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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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THE EDEN OF POETRY.—Miltons Vision of the First Pair and Raphael.—Drawn by Gustave Dore. MANNER OF THE BEGINNING.—FIAT AND EVOLUTION 193 the Elohim is said to have blown as thefirst movement of order. This notion is strongly imbedded inthe cosmogony of the Chaldees, thoughvariations m with them the primevalflood is spoken of as femi-niuc, instead of the mascu-line form used in Genesis. The universalchaos is, in the oldest Babylonian ac-counts, regarded as containing the crea- tine Chaldeestory of the be-ginning. the primeval flood, but as apart there-from, and brooding over it, and sendingthereon the primal winds of order. In other respects the ancient Semiticaccounts of the creation preserved in the fragments of BerOSUS, and General agree- better still in those inscrip- JS££2££°tions and tablets which the tion-learned George Smith has interpretedto the understanding of our age, corre-

 

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ONE OF THE PRIMORDIAL CONDITIONS OF THE GLOBE. tive beings or forces by whose agencythe world was to become organic andman be produced. From this conceptthere was a departure in the Hebrewnarrative. In the latter the Demiurgeis not represented as coming up out of 1 The language of Genesis seems in the originalto bear this sense: Now the earth was involved inchaos, and darkness was upon the face of tehom(that is, the flood), and the wind of the Elohim washovering upon the face of the waters. Then theElohim said, Let light be. And light was. spond with the majestic imagery out-lined in the Book of Genesis. There isthe same general arrangement of thematerials of nature and the same agentsof order and intelligence; the same in-troduction of a Demiurge, or Creator,speaking a fiat; the same eulogy pro-nounced after each creative effort uponthe thing created as good or beauti-ful or delightful; the same subor-dination of the stars and greater lumina-ries as determining days and seasons. 194

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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s form of contention withthe efflux of the natural world, and mustrecount the struggle of man, becomingever more arduous, to maintain himselfand his kind upon the surface of a globesinking into the rigors of an endlesswinter. From the middle epoch, mostfavorable to the production and longev-ity of man as an animal to the end ofhis career, he will be put at a disadvan-tage, and will cease to develop under thelaws of his environment. Up to thattime—the crisis—when the accretion andthe expenditure of heat are equal, ourrace development will continue. Thephysical, intellectual, and let us hopethe moral, powers of man will continueto expand and develop. But after thecrisis we may expect to wane—slowlywe may believe; but the cosmic lawmust doubtless be obeyed. Philosophy and astronomy have com-bined their resources in the attempt todetermine the present condition of ourheat equation and the relations of man-life thereto. The best scientific opinionhas been brought to bear on the ques-

 

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CONDITION OF EXTREME HEAT, ILLUSTRATED FROM AFRICAN FOREST.—Drawn by Alexandre de Bar. TIME OF THE BEGINNING.—ASTRONOMICAL ARGUMENT. 79 tion, and the decision is that our planethas not readied, by a considerable span,Condition of the maximum of its vital-heat equation -^ considered as the arena with respect to J man-life. 0f our race activities. This is to say that the world is still receivingat the surface an increment of heat morethan equal to the constant waste in itsprogress through space. The excess isnot by any means so great as it was in theprevious history of the planet; but as weapproach the crisis—our epoch of equi-librium between the heat given and re-ceived—the approach thereto is retardedby many favoring circumstances, thusprolonging the period of human develop-ment. While the amount of heat re-ceived from the sun may be regarded asnearly constant, the quantity given offfrom the earth into space diminishes byan ever-decreasing ratio. The earth asa reservoir of hea

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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hisjust skepticism, to cite a few of the factsand principles by which such investiga- been observed in their processes for asufficient period to warrant scientific de-duction as to both the future and thepast. To this we must add the accepted lawof the uniformity of nature, uponwhich, indeed, all science Acceptance of .::tm:~,~,, the law of the rests as upon an immov- uniformity0fable foundation. We may nature,safely assume that the processes of thenatural world which we observe around 86 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. us are the same processes which havebeen giving form and feature to thesurface of our planet through eons ofpast time. True, we may not assumethat the rate of change has been uni-form for successive geological ages. Onthe contrary, experience and observa-tion within the historical period haveshown that the rate of change is not byany means invariable. At some epochstransformation goes forward more rap-idly than at others; but on the whole,not only the process of change, but the

 

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LANDSCAPE OF THE CARBONIFEROUS PERI rate of change may be depended on asscientific factors in determining the pastconditions and periods of duration ingeological history. It may be well in this connection toillustrate with a few specific examplesSuggestion fur- the general laws of change receSonof6 to whicb we have jUSt re- Niagara Falls, ferred. We have in theUnited States an example of the actionof the elements which may well convincethe most skeptical of the value of geolog-ical physics in determining the lapse oftime. This example is furnished by the chasm and recession of the Niagarariver. It is easy to trace the course ofthe great falls backwards from lake On-tario, or at least from Lewiston, to thepresent position of the cataract; and itis easy to foresee the inevitable recessionof the chasm back from the present fallto lake Erie. We may already contem-plate (at a date how remote!) the wear-ing away of the channel until the Niag-ara river .shall lie in the bottom of thechasm al

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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g the remains of a reindeer ina given country as we should expect tofind a pliocene stratum under a chalkbed—unless, indeed, there had been inthe latter case a physical cataclysm toproduce the inversion. This established order in the animal 112 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. world has been of vast use in determin-ing- the date of human phenomena inMan-life closely the prehistoric ages. Manhistorian?6 nas always been closelymai species. associated with the otherforms of animal existence. Being tosome extent carnivorous in his habits—and much more so in the barbarous thanin the civilized condition—he has from we have many additional facts that areof great value and essential interestdrawn from the history of „„ J Wild animals di- the fauna of the WOrld. minish in size in„ «... . -, -, c successive eras. One of these is the law 01diminishing size and power which holdsgenerally of the different species of wildanimals and inversely of the domesticanimals. Many of the beasts which in-

 

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Elephas primigenius. Glyptodon.ANIMALS ASSOCIATED WITH PRIMEVAL MAN. Cave bear. -Drawn by Riou. his most primitive condition relied to avery great degree upon the associatedorders of life for his means of subsist-ence. We are not here to dwell uponthese facts save sufficiently to show theusefulness of animal remains in deter-mining the unknown dates of humanhistory. Besides the established order of ani-mated nature, from the first appearanceof life on the earth to the present day, habited the earth colncidently with thefirst men were of prodigious size. Wehave already referred by name to severalof the huge carnivora at one time pre-vailing in Europe and America. One ofthese was the tremendous cave bear, an-other the cave lion, another the cavehyena. In general, these creatures wereof the genus Felis. Besides these therewere vegetable-eating animals, also hugeand powerful. To this order belonged TIME OF THE BEGINNING.—PAL^EONTOLOGICAI PROOFS. 113 the gigantic Megaceros Hibernicus, or

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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the place, and thecircumstances of mans appearance onthe earth. All were agreed that in someway he had come. None conjecturedthat his past existence was an eternity.Each had the concept of a previous con-dition in earth and heaven wherein manhad no part or lot. TIME OF THE BEGINNING.—SOURCES OF INFORMATION. 53 It thus happened that each race, acerd-ing to its light, according to what it hadPrimitive con- received from older mem- philosophy. ing to its concepts of the methods and possibilities of the case,produced the story of man-life in theearth. The story was from one point ofview as variable as the fancies of the with respect to the remote past. Itmight be said, even at this late day, thatthe whole intellectual structure of theworld rests on the concrete Beliefs of man-of tradition. He who there- £?gdedmeetsSffore would investigate for from tradition,himself and for others the primitive stateof man—would in particular inquire intothe probable time and conditions under

 

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LANDSCAPE OF THE BEGINNING.—Drawn by Riou. race were vague and their creativepowers capricious. But from anotherpoint of view there were common fea-tures in the traditions which now gainedcurrency, and these common features atlength constituted a sort of body ofphilosophy which was accepted withmore or less reservation by the greatminds of antiquity. From all this it must readily appearhow great a part tradition has performedin establishing the beliefs of mankind which men began to be among the livingcreatures of our globe—must carefullyconsider the traditions which the racesof men have formed with respect tothemselves. Here, then, true history begins. Asit was the first, so also it seems to be thelast and greatest of the 0fficeof historyproducts of the human to solve ail prob- . , . . ., ■,• . lems of man-life. mmd. As it was the earliest endeavor of the conscious race to express its concepts of itself, so also is it the 54 GREAT RACES OE MANKIND. latest endeavor of that same

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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on toevery branch of the great Aryan speech,from the oldest to the youngest. Norare we able to discover a period of triballife so remote that the house was not thetangible evidence and bottom fact. Ofthe exact forms which the structureassumed, we have no precise informa-tion ; but thegeneral natureof the primitiveabodes of ourown race, as dis-tinguished fromthose of theSemites and Tu-ranians, was asdefined above,and its purposewas to consti-tute a fixedhome for a manand a woman,with their off-spring. The man wascalled pitar; inGreek, pater; inAnglo-Saxon, fader, singular core of the household to whichall the rest adheres and without which itfalls instantly into disintegration andruin. His life is the constant barrier be-tween it and all harm. His valor andstrength are the safeguards and guarantyof his own place, which stands apartfrom the rest and holds his treasures.In all the tribes which have sprung fromthat original Bactrian fountain, bubblingup with human fecundity in remote pre-

 

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PRIMITIVE BUILDING OFPrawn Nature of thehousehold; thepaternal name. that is, father.The father was the funda-mental fact of the house-hold. The word meansthe protector. And it is upon this ideathat the whole structure of Aryan society,ancient and modern, is founded. Thefather protects his house and household.They are his. The idea is that of a nest. I He is the roof above it. He defends it.His arm is bared for its protection,and his faculties are all vigilant lestharm come to his abode. He is the stemaround which the whole structure is THE INDUS VALLEY.—HOUSE IN THE KOULOU.by G. Vuillier, from a photograph. historic ages, fatherhood and protectionhave been inseparable synonyms. As a necessary adjunct to this centralfact called the father in the Aryanhousehold, was the institution of mo-noramv. Single marriage m, „ & J te & The fact and was the rule from the be- sentiment of „,.. . r single marriage. ginning. The union of oneman with one woman, perpetually de-voted the o

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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iliar, but by a criterion fixedfor the particular thing to be defined. The Tungusic barbarians live thewild life of hunters and fishermen.They tame the reindeer, using that ani-mal for both food and draught. In likemanner they train their dogs to drawtheir sledges. They live a half-seden-tary life, having a rude society and thebeginnings of usages that in higher 404 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. progress would be defined as civil. Thedomestic estate is in a correspondingstage of development. The religiouslife has been vaguely determined by anative faith which is called Shamanism,and by the vague outreaching influencesof Lamaism from the side of the Mon-golian countries, and the touch of Greek and others in the other; that is, one as-pect of the Moorish life seems to ap-proximate the conditions present in Eu-rope and the Americas, while anotheraspect is distinctly barbarous. In their commercial transactions, andindeed in all of those parts of their pub-lic life in which they are brought into

 

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SEMIBARBARISM ILLUSTRATED—THE NORTH ASIATIC MANNER.— Tungusic Sorcerer.Drawn by Victor Adam, after a sketch of the Count de Rechberg. Catholicism out of Siberia and theA Vest. We may note also a grade of semi-barbarity peculiar to North Africa andto some portions of Eastern Semibarbarism A of the Moors and and Southeastern Asia.Perhaps the semibar-barous life of the Moors is the high-est estate of mankind below the level ofcivilization. Sinne of the usages of theMoors and Berbers look in one direction contact with foreign nations, the Moorshave the manners peculiar to the ruderforms of civilization. But in their racecustoms—those which they have de-rived from the past—they are distinctlybarbaric. Their personal mannersamone themselves have the sense andflavor of a remote and barbaric past.Their wild dances and crude religiousceremonies ally the race with the barba-rians, leaving only a small reason for

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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the belief that the ap-pearance of man on the planet wouldoccur at the earliest practicable moment(so to speak), and that mankind wouldcontinue to nourish to the latest practi-cable date. It is one of the novel con- 82 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. tradictions in the philosophy of a certainschool of thinkers that they would haveus believe that the earth, fitted up as itwere for the dwelling place of man, laygreen and virgin, waiting for his ap-pearance through eons of useless time—all this for no better reason than to sat-isfy the preconceptions of some impossi-ble system of chronology. Such short-sighted views of nature consistent with the astronomical andgeological preparation of the globe.Reason and fact alike require us to ac-cept as early a date for the appearanceof man as the design of the world andits conditions of habitability will admit.The results of reason must be acceptedin a world governed by law. That thedate of mans appearance was coinci-dent, or nearly coincident, with the

 

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.ANDSCAPE OF THE LOWER OOLITE (BEFORE THE AGE OF MAN).—Drawn by Riou. and of man we may at once dismiss asbelonging to the ignorance and blindnessRight reason de- of a former age. WhiledaTeforappS- the demands of right reason anceofman. ft0 not call for a limitless extension of man-life into the past, andwhile such a view is contradicted by sci-entific data which may not be doubted,a rational concept of the human race inrelation with the planetary life uponwhich it is maintained does call for aswide and far-reaching an arena as is astronomical changes in the characterof the earths orbit heretofore described,can not well be doubted by any onewhose mind has been freed from nar-row preconceptions on the subject.That our race career, measuring back-ward through the brief historical andtraditional periods of our ethnic life, hasextended far enough into the past tocover a considerable part of the planetlife with which it is associated, is a con-clusion warranted by every condition of TIME

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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icated inthe geological formation of the earth.How great these periods are has never TIME OF THE BEGINNING.—ARGUMENT FROM GEOLOGY 85 been determined, and it is possible thattheir duration may remain indeterminateExact time to the end of time. But measurement approximations can be not required m fit world history. made which are highly use-ful, and many scientific data exist bywhich previous calculations may be rec-tified. Every decade witnesses an in-crement of knowledge to the subject be-fore us, and wider and more accurategeneralizations are gradually building up tions are conducted. In the first place,the rate of geological change now goingon in the earth is a matter of observa-tion and scientific measurement. Theslow but steady transformation of theearths surface, the reduction of its in-equalities, its tendency toward the level,its failing adaptations to certain formsof vegetable and animal life, and manyother of our superficial terrene phe-nomena are well-known facts, and have

 

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PAL/EOZOIC AGE OF THE EARTH.—Devonian Landscape.—Drawn by Riou. an accepted theory of the geological ageof our planet. The question may well arise by whatpossible means the inquirer can arriveat any practical conclusions relative toPrinciple of de- the lapse of time in formertermining the peri0(ls; that is, in the pre- rate of geolog- r i icaichanges. historic ages of our world.It may be appropriate, in view of thisjust skepticism, to cite a few of the factsand principles by which such investiga- been observed in their processes for asufficient period to warrant scientific de-duction as to both the future and thepast. To this we must add the accepted lawof the uniformity of nature, uponwhich, indeed, all science Acceptance of .::tm:~,~,, the law of the rests as upon an immov- uniformity0fable foundation. We may nature,safely assume that the processes of thenatural world which we observe around 86 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. us are the same processes which havebeen giving form and featu

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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ws: Of theseanimals, there is a third specieswhich are called uri. They arein size only a little inferior tothe elephants; in color and ap-pearance and form they are bulls.(rreat is their strength and great theirvelocity. Nor do they stand in dreadof either man or beast. The inhabit-ants take and slay them by skillfulcontrivance and pitfalls. The tradi-tion of the urus is also preserved in theXiebelungen. The species has beenlike the aurochs, especially persistent,and has only given way before the in-vincible pressure of civilization. It issaid that wandering groups of uri were known in Germany as late as the six-teenth century, and there is little doubtthat the wild bulls which ran at large inthe neighborhood of London as late asthe twelfth century were identical, atleast in descent, with the uri of the Con-tinent. Nor would it be possible to sayto what extent the blood of the extinctanimal courses in the various breeds ofcattle at the present time. Thus we see that while some of the

 

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THE IRISH ELK (.MEGACEROS HIBERNICUS). prehistoric animals above enumeratedare indubitably extinct, others have insome sense transmitted someprehis-themselves into the historic suSveSSingera. The mammoth and species,the hairy rhinoceros long since ceasedto exist in the countries which we arenow considering. But the cave bear,not unlike the grizzly of the Yubamountains, has doubtless left reducedvarieties of himself to the present time.vSo also the reindeer, and, as we have 300 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. just seen, the aurochs and the primitiveox. This is to say that if we look atthe current of prehistoric animal life inWestern Europe, and consider it as ariver flowing over a plain and dividinginto multifarious streams as it flows, weshall see some of these streams sinkinganon into the sand and disappearingforever, while others maintain for awhile a straggling and reduced volumeuntil the) in turn disappear. A fewcurrents flow still further and are foundprecariously wandering on the surfac

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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d Merlin, by supernat-ural means, to bring from Ireland intoBritain. And that he might leave somefamous monument of so great a treasonto future ages, in the same order andart as they stood formerly, set them upwhere the flower of the British nationfell by the cutthroat practice of theSaxons, and where, under the pretenceof peace, the ill-secured youth of thekingdom, by murderous designs, wereslain. This story happily illustrates the com-pass and authenticity of mediaeval his-tory. It is Well known that Authenticity of the pillars composing the Srdmustratedruin of Stonehenge were hereby,taken from stone quarries in the neigh-borhood, so that no African giants wereneeded to bring them across the sea.It is also well established by an exami-nation of the mounds in the vicinitythat the structure belongs to a periodnot only earlier than the invasion ofHengist and his Saxon marauders, butlong anterior to the conquest by theRomans at the beginning of our era.It is true that no mention is made

 

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VIEW OF STONEHENGE. set them up on the plains of Kildare,not far from the castle of Naas. Thesestones, continues the story-teller,Aurelianus Ambrosius, King of the of Stonehenge, by name, in the Latinauthors, but Hecataeus, a Greek histo-rian, who flourished at Miletus about550 B. C, describes a magnificent cir- >m GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. mounds in con-nection •withStonehenge. Jf o cs< * GROUND PLAN OFDANISH CROMLECH, r temple, situated in what he calls The island of the Hyperboreans, overagainst Celtica, and the description isof a kind to warrant the conclusion thatthe edifice in question was no other thanStonehenge. Clustered around this great ruin ofprehistoric times are many tumuli, con-Extent of burial taining the dead and therelics which were buriedAviththem. No fewer thanthree hundred burial mounds are foundwithin a radius of three miles from thestone pillars marking the site of whatwas doubtless a primitive temple. Fromthis it would appear thatthe whole area round abou

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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f the West.In strength and activity he was the peer Clement. THE IRANIANS.—ELEMENTARY CHARACTER. 581 not only of his contemporaries in Meso-potamia and Hellas, but of any rival inany age of the world. The featureswere dignified and finely drawn. Theforehead was high and straight. Thenose was developed on a line with thefrontal bone, after the manner of theMacedonian face, and was prominentand well formed. Sometimes the organhad that imperious and hawklike shapewhich reappeared among the Romans ofa later age. The beard was manly and stantly exposed to the reactions of na-ture than were these progenitors of greatraces. True, the climate was not au-spicious for an out-of-door life. Stormswere frequent, and the winters of Par-thia, Margiana, and Bactria were toler-ably severe. But neither the rain blastof summer nor the rigors of the winterseason were sufficient to extinguish orrepress the nomadic freedom of therace. To scour the plains on horsebackbecame a second nature to the Iranian,

 

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REMAINS OF IRANIAN BUILDING.—Ruins of the Palace of Darius, at Persepolis.— Drawn by A. Deroy, after a photo graph by Madame Dieulafoy. heavy, and the hair abundant to super-fluity. The Iranian women were ad-mired for their beauty and grace evenby the critical Greeks. In dignity ofpersonal carriage, they are representedto have borne themselves after the man-ner of the barbaric queens of the heroicages of history. The environment of the early IranianThe race con- tribes brought them intoSSnfluencts constant contact with theof nature. open aspects of the natural world. Their life was outdoors. Per-haps no people have been more con- and his preference for chasing wildbeasts took the form of a passion. As late as the beginnings of authentichistory, not only the evidences, but theactual example of this kind of life wasstill to be observed. In Tribal divisionsthe times of Herodotus the ^gneTod-nations of Iran had not otus-yet settled into permanence or affixedthemselves to given distric

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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islands, is called the Ethiopianregion. The Oriental region includesthe Malay peninsula and islands, Hin-dustan, and Southern Arabia. Aus- PLACE OF THE BEGINNING.—LEMURIA. 179 tralia, Polynesia, and New Zealandare defined as the Australian region.South America, the West Indies, andMexico as far north as the tropic, con-stitute the Neotropical region, while theremainder of North America is definedas the Nearctic region. The problem iswith the map thus adjusted, to deter-mine by orders, suborders, and familiesthe distribution of the primate animals. which we have fixed upon as the prob-able home of the first men, was held inbetween the two approxi- Place of sup- 1 _L posed continent mate parts defined in the between Ethio- . - . , „ , . . pian and Orien- above table as the Ethiopian tai regions,and Oriental regions. A glance at thesynopsis will show the astonishing pre-ponderance of the primate animals inthose countries. True, the largest sin-gle distribution is that of one hundred

 

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AMERICAN MONKEY WITH PREHENSILE TAIL. The following table prepared by Win-chell contains an abstract of the results: DISTRIBUTION OF PRIMATE AND CARNIVOROUS ANIMALS. No. of Families. Apes Old World Monkey> Baboons and Macaques., American Monkeys Marmosets a. Total Anthropoids Lemurs...Tassiers.. Aye-ayes. Total Lemuroids. Total Primates. Carnivora Total Primates andCarnivora 70 Otfl ■Set .2 a~ 9i;3) < 50 105 90 195 I 161 °-2 g,2 33114 11448 43 It will be remembered by the readerthat the supposed continent of Lemuria, and fourteen species in South America;but it has been noted that the SouthAmerican primates are much lower inorder of development than are those ofSouthern Asia and Eastern Africa. Noapes or any of the higher primates havebeen found native in any part of theNew World. Leaving out, therefore,from the count the South Americanmonkeys and marmosets, which are thevery lowest of the anthropoids, we havethe primates virtually limited to thesouthern parts of Asia and the

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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(!>■> Lo jV HIGHLANDS OF ARMENIA.—Drawn by Taylor, after a photograph by Madame Carla Serena. The general belief among the nationsof the West on this subject has been de-The garden rived from the Hebreweastward m Scriptures, constituting the Eden, with its r o four rivers. basis as they do of the religious faith and practice of the Israel-itish race and, in later development, ofthe faith and practice of all the Christiannations of the earth. The account of man need not here be repeated. Itis sufficient to say that the scene of thisbeginning of human life is fixed by therecord as in a garden eastward inEden. It is said that a river wentout of Eden to water the garden; andfrom thence it was parted, and becameinto four heads. The name of the first[that is the first head or river] is Pison:

 

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THE BIBLICAL PARADISE.—Drawn by Gustave Dure. M.—Vol. I—II 154 GREAT RACES OE MANKIND. that is it which compasseth the wholeland of Havilah, where there is gold;and the gold of that land is good: thereis bdellium and onyx stone. And thename of the second river is Gihon: thesame is it that compasseth the wholeland of Ethiopia. And the name of thethird river is Hiddekel: that is it whichgoeth toward the east of Assyria. Andthe fourth river is Euphrates. Herewe have the geographical definition, soto speak, of that place which is describedin Genesis as the scene of the creationof man. But where was the garden of Eden ?Is it possible to lay this ancient sketchDifficulty of fix- of the Scriptures practicallythl Xbifca?6 °f on a map or globe and de-Eden- fine its position? Many have been the efforts of scholars andvisionaries to accomplish this task ofidentifying the ancient Eden with someplace or places now known to men. Inthe first place, it may be observed thatonly one of the four

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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ater and still greater depths, until at the presentday it is a common circumstance, both inEurope and America, to find the watersurface of running streams as much asa hundred feet or more below the levelformerly occupied by the river. Almostevery considerable stream presents oneither side a secondary terrace ofdrift which, at a former age, markedthe level of the bed. With the reces-sion of the waters to the presentchannels, the caverns formed in theold diluvial banks, especially thosein calcareous regions, have been leftdry. The mouths of such alluvialgrottoes open on the hillsides, facingthe rivers, and it was into thesecaverns that the animals, includingprimeval man, made their way as placesof natural resort in the earlier ages ofthe postglacial epoch. In the bottoms of nearly all of thecaverns are found a certain residual ofloam, or cave-earth, swept Date of remains in as sediment by the de- indicated fromparting waters; and over geo oglcathis loam there is usually a solid layer of

 

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EXAMPLE OF STALAGM1TIC FORMATION. stalagmite. Whatever organic remainswere left in the caverns in the age ofthe deposit were, as a rule, mixed with theloam, and afterwards covered and, as wf. 92 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. might say, hermetically sealed, with stal-agmitic material. It is easy to perceivethat a study of the rate of diminutionand sinking away of the rivers from theirformer elevation into their present bedswould furnish a measurement of timefor estimating the date of the depositof the human relics referred to. In sofar, therefore, as geology is able to de-termine the time at which the alluvialcaverns were formed and at which thereceding waters left them subject to hab-itation, she is able to suggest an ap-proximate date for the appearance ofman-life on the earth. The facts here referred to, which in

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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drought, and indeed withall the meterological and cosmical forcesthat hold him in his place. Any dis-turbance among these forces mustseriously affect his welfare. Any swell-ing or perturbation of the secular lawsoverwhelms him, or drives him forth 224 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. into a new condition of activity and anew form of specific development. But these cosmical changes do occur.The islands and continents of our globecosmical crises not only yield to theare attended vicissitude of changing cli- with destruc- & & tion of species, mate, but sink and emergeby turns from the sea. Terra contends,with Oceanus, and he with her. With produce a general alteration in theaspects and tendencies of organic life;but for the most part the changes are soslow as to admit of a gradual life-adjust-ment to the altered conditions as theyarise. But the fact of climatic and cos-mical disturbance exists, and the law ofnatural selection depends thereon in partfor its efficiency and ultimate results.

 

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NORTHERN LIMIT OF MAN-LIFE.—King William Land. each subsidence and upcoming of theland from the sea a new environment isprepared—a new field for animal activi-ties. True it is that since the days ofSir Charles Lycll, the notion of vast im-mediate cataclysms and reconstructionsof the globe has given place to the con-cept of slow but ever-operative changesin the forces that balance the world.At certain times, no doubt, crises arepassed in these secular movements which Still another active force in the strug-gle for life is what is called sexual selec-tion. Mr. Darwin in his Struggle for life later studies was led by ob- on lines of sex- .. . ual selection. servation and experimentto dwell much upon this circumstance innature as an efficient cause of variation.Here also the study begins with themethods of reproduction in the case ofanimals in a state of domestication. Itis clear that where the animals under MANNER OF THE BEGINNING.—THE TRUE EVOLUTION. 225 observation are domesticat

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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mote offspring of the parents of therace. In the tenth chapter there is anaccount of tribal and ethnic dispersionssufficiently ample to explain the presenceof the primitive peoples in the western-most parts of Asia, Southeastern Africa,and Eastern Europe. With this summary,however, the subject of ethnography isdropped from the Scriptures, thoughcertain important lines of descent wererecorded until long after the destructionof the Israelitish nation. The account of the origin of thingsgiven in the first chapter of Genesis is a part Of a lore which was Account of cre-nel o ~~:4-:„ ation in Genesis common to all the bemitic common t0 anpeoples of antiquity. All of the Semites,these held traditions in which the criticalreader is able to discover at least theoutlines of a common belief with regardto the modus operandi of creation. Oneof the particulars which always reap-pears in these accounts of the beginningis that flood, or great deep, or primevalchaos upon which the wind or breath of

 

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THE EDEN OF POETRY.—Miltons Vision of the First Pair and Raphael.—Drawn by Gustave Dore. MANNER OF THE BEGINNING.—FIAT AND EVOLUTION 193 the Elohim is said to have blown as thefirst movement of order. This notion is strongly imbedded inthe cosmogony of the Chaldees, thoughvariations m with them the primevalflood is spoken of as femi-niuc, instead of the mascu-line form used in Genesis. The universalchaos is, in the oldest Babylonian ac-counts, regarded as containing the crea- tine Chaldeestory of the be-ginning. the primeval flood, but as apart there-from, and brooding over it, and sendingthereon the primal winds of order. In other respects the ancient Semiticaccounts of the creation preserved in the fragments of BerOSUS, and General agree- better still in those inscrip- JS££2££°tions and tablets which the tion-learned George Smith has interpretedto the understanding of our age, corre-

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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uencein preserving the aggregation or compact- 474 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. ness of tribes in the formative state, andin conducing to certain religious and po-litical types of development. In the next place latitude, with its invariable concomitant of temperature, contributes much to modify the peoples who are subject to given Hamites areeth- J ° nicaiiy modified degrees of heat and cold. by environment. MM • . -, ,. 1 his is true m particular 01tribes who are still in the plastic state.There can be no doubt that there is achildhood and a youth to mankind—an men. They also grew sedate and aus-tere, less disposed to highly developedforms of society, and, in brief, morelike the desert and rainless countries in-to which they penetrated than were theraces which distributed themselves fur-ther northward. Among the oldest monuments of theEgyptians there are pictorial represen-tations of the differences which had al-ready been produced among the Noa-chite descendants by the influences of

 

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LANDSCAPE OF OLD ARYA—Ruins of Tous.—Drawn by A. de Bar, from a photograph. impressionable stage of evolution inwhich the influences of the externalworld are more potent in their reactionupon the mental and physical constitu-tion than they are in later stages of de-velopment. In these early stages of so-ciety there are infantine susceptibilitiesand diseases from which the race re-covers at a stage of fuller maturity. Forthis reason the early peoples in theirmigratory epochs have developed a con-stitution peculiarly significant of theclimate and region of their tribal so-journ. The races of Ham became muchdarker in color than their Semitic kins- environment. The sculptors, in these representations, have unwittingly borne evidence of the tendency of Egyptian sculp-tures evidenceraces m the plastic Stage Of the early differ-,1 • -I ,. , entiation of their evolution to con- races.form to climatic conditions. TheEgyptians defined themselves as RotJi,meaning red, or ruddy, as to compl

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

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able for the human race. The science ofgeology belongs virtually to the presentcentury. Hitherto any truly scientificconcept of the formation Geological sci-and character of our globe ££?££££was wanting. All the for- century,mer achievements of mankind in geologi-cal inquiry were not equal in extent andvariety to those which have been made

 

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PAL.-EOZOIC AGE OF THE EARTH.—Landscape of the Eoce.ve.—Drawn by Riou. geological age of our planet, but only to by the geologists of the nineteenth cen-note the epoch in which it became habit- tury. The result has been a tolerably 84 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. complete investigation of the characterof the earths crust and of the order ofworld formation. A summary of theseresults may here be presented with aview to showing the epoch of man. In the bottom of the world we have the azoic, or lifeless, age. Above this, and next in order of succes- Outline of the order of the sion, we have the palaeozoic age; that is, the ancient life period of world formation. Above this the Carboniferous, and the Pemian strataof the earths crust. The secondaryrocks of the neozoic age include theTriassic, the Jurassic, and the Cretaceous,or chalk, formations. The tertiary, orcaenozoic, rocks are divided into whatare called the eocene, the miocene, andthe pliocene, and above these we havethe superficial f

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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ROUTE OF THE PRAVIDTAN DISPERSION.—Gorge and Fortress of Arderbend.—Drawn by A. do Bar, after a sketch oJ Blocqueville. knowledge of the great political powercalled Rome was obliterated from theannals of mankind. Suppose that everybook in which a trace of the Latin lan-guage-and literature isrecorded wereutterly destroyed. Suppose that thememory and tradition of the peoplecalled Romans had passed completely Spanish, Portuguese, Wallachian, andProvencal, and examine their structureand peculiarities. It is found that theyhave been originally deduced from somecoinmoii speech having a grammar and vo-cabulary of a determinate form. Out ofthe study of these six languages that oldgrammar and vocabulary can be recon- DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACES.—THE BROWN DISPERSION. 507 striated, and when reconstructed, theyare Latin. If Latin, then there was aLatin race that spoke it. If a Latin race,it had its seat and its institutions. Theseat of the race can be discovered geo-graphically by tracing b

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

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THE IRANIANS.—ETHNIC DIVISIONS. 615 the transaction of business. In general,they present what many ethnographershave chosen to call the Caucasian type ofmankind at its best estate. In common with the other peoples ofWestern Iran, the Armenians exhibit a dividual in their character and as littlesubject to restraint as were their pre-historic ancestors. For this reason it is somewhat diffi-cult to generalize on the subject of man-ners and customs where the same are

 

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ARMENIAN ARCHBISHOP—TYPE.-Drawn by Y. Pranishmkoff. certain spirit of independence and loveof liberty. They regard valor as theprincipal virtue of life. In the cities ofArmenia society is well organized, butin the open regions, especially in thoseparts where the country becomes moun-tainous, the population consists of vigor-ous shepherd tribes, who are almost as in- so variable in different districts, Onething may be noted with peculiar inter-est, and that is the complete change in thechange in the method of method of dis- fe posing of the disposing of the dead. dead-Zarathustra required that the bodies ofthe dead should be exposed on high, ina kind of tower or building- erected for 616 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. that purpose, so that birds of prey mightgradually devour them. It was con-ceived that this, of all possible methods,was least likely to contaminate the ele-ments. It was held that earth burialwould pollute the ground. To submergethe body in rivers would defile thewater, and t

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

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age permitted their retention. Fromthis source the system diffused itselfinto general litera-ture. The histor-ical writers of thelast century and ofthe first half of thepresent century,for the most part,continued to accept TIME instrument—ancientand to employ the sundial. Usherian dates for all the events inthe ancient history of mankind. To thepresent day the authorized editions of theBible are sent forth with the Usherian• chronology in the margin, and in thepopular belief that system is referred tothe same source and authority as that bywhich the sacred canon was produced!

 

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TIME INSTRUMENT—HOURGLASS. It was thus that in modern times asupposed date has been established forAstonishing de- the era of the creation ofUsherian6 the earth and man. Usher scheme. fixed upon the year 4004 P>. C. and the autumnal equinox of thatyear, namely October 23, as the pre- cise date of the apparition of the world!The creation of man he placed withequal exactitude five days later, that is,on October 28th!1 The remainder of

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

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raneanpeoples, as Taiuahit, or white. Yet it isnow well known that these three typesof color and the associated form, feature,and stature of the three peoples to DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACES.—EAST ARYAN DEPARTURE. 475 which they belong, were all of a com-mon ethnic descent. The race of Japheth on the north andeast of Mesopotamia was, in its earlieststages of development, thrown into aPrimitive Ja- region where nature had phethites affect- ° ed by climate greater variety than in any and surround- r d , . , , ings. or the countries where the Semitic and Hamitic families were dis-persed. It was a region of uplands, ris- mer, the quick oncoming of the storm,the biting frost of a comparatively earlyautumn, the high winds, the blasts ofsnow and sleet peculiar to the wintermonths. It is in some sense a climaticmaelstrom, and the Japhetic race waswhirled and beaten in its childhood bythe wild elements that dashed andturned from alternate calm to tempest,and from warm airs to biting blasts and

 

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PASS OF THE ARAXES. ing easily into mountain ranges of con-siderable elevation. It was a country ofsnows, and particularly of storms inwinter. There are few parts of theearth in which vicissitude in temperatureand the whole external mood of natureare more pronounced than in the regionsouth and east of the Caspian. The primitive Japhethites were ex-posed from the beginning to the fullforce of these climatic changes—to theflush of early spring, the heat of sum- freezing sleets. For these reasons theearly Japhethites would, by the turbu-lence of nature, be impressed with great-er restlessness, hardihood, and adven-ture than might be expected in the caseof any other primitive people. How great must have been the influ-ence of such an environment upon sen-sitive peoples recently liberated from aparent stock in a more genial latitude!We have already seen that the Adamiteseems to have come up from the low- i7<; GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. lying seashore, where the Ichthyophagiafterwards roa

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

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he Northeast-and the Hoang-Ho, with theexception of the eastern part, next toCorea and the sea of Japan, which iscalled Manchuria. The people knownas Manchus are also descendants of thenortheast stream of Asiatic Mongoloids.It is in this region, near the mouth ofthe Amoor, that the great movement ofthe Brown races of men in their progress DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACES.—THE BROWN DISPERSION. 515 eastward was checked and turned backinto the almost limitless regions of North-Dispersion of ern Asia. First of all theSS^r Mongolian stream, afterA.moor valley. crossing to the north of theAmoor, was reflected into a loop, and themigratory movement was resumed to-ward the head-waters of the Hoang-Ho. appears that the reverse line represent-ing the departure of this race readiesthroughout the entire breadth of Asia,having its origin as a separate ethnicdivision in the Russian province ofAmoor, north of the river of that name,and extending westward through Mon-golia into Turkistan. The main migra-

 

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afcteCTEaSJ^^BlPJif gj CHUTE OF TCHIMBOULAC—Drawn by D. Lancelot, after Atkinson. In the upper valley of this great riverthe Calmuck Tartars were deposited, asthe result of the backward migration justdescribed. A second stream was deflect-ed from the main line of this movementand contributed the Buriats, holding thecountry south of lake Baikal. More ex-traordinary still was the departure fromthe backward curve of the Mongoloidsof the Turkish division of mankind. It torv line seems to have passed south oflake Balkash, and to have thence contin-ued its western progress across the Uraland the Volga to the northern shonthe Black sea. On the whlc. this pr« >gressof the Turcomans is one of the most re-markable among the ethnic movementsof mankind. The principal families de-posited at the extreme of the migrationon the line we are now considering were 516 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. the Nogaians, whose territory reachedfrom the Volga to the Caucasus and theBlack sea. Before attemp

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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but only to by the geologists of the nineteenth cen-note the epoch in which it became habit- tury. The result has been a tolerably 84 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. complete investigation of the characterof the earths crust and of the order ofworld formation. A summary of theseresults may here be presented with aview to showing the epoch of man. In the bottom of the world we have the azoic, or lifeless, age. Above this, and next in order of succes- Outline of the order of the sion, we have the palaeozoic age; that is, the ancient life period of world formation. Above this the Carboniferous, and the Pemian strataof the earths crust. The secondaryrocks of the neozoic age include theTriassic, the Jurassic, and the Cretaceous,or chalk, formations. The tertiary, orcaenozoic, rocks are divided into whatare called the eocene, the miocene, andthe pliocene, and above these we havethe superficial formations known as thepost-tertiary, quaternary, pleistocene, ormost recent deposits of all. This sketch

 

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PAL/EOZOIC AGE OK THE EARTH.—Cambro-Silurian Landscape.—Drawn by Riou. and succeeding it we have the neozoic,or new-life, age, reaching to the surfaceand including the present life-forms ofthe world. For convenience, the neozoicage has been divided into a lower, calledthe secondary, or mesozoic, period; andan upper, called the tertiary epoch. Thepalaeozoic age, if we begin at the bottom,next to the azoic rocks, includes theCambrian, the Silurian, the Devonian, includes what are known as the fossil-iferous strata of the world, reachingdownward from the present fauna andflora of the surface to the lifeless bed ofthe azoic rocks. It is needless to urge upon the atten-tion of any intelligent reader the greatperiods of time which are indicated inthe geological formation of the earth.How great these periods are has never TIME OF THE BEGINNING.—ARGUMENT FROM GEOLOGY 85 been determined, and it is possible thattheir duration may remain indeterminateExact time to the end of time. But meas

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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ed, even from remoteantiquity, a considerable part ofthe social and religious life of theOld Iranians. Their laws are likethe common law of the English-speaking race, derived from prec-edents of common life, reaching back tothe times of tribal dispersion. The pop-Armenians pre- ular dress preserves manyof the features which werepeculiar to the age ofthe Persian ascendency. As a generalfact, the Iranians have always been dis-posed to wear a high dress for the head,a sort of tiara, of which illustrations maybe seen in the everyday costume of the serve the sem-blance of OldIranian life. SPECIMEN PAGE FROM ARMENIAN liOOK. is rather Oriental than suggestive of theapparel of Western peoples. The Armenians are a shrewd andrather intellectual race, intellectualWere it not for the effects SfSntof6 Of Old traditions, religious independence. and social, they would have the capacityof a good modern development. They arebrave and adventurous, good soldiers,and especially noted for their ability in

 

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THE IRANIANS.—ETHNIC DIVISIONS. 615 the transaction of business. In general,they present what many ethnographershave chosen to call the Caucasian type ofmankind at its best estate. In common with the other peoples ofWestern Iran, the Armenians exhibit a dividual in their character and as littlesubject to restraint as were their pre-historic ancestors. For this reason it is somewhat diffi-cult to generalize on the subject of man-ners and customs where the same are

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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is also a na-tive of India. Ithas been foundfrom the earliesttimes, and theproduct has sup-plied the localwants of the coun-try within the his-torical era. Untilthe last centurycotton was not ex-ported as a prod-Here we touch upon cirCUm- The Indian cot- uct from India,that remarkable stance in the commercial Western toter-history of modern times, ests-balancing and unbalancing the cottontrade of the world during; the American THE INDICA NS. —RESO URCES. 703 Civil War. It will be remembered thatin Lancashire, England, seat of the greatcotton factories of the United Kingdom,a crisis was reached in 1861 by the clos-ing of, the ports of the confederatedSouthern States. The American marketwas thus hermetically sealed, and the portation of cotton had been less thanthree million of pounds a year, but thecotton industry suddenly sprang up un-der the tremendous stimulus, until 1866,when the exportation amounted to thirty-seven million. With this year, how-ever, the stress was removed by the

 

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INDIGO FACTORY AT ALLAHABAD.—Drawn by E. Therond. English factories suddenly stopped forwant of raw material. At this juncture Great Britain turnedeagerly to the cotton fields of India,cotton produc- With an open market, the £ th^can <&&** °f COtt°n Policed Civil war. m the East was not equal to the American product, and could notbe, but in this time of extreme strin-gency it sufficed to supply the demand.Prior to i860 the average Indian ex- opening of the American market, andthe Indian exportation immediately felloff to eight million a year. Perhaps noother world market of a great product,balancing at its two poles eight thou-sand miles apart, has ever exhibited soremarkable a fluctuation. Next after cotton may be ranked thejute of India. It is virtually a hemp,though the fiber is somewhat coarser.The region of its production is confined 704 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. to Bengal, on the north and east. The ehief seat of the product is in the valley of the Brahmaputra, whe

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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of his existence areeverywhere abundant as far south as theAlps and the Pyrenees. Of the extinctanimals that have flourished since the ap-pearance of man only the mammoth andthe hairy rhinoceros seem to have beenolder species than the reindeer. Thelatter appears to have had great endur-ance, and as late as the time of the com-position of Caesars Gallic War the animal still roamed in the Hercynian forest—atM.—Vol. i—20 least such was the information broughtto Caesar. The primitive man capturedthe reindeer, feasted on his flesh, took hishorns for implements, and his hide for acloak; but the animal was not domesti-cated in prehistoric times. More noted still as a contemporary ofthe cave dwellers was the great stagcalled the Irish elk. Thiswas, perhaps, the most mag-nificent animal of all thatwe are here considering. He grew to astature of more than ten feet, and anexisting pair of his antlers measureseleven feet from point to point! These Size and charac-teristics of theIrish ellc.

 

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MAMMOTH, RESTORED. tremendous horns were palmated likethose of the American moose, and thehuge creature dashing about the Irishpeat bogs or through the oak woods ofBritain must have been terrible, evensublime, in aspect. His remains arefrequently found in the peat measuresof Ireland and on the Continent, but stillmore abundantly in the lacustrine shellmarl underlying the bog earth of themarsh lands. Xext in order of these prehistoricanimals is the glutton, called in Amer-ica the wolverene. He appears to havebeen a contemporary of the creatures 298 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. above enumerated, and in many places to have had a particular association with man. But more impor- The prehistoric . . bison of Europe lant by far in such associ- and America. ^^ wag the aurochS) Gr European bison. This animal has beenIon-- extinct in France and England,and vet we have the remarkable fact ofhis survival in a cognate species in gravel yields some relic of this heavyprehistoric animal. Oddly enough, hi

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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A, AUSTRIA. which are now standing. Within theinner circle another series of pillars,oval in character, and originally nineteenin number, are found, which rise inheight toward the center. Around theoutside rim was drawn a moat and arampart about three hundred and sev-enty yards in circumference. On thenortheast of the great circle and run-ning out for a distance of about sixhundred yards, there are evidences of as well as the antiquity of the monu-ment before him. Stonehenge has long been a fertiletopic in tradition. The oldest story of allis that given by Nennius, J Stories of Nen- in the ninth century. He niusandcam-declares that the structurewas erected by Aurelianus Ambrosius, mmemory of four hundred British chief-tains who were slain there by Hengistand his Saxon barbarians, in 472. At PRIMEVAL MAN.—MEN OF THE TUMI LI. 335 the close of the twelfth century, Giral-dus Cambrensis, another annalist, tellsa long story of a great pile of stonescalled the Giants Dance, anciently found

 

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BUKIAL URNS (ENLARGED FROM PRECEDING CUT). in Ireland. He narrates that the stonesin question were brought to Ireland bya company of Titans out of Africa, who Britons, procured Merlin, by supernat-ural means, to bring from Ireland intoBritain. And that he might leave somefamous monument of so great a treasonto future ages, in the same order andart as they stood formerly, set them upwhere the flower of the British nationfell by the cutthroat practice of theSaxons, and where, under the pretenceof peace, the ill-secured youth of thekingdom, by murderous designs, wereslain. This story happily illustrates the com-pass and authenticity of mediaeval his-tory. It is Well known that Authenticity of the pillars composing the Srdmustratedruin of Stonehenge were hereby,taken from stone quarries in the neigh-borhood, so that no African giants wereneeded to bring them across the sea.It is also well established by an exami-nation of the mounds in the vicinitythat the structure belongs to a periodnot

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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e left, and especiallyabout the debouchure of thestream near the mouth. Whilethis process is going on the banks of theriver on this side and on that are wornaway and carried along with the current.Sometimes a whole valley, by a change inthe course of the stream, is swept outand deposited somewhere below. Thesecircumstances must be borne in mind ifwe would apprehend clearly the natureof the discoveries to which attention willnow be called. As early as the beginning of thiscentury implements and weapons wereknown to have been gathered fromriver-drift gravel beds, but the signifi-cance of such discoveries was unnoticed or ignored. There has been a strangedisposition, even on the part of scholars,to maintain old traditionary views aboutthe age of man on the earth. Everynew fact tending to show the antiquityof the human race has been resisted andresented as a sort of intrigue againstthe integrity of existing beliefs. In geological science this tendencyhas been especially noticeable. Geolo-

 

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BWil m PALEOLITHIC RIVER-DRIFT SPEARHEADS. gists themselves have for a long timeshut their eyes to the most palpablefacts, patent to their own Dogmatism con-senses. It was from this ^peXgr^er.supposable salutary con- drift findings,servatism that the first discoveries ofprehistoric relics in the gravel beds, aswell as in other situations, were ignoredand denied. Those who were deter-mined to maintain the old views respect-ing the chronology of the earth and itsinhabitants put forward all sorts of ridic-ulous hypotheses to account for thatwhich was unaccountable under theirown theory. They even published 328 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. treatises in which it was boldly allegedthat the old stone implements whichhad been found in prehistoric situationswere forgeries which had been perpe-trated against authentic science—thatthose who were trying to disturb thecurrent beliefs of mankind had inventedthe alleged discoveries to produce a newhypothesis respecting the antiquity ofthe human race! G

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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knowPhilosophical more precisely the date,fZtTir °f the locality, and all the con-knowledge. comitants and conditions under which our ethnic career begfan.Nevertheless, exact knowledge has itsdiscounts and defects in the treasure-total of our mental wealth. It may be observed that the exact sciences, whilethey have a vast and salutary effect uponthe mind in correcting the judgments anddecisions of the intellect, neverthelesstend to reduce all mentality to a formulaand mathematical equation. At thesame time they tend to weaken by disusethe ideal faculties, to benumb if not de-stroy the fancy and the imagination, andthereby diminish that excursive powerof the mind upon which the discoveryof truth and beauty has so greatly de-pended. It is not desirable that con-jecture, uncertainty, and doubt shouldbe removed from the concepts which weform of ourselves and of universal nature,else the dream of the artist and visionof the poet might cease to add their giftsto the treasures of humanitv.

 

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

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^»« * $ % «^:registered:e> # :copyright: ^

 

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ARCH.EOLOGICAL EVIDENCES OF MANS EXISTENCE.A, megalithic covered structure ; B, stone circle—horizontal and vertical views • C, mound with stone entrances; D, megalithic ruins of causeway. which has been already geologicallydetermined, holding the remains ofmans work and workmanship in amatrix, furnish therefore an ordo whichcan not well be misapprehended. Thebottom principle of the science is thatthere is a definite correlation betweenall the arts in the various periods ofhuman development and the world his-tory in which and on which those arts mals which have existed on the earth.These are classified and arranged accord-ing to the natural order ni . „ . & Scope and hmi- which they have succeeded tations of pa- ... j. laeontology. one another as species ofliving- organisms. The relations betweenplant-life and animal life are established,and the dependencies of animate uponinanimate forms of existence scientific-ally determined. Not only the surface 46 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

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F HALSKOV, DENMARK. have examined in the preceding chapter.In general, the tumuli of Europe werebuilt in the age of bronze, and thereforeare posterior by a long epoch to the timesof the cave dwellers and coast people.This is plainly evidenced in the utensilsand weapons which arerecovered from themounds, and which arealmost invariably ofbronze material. Theworkmanship, more-over, is of that half-elegant design and exe-cution which belong toan age subsequent, bymany centuries, even tothe neolithic, or newstone, epoch. It nowremains for us to exam-ine, at least casually,some of the existingmonuments belonging to the age of themound builders in Western Europe. One of the most striking of thesememorials is the great megalithic ruinknown by the name of Stonehenge, the other. The outer circle is aboutthree hundred feet in circumference,and the stones in this row are as muchas sixteen feet in height and six feet indiameter. On the tops of the rude pil-lars are laid other stones, horizontally.

 

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DANISH TUMULUS. The inner circle is nine feet distantfrom the outer. The stones composingit are of smaller dimensions than theothers, and are in the native condition,while those of the outer circle have been 334 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. roughly hewn. The capstones also bearthe marks of having- been rudely cutinto their present shape. Originally the outer colonnade con-tained thirty of these great pillars, withtheir capstones, or imposts. Only sev-enteen of them now remain in posi-tion. The inner circle consisted atfirst of forty pillars, only a part of approach to the structure. Traces ofsmaller avenues are also to be found,and in the vicinity of the ruin are vari-ous stones which seem to have consti-tuted originally a part of the generaldesign. The whole aspect of the ruinas seen to-day is weird and spectral inthe last degree, and the beholder canbut be impressed with the strangeness,

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

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talso of the vast Indie and Iranic-Aryanfamilies, as well as the still more widelydistributed Mongolian families by whichthe larger part of Asia, Polynesia, and theaboriginal Americas have been peopled. 168 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. The geographical belt in question co-incides roughly with the line of the riverPrimitive races Ural, the Caspian, the divi-depart right and j of modern Persia cen- left from, a com-mon belt, trally from north to south, the Persian gulf and its outlet into theArabian sea. So far as ethnological re-search has extended, it may be averredthat all the primitive races departedfrom this belt in their primal distribu- ceptional deviations and reflections asmay be accounted for by geographicalcontingencies and the vicissitudes of dis-covery and war. So also were the Semitic and theHamitic families dispersed from thesame belt of the earths surface. If wepress the inquiry further we shall findthe first appearance of the Black raceson the eastern coast of Africa, in the

 

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LANDSCAPE OF ETHNIC WATERSHED.—Mountains of Jobla.—Drawn by G. Vuillier. tion in an easterly or westerly direc-tion. It was only after the migrationsof the Mongoloid races had carried themto the eastern borders of the continentagainst the Yellow sea, the sea of Japan,and the sea of Okhotsk that the lines ofethnic diffusion were bent backwards ina westerly direction across the north-ern and northwestern parts of Asia. Inlike manner from the same meridian themigrations of the European Aryans werealways to the west, with only such ex- southern part of Hindustan—the formermoving in a western direction and thelatter in an eastern—show- All non-Aryansing conclusively that the J^ofdep-aTBlack division or divi- ture-sions of mankind also departed to rightand left from a meridian almost identi-cal with, the watershed of the White andBrown races across Asia. It is hardlypressing the hypothesis beyond the war-rant of established facts to say that with-in the belt of land and sea bounded

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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Wtm^M^LjeM M3^ *L\rr\l*x j&j JB HHL3jiUfc>l mrW^ ir^fr^ ^/to&aug ART WORK OF BARBARIANS. to watch carefully for the reappearanceof the harpooned animal and to strike itinstantly on its emergence at the surface.The Esquimaux are not without skill inpursuing the dry land animals. Theystalk the reindeer with considerable suc-cess, and are able to deceive many ani-mals by imitating their cry or call. It may be noted that the EsquimauxSongs and mu- have in their character andcustoms the rudiments ofThis is man-ifest in at least two particulars. Inthe first place, they have some apprecia- sical instru-ments; amusement the motive. an {^ea_\ \[fe category with the music of civilized peo*pies. But a still more remarkable evidenceof ideality among the Esquimaux isfound in their disposition Taste of theto draw and sketch. The :tm:ceJZ^h mg ana map- taste for this kind of work making,among them amounts almost to a pas-sion. They have a real talent for de-picting the outlines of natural

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

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olutionas partly explanatory of the facts andconditions of life. They admit that evo-lution has performed a certain subordi-nate and limited office in the productionof the living forms now inhabiting theearth; but they lay great stress upon thephenomenal aspects of the beginning. On the other hand, the evolutionistsdo not exclude creation from the schemeof universal nature. As Neither theory we have said, they begin is exclusive ofthe inquiry with the fact oflife. The theory runs thus: Givenlife—that is, the primordial germs of life—and evolution will account for therest. But this theory clearly does notpreclude creation as a part—that is,the primal part—of the scheme of life. 186 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. From which, as indicated above, thetrue division of opinion relates to themode of operation—the processes andmethods by which the present organic dowed with life, and having in them thepossibilities of all the descendent speciesof living- beings which now appear onthe earth.

 

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THE TRADITIONAL EDEN. forms have come to pass—whether fromperfected ancestral pairs for each species,created by a fiat immediately, and, so tospeak, full-grown in power and capacity,ut whether from potential germs en- Still another observation should bemade at the outset with respect to thecontention of the two opinions or viewsof the origin of living species. Thisis that, on the whole, the belief in evo- MANNER OF THE BEGINNING.—FIAT AND EVOLUTION 187 lution as explanatory of the modus oper-andi of universal nature has steadilyBelief m evoiu- gained ground in the high- tion as a method t opinion Qf the age. Its gams ground. * among thinkers. first conquest Was that of the earth itself. The hypothesis of cre-ation, that is, of immediate and phe-nomenal creation, formerly included theearth as one of the products of a creativefiat. For a long time the conservativebeliefs of the past held their groundssteadily against the encroachments ofereoloQfv. That science was resisted inits pro

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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g aperiod was required for these changedconditions to become operative in theliquefaction of the lower parts of theglaciers we are left somewhat to con-jecture, but no doubt it required a con-siderable period for the returning ap-proximation of the sun to begin to affectmaterially the glacial cap of the north-ern continents. It may be assumed as a fact scientific^ally determined that the whole of man-life lies this side of the gla- 0 Era of man-life cial period. Indeed, from on this side of ., . ,, the diluvial age. what we know of the con-ditions present in the northern hemi-sphere during that period it would b«impossible for the human race to main-tain an existence upon the earth, even iithe race had existed before. We are,therefore, to conclude that the beingcalled Man made his appearance at asubsequent date, when the globe hadbeen made habitable by the meltingaway of the glaciers, the subsidence ofthe rivers, and the definition of the con-tinents in the forms which they now hold.

 

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TIME OF THE BEGINNING.—ASTRONOMICAL ARGUMENT 73 It would appear, therefore, that wemight pass over at once from the workof astronomical laws to the geologicalconditions which ensued in and after thediluvian period, with a view to ascertain-ing more definitely at what time manand his works are first discoverable onthe earth. This we shall presently at-tempt to do; but before passing to thegeological inquiry respecting the an-tiquity of our race, it will be well torevert to one or two additional factsdeducible from the laws of astronomy. One of these is that next to the last period of greatest elongation in the earths orbit, falling as it Place of the last thermal epoch did about a thousand cen-turies before the last, oc-curred under such conditions as to pro-duce an epoch of heat in the northernhemisphere. That is, about the year210,000 B. C, when the greatest elonga-tion just referred to was attained, thesun was at or near perihelion in winter,the result being a great increment ofhe

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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ytheir ancestral tribe had Migration pointsremoved from the Lower ^nSndEuphrates westward into proceeded.Canaan. This migration, well preservedin the history and tradition of the Israel-ites, furnishes an indication of the place, PLACE OF rilli BEGINNING.—ARGUMENT FROM MIGRATION. 159 or at least the direction, from which thevSemitie division of mankind was de-rived. In North America, within thehistorical period, we have an exampleof the migration of the Tuscaroras fromsouth to north—from the Carolinas tothe region of the New York lakes. Theancient world is full of the traces of suchmigratory movements among the primi- of the ethnic fluctuations by which theearth has been populated. We must notsuppose that the first men, The movements the first tribes of men, drift- of races are gov-ed over the continents under erne y awlawless impulses, blown hither and thith-er like mists before the capricious winds,but that all the transmigrations by whichtribes and peoples were carried into new

 

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WESTWARD PROGRESS OF THE SEMITES. tive peoples. That the Greeks came outof Asia can not be doubted any morethan that the Vandals, who conqueredSpain and Africa in the fifth century,came out of the North. The inquirer will not have pursuedthe subject far until he perceives thatthe migrations of antiquity, and, indeed,of all time, are governed by general laws,showing the direction and ultimate origin regions of the earth were under thereign of law. In some instances the motive or im-pulse of the primitive ethnic distribu-tion may be discovered, Not whim andand in other cases not ^llSHT^so easily. But aboriginal conduct,tribes, as well as enlightened people,act by motive and inducement, and notby whim and caprice. We may not 160 GREAT RACES OE MANKIND. suppose, for instance, that the originalAryan population of India made its wayfrom the head-waters of the Indus downthe river toward the sea, instead of inthe inverse direction, by accident orwithout a motive. Those migratine:tribes had a

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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common by the differentAryan folk who used them. The plow,the rake, and the hoe, the iron ax andsickle, and many other of the imple- THE INDICANS.—HOUSE PEOPLE OP ARYA. 653 merits of husbandry were manifestly inuse by the immigrants who peopledancient India. But here again we finda different result when we look at thenames of the implements of the chaseand of war. The name of the bow andarrow, the spear, the lance, and thesword are different in the different dia-lects which sprang from the commonsource; and we are able by such meansto discover that hunting and the still at eventide. It is unmistakably truethat the leading features of the primitiveAryan home of India had an outline ofidentity with those of Greece and Italy,and even of the Teutonic fastnesses ofthe north and the oak woods of Britain.Unto this day many words still live inIndia and in England that had a commonbirth and common meaning before theseparation of the ancient tribes from theBactrian homestead, and these words

 

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HOUSE PEOPLE OF ARYA—THE AGRICULTURAL LIFE. more exciting vocations of war werephases of life comparatively unknown tothe primitive Aryans, and only super-imposed upon their ancient agriculturallife at a later date and under foreigninfluences. War and the chase were not the nativepursuits of these peaceable people ; andindications of a the very nomenclature ofSeesaSerace their household and gardencharacter. utensils is sufficient of it- self to establish their character as menof the field by day and the hearthstone and forms of speech bear unmistakableevidence of the common primitive lifewhich all these tribes inherited from acommon ancestry. The name for houseis the same in all. So also the namesfor father and mother, for son anddaughter, for dog and cow, for heart andtears, for ax and tree, for plow anddoorway—all are common in their originand meaning in the whole group ofIndo-European languages. And thusare we able, by linguistic research andcareful comparison, to draw from the

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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ion wasgenerally a solitude of cliff and wildThere, about the entrance of the cavern,might be seen the gathered friends ofthe dead lamenting with wild gesticula-tions that going forth of man-life which PRIMEVAL MAN.—MEN OF THE TUMULI. 339 they—though barbarians—had alreadydiscovered to be without return. The next point of interest to be notedin our examination of theprehistoric burial places isthe character of the remainsin such situations. As in the case of thecave dwellers, we may here learn muchabout the stature, form, and generalcharacter of the aborigines of Europe. Funeral processions and ritesof sepulture. type between the two extremes, calledorthocephalic, or medium-headed. Theorthocephalic skull is most nearly likethe skull of civilized peoples, whereasthe other two types depart very muchfrom the common standard. As far aswe are able to discover, the two extremevarieties of crania belonged to veryprimitive peoples, while the interme-diate form is of more recent develop-

 

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FUNERAL FEAST IN THE AGE OF BRONZE.—Drawn by Emile Bayard. of skulls discov-ered in thetombs. The most striking fact in connectionwith the skeletons of the people buriedThe three types in the tumuli of the Brit-ish Isles is the variation pre-sented in the skulls. Thereseem to be three distinct types of skullrevealed by an examination of the tombs.These are what are called long skulls, ordolichocephalic crania; short skulls, orthose defined as brachycephalic; and a ment as well as more symmetrical char-acter. The long skull, such as has beenfound in many of the tumuli of GreatBritain, has almost as great character ofa measurement as that ^w^°of the Neanderthal head phaiic crania,described in a previous chapter. Notthat the long and narrow skulls of thetumuli are so distinctly animal as the 340 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. one to which reference has just beenmack1, but their striking feature is thelong suture and great measurementfrom front to rear. The brachycephaliccrania discovered in

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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dagascans, the first two inhabitingthe Sunda archipelago and the Pacific is-lands, and the latter the island of Mad-agascar. 7. The Mongolians, with their three va-rieties of Indo-Chinese, Coreo-Japanese,Altaians, and Uralians, the first belong-ing to Thibet and China, the second toCorea and Japan, the third to Centraland Northern Asia, and the fourth to■Northwestern Asia and Hungary in Europe. M.—Vol. 1—28 8. The Arctics, with the two principaldivisions of Hyperboreans and Esqui-maux, belonging respectively to North-eastern Asia and Northeastern America. 9. The Americans, with four leading;divisions, the North Americans (In-dians), Central Americans, South Amer-icans, and Patagonians, distributed ac-cording to their several ethnic names. 10. The Dravidians, with two race de-velopments, the Deccanese of India andthe Singalese of Ceylon. 11. The Nubians, with their three va-rieties, the Shangallas and Dongolese ofNubia, and the Fulahs of Fulah. 12. The Mediterraneans, divided ac-

 

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ESQUIMAU TYPES. cording to this scheme into Caucasians,Basques, Semites, and Indo-Europeans;the first of these four being named fromthe range of the Caucasus, the secondbelonging to the northeastern portion ofSpain, the third being limited to EasternEurope and portions of Northern Africa,and the Indo-European branch beingnearly coincident with the Europeandivision of the Aryan race as defined inthe linguistic scheme above. We thus have, according to the geo-graphical scheme, no fewer than twelvemajor divisions of human kind, repre-sented by thirty-seven different races, 426 GREAT RACKS OF MANKIND. many of which arc in turn divided andsubdivided into various peoples andtribes, according to their localities, lan-guages, and ethnic peculiarities. On the whole, this method of elassifica-ti< m according to the geographical basis isUnsatisfactory less satisfactory in its re-characterofgeo- ltg than any of the others graphical classi- J fication. presented. It assumes that tribes of a giv

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

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distan, tolake Van and the up-per valley of the Tigris. \ chiefs, and engaged in almost constantOne might well suppose, glancing at warfare. Of these, the most conspicu-the fruitful and luxurious valleys of J ous example is the ferocious Bakhti-Luristan, that any people long dwelling j yari, whose name is proverbial in West-there would abandon the nomadic life i ern Asia. The only town of any im- M.—Vol. i—40 618 GREAT RACES OE MANKIND. portance within the limits of Luristan isKhorramabad, which is said to contain„ a thousand lints. The Prevalence of the wandering place is rudely fortified, life in Luristan. -. ... -, and possesses the palaceof the chieftain of the Lures. The next ereat division of the Iranic si van, or Persians. They are the mostwidely distributed of any of the existingIranic families. They are even dis-persed into districts far beyond the lim-its of their own countries. Their lan-guage is Persic, and is the best repre-sentative, or rather lineal descendant, of

 

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MOURNERS WAILING.—Drawn by Y. Pram\hnikoff, after a sketch of Madame Carla Serena. Place and character of theTajiks, or Par-sivan. race, distributed eastward of the Luresand the other westernPersian tribes, includes theTajiks. These people arespread from Kabul northward to Badakh-shan, to the table-land of Pameer, andinto Bokhara, in Central Turkistan. Onthe east they lie against the Afghans andBeluchs. Westward, they spread intoall Central Persia, and are called Par- the ancient Iranian speech. By themalso was preserved, until the conquestof the country by the Mohammedans,the deteriorated or fire-worship aspectof the old Zoroastrian faith. After theconquest they became Mohammedans,the old religion being preserved only bythe Guebers. In stature, person, and complexionthe Tajiks are intermediate between the 77//: lit I XfANS.—ETHNIC DlI rISI( WS. 619 Armenians and the Kurds on the onehand, and the Afghans on the other,stature and eth- They arc not so tall or nic characteris- ^ lhe

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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She is not onlyclean, but holy, and is incapable ofdefilement. The remedy for sin is pen-itence, fasting, mortification of the body,prayer, and recitations of the Veda.One of the greatest pollutions is drunk-enness. He who so sins is compelled todrink boiling rice water unto death. THE INDICANS.—RELIGION, 667 So far as earthly punishments areconcerned,they are adjusted to the prev-Pimishments alent false theories ofsin. Offenses done againstthe holy things are pun-ished in the highest degree. The mur-der of a person belonging to a lowercaste may pass with slight retribution,but the killing: of a cow is a mortal adjusted, to thefalse theory ofsin. One of the concepts peculiar to Brah-man ism is that of the incarnation of thedeities. It is known by Doctrine of the the name of avatar. On incarnation, or,i , the avatars. many occasions the greatgods of the Indie pantheon have passedinto the form of animals or men.Vishnu, the preserver, has had tenavatars assigned to him, following each

 

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THE SACRF.D COW OF INDIA— Drawn by A. de Neuville. crime. One who kills a Brahman withintent must thrust his own head threetimes into the fire, until he die. If thekilling is unintentional, he shall build ahut in the woods and live alone fortwelve years, carrying the skull of theslain man in his girdle. So throughoutthe whole list of human misdeeds thesame irrational and ill-adjusted methodsof punishment are employed. other in an ascending scale. In thefirst three instances he was incarnatedin the form of animals, namely, as afish, as a tortoise, and as a boar. Inthe fourth earthly revelation he was theManu lion. Then began the humanavatars. In the fifth estate Vishnu wasa dwarf; in the sixth, a hero; and inthe seventh, a Ramchandra and a Krish-na. Buddha himself was an incarna- 668 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. tion. It is also believed that Vishnuwill ultimately appear on earth in hisown person. This will happen whenthe highest age of man has been re-dueed to twenty-three years. WhenVis

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

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y, and two of millet. Itappears that rye and oats were as yetunknown. Reverting to the animals of the lakeregions in prehistoric times we note twospecies of wild cattle, namely, the urusand the bison. The former seems tohave been reduced to partial domestica- 318 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. tion as early as the neolithic period, butno indication of such a fact has beenDeductions from found in the old stone age. the animal life of /p^g 1arp-est of the ani-the lake-d-well- & ingage. mals prevalent around the Swiss lakes were these two varieties ofwild oxen, the elk and the stag. Therhinoceros had disappeared and theurus had been much reduced from the served in the forests of Germany. It isnoticeable that the list of domestic ani-mals has been extended and confirmed.The horse has certainly become, in somemeasure, the servant of man, and sheephave been more positively reclaimedfrom the wild condition. It is thusevident that the mere barbarous life ofhunters and flesh-eaters was giving way

 

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SWISS LARK VILLAGE OF THE AGE OF BRONZE.—Drawn by Riou. great proportions which he bore in thetimes of the cave men. Looking backfrom our own point of view we note thatelks have not existed in Switzerland dur-ing the historical period, though theystill maintained an existence in the low-land forests as late as the Roman period.The ibex has also disappeared. Thesmaller of the wild animals enumeratedabove still prevail in their ancient habi-tat, and even the wild boar has been pre- to a higher and more rational mode ofexistence among these villagers of theSwiss lakes. It will be of interest to add a fewwords relative to the birds which cameby water or by air to the J J Species of birds habitations of the lake men. belonging to the . 1 , same epoch. The golden eagle circledabove them. The bones of at least fourvarieties of hawk have been discovered.Two kinds of owl were known, and two PRIMEVAL MAX.—LAKE DUELLERS OF SWITZERLAND. 319 varieties of crow. The common .starlingwas present,

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

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miocene epoch as the date of theirproduction. It should be understood by the readerin his effort to grasp the remoteness ofthe probable period at which these most 106 GREAT RACES OE MANKIND. aboriginal implements were producedthat the gap in time and skill and prog-Immense time- ress between such finds and gap between sue- th next jn orcjer [s verycessive arense- J oiogicai ages. oreat. It would seem in-deed that the period reaching from theage of these most archaic relics to the ageof the finely executed flint arrowheads andspearheads which we may see in almostany museum of natural history, was fully anthropoid apes. The latter have beenknown to break a club from the branchof a tree and to set the weapon in a placewhere it might be found again; then touse it a second time—all this, however,without direct adaptation of the weaponto the object of its use. In the case ofthe stone implements of the earliest age,we find them, as a rule, prepared onone side only. The first men seemed to

 

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LANDSCAPE OF .THE MIOCENE—BORDERLAND OF MAN.—Drawn by Riou. as extensive as that reaching from the ageof the arrowpoints to the age of iron. This consideration, indeed, brings usagain to the use and application of rightIntelligence of reason to the •problem be-the first men fore us. The ancient im- compared with that of animals, plements which we are hereconsidering mark the first departure ofhuman intelligence from that of thelower animals. The rude artisanship ofthe articles in question advances but astage above the skill and cunning of the have sought such fragments of stone ashad been partly shaped by the accidentof nature. This fact would reduce theamount of labor and skill which theaborigines must employ in preparingthe other side of the block. Perhaps amajority of the most ancient forms arecharacterized by human workmanshipon one side only, the other remaining asit was produced in the more ancientshop of nature. The span from such art as this to that TIME OF THE BEGINNING

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

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ingly allied, by race descent, on the eastwith the Armenians, and on the westwith the Thracians. It is not the placeto review the important historical bear-ings of Phrygia in the earlier ages ofGrecian history, or to repeat the tradi-tions and legends which have been pre-served of the nation. South of Phrygia lay the smaller statesof Caria, Lycia, and Pisidia; and to the DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACES.—WEST ARYAX MIGRA TIONS. 487 north, on the shores of the Black sea andreaching to the Bosphorus, was the coun-try of Bithynia. All of these Other Minor . Asians; Lydi- districts were peopled by ans in particular. , -, i i • ■, tribes who were dispersedright and left from the original Aryanmigration which brought the ancestors the ^gean were from the earliest agesintimate. The Lydians were to theJEgean sea what the Phoenicians were tothe Eastern Mediterranean. In the artsand sciences they antedated the Greeks,and their history is only second in im-portance to that of the Hellenic states.

 

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ROUTE OF WEST ARYANS THROUGH ASIA MINOR—Pass of Hadjin, in Cappadocia.Drawn by Grandsire, after Langlois. of the Europeans to the eastern bor-ders of the JEgean sea. Immediatelywest of Phrygia, next the archipelago,was the important state of Lydia. Thehistory of the people who were here de-veloped is better known than those whogrew into importance further east. TheLydians were nearly allied to the Greeks.The Ionian cities were on the Lydiancoast, and the commercial relations be-tween the peoples on the two sides of We have thus noted the westwardprogress of the Aryans through thewhole country from Upper Mesopotamia tO the ^Egean Sea. This Minor Asiansr T A • contemporary- region of Lesser Asia pie- withtheIrani. sented one of the earliest ansandindicans. fields of Aryan development. While the Medes and Persians on the east of the Zagros, and the Indie Aryans in the Punjab, were laying the foundations of their respective nationalities, the 488 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. various people

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

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RACE CHART No. 2. EXPLANATION. This Chart shows the geographical spread of the East Aryan family ofmankind. (For the connection of this stock with the whole race of man-kind, see Race Chart No. i, at the proper point of departure, to the left,above.) The point of departure for this division is indicated by the heavyred line at the foot of the Caspian Sea, near Teheran. The East Aryans, from this region, departed to the right hand; whilem^ West Aryans (see Armenians, Georgians, Ossetes, etc.) departedto the left. The movement extended eastward until the stricture between theCaspian Sea and the Persian Gulf was passed, when the race branched outin many directions. The northern division, now represented in Turkestan, was the Usbeks.To the south were the old races of the Medes and Persians. The ancientPersians, as will be seen, developed into several modern families. Out of thisline sprang the Afghans, and further to the south the Beluchs. Far to thenorth, from the original Iranian stem,

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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tion. Next after cotton may be ranked thejute of India. It is virtually a hemp,though the fiber is somewhat coarser.The region of its production is confined 704 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. to Bengal, on the north and east. The ehief seat of the product is in the valley of the Brahmaputra, where The jute indus-try; extent of the jute nourishes in thethe product. i_ • i_ j. j Ti highest degree. It isbelieved that no other product whichhas reached to the rank of an importantexport has done so much in a reactionary-way for the comfort of the producers asjute. It is one of those peculiar prod- Of the purely European productswhich have been introduced into In-dia, indigo is entitled to the . Large place of first rank ; but the interest indigo in Indian -, -i i -i • i ., commerce. m it has declined in thelast quarter of a century. In NorthBehar the industry is as important asever, and from this single district abouthalf the product of the entire country isderived. The exports of the dye from

 

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OPIUM MANUFACTORY.—Drawn by A. Sirouy, from a photograph by Madame Dieulafoy. ucts which does not perish when placedin depot from season to season, and thesupply, therefore, may be regulated bythe producer according to the demandsof the market. In 1872 a million acreswere planted in jute, and it is estimatedthat the area of country in which it maybe profitably produced extends to overtwenty million of acres. The exportfrom Calcutta has amounted in a singleyear to more than four million poundssterling. all India amounted in the years 1878-79to nearly three million pounds sterling. But the most profitable of the EastIndian industries, so far as exportationis concerned, is that of opium. Thevalley of the Ganges and the table-land ofCentral India are as much Extent, impor-a native place of the opium- ^^^Tproducing poppy as is Per- duction.sia herself. The production of opium inIndia is under the control of the govern-ment. In some districts the growth of THE INDICA NS.—RESO URCES. 705

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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■ YOUNG LADY OF ISPAHAN—TYPE.Drawn by Adrien Marie, from a photograph by Madame 1 lielilafoy. of the Zoroastrians. The materials ofsuch building are cut stone and bricks. The smaller architecture of the Per-sians has but little interest to the traveler. The houses of the people Aspect of Fer-j -~1„., sian houses and are square in ground plan towns; interiorand have flat roofs. This decorations,gives to the structures the appearance ofcubes. The materials are wood, brick,

 

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ARCHITECTURE OF THE PERSIANS.—Tomb of Iman Mousa, at Kazhemeine.—Drawn by Barclay, from a photograph. THE IRA XIA NS. —A RCHITEt Tl TRE. 627 and stone. White is preferred as thecolor of the exterior. The plan is uni-formly followed, and the appearance ofbuildings is correspondingly monot-onous. The Per- _sian town or cityis unattractive initself, though thesurroundings arebeautiful. It isthe custom toplant gardens andorchards aroundthe towns in closesetting againstthem. The abun-dance of rosetrees and otherflowering shrubsin the gardensand yards makethe towns to ap-pear embowered.Viewed from adistance the pic-ture thus affordedis sometimes ex-quisite. But with-in the cities theillusion is dis-pelled. Thestreets are neverimproved. Theyare merely nar-row roads of clay,and are alwayseither dusty ormuddy. They aretoo narrow as arule to permit of *the passage ofwheeled vehicles,and are uneven for want of paving. The disposition and tastes of the Per-sians, however, have compensated f

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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the rightto reduce to serfdom certain HominesVageniti, or vagrants, who had come intothe country. This same people pitchedits tents along the Danube as early as1417. In 1422 it was estimated that four-teen thousand of them had reached Italy.In August, 1427, a band numbering ahundred and twenty came to Paris,representing themselves as fugitivesfrom the Saracens in Egypt. It isdoubtless from this circumstance thatthe name Gypsy has been applied to therace. In 15 30 they had become so numer-ous in England that Henry VIII issued aproclamation against them. In nearlyevery country of Western Europe stat-utes were enacted to prevent the incom-ing of Gypsies and to expel those whoalready arrived. 746 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. At the present time it is estimatedthat Europe contains about seven htm-Deveiopment of dred thousand of this race. Gypsy tribes in T] hay d their Europe and J J America. into the two Americas, into the islands of the sea, into Austra-lia. Everywhere their character is the

 

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BENJARI GYPSIES—TYPES.Drawn by A. de Neuville, from a photograph. same. The form, the features, the man-ner of life and character of the Gypsiesare repeated in all places where theirtents or huts are found. The physiog-nomy is plainly Asiatic. The Gypsyface is the best representation to be seenwest of the Atlantic of the face of the Hindu. The complexion is tawny;eyes black, glancing- quickly to right andleft, black hair, cheek bones high andprominent, lower jaw slightly project-ing, mouth small, and teeth white andeven. It is not uncommon to .see amongGypsy women and girls figures and fea-tures that would be consid-ered beautiful by the mostcritical judgment of West-ern peoples. The character of theGypsy race is bad in the last degree. Mendicant and Both mtn^SSSr and women race-are usually degraded. Itis not, however, chargedthat they have licentioushabits. They are addictedto every sharp practice bywhich rogues and thievesobtain property that is nottheir own. They are con-sciencel

  

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