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This picture is dedicated to the millions of vulnerable seniors (and others at heightened risk) throughout the US and world that, according to early research reports, suffer an estimated death rate as high as seven (7) to ten (10) times the overall death rate from COVID-19 (7.8%), which has an overall global case fatality rate for the pandemic of 0.069%.†‡


Please, please take public health warnings seriously--if not for yourself, then for your friends, family, the elderly, poor, disabled, healthcare workers, and essential workers. They need us all to follow public health recommends to stop the spread and reduce the strain on an already heavily burdened human ecosystem.


keep the faith and be safe.


- j. k.

dayton, ohio


I calculated a crude case fatality rate (cfr) for my estimate using the simple formula of Confirmed deaths over Confirmed cases using WHO figures reported as of 25 April 2020, 20:00 GMT-4. (See also COVID-19 Coronavirus Pandemic data, COVID-19 Dashboard by the CSSE at Johns Hopkins University data)


‡ Although crude, my CFR estimate is sufficiently correlated (+/-.001%) to more in-depth analysis of empirical data metrics such as the COVID-19 projections [1] collaboration at The Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation (IHME), an independent global health research center at the University of Washington.[2] as well as model-based extrapolations like those published by The Lancet Infectious Diseases [3] (See, for example "Estimates of the severity of coronavirus disease 2019: a model-based analysis."[4]) that my remarks represent an accurate picture of the best available scientific data at the time I wrote this.


🎧 bread  →  if (with lyrics)




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. endnotes .

  ¹ the mens dept  → apr.5 ‐ apr.30, 2020teleport


copyright © 2020 truth wizardly. all rights reserved.

// sunday, april 26, 2020 1:15:30 am est









Excerpt from


MacKinnon Family Funeral Home

55 Mill Street East


Also known as Sunderland Villa, the MacKinnon Family Funeral Home was built in 1879 by W.H. Storey, who ran the glove factory on Bower St. This Second Empire Style building features a tower on the façade with Gothic elements such as front and side gables. This was the first home in Acton to be heated by steam, through pipes that ran from the glove factory. After WWI, it housed veterans and later became a boarding house. It has been a funeral home for more than 50 years.

As of tonight there are 130 wildfires burning in British Columbia.

All fires this year, an unbelievable count

bg a combination of Tõta and my texture.

Thank you very much for you comments, kind words, favs and views always appreciated!

Update July 29th

Still 130 fires burning, Vancouver Island does not have any significant fires at this time.

Excerpt from


Halton Hills Public Library, Acton Branch

17 River Street


In 1883, the first free public library in Acton opened inside Acton Town Hall with a collection of 1400 books. It was staffed by Ettie Laird, who became Acton's first public librarian and earned $40 a year. The Acton Free Library Board formed in 1898 and included board members such as Mr. H.P. Moore, editor and owner of the Acton Free Press. The building you see today opened in February 2011 and is a 9,000 square foot, energy-efficient and fully accessible branch. This building received LEED Gold Certification for its environmentally friendly construction materials and geothermal heating and cooling system. The landscaping includes drought resistant native grasses and shrubs that do not require supplemental irrigation. Additionally, the exterior lighting is 'night sky friendly', meaning the lights are angled downwards and do not shine up into the night sky. Light pollution can have negative effects on the migratory routes of birds.

Excerpt from



1 Mill Street East


This mural depicts Acton's history as Leathertown. The mural features the W.H. Storey Glove Factory, built in 1868, reflected into Henderson's Pond. The men in the mural are workers of the Beardmore Tannery and the women are workers of the W.H. Storey Glove Factory. This mural was painted in 2000 by Michelle Loughery, based on historic photographs.

Excerpt from


The Olde Hide House

49 Eastern Avenue


Built in 1899, Beardmore Tannery produced leather for soles, welting, harnesses, and belts and was the largest tannery in the British Empire at the time. In 1920, workers earned $1 a day, working six days a week. Conveniently built adjacent to the Grand Truck Railway, the building you see today was a shipping and receiving warehouse for the Beardmore Tannery. The original wooden beams and roof are visible on the interior. The brickwork was completed by Norval brick layer Thomas Maxted, who also completed the brickwork on Acton's Knox Presbyterian and Baptist Churches. The building later housed Mason Knitting Co., a successful specialty business, which produced products including long johns and children's underwear. The Olde Hide House began operations in 1980, by Don and Fred Dawkins who coined the famous slogan 'It's worth the drive to Acton'.

This intense thunderstorm occurred within 2 miles of the most intense tornado to ever hit Cheyenne (and Wyoming) exactly 40 years earlier:\


Picture of the Day x 2

Excerpt from


St. Joseph Patron of Canada Roman Catholic Church

64 Church Street East


Over 140 years old, the church boasts Gothic Revival architectural features such as pointed arched windows and coloured bricks. This was the first Congregational church in Acton. It was built for $8,000 by John and Hugh Cameron in 1876. Five years later, the Congressionalist's, who had planned to move to Acton, decided to remain where they were in Churchill and put the church up for sale. The Salvation Army owned the church for a short time and it served as a barracks in 1884. In 1886, the Roman Catholics purchased the church and St. Joseph's still serves this congregation today.

Excerpt from


Former Acton Baptist Church

80 Mill Street East


The Baptist Church was built in 1877 and is one of the oldest original church structures in Acton. The brickwork was completed by Norval brick layer Thomas Maxted, who also completed the brickwork on Acton's Knox Presbyterian Church and the Olde Hide House. The building has Gothic features including front and side gables and a lancet window. This church served Acton for 169 years before closing its doors in 2011 when it was sold for commercial use.

to search for the best locations in Spain to see clean skies I use a beatiful analysis created by my workmate, Jaime Nieves.


Cámara Profundidad ASUS XTION PRO live 3d animation

Fichero tratado con ArcGIS



Clearing a path to worse human rights violations in America:


“President Trump already has plans to fire several top officials in the national security sphere should he win reelection in November, according to a new report. Among those the president plans to fire are Defense Secretary Mark Esper, CIA Director Gina Haspel and FBI Director Christopher Wray.”


“Trump has list of top intelligence officials he'll fire if he wins reelection: report”




“Far-Right Groups Are Behind Most U.S. Terrorist Attacks, Report Finds

White supremacist groups have carried out a majority of “terrorist plots and attacks” this year, according to a report by a think tank, the Center for Strategic and International Studies.”





I Watched War Erupt in the Balkans. Here’s What I See in America Today.”




“STUDY: Babies Drink Over a Million Plastic Particles Per Bottle”




“As U.S. Election Nears, Polling Shows 82 Percent of Voters Support 100 Percent Clean Energy Transition”




"An international team of scientists has found leaving more big fish in the sea reduces the amount of carbon dioxide (CO2) released into the Earth's atmosphere.

When a fish dies in the ocean it sinks to the depths, sequestrating all the carbon it contains with it. This is a form of 'blue carbon'—carbon captured and stored by the world's ocean and coastal ecosystems.

"But when a fish is caught, the carbon it contains is partly emitted into the atmosphere as CO2 a few days or weeks after," said Gaël Mariani, a Ph.D. student at the University of Montpellier in France."


“Leaving more big fish in the sea reduces CO2 emissions”




“Facebook Choked Traffic to Mother Jones & Other Sites While Amplifying Right-Wing Misinformation”




“The UN Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) is leading a push for the world to scale up efforts to restore landscapes and forests over the next decade, with eyes on a target to salvage 350 million hectares of degraded and deforested lands, an area bigger than India in total.”


“UN builds momentum for restoring forests as world enters key decade for ecosystems”




“The Winners of Trump’s Washington Fifty-one insiders who profited off the presidency.”|%20Oct%20|%20DYN%20|%20At%20Paywall,%20Intel%20|%2010.1.20&utm_id=fb_cmp-6216010995407_adg-6216011012207_ad-6220363679007&k_cca=PleaseAssignTagToAd&fbclid=IwAR14SD_A5Jo8PPmerwv3GQ_AekEblBH8Qb3tMlmuxzYAvosYSdydD0Ewv6U




Many bird species, especially migratory, experience the same time mismatch with food sources with devasting results:


“It still sounds unlikely today, but declines in insect numbers could well make it a frequent occurrence in the future: fields full of flowers, but not a bee in sight.


A research group of the University of Jena (Germany) and the German Centre for Integrative Biodiversity Research Halle-Jena-Leipzig (iDiv) has discovered that insects have a decisive influence on the biodiversity and flowering phases of plants. If there is a lack of insects where the plants are growing, their flowering behaviour changes. This can result in the lifecycles of the insects and the flowering periods of the plants no longer coinciding. If the insects seek nectar at the wrong time, some plants will no longer be pollinated.


Innovative research method in iDiv Ecotron


Ecosystems are changing around the world, in particular due to global warming and altered land use. Insect species are dying out and the insect biomass is decreasing. Researchers have therefore studied how the biodiversity of plants is changing in the context of climate change. For this purpose, various climate scenarios have been simulated, using different temperatures and precipitation.


In a new study reported in the specialist journal Frontiers in Plant Science, the Working Group Biodiversity of Plants of the University of Jena, led by Prof. Christine Römermann, presents a different research approach. In cooperation with scientists from iDiv, led by Prof. Nico Eisenhauer, the researchers are focusing on the influence of invertebrates, such as insects, on the biodiversity and flowering behaviour of plants.


"We know that the insect biomass is decreasing," says Josephine Ulrich, a doctoral candidate from Römermann's team, referring to a study from 2017 which detected that insects had declined by 75 per cent over the previous 30 years.


The Jena research group has now studied in detail for the first time the extent to which decreasing insect density influences plant development. Whereas previous studies had only carried out field experiments, the research team used the "Ecotron", an iDiv research facility where identical climatic situations can be simulated in artificial ecosystems and observed with cameras.


In their experiment, the researchers studied how plant composition and plant development change if the number of insects falls by three-quarters.


Mismatch between plant and animal worlds


Ulrich and her colleagues discovered that the reduced insect biomass brings about a change in plant species. It is especially the dominant plant species, such as red clover, which become more prevalent. The development of the flowering period also changes as insect density declines. Some of the plants studied flowered earlier and others later.


"These changes can lead to mismatches between plant and animal species, which lead to adverse consequences for the ecosystem," says Ulrich, the lead author of the study. Examples are the food supply of insects and pollination success. This deterioration in the ecosystem function could entail further losses of insect and plant species. An additional consequence could be that plants become increasingly infested with pests. Due to the falling numbers of insects that feed on aphids, for example, these pests could spread unchecked.


“Shifts in flowering phases of plants due to reduced insect density”




"We are deeply disappointed that the Senate has rushed to confirm Justice Amy Coney Barrett. Her answers during the confirmation process left us concerned about her respect for the federal government’s responsibility to protect people." - Sam Sankar, Earthjustice Senior VP of Programs


“Earthjustice Statement on Senate Confirmation of Amy Coney Barrett

Newest Supreme Court justice unwilling to “distinguish science from politics,“ environmental watchdog says”




“The reason the Republicans were willing to break every rule to jam through an illegitimate nomination eight days before the election is that they have realized a truth that shakes them down to their core: The American people are not on their side.” — Elizabeth Warren


“Make McConnell Pay for Amy Coney Barrett

A Republican Senate majority representing a minority of voters just packed the court with another right-wing judicial activist. This is why Senate races matter.”




"Just wait until after the election. After you have given up all your leverage. And then we will listen to you. We promise." Ice Cube isn't buying the b.s. anymore.

Neither should we.


“Ice Cube explains why he blew off Zoom call with Kamala Harris: ‘I want to get things done’

Ice Cube said he did not want to be a part of a Zoom call with Sen. Kamala Harris that included other 'entertainers'”




The Pope is a hypocrite:


“CatholicVote’s $10 million campaign is targeting churchgoers’ smartphones and lobbing unfounded allegations about the former vice president.”


“Right-Wing Catholic Group Spends Millions Attacking Biden, a Catholic, as an Existential Threat”




“Wall Street spent over $74 million to back Joe Biden's run for president, topping Trump's haul”




“Protecting nature is vital to escape 'era of pandemics’ – report

Halting destruction of wild places could slow frequency of deadly outbreaks, say scientists:




763,500 acres of Bears Ears land opened for oil and gas development:


“Our new analysis finds that the Trump administration has offered an area of over 108 million acres of public lands & waters for oil & gas leasing — an area larger than the entire state of California.”


“The impact of President Trump's energy dominance agenda

Four years later: Our public lands and waters under Trump — in 7 maps”




“On the whole, Americans paid the price for President Trump’s tariffs and the tariffs did not help the U.S. negotiate better trade agreements or significantly improve national security.”


“Did Trump’s tariffs benefit American workers and national security?”




Mass Murder:


“Over 40,000 residents have died of COVID-19 in nursing homes that were given a clean bill of health by the Trump administration.”


“Trump Admin Cleared Nursing Homes Where 40,000 Died of COVID-19 of Infection-Control Violations”




“As Election Nears, Trump Makes a Final Push Against Climate Science

The administration is imposing new limits on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration that would undercut action against global warming.”




“Trump’s Border Wall Is Costing Taxpayers Billions More Than Initial Contracts

Federal spending data shows modifications to contracts have increased the price of the border wall by billions, costing about five times more per mile than it did under previous administrations.”




A long line of cars (and their drivers) waited, bumper-to-bumper, at a drive-through COVID-19 testing station, in...


DeKalb County (Medlock Park), Georgia, USA.

23 June 2020.


Heroes work there.



▶ This, even as Donny tRump told us:

"When you do testing to that extent, you're going to find more people, you're going to find more cases. So, I said to my people, 'Slow the testing down, please.' "

20 June 2020.


No heroes work at the White House



▶ As of 23 June 2020, the U.S. has 120,927 COVID-19 deaths and 2,329,637 confirmed cases.

Johns Hopkins dashboard.


▶ As of 23 June 2020, more than two dozen states reported a surge in coronavirus cases.




▶ Photo by Yours For Good

▶ For a larger image, type 'L' (without the quotation marks).

— Follow on Twitter: @Cizauskas.

— Follow on Facebook: YoursForGoodFermentables.

— Follow on Instagram: @tcizauskas.

▶ Camera: Olympus OM-D E-M10 II.

---> Lens: Canon 100mm ƒ/2.8 FD

---> Focal length: 100 mm

---> Aperture: ƒ/2.8

---> Shutter speed: 1/2500

---> ISO: 200

▶ Commercial use requires explicit permission, as per Creative Commons.

LAT 33° 9'2.98" - N

LONG 115°38'33.66" - W

N - 45°

Total Confirmed


721.817 - > 787.319 - > late evening :

Total Confirmed


Total Deaths




4.767 recovered



As the coronavirus spreads rapidly around the world, case growth trajectories have started to differ between countries. According to numbers by Johns Hopkins collected by thewebsite Worldometers, case counts in the U.S. and Spain have been growing faster recently.


Both countries recorded 100+ cases for the first time on March 2. In the case of the U.S., officials have said that ramped-up testing has caused known case numbers to balloon since Saturday.


The countries' collective aim is to "flatten the curve" of infections. While South Korea was able to stabilize its outbreak at around 9,000 cases - due to widespread free testing (including the now infamous drive-thru testing), quarantine measures and the harnessing of mobile technology for public information - China has stabilized theirs at around 80,000 cases.


South Korea hit 100 cases on February 20 and managed to leave the steep upward trajectory around 14 days later.


In the case of China, more than 100 cases were first recorded on January 20, and quarantine and testing measure succeeded in breaking the upwards trajectory by February 12 - around three and a half weeks later

On March 11, 2011 an earthquake categorized as 9.0 MW on the moment magnitude scale occurred at 14:46 Japan Standard Time (JST) off the northeast coast of Japan, one of the most powerful earthquakes in history.


LAT 37°25′23″N

LONG 141°01′59″W

N - 90°


Osoyoos, BC


Wildfire season is upon us. Smoke continues to blanket many areas of the Okanagan Valley.



“…to the breaking point…” for divide and conquer, the same as Bolsonaro:


“The federal government has effectively erected a blockade — like that which the Union used to choke off the supply chains of the Confederacy during the Civil War — to prevent delivery of critical medical equipment to states desperately in need.”

“The White House Has Erected a Blockade Stopping States and Hospitals From Getting Coronavirus PPE”




“Illinois Gov. Pritzker Secretly Bought Medical Supplies From China. And the White House Is Not Happy/”




“Perspective| Trump’s ‘LIBERATE MICHIGAN!’ tweets incite insurrection. That’s illegal.





“Trump is playing with fire”

Quote: “"LIBERATE MICHIGAN!" one tweet shouted in capital letters. He issued similar tweets calling for the liberation of Minnesota and Virginia, including a disturbing addendum for loyalists to "save your great 2nd Amendment," adding, "It is under siege!"”




They've probably been warned by Trump that America is headed into a COVID-19 policy of herd immunization and large swaths of the population will soon be infected and a good number of those will die.”

“‘We Needed to Go’: Rich Americans Activate Pandemic Escape Plans”




“House conservatives call to immediately reopen the economy”

Note the role of our wildly corrupt judiciary in assisting medical suicide by arguing that the closure of nonessential businesses due to COVID-19 infringes on individual’s rights.

House conservatives are calling for the country to immediately reopen, raising concerns that the closure of nonessential businesses due to COVID-19 infringes on individuals' rights and could have detrimental long-term effects on the economy, while critics fear reopening the economy too soon could lead to a spike in cases.”




“The Michigan Proud Boys, a local Neo Nazi group of Trump supporters, organized a blockade of the intersection at a green light outside Sparrow Hospital in Lansing.

A doctor rushed out of the hospital to plead with them to let the ambulance through, but the Trumpsters just waved their Confederate flags and laughed. This is how America dies.”




Plowing tons of vegetables back in the dirt, dumping tanker trucks of milk, and throwing out pallets of eggs, to name but a few as this unfolds

“These Photos Show the Staggering Food Bank Lines Across America”




“Georgia suspends Ku Klux Klan mask law during coronavirus pandemic”


“Its hard to believe how willingly, without objection we let our governments destroy jobs, civil and constitutional rights and the economy in general.


And on top, a scary majority is crying for even more restrictions, creating an atmosphere of willingness to follow whatever action our governments make, leading to the factual resolution of parliaments in many countries, making the Covid virus an authoritarian politicians wet dream. The citizens of Hong Kong might just know better the difference between democracy and authoritarian regimes than our "free world".




You can't convince people to commit suicide and not expect yourself to be charged. But that is precisely what the Administration is doing by encouraging People to ignore life saving measures for the prevention of COVID-19:




PACE @pesachlattin:

“Breaking: Red States that Refused to Do Stay at Home Orders?

Oklahoma saw a 53% increase in cases over the past week,

60% in Arkansas

74% in Nebraska

82% in Iowa

South Dakota saw a whopping 205% spike. - *John Hopkins.

Killing yourself to own the libs?




This is (04-18-2020) data.

Total Death Toll USA Below.....

For context, during 9/11 attacks in which lead us to WAR: 2,977

And the death toll is still climbing without a national plan in place. Lack of TESTING, lack of GEAR, lack of access to health care!

EDIT: For clarity, the big fat bold number is # of positive cases, not deaths. We are currently at 34,522 USA deaths.145,329 world wide.





“Texas will be the first state to reopen starting with public parks and retailers NEW WEEK if they can do curbside or home delivers – but schools will remain closed”




“No matter how you crunch the numbers, this pandemic is only just getting started”




If the COVID-19 Bailout Scam is any indication Joe Biden must NEVER be allowed close to the White House. The plan for the Bailout was always to save capital and let the People die:


"Whether Americans know it or not, their government is not working for them. Their government is working on behalf of capital. Humans are now a mere second-order, instrumental factor to be considered based on how it affects capital." CommonDreams


“The Plan Is to Save Capital and Let the People Die”


Quote: “if your goal was to protect humans. But imagine, instead, if you had an entirely different goal: protecting capital. What would you do then? Well, you would prioritize the health of corporate balance sheets, rather than human bodies. You would keep the healthcare industry, now booming, in private hands; you would stimulate consumer demand via unemployment benefits, rather than by keeping workers on existing payrolls, in order to create an enormous pool of cheap and desperate labor; you would pursue tax cuts for the investor class; you would welcome the opportunity to allow debt to pile up on individuals; and you wouldn’t be too sad about small businesses going bankrupt—they are, after all, just ceding market share to bigger, richer businesses. You would use this crisis to create a greater, not lesser, concentration of wealth. You would emerge on the other side with more, not less, inequality. The truth is, it would be easy.”




“The U.S. Chamber of Commerce along with Fed Ex, US Bank, and Honeywell are blocking the mass production of COVID-19 protective gear for the US by lobbying against the Defense Production Act.

This is unconscionable. Take action to #ProtectAllWorkers now:”

“Unsanitized: The Chamber of Commerce Lobbies Against Protecting America”




“Things keep getting more and more warped. Trump's using COVID-19 to bring America to pompeo's "breaking point"”

“COVID-19 Protesters Just Like Rosa Parks, Says White House Adviser Stephen Moore

The economic pundit repeatedly made the shocking comparison as right-wing protesters railed against social distancing measures meant to save lives.”




“U.S. sent millions of face masks to Chine early this year, ignoring pandemic warning signs”




“Animal Viruses Are Jumping to Humans. Forest Loss Makes It Easier.”




“5 lessons for the future of water”

“An interesting discussion around the looming global water issues. I take issue with some of its assumptions but water availability and usage effectiveness is going to be one of mankind's greatest challenges.”




Note: Facebook, whose censoring is done by the Alt Right Neo Nazi Brietbart news service, took down a post unflattering to the DEMOCRATIC party. The entry contained a photo of Pelosi, Warren, Biden, Perez and a few other notables and accused them of recruiting voters for Trump.



To bring society to its breaking point:


“Federal Support Ends For Coronavirus Testing Sites As Pandemic Peak Nears”




04/07/2020: “Hospitals say feds are seizing masks and other coronavirus supplies without a word”




04/07/2020: “The masks were reportedly already on a plane bound to leave the airport in Shanghai when US buyers turned up and offered three times the amount.”

“At least 5 countries — including a small Caribbean island — are accusing the US of blocking or taking medical equipment they need to fight the coronavirus”




04/08/2020: “The Trump just ADMITTED that federal government's emergency stockpile of personal protective equipment like masks, face shields, gowns and gloves is already depleted, and states will not be receiving any more shipments amid the ongoing coronavirus pandemic. "Now that the national stockpile has been depleted of critical equipment, it appears that the administration is leaving states to fend for themselves," the chair of the committee said”

“Federal stockpile of emergency medical equipment depleted, House panel says”




“New analysis finds Interior Department took dozens of policy actions unrelated to COVID-19, moving ahead with unfettered oil & gas leasing, removing protections for endangered wildlife, and expanding mining operations across the country.”

“As America fought coronavirus, Trump’s Interior Department rushed through dozens of environmental attacks

Interior Secretary David Bernhardt opened or closed at least 34 public comment periods despite widespread calls for a halt to rulemakings and major actions”




“Ex-ethics director under Trump says the president is in the late stage of ‘an authoritarian coup’”


“Emergency COVID-19 Laws May Become Permanent Features of the Security Landscape”




“No police and military force, even if loyal to its government, cannot prevail against millions. Starvation and oppression will eventually bring fearless collective rage. That is the essence of revolution.

We could be on that path.”





“The Bureau of Prisons just bought $60,000 worth of hydroxychloroquine, the unproved coronavirus treatment touted by Trump”


“Donald Trump Has Stake In Hydroxychloroquine Drugmaker: Report

The president has repeatedly touted the anti-malaria drug as a coronavirus treatment despite a lack of medical evidence.”

And people have died


“… life-threatening cardiac side effects.”

“Mayo Clinic cardiologist: ‘Inexcusable’ to ignore hydroxychloroquine side effects”




Bringing American society to the breaking point:

“More Than 2 Million Uninsured People May Be Hospitalized for COVID-19”

In addition to which:

“In midst of pandemic crisis, Supreme Court schedules opening briefs for Trump's ACA challenge”

In addition to which:

“Millions of Americans are about to lose their health insurance in a pandemic”

In addition to which:

“Trump Doubles Down on Plan to Slash Crucial Funding for Social Security”




Robin Vos:

“Clad in gloves, a mask and full-length gown, Wisconsin Speaker Robin Vos assured voters that it is “incredibly safe to go out” on Election Day despite the COVID-19 pandemic.”

“Wearing PPE, Wisconsin Speaker Claims It’s ‘Incredibly Safe To Go Out’ To Vote”


“More People Might Die Because Wisconsin GOP Forced Election”


“Biden: Voting in Wisconsin Is Safe. Locals: It Could Kill Us”






“Trump knew in November that a crisis like this could come at any time. He failed to prepare us for it—and Americans are dying as a result.”

“Intelligence report warned of coronavirus crisis as early as November: Sources

"Analysts concluded it could be a cataclysmic event," a source says.”




“Thank you, Biden Supporters. You have defeated Universal Health Care, Climate Action, Debt Relief, Wealth Tax, College For All, Expanding Social Security, Justice Reform, Internet for All, Campaign Finance Reform, and any hope of Peace. Trump couldn’t have done it better himself.”




“Sanctions have long been indefensible; now in the time of Covid-19, more so than ever. Nor are they some minor phenomena. Over a quarter of humanity lives under U.S. economic sanctions. That means millions of people lack untroubled access to food and medicines during a lethal pestilence. Thus in Iran, where the government fears millions of deaths from Covid-19, sanctions amount to genocide.”

“Amid Plague, Sanctions are Genocide”


Not to be outdone by the U.S. Supreme Court, the IMF is on sabotaging progress on the COVID-19 pandemic:

Note the publication:

"When presented with an opportunity to sign off on something that Iran is specifically requesting that would aid them in a pandemic, the Trump administration refuses to get out of the way. The administration doesn’t even have to do anything in this case to allow Iran to get some help. All they have to do is not oppose it, but even that is too much to expect from them."

Important piece from Daniel Larison. If you're still trying to tell us the Trump administration values - or has ever valued at any point in the past - just stop

“The U.S. Is Wrong To Block Iran’s Loan”








White Nationalists are ruling America:

“Louisiana is 32 percent African American. Yet 70 percent of COVID 19 deaths in Louisiana are of African Americans. These differences are produced by policy, not physiology. They’re based on race and class bias in the health care system, access to health care and preventative care. Similar disproportionate impacts have been observed in Chicago and Milwaukee. This shows the pandemic is following patterns of entrenched inequalities in economic and medical opportunities.”

“Seven Disturbing Facts About COVID-19 in Louisiana”




Entire suburbs of starving families?:

“The scale and quickness of this economic crisis is unlike anything we've ever experienced. It is proving every day what progressives have been arguing all along– that our economy depends on consumers and workers not big corporations and the rich.”

“The Economic Devastation Is Going to Be Worse Than You Think

The coronavirus’s overwhelming toll on jobs and businesses has only just begun.”




Stoking the fires of extremism for what’s to come:

“Trump Defends Using ‘Chinese Virus’ Label, Ignoring Growing Criticism

“It’s not racist at all,” the president said. But experts warned that the term could result in xenophobia.”




“Results of two coronavirus studies have just come out. One study finds that African Americans are dying from Covid-19 at disproportionately high rates. The other reveals that coronavirus deaths are higher in counties with higher levels of pollution. Put the two studies together, and you have a case study in environmental racism.”

“Race, Pollution and the Coronavirus

Also this week: How to be ready for overlapping disasters”




“Trump Fires Inspector General Overseeing Distribution Of $2 Trillion Relief Package

Glenn Fine was also removed as the Defense Department's acting IG and as chair of the Pandemic Response Team. Could it be he wouldn't let Trump run wild with the $2 trillion in the CARES package?”




With Biden or Trump I fear our Environmental future will be the same:

“Unchecked Global Warming Could Collapse Whole Ecosystems, Maybe Within 10 Years”




“The Great Barrier Reef is suffering its most widespread bleaching ever recorded

The ongoing episode is the third mass bleaching event in five years”




“The Tasmanian government just opened up a third of all old growth forest in the state to logging, increasing the area of old growth under threat by 700% overnight!”

“Logging lutruwita: Tasmania's extraordinary forest felling plans”




“Climate Enemies: The Men Who Sold the World

The CEOs, oilmen, financiers, politicians, and ideologues who are robbing us of a stable climate”




Our government exterminates wildlife:

“Wildlife Services killed four endangered Mexican gray wolves in late March”


“How Montana’s annual bison cull – which secretly slaughters 1,000 animals each year for population control – went wrong when hunters killed two of the beasts in front of horrified tourists”


“BLM may remove majority of southwest Wyoming's wild horses”




Dr. Jill Stein:

“Why did Dem establishment do all it could to sabotage a popular progressive like Bernie Sanders? Because DNC & GOP serve same donors. DNC’s the good cop, GOP’s the bad cop. GOP stabs you in the front, DNC stabs you in the back. NOW do you get why we need the Green Party?”


Highest number of cases

56% alone from New York City!


Please respect

Social distancing.


Stay at home, be clever!


South Korea demands a two week Quarantine,

and tracking all by Smartphones



Das Billionen-Hilfspaket ist verabschiedet, und US-Präsident Trump „würde es lieben“, wenn die Amerikaner bis Ostern wieder arbeiten. Angesichts der rapide wachsenden Zahlen der bestätigten Coronavirus-Fälle reagieren Gouverneure mit Spott.


Die USA könnten laut UN-Experten nach Europa zum neuen Epizentrum der Corona-Pandemie werden – doch Präsident Donald Trump will die strikten Maßnahmen gegen die Ausbreitung des Virus möglichst noch vor Ostern lockern.


„Man kann ein Land zerstören, indem man es dichtmacht“, sagte Trump am Dienstag.

Osoyoos, BC


Wildfire season is upon us. Smoke continues to blanket many areas of the Okanagan Valley.

I’d like to ask readers not to inject politics into the comment section. So please, I'll be grateful if there are no complaints about Trump's inadequacies or the perils of open borders.


If I wanted to scare you about the extent of an epidemic, I'd make a picture like the one shown above. I’d start with a doom-laden, black-and-gray world map, and I’d color the hot zones an angry red. I’d make the hot zones relatively large compared to the actual number of cases, so they cover up a lot of real estate. For example, in the image above, the big circle around Asia covers a population of over 4 billion people but it represents (at the moment) only 81,000 confirmed cases. The circle is therefore about 57,000 times larger than it should be if we wanted it to represent the true proportion of cases in the Asian population. If we made the area of the circle proportionate to the number of cases, it would be a few pixels across. A more realistic picture would display 100 or so red pixels scattered across Asia, with a slightly larger red dot over Wuhan.


Here’s the odd thing. The image above is the default display at the best realtime coronavirus site I’ve found. It’s at the Center for Systems Science and Engineering at Johns Hopkins University.


By all means, visit that page. It’s the best one-stop look at how the epidemic is progressing. You can drill down into the data by clicking various buttons on the page. Just be aware that online sources tend to present a worst-case scenario.


Four things always happen in an epidemic


First, once an outbreak — or any large disaster, for that matter — occurs, press coverage inevitably focuses on who should be blamed for the damage. The virus doesn’t know or care who’s to blame. It’s an entirely soulless, remorseless, mechanical entity that spreads according to its own rules. If the epidemic keeps spreading, the press fulminates against the government, saying that the methods in use are insufficient and incorrect. If the epidemic stops spreading, the press turns on a dime and says that the methods in use were excessive and unnecessary. They do it every time.


Here’s the problem with naming and shaming. What the virus does next depends entirely on what we do next, not on what we did last month. The first principle of epidemics is that you can’t treat one by changing the past. Processes like epidemics are therefore said to be "memoryless". What matters is that we understand how a particular epidemic is behaving at the present moment so we can change our behavior in a way that minimizes its spread. That’s the best you can do if you want to stop an epidemic. All statements involving shame and blame are futile and even harmful. Sad to relate, that means that most press coverage of an epidemic is useless or worse.


There's nothing to do about the press though. They’re always looking to get clicks and find someone to blame. That makes news sites and cable channels almost completely irrelevant to stopping the epidemic, and that's where most people get their news. The US CDC, UK NHS, and WHO have plenty of up-to-date information on the epidemic written in accessible language. I believe you'll do much better if you go right to those sources.


The second thing that always happens is that governments always underestimate an epidemic’s current spread, and totalitarian governments underestimate it intentionally and grotesquely. In a decent government, a certain amount of this error is due to a government’s information lagging behind what’s happening on the ground, and that’s inevitable. That lag is particularly severe in less-developed countries. That's true even if no-one in government has an intent to deceive.


Totalitarian governments almost never say anything truthful about the extent of an outbreak. Note that China has near-total control over its information networks, so who knows whether the numbers out of China are any good? They’re still useful as an estimate of the minimum number of cases that are out there.


When possible, it’s always good to fact-check government claims about a spreading epidemic. You can do that, for example, by using indirect methods based on sampling theory. Iran claims 10,075 cases as of this morning, but indirect sampling methods indicate that the total outbreak is likely tens of times larger than Iran is admitting. That's a story worth following over time.


Again, glitches and delays in information processing can make even an honest government’s numbers wrong by a factor of two to four, but it likely takes serious governmental meddling to get the discrepancies that we see in Iran.


The third thing that happens is that people always skip out of hot zones. You and I would too, probably, if the zone were hot enough and if we had a safe place to go. In fact, if things get bad enough, lots of us will leave the hot zone and a few of us will take the bug with us. There’s always a tension between maximizing individual health and public health. Maximizing one usually doesn’t maximize the other. Getting out might optimize my health opportunities, but it endangers public health. Nevertheless, people are gonna skip out, even if they're guarded by armed troops. Count on it.


Fourth, and this is an important one, an epidemic’s spread rate depends on a host of social variables. The fundamental constant that you need to know when thinking about an epidemic is the bug’s Basic Reproductive Rate, called R-naught and written as an R followed by a zero, R0. R-naught (hereafter R0) is the average number of people who are infected by a single individual with the disease. In a naive and highly simplified view of an epidemic, R0 is a property of the bug itself, and some bugs are intrinsically much more contagious that others. On average, a single measles patient infects about 15 other people (!) because measles is a highly contagious disease. A single influenza patient infects 2 or 3 others, which is a much better number, though it's still high enough to kill tens of thousands of people per year. As far as we know, a single COVID-19 patient in China infects 2 to 4 others. Let’s say that COVID-19’s R0 is 3, on average. If that’s the case, a single patient in China infects about three others if that person isn’t quarantined. A large R0 means that an epidemic spreads faster than one that has a smaller number.


Humans live in complex environments and human interaction is itself a complex system. What matters to us is the effective R0 in the environments we visit. If all of us live in detached dwellings with individual bedrooms (as in posh residential communities such as New Rochelle in Westchester County, NY) the effective R0 in our environment is lower than it would be if we lived in large dormitories with closely spaced rows of bunk beds. In fact, a lot of Chinese workers live in such dormitories, and we would therefore expect the effective R0 in a Chinese working community to be much higher than it would be in fancy commuter counties such as Westchester.


That said, New Rochelle and outlying Westchester County had 121 confirmed COVID-19 cases as of this morning — 82 cases the day before yesterday — and NY’s state government just deployed its National Guard to create a one-mile containment zone around the town.


What happened in New Rochelle is that the virus got into a place of worship and about 70 people were infected over the course of a few days. Living in a posh place improves your chances, but the virus may get in anyway. We can always improve our situation by keeping it out.


Here's the punch line. All reasonable methods of limiting or ending an epidemic require reducing effective R0 in a given environment. Vaccines, quarantines, travel restrictions, hand sanitizers, and school closings are effective if they combine to bring R0 to a level less than 1.0. Another way of saying this is that if coronavirus patients infect less than 1 person apiece on average, the epidemic is guaranteed to sputter out. It's really that simple.


Therefore, expect to see a lot more local quarantine announcements over the next few weeks. We’re looking at a multi-center epidemic. As you know, schools are shutting down all over the world, moving to online classrooms where they have the technology to do so.


Latest zinger: Chinese researchers, publishing today in the peer-reviewed and highly regarded British journal, The Lancet, looked at 191 cases and found that patients were shedding virus particles (and were therefore able to spread the disease) for an average of 20 days. That’s a week longer than we thought people could spread it yesterday. One patient was still shedding virus on the 37th day after infection. That’s a game changer if it’s true.


Exit question: Why is there exactly one reported Turkish COVID-19 case given that Turkey is surrounded by countries with multiple outbreaks? Turkey also has 3.6 million refugees living in crowded camps, many of which have inadequate sanitation. They just took in 100,000 new refugees from Syria last week. Coronavirus is all over the place in Syria. Is the Turkish government super-effective at controlling contagious diseases? That’s what they tell us. Do they have a lot of cases but haven't discovered them yet? Are they lying? I honestly don’t know.


Finally: Tony Fauci, who is getting a lot of airtime on the news channels lately, is a genuinely reliable guy who has an exquisite ability to communicate specific information about epidemics without being hysterical about it. As much as any one person could be said to have done so, Fauci was the guy who talked us through the early years of of the HIV epidemic. He’s good at his job. When he talks, I pay attention.



- Environmental War Crimes -


Center for Biological Diversity: "We're losing about one species every hour. That’s why we sued the Trump admin...




“William Barr promotes Christian tyranny in latest speech”




And it begins, cases of coronavirus in America are pouring in and someone has already died,,…”hoax?”

Some have said, given the corrupt nature of the Democratic and Republican parties, the hoped for consequences of the coronavirus on Trump’s re-election is the divine “miracle” for the People that Trump referred to. If so, it is coming at a heavy price.

Let’s be clear. The economically regressive nature of coronavirus's mortality rate under America's healthcare system complements fascism's social engineering goals - death to the genetically inferior poor (who can’t afford healthcare.)

Having coronavirus victims suffer outside the medical field because they can’t afford to go to the doctor, will only help the virus spread and make the economic consequences to the general economy worse. But that isn’t a problem for a fascist dictatorship.


“2 new coronavirus cases emerge in Washington, in King and Snohomish counties” one dead


“First person in U.S. dies in coronavirus in Washington state”


“Trump Didn’t Just Botch the Coronavirus Response. He Enabled Its Spread.”


“Trump says the coronavirus is the Democrats’ ‘new hoax’”


“Only confirmed coronavirus patient in Wisconsin released from isolation”


“Oregon coronavirus: What we know so far”


“The Trump administration barred a top US disease expert from speaking freely to the public after he warned the coronavirus might be impossible to contain”


“California sees third case of ‘community spread’ coronavirus as first U.S. death is reported near Seattle”


Let the bodies hit the floor:

“Trump says the coronavirus is the Democrats’ ‘new hoax’”

You are not going to instill confidence in the financial markets by denying scientific reality


“No Joke: Trump Administration Considers Tax Cuts To Combat Coronavirus Impact”


Recall that a few weeks ago Trump's spiritual advisor Paula White requested that worshipers not pay their heating bills and instead send the money to her.



“The Trump administration reversed course after saying the coronavirus vaccine might not be affordable for all Americans”


“I am deeply concerned not just by the rise of cases of coronavirus worldwide, but by the inadequate and incompetent response we have seen from Donald Trump and his administration.

It is outrageous that during Congressional testimony today, Trump’s HHS Secretary Alex Azar would not guarantee that a coronavirus vaccine would be affordable to all. Under the Trump doctrine, if you are wealthy you can buy a vaccine and not succumb to the sickness. If you are poor or working class, you may have to get sick or even die. That is an outrage. That is unacceptable. We need a vaccine that is available to all, not just those who can afford it.

Health care is a human right, period. So let me be clear: it has never been more important to finally guarantee health care as a human right by passing Medicare for All.”

“Trump official refuses to say a coronavirus vaccine would be affordable to all

Alex Azar also appears to contradict president's contention that deadly virus will disappear once it gets warmer” No “miracle” in sight


"Since I can’t afford to see a doctor, my healthcare strategy as a 32-year-old uninsured American has been simply to sleep eight hours, eat vegetables, and get daily exercise. But now that there are confirmed coronavirus cases in the United States, the deadly virus could spread rapidly, thanks to others like me who have no feasible way to get the care we need if we start exhibiting symptoms."

I haven’t gone to the doctor since 2013. When you multiply my situation by 27.5 million, that’s a scary prospect

“Millions of uninsured Americans like me are a coronavirus timebomb”


“Opinion | Coronavirus makes the case for Medicare-for-all”


“In Indiana, An HIV Epidemic Spread After Mike Pence Used Prayer To End It”


“Analysis: Trump's war on truth takes a dangerous turn as he attacks the media's coronavirus coverage”


““Pence Is Not a Medical Expert”: Is the Trump Admin Ready to Stop a U.S. Coronavirus Pandemic?”


“Trump Shocked The Flu Can Be Deadly

The man has been president for three years and still doesn't know why we give out flu shots?”


“Trump's Sharpie Is Ready For The 'Caronavirus'”


“Nearly 700 vacancies at CDC because of Trump administration’s hiring freeze”


“Trump downplays risk, places Pence in charge of coronavirus outbreak response”


“GOP Senators Slam Trump Administration Over Coronavirus”


“An American Evacuated From China Was Quarantined on CDC Orders, Then Got a Bill for It”


“Trump Coronavirus Update: “It’s going to disappear one day, it’s like a miracle, it will disappear.”


“Coronavirus Updates: Trump Expands Travel Restrictions on Iran”


“Preparing for Coronavirus to Strike the U.S.”

“Getting ready for the possibility of major disruptions is not only smart; it’s also our civic duty”


“Paging Doctor Trump: First, Do No Harm”




“A heat wave in Antarctica melted 20% of an island's snow in 9 days”




“Study: Methane Emissions from Fossil Fuels Vastly Underestimated”




“Psychiatrist sounds the alarm about ‘sociopath’ President Trump: “He’s getting worse’”




“Bernie Sanders’ economic policies would be good for the American economy, according to a new book by a renowned economist.”

“Bernie Sanders will be good for American economy, top economist says after Goldman Sachs attack

Thomas Piketty says that history has many examples of extreme inequality fostering healthy social democracies”




“The real impact of drilling in the Arctic Refuge—in 7 maps

(What the Trump administration isn't telling you)”




America’s Bigotry Judiciary:

“Court rules Trump administration can withhold grants from 'sanctuary cities'

Seven states and New York City sued after the Justice Department said in 2017 that it would not award grants from a federal program to local governments that withheld information about undocumented immigrants in their jails.”


“Supreme Court Rules Border Patrol Agents Who Shoot into Mexico Can’t Be Sued”


“Kudos to the Justice Sonia Sotomayor for speaking out about the Trump administration’s immigration wealth test.

"I fear that this disparity in treatment erodes the fair and balanced decisionmaking process that this Court must strive to protect.””

“Sonia Sotomayor Has The Guts To Say What Everyone Knows Is True

The Wise Latina went ahead and SAID IT.”




“Nearly All Coral Reefs Will Disappear Over The Next 20 Years Scientists Say”




“Could a California Law Help Save America’s Public Lands Throughout the West?”




“Forever-Chemicals Tap Water”


LAT 49°30'24.06" - S

LONG 73° 4'49.86" - W

N - 290°

The 1918–20 "Spanish flu" influenza pandemic resulted in dramatic mortality worldwide.

A pandemic (from Greek πᾶν, pan, 'all' and δῆμος, demos, 'people') is an epidemic of disease that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple continents, or worldwide. A widespread endemic disease with a stable number of infected people is not a pandemic. Further, flu pandemics generally exclude recurrences of seasonal flu.


Throughout history, there have been a number of pandemics of diseases such as smallpox and tuberculosis. One of the most devastating pandemics was the Black Death (also known as The Plague), which killed an estimated 75–200 million people in the 14th century. Other notable pandemics include the 1918 influenza pandemic (Spanish flu) and the 2009 flu pandemic (H1N1). Current pandemics include HIV/AIDS and the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic.



1Definition and stages


3Current pandemics


3.2Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)

4Notable outbreaks









4.9Yellow fever

5Concerns about future pandemics

5.1Antibiotic resistance

5.2Viral hemorrhagic fevers



5.5Zika virus

6Economic consequences

7Biological warfare

8In popular culture

9See also



12Further reading

13External links

Definition and stages[edit]


The World Health Organization's former influenza pandemic alert phases—WHO no longer uses this old system of six phases

A pandemic is an epidemic occurring on a scale that crosses international boundaries, usually affecting people on a worldwide scale.[1] Pandemics can also occur in important agricultural organisms (livestock, crop plants, fish, tree species) or in other organisms.[citation needed] A disease or condition is not a pandemic merely because it is widespread or kills many people; it must also be infectious. For instance, cancer is responsible for many deaths but is not considered a pandemic because the disease is neither infectious nor contagious.[2]


The World Health Organization (WHO) previously applied a six-stage classification to describe the process by which a novel influenza virus moves from the first few infections in humans through to a pandemic. This starts with the virus mostly infecting animals, with a few cases where animals infect people, then moves through the stage where the virus begins to spread directly between people and ends with a pandemic when infections from the new virus have spread worldwide. In February 2020, a WHO spokesperson clarified that "there is no official category [for a pandemic]".[a][3]


In a virtual press conference in May 2009 on the influenza pandemic, Dr. Keiji Fukuda, Assistant Director-General ad interim for Health Security and Environment, WHO said "An easy way to think about pandemic ... is to say: a pandemic is a global outbreak. Then you might ask yourself: 'What is a global outbreak'? Global outbreak means that we see both spread of the agent ... and then we see disease activities in addition to the spread of the virus."[4]


In planning for a possible influenza pandemic, the WHO published a document on pandemic preparedness guidance in 1999, revised in 2005 and in February 2009, defining phases and appropriate actions for each phase in an aide-mémoire titled WHO pandemic phase descriptions and main actions by phase. The 2009 revision, including definitions of a pandemic and the phases leading to its declaration, were finalized in February 2009. The pandemic H1N1 2009 virus was neither on the horizon at that time nor mentioned in the document.[5][6] All versions of this document refer to influenza. The phases are defined by the spread of the disease; virulence and mortality are not mentioned in the current WHO definition, although these factors have previously been included.[7]



See also: Mathematical modelling of infectious disease


The goals of community mitigation: (1) delay outbreak peak; (2) reduce peak burden on healthcare, known as flattening the curve; and (3) diminish overall cases and health impact.[8][9]

The basic strategies in the control of an outbreak are containment and mitigation. Containment may be undertaken in the early stages of the outbreak, including contact tracing and isolating infected individuals to stop the disease from spreading to the rest of the population, other public health interventions on infection control, and therapeutic countermeasures such as vaccinations which may be effective if available.[10] When it becomes apparent that it is no longer possible to contain the spread of the disease, it will then move on to the mitigation stage, when measures are taken to slow the spread of disease and mitigate its effects on the health care system and society. In reality, a combination of both containment and mitigation measures may be undertaken at the same time to control an outbreak.[11]


A key part of managing an infectious disease outbreak is trying to decrease the epidemic peak, known as flattening the epidemic curve.[8] This helps decrease the risk of health services being overwhelmed and providing more time for a vaccine and treatment to be developed.[8] Non-pharmaceutical interventions may be taken to manage the outbreak; for example in a flu pandemic, these actions may include personal preventive measures such as hand hygiene, wearing face-masks and self-quarantine; community measures aimed at social distancing such as closing schools and cancelling mass gathering events; community engagement to encourage acceptance and participation in such interventions; as well as environmental measures such as cleaning of surfaces.[9]


Another strategy, suppression, requires more extreme long-term non-pharmaceutical interventions so as to reverse the pandemic by reducing the basic reproduction number to less than 1. The suppression strategy, which include stringent population-wide social distancing, home isolation of cases and household quarantine, was undertaken by China during the 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic where entire cities were placed under lockdown, but such strategy carries with it considerable social and economic costs.[12]


Current pandemics[edit]


Main article: AIDS pandemic


Estimated HIV/AIDS prevalence among young adults (15-49) by country as of 2008

HIV originated in Africa, and spread to the United States via Haiti between 1966 and 1972.[13] AIDS is currently a pandemic, with infection rates as high as 25% in southern and eastern Africa. In 2006, the HIV prevalence rate among pregnant women in South Africa was 29%.[14] Effective education about safer sexual practices and bloodborne infection precautions training have helped to slow down infection rates in several African countries sponsoring national education programs.[citation needed]


Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19)[edit]

Main article: 2019–20 coronavirus pandemic


People queueing outside a Wuhan pharmacy to buy face masks and medical supplies

A new coronavirus was first identified in Wuhan, Hubei province, China, in late December 2019,[15] as causing a cluster of cases of an acute respiratory disease, referred to as coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). According to media reports, more than 200 countries and territories have been affected, with major outbreaks in the United States, central China, Italy, Spain, and Iran.[16][17] On 11 March 2020, the World Health Organization characterized the spread of COVID-19 as a pandemic.[18][19] As of 3 April 2020, the number of SARS-CoV-2 infected persons reached one million, the death toll was 55,132 and the number of patients recovered was 225,335.[20]


Notable outbreaks[edit]

See also: List of epidemics, Columbian Exchange, and Globalization and disease

There have been a number of significant epidemics and pandemics recorded in human history, generally zoonoses such as influenza and tuberculosis, which came about with domestication of animals. There have been a number of particularly significant epidemics that deserve mention above the "mere" destruction of cities:


Plague of Athens, from 430 to 426 BCE. During the Peloponnesian War, typhoid fever killed a quarter of the Athenian troops, and a quarter of the population over four years. This disease fatally weakened the dominance of Athens, but the sheer virulence of the disease prevented its wider spread; i.e. it killed off its hosts at a rate faster than they could spread it. The exact cause of the plague was unknown for many years. In January 2006, researchers from the University of Athens analyzed teeth recovered from a mass grave underneath the city, and confirmed the presence of bacteria responsible for typhoid.[21]


Contemporary engraving of Marseille during the Great Plague of Marseille in 1720–1721

Antonine Plague, from 165 to 180 AD. Possibly smallpox brought to the Italian peninsula by soldiers returning from the Near East; it killed a quarter of those infected, and up to five million in all.[22] At the height of a second outbreak, the Plague of Cyprian (251–266), which may have been the same disease, 5,000 people a day were said to be dying in Rome.

Plague of Justinian, from 541 to 750, was the first recorded outbreak of the bubonic plague. It started in Egypt, and reached Constantinople the following spring, killing (according to the Byzantine chronicler Procopius) 10,000 a day at its height, and perhaps 40% of the city's inhabitants. The plague went on to eliminate a quarter to half the human population of the known world.[23][24] It caused Europe's population to drop by around 50% between 550 AD and 700 AD.[25]

Black Death, from 1331 to 1353. The total number of deaths worldwide is estimated at 75 to 200 million people.Black Death#cite ref-ABC/Reuters 1-1 Eight hundred years after the last outbreak, the plague returned to Europe. Starting in Asia, the disease reached Mediterranean and western Europe in 1348 (possibly from Italian merchants fleeing fighting in Crimea), and killed an estimated 20 to 30 million Europeans in six years;[26] a third of the total population,[27] and up to a half in the worst-affected urban areas.[28] It was the first of a cycle of European plague epidemics that continued until the 18th century.[29] There were more than 100 plague epidemics in Europe in this period.[30] The disease recurred in England every two to five years from 1361 to 1480.[31] By the 1370s, England's population was reduced by 50%.[32] The Great Plague of London of 1665–66 was the last major outbreak of the plague in England. The disease killed approximately 100,000 people, 20% of London's population.[33]

The third plague pandemic started in China in 1855, and spread to India, where 10 million people died.[34] During this pandemic, the United States saw its first outbreak: the San Francisco plague of 1900–1904.[35] Today, isolated cases of plague are still found in the western United States.[36]

Spanish flu, from 1918 to 1920. It infected 500 million people around the world,[37] including people on remote Pacific islands and in the Arctic, and resulted in the deaths of 50 to 100 million people.[37][38] Most influenza outbreaks disproportionately kill the very young and the very old, with higher survival rate for those in between, but the Spanish flu had an unusually high mortality rate for young adults.[39] Spanish flu killed more people than World War I did and it killed more people in 25 weeks than AIDS did in its first 25 years.[40][41] Mass troop movements and close quarters during World War I caused it to spread and mutate faster; the susceptibility of soldiers to Spanish flu might have been increased due to stress, malnourishment and chemical attacks.[42] Improved transportation systems made it easier for soldiers, sailors, and civilian travelers to spread the disease.[43]


Aztecs dying of smallpox, Florentine Codex (compiled 1540–1585)

Encounters between European explorers and populations in the rest of the world often introduced local epidemics of extraordinary virulence. Disease killed part of the native population of the Canary Islands in the 16th century (Guanches). Half the native population of Hispaniola in 1518 was killed by smallpox. Smallpox also ravaged Mexico in the 1520s, killing 150,000 in Tenochtitlán alone, including the emperor, and Peru in the 1530s, aiding the European conquerors.[44] Measles killed a further two million Mexican natives in the 17th century. In 1618–1619, smallpox wiped out 90% of the Massachusetts Bay Native Americans.[45] During the 1770s, smallpox killed at least 30% of the Pacific Northwest Native Americans.[46] Smallpox epidemics in 1780–1782 and 1837–1838 brought devastation and drastic depopulation among the Plains Indians.[47] Some believe the death of up to 95% of the Native American population of the New World was caused by Old World diseases such as smallpox, measles, and influenza.[48] Over the centuries, the Europeans had developed high degrees of immunity to these diseases, while the indigenous peoples had no such immunity.[49]


Smallpox devastated the native population of Australia, killing around 50% of Indigenous Australians in the early years of British colonisation.[50] It also killed many New Zealand Māori.[51] As late as 1848–49, as many as 40,000 out of 150,000 Hawaiians are estimated to have died of measles, whooping cough and influenza. Introduced diseases, notably smallpox, nearly wiped out the native population of Easter Island.[52] Measles killed more than 40,000 Fijians, approximately one-third of the population, in 1875,[53] and in the early 21st century devastated the Andamanese population.[54] The Ainu population decreased drastically in the 19th century, due in large part to infectious diseases brought by Japanese settlers pouring into Hokkaido.[55]


Researchers concluded that syphilis was carried from the New World to Europe after Columbus' voyages. The findings suggested Europeans could have carried the nonvenereal tropical bacteria home, where the organisms may have mutated into a more deadly form in the different conditions of Europe.[56] The disease was more frequently fatal than it is today. Syphilis was a major killer in Europe during the Renaissance.[57] Between 1602 and 1796, the Dutch East India Company sent almost a million Europeans to work in Asia. Ultimately, fewer than a third made their way back to Europe. The majority died of diseases.[58] Disease killed more British soldiers in India and South Africa than war.[59]


As early as 1803, the Spanish Crown organized a mission (the Balmis expedition) to transport the smallpox vaccine to the Spanish colonies, and establish mass vaccination programs there.[60] By 1832, the federal government of the United States established a smallpox vaccination program for Native Americans.[61] From the beginning of the 20th century onwards, the elimination or control of disease in tropical countries became a driving force for all colonial powers.[62] The sleeping sickness epidemic in Africa was arrested due to mobile teams systematically screening millions of people at risk.[63] In the 20th century, the world saw the biggest increase in its population in human history due to lessening of the mortality rate in many countries due to medical advances.[64] The world population has grown from 1.6 billion in 1900 to an estimated 6.8 billion in 2011.[65]



Main article: Cholera outbreaks and pandemics

Since it became widespread in the 19th century, cholera has killed tens of millions of people.[66]


1817–1824 cholera pandemic. Previously restricted to the Indian subcontinent, the pandemic began in Bengal, then spread across India by 1820. 10,000 British troops and countless Indians died during this pandemic.[67] It extended as far as China, Indonesia (where more than 100,000 people succumbed on the island of Java alone) and the Caspian Sea before receding. Deaths in the Indian subcontinent between 1817 and 1860 are estimated to have exceeded 15 million persons. Another 23 million died between 1865 and 1917. Russian deaths during a similar period exceeded 2 million.[68]

1826–1837 cholera pandemic. Reached Russia (see Cholera Riots), Hungary (about 100,000 deaths) and Germany in 1831, London in 1832 (more than 55,000 persons died in the United Kingdom),[69] France, Canada (Ontario), and United States (New York City) in the same year,[70] and the Pacific coast of North America by 1834. It is believed that more than 150,000 Americans died of cholera between 1832 and 1849.[71]

1846–1860 cholera pandemic. Deeply affected Russia, with more than a million deaths. A two-year outbreak began in England and Wales in 1848 and claimed 52,000 lives.[72] Throughout Spain, cholera caused more than 236,000 deaths in 1854–55.[73] It claimed 200,000 lives in Mexico.[74]

1863–75 cholera pandemic. Spread mostly in Europe and Africa. At least 30,000 of the 90,000 Mecca pilgrims fell victim to the disease. Cholera claimed 90,000 lives in Russia in 1866.[75]

In 1866, there was an outbreak in North America. It killed some 50,000 Americans.[71]

1881–96 cholera pandemic. The 1883–1887 epidemic cost 250,000 lives in Europe and at least 50,000 in the Americas. Cholera claimed 267,890 lives in Russia (1892);[76] 120,000 in Spain;[77] 90,000 in Japan and 60,000 in Persia.

In 1892, cholera contaminated the water supply of Hamburg, and caused 8,606 deaths.[78]

1899–1923 cholera pandemic. Had little effect in Europe because of advances in public health, but Russia was badly affected again (more than 500,000 people dying of cholera during the first quarter of the 20th century).[79] The sixth pandemic killed more than 800,000 in India. The 1902–1904 cholera epidemic claimed more than 200,000 lives in the Philippines.[80]

1961–75 cholera pandemic. Began in Indonesia, called El Tor after the new biotype responsible for the pandemic, and reached Bangladesh in 1963, India in 1964, and the Soviet Union in 1966. Since then the pandemic has reached Africa, South America, and Central America.


Main article: Influenza pandemic


Advice for travelers (in French and English) on the risks of epidemics abroad; posters from the Charles De Gaulle airport, Paris

The Greek physician Hippocrates, the "Father of Medicine", first described influenza in 412 BC.[81]

The first influenza pandemic was recorded in 1580, and since then, influenza pandemics occurred every 10 to 30 years.[82][83][84]

The 1889–1890 flu pandemic, also known as Russian Flu, was first reported in May 1889 in Bukhara, Uzbekistan. By October, it had reached Tomsk and the Caucasus. It rapidly spread west and hit North America in December 1889, South America in February–April 1890, India in February–March 1890, and Australia in March–April 1890. The H3N8 and H2N2 subtypes of the Influenza A virus have each been identified as possible causes. It had a very high attack and mortality rate, causing around a million fatalities.[85]

The "Spanish flu", 1918–1919. First identified early in March 1918 in U.S. troops training at Camp Funston, Kansas. By October 1918, it had spread to become a worldwide pandemic on all continents, and eventually infected about one-third of the world's population (or ≈500 million persons).[37] Unusually deadly and virulent, it ended almost as quickly as it began, vanishing completely within 18 months. Within six months, some 50 million people were dead;[37] some estimates put the total number of fatalities worldwide at over twice that number.[86] About 17 million died in India, 675,000 in the United States,[87] and 200,000 in the United Kingdom. The virus that caused Spanish flu was also implicated as a cause of encephalitis lethargica in children.[88] The virus was recently reconstructed by scientists at the CDC studying remains preserved by the Alaskan permafrost. The H1N1 virus has a small but crucial structure that is similar to the Spanish flu.[89]

The "Asian Flu", 1957–58. A H2N2 virus first identified in China in late February 1957. It caused about two million deaths globally.[90] The Asian flu spread to the United States by June 1957 and caused about 70,000 deaths in the U.S.

The "Hong Kong Flu", 1968–69. A H3N2 virus first detected in Hong Kong in early 1968, and spread to the United States later that year. This pandemic of 1968 and 1969 killed approximately one million people worldwide.[91] It caused about 34,000 deaths in the United States.

The "Swine Flu", 2009–10. An H1N1 virus first detected in Mexico in early 2009, and spread to the United States later that year. This pandemic was estimated to have killed around 284,000 people worldwide.[92][failed verification] It was estimated to have caused about 12,000 deaths in the United States alone.


Typhus is sometimes called "camp fever" because of its pattern of flaring up in times of strife. (It is also known as "gaol fever" and "ship fever", for its habits of spreading wildly in cramped quarters, such as jails and ships.) Emerging during the Crusades, it had its first impact in Europe in 1489, in Spain. During fighting between the Christian Spaniards and the Muslims in Granada, the Spanish lost 3,000 to war casualties, and 20,000 to typhus. In 1528, the French lost 18,000 troops in Italy, and lost supremacy in Italy to the Spanish. In 1542, 30,000 soldiers died of typhus while fighting the Ottomans in the Balkans.


During the Thirty Years' War (1618–1648), about eight million Germans were killed by bubonic plague and typhus.[93] The disease also played a major role in the destruction of Napoleon's Grande Armée in Russia in 1812. During the retreat from Moscow, more French military personnel died of typhus than were killed by the Russians.[94] Of the 450,000 soldiers who crossed the Neman on 25 June 1812, fewer than 40,000 returned. More military personnel were killed from 1500–1914 by typhus than from military action.[95] In early 1813, Napoleon raised a new army of 500,000 to replace his Russian losses. In the campaign of that year, more than 219,000 of Napoleon's soldiers died of typhus.[96] Typhus played a major factor in the Irish Potato Famine. During World War I, typhus epidemics killed more than 150,000 in Serbia. There were about 25 million infections and 3 million deaths from epidemic typhus in Russia from 1918 to 1922.[96] Typhus also killed numerous prisoners in the Nazi concentration camps and Soviet prisoner of war camps during World War II. More than 3.5 million Soviet POWs died out of the 5.7 million in Nazi custody.[97]




A child with smallpox infection, c. 1908

Smallpox was a contagious disease caused by the variola virus. The disease killed an estimated 400,000 Europeans per year during the closing years of the 18th century.[98] During the 20th century, it is estimated that smallpox was responsible for 300–500 million deaths.[99][100] As recently as the early 1950s, an estimated 50 million cases of smallpox occurred in the world each year.[101] After successful vaccination campaigns throughout the 19th and 20th centuries, the WHO certified the eradication of smallpox in December 1979. To this day, smallpox is the only human infectious disease to have been completely eradicated,[102] and one of two infectious viruses ever to be eradicated along with rinderpest.[103]



Historically, measles was prevalent throughout the world, as it is highly contagious. According to the U.S. National Immunization Program, 90% of people were infected with measles by age 15. Before the vaccine was introduced in 1963, there were an estimated three to four million cases in the U.S. each year.[104] Measles killed around 200 million people worldwide over the last 150 years.[105] In 2000 alone, measles killed some 777,000 worldwide out of 40 million cases globally.[106]


Measles is an endemic disease, meaning it has been continually present in a community, and many people develop resistance. In populations that have not been exposed to measles, exposure to a new disease can be devastating. In 1529, a measles outbreak in Cuba killed two-thirds of the natives who had previously survived smallpox.[107] The disease had ravaged Mexico, Central America, and the Inca civilization.[108]




In 2007, the prevalence of TB per 100,000 people was highest in Sub-Saharan Africa, and was also relatively high in Asian countries like India.

One-quarter of the world's current population has been infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and new infections occur at a rate of one per second.[109] About 5–10% of these latent infections will eventually progress to active disease, which, if left untreated, kills more than half its victims. Annually, eight million people become ill with tuberculosis, and two million die from the disease worldwide.[110] In the 19th century, tuberculosis killed an estimated one-quarter of the adult population of Europe;[111] by 1918, one in six deaths in France were still caused by tuberculosis. During the 20th century, tuberculosis killed approximately 100 million people.[105] TB is still one of the most important health problems in the developing world.[112]



Leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease, is caused by a bacillus, Mycobacterium leprae. It is a chronic disease with an incubation period of up to five years. Since 1985, 15 million people worldwide have been cured of leprosy.[113]


Historically, leprosy has affected people since at least 600 BC.[114] Leprosy outbreaks began to occur in Western Europe around 1000 AD.[115][116] Numerous leprosoria, or leper hospitals, sprang up in the Middle Ages; Matthew Paris estimated that in the early 13th century, there were 19,000 of them across Europe.[117]




Past and current malaria prevalence in 2009

Malaria is widespread in tropical and subtropical regions, including parts of the Americas, Asia, and Africa. Each year, there are approximately 350–500 million cases of malaria.[118] Drug resistance poses a growing problem in the treatment of malaria in the 21st century, since resistance is now common against all classes of antimalarial drugs, except for the artemisinins.[119]


Malaria was once common in most of Europe and North America, where it is now for all purposes non-existent.[120] Malaria may have contributed to the decline of the Roman Empire.[121] The disease became known as "Roman fever".[122] Plasmodium falciparum became a real threat to colonists and indigenous people alike when it was introduced into the Americas along with the slave trade. Malaria devastated the Jamestown colony and regularly ravaged the South and Midwest of the United States. By 1830, it had reached the Pacific Northwest.[123] During the American Civil War, there were more than 1.2 million cases of malaria among soldiers of both sides.[124] The southern U.S. continued to be afflicted with millions of cases of malaria into the 1930s.[125]


Yellow fever[edit]

Yellow fever has been a source of several devastating epidemics.[126] Cities as far north as New York, Philadelphia, and Boston were hit with epidemics. In 1793, one of the largest yellow fever epidemics in U.S. history killed as many as 5,000 people in Philadelphia—roughly 10% of the population. About half of the residents had fled the city, including President George Washington.[127] In colonial times, West Africa became known as "the white man's grave" because of malaria and yellow fever.[128]


Concerns about future pandemics[edit]

See also: Pandemic prevention

Antibiotic resistance[edit]

Main article: Antibiotic resistance

Antibiotic-resistant microorganisms, sometimes referred to as "superbugs", may contribute to the re-emergence of diseases which are currently well controlled.[129] For example, cases of tuberculosis that are resistant to traditionally effective treatments remain a cause of great concern to health professionals. Every year, nearly half a million new cases of multidrug-resistant tuberculosis (MDR-TB) are estimated to occur worldwide.[130] China and India have the highest rate of multidrug-resistant TB.[131] The World Health Organization (WHO) reports that approximately 50 million people worldwide are infected with MDR TB, with 79 percent of those cases resistant to three or more antibiotics. In 2005, 124 cases of MDR TB were reported in the United States. Extensively drug-resistant tuberculosis (XDR TB) was identified in Africa in 2006, and subsequently discovered to exist in 49 countries, including the United States. There are about 40,000 new cases of XDR-TB per year, the WHO estimates.[132]


In the past 20 years, common bacteria including Staphylococcus aureus, Serratia marcescens and Enterococcus, have developed resistance to various antibiotics such as vancomycin, as well as whole classes of antibiotics, such as the aminoglycosides and cephalosporins. Antibiotic-resistant organisms have become an important cause of healthcare-associated (nosocomial) infections (HAI). In addition, infections caused by community-acquired strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) in otherwise healthy individuals have become more frequent in recent years.


Viral hemorrhagic fevers[edit]

Viral hemorrhagic fevers such as Ebola virus disease, Lassa fever, Rift Valley fever, Marburg virus disease and Bolivian hemorrhagic fever are highly contagious and deadly diseases, with the theoretical potential to become pandemics.[133] Their ability to spread efficiently enough to cause a pandemic is limited, however, as transmission of these viruses requires close contact with the infected vector, and the vector has only a short time before death or serious illness. Furthermore, the short time between a vector becoming infectious and the onset of symptoms allows medical professionals to quickly quarantine vectors, and prevent them from carrying the pathogen elsewhere. Genetic mutations could occur, which could elevate their potential for causing widespread harm; thus close observation by contagious disease specialists is merited.[citation needed]



Coronaviruses (CoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). A new strain of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) causes Coronavirus disease 2019, or COVID-19.[134]


COVID-19 was declared a pandemic by the WHO on 11 March 2020.


Some coronaviruses are zoonotic, meaning they are transmitted between animals and people. Detailed investigations found that SARS-CoV was transmitted from civet cats to humans, and MERS-CoV from dromedary camels to humans. Several known coronaviruses are circulating in animals that have not yet infected humans. Common signs of infection include respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath, and breathing difficulties. In more severe cases, infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure and even death. Standard recommendations to prevent the spread of infection include regular hand washing, covering mouth and nose when coughing and sneezing, thoroughly cooking meat and eggs, and avoiding close contact with anyone showing symptoms of respiratory illness such as coughing and sneezing. The recommended distance from other people is 6 feet, a practice more commonly called social distancing.


Severe acute respiratory syndrome[edit]

In 2003 the Italian physician Carlo Urbani (1956–2003) was the first to identify severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) as a new and dangerously contagious disease, although he became infected and died. It is caused by a coronavirus dubbed SARS-CoV. Rapid action by national and international health authorities such as the World Health Organization helped to slow transmission and eventually broke the chain of transmission, which ended the localized epidemics before they could become a pandemic. However, the disease has not been eradicated and could re-emerge. This warrants monitoring and reporting of suspicious cases of atypical pneumonia.[135]



Main article: Influenza pandemic


President Barack Obama is briefed in the Situation Room about the 2009 flu pandemic, which killed as many as 17,000 Americans.[136]

Wild aquatic birds are the natural hosts for a range of influenza A viruses. Occasionally, viruses are transmitted from these species to other species, and may then cause outbreaks in domestic poultry or, rarely, in humans.[137][138]


H5N1 (Avian flu)[edit]

Main article: Influenza A virus subtype H5N1

In February 2004, avian influenza virus was detected in birds in Vietnam, increasing fears of the emergence of new variant strains. It is feared that if the avian influenza virus combines with a human influenza virus (in a bird or a human), the new subtype created could be both highly contagious and highly lethal in humans. Such a subtype could cause a global influenza pandemic, similar to the Spanish flu or the lower mortality pandemics such as the Asian Flu and the Hong Kong Flu.


From October 2004 to February 2005, some 3,700 test kits of the 1957 Asian Flu virus were accidentally spread around the world from a lab in the U.S.[139]


In May 2005, scientists urgently called upon nations to prepare for a global influenza pandemic that could strike as much as 20% of the world's population.[140]


In October 2005, cases of the avian flu (the deadly strain H5N1) were identified in Turkey. EU Health Commissioner Markos Kyprianou said: "We have received now confirmation that the virus found in Turkey is an avian flu H5N1 virus. There is a direct relationship with viruses found in Russia, Mongolia and China." Cases of bird flu were also identified shortly thereafter in Romania, and then Greece. Possible cases of the virus have also been found in Croatia, Bulgaria and the United Kingdom.[141]


By November 2007, numerous confirmed cases of the H5N1 strain had been identified across Europe.[142] However, by the end of October, only 59 people had died as a result of H5N1, which was atypical of previous influenza pandemics.


Avian flu cannot be categorized as a "pandemic" because the virus cannot yet cause sustained and efficient human-to-human transmission. Cases so far are recognized to have been transmitted from bird to human, but as of December 2006 there had been few (if any) cases of proven human-to-human transmission.[143] Regular influenza viruses establish infection by attaching to receptors in the throat and lungs, but the avian influenza virus can attach only to receptors located deep in the lungs of humans, requiring close, prolonged contact with infected patients, and thus limiting person-to-person transmission.


Zika virus[edit]

Main articles: 2015–16 Zika virus epidemic, Zika virus, and Zika fever

An outbreak of Zika virus began in 2015 and strongly intensified throughout the start of 2016, with more than 1.5 million cases across more than a dozen countries in the Americas. The World Health Organization warned that Zika had the potential to become an explosive global pandemic if the outbreak was not controlled.[144]


Economic consequences[edit]

In 2016, the Commission on a Global Health Risk Framework for the Future estimated that pandemic disease events would cost the global economy over $6 trillion in the 21st century—over $60 billion per year.[145] The same report recommended spending $4.5 billion annually on global prevention and response capabilities to reduce the threat posed by pandemic events.


Biological warfare[edit]

Further information: Biological warfare

In 1346, according to secondhand and uncorroborated accounts by Mussi, the bodies of Mongol warriors who had died of plague were thrown over the walls of the besieged Crimean city of Kaffa (now Theodosia). After a protracted siege, during which the Mongol army under Jani Beg was suffering the disease, they catapulted the infected corpses over the city walls to infect the inhabitants. It has been speculated that this operation may have been responsible for the arrival of the Black Death in Europe. However, historians believe it would have taken far too long for the bodies to become contagious.[146]


The Native American population was devastated after contact with the Old World by introduction of many fatal diseases.[147][148][149] In a well documented case of germ warfare involving British commander Jeffery Amherst and Swiss-British officer Colonel Henry Bouquet, their correspondence included a proposal and agreement to give smallpox-infected blankets to Indians in order to "Extirpate this Execrable Race". During the siege of Fort Pitt late in the French and Indian War, as recorded in his journal by sundries trader and militia Captain, William Trent, on 24 June 1763, dignitaries from the Delaware tribe met with Fort Pitt officials, warned them of "great numbers of Indians" coming to attack the fort, and pleaded with them to leave the fort while there was still time. The commander of the fort refused to abandon the fort. Instead, the British gave as gifts two blankets, one silk handkerchief and one linen from the smallpox hospital to two Delaware Indian dignitaries.[150] The dignitaries were met again later and they seemingly hadn't contracted smallpox.[151] A relatively small outbreak of smallpox had begun spreading earlier that spring, with a hundred dying from it among Native American tribes in the Ohio Valley and Great Lakes area through 1763 and 1764.[151] The effectiveness of the biological warfare itself remains unknown, and the method used is inefficient compared to respiratory transmission and these attempts to spread the disease are difficult to differentiate from epidemics occurring from previous contacts with colonists,[152] as smallpox outbreaks happened every dozen or so years.[153] However historian Francis Jennings believes that the attempt at biological warfare was "unquestionably effective at Fort Pitt".[154]


During the Sino-Japanese War (1937–1945), Unit 731 of the Imperial Japanese Army conducted human experimentation on thousands, mostly Chinese. In military campaigns, the Japanese army used biological weapons on Chinese soldiers and civilians. Plague fleas, infected clothing, and infected supplies encased in bombs were dropped on various targets. The resulting cholera, anthrax, and plague were estimated to have killed around 400,000 Chinese civilians.


Diseases considered for or known to be used as a weapon include anthrax, ebola, Marburg virus, plague, cholera, typhus, Rocky Mountain spotted fever, tularemia, brucellosis, Q fever, machupo, Coccidioides mycosis, Glanders, Melioidosis, Shigella, Psittacosis, Japanese B encephalitis, Rift Valley fever, yellow fever, and smallpox.[155]


Spores of weaponized anthrax were accidentally released from a military facility near the Soviet closed city of Sverdlovsk in 1979. The Sverdlovsk anthrax leak is sometimes called "biological Chernobyl".[155] In January 2009, an Al-Qaeda training camp in Algeria was reportedly wiped out by the plague, killing approximately 40 Islamic extremists. Some experts said the group was developing biological weapons,[156] however, a couple of days later the Algerian Health Ministry flatly denied this rumour stating "No case of plague of any type has been recorded in any region of Algeria since 2003".[157]


In popular culture[edit]


This section contains a list of miscellaneous information. Please relocate any relevant information into other sections or articles. (March 2020)


Pieter Bruegel's The Triumph of Death (c. 1562) reflects the social upheaval and terror that followed the plague that devastated medieval Europe.

Pandemics appear in multiple fiction works. A common use is in disaster films, where the protagonists must avoid the effects of the plague, for example zombies.[clarification needed]




The Decameron, a 14th-century writing by Italian author Giovanni Boccaccio, circa 1353

The Last Man, an 1826 novel by Mary Shelley

The Betrothed, an 1842 historical novel by Alessandro Manzoni describing the plague that struck Milan around 1630.

Pale Horse, Pale Rider, a 1939 short novel by Katherine Anne Porter

The Plague, a 1947 novel by Albert Camus

Earth Abides, a 1949 novel by George R. Stewart

I Am Legend, a 1954 science fiction/horror novel by American writer Richard Matheson

The Andromeda Strain, a 1969 science fiction novel by Michael Crichton

The Last Canadian, a 1974 novel by William C. Heine

The Black Death, a 1977 novel by Gwyneth Cravens describing an outbreak of the Pneumonic plague in New York[158]

The Stand, a 1978 novel by Stephen King

And the Band Played On, a 1987 non-fiction account by Randy Shilts about the emergence and discovery of the HIV / AIDS pandemic

Doomsday Book, a 1992 time-travel novel by Connie Willis

The Last Town on Earth, a 2006 novel by Thomas Mullen

World War Z, a 2006 novel by Max Brooks

Company of Liars (2008), by Karen Maitland

The Passage trilogy by Justin Cronin with The Passage (2010), The Twelve (2012), and The City of Mirrors (2016)

Station Eleven, a 2014 novel by Emily St. John Mandel



The Seventh Seal (1957), set during the Black Death

The Last Man on Earth (1964), a horror/science fiction film based on the Richard Matheson novel I Am Legend

Andromeda Strain (1971), a U.S. science fiction film based on the 1969 science fiction novel by Michael Crichton.

The Omega Man (1971), an English science fiction film, based on the Richard Matheson novel I Am Legend

And the Band Played On (film) (1993), a HBO movie about the emergence of the HIV / AIDS pandemic; based on the 1987 non-fiction book by journalistRandy Shilts

The Stand (1994), based on the eponymous novel by Stephen King about a worldwide pandemic of biblical proportions

The Horseman on the Roof (Le Hussard sur le Toit) (1995), a French film dealing with an 1832 cholera outbreak

Twelve Monkeys (1995), set in a future world devastated by a man-made virus

Outbreak (1995), fiction film focusing on an outbreak of an Ebola-like virus in Zaire and later in a small town in California.

Smallpox 2002 (2002), a fictional BBC docudrama

28 Days Later (2002), a fictional horror film following the outbreak of an infectious 'Rage' virus that destroys all of mainland Britain

Yesterday (2004), a movie about the social aspects of the AIDS crisis in Africa.

End Day (2005), a fictional BBC docudrama

I Am Legend (2007), a post-apocalyptic action thriller film film starring Will Smith based on the Richard Matheson novel I Am Legend

28 Weeks Later (2007), the sequel film to 28 Days Later, ending with the evident spread of infection to mainland Europe

The Happening (2008), a fictional suspense film about an epidemic caused by an unknown neurotoxin that induces human suicides to reduce population and restore ecological balance

Doomsday (2008), in which Scotland is quarantined following an epidemic

Black Death (2010) action horror film set during the time of the first outbreak of bubonic plague in England

After Armageddon (2010), fictional History Channel docudrama

Contagion (2011), American thriller centering on the threat posed by a deadly disease and an international team of doctors contracted by the CDC to deal with the outbreak

How to Survive a Plague (2012), a documentary film about the early years of the AIDS epidemic

World War Z (2013) American apocalyptic action horror film based on the novel by Max Brooks

The Normal Heart (2014), film depicts the rise of the HIV-AIDS crisis in New York City between 1981 and 1984



Spanish Flu: The Forgotten Fallen (2009), a television drama

Helix (2014–2015), a television series that depicts a team of scientists from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) who are tasked to prevent pandemics from occurring.

The Last Man on Earth (2015–2018), a television series about a group of survivors after a pandemic has wiped out most life (humans and animals) on Earth

12 Monkeys (2015–2018), a television series that depicts James Cole, a time traveler, who travels from the year 2043 to the present day to stop the release of a deadly virus.

Survivors (1975–1977), classic BBC series created by Terry Nation. The series follows a group of people as they come to terms with the aftermath of a world pandemic.

Survivors (2008), BBC series, loosely based on the Terry Nation book which came after the series, instead of a retelling of the original TV series.

The Last Train 1999 written by Matthew Graham

World Without End (2012), chronicles the experiences of the medieval English town of Kingsbridge during the outbreak of the Black Death, based on Ken Follett's 2007 novel of the same name.

The Hot Zone (2019), a television series based on the 1994 non-fiction book of the same name by Richard Preston.

Pandemic: How to Prevent an Outbreak (2020), Netflix's docuseries

The Walking Dead (2010–), a virus appears that kills people and then revives them by turning them into zombies. An Atlanta group will try to survive in this new, post-apocalyptic world



Resident Evil series (1996-2020), video game series focusing on T-virus pandemic and eventual zombie apocalypse as part of a bioterrorism act. The video games later evolved to be focusing on parasites and bioweapons.

Deus Ex, A World Wide Plague known as grey death infects the world created by Majestic 12 to bring about population reduction and New World order.

Pandemic (2008), a cooperative board game in which the players have to discover the cures for four diseases that break out at the same time.

Plague Inc. (2012), a smartphone game from Ndemic Creations, where the goal is to kill off the human race with a plague.

The Last of Us (2013), a post-apocalyptic survival game centred around an outbreak of a Cordyceps-like fungal infection.

Tom Clancy's The Division (2015) A video game about a bioterrorist attack that has devastated the United States and thrown New York into anarchy.

See also[edit]

Pandemic portal

iconViruses portal

List of epidemics

Biological hazard


Compartmental models in epidemiology


Disease X

European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control (ECDC)

Mathematical modelling of infectious disease

Medieval demography

Mortality from infectious diseases

Pandemic severity index

Public health emergency of international concern



Tropical disease

Timeline of global health

WHO pandemic phases


^ For clarification, WHO does not use the old system of six phases—ranging from phase 1 (no reports of animal influenza causing human infections) to phase 6 (a pandemic)—that some people may be familiar with from H1N1 in 2009.


^ Porta, Miquel, ed. (2008). Dictionary of Epidemiology. Oxford University Press. p. 179. ISBN 978-0-19-531449-6. Retrieved 14 September 2012.

^ A. M., Dumar (2009). Swine Flu: What You Need to Know. Wildside Press LLC. p. 7. ISBN 978-1434458322.

^ "WHO says it no longer uses 'pandemic' category, but virus still emergency". Reuters. 24 February 2020. Retrieved 29 February 2020.

^ "WHO press conference on 2009 pandemic influenza" (PDF). World Health Organization. 26 May 2009. Retrieved 26 August 2010.

^ "Pandemic influenza preparedness and response" (PDF). World Health Organization. Archived from the original (PDF) on 13 May 2011.

^ "WHO pandemic phase descriptions and main actions by phase" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 September 2011.

^ "A whole industry is waiting for an epidemic". Der Spiegel. 21 July 2009. Retrieved 26 August 2010.

^ Jump up to: a b c Anderson RM, Heesterbeek H, Klinkenberg D, Hollingsworth TD (March 2020). "How will country-based mitigation measures influence the course of the COVID-19 epidemic?". The Lancet. 395 (10228): 931–934. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)30567-5. PMID 32164834. A key issue for epidemiologists is helping policy makers decide the main objectives of mitigation—eg, minimising morbidity and associated mortality, avoiding an epidemic peak that overwhelms health-care services, keeping the effects on the economy within manageable levels, and flattening the epidemic curve to wait for vaccine development and manufacture on scale and antiviral drug therapies.

^ Jump up to: a b "Community Mitigation Guidelines to Prevent Pandemic Influenza—United States, 2017". Recommendations and Reports. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 66 (1). 12 April 2017.

^ "3. Strategies for Disease Containment". Ethical and Legal Considerations in Mitigating Pandemic Disease: Workshop Summary.

^ Baird, Robert P. (11 March 2020). "What It Means to Contain and Mitigate the Coronavirus". The New Yorker.

^ "Impact of non-pharmaceutical interventions (NPIs) to reduce COVID19 mortality and healthcare demand" (PDF). Imperial College COVID-19 Response Team. 16 March 2020.

^ Chong, Jia-Rui (30 October 2007). "Analysis clarifies route of AIDS". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 6 July 2014.

^ "The South African Department of Health Study". 2006. Retrieved 26 August 2010.

^ "WHO Statement Regarding Cluster of Pneumonia Cases in Wuhan, China". WHO. 31 December 2019. Retrieved 12 March 2020.

^ "Covid-19 Coronavirus Pandemic (Live statistics)". Worldometer. 2020. Retrieved 3 April 2020.

^ "Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases by Johns Hopkins CSSE". Retrieved 8 March 2020.

^ "WHO Director-General's opening remarks at the media briefing on COVID-19—11 March 2020". WHO. 11 March 2020. Retrieved 12 March 2020.

^ "Coronavirus confirmed as pandemic". BBC News. 11 March 2020. Retrieved 11 March 2020.

^ Coronavirus COVID-19 Global Cases by the Center for Systems Science and Engineering (CSSE) at Johns Hopkins University (JHU). "John Hopkins," April 03, 2020

^ "Ancient Athenian Plague Proves to Be Typhoid". Scientific American. 25 January 2006.

^ Past pandemics that ravaged Europe. BBC News, 7 November. 2005

^ "Cambridge Catalogue page 'Plague and the End of Antiquity'". Retrieved 26 August 2010.

^ Quotes from book "Plague and the End of Antiquity" Archived 16 July 2011 at the Wayback Machine Lester K. Little, ed., Plague and the End of Antiquity: The Pandemic of 541–750, Cambridge, 2006. ISBN 0-521-84639-0

^ "Plague, Plague Information, Black Death Facts, News, Photos". National Geographic. Retrieved 3 November 2008.

^ Death on a Grand Scale. MedHunters.

^ Stéphane Barry and Norbert Gualde, in L'Histoire No. 310, June 2006, pp. 45–46, say "between one-third and two-thirds"; Robert Gottfried (1983). "Black Death" in Dictionary of the Middle Ages, volume 2, pp. 257–267, says "between 25 and 45 percent".

^ Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Plague" . Encyclopædia Britannica. 21 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 693–705.

^ "A List of National Epidemics of Plague in England 1348–1665". 4 August 2010. Archived from the original on 8 May 2009. Retrieved 26 August 2010.

^ Revill, Jo (16 May 2004). "Black Death blamed on man, not rats". The Observer. London. Retrieved 3 November 2008.

^ "Texas Department of State Health Services, History of Plague". Retrieved 3 November 2008.

^ Igeji, Mike. "Black Death". BBC. Retrieved 3 November 2008.

^ The Great Plague of London, 1665. The Harvard University Library, Open Collections Program: Contagion.

^ "Zoonotic Infections: Plague". World Health Organization. Archived from the original on 20 April 2009. Retrieved 5 July 2014.

^ Bubonic plague hits San Francisco 1900–1909. A Science Odyssey. Public Broadcasting Service (PBS).

^ "Human Plague—United States, 1993–1994".

^ Jump up to: a b c d Taubenberger JK, Morens DM (January 2006). "1918 Influenza: the mother of all pandemics". Emerging Infectious Diseases. 12 (1): 15–22. doi:10.3201/eid1201.050979. PMC 3291398. PMID 16494711. Archived from the original on 1 October 2009. Retrieved 7 September 2017.

^ "Historical Estimates of World Population". Archived from the original on 9 July 2012. Retrieved 29 March 2013.

^ Gagnon A, Miller MS, Hallman SA, Bourbeau R, Herring DA, Earn DJ, Madrenas J (2013). "Age-Specific Mortality During the 1918 Influenza Pandemic: Unravelling the Mystery of High Young Adult Mortality". PLOS One. 8 (8): e69586. Bibcode:2013PLoSO...869586G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0069586. PMC 3734171. PMID 23940526.

^ "The 1918 Influenza Pandemic".

^ Spanish flu facts by Channel 4 News.

^ Qureshi, Adnan I. (2016). Ebola Virus Disease: From Origin to Outbreak. Academic Press. p. 42. ISBN 978-0128042427.

^ Spanish flu strikes during World War I, 14 January 2010

^ "Smallpox: Eradicating the Scourge". 5 November 2009. Retrieved 26 August 2010.

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Excerpt from



98 Church Street East


Moorecroft was designed by Toronto architect J.A. Ellis, and built by John Cameron in 1896 in typical Queen Anne style for Edward Moore, father of Henry Moore. Henry was the Editor of the Acton Free Press for nearly 50 years. Known for its beautiful gardens, Moorecroft hosted many prominent guests including church dignitaries, politicians and journalists. The Moore family owned this property for 85 years. In 1931, Moorecroft was sold to Wesley Beatty, manager of the Acton Tanning Company and Chairman of the Progressive Conservatives for the county. This house is designated under the Ontario Heritage Act.

Excerpt from


St. Alban's Anglican Church

19 St. Alban's Drive


Saint Alban the Martyr was established in 1870. The Sharp family donated this land to "The Church of England in the Dominion of Canada". The Church building was consecrated by Bishop Fuller in 1876. In 1899, the bell tower was installed as well as electric lights. The Parish Hall, built in 1951, is Tudor style architecture made from stucco and wood with an open bell cupola.

Excerpt from


Former Knox Manse

39 Willow Street North


Associated with Knox Presbyterian Church on Main Street, the manse was built in 1889 on the property of the original home of Rufus Adams and family, founders of Acton. Originally occupied by Reverend and Mrs. Rae of Knox Church, it served the Acton ministers until 1987, when it was auctioned for $163,000. The money was invested to provide a housing allowance for the minister. This two-storey, five bedroom house is built in the Queen Anne style of architecture and includes stone sills, brick design, and gingerbread detailing on the roof gable, and corner porch.

Excerpt from


Former Murray Memorial YMCA

40 Mill Street East


Built with a bequest by J.A. Murray, the Acton YMCA was completed in 1935 with a flat roof, symmetrical façade and brick detailing, emblematic of 1930s architecture. Back then, Acton was the smallest town in Canada with its own YMCA. In the past, this building also served as Acton Town Offices, a library, Police Headquarters and even a gymnasium for high school students during the winter months. It was also a venue for youth dances. The building is currently an apartment building.

an off-topic side note:


my parents lived in Paradise CA until they died. they are buried there. so is my stepmother.

my folks had their house built. it was my mother's dream.


the little town of Paradise has been totally destroyed by the Camp Fire. I finally was able to get an updated map of destroyed houses. my parent's house was on the map.

my mother died in 1985, and my dad died in '05. my father remarried, but his second wife is gone, too. the loss of their house made me so sad. I knew it had to be gone, but it was still a direct hit in my gut.

I am just glad that none of them were there when the fire hit.


my deep deep condolences to those victims of the California fires.

the death count is rising and there are close to 300 people still missing.

there is heartbreak in california all over the state.


Excerpt from



68 Bower Street


Villanore is an example of a brick house with vernacular Victorian architecture with Gothic influences. It was constructed by Alex Secord, a popular and highly esteemed local merchant, who became the factory superintendent at Storey Glove. The house was named in honour of his wife, Lenora Storey, the eldest daughter of the glove factory owner W.H. Storey. An underground steam line from the factory across the road (now the post office) provided heating to the home. The famous Laura Secord was Alex's great aunt.

Cámara Profundidad ASUS XTION PRO live 3d animation

Fichero tratado con ArcGIS

Flattering the curves





intelligent people.


Plenary Session


ESRI Technology beyond 9.3.1

as presented at the ESRI User Conference in San Diego, August 2009


Interesting how this has changed since April 2007


The 2009 version of this road map is available here:


ArcGIS software is availalbe here:


stats are things of a Moment


may be more!

but the time zones make it difficult


Stay at home


LAT 26°18'8.87" - N

LONG 43°31'33.67" - E

N - 110°

LAT 37°42'12.80" - N

LONG 6°36'11.27" - O

N - 187°

LAT 16°47'52.15" - N

LONG 97°1'30.87" - E

N - 270

after a day of cleaning up dog poo, watching my roof leak, writing ArcGIS apps, doing laundry, dishes, and other sucky chores...


i chose to go get frostbite. :)


btw, this is only 25 minutes up the mountain from my house. i live at 7000' in the mountains east of Albuquerque.


Gaur "gutarrak" hitzak bere zentzu zabalena hartu behar du, Johns Hopkinsen web orrian

agertzen diren 108.994 hildakoak batu arte


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