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Leo Carillo Beach - North Side, Malibu CA

 

Getting ready to leave for my trip to Las Vegas for my friends bachelor party + golf + Manny Pacquiao vs Hatton will be an insane weekend crowds. I hope I'm sober enough to hold my carmera...LOL!

 

Enjoy and have a SAFE weekend my Flickr Friends!!!

  

Psychic spies from china

Try to steal your minds elation

Little girls from sweden

Dream of silver screen quotations

And if you want these kind of dreams

Its californication

Its the edge of the world

And all of western civilization

The sun may rise in the east

At least it settles in the final location

Its understood that hollywood

Sells californication

 

Pay your surgeon very well

To break the spell of aging

Celebrity skin is this your chin

Or is that war your waging

 

First born unicorn

Hard core soft porn

Dream of californication

Dream of californication

 

Marry me girl be my fairy to the world

Be my very own constellation

A teenage bride with a baby inside

Getting high on information

And buy me a star on the boulevard

Its californication

 

Space may be the final frontier

 

But its made in a hollywood basement

Cobain can you hear the spheres

Singing songs off station to station

And alderons not far away

Its californication

 

Born and raised by those who praise

Control of population everybodys been there and

I dont mean on vacation

 

First born unicorn

Hard core soft porn

Dream of californication

Dream of californication

 

Destruction leads to a very rough road

But it also breeds creation

And earthquakes are to a girls guitar

Theyre just another good vibration

And tidal waves couldnt save the world

From californication

 

Pay your surgeon very well

To break the spell of aging

Sicker than the rest

There is no test

But this is what youre craving

 

First born unicorn

Hard core soft porn

Dream of californication

Dream of californication

 

~Red Hot Chili Peppers

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=abrKM1Z_te8

 

View On Black

 

Not sure who this couple was but they were enjoying the big waves just as we were...sure was nice to walk barefoot in the sand in February!

 

I am watching the first news coverage about the massive earthquake in Chili...hope all my flickr contacts from there are OK

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Please take your time... to View it large on black

 

From December 7th through you can enjoy a grand light festival in downtown Amsterdam. Walk or sail alongside to light sculptures created by leading artists, beautifully illuminated buildings, bridges and boats and surprising light projections on buildings. On the Amstel river in front of the City Hall you can see the artwork 1.26 Amsterdam of Janet Echelman from United States. 1.26 Amsterdam is a referral to the earthquake in Chili of February 2010 that reduced the day by 1.26 microseconds. For Echelman, the opportunity to integrate the reflections of the light in the water in Amsterdam with her work is unique. Janet Echelman reshapes the urban airspace with monumental, fluid and moving sculptures that respond to environmental forces, such as wind, water and sunlight. In India, Echelman created a new form of voluminous sculpture of fishing nets for the first time, without heavy and solid materials. To shape her projects, she works with a team of professionals from, for instance, the aviation industry and architecture.

 

Light sculpture created by Janet Echelman for the Amsterdam Light Festival above the Amstel river. The light will be turned on at 5 o'clock until January 20th 2013. Hand-held panorama photo next to the blauwbrug at ISO3200, F3.5 and 1/15 sec.

 

Van 7 december t/m 20 januari kun je komen kijken naar dit bijzondere lichtfestival in de binnenstad van Amsterdam. Wandel of vaar langs lichtsculpturen van toonaangevende kunstenaars, schitterend aangelichte panden, bruggen en boten en verrassende lichtprojecties op gebouwen. Een wandelroute door historisch Amsterdam tussen Amstel en Het Scheepvaartmuseum langs 20 inspirerende lichtkunstobjecten. Op de Amstel rivier voor de Stopera kun je het kunstwerk 1.26 Amsterdam zien van Janet Echelman uit de Verenigde Staten. 1.26 Amsterdam is een verwijzing naar de aardbeving in Chili van februari 2010 die ervoor zorgde dat de dag werd verkort met 1.26 microseconden. Voor Echelman is de mogelijkheid om in Amsterdam reflecties van het licht in het water te integreren met haar werk uniek. Janet Echelman geeft een nieuwe vorm aan het stedelijk luchtruim met monumentale, fluïde, en bewegende sculpturen die reageren op omgevingskrachten, zoals wind, water en zonlicht. In India creëerde Echelman voor het eerst van vissersnetten een nieuwe vorm van volumineuze sculptuur, zonder zware en solide materialen. Om haar projecten vorm te geven werkt ze samen met een team van professionals uit o.a. de luchtvaart en de architectuur.

  

© all rights reserved by B℮n

 

Please take your time... to View it large on black

 

From December 7th through you can enjoy a grand light festival in downtown Amsterdam. Walk or sail alongside to light sculptures created by leading artists, beautifully illuminated buildings, bridges and boats and surprising light projections on buildings. On the Amstel river in front of the City Hall you can see the artwork 1.26 Amsterdam of Janet Echelman from United States. 1.26 Amsterdam is a referral to the earthquake in Chili of February 2010 that reduced the day by 1.26 microseconds. For Echelman, the opportunity to integrate the reflections of the light in the water in Amsterdam with her work is unique. Janet Echelman reshapes the urban airspace with monumental, fluid and moving sculptures that respond to environmental forces, such as wind, water and sunlight. In India, Echelman created a new form of voluminous sculpture of fishing nets for the first time, without heavy and solid materials. To shape her projects, she works with a team of professionals from, for instance, the aviation industry and architecture.

 

Light sculpture created by Janet Echelman for the Amsterdam Light Festival above the Amstel river. The light will be turned on at 5 o'clock until January 20th 2013. Hand-held panorama photo next to the blauwbrug at ISO1600, F4.5 and 1/10 sec.

 

Van 7 december t/m 20 januari kun je komen kijken naar dit bijzondere lichtfestival in de binnenstad van Amsterdam. Wandel of vaar langs lichtsculpturen van toonaangevende kunstenaars, schitterend aangelichte panden, bruggen en boten en verrassende lichtprojecties op gebouwen. Een wandelroute door historisch Amsterdam tussen Amstel en Het Scheepvaartmuseum langs 20 inspirerende lichtkunstobjecten. Op de Amstel rivier voor de Stopera kun je het kunstwerk 1.26 Amsterdam zien van Janet Echelman uit de Verenigde Staten. 1.26 Amsterdam is een verwijzing naar de aardbeving in Chili van februari 2010 die ervoor zorgde dat de dag werd verkort met 1.26 microseconden. Voor Echelman is de mogelijkheid om in Amsterdam reflecties van het licht in het water te integreren met haar werk uniek. Janet Echelman geeft een nieuwe vorm aan het stedelijk luchtruim met monumentale, fluïde, en bewegende sculpturen die reageren op omgevingskrachten, zoals wind, water en zonlicht. In India creëerde Echelman voor het eerst van vissersnetten een nieuwe vorm van volumineuze sculptuur, zonder zware en solide materialen. Om haar projecten vorm te geven werkt ze samen met een team van professionals uit o.a. de luchtvaart en de architectuur.

  

© all rights reserved by B℮n

 

Please take your time... to View it large on black

 

From December 7th through you can enjoy a grand light festival in downtown Amsterdam. Walk or sail alongside to light sculptures created by leading artists, beautifully illuminated buildings, bridges and boats and surprising light projections on buildings. On the Amstel river in front of the City Hall you can see the artwork 1.26 Amsterdam of Janet Echelman from United States. 1.26 Amsterdam is a referral to the earthquake in Chili of February 2010 that reduced the day by 1.26 microseconds. For Echelman, the opportunity to integrate the reflections of the light in the water in Amsterdam with her work is unique. Janet Echelman reshapes the urban airspace with monumental, fluid and moving sculptures that respond to environmental forces, such as wind, water and sunlight. In India, Echelman created a new form of voluminous sculpture of fishing nets for the first time, without heavy and solid materials. To shape her projects, she works with a team of professionals from, for instance, the aviation industry and architecture.

 

Light sculpture created by Janet Echelman for the Amsterdam Light Festival above the Amstel river. The light will be turned on at 5 o'clock until January 20th 2013. Hand-held panorama photo next to the blauwbrug at ISO1600, F4.5 and 1/10 sec.

 

Van 7 december t/m 20 januari kun je komen kijken naar dit bijzondere lichtfestival in de binnenstad van Amsterdam. Wandel of vaar langs lichtsculpturen van toonaangevende kunstenaars, schitterend aangelichte panden, bruggen en boten en verrassende lichtprojecties op gebouwen. Een wandelroute door historisch Amsterdam tussen Amstel en Het Scheepvaartmuseum langs 20 inspirerende lichtkunstobjecten. Op de Amstel rivier voor de Stopera kun je het kunstwerk 1.26 Amsterdam zien van Janet Echelman uit de Verenigde Staten. 1.26 Amsterdam is een verwijzing naar de aardbeving in Chili van februari 2010 die ervoor zorgde dat de dag werd verkort met 1.26 microseconden. Voor Echelman is de mogelijkheid om in Amsterdam reflecties van het licht in het water te integreren met haar werk uniek. Janet Echelman geeft een nieuwe vorm aan het stedelijk luchtruim met monumentale, fluïde, en bewegende sculpturen die reageren op omgevingskrachten, zoals wind, water en zonlicht. In India creëerde Echelman voor het eerst van vissersnetten een nieuwe vorm van volumineuze sculptuur, zonder zware en solide materialen. Om haar projecten vorm te geven werkt ze samen met een team van professionals uit o.a. de luchtvaart en de architectuur.

 

© all rights reserved by B℮n

 

Please take your time... to View it large on black

 

From December 7th through you can enjoy a grand light festival in downtown Amsterdam. Walk or sail alongside to light sculptures created by leading artists, beautifully illuminated buildings, bridges and boats and surprising light projections on buildings. On the Amstel river in front of the City Hall you can see the artwork 1.26 Amsterdam of Janet Echelman from United States. 1.26 Amsterdam is a referral to the earthquake in Chili of February 2010 that reduced the day by 1.26 microseconds. For Echelman, the opportunity to integrate the reflections of the light in the water in Amsterdam with her work is unique. Janet Echelman reshapes the urban airspace with monumental, fluid and moving sculptures that respond to environmental forces, such as wind, water and sunlight. In India, Echelman created a new form of voluminous sculpture of fishing nets for the first time, without heavy and solid materials. To shape her projects, she works with a team of professionals from, for instance, the aviation industry and architecture.

 

Light sculpture created by Janet Echelman for the Amsterdam Light Festival above the Amstel river. The light will be turned on at 5 o'clock until January 20th 2013. Each minute the colors are changing. Hand-held photo next to the blauwbrug at ISO1600, F3.5 and 1/5 sec.

 

Van 7 december t/m 20 januari kun je komen kijken naar dit bijzondere lichtfestival in de binnenstad van Amsterdam. Wandel of vaar langs lichtsculpturen van toonaangevende kunstenaars, schitterend aangelichte panden, bruggen en boten en verrassende lichtprojecties op gebouwen. Een wandelroute door historisch Amsterdam tussen Amstel en Het Scheepvaartmuseum langs 20 inspirerende lichtkunstobjecten. Op de Amstel rivier voor de Stopera kun je het kunstwerk 1.26 Amsterdam zien van Janet Echelman uit de Verenigde Staten. 1.26 Amsterdam is een verwijzing naar de aardbeving in Chili van februari 2010 die ervoor zorgde dat de dag werd verkort met 1.26 microseconden. Voor Echelman is de mogelijkheid om in Amsterdam reflecties van het licht in het water te integreren met haar werk uniek. Janet Echelman geeft een nieuwe vorm aan het stedelijk luchtruim met monumentale, fluïde, en bewegende sculpturen die reageren op omgevingskrachten, zoals wind, water en zonlicht. In India creëerde Echelman voor het eerst van vissersnetten een nieuwe vorm van volumineuze sculptuur, zonder zware en solide materialen. Om haar projecten vorm te geven werkt ze samen met een team van professionals uit o.a. de luchtvaart en de architectuur.

  

© all rights reserved by B℮n

 

Please take your time... to View it large on black

 

From December 7th through you can enjoy a grand light festival in downtown Amsterdam. Walk or sail alongside to light sculptures created by leading artists, beautifully illuminated buildings, bridges and boats and surprising light projections on buildings. On the Amstel river in front of the City Hall you can see the artwork 1.26 Amsterdam of Janet Echelman from United States. 1.26 Amsterdam is a referral to the earthquake in Chili of February 2010 that reduced the day by 1.26 microseconds. For Echelman, the opportunity to integrate the reflections of the light in the water in Amsterdam with her work is unique. Janet Echelman reshapes the urban airspace with monumental, fluid and moving sculptures that respond to environmental forces, such as wind, water and sunlight. In India, Echelman created a new form of voluminous sculpture of fishing nets for the first time, without heavy and solid materials. To shape her projects, she works with a team of professionals from, for instance, the aviation industry and architecture.

 

Light sculpture created by Janet Echelman for the Amsterdam Light Festival above the Amstel river. The light will be turned on at 5 o'clock until January 20th 2013. Hand-held panorama photo next to the blauwbrug at ISO1600, F3.5 and 1/10 sec.

 

Van 7 december t/m 20 januari kun je komen kijken naar dit bijzondere lichtfestival in de binnenstad van Amsterdam. Wandel of vaar langs lichtsculpturen van toonaangevende kunstenaars, schitterend aangelichte panden, bruggen en boten en verrassende lichtprojecties op gebouwen. Een wandelroute door historisch Amsterdam tussen Amstel en Het Scheepvaartmuseum langs 20 inspirerende lichtkunstobjecten. Op de Amstel rivier voor de Stopera kun je het kunstwerk 1.26 Amsterdam zien van Janet Echelman uit de Verenigde Staten. 1.26 Amsterdam is een verwijzing naar de aardbeving in Chili van februari 2010 die ervoor zorgde dat de dag werd verkort met 1.26 microseconden. Voor Echelman is de mogelijkheid om in Amsterdam reflecties van het licht in het water te integreren met haar werk uniek. Janet Echelman geeft een nieuwe vorm aan het stedelijk luchtruim met monumentale, fluïde, en bewegende sculpturen die reageren op omgevingskrachten, zoals wind, water en zonlicht. In India creëerde Echelman voor het eerst van vissersnetten een nieuwe vorm van volumineuze sculptuur, zonder zware en solide materialen. Om haar projecten vorm te geven werkt ze samen met een team van professionals uit o.a. de luchtvaart en de architectuur.

  

1.26 Amsterdam

Boulevard of Light - Amsterdam Light Festival

 

Janet Echelman reshapes the urban airspace with monumental, fluid and moving sculptures that respond to environmental forces, such as wind, water and sunlight.

In India, Echelman created a new form of voluminous sculpture of fishing nets for the first time, without heavy and solid materials. To shape her projects, she works with a team of professionals from, for instance, the aviation industry and architecture.

 

1.26 Amsterdam is a referral to the earthquake in Chili of February 2010 that reduced the day by 1.26 microseconds. For Echelman, the opportunity to integrate the reflections of the light in the water in Amsterdam with her work is unique.

*****

Janet Echelman geeft een nieuwe vorm aan het stedelijk luchtruim met monumentale, fluïde, en bewegende sculpturen die reageren op omgevingskrachten, zoals wind, water en zonlicht.

In India creëerde Echelman voor het eerst van vissersnetten een nieuwe vorm van volumineuze sculptuur, zonder zware en solide materialen. Om haar projecten vorm te geven werkt ze samen met een team van professionals uit o.a. de luchtvaart en de architectuur.

 

1.26 Amsterdam is een verwijzing naar de aardbeving in Chili van februari 2010 die ervoor zorgde dat de dag werd verkort met 1.26 microseconden. Voor Echelman is de mogelijkheid om in Amsterdam reflecties van het licht in het water te integreren met haar werk uniek.

One of Silver Lake's largest estates at 11,743 square feet on a lot of 82,764 square feet. This huge residence has a storied history, culminating in the development of the Hathaway Estates, a planned subdivision within Silver Lake. The house was built in 1923 and has a commanding 360 Degree View atop one of Silver Lake's highest hills. The house is built entirely of reinforced concrete; there is not one stick of wood in its structure. Mr. Hathaway apparently had a great fear of fire, and did not want his house burning down! It was recently (September 2004) on the market for $3,250,000. The house is located at 1809 Apex Avenue in Silver Lake. It is currently owned by Dov Charney, founder and CEO of American Apparel, known for his success as an entrepreneur and passion for simple clothing. His leadership style has drawn extensive praise and criticism. He has earned recognition in the media for management decisions to pay a fair wage and refusing to outsource manufacturing. The Los Angeles Times named him as one of the Top 100 powerful people in Southern California and in 2009, he was nominated as a Time 100 finalist by Time magazine.

 

If any of our readers know about the development of Hathaway Estates, details about the original owner, architect or builder, please feel free to contact the editor of this column.

 

NOTES: I recently received an e-mail from Michele Martin informing me that 'the Estate belonged to a Charles Hathaway, a director/studio head from the silent screen era. His great granddaughter, Robin Clarke, was my best friend and neighbor when I lived at 2400 Micheltorena Street.'

 

Michele Martin

Greenwich Library

 

SLN Subscriber Ken Puchlik writes: 'From 1950 to 1965 I lived on Redesdale Ave. on the west side of the valley looking east at the Hathaway house on top of the hill. It was always vacant and never a light on. One night, the mansion was ablaze with light and everyone came out to wonder what was going on. It was simply the moon rising behind the home and the light was passing through the windows and out the other side. Obviously, it was devoid of furniture or curtains.

 

I also remember that there was another large building or home next to it; people said it was another mansion. It apparently was demolished during the construction of the 'tract' homes that I believe were a poor use of the viewscape. Having half the number of lots with higher end-well designed homes, taking better advantage of the pre-existing topography, would have been better use of the land. The developer should have used the axiom of 'less is more' and probably realized more investment return by developing premium lots on what was a rare piece of land. Paradise lost.

 

Mr. Hathaway had good reason to fear fire. In the early 50's a grass fire at the end of summer burnt up to the edge of the estate. Every local fire unit was on the scene. Dry summer grass was prevalent with all the vacant lots at the time. After that, the fire department started controlled burns of the lots every summer.

 

Before the hum of the freeways diminished the neighborhood's ambient sound, you could hear the trains switching in the yards off Fletcher Dr. late at night. The greatest chili dogs in the world were sold out of the old Signal Gas station at Effie and Silver Lake Blvd. Across the street, the 7/11 was a Union Oil Gas station with the friendliest guys who took good care of you at 20 cents a gallon of gas. And a kid could walk the 0.75 mile to catch the PE and go to the Ramona and see a 25 cent movie without any concern for safety, even at night.

 

Craig Collins writes 'When I moved here in 1982, the subdivision was just being built. The land had been bought by CalTrans for continuation of the Glendale Freeway, which was to connect with the Hollywood Freeway (near Vermont...where there's that very wide median), then on to Beverly Hills, which was to be the name of the freeway. As a result of that unfortunate choice of name and alignment, one of the very first successful opposition to a California freeway project was mounted, and the freeway ended at Glendale Boulevard. After many years, CalTrans began selling off the property, and you can pretty much trace the path by much of the newer construction, especially on the south side of Sunset.

 

I had heard about an effort to create a park on the Hathaway hill, but know nothing further about it. How spectacular that would have been!

 

Anyway, Peggy Stevenson was City Councilperson at the time, was a fervent supporter of the development community, and she evidently got quick approval of the housing project. After the development was completed, it mysteriously became a gated community. It's worth noting that Stevenson was defeated in a reelection bid by Michael Woo, who shepherded many of the pro-planning and more progressive changes in the city (such as getting a moratorium on the explosive development of mini-malls that was then in full swing). Upon her defeat, Stevenson systematically destroyed all the district constituent and project files in her office, forcing Woo to begin his office with nothing to aid projects and constituent concerns. That was the good old days in the LA City Council!

 

Well, that's what I know, subject to verification by others who may have a better historical perspective.

 

Veteran Silver Lake activist Maryann Kuk writes 'My recollection about Hathaway is that it had nothing to do with the #2 freeway. It was before I participated in any community stuff. The Hathaway estate (they are old money LA Athletic club, Riviera Country club, CA yacht club) sold it to a developer who wanted to build 100's of condos. SLRA got heavily involved opposing along with the immediate 'hood and the developer backed down to the 40+ or so [ugly, tract, crappy] houses. He promised to leave all of the mature tress, but the day after he got his permit he cut them all down. The Hathaway family had been collectors of specimens and I'm told it was beautiful.'

 

The Silver Lake News thanks our readers for their generous contributions of history and insights of Silver Lake!

 

Update: Without editing the content, I found some new "wrinkles" to our ongoing story, as reported in the popular real estate blog, "Take Sunset", March 28th, 2011:

 

"The Garbutt House actually has a very interesting history. It’s one of Silver Lake’s largest estates at 11,743 square feet of interior space, 3-stories tall with 20 rooms. It was built by Frank A. Garbutt, a movie pioneer, inventor, industrialist, and “one of the most prominent citizens of Los Angeles in the late 19th and early 20th Century” according to the Los Angeles Times. In 1923, Garbutt acquired the 37-acre hilltop site overlooking the Silver Lake Reservoir with views of the Pacific Ocean, the Santa Monica and Verdugo Mountains, and the downtown skyline. He built three houses on the site, which came to be known as the Garbutt-Hathaway Estate. (Garbutt’s son-in-law was Charles F. Hathaway, a shipbuilder and real estate developer.) The structures were built primarily of concrete, and were designed to withstand earthquakes, floods, and fire, which Garbutt was particularly afraid of. (There were also no fireplaces in the home.) He did allow some design touches, however. There were bronze window frames, hand carved teak and marble floors, and the first floor was entirely travertine.

 

Garbutt lived in the mansion until his death in 1947. In his spare time, he experimented with new inventions, built race cars, (his homemade car appears in the photograph above), invented a soapless detergent, and worked on a superior chewing gum.

Garbutt’s three children and their families lived on the estate after his death in 1947. The estate was eventually sold by his daughter in 1960. According to the LATs, The houses sat dormant for several years as owners battled with the city and preservationists over plans to raze the three houses and build condominiums or a large housing development on the site. In 1978, two of the houses were torn down to make room for a 100-home development, but the Garbutt House was spared. In 1987, the Garbutt House was listed in the National Register of Historic Places. It’s now part of the gated community Hathaway Hill Estates, and it most recently sold in 2004 for $3,250,000".

   

"Hope you are O.K. my sweet Angie ... my best thoughts to you."

 

www.flickr.com/photos/villy21/4372199801/

 

Thinking of all the victims and survivors.

A massive earthquake (8.8 on the Righter scale) has hit Chile.

Highest mountain in the world in the Tropical zone 6,768 mts

Closest point on Earth to the Sun

View from Huaraz, Peru.

(old scanned print)

 

2010 has been a year of many natural disasters : Floods in Pakistan, Earthquake in Haiti, Chili etc.

 

The landslide from this mountain in 1970 killed 74,194 people in a few minutes

Part of this mountain fell and buried the village of Ancash after an Earthquake in 1970

to see my video from 2 trips in Huaraz click here

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=ItWq3lxLYVY

View On Black

 

**About the Chilean earthquake/À propos du tremblement de terre au Chili.

Everything is alright here. The earthquake has not done many damage in my town of Viña del Mar. Nothing compared to Concepcion or Santiago. Cheers/Nous avons tout de même été épargnés par le tremblement de terre ici dans la ville de Viña del Mar. Les dommages sont mineurs comparé à Concepcion ou Santiago.a+**

 

The sun is starting to go down on the beach of Puerto Varas and the Llanquihue lake but there still a lot of activity because the southern part of Chile received almost an entire month of rain before those sunny days!

 

Here I thought the HDR processing made this pic interesting.. Not very arty I guess but hey i wanted to immortalize this rare sunny day for the people of Puerto Varas hehe!! : )

 

Cette photo là n'a rien avoir avec le Québec mais bon je suis québécois!! : )

 

Traté de inmortalizar este hermoso día en Puerto Varas. Aunque me guste la lluvia encuentro que no hay lugar mas lindo que el sur de Chile cuando el sol sale de su escondite. Una verdadera maravilla cuya belleza trataré de revelar un poco en mis próximas fotos (para los que no la conocen por supuesto)!! :P

view my photos on black

  

CNN would not shut up about tsunamis yesterday. Please don't take that to mean that I have no feelings about people in a bad situation, I just mean that I think 24 hour news must be stopped. The one thing they did say that caught my ear was that as a result of the earthquake off Chili, we might be getting some good waves in California. Weather or not this is true, it got me off my couch and into my truck.

Once I got to the Golden Gate, I realized that I didn't want to get crushed into rocks, so I headed into the marina.

I've always been amazed by the Palace of Fine Arts. It's so big once you're standing in it. It also reminds me of a time when America would build things to see if they could, and to impress, not just to make money. The extrapolated result of the form follows function movement has left us with too few structures like these in recent times.

Anywho, I've shot here several times, and never been happy with the result. I got closer this time in large part due to the foreground. The reflection always handles itself, and the building is always amazing. It's difficult at night as the highlights blow out so easy.

What sets this image apart is that by setting the camera so low, I could use the silhouette of the grass as my foreground element, so even though its a silhouette, that's where my focus point was.

I also used a Cokin 1.2 GND to bring the lights of the structure closer to the level of the reflection. (I can't wait to replace my Cokin stuff with Lee or something else!)

Cheers!

 

Canon 5d mark ii

16-35mm at 31mm

iso 200

f19

208 seconds

Cokin 1.2 GND

circular polarizer

 

www.ropelatophotography.net

 

Better on B l a c k M a g i c

 

My thoughts go out for those affected by the catastrophic Earthquake in Chili today and for those that may be affected by the Tsunami, which could hit Hawaii, Tahiti, New Zealand and other areas in the Pacific.

 

This shot was taken during our stopover in tahiti, which has had a rough time recently, just the day before we stopped over there on our way back to the states they were hit by a cyclone, and now a possible Tsunami, my thoughts go to the people we met there and we wish them all well

 

Also Happy Birthday to Terry www.flickr.com/photos/33113103@N03/ swing by and wish him Birthday greetings

Photo by ROMMEL T. BANGIT, All rights reserved.

IMAGE#6686

 

Officially known as the Republic of the Philippines (Filipino: Republika ng Pilipinas), is a country in Southeast Asia in the western Pacific Ocean. Taiwan lies north across the Luzon Strait. West across the South China Sea sits Vietnam. The Sulu Sea to the southwest separates it from the island of Borneo and to the south the Celebes Sea from other islands of Indonesia. It is bounded on the east by the Philippine Sea. An archipelago comprising 7,107 islands, the Philippines is categorized broadly into three main geographical divisions: Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. The capital city is Manila.

With an estimated population of about 92 million people, the Philippines is the world's 12th most populous country. It is estimated that there are an additional 11 million overseas Filipinos worldwide. Multiple ethnicities and cultures are found throughout the islands. Its tropical climate sustains one of the richest areas in terms of biodiversity in the world.

In prehistoric times, Negritos became some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants. They were followed by successive waves of Austronesian peoples who brought with them influences from Malay, Hindu, and Islamic cultures. Trade introduced Chinese cultural influences. The arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in 1521 marked the beginning of an era of Spanish interest and eventually dominance. The Philippines became the Asian hub of the Manila-Acapulco galleon treasure fleet. Christianity became widespread. As the 19th century gave way to the 20th, there followed in quick succession the short-lived Philippine Revolution, the Spanish-American War, and the Philippine-American War. In the aftermath, the United States replaced Spain as the dominant power. Aside from the period of Japanese occupation, the United States retained sovereignty over the islands until the end of World War II when the Philippines gained independence. The United States bequeathed to the Philippines the English language and an affinity for Western culture. Since independence the Philippines has had an often tumultuous experience with democracy, with popular "People Power" movements overthrowing a dictatorship in one instance but also underlining the institutional weaknesses of its constitutional republic in others.

 

Etymology

The name Philippines is derived from that of King Philip II of Spain. Spanish explorer Ruy López de Villalobos during his expedition in 1542 named the islands of Leyte and Samar Felipinas after the then Prince of Asturias (Spain). Eventually the name Las Islas Filipinas would be used to cover all the islands of the archipelago. before it became commonplace, however, other names such as Islas del Poniente (Islands of the West) and Magellan's name for the islands San Lázaro were also used by the Spanish to refer to the islands.

The official name of the Philippines has changed several times in the course of the country's history. During the Philippine Revolution, the country was officially called República Filipina or the Philippine Republic. From the period of the Spanish-American War and the Philippine-American War until the Commonwealth period, American colonial authorities referred to the country as the Philippine Islands, a translation of the Spanish name. It was during the American period that the name Philippines began to appear and has since become the country's common name. The official name of the country is now Republic of the Philippines.

 

History

The earliest known human remains found in the Philippines are those of the pre-Mongoloid Tabon Man of Palawan, carbon dated to around 24,000 years ago. Negritos were another group of early inhabitants but their appearance in the Philippines has not been reliably dated. They were followed by speakers of Malayo-Polynesian languages who began to arrive beginning around 4000 BCE, displacing the earlier arrivals. By 1000 BCE the inhabitants of the archipelago had developed into four kinds of social groups: hunter-gathering tribes, warrior societies, petty plutocracies, and maritime centered harbor principalities.

The maritime oriented peoples traded with other Asian countries during the subsequent period bringing influences from Hinduism, Buddhism, and Islam. There was no unifying political state encompassing the entire Philippine Archipelago. Instead, the islands were divided among competing thalassocracies ruled by various datus, rajahs, or sultans. Among these were the kingdoms of Maynila, Namayan, and Tondo, the rajahnates of Butuan and Cebu, and the sultanates of Maguindanao and Sulu. Some of these societies were part of the Malayan empires of Srivijaya, Majapahit, and Brunei. Islam was brought to the Philippines by traders and proselytizers from Malaysia and Indonesia. By the 15th century, Islam was established in the Sulu Archipelago and by 1565 had reached Mindanao, the Visayas, and Luzon.

In 1521, Portuguese explorer Fernão de Magalhães arrived in the Philippines and claimed the islands for Spain. Colonization began when Spanish explorer Miguel López de Legazpi arrived from Mexico in 1565 and formed the first European settlements in Cebu. In 1571, after dealing with the local royal families in the wake of the Tondo Conspiracy and defeating the Chinese pirate warlord Limahong, the Spanish established Manila as the capital of the Spanish East Indies.

Spanish rule contributed significantly to bringing political unity to the archipelago. From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was governed as a territory of the Viceroyalty of New Spain and then was administered directly from Madrid after the Mexican War of Independence. The Manila galleons linking Manila to Acapulco traveled once or twice a year between the 16th and 19th century. Trade introduced foods such as corn, tomatoes, potatoes, chili peppers, and pineapples from the Americas. Roman Catholic missionaries converted most of the lowland inhabitants to Christianity and founded schools, a university, and hospitals. While a Spanish decree introduced free public schooling in 1863, efforts in mass public education mainly came to fruition during the American period.

During its rule, the Spanish fought off various indigenous revolts and several external colonial challenges from Chinese pirates, the Dutch, and the Portuguese. In an extension of the fighting of the Seven Years' War, British forces under the command of Brigadier General William Draper and Rear-Admiral Samuel Cornish briefly occupied the Philippines. They found local allies like Diego and Gabriela Silang who took the opportunity to lead a revolt against the Mexican-born acting Governor-General and Archbishop of Manila Manuel Rojo del Rio y Vieyra, but Spanish rule was eventually restored following the 1763 Treaty of Paris.

In the 1800s, Philippine ports were opened to world trade. Many criollos and mestizos became wealthy. The influx of Spanish and Latino settlers secularized churches and government positions traditionally held by the peninsulares. The ideals of the French Revolution also began to spread through the islands. Criollo dissatisfaction resulted in the revolt in Cavite El Viejo in 1872 that was a precursor to the Philippine Revolution.

Revolutionary sentiments were stoked after colonial authorities executed the three priests, Mariano Gómez, José Burgos and Jacinto Zamora (collectively known as Gomburza), who were accused of sedition, in 1872. This would inspire a propaganda movement in Spain, organized by Marcelo H. del Pilar, José Rizal, and Mariano Ponce, lobbying for political reforms in the Philippines. Rizal was eventually executed on December 30, 1896 on charges of rebellion. As attempts at reform were meeting with resistance, Andrés Bonifacio in 1892 established the secret society called the Katipunan, a society along the lines of the freemasons, which sought independence from Spain through armed revolt. Bonifacio and the Katipunan started the Philippine Revolution in 1896. A faction of the Katipunan, the Magdalo of Cavite province, eventually came to challenge Bonifacio's position as the leader of the revolution and Emilio Aguinaldo took over. In 1898, the Spanish-American War began in Cuba and reached the Philippines. Aguinaldo declared Philippine independence from Spain in Kawit, Cavite on June 12, 1898 and the First Philippine Republic was established the following year. Meanwhile, the islands were ceded by Spain to the United States for $20 million dollars in the 1898 Treaty of Paris. As it became increasingly clear the United States would not recognize the First Philippine Republic, the Philippine-American War broke out. It ended with American control over the islands.

In 1935, the Philippines was granted Commonwealth status. Plans for independence over the next decade were interrupted by World War II when the Japanese Empire invaded and established a puppet government. Many atrocities and war crimes were committed during the war such as the Bataan Death March and the Manila massacre that culminated during the Battle of Manila. Allied troops defeated the Japanese in 1945. By the end of the war it is estimated over a million Filipinos had died. On July 4, 1946, the Philippines attained its independence.

Immediately after World War II, the Philippines faced a number of challenges. The country had to be rebuilt from the ravages of war. It also had to come to terms with Japanese collaborators. Meanwhile, disgruntled remnants of the Hukbalahap communist rebel army that had previously fought against and resisted the Japanese continued to roam the rural regions. Eventually this threat was dealt with by Secretary of National Defense and later President Ramon Magsaysay but sporadic cases of communist insurgency continued to flare up long afterward.

In 1965, Ferdinand Marcos was elected president, his wife Imelda Marcos at his side. Nearing the end of his second term and constitutionally barred from seeking a third, he declared martial law on September 21, 1972. By using political divisions, the tension of the Cold War, and the specter of communist rebellion and Islamic insurgency as justifications, he was able to govern by decree. On August 21, 1983, Marcos' chief rival opposition leader Benigno "Ninoy" Aquino Jr. ignored warnings and returned from exile in the United States. He was assassinated as he was taken off the plane at the Manila International Airport (now called the Ninoy Aquino International Airport in his memory). With political pressure building Marcos eventually called for snap presidential elections in 1986. Corazon Aquino, Benigno's widow, was convinced into becoming the presidential candidate and standard bearer of the opposition. The elections were widely thought of as rigged when Marcos was proclaimed the winner. This led to the People Power Revolution, instigated when two long-time Marcos allies—Armed Forces of the Philippines Vice Chief-of-Staff Fidel V. Ramos and Secretary of National Defense Juan Ponce Enrile—resigned and barricaded themselves in Camp Aguinaldo and Camp Crame. Exhorted on by the Archbishop of Manila Jaime Cardinal Sin, people gathered in support of the rebel leaders and protested on EDSA. In the face of mass protests and military defections, Marcos and his allies fled to Hawaii and into exile. Corazon Aquino was recognized as president.

The return of democracy and government reforms after the events of 1986 were hampered by national debt, government corruption, coup attempts, a persistent communist insurgency, and Islamic separatists. The economy improved during the administration of Fidel V. Ramos, who was elected in 1992. However, the economic improvements were negated with the onset of the East Asian financial crisis in 1997. In 2001, amid charges of corruption and a stalled impeachment process, Ramos' successor Joseph Ejercito Estrada was ousted from the presidency by the 2001 EDSA Revolution and replaced by Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo.

 

Geography

The Philippines is an archipelago of 7,107 islands with a total land area of approximately 300,000 square kilometers (116,000 square miles). Its 36,289 kilometers of coastline makes it the country with the 5th longest coastline in the world. It is located between 116° 40', and 126° 34' E. longitude and 4° 40' and 21° 10' N. latitude and borders the Philippine Sea on the east, the South China Sea on the west, and the Celebes Sea on the south. The island of Borneo is located a few hundred kilometres southwest and Taiwan is located directly to the north. The Moluccas and Sulawesi are located to the south-southwest and Palau is located to the east of the islands.

Most of the mountainous islands are covered in tropical rainforest and volcanic in origin. The highest mountain is Mount Apo. It measures up to 2,954 metres (9,692 ft) above sea level and is located on the island of Mindanao. The longest river is the Cagayan River in northern Luzon. Manila Bay, upon the shore of which the capital city of Manila lies, is connected to Laguna de Bay, the largest lake in the Philippines, by the Pasig River. Subic Bay, the Davao Gulf, and the Moro Gulf are other important bays. The San Juanico Strait separates the islands of Samar and Leyte but it is traversed by the San Juanico Bridge.

Situated on the northwestern fringes of the Pacific Ring of Fire, the Philippines experiences frequent seismic and volcanic activity. The Benham Plateau to the east in the Philippine Sea is an undersea region active in tectonic subduction. Around 20 earthquakes are registered daily, though most are too weak to be felt. The last major earthquake was the 1990 Luzon earthquake.There are many active volcanoes such as the Mayon Volcano, Mount Pinatubo, and Taal Volcano. The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991 produced the second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century. Not all notable geographic features are so violent or destructive. A more serene legacy of the geological disturbances is the Puerto Princesa Subterranean River.

Due to the volcanic nature of the islands, mineral deposits are abundant. The country is estimated to have the second-largest gold deposits after South Africa and one of the largest copper deposits in the world. It is also rich in nickel, chromite, and zinc. Despite this, poor management, high population density, and environmental consciousness have resulted in these mineral resources remaining largely untapped. Geothermal energy, however, is another product of volcanic activity that the country has harnessed more successfully. The Philippines is the world's second-biggest geothermal producer behind the United States, with 18% of the country's electricity needs being met by geothermal power.

 

Other info

Oficial Name:

Republika Ng Pilipinas

 

Independence:

Declared June 12, 1898

- Self-government March 24, 1934

- Recognized July 4, 1946

- Current constitution February 2, 1987

 

Area:

300.076km2

 

Inhabitants:

81.411.000

 

Language:

Agta, Agutaynen Aklanon Alangan Alta Arta Ata Ati Atta Ayta Balangao Balangingi Bantoanon Batak Bicolano Binukid Blaan Bolinao Bontoc Buhid Butuanon Caluyanun Capiznon Cebuano Chavacano Chinese Cuyonon Davawenyo English Filipino Finallig Ga'dang Gaddang Giangan Hanunoo Higaonon Hiligaynon Ibaloi Ibanag Ibatan Ifugao Ilocano Ilongot Inabaknon Inonhan Iraya Isinai Isnag Itawit Itneg Ivatan I-Wak Kagayanen Kalagan Kalagan Kalinga Kallahan Kamayo Kankanaey Karao Karolanos Kasiguranin Kinaray-A Magahat Maguindanao Malaynon Mamanwa Mandaya Manobo Mansaka Mapun Maranao Masbatenyo Molbog Palawano Pampangan Pangasinan Paranan Philippine Sign Language Porohanon Ratagnon Romblomanon Sama Sambal Sangil Sangir Sorsogon Spanish Subanen Sulod Surigaonon Tadyawan Tagabawa Tagalog Tagbanwa Tagbanwa Tausug Tawbuid Tboli Tiruray Waray-Waray Yakan Yogad

 

Capital city:

Manila

 

Meaning country name:

Lands of King Philip" (Philip II of Spain, reigned 1556 - 1598) - the "-ines" part at the end of the name functions adjectivally. A recent and very romantic descriptive name, "Pearl of the Orient Seas" derives from the poem, "Mi Ultimo Adios" written by Philippine nationalist hero José Rizal. Other names include Katagalugan (used by the Katipunan when referring to the Philippines and means "land of/by the river", though this name is more used to refer to the Tagalog areas) and Maharlika (from the name of the upper class in pre-Hispanic Philippines, meaning "noble").

 

Description Flag:

The national flag of the Philippines is a horizontal bicolor with equal bands of blue and red, and with a white equilateral triangle based at the hoist side; in the center of the triangle is a golden yellow sun with eight primary rays, each containing three individual rays; and at each corner of the triangle is a five-pointed golden yellow star. The flag is displayed with the blue field on top in times of peace, and with the red field on top in times of war.

The flag was first conceptualized by Emilio Aguinaldo. The first flag was sewn in Hong Kong by Marcela de Agoncillo, her daughter Lorenza, and Doña Delfina Herbosa de Natividad, a niece of José Rizal, the Philippines' national hero.

According to official sources, the white triangle stands for equality and fraternity; the blue field for peace, truth and justice; and the red field for patriotism and valor. The eight primary rays of the sun represent the first eight provinces (Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, Laguna, Manila, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga, and Tarlac) that sought independence from Spain and were placed under martial law by the Spaniards at the start of the Philippine Revolution in 1896. The three stars represent the three major geographical divisions of the country: Luzon, the Visayas, and Mindanao.

However, the symbolism given in the 1898 Proclamation of Philippine Independence differs from the current official explanation. It says that the white triangle signifies the emblem of the Katipunan, the secret society that opposed Spanish rule. It says the flag's colors commemorate the flag of the United States as a manifestation of gratitude for American protection against the Spanish during the Philippine Revolution. It also says that one of the three stars represents the island of Panay, rather than the entire Visayas.

 

Coat of arms:

The Coat of Arms of the Philippines features the eight-rayed sun of the Philippines with each ray representing the eight provinces (Batangas, Bulacan, Cavite, Manila, Laguna, Nueva Ecija, Pampanga and Tarlac) which were placed under martial law by Governor-General Ramón Blanco during the Philippine Revolution, and the three five-pointed stars representing the three primary geographic regions of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao. In the blue field on the left side is the Eagle of the United States, and in the red field on the right is the Lion-Rampant of Spain, both representing colonial history. The design is very similar to the design briefly adopted by the Commonwealth of the Philippines in 1940.

The heraldic description from Republic Act No. 8491 of 1998 is as follows: Paleways of two pieces, azure and gules; a chief argent studded with three mullets equidistant from each other; and, in point of honor, ovoid argent over all the sun rayonnant with eight minor and lesser rays. Beneath shall be the scroll with the words "REPUBLIKA NG PILIPINAS," inscribed thereon.

The words on the scroll have undergone many changes since Philippine independence. From independence in 1946 until 1972, when President Ferdinand Marcos declared martial law, the scroll contained the words "REPUBLIC OF THE PHILIPPINES." From 1979 until the overthrow of Marcos in 1986, the scroll had the words "ISANG BANSA ISANG DIWA" ("One Nation, One Spirit") inscribed. After the overthrow of Marcos, the scroll changed to the current "REPUBLIKA NG PILIPINAS". In 1998, with the approval of Republic Act No. 8491, the eagle and lion on the lower half of the shield have been removed. However, the modified arms are not in wide use, pending the ratification of the law by a national referendum called for that purpose, as mandated by the Philippine Constitution.

 

Motto:

" Maka-Diyos, Makatao, Makakalikasan, at Makabayan "

 

National Anthem: Lupang Hinirang

 

Phillipins

 

Bayang Magiliw

Perlas ng Silanganan,

Alab ng puso

Sa dibdib mo'y buhay.

 

Lupang hinirang,

Duyan ka ng magiting,

Sa manlulupig,

'Di ka pasisiil.

 

Sa dagat at bundok,

Sa simoy at sa langit mong bughaw,

May dilag ang tula at awit

Sa paglayang minamahal.

 

Ang kislap ng watawat mo'y

Tagumpay na nagniningning,

Ang bituin at araw niya

Kailan pa ma'y 'di magdidilim.

 

Lupa ng araw, ng luwalhati't pagsinta,

Buhay ay langit sa piling mo;

Aming ligaya, na 'pag may mang-aapi

Ang mamatay nang dahil sa 'yo.

 

Spanish

 

Tierra adorada

Hija del sol de Oriente,

Su fuego ardiente

en ti latiendo está.

 

¡Tierra de amores!

Del heroísmo cuna,

Los invasores

No te hollarán jamás.

 

En tu azul cielo, en tus auras,

En tus montes y en tu mar

Esplende y late el poema

De tu amada libertad.

 

Tu pabellón, que en las lides

La victoria iluminó,

No verá nunca apagados

Sus estrellas y su sol.

 

Tierra de dichas, del sol y de amores,

En tu regazo dulce es vivir.

Es una gloria para tus hijos,

Cuando te ofenden, por ti morir.

 

English

 

Beloved Country,

Pearl of the Orient,

The heart's fervor

In your heart is ever alive.

Chosen land,

You are the cradle of the brave.

To the conquerors

You shall never surrender.

Through the seas and mountains,

Through the air and your azure skies,

There is splendor in the poem

And song for dear freedom.

The sparkle of your flag

Is shining victory.

Its stars and sun

Forever will never dim.

Land of the morning, of glory, of our affection,

Life is heaven in your arms;

When someone oppresses you, it is our pleasure

To die for you.

 

Internet Page: www.gov.ph

www.tourism.gov.ph

 

Philippines in diferent languages

 

eng | fra | hau: Philippines

arg | glg | lin | oci | por | spa | srd | tet: Filipinas

ast | cat | lld: Filipines

bam | hrv | slv: Filipini

deu | ltz | nds: Philippinen / Philippinen

kin | run | swa: Filipino

ces | slk: Filipíny

dsb | hsb: Philippiny

hat | zza: Filipin

jav | mlg: Filipina

mlt | scn: Filippini

pol | szl: Filipiny

afr: Filippyne; Filippynse Eilande

aze: Filippin / Филиппин

bos: Filipini / Филипини

bre: Filipinez

cor: Filipinys

crh: Filippinler / Филиппинлер

csb: Filipinë

cym: Ynysoedd y Philapin

dan: Filippinerne

epo: Filipinoj

est: Filipiinid

eus: Filipinak

fao: Filipsoyggjar

fin: Filippiinit

frp: Felipines

fry: Filipinen

fur: Filipinis

gla: Na h-Eileanan Filipineach; Na Filipìonan

gle: Na hOileáin Fhilipíneacha / Na hOileáin Ḟilipíneaċa

glv: Ny h-Ellanyn Phillippeenagh

haw: ʻĀina Pilipino

hun: Fülöp-szigetek

ibo: Agwe-etiti Filipin

ina: Philippinas

ind: Pilipina / ڤيليڤينا; Filipina / فيليڤينا

isl: Filippseyjar; Filipseyjar

ita: Filippine

jnf: Ph’lippinnes

kaa: Filippinı / Филиппины

kmr: Fîlîpînêd / Филипинед / فیلیپینێد

kur: Filîpîn / فلیپین; Fîlîpîn / فیلیپین

lat: Philippinae

lav: Filipīnas

lim: Filipiene

lit: Filipinai

mol: Filipine / Филипине

msa: Filipina / فيليڤينا

nld: Filipijnen

nno: Filippinane

nob: Filippinene

nrm: Phelippènes

pap: Filipina

que: Philipinakuna

rmy: Filipine / क़िलिपिने

roh: Filippinas

ron: Filipine

rup: Filipinji

slo: Filipinia / Филипиниа

sme: Filippiinnat

smg: Fėlėpinā

smo: Filipaina

som: Filibiin

sqi: Filipinet

swe: Filippinerna

tgl: Pilipinas

ton: Filipaine

tuk: Filippinler / Филиппинлер

tur: Filipinler; Filipin Adaları

uzb: Filippin orollari / Филиппин ороллари

vie: Phi Luật Tân; Phi-líp-pin

vol: Filipuäns

vor: Filipiiniq

wln: Filipenes

wol: Filipiin

alt | chm | kom | kum | rus: Филиппины (Filippiny)

bul | mkd: Филипини (Filipini)

kjh | tyv: Филиппиннер (Filippinner)

mon | udm: Филиппин (Filippin)

abq: Филиппинска дзыгӀвбжяква (Fiłippinska dzəʿʷbžjakʷa)

bak: Филиппин / Filippin

bel: Філіпіны / Filipiny

che: Филиппинаш (Filippinaš)

chv: Филиппин утравӗсем (Filippin utravĕsem)

kaz: Филиппин аралдары / Fïlïppïn araldarı / فيليپپين ارالدارى

kbd: Филиппинскэ островхэр (Filippinskă ostrovĥăr)

kir: Филиппиндер (Filippinder); Филиппин аралдары (Filippin araldary)

krc: Филиппинле (Filippinle)

oss: Филиппинтӕ (Filippintä)

srp: Филипини / Filipini

tat: Филиппин утраулары / Filippin utrawları

tgk: Ҷазираҳои Филиппин / جزیرههای فیلیپین / Çazirahoi Filippin

ukr: Філиппіни (Filyppiny)

ara: الفيليبين (al-Fīlībbīn); الفلبين (al-Filibbīn); الفيلبين (al-Fīlibbīn)

fas: فیلیپین / Filipin

prs: فلپین (Felepīn)

pus: فلپين (Filipīn); فلپاين (Filipāyn)

snd: فلپائن (Filipāʾin)

uig: فىلىپپىن / Filippin / Филиппин

urd: فلپائن (Filipāʾin)

div: ޕިލިޕީންސް (Pilipīns); ފިލިޕީންސް (Filipīns)

heb: פיליפינים (Fîlîpînîm)

lad: פ'יליפינאס / Filipinas

yid: פֿיליפּינען (Filipinen)

amh: ፊሊፒን (Filipin)

ell-dhi: Φιλιππίνες (Filippínes)

ell-kat: Φιλιππῖναι (Filippĩnai)

hye: Ֆիլիպիններ (Filipinner)

kat: ფილიპინები (Ṗilipinebi)

hin: फ़िलीपींस (Filīpīṁs); फ़िलीपिंस (Filīpiṁs); फ़िलिपाइन (Filipāin); फ़िलिपीन (Filipīn); फ़िलिपाइंस (Filipāiṁs); फ़िलिपींस (Filipīṁs)

mar: फिलिपाईन्स (Pʰilipāīns)

ben: ফিলিপিন্স (Pʰilipins); ফিলিপাইন (Pʰilipāin)

pan: ਫਿਲਿਪੀਨੀਜ਼ (Pʰilipīnīz)

kan: ಫಿಲಿಪ್ಪೀನ್ಸ್ (Pʰilippīns)

mal: ഫിലിപ്പൈന്സ് (Pʰilippains); ഫിലിപ്പീന്സ് (Pʰilippīns)

tam: பிலிப்பைன்ஸ் (Pilippaiṉs); பிலிப்பின் தீவுகள் (Pilippiṉ Tīvukaḷ)

tel: ఫిలిప్పీన్స్ (Pʰilippīns)

zho: 菲律賓/菲律宾 (Fēilùbīn)

yue: 菲律賓/菲律宾 (Fèileuhtbān)

jpn: フィリピン (Firipin)

kor: 필리핀 (Pillipin)

bod: ཧྥི་ལེའི་པིན་ (Hpʰi.le'i.pin.); ཧྥེ་ལི་པིང་ (Hpʰe.li.piṅ.)

mya: ဖိလစ္ပုိင္ (Pʰíliʿpaĩ)

tha: ฟิลิปปินส์ (Filippin[s])

lao: ຟີລິບປິນ (Fīlippin)

khm: ហ្វីលីពីន (Hvīlīpīn); ហ្វ៉ីលិពីន (Hvīlipīn)

Robinson Crusoe Island (Spanish: Isla Robinson Crusoe), formerly known as Más a Tierra (Closer to Land), is the second largest of the Juan Fernández Islands, situated 670 km west of San Antonio, Chile, in the South Pacific Ocean. It is the most populous of the inhabited islands in the archipelago (the other being Alejandro Selkirk Island), with most of that in the town of San Juan Bautista at Cumberland Bay on the island's north coast.

 

The island was home to the marooned sailor Alexander Selkirk from 1704 to 1709, and is thought to have inspired novelist Daniel Defoe's fictional Robinson Crusoe in his 1719 novel about the character. To reflect the literary lore associated with the island and to lure tourists, the Chilean government renamed the location Robinson Crusoe Island in 1966

  

The island was first named Juan Fernandez Island after Juan Fernández, a Spanish sea captain and explorer who was the first to land there in 1574. It was also known as Más a Tierra. There is no evidence of an earlier discovery either by Polynesians, despite the proximity to Easter Island, or by Native Americans.

 

In 1704 the sailor Alexander Selkirk was marooned as a castaway on the island, where he lived in solitude for four years and four months. Selkirk had been gravely concerned about the seaworthiness of his ship, the Cinque Ports, and declared his wish to be left on the island during a mid-voyage restocking stop. His captain, Thomas Stradling, a colleague on the voyage of privateer and explorer William Dampier, was tired of his dissent and obliged. All Selkirk had left with him was a musket, gunpowder, carpenter's tools, a knife, a Bible, and some clothing.

 

In an 1840 narrative, Two Years Before the Mast, Richard Henry Dana, Jr. described the port of Juan Fernandez as a young prison colony. The penal institution was soon abandoned and the island again uninhabited before a permanent colony was eventually established in the latter part of the 19th century. Joshua Slocum visited the island between 26 April and 5 May 1896, during his solo global circumnavigation on the sloop Spray. The island and its 45 inhabitants are referred to in detail in Slocum's memoir, Sailing Alone Around the World.

 

On 27 February 2010 Robinson Crusoe Island was hit by a tsunami following a magnitude 8.8 earthquake. The tsunami was about 3 m (10 ft) high when it reached the island. Sixteen people lost their lives, and most of the coastal village of San Juan Batista was washed away. The only warning the islanders had come from a 12-year-old girl, who noticed the sudden drawback of the sea that presages the arrival of a tsunami wave and saved many of her neighbors from harm.

 

Robinson Crusoe had an estimated population of 843 in 2012. Most of the island's inhabitants live in the village of San Juan Bautista on the north coast at Cumberland Bay. Although the community maintains a rustic serenity dependent on the spiny lobster trade, residents employ a few vehicles, a satellite Internet connection and televisions.

The main airstrip on the island is near the tip of the island's southwestern peninsula. The flight from Santiago de Chile is just under three hours. A ferry runs from the airstrip to San Juan Bautista.

 

Tourists number in the hundreds per year.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robinson_Crusoe_Island

Janet Echelman geeft een nieuwe vorm aan het stedelijk luchtruim met monumentale, fluïde, en bewegende sculpturen die reageren op omgevingskrachten, zoals wind, water en zonlicht.

In India creëerde Echelman voor het eerst van vissersnetten een nieuwe vorm van volumineuze sculptuur, zonder zware en solide materialen. Om haar projecten vorm te geven werkt ze samen met een team van professionals uit o.a. de luchtvaart en de architectuur.

 

1.26 Amsterdam is een verwijzing naar de aardbeving in Chili van februari 2010 die ervoor zorgde dat de dag werd verkort met 1.26 microseconden.

  

Janet Echelman reshapes the urban airspace with monumental, fluid and moving sculptures that respond to environmental forces, such as wind, water and sunlight.

In India, Echelman created a new form of voluminous sculpture of fishing nets for the first time, without heavy and solid materials. To shape her projects, she works with a team of professionals from, for instance, the aviation industry and architecture.

 

1.26 Amsterdam is a referral to the earthquake in Chili of February 2010 that reduced the day by 1.26 microseconds.

As some of you would know by now I love Japan, and I'm very touched by the hard time they are living. In Chile last year we have an earthquake and tsunami too and I know how it feels to see your country in ruins.

 

So here are some things you can do:

 

You can Text REDCROSS to 90999 to make a $10 donation to Japan.

 

You can follow @RedCross on twitter to know more ways to help.

 

You can pay by PayPal: www.paypal-donations.com/pp-charity/web.us/campaign.jsp?c...

 

You can visit this web site www.jrc.or.jp/english/index.html

 

I hope we all as people of this world could help at least hoping for hope.

I spent the last week and a half down in Christchurch, with my friend and her family.

Had a ride around and stayed at Diamond Harbour for a couple of nights. I felt that 4.5 earthquake that hit Chch the other day. City is at devastation, many business have been forced to abandon their premises.

 

I've been introduced to Fluro (SUG,FDKNS) by EyeQ. She has been working on that mural for a while, I was in a right place in a right time, just when she needed someone to do a charo.

 

It was a wonderful day painting in a hart of Chch with boiling hot sun and chili winds in the shadow. I spend most of the day bare foot)

 

She wrote - "In The Blink Of An Eye" and I did a character that in my opinion fits the scheme.

 

The message is deep. Hope you understand.

 

yo Reza

Dear friends, Today a great misfortune struck my beloved country, an earthquake of 8.8 degrees was felt in 7 regions (1700 km). Chilenos 707 dead and countless missed material, though I live in the unaffected part of my country, half of my family lives in the zone of the epicenter. Thank God all alive.

Our fear and our pain is immense. They are 707 families who have lost a loved one and more than a million brothers who have lost everything they had.

Today I come to flickr only to beg for your prayers so much pain and destruction only God can shield us, keep us, comfort us.

With the same love as always and wishing you all are better than us.

With hearts full of faith that better days will come for all.

With all my love to a fraternal embrace

Pati

Robinson Crusoe Island (Spanish: Isla Robinson Crusoe), formerly known as Más a Tierra (Closer to Land), is the second largest of the Juan Fernández Islands, situated 670 km west of San Antonio, Chile, in the South Pacific Ocean. It is the most populous of the inhabited islands in the archipelago (the other being Alejandro Selkirk Island), with most of that in the town of San Juan Bautista at Cumberland Bay on the island's north coast.

 

The island was home to the marooned sailor Alexander Selkirk from 1704 to 1709, and is thought to have inspired novelist Daniel Defoe's fictional Robinson Crusoe in his 1719 novel about the character. To reflect the literary lore associated with the island and to lure tourists, the Chilean government renamed the location Robinson Crusoe Island in 1966

  

The island was first named Juan Fernandez Island after Juan Fernández, a Spanish sea captain and explorer who was the first to land there in 1574. It was also known as Más a Tierra. There is no evidence of an earlier discovery either by Polynesians, despite the proximity to Easter Island, or by Native Americans.

 

In 1704 the sailor Alexander Selkirk was marooned as a castaway on the island, where he lived in solitude for four years and four months. Selkirk had been gravely concerned about the seaworthiness of his ship, the Cinque Ports, and declared his wish to be left on the island during a mid-voyage restocking stop. His captain, Thomas Stradling, a colleague on the voyage of privateer and explorer William Dampier, was tired of his dissent and obliged. All Selkirk had left with him was a musket, gunpowder, carpenter's tools, a knife, a Bible, and some clothing.

 

In an 1840 narrative, Two Years Before the Mast, Richard Henry Dana, Jr. described the port of Juan Fernandez as a young prison colony. The penal institution was soon abandoned and the island again uninhabited before a permanent colony was eventually established in the latter part of the 19th century. Joshua Slocum visited the island between 26 April and 5 May 1896, during his solo global circumnavigation on the sloop Spray. The island and its 45 inhabitants are referred to in detail in Slocum's memoir, Sailing Alone Around the World.

 

On 27 February 2010 Robinson Crusoe Island was hit by a tsunami following a magnitude 8.8 earthquake. The tsunami was about 3 m (10 ft) high when it reached the island. Sixteen people lost their lives, and most of the coastal village of San Juan Batista was washed away. The only warning the islanders had come from a 12-year-old girl, who noticed the sudden drawback of the sea that presages the arrival of a tsunami wave and saved many of her neighbors from harm.

 

Robinson Crusoe had an estimated population of 843 in 2012. Most of the island's inhabitants live in the village of San Juan Bautista on the north coast at Cumberland Bay. Although the community maintains a rustic serenity dependent on the spiny lobster trade, residents employ a few vehicles, a satellite Internet connection and televisions.

The main airstrip on the island is near the tip of the island's southwestern peninsula. The flight from Santiago de Chile is just under three hours. A ferry runs from the airstrip to San Juan Bautista.

 

Tourists number in the hundreds per year.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robinson_Crusoe_Island

…that gloomy operation of capturing at 1/250 sec. in the land of earthquakes didn’t work.

femme française à Santiago du Chili, 2012

Robinson Crusoe Island (Spanish: Isla Robinson Crusoe), formerly known as Más a Tierra (Closer to Land), is the second largest of the Juan Fernández Islands, situated 670 km west of San Antonio, Chile, in the South Pacific Ocean. It is the most populous of the inhabited islands in the archipelago (the other being Alejandro Selkirk Island), with most of that in the town of San Juan Bautista at Cumberland Bay on the island's north coast.

 

The island was home to the marooned sailor Alexander Selkirk from 1704 to 1709, and is thought to have inspired novelist Daniel Defoe's fictional Robinson Crusoe in his 1719 novel about the character. To reflect the literary lore associated with the island and to lure tourists, the Chilean government renamed the location Robinson Crusoe Island in 1966

  

The island was first named Juan Fernandez Island after Juan Fernández, a Spanish sea captain and explorer who was the first to land there in 1574. It was also known as Más a Tierra. There is no evidence of an earlier discovery either by Polynesians, despite the proximity to Easter Island, or by Native Americans.

 

In 1704 the sailor Alexander Selkirk was marooned as a castaway on the island, where he lived in solitude for four years and four months. Selkirk had been gravely concerned about the seaworthiness of his ship, the Cinque Ports, and declared his wish to be left on the island during a mid-voyage restocking stop. His captain, Thomas Stradling, a colleague on the voyage of privateer and explorer William Dampier, was tired of his dissent and obliged. All Selkirk had left with him was a musket, gunpowder, carpenter's tools, a knife, a Bible, and some clothing.

 

In an 1840 narrative, Two Years Before the Mast, Richard Henry Dana, Jr. described the port of Juan Fernandez as a young prison colony. The penal institution was soon abandoned and the island again uninhabited before a permanent colony was eventually established in the latter part of the 19th century. Joshua Slocum visited the island between 26 April and 5 May 1896, during his solo global circumnavigation on the sloop Spray. The island and its 45 inhabitants are referred to in detail in Slocum's memoir, Sailing Alone Around the World.

 

On 27 February 2010 Robinson Crusoe Island was hit by a tsunami following a magnitude 8.8 earthquake. The tsunami was about 3 m (10 ft) high when it reached the island. Sixteen people lost their lives, and most of the coastal village of San Juan Batista was washed away. The only warning the islanders had come from a 12-year-old girl, who noticed the sudden drawback of the sea that presages the arrival of a tsunami wave and saved many of her neighbors from harm.

 

Robinson Crusoe had an estimated population of 843 in 2012. Most of the island's inhabitants live in the village of San Juan Bautista on the north coast at Cumberland Bay. Although the community maintains a rustic serenity dependent on the spiny lobster trade, residents employ a few vehicles, a satellite Internet connection and televisions.

The main airstrip on the island is near the tip of the island's southwestern peninsula. The flight from Santiago de Chile is just under three hours. A ferry runs from the airstrip to San Juan Bautista.

 

Tourists number in the hundreds per year.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robinson_Crusoe_Island

It was a very long 30 seconds. ... I ran outside, everything was moving under my feet, the birds were flying all over the place ...

 

The epicentre was only about 60 km from where I live....

 

Thanks for your mails ... very appreciated.

 

Nothing to compare to Chili and Haiti ...

<3

 

Psychic spies from China

Try to steal your mind's elation

Little girls from Sweden

Dream of silver screen quotations

And if you want these kind of dreams

It's Californication

 

It's the edge of the world

and all of western civilization

The sun may rise in the East

At least it settles in the final location

It's understood that Hollywood

sells Californication

 

Pay your surgeon very well

To break the spell of aging

Celebrity skin is this your chin

Or is that war you're waging

 

First born unicorn

Hardcore soft porn

Dream of Californication

Dream of Californication

 

Marry me girl be my ferry to the world

Be my very own constellation

A teenage bride with a baby inside

Getting high on information

And buy me a star on the boulevard

It's Californication

 

Space may be the final frontier

But it's made in a Hollywood basement

Cobain can you hear the Spears

Singing songs off station to station

And Alderaan's not far away

It's Californication

 

Born and raised by those who praise

Control of population

Everybody's been there

And I don't mean on vacation

 

First born unicorn

Hard core soft porn

Dream of Californication

Dream of Californication

Dream of Californication

Dream of Californication

 

Destruction leads to a very rough road

But it also breeds creation

And earthquakes are to a girl's guitar

They're just another good vibration

And tidal waves couldn't save the world

From Californication

 

Pay your surgeon very well

To break the spell of aging

Sicker than the rest, there is no test

But this is what you're craving

 

First born unicorn

Hardcore soft porn

Dream of Californication

Dream of Californication

Dream of Californication

Dream of Californication

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=abrKM1Z_te8

Is a country in South America occupying a long, narrow coastal strip between the Andes mountains to the east and the Pacific Ocean to the west. It borders Peru to the north, Bolivia to the northeast, Argentina to the east, and the Drake Passage in the far south. With Ecuador, it is one of two countries in South America which do not border Brazil. The Pacific coastline of Chile is 6,435 kilometres. Chilean territory includes the Pacific islands of Juan Fernández, Salas y Gómez, Desventuradas and Easter Island. Chile also claims about 1,250,000 square kilometres (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica, although all claims are suspended under the Antarctic Treaty.

Chile's unusual ribbon-like shape—4,300 kilometres (2,700 mi) long and on average 175 kilometres (109 mi) wide—has given it a varied climate, ranging from the world's driest desert—the Atacama—in the north, through a Mediterranean climate in the centre, to a rainy temperate climate in the south. The northern desert contains great mineral wealth, principally copper. The relatively small central area dominates in terms of population and agricultural resources, and is the cultural and political center from which Chile expanded in the late 19th century, when it incorporated its northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests and grazing lands and features a string of volcanoes and lakes. The southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands.

Prior to arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, northern Chile was under Inca rule while the indigenous Araucanians inhabited central and southern Chile. Chile declared its independence on February 12, 1818. In the War of the Pacific (1879–83), Chile defeated Peru and Bolivia and won its present northern regions. It was not until the 1880s that the Araucanians were completely subjugated.Although relatively free of the coups and arbitrary governments that blighted South America, Chile endured a 17-year military dictatorship (1973–1990) that left more than 3,000 people dead or missing.

Currently, Chile is one of South America's most stable and prosperous nations. It leads Latin American nations in human development, competitiveness, quality of life, political stability, globalization, economic freedom, low perception of corruption and comparatively low poverty rates. It also ranks high regionally in freedom of the press and democratic development. However, it has a high income inequality, as measured by the Gini index. In December 2009 Chile became the first South American country to be invited to join the OECD.[8] Chile is also a founding member of both the United Nations and the Union of South American Nations.

 

Etymology

There are various theories about the origin of the word Chile. According to a theory proposed by 18th century Spanish chronicler Diego de Rosales, the Incas of Peru called the valley of the Aconcagua "Chili" by corruption of the name of a Picunche tribal chief ("cacique") called Tili, who ruled the area at the time of the Incan conquest in the 15th century. Another theory points to the similarity of the valley of the Aconcagua with that of the Casma Valley in Peru, where there was a town and valley named Chil.

Other theories say Chile may derive its name from the indigenous Mapuche word chilli, which may mean "where the land ends," "the deepest point of the Earth," or "sea gulls;" or from the Quechua chin, "cold", or the Aymara tchili, meaning "snow". Another meaning attributed to chilli is the onomatopoeic cheele-cheele—the Mapuche imitation of a bird call. The Spanish conquistadors heard about this name from the Incas, and the few survivors of Diego de Almagro's first Spanish expedition south from Peru in 1535–36 called themselves the "men of Chilli."Ultimately, Almagro is credited with the universalization of the name Chile, after naming the Mapocho valley as such.

 

History

About 10,000 years ago, migrating Native Americans settled in fertile valleys and coastal areas of what is present day Chile. Example settlement sites from the very early human habitation are Cueva del Milodon and the Pali Aike Crater's lava tube. The Incas briefly extended their empire into what is now northern Chile, but the Mapuche successfully resisted many attempts by the Inca Empire to subjugate them, despite their lack of state organization. They fought against the Sapa Inca Tupac Yupanqui and his army. The result of the bloody three-day confrontation known as the Battle of the Maule was that the Inca conquest of the territories of Chile ended at the Maule river.

In 1520, while attempting to circumnavigate the earth, Ferdinand Magellan discovered the southern passage now named after him, the Strait of Magellan. The next Europeans to reach Chile were Diego de Almagro and his band of Spanish conquistadors, who came from Peru in 1535 seeking gold. The Spanish encountered hundreds of thousands of Native Americans from various cultures in the area that modern Chile now occupies. These cultures supported themselves principally through slash-and-burn agriculture and hunting. The conquest of Chile began in earnest in 1540 and was carried out by Pedro de Valdivia, one of Francisco Pizarro's lieutenants, who founded the city of Santiago on February 12, 1541. Although the Spanish did not find the extensive gold and silver they sought, they recognized the agricultural potential of Chile's central valley, and Chile became part of the Viceroyalty of Peru.

Conquest of the land took place only gradually, and the Europeans suffered repeated setbacks at the hands of the local population. A massive Mapuche insurrection that began in 1553 resulted in Valdivia's death and the destruction of many of the colony's principal settlements. Subsequent major insurrections took place in 1598 and in 1655. Each time the Mapuche and other native groups revolted, the southern border of the colony was driven northward. The abolition of slavery by the Spanish crown in 1683 was done in recognition that enslaving the Mapuche intensified resistance rather than cowing them into submission. Despite the royal prohibitions relations remained strained from continual colonialist interference.

Cut off to the north by desert, to the south by the Mapuche (or Araucanians), to the east by the Andes Mountains, and to the west by the ocean, Chile became one of the most centralized, homogeneous colonies in Spanish America. Serving as a sort of frontier garrison, the colony found itself with the mission of forestalling encroachment by Araucanians and by Spain's European enemies, especially the British and the Dutch. In addition to the Araucanians, buccaneers and English adventurers menaced the colony, as was shown by Sir Francis Drake's 1578 raid on Valparaíso, the principal port. Because Chile hosted one of the largest standing armies in the Americas, it was one of the most militarized of the Spanish possessions, as well as a drain on the treasury of Peru. By the end of the colonial period, the population reached an estimated 500,000 (not including unsubjugated Indians); approximately 300,000 were mestizos and about 150,000 were Criollos (European or European descent).

The first general census was performed by the government of Agustín de Jáuregui between 1777 and 1778. The census indicated that the population was 259,646 inhabitants and was composed of 73.5% European descent, 7.9% mestizos, 8.6% Indians and 9.8% blacks. In 1784, Francisco Hurtado, Governor of the province of Chiloe, conducted a population census of Chiloe whereby the population was 26,703 inhabitants, of which 64.4% were whites and 33.5% natives.

Finally, in 1812, the Diocese of Concepción made a census of population, south of the Maule river, but not including the indigenous population (estimated at 8,000 people), nor the inhabitants of the province of Chiloé, which gave indicated a population of 210,567, of which 86.1% were Spanish and whites, 10% Indians and 3.7% of mestizos, blacks and mulattos.

The drive for independence from Spain was precipitated by usurpation of the Spanish throne by Napoleon's brother Joseph in 1808. A national junta in the name of Ferdinand—heir to the deposed king—was formed on September 18, 1810. The Government Junta of Chile proclaimed Chile an autonomous republic within the Spanish monarchy. A movement for total independence soon won a wide following. Spanish attempts to re-impose arbitrary rule during what was called the Reconquista led to a prolonged struggle.

Intermittent warfare continued until 1817, when an army with Bernardo O'Higgins, Chile's most renowned patriot, and led by José de San Martín, hero of the Argentine War of Independence, crossed the Andes into Chile and defeated the royalists. On February 12, 1818, Chile was proclaimed an independent republic under O'Higgins' leadership. The political revolt brought little social change, however, and 19th century Chilean society preserved the essence of the stratified colonial social structure, which was greatly influenced by family politics and the Roman Catholic Church. A strong presidency eventually emerged, but wealthy landowners remained powerful.

Toward the end of the nineteenth century, the government in Santiago consolidated its position in the south by ruthlessly suppressing the Mapuche during the Occupation of Araucanía. In 1881, it signed a treaty with Argentina confirming Chilean sovereignty over the Strait of Magellan. As a result of the War of the Pacific with Peru and Bolivia (1879–83), Chile expanded its territory northward by almost one-third, eliminating Bolivia's access to the Pacific, and acquired valuable nitrate deposits, the exploitation of which led to an era of national affluence.

The Chilean Civil War in 1891 brought about a redistribution of power between the President and Congress, and Chile established a parliamentary style democracy. However, the Civil War had also been a contest between those who favored the development of local industries and powerful Chilean banking interests, particularly the House of Edwards who had strong ties to foreign investors.

 

20th century

The Chilean economy partially degenerated into a system protecting the interests of a ruling oligarchy. By the 1920s, the emerging middle and working classes were powerful enough to elect a reformist president, Arturo Alessandri Palma, whose program was frustrated by a conservative congress. In the 1920s, Marxist groups with strong popular support arose.

A military coup led by General Luis Altamirano in 1924 set off a period of great political instability that lasted until 1932. The longest lasting of the ten governments between those years was that of General Carlos Ibáñez del Campo, who briefly held power in 1925 and then again between 1927 and 1931 in what was a de facto dictatorship, although not really comparable in harshness or corruption to the type of military dictatorship that has often bedeviled the rest of Latin America and certainly not comparable to the violent and repressive regime of Augusto Pinochet decades later.

By relinquishing power to a democratically elected successor, Ibáñez del Campo retained the respect of a large enough segment of the population to remain a viable politician for more than thirty years, in spite of the vague and shifting nature of his ideology. When constitutional rule was restored in 1932, a strong middle-class party, the Radicals, emerged. It became the key force in coalition governments for the next 20 years. During the period of Radical Party dominance (1932–52), the state increased its role in the economy. In 1952, voters returned Ibáñez del Campo to office for another six years. Jorge Alessandri succeeded Ibáñez del Campo in 1958, bringing Chilean conservatism back into power democratically for another term.

The 1964 presidential election of Christian Democrat Eduardo Frei Montalva by an absolute majority initiated a period of major reform. Under the slogan "Revolution in Liberty", the Frei administration embarked on far-reaching social and economic programs, particularly in education, housing, and agrarian reform, including rural unionization of agricultural workers. By 1967, however, Frei encountered increasing opposition from leftists, who charged that his reforms were inadequate, and from conservatives, who found them excessive. At the end of his term, Frei had not fully achieved his party's ambitious goals.

In the 1970 election, Senator Salvador Allende reached a partial majority in a plurality of votes in a three-way contest, followed by candidates Radomiro Tomic for the Christian Democrat Party and Jorge Alessandri for the Conservative Party. He was a physician and member of the Socialist Party of Chile, who headed the "Popular Unity" (UP or "Unidad Popular") coalition of the Socialist, Communist, Radical, and Social-Democratic Parties, along with dissident Christian Democrats, the Popular Unitary Action Movement (MAPU), and the Independent Popular Action. Despite pressure from the United States government, the Chilean Congress conducted a runoff vote between the leading candidates, Allende and former president Jorge Alessandri and keeping with tradition, chose Allende by a vote of 153 to 35. Frei refused to form an alliance with Alessandri to oppose Allende, on the grounds that the Christian Democrats were a workers party and could not make common cause with the right-wing.

An economic depression that began in 1967 peaked in 1970, exacerbated by capital flight, plummeting private investment, and withdrawal of bank deposits in response to Allende's socialist program. Production fell and unemployment rose. Allende adopted measures including price freezes, wage increases, and tax reforms, to increase consumer spending and redistribute income downward. Joint public-private public works projects helped reduce unemployment.page needed] Much of the banking sector was nationalized. Many enterprises within the copper, coal, iron, nitrate, and steel industries were expropriated, nationalized, or subjected to state intervention. Industrial output increased sharply and unemployment fell during the Allende administration's first year.

Allende's program included advancement of workers' interests, replacing the judicial system with "socialist legality", nationalization of banks and forcing others to bankruptcy, and strengthening "popular militias" known as MIR. Started under former President Frei, the Popular Unity platform also called for nationalization of Chile's major copper mines in the form of a constitutional amendment. The measure was passed unanimously by Congress. As a result, the Richard Nixon administration organized and inserted secret operatives in Chile, in order to quickly destabilize Allende’s government. In addition, American financial pressure restricted international economic credit to Chile. The economic problems were also exacerbated by Allende's public spending which was financed mostly by printing money and poor credit ratings given by commercial banks.

Simultaneously, opposition media, politicians, business guilds and other organizations, helped to accelerate a campaign of domestic political and economical destabilization, some of which was helped by the United States. By early 1973, inflation was out of control. The crippled economy was further battered by prolonged and sometimes simultaneous strikes by physicians, teachers, students, truck owners, copper workers, and the small business class. On 26 May 1973, Chile’s Supreme Court, which was opposed to Allende's government, unanimously denounced the Allende disruption of the legality of the nation. Although, illegal under the Chilean constitution, the court supported and strengthened Pinochet seizure of power.

Finally, a military coup overthrew Allende on September 11, 1973. As the armed forces bombarded the presidential palace of (Palacio de La Moneda), Allende reportedly had committed suicide. A military junta, led by General Augusto Pinochet Ugarte, took over control of the country. The first years of the regime were marked by human rights violations. On October 1973, at least 72 people were murdered by the Caravan of Death. According to the Rettig Report and Valech Commission, at least 2,115 were killed, and at least 27,265 were tortured (including 88 children younger than 12 years old). A new Constitution was approved by a controversial plebiscite on September 11, 1980, and General Pinochet became president of the republic for an 8-year term.

In the late 1980s, the government gradually permitted greater freedom of assembly, speech, and association, to include trade union and political activity. The government launched market-oriented reforms, which have continued ever since. Chile moved toward a free market economy that saw an increase in domestic and foreign private investment, although the copper industry and other important mineral resources were not opened for competition. In a plebiscite on October 5, 1988, General Pinochet was denied a second 8-year term as president (56% against 44%). Chileans elected a new president and the majority of members of a two-chamber congress on December 14, 1989. Christian Democrat Patricio Aylwin, the candidate of a coalition of 17 political parties called the Concertación, received an absolute majority of votes (55%). President Aylwin served from 1990 to 1994, in what was considered a transition period.

In December 1993, Christian Democrat Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle, the son of previous president Eduardo Frei Montalva, led the Concertación coalition to victory with an absolute majority of votes (58%).

 

21st century

Frei Ruiz-Tagle was succeeded in 2000 by Socialist Ricardo Lagos, who won the presidency in an unprecedented runoff election against Joaquín Lavín of the rightist Alliance for Chile. In January 2006, Chileans elected their first female president, Michelle Bachelet Jeria, of the Socialist Party, defeating Sebastián Piñera, of the National Renewal party, extending the Concertación government for another four years. In January 2010, Chileans elected Sebastián Piñera, of the National Renewal party of the centre-right Coalition for Change, as the first rightist President of Chile during the Chilean presidential election of 2009-2010, defeating former President Eduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle of the Concertación, for a four-year term succeeding Michelle Bachelet.

On February 27, 2010, Chile was struck by an 8.8 Mm earthquake, one of the largest ever recorded in the world. As many as 1,000 people died; hundreds of thousands of buildings were damaged. Initial damage estimates were in the range of 15–30 billion USD, around 10–15% of Chile real gross domestic product.

 

Geography

A long and narrow coastal Southern Cone country on the west side of the Andes Mountains, Chile stretches over 4,630 kilometres (2,880 mi) north to south, but only 430 kilometres (265 mi) at its widest point east to west. This encompasses a remarkable variety of landscapes. It contains 756,950 square kilometres (292,260 sq mi) of land area. It is situated within the Pacific Ring of Fire.

The northern Atacama Desert contains great mineral wealth, primarily copper and nitrates. The relatively small Central Valley, which includes Santiago, dominates the country in terms of population and agricultural resources. This area also is the historical center from which Chile expanded in the late nineteenth century, when it integrated the northern and southern regions. Southern Chile is rich in forests, grazing lands, and features a string of volcanoes and lakes. The southern coast is a labyrinth of fjords, inlets, canals, twisting peninsulas, and islands. The Andes Mountains are located on the eastern border. Chile is the longest north-south country in the world, and also claims 1,250,000 km2 (480,000 sq mi) of Antarctica as part of its territory. However, this latter claim is suspended under the terms of the Antarctic Treaty, of which Chile is signatory.

Chile controls Easter Island and Sala y Gómez Island, the easternmost islands of Polynesia, which it incorporated to its territory in 1888, and Robinson Crusoe Island, more than 600 kilometres (370 mi) from the mainland, in the Juan Fernández archipelago. Easter Island is today a province of Chile. Also controlled but only temporally inhabited (by some local fishermen) are the small islands of Sala y Gómez, San Ambrosio and San Felix. These islands are notable because they extend Chile's claim to territorial waters out from its coast into the Pacific.

 

Other info

Oficial name:

Republica de Chile

 

Independence:

First National, Government Junta, September 18, 1810

- Declared February 12, 1818

- Recognized April 25, 1844

 

Area:

756.096 km2

 

Inhabitants:

17.560.000

 

Languages:

Aymara, Central [ayr] 899 in Chile (1994 Hans Gundermann K.). Ethnic population: 20,000 in Chile (1983 SIL). Mountains of extreme north, first region Tarapacá; Arica, Parinacota, Iquique. Classification: Aymaran

More information.

 

Chilean Sign Language [csg] Classification: Deaf sign language

More information.

 

Huilliche [huh] 2,000 (1982 SIL). South of the Mapuche, Tenth Region, from Valdivia to Chiloé. Alternate names: Veliche, Huiliche. Dialects: Tsesungún. Related to Mapudungun, but barely intelligible with it. Classification: Araucanian

More information.

 

Mapudungun [arn] 200,000 in Chile (1982 SIL). Population total all countries: 300,000. Ethnic population: 928,000 (1992 census). Between the Itata and Tolten rivers. Also spoken in Argentina. Alternate names: Mapudungu, "Araucano", Mapuche. Dialects: Moluche (Ngoluche, Manzanero), Picunche, Pehuenche. Easy intelligibility among all dialects. Pehuenche and Moluche are very close. Classification: Araucanian

More information.

 

Qawasqar [alc] 20 (1996 Oscar Aguilera). Population includes 10 in Puerto Edin. Channel Region, western Patagonia, Isle of Wellington off south Chilean coast, 49 degrees south with center in Puerto Edin. Speakers of the extinct Aksanás dialect also lived in Puerto Edén. Alternate names: Kaweskar, Kawesqar, Alacalufe, Alacaluf, Halakwulup. Dialects: Aksanás (Aksana). Classification: Alacalufan Nearly extinct.

More information.

 

Quechua, Chilean [cqu] Ethnic population: 4,563 (2000 WCD). Northern second region. Dialects: May be intelligible with, or the same as, South Bolivian Quechua. Classification: Quechuan, Quechua II, C

More information.

 

Rapa Nui [rap] 3,392 in Chile (2000 WCD). Population includes 2,200 on Easter Island; 200 to 300 on Chile mainland, Tahiti, and USA. Ethnic population: 3,500. Easter Island, 3,800 km from Chile, 4,000 km from Tahiti. Also spoken in French Polynesia, USA. Alternate names: Easter Island, Pascuense. Dialects: Lexical similarity 64% with Hawaiian, Mangareva, Rarotonga, 63% with Marquesan; 62% with Tahitian, Paumotu. Classification: Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian, Central-Eastern, Eastern Malayo-Polynesian, Oceanic, Central-Eastern Oceanic, Remote Oceanic, Central Pacific, East Fijian-Polynesian, Polynesian, Nuclear, East, Rapanui

More information.

 

Spanish [spa] 13,800,000 in Chile (1995). Population includes 25% Spanish, 66% mestizo. Alternate names: Español, Castellano. Classification: Indo-European, Italic, Romance, Italo-Western, Western, Gallo-Iberian, Ibero-Romance, West Iberian, Castilian

More information.

 

Yámana [yag] 1 (2003). Ethnic population: 100 (2000 W. Adelaar). Patagonia, Isla Navarino, Puerto Williams, Ukika hamlet. Extinct in Argentina. Alternate names: Yaghan, Yagán, Tequenica, Háusi Kúta. Dialects: Tovar (1961) says it was closest to Qawasqar, and had some relationship to Ona. Earlier there were up to five dialects. Classification: Language Isolate Nearly extinct.

More information.

  

Extinct languages

Kakauhua [kbf] Extinct. Alternate names: Kaukaue, Cacahue. Classification: Alacalufan

More information.

 

Kunza [kuz] Extinct. A few speakers were located in 1949 and since by anthropologists. Ethnic population: 2,000 (2000 W. Adelaar). Peine, Socaire (Salar de Atacama), and Caspana. Alternate names: Likanantaí, Lipe, Ulipe, Atacameño. Dialects: Greenberg places it in Macro-Chibchan. Classification: Unclassified

 

Capital city:

Santiago del Chile

 

Meaning of the country name :

Exact etymology unknown. Possibilities include that it comes from a native Mapudungun term meaning "the depths", a reference to the fact that the Andes mountain chain looms over the narrow coastal flatland. The Quechua or Mapuche Indian word "chili/chilli" or "where the land ends/where the land runs out/limit of the world" also provides a possible derivation. Another possible meaning originates with a native word tchili, meaning "snow".

 

Description Flag:

The flag of Chile consists of two equal horizontal bands of white (top) and red; there is a blue square the same height as the white band at the hoist-side end of the white band; the square bears a white five-pointed star in the center representing a guide to progress and honor; blue symbolizes the sky, white is for the snow-covered Andes, and red stands for the blood spilled to achieve independence.

 

Coat of arms:

The Coat of Arms of Chile dates from 1834 and was designed by the English artist Charles Wood Taylor. It is made up by a figurative background divided in two equal parts: the top one is blue and the bottom, red. A five pointed white star is in the centre of the shield. This background is supported in one side by a condor, the most significant bird of prey from the Andes, and in the other, by a huemul, the most singular and rare mammal of the Chilean territory. Both animals have in their heads the navy's golden crown, symbol of the heroic deeds of the Chilean Navy in the Pacific Ocean.

The shield is crowned by a three feathered crest; each feather bearing one colour: blue, white and red. This crest was a symbol of distinction that former Presidents of the Republic used to wear on their hats.

Underneath the shield and on the ellaborated pedestal, there is a white band with the motto: "Por la Razón o la Fuerza" ("By Right or Might").

 

Motto:

" Por la Razón o la Fuerza "

 

National Anthem: Himno Nacional de Chile

 

Spanish

 

Puro, Chile, es tu cielo azulado;

Puras brisas te cruzan también.

Y tu campo de flores bordado

Es la copia feliz del Edén.

Majestuosa es la blanca montaña

Que te dio por valuarte el Señor

Que te dio por valuarte el Señor,

Y ese mar que tranquilo te baña

Te promete futuro esplendor

Y ese mar que tranquilo te baña

Te promete futuro esplendor.

  

Coro

Dulce Patria, recibe los votos

Con que Chile en tus aras juró:

Que o la tumba serás de los libres

O el asilo contra la opresión

Que o la tumba serás de los libres

O el asilo contra la opresión

Que o la tumba serás de los libres

O el asilo contra la opresión

O el asilo contra la opresión

O el asilo contra la opresión.

 

English

 

Pure, Chile, is your blue sky;

Pure breezes flow across you as well.

And your flower-embroidered field

Is a happy copy of Eden .

Majestic is the snow-capped mountain

That was given as a bastion by the Lord

That was given as a bastion by the Lord,

And the sea that quietly washes your shores

Promises you future splendor

And the sea that quietly washes your shores

Promises you future splendor.

 

Chorus

Sweet fatherland, accept the vows

That were given by Chile at your altars:

Either you be the tomb of the free

Or the refuge against oppression

Either you be the tomb of the free

Or the refuge against oppression

Either you be the grave of the free

Or the refuge against oppression

Or the refuge against oppression

Or the refuge against oppression.

 

Internet Page: www.chile.com

 

Chile in diferent languages

 

eng | arg | ast | bre | ces | cor | cym | dan | fin | glg | hau | hsb | hun | ina | jnf | nor | oci | pol | por | roh | ron | sme | spa | swa | swe | szl: Chile

afr | fra | hat | ibo | jav | nld | nrm | pap | que: Chili

hrv | rup | slk | slv: Čile

deu | ltz | nds: Chile / Chile

ita | lld | srd: Cile

kin | lin | run: Shili

aze | tuk: Çili / Чили

bam | smo: Sili

cat | tet: Xile

kaa | uzb: Chili / Чили

lit | smg: Čilė

tur | zza: Şili

bos: Čile / Чиле

cos: Chilì

crh: Çile / Чиле

dsb: Chilska

epo: Ĉilio

est: Tšiili

eus: Txile

fao: Kili

frp: Ch•ili

fry: Sily

fur: Cîl

gla: An t-Sile

gle: An tSile / An tSile

glv: Yn Çhillee

ind: Cili / چيلي

isl: Chile; Síle

kmr: Çîlî / Ч’или / چیلی; Çîlîstan / Ч’илистан / چیلیستان

kur: Şîlî / شیلی

lat: Chilia; Chile; Cilia

lav: Čīle

mlg: Silia

mlt: Ċili

mol: Cili / Чили

msa: Chile / چيلي

rmy: Čile / चिले

scn: Cili

slo: Cxile / Чиле

som: Jili

sqi: Kili

tgl: Tsile

ton: Saile

vie: Chi-lê

vol: Tjilän

vor: Tsiili

wln: Tchili

wol: Ciili

alt | bul | che | chm | chv | kbd | kir | kjh | kom | krc | kum | mon | oss | rus | tyv | udm: Чили (Čili)

bak | tat: Чили / Çili

abq: Чили (Čiłi)

bel: Чылі / Čyli

kaz: Чили / Çïlï / چيلي

mkd: Чиле (Čile)

srp: Чиле / Čile

tgk: Чили / چیلی / Cili

ukr: Чилі (Čyli); Чілі (Čili)

ara: تشيلي (Tišīlī); شيلي (Šīlī)

fas: شیلی (Šīlī)

prs: چیلی (Čīlī)

pus: چيلي (Čīlī); چلي (Čilī)

uig: چىلى / Chili / Чили

urd: چلی (Čilī)

div: ޗިލީ (Čilī)

heb: צ׳ילה (Čîleh); צ׳ילי (Čîlî)

lad: ג'ילי / Chile

yid: טשילע (Tšile)

amh: ቺሌ (Čile); ቺሊ (Čili)

ell: Χιλή (Ĥilī́)

hye: Չիլի (Č̣ili)

kat: ჩილე (Č̣ile); ჩილი (Č̣ili)

hin: चिली (Čilī); चाइल (Čāil)

ben: চিলি (Čili)

pan: ਚਿਲੀ (Čilī)

kan: ಚಿಲಿ (Čili)

mal: ചിലി (Čili)

tam: சிலி (Čili)

tel: చిలీ (Čilī)

zho: 智利 (Zhìlì)

yue: 智利 (Jileih)

jpn: チリ (Chiri)

kor: 칠레 (Chillae)

mya: ခ္ယီလီ (Čili)

tha: ชิลี (Čʰilī)

lao: ຊີເລ (Sīlē)

khm: ឈីលី (Čʰīlī)

 

Y a la mañana, en el cielo se veía como un pequeño cometa de agua que subía desde la destrozada tierra, como bandera blanca, como bufanda hilada, como pez en el agua, como veloz mensajero, como cohete bélico, como lágrima divina de espíritus ancestrales.-

Identifier: earthitsinhabita941recl

Title: The earth and its inhabitants ..

Year: 1894 (1890s)

Authors: Reclus, Elisée, 1830-1905 Ravenstein, Ernest George, 1834-1913 Keane, A. H. (Augustus Henry), 1833-1912

Subjects: Geography

Publisher: New York, D. Appleton and company

Contributing Library: MBLWHOI Library

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries

  

View Book Page: Book Viewer

About This Book: Catalog Entry

View All Images: All Images From Book

 

Click here to view book online to see this illustration in context in a browseable online version of this book.

  

Text Appearing Before Image:

ions of the ground are causedby the subterranean disturbances. Occasionally the shocks are extremely violent,and Arica, which was destroyed in 1605, suffered much in the middle of theeighteenth century. The earthquakes of 1868 and 1877 were still more disastrous,because it had become a flourishing trading place. But so strongly built are thelow houses that they run little risk of being overthrown, and the chief dangercomes from the sea, which first retires, leaving the shipping stranded on the beach, TOPOGKAPHY OF CHILI. 449 and then returns in a prodigious wave, rolling in with irresistible force, andsweeping away all obstacles. In 1868 it tore a frigate from its moorings, andhurled it to a distance of over a mile inland. Then in 1877 another wave bore itback to within half a mile of the sea, without drowning the numerous families thathad taken up their abode in the hull. These disasters have not prevented Arica from rising from its ruins. It occu- Fig. 169.—Aeica.Scale 1 : 32,000.

 

Text Appearing After Image:

70° a 70° 20 West oF Greenw ch Depths. 0to5Fathoms. 5 Fathomsand upwards. 5 Mile. pies too favourable a position at the natural issue of the Tacora pass to be neglectedby vessels plying in these waters. Before the completion of the Arequipaand Antofagasta railways it was the chief inter medio, or port of call, betweenValparaiso and Callao, and it still carries on a brisk export trade in Bolivian woolsand metals. The surrounding plain is a mere waste of sands and stones ; but the village ofLluta in the north-east collects sufficient water in its river bed to grow a little30 450 SOUTH AMERICA—THE ANDES EEGIONS. maize and lucerne. Formerly the district must have been far more thickly peopled,as is evident from the remains of buildings and of numerous tombs full of mum-mies, whose large yellow eyes are formed by the shells of a species of molluscfished in the neighbouring waters. Pisagua, Jiinin, Mejillones del Norte, Caleta Biiena, Iquique and PatiUoa, alltrading and industrial centr

  

Note About Images

Please note that these images are extracted from scanned page images that may have been digitally enhanced for readability - coloration and appearance of these illustrations may not perfectly resemble the original work.

The attraction of photographing what's offered is the losing one's self in the moment.

 

You don't think about your job. You don't think about the economy. You don't think about swine flu, how many calories are in a bag of chili cheese Fritos, whether homeless people take care of their dogs, your mortgage, or if you have enough earthquake supplies at home.

 

You're just there, with the light and your camera and a few simple, strong feelings, and you are making something which is completely of the moment, it envelopes the moment and transfers it into something not quite complete, but lasting, so that it eventually becomes not just an emblem for that moment, but the moment itself. And so in that way, photographing what's offered is like making music and the photograph you make is like that music frozen forever for you to come back to and listen to and love again, and that moment and your singing in it is translated into something new and different, but also alive and real and fiercely independent because even though it is from you, it is also utterly of that uncontrolled moment too, when you were alive and well and being alone felt ok.

Robinson Crusoe Island (Spanish: Isla Robinson Crusoe), formerly known as Más a Tierra (Closer to Land), is the second largest of the Juan Fernández Islands, situated 670 km west of San Antonio, Chile, in the South Pacific Ocean. It is the most populous of the inhabited islands in the archipelago (the other being Alejandro Selkirk Island), with most of that in the town of San Juan Bautista at Cumberland Bay on the island's north coast.

 

The island was home to the marooned sailor Alexander Selkirk from 1704 to 1709, and is thought to have inspired novelist Daniel Defoe's fictional Robinson Crusoe in his 1719 novel about the character. To reflect the literary lore associated with the island and to lure tourists, the Chilean government renamed the location Robinson Crusoe Island in 1966

  

The island was first named Juan Fernandez Island after Juan Fernández, a Spanish sea captain and explorer who was the first to land there in 1574. It was also known as Más a Tierra. There is no evidence of an earlier discovery either by Polynesians, despite the proximity to Easter Island, or by Native Americans.

 

In 1704 the sailor Alexander Selkirk was marooned as a castaway on the island, where he lived in solitude for four years and four months. Selkirk had been gravely concerned about the seaworthiness of his ship, the Cinque Ports, and declared his wish to be left on the island during a mid-voyage restocking stop. His captain, Thomas Stradling, a colleague on the voyage of privateer and explorer William Dampier, was tired of his dissent and obliged. All Selkirk had left with him was a musket, gunpowder, carpenter's tools, a knife, a Bible, and some clothing.

 

In an 1840 narrative, Two Years Before the Mast, Richard Henry Dana, Jr. described the port of Juan Fernandez as a young prison colony. The penal institution was soon abandoned and the island again uninhabited before a permanent colony was eventually established in the latter part of the 19th century. Joshua Slocum visited the island between 26 April and 5 May 1896, during his solo global circumnavigation on the sloop Spray. The island and its 45 inhabitants are referred to in detail in Slocum's memoir, Sailing Alone Around the World.

 

On 27 February 2010 Robinson Crusoe Island was hit by a tsunami following a magnitude 8.8 earthquake. The tsunami was about 3 m (10 ft) high when it reached the island. Sixteen people lost their lives, and most of the coastal village of San Juan Batista was washed away. The only warning the islanders had come from a 12-year-old girl, who noticed the sudden drawback of the sea that presages the arrival of a tsunami wave and saved many of her neighbors from harm.

 

Robinson Crusoe had an estimated population of 843 in 2012. Most of the island's inhabitants live in the village of San Juan Bautista on the north coast at Cumberland Bay. Although the community maintains a rustic serenity dependent on the spiny lobster trade, residents employ a few vehicles, a satellite Internet connection and televisions.

The main airstrip on the island is near the tip of the island's southwestern peninsula. The flight from Santiago de Chile is just under three hours. A ferry runs from the airstrip to San Juan Bautista.

 

Tourists number in the hundreds per year.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robinson_Crusoe_Island

Efectos terremoto Maule Bíobio 2010

Robinson Crusoe Island (Spanish: Isla Robinson Crusoe), formerly known as Más a Tierra (Closer to Land), is the second largest of the Juan Fernández Islands, situated 670 km west of San Antonio, Chile, in the South Pacific Ocean. It is the most populous of the inhabited islands in the archipelago (the other being Alejandro Selkirk Island), with most of that in the town of San Juan Bautista at Cumberland Bay on the island's north coast.

 

The island was home to the marooned sailor Alexander Selkirk from 1704 to 1709, and is thought to have inspired novelist Daniel Defoe's fictional Robinson Crusoe in his 1719 novel about the character. To reflect the literary lore associated with the island and to lure tourists, the Chilean government renamed the location Robinson Crusoe Island in 1966

  

The island was first named Juan Fernandez Island after Juan Fernández, a Spanish sea captain and explorer who was the first to land there in 1574. It was also known as Más a Tierra. There is no evidence of an earlier discovery either by Polynesians, despite the proximity to Easter Island, or by Native Americans.

 

In 1704 the sailor Alexander Selkirk was marooned as a castaway on the island, where he lived in solitude for four years and four months. Selkirk had been gravely concerned about the seaworthiness of his ship, the Cinque Ports, and declared his wish to be left on the island during a mid-voyage restocking stop. His captain, Thomas Stradling, a colleague on the voyage of privateer and explorer William Dampier, was tired of his dissent and obliged. All Selkirk had left with him was a musket, gunpowder, carpenter's tools, a knife, a Bible, and some clothing.

 

In an 1840 narrative, Two Years Before the Mast, Richard Henry Dana, Jr. described the port of Juan Fernandez as a young prison colony. The penal institution was soon abandoned and the island again uninhabited before a permanent colony was eventually established in the latter part of the 19th century. Joshua Slocum visited the island between 26 April and 5 May 1896, during his solo global circumnavigation on the sloop Spray. The island and its 45 inhabitants are referred to in detail in Slocum's memoir, Sailing Alone Around the World.

 

On 27 February 2010 Robinson Crusoe Island was hit by a tsunami following a magnitude 8.8 earthquake. The tsunami was about 3 m (10 ft) high when it reached the island. Sixteen people lost their lives, and most of the coastal village of San Juan Batista was washed away. The only warning the islanders had come from a 12-year-old girl, who noticed the sudden drawback of the sea that presages the arrival of a tsunami wave and saved many of her neighbors from harm.

 

Robinson Crusoe had an estimated population of 843 in 2012. Most of the island's inhabitants live in the village of San Juan Bautista on the north coast at Cumberland Bay. Although the community maintains a rustic serenity dependent on the spiny lobster trade, residents employ a few vehicles, a satellite Internet connection and televisions.

The main airstrip on the island is near the tip of the island's southwestern peninsula. The flight from Santiago de Chile is just under three hours. A ferry runs from the airstrip to San Juan Bautista.

 

Tourists number in the hundreds per year.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robinson_Crusoe_Island

ENGLISH :

Built between 1586 and 1628, he miraculously withstand earthquakes. Inside, a large nave is seen, coffered ceilings, arched vaults and a massive large equipment in stone from the original building.

1.26 Amsterdam

Boulevard of Light - Amsterdam Light Festival

 

Janet Echelman reshapes the urban airspace with monumental, fluid and moving sculptures that respond to environmental forces, such as wind, water and sunlight.

In India, Echelman created a new form of voluminous sculpture of fishing nets for the first time, without heavy and solid materials. To shape her projects, she works with a team of professionals from, for instance, the aviation industry and architecture.

 

1.26 Amsterdam is a referral to the earthquake in Chili of February 2010 that reduced the day by 1.26 microseconds. For Echelman, the opportunity to integrate the reflections of the light in the water in Amsterdam with her work is unique.

*****

Janet Echelman geeft een nieuwe vorm aan het stedelijk luchtruim met monumentale, fluïde, en bewegende sculpturen die reageren op omgevingskrachten, zoals wind, water en zonlicht.

In India creëerde Echelman voor het eerst van vissersnetten een nieuwe vorm van volumineuze sculptuur, zonder zware en solide materialen. Om haar projecten vorm te geven werkt ze samen met een team van professionals uit o.a. de luchtvaart en de architectuur.

 

1.26 Amsterdam is een verwijzing naar de aardbeving in Chili van februari 2010 die ervoor zorgde dat de dag werd verkort met 1.26 microseconden. Voor Echelman is de mogelijkheid om in Amsterdam reflecties van het licht in het water te integreren met haar werk uniek.

Jack Irons @ Verizon Center, Washington, DC, on Wednesday, April 12, 2017.

 

Known as the founding drummer of the Red Hot Chili Peppers (1983, 1986–1988), and as a former member of Pearl Jam (1994–1998), with whom he recorded two studio albums.

 

The Getaway World Tour Setlist:

 

Outer Space Dream

Big Blue

Right Between The Ears

Earthquake

Doubloons

  

Robinson Crusoe Island (Spanish: Isla Robinson Crusoe), formerly known as Más a Tierra (Closer to Land), is the second largest of the Juan Fernández Islands, situated 670 km west of San Antonio, Chile, in the South Pacific Ocean. It is the most populous of the inhabited islands in the archipelago (the other being Alejandro Selkirk Island), with most of that in the town of San Juan Bautista at Cumberland Bay on the island's north coast.

 

The island was home to the marooned sailor Alexander Selkirk from 1704 to 1709, and is thought to have inspired novelist Daniel Defoe's fictional Robinson Crusoe in his 1719 novel about the character. To reflect the literary lore associated with the island and to lure tourists, the Chilean government renamed the location Robinson Crusoe Island in 1966

  

The island was first named Juan Fernandez Island after Juan Fernández, a Spanish sea captain and explorer who was the first to land there in 1574. It was also known as Más a Tierra. There is no evidence of an earlier discovery either by Polynesians, despite the proximity to Easter Island, or by Native Americans.

 

In 1704 the sailor Alexander Selkirk was marooned as a castaway on the island, where he lived in solitude for four years and four months. Selkirk had been gravely concerned about the seaworthiness of his ship, the Cinque Ports, and declared his wish to be left on the island during a mid-voyage restocking stop. His captain, Thomas Stradling, a colleague on the voyage of privateer and explorer William Dampier, was tired of his dissent and obliged. All Selkirk had left with him was a musket, gunpowder, carpenter's tools, a knife, a Bible, and some clothing.

 

In an 1840 narrative, Two Years Before the Mast, Richard Henry Dana, Jr. described the port of Juan Fernandez as a young prison colony. The penal institution was soon abandoned and the island again uninhabited before a permanent colony was eventually established in the latter part of the 19th century. Joshua Slocum visited the island between 26 April and 5 May 1896, during his solo global circumnavigation on the sloop Spray. The island and its 45 inhabitants are referred to in detail in Slocum's memoir, Sailing Alone Around the World.

 

On 27 February 2010 Robinson Crusoe Island was hit by a tsunami following a magnitude 8.8 earthquake. The tsunami was about 3 m (10 ft) high when it reached the island. Sixteen people lost their lives, and most of the coastal village of San Juan Batista was washed away. The only warning the islanders had come from a 12-year-old girl, who noticed the sudden drawback of the sea that presages the arrival of a tsunami wave and saved many of her neighbors from harm.

 

Robinson Crusoe had an estimated population of 843 in 2012. Most of the island's inhabitants live in the village of San Juan Bautista on the north coast at Cumberland Bay. Although the community maintains a rustic serenity dependent on the spiny lobster trade, residents employ a few vehicles, a satellite Internet connection and televisions.

The main airstrip on the island is near the tip of the island's southwestern peninsula. The flight from Santiago de Chile is just under three hours. A ferry runs from the airstrip to San Juan Bautista.

 

Tourists number in the hundreds per year.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robinson_Crusoe_Island

Robinson Crusoe Island (Spanish: Isla Robinson Crusoe), formerly known as Más a Tierra (Closer to Land), is the second largest of the Juan Fernández Islands, situated 670 km west of San Antonio, Chile, in the South Pacific Ocean. It is the most populous of the inhabited islands in the archipelago (the other being Alejandro Selkirk Island), with most of that in the town of San Juan Bautista at Cumberland Bay on the island's north coast.

 

The island was home to the marooned sailor Alexander Selkirk from 1704 to 1709, and is thought to have inspired novelist Daniel Defoe's fictional Robinson Crusoe in his 1719 novel about the character. To reflect the literary lore associated with the island and to lure tourists, the Chilean government renamed the location Robinson Crusoe Island in 1966

  

The island was first named Juan Fernandez Island after Juan Fernández, a Spanish sea captain and explorer who was the first to land there in 1574. It was also known as Más a Tierra. There is no evidence of an earlier discovery either by Polynesians, despite the proximity to Easter Island, or by Native Americans.

 

In 1704 the sailor Alexander Selkirk was marooned as a castaway on the island, where he lived in solitude for four years and four months. Selkirk had been gravely concerned about the seaworthiness of his ship, the Cinque Ports, and declared his wish to be left on the island during a mid-voyage restocking stop. His captain, Thomas Stradling, a colleague on the voyage of privateer and explorer William Dampier, was tired of his dissent and obliged. All Selkirk had left with him was a musket, gunpowder, carpenter's tools, a knife, a Bible, and some clothing.

 

In an 1840 narrative, Two Years Before the Mast, Richard Henry Dana, Jr. described the port of Juan Fernandez as a young prison colony. The penal institution was soon abandoned and the island again uninhabited before a permanent colony was eventually established in the latter part of the 19th century. Joshua Slocum visited the island between 26 April and 5 May 1896, during his solo global circumnavigation on the sloop Spray. The island and its 45 inhabitants are referred to in detail in Slocum's memoir, Sailing Alone Around the World.

 

On 27 February 2010 Robinson Crusoe Island was hit by a tsunami following a magnitude 8.8 earthquake. The tsunami was about 3 m (10 ft) high when it reached the island. Sixteen people lost their lives, and most of the coastal village of San Juan Batista was washed away. The only warning the islanders had come from a 12-year-old girl, who noticed the sudden drawback of the sea that presages the arrival of a tsunami wave and saved many of her neighbors from harm.

 

Robinson Crusoe had an estimated population of 843 in 2012. Most of the island's inhabitants live in the village of San Juan Bautista on the north coast at Cumberland Bay. Although the community maintains a rustic serenity dependent on the spiny lobster trade, residents employ a few vehicles, a satellite Internet connection and televisions.

The main airstrip on the island is near the tip of the island's southwestern peninsula. The flight from Santiago de Chile is just under three hours. A ferry runs from the airstrip to San Juan Bautista.

 

Tourists number in the hundreds per year.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robinson_Crusoe_Island

Copyright :copyright: PS.

 

Sloped Plaza de Armas, Arequipa, Peru, 1967.

(Sillar stone colonnade.)

 

"........From Lima we set off by bus for the desert. We rattled through a new housing district: rectangular modern, plastered white, and smart. Then the fascinating desert. The sand stretched down the coast to the horizon. We passed by the famous Pachacamac ruins (pre-Inca); occasionally scruffy mud villages in the middle of nowhere beside a small patch of sometimes-fertile ground. The atmosphere turned the sun into a deep orange long before it reached the horizon. Pisco, Ica, and Nazca with its markings. We carried on into the night. Parched rocks, dirt, and sand.

 

I understand that part of this desert is the driest place on earth. We were to travel through 700 miles of it that night and the next day. As we headed towards Camana during the morning we ran along the face of a cliff with the sea below. Here in this wilderness, many miles from any green growth, were Indian fishermen living in rock caves and mud-brick shacks.

 

Then we headed inland and reached a high-level ash-sand plateau, which we crossed, pushing on into brown hills. Slowly the mountains crept nearer. Toll gates were the first sign of civilisation, and a few miles on we reached Arequipa at the foot of the high mountains and at an altitude of a little over 7,500ft -- 19 hours after leaving Lima.

 

Arequipa stands near the bases of volcanic El Misti (19,150ft), snow-capped Chachani (20,000ft), and Pich Pichu. It's situated on the Chili river valley and this is of course the reason for its existence. Although Arequipa is Peru's second city it's in no way comparable with Lima, and to me was still a part of the old Peru.

 

The city has historic Spanish buildings and many churches built of a pearly-white volcanic stone; (built low for earthquakes). Development wraps around the Plaza in my photo above, dominated by an old cathedral, and arcaded buildings on the other three sides. The square's centre is pleasant with trees, fountains, sculpture and benches, but the surrounding arcaded structure I found visually disturbing. The whole area is on a gentle slope and the colonnade forms have to jump and distort to accommodate this...........

 

wikimapia

 

Historic centre:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Historic_centre_of_Arequipa

 

The historic centre of Arequipa is now a UNESCO World Heritage Site:

whc.unesco.org/en/list/1016

 

World Heritage City link:

www.ovpm.org/en/peru/arequipa

 

.

 

Robinson Crusoe Island (Spanish: Isla Robinson Crusoe), formerly known as Más a Tierra (Closer to Land), is the second largest of the Juan Fernández Islands, situated 670 km west of San Antonio, Chile, in the South Pacific Ocean. It is the most populous of the inhabited islands in the archipelago (the other being Alejandro Selkirk Island), with most of that in the town of San Juan Bautista at Cumberland Bay on the island's north coast.

 

The island was home to the marooned sailor Alexander Selkirk from 1704 to 1709, and is thought to have inspired novelist Daniel Defoe's fictional Robinson Crusoe in his 1719 novel about the character. To reflect the literary lore associated with the island and to lure tourists, the Chilean government renamed the location Robinson Crusoe Island in 1966

  

The island was first named Juan Fernandez Island after Juan Fernández, a Spanish sea captain and explorer who was the first to land there in 1574. It was also known as Más a Tierra. There is no evidence of an earlier discovery either by Polynesians, despite the proximity to Easter Island, or by Native Americans.

 

In 1704 the sailor Alexander Selkirk was marooned as a castaway on the island, where he lived in solitude for four years and four months. Selkirk had been gravely concerned about the seaworthiness of his ship, the Cinque Ports, and declared his wish to be left on the island during a mid-voyage restocking stop. His captain, Thomas Stradling, a colleague on the voyage of privateer and explorer William Dampier, was tired of his dissent and obliged. All Selkirk had left with him was a musket, gunpowder, carpenter's tools, a knife, a Bible, and some clothing.

 

In an 1840 narrative, Two Years Before the Mast, Richard Henry Dana, Jr. described the port of Juan Fernandez as a young prison colony. The penal institution was soon abandoned and the island again uninhabited before a permanent colony was eventually established in the latter part of the 19th century. Joshua Slocum visited the island between 26 April and 5 May 1896, during his solo global circumnavigation on the sloop Spray. The island and its 45 inhabitants are referred to in detail in Slocum's memoir, Sailing Alone Around the World.

 

On 27 February 2010 Robinson Crusoe Island was hit by a tsunami following a magnitude 8.8 earthquake. The tsunami was about 3 m (10 ft) high when it reached the island. Sixteen people lost their lives, and most of the coastal village of San Juan Batista was washed away. The only warning the islanders had come from a 12-year-old girl, who noticed the sudden drawback of the sea that presages the arrival of a tsunami wave and saved many of her neighbors from harm.

 

Robinson Crusoe had an estimated population of 843 in 2012. Most of the island's inhabitants live in the village of San Juan Bautista on the north coast at Cumberland Bay. Although the community maintains a rustic serenity dependent on the spiny lobster trade, residents employ a few vehicles, a satellite Internet connection and televisions.

The main airstrip on the island is near the tip of the island's southwestern peninsula. The flight from Santiago de Chile is just under three hours. A ferry runs from the airstrip to San Juan Bautista.

 

Tourists number in the hundreds per year.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robinson_Crusoe_Island

Two Brasilian riders at The border Chili-Argentina,

San Pedro de Atacama, Chili-Paseo de Jama, Argentina

(more photos in comments)

 

Big Earthquake today in Chili 27th February 2010!

Robinson Crusoe Island (Spanish: Isla Robinson Crusoe), formerly known as Más a Tierra (Closer to Land), is the second largest of the Juan Fernández Islands, situated 670 km west of San Antonio, Chile, in the South Pacific Ocean. It is the most populous of the inhabited islands in the archipelago (the other being Alejandro Selkirk Island), with most of that in the town of San Juan Bautista at Cumberland Bay on the island's north coast.

 

The island was home to the marooned sailor Alexander Selkirk from 1704 to 1709, and is thought to have inspired novelist Daniel Defoe's fictional Robinson Crusoe in his 1719 novel about the character. To reflect the literary lore associated with the island and to lure tourists, the Chilean government renamed the location Robinson Crusoe Island in 1966

  

The island was first named Juan Fernandez Island after Juan Fernández, a Spanish sea captain and explorer who was the first to land there in 1574. It was also known as Más a Tierra. There is no evidence of an earlier discovery either by Polynesians, despite the proximity to Easter Island, or by Native Americans.

 

In 1704 the sailor Alexander Selkirk was marooned as a castaway on the island, where he lived in solitude for four years and four months. Selkirk had been gravely concerned about the seaworthiness of his ship, the Cinque Ports, and declared his wish to be left on the island during a mid-voyage restocking stop. His captain, Thomas Stradling, a colleague on the voyage of privateer and explorer William Dampier, was tired of his dissent and obliged. All Selkirk had left with him was a musket, gunpowder, carpenter's tools, a knife, a Bible, and some clothing.

 

In an 1840 narrative, Two Years Before the Mast, Richard Henry Dana, Jr. described the port of Juan Fernandez as a young prison colony. The penal institution was soon abandoned and the island again uninhabited before a permanent colony was eventually established in the latter part of the 19th century. Joshua Slocum visited the island between 26 April and 5 May 1896, during his solo global circumnavigation on the sloop Spray. The island and its 45 inhabitants are referred to in detail in Slocum's memoir, Sailing Alone Around the World.

 

On 27 February 2010 Robinson Crusoe Island was hit by a tsunami following a magnitude 8.8 earthquake. The tsunami was about 3 m (10 ft) high when it reached the island. Sixteen people lost their lives, and most of the coastal village of San Juan Batista was washed away. The only warning the islanders had come from a 12-year-old girl, who noticed the sudden drawback of the sea that presages the arrival of a tsunami wave and saved many of her neighbors from harm.

 

Robinson Crusoe had an estimated population of 843 in 2012. Most of the island's inhabitants live in the village of San Juan Bautista on the north coast at Cumberland Bay. Although the community maintains a rustic serenity dependent on the spiny lobster trade, residents employ a few vehicles, a satellite Internet connection and televisions.

The main airstrip on the island is near the tip of the island's southwestern peninsula. The flight from Santiago de Chile is just under three hours. A ferry runs from the airstrip to San Juan Bautista.

 

Tourists number in the hundreds per year.

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Robinson_Crusoe_Island

Puente Tubul, Efectos terremoto Maule Bíobio 2010

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