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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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THE EDEN OF POETRY.—Miltons Vision of the First Pair and Raphael.—Drawn by Gustave Dore. MANNER OF THE BEGINNING.—FIAT AND EVOLUTION 193 the Elohim is said to have blown as thefirst movement of order. This notion is strongly imbedded inthe cosmogony of the Chaldees, thoughvariations m with them the primevalflood is spoken of as femi-niuc, instead of the mascu-line form used in Genesis. The universalchaos is, in the oldest Babylonian ac-counts, regarded as containing the crea- tine Chaldeestory of the be-ginning. the primeval flood, but as apart there-from, and brooding over it, and sendingthereon the primal winds of order. In other respects the ancient Semiticaccounts of the creation preserved in the fragments of BerOSUS, and General agree- better still in those inscrip- JS££2££°tions and tablets which the tion-learned George Smith has interpretedto the understanding of our age, corre-

 

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ONE OF THE PRIMORDIAL CONDITIONS OF THE GLOBE. tive beings or forces by whose agencythe world was to become organic andman be produced. From this conceptthere was a departure in the Hebrewnarrative. In the latter the Demiurgeis not represented as coming up out of 1 The language of Genesis seems in the originalto bear this sense: Now the earth was involved inchaos, and darkness was upon the face of tehom(that is, the flood), and the wind of the Elohim washovering upon the face of the waters. Then theElohim said, Let light be. And light was. spond with the majestic imagery out-lined in the Book of Genesis. There isthe same general arrangement of thematerials of nature and the same agentsof order and intelligence; the same in-troduction of a Demiurge, or Creator,speaking a fiat; the same eulogy pro-nounced after each creative effort uponthe thing created as good or beauti-ful or delightful; the same subor-dination of the stars and greater lumina-ries as determining days and seasons. 194

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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g the remains of a reindeer ina given country as we should expect tofind a pliocene stratum under a chalkbed—unless, indeed, there had been inthe latter case a physical cataclysm toproduce the inversion. This established order in the animal 112 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. world has been of vast use in determin-ing- the date of human phenomena inMan-life closely the prehistoric ages. Manhistorian?6 nas always been closelymai species. associated with the otherforms of animal existence. Being tosome extent carnivorous in his habits—and much more so in the barbarous thanin the civilized condition—he has from we have many additional facts that areof great value and essential interestdrawn from the history of „„ J Wild animals di- the fauna of the WOrld. minish in size in„ «... . -, -, c successive eras. One of these is the law 01diminishing size and power which holdsgenerally of the different species of wildanimals and inversely of the domesticanimals. Many of the beasts which in-

 

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Elephas primigenius. Glyptodon.ANIMALS ASSOCIATED WITH PRIMEVAL MAN. Cave bear. -Drawn by Riou. his most primitive condition relied to avery great degree upon the associatedorders of life for his means of subsist-ence. We are not here to dwell uponthese facts save sufficiently to show theusefulness of animal remains in deter-mining the unknown dates of humanhistory. Besides the established order of ani-mated nature, from the first appearanceof life on the earth to the present day, habited the earth colncidently with thefirst men were of prodigious size. Wehave already referred by name to severalof the huge carnivora at one time pre-vailing in Europe and America. One ofthese was the tremendous cave bear, an-other the cave lion, another the cavehyena. In general, these creatures wereof the genus Felis. Besides these therewere vegetable-eating animals, also hugeand powerful. To this order belonged TIME OF THE BEGINNING.—PAL^EONTOLOGICAI PROOFS. 113 the gigantic Megaceros Hibernicus, or

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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icated inthe geological formation of the earth.How great these periods are has never TIME OF THE BEGINNING.—ARGUMENT FROM GEOLOGY 85 been determined, and it is possible thattheir duration may remain indeterminateExact time to the end of time. But measurement approximations can be not required m fit world history. made which are highly use-ful, and many scientific data exist bywhich previous calculations may be rec-tified. Every decade witnesses an in-crement of knowledge to the subject be-fore us, and wider and more accurategeneralizations are gradually building up tions are conducted. In the first place,the rate of geological change now goingon in the earth is a matter of observa-tion and scientific measurement. Theslow but steady transformation of theearths surface, the reduction of its in-equalities, its tendency toward the level,its failing adaptations to certain formsof vegetable and animal life, and manyother of our superficial terrene phe-nomena are well-known facts, and have

 

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PAL/EOZOIC AGE OF THE EARTH.—Devonian Landscape.—Drawn by Riou. an accepted theory of the geological ageof our planet. The question may well arise by whatpossible means the inquirer can arriveat any practical conclusions relative toPrinciple of de- the lapse of time in formertermining the peri0(ls; that is, in the pre- rate of geolog- r i icaichanges. historic ages of our world.It may be appropriate, in view of thisjust skepticism, to cite a few of the factsand principles by which such investiga- been observed in their processes for asufficient period to warrant scientific de-duction as to both the future and thepast. To this we must add the accepted lawof the uniformity of nature, uponwhich, indeed, all science Acceptance of .::tm:~,~,, the law of the rests as upon an immov- uniformity0fable foundation. We may nature,safely assume that the processes of thenatural world which we observe around 86 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. us are the same processes which havebeen giving form and featu

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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the belief that the ap-pearance of man on the planet wouldoccur at the earliest practicable moment(so to speak), and that mankind wouldcontinue to nourish to the latest practi-cable date. It is one of the novel con- 82 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. tradictions in the philosophy of a certainschool of thinkers that they would haveus believe that the earth, fitted up as itwere for the dwelling place of man, laygreen and virgin, waiting for his ap-pearance through eons of useless time—all this for no better reason than to sat-isfy the preconceptions of some impossi-ble system of chronology. Such short-sighted views of nature consistent with the astronomical andgeological preparation of the globe.Reason and fact alike require us to ac-cept as early a date for the appearanceof man as the design of the world andits conditions of habitability will admit.The results of reason must be acceptedin a world governed by law. That thedate of mans appearance was coinci-dent, or nearly coincident, with the

 

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.ANDSCAPE OF THE LOWER OOLITE (BEFORE THE AGE OF MAN).—Drawn by Riou. and of man we may at once dismiss asbelonging to the ignorance and blindnessRight reason de- of a former age. WhiledaTeforappS- the demands of right reason anceofman. ft0 not call for a limitless extension of man-life into the past, andwhile such a view is contradicted by sci-entific data which may not be doubted,a rational concept of the human race inrelation with the planetary life uponwhich it is maintained does call for aswide and far-reaching an arena as is astronomical changes in the characterof the earths orbit heretofore described,can not well be doubted by any onewhose mind has been freed from nar-row preconceptions on the subject.That our race career, measuring back-ward through the brief historical andtraditional periods of our ethnic life, hasextended far enough into the past tocover a considerable part of the planetlife with which it is associated, is a con-clusion warranted by every condition of TIME

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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islands, is called the Ethiopianregion. The Oriental region includesthe Malay peninsula and islands, Hin-dustan, and Southern Arabia. Aus- PLACE OF THE BEGINNING.—LEMURIA. 179 tralia, Polynesia, and New Zealandare defined as the Australian region.South America, the West Indies, andMexico as far north as the tropic, con-stitute the Neotropical region, while theremainder of North America is definedas the Nearctic region. The problem iswith the map thus adjusted, to deter-mine by orders, suborders, and familiesthe distribution of the primate animals. which we have fixed upon as the prob-able home of the first men, was held inbetween the two approxi- Place of sup- 1 _L posed continent mate parts defined in the between Ethio- . - . , „ , . . pian and Orien- above table as the Ethiopian tai regions,and Oriental regions. A glance at thesynopsis will show the astonishing pre-ponderance of the primate animals inthose countries. True, the largest sin-gle distribution is that of one hundred

 

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AMERICAN MONKEY WITH PREHENSILE TAIL. The following table prepared by Win-chell contains an abstract of the results: DISTRIBUTION OF PRIMATE AND CARNIVOROUS ANIMALS. No. of Families. Apes Old World Monkey> Baboons and Macaques., American Monkeys Marmosets a. Total Anthropoids Lemurs...Tassiers.. Aye-ayes. Total Lemuroids. Total Primates. Carnivora Total Primates andCarnivora 70 Otfl ■Set .2 a~ 9i;3) < 50 105 90 195 I 161 °-2 g,2 33114 11448 43 It will be remembered by the readerthat the supposed continent of Lemuria, and fourteen species in South America;but it has been noted that the SouthAmerican primates are much lower inorder of development than are those ofSouthern Asia and Eastern Africa. Noapes or any of the higher primates havebeen found native in any part of theNew World. Leaving out, therefore,from the count the South Americanmonkeys and marmosets, which are thevery lowest of the anthropoids, we havethe primates virtually limited to thesouthern parts of Asia and the

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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ater and still greater depths, until at the presentday it is a common circumstance, both inEurope and America, to find the watersurface of running streams as much asa hundred feet or more below the levelformerly occupied by the river. Almostevery considerable stream presents oneither side a secondary terrace ofdrift which, at a former age, markedthe level of the bed. With the reces-sion of the waters to the presentchannels, the caverns formed in theold diluvial banks, especially thosein calcareous regions, have been leftdry. The mouths of such alluvialgrottoes open on the hillsides, facingthe rivers, and it was into thesecaverns that the animals, includingprimeval man, made their way as placesof natural resort in the earlier ages ofthe postglacial epoch. In the bottoms of nearly all of thecaverns are found a certain residual ofloam, or cave-earth, swept Date of remains in as sediment by the de- indicated fromparting waters; and over geo oglcathis loam there is usually a solid layer of

 

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EXAMPLE OF STALAGM1TIC FORMATION. stalagmite. Whatever organic remainswere left in the caverns in the age ofthe deposit were, as a rule, mixed with theloam, and afterwards covered and, as wf. 92 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. might say, hermetically sealed, with stal-agmitic material. It is easy to perceivethat a study of the rate of diminutionand sinking away of the rivers from theirformer elevation into their present bedswould furnish a measurement of timefor estimating the date of the depositof the human relics referred to. In sofar, therefore, as geology is able to de-termine the time at which the alluvialcaverns were formed and at which thereceding waters left them subject to hab-itation, she is able to suggest an ap-proximate date for the appearance ofman-life on the earth. The facts here referred to, which in

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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mote offspring of the parents of therace. In the tenth chapter there is anaccount of tribal and ethnic dispersionssufficiently ample to explain the presenceof the primitive peoples in the western-most parts of Asia, Southeastern Africa,and Eastern Europe. With this summary,however, the subject of ethnography isdropped from the Scriptures, thoughcertain important lines of descent wererecorded until long after the destructionof the Israelitish nation. The account of the origin of thingsgiven in the first chapter of Genesis is a part Of a lore which was Account of cre-nel o ~~:4-:„ ation in Genesis common to all the bemitic common t0 anpeoples of antiquity. All of the Semites,these held traditions in which the criticalreader is able to discover at least theoutlines of a common belief with regardto the modus operandi of creation. Oneof the particulars which always reap-pears in these accounts of the beginningis that flood, or great deep, or primevalchaos upon which the wind or breath of

 

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THE EDEN OF POETRY.—Miltons Vision of the First Pair and Raphael.—Drawn by Gustave Dore. MANNER OF THE BEGINNING.—FIAT AND EVOLUTION 193 the Elohim is said to have blown as thefirst movement of order. This notion is strongly imbedded inthe cosmogony of the Chaldees, thoughvariations m with them the primevalflood is spoken of as femi-niuc, instead of the mascu-line form used in Genesis. The universalchaos is, in the oldest Babylonian ac-counts, regarded as containing the crea- tine Chaldeestory of the be-ginning. the primeval flood, but as apart there-from, and brooding over it, and sendingthereon the primal winds of order. In other respects the ancient Semiticaccounts of the creation preserved in the fragments of BerOSUS, and General agree- better still in those inscrip- JS££2££°tions and tablets which the tion-learned George Smith has interpretedto the understanding of our age, corre-

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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uencein preserving the aggregation or compact- 474 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. ness of tribes in the formative state, andin conducing to certain religious and po-litical types of development. In the next place latitude, with its invariable concomitant of temperature, contributes much to modify the peoples who are subject to given Hamites areeth- J ° nicaiiy modified degrees of heat and cold. by environment. MM • . -, ,. 1 his is true m particular 01tribes who are still in the plastic state.There can be no doubt that there is achildhood and a youth to mankind—an men. They also grew sedate and aus-tere, less disposed to highly developedforms of society, and, in brief, morelike the desert and rainless countries in-to which they penetrated than were theraces which distributed themselves fur-ther northward. Among the oldest monuments of theEgyptians there are pictorial represen-tations of the differences which had al-ready been produced among the Noa-chite descendants by the influences of

 

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LANDSCAPE OF OLD ARYA—Ruins of Tous.—Drawn by A. de Bar, from a photograph. impressionable stage of evolution inwhich the influences of the externalworld are more potent in their reactionupon the mental and physical constitu-tion than they are in later stages of de-velopment. In these early stages of so-ciety there are infantine susceptibilitiesand diseases from which the race re-covers at a stage of fuller maturity. Forthis reason the early peoples in theirmigratory epochs have developed a con-stitution peculiarly significant of theclimate and region of their tribal so-journ. The races of Ham became muchdarker in color than their Semitic kins- environment. The sculptors, in these representations, have unwittingly borne evidence of the tendency of Egyptian sculp-tures evidenceraces m the plastic Stage Of the early differ-,1 • -I ,. , entiation of their evolution to con- races.form to climatic conditions. TheEgyptians defined themselves as RotJi,meaning red, or ruddy, as to compl

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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ROUTE OF THE PRAVIDTAN DISPERSION.—Gorge and Fortress of Arderbend.—Drawn by A. do Bar, after a sketch oJ Blocqueville. knowledge of the great political powercalled Rome was obliterated from theannals of mankind. Suppose that everybook in which a trace of the Latin lan-guage-and literature isrecorded wereutterly destroyed. Suppose that thememory and tradition of the peoplecalled Romans had passed completely Spanish, Portuguese, Wallachian, andProvencal, and examine their structureand peculiarities. It is found that theyhave been originally deduced from somecoinmoii speech having a grammar and vo-cabulary of a determinate form. Out ofthe study of these six languages that oldgrammar and vocabulary can be recon- DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACES.—THE BROWN DISPERSION. 507 striated, and when reconstructed, theyare Latin. If Latin, then there was aLatin race that spoke it. If a Latin race,it had its seat and its institutions. Theseat of the race can be discovered geo-graphically by tracing b

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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able for the human race. The science ofgeology belongs virtually to the presentcentury. Hitherto any truly scientificconcept of the formation Geological sci-and character of our globe ££?££££was wanting. All the for- century,mer achievements of mankind in geologi-cal inquiry were not equal in extent andvariety to those which have been made

 

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PAL.-EOZOIC AGE OF THE EARTH.—Landscape of the Eoce.ve.—Drawn by Riou. geological age of our planet, but only to by the geologists of the nineteenth cen-note the epoch in which it became habit- tury. The result has been a tolerably 84 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. complete investigation of the characterof the earths crust and of the order ofworld formation. A summary of theseresults may here be presented with aview to showing the epoch of man. In the bottom of the world we have the azoic, or lifeless, age. Above this, and next in order of succes- Outline of the order of the sion, we have the palaeozoic age; that is, the ancient life period of world formation. Above this the Carboniferous, and the Pemian strataof the earths crust. The secondaryrocks of the neozoic age include theTriassic, the Jurassic, and the Cretaceous,or chalk, formations. The tertiary, orcaenozoic, rocks are divided into whatare called the eocene, the miocene, andthe pliocene, and above these we havethe superficial f

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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THE IRANIANS.—ETHNIC DIVISIONS. 615 the transaction of business. In general,they present what many ethnographershave chosen to call the Caucasian type ofmankind at its best estate. In common with the other peoples ofWestern Iran, the Armenians exhibit a dividual in their character and as littlesubject to restraint as were their pre-historic ancestors. For this reason it is somewhat diffi-cult to generalize on the subject of man-ners and customs where the same are

 

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ARMENIAN ARCHBISHOP—TYPE.-Drawn by Y. Pranishmkoff. certain spirit of independence and loveof liberty. They regard valor as theprincipal virtue of life. In the cities ofArmenia society is well organized, butin the open regions, especially in thoseparts where the country becomes moun-tainous, the population consists of vigor-ous shepherd tribes, who are almost as in- so variable in different districts, Onething may be noted with peculiar inter-est, and that is the complete change in thechange in the method of method of dis- fe posing of the disposing of the dead. dead-Zarathustra required that the bodies ofthe dead should be exposed on high, ina kind of tower or building- erected for 616 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. that purpose, so that birds of prey mightgradually devour them. It was con-ceived that this, of all possible methods,was least likely to contaminate the ele-ments. It was held that earth burialwould pollute the ground. To submergethe body in rivers would defile thewater, and t

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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age permitted their retention. Fromthis source the system diffused itselfinto general litera-ture. The histor-ical writers of thelast century and ofthe first half of thepresent century,for the most part,continued to accept TIME instrument—ancientand to employ the sundial. Usherian dates for all the events inthe ancient history of mankind. To thepresent day the authorized editions of theBible are sent forth with the Usherian• chronology in the margin, and in thepopular belief that system is referred tothe same source and authority as that bywhich the sacred canon was produced!

 

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TIME INSTRUMENT—HOURGLASS. It was thus that in modern times asupposed date has been established forAstonishing de- the era of the creation ofUsherian6 the earth and man. Usher scheme. fixed upon the year 4004 P>. C. and the autumnal equinox of thatyear, namely October 23, as the pre- cise date of the apparition of the world!The creation of man he placed withequal exactitude five days later, that is,on October 28th!1 The remainder of

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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than all thelatent energies of the race are excited tofierce action. In times of peace they aredissipated, giving their whole time togambling, smoking tobacco or Indianhemp-seed, and chewing opium. The in- 638 terdict of Islam keeps them from the useof spirituous liquors. They are voraciousin appetite devouring immense quanti-ties of flesh, half raw, and filling them-selves with other crude articles of food.They season their victuals with capsi-cum, onions, garlic, and other strongand stimulating flavors, until one unac-customed to such fiery condiments couldin no wise swallow the burning mass. GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. a method derived from the Levitical law,as modified by the practice of Islam.The old Hebrew usage which requiredthe widow to be taken to wife by thesurviving brother is repeated in theBeluch custom. The funeral ceremonydemands a watch over the dead body forthree successive nights, during whichthe kinsfolk and friends of the deceasedspend their time in revel and feasting.

 

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DOMESTIC MANNF.RS OF THE BEIAJCHS.-Inter.or of TENT.-Drawnby Emile Bayard, after Vambery. Mohammedanism has gradually en- |croached upon the old instincts of theslavery and the Iranian race. Slavery isslave trade; universal, each petty chief marriage and x \ ceremonies. having as large a retinue as possible. Polygamy prevails. Even thehill peasant will have as many as eightor ten wives, and the number is in-creased with the ascending rank of theman. Young women are obtained bypaying cattle or sheep or goats to thefather. The marriage is performed after The dress of the Beluchs is similar tothe Tajik costume already described.They wear for under-gar- Dregs ot thement a shirt, generally of Beiuchs; the 0 . peasant garb. blue or white calico, but-toned at the neck and reaching belowthe knee. They have wide trousers,which are open at the ankle. The head-dress consists of a turban, which isgenerally a high silk or cotton cap,quilted and fitted to the head. Thechiefs and their relatives wea

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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but only to by the geologists of the nineteenth cen-note the epoch in which it became habit- tury. The result has been a tolerably 84 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. complete investigation of the characterof the earths crust and of the order ofworld formation. A summary of theseresults may here be presented with aview to showing the epoch of man. In the bottom of the world we have the azoic, or lifeless, age. Above this, and next in order of succes- Outline of the order of the sion, we have the palaeozoic age; that is, the ancient life period of world formation. Above this the Carboniferous, and the Pemian strataof the earths crust. The secondaryrocks of the neozoic age include theTriassic, the Jurassic, and the Cretaceous,or chalk, formations. The tertiary, orcaenozoic, rocks are divided into whatare called the eocene, the miocene, andthe pliocene, and above these we havethe superficial formations known as thepost-tertiary, quaternary, pleistocene, ormost recent deposits of all. This sketch

 

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PAL/EOZOIC AGE OK THE EARTH.—Cambro-Silurian Landscape.—Drawn by Riou. and succeeding it we have the neozoic,or new-life, age, reaching to the surfaceand including the present life-forms ofthe world. For convenience, the neozoicage has been divided into a lower, calledthe secondary, or mesozoic, period; andan upper, called the tertiary epoch. Thepalaeozoic age, if we begin at the bottom,next to the azoic rocks, includes theCambrian, the Silurian, the Devonian, includes what are known as the fossil-iferous strata of the world, reachingdownward from the present fauna andflora of the surface to the lifeless bed ofthe azoic rocks. It is needless to urge upon the atten-tion of any intelligent reader the greatperiods of time which are indicated inthe geological formation of the earth.How great these periods are has never TIME OF THE BEGINNING.—ARGUMENT FROM GEOLOGY 85 been determined, and it is possible thattheir duration may remain indeterminateExact time to the end of time. But meas

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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he northern division, now represented in Turkestan, was the Usbeks.To the south were the old races of the Medes and Persians. The ancientPersians, as will be seen, developed into several modern families. Out of thisline sprang the Afghans, and further to the south the Beluchs. Far to thenorth, from the original Iranian stem, arise the Bactrians, one of the oldestfamilies of this division. The migratory stem of the East Indian races is indicated by the wordIndicans. From this stem arise the Punjabese; and from this stock, in turn,the old Brahmans, in the valley of the Indus; and the great Hindu family,farther to the East. From the Punjabese stem, we have the modern Nepa-lese. From the Hindu stem, we have the great races of the Mahrattas, theBengalese, etc. From the Bengalese division, at its easternmost extreme, wehave the Indo-Burmese family, which is the remotest Asiatic division of theEast Aryan races. The Chart covers about fifty degrees of longitude, andtwenty degrees of latitude.

 

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Jnvl :copyright:Ijiriu THE RUDDY RACES. I.-The East Aryans. BOOK V.-THE IRANIANS. Chapter XXXIII .-Elementary Character and Religion.

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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d transfor-mations is simple growth. The germ,or living cell, begins to increase in size.This is the first manifestation, indeed,that the particle of matter in question isa true germ. It expands by a forceseemingly within itself; but at first with-out other modification in character. It remains under the first expansion simpleand homogeneous. The second stage of the evolution ismarked by the appearance of a stricturecorresponding to the equator of the cellby which a division begins in what mannerto be effected, and two £eB£yU£££scells produced instead of offission.one. Each of the two parts assumes,in turn, the form and character of theoriginal; but the division is not com-plete, the substance of the two cells con-tinuing to flow in common under theline of stricture. Around each of thetwo lobes lines of division appear, andfour parts are produced instead of two,and these four, by division, become eight,each of which retains the exact charac-teristics of the original germ. Thus is

 

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MANNER OF GERM DEVELOPMENT BY FISSION (SUCCESSIVE STAGESMARKED A, B, C, D). produced what is known as a cell aggre-gate, which is the first stage in the ad-vance from the germ toward completeorganic being. The question at once arises by whatmeans this first enlargement of germ lifeis effected. Whence comes Howthemate-the material which the cell j^°h°awuses in its own enlarge- gathered,ment? Certainly not out of nothing.The cell has the power of appropriation.It has this in virtue of the life-principlewithin. It draws to itself and absorbsthe aliment whereby the increase in sizeand the other phenomena of divisionand multiplication are produced. Thematerials so gathered are not mechan-ically distributed as if they were packed 208 GREAT RACES OE MANKIND. between the parts of the living cells,but are absorbed and assimilated withthe substance thereof, or, in a word,digested. The next stage in the evolution is the formation of what is called the gastmla out of the cell aggregate. Formati

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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of his existence areeverywhere abundant as far south as theAlps and the Pyrenees. Of the extinctanimals that have flourished since the ap-pearance of man only the mammoth andthe hairy rhinoceros seem to have beenolder species than the reindeer. Thelatter appears to have had great endur-ance, and as late as the time of the com-position of Caesars Gallic War the animal still roamed in the Hercynian forest—atM.—Vol. i—20 least such was the information broughtto Caesar. The primitive man capturedthe reindeer, feasted on his flesh, took hishorns for implements, and his hide for acloak; but the animal was not domesti-cated in prehistoric times. More noted still as a contemporary ofthe cave dwellers was the great stagcalled the Irish elk. Thiswas, perhaps, the most mag-nificent animal of all thatwe are here considering. He grew to astature of more than ten feet, and anexisting pair of his antlers measureseleven feet from point to point! These Size and charac-teristics of theIrish ellc.

 

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MAMMOTH, RESTORED. tremendous horns were palmated likethose of the American moose, and thehuge creature dashing about the Irishpeat bogs or through the oak woods ofBritain must have been terrible, evensublime, in aspect. His remains arefrequently found in the peat measuresof Ireland and on the Continent, but stillmore abundantly in the lacustrine shellmarl underlying the bog earth of themarsh lands. Xext in order of these prehistoricanimals is the glutton, called in Amer-ica the wolverene. He appears to havebeen a contemporary of the creatures 298 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. above enumerated, and in many places to have had a particular association with man. But more impor- The prehistoric . . bison of Europe lant by far in such associ- and America. ^^ wag the aurochS) Gr European bison. This animal has beenIon-- extinct in France and England,and vet we have the remarkable fact ofhis survival in a cognate species in gravel yields some relic of this heavyprehistoric animal. Oddly enough, hi

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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dence of the ancient activities of men,are plentifully distributed. These arethe mounds which the tribes builded,in burial and for other Tumuli and oth- 11 11 i er memorials of purposes, generally called primeval man inTumuli: standing stone Europe,structures of several varieties, knownas Menhirs, Cromlechs, and Dol-mens; barrows, camps, fortifications,dykes, and perhaps altars of sacrifice,besides manv other kinds of rude 332 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. architecture and memorials. Such re-mains, hardly of sufficient dignity to beknown as ruins, are found not only inEurope but everywhere in the world.

 

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MENHIR, AT CROISIE, FRANCE. Perhaps no country, great or small, iswithout such manifest evidences and il-Abundance of lustrations of the long dead such remains actiyitieS of ITlCeS and throughout the -world. tribes unknown to history. Everywere this substratum of humanlife, more aboriginal than the aborigines,existed. Traces of it are found on everyhand. America, as well as the olderlands, abounds in astonishing proofsof nations that existed here, even instrength, between whom and the Indianraces tliat held the continent on its open-ing to civilization as wide aspace of time and characterexists as that between therudest of the Red men andtheir Saxon conquerors.The mound builders havebeen abroad ; and the long,serpentine mole of earth, orconical hill, of artificial con-struction, standing here andthere in the civilized coun-tries of to-day, bear mute,but everlasting testimony of the ancientand undiscoverable peoples who havegone down to dust. It is said by Sir John Lubbock that in the

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

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e left, and especiallyabout the debouchure of thestream near the mouth. Whilethis process is going on the banks of theriver on this side and on that are wornaway and carried along with the current.Sometimes a whole valley, by a change inthe course of the stream, is swept outand deposited somewhere below. Thesecircumstances must be borne in mind ifwe would apprehend clearly the natureof the discoveries to which attention willnow be called. As early as the beginning of thiscentury implements and weapons wereknown to have been gathered fromriver-drift gravel beds, but the signifi-cance of such discoveries was unnoticed or ignored. There has been a strangedisposition, even on the part of scholars,to maintain old traditionary views aboutthe age of man on the earth. Everynew fact tending to show the antiquityof the human race has been resisted andresented as a sort of intrigue againstthe integrity of existing beliefs. In geological science this tendencyhas been especially noticeable. Geolo-

 

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BWil m PALEOLITHIC RIVER-DRIFT SPEARHEADS. gists themselves have for a long timeshut their eyes to the most palpablefacts, patent to their own Dogmatism con-senses. It was from this ^peXgr^er.supposable salutary con- drift findings,servatism that the first discoveries ofprehistoric relics in the gravel beds, aswell as in other situations, were ignoredand denied. Those who were deter-mined to maintain the old views respect-ing the chronology of the earth and itsinhabitants put forward all sorts of ridic-ulous hypotheses to account for thatwhich was unaccountable under theirown theory. They even published 328 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. treatises in which it was boldly allegedthat the old stone implements whichhad been found in prehistoric situationswere forgeries which had been perpe-trated against authentic science—thatthose who were trying to disturb thecurrent beliefs of mankind had inventedthe alleged discoveries to produce a newhypothesis respecting the antiquity ofthe human race! G

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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ionwith what we know of the present eth-nic position and former migrations ofthe various peoples of the earth. Thisview is in brief, that the geographicaldistribution of land and water in thatquarter of the earth from which it wouldappear that the human race has takenits origin may not be, and in all proba-bility is not, the same as it was at thedate of the appearance of man. PLACE OF THE BEGINNING.—LEMURIA. 173 There are many grounds for believingthat the water area now occupied withGrounds for the Arabian sea and theSSiSedncaon- northern parts of the Indiantment. ocean, including Mada- gascar and extending eastward almostto Australia and the Malay peninsula,was formerly a continent upon which a great submerged continent in the re-gion referred to is rendered probable, ifnot positively established, by severalkinds of inquiry having no reference toethnological results. In the first place, the shoal characterof the waters of the greater part of theIndian ocean is a well-known fact of

 

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IDEAL LANDSCAPE OF LEMURIA.—Drawn by Riou. the ocean gradually encroached until itssubmergence was effected. If this sug-gestion were made with a view merelyto furnish a possible common home forprimitive mankind, it might at once berejected as a part and example of thatvisionary reasoning in which dogmaticscholarship has so much delighted forseveral centuries; but the existence of marine geography. That part of theocean between the thirtieth degree ofsouth latitude and the equa- shoal charactertor bounded east and west andindS^by Madagascar and the ocean-eightieth meridian from Greenwich isvery shoal. Should we take our standon the island of Mauritius or Rodriguez,we should see around us a vast area of 174 GREAT RACES OE MANKIND. shallow sea. Even beyond the bordersof this the waters are not deep like thoseof the profound Pacific. A compara-tively slight recession of the ocean suchas we may well suppose to occur in oneof those secular movements to whichthe fluid surface of the earth

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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^»« * $ % «^:registered:e> # :copyright: ^

 

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ARCH.EOLOGICAL EVIDENCES OF MANS EXISTENCE.A, megalithic covered structure ; B, stone circle—horizontal and vertical views • C, mound with stone entrances; D, megalithic ruins of causeway. which has been already geologicallydetermined, holding the remains ofmans work and workmanship in amatrix, furnish therefore an ordo whichcan not well be misapprehended. Thebottom principle of the science is thatthere is a definite correlation betweenall the arts in the various periods ofhuman development and the world his-tory in which and on which those arts mals which have existed on the earth.These are classified and arranged accord-ing to the natural order ni . „ . & Scope and hmi- which they have succeeded tations of pa- ... j. laeontology. one another as species ofliving- organisms. The relations betweenplant-life and animal life are established,and the dependencies of animate uponinanimate forms of existence scientific-ally determined. Not only the surface 46 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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knowPhilosophical more precisely the date,fZtTir °f the locality, and all the con-knowledge. comitants and conditions under which our ethnic career begfan.Nevertheless, exact knowledge has itsdiscounts and defects in the treasure-total of our mental wealth. It may be observed that the exact sciences, whilethey have a vast and salutary effect uponthe mind in correcting the judgments anddecisions of the intellect, neverthelesstend to reduce all mentality to a formulaand mathematical equation. At thesame time they tend to weaken by disusethe ideal faculties, to benumb if not de-stroy the fancy and the imagination, andthereby diminish that excursive powerof the mind upon which the discoveryof truth and beauty has so greatly de-pended. It is not desirable that con-jecture, uncertainty, and doubt shouldbe removed from the concepts which weform of ourselves and of universal nature,else the dream of the artist and visionof the poet might cease to add their giftsto the treasures of humanitv.

 

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

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ASPECTS OF CASHMERIAN LIFE.-Davcing Girl of Serinagur.—Drawn bv Emilf BavaM THE INDICANS.—ETHNIC CHARACTER IS I US. 721 nic term, Mahratta is not definitive.Neither is it the name for a particularExtent of Mah- social caste or a given re- SStSSKS: Mgion- xt is rather one of guage. those wide terms which history demands in the definition of arace somewhat composite in ethnic ele-ments, and even diverse in religious andsocial qualities. Still the diversity is notsufficient to warrant a ■ division intoseparate tribes. The common tic whichbinds the several peoples living withinthe regions defined above is language.They speak the Mahratti, one of themost widespread of the modern Indiantongues. In common with the otherIndie languages, it is a dialectical formof Hindi, differing only from Hindu-stani as French differs from Italian.Though the tribes of Mahrattas aresomewhat distinct in the different prov-inces, they are all true Indicans. Wehave Mahratta Brahmans, MahrattaRajputs, and M

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

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F HALSKOV, DENMARK. have examined in the preceding chapter.In general, the tumuli of Europe werebuilt in the age of bronze, and thereforeare posterior by a long epoch to the timesof the cave dwellers and coast people.This is plainly evidenced in the utensilsand weapons which arerecovered from themounds, and which arealmost invariably ofbronze material. Theworkmanship, more-over, is of that half-elegant design and exe-cution which belong toan age subsequent, bymany centuries, even tothe neolithic, or newstone, epoch. It nowremains for us to exam-ine, at least casually,some of the existingmonuments belonging to the age of themound builders in Western Europe. One of the most striking of thesememorials is the great megalithic ruinknown by the name of Stonehenge, the other. The outer circle is aboutthree hundred feet in circumference,and the stones in this row are as muchas sixteen feet in height and six feet indiameter. On the tops of the rude pil-lars are laid other stones, horizontally.

 

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DANISH TUMULUS. The inner circle is nine feet distantfrom the outer. The stones composingit are of smaller dimensions than theothers, and are in the native condition,while those of the outer circle have been 334 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. roughly hewn. The capstones also bearthe marks of having- been rudely cutinto their present shape. Originally the outer colonnade con-tained thirty of these great pillars, withtheir capstones, or imposts. Only sev-enteen of them now remain in posi-tion. The inner circle consisted atfirst of forty pillars, only a part of approach to the structure. Traces ofsmaller avenues are also to be found,and in the vicinity of the ruin are vari-ous stones which seem to have consti-tuted originally a part of the generaldesign. The whole aspect of the ruinas seen to-day is weird and spectral inthe last degree, and the beholder canbut be impressed with the strangeness,

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

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THE ENGIS SKULL. or might have contained the thoughtlessbrains of a savage. Very different from this, however, isthe skull described by Schaafhausen,which was taken from the cave of Nean-derthal, near Dusseldorf, in RhenishPrussia. The latter is so exceedingly 294 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. i in its form and structure as tosuggest, almost with the force of demon-stration, a type of life but little above

 

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ity indicated bythe Neanderthalskull. barous, has a skull at all comparablewith the Neanderthal in its small ca-pacity, outward-slopingocciput, and great thickness Peculiar animal- 0f boneThe a c company ing cut of anauthentic cast will suf-ficiently illustrate thecharacter of the skullunder consideration. It is not needed inthis connection to enterinto details respectingthe character of theother parts of the hu-man skeletons whichhave been found in thecave dwellings of Eu-rope. It is sufficient tonote the fact that ingeneral these remainsdepart somewhat fromthe highly developed and SVinmetri- Other features c a 1 forms of the skeletonsof the cave THE NK\N1>KRTIIAL SKULL. that of the beasts of the held. Theskull isalmost as flat and thick and re-ceeding as that of a gorilla. No manof any existing race, even the most bar- Of living dwellers. types of men, and vergeoff unmistakably in someparticulars toward theforms of the lower ani-mals. The arms, forinstance, of the cavemen were lo

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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talso of the vast Indie and Iranic-Aryanfamilies, as well as the still more widelydistributed Mongolian families by whichthe larger part of Asia, Polynesia, and theaboriginal Americas have been peopled. 168 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. The geographical belt in question co-incides roughly with the line of the riverPrimitive races Ural, the Caspian, the divi-depart right and j of modern Persia cen- left from, a com-mon belt, trally from north to south, the Persian gulf and its outlet into theArabian sea. So far as ethnological re-search has extended, it may be averredthat all the primitive races departedfrom this belt in their primal distribu- ceptional deviations and reflections asmay be accounted for by geographicalcontingencies and the vicissitudes of dis-covery and war. So also were the Semitic and theHamitic families dispersed from thesame belt of the earths surface. If wepress the inquiry further we shall findthe first appearance of the Black raceson the eastern coast of Africa, in the

 

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LANDSCAPE OF ETHNIC WATERSHED.—Mountains of Jobla.—Drawn by G. Vuillier. tion in an easterly or westerly direc-tion. It was only after the migrationsof the Mongoloid races had carried themto the eastern borders of the continentagainst the Yellow sea, the sea of Japan,and the sea of Okhotsk that the lines ofethnic diffusion were bent backwards ina westerly direction across the north-ern and northwestern parts of Asia. Inlike manner from the same meridian themigrations of the European Aryans werealways to the west, with only such ex- southern part of Hindustan—the formermoving in a western direction and thelatter in an eastern—show- All non-Aryansing conclusively that the J^ofdep-aTBlack division or divi- ture-sions of mankind also departed to rightand left from a meridian almost identi-cal with, the watershed of the White andBrown races across Asia. It is hardlypressing the hypothesis beyond the war-rant of established facts to say that with-in the belt of land and sea bounded

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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icated, in every particular, in theirattempted emergence from barbarism.In all the central regions of the XewWorld the Red Man will invite us withhis wigwam to scrutinize his mannersand customs and to note, not withoutsympathy, his hopes and aspirations. Far to the north the frozen ice hutsappear, with their stunted but resoluteinhabitants braving the rigrors of the 268 GREAT RACES OE MANKIND. frigid zone, kindling the fires withinthem and without from the same heavycarbonaceous elements furnished by themonsters of the deep. All these andmany more are the peculiarities of pri-meval life which will demand our atten-tion in the the present book. It can but be of interest in this con- would, under the influence of instinctcorrelated with their environment, adoptalmost identical methods in their strug-gle for existence and progress, andpresent a common type of development;but the facts are ■ utterly at variancewith this hypothesis. To the casual ob-server, indeed, it would seem that the

 

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ASPECTS OF BARBARIC LIFE.-Search for the Skulls.—Drawn by Riou. thus differentiate in mannerOf life? nection to discuss briefly the questionwhy it is that such radical differencesWhy do savages existed among the primi-tive tribes of men in theirmethods of organizingthemselves into societies. What werethe causes of so great divergences inthe early life of man? It would be in-ferred, a priori, that all semibarbarouspeoples in their emergence from savagery diverse methods, the opposing mannersand customs, and the contradictory in-stitutions of primitive mankind, werethe work of caprice rather than of rea-son and order. A closer study of theproblem, however, will doubtless showthat in this also, as well as in all otherelements of human history, law hasbeen the dominant principle and reasonthe guiding light.

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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hundred to three hundred yards inlength, perhaps two hundred feet inbreadth, and from two to ten feet inheight. The situation was along thesurf line of the sea, but generally outsideof the reach of the tide. The fact that these dunes and mounds were in the higher situations, beyondthe reach of the water, they were com-posed almost entirely of shells, and avery casual examination showed thatthe mollusks inhabiting them had be-longed to another age. Such was thebeginning: of the discoveries. The Danish naturalists led the way inexamining these strange formations;and it was at once observed that theshells were intermixed with the debris 322 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. of human life. Here, then, was a newclass of relics of prehistoric existence,and a new field of inquiry opened beforethe antiquary. Professor Steenstrup wasagain in the van in the exploration ofthe shell mounds. He gave them, inthe first place, the name which theyhave ever since borne, of Kitchenmiddens. In his own language the

 

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Flint core or nucleus. Flint flakes, Denmark WORKMANSHIP OF THE KITCHEN MIDDENERS word is Kjokkenmoddings, which signifieskitchen refuse heaps. The idea ofthe learned Dane was that thesemounds were the refuse of the foodand waste material of a people who hadbuilt their huts on the seashore, and hadmanifestly subsisted for the most parton shellfish. This primary hypothesisof the naturalist was borne out by allsubsequent investigations, and it wassoon established beyond doubt that a prehistoric people had chosen the shoreof this northern sea as the best vantageground which they could procure intheir struggle to preserve life and per-petuate their tribes. The shell mounds are by no meansisolated phenomena. They are rarelyfound singly, but in groups, covering aconsiderable extent of coast. This is tosay that the primitive peopledwelling here lived in ag-gregations, Or The kitchenvillflcrpc; of hilts middensindi vinages 01 nuit> cate village com. on the beach, ^unities. , Sometimes a pr

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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AryanLinguistic affin- stock. Their languagesfeatures^the are classical, and, strangeBritish rule. to say, are more nearly inanalogy with the current English tonguethan are the Highland dialects of Scot-land or the broken speech of Wales!Of the sixty-six million of Bengalese,forty-two and a half million are classi- fied as Hindus; and of the remainder,about twenty and a half million are.Mohammedans. The British lieuten-ant governor has thus under his swayin the single province of Bengal a largerMohammedan population than that ruledby the Sultan of Turkey! Besides thetwo great peoples, the Hindus and theIslamites, a small percentage of otherIndian races is diffused throughout thecountry, and to this must be added theEuropeans, notably the English, whohave sat down at Calcutta under a Mayand June temperature of one hundredand ten degrees F. to control anddirect a mass of nations numerically inexcess of all the other .subjects of thequeen. Chapter XLIII.-Isolated racks—General Aspects.

 

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T remains to noticebriefly one or two addi-tional Indian familiesless widely known thanthe great races alreadydescribed. In the west-ern part of the country,on the slopes of the Hindu-Kush, arethe Daradas, or Dards, and further tothe west another people called the Sijah-Posh. The latter word signifies blackcoats, because the men are mostly clad,as to their outer garments, in blackhides. To these people the Moham-medans give the name of Kaffirs, or In-fidels. It is believed that they migratedinto India from Kandahar in Afghan-istan. We have among these extreme racesthe same dialectical differences, the samepeculiarities, which belong to the otherbranches of the Indie familv. These mountaineers are larger in person andof finer build than are the people ofthe Punjab, or even their _ ,_ . J Distribution and old kinsfolk the Afghans, character of 1 v 1 - i • the Kaffirs. They have light skin,blue eyes, and blonde hair. They aremore warlike than the people in thevalleys of the Indus and t

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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SIVA AS MAN AND WOMAN. ble in many forms to English readers,and need not be repeated, career and evan- Tt wis in o-pikm-iI that gelisraoftheit was, in general, uiai »Enlightened of a sincere and elevated One.mind, highly sensitive in its organiza-tion and inspired by philanthropy, re- 670 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. belling against the current religious sys-tem of his country and people. He re-tires, as if into the desert. He museslong on life and destiny. He communeswith himself and with the invisibleSpirit. He struggles and writhes inanguish and despair. Light breaks intohis understanding. He becomes theBuddha, the Enlightened One. He

 

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NEPAL liUDDHA IN BRONZE.Drawn by I. Sellier, from the collection of Le Bon. takes that name and returns to hispeople as a teacher. He would substi-tute for the intolerable mass of formali-ties and philosophical dogmas of theBrahmans a new code of thought andmorality. He would teach the livingway. First a few, and then multitudes,follow him. He becomes, even in hislife, a great leader. I lis work is wellbegun. The burden is upon him. Heleaves to others what, he could not him- self accomplish within the limits of amortal life. He goes again alone to thewoods and deserts. He journeys on,and at last, wearied with the burden ofthought and oppressed perhaps withthe sorrows of the race, he sits down bythe root of a tree, and there, alone, givesup his spirit and enters into Nirvana.—Such is the origin of that great systemcalled Buddhism, which is now professedby 31.2 per cent of the human family. The reform thus instituted was almostidentical in its nature with the Protes-tant revolt which

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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TIME OF THE BEGINNING.—ETHNOLOGICAL ARGUMENT. 121 depicted in the Egyptian sculptures isalmost identical with that of to-day; butthe Copt of modern Egypt, affected ashe has been by so many historical in-fluences, has diverged not a little fromthe parent Egyptian type. The modernGreek and the modern Italian are dis-criminable by many ethnic marks fromthe great Greek of the ancient world andthe Roman original; but the wild menof the Asiatic steppes, and no doubt theaborigines of the American continent, kind had been evolved and establishedas they have ever since remained, howfar off must have been the Probable esti-beginnings of the process ! m!te ofthe du- & * r • ration of pre- If we should say that a historic ages,lapse of time equal to five times thewhole distance from the beginning: ofhuman annals to the present day shouldbe allowed for the ethnic divergence ofthe prehistoric races, we should certainlynot exaggerate the probabilities of thecase. That many thousands of years

 

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VALLEY OF THE EUPHRATES-ONE OF THE PRIMITIVE SEATS OF MANKIND.Drawn by Taylor, from a photograph by Madame Dieulafoy. have changed but little in form and fea-ture during several milleniums. Thislaw of the more rapid change of ethniccharacteristics under the civilized lifetends to lengthen, rather than abbreviate,the duration of that prehistoric period inwhich the ethnic peculiarities of the vari-ous peoples were evolved and fixed. If, therefore, as much as five thousandyears ago, when the civilized life hadcertainly and strongly asserted itself inthe valley of the Nile and had probablyappeared in the valleys of the Indus andthe Euphrates, the ethnic traits of man- M.—Vol. i—9 were required for such a transformationof peoples and kindreds as had alreadytaken place before tradition and historybegan to record the words and deeds ofmen, can hardly be doubted by any onewho has taken an enlarged view of thesubject. Not only has the prehistoric divergencein ethnic traits established the

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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SUPERSTITIONS OF THE HINDUS.—Ami-lets Taken- from the Body of Tippu Sair. upon the human mind. It is now clearlyperceived that superstitious beliefs andpractices can not coexist with scientificknowledge. We have already seen thatthe peculiarity of the recent ages is therapid extension of the knowledge of thelaws by which the phenomena of thematerial world are governed. This isequivalent to saying that superstition is tor is swung about the neck in confi-dent trust that the paternal spirit willfollow his image and guard his descend-ant who wears it. One of the most strik-ing superstitions relates to the dead.There is an abhorrent fear of all placeswhere dead bodies have been brought ordeposited. Even where cremation isemployed, the spot on which the cere- 736 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. mony is performed becomes a terror toall who approach it; and the small build-ings in which the ashes are stored areavoided as children would avoid an oldruin haunted by evil spirits. A like

 

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hindi; fakir, carrying circlets of ikon about HIS NECK.Drawn by Emile Bayard, from a photograph. fear possesses the Indian mind with re-spect to darkness. The night is dreaded.They who are willing to expose them-selves like good soldiers in the hazardsof battle, and who stand up against theenemy with a fair degree of courage, tremble with the coming of night.Doubtless it is the association in theirmind of the facts of darkness and deaththat have made both appalling. In common wTith the Oriental nations,the Hindus have a veneration for thedead. If they do not positively worshiptheir ancestors in the man- Shrines and ef- ner of the Egyptians, they figies to the de-at least erect small tern- par *pies to the fathers, and within these areplaced pieces of wood on which are drawnimages of the departed. The masses ofthe people have perhaps never been ableto grasp the idea of the universal Brah-ma as the supreme God of the world,and as a result, they have fallen throughthe intermediate stages

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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olutionas partly explanatory of the facts andconditions of life. They admit that evo-lution has performed a certain subordi-nate and limited office in the productionof the living forms now inhabiting theearth; but they lay great stress upon thephenomenal aspects of the beginning. On the other hand, the evolutionistsdo not exclude creation from the schemeof universal nature. As Neither theory we have said, they begin is exclusive ofthe inquiry with the fact oflife. The theory runs thus: Givenlife—that is, the primordial germs of life—and evolution will account for therest. But this theory clearly does notpreclude creation as a part—that is,the primal part—of the scheme of life. 186 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. From which, as indicated above, thetrue division of opinion relates to themode of operation—the processes andmethods by which the present organic dowed with life, and having in them thepossibilities of all the descendent speciesof living- beings which now appear onthe earth.

 

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THE TRADITIONAL EDEN. forms have come to pass—whether fromperfected ancestral pairs for each species,created by a fiat immediately, and, so tospeak, full-grown in power and capacity,ut whether from potential germs en- Still another observation should bemade at the outset with respect to thecontention of the two opinions or viewsof the origin of living species. Thisis that, on the whole, the belief in evo- MANNER OF THE BEGINNING.—FIAT AND EVOLUTION 187 lution as explanatory of the modus oper-andi of universal nature has steadilyBelief m evoiu- gained ground in the high- tion as a method t opinion Qf the age. Its gams ground. * among thinkers. first conquest Was that of the earth itself. The hypothesis of cre-ation, that is, of immediate and phe-nomenal creation, formerly included theearth as one of the products of a creativefiat. For a long time the conservativebeliefs of the past held their groundssteadily against the encroachments ofereoloQfv. That science was resisted inits pro

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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ytheir ancestral tribe had Migration pointsremoved from the Lower ^nSndEuphrates westward into proceeded.Canaan. This migration, well preservedin the history and tradition of the Israel-ites, furnishes an indication of the place, PLACE OF rilli BEGINNING.—ARGUMENT FROM MIGRATION. 159 or at least the direction, from which thevSemitie division of mankind was de-rived. In North America, within thehistorical period, we have an exampleof the migration of the Tuscaroras fromsouth to north—from the Carolinas tothe region of the New York lakes. Theancient world is full of the traces of suchmigratory movements among the primi- of the ethnic fluctuations by which theearth has been populated. We must notsuppose that the first men, The movements the first tribes of men, drift- of races are gov-ed over the continents under erne y awlawless impulses, blown hither and thith-er like mists before the capricious winds,but that all the transmigrations by whichtribes and peoples were carried into new

 

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WESTWARD PROGRESS OF THE SEMITES. tive peoples. That the Greeks came outof Asia can not be doubted any morethan that the Vandals, who conqueredSpain and Africa in the fifth century,came out of the North. The inquirer will not have pursuedthe subject far until he perceives thatthe migrations of antiquity, and, indeed,of all time, are governed by general laws,showing the direction and ultimate origin regions of the earth were under thereign of law. In some instances the motive or im-pulse of the primitive ethnic distribu-tion may be discovered, Not whim andand in other cases not ^llSHT^so easily. But aboriginal conduct,tribes, as well as enlightened people,act by motive and inducement, and notby whim and caprice. We may not 160 GREAT RACES OE MANKIND. suppose, for instance, that the originalAryan population of India made its wayfrom the head-waters of the Indus downthe river toward the sea, instead of inthe inverse direction, by accident orwithout a motive. Those migratine:tribes had a

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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f na-tionality. According to thecensus of 1872 Ben-gal, which then in-cluded the province of As- s a m , had apopulation of sixty-six million eighthundred and fif-ty-six thousandeisfht hundred andfifty-nine, beingfully equal to thatof the entire UnitedStates at the presenttime. We thus havethe remarkable spec-tacle of a lieutenantgovernor sent outfrom London, a dis-tance of six thou-sand miles, to pre-side over a conge-ries of nations farexceeding the entirepopulation of theUnited Kingdom ofGreat Britain andIreland! The ele-ments under this government—and Ben-gal was only one of many provinces un-der British dominion—were so diversifiedand contradictory as to make a govern-mental problem which no nation otherthan England would have had the polit-ical courage to undertake or the skill tosolve. The people thus aggregated presentedevery type of the human evolution, fromsheer barbarism and the grossest formsof superstition to a high degree of humanenlightenment. Educated native noble-

 

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GROUP OF HINDU WEAPONS OF WAR. men from Bengal, full of the skepticalspirit of modern times, have The Hindus pre-come to London as dip- TlT^Z!^lomats, have sat in the evolution,clubs of that metropolis, and deliveredspeeches at public dinners among law-yers, bishops, and statesmen as skillfulat fence, as witty, and almost as schol-

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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country by the Mohammedans,the deteriorated or fire-worship aspectof the old Zoroastrian faith. After theconquest they became Mohammedans,the old religion being preserved only bythe Guebers. In stature, person, and complexionthe Tajiks are intermediate between the 77//: lit I XfANS.—ETHNIC DlI rISI( WS. 619 Armenians and the Kurds on the onehand, and the Afghans on the other,stature and eth- They arc not so tall or nic characteris- ^ lhe Qne and n t S() tics of this peo- & pie. dark-skinned and Oriental as the other. They are comparativelysmall in person, but heavy in build.The limbs, and especially the feet, arelarge, and the face broad. The features, rior in appearance to the intermediate race. But the Tajiks, perhaps best of all,preserve to modern times the generalcharacter of the ancient . They present lranic race, lhe Armeni- strongly the old , •, i . i • Iranian traits. ans compete with them inthis respect. The old customs and man-ners of Iran have come down by way of

 

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BAKHTIYARl TYPES.—Drawn by G. Vuillier, from a photograph. however, are good, if we except themouth, which, is large and coarse. Thetype is not by any means so favorable inthe judgment of Western peoples as thatof the nations of the Caucasus. Eventhe Kurds are larger and handsomer thanthe Tajiks, and some ethnographers pro-nounce the Afghans, who are not in-frequently of good stature, to be supe- the Tajiks and Kurds of Persia, and rep-resent to the modern inquirer a tolera-bly authentic transcript of antiquity. Itis quite likely that many features of thecostume of the modern Persians, suchas the old tiara, or high cap, which wasworn by the subjects of Cyrus the Great,are more faithfully preserved in the cur-rent styles than is the Persian character 620 GREAT RACES OE MANKIND. and person upon which they are exhib-ited. The cruelty and tyrannical disposition of the Medo-Persians in the times of the greatness of the race has Cruelty and fierceness of the already been referred to. Pers

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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et of the agricultural and domes-tic life; and it is from this point thatone of the striking divergencies in thelanguages of Iran and India may be no-ticed. The domestic animals are namedin common by the two peoples, whilethe wild beasts are generally designatedby distinct terms invented after the sep-aration of the races. The Iranian life thus presented somediverse and peculiar aspects. It was inone respect the half-barbarous life of thechase, and in another respect the civil- 580 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. izing life of the field and the garden.In proportion as the first prevailed, theBoth methods old nomadic and migratoryof life combine impuise Gf the race was in the race char- c acter. stimulated into activity; in proportion as the other became predom-inant, the people were aggregated intosettled communities and began to buildcities and states. It is worthy of notethat the origin of several world-wide va-rieties of fruits, such as apples, peaches,and plums, has been assigned to Iran.

 

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ANIMAL LIFE OF PERSIA.—AN OX OF THE BISHOPRIC.Drawn by A. L» Clement, after a photograph by Madame Dieulafoy It is quite likely that the primitive Medo-Persian peoples were the first to cultivateand improve these valuable products ofthe vegetable kingdom.1 The social evolution among- this an- 1 The definition of apple-eating- animal mightbe given to the Old Iranian and to all of his Asiaticand European descendants. The word apple, be-ginning with the Zend and Sanskrit ap p/iala,meaning fruit of the water, or juicy fruit, iscommon in nearly every dialect of the Aryan lan-guages ! It might be difficult to point out any otherterm of like universality among the names of thethings eaten by men. cient race took the course of a subsid-ence from the nomadic into the agri-cultural and pastoral life. The sedentaryThe change was very grad- ^Sthfual, and had been nearly nomadic,accomplished at our earliest historicalacquaintance with the Medes. A. morepermanent style of building had super-vene

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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distan, tolake Van and the up-per valley of the Tigris. \ chiefs, and engaged in almost constantOne might well suppose, glancing at warfare. Of these, the most conspicu-the fruitful and luxurious valleys of J ous example is the ferocious Bakhti-Luristan, that any people long dwelling j yari, whose name is proverbial in West-there would abandon the nomadic life i ern Asia. The only town of any im- M.—Vol. i—40 618 GREAT RACES OE MANKIND. portance within the limits of Luristan isKhorramabad, which is said to contain„ a thousand lints. The Prevalence of the wandering place is rudely fortified, life in Luristan. -. ... -, and possesses the palaceof the chieftain of the Lures. The next ereat division of the Iranic si van, or Persians. They are the mostwidely distributed of any of the existingIranic families. They are even dis-persed into districts far beyond the lim-its of their own countries. Their lan-guage is Persic, and is the best repre-sentative, or rather lineal descendant, of

 

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MOURNERS WAILING.—Drawn by Y. Pram\hnikoff, after a sketch of Madame Carla Serena. Place and character of theTajiks, or Par-sivan. race, distributed eastward of the Luresand the other westernPersian tribes, includes theTajiks. These people arespread from Kabul northward to Badakh-shan, to the table-land of Pameer, andinto Bokhara, in Central Turkistan. Onthe east they lie against the Afghans andBeluchs. Westward, they spread intoall Central Persia, and are called Par- the ancient Iranian speech. By themalso was preserved, until the conquestof the country by the Mohammedans,the deteriorated or fire-worship aspectof the old Zoroastrian faith. After theconquest they became Mohammedans,the old religion being preserved only bythe Guebers. In stature, person, and complexionthe Tajiks are intermediate between the 77//: lit I XfANS.—ETHNIC DlI rISI( WS. 619 Armenians and the Kurds on the onehand, and the Afghans on the other,stature and eth- They arc not so tall or nic characteris- ^ lhe

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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ewho acquaints himself withArabian manners and customs,and is at the same time conver-sant with the manners and cus-toms of the Israelitish nationof antiquity, can fail to noticethat the forms of life amongthe Arabians of to-day are iden-tical with those of the Hebrewsfifteen centuries before theChristian era. The very gar-ments which the Arabs wearmight have been stripped from thebodies of the patriarchs. Their fashionis the same, and the material and itsmethod of manufacture are to all in-tents and purposes identical. Theceremonial of the house and the tent arejust as they were in Canaan before theEgyptian bondage. An Arab sheikmeeting another clad and mounted like himself and each followed by his retinueacross the deserts and valleys of Arabia,might be photographed and the matterand the manner of the interview re-peated, and both would be a faithfultranscript of the meeting and compactbetween Lot and Abraham. If we descend into the particulars ofspeech and the manners of daily life

 

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PERSISTENCY OF ETHNIC FEATURES—(2) MODERN ARAB WEARING THE ABA. Drawn by Paul Hardy. among the Arabs we shall find the an-cient ceremonial faithfully Daily life of theduplicated. The forms of ^JSoStofsalutation and of farewell the Hebrews.have persisted in their integrity formore than three thousand years. Thesame views of life—of its origin, its na-ture, and its destiny—the same ideas ofduty and obligation, of the nature and 372 GREAT RACES OE MANKIND. immediate presence of a personal deityinterfering- with the affairs of the com-mon lot and directing- even the detailsof all events, are to-day in the Arabianmind and on his tongue and in his ac-tions with all the realism and vitalityand distinctness which those same ideaspossessed in the minds of the greatmilitary leaders and prophets of primi-tive Israel. The Elohim of the Hebrewis the Allah of the Arab. The appealto the one for the protection of his tribeand victory over the enemy is as con-stant and confident in the camp of t

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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ion wasgenerally a solitude of cliff and wildThere, about the entrance of the cavern,might be seen the gathered friends ofthe dead lamenting with wild gesticula-tions that going forth of man-life which PRIMEVAL MAN.—MEN OF THE TUMULI. 339 they—though barbarians—had alreadydiscovered to be without return. The next point of interest to be notedin our examination of theprehistoric burial places isthe character of the remainsin such situations. As in the case of thecave dwellers, we may here learn muchabout the stature, form, and generalcharacter of the aborigines of Europe. Funeral processions and ritesof sepulture. type between the two extremes, calledorthocephalic, or medium-headed. Theorthocephalic skull is most nearly likethe skull of civilized peoples, whereasthe other two types depart very muchfrom the common standard. As far aswe are able to discover, the two extremevarieties of crania belonged to veryprimitive peoples, while the interme-diate form is of more recent develop-

 

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FUNERAL FEAST IN THE AGE OF BRONZE.—Drawn by Emile Bayard. of skulls discov-ered in thetombs. The most striking fact in connectionwith the skeletons of the people buriedThe three types in the tumuli of the Brit-ish Isles is the variation pre-sented in the skulls. Thereseem to be three distinct types of skullrevealed by an examination of the tombs.These are what are called long skulls, ordolichocephalic crania; short skulls, orthose defined as brachycephalic; and a ment as well as more symmetrical char-acter. The long skull, such as has beenfound in many of the tumuli of GreatBritain, has almost as great character ofa measurement as that ^w^°of the Neanderthal head phaiic crania,described in a previous chapter. Notthat the long and narrow skulls of thetumuli are so distinctly animal as the 340 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. one to which reference has just beenmack1, but their striking feature is thelong suture and great measurementfrom front to rear. The brachycephaliccrania discovered in

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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.-Drawn by Y. Pranishmkoff. certain spirit of independence and loveof liberty. They regard valor as theprincipal virtue of life. In the cities ofArmenia society is well organized, butin the open regions, especially in thoseparts where the country becomes moun-tainous, the population consists of vigor-ous shepherd tribes, who are almost as in- so variable in different districts, Onething may be noted with peculiar inter-est, and that is the complete change in thechange in the method of method of dis- fe posing of the disposing of the dead. dead-Zarathustra required that the bodies ofthe dead should be exposed on high, ina kind of tower or building- erected for 616 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. that purpose, so that birds of prey mightgradually devour them. It was con-ceived that this, of all possible methods,was least likely to contaminate the ele-ments. It was held that earth burialwould pollute the ground. To submergethe body in rivers would defile thewater, and to consume them by fire - %

 

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ARMENIAN FAMILY—TYPES.Drawn by A. Sirouy, after a photograph by Madame Dieulafoy would poison the air, and even heaven.The Zoroastrian plan, finding as it doesa strange reflection in the method adopt-ed by some of the American Indians,was thus produced as a means of pre-serving the purity of the elementsagainst the noxious influence of deadbodies. The modern Iranians have given up the old method as no longer practicableIf they are Mohammedans, they employ the plan in VOgUe among Mohammedanthe followers of the Proph- SagehafsSer- et; if Christians, they adopt vened.the Christian manner. In either casethe burial is in the earth. There isgenerally something of Oriental fantasyattending the circumstance ofdeath, something of Semiticclamor, and also traces of abo-riginal superstitions. In Octoberthe Armenians have a festival,which they call the Feast of theDead. On such occasions the cem-etery is lighted wTith fires, kindledhere and there. Tapers are set onthe graves, and the women aban-

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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ingly allied, by race descent, on the eastwith the Armenians, and on the westwith the Thracians. It is not the placeto review the important historical bear-ings of Phrygia in the earlier ages ofGrecian history, or to repeat the tradi-tions and legends which have been pre-served of the nation. South of Phrygia lay the smaller statesof Caria, Lycia, and Pisidia; and to the DISTRIBUTION OF THE RACES.—WEST ARYAX MIGRA TIONS. 487 north, on the shores of the Black sea andreaching to the Bosphorus, was the coun-try of Bithynia. All of these Other Minor . Asians; Lydi- districts were peopled by ans in particular. , -, i i • ■, tribes who were dispersedright and left from the original Aryanmigration which brought the ancestors the ^gean were from the earliest agesintimate. The Lydians were to theJEgean sea what the Phoenicians were tothe Eastern Mediterranean. In the artsand sciences they antedated the Greeks,and their history is only second in im-portance to that of the Hellenic states.

 

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ROUTE OF WEST ARYANS THROUGH ASIA MINOR—Pass of Hadjin, in Cappadocia.Drawn by Grandsire, after Langlois. of the Europeans to the eastern bor-ders of the JEgean sea. Immediatelywest of Phrygia, next the archipelago,was the important state of Lydia. Thehistory of the people who were here de-veloped is better known than those whogrew into importance further east. TheLydians were nearly allied to the Greeks.The Ionian cities were on the Lydiancoast, and the commercial relations be-tween the peoples on the two sides of We have thus noted the westwardprogress of the Aryans through thewhole country from Upper Mesopotamia tO the ^Egean Sea. This Minor Asiansr T A • contemporary- region of Lesser Asia pie- withtheIrani. sented one of the earliest ansandindicans. fields of Aryan development. While the Medes and Persians on the east of the Zagros, and the Indie Aryans in the Punjab, were laying the foundations of their respective nationalities, the 488 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. various people

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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e hair and the beardis a common adjunct to effect in dress.It is customary to color red the nailsof the fingers and toes. The eyelashesand eyebrows are dyed black with anti-mony. The fan is much used by bothmen and women, but not so universallyas in Japan. Ornaments are profuse.Necklaces, bracelets, and earrings areuniversal. Flowers and pearls are wornin the hair. The ears and the septum ofthe nostrils are pierced to receive jewelsand other pendant ornaments. Tattoo-ing is but slightly practiced, but thefeatures are frequently painted withmarks and stripes across the brows,between the eyes, and on the neck.These marks constitute a kind of totem,distinguishing one caste from another. In India there is great diversity in themanner of marriage. Each religion or Superstition gives its Own Ceremonies of inflection to the ceremony. :tm:£iIn one respect the usage woman,is common, and that is the early age atwhich the woman is marriageable. Attwelve or thirteen she is regarded as fit for sat

 

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MANNERS OF THE HlXDUb.—Reception at the Court of the Begum.—Drawn by A. de Neuville. 734 GREAT RACES OE MANKIND. the wedded relation and for maternity.The oldest ceremonial required that theman take the woman by the hand andwalk around an altar with her. Perhapsthis still remains the fundamental ideain the nuptial union. The woman aftermarriage remains as she was before, adependent of man. There is here a con-flict between the Old Aryan recognitionof the nobility, if not the equality, ofwoman and the Oriental view whichholds her as a slave, a chattel. TheHindu woman has much more respectand honor than she of China, but is byno means the equal of the man. She isnot wholly secluded in the house, butmay go forth after marriage. In gen-eral, she is treated with respect. Thealmost universal aboriginal usage ofgiving presents to the brides parents bythe husband, as in purchase of her, isstill maintained. It is in evidence thatpolyandry was much in vogue in ancienttimes, and polygamy is

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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y, and two of millet. Itappears that rye and oats were as yetunknown. Reverting to the animals of the lakeregions in prehistoric times we note twospecies of wild cattle, namely, the urusand the bison. The former seems tohave been reduced to partial domestica- 318 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. tion as early as the neolithic period, butno indication of such a fact has beenDeductions from found in the old stone age. the animal life of /p^g 1arp-est of the ani-the lake-d-well- & ingage. mals prevalent around the Swiss lakes were these two varieties ofwild oxen, the elk and the stag. Therhinoceros had disappeared and theurus had been much reduced from the served in the forests of Germany. It isnoticeable that the list of domestic ani-mals has been extended and confirmed.The horse has certainly become, in somemeasure, the servant of man, and sheephave been more positively reclaimedfrom the wild condition. It is thusevident that the mere barbarous life ofhunters and flesh-eaters was giving way

 

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SWISS LARK VILLAGE OF THE AGE OF BRONZE.—Drawn by Riou. great proportions which he bore in thetimes of the cave men. Looking backfrom our own point of view we note thatelks have not existed in Switzerland dur-ing the historical period, though theystill maintained an existence in the low-land forests as late as the Roman period.The ibex has also disappeared. Thesmaller of the wild animals enumeratedabove still prevail in their ancient habi-tat, and even the wild boar has been pre- to a higher and more rational mode ofexistence among these villagers of theSwiss lakes. It will be of interest to add a fewwords relative to the birds which cameby water or by air to the J J Species of birds habitations of the lake men. belonging to the . 1 , same epoch. The golden eagle circledabove them. The bones of at least fourvarieties of hawk have been discovered.Two kinds of owl were known, and two PRIMEVAL MAX.—LAKE DUELLERS OF SWITZERLAND. 319 varieties of crow. The common .starlingwas present,

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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was at this timethat the general form and physical fea-tures of the different countries of the 68 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. northern hemisphere were determined.Now it was, as time rolled on and as theglacial period came to a close, that thegreat valleys were formed and definedin the bottoms of which to the presentday the descendent streams of the ancientflood-rivers creep along on their way tothe seas. In all the continents andcountries of the northern hemisphere itis notable that the river valleys are outof all proportion larger than the streams the earths surface by the crushing andplunging plowshares of the glaciers. The circumstances and conditions herereferred to are a part of geological in-quiry; but the reader will Man-life beginshave observed that the line <» this side of the glacial of definition between astro- floods,nomical antecedents and geological ef-fects is quite difficult to draw. Whatwe are here to consider is this, that theappearance of man on the earth is a fact

 

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FORMATION OF GLACIAL RIVER.—Drawn by Riou. of water which they have respectivelyborne at any time within the historicalperiod. An examination of these valleyswill show, moreover, unmistakably thatthey were once occupied with vast rollingrivers, extending from hill to hill, manytimes miles in width, and bearing down-ward under pressure of the prodigiousfloods all manner of flotsam and jetsamfrom the previous geological age, mixedwith the detritus rubbed or scoured from lying this side of the glacial epoch. Thepresent state of inquiry points distinctlyto the era of the subsidence of the gla-cial rivers—that is, the great volumes ofwater produced by the melting away ofthe ice cap of the northern hemisphere—into the channels, still large and swol-len, but approximately the same whichare now occupied by the great streamsof our continents, as the time when man-life began on the surface of our planet. TIME OF THE BEGINNING.—ASTRONOMICAL ARGUMENT b9 It is not needed, in this connectio

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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re.—The Taj Mahal, Agra.—Drawn by E. Therond .... 730 Dress of the Hindus — Princess ofAgra 732 Manners of the Hindus.—Reception atthe Court of the Begum.—Drawn byA. de Neuville 733 Superstitions of the Hindus.—Amuletstaken from the body of tlppuSaib 735 Hindu Fakir, Carrying Circlets of Ironabout his Neck.—Drawn by Emile Bay-ard, from a photograph 736 Indian Prince—Type.—The Maharajah OF Gwalior.—Drawn by A. de Neuville. 738 PAGE Soldiers of the Rajah of Baroda— Types.—Drawn by Emile Bayard . . . 740 Group of Hindu Weapons of War . . .741 View in Bengal. — Esplanade in Cal-cutta.—Drawn by J. Gaildrau .... 742 Agricultural Life in India.—GhaddisCultivators.—Drawn by E. Zier, from aphotograph by E. Bourne 744 Benjari Gypsies—Types.—Drawn by A. de Neuville, from a photograph 746 Gypsy Tribe on the March.—Drawn by A. de Neuville 747 The Pariah Djongal of Sarguja—Type. —Drawn by Emile Bayard 749 Tailpiece for the Indicans 750 General Introduction.

 

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objective phasesof human his-tory. ANKIND is not an event, but a producingforce. The history ofthe human race, there-fore, differs essentiallyfrom the history ofevents. The one isthe story of man-life as such, and theother an account of the results and prod-ucts of that life under the dominion ofinstinct and reason. The first relatesto our race as a living entity, and theSubjective and second to the works whichmen have accomplished.The one looks constantlyto the agent out of whose activities allevents have arisen, and the other to theevents themselves. The first may becalled the subjective, and the other theobjective phase of human story. Thesedistinctions are fundamental to an un-derstanding of the inquiry upon whichwe are here to enter. In considering the subjects proper toEthnic History, the reader will not haveThe objective proceeded far before heJhe^evotSof will discover that they dif-events. fer f0f0 c<2i0 from the themes of general history. The latter beginswith the movement

  

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Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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RACE CHART No. 2. EXPLANATION. This Chart shows the geographical spread of the East Aryan family ofmankind. (For the connection of this stock with the whole race of man-kind, see Race Chart No. i, at the proper point of departure, to the left,above.) The point of departure for this division is indicated by the heavyred line at the foot of the Caspian Sea, near Teheran. The East Aryans, from this region, departed to the right hand; whilem^ West Aryans (see Armenians, Georgians, Ossetes, etc.) departedto the left. The movement extended eastward until the stricture between theCaspian Sea and the Persian Gulf was passed, when the race branched outin many directions. The northern division, now represented in Turkestan, was the Usbeks.To the south were the old races of the Medes and Persians. The ancientPersians, as will be seen, developed into several modern families. Out of thisline sprang the Afghans, and further to the south the Beluchs. Far to thenorth, from the original Iranian stem,

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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■ YOUNG LADY OF ISPAHAN—TYPE.Drawn by Adrien Marie, from a photograph by Madame 1 lielilafoy. of the Zoroastrians. The materials ofsuch building are cut stone and bricks. The smaller architecture of the Per-sians has but little interest to the traveler. The houses of the people Aspect of Fer-j -~1„., sian houses and are square in ground plan towns; interiorand have flat roofs. This decorations,gives to the structures the appearance ofcubes. The materials are wood, brick,

 

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ARCHITECTURE OF THE PERSIANS.—Tomb of Iman Mousa, at Kazhemeine.—Drawn by Barclay, from a photograph. THE IRA XIA NS. —A RCHITEt Tl TRE. 627 and stone. White is preferred as thecolor of the exterior. The plan is uni-formly followed, and the appearance ofbuildings is correspondingly monot-onous. The Per- _sian town or cityis unattractive initself, though thesurroundings arebeautiful. It isthe custom toplant gardens andorchards aroundthe towns in closesetting againstthem. The abun-dance of rosetrees and otherflowering shrubsin the gardensand yards makethe towns to ap-pear embowered.Viewed from adistance the pic-ture thus affordedis sometimes ex-quisite. But with-in the cities theillusion is dis-pelled. Thestreets are neverimproved. Theyare merely nar-row roads of clay,and are alwayseither dusty ormuddy. They aretoo narrow as arule to permit of *the passage ofwheeled vehicles,and are uneven for want of paving. The disposition and tastes of the Per-sians, however, have compensated f

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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392 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. distribute the bones of the dead, theskull being reserved for the widow.This she suspends by a cord around herneck and uses as a casket for her orna-ments and valuables! It is believed thatthese savages have not succeeded indomesticating any of the animals, thoughit has been noted that tame fowls areseen about their huts. For the rest,their state is one of absolute savagery. The same may be said of the Tasma-nians. Captain Cook has left a recordLow estate of • to the effect that thesethe Tasmanians; peopie have neither houses use and preser- i r vationoffire. nor clothes. Nor does itappear that they possessed canoes or

 

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Dacota fire-drill bow. Iroquois fire-pump drill MANNER OF PRODUCING FIRE. implements for taking fish. They seemto subsist on mussels, cockles, and peri-winkles. The bow and arrow werewanting at the time of Cooks visit tothe island, the only weapon of the peo-ple being a long wooden spear. Most of the barbarians to wThom wehave referred in the foregoing para-graphs are acquainted with the use andpreservation of fire. The Australiansunderstand the method of kindling ma-terials by friction. It is of record thatthis knowledge does not extend to allthe tribes. In some districts the firegoes out and must be relighted from theresources of a neigfhborins: tribe. Most of the natives, especially those of Tas-mania, are very careful to avoid theloss of their fire, and it is generally car-ried about from place to place. It hasbeen noted that in Tasmania the duty ofpreserving the fire is assigned to thewomen, and they are held responsiblefor its loss. It is not intended in this connection todiscus

  

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Identifier: ridpathshistoryo01ridp

Title: Ridpath's history of the world; being an account of the ethnic origin, primitive estate, early migrations, social conditions and present promise of the principal families of men ..

Year: 1897 (1890s)

Authors: Ridpath, John Clark, 1840-1900

Subjects: World history Ethnology

Publisher: New York, Merrill & Baker

Contributing Library: Mugar Memorial Library, Boston University

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston University

  

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to several divisions, losingthemselves in the modern Queensland.It appears that New South Wales waspopulated by tribes from the UpperDarling, and that the whole of South-eastern Australia was filled from thesame general source. The inquiry will again suggest itselfby what means these prehis- Valid gromids oftoric movements have been ethnographic hypothesis. indicated to the ethnog-rapher. What are the sources fromwhich he has drawn his conjectures and 534 GREAT RACES OF MANKIND. proofs? In the first place, a comparisonof the different dialects spoken by thenative Australians indicates sufficientlytheir affinity and common origin in somesingle parent linguistic stock. But sec-ondly, the general community of mannersand customs, the identity of the barba-rous institutions, of which at least therudiments are discernible, lead to thesame conclusion of a common origin forall the natives of the continent. In thethird place, what may be called personalpeculiarities, identical in different and

 

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of mankind has apparently taken itsrise. In general, the Melanesian islandsare peopled with races de- origin andrived from this source. New ^^SSi-Guinea has drawn its pop- bution.ulation from this Papuan stock, and hastaken their name as the modern designa-tion of the island. Traces of the samerace have been followed to the eastand south as far as the Fiji islands,where the migratory movement seemsto have terminated. In short, through-out Melanesia the Papuan lines have >/(<//<■»/- \r&s«ft BUI

  

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