 

The old ballad of "the Beggar of Bethnal Green," written in the reign of Elizabeth, records the popular local legend of the concealment under this disguise of Henry de Montford, son of the redoubtable Earl of Leicester. He was wounded at Evesham, fighting by his father's side, and was found among the dead by a baron's daughter, who sold her jewels to marry him, and assumed with him a beggar's attire, to preserve his life. Their only child, a daughter, was the "Pretty Bessie" of the bailad in Percy.

 

"My father, shee said, is soone to be seene,

The seely blind beggar of Bednall Green,

That daylye sits begging for charitie,

He is the good father of pretty Bessee.

 

"His markes and his tokens are knowen very well,

He alwayes is led with a dogg and a bell;

A seely old man, God knoweth, is hee,

Yet hee is the father of pretty Bessee."

 

The sign-posts at Bethnal Green have for centuries preserved the memory of this story; the beadles' staffs were adorned in accordance with the ballad; and the inhabitants, in the early part of the century, used to boldly point out an ancient house on the Green as the palace of the Blind Beggar, and show two special turrets as the places where he deposited his gains.

 

This old house, called in the Survey of 1703 Bethnal Green House, was in reality built in the reign of Elizabeth by John Kirby, a rich London citizen. He was ridiculed at the time for his extravagance, in some rhymes which classed him with other similar builders, and which ranked Kirby's Castle with "Fisher's Folly, Spinila's Pleasure, and Megse's Glory." It was eventually turned into a madhouse. Sir Richard Gresham, father of the builder of the Royal Exchange, was a frequent resident at Bethnal Green.

 

The opening, in 1872, of an Eastern branch of the South Kensington Museum at Bethnal Green was the result of the untiring efforts of Mr. Cole, aided by Sir Antonio Brady, the Rev. Septimus Hansard, rector of Bethnal Green, and Mr. Clabon, Dr. Millar, and other gentlemen interested in the district, and was crowned with success by the princely liberality of Sir Richard Wallace (the inheritor of the Marquis of Hertford's thirty years' collection of art treasures), who offered to the education committee the loan of all his pictures and many other works of art. The Prince and Princess of Wales were present at the opening of the Museum, which took place June 24, 1872.

 

Sir Richard Wallace's collection, which occupied the whole of the upper galleries, comprised not only an assemblage of ancient and modern paintings in oil, by the greatest masters of past or modern times, a beautiful gallery of water-colour drawings, miniatures, and enamels by French, German, and British artists, but also some fine specimens of bronzes, art porcelain and pottery, statuary, snuffboxes, decorative furniture, and jewellers' and goldsmiths' work. The collection was strongest in Dutch and modern French pictures. Cuyp was represented by eleven pictures, Hobbema by five, Maes by four, Metzu by six, Mieris by nine, Netscher by four, Jan Steen by four, Teniers by five, Vanderneer by six, A. Vandevelde by three, W. Vandevelde by eight, Philip Wouvermans by five, Rubens by eleven, Rembrandt by eleven, Vandyck by six. In the Italian school the collection was deficient in early masters, but there were excellent specimens of Da Vinci, Andrea del Sarto, Carlo Dolce, and Canaletto. Of the Spanish school there were fine specimens of Murillo and Velasquez. The French school was well represented—Greuze by twentytwo works, Watteau by eleven, Boucher by eleven, Lancret by nine, and Fragonard by five. There were forty-one works by Horace Vernet, thirteen by Bellangé, four by Pils, fifteen by Delaroche, five by Ary Scheffer, two by Delacroix, two by Robert Fleury, five by Géricault, six by Prud'hon, twelve by Roqueplan, thirty-one by Decamps, and fifteen by Meissonier.

 

In the English collection Sir Joshua Reynolds stood pre-eminent. His matchless portrait of "Nelly O'Brien" stood out as beautiful and bewitching as ever, though the finer carnations had to some extent flown. The childish innocence of the "Strawberry Girl" found thousands of admirers, though the picture has faded to a disastrous degree; and "Love me, Love my Dog," had crowds of East-end admirers.

 

Among the superb portraits by Reynolds, in his most florid manner, "Lady Elizabeth SeymourConway," and "Frances Countess of Lincoln," daughters of the first Marquis of Hertford, and one of "Mrs. Hoare and Son" (a masterpiece), were the most popular. The mildness and dignity of Reynolds was supplemented by the ineffable grace and charm of Gainsborough. Novices in art were astonished at the naiveté of "Miss Haverfield," one of the most delightful child-portraits ever painted. The fine works of Bonington, a painter of genius little known, astonished those who were ignorant of his works. Among his finest productions at Bethnal Green were "The Ducal Palace at Venice," "The Earl of Surrey and the Fair Geraldine," and "Henri IV. of France and the Spanish Ambassador." This king, to the horror of the proud hidalgo, is carrying his children pick-a-back.

 

Among the French pictures there were eleven first-rate Bouchers. This protégé of Madame de Pompadour was a great favourite with the Marquis, and at Bethnal Green one saw him at his best. There was a portrait of "The Pompadour," quite coquettishly innocent, and those well-known pictures, "The Sleeping Shepherdess," the "Amphitrite," and the "Jupiter disguised as Diana." Three sacred pictures by Philippe de Champagne, showed us French religious art of the most ascetic kind, presenting a striking contrast to the gaiety and license of French art in general. In Greuze we find the affected simplicity and the forced sentiment of the age before the Revolution in its most graceful form, "The Bacchante," "The Broken Mirror," "The Broken Eggs," and the peerless portrait of "Sophie Arnould," enabled even those unacquainted with the charm of this painter to appreciate his merits. Lancret, the contemporary of Boucher, was represented by many works, among which the critics at once decided on the pre-eminence of "The Broken Necklace," and a portrait of the famous dancer, "Mdlle. Camargo." Lepicié was represented by his "Teaching to Read," and "The Breakfast," capital pieces of character. Watteau, that delightful painter of theatrical landscape, was a favourite of the Marquis, and at Bethnal Green appeared his fairy-like "Landscape with Pastoral Groups," his delightful "Conversation Humourieuse," and his inimitable "Arlequin and Colombine." What painter conveys so fully the enjoyment of a fête champêtre or the grace of coquettish woman? A dazzling array of twenty-six Decamps included the ghastly "Execution in the East," and that wonderful sketch of Turkish children, "The Breaking-up of a Constantinople School." The fifteen Paul Delaroche's comprised "The Repose in Egypt," one of the finest pictures in the collection; "The Princes in the Tower hearing the approach of the Murderers," and that powerful picture, "The Last Sickness of Cardinal Mazarin." Amongst the specimens of that high-minded painter, Ary Scheffer, we had the "Francesca da Rimini," one of the most touching of the painter's works, and the "Margaret at the Fountain." Eugene Delacroix, Meissonier, Rosa Bonheur, Horace Vernet, Gaspar and Nicholas Poussin, and many other well-known artists, are also represented in this part of the great collection.

 

"Nichols Street," says a newspaper writer of 1862, writing of Bethnal Green in its coarser aspects, "New Nichols Street, Half Nichols Street, Turvile Street, comprising within the same area numerous blind courts and alleys, form a densely crowded district in Bethnal Green. Among its inhabitants may be found street-vendors of every kind of produce, travellers to fairs, tramps, dog-fanciers, dogstealers, men and women sharpers, shoplifters, and pickpockets. It abounds with the young Arabs of the streets, and its outward moral degradation is at once apparent to any one who passes that way. Here the police are certain to be found, day and night, their presence being required to quell riots and to preserve decency. Sunday is a day much devoted to pet pigeons and to bird-singing clubs; prizes are given to such as excel in note, and a ready sale follows each award. Time thus employed was formerly devoted to cock-fighting. In this locality, twenty-five years ago, an employer of labour, Mr. Jonathan Duthiot, made an attempt to influence the people for good, by the hire of a room for meeting purposes. The first attendance consisted of one person. Persistent efforts were, however, made; other rooms have from time to time been taken and enlarged; there is a hall for Christian instruction, and another for educational purposes; illustrated lectures are delivered; a loanlibrary has been established, also a clothing-club and penny bank, and training-classes for industrial purposes."

 

Mr. Smiles, in his "Huguenots in London," has an interesting page on the old French Hospital in Bethnal Green:—"Among the charitable institutions founded by the refugees for the succour of their distressed fellow-countrymen in England," says Mr. Smiles, "the most important was the French Hospital. This establishment owes its origin to a M. de Gastigny, a French gentleman, who had been Master of the Buckhounds to William III., in Holland, while Prince of Orange. At his death, in 1708, he bequeathed a sum of £1,000 towards founding an hospital, in London, for the relief of distressed French Protestants. The money was placed at interest for eight years, during which successive benefactions were added to the fund. In 1716, a piece of ground in Old Street, St. Luke's, was purchased of the Ironmongers' Company, and a lease was taken from the City of London of some adjoining land, forming altogether an area of about four acres, on which a building was erected, and fitted up for the reception of eighty poor Protestants of the French nation. In 1718, George I. granted a charter of incorporation to the governor and directors of the hospital, under which the Earl of Galway was appointed the first governor. Shortly after, in November, 1718, the opening of the institution was celebrated by a solemn act of religion, and the chapel was consecrated amidst a great concourse of refugees and their descendants, the Rev. Philip Menard, minister of the French chapel of St. James's, conducting the service on the occasion.

 

"From that time the funds of the institution steadily increased. The French merchants of Toulon, who had been prosperous in trade, liberally contributed towards its support, and legacies and donations multiplied. Lord Galway bequeathed a thousand pounds to the hospital, in 1720, and in the following year Baron Hervart de Huningue gave a donation of £4,000. The corporation were placed in the possession of ample means, and they accordingly proceeded to erect additional buildings, in which they were enabled, by the year 1760, to give an asylum to 234 poor people."

 

The French Hospital has recently been removed from its original site to Victoria Park, where a handsome building has been erected as an hospital, for the accommodation of forty men and twenty women, after the designs of Mr. Robert Lewis Roumieu, architect, one of the directors, Mr. Roumieu being himself descended from an illustrious Huguenot family—the Roumieus of Languedoc.

 

A Tudor ballad, the Blind Beggar of Bethnal Green, tells the story of an ostensibly poor man who gave a surprisingly generous dowry for his daughter's wedding. The tale furnishes the parish of Bethnal Green's coat of arms. According to one version of the legend, found in Percy's Reliques of Ancient English Poetry published in 1765, the beggar was said to be Henry, the son of Simon de Montfort, but Percy himself declared that this version was not genuine.[3] The Blind Beggar public house in Whitechapel is reputed to be the site of his begging.

Boxing has a long association with Bethnal Green. Daniel Mendoza, who was champion of England from 1792 to 1795 though born in Aldgate, lived in Paradise Row on the western side of Bethnal Green for 30 years. Since then numerous boxers have been associated with the area, and the local leisure centre, York Hall, remains notable for presentation of boxing bouts.

In 1841, the Anglo-Catholic Nathaniel Woodard, who was to become a highly influential educationalist in the later part of the 19th century, became the curate of the newly created St. Bartholomew's in Bethnal Green. He was a capable pastoral visitor and established a parochial school. In 1843, he got into trouble for preaching a sermon in St. Bartholomew's in which he argued that the Book of Common Prayer should have additional material to provide for confession and absolution and in which he criticised the 'inefficient and Godless clergy' of the Church of England. After examining the text of the sermon, the Bishop of London condemned it as containing 'erroneous and dangerous notions'. As a result, the bishop sent Woodard to be a curate in Clapton.

Brockdish is one of three parish churches within about a mile that can be seen from the A143, but only the top of the tower is visible when heading north, and only fleetingly. THe only other clue is the truncated Church Lane which cuts across the main road, the name of which indicates the nearby church.

 

I came here at about eleven in the morning, having visited Oulton in Suffolk earlier, and wasn't expecting to find it open to be honest. But I heard the bells being rung, or at least pealing in intermittent intervals, the reason being some people were being given lessons.

 

Three cars were parked in the lane beside the church, which you reach by traveling up a green lane north out of the village before taking the track to the church.

 

The door to the tower, where the bellringers were being taught was ajar, and I could have gone up, but instead I go to the porch to try the door, and finding it open, I go inside lest someone comes and closes it.

 

Soon I am joined inside by the warden who is surprised, but pleased, to find a visitor: she is there to make teas for the ringers, and would I like one?

 

My breath had already been taken away by the tiles in the chancel, which are of exceptional quality. Tiles are something easily overlooked, and indeed many were clearly bought from catalogues, and so many are similar, but when more attention to detail was given, when extra quality was installed, it shines through.

 

I was told by the warden that the oldest glass had been purchased by the then vicar in Italy, certainly the three panels are ancient and European.

 

-----------------------------------------

 

When I first visited this church in 2005, it was with something of a sinking heart to arrive at the third church in a row that was locked without a keyholder notice. Today, nothing could be further from the truth. In the south porch there is a large notice now which reads Come in and enjoy your church! Fabulous stuff.

The trim graveyard includes some substantial memorials to the Kay family, including one massive structure with an angel under a spire which would not look out of place opposite the Royal Albert Hall. No expense was spared by the Victorians here at Brockdish. The rebuilding was paid for by the Rector, George France, who also advised architect Frederick Marable on exactly what form this vision of the medieval should take. The tower above is curiously un-East Anglian, looking rather unusual surrounded by Norfolk fields. All around the building headstops are splendid, and fine details like faux-consecration crosses on the porch show that France was generally a man who knew what a medieval church should look like.

 

It will not surprise you to learn that St Peter and St Paul is similarly grand on the inside, if a touch severe. France actually devised a church much more Anglo-catholic than we find it today; it was toned down by the militantly low church Kay family later in the century. They took down the rood and replaced it with a simple cross, painting out the figures on the rood screen as well. When I first visited, the very helpful churchwarden who'd opened up for me observed that Brockdish is the only church in Norfolk that has stained glass in every window, which isn't strictly true (Harleston, three miles away, has as well) but we can be thankful that, thanks to the Reverend France's fortunes, it is of a very good quality. The glass seems to have been an ongoing project, because some of it dates from the 1920s. In keeping with low church tradition, the glass depicts mainly Biblical scenes and sayings of Christ rather than Saints, apart from the church's two patron Saints in the east window of the chancel. There are also some roundels in the east window of the south aisle, which appear to be of continental glass. They depict the Adoration of the Magi, the deposition of Christ, what appears to be Paharoah's daughter with the infant Moses, and the heads of St Matthias, St John the Evangelist, and Christ with a Crown of Thorns. However, I suspect that at least some of them are the work of the King workshop of Norwich, and that only the Deposition and the Old Testament scene are genuinely old.

 

If this is rather a gloomy church on a dark day, it is because of the glass in the south clerestory, a surprisingly un-medieval detail - the whole point of a clerestory was to let light reach the rood. The glass here is partly heraldic, partly symbolic. The stalls in the chancel are another faux-medieval detail - there was never a college of Priests here - but they looked suspiciously as if they might contain old bench ends within the woodwork. Not all is false, because the chancel also contains an unusual survival from the earlier church, a tombchest which may have been intended as an Easter Sepulchre.

 

Above all, the atmosphere is at once homely and devotional, not least because of the exceptional quality of the tiled sanctuary, an increasingly rare beast because they were so often removed in the 1960s and 1970s, when Victorian interiors were unfashionable. Brockdish's is spectacular, a splendid example that has caught the attention of 19th century tile enthusiasts and experts nationally.

 

Also tiled is the area beneath the tower, which France had reordered as a baptistery. The font has recently been moved back into the body of the church; presumably, whoever supplies the church's liability insurance had doubts about godparents standing with their backs to the steps down into the nave.

I liked Brockdish church a lot; I don't suppose it gets a lot of visitors, but it is a fine example of what the Victorians did right.

 

Simon Knott, June 2005, revisited and updated July 2010

 

www.norfolkchurches.co.uk/brockdish/brockdish.htm

 

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Is the next adjoining town eastward, through which the great road passes to Yarmouth; on the left hand of which, stands the church, on a hill by itself, there being no house near it but the parsonage, which joins to the east side of the churchyard. The advowson always belonged to the Earl's manor here, with which it now continues.

 

In Norwich Domesday we read, that the rector had a house and 30 acres of land, that it was then valued at 15 marks, and paid as it now doth for synodals 1s. 9d. procurations 6s. 8d. and 12d. Peter-pence. It stands in the King's Books thus:

 

10l. Brokedish rectory. 1l. yearly tenths.

 

And consequently pays first-fruits, and is incapable of augmentation. The church stands included in the glebe, which is much the same in quantity as it was when the aforesaid survey was taken. It is in Norfolk archdeaconry, Redenhall deanery, and Duke of Norfolk's liberty, though he hath no lete, warren, paramountship, or superiour jurisdiction at all in this town, the whole being sold by the family along with the manors of the town.

 

In 1603, there were 103 communicants here, and now there are 50 families, and about 300 inhabitants; it was laid to the ancient tenths at 4l. but had a constant deduction of 14s. on account of lands belonging to the religious, so that the certain payment to each tenth, was 3l. 6s.

 

The Prior of St. Faith at Horsham owned lands here, which were taxed at 2s. 6d. in 1428.

 

The Prior of Thetford monks had lands here of the gift of Richard de Cadomo or Caam, (fn. 1) who gave them his land in Brokedis, and a wood sufficient to maintain 20 swine, in the time of King Henry I. when William Bigot, sewer to that King, gave to this priory all the land of Sileham, which from those monks is now called Monks-hall manor, and the water-mill there; all which Herbert Bishop of Norwich conveyed to his father, in exchange for other lands, he being to hold it in as ample a manner as ever Herbert the chaplain did; and in Ric. the Second's time, the monks bought a piece of marsh ground in Brokedis, to make a way to their mill, which being not contained in the grant of Monks-hall manor from Hen. VIII. to the Duke of Norfolk, William Grice, Esq. and Charles Newcomen, who had a grant of such lands as they could find concealed from the Crown, seized on this as such; and upon their so doing, the owner of the mill was obliged to purchase it of them, by the name of Thetford-Mill-Way, and it hath ever since belonged to, and is constantly repaired by the owner thereof.

 

Rectors of Brockidish.

 

12 - - Robert

 

12 - - Sir Ralf de Creping, rector.

 

1313, Sir Stephen Bygod. The King, for this turn.

 

1324, Nic. le Mareschal. Tho. Earl of Norfolk and Marshal.

 

1326, Mathew Paumer, or Palmer. Ditto. He changed for Canefield-Parva in London diocese with

 

Master Robert de Hales. Ditto.

 

1333, John de Melburn. Ditto.

 

1355, Roger de Wombwell. Lady Eleanor and Thomas de Wingfield, attorneys to Sir John Wingfield, Knt.

 

1356, John Knyght of Exeter. Mary Countess-Marshal, widow of Tho. de Brotherton, who recovered the advowson by the King's writ, against Sir J. Wingfield, Knt. and Thomas his brother, William de Lampet and Alice his wife, and Catherine her sister, and so Wombwell was ejected.

 

1357, John de Esterford. Mary Countess-Marshal. He resigned in

 

1367, to John son of Catherine de Frenge, and he in

 

1368, to John Syward. Sir Walter Lord Manney.

 

1382, John de Balsham, who changed for Stowe St. Michael in Exeter diocese, with

 

Bartholomew Porter. Margaret Marshal, Countess of Norfolk.

 

1405, Sir John Dalyngho of Redcnhall. Eliz. Dutchess of Norf. in right of her dower.

 

1417, he exchanged with Thomes Barry, priest, for the vicarage of Berkyng church in London. John Lancaster, Ric. Sterisacre, and Rob. Southwell, attorneys to John Duke of Norfolk, EarlMarshal and Notyngham, who was beyond the seas. Barry resigned in

 

1422, to Sir Thomas Briggs, priest, who died rector. Ditto.

 

1454, Sir Hen. White, priest. John Duke of Norf. Earl-Marshal and Notingham, Marshal of England, Lord Mowbray, Segrave, and Gower. He resigned in

 

1455, to Sir Thomas Holm, priest. Ditto. And he in

 

1478, to John Nun. The King, as guardian to Richard Duke of York and Norfolk, and Lady Ann his wife, daughter and heir of John late Duke of Norfolk.

 

1491, John Mene; he had a union to hold another benefice.

 

1497, John Rogers, A. M. Eliz. Dutchess of Norfolk. He resigned in

 

1498, to Sir John Fisk, priest, chaplain to the Dutchess. Ditto. At whose death in

 

1511, Sir Robert Gyrlyng, chaplain to Thomas Earl of Surrey, had it of that Earl's gift: he was succeeded by

 

Sir William Flatberry, chaplain to Thomas Duke of Norfolk, who presented him; he resigned in

 

1540, to Sir Nic. Stanton, chaplain to his patron, Tho. Duke of Norf. Lord Treasurer and Earl-Marshal, and was succeeded by

 

William Hide, priest. Ditto. He resigned, and the Duke presented it in

 

1561, to Sir John Inman, priest, who was buried here Aug. 1, 1586.

 

1586, Aug. 4, Master Richard Gibson was instituted, who was buried Oct. 1, 1625; he was presented by Robert Nichols of Cambridge, by purchase of the turn from William le Grice, Gent. and Hester le Grice, wife of Charles le Grice, Gent. true patrons.

 

1625, William Owles, who held it united to Billingford. John Knapp of Brockdish, by grant of this turn. He was succeeded in

 

1645, by Brian Witherel, and he by

 

Mr. James Aldrich, who died rector Nov. 10, 1657, from which time somebody held it without institution, till the Restoration, and then receded, for in

 

1663, May 14, Sir Augustine Palgrave, patron of this turn, in right of Catherine his wife, presented George Fish, on the cession of the last incumbent; he was buried here Oct. 29, 1686.

 

1686, Thomas Palgrave, A.M. buried here March 24, 1724. Fran. Laurence, Gent.

 

1724, Abel Hodges, A.B. he held it united to Tharston, and died in 1729. Richard Meen, apothecary, for this turn.

 

1729, Richard Clark, LL. B. was instituted Dec. 3, and died about six weeks after. Mrs. Ellen Laurence of Castleacre, widow.

 

1730, Alan Fisher. Ditto. He resigned in

 

1738, and was succeeded by Robert Laurence, A. B. of Caius college, who lies buried at the south-east corner of the chancel, and was succeeded in

 

1739, by Francis Blomefield, clerk, the present rector, who holds it united to Fresfield rectory, being presented by Mrs. Ellen Laurence aforesaid.

 

The church is dedicated to the honour of the apostles St. Peter and Paul, and hath a square tower about 16 yards high, part of which was rebuilt with brick in 1714; there are five bells; the third, which is said to have been brought from Pulham in exchange, hath this on it;

 

Sancta Maria ora pro nobis.

 

and on the fourth is this,

 

Uirgo Coronata duc nos ad Regna beata.

 

The nave, chancel, and south isle are leaded, the south porch tiled, and the north porch is ruinated. The roof of this chancel is remarkable for its principals, which are whole trees without any joint, from side to side, and bent in such a rising manner, as to be agreeable to the roof. The chancel is 30 feet long and 20 broad, the nave is 54 feet long and 32 broad, and the south isle is of the same length, and 10 feet broad.

 

At the west end of the nave is a black marble thus inscribed,

 

Here lyeth buried the Body of Richard Wythe Gent. who departed this Life the 6 of Sept. 1671, who lived 64 Years and 4 Months and 9 Days.

 

This family have resided here till lately, ever since Edw. the Third's time, and had a considerable estate here, and the adjacent villages. See their arms, vol. iv. p. 135.

 

Another marble near the desk hath this,

 

Near this Place lays Elizabeth Wife of John Moulton Gent. who died Oct. 31, 1716, aged 32 Years. And here lieth Mary the late Wife of John Moulton, who died March 20, 1717, aged 27 Years. And also here lyeth the Body of John Moulton Gent. who died June 12, 1718, aged 38 Years.

 

Moulton's arms and crest as at vol. iv. p. 501.

 

In a north window are the arms of De la Pole quartering Wingfield.

 

In 1465, Jeffry Wurliche of Brockdish was buried here, and in 1469 John Wurliche was interred in the nave, and left a legacy to pave the bottom of the steeple. In 1518, Henry Bokenham of Brockdish was buried in the church, as were many of the Spaldings, (fn. 2) Withes, Howards, Grices, Tendrings, and Laurences; who were all considerable owners and families of distinction in this town.

 

The chapel at the east end of the south isle was made by Sir Ralf Tendring of Brockdish, Knt. whose arms remain in its east window at this day, once with, and once without, a crescent az. on the fess, viz. az. a fess between two chevrons arg.

 

His altar monument stands against the east wall, north and south, and hath a sort of cupola over it, with a holy-water stope by it, and a pedestal for the image of the saint to which it was dedicated, to stand on, so that it served both for a tomb and an altar; the brass plates of arms and circumscription are lost.

 

On the north side, between the chapel and nave, stands another altar tomb, covered with a most curious marble disrobed of many brass plates of arms and its circumscription, as are several other stones in the nave, isle, and chancel. This is the tomb of John Tendring of Brockdish-hall, Esq. who lived there in 1403, and died in 1436, leaving five daughters his heirs, so that he was the last male of this branch of the Tendrings. Cecily his wife is buried by him.

 

On the east chancel wall, on the south side of the altar, is a white marble monument with this,

 

Obdormit hìc in Domino, lætam in Christo expectans Resurrectionem, Robertus, Roberti Laurence, ac Annæ Uxoris ejus, Filius, hujusce Ecclesiæ de Brockdish in Comitatû Norfolciensi Rector, ejusdem Villæ Dominus, ac Ecclesiæ Patronus, jure hereditario (si vixîsset) Futurus; Sed ah! Fato nimium immaturo abreptus; Cœlestia per Salvatoris merita sperans, Terrestria omnia, Juvenis reliquit. Dec. 31°. Anno æræ Christianæ mdccxxxixo. Ætatis xxvo. Maria, unica Soror et Hæres, Roberti Frankling Generosi Uxor, Fraterni Amoris hoc Testimonium animo grato, Memoriæ Sacrum posuit.

 

1. Laurence, arg. a cross raguled gul. on a chief gul. a lion passant guardant or.

 

2. Aslack, sab. a chevron erm. between three catherine-wheels arg.

 

3. Lany, arg. on a bend between two de-lises gul. a mullet of the field for difference.

 

4. Cooke, or, on a chevron ingrailed gul. a crescent of the field for difference, between three cinquefoils az. on a chief of the second, a lion passant guardant of the first.

 

5. Bohun, gul. a crescent erm. in an orle of martlets or.

 

6. Bardolf, az. three cinquefoils or.

 

7. Ramsey, gul. a chevron between three rams heads caboshed arg.

 

8. as 1.

 

Crest, a griffin seiant proper.

 

Motto, Floreat ut Laurus.

 

On a flat stone under this monument, is a brass plate thus inscribed,

 

Sacrum hoc Memoriæ Roberti Laurence Armigeri, qui obijt xxviijo die Julij 1637, Elizabeth Uxor ejus, Filia Aslak Lany Armigeri posuit.

 

Arms on a brass plate are,

 

Lawrence impaling Lany and his quarterings, viz. 1, Lany. 2, Aslack. 3, Cooke. 4, Bohun. 5, nine de-lises, 3, 3, and 3. 6, Bardolf. 7, Charles. 8, on a chevron three de-lises. 9, Ramsey. 10, Tendring. 11, on a fess two coronets. 12, Wachesam, arg. a fess, in chief two crescents gul. 13, a lion rampant. 14, Lany.

 

There is a picture of this Robert drawn in 1629, æt. 36. He built the hall in 1634; it stands near half a mile north-east of the church, and was placed near the old site of Brockdishe's-hall; the seat of the Tendrings, whose arms, taken out of the old hall when this was built, were fixed in the windows. The arms of this man and his wife, and several of their quarterings, are carved on the wainscot in the rooms.

 

On the south side of the churchyard is an altar tomb covered with a black marble, with the crest and arms of

 

Sayer, or Sawyer, gul. a chief erm. and a chevron between three seamews proper.

 

Crest, a hand holding a dragon's head erased proper.

 

To the Memory of Frances late the wife of Richard Tubby Esq. who departed this Life Dec. 22, 1728, in the 60th Year of her Age.

 

And adjoining is another altar tomb,

 

In Memory of Richard Tubby Esq. (fn. 3) who died Dec. 10th. 1741, in the 80th Year of his Age.

 

There are two other altar tombs in the churchyard, one for Mr. Rich. Chatton, and another for Eliz. daughter of Robert and Eliz. Harper, who died in 1719, aged 8 years.

 

The town takes its name from its situation on the Waveney or Wagheneye, which divides this county from that of Suffolk; the channel of which is now deep and broad, though nothing to what it was at that time, as is evident from the names of places upon this river, as the opposite vill, now called Sileham, (oftentimes wrote Sayl-holm, even to Edw. the Third's time) shows; for I make no doubt, but it was then navigable for large boats and barges to sail up hither, and continued so, till the sea by retiring at Yarmouth, and its course being stopt near Lowestoft, had not that influence on the river so far up, as it had before; which occasioned the water to retire, and leave much land dry on either side of the channel; though it is so good a stream, that it might with ease, even now, be made navigable hither; and it would be a good work, and very advantageous to all the adjacent country. That [Brod-dic] signifies no more than the broad-ditch, is very plain, and that the termination of ò, eau, or water, added to it, makes it the broad ditch of water, is as evident.

 

Before the Confessor's time, this town was in two parts; Bishop Stigand owned one, and the Abbot of Bury the other; the former afterwards was called the Earl's Manor, from the Earls of Norfolk; and the other Brockdishe's-hall, from its ancient lords, who were sirnamed from the town.

 

The superiour jurisdiction, lete, and all royalties, belonged to the Earl's manor, which was always held of the hundred of Earsham, except that part of it which belonged to Bury abbey, and that belonged to the lords of Brockdishe's-hall; but when the Earl's manor was sold by the Duke of Norfolk, with all royalties of gaming, fishing, &c. together with the letes, view of frankpledge, &c. free and exempt from his hundred of Earsham, and the two manors became joined as they now are, the whole centered in the lord of the town, who hath now the sole jurisdiction with the lete, belonging to it; and the whole parish being freehold, on every death or alienation, the new tenant pays a relief of a year's freehold rent, added to the current year: The annual free-rent, without such reliefs, amounting to above 3l. per annum. At the Conqueror's survey the town was seven furlongs long, and five furlongs and four perches broad, and paid 6d. to the geld or tax. At the Confessor's survey, there were 28 freemen here, six of which held half a carucate of land of Bishop Stigand, and the others held 143 acres under the Abbot of Bury, and the Abbot held the whole of Stigand, without whose consent the freemen could neither give away, nor sell their land, but were obliged to pay him 40s. a year free-rent; (fn. 4) and if they omitted paying at the year's end, they forfeited their lands, or paid their rent double; but in the Conqueror's time they paid 16l. per annum by tale. There were two socmen with a carucate of land, two villeins and two bordars here, which were given to Bury abbey along with the adjacent manor of Thorp-Abbots, but were after severed from that manor, and infeoffed by the Abbot of Bury in the lord of Brockdishe's-hall manor, with which it passed ever after. (fn. 5)

 

Brockdish-Earl's Manor, or Brockdish Comitis.

 

This manor always attended the manor of Forncet after it was granted from the Crown to the Bygods, along with the half hundred of Earsham, for which reason I shall refer you to my account of that manor at p. 223, 4. It was mostly part of the dower of the ladies of the several noble families that it passed through, and the living was generally given to their domestick chaplains. In 3 Edward I. the Abbot of Bury tried an action with Roger Bigod, then lord and patron, for the patronage; (fn. 6) pleading that a part of the town belonged to his house, and though they had infeoffed their manor here in the family of the Brockdishes, yet the right in the advowson remained in him; but it appearing that the advowson never belonged to the Abbot's manor, before the feofment was made, but that it wholly was appendant ever since the Confessor's time, to the Earl's manor, the Abbot was cast: notwithstanding which in 1335, Sir John Wingfield, Knt. and Thomas his brother, William de Lampet and Alice his wife, and Catherine her sister, owners of Brockdishe's manor, revived the claim to the advowson; and Thomas de Wingfield, and lady Eleanor wife of Sir John Wingfield, presented here, and put up their arms in the church windows, as patrons, which still remain; but Mary Countess Marshal, who then held this manor in dower, brought her quare impedit, and ejected their clerk; since which time, it constantly attended this manor, being always appendant thereto. In 15 Edw. I. Roger Bigot, then lord, had free-warren in all this town, as belonging to this manor, having not only all the royalties of the town, but also the assise of bread and ale, and amerciaments of all the tenants of his own manor, and of the tenants of Reginald de Brockdish, who were all obliged to do suit once a year at the Earl's view of frankpledge and lete in Brockdish; and it continued in the Norfolk family till 1570, and then Thomas Howard Duke of Norfolk, obtained license from Queen Elizabeth to sell it; it being held in capite or in chief of the Crown, as part of the barony and honour of the said Duke, who accordingly sold the manor, advowson, free-fishery, and all the place or manor-house, and demean lands; together with the lete, view of frankpledge, liberty of free warren, and all other royalties whatsoever, free and exempt from any jurisdiction or payment to his half hundred of Earsham, to

 

Charles le Grice, Esq. of Brockdish, and his heirs, who was descended from Sir Rorert le Grys of Langley in Norfolk, Knt. equerry to Ric. I. and Oliva his wife, whose son, Sir Simon le Grys, Knt. of Thurveton, was alive in 1238, and married Agnes daughter and coheir to Augustine son of Richard de Waxtenesham or Waxham, of Waxham in Norfolk, by whom he had Roger le Grys of Thurton, Esq. who lived in the time of Edward I. whose son Thomas le Grice of Thurton, had Roger le Grice of Brockdish, who lived here in 1392; whose son Thomas left John le Grice his eldest son and heir, who married a Bateman, and lies buried in St. John Baptist's church in Norwich; (see vol. iv. p. 127;) but having no male issue, William le Grice of Brockdish, Esq. son of Robert le Grice of Brockdish, his uncle, inherited; he married Sibill, daughter and sole heir of Edmund Singleton of Wingfield in Suffolk, and had

 

Anthony le Grice of Brockdish, Esq. (fn. 7) who married Margaret, daughter of John Wingfield, Esq. of Dunham, who lived in the place, and died there in 1553, and lies buried in the church, by whom his wife also was interred in 1562. His brother Gilbert Grice of Yarmouth, Gent. (fn. 8) first agreed with the Duke for Brockdish, but died before it was completed; so that Anthony, who was bound with him for performance of the covenants, went on with the purchase for his son,

 

Charles le Grice aforesaid, (fn. 9) to whom it was conveyed: he married two wives; the first was Susan, daughter and heir of Andrew Manfield, Gent. and Jane his wife, who was buried here in 1564; the second was Hester, daughter of Sir George Blagge, Knt. who held the manor for life; and from these two wives descended the numerous branches of the Grices of Brockdish, Norwich, Wakefield in Yorkshire, &c. He was buried in this church April 12, 1575, and was found to hold his manor of the hundred of Earsham, in free soccage, without any rent or service, and not in capite; and Brockdishe's-hall manor of the King, as of his barony of Bury St. Edmund in Suffolk, which lately belonged to the abbey there, in free soccage, without any rent or service, and not in capite, and

 

William le Grice, Esq. was his eldest son and heir, who at the death of his mother-in-law, was possessed of the whole estate; for in 1585, William Howard, then lord of Brockdishe's-hall manor, agreed and sold it to this William, and Henry le Grice his brother, and their heirs; but Howard dying the next year, the purchase was not completed till 1598, when Edw. Coppledick, Gent. and other trustees, brought a writ of entry against John son of the said William Howard, Gent. and had it settled absolutely in the Grices, from which time the two manors have continued joined as they are at this day; by Alice, daughter and heiress of Mr. Eyre of Yarmouth; he left

 

Francis le Grice, Esq. his son and heir, who sold the whole estate, manors, and advowson, to

 

Robert Laurence of Brockdish, Esq. (fn. 10) who married Elizabeth, daughter of Richard, son of Edmund Anguish of Great-Melton, by whom he had

 

Robert Laurence, Esq. his son and heir, who married Elizabeth, daughter of Aslack Lany, who survived him, and remarried in 1640, to Richard Smith, Gent. by whom she had one child, Eliz. buried here in 1641: he died July 24, 1637, and lies buried by the altar as aforesaid: he built the present hall, and had divers children, as Aslak Laurence, Robert, born in 1633, buried in 1635, Samuel Laurence, born in 1635, Ellen, born in 1635, Elizabeth, who married William Reynolds of Great-Massingham, Gent. and

 

Francis Laurence of Brockdish, Esq. his eldest son and heir, who married Ellen, daughter of Thomas Patrick of Castle-acre, Gent. widow of Mathew Halcote of Litcham, Gent. who survived him, and held Brockdish in jointure to her death, which happened Jan. 6, 1741, when she was buried in the nave of Litcham church: they had Frances, and Elizabeth, who died infants; Mary, who died single about 1736, and was buried in the vestry belonging to Castleacre church; Jane, married to Mr. Thomas Shin of Great Dunham, by whom a Thomas, a son, &c. she being dead; Ellen, now widow of Thomas Young of Oxboro, Gent. who died Oct. 1743, leaving issue, the Rev. Mr. Thomas-Patrick Young of Caius college in Cambridge, Benjamin and Mary, and

 

Samuel Lawrence, Gent. their second son, is now alive and single; and

 

Robert Lawrence, Esq. their eldest son and heir, is long since dead, but by Anne daughter of John Meriton, late rector of Oxburgh, his wife, he left one son,

 

Robert Laurence, late rector of Brockdish, who died single, and

 

Mrs. Mary Laurence, his only sister, who is now living, and married to Robert Frankling, Gent. of Lynn in Norfolk, is the present lord in her right, but they have no issue.

 

Brockdishe's-Hall Manor,

 

Belonged to Bury abbey as aforesaid, till the time of Henry I. and then the Abbot infeoffed

 

Sir Stephen de Brockdish in it, from whom it took its present name; he was to hold it at the 4th part of a knight's fee of that abbey: it contained a capital messuage or manor-house, called now Brockdishe's-hall; 105 acres of land in demean, 12 acres of wood, 8 of meadow, and 4l. 13s. 10d. rents of assise; he left it to

 

Jeffery de Brockdish his son, and he to

 

William, his son and heir, who in 1267, by the name of William de Hallehe de Brokedis, or Will. of Brockdish-hall, was found to owe suit and service once in a year with all his tenants, to the lete of the Earl of Norfolk, held here. He left this manor, and the greatest part of his estate in Norwich-Carleton (which he had with Alice Curson his wife) to

 

Thomas, his son and heir, and the rest of it to Nigel de Brockdish, his younger son; (see p. 102;) Thomas left it to

 

Reginald, his eldest son and heir, and he to

 

Sir Stephen de Brockdish, Knt. his son and heir, who was capital bailiff of all the Earl of Norfolk's manors in this county; he was lord about 1329, being succeeded by his son,

 

Stephen, who by Mary Wingfield his wife, had

 

Reginald de Brockdish, his son and heir, (fn. 11) to whom he gave Brockdish-hall manor in Burston, (see vol. i. p. 127, vol. ii. p. 506,) but he dying before his father, was never lord here; his two daughters and heiresses inheriting at his father's death, viz.

 

Alice, married to William de Lampet about 1355, and Catherine some time after, to William son of John de Herdeshull, lord of North Kellesey and Saleby in Lincolnshire, who inherited each a moiety, according to the settlement made by their grandfather, who infeoffed Sir John de Wingfield, Knt. and Eleanor his wife, and Thomas his brother, in trust for them; (fn. 12) soon after, one moiety was settled on Robert Mortimer and Catherine his wife, by John Hemenhale, clerk, and John de Lantony, their trustees; and not long after the whole was united, and belonged to

 

Sir William Tendring of Stokeneyland, Knt. and Margaret his wife, daughter and coheir of Sir Will. Kerdeston of Claxton in Norfolk, Knt. who were succeeded by their son and heir

 

Sir John Tendring of Stokeneyland, Knt. who jointly with Agnes his wife, settled it on

 

Sir Ralf Tendring of Brockdish, Knt. one of their younger sons, who built the old hall (which was pulled down by Robert Lawrence, Esq. when he erected the present house) and the south isle chapel, in which he and Alice his wife are interred; his son,

 

John Tendring of Brockdish, Esq. who was lord here and of Westhall in Colney, (see p. 5,) and was buried in the said chapel, with Cecily his wife, died in 1436, and left five daughrers, coheiresses, viz.

 

Cecily, married to Robert Ashfield of Stowlangetot in Suffolk, Esq.

 

Elizabeth, to Simeon Fincham of Fincham in Norfolk, Esq.

 

Alice, to Robert Morton.

 

Joan, to Henry Hall of Helwinton.

 

Anne, to John Braham of Colney.

 

Who joined and levied a fine and sold it to

 

Thomas Fastolff, Esq. and his heirs; and the year following, they conveyed all their lands, &c. in Wigenhall, Tilney, and Islington, to

 

Sir John Howard, Knt. and his heirs; and vested them in his trustees, who, the year following, purchased the manor of Fastolff to himself and heirs; this Sir John left Brockdish to a younger son,

 

Robert Howard, Esq. who settled here, and by Isabel his wife had

 

William Howard of Brockdish, Esq. who was lord in 1469; he had two wives, Alice and Margaret, from whom came a very numerous issue, but

 

Robert, his son and heir, had this manor, who by Joan his wife had

 

William Howard, his eldest son and heir, who died in 1566, seized of many lands in Cratfield, Huntingfield, Ubbeston, and Bradfield in Suffolk; and of many lands and tenements here, and in Sileham, &c. having sold this manor the year before his death, to the Grices as aforesaid; but upon the sale, he reserved, all other his estate in Brockdish, in which he dwelt, called Howard's Place, situate on the south side of the entrance of Brockdish-street; which house and farm went to

 

John Howard, his son and heir, the issue of whose three daughters, Grace, Margaret, and Elizabeth, failing, it reverted to

 

Mathew, son of William Howard, second brother to the said John Howard their father, whose second son,

 

Mathew Howard, afterwards owned it; and in 1711, it was owned by a Mathew Howard, and now by

 

Mr. Bucknall Howard of London, his kinsman (as I am informed.)

 

The site and demeans of the Earl's manor, now called the place, was sold from the manor by the Grices some time since, and after belonged to Sir Isaac Pennington, alderman of London, (see vol. i. p. 159,) and one of those who sat in judgment on the royal martyr, for which his estate was forfeited at the Restoration, and was given by Car. II. to the Duke of Grafton; and his Grace the present Duke of Grafton, now owns it.

 

the benefactions to this parish are,

 

One close called Algorshegge, containing three acres, (fn. 13) and a grove and dove-house formerly built thereon containing about one acre, at the east end thereof; the whole abutting on the King's highway north, and the glebe of Brockdish rectory west: and one tenement abutting on Brockdish-street south, called Seriches, (fn. 14) with a yard on the north side thereof, were given by John Bakon the younger, of Brockdish, son of John Bakon the elder, of Thorp-Abbots; the clear profits to go yearly to pay the tenths and fifteenths for the parish of Brockdish when laid, and when they are not laid, to repair and adorn the parish church there for ever: his will is proved in 1433. There are always to be 12 feoffees, of such as dwell, or are owners in the parish, and when the majority of them are dead, the survivors are to fill up the vacancies.

 

In 1590, 1 Jan. John Howard, Gent. John Wythe, Gent. William Crickmere and Daniel Spalding, yeomen, officers of Brockdish, with a legacy left to their parish in 1572, by John Sherwood, late of Brokdish, deceased, purchased of John Thruston of Hoxne, Gent. John Thruston his nephew, Thomas Barker, and the inhabitants of Hoxne in Suffolk, one annuity or clear yearly rent-charge of 6s. 8d. issuing out of six acres of land and pasture in Hoxne, in a close called Calston's-close, one head abutting on a way leading from Heckfield-Green to Moles-Cross, towards the east; to the only use and behoof of the poor of Brockdish, to be paid on the first of November in Hoxne church-porch, between 12 and 4 in the afternoon of the same day, with power to distrain and enter immediately for non-payment; the said six acres are warranted to be freehold, and clear of all incumbrances, except another rentcharge of 13s. 4d. granted to Hoxne poor, to be paid at the same day and place

 

In 1592, John Howard of Brockdish sold to the inhabitants there, a cottage called Laune's, lying between the glebes on all parts; this hath been dilapidated many years, but the site still belongs to the parish.

 

From the old Town Book.

 

1553, 1st Queen Mary, paid for a book called a manuel 2s. 6d.; for two days making the altar and the holy-water stope, and for a lock for the font. 1554, paid for the rood 9d. 1555, paid for painting the rood-loft 14d. At the visitation of my Lord Legate 16d. To the organs maker 4d. and for the chalice 26s. 1557, paid for carriage of the Bible to Bocnam 12d. for deliverance of the small books at Harlstone 15d.; the English Bibles and all religious Protestant tracts usually at this time left in the churches for the information and instruction of the common people, being now called in by the Papist Queen. Paid for two images making 5s.; for painting them 16d. for irons for them 8d. But in 1558, as soon as Queen Elizabeth ascended the throne, all these Popish, images, &c. were removed out of the church. Paid for sinking the altar 4d.; carrying out the altar 5d.; mending the communion table 3d.; 1561, paid for the X. Commandments 18d.; for pulling down the rood-loft 14d.; paid Roger Colby repairing the crosse in the street 26s. 8d.; for a lock to the crosse-house, &c.; 1565, for digging the ground and levelling the low altar, (viz. in the south chapel,) and mending the pavement. For makyng the communion cup at Harlston 5s. 4d. besides 6s. 2d. worth of silver more than the old chalice weyed. 1569, paid to Belward the Dean for certifying there is no cover to the cup, 8d. 1657, layd out 19s. 4d. for the relief of Attleburgh, visited with the plague. Laid out 17s. for the repair of the Brockdish part of Sileham bridge, leading over the river to Sileham church. This bridge is now down, through the negligence of both the parishes, though it was of equal service to both, and half of it repaired by each of them. In 1618, the church was wholly new paved and repaired; and in 1619, the pulpit and desk new made, new books, pulpit-cloth, altar-cloth, &c. bought.

 

From the Register:

 

1593, Daniel son of Robert Pennington, Gent. bapt. 13 July. 1626, John Brame, Gent. and Anne Shardelowe, widow, married Sept. 2. 1631, John Blomefield and Elizabeth Briges married May 30. 1666, Roger Rosier, Gent. buried. 1735, Henry Blomefield of Fersfield, Gent. single man, and Elizabeth Bateman of Mendham, single woman, married Feb. 27.

 

www.british-history.ac.uk/topographical-hist-norfolk/vol5...

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Brockdish is one of three parish churches within about a mile that can be seen from the A143, but only the top of the tower is visible when heading north, and only fleetingly. THe only other clue is the truncated Church Lane which cuts across the main road, the name of which indicates the nearby church.

 

I came here at about eleven in the morning, having visited Oulton in Suffolk earlier, and wasn't expecting to find it open to be honest. But I heard the bells being rung, or at least pealing in intermittent intervals, the reason being some people were being given lessons.

 

Three cars were parked in the lane beside the church, which you reach by traveling up a green lane north out of the village before taking the track to the church.

 

The door to the tower, where the bellringers were being taught was ajar, and I could have gone up, but instead I go to the porch to try the door, and finding it open, I go inside lest someone comes and closes it.

 

Soon I am joined inside by the warden who is surprised, but pleased, to find a visitor: she is there to make teas for the ringers, and would I like one?

 

My breath had already been taken away by the tiles in the chancel, which are of exceptional quality. Tiles are something easily overlooked, and indeed many were clearly bought from catalogues, and so many are similar, but when more attention to detail was given, when extra quality was installed, it shines through.

 

-----------------------------------------

 

When I first visited this church in 2005, it was with something of a sinking heart to arrive at the third church in a row that was locked without a keyholder notice. Today, nothing could be further from the truth. In the south porch there is a large notice now which reads Come in and enjoy your church! Fabulous stuff.

The trim graveyard includes some substantial memorials to the Kay family, including one massive structure with an angel under a spire which would not look out of place opposite the Royal Albert Hall. No expense was spared by the Victorians here at Brockdish. The rebuilding was paid for by the Rector, George France, who also advised architect Frederick Marable on exactly what form this vision of the medieval should take. The tower above is curiously un-East Anglian, looking rather unusual surrounded by Norfolk fields. All around the building headstops are splendid, and fine details like faux-consecration crosses on the porch show that France was generally a man who knew what a medieval church should look like.

 

It will not surprise you to learn that St Peter and St Paul is similarly grand on the inside, if a touch severe. France actually devised a church much more Anglo-catholic than we find it today; it was toned down by the militantly low church Kay family later in the century. They took down the rood and replaced it with a simple cross, painting out the figures on the rood screen as well. When I first visited, the very helpful churchwarden who'd opened up for me observed that Brockdish is the only church in Norfolk that has stained glass in every window, which isn't strictly true (Harleston, three miles away, has as well) but we can be thankful that, thanks to the Reverend France's fortunes, it is of a very good quality. The glass seems to have been an ongoing project, because some of it dates from the 1920s. In keeping with low church tradition, the glass depicts mainly Biblical scenes and sayings of Christ rather than Saints, apart from the church's two patron Saints in the east window of the chancel. There are also some roundels in the east window of the south aisle, which appear to be of continental glass. They depict the Adoration of the Magi, the deposition of Christ, what appears to be Paharoah's daughter with the infant Moses, and the heads of St Matthias, St John the Evangelist, and Christ with a Crown of Thorns. However, I suspect that at least some of them are the work of the King workshop of Norwich, and that only the Deposition and the Old Testament scene are genuinely old.

 

If this is rather a gloomy church on a dark day, it is because of the glass in the south clerestory, a surprisingly un-medieval detail - the whole point of a clerestory was to let light reach the rood. The glass here is partly heraldic, partly symbolic. The stalls in the chancel are another faux-medieval detail - there was never a college of Priests here - but they looked suspiciously as if they might contain old bench ends within the woodwork. Not all is false, because the chancel also contains an unusual survival from the earlier church, a tombchest which may have been intended as an Easter Sepulchre.

 

Above all, the atmosphere is at once homely and devotional, not least because of the exceptional quality of the tiled sanctuary, an increasingly rare beast because they were so often removed in the 1960s and 1970s, when Victorian interiors were unfashionable. Brockdish's is spectacular, a splendid example that has caught the attention of 19th century tile enthusiasts and experts nationally.

 

Also tiled is the area beneath the tower, which France had reordered as a baptistery. The font has recently been moved back into the body of the church; presumably, whoever supplies the church's liability insurance had doubts about godparents standing with their backs to the steps down into the nave.

I liked Brockdish church a lot; I don't suppose it gets a lot of visitors, but it is a fine example of what the Victorians did right.

 

Simon Knott, June 2005, revisited and updated July 2010

 

www.norfolkchurches.co.uk/brockdish/brockdish.htm

 

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Is the next adjoining town eastward, through which the great road passes to Yarmouth; on the left hand of which, stands the church, on a hill by itself, there being no house near it but the parsonage, which joins to the east side of the churchyard. The advowson always belonged to the Earl's manor here, with which it now continues.

 

In Norwich Domesday we read, that the rector had a house and 30 acres of land, that it was then valued at 15 marks, and paid as it now doth for synodals 1s. 9d. procurations 6s. 8d. and 12d. Peter-pence. It stands in the King's Books thus:

 

10l. Brokedish rectory. 1l. yearly tenths.

 

And consequently pays first-fruits, and is incapable of augmentation. The church stands included in the glebe, which is much the same in quantity as it was when the aforesaid survey was taken. It is in Norfolk archdeaconry, Redenhall deanery, and Duke of Norfolk's liberty, though he hath no lete, warren, paramountship, or superiour jurisdiction at all in this town, the whole being sold by the family along with the manors of the town.

 

In 1603, there were 103 communicants here, and now there are 50 families, and about 300 inhabitants; it was laid to the ancient tenths at 4l. but had a constant deduction of 14s. on account of lands belonging to the religious, so that the certain payment to each tenth, was 3l. 6s.

 

The Prior of St. Faith at Horsham owned lands here, which were taxed at 2s. 6d. in 1428.

 

The Prior of Thetford monks had lands here of the gift of Richard de Cadomo or Caam, (fn. 1) who gave them his land in Brokedis, and a wood sufficient to maintain 20 swine, in the time of King Henry I. when William Bigot, sewer to that King, gave to this priory all the land of Sileham, which from those monks is now called Monks-hall manor, and the water-mill there; all which Herbert Bishop of Norwich conveyed to his father, in exchange for other lands, he being to hold it in as ample a manner as ever Herbert the chaplain did; and in Ric. the Second's time, the monks bought a piece of marsh ground in Brokedis, to make a way to their mill, which being not contained in the grant of Monks-hall manor from Hen. VIII. to the Duke of Norfolk, William Grice, Esq. and Charles Newcomen, who had a grant of such lands as they could find concealed from the Crown, seized on this as such; and upon their so doing, the owner of the mill was obliged to purchase it of them, by the name of Thetford-Mill-Way, and it hath ever since belonged to, and is constantly repaired by the owner thereof.

 

Rectors of Brockidish.

 

12 - - Robert

 

12 - - Sir Ralf de Creping, rector.

 

1313, Sir Stephen Bygod. The King, for this turn.

 

1324, Nic. le Mareschal. Tho. Earl of Norfolk and Marshal.

 

1326, Mathew Paumer, or Palmer. Ditto. He changed for Canefield-Parva in London diocese with

 

Master Robert de Hales. Ditto.

 

1333, John de Melburn. Ditto.

 

1355, Roger de Wombwell. Lady Eleanor and Thomas de Wingfield, attorneys to Sir John Wingfield, Knt.

 

1356, John Knyght of Exeter. Mary Countess-Marshal, widow of Tho. de Brotherton, who recovered the advowson by the King's writ, against Sir J. Wingfield, Knt. and Thomas his brother, William de Lampet and Alice his wife, and Catherine her sister, and so Wombwell was ejected.

 

1357, John de Esterford. Mary Countess-Marshal. He resigned in

 

1367, to John son of Catherine de Frenge, and he in

 

1368, to John Syward. Sir Walter Lord Manney.

 

1382, John de Balsham, who changed for Stowe St. Michael in Exeter diocese, with

 

Bartholomew Porter. Margaret Marshal, Countess of Norfolk.

 

1405, Sir John Dalyngho of Redcnhall. Eliz. Dutchess of Norf. in right of her dower.

 

1417, he exchanged with Thomes Barry, priest, for the vicarage of Berkyng church in London. John Lancaster, Ric. Sterisacre, and Rob. Southwell, attorneys to John Duke of Norfolk, EarlMarshal and Notyngham, who was beyond the seas. Barry resigned in

 

1422, to Sir Thomas Briggs, priest, who died rector. Ditto.

 

1454, Sir Hen. White, priest. John Duke of Norf. Earl-Marshal and Notingham, Marshal of England, Lord Mowbray, Segrave, and Gower. He resigned in

 

1455, to Sir Thomas Holm, priest. Ditto. And he in

 

1478, to John Nun. The King, as guardian to Richard Duke of York and Norfolk, and Lady Ann his wife, daughter and heir of John late Duke of Norfolk.

 

1491, John Mene; he had a union to hold another benefice.

 

1497, John Rogers, A. M. Eliz. Dutchess of Norfolk. He resigned in

 

1498, to Sir John Fisk, priest, chaplain to the Dutchess. Ditto. At whose death in

 

1511, Sir Robert Gyrlyng, chaplain to Thomas Earl of Surrey, had it of that Earl's gift: he was succeeded by

 

Sir William Flatberry, chaplain to Thomas Duke of Norfolk, who presented him; he resigned in

 

1540, to Sir Nic. Stanton, chaplain to his patron, Tho. Duke of Norf. Lord Treasurer and Earl-Marshal, and was succeeded by

 

William Hide, priest. Ditto. He resigned, and the Duke presented it in

 

1561, to Sir John Inman, priest, who was buried here Aug. 1, 1586.

 

1586, Aug. 4, Master Richard Gibson was instituted, who was buried Oct. 1, 1625; he was presented by Robert Nichols of Cambridge, by purchase of the turn from William le Grice, Gent. and Hester le Grice, wife of Charles le Grice, Gent. true patrons.

 

1625, William Owles, who held it united to Billingford. John Knapp of Brockdish, by grant of this turn. He was succeeded in

 

1645, by Brian Witherel, and he by

 

Mr. James Aldrich, who died rector Nov. 10, 1657, from which time somebody held it without institution, till the Restoration, and then receded, for in

 

1663, May 14, Sir Augustine Palgrave, patron of this turn, in right of Catherine his wife, presented George Fish, on the cession of the last incumbent; he was buried here Oct. 29, 1686.

 

1686, Thomas Palgrave, A.M. buried here March 24, 1724. Fran. Laurence, Gent.

 

1724, Abel Hodges, A.B. he held it united to Tharston, and died in 1729. Richard Meen, apothecary, for this turn.

 

1729, Richard Clark, LL. B. was instituted Dec. 3, and died about six weeks after. Mrs. Ellen Laurence of Castleacre, widow.

 

1730, Alan Fisher. Ditto. He resigned in

 

1738, and was succeeded by Robert Laurence, A. B. of Caius college, who lies buried at the south-east corner of the chancel, and was succeeded in

 

1739, by Francis Blomefield, clerk, the present rector, who holds it united to Fresfield rectory, being presented by Mrs. Ellen Laurence aforesaid.

 

The church is dedicated to the honour of the apostles St. Peter and Paul, and hath a square tower about 16 yards high, part of which was rebuilt with brick in 1714; there are five bells; the third, which is said to have been brought from Pulham in exchange, hath this on it;

 

Sancta Maria ora pro nobis.

 

and on the fourth is this,

 

Uirgo Coronata duc nos ad Regna beata.

 

The nave, chancel, and south isle are leaded, the south porch tiled, and the north porch is ruinated. The roof of this chancel is remarkable for its principals, which are whole trees without any joint, from side to side, and bent in such a rising manner, as to be agreeable to the roof. The chancel is 30 feet long and 20 broad, the nave is 54 feet long and 32 broad, and the south isle is of the same length, and 10 feet broad.

 

At the west end of the nave is a black marble thus inscribed,

 

Here lyeth buried the Body of Richard Wythe Gent. who departed this Life the 6 of Sept. 1671, who lived 64 Years and 4 Months and 9 Days.

 

This family have resided here till lately, ever since Edw. the Third's time, and had a considerable estate here, and the adjacent villages. See their arms, vol. iv. p. 135.

 

Another marble near the desk hath this,

 

Near this Place lays Elizabeth Wife of John Moulton Gent. who died Oct. 31, 1716, aged 32 Years. And here lieth Mary the late Wife of John Moulton, who died March 20, 1717, aged 27 Years. And also here lyeth the Body of John Moulton Gent. who died June 12, 1718, aged 38 Years.

 

Moulton's arms and crest as at vol. iv. p. 501.

 

In a north window are the arms of De la Pole quartering Wingfield.

 

In 1465, Jeffry Wurliche of Brockdish was buried here, and in 1469 John Wurliche was interred in the nave, and left a legacy to pave the bottom of the steeple. In 1518, Henry Bokenham of Brockdish was buried in the church, as were many of the Spaldings, (fn. 2) Withes, Howards, Grices, Tendrings, and Laurences; who were all considerable owners and families of distinction in this town.

 

The chapel at the east end of the south isle was made by Sir Ralf Tendring of Brockdish, Knt. whose arms remain in its east window at this day, once with, and once without, a crescent az. on the fess, viz. az. a fess between two chevrons arg.

 

His altar monument stands against the east wall, north and south, and hath a sort of cupola over it, with a holy-water stope by it, and a pedestal for the image of the saint to which it was dedicated, to stand on, so that it served both for a tomb and an altar; the brass plates of arms and circumscription are lost.

 

On the north side, between the chapel and nave, stands another altar tomb, covered with a most curious marble disrobed of many brass plates of arms and its circumscription, as are several other stones in the nave, isle, and chancel. This is the tomb of John Tendring of Brockdish-hall, Esq. who lived there in 1403, and died in 1436, leaving five daughters his heirs, so that he was the last male of this branch of the Tendrings. Cecily his wife is buried by him.

 

On the east chancel wall, on the south side of the altar, is a white marble monument with this,

 

Obdormit hìc in Domino, lætam in Christo expectans Resurrectionem, Robertus, Roberti Laurence, ac Annæ Uxoris ejus, Filius, hujusce Ecclesiæ de Brockdish in Comitatû Norfolciensi Rector, ejusdem Villæ Dominus, ac Ecclesiæ Patronus, jure hereditario (si vixîsset) Futurus; Sed ah! Fato nimium immaturo abreptus; Cœlestia per Salvatoris merita sperans, Terrestria omnia, Juvenis reliquit. Dec. 31°. Anno æræ Christianæ mdccxxxixo. Ætatis xxvo. Maria, unica Soror et Hæres, Roberti Frankling Generosi Uxor, Fraterni Amoris hoc Testimonium animo grato, Memoriæ Sacrum posuit.

 

1. Laurence, arg. a cross raguled gul. on a chief gul. a lion passant guardant or.

 

2. Aslack, sab. a chevron erm. between three catherine-wheels arg.

 

3. Lany, arg. on a bend between two de-lises gul. a mullet of the field for difference.

 

4. Cooke, or, on a chevron ingrailed gul. a crescent of the field for difference, between three cinquefoils az. on a chief of the second, a lion passant guardant of the first.

 

5. Bohun, gul. a crescent erm. in an orle of martlets or.

 

6. Bardolf, az. three cinquefoils or.

 

7. Ramsey, gul. a chevron between three rams heads caboshed arg.

 

8. as 1.

 

Crest, a griffin seiant proper.

 

Motto, Floreat ut Laurus.

 

On a flat stone under this monument, is a brass plate thus inscribed,

 

Sacrum hoc Memoriæ Roberti Laurence Armigeri, qui obijt xxviijo die Julij 1637, Elizabeth Uxor ejus, Filia Aslak Lany Armigeri posuit.

 

Arms on a brass plate are,

 

Lawrence impaling Lany and his quarterings, viz. 1, Lany. 2, Aslack. 3, Cooke. 4, Bohun. 5, nine de-lises, 3, 3, and 3. 6, Bardolf. 7, Charles. 8, on a chevron three de-lises. 9, Ramsey. 10, Tendring. 11, on a fess two coronets. 12, Wachesam, arg. a fess, in chief two crescents gul. 13, a lion rampant. 14, Lany.

 

There is a picture of this Robert drawn in 1629, æt. 36. He built the hall in 1634; it stands near half a mile north-east of the church, and was placed near the old site of Brockdishe's-hall; the seat of the Tendrings, whose arms, taken out of the old hall when this was built, were fixed in the windows. The arms of this man and his wife, and several of their quarterings, are carved on the wainscot in the rooms.

 

On the south side of the churchyard is an altar tomb covered with a black marble, with the crest and arms of

 

Sayer, or Sawyer, gul. a chief erm. and a chevron between three seamews proper.

 

Crest, a hand holding a dragon's head erased proper.

 

To the Memory of Frances late the wife of Richard Tubby Esq. who departed this Life Dec. 22, 1728, in the 60th Year of her Age.

 

And adjoining is another altar tomb,

 

In Memory of Richard Tubby Esq. (fn. 3) who died Dec. 10th. 1741, in the 80th Year of his Age.

 

There are two other altar tombs in the churchyard, one for Mr. Rich. Chatton, and another for Eliz. daughter of Robert and Eliz. Harper, who died in 1719, aged 8 years.

 

The town takes its name from its situation on the Waveney or Wagheneye, which divides this county from that of Suffolk; the channel of which is now deep and broad, though nothing to what it was at that time, as is evident from the names of places upon this river, as the opposite vill, now called Sileham, (oftentimes wrote Sayl-holm, even to Edw. the Third's time) shows; for