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The principal defensive function of the barrage was to enable, in the event of an attack, the raising the level of the River Ill and thus the flooding of all the lands south of the city, making them impassable to the enemy.

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Vancouver , officially the City of Vancouver, is a coastal seaport city on the mainland of British Columbia, Canada, and the most populous city in the province.

 

The 2011 census recorded 603,502 people in the city, making it the eighth largest Canadian municipality. The Greater Vancouver area of around 2.4 million inhabitants is the third most populous metropolitan area in the country. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada; 52% of its residents have a first language other than English. Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city. The City of Vancouver encompasses a land area of about 114 square km, giving it a population density of about 5,249 people per square km (13,590 per square mi). Vancouver is the most densely populated Canadian municipality with over 250,000 residents, and the fourth most densely populated such city in North America behind New York City, San Francisco, and Mexico City.

 

The original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clearcuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill's property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious millworkers to build him a tavern, on 1 July 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels quickly appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B.I. ("B.I" standing for "Burrard Inlet"). As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the townsite was made the railhead of the CPR, it was renamed "Vancouver" and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886. By 1887, the transcontinental railway was extended to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient, Eastern Canada, and Europe. As of 2014, Port Metro Vancouver is the third largest port by tonnage in the Americas (displacing New York), 27th in the world, the busiest and largest in Canada, and the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry. Major film production studios in Vancouver and Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America, earning it the film industry nickname, Hollywood North.

 

Vancouver is consistently named as one of the top five worldwide cities for livability and quality of life, and the Economist Intelligence Unit acknowledged it as the first city to rank among the top-ten of the world's most liveable cities for five consecutive years. Vancouver has hosted many international conferences and events, including the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, UN Habitat I, Expo 86, the World Police and Fire Games in 1989 and 2009; and the 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics which were held in Vancouver and Whistler, a resort community 125 km (78 mi) north of the city. In 2014, following thirty years in California, the annual TED conference made Vancouver its indefinite home. Several matches of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup were played in Vancouver, including the final at BC Place Stadium.

 

source: Wikipedia

Union Pacific's beautiful E9 locomotives pull a Utah Statehood Centennial train through Tintic Valley near Boulter on January 3, 1996. The train began its journey in Cedar City, making ceremonial stops in Milford, Delta, Tintic, and Warner (Tooele), on the road to Salt Lake City.

IAIS SD38-2 150 leads BICB-30 out of the Mississippi River valley at Locust Street in Davenport. A little over 4 inches of snow blanketed the Quad Cities making it a white Halloween.

 

October 31, 2019.

At that time the Cathedral was silent... its organ and all 49 bells were silent too... but I heard wonderful music. Right near the door of the Cathedral I saw a violinist and it was his music. Wonderful sounds of the violin were floating over the city making all to stand still and just listen... I turned my head and saw that the sculptures on the wall were also listening that enchanting music...

 

Much better viewed large on black View On Black

 

Explore #352, 11/02/2011

Vancouver , officially the City of Vancouver, is a coastal seaport city on the mainland of British Columbia, Canada, and the most populous city in the province.

 

The 2011 census recorded 603,502 people in the city, making it the eighth largest Canadian municipality. The Greater Vancouver area of around 2.4 million inhabitants is the third most populous metropolitan area in the country. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada; 52% of its residents have a first language other than English. Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city. The City of Vancouver encompasses a land area of about 114 square km, giving it a population density of about 5,249 people per square km (13,590 per square mi). Vancouver is the most densely populated Canadian municipality with over 250,000 residents, and the fourth most densely populated such city in North America behind New York City, San Francisco, and Mexico City.

 

The original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clearcuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill's property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious millworkers to build him a tavern, on 1 July 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels quickly appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B.I. ("B.I" standing for "Burrard Inlet"). As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the townsite was made the railhead of the CPR, it was renamed "Vancouver" and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886. By 1887, the transcontinental railway was extended to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient, Eastern Canada, and Europe. As of 2014, Port Metro Vancouver is the third largest port by tonnage in the Americas (displacing New York), 27th in the world, the busiest and largest in Canada, and the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry. Major film production studios in Vancouver and Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America, earning it the film industry nickname, Hollywood North.

 

Vancouver is consistently named as one of the top five worldwide cities for livability and quality of life, and the Economist Intelligence Unit acknowledged it as the first city to rank among the top-ten of the world's most liveable cities for five consecutive years. Vancouver has hosted many international conferences and events, including the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, UN Habitat I, Expo 86, the World Police and Fire Games in 1989 and 2009; and the 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics which were held in Vancouver and Whistler, a resort community 125 km (78 mi) north of the city. In 2014, following thirty years in California, the annual TED conference made Vancouver its indefinite home. Several matches of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup were played in Vancouver, including the final at BC Place Stadium.

 

source: Wikipedia

Vancouver , officially the City of Vancouver, is a coastal seaport city on the mainland of British Columbia, Canada, and the most populous city in the province.

 

The 2011 census recorded 603,502 people in the city, making it the eighth largest Canadian municipality. The Greater Vancouver area of around 2.4 million inhabitants is the third most populous metropolitan area in the country. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada; 52% of its residents have a first language other than English. Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city. The City of Vancouver encompasses a land area of about 114 square km, giving it a population density of about 5,249 people per square km (13,590 per square mi). Vancouver is the most densely populated Canadian municipality with over 250,000 residents, and the fourth most densely populated such city in North America behind New York City, San Francisco, and Mexico City.

 

The original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clearcuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill's property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious millworkers to build him a tavern, on 1 July 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels quickly appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B.I. ("B.I" standing for "Burrard Inlet"). As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the townsite was made the railhead of the CPR, it was renamed "Vancouver" and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886. By 1887, the transcontinental railway was extended to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient, Eastern Canada, and Europe. As of 2014, Port Metro Vancouver is the third largest port by tonnage in the Americas (displacing New York), 27th in the world, the busiest and largest in Canada, and the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry. Major film production studios in Vancouver and Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America, earning it the film industry nickname, Hollywood North.

 

Vancouver is consistently named as one of the top five worldwide cities for livability and quality of life, and the Economist Intelligence Unit acknowledged it as the first city to rank among the top-ten of the world's most liveable cities for five consecutive years. Vancouver has hosted many international conferences and events, including the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, UN Habitat I, Expo 86, the World Police and Fire Games in 1989 and 2009; and the 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics which were held in Vancouver and Whistler, a resort community 125 km (78 mi) north of the city. In 2014, following thirty years in California, the annual TED conference made Vancouver its indefinite home. Several matches of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup were played in Vancouver, including the final at BC Place Stadium.

 

source: Wikipedia

IAIS SD38-2 150 leads BICB-30 down 5th Street in Davenport. A little over 4 inches of snow blanketed the Quad Cities making it a white Halloween.

 

October 31, 2019.

Panorama of Manly Beach.

 

Manly is the main beach on Sydney's north shore, and is easily accessible by ferry from the city, making it a popular tourist destination. Manly also hosts the reknown annual Manly Jazz Festival as well as other food and wine fairs.

There is already some fantastic philosophical ruminations on Christian Marclay’s masterpiece, The Clock, most notably by Zadie Smith in her recently released collection of highly recommended essays Feel Free. My intent is not to duplicate their thoughts but to gain sense of this experience myself.

  

Most of the time, when I travel, I don’t go see films in the cities I visit. I sometimes go to see family, friends or to hear music as part of a festival. At other times, I am going for the major photographical experience and will spend 14 hours a day straight taking photos and walking all over the city, making sure I get at least 11 miles in on foot each day.

  

So, I found myself in Vancouver on a heavily gloomy spell where I felt like I had inadvertently become a goth with the constant drizzle, dark clouds, and crows so tame they could be kept as pets. What to do? Oh, I see Polygon Art Gallery has a showing of the 24 hour wonder that is Christian Marclay’s The Clock, which hasn’t come to Chicago ever! Well, this is how I spent two separate days for a total of over 6 hours. 12-3:15 and 4:15-7:30. Now, you can’t bring in food or drink so that’s something you should know in advance but the seats are super comfortable couches that can hold two average sized people easily and you can tell when you look around who the casual guests are just wandering about and seeing what all the nonexistent hype is about and who are the “lifers.” By, “Lifers” I mean those people who would spend the rest of their known existences riveted by The Clock, their old school Maxell tapes ad like heads leaned back while the light illuminates them just so….these are the real fans. (They probably still camp out somewhere for concert tickets of their favorite bands, too, even if they buy the tickets from their phones while in line)

  

Now, in case you’re still reading and somewhat intrigued but have never heard of The Clock, let me explain the basic concept. Marclay and his assistants spent years of their lives looking through thousands of films (and a handful of shows) to find instances of each time indicated by mainly an actual clock or watch digital and analog, though occasionally only in speech. There is more of a Western influence to the films overall though Marclay found several examples of Asian films. The films are also spanning from the modern age up until 2010 all the way back to silent film era and there are several films you might recognize whereas others seem far more obscure. Some clips are only a couple of seconds long whereas others are almost the full minute but Marclay manages to splice together a collage of interwoven film segments for each individual minute for a 24 hour span.

  

In this span, you see some reoccurring characters in different movies, forwards and backwards in time. You see connections between films-one character makes a call in one minute to another character who picks up several decades later. One actor looks over to seemingly another actor in that same minute across continents and years. Time is in flux, it’s wobbly and it’s own protagonist in all of our life stories, whether we want it to be or not. And, though there are many similar themes of travel, courtroom cases, eating, sleeping, and the end of the work and/or school day, there is a definite sense that time is owning us and stressing us out. We are always rushing to either beat the clock or make up for being late. We are consumed as if afflicted by a disease, wandering restlessly and feeling ever more incomplete somehow even as we make our attempts at our best lives. And yet, time or a watch, is the most sacred thing kept to the end…a body is found and a special watch is of course in the pocket. (I usually just keep a lens cloth in mine but maybe that’s just me!)

  

And what you will find as you spend more and more time there is that you feel every instance of your actual life more completely, not just because you’re engaged in an active watching looking and listening for instances of time but because you are experiencing every minute as they do and each minute (or even second) seems utterly significant. By the end of a single ten minutes, you may have escaped from a shooter, ran to catch a train, gotten hit by a car, made love, woke up from a nap, had a fight over a steak, solved the murder of Laura Palmer, cried at a funeral and it just keeps going on. How do you come out of this film without being in a daze? Your life has changed. You’ve now lived several in real time. How are you still your age? How can you walk outside the same after that?

  

The answer is: You can’t. You simply can’t. Because, The Clock changes you and you will never be the same. Scientists have said that the cells in your body change over completely every seven years. I think watching The Clock speeds that up to every hour. The reaction is complex-psychological and biological. You can’t beat time, though, so you might as well join it as the expression goes.

  

In the best films, you feel an empathy towards the main character(s) regardless of how different from them they are and I found myself doing that too. In my own life, I spend a great deal of time contemplating the purpose of life and art. (Life and art as an experience and opportunity for learning both.) I am always learning something about the world and about the people in it. We all exist as one breathing living entity sometimes more harmoniously than not. And, every time I take a photo, it is out of love. I love that person you’re seeing. That person is part of the fabric of our collective consciousness. That person’s life story is worth knowing. That person is also probably living in real time, trying to make her/his best choices despite all the ways life can lead one astray. We all struggle with love and pain and, as A Tribe Called Quest would sing, “We all eat the same ******* food, the ramen noodle!” Being an ethically conscious human being and/or an artist means you are responsible and you must take responsibility for finding the value in not only humans who have had the same experiences but humans who have had different experiences than you. That is at the core of discovering who we are as people is also the very best use of your time.

  

If you go to the website for The Polygon, you’ll see the quote “…maybe the greatest film you’ve ever seen” by the aforementioned author Zadie Smith. I would agree with her except I wouldn’t say seen. I would say lived.

  

thepolygon.ca/

  

**Photo and words copyrighted. Please don't use without permission**

 

St. Luke's Parish was organized in 1851, the same year that Scranton, a community of 2,000 people, officially got its name. From 1853 when the church was consecrated, to 1865 when the railroads had pushed westward from Scranton supplying anthracite coal both to the east and the west, the parish's growth more than surpassed, in proportion, the growth of the city, making a larger church necessary. The architect of the present church was Richard Upjohn of New York, the designer of Trinity Church on Wall Street. They broke ground at the current site in 1865 and the first service was held in the church on July 1, 1871. Construction was delayed due to the swampy conditions of the construction site and a miners' strike. The church was designed in Victorian Gothic style with pointed windows and arches, and exterior buttresses to support the walls, which are made of locally-quarried stone. On Easter Day 1905, the worshippers saw for the first time a rebuilt altar and reredos, improvements in the chancel, the new baptistery, and new decorations. The altar, reredos, and the window, depicting Christ's Ascension, were designed by Louis Comfort Tiffany, and the altar was built by the Whitman Company in Philadelphia. The altar is white statuary marble, and the reredos is sculpted from caen stone. The church has a long history of providing social services to the community. Following the national trend of Episcopal parishes, St. Luke’s opened a Parish House whose principal purpose was to be of service to the community. A gift to the church in memory of some of its founders, Throop Memorial Parish House was built in 1898 next to the church.

 

最熟悉的所在,最熟悉的美好 -- 台中公園

 

Taichung Park is located on the site of the original settlement that predates the founding of Taichung City, making it one of the longest-standing landmarks in the city. The park itself was established over 100 years ago during the Ching Dynasty and was developed further under the Japanese colonial authorities, who completed it in 1903 and built the park's famous pavilions as a special residence for the visiting Japanese crown prince. More than any other landmark, the distinctive pavilions remain the most enduring symbol of Taichung City.

 

臺中公園是台灣臺中市歷史最悠久的公園,亦稱為「中山公園」,興建於日治時代,佔地約32,889坪(包含日月湖約4,100坪)。1999年4月17日,臺中市政府將其列為市定古蹟。

 

zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/%E8%87%BA%E4%B8%AD%E5%85%AC%E5%9C%92

Vancouver , officially the City of Vancouver, is a coastal seaport city on the mainland of British Columbia, Canada, and the most populous city in the province.

 

The 2011 census recorded 603,502 people in the city, making it the eighth largest Canadian municipality. The Greater Vancouver area of around 2.4 million inhabitants is the third most populous metropolitan area in the country. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada; 52% of its residents have a first language other than English. Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city. The City of Vancouver encompasses a land area of about 114 square km, giving it a population density of about 5,249 people per square km (13,590 per square mi). Vancouver is the most densely populated Canadian municipality with over 250,000 residents, and the fourth most densely populated such city in North America behind New York City, San Francisco, and Mexico City.

 

The original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clearcuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill's property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious millworkers to build him a tavern, on 1 July 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels quickly appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B.I. ("B.I" standing for "Burrard Inlet"). As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the townsite was made the railhead of the CPR, it was renamed "Vancouver" and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886. By 1887, the transcontinental railway was extended to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient, Eastern Canada, and Europe. As of 2014, Port Metro Vancouver is the third largest port by tonnage in the Americas (displacing New York), 27th in the world, the busiest and largest in Canada, and the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry. Major film production studios in Vancouver and Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America, earning it the film industry nickname, Hollywood North.

 

Vancouver is consistently named as one of the top five worldwide cities for livability and quality of life, and the Economist Intelligence Unit acknowledged it as the first city to rank among the top-ten of the world's most liveable cities for five consecutive years. Vancouver has hosted many international conferences and events, including the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, UN Habitat I, Expo 86, the World Police and Fire Games in 1989 and 2009; and the 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics which were held in Vancouver and Whistler, a resort community 125 km (78 mi) north of the city. In 2014, following thirty years in California, the annual TED conference made Vancouver its indefinite home. Several matches of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup were played in Vancouver, including the final at BC Place Stadium.

 

source: Wikipedia

Shot at approximately 177mm (35mm equivalent). The Observatory had its telescope removed in 2001 due to light pollution from the city making use of the telescope impossible. The Observatory has been used for multiple purposes since then, including a convenience store for the college as well as a practice hall for the college band. It is not in its original location; it was moved to its current location in 1964.

 

St. Luke's Parish was organized in 1851, the same year that Scranton, a community of 2,000 people, officially got its name. From 1853 when the church was consecrated, to 1865 when the railroads had pushed westward from Scranton supplying anthracite coal both to the east and the west, the parish's growth more than surpassed, in proportion, the growth of the city, making a larger church necessary. The architect of the present church was Richard Upjohn of New York, the designer of Trinity Church on Wall Street. They broke ground at the current site in 1865 and the first service was held in the church on July 1, 1871. Construction was delayed due to the swampy conditions of the construction site and a miners' strike. The church was designed in Victorian Gothic style with pointed windows and arches, and exterior buttresses to support the walls, which are made of locally-quarried stone. On Easter Day 1905, the worshippers saw for the first time a rebuilt altar and reredos, improvements in the chancel, the new baptistery, and new decorations. The altar, reredos, and the window, depicting Christ's Ascension, were designed by Louis Comfort Tiffany, and the altar was built by the Whitman Company in Philadelphia. The altar is white statuary marble, and the reredos is sculpted from caen stone. The church has a long history of providing social services to the community. Following the national trend of Episcopal parishes, St. Luke’s opened a Parish House whose principal purpose was to be of service to the community. A gift to the church in memory of some of its founders, Throop Memorial Parish House was built in 1898 next to the church.

 

Vancouver , officially the City of Vancouver, is a coastal seaport city on the mainland of British Columbia, Canada, and the most populous city in the province.

 

The 2011 census recorded 603,502 people in the city, making it the eighth largest Canadian municipality. The Greater Vancouver area of around 2.4 million inhabitants is the third most populous metropolitan area in the country. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada; 52% of its residents have a first language other than English. Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city. The City of Vancouver encompasses a land area of about 114 square km, giving it a population density of about 5,249 people per square km (13,590 per square mi). Vancouver is the most densely populated Canadian municipality with over 250,000 residents, and the fourth most densely populated such city in North America behind New York City, San Francisco, and Mexico City.

 

The original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clearcuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill's property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious millworkers to build him a tavern, on 1 July 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels quickly appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B.I. ("B.I" standing for "Burrard Inlet"). As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the townsite was made the railhead of the CPR, it was renamed "Vancouver" and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886. By 1887, the transcontinental railway was extended to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient, Eastern Canada, and Europe. As of 2014, Port Metro Vancouver is the third largest port by tonnage in the Americas (displacing New York), 27th in the world, the busiest and largest in Canada, and the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry. Major film production studios in Vancouver and Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America, earning it the film industry nickname, Hollywood North.

 

Vancouver is consistently named as one of the top five worldwide cities for livability and quality of life, and the Economist Intelligence Unit acknowledged it as the first city to rank among the top-ten of the world's most liveable cities for five consecutive years. Vancouver has hosted many international conferences and events, including the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, UN Habitat I, Expo 86, the World Police and Fire Games in 1989 and 2009; and the 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics which were held in Vancouver and Whistler, a resort community 125 km (78 mi) north of the city. In 2014, following thirty years in California, the annual TED conference made Vancouver its indefinite home. Several matches of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup were played in Vancouver, including the final at BC Place Stadium.

 

source: Wikipedia

最熟悉的所在,最熟悉的美好 -- 台中公園

 

Taichung Park is located on the site of the original settlement that predates the founding of Taichung City, making it one of the longest-standing landmarks in the city. The park itself was established over 100 years ago during the Ching Dynasty and was developed further under the Japanese colonial authorities, who completed it in 1903 and built the park's famous pavilions as a special residence for the visiting Japanese crown prince. More than any other landmark, the distinctive pavilions remain the most enduring symbol of Taichung City.

 

臺中公園是台灣臺中市歷史最悠久的公園,亦稱為「中山公園」,興建於日治時代,佔地約32,889坪(包含日月湖約4,100坪)。1999年4月17日,臺中市政府將其列為市定古蹟。

 

zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/%E8%87%BA%E4%B8%AD%E5%85%AC%E5%9C%92

Chestnut and Corn, Steam and Smoke, Dark and Light Taksim

最熟悉的所在,最熟悉的美好 -- 台中公園

 

Taichung Park is located on the site of the original settlement that predates the founding of Taichung City, making it one of the longest-standing landmarks in the city. The park itself was established over 100 years ago during the Ching Dynasty and was developed further under the Japanese colonial authorities, who completed it in 1903 and built the park's famous pavilions as a special residence for the visiting Japanese crown prince. More than any other landmark, the distinctive pavilions remain the most enduring symbol of Taichung City.

 

臺中公園是台灣臺中市歷史最悠久的公園,亦稱為「中山公園」,興建於日治時代,佔地約32,889坪(包含日月湖約4,100坪)。1999年4月17日,臺中市政府將其列為市定古蹟。

 

zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/%E8%87%BA%E4%B8%AD%E5%85%AC%E5%9C%92

Taichung park 台中公園湖心亭

最熟悉的所在,最熟悉的美好 -- 台中公園

 

Taichung Park is located on the site of the original settlement that predates the founding of Taichung City, making it one of the longest-standing landmarks in the city. The park itself was established over 100 years ago during the Ching Dynasty and was developed further under the Japanese colonial authorities, who completed it in 1903 and built the park's famous pavilions as a special residence for the visiting Japanese crown prince. More than any other landmark, the distinctive pavilions remain the most enduring symbol of Taichung City.

 

臺中公園是台灣臺中市歷史最悠久的公園,亦稱為「中山公園」,興建於日治時代,佔地約32,889坪(包含日月湖約4,100坪)。1999年4月17日,臺中市政府將其列為市定古蹟。

 

zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/%E8%87%BA%E4%B8%AD%E5%85%AC%E5%9C%92

Taichung Park 台中公園

最熟悉的所在,最熟悉的美好 -- 台中公園

 

Taichung Park is located on the site of the original settlement that predates the founding of Taichung City, making it one of the longest-standing landmarks in the city. The park itself was established over 100 years ago during the Ching Dynasty and was developed further under the Japanese colonial authorities, who completed it in 1903 and built the park's famous pavilions as a special residence for the visiting Japanese crown prince. More than any other landmark, the distinctive pavilions remain the most enduring symbol of Taichung City.

 

臺中公園是台灣臺中市歷史最悠久的公園,亦稱為「中山公園」,興建於日治時代,佔地約32,889坪(包含日月湖約4,100坪)。1999年4月17日,臺中市政府將其列為市定古蹟。

 

zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/%E8%87%BA%E4%B8%AD%E5%85%AC%E5%9C%92

A view of the City of Arts and Sciences (Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias), Valencia, Spain. The City of Arts and Sciences is an ensemble of six areas in the dry river bed of the now diverted River Turia. Designed mostly by Valencian architect Santiago Calatrava and started in July 1996, it is an impressive example of modern architecture. The City is made up of El Palau de les Arts Reina Sofía (Opera house and performing arts centre); L'Hemisfèric (Imax Cinema, Planetarium and Laserium); L'Umbracle (Walkway / Garden); El Museu de les Ciències Príncipe Felipe (Science museum); Oceanografic (Open-air aquarium or oceanographic park); Ágora (a versatile space that allow the holding of varied events). El Pont de l’Assut de l’Or, a 125-meter cable-stayed bridge, is the highest point of the city. The history of Valencia dates back to the Roman times, when a colony named Valentia was founded in 138 BC. Strategically located on a river island near the sea, the town enjoyed rapid growth as more colonists kept arriving. After the demise of the empire, the Visigoths took over only to give way to the advancing Moors in 714 AD. Valencia was absorbed into Muslim Al-Andalus but was later turned into a small state, Taifa of Valencia. The Muslim rule lasted for about five centuries, interrupted in 1094 when El Cid Campeador besieged and then captured the city making it his own principality. It was in Valencia when he was killed five years later, with his wife Ximena Diaz ruling in his place for two more years. It was not until 1238 when Valencia was reconquered by James I of Aragon who drove the Moors for good adding the newly-formed Kingdom of Valencia to the Crown of Aragon. By the 15th century, Valencia became the biggest city in Aragon, its industry, arts and culture flourished. All this changed after the discovery of Americas, as Valencia was denied participation in the cross-Atlantic trade. A long decline set in, which ended in the Kingdom of Valencia losing its independence after the War of Spanish Succession. Having sided with the losing party, Charles of Austria, Valencia was punished by the victorious Bourbons who burned important cities around Valencia, repealed all the legal privileges and introduced the Castile laws and customs, with top civil officials appointed directly from Madrid. In 1812, Valencia was captured by the French troops and for a short while housed the court of Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon’s elder brother and a pretender to the throne. After the French were driven out, Valencia gradually developed into a heavily industrialized city and a major sea port [May 20, 2019].

Vancouver , officially the City of Vancouver, is a coastal seaport city on the mainland of British Columbia, Canada, and the most populous city in the province.

 

The 2011 census recorded 603,502 people in the city, making it the eighth largest Canadian municipality. The Greater Vancouver area of around 2.4 million inhabitants is the third most populous metropolitan area in the country. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada; 52% of its residents have a first language other than English. Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city. The City of Vancouver encompasses a land area of about 114 square km, giving it a population density of about 5,249 people per square km (13,590 per square mi). Vancouver is the most densely populated Canadian municipality with over 250,000 residents, and the fourth most densely populated such city in North America behind New York City, San Francisco, and Mexico City.

 

The original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clearcuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill's property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious millworkers to build him a tavern, on 1 July 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels quickly appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B.I. ("B.I" standing for "Burrard Inlet"). As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the townsite was made the railhead of the CPR, it was renamed "Vancouver" and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886. By 1887, the transcontinental railway was extended to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient, Eastern Canada, and Europe. As of 2014, Port Metro Vancouver is the third largest port by tonnage in the Americas (displacing New York), 27th in the world, the busiest and largest in Canada, and the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry. Major film production studios in Vancouver and Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America, earning it the film industry nickname, Hollywood North.

 

Vancouver is consistently named as one of the top five worldwide cities for livability and quality of life, and the Economist Intelligence Unit acknowledged it as the first city to rank among the top-ten of the world's most liveable cities for five consecutive years. Vancouver has hosted many international conferences and events, including the 1954 British Empire and Commonwealth Games, UN Habitat I, Expo 86, the World Police and Fire Games in 1989 and 2009; and the 2010 Winter Olympics and Paralympics which were held in Vancouver and Whistler, a resort community 125 km (78 mi) north of the city. In 2014, following thirty years in California, the annual TED conference made Vancouver its indefinite home. Several matches of the 2015 FIFA Women's World Cup were played in Vancouver, including the final at BC Place Stadium.

 

source: Wikipedia

Interior view, St. Mary’s Cathedral (The Metropolitan Cathedral–Basilica of the Assumption of Our Lady of Valencia). The Cathedral was started in 1238, after the Reconquista, on the site of the former Visigothic church turned into a mosque under the Moors. Predominantly Gothic in style upon its conception, the cathedral received Renaissance, Baroque and Neoclasssical components as the construction dragged on over the centuries. Among the relics kept in the cathedral is the Holy Chalice defended to be the true Holy Grail. It attracts lots of faithful on pilgrimage. The history of Valencia dates back to the Roman times, when a colony named Valentia was founded in 138 BC. Strategically located on a river island near the sea, the town enjoyed rapid growth as more colonists kept arriving. After the demise of the empire, the Visigoths took over only to give way to the advancing Moors in 714 AD. Valencia was absorbed into Muslim Al-Andalus but was later turned into a small state, Taifa of Valencia. The Muslim rule lasted for about five centuries, interrupted in 1094 when El Cid Campeador besieged and then captured the city making it his own principality. It was in Valencia when he was killed five years later, with his wife Ximena Diaz ruling in his place for two more years. It was not until 1238 when Valencia was reconquered by James I of Aragon who drove the Moors for good adding the newly-formed Kingdom of Valencia to the Crown of Aragon. By the 15th century, Valencia became the biggest city in Aragon, its industry, arts and culture flourished. All this changed after the discovery of Americas, as Valencia was denied participation in the cross-Atlantic trade. A long decline set in, which ended in the Kingdom of Valencia losing its independence after the War of Spanish Succession. Having sided with the losing party, Charles of Austria, Valencia was punished by the victorious Bourbons who burned important cities around Valencia, repealed all the legal privileges and introduced the Castile laws and customs, with top civil officials appointed directly from Madrid. In 1812, Valencia was captured by the French troops and for a short while housed the court of Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon’s elder brother and a pretender to the throne. After the French were driven out, Valencia gradually developed into a heavily industrialized city and a major sea port [May 20, 2019].

Baker City Cycling Classic

 

Second day and stage 3 of the Baker City Cycling Classic, the downtown Crit through historic downtown Baker City. The Crit is always a great event to photograph but with the current Pop Up Public Art installation throughout downtown, the course was especially interesting to photograph this year with all the public art in the background

 

Baker County Oregon is a bicyclists paradise with three Oregon Scenic Byways, lots of scenic backroads and great biking events including Baker County’s signature cycling event the

Baker City Cycling Classic a 3-day, 4-stage bicycle race in and around the Elkhorn Mountains located in Baker County, Oregon. The race is headquartered at Baker High School in Baker City, making for racer-friendly logistics. The scenic road stages are challenging and allow for strategic racing, but a no-time-cut policy means that newer riders can focus on finishing. The spectator-friendly time trial and criterion create an exciting atmosphere for participants, teams, and family with quality fields from all over the Western US and Canada.

 

The Baker City Cycling Classic was named the Oregon Festival and Events Association’s Best Sporting Event in Oregon in 2012

 

For more information about the Baker City Cycling Classic including race routes, and registration, visit www.bakercitycycling.org

 

For more information about other bicycling routes and events in Baker County visit the Baker County tourism website at www.travelbakercounty.com

   

A view of the City of Arts and Sciences (Ciudad de las Artes y las Ciencias), Valencia, Spain. The City of Arts and Sciences is an ensemble of six areas in the dry river bed of the now diverted River Turia. Designed mostly by Valencian architect Santiago Calatrava and started in July 1996, it is an impressive example of modern architecture. The City is made up of El Palau de les Arts Reina Sofía (Opera house and performing arts centre); L'Hemisfèric (Imax Cinema, Planetarium and Laserium); L'Umbracle (Walkway / Garden); El Museu de les Ciències Príncipe Felipe (Science museum); Oceanografic (Open-air aquarium or oceanographic park); Ágora (a versatile space that allow the holding of varied events). El Pont de l’Assut de l’Or, a 125-meter cable-stayed bridge, is the highest point of the city. The history of Valencia dates back to the Roman times, when a colony named Valentia was founded in 138 BC. Strategically located on a river island near the sea, the town enjoyed rapid growth as more colonists kept arriving. After the demise of the empire, the Visigoths took over only to give way to the advancing Moors in 714 AD. Valencia was absorbed into Muslim Al-Andalus but was later turned into a small state, Taifa of Valencia. The Muslim rule lasted for about five centuries, interrupted in 1094 when El Cid Campeador besieged and then captured the city making it his own principality. It was in Valencia when he was killed five years later, with his wife Ximena Diaz ruling in his place for two more years. It was not until 1238 when Valencia was reconquered by James I of Aragon who drove the Moors for good adding the newly-formed Kingdom of Valencia to the Crown of Aragon. By the 15th century, Valencia became the biggest city in Aragon, its industry, arts and culture flourished. All this changed after the discovery of Americas, as Valencia was denied participation in the cross-Atlantic trade. A long decline set in, which ended in the Kingdom of Valencia losing its independence after the War of Spanish Succession. Having sided with the losing party, Charles of Austria, Valencia was punished by the victorious Bourbons who burned important cities around Valencia, repealed all the legal privileges and introduced the Castile laws and customs, with top civil officials appointed directly from Madrid. In 1812, Valencia was captured by the French troops and for a short while housed the court of Joseph Bonaparte, Napoleon’s elder brother and a pretender to the throne. After the French were driven out, Valencia gradually developed into a heavily industrialized city and a major sea port [May 20, 2019].

Taichung park 台中公園紅葉印象

閒來無事,玩玩顏色編輯

最熟悉的所在,最熟悉的美好 -- 台中公園

 

Taichung Park is located on the site of the original settlement that predates the founding of Taichung City, making it one of the longest-standing landmarks in the city. The park itself was established over 100 years ago during the Ching Dynasty and was developed further under the Japanese colonial authorities, who completed it in 1903 and built the park's famous pavilions as a special residence for the visiting Japanese crown prince. More than any other landmark, the distinctive pavilions remain the most enduring symbol of Taichung City.

 

臺中公園是台灣臺中市歷史最悠久的公園,亦稱為「中山公園」,興建於日治時代,佔地約32,889坪(包含日月湖約4,100坪)。1999年4月17日,臺中市政府將其列為市定古蹟。

 

zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/%E8%87%BA%E4%B8%AD%E5%85%AC%E5%9C%92

Baker City Cycling Classic

 

First day and stage one of the Baker City Cycling Classic, From Baker City across the valley to Keating and back to Baker City. This course offers amazing views of the Wallowas and the Elkhorn mountains and provided the race with it's first gravel section in 15 years. .

 

Baker County Oregon is a bicyclists paradise with three Oregon Scenic Byways, lots of scenic backroads and great biking events including Baker County’s signature cycling event the

Baker City Cycling Classic a 3-day, 4-stage bicycle race in and around the Elkhorn Mountains located in Baker County, Oregon. The race is headquartered at Baker High School in Baker City, making for racer-friendly logistics. The scenic road stages are challenging and allow for strategic racing, but a no-time-cut policy means that newer riders can focus on finishing. The spectator-friendly time trial and criterion create an exciting atmosphere for participants, teams, and family with quality fields from all over the Western US and Canada.

 

The Baker City Cycling Classic was named the Oregon Festival and Events Association’s Best Sporting Event in Oregon in 2012

 

For more information about the Baker City Cycling Classic including race routes, the Gran Fondo, and registration, visit www.bakercitycycling.org

 

For more information about other bicycling routes and events in Baker County visit the Baker County tourism website at www.basecampbaker.com

  

My stream has been decidedly monochrome of late. That hasn't really been a conscious decision since I don't post to Flickr with any overarching strategy. In fact, I try to be decidedly nonstrategic on here. Flickr is my place just to post what I want to post, regardless of rhyme or reason. But I have noticed it has been a bit lacking in color. Partially that is because I have been spending a bunch of time in snowy forests and they lend themselves well to black and white. Part of it has also been the past few years have seen me shift at a glacial pace toward being more balanced between the use of color or b&w film.

 

But the holiday season is one of color and I am certainly not ignorant of that. I did get out Christmas night in fact for a bit of photography. It was also the last night for a year that the Convention Center towers would be lit up with their holiday theme and I wanted at least an image or two of them. For all my snowy forest hikes, I had not spent much time in the city making photos (with anything other than my eyes), so this was my remedy to that deficiency.

 

It had also been a short while since I had used my Flexbody. It has sat largely unused since my trip back east to Vermont, New Hampshire and New York. There have been day trips since but none of them left me with inspiration to take it along, favoring my other cameras instead.

 

When it comes to tilt and swing photography though I have long been fascinated by the idea of motion moving across, into or out of that plane of focus. It all goes back to a Michael Kenna image I saw where he did a tilted, long exposure of moonrise. Since then I have been on the lookout for how to combine that tilted plane of focus with motion. The presence of light trails from traffic here gave me some ideas to explore.

 

Hasselblad Flexbody

Kodak Portra 400

Viena es una ciudad austriaca en Europa Central situada a orillas del Danubio, en el valle de los Bosques de Viena, al pie de las primeras estribaciones de los Alpes. Es la capital de Austria y uno de sus nueve estados federados (Bundesland Wien). Así como la mayor ciudad y el centro cultural de Austria

Además es la segunda ciudad más poblada de Europa Central (tras Berlín) y la décima ciudad en población de la Unión Europea. Su población supera el 1 800 000 de habitantes (2017) y su área metropolitana cuenta con 2,4 millones, población similar a la que tenía la ciudad en 1914. El idioma oficial es el alemán austríaco estándar; se habla también el alemán vienés, un dialecto bávaro.

La ciudad tiene una larga historia, ya que es una de las más antiguas capitales de Europa, por lo que cuenta con un importante patrimonio artístico. Durante el siglo XIX fue una de las grandes capitales musicales del mundo y a principios del siglo XX meca de la filosofía y el debate político de Occidente, así como uno de los principales centros culturales mundiales.

Los romanos la llamaron Vindobona, nombre de origen celta que significa ciudad blanca.

Los primeros asentamientos humanos en la actual Viena son de origen celta (500 a. C.), posteriormente germánicos, y con la expansión del Imperio romano hacia el norte en el siglo I a. C., se adhiere a este en el año 13 a. C. El río Danubio, al igual que los Alpes, sirve entonces de límite natural entre bárbaros y romanos, y Vindobona sirve desde entonces y hasta la caída de Roma (año 476 d. C.) como punto de defensa del imperio. La ciudad nace como campamento del ejército romano, para controlar la Provincia de Panonia, en el que se asientan diferentes unidades, de entre las cuales destaca la Legio X Gemina, que permaneció en ella desde el que la zona fue ocupada por pueblos germanos en época de Graciano y de Teodosio I

Con las invasiones bárbaras es ocupada por ávaros y magiares. Carlomagno conquista la ciudad en el siglo IX y la bautiza con el nombre de Ostmark (la marca del este). Durante el alto medievo Viena es un importante aliado del papado y punto de abastecimiento de armas y víveres para la empresa de las Cruzadas. Fue capital de Hungría con Matías Corvino, y desde el siglo XV hasta las guerras napoleónicas capital del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico, al ser la residencia habitual de los Habsburgo.

En 1237 las murallas de Viena alcanzaron la extensión que conservarían hasta su desaparición en 1857.

Desde la caída de Constantinopla en 1453, hubo un interés creciente del Imperio otomano por Viena, dado que era la clave para conquistar los demás países de Europa; interés que se hace más notable durante el período del sultán Solimán el Magnífico. Pero sus esfuerzos fracasaron y los austríacos salieron victoriosos de los distintos sitios a los que sometieron a la ciudad, el primero en 1529, a pesar de que inicialmente los defensores de la ciudad solo recibieron el apoyo poco entusiasta de sus vecinos alemanes. El ejército turco estaba mal equipado para un asedio y su tarea fue obstaculizada por la nieve y las inundaciones. Solimán se retiró a finales de octubre y no pudo reanudar el asedio a su regreso en 1532, cuando encontró a los defensores apoyados por un gran ejército bajo el mando del hermano del emperador Carlos V, Fernando.

Entre el primero y el segundo sitio turco, las instalaciones defensivas fueron reforzadas y modernizadas constantemente. Esto trajo como consecuencia que se tuvieran que ampliar una y otra vez los espacios libres frente a los bastiones para utilizarlos como campo de tiro. En 1529 estos espacios abarcaban 90 m que, a partir de 1683, fueron ensanchados a 450 m. Hasta 1858 no se construyó ningún edificio en esta explanada.

El segundo sitio se produjo en 1683, en la llamada batalla de Viena, y marcó el comienzo del declive del Imperio otomano en Europa. Fue iniciado por el gran visir Kara Mustafá, que necesitaba desesperadamente un éxito militar para reforzar su posición inestable y trató de lograrlo en una campaña contra el emperador Leopoldo I. Los turcos avanzaron con fuerza abrumadora, sitiaron la ciudad el 16 de julio, pero su falta de artillería de asedio permitió a Leopoldo reunir un ejército adicional formado por tropas austriacas, alemanas y polacas, que derrotó al ejército turco en una batalla librada delante de los muros de la ciudad el 12 de septiembre, que también se conoce como Batalla de Kahlenberg.

Durante el siglo XVIII, los Habsburgo habían convertido a la ciudad en su capital desde 1556 y su importancia se vio acrecentada con la expansión por el valle del Danubio. Se convirtió en un núcleo principal del Barroco europeo gracias a la construcción de importantes obras arquitectónicas y creaciones musicales. En 1800, antes de las guerras napoleónicas, la ciudad contaba con 231 900 habitantes.

Desde el asedio de 1683, en que fueron destruidas numerosas ciudades pequeñas que existían en el exterior de la muralla, en el terreno ondulado situado frente a la ciudad se alzaron numerosos palacios con jardines. El punto de partida fueron los planos del palacio real de Schönbrunn, elaborados por Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach. Hacia 1720 se contaban 200 residencias rurales. El príncipe Eugenio de Saboya había adquirido en 1693 la más bella parcela y una de las más grandes con los primeros ingresos que le habían llegado. Allí, tras cuarenta años de trabajo, levantó el Belvedere con sus espaciosos jardines.

Tras la derrota austriaca a manos de Napoleón Bonaparte en 1809 (batalla de Wagram), este último se hospeda en el palacio de Schönbrunn, en Viena. Durante esta estancia, Francia y Austria se alían, y Napoleón desposa a María Luisa, hija de los emperadores de Austria.

Metternich, canciller austriaco en esta época, cambia a Austria al bando anti-napoleónico tras la derrota francesa en Rusia. Después de la derrota definitiva de Napoleón, se celebra el Congreso de Viena, una conferencia internacional convocada con el objeto de restablecer las fronteras de Europa. La reunión se llevó a cabo del 1 de octubre de 1814 al 9 de junio de 1815, lo que le permite a Austria conservar gran parte de sus territorios a pesar de haber estado aliada con Napoleón, y a partir de entonces, Viena, por medio del canciller Metternich, se convertiría en el eje de la política de la Europa continental durante los siguientes treinta años.

Durante el siglo XIX, sobre todo en la segunda mitad, Viena inició un despegue demográfico, acompañado de reformas urbanísticas, que la convirtieron en una gran ciudad, multiplicando en un siglo su población por diez. En 1857, se derribaron las murallas por decreto de Francisco José I de Austria, abriéndose una nueva avenida, la Ringstraße, donde se construyeron importantes edificios, como la Ópera, la Universidad, el Ayuntamiento, el Parlamento, la Bolsa y los museos de historia del arte e historia natural. La derrota de Austria en la guerra austro-prusiana en 1866 y la posterior anexión de los Estados alemanes a Prusia convirtieron a la unificada Alemania en un peligro para Austria, por lo que esta última se tuvo que aliar con Hungría en lo que se conoce como la "política de compensación" o Ausgleichpolitik. Así pues, en 1867, tras el Compromiso con Hungría, Viena se convirtió en la capital del Imperio austrohúngaro y en un centro cultural, artístico, político, industrial y financiero de primer orden mundial. Con esta alianza, Austria prosigue sumando otras más, con lo que para fines del siglo XIX el imperio abarcaba los actuales países de Austria, Hungría, Eslovaquia, República Checa, la Galicia polaca, la Transilvania rumana, la Bucovina y la Rutenia ucranianas, Croacia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Eslovenia y el Trentino-Alto Adigio italiano.

Viena alcanza su máximo demográfico en 1916 con 2 239 000 habitantes, siendo la tercera ciudad más grande de Europa. Este es el período cultural más glorioso de la monarquía de los Habsburgo, con Francisco José I rigiendo el Imperio (período 1848-1916). También es la época de los suntuosos valses vieneses en la Opera Nacional de Viena, grandes carruajes paseando por la Ringstraße y la Kärntner Straße, así como de los típicos cafés vieneses.

De la época destacan intelectuales, como Sigmund Freud en el psicoanálisis y Otto Bauer en el campo del pensamiento político, principal exponente del austromarxismo, ideas que calarían fuerte en la sociedad vienesa, pues ya en 1895 el gobierno municipal estaría en manos del partido socialcristiano, precursor del actual partido ÖVP (democristiano) . Tampoco hay que olvidar en el plano artístico el movimiento modernista, la Secesión de Viena (Secession), con Gustav Klimt como principal exponente en la pintura, Coloman Moser en el grafismo y Joseph Maria Olbrich y Josef Hoffman en la arquitectura. Contrario a estos destacaría asimismo Adolf Loos con su racionalismo arquitectónico. Sin embargo, la Primera Guerra Mundial y la posterior derrota austrohúngara truncarían gran parte de ese esplendor.

Tras el asesinato del archiduque heredero Francisco Fernando y su esposa, Sofía Chotek, en Sarajevo, a manos del terrorista serbo-bosnio Gavrilo Princip, y ante la abrumadora evidencia de la participación de los servicios de inteligencia serbios en el complot, la monarquía dual declara la guerra a Serbia, a la que se le alían Alemania y Turquía y que, ante la oposición de Francia, Inglaterra y Rusia, deviene en la Primera Guerra Mundial. En octubre de 1918, derrotada Austria-Hungría y sus aliados, estalla la revolución en Viena que pide la disolución de la monarquía y la independencia austríaca; sería el fin de la monarquía de los Habsburgo que gobernaba el país desde 1278.

Viena se convirtió, tras el tratado de Saint-Germain, en la capital de la pequeña República de Austria, reducida a su tamaño actual, sufriendo un importante revés demográfico, económico y político. Pese a todo, en esta época continuó la actividad intelectual con el Círculo de Viena (der Wiener Kreis), considerado por muchos el grupo de intelectuales más influyentes del siglo XX en Europa, entre los que destacan Moritz Schlick y Ludwig Wittgenstein en la filosofía positivista lógica (Logischer Empirismus).

Durante el periodo democrático republicano, es decir, desde 1918 hasta la dictadura de Engelbert Dollfuss en 1934, el Partido Obrero Socialdemócrata (Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei en alemán) obtuvo la mayoría absoluta en todas las elecciones celebradas para el gobierno local, por lo que la ciudad pasó a ser conocida como Viena roja. La política socialdemócrata de esos años se caracterizó por un extenso programa de viviendas sociales y por un marcado apoyo a la educación y la sanidad públicas, tal y como preconizaba la corriente austromarxista. La Viena roja finalizó en 1934 a consecuencia de la guerra civil austríaca y la victoria del Frente Patriótico. Su último alcalde fue Karl Seitz.

La importancia cultural vienesa se mantendría hasta 1938, año en el que el país fue invadido y, posteriormente, anexionado por la Alemania nazi. Dicha anexión, conocida como el Anschluss, estaba prohibida en los tratados de paz y fue la primera de las expansiones tendentes a unificar en un solo Estado a todos los germanohablantes, bajo un solo liderazgo ("ein Reich, ein Volk, ein Führer"). En la ciudad, que pasó a ser capital de la provincia de Ostmark, pronunció Hitler, el 14 de marzo de 1938, su primer gran discurso a los vieneses desde el balcón central del Palacio de Hofburg, discurso que es considerado uno de los más emotivos del dictador y de mayor aclamo por su masiva audiencia debido a la euforia que la anexión de Austria al Tercer Imperio Germano (Dritte Reich) causó en parte de la población. Para legitimar la invasión se celebró un referéndum el 10 de abril que resultó favorable al Anschluss con un 99,73 %, si bien carecía de las garantías democráticas.

Durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, Viena sufrió los indiscriminados bombardeos aéreos estadounidenses que destruyeron buena parte del patrimonio histórico (la catedral gótica de San Esteban, el Palacio de Hofburg, la ópera de Viena, los puentes del Danubio, entre otros), el cual fue reconstruido tras la contienda. En mayo de 1945 Viena fue tomada por el ejército soviético, quienes, junto con franceses, estadounidenses e ingleses, la ocuparían durante los diez años posteriores bajo un sistema de ocupación cuatripartita en la ciudad, similar al de Berlín.

Tras las gestiones de Leopold Figl y Julius Raab y la posterior firma del Acuerdo de Moscú, Austria recobra su independencia el 15 de mayo de 1955, y Viena vuelve a ser capital de la República de Austria. A partir de entonces y gracias a su compromiso de neutralidad, Austria se convirtió en sede de organismos internacionales como la OPEP, la ONUDI, IAEA, IIASA, entre otros, lo cual convierte a Viena en la tercera capital de la ONU, después de Nueva York y Ginebra, por lo que se puede ver hoy en día una gran comunidad internacional, en particular en el distrito 4 de Viena (Wieden) derivada de sus cuerpos diplomáticos. Desde 1995 es parte de la Unión Europea y de los países de Schengen. A partir de 2002 sacó de circulación el chelín austriaco y entró en vigor el euro como la moneda de curso legal en toda Austria.

La población de Viena, en el primer trimestre de 2015, era de 1 797 337 personas, de las que, aproximadamente, el 80 % son austríacos y el 20 % restante de otros países. La población vienesa ha aumentado desde 1988, sobre todo en los últimos años, como consecuencia de la inmigración. El área metropolitana, que se extiende por tierras de la Baja Austria, cuenta con una población de cerca de 2 500 000 habitantes.

En 2001, la Unesco declaró el «Centro histórico de Viena» como un lugar Patrimonio de la Humanidad, destacando en primer lugar que sus cualidades arquitectónicas y urbanas representan un testimonio sobresaliente de un continuo intercambio de valores a lo largo del II milenio. Además, su herencia arquitectónica y urbana ilustra muy bien tres períodos claves del desarrollo político y cultural de Europa: la Edad Media, el período barroco y el Gründerzeit. Finalmente, desde el siglo XVI Viena ha sido universalmente reconocida como la «capital musical de Europa». Gran parte de este legado se transmite en los monumentos de esta ciudad, que se encuentran a continuación ordenados alfabéticamente por sus denominaciones alemanas, ya que en Viena no son conocidos bajo sus nombres traducidos. La traducción al español está entre paréntesis.

Akademie der bildenden Künste (Academia de Bellas Artes)

Albertina, una de las más extensas colecciones de impresiones y dibujos

Burgtheater (teatro imperial de la corte)

Heuriger, tabernas típicas vienesas para degustar buenos vinos, carnes frías o embutidos de la región que se encuentran en los distritos vieneses de Döbling, Favoriten o Floridsdorf, en el estado de Burgenland o en el Weinviertel (parte de Baja Austria),

Hundertwasserhaus, que muestra la arquitectura vanguardista del arquitecto austriaco Friedensreich Hundertwasser

Kaffeehäuser, los cafés vieneses

Kahlenberg, un monte en el Wienerwald (Bosque de Viena), con el mirador más espectacular del río Danubio a su paso por Viena

Karlskirche (Iglesia de San Carlos Borromeo), obra maestra de la arquitectura barroca

Augustinerkirche (Iglesia de los Agustinos), iglesia gótica cuya cripta (Herzgruft) conserva los corazones de los Habsburgo

Kaisergruft (Cripta imperial), mausoleo de la familia Habsburgo

Kärntner Straße y Graben, las calles con las tiendas de moda de las marcas más prestigiadas y caras; también se encuentran agradables cafés, como el café del Hotel Sacher, origen de la Sachertorte

Kunsthistorisches Museum (Museo de Historia del Arte), uno de los más ricos del mundo

Museum Liechtenstein (Museo Liechtenstein), abierto por la familia gobernante de dicho principado. Alberga importantes obras de Rembrandt, Rubens y Van Dyck

Museum für angewandte Kunst (Museo de Artes Aplicadas), es un instituto museo histórico y prestigioso situado en la famosa Ringstrasse

Museum für Völkerkunde (Museo de Etnología), que alberga el controvertido Penacho de Moctezuma, reclamado por el gobierno de México

Museumsquartier (Barrio museístico) con tres museos de arte moderno con lo mejor de la pintura de Gustav Klimt y Oskar Kokoschka

Naturhistorisches Museum (Museo de Historia Natural)

Palacio Belvedere, un palacio de estilo barroco

Palacio de Schönbrunn (literalmente, "Schönbrunn" en alemán significa "Bella fuente")

Palacio Imperial de Hofburg ("Hofburg" = "Palacio de la Corte")

Palacio Schwarzenberg, un palacio barroco, sede de la Casa de Schwarzenberg

Parlamento

Wurstelprater, un parque de atracciones con el "Riesenrad" (noria gigante)

Rathaus (Ayuntamiento)

Sezession (Secesión)

Spanische Hofreitschule (Escuela española de equitación)

Staatsoper (Ópera Estatal)

Stephanskirche (o Stephansdom) (Catedral de San Esteban de Viena) en el Stephansplatz (Plaza de San Esteban)

Votivkirche (Iglesia Votiva), que alberga el altar de la Virgen de Guadalupe más grande fuera de México.

 

es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viena

  

Vienna (German: Wien) is the capital city of Austria.

It is in the east of the country on the river Danube. More than 1,800,000 people live there (2016). It is the largest city in Austria. It is also an administrative district (Bundesland) of its own.

Before World War I, it was the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Its centre is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The history of the city goes back to the Roman Empire. The Romans started a military camp called Vindobona.[9] The camp was in today's first district on the Danube river. The name came from the Celts, so there was probably a Celtic settlement before the Roman invasion. The Romans stayed until the 5th century. In medieval times, the settlement was still in use. The present name was mentioned in 881 in the Salzburger Annalen, where a battle ad weniam is mentioned.

In 976 the House of Babenberg became rulers of the area. They made Vienna their capital in 1155. Vienna was already an important city. In 1156, Austria became a Duchy, and Vienna was where the Duke who ruled the Duchy lived. In 1221, Vienna got municipal rights. It Is the second oldest city in Austria (Enns, in Upper Austria, is the oldest).

In 1278, the Duchy came to the Habsburg family. Rudolf IV started the university in 1365 and while he was duke the nave of the Gothic St. Stephan's Cathedral was built. Quarrels within the Hapsburg family caused an economic decline in Vienna. In 1438, Vienna became the residence of the Holy Roman Emperor.

During the time of the reformation Vienna was a Protestant city, but in the times of the Counter Reformation, Austria and Vienna were mostly Roman Catholic.

In 1529, Vienna was first besieged by the army of the Ottoman Empire, which had a border only 150 km east of Vienna. This hurt Vienna economically, but led to people fortifying the city (making it stronger). After a second siege, the Ottoman Empire could not take Vienna, and the city started getting larger.

During the baroque era, Vienna was rebuilt. Many residences for the nobility were built. Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach was an important architect in Vienna.

At the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century Vienna was the home of important composers like Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert.

After the revolution in 1848 Franz Joseph I. became emperor of the Austrian Empire, which was founded in 1806 after the liquidation of the Holy Roman Empire. He ruled till 1916. Vienna became a center of arts, culture and architecture. The city grew because the suburbs became part of the city. After 1858 the walls of the city were destroyed and the Ringstraße replaced them. Along that street houses of the rich citizens were built, as were public buildings like the city hall and the Burg theatre. The industrialisation started at the beginning of the century and made more people live there. In 1870, Vienna had one million people, and in 1910, two million people. With the creation of a large working class and poverty in Vienna the Labour Party (Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei) became stronger.

Karl Lueger was the most important mayor in the time of Emperor Franz Josef. During his time important community plans were realized that made Vienna a modern city. However, Lueger was a radical anti-Semite. He was admired by the young Adolf Hitler, who spent some years before the First World War in Vienna. At this time, Vienna was an important place for the arts. Composers like Arnold Schönberg, Anton Webern, Alban Berg and Ernst Krenek were important for the development of modern music. Also the psychoanalysis was founded in Vienna by Sigmund Freud. Also the so-called Jugendstil in arts was part of Vienna's modern arts scene. Founding fathers of modern architecture lived and worked also in Vienna at this time (Otto Wagner, Adolf Loos)

After the end of the First World War the Austrian-Hungary Empire was dissolved and Vienna became capital of the Republic of Austria. In 1938, Austria was occupied by Germany. In Vienna the suffering of the Jewish inhabitants began. A lot of their properties was given to Austrians (Arisierung).

After the Second World War, which destroyed 20% of Vienna's buildings, Vienna was divided into four parts. The city was controlled by the allies like the other parts of Austria. In 1955 the state treaty between the allies and Austria was signed in Vienna's Belvedere. After that Vienna became an important city for international organisations. The first was 1957 the International Atomic Energy Organisation (IAEO) and 1965 the OPEC followed. 1980 the Vienna International Center was opened and Vienna is now the third UN-city together with New York and Geneva.

Vienna has many things worth seeing. Here are a few of them.

St. Stephen's cathedral and St. Stephen's Square:

Today St. Stephen's square with the cathedral is the very center of Vienna.The Graben and the Kärntner Straße which lead away from the square are shopping streets with a lot of different shops. Opposite the cathedral you can find the Haas-House, a very modern building by architect Hans Hollein.

Ringstraße:

The Ringstraße runs around the first district and was built in the second half of the 19th century. The street follows the old city walls which were destroyed to create it Along the street you can find different important buildings like the Staatsoper (opera house), the parliament, the Burgtheater, the two museums of natural history and arts. Also the Wiener Postsparkasse which is an important building by the architect Otto Wagner is along the street.

Hofburg:

From the 13th century to 1918 this was the residence of the Habsburg rulers. Today it is the residence of the President of the Republic of Austria and you can also visit different museums like the Schatzkammer where you can see the different crowns of the Habsburg family and the crown of the Holy Roman Empire. The National Library is also the Hofburg.

Schloss Schönbrunn:

Today's buildings were built by the architect Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach an important architect in the baroque era in Austria. Another building of Fischer is the Karlskirche.

Schloss Belvedere:

Schloss Belvedere was built by Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt another important Austrian baroque architect. It was built for Prinz Eugen of Savoy who fouyght successfully against the Ottoman Empire. Today the castle is used as museum (Austrian Gallery Belvedere).

 

simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vienna

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vienna

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Districts_of_Vienna

 

Viena es una ciudad austriaca en Europa Central situada a orillas del Danubio, en el valle de los Bosques de Viena, al pie de las primeras estribaciones de los Alpes. Es la capital de Austria y uno de sus nueve estados federados (Bundesland Wien). Así como la mayor ciudad y el centro cultural de Austria

Además es la segunda ciudad más poblada de Europa Central (tras Berlín) y la décima ciudad en población de la Unión Europea. Su población supera el 1 800 000 de habitantes (2017) y su área metropolitana cuenta con 2,4 millones, población similar a la que tenía la ciudad en 1914. El idioma oficial es el alemán austríaco estándar; se habla también el alemán vienés, un dialecto bávaro.

La ciudad tiene una larga historia, ya que es una de las más antiguas capitales de Europa, por lo que cuenta con un importante patrimonio artístico. Durante el siglo XIX fue una de las grandes capitales musicales del mundo y a principios del siglo XX meca de la filosofía y el debate político de Occidente, así como uno de los principales centros culturales mundiales.

Los romanos la llamaron Vindobona, nombre de origen celta que significa ciudad blanca.

Los primeros asentamientos humanos en la actual Viena son de origen celta (500 a. C.), posteriormente germánicos, y con la expansión del Imperio romano hacia el norte en el siglo I a. C., se adhiere a este en el año 13 a. C. El río Danubio, al igual que los Alpes, sirve entonces de límite natural entre bárbaros y romanos, y Vindobona sirve desde entonces y hasta la caída de Roma (año 476 d. C.) como punto de defensa del imperio. La ciudad nace como campamento del ejército romano, para controlar la Provincia de Panonia, en el que se asientan diferentes unidades, de entre las cuales destaca la Legio X Gemina, que permaneció en ella desde el que la zona fue ocupada por pueblos germanos en época de Graciano y de Teodosio I

Con las invasiones bárbaras es ocupada por ávaros y magiares. Carlomagno conquista la ciudad en el siglo IX y la bautiza con el nombre de Ostmark (la marca del este). Durante el alto medievo Viena es un importante aliado del papado y punto de abastecimiento de armas y víveres para la empresa de las Cruzadas. Fue capital de Hungría con Matías Corvino, y desde el siglo XV hasta las guerras napoleónicas capital del Sacro Imperio Romano Germánico, al ser la residencia habitual de los Habsburgo.

En 1237 las murallas de Viena alcanzaron la extensión que conservarían hasta su desaparición en 1857.

Desde la caída de Constantinopla en 1453, hubo un interés creciente del Imperio otomano por Viena, dado que era la clave para conquistar los demás países de Europa; interés que se hace más notable durante el período del sultán Solimán el Magnífico. Pero sus esfuerzos fracasaron y los austríacos salieron victoriosos de los distintos sitios a los que sometieron a la ciudad, el primero en 1529, a pesar de que inicialmente los defensores de la ciudad solo recibieron el apoyo poco entusiasta de sus vecinos alemanes. El ejército turco estaba mal equipado para un asedio y su tarea fue obstaculizada por la nieve y las inundaciones. Solimán se retiró a finales de octubre y no pudo reanudar el asedio a su regreso en 1532, cuando encontró a los defensores apoyados por un gran ejército bajo el mando del hermano del emperador Carlos V, Fernando.

Entre el primero y el segundo sitio turco, las instalaciones defensivas fueron reforzadas y modernizadas constantemente. Esto trajo como consecuencia que se tuvieran que ampliar una y otra vez los espacios libres frente a los bastiones para utilizarlos como campo de tiro. En 1529 estos espacios abarcaban 90 m que, a partir de 1683, fueron ensanchados a 450 m. Hasta 1858 no se construyó ningún edificio en esta explanada.

El segundo sitio se produjo en 1683, en la llamada batalla de Viena, y marcó el comienzo del declive del Imperio otomano en Europa. Fue iniciado por el gran visir Kara Mustafá, que necesitaba desesperadamente un éxito militar para reforzar su posición inestable y trató de lograrlo en una campaña contra el emperador Leopoldo I. Los turcos avanzaron con fuerza abrumadora, sitiaron la ciudad el 16 de julio, pero su falta de artillería de asedio permitió a Leopoldo reunir un ejército adicional formado por tropas austriacas, alemanas y polacas, que derrotó al ejército turco en una batalla librada delante de los muros de la ciudad el 12 de septiembre, que también se conoce como Batalla de Kahlenberg.

Durante el siglo XVIII, los Habsburgo habían convertido a la ciudad en su capital desde 1556 y su importancia se vio acrecentada con la expansión por el valle del Danubio. Se convirtió en un núcleo principal del Barroco europeo gracias a la construcción de importantes obras arquitectónicas y creaciones musicales. En 1800, antes de las guerras napoleónicas, la ciudad contaba con 231 900 habitantes.

Desde el asedio de 1683, en que fueron destruidas numerosas ciudades pequeñas que existían en el exterior de la muralla, en el terreno ondulado situado frente a la ciudad se alzaron numerosos palacios con jardines. El punto de partida fueron los planos del palacio real de Schönbrunn, elaborados por Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach. Hacia 1720 se contaban 200 residencias rurales. El príncipe Eugenio de Saboya había adquirido en 1693 la más bella parcela y una de las más grandes con los primeros ingresos que le habían llegado. Allí, tras cuarenta años de trabajo, levantó el Belvedere con sus espaciosos jardines.

Tras la derrota austriaca a manos de Napoleón Bonaparte en 1809 (batalla de Wagram), este último se hospeda en el palacio de Schönbrunn, en Viena. Durante esta estancia, Francia y Austria se alían, y Napoleón desposa a María Luisa, hija de los emperadores de Austria.

Metternich, canciller austriaco en esta época, cambia a Austria al bando anti-napoleónico tras la derrota francesa en Rusia. Después de la derrota definitiva de Napoleón, se celebra el Congreso de Viena, una conferencia internacional convocada con el objeto de restablecer las fronteras de Europa. La reunión se llevó a cabo del 1 de octubre de 1814 al 9 de junio de 1815, lo que le permite a Austria conservar gran parte de sus territorios a pesar de haber estado aliada con Napoleón, y a partir de entonces, Viena, por medio del canciller Metternich, se convertiría en el eje de la política de la Europa continental durante los siguientes treinta años.

Durante el siglo XIX, sobre todo en la segunda mitad, Viena inició un despegue demográfico, acompañado de reformas urbanísticas, que la convirtieron en una gran ciudad, multiplicando en un siglo su población por diez. En 1857, se derribaron las murallas por decreto de Francisco José I de Austria, abriéndose una nueva avenida, la Ringstraße, donde se construyeron importantes edificios, como la Ópera, la Universidad, el Ayuntamiento, el Parlamento, la Bolsa y los museos de historia del arte e historia natural. La derrota de Austria en la guerra austro-prusiana en 1866 y la posterior anexión de los Estados alemanes a Prusia convirtieron a la unificada Alemania en un peligro para Austria, por lo que esta última se tuvo que aliar con Hungría en lo que se conoce como la "política de compensación" o Ausgleichpolitik. Así pues, en 1867, tras el Compromiso con Hungría, Viena se convirtió en la capital del Imperio austrohúngaro y en un centro cultural, artístico, político, industrial y financiero de primer orden mundial. Con esta alianza, Austria prosigue sumando otras más, con lo que para fines del siglo XIX el imperio abarcaba los actuales países de Austria, Hungría, Eslovaquia, República Checa, la Galicia polaca, la Transilvania rumana, la Bucovina y la Rutenia ucranianas, Croacia, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Eslovenia y el Trentino-Alto Adigio italiano.

Viena alcanza su máximo demográfico en 1916 con 2 239 000 habitantes, siendo la tercera ciudad más grande de Europa. Este es el período cultural más glorioso de la monarquía de los Habsburgo, con Francisco José I rigiendo el Imperio (período 1848-1916). También es la época de los suntuosos valses vieneses en la Opera Nacional de Viena, grandes carruajes paseando por la Ringstraße y la Kärntner Straße, así como de los típicos cafés vieneses.

De la época destacan intelectuales, como Sigmund Freud en el psicoanálisis y Otto Bauer en el campo del pensamiento político, principal exponente del austromarxismo, ideas que calarían fuerte en la sociedad vienesa, pues ya en 1895 el gobierno municipal estaría en manos del partido socialcristiano, precursor del actual partido ÖVP (democristiano) . Tampoco hay que olvidar en el plano artístico el movimiento modernista, la Secesión de Viena (Secession), con Gustav Klimt como principal exponente en la pintura, Coloman Moser en el grafismo y Joseph Maria Olbrich y Josef Hoffman en la arquitectura. Contrario a estos destacaría asimismo Adolf Loos con su racionalismo arquitectónico. Sin embargo, la Primera Guerra Mundial y la posterior derrota austrohúngara truncarían gran parte de ese esplendor.

Tras el asesinato del archiduque heredero Francisco Fernando y su esposa, Sofía Chotek, en Sarajevo, a manos del terrorista serbo-bosnio Gavrilo Princip, y ante la abrumadora evidencia de la participación de los servicios de inteligencia serbios en el complot, la monarquía dual declara la guerra a Serbia, a la que se le alían Alemania y Turquía y que, ante la oposición de Francia, Inglaterra y Rusia, deviene en la Primera Guerra Mundial. En octubre de 1918, derrotada Austria-Hungría y sus aliados, estalla la revolución en Viena que pide la disolución de la monarquía y la independencia austríaca; sería el fin de la monarquía de los Habsburgo que gobernaba el país desde 1278.

Viena se convirtió, tras el tratado de Saint-Germain, en la capital de la pequeña República de Austria, reducida a su tamaño actual, sufriendo un importante revés demográfico, económico y político. Pese a todo, en esta época continuó la actividad intelectual con el Círculo de Viena (der Wiener Kreis), considerado por muchos el grupo de intelectuales más influyentes del siglo XX en Europa, entre los que destacan Moritz Schlick y Ludwig Wittgenstein en la filosofía positivista lógica (Logischer Empirismus).

Durante el periodo democrático republicano, es decir, desde 1918 hasta la dictadura de Engelbert Dollfuss en 1934, el Partido Obrero Socialdemócrata (Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei en alemán) obtuvo la mayoría absoluta en todas las elecciones celebradas para el gobierno local, por lo que la ciudad pasó a ser conocida como Viena roja. La política socialdemócrata de esos años se caracterizó por un extenso programa de viviendas sociales y por un marcado apoyo a la educación y la sanidad públicas, tal y como preconizaba la corriente austromarxista. La Viena roja finalizó en 1934 a consecuencia de la guerra civil austríaca y la victoria del Frente Patriótico. Su último alcalde fue Karl Seitz.

La importancia cultural vienesa se mantendría hasta 1938, año en el que el país fue invadido y, posteriormente, anexionado por la Alemania nazi. Dicha anexión, conocida como el Anschluss, estaba prohibida en los tratados de paz y fue la primera de las expansiones tendentes a unificar en un solo Estado a todos los germanohablantes, bajo un solo liderazgo ("ein Reich, ein Volk, ein Führer"). En la ciudad, que pasó a ser capital de la provincia de Ostmark, pronunció Hitler, el 14 de marzo de 1938, su primer gran discurso a los vieneses desde el balcón central del Palacio de Hofburg, discurso que es considerado uno de los más emotivos del dictador y de mayor aclamo por su masiva audiencia debido a la euforia que la anexión de Austria al Tercer Imperio Germano (Dritte Reich) causó en parte de la población. Para legitimar la invasión se celebró un referéndum el 10 de abril que resultó favorable al Anschluss con un 99,73 %, si bien carecía de las garantías democráticas.

Durante la Segunda Guerra Mundial, Viena sufrió los indiscriminados bombardeos aéreos estadounidenses que destruyeron buena parte del patrimonio histórico (la catedral gótica de San Esteban, el Palacio de Hofburg, la ópera de Viena, los puentes del Danubio, entre otros), el cual fue reconstruido tras la contienda. En mayo de 1945 Viena fue tomada por el ejército soviético, quienes, junto con franceses, estadounidenses e ingleses, la ocuparían durante los diez años posteriores bajo un sistema de ocupación cuatripartita en la ciudad, similar al de Berlín.

Tras las gestiones de Leopold Figl y Julius Raab y la posterior firma del Acuerdo de Moscú, Austria recobra su independencia el 15 de mayo de 1955, y Viena vuelve a ser capital de la República de Austria. A partir de entonces y gracias a su compromiso de neutralidad, Austria se convirtió en sede de organismos internacionales como la OPEP, la ONUDI, IAEA, IIASA, entre otros, lo cual convierte a Viena en la tercera capital de la ONU, después de Nueva York y Ginebra, por lo que se puede ver hoy en día una gran comunidad internacional, en particular en el distrito 4 de Viena (Wieden) derivada de sus cuerpos diplomáticos. Desde 1995 es parte de la Unión Europea y de los países de Schengen. A partir de 2002 sacó de circulación el chelín austriaco y entró en vigor el euro como la moneda de curso legal en toda Austria.

La población de Viena, en el primer trimestre de 2015, era de 1 797 337 personas, de las que, aproximadamente, el 80 % son austríacos y el 20 % restante de otros países. La población vienesa ha aumentado desde 1988, sobre todo en los últimos años, como consecuencia de la inmigración. El área metropolitana, que se extiende por tierras de la Baja Austria, cuenta con una población de cerca de 2 500 000 habitantes.

En 2001, la Unesco declaró el «Centro histórico de Viena» como un lugar Patrimonio de la Humanidad, destacando en primer lugar que sus cualidades arquitectónicas y urbanas representan un testimonio sobresaliente de un continuo intercambio de valores a lo largo del II milenio. Además, su herencia arquitectónica y urbana ilustra muy bien tres períodos claves del desarrollo político y cultural de Europa: la Edad Media, el período barroco y el Gründerzeit. Finalmente, desde el siglo XVI Viena ha sido universalmente reconocida como la «capital musical de Europa». Gran parte de este legado se transmite en los monumentos de esta ciudad, que se encuentran a continuación ordenados alfabéticamente por sus denominaciones alemanas, ya que en Viena no son conocidos bajo sus nombres traducidos. La traducción al español está entre paréntesis.

Akademie der bildenden Künste (Academia de Bellas Artes)

Albertina, una de las más extensas colecciones de impresiones y dibujos

Burgtheater (teatro imperial de la corte)

Heuriger, tabernas típicas vienesas para degustar buenos vinos, carnes frías o embutidos de la región que se encuentran en los distritos vieneses de Döbling, Favoriten o Floridsdorf, en el estado de Burgenland o en el Weinviertel (parte de Baja Austria),

Hundertwasserhaus, que muestra la arquitectura vanguardista del arquitecto austriaco Friedensreich Hundertwasser

Kaffeehäuser, los cafés vieneses

Kahlenberg, un monte en el Wienerwald (Bosque de Viena), con el mirador más espectacular del río Danubio a su paso por Viena

Karlskirche (Iglesia de San Carlos Borromeo), obra maestra de la arquitectura barroca

Augustinerkirche (Iglesia de los Agustinos), iglesia gótica cuya cripta (Herzgruft) conserva los corazones de los Habsburgo

Kaisergruft (Cripta imperial), mausoleo de la familia Habsburgo

Kärntner Straße y Graben, las calles con las tiendas de moda de las marcas más prestigiadas y caras; también se encuentran agradables cafés, como el café del Hotel Sacher, origen de la Sachertorte

Kunsthistorisches Museum (Museo de Historia del Arte), uno de los más ricos del mundo

Museum Liechtenstein (Museo Liechtenstein), abierto por la familia gobernante de dicho principado. Alberga importantes obras de Rembrandt, Rubens y Van Dyck

Museum für angewandte Kunst (Museo de Artes Aplicadas), es un instituto museo histórico y prestigioso situado en la famosa Ringstrasse

Museum für Völkerkunde (Museo de Etnología), que alberga el controvertido Penacho de Moctezuma, reclamado por el gobierno de México

Museumsquartier (Barrio museístico) con tres museos de arte moderno con lo mejor de la pintura de Gustav Klimt y Oskar Kokoschka

Naturhistorisches Museum (Museo de Historia Natural)

Palacio Belvedere, un palacio de estilo barroco

Palacio de Schönbrunn (literalmente, "Schönbrunn" en alemán significa "Bella fuente")

Palacio Imperial de Hofburg ("Hofburg" = "Palacio de la Corte")

Palacio Schwarzenberg, un palacio barroco, sede de la Casa de Schwarzenberg

Parlamento

Wurstelprater, un parque de atracciones con el "Riesenrad" (noria gigante)

Rathaus (Ayuntamiento)

Sezession (Secesión)

Spanische Hofreitschule (Escuela española de equitación)

Staatsoper (Ópera Estatal)

Stephanskirche (o Stephansdom) (Catedral de San Esteban de Viena) en el Stephansplatz (Plaza de San Esteban)

Votivkirche (Iglesia Votiva), que alberga el altar de la Virgen de Guadalupe más grande fuera de México.

 

es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viena

  

Vienna (German: Wien) is the capital city of Austria.

It is in the east of the country on the river Danube. More than 1,800,000 people live there (2016). It is the largest city in Austria. It is also an administrative district (Bundesland) of its own.

Before World War I, it was the capital of the Austro-Hungarian Empire. Its centre is a UNESCO World Heritage Site.

The history of the city goes back to the Roman Empire. The Romans started a military camp called Vindobona.[9] The camp was in today's first district on the Danube river. The name came from the Celts, so there was probably a Celtic settlement before the Roman invasion. The Romans stayed until the 5th century. In medieval times, the settlement was still in use. The present name was mentioned in 881 in the Salzburger Annalen, where a battle ad weniam is mentioned.

In 976 the House of Babenberg became rulers of the area. They made Vienna their capital in 1155. Vienna was already an important city. In 1156, Austria became a Duchy, and Vienna was where the Duke who ruled the Duchy lived. In 1221, Vienna got municipal rights. It Is the second oldest city in Austria (Enns, in Upper Austria, is the oldest).

In 1278, the Duchy came to the Habsburg family. Rudolf IV started the university in 1365 and while he was duke the nave of the Gothic St. Stephan's Cathedral was built. Quarrels within the Hapsburg family caused an economic decline in Vienna. In 1438, Vienna became the residence of the Holy Roman Emperor.

During the time of the reformation Vienna was a Protestant city, but in the times of the Counter Reformation, Austria and Vienna were mostly Roman Catholic.

In 1529, Vienna was first besieged by the army of the Ottoman Empire, which had a border only 150 km east of Vienna. This hurt Vienna economically, but led to people fortifying the city (making it stronger). After a second siege, the Ottoman Empire could not take Vienna, and the city started getting larger.

During the baroque era, Vienna was rebuilt. Many residences for the nobility were built. Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach was an important architect in Vienna.

At the end of the 18th and the beginning of the 19th century Vienna was the home of important composers like Haydn, Mozart, Beethoven, Schubert.

After the revolution in 1848 Franz Joseph I. became emperor of the Austrian Empire, which was founded in 1806 after the liquidation of the Holy Roman Empire. He ruled till 1916. Vienna became a center of arts, culture and architecture. The city grew because the suburbs became part of the city. After 1858 the walls of the city were destroyed and the Ringstraße replaced them. Along that street houses of the rich citizens were built, as were public buildings like the city hall and the Burg theatre. The industrialisation started at the beginning of the century and made more people live there. In 1870, Vienna had one million people, and in 1910, two million people. With the creation of a large working class and poverty in Vienna the Labour Party (Sozialdemokratische Arbeiterpartei) became stronger.

Karl Lueger was the most important mayor in the time of Emperor Franz Josef. During his time important community plans were realized that made Vienna a modern city. However, Lueger was a radical anti-Semite. He was admired by the young Adolf Hitler, who spent some years before the First World War in Vienna. At this time, Vienna was an important place for the arts. Composers like Arnold Schönberg, Anton Webern, Alban Berg and Ernst Krenek were important for the development of modern music. Also the psychoanalysis was founded in Vienna by Sigmund Freud. Also the so-called Jugendstil in arts was part of Vienna's modern arts scene. Founding fathers of modern architecture lived and worked also in Vienna at this time (Otto Wagner, Adolf Loos)

After the end of the First World War the Austrian-Hungary Empire was dissolved and Vienna became capital of the Republic of Austria. In 1938, Austria was occupied by Germany. In Vienna the suffering of the Jewish inhabitants began. A lot of their properties was given to Austrians (Arisierung).

After the Second World War, which destroyed 20% of Vienna's buildings, Vienna was divided into four parts. The city was controlled by the allies like the other parts of Austria. In 1955 the state treaty between the allies and Austria was signed in Vienna's Belvedere. After that Vienna became an important city for international organisations. The first was 1957 the International Atomic Energy Organisation (IAEO) and 1965 the OPEC followed. 1980 the Vienna International Center was opened and Vienna is now the third UN-city together with New York and Geneva.

Vienna has many things worth seeing. Here are a few of them.

St. Stephen's cathedral and St. Stephen's Square:

Today St. Stephen's square with the cathedral is the very center of Vienna.The Graben and the Kärntner Straße which lead away from the square are shopping streets with a lot of different shops. Opposite the cathedral you can find the Haas-House, a very modern building by architect Hans Hollein.

Ringstraße:

The Ringstraße runs around the first district and was built in the second half of the 19th century. The street follows the old city walls which were destroyed to create it Along the street you can find different important buildings like the Staatsoper (opera house), the parliament, the Burgtheater, the two museums of natural history and arts. Also the Wiener Postsparkasse which is an important building by the architect Otto Wagner is along the street.

Hofburg:

From the 13th century to 1918 this was the residence of the Habsburg rulers. Today it is the residence of the President of the Republic of Austria and you can also visit different museums like the Schatzkammer where you can see the different crowns of the Habsburg family and the crown of the Holy Roman Empire. The National Library is also the Hofburg.

Schloss Schönbrunn:

Today's buildings were built by the architect Johann Bernhard Fischer von Erlach an important architect in the baroque era in Austria. Another building of Fischer is the Karlskirche.

Schloss Belvedere:

Schloss Belvedere was built by Johann Lucas von Hildebrandt another important Austrian baroque architect. It was built for Prinz Eugen of Savoy who fouyght successfully against the Ottoman Empire. Today the castle is used as museum (Austrian Gallery Belvedere).

 

simple.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vienna

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vienna

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Districts_of_Vienna

  

"The word of the Lord was addressed a second time to Jonah: ‘Up!’ he said ‘Go to Nineveh, the great city, and preach to them as I told you to.’ Jonah set out and went to Nineveh in obedience to the word of the Lord. Now Nineveh was a city great beyond compare: it took three days to cross it. Jonah went on into the city, making a day’s journey. He preached in these words, ‘Only forty days more and Nineveh is going to be destroyed.’ And the people of Nineveh believed in God; they proclaimed a fast and put on sackcloth, from the greatest to the least. The news reached the king of Nineveh, who rose from his throne, took off his robe, put on sackcloth and sat down in ashes. A proclamation was then promulgated throughout Nineveh, by decree of the king and his ministers, as follows: ‘Men and beasts, herds and flocks, are to taste nothing; they must not eat, they must not drink water. All are to put on sackcloth and call on God with all their might; and let everyone renounce his evil behaviour and the wicked things he has done. Who knows if God will not change his mind and relent, if he will not renounce his burning wrath, so that we do not perish?’ God saw their efforts to renounce their evil behaviour, and God relented: he did not inflict on them the disaster which he had threatened."

– Jonah 3:1-10.

 

Mosaic from the Rosary Basilica in Lourdes.

Vancouver, officially the City of Vancouver, is a coastal seaport city on the mainland of British Columbia, Canada, and the most populous city in the province. The 2011 census recorded 603,502 people in the city, making it the eighth largest Canadian municipality. The Greater Vancouver area of around 2.4 million inhabitants is the third most populous metropolitan area in the country. Vancouver is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse cities in Canada; 52% of its residents have a first language other than English. Vancouver is classed as a Beta global city. The City of Vancouver encompasses a land area of about 114 square km, giving it a population density of about 5,249 people per square km (13,590 per square mi). Vancouver is the most densely populated Canadian municipality with over 250,000 residents, and the fourth most densely populated such city in North America behind New York City, San Francisco, and Mexico City. The original settlement, named Gastown, grew up on clear-cuts on the west edge of the Hastings Mill logging sawmill's property, where a makeshift tavern had been set up on a plank between two stumps and the proprietor, Gassy Jack, persuaded the curious mill-workers to build him a tavern, on 1 July 1867. From that first enterprise, other stores and some hotels quickly appeared along the waterfront to the west. Gastown became formally laid out as a registered townsite dubbed Granville, B.I. ("B.I" standing for "Burrard Inlet"). As part of the land and political deal whereby the area of the townsite was made the railhead of the CPR, it was renamed "Vancouver" and incorporated shortly thereafter as a city, in 1886. By 1887, the transcontinental railway was extended to the city to take advantage of its large natural seaport, which soon became a vital link in a trade route between the Orient, Eastern Canada, and Europe. As of 2014, Port Metro Vancouver is the third largest port by tonnage in the Americas (displacing New York), 27th in the world, the busiest and largest in Canada, and the most diversified port in North America. While forestry remains its largest industry, Vancouver is well known as an urban centre surrounded by nature, making tourism its second-largest industry. Major film production studios in Vancouver and Burnaby have turned Greater Vancouver and nearby areas into one of the largest film production centres in North America, earning it the film industry nickname, Hollywood North. [source: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vancouver]

Now is the perfect time to visit Detroit MI. Talk about a city making a come back, they have done an amazing job and lighting up the city center. Go ice skating, get hot chocolate, view the lights and street attractions! What a beautiful city!

zugspitze mountain, photographed from the austrian side. with ehrwald city making up the foreground, the mountain's top itself is enveloped in clouds. and it had been like that all day, too...

this panorama is stitched together from seven vertikal photographs.

最熟悉的所在,最熟悉的美好 -- 台中公園

 

Taichung Park is located on the site of the original settlement that predates the founding of Taichung City, making it one of the longest-standing landmarks in the city. The park itself was established over 100 years ago during the Ching Dynasty and was developed further under the Japanese colonial authorities, who completed it in 1903 and built the park's famous pavilions as a special residence for the visiting Japanese crown prince. More than any other landmark, the distinctive pavilions remain the most enduring symbol of Taichung City.

 

臺中公園是台灣臺中市歷史最悠久的公園,亦稱為「中山公園」,興建於日治時代,佔地約32,889坪(包含日月湖約4,100坪)。1999年4月17日,臺中市政府將其列為市定古蹟。

 

zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/%E8%87%BA%E4%B8%AD%E5%85%AC%E5%9C%92

最熟悉的所在,最熟悉的美好 -- 台中公園

 

Taichung Park is located on the site of the original settlement that predates the founding of Taichung City, making it one of the longest-standing landmarks in the city. The park itself was established over 100 years ago during the Ching Dynasty and was developed further under the Japanese colonial authorities, who completed it in 1903 and built the park's famous pavilions as a special residence for the visiting Japanese crown prince. More than any other landmark, the distinctive pavilions remain the most enduring symbol of Taichung City.

 

臺中公園是台灣臺中市歷史最悠久的公園,亦稱為「中山公園」,興建於日治時代,佔地約32,889坪(包含日月湖約4,100坪)。1999年4月17日,臺中市政府將其列為市定古蹟。

 

zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/%E8%87%BA%E4%B8%AD%E5%85%AC%E5%9C%92

Taichung park 台中公園

最熟悉的所在,最熟悉的美好 -- 台中公園

 

Taichung Park is located on the site of the original settlement that predates the founding of Taichung City, making it one of the longest-standing landmarks in the city. The park itself was established over 100 years ago during the Ching Dynasty and was developed further under the Japanese colonial authorities, who completed it in 1903 and built the park's famous pavilions as a special residence for the visiting Japanese crown prince. More than any other landmark, the distinctive pavilions remain the most enduring symbol of Taichung City.

 

臺中公園是台灣臺中市歷史最悠久的公園,亦稱為「中山公園」,興建於日治時代,佔地約32,889坪(包含日月湖約4,100坪)。1999年4月17日,臺中市政府將其列為市定古蹟。

 

zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/%E8%87%BA%E4%B8%AD%E5%85%AC%E5%9C%92

The Barrage Vauban, or Vauban Dam, is a bridge, weir and defensive work erected in the 17th century on the River Ill in the city of Strasbourg in France. At that time, it was known as the Great Lock (grande écluse), although it does not function as a navigation lock in the modern sense of the word. Today it serves to display sculptures and has a viewing terrace on its roof, with views of the earlier Ponts Couverts bridges and Petite France quarter. It has been classified as a Monument historique since 1971.

 

The barrage was constructed from 1686 to 1690 in pink Vosges sandstone by the French Engineer Jacques Tarade according to plans by Vauban. The principal defensive function of the barrage was to enable, in the event of an attack, the raising the level of the River Ill and thus the flooding of all the lands south of the city, making them impassable to the enemy. This defensive measure was deployed in 1870, when Strasbourg was besieged by Prussian forces during the Franco-Prussian War, and resulted in the complete flooding of the northern part of the suburb of Neudorf.

en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Barrage_Vauban

Wlodawa, Poland

Christmas Eve

Usually there is snow this time fo the year, but instead of snow the precipitation showed up in the form of really thick fog. Super cool atmosphere filled the streets and city making for a cinematic climate that had me conjuring up images of George Bailey. Really looking forward to the holidays this year...especially after posting this. :)

 

If you are interested in cooperation please contact me at ewitsoe@gmail.com

 

Join me on my personal websiteErik Witsoe or on Facebook

Erik Witsoe Photography

and Behance and Twitter Instagram and also Google +

Regno Unito, Merseyside, Liverpool, Primavera 2013

 

Liverpool è una città in Merseyside, in Inghilterra. La sua urbanizzazione ed espansione sono dovute in gran parte all’importante porto, che ha ampiamente partecipato alla tratta atlantica degli schiavi. Liverpool è stato il porto di immatricolazione del transatlantico RMS Titanic, e molti altri transatlantici Cunard e White Star. I nativi di Liverpool sono chiamati colloquialmente "Scousers", un riferimento a "scouse", una forma di spezzatino. La parola "Scouse" indica anche l'accento di Liverpool (praticamente incomprensibile!). Etichettata dal Guinness World Records come la "Capitale Mondiale del Pop", la popolarità dei Beatles contribuisce a rendere questa città una destinazione turistica. Il Royal Liver Building è uno dei simboli della città di Liverpool. L'edificio ospita i due leggendari “Liver Birds” che vegliano sulla città e sul mare. Un leggenda vuole che su questi due uccelli volessero via la città cesserebbe di esistere. Secondo un'altra popolare leggenda, sono una coppia, maschio e femmina, la femmina guarda il mare, (protegge e guida marinai verso casa), mentre il maschio guarda verso la città (assicurandosi che i pub siano sempre aperti).

 

Liverpool is a city in Merseyside, England. Its urbanisation and expansion were largely brought about by its status as a major port, which included its participation in the Atlantic slave trade. Liverpool was the port of registry of the ocean liner RMS Titanic, and many other Cunard and White Star ocean liners. Natives of Liverpool are referred colloquially as "Scousers", a reference to "scouse", a form of stew. The word "Scouse" has also become synonymous with the Liverpool accent and dialect. Labelled the "World Capital City of Pop" by Guinness World Records, the popularity of The Beatles contributes to Liverpool's status as a tourist destination. The Royal Liver Building is one of the most recognisable landmarks in the city of Liverpool. The building is home to two fabled Liver Birds that watch over the city and the sea. Legend has it that were these two birds to fly away, then the city would cease to exist. According to another popular legend, they are a male and female pair, the female looking out to sea, (watching for the seamen to return safely home) whilst the male looks towards the city (making sure the pubs are open).

    

IR 台中公園

Taichung Park is located on the site of the original settlement that predates the founding of Taichung City, making it one of the longest-standing landmarks in the city. The park itself was established over 100 years ago during the Ching Dynasty and was developed further under the Japanese colonial authorities, who completed it in 1903 and built the park's famous pavilions as a special residence for the visiting Japanese crown prince. More than any other landmark, the distinctive pavilions remain the most enduring symbol of Taichung City.

 

臺中公園是台灣臺中市歷史最悠久的公園,亦稱為「中山公園」,興建於日治時代,佔地約32,889坪(包含日月湖約4,100坪)。1999年4月17日,臺中市政府將其列為市定古蹟。

 

zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/%E8%87%BA%E4%B8%AD%E5%85%AC%E5%9C%92

As the sun rose over the lake it cast some wonderful warm light on the skyline of city making great hard shadows from the buildings in front .

NS Oil Empties operating as a 65W-08 navigate themselves through the concrete canyons of the Windy City, making the transition from Norfolk Southern to BNSF trackage by way of Amtrak. A bunny gives chase just to the left of the lightning-striped leader. 16th St., Chicago, IL.

Hong Kong skyline as seen from Victoria peak. Hong Kong has more buildings taller than 500 feet (150 m) than any other city, making it the world's most vertical city. Five exposures digitally blended in Photoshop

NS 8103 has had no problem climbing through the Bloody Run valley and is making all of track speed headed west with it's train of ethanol empties. The 681 has picked up two brand new SD30C-ECOs at Marquette for forwarding to Mason City, making for a colorful consist on an otherwise dreary, snow-less day.

in one of the countless walls

of the Forbidden City

making her gentle

statement

------------------------

 

"The violets in the mountains have broken the rocks.”

― Tennessee Williams

IR Taichung Park

Taichung Park is located on the site of the original settlement that predates the founding of Taichung City, making it one of the longest-standing landmarks in the city. The park itself was established over 100 years ago during the Ching Dynasty and was developed further under the Japanese colonial authorities, who completed it in 1903 and built the park's famous pavilions as a special residence for the visiting Japanese crown prince. More than any other landmark, the distinctive pavilions remain the most enduring symbol of Taichung City.

 

臺中公園是台灣臺中市歷史最悠久的公園,亦稱為「中山公園」,興建於日治時代,佔地約32,889坪(包含日月湖約4,100坪)。1999年4月17日,臺中市政府將其列為市定古蹟。

 

zh.wikipedia.org/zh-tw/%E8%87%BA%E4%B8%AD%E5%85%AC%E5%9C%92

Pledging to Green our city making Urban living less stressful. Might plant a few trees, might not.

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