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The shiny star leaf being stranded fringed weirdly in a moongate gravitating sun-side down earth↓wards exhibiting her flashed, chthonotrope, fawnbeige moon-side, fringed by rippling rickrack purlieus; subfusc harbinger of the non-trivial Hecate-Day, the Blue June Moon on June 30th, 2007 [GMT], transformed by wintertimes into a moonscaped, tellurian-coloured ghost; serendipitously cultivated undulant, darkly leaf rings all around, a mystique caused by the processes of becoming embedded into {fossilized onto} & trying to escape from her marblelike, hygrophilous tar-yard.

─► Elucidated as a figuration: Mystical avatars agonize each other. Metamorphosed into hellenic myth: Persephone struggles to elude from the ineluctable gate of Hades.

─► The litter 'moonlanded' in a black asphalt moon-gate that contains an area of 3,141 m² . Therefore you can call it a π-gate. It belongs to a landscaped pedestrian precinct and is the left part of a twin-moon∩gates-ensemble, i.e. tar-black asphalt-circles lined up two abreast in lane 3 of the running track that extends on two long sides of the Eastgate in Marzahn.

This moon-gate is the most western of the 11 (∑=2+3+2+2+2=4+4+3) totally black circular tar bubbles. These special eleven fields do not contain - like those other 26 {1|2|3|e|a|s|t|g|a|t|e| ∟ |e|a|s|t|g|a|t|e|e|a|s|t|1|2|3} surrounding the building - white alphanumeric signs, but these are void and black like gravel-free tar. [_pearl of civilization, 16 Dec 2007_]

─► Apocryphal 9/11-Speculation: The star leaf was found in the eleventh π-gate (The number 11 in Greek Numerals : acrophonic: ΔΙ ; alphabetical: ιαʹ). Might the 'twin moon∩gates' represent the 'twin towers'? Are the eleven tar-filled circles esoteric mourning memorials for 9/11?

─► Another question: How did the puzzling sedimentation-like black halo come about? - Most likely: The thin film of water on the hygrophilous tar evaporated quickly and left the fringe pattern. Less likely: Melted, gravel-free tar as a kind of sealing wax. Chromatographicly. Osmoticly. Silver Thaw.


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Chromatography the collective term for a family of laboratory techniques for the separation of mixtures. It involves passing a mixture dissolved in a "mobile phase" through a stationary phase, which separates the analyte to be measured from other molecules in the mixture and allows it to be isolated.

Osmosis The tendency in fluids to mix, or become equably diffused, when in contact. It was first observed between fluids of differing densities, and as taking place through a membrane or an intervening porous structure.

sediment [mass noun] matter that settles to the bottom of a liquid; dregs

sedimentation coeffizient (also sedimentation constant) Biochemistry a quantity related to the size of a microscopic particle, equal to the terminal outward velocity of the particle when centrifuged in a fluid medium divided by the centrifugal force acting on it, expressed in units of time [New Oxford Dictionary of Englisch, p.1681, 1998, reissued 2001]

Emergence "...out of a multiplicity of relatively simple interactions... is central to the physics of complex systems ... Emergent structures are patterns not created by a single event or rule"

Complex Systems From Sync by Steven Strogatz: "Every decade or so, a grandiose theory comes along, bearing similar aspirations and often brandishing an ominous-sounding C-name. In the 1960s it was cybernetics. In the '70s it was catastrophe theory. Then came chaos theory in the '80s and complexity theory in the '90s."

fractal five-edged-star

mandala (Sanskrit maṇḍala "circle", "completion") has in practice become a generic term for any plan, chart or geometric pattern that represents the cosmos metaphysically or symbolically, a microcosm of the universe from the human perspective ... The Psychoanalyst Carl Jung saw the mandala as "a representation of the unconscious self," and believed his paintings of mandalas enabled him to identify emotional disorders and work towards wholeness in personality.

avatar (sanskrit 'avatara'=descent, from 'ava'=down and 'tar'=passing over) a manifestation of a deity or released soul in bodily form on earth; an incarnate divine teacher. Computing: movable icon representing a person.



□ UK: Gateshead,Hornsea,Louth,Derby,Leeds,Accrington (─►Google Earth)

□ US: FL,WA,TX (─►Google Earth)

Shopping Centers named Eastgate Inverness, Basildon, Berlin, Harare etc.



Herbstlaub, Laub, hojas del otoño (254), осенние листья, feuilles d'automne(4) ,أوراق الخريف (ar.), 秋は去る (jp.=4),

秋叶(ch.simplified=100), 秋葉 (ch.traditional =300), fogli di autunno (4)

litter material forming a bedding or carpet (also leaf litter) decomposing but recognizable leaves and other debris forming a layer on top of the soil, especially in forests (NODE p1078)



Four leaf pigments are responsible for leaf color: chlorophylls, carotenoids, tannins, and anthocyanins.

Why do leaves fall? Shorter days and cooler temperatures signal leaf senescence in which an increase in the enzymes that promote the breakdown of cells occurs. The veins that carry fluids into and out of the leaf gradually close off as a layer of cells (abscission layer) forms at the base of each leaf petiole where it is attached to the twig. These clogged veins trap sugars in the leaf and promote production of anthocyanins. Once the separation layer is complete and the connecting tissues are sealed off, the leaf is ready to fall.


▐►LYRICS about moons & autumn-leaves)◄▌

the man in the moon is a lady

a lady with lipstick and curls

the cow who jumped over

cried jumping jehovah

i think it's just one of the girls!

her friends are the stars and the planets

she throws the big dipper a kiss

so don't ever offend her,

remember her gender

the man in the moon is a miss.


Der Fischer / The Fisherman (Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1808

translated to English by Emily Ezust)

Autumn-Leaves by Johnny Mercer

Les feuilles mortes by Jacques Prévert


─► SWEETGUM ◄─ [_Liquidambar styraciflua_]

Liquidambar the star-shaped leaves have a pleasant, sweet fragrance when crushed ... Molecular studies have shown that Liquidambar isn't closely related to Hamamelis and is better placed in the Altingiaceae instead of the Hamamelidaceae

Amerikanischer Amberbaum In the german language this deciduous tree is called Amerikanischer Amberbaum and belongs to the family of the Zaubernußgewächse

tree for Michigan's lower peninsula

□ The Redgum (also called sweetgum, sapgum, starleaf-gum or bilsted) from the witch-hazel family (Liquidambar styraciflua / Hamamelidaceae) is a tree from North America that hit Europe for the first time in 1681:

The leaves are palmately lobed, 7-19 cm (rarely to 25 cm) long and broad and with a 6-10 cm petiole, looking somewhat similar to those of some maples. They have five sharply pointed lobes, but are easily distinguished from maples in being arranged alternately, not in opposite pairs.


The gum resin, also known as liquid amber or copalm balsam, yielded by this tree has no special medicinal virtues, being inferior in therapeutic properties to many others of its class. It is a kind of native balsam, or resin, like turpentine. It may be clear, reddish or yellow, with a pleasant smell like ambergris. As it grows older, it hardens into a solid form, which historically was shipped to other countries in barrels. It was reputed an excellent balsam for mollifying and consolidating, and good against sciatica, weakness of the nerves, etc. Mixed with tobacco, the gum was once used for smoking at the court of the Mexican emperors. It was long used in France as a perfume for gloves and other such items. It is mainly produced in Mexico, little being obtained from trees growing in higher latitudes of North America, or in England.

An American Sweetgum will be featured as part of the Memorial Grove at the World Trade Center Memorial, with installation set for fall 2008 and spring 2009.


─► MOON ◄─

lt.,es.,it. luna (fem.) | ru. луна {a series of Soviet moon probes launched in 1959-1976. They made the first hard (1959) and soft (1966) landings on the moon} | pt. lua | fr. lune

gr. σελήνη, φεγγάρι --> πανσέληνος -

nl. maan | nw. Måne | de. der Mond (masc.)

ch. 月亮 | jp. 月 | ko. 달 | ar. القمر

MOONING the act of displaying one's bare buttocks by removing clothing. Mooning is used in some cultures to express protest, scorn, disrespect or provocation but can simply be done for shock value or fun.

Moon has been a common shape-metaphor for the buttocks in English since 1743, and the verb to moon has meant 'to expose to (moon)light' since 1601, long before they were combined in US student slang in the verb(al expression) mooning "to flash the buttocks" in 1968. Formerly, mooning was slang for "wandering idly" and "romantically pining".[1]



○ blue-grey | golden-beige | fine-brush-gold

beige: of a pale sandy fawn colour - ORIGIN: mid 19th (denoting a usually undyed and unbleached woollen fabric of this colour): from French, of unknown ultimate origin [NODE p.158]

fawn 1. young deer 2. a light yellowish-brown colour

tellurian-coloured is the only true color of planet earth (myth. fair {ξανθή=blonde} 'mother' Demeter) and her satellite moon (myth. darkly-blue {κυανῆ=negative colour of ξανθή} 'daughter' Persephone), the colour of the ○ tohubohu {from Hebrew tohu wa-bohu = 'emptiness and desolation' (Genesis 1.2.), translated in the Bible of 1611 as 'without form and void' (<--'wüst und leer' [Luther].}

The true colour of primeval animals in the earth history, e.g. Mosquitos, is tellurian, too.

"Except for small outcrops of rock on Earth, the whole surface of the moon is older than the oldest parts of the Earth's surface." (Richard Teske)

Watch for second full moon in June (June 30,1996)

"When it is highest in the sky, the full moon looks brilliant and has an undoubted yellow-white color," Teske says. "Yet the moon is a very poor reflector of sunlight, with about the reflecting power of an asphalt parking lot. Its brilliance and apparent yellow-white color in the night sky are an illusion caused by dark adaptation of one's eyes, together with the fact that the black sky provides no background illumination for comparison. Astronauts who have circled the moon and walked on its surface report it is almost colorless. Some describe the color as a dull grey; others say it is a dull grey-tan." (Astronomer Richard Teske)

darkly 1. in a threatening, mysterious or slightly ominous way; in a depressing or pessimistic way: I wondered darkly if I was wasting time 2 with a dark colour: a figure silhouetted darkly against the trees NODE p.467

subfusc Dark or dull in color; drab, dusky. lt. fuscus=kyanos like Poseidon--> fuscina=trident of Poseidon-Neptune. The tea-cosy, property of one Edmund Gravel -- "known as the Recluse of Lower Spigot to everybody there and elsewhere," as the book's first page informs us -- is haunted by a six-legged emcee for various "subfusc but transparent" ghosts.

-- Emily Gordon, "The Doubtful Host", Newsday, November 8, 1998

chthonotrope = tellurian-coloured. antonymous to heliotrope [mass noun] a light purple colour, similar to that typical of heliotrope flowers [NODE p.852]

→ heliotrope [noun] a plant of the borage family (genus: Heliotropium, family: Boraginanaceae), cultivated for its fragrant purple or blue flowers which are used in perfume.

heliotropism the directional growth of a plant in response to sunlight. Compare with Phototropism. Derivates: heliotropic

phototropism the orientation of a plant or other organism in response to light (positive phototropism) or away from it (negative phototropism). Compare with Phototaxis.

Photosynthesis the process by which green plants and some other organisms use sunlight to synthesize foods from carbon dioxide and water. Photosynthesis involves the green pigment chlorophyll and generates oxygen as a by-product.

☼ There are many False Colour Moons. By means of stretching the saturation in Photoshop you can easily achieve the 'Green Moon of Alabama' or a Moon Blue.

Earth in True Color © NASA Here are the true colors of planet Earth. Blue oceans dominate our world, while areas of green forest, brown mountains, tan desert, and white ice are also prominent. Oceans appear blue not only because water itself is blue but also because seawater frequently scatters light from a blue sky. Forests appear green because they contain chlorophyll, a pigment that preferentially absorbs red light. The above image is a composite generated predominantly with data from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS), an instrument mounted on the Terra satellite that has orbited Earth since 1999 December.

Full Moon by High Dynamic Range Image [HDRI] --> 200.000 :1; Exposure: 1/50 sec; Aperture: f/4.9; Focal Length: 46 mm; ISO Speed: 100

Full Moon in True Color Exposure: 1/320 sec; Aperture: f/3.5

Focal Length: 72 mm; Digital Zoom: x2 © hkhoodoo

Full Moon (yellowish long-term exposure) © stitch witch

279/365: Hello Earth (Kate Bush Lyrics) © practicalowl

"Somewhere out there" (May 16th 07) (moon, reflected moonlight on waves, stars) © Aussie Julie (aka Julie Holland)

○ ○ tellurian formal or poetic/literary adjective - of or inhabiting the earth Origin: mid 19th

○ ○ telluric adjective - of the earth as a planet ■ of the soil Origin: mid 19th ---> telluric acide

○ ○ ○ Tellurium the chemical element of atomic number 52, a brittle, shiny, silvery-white semimetal resembling selenium and occurring mainly in small amounts in metallic sulphide ores. (Symbol: Te.) Origin: Early 19th from lt. tellûs,ûris n. (soil), probably named in contrast to Uranium. [NODE p.1907]



"'All hands on deck, we've run afloat!' ......

Now many moons and many Junes have passed since we made land."

(A Salty Dog, © 1968 Procol Harum)


Moons and Junes and Ferris wheels

The dizzy dancing way you feel

As ev'ry fairy tale comes real

I've looked at love that way

(Both Sides, Now, © 1969 Joni Mitchell)



○ lt. metiri 'to measure' (the moon being used to measure time)

○ lunar: day (24 h 50 m -> 'MeridianCrossings'), month (29½ d), year (~ 354 d)


□ of or employing a calendar year divided according to the phases of the moon,

but adjusted in average length to fit the length of the solar cycle

□ of or denoting a 532-year period over which both the lunar months and the days of the week return to the same point in relation to the solar year Origin: late 17th

lunar cycle another term for metonic cycle

Blue Moon [scienceworld.wolfram]

When two full moons occur in any calendar month, the second is called a blue moon. The term (in its modern usage) therefore has nothing to do with the Moon's actually color. A blue moon occurs about once in 2.5 years on average. A blue moon can occur in January and the following March if there is no full moon at all in February, as is the case in the years 1999, 2018, and 2037.

There are several other meanings ascribed to the term "blue moon" (the most common being "a very uncommon event"), but the one given here seems first to have appeared in The Maine Farmers' Almanac of 1937. The phrase "blue moon" has been around for several hundred years, but its meaning has changed a few times. The earliest use of "blue moon" meant an obvious absurdity which everyone knew never happened. However, the moon does occasionally turn blue as a result of smoke from forest fires or particles from a volcanic eruption. Since these blue-looking moons were rare but did happen from time to time, the phrase "once in a blue moon" was coined, meaning that an event is unusual, but can happen occasionally (Kibbey). "Blue moon" has also been used as a symbol of sadness and loneliness. That appears to have a history of its own among musicians and songwriters (Kibbey).

Blue Moon I [en.wikipedia, Sept07]

is called the third full moon in a season with four full moons, as described in the Maine Farmer's Almanac. Until recently it was commonly misunderstood that the second full moon in a month was the blue moon. However, it was recently discovered by Sky & Telescope Magazine and reported on NPR that the interpretation of a blue moon as the second full moon of the month was erroneously reported in an issue of Sky & Telescope dating back to 1946 and then perpetuated by other media.

Blue Moon II [en.wikipedia, Sept07]

Farmer's Almanac blue moons

The older meaning of blue moon to name an extra full moon, as was used in the Maine Farmer's Almanac, was the third full moon in a quarter of the year when there were four full moons – normally a quarter year has three full moons. The division of the year into quarters for this purpose has the dividing line set between March 21 and March 22. This has to do with the rule for setting the date for the Christian Holy Day of Easter, which depends on the last full moon - as calculated by the computus, a somewhat inaccurate formula - on or before the Equinox on March 21, which is also somewhat inaccurate.

This meaning of blue moon was lost when the editors of the original Farmer's Almanac died. It was recovered only when researchers for Sky & Telescope magazine noticed that the Maine Farmer's Almanac from 1829 to 1937 reported blue moons that did not fit the meaning of the term calendar blue moon.

Calendar Blue Moons

In recent times, people have taken to calling a full moon a blue moon based on the Gregorian calendar. By this use of the term, a blue moon is the second of two full moons to occur in the same calendar month. This definition of blue moon originated from a mistake in an article in the March 1946 Sky & Telescope magazine, which failed in an attempt to infer the earlier definition used in the original Farmer's Almanac (see above). It was helped to popularity when Deborah Byrd of Earth & Sky walked into the Peridier astronomy library at the University of Texas at Austin one day, leafed through some old magazines, and found the 1946 blue moon article in Sky & Telescope. She used the definition – the second full moon in a single month – in the radio series Star Date for some years. As a result, the game Trivial Pursuit used a question and answer about blue moon. Sky & Telescope discovered the error nearly sixty years later and the magazine printed a retraction and correction.[2] By the time the correction came the calendar definition had already come into common use. As it is easier to understand, the mistaken calendar-based meaning has stuck.

Calendar blue moons occur infrequently, and the saying once in a blue moon is used to describe a rare event. However, they are inevitable because of the mis-match between the solar and lunar cycles. Each calendar year contains twelve full lunar cycles, plus about eleven days to spare. The extra days accumulate, so that while most years contain twelve full moons to match the twelve months, every two or three years there is a year with thirteen full moons. On average, this happens once every 2.72 years. Additionally, in some years there is no full moon in February at all, since February is slightly shorter than the time from one full moon to the next. This condition, known as black moon, gives additional 'blue' moons in the preceding and following months (namely January and March). The last time this occurred was in 1999. The next time this will occur will be in 2018, because February will have no full moon that year, according to UTC, which means that January and March will each have a calendar blue moon that year.

When there are thirteen moons in a year, twelve of them are given the twelve traditional names associated with that time of year (the names vary from culture to culture), and the extra one is termed a blue moon. Which of the thirteen moons is termed 'blue' depends on whether it is calculated by the old or the new method.

The months of the Gregorian calendar are all very close to the 29.5306-day period of the moon's phases: the synodic month, or lunation. Most of the months are longer than this by one or two days, except February, which is the only month which cannot contain a calendar blue moon. Since February is one or two days shorter than the moon's cycle, very occasionally it has no full moon – there is a full moon at the end of January, and the next one is at the beginning of March. What this means is that both January and March will have blue moons. This happens, on average, once every thirty-five years.

The previous calendar blue moon (based on UTC) was on June 30, 2007. The first full moon would have occurred on June 1, 2007. But that was May 31, 2007 in the Western Hemisphere making that full moon the second occurrence in May in the Western Hemisphere; see below); and the next calendar blue moon will be December 31, 2009.

Time zone problems

Occasionally whether a moon is called blue depends on the time zone. Any full moon occurs simultaneously everywhere, but at that moment clocks and calendars are not the same.

Example, when it is early evening on August 31 in Europe, it is already early morning September 1 in New Zealand. Hence, residents of London seeing a full moon when their clocks and calendar say it is August 31 would call what they see a calendar blue moon. People seeing the same full moon from Auckland would note by their clocks and calendar that it is the early morning of September 1, and they would not term it a blue moon. But they would probably have a calendar blue moon at the end of September, or perhaps October.

Because this is confusing, astronomers worldwide and the calendar makers who rely on them typically choose the time zone of the Royal Greenwich Observatory in the United Kingdom, known as Greenwich Mean Time, or the nearly identical UTC time zone. As a practical matter, because the moon seems to the casual viewer to be full for almost three days, the use of a foreign time zone for calendar markings for full moons makes little difference.

Blue Moons between 2004 and 2010

The following data is based on the Calendar and Farmers' Almanac definitions.

August 2005 — Third full moon in a season of four full moons

June 2007 — has a second full moon falling on the 30th

May 2008 — Third full moon in a season of four full moons

November 2010 — Third full moon in a season of four full moons

Blue Moon (Elvis Presley)

Blue Moon of Kentucky (Elvis Presley) & (Apollo 11, Moonlanding-Footage, July 20th, 1969)

○ Blue moon, you saw me standin' alone

Without a dream in my heart, without a love of my own

Blue moon, you knew just what I was there for

You heard me sayin' a prayer for

Someone I really could care for

And then there suddenly appeared before me

The only one my arms will hold

I heard somebody whisper "please adore me"

And when I looked, the moon had turned to gold

Blue moon, now I'm no longer alone

Without a dream in my heart

Without a love of my own

Lorenz Hart, Richard Rodgers



Moon Gate: a circular gateway in a wall (chinese architecture);

○ One of the seven Doors of the ancient city of Thebes was called Moongate (-->Seven against Thebes, Aeschylus]



lunar of, determined by, or resembling the moon: a lunar landscape

LANDSCAPE all the visible features of an area of countryside or land, often considered in terms of their asthetic appeal: the soft colours of the Northumbrian l., a bleak urban landscape 2. wider than hig, contr. portrait verb: be landscaped (moonscaped)= improve (deteriorate) the aethetic appearence of (a piece of land) by changing its contours, adding ornamental features or planting trees and shrubs --> landscapist (-->moonscapist)

Lunarian (in science fiction) an imagined inhabitant of the moon

lune (lunette) = crescent shaped figure; lunula or lunule = white area at base of fingernail; BronzeAgeNecklace

lunatic fringe exreme or eccentric minority within society or group


─► STAR ◄─

it. stella; es. estrella; fr. étoile [googlish: 'tenir le premier rôle']; ru. звезды; de. Stern; ch. 明星; jp. 星; ko.별; ar. النجم

─► PLANET ◄─

fr. planète; ru. планета; jp. 惑星; ch. 星球; ar. الكوكب


ru. спутник; es. satélite; de. Trabant;

ch. (simp.) 卫星; ch. (trad.) 衛星; jp. 衛星;ko.인공위성; ar. ساتل


─► EARTH ◄─

gr.γῆ,χώμα -χθών,χθονός poet. surface of the earth (rarely soil)

lt. tellus,terra | it.,pt. terra | fr. terre;es. tierra

ru. Земли, de. Erde arch.Nerthus (in a grove on an island)

ch.,jp. 地球 | ko. 지구 | ar. الأرض


▐►C H T H O N I A N S ◄▌ greek god(desse)s

χθόνιος in, under or beneath the earth II. sprung from the earth, Titans (Hesiod.Theogonia.697) 2. in or of the country; native S.OC948; S.Aj.202 III. of things, of the earth, Aeschylus.Septem contra Thebas.736

■ χθονία ('Chthonίa') Earlier name of γαῖα ('Gaia') Pherekydes. Syr.I,cf. Dam.Pr.124 [LSJ p.1991].

■ Χθόνεια,τά festival of Demeter and Persephone [LSJ p.1991].

■ χ. θεοί gods of the nether world opp. ypatoi (=superi), Aeschylus.Agamemnon.89

■ χ. θεαί, i.e. Demeter and Persephone, Herodot. 6.134, 7.153; of the Erinyes, Socphocles.OedipusColoneus 1568.

■ χ. Ἑκάτη (Hekátē, Hecate) Aristophanes Fragmenta 500

■ χ. poreia opp. ourania Plato.Respublica.619e

■ χ. phreni of the dead Pindar.Pythian Odes.5.101.

■ χ. Ερμής Hermes as conductor of the dead Aeschylus.Choephori.1, Sophocles. Electra.111

Ζεύς χ. of Jupiter Tonans, Hades-Pluto in Hesiod.Opera.465


▐►Χ θ ό ν ι α ι___θ ε α ί ◄▌ @ Aeschylus

▐► Χορός: ἀλλὰ σύ μοι Γᾶ τε καὶ ἄλλοι / χθονίων ἁγεμόνες / δαίμονα μεγαυχῆ / ἰόντ' αἰνέσατ' ἐκ δόμων, / Περσᾶν Σουσιγενῆ θεόν: / πέμπετε δ' ἄνω οἷον οὔπω / Περσὶς αἶ' ἐκάλυψεν.

Chorus: O Earth, and you other rulers of those who dwell in the nether world, ensure, I implore, that the glorious spirit, the god of the Persians, whom Susa bore, may quit his abode. [645] Send to the upper world him the likes of whom the Persian earth has never entombed (translated by Herbert Weir Smyth, Ph.D.). (Aeschylus Persians 641)

My Comment: γᾶ (GA) is Singualaris or Dualis.--->

The Chorus of Persian Loyals calls upon the Monade Earth ('Gaia'). as Ph.D. H. W. Smyth translates for Perseus Tufts. But the Dyade of Demeter & Persephone can be meant - additionally!

▐► Ἠλέκτρα: καί πότ' ἂν ἀμφιθαλὴς / Ζεὺς ἐπὶ χεῖρα βάλοι, / φεῦ φεῦ, κάρανα δαί̈ξας; / πιστὰ γένοιτο χώρᾳ. / δίκαν δ' ἐξ ἀδίκων ἀπαιτῶ. / κλῦτε δὲ Γᾶ χθονίων τε τιμαί.

Electra: And when will mighty Zeus bring down his hand on them [395] and split their heads open? Let it be a pledge to the land! After injustice I demand justice as my right. Hear, O Earth, and you honored powers below! (translated by Herbert Weir Smyth, Ph.D.). (Aeschylus.Libation Bearers 399)

▐► Πυθιάς:

πρῶτον μὲν εὐχῇ τῇδε πρεσβεύω θεῶν

τὴν πρωτόμαντιν Γαῖαν: ἐκ δὲ τῆς Θέμιν,

ἣ δὴ τὸ μητρὸς δευτέρα τόδ' ἕζετο

μαντεῖον, ὡς λόγος τις: ἐν δὲ τῷ τρίτῳ

λάχει, θελούσης, οὐδὲ πρὸς βίαν τινός,

Τιτανὶς ἄλλη παῖς Χθονὸς καθέζετο,

Φοίβη: δίδωσι δ' ἣ γενέθλιον δόσιν

Φοίβῳ: τὸ Φοίβης δ' ὄνομ' ἔχει παρώνυμον.

My comment : Heirs of the oracle: Gaia, Themis , (Demeter & Persephone), Phoebe & Phoebus.

In her prologue of the Eumenides the Pythia - 'unconsciously' - reveals the unutterable, nevertheless conspicuous CRUEL MYSTERY of the Oracle of Delphi: Phoebe & Phoebus have once ousted (and silenced) Demeter & Persephone by force (ἣ δὴ τὸ μητρὸς ... πρὸς βίαν ). The telluric-matriarchal Mother&Daughter-Succession, Demeter → Persephone, was replaced by the solaric-patriarchal Grandmother → Grandson-Succession, Phoebe → Phoebus.


○ Demeter : earth, dark ('daemonized') side of the sun.

○ Persephone (lt. Proserpina): daughter of Zeus and Demeter. under-earth(⅓) & vegetation(⅔ ), dark ('daemonized') side of the moon. Was carried off by Hades and made queen of the underworld. Demeter vainly seeking her, refused to let the earth produce its fruits until her daughter was restored to her, but because Persephone had eaten som pomegranade seeds in the other world, she was obliged to spend part of every year there.

○ Phoebe: a Titaness born by Uranus and Gaia, mother of Leto (--> Apollo & Artemis). Later Greek writers identify her with Selene and even Isis, CIG4987 (Ethiopia)' [LSJ p.1947], bright side of the moon.

○ Phoebus-Apollo: Horus, bright side of the sun.

○ Pythia: the priestess of Apollo in Delphi - Origin from Pythô, a former name of Delphi.

○ Hades (also called Pluto): the underworld, the abode of the spirits of the dead

▐► Ἑκάτη◄▌

Hekate {Hekátē}, or Hekat (lt. Trivia), was originally a goddess of the wilderness and childbirth, naturalized early in Thrace, but originating among the Carians of Anatolia,[1] the only region where theophoric names are attested[2], and where Hekate remained a great goddess into historical times, at Lagina. The monuments to Hekate in Phrygia and Caria are numerous but of late date.[3] Popular cults venerating her as a mother goddess integrated her persona into Greek culture as Ἑκάτη. In Ptolemaic Alexandria she ultimately achieved her connotations as a goddess of sorcery and her role as the "Queen of Ghosts", in which guise she was transmitted to post-Renaissance culture. Today she is often seen as a goddess of witchcraft and Wicca. One aspect of Hecate is represented in the Roman Trivia.

○ ○ lt. Trivia: Godess of the moon @ three-way crossroads --> lacus Triviae=sea of Diana=Lago di Nemi (V.) - adripere maledictum ex trivio

Unusual Trivia CollectionSuperstitions: old wives tales, folklore, bizarre beliefs, taboos, omens, lucky & unlucky things

Hekate: magic, witchcraft, the night, moon, ghosts, necromancy. ...

Hekate assisted Demeter in her search for Persephone, guiding her through the night with flaming torches. After the mother-daughter reunion became she Persephone's minister and companion in Hades.

Two metamorphosis myths describe the origins of her animal familiars: the black she-dog and the polecat (a mustelid house pet kept to hunt vermin). The bitch was originally the Trojan Queen Hekabe, who leapt into the sea after the fall of Troy and was transformed by the goddess into her familiar. The polecat was originally the witch Gale who was transformed into the beast to punish her for her incontinence. Other say it was Galinthias, the nurse of Alkmene, transformed by the angry Eileithyia, but received by Hekate as her animal.

Ἑκάτη (Hekátē) Hecate she who works her will, Hes.Th.411;

Ἕκατos epith. of Apollo. Il.7.83, 20.295; Ἑκάτη epith. of Artemis, Aeschylus.Supplici.767 (lyr.), CORN.ND32.; χ. Ἑκάτη Aristophanes Fragmenta 500;

II. Ἑκάτηs δεῖπνον Hecate's dinner, a meal set out by rich persons at the foot of her statue on the 30th day of each month (cf. 30th April = Walpurgis-Night, 'Hexennacht' on Blocksberg [Brocken: highest peak in the Hartz-Mountains --> Brocken spectre ('Brockengespenst', often surrounded by the glowing halo-like rings of a glory, described by Johann Silberschlag in 1780 as an optical illusion)). ... Curiously Adolf Hitler, with several members of his staff (including Joseph Goebbels), committed suicide in the Walpurgisnight, April 30/May 1, 1945), when it became a dole for beggars and paupers, Ar.Pl.594, hence as it consisted of offal, Ἑκαταῖα κατεσθίειν Ekataia katesthieein, of rapscallion D.54.39, cf. Luc.D.Mort 1.1.



τὸ γὰρ ἀντιλέγειν τολμᾶν ὑμᾶς ὡς οὐ πάντ' ἔστ' ἀγάθ' ὑμῖν

διὰ τὴν Πενίαν.


παρὰ τῆς Ἑκάτης ἔξεστιν τοῦτο πυθέσθαι,

εἴτε τὸ πλουτεῖν εἴτε τὸ πεινῆν βέλτιον. φησὶ γὰρ αὕτη

τοὺς μὲν ἔχοντας καὶ πλουτοῦντας δεῖπνον κατὰ μῆν' ἀποπέμπειν,

τοὺς δὲ πένητας τῶν ἀνθρώπων ἁρπάζειν πρὶν καταθεῖναι.

ἀλλὰ φθείρου καὶ μὴ γρύξῃς ἔτι μηδ' ὁτιοῦν.

οὐ γὰρ πείσεις, οὐδ' ἢν πείσῃς.


Thus you dare to maintain that Poverty is not the fount of all blessings!


Ask Hecate [595] whether it is better to be rich or starving; she will tell you that the rich send her a meal every month and that the poor make it disappear before it is even served. But go and hang yourself and don't breathe another syllable. [600] I will not be convinced against my will...

Ἑκάταιον (Hekataion) or Ἑκάτειον (Hekateion), τό, statue or dedication stone (Calvet Collection. This stone-shrine contains two iconized ornamental stars, 'asterisks', starlets amazingly similar to japanese maple leaves) of Hecate, placed at the entrance of houses or where three roads meet. These shrines dedicated to Hekate were invented by Alcamene as Pausanias remarks(2,30,2.). An epigonal Roman Hecateion of the 2nd BC stands in the Metropolitan Museum, a triple-bodied Hekate, resembling Alkamene's Hekate Epipyrgidia, which was erected around 425 BC on the Athena Nike bastion to guard the entrance of the Akropolis. Alkamene's statue was one of the earliest representations of the retrospective style known as archaistic, which imitated the stiff, linear quality of drapery that marked works of the sixth BC The three figures of the goddess also wear poloi, cylindrical headdresses often associated with female deities of rebirth.

Ar. l.c. Ra.366 cf. Hsch.


ἢ χρήματα ταῖς τῶν ἀντιπάλων ναυσὶν παρέχειν τινὰ πείθει,

ἢ κατατιλᾷ τῶν Ἑκαταίων κυκλίοισι χοροῖσιν ὑπᾴδων,

ἢ τοὺς μισθοὺς τῶν ποιητῶν ῥήτωρ ὢν εἶτ' ἀποτρώγει,

Or persuades anyone to send supplies to the enemies' ships,

Or defiles Hecate's shrine, while singing dithyrambs,

Or any politician who bites off the pay of the poets

Aristophanes. Frogs.365-367

Sometimes I just set the timer and see what happens. I really can't explain this.


So. In lieu of a photo description, here's a little meme that's floating around the 365 Days group. You can learn all sorts of useless things about me! It'll be fun! Or something!







My mom wanted to give me a name that reflected my ethnicity, and she also wanted to name me after her brother James. She is very clever. Anyway, yes.



The other week.



Yes. It is pretty.



I despise lunch meat.



I'd like to think I don't, but I sometimes get these notifications in my email, telling me that my children have signed up for accounts on various internet sites, so my new theory is that I have amnesia and am living a double life.



Yes, because I'd want me to make cookies for me.



No, never.



No. I got sent to an ear, nose & throat specialist when I was 10, and he took one look down my throat and said "Those tonsils are HUGE! I'm taking them out." And he did. A man of his word, that doctor.



The nice thing about being a clumsy oaf is that I don't feel any need to engage in any of these extreme sports-type activities, because walking is exciting enough.



Honey Bunches of Oats (with almonds). It is perfection in a bowl.



Depends on the shoes. But if they are shoes that have laces, then no. So I guess it doesn't depend on the shoes.



Do you want to arm wrestle me?



Superman. It is a Michigan thing, and is therefore one of the reasons why Michigan is the greatest state in the union.



If it is a man, I look at his hands. If it is a woman, I look at her shoes.






The least favorite thing? Should I have conducted a survey and gotten a consensus? Maybe made some charts? My least favorite thing is how I tend to be task-oriented and bossy. Or maybe my bony feet.



Stace. Every day.






Gray pants, black boots.



A cookie. It was good.



Typing, my dog running maniacally around the house, "Porchlight" by Neko Case (which everyone should listen to... fuck, I love that song).



I would prefer not being a crayon, I think. Burnt sienna? I don't know.



Cinnamon. Freshly mown grass. Burning leaves. The crispness of the air on very cold winter days (the only nice thing I will ever say about winter). That place on a guy, below the neck, where the collarbones meet... always different, always uniquely him, always nice.



Some person who called my office with a question.



Dude, I copied and pasted it from a Flickr thread. So did I send it to myself? Sure, let's go with that. I like me just fine, most of the time.















Macaroni and cheese. Or mashed potatoes. Mmm, carbs.



These are not mutually exclusive.



I caught Troy on TV the other night. And I got irrationally pissed at the ending. Everyone knows that Clytaemnestra killed Agamemnon. Dammit, Hollywood, get it right.



Black. White pinstripes.






Depends on who's kissing me. By a country mile.






Oh, come on.



Couldn't we delete the questions that are only relevant in the world of e-mail forwards? Or am I just cranky today?



I am not reading any book right now because I am a rube.



My mouse.



The Closer.



Church bells.



The Beatles.



Venice, Italy.



I can tie a cherry stem into a knot with my tongue. Does that count?



Coldwater, Michigan.






Over the river and through the woods to grandmother's house I go.

A fine son of Norfolk.




Horatio Nelson, 1st Viscount Nelson, KB (29 September 1758 – 21 October 1805) was a British flag officer in the Royal Navy. He was noted for his inspirational leadership and superb grasp of strategy and unconventional tactics, which resulted in a number of decisive naval victories, particularly during the Napoleonic Wars. He was wounded several times in combat, losing one arm in the unsuccessful attempt to conquer Santa Cruz de Tenerife and the sight in one eye in Corsica. He was shot and killed during his final victory at the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805.


Nelson was born into a moderately prosperous Norfolk family and joined the navy through the influence of his uncle, Maurice Suckling. He rose rapidly through the ranks and served with leading naval commanders of the period before obtaining his own command in 1778. He developed a reputation in the service through his personal valour and firm grasp of tactics but suffered periods of illness and unemployment after the end of the American War of Independence. The outbreak of the French Revolutionary Wars allowed Nelson to return to service, where he was particularly active in the Mediterranean. He fought in several minor engagements off Toulon and was important in the capture of Corsica and subsequent diplomatic duties with the Italian states. In 1797, he distinguished himself while in command of HMS Captain at the Battle of Cape St Vincent.


Shortly after the battle, Nelson took part in the Battle of Santa Cruz de Tenerife, where his attack was defeated and he was badly wounded, losing his right arm, and was forced to return to England to recuperate. The following year, he won a decisive victory over the French at the Battle of the Nile and remained in the Mediterranean to support the Kingdom of Naples against a French invasion. In 1801, he was dispatched to the Baltic and won another victory, this time over the Danes at the Battle of Copenhagen. He subsequently commanded the blockade of the French and Spanish fleets at Toulon and, after their escape, chased them to the West Indies and back but failed to bring them to battle. After a brief return to England, he took over the Cádiz blockade in 1805. On 21 October 1805, the Franco-Spanish fleet came out of port, and Nelson's fleet engaged them at the Battle of Trafalgar. The battle was Britain's greatest naval victory, but during the action Nelson, aboard HMS Victory, was fatally wounded by a French sharpshooter. His body was brought back to England where he was accorded a state funeral.


Nelson's death at Trafalgar secured his position as one of Britain's most heroic figures. The significance of the victory and his death during the battle led to his signal, "England expects that every man will do his duty", being regularly quoted, paraphrased and referenced up to the modern day. Numerous monuments, including Nelson's Column in Trafalgar Square, London, and the Nelson Monument in Edinburgh, have been created in his memory and his legacy remains highly influential.


Horatio Nelson was born on 29 September 1758 in a rectory in Burnham Thorpe, Norfolk, England, the sixth of eleven children of the Reverend Edmund Nelson and his wife Catherine Suckling.[1] He was named after his godfather Horatio Walpole (1723–1809) then 2nd Baron Walpole, of Wolterton.[2] His mother, who died on 26 December 1767 when he was nine years old, was a grandniece of Robert Walpole, 1st Earl of Orford, the de facto first Prime Minister of Great Britain.[3] She lived in the village of Barsham, Suffolk, and married the Reverend Edmund Nelson at Beccles church, Suffolk, in 1749. Nelson's aunt, Alice Nelson was the wife of Reverend Robert Rolfe, Rector of Hilborough, Norfolk and grandmother of Sir Robert Monsey Rolfe.[4] Rolfe twice served as Lord High Chancellor of Great Britain.


Nelson attended Paston Grammar School, North Walsham, until he was 12 years old, and also attended King Edward VI’s Grammar School in Norwich. His naval career began on 1 January 1771, when he reported to the third-rate HMS Raisonnable as an ordinary seaman and coxswain under his maternal uncle, Captain Maurice Suckling, who commanded the vessel. Shortly after reporting aboard, Nelson was appointed a midshipman and began officer training. Early in his service, Nelson discovered that he suffered from seasickness, a chronic complaint that dogged him for the rest of his life.


HMS Raisonnable had been commissioned during a period of tension with Spain, but when this passed, Suckling was transferred to the Nore guardship HMS Triumph and Nelson was dispatched to serve aboard the West Indiamen of the merchant shipping firm of Hibbert, Purrier and Horton, in order to gain experience at sea.[6] In this capacity he twice crossed the Atlantic, before returning to serve under his uncle as the commander of Suckling's longboat, which carried men and dispatches to and from the shore. Nelson then learned of a planned expedition under the command of Constantine Phipps, intended to survey a passage in the Arctic by which it was hoped that India could be reached: the fabled Northwest Passage. At his nephew's request, Suckling arranged for Nelson to join the expedition as coxswain[7] to Commander Lutwidge aboard the converted bomb vessel HMS Carcass. The expedition reached within ten degrees of the North Pole, but, unable to find a way through the dense ice floes, was forced to turn back. By 1800 Lutwidge began to circulate a story that while the ship had been trapped in the ice, Nelson had seen and pursued a polar bear, before being ordered to return to the ship. Lutwidge's later version, in 1809, reported that Nelson and a companion had given chase to the bear, but on being questioned why, replied that "I wished, Sir, to get the skin for my father."[8]


Nelson briefly returned to the Triumph after the expedition's return to Britain in September 1773. Suckling then arranged for his transfer to HMS Seahorse, one of two ships about to sail for the East Indies.


Nelson sailed for the East Indies on 19 November 1773 and arrived at the British outpost at Madras on 25 May 1774.[11] Nelson and the Seahorse spent the rest of the year cruising off the coast and escorting merchantmen. With the outbreak of the First Anglo-Maratha War, the British fleet operated in support of the East India Company and in early 1775 the Seahorse was dispatched to carry a cargo of the company's money to Bombay. On 19 February two of Hyder Ali's ketches attacked the Seahorse, which drove them off after a brief exchange of fire. This was Nelson's first experience of battle.[12] The rest of the year he spent escorting convoys, during which he continued to develop his navigation and ship handling skills. In early 1776 Nelson contracted malaria and became seriously ill. He was discharged from the Seahorse on 14 March and returned to England aboard HMS Dolphin.[13] Nelson spent the six-month voyage recuperating and had almost recovered by the time he arrived in Britain in September 1776. His patron, Suckling, had risen to the post of Comptroller of the Navy in 1775, and used his influence to help Nelson gain further promotion.[3][14] Nelson was appointed acting lieutenant aboard HMS Worcester, which was about to sail to Gibraltar.[15]


The Worcester, under the command of Captain Mark Robinson, sailed as a convoy escort on 3 December and returned with another convoy in April 1777.[16] Nelson then travelled to London to take his lieutenant's examination on 9 April; his examining board consisted of Captains John Campbell, Abraham North, and his uncle, Maurice Suckling. Nelson passed, and the next day received his commission and an appointment to HMS Lowestoffe, which was preparing to sail to Jamaica under Captain William Locker.[17] She sailed on 16 May, arrived on 19 July, and after reprovisioning, carried out several cruises in Caribbean waters. After the outbreak of the American War of Independence the Lowestoffe took several prizes, one of which was taken into Navy service as the tender Little Lucy. Nelson asked for and was given command of her, and took her on two cruises of his own.[18] As well as giving him his first taste of command, it gave Nelson the opportunity to explore his fledgling interest in science. During his first cruise, Nelson led an expeditionary party to the Caicos Islands,[19] where he made detailed notes of the wildlife and in particular a bird—now believed to be the white-necked jacobin.[20] Locker, impressed by Nelson's abilities, recommended him to the new commander-in-chief at Jamaica, Sir Peter Parker. Parker duly took Nelson onto his flagship, HMS Bristol.[21] The entry of the French into the war, in support of the Americans, meant further targets for Parker's fleet and it took a large number of prizes towards the end of 1778, which brought Nelson an estimated £400 in prize money. Parker subsequently appointed him as Master and Commander of the brig HMS Badger on 8 December.[22]


Nelson and the Badger spent most of 1779 cruising off the Central American coast, ranging as far as the British settlements at British Honduras and Nicaragua, but without much success at interception of enemy prizes.[23] On his return to Port Royal he learned that Parker had promoted him to post-captain on 11 June, and intended to give him another command. Nelson handed over the Badger to Cuthbert Collingwood while he awaited the arrival of his new ship, the 28-gun frigate HMS Hinchinbrook,[a] newly captured from the French.[24] While Nelson waited, news reached Parker that a French fleet under the command of Charles Hector, comte d'Estaing, was approaching Jamaica. Parker hastily organized his defences and placed Nelson in command of Fort Charles, which covered the approaches to Kingston.[25] D'Estaing instead headed north, and the anticipated invasion never materialised. Nelson duly took command of the Hinchinbrook on 1 September.[26]


The Hinchinbrook sailed from Port Royal on 5 October 1779 and, in company with other British ships, proceeded to capture a number of American prizes.[27] On his return to Jamaica in December, Nelson began to be troubled by a recurrent attack of malaria, but remained in the West Indies in order to take part in Major-General John Dalling's attempt to capture the Spanish colonies in Central America, including an assault on the Inmaculada Concepción Fort, also called Castillo Viejo, on the San Juan River in Nicaragua.[28] The Hinchinbrook sailed from Jamaica in February 1780, as an escort for Dalling's invasion force. After sailing up the mouth of the San Juan River, Nelson with some one thousand men and four small four-pounder cannons, obtained the surrender of Castillo Viejo and its 160 Spanish defenders after a two-week siege.[29] The British blew up the fort when they evacuated six months later after massive deaths due to disease and Nelson was praised for his efforts.[30] Parker recalled Nelson and gave him command of the 44-gun frigate HMS Janus.[31] Nelson had however fallen seriously ill in the jungles of Costa Rica, probably from a recurrence of malaria, and was unable to take command. During his time of convalescence he was nursed by a black "doctoress" named Cubah Cornwallis, the mistress of a fellow captain, William Cornwallis.[32] He was discharged in August and returned to Britain aboard HMS Lion,[33] arriving in late November. Nelson gradually recovered over several months, and soon began agitating for a command. He was appointed to the frigate HMS Albemarle on 15 August 1781.


Nelson received orders on 23 October to take the newly refitted Albemarle to sea. He was instructed to collect an inbound convoy of the Russia Company at Elsinore, and escort them back to Britain. For this operation, the Admiralty placed the frigates HMS Argo and HMS Enterprise under his command.[35] Nelson successfully organised the convoy and escorted it into British waters. He then left the convoy to return to port, but severe storms hampered him.[36] Gales almost wrecked Albemarle as she was a poorly designed ship and an earlier accident had left her damaged, but Nelson eventually brought her into Portsmouth in February 1782.[37] There the Admiralty ordered him to fit the Albemarle for sea and join the escort for a convoy collecting at Cork to sail for Quebec.[38] Nelson arrived off Newfoundland with the convoy in late May, then detached on a cruise to hunt American privateers. Nelson was generally unsuccessful; he succeeded only in retaking several captured British merchant ships and capturing a number of small fishing boats and assorted craft.[39]


In August he had a narrow escape from a far superior French force under Louis-Philippe de Vaudreuil, only evading them after a prolonged chase.[40] Nelson arrived at Quebec on 18 September.[41] He sailed again as part of the escort for a convoy to New York. He arrived in mid-November and reported to Admiral Samuel Hood, commander of the New York station.[42] At Nelson's request, Hood transferred him to his fleet and Albemarle sailed in company with Hood, bound for the West Indies.[43] On their arrival, the British fleet took up position off Jamaica to await the arrival of de Vaudreuil's force. Nelson and the Albemarle were ordered to scout the numerous passages for signs of the enemy, but it became clear by early 1783 that the French had eluded Hood.[44] During his scouting operations, Nelson had developed a plan to assault the French garrison of the Turks Islands. Commanding a small flotilla of frigates and smaller vessels, he landed a force of 167 seamen and marines early on the morning of 8 March under a supporting bombardment.[45] The French were found to be heavily entrenched and after several hours Nelson called off the assault. Several of the officers involved criticised Nelson, but Hood does not appear to have reprimanded him.[46] Nelson spent the rest of the war cruising in the West Indies, where he captured a number of French and Spanish prizes.[47] After news of the peace reached Hood, Nelson returned to Britain in late June 1783.


Nelson visited France in late 1783, stayed with acquaintances at Saint-Omer, and briefly attempted to learn French. He returned to England in January 1784, and attended court as part of Lord Hood's entourage.[49] Influenced by the factional politics of the time, he contemplated standing for Parliament as a supporter of William Pitt, but was unable to find a seat.[50]


In 1784 he received command of the frigate HMS Boreas with the assignment to enforce the Navigation Acts in the vicinity of Antigua.[51] The Acts were unpopular with both the Americans and the colonies.[52] Nelson served on the station under Admiral Sir Richard Hughes, and often came into conflict with his superior officer over their differing interpretation of the Acts.[53] The captains of the American vessels Nelson had seized sued him for illegal seizure. Because the merchants of the nearby island of Nevis supported the American claim, Nelson was in peril of imprisonment; he remained sequestered on Boreas for eight months, until the courts ruled in his favour.[54]


In the interim, Nelson met Frances "Fanny" Nisbet, a young widow from a Nevis plantation family.[55] Nelson and Nisbet were married at Montpelier Estate on the island of Nevis on 11 March 1787, shortly before the end of his tour of duty in the Caribbean.[56] The marriage was registered at Fig Tree Church in St John's Parish on Nevis. Nelson returned to England in July, with Fanny following later.


Nelson remained with Boreas until she was paid off in November that year.[58] He and Fanny then divided their time between Bath and London, occasionally visiting Nelson's relations in Norfolk. In 1788, they settled at Nelson's childhood home at Burnham Thorpe.[59] Now in reserve on half pay, he attempted to persuade the Admiralty and other senior figures he was acquainted with, such as Hood, to provide him with a command. He was unsuccessful as there were too few ships in the peacetime navy and Hood did not intercede on his behalf.[60] Nelson spent his time trying to find employment for former crew members, attending to family affairs, and cajoling contacts in the navy for a posting. In 1792 the French revolutionary government annexed the Austrian Netherlands (modern Belgium), which were traditionally preserved as a buffer state. The Admiralty recalled Nelson to service and gave him command of the 64-gun HMS Agamemnon in January 1793. On 1 February France declared war.


In May, 1793, Nelson sailed as part of a division under the command of Vice-Admiral William Hotham, joined later in the month by the rest of Lord Hood's fleet.[62] The force initially sailed to Gibraltar and, with the intention of establishing naval superiority in the Mediterranean, made their way to Toulon, anchoring off the port in July.[63] Toulon was largely under the control of moderate republicans and royalists, but was threatened by the forces of the National Convention, which were marching on the city. Short of supplies and doubting their ability to defend themselves, the city authorities requested that Hood take the city under his protection. Hood readily acquiesced and sent Nelson to carry dispatches to Sardinia and Naples requesting reinforcements.[64] After delivering the dispatches to Sardinia, Agamemnon arrived at Naples in early September. There Nelson met Ferdinand VI, King of Naples,[65] followed by the British ambassador to the kingdom, William Hamilton.[66] At some point during the negotiations for reinforcements, Nelson was introduced to Hamilton's new wife, Emma Hamilton.[67] The negotiations were successful, and 2,000 men and several ships were mustered by mid-September. Nelson put to sea in pursuit of a French frigate, but on failing to catch her, sailed for Leghorn, and then to Corsica.[68] He arrived at Toulon on 5 October, where he found that a large French army had occupied the hills surrounding the city and was bombarding it. Hood still hoped the city could be held if more reinforcements arrived, and sent Nelson to join a squadron operating off Cagliari.


Early on the morning of 22 October 1793, the Agamemnon sighted five sails. Nelson closed with them, and discovered they were a French squadron. Nelson promptly gave chase, firing on the 40-gun Melpomene.[70] He inflicted considerable damage but the remaining French ships turned to join the battle and, realising he was outnumbered, Nelson withdrew and continued to Cagliari, arriving on 24 October.[70] After making repairs Nelson and the Agamemnon sailed again on 26 October, bound for Tunis with a squadron under Commodore Robert Linzee. On arrival, Nelson was given command of a small squadron consisting of the Agamemnon, three frigates and a sloop, and ordered to blockade the French garrison on Corsica.[71] The fall of Toulon at the end of December 1793 severely damaged British fortunes in the Mediterranean. Hood had failed to make adequate provision for a withdrawal and 18 French ships-of-the-line fell into republican hands.[72] Nelson's mission to Corsica took on added significance, as it could provide the British a naval base close to the French coast.[72] Hood therefore reinforced Nelson with extra ships during January 1794.[73]


A British assault force landed on the island on 7 February, after which Nelson moved to intensify the blockade off Bastia. For the rest of the month he carried out raids along the coast and intercepted enemy shipping. By late February St Fiorenzo had fallen and British troops under Lieutenant-General David Dundas entered the outskirts of Bastia.[74] However Dundas merely assessed the enemy positions and then withdrew, arguing the French were too well entrenched to risk an assault. Nelson convinced Hood otherwise, but a protracted debate between the army and naval commanders meant that Nelson did not receive permission to proceed until late March. Nelson began to land guns from his ships and emplace them in the hills surrounding the town. On 11 April the British squadron entered the harbour and opened fire, whilst Nelson took command of the land forces and commenced bombardment.[75] After 45 days, the town surrendered.[76] Nelson subsequently prepared for an assault on Calvi, working in company with Lieutenant-General Charles Stuart.[77]


British forces landed at Calvi on 19 June, and immediately began moving guns ashore to occupy the heights surrounding the town. While Nelson directed a continuous bombardment of the enemy positions, Stuart's men began to advance . On 12 July Nelson was at one of the forward batteries early in the morning when a shot struck one of the sandbags protecting the position, spraying stones and sand. Nelson was struck by debris in his right eye and was forced to retire from the position, although his wound was soon bandaged and he returned to action.[78] By 18 July most of the enemy positions had been disabled, and that night Stuart, supported by Nelson, stormed the main defensive position and captured it. Repositioning their guns, the British brought Calvi under constant bombardment, and the town surrendered on 10 August.[79] However, Nelson's right eye had been irreparably damaged and he eventually lost sight in it.


After the occupation of Corsica, Hood ordered Nelson to open diplomatic relations with the city-state of Genoa, a strategically important potential ally.[81] Soon afterwards, Hood returned to England and was succeeded by Admiral William Hotham as commander-in-chief in the Mediterranean. Nelson put into Leghorn, and while the Agamemnon underwent repairs, met with other naval officers at the port and entertained a brief affair with a local woman, Adelaide Correglia.[82] Hotham arrived with the rest of the fleet in December; Nelson and the Agamemnon sailed on a number of cruises with them in late 1794 and early 1795.[83]


On 8 March, news reached Hotham that the French fleet was at sea and heading for Corsica. He immediately set out to intercept them, and Nelson eagerly anticipated his first fleet action. The French were reluctant to engage and the two fleets shadowed each other throughout 12 March. The following day two of the French ships collided, allowing Nelson to engage the much larger 84-gun Ça Ira for two and a half hours until the arrival of two French ships forced Nelson to veer away, having inflicted heavy casualties and considerable damage.[84] The fleets continued to shadow each other before making contact again, on 14 March, in the Battle of Genoa. Nelson joined the other British ships in attacking the battered Ça Ira, now under tow from the Censeur. Heavily damaged, the two French ships were forced to surrender and Nelson took possession of the Censeur. Defeated at sea, the French abandoned their plan to invade Corsica and returned to port.


Nelson and the fleet remained in the Mediterranean throughout the summer. On 4 July the Agamemnon sailed from St Fiorenzo with a small force of frigates and sloops, bound for Genoa. On 6 July he ran into the French fleet and found himself pursued by several much larger ships-of-the-line. He retreated to St Fiorenzo, arriving just ahead of the pursuing French, who broke off as Nelson's signal guns alerted the British fleet in the harbour.[86] Hotham pursued the French to the Hyères Islands, but failed to bring them to a decisive action. A number of small engagements were fought but to Nelson's dismay, he saw little action.[86]


Nelson returned to operate out of Genoa, intercepting and inspecting merchants and cutting-out suspicious vessels in both enemy and neutral harbours.[87] He formulated ambitious plans for amphibious landings and naval assaults to frustrate the progress of the French Army of Italy that was now advancing on Genoa, but could excite little interest in Hotham.[88] In November Hotham was replaced by Sir Hyde Parker but the situation in Italy was rapidly deteriorating: the French were raiding around Genoa and strong Jacobin sentiment was rife within the city itself.[89] A large French assault at the end of November broke the allied lines, forcing a general retreat towards Genoa. Nelson's forces were able to cover the withdrawing army and prevent them being surrounded, but he had too few ships and men to materially alter the strategic situation, and the British were forced to withdraw from the Italian ports. Nelson returned to Corsica on 30 November, angry and depressed at the British failure and questioning his future in the navy.


In January 1796 the position of commander-in-chief of the fleet in the Mediterranean passed to Sir John Jervis, who appointed Nelson to exercise independent command over the ships blockading the French coast as a commodore.[91] Nelson spent the first half of the year conducting operations to frustrate French advances and bolster Britain's Italian allies. Despite some minor successes in intercepting small French warships, Nelson began to feel the British presence on the Italian peninsula was rapidly becoming useless.[92] In June the Agamemnon was sent back to Britain for repairs, and Nelson was appointed to the 74-gun HMS Captain.[92] In the same month, the French thrust towards Leghorn and were certain to capture the city. Nelson hurried there to oversee the evacuation of British nationals and transported them to Corsica, after which Jervis ordered him to blockade the newly captured French port.[93] In July he oversaw the occupation of Elba, but by September the Genoese had broken their neutrality to declare in favour of the French.[94] By October, the Genoese position and the continued French advances led the British to decide that the Mediterranean fleet could no longer be supplied; they ordered it to be evacuated to Gibraltar. Nelson helped oversee the withdrawal from Corsica, and by December 1796 was aboard the frigate HMS Minerve, covering the evacuation of the garrison at Elba. He then sailed for Gibraltar.[95]


During the passage, Nelson captured the Spanish frigate Santa Sabina and placed Lieutenants Jonathan Culverhouse and Thomas Hardy in charge of the captured vessel, taking the Spanish captain on board Minerve. Santa Sabina was part of a larger Spanish force, and the following morning two Spanish ships-of-the-line and a frigate were sighted closing fast. Unable to outrun them Nelson initially determined to fight but Culverhouse and Hardy raised the British colours and sailed northeast, drawing the Spanish ships after them until being captured, giving Nelson the opportunity to escape.[96] Nelson went on to rendezvous with the British fleet at Elba, where he spent Christmas.[97] He sailed for Gibraltar in late January, and after learning that the Spanish fleet had sailed from Cartagena, stopped just long enough to collect Hardy, Culverhouse, and the rest of the prize crew captured with Santa Sabina, before pressing on through the straits to join Sir John Jervis off Cadiz.


Nelson joined Jervis's fleet off Cape St Vincent, and reported the Spanish movements.[99] Jervis decided to give battle and the two fleets met on 14 February. Nelson found himself towards the rear of the British line and realised that it would be a long time before he could bring Captain into action.[99] Instead of continuing to follow the line, Nelson disobeyed orders and wore ship, breaking from the line and heading to engage the Spanish van, which consisted of the 112-gun San Josef, the 80-gun San Nicolas and the 130-gun Santísima Trinidad. Captain engaged all three, assisted by HMS Culloden which had come to Nelson's aid. After an hour of exchanging broadsides which left both Captain and Culloden heavily damaged, Nelson found himself alongside the San Nicolas. He led a boarding party across, crying "Westminster Abbey! or, glorious victory!" and forced her surrender.[100] San Josef attempted to come to the San Nicolas’s aid, but became entangled with her compatriot and was left immobile. Nelson led his party from the deck of the San Nicolas onto the San Josef and captured her as well.[99] As night fell, the Spanish fleet broke off and sailed for Cadiz. Four ships had surrendered to the British and two of them were Nelson's captures.[101]


Nelson was victorious, but had disobeyed direct orders. Jervis liked Nelson and so did not officially reprimand him,[101] but did not mention Nelson's actions in his official report of the battle.[102] He did write a private letter to George Spencer in which he said that Nelson "contributed very much to the fortune of the day".[101] Nelson also wrote several letters about his victory, reporting that his action was being referred to amongst the fleet as "Nelson's Patent Bridge for boarding first rates".[100] Nelson's account was later challenged by Rear-Admiral William Parker, who had been aboard HMS Prince George. Parker claimed that Nelson had been supported by several more ships than he acknowledged, and that the San Josef had already struck her colours by the time Nelson boarded her.[103] Nelson's account of his role prevailed, and the victory was well received in Britain: Jervis was made Earl St Vincent and Nelson was made a Knight of the Bath.[104][105] On 20 February, in a standard promotion according to his seniority and unrelated to the battle, he was promoted to Rear-Admiral of the Blue.


Nelson was given HMS Theseus as his flagship, and on 27 May 1797 was ordered to lie off Cadiz, monitoring the Spanish fleet and awaiting the arrival of Spanish treasure ships from the American colonies.[107] He carried out a bombardment and personally led an amphibious assault on 3 July. During the action Nelson's barge collided with that of the Spanish commander, and a hand-to-hand struggle ensued between the two crews. Twice Nelson was nearly cut down and both times his life was saved by a seaman named John Sykes who took the blows and was badly wounded. The British raiding force captured the Spanish boat and towed it back to the Theseus.[107][108] During this period Nelson developed a scheme to capture Santa Cruz de Tenerife, aiming to seize a large quantity of specie from the treasure ship Principe de Asturias, which was reported to have recently arrived.


The battle plan called for a combination of naval bombardments and an amphibious landing. The initial attempt was called off after adverse currents hampered the assault and the element of surprise was lost.[110] Nelson immediately ordered another assault but this was beaten back. He prepared for a third attempt, to take place during the night. Although he personally led one of the battalions, the operation ended in failure: the Spanish were better prepared than had been expected and had secured strong defensive positions.[111] Several of the boats failed to land at the correct positions in the confusion, while those that did were swept by gunfire and grapeshot. Nelson's boat reached its intended landing point but as he stepped ashore he was hit in the right arm by a musketball, which fractured his humerus bone in multiple places.[111] He was rowed back to the Theseus to be attended to by the surgeon - Thomas Eshelby.[112] On arriving on his ship he refused to be helped aboard, declaring "Let me alone! I have got my legs left and one arm."[111] He was taken to surgeon Eshelby, instructing him to prepare his instruments and "the sooner it was off the better".[111] Most of the right arm was amputated and within half an hour Nelson had returned to issuing orders to his captains.[113] Years later he would excuse himself to Commodore John Thomas Duckworth for not writing longer letters due to not being naturally left-handed.[114] He developed the sensation of Phantom Limb in his lost arm later on and declared that he had 'found the direct evidence of the existence of soul'.[115]


Meanwhile a force under Sir Thomas Troubridge had fought their way to the main square but could go no further. Unable to return to the fleet because their boats had been sunk, Troubridge was forced to enter into negotiations with the Spanish commander, and the British were subsequently allowed to withdraw.[116] The expedition had failed to achieve any of its objectives and had left a quarter of the landing force dead or wounded.[116][117] The squadron remained off Tenerife for a further three days and by 16 August had rejoined Jervis's fleet off Cadiz. Despondently Nelson wrote to Jervis: "A left-handed Admiral will never again be considered as useful, therefore the sooner I get to a very humble cottage the better, and make room for a better man to serve the state".[118] He returned to England aboard HMS Seahorse, arriving at Spithead on 1 September. He was met with a hero's welcome: the British public had lionised Nelson after Cape St Vincent and his wound earned him sympathy.[119] They refused to attribute the defeat at Tenerife to him, preferring instead to blame poor planning on the part of St Vincent, the Secretary at War or even William Pitt.


Nelson returned to Bath with Fanny, before moving to London in October to seek expert medical attention concerning his amputated arm. Whilst in London news reached him that Admiral Duncan had defeated the Dutch fleet at the Battle of Camperdown.[120] Nelson exclaimed that he would have given his other arm to have been present.[120] He spent the last months of 1797 recuperating in London, during which he was awarded the Freedom of the City of London and an annual pension of £1,000 a year. He used the money to buy Round Wood Farm near Ipswich, and intended to retire there with Fanny.[121] Despite his plans, Nelson was never to live there.[121]


Although surgeons had been unable to remove the central ligature in his amputated arm, which had caused considerable inflammation and poisoning, in early December it came out of its own accord and Nelson rapidly began to recover. Eager to return to sea, he began agitating for a command and was promised the 80-gun HMS Foudroyant. As she was not yet ready for sea, Nelson was instead given command of the 74-gun HMS Vanguard, to which he appointed Edward Berry as his flag captain.[122] French activities in the Mediterranean theatre were raising concern among the Admiralty: Napoleon was gathering forces in Southern France but the destination of his army was unknown. Nelson and the Vanguard were to be dispatched to Cadiz to reinforce the fleet. On 28 March 1798, Nelson hoisted his flag and sailed to join Earl St Vincent. St Vincent sent him on to Toulon with a small force to reconnoitre French activities.


Nelson passed through the Straits of Gibraltar and took up position off Toulon by 17 May, but his squadron was dispersed and blown southwards by a strong gale that struck the area on 20 May.[124] While the British were battling the storm, Napoleon had sailed with his invasion fleet under the command of Vice-Admiral François-Paul Brueys d'Aigalliers. Nelson, having been reinforced with a number of ships from St Vincent, went in pursuit.[125] He began searching the Italian coast for Napoleon's fleet, but was hampered by a lack of frigates that could operate as fast scouts. Napoleon had already arrived at Malta and, after a show of force, secured the island's surrender.[126] Nelson followed him there, but the French had already left. After a conference with his captains, he decided Egypt was Napoleon's most likely destination and headed for Alexandria. On his arrival on 28 June, though, he found no sign of the French; dismayed, he withdrew and began searching to the east of the port. While he was absent, Napoleon's fleet arrived on 1 July and landed their forces unopposed.[127]


Brueys then anchored his fleet in Aboukir Bay, ready to support Napoleon if required.[128] Nelson meanwhile had crossed the Mediterranean again in a fruitless attempt to locate the French and had returned to Naples to re-provision.[129] He sailed again, intending to search the seas off Cyprus, but decided to pass Alexandria again for a final check. In doing so his force captured a French merchant, which provided the first news of the French fleet: they had passed south-east of Crete a month before, heading to Alexandria.[130] Nelson hurried to the port but again found it empty of the French. Searching along the coast, he finally discovered the French fleet in Aboukir Bay on 1 August 1798.


Nelson immediately prepared for battle, repeating a sentiment he had expressed at the battle of Cape St Vincent that "Before this time tomorrow, I shall have gained a peerage or Westminster Abbey."[132] It was late by the time the British arrived and the French, anchored in a strong position with a combined firepower greater than that of Nelson's fleet, did not expect them to attack.[133] Nelson however immediately ordered his ships to advance. The French line was anchored close to a line of shoals, in the belief that this would secure their port side from attack; Brueys had assumed the British would follow convention and attack his centre from the starboard side. However, Captain Thomas Foley aboard HMS Goliath discovered a gap between the shoals and the French ships, and took Goliath into the channel. The unprepared French found themselves attacked on both sides, the British fleet splitting, with some following Foley and others passing down the starboard side of the French line.


The British fleet was soon heavily engaged, passing down the French line and engaging their ships one by one. Nelson on Vanguard personally engaged Spartiate, also coming under fire from Aquilon. At about eight o'clock, he was with Berry on the quarter-deck when a piece of French shot struck him in his forehead. He fell to the deck, a flap of torn skin obscuring his good eye. Blinded and half stunned, he felt sure he would die and cried out "I am killed. Remember me to my wife." He was taken below to be seen by the surgeon.[135] After examining Nelson, the surgeon pronounced the wound non-threatening and applied a temporary bandage.[136]


The French van, pounded by British fire from both sides, had begun to surrender, and the victorious British ships continued to move down the line, bringing Brueys's 118-gun flagship Orient under constant heavy fire. Orient caught fire under this bombardment, and later exploded. Nelson briefly came on deck to direct the battle, but returned to the surgeon after watching the destruction of Orient.[137]


The Battle of the Nile was a major blow to Napoleon's ambitions in the east. The fleet had been destroyed: Orient, another ship and two frigates had been burnt, seven 74-gun ships and two 80-gun ships had been captured, and only two ships-of-the-line and two frigates escaped,[138] while the forces Napoleon had brought to Egypt were stranded.[134] Napoleon attacked north along the Mediterranean coast, but Turkish defenders supported by Captain Sir Sidney Smith defeated his army at the Siege of Acre. Napoleon then left his army and sailed back to France, evading detection by British ships. Given its strategic importance, some historians regard Nelson's achievement at the Nile as the most significant of his career, even greater than that at Trafalgar seven years later.


Nelson wrote dispatches to the Admiralty and oversaw temporary repairs to the Vanguard, before sailing to Naples where he was met with enthusiastic celebrations.[140] The King of Naples, in company with the Hamiltons, greeted him in person when he arrived at the port and William Hamilton invited Nelson to stay at their house.[141] Celebrations were held in honour of Nelson's birthday that September, and he attended a banquet at the Hamiltons', where other officers had begun to notice his attention to Emma. Jervis himself had begun to grow concerned about reports of Nelson's behaviour, but in early October word of Nelson's victory had reached London. The First Lord of the Admiralty, Earl Spencer, fainted on hearing the news.[142] Scenes of celebration erupted across the country, balls and victory feasts were held and church bells were rung. The City of London awarded Nelson and his captains with swords, whilst the King ordered them to be presented with special medals. The Tsar of Russia sent him a gift, and Selim III, the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, awarded Nelson the Order of the Turkish Crescent for his role in restoring Ottoman rule in Egypt. Lord Hood, after a conversation with the Prime Minister, told Fanny that Nelson would likely be given a Viscountcy, similar to Jervis's earldom after Cape St Vincent and Duncan's viscountcy after Camperdown.[143] Earl Spencer however demurred, arguing that as Nelson had only been detached in command of a squadron, rather than being the commander in chief of the fleet, such an award would create an unwelcome precedent. Instead, Nelson received the title Baron Nelson of the Nile.


Nelson was dismayed by Spencer's decision, and declared that he would rather have received no title than that of a mere barony.[145] He was however cheered by the attention showered on him by the citizens of Naples, the prestige accorded him by the kingdom's elite, and the comforts he received at the Hamiltons' residence. He made frequent visits to attend functions in his honour, or to tour nearby attractions with Emma, with whom he had by now fallen deeply in love, almost constantly at his side.[146] Orders arrived from the Admiralty to blockade the French forces in Alexandria and Malta, a task Nelson delegated to his captains, Samuel Hood and Alexander Ball. Despite enjoying his lifestyle in Naples Nelson began to think of returning to England,[146] but King Ferdinand of Naples, after a long period of pressure from his wife Maria Carolina of Austria and Sir William Hamilton, finally agreed to declare war on France. The Neapolitan army, led by the Austrian General Mack and supported by Nelson's fleet, retook Rome from the French in late November, but the French regrouped outside the city and, after being reinforced, routed the Neapolitans. In disarray, the Neapolitan army fled back to Naples, with the pursuing French close behind.[147] Nelson hastily organised the evacuation of the Royal Family, several nobles and the British nationals, including the Hamiltons. The evacuation got under way on 23 December and sailed through heavy gales before reaching the safety of Palermo on 26 December.[148]


With the departure of the Royal Family, Naples descended into anarchy and news reached Palermo in January that the French had entered the city under General Championnet and proclaimed the Parthenopaean Republic.[149] Nelson was promoted to Rear Admiral of the Red on 14 February 1799,[150] and was occupied for several months in blockading Naples, while a popular counter-revolutionary force under Cardinal Ruffo known as the Sanfedisti marched to retake the city. In late June Ruffo's army entered Naples, forcing the French and their supporters to withdraw to the city's fortifications as rioting and looting broke out amongst the ill-disciplined Neapolitan troops.[151] Dismayed by the bloodshed, Ruffo agreed to a general amnesty with the Jacobin forces that allowed them safe conduct to France. Nelson, now aboard the Foudroyant, was outraged, and backed by King Ferdinand he insisted that the rebels must surrender unconditionally.[152] He took those who had surrendered under the amnesty under armed guard, including the former Admiral Francesco Caracciolo, who had commanded the Neapolitan navy under King Ferdinand but had changed sides during the brief Jacobin rule.[153] Nelson ordered his trial by court-martial and refused Caracciolo's request that it be held by British officers, nor was Caracciolo allowed to summon witnesses in his defence. Caracciolo was tried by royalist Neapolitan officers and sentenced to death. He asked to be shot rather than hanged, but Nelson, following the wishes of Queen Maria Carolina (a close friend of his mistress, Lady Hamilton) also refused this request and even ignored the court's request to allow 24 hours for Caracciolo to prepare himself. Caracciolo was hanged aboard the Neapolitan frigate Minerva at 5 o'clock the same afternoon.[154] Nelson kept the Jacobins imprisoned and approved of a wave of further executions, refusing to intervene despite pleas for clemency from the Hamiltons and the Queen of Naples.[155] When transports were finally allowed to carry the Jacobins to France, less than a third were still alive.[156] On 13 August 1799, King Ferdinand gave Nelson the newly created Dukedom of Bronté in the Kingdom of Sicily, in perpetual property, enclosing the Maniace Castle, the accompanying Abbey, and the land and the city of Bronte, this as a reward for his support of the monarchy.[157]


Nelson returned to Palermo in August and in September became the senior officer in the Mediterranean after Jervis' successor Lord Keith left to chase the French and Spanish fleets into the Atlantic.[158] Nelson spent the rest of 1799 at the Neapolitan court but put to sea again in February 1800 after Lord Keith's return. On 18 February Généreux, a survivor of the Nile, was sighted and Nelson gave chase, capturing her after a short battle and winning Keith's approval.[159] Nelson had a difficult relationship with his superior officer: he was gaining a reputation for insubordination, having initially refused to send ships when Keith requested them and on occasion returning to Palermo without orders, pleading poor health.[160] Keith's reports, and rumours of Nelson's close relationship with Emma Hamilton, were also circulating in London, and Earl Spencer wrote a pointed letter suggesting that he return home:


You will be more likely to recover your health and strength in England than in any inactive situation at a foreign Court, however pleasing the respect and gratitude shown to you for your services may be.


The recall of Sir William Hamilton to Britain was a further incentive for Nelson to return, although he and the Hamiltons initially sailed from Naples on a brief cruise around Malta aboard the Foudroyant in April 1800. It was on this voyage that Horatio and Emma's illegitimate daughter Horatia was probably conceived.[162] After the cruise, Nelson conveyed the Queen of Naples and her suite to Leghorn. On his arrival, Nelson shifted his flag to HMS Alexander, but again disobeyed Keith's orders by refusing to join the main fleet. Keith came to Leghorn in person to demand an explanation, and refused to be moved by the Queen's pleas to allow her to be conveyed in a British ship.[163] In the face of Keith's demands, Nelson reluctantly struck his flag and bowed to Emma Hamilton's request to return to England by land.[164]


Nelson, the Hamiltons and several other British travellers left Leghorn for Florence on 13 July. They made stops at Trieste and Vienna, spending three weeks in the latter where they were entertained by the local nobility and heard the Missa in Angustiis by Haydn that now bears Nelson's name.[165] By September they were in Prague, and later called at Dresden, Dessau and Hamburg, from where they caught a packet ship to Great Yarmouth, arriving on 6 November.[166] Nelson was given a hero's welcome and after being sworn in as a freeman of the borough and received the massed crowd's applause. He subsequently made his way to London, arriving on 9 November. He attended court and was guest of honour at a number of banquets and balls. It was during this period that Fanny Nelson and Emma Hamilton met for the first time. During this period, Nelson was reported as being cold and distant to his wife and his attention to Emma became the subject of gossip.[167] With the marriage breaking down, Nelson began to hate even being in the same room as Fanny. Events came to a head around Christmas, when according to Nelson's solicitor, Fanny issued an ultimatum on whether he was to choose her or Emma. Nelson replied:


I love you sincerely but I cannot forget my obligations to Lady Hamilton or speak of her otherwise than with affection and admiration.[168]


The two never lived together again after this.


Shortly after his arrival in England Nelson was appointed to be second-in-command of the Channel Fleet under Lord St Vincent.[169] He was promoted to Vice Admiral of the Blue on 1 January 1801,[170] and travelled to Plymouth, where on 22 January he was granted the freedom of the city, and on 29 January Emma gave birth to their daughter, Horatia.[171] Nelson was delighted, but subsequently disappointed when he was instructed to move his flag from HMS San Josef to HMS St George in preparation for a planned expedition to the Baltic.[172] Tired of British ships imposing a blockade against French trade and stopping and searching their merchants, the Russian, Prussian, Danish and Swedish governments had formed an alliance to break the blockade. Nelson joined Admiral Sir Hyde Parker's fleet at Yarmouth, from where they sailed for the Danish coast in March. On their arrival Parker was inclined to blockade the Danish and control the entrance to the Baltic, but Nelson urged a pre-emptive attack on the Danish fleet at harbour in Copenhagen.[173] He convinced Parker to allow him to make an assault, and was given significant reinforcements. Parker himself would wait in the Kattegat, covering Nelson's fleet in case of the arrival of the Swedish or Russian fleets.


On the morning of 2 April 1801, Nelson began to advance into Copenhagen harbour. The battle began badly for the British, with HMS Agamemnon, HMS Bellona and HMS Russell running aground, and the rest of the fleet encountering heavier fire from the Danish shore batteries than had been anticipated. Parker sent the signal for Nelson to withdraw, reasoning:


I will make the signal for recall for Nelson's sake. If he is in a condition to continue the action he will disregard it; if he is not, it will be an excuse for his retreat and no blame can be attached to him.[175]


Nelson, directing action aboard HMS Elephant, was informed of the signal by the signal lieutenant, Frederick Langford, but angrily responded: 'I told you to look out on the Danish commodore and let me know when he surrendered. Keep your eyes fixed on him.'[176] He then turned to his flag captain, Thomas Foley, and said 'You know, Foley, I have only one eye. I have a right to be blind sometimes.' He raised the telescope to his blind eye, and said 'I really do not see the signal.'[176][177] The battle lasted three hours, leaving both Danish and British fleets heavily damaged. At length Nelson dispatched a letter to the Danish commander, Crown Prince Frederick, calling for a truce, which the Prince accepted.[178] Parker approved of Nelson's actions in retrospect, and Nelson was given the honour of going into Copenhagen the next day to open formal negotiations.[179][180] At a banquet that evening he told Prince Frederick that the battle had been the most severe he had ever been in.[181] The outcome of the battle and several weeks of ensuing negotiations was a 14-week armistice, and on Parker's recall in May, Nelson became commander-in-chief in the Baltic Sea.[182] As a reward for the victory, he was created Viscount Nelson of the Nile and of Burnham Thorpe in the County of Norfolk, on 19 May 1801.[183] In addition, on 4 August 1801, he was created Baron Nelson, of the Nile and of Hilborough in the County of Norfolk, this time with a special remainder to his father and sisters.[184][185] Nelson subsequently sailed to the Russian naval base at Reval in May, and there learned that the pact of armed neutrality was to be disbanded. Satisfied with the outcome of the expedition, he returned to England, arriving on 1 July.


Nelson was appointed commander-in-chief of the Mediterranean Fleet and given the first-rate HMS Victory as his flagship. He joined her at Portsmouth, where he received orders to sail to Malta and take command of a squadron there before joining the blockade of Toulon.[192] Nelson arrived off Toulon in July 1803 and spent the next year and a half enforcing the blockade. He was promoted to Vice Admiral of the White while still at sea, on 23 April 1804.[193] In January 1805 the French fleet, under Admiral Pierre-Charles Villeneuve, escaped Toulon and eluded the blockading British. Nelson set off in pursuit but after searching the eastern Mediterranean he learned that the French had been blown back into Toulon.[194] Villeneuve managed to break out a second time in April, and this time succeeded in passing through the Strait of Gibraltar and into the Atlantic, bound for the West Indies.[194]


Nelson gave chase, but after arriving in the Caribbean spent June in a fruitless search for the fleet. Villeneuve had briefly cruised around the islands before heading back to Europe, in contravention of Napoleon's orders.[195] The returning French fleet was intercepted by a British fleet under Sir Robert Calder and engaged in the Battle of Cape Finisterre, but managed to reach Ferrol with only minor losses.[196] Nelson returned to Gibraltar at the end of July, and travelled from there to England, dismayed at his failure to bring the French to battle and expecting to be censured.[197] To his surprise he was given a rapturous reception from crowds who had gathered to view his arrival, while senior British officials congratulated him for sustaining the close pursuit and credited him for saving the West Indies from a French invasion.[197] Nelson briefly stayed in London, where he was cheered wherever he went, before visiting Merton to see Emma, arriving in late August. He entertained a number of his friends and relations there over the coming month, and began plans for a grand engagement with the enemy fleet, one that would surprise his foes by forcing a pell-mell battle on them.[198]


Captain Henry Blackwood arrived at Merton early on 2 September, bringing news that the French and Spanish fleets had combined and were currently at anchor in Cádiz. Nelson hurried to London where he met with cabinet ministers and was given command of the fleet blockading Cádiz. It was while attending one of these meetings on 12 September, with Lord Castlereagh the Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, that Nelson and Major General Arthur Wellesley, the future Duke of Wellington, met briefly in a waiting room. Wellington was waiting to be debriefed on his Indian operations, and Nelson on his chase and future plans. Wellington later recalled, 'He (Nelson) entered at once into conversation with me, if I can call it conversation, for it was almost all on his side and all about himself and, in reality, a style so vain and so silly as to surprise and almost disgust me.'[199] However, after a few minutes Nelson left the room and having been told who his companion was, returned and entered into an earnest and intelligent discussion with the young Wellesley which lasted for a quarter of an hour, on the war, the state of the colonies and the geopolitical situation, that left a marked impression upon Wellesley. This was the only meeting between the two men.


Nelson returned briefly to Merton to set his affairs in order and bid farewell to Emma, before travelling back to London and then on to Portsmouth, arriving there early in the morning of 14 September. He breakfasted at the George Inn with his friends George Rose, the Vice-President of the Board of Trade, and George Canning, the Treasurer of the Navy. During the breakfast word spread of Nelson's presence at the inn and a large crowd of well wishers gathered. They accompanied Nelson to his barge and cheered him off, which Nelson acknowledged by raising his hat. Nelson was recorded as having turned to his colleague and stated, "I had their huzzas before: I have their hearts now".[200][201][202] Robert Southey reported that of the onlookers for Nelson's walk to the dock, "Many were in tears and many knelt down before him and blessed him as he passed".[203]


Victory joined the British fleet off Cádiz on 27 September, Nelson taking over from Rear-Admiral Collingwood.[204] He spent the following weeks preparing and refining his tactics for the anticipated battle and dining with his captains to ensure they understood his intentions.[205] Nelson had devised a plan of attack that anticipated the allied fleet would form up in a traditional line of battle. Drawing on his own experience from the Nile and Copenhagen, and the examples of Duncan at Camperdown and Rodney at the Saintes, Nelson decided to split his fleet into squadrons rather than forming it into a similar line parallel to the enemy.[206] These squadrons would then cut the enemy's line in a number of places, allowing a pell-mell battle to develop in which the British ships could overwhelm and destroy parts of their opponents' formation, before the unengaged enemy ships could come to their aid.


The combined French and Spanish fleet under Villeneuve's command numbered 33 ships of the line. Napoleon Bonaparte had intended for Villeneuve to sail into the English Channel and cover the planned invasion of Britain, but the entry of Austria and Russia into the war forced Napoleon to call off the planned invasion and transfer troops to Germany. Villeneuve had been reluctant to risk an engagement with the British, and this reluctance led Napoleon to order Vice-Admiral François Rosily to go to Cádiz and take command of the fleet, sail it into the Mediterranean to land troops at Naples, before making port at Toulon.[204] Villeneuve decided to sail the fleet out before his successor arrived.[204] On 20 October 1805 the fleet was sighted making its way out of harbour by patrolling British frigates, and Nelson was informed that they appeared to be heading to the west.[207]


The Battle of Trafalgar by J. M. W. Turner (oil on canvas, 1822–1824) shows the last three letters of the signal, "England expects that every man will do his duty" flying from Victory.

At four o'clock in the morning of 21 October Nelson ordered the Victory to turn towards the approaching enemy fleet, and signalled the rest of his force to battle stations. He then went below and made his will, before returning to the quarterdeck to carry out an inspection.[208] Despite having 27 ships to Villeneuve's 33, Nelson was confident of success, declaring that he would not be satisfied with taking fewer than 20 prizes.[208] He returned briefly to his cabin to write a final prayer, after which he joined Victory’s signal lieutenant, John Pasco.


Mr Pasco, I wish to say to the fleet "England confides that every man will do his duty". You must be quick, for I have one more signal to make, which is for close action.[209]


Pasco suggested changing 'confides' to 'expects', which being in the Signal Book, could be signalled by the use of a single flag, whereas 'confides' would have to spelt out letter by letter. Nelson agreed, and the signal was hoisted.[209]


As the fleets converged, the Victory’s captain, Thomas Hardy suggested that Nelson remove the decorations on his coat, so that he would not be so easily identified by enemy sharpshooters. Nelson replied that it was too late 'to be shifting a coat', adding that they were 'military orders and he did not fear to show them to the enemy'.[210] Captain Henry Blackwood, of the frigate HMS Euryalus, suggested Nelson come aboard his ship to better observe the battle. Nelson refused, and also turned down Hardy's suggestion to let Eliab Harvey's HMS Temeraire come ahead of the Victory and lead the line into battle.


Victory came under fire, initially passing wide, but then with greater accuracy as the distances decreased. A cannonball struck and killed Nelson's secretary, John Scott, nearly cutting him in two. Hardy's clerk took over, but he too was almost immediately killed. Victory’s wheel was shot away, and another cannonball cut down eight marines. Hardy, standing next to Nelson on the quarterdeck, had his shoe buckle dented by a splinter. Nelson observed 'this is too warm work to last long'.[211] The Victory had by now reached the enemy line, and Hardy asked Nelson which ship to engage first. Nelson told him to take his pick, and Hardy moved Victory across the stern of the 80-gun French flagship Bucentaure.[211] Victory then came under fire from the 74-gun Redoutable, lying off the Bucentaure’s stern, and the 130-gun Santísima Trinidad. As sharpshooters from the enemy ships fired onto Victory’s deck from their rigging, Nelson and Hardy continued to walk about, directing and giving orders.


Shortly after one o'clock, Hardy realised that Nelson was not by his side. He turned to see Nelson kneeling on the deck, supporting himself with his hand, before falling onto his side. Hardy rushed to him, at which point Nelson smiled


Hardy, I do believe they have done it at last… my backbone is shot through.[211]


He had been hit by a marksman from the Redoutable, firing at a range of 50 feet (15 m). The bullet had entered his left shoulder, passed through his spine at the sixth and seventh thoracic vertebrae, and lodged two inches (5 cm) below his right shoulder blade in the muscles of his back.


Nelson was carried below by sergeant-major of marines Robert Adair and two seamen. As he was being carried down, he asked them to pause while he gave some advice to a midshipman on the handling of the tiller.[212] He then draped a handkerchief over his face to avoid causing alarm amongst the crew. He was taken to the surgeon William Beatty, telling him


You can do nothing for me. I have but a short time to live. My back is shot through.[213]


Nelson was made comfortable, fanned and brought lemonade and watered wine to drink after he complained of feeling hot and thirsty. He asked several times to see Hardy, who was on deck supervising the battle, and asked Beatty to remember him to Emma, his daughter and his friends.[213]


Hardy came belowdecks to see Nelson just after half-past two, and informed him that a number of enemy ships had surrendered. Nelson told him that he was sure to die, and begged him to pass his possessions to Emma.[214] With Nelson at this point were the chaplain Alexander Scott, the purser Walter Burke, Nelson's steward, Chevalier, and Beatty. Nelson, fearing that a gale was blowing up, instructed Hardy to be sure to anchor. After reminding him to "take care of poor Lady Hamilton", Nelson said "Kiss me, Hardy".[214] Beatty recorded that Hardy knelt and kissed Nelson on the cheek. He then stood for a minute or two before kissing him on the forehead. Nelson asked, "Who is that?", and on hearing that it was Hardy, he replied "God bless you, Hardy."[214] By now very weak, Nelson continued to murmur instructions to Burke and Scott, "fan, fan … rub, rub … drink, drink." Beatty heard Nelson murmur, "Thank God I have done my duty", and when he returned, Nelson's voice had faded and his pulse was very weak.[214] He looked up as Beatty took his pulse, then closed his eyes. Scott, who remained by Nelson as he died, recorded his last words as "God and my country".[215] Nelson died at half-past four, three hours after he had been shot.


Nelson's body was placed in a cask of brandy mixed with camphor and myrrh, which was then lashed to the Victory's mainmast and placed under guard.[216] Victory was towed to Gibraltar after the battle, and on arrival the body was transferred to a lead-lined coffin filled with spirits of wine.[216] Collingwood's dispatches about the battle were carried to England aboard HMS Pickle, and when the news arrived in London, a messenger was sent to Merton Place to bring the news of Nelson's death to Emma Hamilton. She later recalled,


They brought me word, Mr Whitby from the Admiralty. "Show him in directly", I said. He came in, and with a pale countenance and faint voice, said, "We have gained a great Victory." – "Never mind your Victory", I said. "My letters – give me my letters" – Captain Whitby was unable to speak – tears in his eyes and a deathly paleness over his face made me comprehend him. I believe I gave a scream and fell back, and for ten hours I could neither speak nor shed a tear.[217]


King George III, on receiving the news, is alleged to have said, in tears, "We have lost more than we have gained."[218] The Times reported


We do not know whether we should mourn or rejoice. The country has gained the most splendid and decisive Victory that has ever graced the naval annals of England; but it has been dearly purchased.[218]


The first tribute to Nelson was fittingly offered at sea by sailors of Vice-Admiral Dmitry Senyavin's passing Russian squadron, which saluted on learning of the death.


Nelson's body was unloaded from the Victory at the Nore. It was conveyed upriver in Commander Grey's yacht Chatham to Greenwich and placed in a lead coffin, and that in another wooden one, made from the mast of L'Orient which had been salvaged after the Battle of the Nile. He lay in state in the Painted Hall at Greenwich for three days, before being taken upriver aboard a barge, accompanied by Lord Hood, chief mourner Sir Peter Parker, and the Prince of Wales.[220] The Prince of Wales at first announced his intention to attend the funeral as chief mourner, but later attended in a private capaci

The 23rd Psalm: A psalm of David.

1 The LORD is my shepherd, I shall not be in want.

2 He makes me lie down in green pastures, He leads me beside quiet waters,

3 He restores my soul. He guides me in paths of righteousness for His name's sake.

4 Even though I walk through the valley of the shadow of death, I will fear no evil,

for you are with me; your rod and your staff, they comfort me.

5 You prepare a table before me in the presence of my enemies.

You anoint my head with oil; my cup overflows.

6 Surely goodness and love will follow me all the days of my life,

and I will dwell in the house of the LORD forever.

(This was highlighted in her Bible by her bed.)


She had memorized many Bible verses but one that meant

a lot to her was Psalm 139 which she could quote totally

from her memory and recently a sweet cousin told me how

Gina quoted it to her and how much it meant to her. Her light

still shines and her precious memory still lives on with her family

and her friends and will forever especially with her mom and her

dad and her Scot and her Forest... it does not get better... we

miss her more and more with each passing day and look

forward to the day we will see her again and our precious

Lord and Saviour Jesus Christ who loves us and died for us!!!

It is because of Him and His forgiveness and our faith in Him

that we know we will see our Gina again and because she too

had that faith in Him... we loved her and love her still but He

loved her and loves her more than we could ever even imagine!!!


She Loved!!!

She loved her soulmate... Scot

She loved and adored her son... Forrest

She loved her mom & dad always & forever

She loved her Lord & Saviour Jesus Christ

She loved her brother

She loved her sister

She loved her nieces and nephews

She loved all her precious cousins

She loved her aunts and uncles

She loved her grandmother

She loved to go to church

She loved music

She loved white roses

She loved the color lime green

She loved laughing so hard she snorted...

She loved cooking for her family

She loved her puppy (every dog she

ever saw no matter the age or size was a puppy)

She loved telling about our family adventures

She loved looking at our photos

She loved writing her poetry

She loved photography... her way

She loved life....

She loved and was loved!!!!!!!!!!


For you my precious baby girl, my angel, from your loving mama:

One of her fave songs....

She almost died when she was born of hyaline membrane

and at 3 months with double pneumonia... but God let us

have her for 39 years... and we are forever blessed!!!

She lived.... She loved... She lives...

and one day we will be together again forever!!!

For you my precious angel...

Please view large on black!!


Please check out the standard single-exposure version and the DRI version as well. Each version will be cropped slightly differently to keep things interesting.


I intentionally took this a little over-the-top since the first two were very traditional.


Original Description

On my way to grandmother's house (pun intended), I took a short diversion and ran across this view of Mt. Mansfield. The owners of the property, Betty and Dick, were kind enough to let me take some shots from their front yard. I envy their view, though I don't envy their winters. Afterwards they told me that this is called "Goose Pond" because from the air it looks like a goose. From a topographical map I can just barely see what they mean!


Taken from Goose Road, Fair Fax, Vermont.


13 positions

x 3 exposures

= 39 shot HDR autostitch pano


Note: I spent as much time trying to get the colors to display correctly on the web as I did actually editing the picture. In the process I learned about sRGB and the ineptness of web browsers to correctly display color. It's worth a few minutes to read. What you see here still isn't quite what I see in Photoshop!

Thank you everyone who tagged me! Which was myself :p

184. My middle name is: Masae

183. My great grandma's nickname: She passed away so idk o_o

182. I was born in: OR

181: I am really: crazy about Monster High xD

180. My cellphone company is: AT&T

179. My eye color is: green/brown/grey xD

178. My shoe size: Women's 8

177. My ring size is: Something around 6-8?

176. My height: 5'6

175. I'm allergic to: Bubble bath (the cheap kinds)

174. My first job: Dog-sitting/Baby-sitting

173. My first car: Toy Bratz car (:D

172. My bed is: A OOAK Cloud-like bed with storage :D

171. My pet: 2 golden retrievers, 1 cat, and a million goldfish ;)

170. My best friends: Meena, Natalie, Jennifer, Ashley, Megan! ^_^

169. My favorite shampoo: Bath & Body Works Paris Amour shampoo @_@

168. AIM name: I have no idea what that is xD

167. Piggy banks are: Epic :D

166. In my pockets: My phone. I never put anything else in them 'cause I'm afraid they'll fall out.

165. On my calender: PUG DOGS ;D

164. Marriage is: Well.... it depends ;p

163. My mom is: Well organized and fun :)

162. The last CDs I bought were: Taylor Swift Speak Now, about 1-2 years ago xD

161. The last video I watched: A Vsauce LUT video xD They're really interesting!

160. How many cousins I have: 4...? o_o

159. Do you have any siblings? 3 older sisters, one passed away :'(

158. Are your parents divorced? No :D

157. Are you taller than yo momma? Yessiree! xD

156. Do you play instruments? Piano :D

155. What did you do yesterday? Had my piano recital at the library, then my cousins from Japan and California came to visit so we all were at my grandmother's house feeding her chickens and having fun. ^_^

~Believe in~

154. Love at first site? I really don't know xD

153. Luck? Kinda, I'm more into karma/fate.

152. Fate? Yes! Y'all see the movie Brave? XD

151. Yourself? Yeah! :D

150. Aliens? Well I do when it's 1 in the morning and I'm watching alien videos on Youtube on my phone in a dark room o_o

149. Heaven? Yeah! I keep getting weird dreams of my sister up there and she's shopping at Trader Joe's Heaven and I'm there too o_O xD

148. Hell? Idk.

147. God? Yes, but I don't go to church. I get enough church-related things on Facebook! All the girls are like, I love god and getting really personal into it to the point where it's creepy o_o. Am I the only one who noticed that the meaner middle school girls are the most religious? As if they're like, "I'm gonna be mean to you, but you can't do anything to me 'cause God is watching."

146. Horoscopes? Not really.

145. Soulmates? Idk.

144. Ghosts? Why yes! Every once in a while, in my room, I see a man in a dark cloak praying at my window. It's really weird and I see it a lot! o_o

115. Six flags or Disney? WELL WHICH ONE HAS THE HARRY POTTER AWESOME PLACE? xD You know my answer.

114. Yankees or Red socks? Ducks and Beavers. :)


~Here's what I think About~

113. War: Not required to have peace.

112. George Bush: Worst president ever!

111. Gay marrige? As long as the people getting married are happy, then I'm all for it.

110: Presidentiol election: I let my parents decide.

109. Abortion: Well it's by choice of the mother.

108. MySpace: First thing that comes to mind: That girl who hung herself from being bullied on that site.

107. Reality TV: The Amazing Race and Next Top Model (:D My mom prefers Hell's kitchen o_o

106. Parents: I love them so much! :)

105. Backstabbers: (the list is from people at school) Samantha :p

104. eBay: Why so many fees? D:

86. Got your nails done: 3 months ago.

85. Went to a wedding: 1 year ago, congrats Kenzie :)

84: Broke a bone: My toe xD

83: Got a piercing: 5th grade

82. Broke a law: I don't think I ever have..? haha

81. Texted: Last night. Megan. :)



80. Who makes you laugh most? Finn, Koto, and Emily on Pixie Hollow xD

79. Something I really miss when I leave home: My room. I'm always debating what I would do if someone broke into our house and took my dolls o_o I usually set traps in my room before we leave :D

78. The last movie I saw: LOL I really don't remember! I think it was the Avengers?

77. The thing I am looking for most: Idk o_o I need to think about this one xD

76. The thing I am not looking forward to: Next semester -_-

75. People call me: Quiet, hilarious, Taylor Swift look-alike xD

74. The most difficult thing to do: - I need to think this one through - xD

73. When getting a speeding ticket: Never had one ^_^

72. My zodiac sign: Virgo :D

71. The first person I talked to today: My mom.

70. First time you had a crush? Well Kindergarden! xD

69. <-- HAHAHAHA O_O The one person you can't hide anything from: There is nobody o_o

68. Last time you said something you were thinking: I'm hungry! XD XD

67. Right now I'm talking to: my brain, thinking up answers for this tag :p

66. What are you going to be when you grow up? An inspiring photographer (similar to the photo above) and an Anesthesiologist :)

65. I have/will get a job: When I can drive and have my own car.

64. Tomorrow: First day of Tennis Swimming camp! 4 hours of tennis then an hour of swimming, then lunchie time! :D

53. TV shows I watch: America's Got Talent, Modern Family (:D), and Suburgatory.

52. Favorite website: Pixie Hollow and Flickr and Youtube ;)

51. Dream Vacation: Paris! Japan! :)

50. The worst pain you were in: When my sister died.

49. How do you like your steak cooked? I like it when there is light pink in the middle and fully cooked all on the outside :D

48. My room is: Purple, orange, pink, green, blue, and maroon. :)

47. Favorite celebrities: TAYLOR SWIFT ♥ (the picture above is of her!) and Jennifer Aniston! :D

46. Where would you like to be? At Toys R Us. I put like, 7 MH dolls on hold yesterday and I hope they didn't put them back on the shelf yet O_O

45. Do you want kids? Yep!

44. Ever been in love? Not in real life, but in book characters like Peeta o_o xD

43. Your best friend? Still looking for the perfect one! :) (hey didn't you already ask this question? :p)

42. More guy friends or girl friends? Girlz xD

41. One thing that makes you feel great is: When I reach my top goals, which I did this year by getting a 4.0 GPA :DDD scholarships, here I come!

40. One person you wish you could see right now: Natalie, Taylor Swift, and/or the people who created Monster High LOL XD

39. One place you'd like to move: I like where I am! No wildfires, but rain, rain, rain. :) I say it's a free shower for hobos!

38: I wish I was a personal: ......???? xD



37. Candy: Skittles, Apple pops, gummy bears, idk xD

36. Vehicle: Convertible :) I like sleek cars that are not low, but high off the ground haha, like a Honda Element ;)

35.President: Clinton! :) We all had great jobs plus extra money in our pockets!

34. City visited: Either Seattle, Portland, or San Diego.

33.Cellphone provider: My dad :D

32. Athelete: Serena Williams!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

31. Actress: Jennifer Aniston!

30. Actor: The guy who was the main character in "Marley & Me" (yeah, Jennifer Aniston was in it too xD)

29. Singer: Taylor Swift! DUH xD ANDD Sara Barellis, and Katy Perry ^_^

28. Bands: First Aid Kit (look them up on Youtube of them singing the Fleet Foxes, they're amazing!) and.... One Direction xD

27. Clothing store: H&M! FOREVER 21! and especially...... DEB!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!!! :D BEST STORE EVER!

26. Grocery store: Winco, Rainbow Foods, Trader Joe's.

25. TV show: Modern Family.

24. Movie: The Hunger Games /(._.)/

23. Website: Pixie Hollow!

22. Animal: Dogs, especially pugs :D

21. Theme park: HARRY POTTER WORLD O_o

20. Holiday: Halloween!

19. Sport to watch: Tennis and football xD

18. Sport to play: Tennis! Volleyball! Gymnastics! (:D

17. Magazine: Teen Vogue has nice perfume samples.. :3

16. Book: Warriors by Erin Hunter :')


14. Beach: The Oregon Coast, 'cause they hide handmade blow glass balls in the sand and if we find one, we keep it :D

13. Concerts attended: Jack White, Frank Zappa, and Chickorea :)

12. Thing to cook: cookies :D

11. Food:SUSHI, BRO. xD

10. Resturant: The India Palace /(._.)/

9. Radio station: z100, IHeartRadio.

8. Yankee Candle scent: Pineapple xD

7. Perfume: Pink Sugar perfume :)

6. Flower: Pink rose ♥

5. Color: Red! ♥

4. Talk show host: Ryan Seacrest has been in a lot of school discussion debates (which are hilarious, btw) so probably him. ;)

3. Comedians: Idk o_O My friend Natalie xD


1. Are you happy this is over: NOOOOO :_


What is your picture of and why did you choose it: It's Taylor Swift! I love her songs and her style, I adore it @_@ This picture also is of my favorite colors xD



On OCTOBER 17-19, 2008 Stand Up & Take Action

Against Poverty and for the Millennium Development Goals


Take Action Against War and Hunger! Together, we can Make War & Hunger History!!


Nearly one billion people go hungry each day, 65 percent of them in just seven countries: India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ethiopia and Congo, reported the UN food agency ( ). “For millions of people in developing countries, eating the minimum amount of food every day to live an active and healthy life is a distant dream”, said FAO’ Assistant Director-General Hafez Ghanem.


Another 40 million people have been pushed into hunger in 2008 primarily due to higher food prices, according to preliminary estimates published by FAO. This brings the overall number of undernourished people in the world to 963 million, compared to 923 million in 2007 and the ongoing financial and economic crisis could tip even more people into hunger and poverty, FAO warned.


"At a time when $700 billion can be found overnight to bail out the richest bankers in the world and $1000 billion can be spent on one single “war,” when sovereign wealth funds in a few rich countries alone are at $2500 billion and growing, it stretches credulity when we are told that the world can’t find an extra $18 billion a year to save the lives of millions of children and women and meet the basic needs of the majority of the world’s population."

---- Global Director, U.N. Millennium Campaign, Salil Shetty


Several Heads of States, Ministers, politicians, high-ranking government bureaucrats, unscrupulous businesses, criminals, drug traffickers, smugglers and other unscrupulous people are depositing large sums of illegal money in not just the Swiss banks, there are around 70 tax havens worldwide which are used to stash slush monies. A 2008 report by the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) lists Switzerland, Austria, Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, Panama, Singapore and others as states where it deems bank secrecy rules undesirable. Estimates suggest more than $11 trillion black money may be stored in tax havens.( )

If the governments are serious about stopping black money and raising resources to meet the growing economic crisis, they must take steps to bring back the unaccounted or, ill-gotten wealth. Most adversely affected are the developing nations including those from Africa and Asia, where disappearance of large amounts of money badly needed for development.


Two-thirds of the world’s populations don’t have access to the financial system. Poor are not considered credit worthy. The idea of the business is only maximisation of profit. That is too narrow an interpretation of a human being. The current financial meltdown is destroying jobs, lives and livelihoods, while wreaking havoc on currencies and stock markets around the world. It has taken resources from the many, while concentrating wealth in the hands of the few. To date, governments have largely responded by spending more than one trillion dollars bailing out private financial institutions and corporations. Meanwhile, the crushing needs of communities, ordinary citizens and fragile ecosystems have been largely ignored. There should also be social business in the society.


The globalisation had to ensure the maximum good for the maximum numbers around the world and not just the privileged few who got richer under the corrupt political regime. It is true that every successful economy is a market economy, the problem lay in the way it evolved in the corrupt regime which privatised profits and socialised losses. That is not capitalism. The current crisis showed that system was inadequate to cope with the changing situation. The societies needed to practise social responsibility throughout their business, ensuring that they did not make profits by harming lives, livelihoods and the environment. Every human being should have the “right to credit” because if people have money, they can change their lives.


Eight years ago, in 2000, leaders of 189 countries signed the Millennium Declaration agreeing to do everything in their power to end poverty. They pledged to do this by achieving the Millennium Development Goals, a roadmap to end extreme poverty by 2015. Are we even half way to meeting the eight Millennium Development Goals?


Still, every day, 50,000 people die as a result of extreme poverty and the gap between rich and poor people is increasing. Nearly half the world’s population live in poverty, 70% are women.


In war and conflicts, every year thousands of people killed, wounded or displaced includes infants, toddlers, boys, girls, house wives, grandmothers, mothers, fathers, grandfathers, sisters, schoolteachers, factory workers, healthcare workers, agriculture workers, sales girls, graphic designers, software writers, call centre employees, dancers, day care providers, construction workers, babysitters, musicians, singers, bakers, restaurant workers, cab drivers, maidservants and many more. Thousands of soldiers have been killed and hundreds of thousands more have suffered severe physical and psychological wounds.


We have the power to change this. Push your governments for peace, more and better aid, debt cancellation, education for all boys and girls, healthcare, trade justice, gender equality, right to credit and public accountability.


Let us tell the political gamblers

that we hate their ways of war and destruction!


Arise and tell the war mongers

what we need are tools to work and freedom from hunger!!


Say No To Unfair Social System!

Say No To Corrupt Political Regime!!

Say No To Unfair World Order!!!

Say No To Unfair Trade!!!!


Fight for peace!

Fight against hunger!!

We can make 'War, Terrorism and Hunger History' in our lifetime!!!


foto: firoz ahmad firoz



On OCTOBER 17-19, 2008 Stand Up & Take Action

Against Poverty and for the Millennium Development Goals


Take Action Against War and Hunger! Together, we can Make War & Hunger History!!


Nearly one billion people go hungry each day, 65 percent of them in just seven countries: India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ethiopia and Congo, reported the UN food agency ( ). “For millions of people in developing countries, eating the minimum amount of food every day to live an active and healthy life is a distant dream”, said FAO’ Assistant Director-General Hafez Ghanem.


Another 40 million people have been pushed into hunger in 2008 primarily due to higher food prices, according to preliminary estimates published by FAO. This brings the overall number of undernourished people in the world to 963 million, compared to 923 million in 2007 and the ongoing financial and economic crisis could tip even more people into hunger and poverty, FAO warned.


"At a time when $700 billion can be found overnight to bail out the richest bankers in the world and $1000 billion can be spent on one single “war,” when sovereign wealth funds in a few rich countries alone are at $2500 billion and growing, it stretches credulity when we are told that the world can’t find an extra $18 billion a year to save the lives of millions of children and women and meet the basic needs of the majority of the world’s population."

---- Global Director, U.N. Millennium Campaign, Salil Shetty


Several Heads of States, Ministers, politicians, high-ranking government bureaucrats, unscrupulous businesses, criminals, drug traffickers, smugglers and other unscrupulous people are depositing large sums of illegal money in not just the Swiss banks, there are around 70 tax havens worldwide which are used to stash slush monies. A 2008 report by the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) lists Switzerland, Austria, Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, Panama, Singapore and others as states where it deems bank secrecy rules undesirable. Estimates suggest more than $11 trillion black money may be stored in tax havens.( )

If the governments are serious about stopping black money and raising resources to meet the growing economic crisis, they must take steps to bring back the unaccounted or, ill-gotten wealth. Most adversely affected are the developing nations including those from Africa and Asia, where disappearance of large amounts of money badly needed for development.


Two-thirds of the world’s populations don’t have access to the financial system. Poor are not considered credit worthy. The idea of the business is only maximisation of profit. That is too narrow an interpretation of a human being. The current financial meltdown is destroying jobs, lives and livelihoods, while wreaking havoc on currencies and stock markets around the world. It has taken resources from the many, while concentrating wealth in the hands of the few. To date, governments have largely responded by spending more than one trillion dollars bailing out private financial institutions and corporations. Meanwhile, the crushing needs of communities, ordinary citizens and fragile ecosystems have been largely ignored. There should also be social business in the society.


The globalisation had to ensure the maximum good for the maximum numbers around the world and not just the privileged few who got richer under the corrupt political regime. It is true that every successful economy is a market economy, the problem lay in the way it evolved in the corrupt regime which privatised profits and socialised losses. That is not capitalism. The current crisis showed that system was inadequate to cope with the changing situation. The societies needed to practise social responsibility throughout their business, ensuring that they did not make profits by harming lives, livelihoods and the environment. Every human being should have the “right to credit” because if people have money, they can change their lives.


Eight years ago, in 2000, leaders of 189 countries signed the Millennium Declaration agreeing to do everything in their power to end poverty. They pledged to do this by achieving the Millennium Development Goals, a roadmap to end extreme poverty by 2015. Are we even half way to meeting the eight Millennium Development Goals?


Still, every day, 50,000 people die as a result of extreme poverty and the gap between rich and poor people is increasing. Nearly half the world’s population live in poverty, 70% are women.


In war and conflicts, every year thousands of people killed, wounded or displaced includes infants, toddlers, boys, girls, house wives, grandmothers, mothers, fathers, grandfathers, sisters, schoolteachers, factory workers, healthcare workers, agriculture workers, sales girls, graphic designers, software writers, call centre employees, dancers, day care providers, construction workers, babysitters, musicians, singers, bakers, restaurant workers, cab drivers, maidservants and many more. Thousands of soldiers have been killed and hundreds of thousands more have suffered severe physical and psychological wounds.


We have the power to change this. Push your governments for peace, more and better aid, debt cancellation, education for all boys and girls, healthcare, trade justice, gender equality, right to credit and public accountability.


Let us tell the political gamblers

that we hate their ways of war and destruction!


Arise and tell the war mongers

what we need are tools to work and freedom from hunger!!


Say No To Unfair Social System!

Say No To Corrupt Political Regime!!

Say No To Unfair World Order!!!

Say No To Unfair Trade!!!!


Fight for peace!

Fight against hunger!!

We can make 'War, Terrorism and Hunger History' in our lifetime!!!


foto: firoz ahmad firoz



On OCTOBER 17-19, 2008 Stand Up & Take Action

Against Poverty and for the Millennium Development Goals


Take Action Against War and Hunger! Together, we can Make War & Hunger History!!


Nearly one billion people go hungry each day, 65 percent of them in just seven countries: India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ethiopia and Congo, reported the UN food agency ( ). “For millions of people in developing countries, eating the minimum amount of food every day to live an active and healthy life is a distant dream”, said FAO’ Assistant Director-General Hafez Ghanem.


Another 40 million people have been pushed into hunger in 2008 primarily due to higher food prices, according to preliminary estimates published by FAO. This brings the overall number of undernourished people in the world to 963 million, compared to 923 million in 2007 and the ongoing financial and economic crisis could tip even more people into hunger and poverty, FAO warned.


"At a time when $700 billion can be found overnight to bail out the richest bankers in the world and $1000 billion can be spent on one single “war,” when sovereign wealth funds in a few rich countries alone are at $2500 billion and growing, it stretches credulity when we are told that the world can’t find an extra $18 billion a year to save the lives of millions of children and women and meet the basic needs of the majority of the world’s population."

---- Global Director, U.N. Millennium Campaign, Salil Shetty


Several Heads of States, Ministers, politicians, high-ranking government bureaucrats, unscrupulous businesses, criminals, drug traffickers, smugglers and other unscrupulous people are depositing large sums of illegal money in not just the Swiss banks, there are around 70 tax havens worldwide which are used to stash slush monies. A 2008 report by the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) lists Switzerland, Austria, Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, Panama, Singapore and others as states where it deems bank secrecy rules undesirable. Estimates suggest more than $11 trillion black money may be stored in tax havens.( )

If the governments are serious about stopping black money and raising resources to meet the growing economic crisis, they must take steps to bring back the unaccounted or, ill-gotten wealth. Most adversely affected are the developing nations including those from Africa and Asia, where disappearance of large amounts of money badly needed for development.


Two-thirds of the world’s populations don’t have access to the financial system. Poor are not considered credit worthy. The idea of the business is only maximisation of profit. That is too narrow an interpretation of a human being. The current financial meltdown is destroying jobs, lives and livelihoods, while wreaking havoc on currencies and stock markets around the world. It has taken resources from the many, while concentrating wealth in the hands of the few. To date, governments have largely responded by spending more than one trillion dollars bailing out private financial institutions and corporations. Meanwhile, the crushing needs of communities, ordinary citizens and fragile ecosystems have been largely ignored. There should also be social business in the society.


The globalisation had to ensure the maximum good for the maximum numbers around the world and not just the privileged few who got richer under the corrupt political regime. It is true that every successful economy is a market economy, the problem lay in the way it evolved in the corrupt regime which privatised profits and socialised losses. That is not capitalism. The current crisis showed that system was inadequate to cope with the changing situation. The societies needed to practise social responsibility throughout their business, ensuring that they did not make profits by harming lives, livelihoods and the environment. Every human being should have the “right to credit” because if people have money, they can change their lives.


Eight years ago, in 2000, leaders of 189 countries signed the Millennium Declaration agreeing to do everything in their power to end poverty. They pledged to do this by achieving the Millennium Development Goals, a roadmap to end extreme poverty by 2015. Are we even half way to meeting the eight Millennium Development Goals?


Still, every day, 50,000 people die as a result of extreme poverty and the gap between rich and poor people is increasing. Nearly half the world’s population live in poverty, 70% are women.


In war and conflicts, every year thousands of people killed, wounded or displaced includes infants, toddlers, boys, girls, house wives, grandmothers, mothers, fathers, grandfathers, sisters, schoolteachers, factory workers, healthcare workers, agriculture workers, sales girls, graphic designers, software writers, call centre employees, dancers, day care providers, construction workers, babysitters, musicians, singers, bakers, restaurant workers, cab drivers, maidservants and many more. Thousands of soldiers have been killed and hundreds of thousands more have suffered severe physical and psychological wounds.


We have the power to change this. Push your governments for peace, more and better aid, debt cancellation, education for all boys and girls, healthcare, trade justice, gender equality, right to credit and public accountability.


Let us tell the political gamblers

that we hate their ways of war and destruction!


Arise and tell the war mongers

what we need are tools to work and freedom from hunger!!


Say No To Unfair Social System!

Say No To Corrupt Political Regime!!

Say No To Unfair World Order!!!

Say No To Unfair Trade!!!!


Fight for peace!

Fight against hunger!!

We can make 'War, Terrorism and Hunger History' in our lifetime!!!


foto: firoz ahmad firoz



Take Action Against War and Hunger! Together, we can Make War & Hunger History!!


Nearly one billion people go hungry each day, 65 percent of them in just seven countries: India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ethiopia and Congo, reported the UN food agency ( ). “For millions of people in developing countries, eating the minimum amount of food every day to live an active and healthy life is a distant dream”, said FAO’ Assistant Director-General Hafez Ghanem.


Another 40 million people have been pushed into hunger in 2008 primarily due to higher food prices, according to preliminary estimates published by FAO. This brings the overall number of undernourished people in the world to 963 million, compared to 923 million in 2007 and the ongoing financial and economic crisis could tip even more people into hunger and poverty, FAO warned.


"At a time when $700 billion can be found overnight to bail out the richest bankers in the world and $1000 billion can be spent on one single “war,” when sovereign wealth funds in a few rich countries alone are at $2500 billion and growing, it stretches credulity when we are told that the world can’t find an extra $18 billion a year to save the lives of millions of children and women and meet the basic needs of the majority of the world’s population."

---- Global Director, U.N. Millennium Campaign, Salil Shetty


Several Heads of States, Ministers, politicians, high-ranking government bureaucrats, unscrupulous businesses, criminals, drug traffickers, smugglers and other unscrupulous people are depositing large sums of illegal money in not just the Swiss banks, there are around 70 tax havens worldwide which are used to stash slush monies. A 2008 report by the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) lists Switzerland, Austria, Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, Panama, Singapore and others as states where it deems bank secrecy rules undesirable. Estimates suggest more than $11 trillion black money may be stored in tax havens.( )

If the governments are serious about stopping black money and raising resources to meet the growing economic crisis, they must take steps to bring back the unaccounted or, ill-gotten wealth. Most adversely affected are the developing nations including those from Africa and Asia, where disappearance of large amounts of money badly needed for development.


Two-thirds of the world’s populations don’t have access to the financial system. Poor are not considered credit worthy. The idea of the business is only maximisation of profit. That is too narrow an interpretation of a human being. The current financial meltdown is destroying jobs, lives and livelihoods, while wreaking havoc on currencies and stock markets around the world. It has taken resources from the many, while concentrating wealth in the hands of the few. To date, governments have largely responded by spending more than one trillion dollars bailing out private financial institutions and corporations. Meanwhile, the crushing needs of communities, ordinary citizens and fragile ecosystems have been largely ignored. There should also be social business in the society.


The globalisation had to ensure the maximum good for the maximum numbers around the world and not just the privileged few who got richer under the corrupt political regime. It is true that every successful economy is a market economy, the problem lay in the way it evolved in the corrupt regime which privatised profits and socialised losses. That is not capitalism. The current crisis showed that system was inadequate to cope with the changing situation. The societies needed to practise social responsibility throughout their business, ensuring that they did not make profits by harming lives, livelihoods and the environment. Every human being should have the “right to credit” because if people have money, they can change their lives.


Eight years ago, in 2000, leaders of 189 countries signed the Millennium Declaration agreeing to do everything in their power to end poverty. They pledged to do this by achieving the Millennium Development Goals, a roadmap to end extreme poverty by 2015. Are we even half way to meeting the eight Millennium Development Goals?


Still, every day, 50,000 people die as a result of extreme poverty and the gap between rich and poor people is increasing. Nearly half the world’s population live in poverty, 70% are women.


In war and conflicts, every year thousands of people killed, wounded or displaced includes infants, toddlers, boys, girls, house wives, grandmothers, mothers, fathers, grandfathers, sisters, schoolteachers, factory workers, healthcare workers, agriculture workers, sales girls, graphic designers, software writers, call centre employees, dancers, day care providers, construction workers, babysitters, musicians, singers, bakers, restaurant workers, cab drivers, maidservants and many more. Thousands of soldiers have been killed and hundreds of thousands more have suffered severe physical and psychological wounds.


We have the power to change this. Push your governments for peace, more and better aid, debt cancellation, education for all boys and girls, healthcare, trade justice, gender equality, right to credit and public accountability.


Let us tell the political gamblers

that we hate their ways of war and destruction!


Arise and tell the war mongers

what we need are tools to work and freedom from hunger!!


Say No To Unfair Social System!

Say No To Corrupt Political Regime!!

Say No To Unfair World Order!!!

Say No To Unfair Trade!!!!


Fight for peace!

Fight against hunger!!

We can make 'War, Terrorism and Hunger History' in our lifetime!!!


foto: firoz ahmad firoz


Alfred Richard Barton………………Aged 34




Rank: Second Lieutenant Regiment/Service: South African Infantry Unit Text: 3rd Regt. Date of Death: 18/07/1916

Grave/Memorial Reference: Pier and Face 4 C. Memorial: THIEPVAL MEMORIAL


This was confirmed by Norlink, where there is a picture of 2nd Lt Barton

(and for his brother Hugh - see below for Hugh and the Strumpshaw link)


The most likely link on the 1901 Census is a 18 year old Alfred Richard who is staying with his uncle, Thomas Allday Barton, aged 55 and a farmer, resident at Threxton House, Threxton, Swaffham.


The 9th Division was not involved in the disasters of the first day of the Somme battle, but on 14 July the two Scottish brigades attacked the village of Longueval, and on the following day the South African Brigade was launched at Delville Wood. The wood abutted on the village, and together they formed an important wedge of high ground. Hence the order to the South Africans to take and hold the Wood 'at all costs', and the desperate efforts of the Germans to regain it.

The story of Delville Wood has often been told, for it has an epic quality. The South Africans took virtually all the wood without too much difficulty, but holding it proved another matter. German counter-attacks and shelling were ferocious and incessant. On 18 July, the shelling reached heights of extraordinary fury: often 400 shells a minute would fall on an area roughly 1 000 yards by 1 200. The South Africans repulsed with rifle and bayonet the heavy German attacks that followed. Finally, on the evening of 20 July, six days and five nights after their first advance, the last of the South Africans, 2 officers (both wounded) and 140 men, came Out of the wood. When all the scattered remnants were gathered together, it was found that the Brigade had lost three quarters of its strength, while of those who had actually entered the wood, 90 per cent became casualties.


Hugh Fabian Barton……………….Aged 19



Rank: Second Lieutenant Regiment/Service: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 9th Bn.

Age: 19 Date of Death: 12/02/1916

Additional information: Son of the Rev. A. J. and Alice E. Barton, of "Wanstrow", Rosebery Rd., Felixstowe, Suffolk. Born at Strumpshaw Rectory, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: I. C. 3. Cemetery: WHITE HOUSE CEMETERY, ST. JEAN-LES-YPRES


The 9th Battalion were certainly in the trenches near St Jean during the last two months of 1915.


Norlink picture of 2nd Lt Barton


The 1901 Census has the 4 year old Hugh Fabian living at The Rectory, Strumpshaw

with his father, the Reverend Alfred John Barton, age 50 and born Threxton. Hugh was born at Guestwick. Also resident is Hugh’s 16 year old sister, Ethel Gertrude and two live in servants - a Cook and a Housemaid.


John Edward Blake……………..Aged 21




Rank: Lance Corporal Regiment/Service: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 9th Bn.

Age: 24 Date of Death: 15/04/1918 Service No: 9350

Additional information: Son of Walter and Hannah Thompson, of Lingwood Rd., Blofield, Norwich; husband of Marjorie Blake, of Postwick, Norwich, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 34 to 35 and 162A. Memorial: TYNE COT MEMORIAL


No match on Norlink


No obvious matches on the 1901 Census for either a John Blake or a John Thompson.


The 9th were moved to the Ypres salient on April 1st 1918 and moved to Dranoute on the 14th.


" Next day D and A companies were in front line, C in support and B in reserve. Arrangements had been made for C to counter attack if necessary but it's losses owing to the continuous heavy bombardment commencing at noon on the 15th necessitated B taking it's place as the counter attack force. At 2.30pm on the 15th the enemy advanced and by 3pm had gained a foothold in the front trenches. From these he was once again driven out by B company. Although B held the line and formed a defensive flank they were eventually themselves driven out due to their exposed position.

Line was then formed along the railway with the Ist Leicesters on their left at Clapham Junction. At 10.30pm they were moved back behind Mt Kemmel before being pulled out of line on the 18th.

This was after the 9th had been badly cut up a month before holding the masive German onslaught of the 21st March. Here they had fought a strong rearguard action before being moved out of line to for a refit in Sixte near Proven on the 26th.


John Debbage………………….Aged 21



Name: DEBBAGE, JOHN PRINDLE Initials: J P Nationality: United Kingdom Rank: Private Regiment/Service: Essex Regiment Unit Text: 1st Bn. Date of Death: 13/08/1915 Service No: 20655 Casualty Type: Commonwealth War Dead Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 144 to 150 or 229 to 233. Memorial: HELLES MEMORIAL


Norlink has a picture of John Pringle Debbage, but links him elsewhere in Norfolk.


The Norlink notes read:-

Private Debbage of Bramerton, was born at Paxworth, 7th January 1893. He waseducated at Cantley School. He enlisted on 4th January 1915 and was drowned on H.M.S. Royal Edward, 13th August 1915


The John Debbage on the CWGC database and Norlink was 8 years old and living at Marsh Road, Cantley on the 1901 Census. This was the household of his parents, Henry, (aged 42 and a Teamster on Farm, originally from Panxworth), and Jane, (aged 42 and from London). There other children are Walter, (aged 12 and from Ranworth), and Frederick, (aged 3, born Cantley).


The 1901 Census does have a John Debbage age 53, born Ranworth, but now living at Buckenham Road, Strumpshaw. While John is a family man, none of his children have the first name John or Pringle.


A passage from the History of Norfolk Regiment tells the rest of Teddie's story: Colonel Tonge refers to the loss of 300 men, the best draft that ever left Felixstowe. These men volunteered to join the Essex Regiment and appear to have constituted the drafts of June 23 and July 24 1915. They were part of the reinforcements carried by the transport "Royal Edward" which was torpedoed and sunk in the Aegean Sea on August 14th 1915. She sank two and a half minutes after the torpedo struck her.Of the 1,400 men she carried only 600 were saved,and the drowned included all but 18 of the 300 Norfolk men. The men who had had a route march just before leaving Alexandria, were waiting on deck for foot inspection at about 9.20 am. Their lifebelts were down below, and when the ship was unexpectedly struck most of them ran below to fetch the belts. Owing to the ship's sudden heeling over and sinking, these never got up again. Those who escaped were picked up by a hospital ship which responded to the s.o.s. signal. To partly replace this sad loss, another draft of 150 men to the Essex Regiment was dispatched on September 29, 1915. Addenda 1994 From: "Men of Gallipoli"(David & Charles,1988) by kind permission of the publishers. One of the features of the Cape Helles monument is the rows of names of men drowned in the torpedoing of the Royal Edward,which sank in the Eastern Mediterranean on 13th August with a loss of over 850 lives.A.T.Fraser in the Border Regiment,was in a deckchair on the afterdeck starboard side when suddenly dozens of men ran past him from port to starboard. The explosion came before he had time to ask what was the matter.


"The ship had no escort and we had not been ordered to have our life-belts with us.The hundreds on deck ran below to get their life-belts and hundreds below would have met them on their way up.I shared a cabin accessible from the deck I was on and I raced there to get my life-belt and ran to my life-boat station which was on the star- board side.As the men arrived they fell in two ranks. Already the ship was listing and this prevented our boats from being lowered,so we were ordered to jump for it.I saw no panic,but of course one could imagine what was happening on the inside stairs. I swam away from the ship and turned to see the funnels leaning towards me.When they reached the sea,all the soot was belched out,there was a loud whoosh and the ship sank. No explosion,no surge.So I was alone.The little waves were such that in the trough you saw nothing,on the crest you saw a few yards.The water was warm.I wondered if there were sharks". Fraser found some wood to rest on and he was joined by a seaman,an older man who had twice previously been torpedoed.This brought the young Scot confidence.An up turned Royal Edward lifeboat was to provide 17 of the survivors with a little more security though in what Fraser calls half-hourly recurring turbulence,the boat turned over,offering them conventional but completely waterlogged accommodation every alternate half hour but at least providing them with something to do.There was no singing and little conversation. The first ship that passed hailed the scattered men and promised to signal for help.It could not stop as it had high explosives for Lemnos.Some of the men became depressed and showed unwillingness to clamber back in the life boat when it overturned,but on each occasion all were persuaded.Finally the hospital ship SOUDAIN arrived to pick them up in her life-boats,and at 2 o'clock Fraser was safely aboard her after just under five hours in the sea. He remembers that"a large number of men lost their false teeth as we were constantly sick in the sea- and these men were sent back to England.We the younger ones,were clothed and kitted and on another ship three days later for Gallipoli”


Sidney John Green…………………Aged 20



Rank: Private Regiment/Service: Hertfordshire Regiment Unit Text: 1st/1st Bn.

Age: 20 Date of Death: 23/08/1918 Service No: 204000

Additional information: Son of John and Alice Green, of Strumpshaw, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: X. G. 16. Cemetery: SERRE ROAD CEMETERY No.2


No match on Norlink


Sydney Green was 2 years old and living at The Old Hall Strumpshaw, at the time of the 1901 Census. This was the household of his parents, John, (a 40 year old Domestic Gardener, from Necton), and Alice, (aged 39 and from Old Catton). Their other children are Dorothy, (aged 4) and Hilda, (aged 11), both born Strumpshaw. Also living with them are Alice’s mother Rachel Harrowven, aged 74 and from Easton.


Extract from the Battalion War Diary.


22-8-18. Battn resting in BRADFORD-LEEDS-HALIFAX trenches. Moved up to assembly positions S. of LOGEAST WOOD at 11pm.

23-8-18. Battn attacked at 11am. Attack successful. Railway cutting in front of ACHIET-LE-GRAND taken. Casualties – Captain S.W. [Saxon Weston] MOORE & 2/Lt F. SMITH [Frederick John SMITH, 5th Bedfordshire regiment attached to the 1st Hertfordshire] killed 7 Officers wounded. O. Ranks 26 killed 140 wounded.

24-8-18. Battn moved to position SE of BIHUCOURT.

25-8-18 to 31-8-18. Battn in Divisional Reserve in shelters SE of BIHUCOURT.

[Comment; Officers also killed – Lt George ABBOTT and Ronald Henry Pruess ARNHOLTZ on the 23rd August and 2/Lt Laurence REEVES died from his wounds on the 25th]


William John Harrison……………..Aged 20


Up to 18 potential matches on the CWGC database


No match on Norlink


The 1901 Census has a 5 year old William John living at The Post Office, Strumpshaw. This was the household of his parents, William, (aged 34 and Sub Postmaster, Grocer and Pork Butcher) and Mina, (aged 31 and from Blofield). Their other children are Alfred James, (aged 4), Eleanor Maria, (aged 11), Gladys May, (aged 9), Grace Maud, (aged 8), Mary Elizabeth, (aged 1), and Stella Louise, (aged 2).


Arthur Robert Howes………………..Aged 19



Rank: Private Regiment Royal Warwickshire Regiment Unit Text: "B" Coy. 1st/7th Bn. Age: 19 Date of Death: 08/10/1917 Service No: 29255

Additional information: Son of Robert William and Clara Howes, of Strumpshaw, Norwich.

Dead Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 23 to 28 and 163A. Memorial: TYNE COT MEMORIAL


No match on Norlink


The 1901 Census has the 2 year old Arthur Howes living at Blofied Road, Lingwood. This is the household of his widowed grandfather Samuel Hinds, (aged 55 and a farmer). Living with them are Arthur parents, Roberts Howes, (age 32 and a Traction Engine Driver from Beighton) and Clara, (aged 28 and from Lingwood). Arthur’s siblings are Esther, (aged 1, born Moulton), and Samuel, (aged 5 and born Moulton).


Sunday 7th October 1917 - Day 63 Third Ypres (Passchendaele)


Rainfall 10.4mm




49th Div


Patrols raided in Celtic Wood


48th Div


143 Bde


An attack on Burns House and Vacher Farm failed.


(7th Royal Warwicks were part of the 143rd Brigade)


Robert George Hylton………………..Aged 33



Rank: Private Regiment/Service: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 2nd Bn.

Date of Death: 31/03/1916 Service No: 19095

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 10. Memorial: BASRA MEMORIAL


No match on Norlink


The 1901 Cenus has the 18 year old Robert, born Strumpshaw but now living at Postwick Lane, Brundall and employed as an Agricultural Labourer. This is the household of his parents, George, (aged 58, also from Strumpshaw and an Agricultural Labourer) and Sophia, (aged 60 and from Strumpshaw).


The Brigade arrives at Kut

On 5 December 1915, The Brigade arrives at Kut. The Turks are reinforced in great numbers and surround the town. They take positions on the other side of the river and cut the garrison off from help from outside.


The Siege of Kut

During the siege of Kut which lasted for 5 months aircraft were first used to try and drop supplies to the garrison. The aircraft could not carry enough supplies some were shot down and the attempt ended in failure. The Turks used aircraft more successfully in bombing the town, many troops having been wounded were then killed in hospital by an air raid. Several attempts were made to break out across the river on floating bridges, but as the river was in flood at this time of the year the attempts failed. Radio contact with the outside world was kept up until the end.

Towards the end of the siege the daily ration for British troops was reduced to ten ounces of bread and one pound of horse or mule flesh. Indian troops who refused to eat flesh were dying of scurvy at the rate of 10 to 20 a day. In all 1746 people died during the siege from wounds or disease.


Robert Killington……………………..Aged 35



Rank: Serjeant Regiment/Service: Army Service Corps Secondary Unit Text: attd. 7th Mounted Bde.H.Q.

Age: 36 Date of Death: 24/06/1917 Service No: MT/16956

Additional information: Son of Rosa Killington, of Lingwood, Norwich; husband of Gertrude Louisa Killington, of 61, Queensmill Rd., Fulham Palace Rd., London.

Grave/Memorial Reference: III. B. 4. Cemetery: LAHANA MILITARY CEMETE


No match on Norlink


Lahana Military Cemetery lies 1 kilometre west of the village of Lachanas on the old Thessaloniki-Seres road, about 56 kilometres north-east of Thessaloniki, Greece.The cemetery was begun in July 1916 for burials from the 27th Casualty Clearing Station, to which sick and wounded men were brought from the Struma front. The cemetery was also used from June to August 1917 by the 18th Stationary Hospital.


After the Armistice, 41 of the graves in Plots II and III were brought in from the two front line cemeteries at Paprat (about 12 km north-west of Lahana) and from other small burial grounds.


The 1901 Census has a Robert Killington who is a Driver in the Army Service Corps. Robert is aged 18 and from St Helens, Lancashire. Presumably his unit were on manoeuvres, as they are prosaically listed as being “South of the Canal”


Ernest Rose…………………………Aged 19


No obvious match on the CWGC database


There is a 3 year old Ernest Rose on the 1901 census, born Strumpshaw but now living at Church Street, Blofield. This is the household of his parents, William I, (aged 26 and a General Farm Labourer from Hassingham), and Jessie, (aged 24 and from Strumpshaw). Living with them are daughter Eleanor E, (aged 2 and born Brundall) and Williams widowed mother, Eleanor, (aged 66 and from Poringland, now living on Parish Poor Relief).


William Thompson…………………..Aged 32



Rank: Private Regiment/Service: Essex Regiment Unit Text: 1st Bn.

Age: 32 Date of Death: 14/04/1917 Service No: 41590

Additional information: Son of George and Elizabeth Thompson, of The Loake, Strumpshaw, Norwich.

Grave/Memorial Reference: Bay 7. Memorial: ARRAS MEMORIAL


No match on Norlink


The 1901 Census has the 15 year old William living two doors down from The Rectory at Strumpshaw, and four doors from the “Shoulder of Mutton” Public House. Strumpshaw is his birth village, and he is employed as a General Agricultural Labourer. This is the household of his parents, George, (aged 49 and a General Agricultural Labourer), and Elizabeth, (aged 52). Their other children are:


Ernest………………..aged under 1

George Robert…..aged 18 and a General Agricultural Labourer

Henry…………………aged 22 and a General Agricultural Labourer

Louisa………………..aged 10

Mary…………………..aged 13

Robert………………..aged under 1

Ruth Leah…………..aged 5


Thu., Apr 12, 1917

The Bn. marched from billets at FOSSEUX to ARRAS (abt 10 miles) and on arrival was at once ordered to proceed with the remainder of the 88th Bde to relieve the 37th Bde near MONCHY-LE-PREUX. The Bn arrived at ARRAS at 3pm and left to carry out the relief 4 miles off at 6.30pm. Owing to intense congestion on the road and other delays the relief was not completed until 3am on 13th.

Prior to leaving ARRAS orders had been issued for an attack on the German line in company with the 1st NFLD to be made on the 13th at an hour to be notified later.

The attack was to be made from an Assembly trench which was to be dug on the night of the 12/13 by 2nd Hants, 4th Worcs were in support to the attack.

Owing to the late hour at which the Brigade relief was completed & consequent impossibility of making adequate preparation for the attack the operation was postponed.

At daylight therefore on the 13th the Brigade was situated as shown in the attached map.

At 11am orders were received to make the attack at 2pm. These orders also were cancelled a few minutes before Zero.

During the night 13/14 the 2nd Hants dug the required assembly trench and operation orders were issued to the Bn. by Lt. Col. Halaham. App. B.

At 5.30am on 14th the barrage fell and the battalion left the trench & carried out the assault.

In spite of a certain weakness of the barrage the objective was gained and by 6.30am all companies had reported that they were busy digging in.

In the mean time "X" Coy detailed to form a flank guard to the thence attacking Coys had at once come in contact with the enemy.

Therefore acting under Capt. Foster's orders No. 5 Platoon got into shell holes at about 0 1b 8.1 and opened fire. No. 8 Platoon being checked by machine gun fire from ARROW COPSE No 7 was directed to outflank this copse with the result that No 8 could again get forward , capturing the 2 machine guns & driving the enemy out of the copse. The small wood at O 2a 7.5 was also in hostile occupation but was cleared by Lewis Guns & Rifle Grenades. The Company then moved forward to the N. end of the copses where all platoons came under fire from a line of hidden machine guns. The company now began to form the chain of strong points as detailed in operation orders.

From this point no further definitive news could be gathered as to the fate of this company. A few men eventually rejoined the battalion & from their statements it is certain that all Platoons their proper positions where they were at once attacked by very superior German forces & were finally overwhelmed in these positions at a time between 6.30 and 7.30 am.

The main attack by the remaining 3 Coys having reached their objective by 6.30 am started to dig in and reports were sent back to Bn. Hqrs that large forces of the enemy could be seen in the BOIS du SART & the BOIS des AUBE PINES and that all covering parties were sent forward were at once coming under heavy machine gun & rifle fire.

It became apparent rapidly to the Coy commanders that an immediate counter attack was being prepared and this also was reported to Bn. Hqrs. These reports were confirmed by two Coy commanders in person returning wounded from the main attack. [Capt Tomlinson Capt Caroline]

Steps had already been taken to get the Artillery on to the points where the enemy was reported to be massing but owing to the destruction of the wires by shell fire it was an hour before the guns opened fire.

By 7.30am the counter attack had fully developed in all its strength of at least 9 battalions. The weight of the attack seams to have come from the N. East & thus fell on "X" Coy. This Coy in spite of a stout resistance was gradually overwhelmed. Vide app. C.

From 7.30 onwards no reports, messages or wounded men arrived at Bn Hqrs or the Aid Post it is therefore apparent that "X" Coy having been overrun the hostile forces got between MONCHY & the attacking Companies of the Essex & NLFD. No men have returned from these Companies.

As soon as it became clear that MONCHY itself was being attacked patrols were put out from Hqr party to hold street barricades in MONCHY. No German succeeded in entering MONCHY. It must be remembered that during all this time the town was under an intense enemy barrage thus rendering it almost impossible to reinforce or support the two Battalions & making the work of the respective Hqrs parties extremely arduous.

Except for a certain amount of support from the 4th Worcester & 2dn Hants they fought on alone & these two battalions broke up a German attack designed not to drive them back but to retake MONCHY itself.

Appendix C. contains a copy of the Special Order issued by the G.O.C. 88th Bde.

Of the Officers who went into action the following is killed : 2/Lt. L. Cousins.

The following are wounded :- Capts R.E.G. Caroline, J. Tomlinson, Lieuts ?.W.J. Taylor

R. Eastwood. 2/Lt's H. Ockendon, S. ?. Andrew, F.W. Barker.

The following are missing :- Capt H.J.B. Foster, Lt C.R. Brown, 2/Lts A.L. Piper, S.N.R. Eyre, C.H. Feline H.R. Newth, P.W. Coombs, L.F. Portway; G.W. Turk.

Total casualties 17 officers & 644 OR. out of a strength of 31 officers & 892 O.R.


Sun., Apr 15, 1917

The remnants of the Battalion were now withdrawn & went to billets in ARRAS.


This horrendous battle cost the 1st Battalion a vast number of casualties, 17 officers and 644 other ranks were either killed, wounded or went missing. Later it was established that 203 soldiers were made prisoners of war, most of them were wounded and 16 of them died in captivity in Germany.


Stephen Frederick Tunmore………………Aged 23



Rank: Private Regiment/Service: East Surrey Regiment Unit Text: 8th Bn.

Age: 23 Date of Death: 03/05/1917 Service No: 5120

Additional information: Son of Stephen and Sarah A. Tunmore, of Strumpshaw, Norfolk. Grave/Memorial Reference: Bay 6. Memorial: ARRAS MEMORIAL


No match on Norlink


The 1901 Census lists a 7 year old “Frederick” Tunmore, living at Workhouse Road, Lingwood. This is the household of his parents Stephen, (aged 39 and a Engine Driver Stationary, from Norwich), and Sarah, (aged 31 and from Strumpshaw) Their other children are Laura, (aged 10) and William (aged 4).


William would also lose his life in the war - see next entry.


Stephen was born the 22nd February 1894


The Division of which the 8th Surreys were part was engaged in the very costly Third Battle of the Scarpe on this day.


William Tunmore……………………Aged 20



Rank: Private Regiment/Service: East Surrey Regiment Unit Text: 8th Bn.

Age: 20 Date of Death: 10/08/1917 Service No: 5100

Additional information: Son of Stephen and Sarah A. Tunmore, of Strumpshaw, Norwich.

Grave/Memorial Reference: VIII. E. 6. Cemetery: HOOGE CRATER CEMETERY


No match on Norlink


The 1901 Census lists a 4 year old William Tunmore, living at Workhouse Road, Lingwood. This is the household of his parents Stephen, (aged 39 and a Engine Driver Stationary, from Norwich), and Sarah, (aged 31 and from Strumpshaw) Their other children are Laura, (aged 10) and Frederick (aged 7).


Frederick would also lose his life in the war - see previous entry.


William was born 30th September 1896


"On 1st August the 8th Battalion East Surreys assembled in the New Dickbusch area. The afternoon of the previous day had seen the start of four days incessant rain which rendereed impossible any further offensive until a period of fine weather might allow the waterlooged soil to recover. Under these conditions the men were crowded into a few tents and shelters at New Dickbusch and had a very uncomfortable time. At midnight on the 3rd August their relief by the 7th Battalion was started but, because of the flooding, this entailed a long and tiring march by road and it was 10am before it was completed. Two companies were placed in Jam Trench, the old German front line and the remaining two companies in Crab Crawl Tunnel which was in a very bad state with six inches of water in it. The Germans maintained a very heavy barrage over the next few days. The 7th Bn Queens launched an attack on Inverness Copse, which had been postponed owing to heavy rain, at 4.35am on 10th August supported by 8th East Surreys. Casualties were heavy from very heavy shell fire and one officer and thirty eight other ranks were killed. One of those was 5100 Private William TUNMORE, aged 20 years."


He and his colleagues are buried at Hooge Cemetery.


John Lambert Ward……………….Aged 25


No obvious match on the CWGC database for J.L. J or L Ward


No match on Norlink


The most likely match on the 1901 Census is a 10 year old John L Ward living at Blofield Road, Lingwood, the village of his birth. This is the household of his parents, Lambert W, (age 48 and an Ordinary Farm Labourer from Lingwood), and Frances, (aged 47 and from the same village). Their other children are Arthur W, (aged 12), Edith L. (aged 8), George R, (aged 17 and also a Farm Labourer), and Russell J, (aged 5).


Robert Wilson……………………Aged 41


Most Likely match


Rank: Private Regiment/Service: Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 1st Bn.

Age: 40 Date of Death: 29/10/1914 Service No: 5173

Additional information: Son of the late John and Hannah Wilson.

Grave/Memorial Reference: Panel 8. Memorial: LE TOURET MEMORIAL


No match on Norlink


No obvious match on the 1901 Census, but given his age and date of death, it is likely that Robert was a professional soldier in Britains Pre-War army, and could well have been serving overseas in 1901.


On the 1891 Census there is a 17 year old Robert living at 6, The Alley, Blofield and employed as a Bricklayers Labourer. This was the household of his widowed Grandmother, Sarah Ann Wilson, a 66 year old Washerwoman and Domestic Servant. Sarah has another one of her grandchildren, a 21 year old George Carter who is also a Bricklayers Labourer, living with her. All were born at Blofield.


Battle of La Basse 10th October 1914 - 2nd November 1914.(Part of the Race to the Sea)


The German attack was renewed on 24 October along the entire Sixth Army front. A daylight attack failed to make any headway. It was followed by an attack at dusk, which did break into the British trenches at two places, but local counterattacks restored the situation.

A second night attack, on 26/27 October, caused more problems. Part of the British line was broken, and the village of Neuve Chapelle captured. This created a shallow salient in the British line. At this early period in the war the buildings of Neuve Chapelle still survived, making the village a dangerous strong point that threatened the British lines. A major counter attack was launched on 28 October, but failed to retake the village. On 29 October the village was reported to have been evacuated, but later in the day German troops used the ruins as cover for their last major attack of the battle.

After the failure of the attack on 29 October, the Germans moved much of their heavy artillery north towards Ypres, where it took part in the battle of Gheluvelt.


Athur Conan Doyle, in his “The British Campaign in France and Flanders 1914” tells us that starting from the 25th, the 1st Norfolks and 1st Devons were tasked with holding the salient of the village of Givenchy, and they defied all efforts to dislodge them.




George Arthur Ashley…………………….Aged 24



Rank: Driver Regiment/Service: Royal Engineers Unit Text: 251 Field Park Coy.

Age: 24 Date of Death: 02/09/1943 Service No: 2078641

Dead Grave/Memorial Reference: 5. F. 9. Cemetery: CHUNGKAI WAR CEMETERY


The notorious Burma-Siam railway, built by Commonwealth, Dutch and American prisoners of war, was a Japanese project driven by the need for improved communications to support the large Japanese army in Burma. During its construction, approximately 13,000 prisoners of war died and were buried along the railway. An estimated 80,000 to 100,000 civilians also died in the course of the project, chiefly forced labour brought from Malaya and the Dutch East Indies or conscripted in Siam (Thailand) and Burma (Myanmar). Two labour forces, one based in Siam and the other in Burma, worked from opposite ends of the line towards the centre. The Japanese aimed at completing the railway in 14 months and work began in October 1942. The line, 424 kilometres long, was completed by December 1943. The graves of those who died during the construction and maintenance of the Burma-Siam railway (except for the Americans, whose remains were repatriated) were transferred from camp burial grounds and isolated sites along the railway into three cemeteries at Chungkai and Kanchanaburi in Thailand and Thanbyuzayat in Myanmar. Chungkai was one of the base camps on the railway and contained a hospital and church built by Allied prisoners of war. The war cemetery is the original burial ground started by the prisoners themselves, and the burials are mostly of men who died at the hospital.


Horace George Forder………………Aged 38



Rank: Gunner

Regiment: Royal Artillery Unit Text: 65 (The Norfolk Yeomanry) Anti-Tank Regt

Age: 38 Date of Death: 22/02/1943 Service No: 1122622

Additional information: Son of Horace George and Sarah Harriet Forder; husband of Olive Annie Forder, of Strumpshaw, Norfolk.

Casualty Type: Commonwealth War Dead Grave/Memorial Reference: III. C. 22. Cemetery: SFAX WAR CEMETERY


In May 1943, the war in North Africa came to an end in Tunisia with the defeat of the Axis powers by a combined Allied force. In the south, the Axis forces defeated in Egypt at El Alamein withdrew into Tunisia along the coast through Libya, pursued by the Allied Eighth Army. Most of those buried in Sfax War Cemetery died in attacks on successive Axis positions at Medenine, the Marith Line and Wadi Akarit, in March and April 1943.


Harold William High……………………Aged 27



Rank: Private Regiment: Bedfordshire and Hertfordshire Regiment Unit Text: 5th Bn. Age: 27 Date of Death: 21/09/1944 Service No: 5951830

Additional information: Son of Beatrice Minnie High, of Strumpshaw, Norfolk.

Grave/Memorial Reference: Column 63. Memorial: SINGAPORE MEMORIAL


The 5th Bedfords and Herts were another unit from the ill-fated 18th Division, arriving piecemeal late in the Malayan campaign and finally being surrendered on mass with the Fall of Singapore. See the note under George Ashley for their subsequent treatment.


Alfred Waterton………………………….Aged 29



Rank: Private Regiment/Service: Royal Norfolk Regiment Unit Text: 2nd Bn.

Age: 29 Date of Death: 24/05/1940 Service No: 5770748

Additional information: Son of Albert and Ada Waterton, of Strumpshaw, Norfolk. Grave/Memorial Reference: Column 44. Memorial: DUNKIRK MEMORIAL


The retreat to Dunkirk


The period in which Alfred Waterton died (24th May 1940) was one in which the 2nd battalion, along with a number of other units, was sacrificed in order the for the British Expeditionary Force to retreat to the channel. Shortly afterwards, on the 27th came the surrender of the 2nd Battalion and the subsequent massacre at Le Paradis.


On the 24th the 2nd Battalion, along with what was left of 4th Brigade, took over the defense of a 21 mile stretch of the canal line running from the railway bridge south of Aire to La Basee. They arrived at Locon, but scouting patrols looking for accomodation and defensive positions came under fire from Germans who had already crossed the canal. Units advanced as night fell aiming to push the Germans back over the canal. Sleep deprived from days in combat, and with only one map between the entire HQ staff, troops became lost and dis-orientated.


(see page 281, Dunkirk by Hugh Sebag-Montefiore)


' The Trajectory of The World. '

"this is rock medicine, the talking tree, the singing water"


" grandmother " :


( quotes about Ayahuasca )


Ayahuasca & LSD:


Shamanism - Other Worlds - Ayahuasca Documentary 1:13:39:


LSD - The Beyond Within [Part 1 of 9]


Young woman on LSD :


US government LSD experiment drawing experiment:


Something Weird LSD Facts:


Image by the very talented Vivienne Flesher, illustrator, artist, photographer, children's book author:


Matching song in note in image.


&.... Of course, my all time favourite which matches well with this muse/pattern/research/archive post, & to end things with a wry smile, Naomi Watts - "I Heart Huckebees" :


I've been writing, writing, writing...... More soon...


"The Deleuzo- Guattarian reading of Artaud is great, yes, but I feel that this

focus on the body and the cruelty of organs ("what organ more cruel than the

heart, etc") can only be comprehended in a truly schizophrenic experience..


The idea that through cosmic cruelty one will reveal some hidden reality is too

surrealist, I think-- It might be too naive.


To learn to see gesticulations as hieroglyphs, to feel the condition of the body

in the way Artaud speaks, the lengths he goes to stress these, his schizophrenic

mythologies and his poetics-- These can most likely only be understood through


"I would like to write a book that would drive men mad"--... How, then, to

actually put this theater, with its language of cruelty, of gestures, where

speech takes on the speech of dreams---. How can anyone really pull this off?


Perhaps to be Artaudian is to realize that the Theatre of Cruelty is something

that always surpasses our attempts at realizing it...


What I say: You cannot expect anyone to apply Artaudian ideas in theater that

HAS NOT smelled burnt bomb, seen cruelty and felt body nausea: You have to see

noses and limbs floating in space, see human beings in their daily movements as

hieroglyphic imprints of a global nausea.


The precise language of gestures and movements, this can only be truly realized

through Artaudian principles by those who can comprehend the intensity of merely

walking across a room."


Yes- & the intensity of ideas- etc- infinitum & ......


drum roll please- L O V E.


I hear the pat pat pat of new patterns beckoning me back to my writing..

BIG hat tip to Kurt for this list and as he said at the bottom ........please share and repost EVERYWHERE you can.......




Reposting this comment:


(***not a comprehensive list)

1. "I will have the most transparent administration."

2. "I have shovel ready jobs."

3. "The IRS is not targeting anyone."

4. "If four Americans get killed…uh…. it is not optimal." (Benghazi)

5. "ObamaCare will be good for America."

6. "If you like your doctor, you can keep him, period."

7. "Premiums will be lowered by $2500"

8. If you like your health insurance, you can keep it, period.

9. "I did not say you could keep your health care." (Regardless that 29 recorded videos show I did)

10. "No one making less than $250,000 will see their taxes raised one dime."

11. "Benghazi was because of a youtube video."

12. "If I had a son…"

13. "I am not a dictator."

14. "I will put an end to the type of politics that “breeds division, conflict and cynicism".

15. "You didn't build that."

16. "I will restore trust in Government."

17. "The Cambridge police acted stupidly."

18. "I am not after your guns."

19. "The fact that we are here today to debate raising America's debt limit is a sign of leadership failure." (Senator BO of 2006)

20. "I have been practicing...I bowled a 129. It's like -- it was like Special Olympics."

21. "I think when you spread the wealth around, it's good for everybody."

22. "The Public Will Have 5 Days To Look At Every Bill That Lands On My Desk"

23. "It's not my red line it is the worlds red line."

24. "Whistleblowers will be protected."

25. "We got back every dime we used to rescue the banks, with interest."

26. "I will close Gitmo." (Guantanamo)

27. "The point I was making was not that Grandmother harbors any racial animosity. She doesn't, -- but she is a typical white person."

28. "I am not spying on American citizens."

30. Nelson Mandela funeral smart-phone "selfies"

31. Govnt shutdown is allll the GOP's fault

32. Still on vacation in Hawaii on the first day obamacare is supposed to begin

31. "ObamaCare will lower costs for everyone."

32. "More Americans will be insured under obamacare"

33. "Islam is the religion of peace and tolerance….Muslims are our friends" (then he bows to the muslim leaders)

34. “That’s the good thing about being President, I can do whatever I want,”

35. "my father served in WW2"

36. 2011 Arab spring FAIL

37. America's 2010 Summer of recovery FAIL

38. Hiring a known palestinian terrorist to work on Obamacare in Illinois. Didn't bother to check her on e-verify

39. “I promise 100% transparency in my administration.”

40. "Buying health care insurance will be like using Amazon."

41. “I will end Income Tax for seniors making less than $50K a year.”

42. "I will bring ALL of our troops home within ONE year."

43. “I’ll put the Health Care negotiations on CSPAN so everyone can see who is at the table!”

44. “I’ll have no lobbyists in my administration."

45. DOJ spying on the free press telephone calls

46. Blocking veterans from seeing their own WWII memorials during shutdown

47. Allowing illegals to protest on mall during the same govt shutdown

48. Shutting down white house (people's house)tours

49. Solyndra bankruptcy cost to taxpayer's

50. "Obamacare will not be used to fund abortions."

51. Eric Holder -- tooooo much to list with this liar-incompetent

52. Millions losing health care coverage

53. RECORD welfare rolls

54. RECORD hollywood parties on the taxpayer's dime

55. RECORD campaign tours on the taxpayer's dime

56. RECORD exorbitant vacations on the taxpayer's dime

57. RECORD number of golf games of any president, on taxpayer's dime

58. RECORD secret service agents compared to ANY other president, on the taxpayer's dime

59. Unconstitutional obama recess appointment

60. Taking all credit for SEAL Team 6 success

61. Forcing businesses to violate their abortion religious beliefs with obamacare

62. Obamacare website no-bid contract website-cronyism that cost $634M to build (and the website NEVER worked), cost 70% of obamacare signups from people who LOST their insurance BECAUSE OF obamacare in the first place!!

82. In Maryland: Obama celebrates 60,000 obamacare signups…. BUT 73,000 lost insurance BECAUSE OF Obamacare!!

83. Obama did NOTHING to prevent some 150,000 people being killed in Syria, and he and the LIBERALS are silent on the matter.

84. On April 6th, 2014 obama gave a speech on the 20th anniversary of the genocide in Rwanda lecturing about “the world’s failure to respond more quickly” and that “we always have a choice . . . we must never be indifferent.”

85. Obama demands "equality" but only pays women 88 percent of what it pays men

86. "We're focused like lasers on job creation!!!"

87. "Jobs are our number one priority!!!!"

88. 6 million full time US workers sustain 149 million "benefit takers" in the USA under the "obama recovery."

89. "Republicans still can’t bring themselves to admit that the Affordable Care Act is working."

90. "If Republicans want to spend all their time talking about repealing a law that’s working, that’s their business."

91. 169th round of golf on 4/19/14 while Putin re-assembles the USSR and jews are being ordered to report in the Ukraine.

92. Syria uses chemical weapons crossing obama's "red line" and Obama is SILENT on the matter.

93. 04/21/2014 Obama delays the keystone pipeline for the 45th time.

94. China has become the #1 economy with "ObamaNomics."

95. Iran WILL have a nuclear bomb under Obama.

96. there are 92 million unemployed (may 2014) THAT IS 51% UNEMPLOYMENT RATE, including retirees

97. in 2013, under the direction of Barack Obama, The Immigration and Customs Enforcement custody 36,000 illegal immigrants who had been convicted of murder, sexual assault, kidnapping, and aggravated assault, and drunk or drugged driving.

98. incompetence at the Veterans Affairs Administration. Our veterans died…..obama hires a "coverup" specialist Rob Nabors to assist in the White House’s reputation for deception.

99. Almost every photo of Obama at the White house shows obama with his feet on the historically significant antique furniture….no respect for its historical significance

100. >40 veteran patients die after being placed on a hidden waiting list that could last for up to a year, while officials at the hospital shredded documents and faked evidence to make it seem as if waiting times were under control.

101. New Horizons in Presidential Dignity: President Obama does the "Shake Shack Shimmy" during his visit to the sandwich joint in Washington Friday May 17th 2014. U6 unemployment rate: 17.8%

102. May 17th 2014: Greater than Fifty million working-age Americans aren’t working, according to the labor department, and Obama pushes immigration plan.


104. King Barry's "executive actions"


I WROTE this list, and encourage YOU to share it with anyone who can read and vote.

-- Yale U :)









1.) Selma Got Me Born - LIAR, your parents felt safe enough to have you in 1961 - Selma had no effect on your birth, as Selma was in 1965.


2.) Father Was A Goat Herder - LIAR, he was a privileged, well educated youth, who went on to work with the Kenyan Government.


3.) Father Was A Proud Freedom Fighter - LIAR, he was part of one of the most corrupt and violent governments Kenya has ever had


4.) My Family Has Strong Ties To African Freedom - LIAR, your cousin Raila Odinga has created mass violence in attempting to overturn a legitimate election in 2007, in Kenya. It is the first widespread violence in decades.


5.) My Grandmother Has Always Been A Christian - LIAR, she does her daily Salat prayers at 5am according to her own interviews. Not to mention, Christianity wouldn’t allow her to have been one of 14 wives to 1 man.


6.) My Name is African Swahili - LIAR, your name is Arabic and ‘Baraka’ (from which Barack came) means ‘blessed’ in that language. Hussein is also Arabic and so is Obama.


7.) I Never Practiced Islam - LIAR, you practiced it daily at school, where you were registered as a Muslim and kept that faith for 31 years,until your wife made you change, so you could run for office.


8.) My School In Indonesia Was Christian - LIAR, you were registered as Muslim there and got in trouble in Koranic Studies for making faces (check your own book).


9.) I Was Fluent In Indonesian - LIAR, not one teacher says you could speak the language.


10.) Because I Lived In Indonesia, I Have More Foreign Experience - LIAR, you were there from the ages of 6 to 10, and couldn’t even speak the language. What did you learn, how to study the Koran and watch cartoons.


11.) I Am Stronger On Foreign Affairs - LIAR, except for Africa (surprise) and the Middle East (bigger surprise), you have never been anywhere else on the planet and thus have NO experience with our closest allies.


12.) I Blame My Early Drug Use On Ethnic Confusion - LIAR, you were quite content in high school to be Barry Obama, no mention of Kenya and no mention of struggle to identify - your classmates said you were just fine.


13.)An Ebony Article Moved Me To Run For Office - LIAR, Ebony has yet to find the article you mention in your book. It doesn’t, and never did, exist.


14.) A Life Magazine Article Changed My Outlook On Life - LIAR, Life has yet to find the article you mention in your book. It doesn’t, and never did, exist.


15.) I Won’t Run On A National Ticket In ‘08 - LIAR, here you are, despite saying, live on TV, that you would not have enough experience by then, and you are all about having experience first.


16.) Present Votes Are Common In Illinois - LIAR, they are common for YOU, but not many others have 130 NO VOTES.


17.) Oops, I Misvoted - LIAR, only when caught by church groups and democrats, did you beg to change your misvote.


18.) I Was A Professor Of Law - LIAR, you were a senior lecturer ON LEAVE.


19.) I Was A Constitutional Lawyer - LIAR, you were a senior lecturer ON LEAVE.


20.) Without Me, There Would Be No Ethics Bill - LIAR, you didn’t write it,introduce it, change it, or create it.


21.) The Ethics Bill Was Hard To Pass - LIAR, it took just 14 days from start to finish.


22.) I Wrote A Tough Nuclear Bill - LIAR, your bill was rejected by your own party for its pandering and lack of all regulation - mainly because of your Nuclear Donor, Exelon, from which David Axelrod came.


23.) I Have Released My State Records - LIAR, as of March, 2008, state bills you sponsored or voted for have yet to be released, exposing all the special interests pork hidden within.


24.) I Took On The Asbestos Altgeld Gardens Mess - LIAR, you were part of a large group of people who remedied Altgeld Gardens. You failed to mention anyone else but yourself, in your books.


25.) My Economics Bill Will Help America - LIAR, your 111 economic policies were just combined into a proposal which lost 99-0, and even YOU voted against your own bill.


26.) I Have Been A Bold Leader In Illinois - LIAR, even your own supporters claim to have not seen BOLD action on your part.


27.) I Passed 26 Of My Own Bills In One Year - LIAR, they were not YOUR bills, but rather handed to you, after their creation by a fellow Senator, to assist you in a future bid for higher office.


28.) No One Contacted Canada About NAFTA - LIAR, the Candian Government issued the names and a memo of the conversation your campaign had with them.


29.) I Am Tough On Terrorism - LIAR, you missed the Iran Resolution vote on terrorism and your good friend Ali Abunimah supports the destruction of Israel.


30.) I Am Not Acting As President Yet - LIAR, after the NAFTA Memo, a dead terrorist in the FARC, in Colombia, was found with a letter stating how you and he were working together on getting FARC recognized officially.


31.) I Didn’t Run Ads In Florida - LIAR, you allowed national ads to run 8-12 times per day for two weeks - and you still lost.


32.) I Won Michigan - LIAR, no you didn’t.


33.) I won Nevada - LIAR, no you did not.


34.) I Want All Votes To Count - LIAR, you said let the delegates decide.


35.) I Want Americans To Decide - LIAR, you prefer caucuses that limit the vote, confuse the voters, force a public vote, and only operate during small windows of time.


36.) I passed 900 Bills in the State Senate - LIAR, you passed 26, most of which you didn’t write yourself.


37.) My Campaign Was Extorted By A Friend - LIAR, that friend is threatening to sue if you do not stop saying this. Obama has stopped saying this.


38.) I Believe In Fairness, Not Tactics - LIAR, you used tactics to eliminate Alice Palmer from running against you.


39.) I Don’t Take PAC Money - LIAR, you take loads of it.


40.) I don’t Have Lobbysists - LIAR, you have over 47 lobbyists, and counting.


41.) My Campaign Had Nothing To Do With The 1984 Ad - LIAR, your own campaign worker made the ad on his Apple in one afternoon.


42.) My Campaign Never Took Over MySpace - LIAR, Tom, who started MySpace issued a warning about this advertising to MySpace clients.


43.) I Inspire People With My Words - LIAR, you inspire people with other people’s words.


44.) I Have Passed Bills In The U.S. Senate - LIAR, you have passed A BILL in the U.S. Senate - for Africa, which shows YOUR priorities.


45.) I Have Always Been Against Iraq - LIAR, you weren’t in office to vote against it AND you have voted to fund it every single time, unlike Kucinich, who seems to be out gutting you Obama. You also seem to be stepping back from your departure date - AGAIN.


46.) I Have Always Supported Universal Health Care - LIAR, your plan leaves us all to pay the 15,000,000 who don’t have to buy it.


47.) I Only Found Out About My Investment Conflicts Via Mail - LIAR, both companies you site as having sent you letters about this conflict have no record of any such letter ever being created or sent.


48.) I Am As Patriotic As Anyone - LIAR, you won’t wear a flag pin and you don’t put your hand over your heart during the Anthem.


49.) My Wife Didn’t Mean What She Said About Pride In Country - LIAR, your wife’s words follow lock-step in the vein of Wright and Farrahkan, in relation to their contempt and hatred of America.


50.) Wal-Mart Is A Company I Wouldn’t Support - LIAR, your wife has received nearly a quater of a million dollars through Treehouse, which is connected to Wal-Mart.


51.) Treehouse Is A Small Company - LIAR, the CEO of Treehouse last year, made more than the CEO of Wal-Mart, according to public records.


52.) University Of Chicago Hospital Pay Is Fair - LIAR, your wife’s pay raise was nearly 150% her already bloated rate and the hospital is a Non-Profit Hospital, which made $100,000,000 in the last 3 years. They overcharge blacks VS whites for services, and overcharge everyone in general by 538%!


53.)I Barely Know Rezko - Only 5 Billed Hours - LIAR, you have known him for 17 years, and decided to do a real estate deal with him during a time when he was proven to be under investigation. Despite this, you divided your property and had them take off $300K before the mortgage problems started. Then Rezko’s wife buys the lot beside it that you can’t afford, saving you $625,000.


54.) My Donations Have Been Checked Thoroughly - LIAR, you only gave back Hsu ($72K) and Rezko (first $66K, then when caught lying $86K, then when caught lying again $150K and now caught lying YET AGAIN OBAMA, it’s $250k) their money when publically called on their involvement in your campaigns.


55.) My Church Is Like Any Other Christian Church - LIAR, your church is so extreme, the pastor who married you, Rev. Wright, just got done blaming the US for 9/11 and named Louis Farrahkan their person of the year.


56.) I Disagree With My Church All The Time - LIAR, you still have yet to repudiate Wright, who married you and your wife, and you still donate large sums of money to assist the church in furthering its message - hatred and revenge. You donated in 2006 alone, $22,500 to the church that you so terribly disagree with. That is nearly $500 PER WEEK - that sure is disagreement, Senator Obama.


57.) I Have Clean Connections Despite Rezko - LIAR, you are not only connected to Exelon and Rezko, you are also connected to Hillary PAC supporter Mr. Hsu, AND an Iraqi Billionaire of ill repute, Nadhmi Auchi, who ripped off people in the Food For Oil, Iraqi deal. Seems Mr. Auchi may have helped Obama buy his million dollar property long before Obama had millions of dollars. Wonder what favors Mr. Auchi expects, when Obama leaves Iraq free to be taken over by special interests such as him.


58.) I never heard sermons like Rev. Wright’s, that have been in videos all day, You Tube - LIAR! 3 days later during your Mea Culpa BS speech you said “Did I hear controversial statements while I sat in that church? Yes I did.”


59.) The Passport Invasion is a conspiracy to find dirt on me! - LIAR. Your own Campaign Foreign Policy Advisor is the CEO of the company that looked into your records. PS - You had them look into yours to hide the fact you looked into Clinton’s and McCain’s more than a year before!


60.) Rev. Meeks has nothing to do with my campaigning - LIAR. Rev. Meeks appeared in ads for your Senate Campaign, donated to you, and helped raise money, then AND NOW. PS - He also seems to despise America.


61.) My wife didn’t mean America is ignorant, she was just using a phrase - LIAR. Again, MicHELLe’s comments perfectly sync with Wright’s, Meeks’, and Farrakhans, both in language, anger, and direction.


62.) I am very Anti-Terror - LIAR. [03/30/2008] One of your good pals is long time radical and terrorist William Ayers, with whom you have been seen in the last 12 months and who has helped the now jailed khalidi, Professor at Columbia who invited Ahmadinejad to the University, to raise money for Palestinian terrorism attacks against Israel. PS - Your church published a pro Hamas Manifesto - guess you weren’t there on THAT Sunday either? How lucky for you.


63.) I have the best plan to cure the Mortgage Crisis - LIAR. [03/30/2008] You and your campaign buddy Penny SubPrime Bank Collapse Prizker have had your little fingers full of subprime cash - Obama has taken $1,180,103 from the top issuers of subprime loans: Obama received $266,907 from Lehman, $5395 from GMAC, $150,850 from Credit Suisse First Boston, $11,250 from Countrywide, $9052 from Washington Mutual, $161,850 from Citigroup, $4600 from CBASS, $170,050 from Morgan Stanley, $1150 from Centex, and last but certainly NOT LEAST - Obama received $351,900 from Goldman Sachs. I am sure that cash all came from folks who knew the subprime loan they had was a dream, eh?


64) I played greater role in crafting liberal stands on gun control, the death penalty and abortion - LIAR - [03/31/2008] It was found that Obama — the day after sitting for the interview — filed an amended version of the questionnaire, which appears to contain Obama’s own handwritten notes added to one answer. Read Obama had greater role on liberal survey


65) I did NOT play the race card: - LIAR - [03/31/2008] Obama was the first to play the race card. According to Phialdelphia Inquirer, Quietly, the storm over the hateful views expressed by Sen. Barack Obama’s pastor, the Rev. Jeremiah Wright, has blown away the most insidious myth of the Democratic primary campaign. Obama and his surrogates have charged that Sen. Hillary Rodham Clinton has deliberately and cleverly played the race card in order to label Obama the “black” candidate. Read more here


66) I did not take money from oil companies: - LIAR - [03/31/2008]


THE FACTS: True enough, Obama does not take money from oil companies. No candidate does. It is illegal for corporations to give money to politicians. Corporations, however, do have political action committees that collect voluntary donations from employees and then donate them to candidates. Obama doesn’t take money from PACs. He also doesn’t take money from lobbyists.


But he does accept money from executives and other employees of oil companies and two of his fundraisers are oil company executives. As of Feb. 29, Obama’s presidential campaign had received nearly $214,000 from oil and gas industry employees and their families, according to an analysis by the nonpartisan Center for Responsive Politics. Clinton had received nearly $307,000 from industry workers and their families and Republican Sen. John McCain, the likely GOP presidential nominee, received nearly $394,000, according to the center’s totals.


Two of Obama’s fundraisers are Robert Cavnar, the chairman and chief executive of Houston-based Mission Resources Corp., and George Kaiser, the president and CEO of Tulsa-based Kaiser-Francis Oil Co. Source: Associated press via Yahoo News


67) “I don’t think my church is actually particularly controversial,” Obama said at a community meeting in Nelsonville, Ohio, earlier this month. - LIAR - But yesterday, he told a different story. “Did I ever hear him make remarks that could be considered controversial while I sat in church? Yes,” he said in his speech yesterday in Philadelphia.


68) Look at my education record in Illinois - LIAR - In reality, Obama never really championed the local councils. He supported them behind the scenes and only eventually came out publicly on their behalf. When he did weigh in, he came down on the wrong side of the debate—against protecting principals from unwarranted dismissals and in favor of keeping councils independent, no matter what. In the end, the resolution of the conflict between the two sides didn’t alleviate anyone’s concerns. Instead, it prolonged a turf battle that seems to have dragged down academic progress in the years since. Read more here


Michael Edward Palin, CBE, FRGS (pronounced /ˈpeɪlɨn/; born 5 May 1943) is an English comedian, actor, writer and television presenter best known for being one of the members of the comedy group Monty Python and for his travel documentaries. Palin wrote most of his comedic material with Terry Jones. Before Monty Python, they had worked on other shows such as the Ken Dodd Show, The Frost Report and Do Not Adjust Your Set. Palin appeared in some of the most famous Python sketches, including "Argument Clinic", "Dead Parrot", "The Lumberjack Song", "The Spanish Inquisition", and "The Fish-Slapping Dance".


Palin continued to work with Jones after Python, co-writing Ripping Yarns. He has also appeared in several films directed by fellow Python Terry Gilliam and made notable appearances in other films such as A Fish Called Wanda, for which he won the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role.[1] In a 2005 poll to find The Comedians' Comedian, he was voted the 30th favourite by fellow comedians and comedy insiders.[2]


After Python, he began a new career as a travel writer and travel documentarian. His journeys have taken him across the world, including the North and South Poles, the Sahara Desert, the Himalayas, Eastern Europe and, most recently, Brazil. In 2000 Palin was honoured as a Commander of the Order of the British Empire (CBE) for his services to television.[3] From 2009 to 2012 Palin was the president of the Royal Geographical Society.[4] On 12 May 2013, Palin was made a BAFTA fellow, the highest honor that is conferred by the organization.[5]



[hide] 1 Early life and career

2 Monty Python

3 Other work

4 Television documentaries 4.1 Travel

4.2 Art and history


5 Activism

6 Recognition

7 Bibliography 7.1 Travel books

7.2 Autobiography (contributor)

7.3 Diaries

7.4 Fiction

7.5 Children's books

7.6 Plays


8 Selected filmography

9 Television

10 Awards 10.1 Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Films

10.2 Evening Standard British Film Awards

10.3 Writers' Guild of Great Britain

10.4 DVD Exclusive Awards

10.5 British Comedy Awards

10.6 BAFTA Awards


11 References

12 Further reading

13 External links


Early life and career[edit source]


Palin was born in Broomhill, Sheffield, West Riding of Yorkshire, the second child and only son of Mary Rachel Lockhart (née Ovey) and Edward Moreton Palin.[6][7] His father was a Shrewsbury School and Cambridge-educated engineer working for a steel firm.[8] His maternal grandfather, Lieutenant-Colonel Richard Lockhart Ovey, DSO, was High Sheriff of Oxfordshire in 1927.[9] He started his education at Birkdale Preparatory School, Sheffield, and later Shrewsbury School. His sister Angela was nine years older than he was. Despite the age gap the two had a close relationship until her suicide in 1987.[8][10] He has ancestral roots in Letterkenny, County Donegal.[11]


When he was five years old, Palin had his first acting experience at Birkdale playing Martha Cratchit in a school performance of A Christmas Carol. At the age of 10, Palin, still interested in acting, made a comedy monologue and read a Shakespeare play to his mother while playing all the parts.[12] After his school days in 1962 he went on to read modern history at Brasenose College, Oxford. With fellow student Robert Hewison he performed and wrote, for the first time, comedy material at a university Christmas party.[13] Terry Jones, also a student in Oxford, saw that performance and began writing together with Hewison and Palin.[12] In the same year Palin joined the Brightside and Carbrook Co-Operative Society Players and first gained fame when he won an acting award at a Co-Op drama festival.[14] He also performed and wrote in the Oxford Revue (called the Et ceteras) with Jones.[15]


In 1966 he married Helen Gibbins, whom he first met in 1959 on holiday in Southwold in Suffolk.[8] This meeting was later fictionalised in Palin's play East of Ipswich.[16] The couple have three children and a grandchild. His youngest child, Rachel (b. 1975) is a BBC TV director, whose work includes MasterChef: The Professionals, shown on BBC2 throughout October and November 2010.[17][18] While still a baby, his son William briefly appeared in Monty Python and the Holy Grail as "Sir Not-appearing-in-this-film". His nephew is the theatre designer Jeremy Herbert.[citation needed]


After finishing university in 1965 Palin became a presenter on a comedy pop show called Now! for the television contractor Television Wales and the West.[19] At the same time Palin was contacted by Jones, who had left university a year earlier, for assistance in writing a theatrical documentary about sex through the ages.[20] Although this project was eventually abandoned, it brought Palin and Jones together as a writing duo and led them to write comedy for various BBC programmes, such as The Ken Dodd Show, The Billy Cotton Bandshow, and The Illustrated Weekly Hudd.[21] They collaborated in writing lyrics for an album by Barry Booth called Diversions. They were also in the team of writers working for The Frost Report, whose other members included Frank Muir, Barry Cryer, Marty Feldman, Ronnie Barker, Ronnie Corbett, Dick Vosburgh and future Monty Python members Graham Chapman, John Cleese and Eric Idle. Although the members of Monty Python had already encountered each other over the years, The Frost Report was the first time all the British members of Monty Python (its sixth member, Terry Gilliam, was at that time an American citizen) worked together.[8] During the run of The Frost Report the Palin/Jones team contributed material to two shows starring John Bird: The Late Show and A series of Bird's. For A series of Bird's the Palin/Jones team had their first experience of writing narrative instead of the short sketches they were accustomed to conceiving.[22]


Following The Frost Report the Palin/Jones team worked both as actors and writers on the show Twice a Fortnight with Graeme Garden, Bill Oddie and Jonathan Lynn, and the successful children's comedy show Do Not Adjust Your Set with Idle and David Jason. The show also featured musical numbers by the Bonzo Dog Doo-Dah Band, including future Monty Python musical collaborator Neil Innes. The animations for Do Not Adjust Your Set were made by Terry Gilliam. Eager to work with Palin[23] sans Jones, Cleese later asked him to perform in How to Irritate People together with Chapman and Tim Brooke-Taylor. The Palin/Jones team were reunited for The Complete and Utter History of Britain.


During this period Cleese contacted Palin about doing the show that would ultimately become Monty Python's Flying Circus.[8] On the strength of their work on The Frost Report and other programmes, Cleese and Chapman had been offered a show by the BBC, but Cleese was reluctant to do a two-man show for various reasons, among them Chapman's reputedly difficult personality. At the same time the success of Do Not Adjust Your Set had led Palin, Jones, Idle and Gilliam to be offered their own series and, while it was still in production, Palin agreed to Cleese's proposal and brought along Idle, Jones and Gilliam. Thus the formation of the Monty Python troupe has been referred to as a result of Cleese's desire to work with Palin and the chance circumstances that brought the other four members into the fold.[24]


Monty Python[edit source]


Main article: Monty Python


In Monty Python, Palin played various roles, which ranged from manic enthusiasm (such as the lumberjack of the Lumberjack Song, or Herbert Anchovy, host of the game show "Blackmail") to unflappable calmness (such as the Dead Parrot vendor, Cheese Shop proprietor, or Postal Clerk). As a straight man he was often a foil to the rising ire of characters portrayed by John Cleese. He also played timid, socially inept characters such as Arthur Putey, the man who sits idly by as a marriage counsellor (Eric Idle) makes love to his wife (Carol Cleveland), and Mr. Anchovy, a chartered accountant who wants to become a lion tamer. He also appeared as the "It's" man at the beginning of most episodes.


Palin frequently co-wrote sketches with Terry Jones and also initiated the "Spanish Inquisition sketch", which included the catchphrase "Nobody expects the Spanish Inquisition!" He also composed songs with Jones including "The Lumberjack Song", "Every Sperm is Sacred" and "Spam". His solo musical compositions included "Decomposing Composers" and "Finland".[25]


Other work[edit source]


After the Monty Python television series ended in 1974, the Palin/Jones team worked on Ripping Yarns, an intermittent television comedy series broadcast over three years from 1976. They had earlier collaborated on the play Secrets from the BBC series Black and Blue in 1973. He starred as Dennis the Peasant in Terry Gilliam's 1977 film Jabberwocky. Palin also appeared in All You Need Is Cash (1978) as Eric Manchester (based on Derek Taylor), the press agent for the Rutles.


In 1980, Palin co-wrote Time Bandits with Terry Gilliam. He also acted in the film.


In 1982, Palin wrote and starred in The Missionary, co-starring Maggie Smith. In it, he plays the Reverend Charles Fortescue, who is recalled from Africa to aid prostitutes.


In 1984, he reunited with Terry Gilliam to appear in Brazil. He appeared in the comedy film A Fish Called Wanda, for which he won the BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role.[1] Cleese reunited the main cast almost a decade later to make Fierce Creatures.


After filming for Fierce Creatures finished, Palin went on a travel journey for a BBC documentary and, returning a year later, found that the end of Fierce Creatures had failed at test screenings and had to be reshot.


Apart from Fierce Creatures, Palin's last film role was a small part in The Wind in the Willows, a film directed by and starring Terry Jones. Palin also appeared with John Cleese in his documentary, The Human Face. Palin was in the cast of You've Got Mail, the Tom Hanks and Meg Ryan romantic comedy as a subplot novelist, but his role was eventually cut entirely.[26]


He also assisted Campaign for Better Transport and others with campaigns on sustainable transport, particularly those relating to urban areas, and has been president of the campaign since 1986.[27]


Palin has also appeared in serious drama. In 1991 Palin worked as producer and actor in the film American Friends based upon a real event in the life of his great grandfather, a fellow at St John's College, Oxford. [28] In that same year he also played the part of a headmaster in Alan Bleasdale's Channel 4 drama series G.B.H..


Palin also had a small cameo role in Australian soap opera Home and Away. He played an English surfer with a fear of sharks, who interrupts a conversation between two main characters to ask whether there were any sharks in the sea. This was filmed while he was in Australia for the Full Circle series, with a segment about the filming of the role featuring in the series.


In November 2005, he appeared in the John Peel's Record Box documentary.[29]


Michael Palin, Nightingale House, November 2010

Michael Palin is set to appear in a new First World War drama titled The Wiper Times written by Ian Hislop and Nick Newman.[30]


Television documentaries[edit source]


Travel[edit source]


Palin's first travel documentary was part of the 1980 BBC Television series Great Railway Journeys of the World, in which, humorously reminiscing about his childhood hobby of train spotting, he travelled throughout the UK by train, from London to the Kyle of Lochalsh, via Manchester, York, Newcastle upon Tyne, Edinburgh and Inverness. At the Kyle of Lochalsh, Palin bought the station's long metal platform sign and is seen lugging it back to London with him.


In 1994, Palin travelled through Ireland for the same series, entitled "Derry to Kerry". In a quest for family roots, he attempted to trace his great grandmother – Brita Gallagher – who set sail from Ireland 150 years ago during the Great Famine (1845–1849), bound for a new life in Burlington, New Jersey. The series is a trip along the Palin family line.


Starting in 1989, Palin appeared as presenter in a series of travel programmes made for the BBC. It was after the veteran TV globetrotter Alan Whicker and journalist Miles Kington turned down presenting the first of these, Around the World in 80 Days, that gave Palin the opportunity to present his first and subsequent travel shows.[31] These programmes have been broadcast around the world in syndication, and were also sold on VHS tape and later on DVD:

Michael Palin: Around the World in 80 Days (Travel 1988; Programme release 1989): travelling as closely as possible the path described in the famous Jules Verne story without using aircraft.

Pole to Pole (Travel 1991; Programme release 1992): travelling from the North Pole to the South Pole, following as closely as possible the 30 degree line of longitude, over as much land as possible, i.e., through Europe and Africa.

Full Circle with Michael Palin (Travel 1996/97; Programme release 1997): in which he circumnavigated the lands around the Pacific Ocean anti-clockwise; a journey of almost 50,000 miles (80,000 km) starting on Little Diomede Island in the Bering Strait and taking him through Asia, Oceania and the Americas.

Michael Palin's Hemingway Adventure (1999): retracing the footsteps of Ernest Hemingway through the United States, Europe, Africa and the Caribbean.

Sahara with Michael Palin (Travel 2001/02; Programme release 2002): in which he trekked around and through the world's largest desert.

Himalaya with Michael Palin (Travel 2003/04; Programme release 2004): in which he travels through the Himalaya region.

Michael Palin's New Europe (Travel 2006/07; Programme release 2007): in which he travels through Central and Eastern Europe.

Brazil with Michael Palin (2012) in which he travels through Brazil.


Following each trip, Palin wrote a book about his travels, providing information and insights not included in the TV programme. Each book is illustrated with photographs by Basil Pao, the stills photographer who was on the team. (Exception: the first book, Around the World in 80 Days, contains some pictures by Pao but most are by other photographers.)


All seven of these books were also made available as audio books, and all of them are read by Palin himself. Around the World in 80 Days and Hemingway Adventure are unabridged, while the other four books were made in both abridged and unabridged versions, although the unabridged versions can be very difficult to find.[citation needed]


For four of the trips a photography book was made by Pao, each with an introduction written by Palin. These are large coffee-table style books with pictures printed on glossy paper. The majority of the pictures are of various people encountered on the trip, as informal portraits or showing them engaged in some interesting activity. Some of the landscape photos are displayed as two-page spreads.


Palin's travel programmes are responsible for a phenomenon termed the "Palin effect": areas of the world that he has visited suddenly become popular tourist attractions – for example, the significant increase in the number of tourists interested in Peru after Palin visited Machu Picchu.[32] In a 2006 survey of "15 of the world's top travel writers" by The Observer, Palin named Peru's Pongo de Mainique (canyon below the Machu Picchu) his "favourite place in the world".[33]


Art and history[edit source]


In recent years, Palin has written and presented occasional documentary programmes on artists that interest him. The first, on Scottish painter Anne Redpath, was Palin on Redpath in 1997. In The Bright Side of Life (2000), Palin continued on a Scottish theme, looking at the work of the Scottish Colourists. Two further programmes followed on European painters; Michael Palin and the Ladies Who Loved Matisse (2004) and Michael Palin and the Mystery of Hammershøi (2005), about the French artist Henri Matisse and Danish artist Vilhelm Hammershøi respectively. The DVD Michael Palin on Art contains all these documentaries except for the Matisse programme.


In November 2008, Palin presented a First World War documentary about Armistice Day, 11 November 1918, when thousands of soldiers lost their lives in battle after the war had officially ended. Palin filmed on the battlefields of Northern France and Belgium for the programme, called the Last Day of World War One, produced for the BBC's Timewatch series.[34]


Activism[edit source]


In July 2010, Palin sent a message of support for the Dongria Kondh tribe of India, who are resisting a mine on their land by the company Vedanta Resources. Palin said, "I’ve been to the Nyamgiri Hills in Orissa and seen the forces of money and power that Vedanta Resources have arrayed against a people who have occupied their land for thousands of years, who husband the forest sustainably and make no great demands on the state or the government. The tribe I visited simply want to carry on living in the villages that they and their ancestors have always lived in".[35]


On 2 January 2011, Palin became the first person to sign the UK-based Campaign for Better Transport's Fair Fares Now campaign.


Recognition[edit source]


Class 153, no. 153335 'Michael Palin' at Cambridge.

Each member of Monty Python has an asteroid named after him. Palin's is Asteroid 9621 Michaelpalin.[36]


In honour of his achievements as a traveller, especially rail travel, Palin has two British trains named after him. In 2002, Virgin Trains' new £5m high speed Super Voyager train number 221130 was named "Michael Palin" – it carries his name externally and a plaque is located adjacent to the onboard shop with information on Palin and his many journeys.[37] Also, National Express East Anglia named a British Rail Class 153 (unit number 153335) after him. In 2008, he received the James Joyce Award of the Literary and Historical Society in Dublin.


Palin was instrumental in setting up the Michael Palin Centre for Stammering Children in 1993.[38]


In recognition of his services to the promotion of geography, Palin was awarded the Livingstone Medal of the Royal Scottish Geographical Society in March 2009, along with a Fellowship to the Society.[39] In June 2013, he was similarly honoured in Canada with a gold medal for achievements in geography by the Royal Canadian Geographical Society.[40]


In June 2009, Palin was elected for a three-year term as President of the Royal Geographical Society.[41]


Because of his self-described "amenable, conciliatory character" Michael Palin has been referred to as unofficially "Britain's Nicest Man."[42]


Bibliography[edit source]


Travel books[edit source]

Around the World in 80 Days (1989) ISBN 0-563-20826-0

Pole to Pole (1992) ISBN 0-563-37065-3

Full Circle (1997) ISBN 0-563-37121-8

Michael Palin's Hemingway Adventure (1999) ISBN 0-297-82528-3

Sahara (2002) ISBN 0-297-84303-6

Himalaya (2004) ISBN 0-297-84371-0

New Europe (2007) ISBN 0-297-84449-0

Brazil (2012) ISBN 0-297-86626-5


All his travel books can be read at no charge, complete and unabridged, on his website.


Autobiography (contributor)[edit source]

The Pythons Autobiography by The Pythons (2003) ISBN 0-7528-5293-0


Diaries[edit source]

Diaries 1969–1979: The Python Years. 2006. ISBN 0-297-84436-9

Diaries 1980–1988: Halfway to Hollywood – The Film Years. London, Weidenfeld & Nicolson. 2009. ISBN 978-0-297-84440-2


Fiction[edit source]

Hemingway's chair (1995) ISBN 0-7493-1930-5

Bert Fegg's Nasty Book for Boys and Girls w/Terry Jones, illus Martin Honeysett, Frank Bellamy et al. (1974) ISBN 0-413-32740-X

Dr Fegg's Encyclopaedia of all world knowledge (1984) (expanded reprint of the above, with Terry Jones and Martin Honeysett) ISBN 0-87226-005-4

The Truth (2012) ISBN 978-0297860211


Children's books[edit source]

Small Harry and the Toothache Pills (1982) ISBN 0-416-23690-1

Limerics or The Limerick Book (1985) ISBN 0-09-161540-2

Cyril and the House of Commons (1986) ISBN 1-85145-078-5

Cyril and the Dinner Party (1986) ISBN 1-85145-069-6

The Mirrorstone with Alan Lee and Richard Seymour (1986) ISBN 0-224-02408-6


Plays[edit source]

The Weekend (1994) ISBN 0-413-68940-9


Selected filmography[edit source]










1971 And Now for Something Completely Different Various Roles Also Writer

1975 Monty Python and the Holy Grail Various Roles Also Writer

Three Men in a Boat Harris

1977 Jabberwocky Dennis Cooper

1978 All You Need Is Cash Eric Manchester/Lawyer

1979 Monty Python's Life of Brian Various Roles Also Writer

1981 Time Bandits Vincent Also Writer

Nominated - Saturn Award for Best Writing

1982 Monty Python Live at the Hollywood Bowl Various Roles Also Writer

The Missionary The Reverend Charles Fortescue Also Writer/Producer

1983 Monty Python's The Meaning of Life Various Roles Also Writer

The Crimson Permanent Assurance Workman Short Film

1984 A Private Function Gilbert Chilvers

1985 Brazil Jack Lint

1988 A Fish Called Wanda Ken Pile BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role

1991 American Friends Reverend Francis Ashby Also Writer

1996 The Wind in the Willows The Sun

1997 Fierce Creatures Adrian 'Bugsy' Malone

2010 Not the Messiah (He's a Very Naughty Boy) Mrs. Betty Palin/Julius Caesar/Bevis


Television[edit source]

Now! (October 1965 – middle 1966)

The Ken Dodd Show

Billy Cotton Bandshow

The Illustrated Weekly Hudd

The Frost Report. (10 March 1966 – 29 June 1967)

The Late Show (15 October 1966 – 1 April 1967)

A Series of Bird's (1967) (3 October 1967 – 21 November 1967 screenwriter (guest stars)

Twice a Fortnight (21 October 1967 – 23 December 1967)

Do Not Adjust Your Set (26 December 1967 – 14 May 1969)

Broaden Your Mind (1968)

How to Irritate People (1968)

Marty (TV series) (1968)

The Complete and Utter History of Britain (1969)

Monty Python's Flying Circus (5 October 1969 – 5 December 1974)

Saturday Night Live (Hosted 8 April 1978 with Musical Guest Eugene Record, and 27 January 1979 with The Doobie Brothers)

Ripping Yarns (1976–1979)

Great Railway Journeys of the World, episode title "Confessions of a Trainspotter" (1980)

East of Ipswich (1987) writer

Michael Palin: Around the World in 80 Days (1989)

GBH (1991)

Pole to Pole (1992)

Great Railway Journeys, episode title "Derry to Kerry" (1994)

The Wind in the Willows (1995)

The Willows in Winter (1996)

Full Circle with Michael Palin (1997)

Palin On Redpath (1997)

Michael Palin's Hemingway Adventure (1999)

Michael Palin On... The Colourists (2000)

Sahara with Michael Palin (2002)

Life on Air (2002)

Himalaya with Michael Palin (2004)

Michael Palin's New Europe (2007)

Around the World in 20 Years (30 December 2008)

Brazil with Michael Palin (2012)


Awards[edit source]


Academy of Science Fiction, Fantasy & Horror Films[edit source]

1982 Nominated – Saturn Award for Best Writing for Time Bandits (shared with Terry Gilliam)


Evening Standard British Film Awards[edit source]

1986 Won – "Peter Sellers Award for Comedy"


Writers' Guild of Great Britain[edit source]

1991 Won – Writers' Guild of Great Britain Award for "Film – Screenplay" for American Friends (shared with Tristram Powell)


DVD Exclusive Awards[edit source]

2001 Nominated – "Video Premiere Award for Best Audio Commentary" for Monty Python and the Holy Grail (shared with John Cleese and Eric Idle)


British Comedy Awards[edit source]

2002 Won – British Comedy Award for "Lifetime Achievement"


BAFTA Awards[edit source]

1984 Nominated – BAFTA Award for "Best Original Song" (the award was discontinued after the 1985 ceremonies) for Every Sperm is Sacred from The Meaning of Life (shared with André Jacquemin, Dave Howman and Terry Jones)

1989 Won – BAFTA Award for Best Actor in a Supporting Role for A Fish Called Wanda (as Ken Pile)[43]

1992 Nominated – British Academy Television Award for Best Actor for G.B.H.

2005 Won – BAFTA Special Award

2009 Won – BAFTA Special Award as part of the Monty Python team for outstanding contribution to film and television[44]

2013 Won – BAFTA Academy Fellowship Award[45][46]


I've added this picture to the Rubbish Britain and the Things That make Britain Great groups because it's a picture of a typical English council estate.


It's not just that council estates are often shitty places to live and often full of shitty people (not always, I admit). It's also that they look pretty much the same no matter where you are in England - you could wake up in a council estate after having being abducted by aliens and then dumped back on Earth, and you would have absolutely no idea which town you were in, because, as i said, all council estates look the same.


But even worse than these (damning enough) reasons for inclusion in the aforementioned groups is the fact that the fucking dirty, filthy Tories sold off council housing in the eighties, thus largely creating the homelessness problem and encouraging the fuck-you culture that Britain enjoys today. In a way, there is common ground between the rich Mercedes driving cigar-chomping small business man and the horrible ratboy, stereo-stealing chav - they're united by a complete lack of respect for their fellow man.




This was my first car - a 1966 Anglia. I passed my test earlier that week and then drove up the M1 with a large gentleman called Mike as my passenger, partly because he wanted a lift, but mostly because I was scared of driving so far so soon. Mike lived in Nottingham, and I dropped him off, then drove round and round Nottingham for ninety minutes unti lI found my way back to the motorway.


The exhaust broke when I was in Leeds, so the car sounded like a tank driving around.


I didn't have a child seat or seat belts in the back of the car. Every time i braked, Ben would slide off the vinyl seats and onto the floor.


After my parents separated my ma was reduced to penury, and had to take a council house in fucking Belle Isle, depicted here. Mum went to work at St.James' hospital as ward clerk until she retired in 1996.


EDIT: mum died in 2009, dad died in 2012.


At least she was on the edge of Belle Isle, and faced out on to this green, which was something. She was burgled three times. I could barely walk from the bus stop to my mum's house without being called a 'fookin' 'ippy c*nt', and that was a policeman!


So, a choice,select neighbourhood. You could tell which people had bought their council houses, because they would immediately become pebble dashed, and have gnomes and wishing wells in their gardens, or they would paint the downstairs exterior a slightly different colour from the next door neighbours' house.


The car -


My first car. The front grille used to fall off and also get a film of rust on it, which i would regularly remove with some liquid or other.


The front bumper used to drop to the left, giving the car a sidelong smirk that was quite endearing. The drum brakes were abysmal and the whole chassis was held together with rust. It's amazing that it got through its MoT test ever.


Some statistics:


Power (!) - 39 horsepowers.


55 torques.


0 - 60 mph: 26 seconds.


Fuel tank capacity: 7 imperial (the best kind) gallons.


Compression ratio (I don't know what that is either): 8.9:1


Bore and stroke (again, a mystery) : 80.96 mm × 48.41 mm

3.19 in × 1.91 in


Engine: 4 cylinder 996 cc , 2 valves per cylinder


here have a tag


1-How are you?: Swell


2-Post a picture of yourself: already done bby


3-Do you ever wish you were someone else?: most of the time

4-What is your entire name?: Alexa Nicole Schlucky (Just kidding but the last name is close so I hope this tickles your peach)

5-How old are you?: 13, I turn 14 in 20 days.


6-Age you get mistaken for: idk 13-14


7-Your zodiac/horoscope and if you think it fits your personality: YES IT DOES. IT REALLY DOES (i’m a cancer)


8-What did you do on your last birthday?: KNOTT’S BURRY FAHARM


9-What is one thing you would like to accomplish before your next birthday?: NOT DIES


10-What is your hair color?: Browwwwwn


11-Have you ever dyed your hair?: lol nope. I wanna but I won’t look good.


12-What is your eye color?: HAZEL/GREEN


13-If you could change your eye color, would you?:possibly, I wouldn’t mind grey or blue eyes

14-Do you wear contacts/glasses?: Glasses


18-Do you have any tattoos?: No

19-Do you have any piercings?: ears


20-Left or right handed?: Left! I’m an endangered species


21-What’s your sexual orientation?: Straight so far


22-Do you drink?: no


23-Do you smoke?: no


24-Do you have any pets?: a dog

25-Where do you work?: lol no


26-Something you are working on right now: this


27-Do you have any “rules” about food?: uhm...don’t eat a lot of healthy food????


28-Where are you from?: IIIIIIIN WEST PHILIDELPHI-California

29-What would you say is your best quality?: humor???


30-What do you think you’re really good at?: history


31-What do you think you’re really bad at?: math


33-Are you a bad person?: no


34-Are you nice to everyone?: HAHA NO


36-Has someone ever spread a nasty rumor about you?: yes


37-What is your ideal bed? Why?: if it is comfy and not bug-ridden it’s good with me


38-Did you wake up cranky?: today? no.


39-Do you sleep with a stuffed toy?: yes.


40-What do you think about the most?: music


42-What you want to be when you “get older”?: currently, a writer poet/author


43-What are your career goals?: become well known


44-What is your ideal career?: did I not say that in #42


45-Is your life anything like it was two years ago?: not really.


46-Do you replay things that have happened in your head?: all the time




48-Say 10 facts about your room: it’s purple, it’s roomy, it has a bed, nice curtains, it has two calendars, large bookshelf, a closet, my secretary desk, i sleep here, it’s got a lot of memories and i like it


49-Do you have any phobias?: oh yes


50-Have you ever been to a psychiatrist/therapist?: no. one time my sister had to go to a sports psychologist and I was talking to my mom and she admitted that she thought I would go to a psychologist before Kendall would have too.


51-Are you allergic to anything? If so, what?: Cats :(, pigs, dust


52-Ever broken any bones?: right arm IN KINDERGARDEN


53-Ever come close to death?: i don’t think so


60-Do you have a facebook? If so, would you add the person who sent you this?: yes, and i don’t know probably not


61-Do you have any pictures on your Facebook?: oh yes


62-Describe yourself in one word/sentence: avoid reality at all costs


63-A quote you try to live by: “Born an original, don’t die a copy”


64-A famous person you’ve been compared to: Josh Hutcherson.....


65-Weird things you do when you’re alone: prance around the house and sing loudly.


66-Something you do without realizing: zone out...all the time

68-Someone you’d like to be for a day and why: I’d like to be Ellen DeGeneres because she’s hilarious and almost always happy


69-Leave me a compliment: is it hot in here or is it just you because you look great today


70-What is your favorite thing to do?: internet


71-What’s your favorite color?: purple


73-What’s your favorite movie?: Kicking and Screaming?




75-What is your favorite quote and why?: did I not answer this in #63


76-What is your favorite word?: okay


77-What is your least favorite word?: moist


78-What is your favorite type of food?: CHICKEN


79-You favorite ice cream?: rainbow sherbet


80-What’s your favorite animal?: uhhhhm..koalas!


81-Dogs or cats?: dogs


82-Describe your favorite texture: smooth?


83-What is your favorite flower?: SNAPDRAGONS


84-What’s your favorite scent? And on the opposite sex? I like roses but idk about the other question bc what is a male


85-What is your favorite season?: winter!


86-What are the top five places you wish you could go before you die?: paris, italy, london, new york, and georgia?


87-What are four things you can’t live without and why?: Internet, music, books, and food bc do i need reasons


88-Which mythological creature are you most like? Why? uh


89-What’s your favorite television show?: DRAKE AND JOSH


90-Favorite place to shop at?: uh barnes and nobles


91-Say 2 facts about your favorite things: i don’t know


106-Would you ever smile at a stranger?: yes!


107-Do you prefer to be friends with girls or boys?: idk both


108-Who is someone you never tire of?: myself


109-Do you have someone you can be your complete self around?: yes


110-Who is your most loyal friend?: Dawn


111-Is there anyone you can tell EVERYTHING to?: Dawn


112-If your best friend died, what would you do?: be sad


113-Something you’ve lied about.: “I’m fine. Just tired.”


114-Have you ever felt replaced?: oh yes


115-Say 5 facts about your best friend(s): she has a stuffed frog named phillip, she likes minecraft, she’s a scorpio (?), her favorite color is green, and she is a very pretty and nice person


116-The last person you hugged?: me mum


117-Story of your first kiss?: lol single and unkissed by not family members


118-Do you like kissing in public?: depends


119-Have you ever kissed someone older than you?: of course (me parents and grandparents)


120-You have a preference for boys or girls?: so far? boys.


121-Is the male or female body closest to perfection?: neither.

127-What is the first thing you noticed in someone?: face


128-Are looks important in a relationship?: somewhat.


129-What’s the most superficial characteristic you look for?: humor?


130-What’s your opinion on age differences in relationships?: shouldn’t be too large, but what ever floats your boat


131-Would you ever date someone off of the Internet?: maybe idk


133-Do you have a crush on anyone?: oh yes


134-A description of the girl/boy you like: human


135-Say 1 fact about the person you like: funny


136-If the person you like says they like someone else, what would you say?: oh! tell me about her/him (who knows he may like men)


137-When was the last time you told someone you loved them? this afternoon


138-Do you think someone has feelings for you?: yes


139-Do you think someone is thinking about you right now?: lol maybe idk


140-Have you ever cried over a guy/girl?: yes, if you mean because of what they said to me

141-Have you ever wanted someone you couldn’t have?: yes

142-Anyone you’re giving up on?: mhmm.....whoops


143-Have you ever liked someone you didn’t expect to?: yes


144-Have you ever liked someone who your friends hated?: yes


145-Have you ever liked one of your best friends?: OH YES


146-Has anyone told you they don’t want to ever lose you?: no

147-Is there a boy/girl who you would do absolutely everything for?: define everything

148-Is there someone you will never forget?: his smile


153-What’s the sweetest thing anyone’s ever done for you?: idk

154-What’s something sweet you’d like someone to do for you?: set up a nice little dinner or something


157-Are you in love?: no


158-Are you in a relationship?: #singlelikethelastpringleyoucan’treachbcpringlecansareveryslimandsomehandscan’tfitdownthattube

159-If you have a boyfriend/girlfriend, what is your favorite thing about him/her?: i told you man, i’m single


160-Are relationships ever worth it?: yes


161-Is there someone mad because you’re dating/talking to the person you are?: no man i’m single still


162-Can you commit to one person?: YES. YES I CAN.


163-Do you think you can last in a relationship for 6 months and not cheat?: oh absolutely


164-Do you ever want to get married?: yes


165-Do you think you’ll be married in 5 years?: married at 18...uh no


167-Do you get jealous easily?: half the time


168-The last time you felt jealous, and why?: today bc my friends hair smelled nice and I would like nice smelling hair


169-What is your definition of cheating?: literally kissing some other person who wasn’t your partner or family wether it was intentional or not


170-Have you ever been cheated on?: no


171-Do you forgive betrayal?: no

172-Have you ever cheated on someone?: NO


73-Why did your last relationship fail?: I’VE NEVER BEEN IN A RELATIONSHIP


174-Things you want to say to an ex: do you exist


175-A description of the person you dislike the most: human


176-If your first true love knocked on your door with apology and presents, would you accept?: idk depends


177-How many boyfriends/girlfriends have you had?: ZERO I’VE SAID THIS A LOT


178-How long was your longest relationship?: 0 years 0 months 0 weeks 0 days 0 hours 0 minutes 0 seconds


179-You’ll love me if…: you exist and I love you


180-Share a relationship story: it don’t exist

Music, movies and books

181-How often do you listen to music?: daily.


182-What kind of music you like?: alternative


183-Do you like to dance?: yes, but I can’t


185-Have you heard a song that reminds you of someone today?: yes


186-Share a song that takes you to a certain memory in the past: Cinderella


187-A song that’s been stuck in your head: Pompeii by Bastille

188-Put your music player on shuffle and write the first ten songs that play: rlly.

Keep your head up


What is the feeling

Hold me

Cops and Robbers

Ho Hey

Don’t let me fall

Like a star

Truly, madly, deeply

Little bird


189-A book you want to read/have recently read: AIRHEAD


190-Describe your dream library: large


191-Last movie you just watched: uh IDK KICKING AND SCREAMING?


192-Do you like watching what type of movies? romantic comedy

Situations and crazy things

193-You’re in a tattoo parlor about to get inked. What are you getting done? and C and an M on my write wrist (Chad and Michelle, my parents)


194-What’s something you can see yourself going to jail for?: illegal stuff


195-If you could be any character, from any literary work, who would you choose to be?: Emerson Watts


196-You’re given $10,000…under one condition: you cannot keep the money for yourself. Who would you give it to? parentals?

197-If you had to go back in time and change one thing, what would it be? my grandpa cheating on my grandmother


198-If you were an element on the Periodic Table, which would you be and why? Gold bc man I am great just kidding I would be Carbon bc thats the first thing I thought of


199-If you had to delete one year of your life completely, which would it be? year one bc nobody remembers when they were a year old


200-You’re an Action Movie Hero. What’s your weapon of choice and the line you scream when defeating your arch enemy?: I would like a sonic screwdriver and I would scream “I HOPE YOU DIE”


201-If you could design an amusement park ride, what would it be like? knott’s berry farm


202-What is the first curse word that comes to mind?: f*ck


203-What the last party you went to was… and when the next will be… uh graduation party, and maybe a friends party idk i might not


204-Halloween costume idea?: washing machine?

205-How you’d spend ten thousand bucks?: college


206-Press ctrl+v and post: Odontophobia is the fear of teeth.

207-Would you rather be stranded on a desert island with someone you love for ten years or someone you hate for a month? Explain why.: Someone I love bc then we will be together


208-5 things within touching distance: ipod, quote book, laptop, journal, dictionary


209-A drunken story: so this one time, i didn’t ever drink


210-What are you supposed to be doing right now?: nothing


211-Currently wanting to see anyone?: oh yes


213-If you met me what would you do?: idk run to you in slow motion?


Arpad Szenes-Vieira da Silva Foundation, Praça das Amoreiras, Lisbon, Portugal




From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia


MovementExpressionism, Bauhaus, Surrealism

Paul Klee (German: [paʊ̯l ˈkleː]; 18 December 1879 – 29 June 1940) was a Swiss-German artist. His highly individual style was influenced by movements in art that included Expressionism, Cubism, and Surrealism. Klee was a natural draftsman who experimented with and eventually deeply explored color theory, writing about it extensively; his lectures Writings on Form and Design Theory (Schriften zur Form und Gestaltungslehre), published in English as the Paul Klee Notebooks, are held to be as important for modern art as Leonardo da Vinci's A Treatise on Painting for the Renaissance.[1][2][3] He and his colleague, Russian painter Wassily Kandinsky, both taught at the Bauhaus school of art, design and architecture. His works reflect his dry humor and his sometimes childlike perspective, his personal moods and beliefs, and his musicality.


— Paul Klee.[4]

Paul Klee was born in Münchenbuchsee, Switzerland, as the second child of German music teacher Hans Wilhelm Klee (1849–1940) and Swiss singer Ida Marie Klee, née Frick (1855–1921).[a] His sister Mathilde (died 6 December 1953) was born on 28 January 1876 in Walzenhausen. Their father came from Tann and studied at the Stuttgart Conservatory singing, piano, organ and violin, meeting there his future wife Ida Frick. Hans Wilhelm Klee was active as a music teacher at the Bern State Seminary in Hofwil near Bern until 1931. Klee was able to develop his music skills as his parents encouraged and inspired him until his death.[5] In 1880, his family moved to Bern, where they moved 17 years later after numerous changes of residence into a house at the Kirchenfeld district.[6] From 1886 to 1890, Klee visited primary school and received, at the age of 7, violin classes at the Municipal Music School. He was so talented on violin that, aged 11, he received an invitation to play as an extraordinary member of the Bern Music Association.[7]


In his early years, following his parents’ wishes, Klee focused on becoming a musician; but he decided on the visual arts during his teen years, partly out of rebellion and partly because of a belief that modern music lacked meaning for him. He stated, "I didn't find the idea of going in for music creatively particularly attractive in view of the decline in the history of musical achievement."[8] As a musician, he played and felt emotionally bound to traditional works of the eighteenth and nineteenth century, but as an artist he craved the freedom to explore radical ideas and styles.[8] At sixteen, Klee’s landscape drawings already show considerable skill.[9]


Around 1897, Klee started his diary, which he kept until 1918, and which has provided scholars with valuable insight into his life and thinking.[10] During his school years, he avidly drew in his school books, in particular drawing caricatures, and already demonstrating skill with line and volume.[11] He barely passed his final exams at the "Gymnasium" of Bern, where he qualified in the Humanities. With his characteristic dry wit, he wrote, "After all, it’s rather difficult to achieve the exact minimum, and it involves risks."[12] On his own time, in addition to his deep interests in music and art, Klee was a great reader of literature, and later a writer on art theory and aesthetics.[13]


With his parents' reluctant permission, in 1898 Klee began studying art at the Academy of Fine Arts in Munich with Heinrich Knirr and Franz von Stuck. He excelled at drawing but seemed to lack any natural color sense. He later recalled, "During the third winter I even realized that I probably would never learn to paint."[12] During these times of youthful adventure, Klee spent much time in pubs and had affairs with lower class women and artists' models. He had an illegitimate son in 1900 who died several weeks after birth.[14]


After receiving his Fine Arts degree, Klee went to Italy from October 1901 to May 1902[15] with friend Hermann Haller. They stayed in Rome, Florence, and Naples, and studied the master painters of past centuries.[14] He exclaimed, "The Forum and the Vatican have spoken to me. Humanism wants to suffocate me."[16] He responded to the colors of Italy, but sadly noted, "that a long struggle lies in store for me in this field of color."[17] For Klee, color represented the optimism and nobility in art, and a hope for relief from the pessimistic nature he expressed in his black-and-white grotesques and satires.[17] Returning to Bern, he lived with his parents for several years, and took occasional art classes. By 1905, he was developing some experimental techniques, including drawing with a needle on a blackened pane of glass, resulting in fifty-seven works including his Portrait of My Father (1906).[11] In the years 1903-5 he also completed a cycle of eleven zinc-plate etchings called Inventions, his first exhibited works, in which he illustrated several grotesque characters.[14][18] He commented, "though I'm fairly satisfied with my etchings I can't go on like this. I’m not a specialist."[19] Klee was still dividing his time with music, playing the violin in an orchestra and writing concert and theater reviews.[20]


Marriage and early years[edit]



Flower Myth (Blumenmythos) 1918, watercolor on pastel foundation on fabric and newsprint mounted on board, Sprengel Museum, Hannover, Germany

Klee married Bavarian pianist Lily Stumpf in 1906 and they had one son named Felix Paul in the following year. They lived in a suburb of Munich, and while she gave piano lessons and occasional performances, he kept house and tended to his art work. His attempt to be a magazine illustrator failed.[20] Klee's art work progressed slowly for the next five years, partly from having to divide his time with domestic matters, and partly as he tried to find a new approach to his art. In 1910, he had his first solo exhibition in Bern, which then traveled to three Swiss cities.


Affiliation to the "Blaue Reiter", 1911[edit]

In January 1911 Alfred Kubin met Klee in Munich and encouraged him to illustrate Voltaire's Candide. Around this time, Klee's graphic work increased. His early inclination towards the absurd and the sarcastic was well received by Kubin, who befriended Klee and became one of his first significant collectors.[21] Klee met, through Kubin, the art critic Wilhelm Hausenstein in 1911. Klee was a foundation member and manager of the Munich artists' union Sema that summer.[22] In autumn he made an acquaintance with August Macke and Wassily Kandinsky, and in winter he joined the editorial team of the almanac Der Blaue Reiter, founded by Franz Marc and Kandinsky. On meeting Kandinsky, Klee recorded, "I came to feel a deep trust in him. He is somebody, and has an exceptionally beautiful and lucid mind."[23] Other members included Macke, Gabriele Münter and Marianne von Werefkin. Klee became in a few months one of the most important and independent members of the Blaue Reiter, but he was not yet fully integrated.[24]


The release of the almanac was delayed for the benefit of an exhibition. The first Blaue Reiter exhibition took place from 18 December 1911 to 1 January 1912 in the Moderne Galerie Heinrich Thannhauser in Munich. Klee did not attend it, but in the second exhibition, which occurred from 12 February to 18 March 1912 in the Galerie Goltz, 17 of his graphic works were shown. The name of this art exhibition was Schwarz-Weiß, as it only regarded graphic painting.[25] Initially planned to be released in 1911, the release date of the Der Blau Reiter almanac by Kandinsky and Marc was delayed in May 1912, including the reproduced ink drawing Steinhauer by Klee. At the same time, Kandinsky published his art history writing Über das Geistige in der Kunst.[26]


Participation on art exhibitions, 1912/1913[edit]

The association opened Klee's mind to modern theories of color. His travels to Paris in 1912 also exposed him to the ferment of Cubism and the pioneering examples of "pure painting", an early term for abstract art. The use of bold color by Robert Delaunay and Maurice de Vlaminck also inspired him.[27] Rather than copy these artists, Klee began working out his own color experiments in pale watercolors and did some primitive landscapes, including In the Quarry (1913) and Houses near the Gravel Pit (1913), using blocks of color with limited overlap.[28] Klee acknowledged that "a long struggle lies in store for me in this field of color" in order to reach his "distant noble aim." Soon, he discovered "the style which connects drawing and the realm of color."[17]


Trip to Tunis, 1914[edit]

Klee's artistic breakthrough came in 1914 when he briefly visited Tunisia with August Macke and Louis Moilliet and was impressed by the quality of the light there. He wrote, "Color has taken possession of me; no longer do I have to chase after it, I know that it has hold of me forever... Color and I are one. I am a painter."[29] With that realization, faithfulness to nature faded in importance. Instead, Klee began to delve into the "cool romanticism of abstraction".[29] In gaining a second artistic vocabulary, Klee added color to his abilities in draftsmanship, and in many works combined them successfully, as he did in one series he called "operatic paintings".[30][31] One of the most literal examples of this new synthesis is The Bavarian Don Giovanni (1919).[32]


After returning home, Klee painted his first pure abstract, In the Style of Kairouan (1914), composed of colored rectangles and a few circles.[33] The colored rectangle became his basic building block, what some scholars associate with a musical note, which Klee combined with other colored blocks to create a color harmony analogous to a musical composition. His selection of a particular color palette emulates a musical key. Sometimes he uses complementary pairs of colors, and other times "dissonant" colors, again reflecting his connection with musicality.[34]


Military career[edit]


Paul Klee as a soldier, 1916

A few weeks later, World War I began. At first, Klee was somewhat detached from it, as he wrote ironically, "I have long had this war in me. That is why, inwardly, it is none of my concern." [35] Klee was conscripted as a Landsturmsoldat (soldier of the reserve forces in Prussia or Imperial Germany) on 5 March 1916. The deaths of his friends August Macke and Franz Marc in battle began to affect him. Venting his distress, he created several pen and ink lithographs on war themes including Death for the Idea (1915).[36] After finishing the military training course, which began on 11 March 1916, he was committed as a soldier behind the front. Klee moved on 20 August to the aircraft maintenance company[b] in Oberschleissheim, executing skilled manual work, such as restoring aircraft camouflage, and accompanying aircraft transports. On 17 January 1917, he was transferred to the Royal Bavarian flying school in Gersthofen (which 54 years later became the USASA Field Station Augsburg) to work as a clerk for the treasurer until the end of the war. This allowed him to stay in a small room outside of the barrack block and continue painting.[37][38]


He continued to paint during the entire war and managed to exhibit in several shows. By 1917, Klee's work was selling well and art critics acclaimed him as the best of the new German artists.[39] His Ab ovo (1917) is particularly noteworthy for its sophisticated technique. It employs watercolor on gauze and paper with a chalk ground, which produces a rich texture of triangular, circular, and crescent patterns.[29] Demonstrating his range of exploration, mixing color and line, his Warning of the Ships (1918) is a colored drawing filled with symbolic images on a field of suppressed color.[40]


Mature career[edit]


Red Balloon, 1922, oil on muslin primed with chalk, 31.8 x 31.1 cm. The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York

In 1919, Klee applied for a teaching post at the Academy of Art in Stuttgart.[41] This attempt failed but he had a major success in securing a three-year contract (with a minimum annual income) with dealer Hans Goltz, whose influential gallery gave Klee major exposure, and some commercial success. A retrospective of over 300 works in 1920 was also notable.[42]


Klee taught at the Bauhaus from January 1921 to April 1931.[43] He was a "Form" master in the bookbinding, stained glass, and mural painting workshops and was provided with two studios.[44] In 1922, Kandinsky joined the staff and resumed his friendship with Klee. Later that year the first Bauhaus exhibition and festival was held, for which Klee created several of the advertising materials.[45] Klee welcomed that there were many conflicting theories and opinions within the Bauhaus: "I also approve of these forces competing one with the other if the result is achievement."[46]


Tropical Gardening, 1923 watercolor and oil transfer drawing on paper, The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Klee was also a member of Die Blaue Vier (The Blue Four), with Kandinsky, Lyonel Feininger, and Alexej von Jawlensky; formed in 1923, they lectured and exhibited together in the USA in 1925. That same year, Klee had his first exhibits in Paris, and he became a hit with the French Surrealists.[47] Klee visited Egypt in 1928, which impressed him less than Tunisia. In 1929, the first major monograph on Klee's work was published, written by Will Grohmann.[48]


Nocturnal Festivity, 1921, The Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York.

Klee also taught at the Düsseldorf Academy from 1931 to 1933, and was singled out by a Nazi newspaper, "Then that great fellow Klee comes onto the scene, already famed as a Bauhaus teacher in Dessau. He tells everyone he's a thoroughbred Arab, but he's a typical Galician Jew."[49] His home was searched by the Gestapo and he was fired from his job.[3][50] His self-portrait Struck from the List (1933) commemorates the sad occasion.[49] In 1933-4, Klee had shows in London and Paris, and finally met Pablo Picasso, whom he greatly admired.[51] The Klee family emigrated to Switzerland in late 1933.[51]


Klee was at the peak of his creative output. His Ad Parnassum (1932) is considered his masterpiece and the best example of his pointillist style; it is also one of his largest, most finely worked paintings.[52][53] He produced nearly 500 works in 1933 during his last year in Germany.[54] However, in 1933, Klee began experiencing the symptoms of what was diagnosed as scleroderma after his death. The progression of his fatal disease, which made swallowing very difficult, can be followed through the art he created in his last years. His output in 1936 was only 25 pictures. In the later 1930s, his health recovered somewhat and he was encouraged by a visit from Kandinsky and Picasso.[55] Klee's simpler and larger designs enabled him to keep up his output in his final years, and in 1939 he created over 1,200 works, a career high for one year.[56] He used heavier lines and mainly geometric forms with fewer but larger blocks of color. His varied color palettes, some with bright colors and others sober, perhaps reflected his alternating moods of optimism and pessimism.[57] Back in Germany in 1937, seventeen of Klee's pictures were included in an exhibition of "Degenerate art" and 102 of his works in public collections were seized by the Nazis.[58]



Klee suffered from a wasting disease, scleroderma, toward the end of his life, enduring pain that seems to be reflected in his last works of art. One of his last paintings, Death and Fire, features a skull in the center with the German word for death, "Tod", appearing in the face. He died in Muralto, Locarno, Switzerland, on 29 June 1940 without having obtained Swiss citizenship, despite his birth in that country. His art work was considered too revolutionary, even degenerate, by the Swiss authorities, but eventually they accepted his request six days after his death.[59] His legacy comprises about 9,000 works of art.[17] The words on his tombstone, Klee's credo, placed there by his son Felix, say, "I cannot be grasped in the here and now, For my dwelling place is as much among the dead, As the yet unborn, Slightly closer to the heart of creation than usual, But still not close enough."[60] He was buried at Schosshaldenfriedhof, Bern, Switzerland.


Style and methods[edit]


Tale à la Hoffmann (1921), watercolor, ink, and pencil on paper. 31.1 × 24.1 cm. In the collection of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York

Klee has been variously associated with Expressionism, Cubism, Futurism, Surrealism, and Abstraction, but his pictures are difficult to classify. He generally worked in isolation from his peers, and interpreted new art trends in his own way. He was inventive in his methods and technique. Klee worked in many different media—oil paint, watercolor, ink, pastel, etching, and others. He often combined them into one work. He used canvas, burlap, muslin, linen, gauze, cardboard, metal foils, fabric, wallpaper, and newsprint.[61] Klee employed spray paint, knife application, stamping, glazing, and impasto, and mixed media such as oil with watercolor, watercolor with pen and India ink, and oil with tempera.[62]


He was a natural draftsman, and through long experimentation developed a mastery of color and tonality. Many of his works combine these skills. He uses a great variety of color palettes from nearly monochromatic to highly polychromatic. His works often have a fragile childlike quality to them and are usually on a small scale. He often used geometric forms as well as letters, numbers, and arrows, and combined them with figures of animals and people. Some works were completely abstract. Many of his works and their titles reflect his dry humor and varying moods; some express political convictions. They frequently allude to poetry, music and dreams and sometimes include words or musical notation. The later works are distinguished by spidery hieroglyph-like symbols. Rainer Maria Rilke wrote about Klee in 1921, "Even if you hadn’t told me he plays the violin, I would have guessed that on many occasions his drawings were transcriptions of music."[13]


Pamela Kort observed: "Klee's 1933 drawings present their beholder with an unparalleled opportunity to glimpse a central aspect of his aesthetics that has remained largely unappreciated: his lifelong concern with the possibilities of parody and wit. Herein lies their real significance, particularly for an audience unaware that Klee's art has political dimensions."[63]


Among the few plastic works are hand puppets made between 1916 and 1925, for his son Felix. The artist neither counts them as a component of his oeuvre, nor does he list them in his catalogue raisonné. Thirty of the preserved puppets are stored at the Zentrum Paul Klee, Bern.[64]



Early works[edit]

Some of Klee's early preserved children's drawings, which his grandmother encouraged, were listed on his catalogue raisonné. A total of 19 etchings were produced during the Bern years; ten of these were made between 1903 and 1905 in the cycle "Inventionen" (Inventions),[65] which were presented in June 1906 at the "Internationale Kunstausstellung des Vereins bildender Künstler Münchens 'Secession'" (International Art Exhibition of the Association for Graphic Arts, Munich, Secession), his first appearance as a painter in the public.[66] Klee had removed the third Invention, Pessimistische Allegorie des Gebirges (Pessimistic Allegory of the Mountain), in February 1906 from his cycle.[67] The satirical etchings, for example Jungfrau im Baum/Jungfrau (träumend) (Virgin on the tree/Virgin (dreaming)) from 1903 and Greiser Phoenix (Aged Phoenix) from 1905, were classified by Klee as "surrealistic outposts". Jungfrau im Baum ties on the motive Le cattive madri (1894) by Giovanni Segantini. The picture was influenced by grotesk lyric poetries of Alfred Jarry, Max Jacob and Christian Morgenstern.[68] It features an cultural pessimism, which can be found at the turn of the 20th century in works by Symbolists. The Invention Nr. 6, the 1903 etching Zwei Männer, einander in höherer Stellung vermutend (Two Men, Supposing to be in Major Position), depicts two naked men, presumably emperor Wilhelm II and Franz Joseph I of Austria, recognizable by their hairstyle and beards. As their clothes and insignia were bereft, "both of them have no clue if their conventional salute […] is in order or not. As they assume that their counterpart could have been higher rated", they bow and scrape.[69]


Dame mit Sonnenschirm, 1883–1885, pencil on paper on cardboard, Zentrum Paul Klee, Bern


Hilterfingen, 1895, ink on paper, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York


Third Invention: Jungfrau im Baum, 1903, etching, Museum of Modern Art, New York


Sixth Invention: Zwei Männer, einander in höherer Stellung vermutend, begegnen sich, 1903, etching, Zentrum Paul Klee, Bern


Aged Phoenix,1905,etching, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York

Klee began to introduce a new technique in 1905: scratching on a blackened glass panel with a needle. In that manner he created about 57 Verre églomisé pictures, among those the 1905 Gartenszene (Scene on a Garden) and the 1906 Porträt des Vaters (Portrait of a Father), with which he tried to combine painting and scratching.[70] Klee's solitary early work ended in 1911, the year he met and was inspired by the graphic artist Alfred Kubin, and became associated with the artists of the Blaue Reiter.[71]


Mystical-abstract period, 1914–1919[edit]

During his twelve-day educational trip to Tunis in April 1914 Klee produced with Macke and Moilliet watercolor paintings, which implement the strong light and color stimulus of the North African countryside in the fashion of Paul Cézanne and Robert Delaunays' cubistic form concepts. The aim was not to imitate nature, but to create compositions analogous to nature's formative principle, as in the works In den Häusern von Saint-Germain (In the Houses of Saint-Germain) and Straßencafé (Streetcafé). Klee conveyed the scenery in a grid, so that it dissolves into colored harmony. He also created abstract works in that period such as Abstract and Farbige Kreise durch Farbbänder verbunden (Colored Circles Tied Through Inked Ribbons).[72] He never abandoned the object; a permanent segregation never took place. It took over ten years that Klee worked on experiments and analysis of the color, resulting to an independent artificial work, whereby his design ideas were based on the colorful oriental world.


Fenster und Palmen, 1914, watercolor on grounding on paper on cardboard, Kunsthaus Zürich, Zurich


In den Häusern von St. Germain, 1914, watercolor on paper on cardboard, Zentrum Paul Klee, Bern


Föhn im Marc’schen Garten, 1915, watercolor on paper on cardboard, Lenbachhaus, Munich


Acrobats, 1915, watercolor, pastel and ink on paper, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York

Föhn im Marc'schen Garten (Foehn at Marc's Garden) was made after the Turin trip. It indicates the relations between color and the stimulus of Macke and Delaunay. Although elements of the garden are clearly visible, a further steering towards abstraction is noticeable. In his diary Klee wrote the following note at that time:


In the large molding pit are lying ruins, on which one partially hangs. They provide the material for the abstraction. […] The terrible the world, the abstract the art, while a happy world produces secularistic art.[73]


Under the impression of his military service he created the painting Trauerblumen (Velvetbells) in 1917, which, with its graphical signs, vegetal and phantastic shapes, is a forerunner of his future works, harmonically combining graphic, color and object. For the first time birds appear in the pictures, such as in Blumenmythos (Flower Myth) from 1918, mirroring the flying and falling planes he saw in Gersthofen, and the photographed plane crashes.


In the 1918 watercolor painting Einst dem Grau der Nacht enttaucht, a compositional implemented poem, possible written by Klee, he incorporated letters in small, in terms of color separated squares, cutting off the first verse from the second one with silver paper. At the top of the cardboard, which carries the picture, the verses are inscribed in manuscript form. Here, Klee did not lean on Delaunay's colors, but on Marc's, although the picture content of both painters does not correspond with each other. Herwarth Walden, Klee's art dealer, saw in them a "Wachablösung" (changing of the guard) of his art.[74] Since 1919 he often used oil colors, with which he combined watercolors and colored pencil. The Villa R (Kunstmuseum Basel) from 1919 unites visible realities such as sun, moon, mountains, trees and architectures, as well as surreal pledges and sentiment readings.[75]


Works in the Bauhaus period and in Düsseldorf[edit]

His works during this time include abstract graphical elements such as betroffener Ort (Affected Place) (1922). From that period he created Die Zwitscher-Maschine (The Twittering Machine), which was later removed from the National Gallery. After being named defamatory in the Munich exhibition "Entartete Kunst", the painting was later bought by the Buchholz Gallery, New York, and then transferred in 1939 to the Museum of Modern Art. The "twittering" in the title refers to the open-beaked birds, while the "machine" is illustrated by the crank.[76]


In Engelshut, 1931, watercolor and colored inks on paper, mounted on paper, Guggenheim Museum

The watercolor painting appears at a first glance childish, but it allows more interpretations. The picture can be interpreted as a critic by Klee, who shows through denaturation of the birds, that the world technization heist the creatures' self-determination.[77]


Other examples from that period are der Goldfisch (The Goldfish) from 1925, Katze und Vogel (Cat and Bird), from 1928, and Hauptweg und Nebenwege (Mainway and Sideways) from 1929. Through variations of the canvas ground and his combinated painting techniques Klee created new color effects and picture impressions.


In 1931, Klee transferred to Düsseldorf to teach in the Akademie; the Nazis shut down the Bauhaus soon after.[78] During this time, Klee illustrated a series of guardian angels. Among these figurations is "In Engelshut" (In the Angel's Care). Its overlaying technique evinces the polyphonic character of his drawing method between 1920 and 1932 .[79]


The 1932 painting Ad Parnassum was also created in the Düsseldorfer period. With 100 cm × 126 cm (39 in × 50 in) it is one of his largest paintings, as he usually worked with small formats. In this mosaic-like work in the style of pointillism he combined different techniques and compositional principles. Influenced by his trip to Egypt from 1928 to 1929, Klee built a color field from individually stamped dots, surrounded by likewise stamped lines, which results in a pyramid. Above the roof of the "Parnassus" there is a sun. The title identifies the picture as the home of Apollo and the Muses.[80] In 1933, the last year in Germany, he created a range of paintings and drawings; the catalogue raisonné comprised 482 works. The self-portrait in the same year – with the programmatic title von der Liste gestrichen (removed from the list) – provides information about his feeling after losing professorship. The abstract portrait was painted in dark colors and shows closed eyes and compressed lips, while on the back part of his head there is a large "X", symbolizing that his art was no longer valued in Germany.[81]


Red/Green Architecture (yellow/violet gradation), 1922, oil on canvas on cardboard mat, Yale University Art Gallery, Yale University, New Haven, Connecticut


Senecio, 1922, oil on gauze, Kunstmuseum Basel, Basel


Fright of a Girl, 1922, Watercolor, India ink and oil transfer drawing on paper, with India ink on paper mount, Solomon R. Guggenheim Museum, New York

Last works in Switzerland[edit]

In this period Klee mainly worked on large-sized pictures. After the onset of illness, there were about 25 works in the 1936 catalogue, but his productivity increased in 1937 to 264 pictures, 1938 to 489, and 1939 – his most productive year – to 1254. They dealt with ambivalent themes, expressing his personal fate, the political situation and his joke. Examples are the watercolor painting Musiker (musician), a stickman face with partially serious, partially smiling mouth; and the Revolution des Viadukts (Revolution of the Viadukt), an anti-fascist art. In Viadukt (1937) the bridge arches split from the bank as they refuse to be linked to a chain and are therefore rioting.[82] Since 1938, Klee worked more intensively with hieroglyphic-like elements. The painting Insula dulcamara from the same year, which is one of his largest (88 cm × 176 cm (35 in × 69 in)), shows a white face in the middle of the elements, symbolizing death with its black-circled eye sockets. Bitterness and sorrow are not rare in much of his works during this time.


Zeichen in Gelb, 1937, pastel on cotton on colored paste on jute on stretcher frame, Foundation Beyeler, Riehen near Basel


Nach der Überschwemmung, 1936, wallpaper glue and watercolors on Ingres paper on cardboard


Revolution des Viadukts, 1937, oil on oil grounding on cotton on stretcher frame, Hamburger Kunsthalle


Die Vase, 1938, oil on jute, Foundation Beyeler, Riehen near Basel


Heroische Rosen (Heroic Roses), 1938, oil on canvas, Kunstsammlung Nordrhein-Westfalen, Düsseldorf


Insula dulcamara, 1938, oil color and colored paste on newsprint on jute on stretcher frame, Zentrum Paul Klee, Bern


Ohne Titel (Letztes Stillleben), 1940, oil on canvas on stretcher frame, Zentrum Paul Klee, Bern


Tod und Feuer (Death and Fire), 1940, oil on distemper on jute, Zentrum Paul Klee, Bern

Klee created in 1940 a picture which strongly differs from the previous works, leaving it unsigned on the scaffold. The comparatively realistic still life, Ohne Titel, later named as Der Todesengel (Angel of Death), depicts flowers, a green pot, sculpture and an angel. The moon on black ground is separated from these groups. During his 60th birthday Klee was photographed in front of this picture.[83]


Reception and legacy[edit]

External video

Paul Klee - Forest Witches - Google Art Project.jpg

Paul Klee at Tate Modern on YouTube, (3:38), The Art Fund (UK)

Contemporary view[edit]


Was fehlt ihm? (What Is He Missing?), 1930, stamp drawing in ink, Ingres paper on cardboard, Fondation Beyeler, Riehen near Basel

“Art does not reproduce the visible; rather, it makes visible.”

"Klee's act is very prestigious. In a minimum of one line he can reveal his wisdom. He is everything; profound, gentle and many more of the good things, and this because: he is innovative", wrote Oskar Schlemmer, Klee's future artist colleague at the Bauhaus, in his September 1916 diary.[84]


Novelist and Klee's friend Wilhelm Hausenstein wrote in his work Über Expressionismus in der Malerei (On Expressionism in Painting), "Maybe Klee's attitude is in general understandable for musical people – how Klee is one of the most delightsome violinist playing Bach and Händel, who ever walked on earth. […] For Klee, the German classic painter of the Cubism, the world music became his companion, possibly even a part of his art; the composition, written in notes, seems to be not dissimilar."[85]


When Klee visited the Paris surrealism exhibition in 1925, Max Ernst was impressed by his work. His partially morbid motifs appealed to the surrealists. André Breton helped to develop the surrealism and renamed Klee's 1912 painting Zimmerperspektive mit Einwohnern (Room Perspective with People) to chambre spirit in a catalogue. Critic René Crevel called the artist a "dreamer" who "releases a swarm of small lyrical louses from mysterious abysses." Paul Klee's confidante Will Grohmann argued in the Cahiers d'art that he "stands definitely well solid on his feet. He is by no means a dreamer; he is a modern person, who teaches as a professor at the Bauhaus." Whereupon Breton, as Joan Miró remembers, was critical of Klee: "Masson and I have both discovered Paul Klee. Paul Éluard and Crevel are also interested in Klee, and they have even visited him. But Breton despises him."[86]


The art of mentally ill people inspired Klee as well as Kandinsky and Max Ernst, after Hans Prinzhorns book Bildnerei der Geisteskranken (Artistry of the Mentally Ill) was published in 1922. In 1937, some papers from Prinzhorn's anthology were presented at the National Socialist propaganda exhibition "Entartete Kunst" in Munich, with the purpose of defaming the works of Kirchner, Klee, Nolde and other artists by likening them to the works of the insane.[87]


In 1949 Marcel Duchamp commented on Paul Klee: "The first reaction in front of a Klee painting is the very pleasant discovery, what everyone of us could or could have done, to try drawing like in our childhood. Most of his compositions show at the first glance a plain, naive expression, found in children's drawings. […] At a second analyse one can discover a technique, which takes as a basis a large maturity in thinking. A deep understanding of dealing with watercolors to paint a personal method in oil, structured in decorative shapes, let Klee stand out in the contemporary art and make him incomparable. On the other side, his experiment was adopted in the last 30 years by many other artists as a basis for newer creations in the most different areas in painting. His extreme productivity never shows evidence of repetition, as is usually the case. He had so much to say, that a Klee never became an other Klee."[88]


One of Klee's paintings, Angelus Novus, was the object of an interpretative text by German philosopher and literary critic Walter Benjamin, who purchased the painting in 1921. In his "Theses on the Philosophy of History" Benjamin suggests that the angel depicted in the painting might be seen as representing the angel of history.


Musical interpretations[edit]


Zentrum Paul Klee in Bern, Switzerland, designed by Renzo Piano

Unlike his taste for adventurous modern experiment in painting, Klee, though musically talented, was attracted to older traditions of music; he neither appreciated composers of the late 19th century, such as Wagner, Bruckner and Mahler, nor contemporary music. Bach and Mozart were for him the greatest composers; he most enjoyed playing the works by the latter.[89]


Klee's work has influenced composers including Argentinian Roberto García Morillo in 1943, with Tres pinturas de Paul Klee, and the American artist David Diamond in 1958, with the four-part Opus Welt von Paul Klee (World of Paul Klee) Gunther Schuller with Sieben Studien über Klee'sche Bilder (Seven Studies about Klee Pictures) in the years 1959/60, and the Spanish composer Benet Casablancas with Alter Klang, Impromptu for Orchestra after Klee (2006);[90] Casablancas is author also of the Retablo on texts by Paul Klee, Cantata da Camera for Soprano, Mezzo and Piano (2007).[91] Other works are Abstraktes Terzett (Abstract Trio), Little Blue Devil, Zwitscher-Maschine (Twittering Machine), Arab Village, Ein unheimlicher Moment (An Eerie Moment) and Pastorale. In 1950, Giselher Klebe performed his orchestral work Die Zwitschermaschine with the subtitle Metamorphosen über das Bild von Paul Klee at the Donaueschinger Musiktage.[92] 8 Pieces on Paul Klee is the title of the debut album by the Ensemble Sortisatio, recorded February and March 2002 in Leipzig and August 2002 in Luzern, Switzerland. The composition "Wie der Klee vierblättrig wurde" (How the clover became four-leaved) was inspired by the watercolor painting Hat Kopf, Hand, Fuss und Herz (1930), Angelus Novus and Hauptweg und Nebenwege.


In 1968, a jazz group called The National Gallery featuring composer Chuck Mangione released the album Performing Musical Interpretations of the Paintings of Paul Klee.[93] In 1995 the Greek experimental filmmaker, Kostas Sfikas, created a film based entirely on Paul Klee's paintings. The film is entitled "Paul Klee's Prophetic Bird of Sorrows", and draws its title from Klee's Landscape with Yellow Birds. It was made using portions and cutouts from Paul Klee's paintings.[94]


On OCTOBER 17-19, 2008 Stand Up & Take Action

Against Poverty and for the Millennium Development Goals


Take Action Against War and Hunger! Together, we can Make War & Hunger History!!


Nearly one billion people go hungry each day, 65 percent of them in just seven countries: India, China, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Ethiopia and Congo, reported the UN food agency ( ). “For millions of people in developing countries, eating the minimum amount of food every day to live an active and healthy life is a distant dream”, said FAO’ Assistant Director-General Hafez Ghanem.


Another 40 million people have been pushed into hunger in 2008 primarily due to higher food prices, according to preliminary estimates published by FAO. This brings the overall number of undernourished people in the world to 963 million, compared to 923 million in 2007 and the ongoing financial and economic crisis could tip even more people into hunger and poverty, FAO warned.


"At a time when $700 billion can be found overnight to bail out the richest bankers in the world and $1000 billion can be spent on one single “war,” when sovereign wealth funds in a few rich countries alone are at $2500 billion and growing, it stretches credulity when we are told that the world can’t find an extra $18 billion a year to save the lives of millions of children and women and meet the basic needs of the majority of the world’s population."

---- Global Director, U.N. Millennium Campaign, Salil Shetty


Several Heads of States, Ministers, politicians, high-ranking government bureaucrats, unscrupulous businesses, criminals, drug traffickers, smugglers and other unscrupulous people are depositing large sums of illegal money in not just the Swiss banks, there are around 70 tax havens worldwide which are used to stash slush monies. A 2008 report by the OECD (Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development) lists Switzerland, Austria, Luxembourg, Liechtenstein, Panama, Singapore and others as states where it deems bank secrecy rules undesirable. Estimates suggest more than $11 trillion black money may be stored in tax havens.( )

If the governments are serious about stopping black money and raising resources to meet the growing economic crisis, they must take steps to bring back the unaccounted or, ill-gotten wealth. Most adversely affected are the developing nations including those from Africa and Asia, where disappearance of large amounts of money badly needed for development.


Two-thirds of the world’s populations don’t have access to the financial system. Poor are not considered credit worthy. The idea of the business is only maximisation of profit. That is too narrow an interpretation of a human being. The current financial meltdown is destroying jobs, lives and livelihoods, while wreaking havoc on currencies and stock markets around the world. It has taken resources from the many, while concentrating wealth in the hands of the few. To date, governments have largely responded by spending more than one trillion dollars bailing out private financial institutions and corporations. Meanwhile, the crushing needs of communities, ordinary citizens and fragile ecosystems have been largely ignored. There should also be social business in the society.


The globalisation had to ensure the maximum good for the maximum numbers around the world and not just the privileged few who got richer under the corrupt political regime. It is true that every successful economy is a market economy, the problem lay in the way it evolved in the corrupt regime which privatised profits and socialised losses. That is not capitalism. The current crisis showed that system was inadequate to cope with the changing situation. The societies needed to practise social responsibility throughout their business, ensuring that they did not make profits by harming lives, livelihoods and the environment. Every human being should have the “right to credit” because if people have money, they can change their lives.


Eight years ago, in 2000, leaders of 189 countries signed the Millennium Declaration agreeing to do everything in their power to end poverty. They pledged to do this by achieving the Millennium Development Goals, a roadmap to end extreme poverty by 2015. Are we even half way to meeting the eight Millennium Development Goals?


Still, every day, 50,000 people die as a result of extreme poverty and the gap between rich and poor people is increasing. Nearly half the world’s population live in poverty, 70% are women.


In war and conflicts, every year thousands of people killed, wounded or displaced includes infants, toddlers, boys, girls, house wives, grandmothers, mothers, fathers, grandfathers, sisters, schoolteachers, factory workers, healthcare workers, agriculture workers, sales girls, graphic designers, software writers, call centre employees, dancers, day care providers, construction workers, babysitters, musicians, singers, bakers, restaurant workers, cab drivers, maidservants and many more. Thousands of soldiers have been killed and hundreds of thousands more have suffered severe physical and psychological wounds.


We have the power to change this. Push your governments for peace, more and better aid, debt cancellation, education for all boys and girls, healthcare, trade justice, gender equality, right to credit and public accountability.


Let us tell the political gamblers

that we hate their ways of war and destruction!


Arise and tell the war mongers

what we need are tools to work and freedom from hunger!!


Say No To Unfair Social System!

Say No To Corrupt Political Regime!!

Say No To Unfair World Order!!!

Say No To Unfair Trade!!!!


Fight for peace!

Fight against hunger!!

We can make 'War, Terrorism and Hunger History' in our lifetime!!!


foto: firoz ahmad firoz


My grandmother sent me a letter today. It read (or some of it did anyway):


"Study hard these next few weeks of school. High School in the fall. Can you believe it?"


Uhm. No. No I can't. xDD


Anyway, prepare for an extremely long description.


I've made it to my 100th 365 day! But since it took me so long, I’m posting this list on my 101st photo.

My 100th photo didn’t really relate to 100. But this project is about learning more about yourself, right? Sorta. Well, I thought I would take the time to write down 100 random facts about myself (and my beliefs) at the moment.


1. I'm disgusted at how huge my shadow is in my 100th picture. So I've made a new commitment of losing at least 5 pounds every month. I need to get a scale so I can track it.


2. What inspired me to lose weight was a Dove Chocolate wrapper that had a message inside. It read: "If they can do it, so can't you."


3. I believe that my soul mate could be anyone, regardless of gender (age, race, you get the picture :P).


4. "Right Down the Line" by Gerry Rafferty and "Faithfully" by Journey are two of my favorite love songs.


5. I can lip-sync to the movie National Treasure word for word.


6. I met both of my best friends online. I've known them for about 3 years.


7. I'm not very good expressing myself through talking, and I often offend people because I don't explain myself clearly.


8. I'm a very different person online and often taken advantage of the fact that no one can reach me through my computer screen.


9. I have the logic of a five year old. If you can't see it, it can't see you. That is the sentence that repeats through my head after I have watched a horror film and I'm trying to sleep.


10. Movies that animals die in (such as Mighty Joe Young and King Kong) make me bawl. But I don't cry when humans die. D:


11. I want to get snake bite piercings.


12. I watch movies online that I probably shouldn't.


13. Although I really like scary movies, I can't watch anything that has a possessed character in it (like the Exorcist). I've only seen clips of that movie and I bet I won't see it until I'm a lot older. Possession scares the crap out of me.


14. I think Dita Von Teese and Liv Tyler are two of the most beautiful women in the world. Anthony Hopkins and Joaquin Phoenix are two of the most handsome men. :P


15. Guys should have the long hair and girls should have the short.


16. When I was little, I had to get my tonsils out. I used to hide my medicine in my favorite recliner so I wouldn't have to take it. I have a fear of medicine going into my body. I even refuse to take tylenol or advil for a headache unless it's extremely painful.


17. When people used to ask me where my dad was, I would always make a story up. Two of the ones I can remember are “He drowned in his boat” and “When he was making something in his workshop he cut off his hand died.” Yes, my mind morbid even when I was young.


18. Metallica was my first ever obsession. I have posters, CDs, a t-shirt, magazines, a purse, and stickers all with their logo.


19. In my lifetime, I think I have completed only two stories that I started writing. They were both for school projects.


20. I think that serial killers are interesting. Not for what they did, but how they explain what they did and why they did it.


21. I despise cleanliness. My room is filled with clutter and I like it that way. Usually it’s not filthy (like I don’t have food under my bed and mold growing on my pillows) but I like it when there is stuff on the floor.


22. I’ve considered abandoning the thought of becoming a CSI and becoming an actress or musician instead.


23. I’m a very jealous person and I used to flip every time someone commented on my friend’s Myspace page (hence why I never will go on that site again).


24. I would like to become nocturnal but it’s nearly impossible for me to sleep during the day.


25. I spent 6 years of my life playing Neopets and I still can’t believe how much time I wasted on there.


26. When I was in pre-school, I remember I used to kiss the boys and pretend they were my boyfriends. Yes, very sad, I know.


27. I would really like to learn French and would probably make the compromise of going to public school if I could learn it.


28. If I am interested in a certain subject or person I will learn as much as I can about it/them. Hopefully it’s not considered like… stalking or something but I know a lot about certain celebrities.


29. I like having crooked teeth, but a lot of my family dislikes them.


30. Thinking about the future makes my stomach really weak. I’m often worried what this world is coming to.


31. I would like to become an old rodent lady. I want to have rabbits, guinea pigs, ferrets, rats, chinchillas, hamsters, mice… all that jazz. I really like little fuzzy things like that.


32. One of my favorite things to do when I’m in Maine is watch reality TV shows with my brother. Parental Control and Sweet 16 are two of the ones we like watching.


33. I don’t have a lot of motivation and I’m not proud of most of the things I have done that other people are proud of me for doing. I’m not even sure how I was motivated enough to get this far in my list!


34. I often have to stop myself in the middle of conversations to rethink what I was going to say without chatspeak.


35. I feel that some people take advantage of me, but I never do anything about it. Like I worry that people are just talking to me to rant to me so I can give them advice. But it stinks because then their problems become mine and I get extremely frustrated.


36. Even though I’m a very fortunate person, I often find myself wanting more or wanting to get away and lead a different life.


37. Grapes of Wrath is one of my favorite books, but I’ve only read it once.


38. One of the things that turns me off about people I meet is how they have to bring God into a conversation or they have to make everything they do somehow… revolve around God. Although I find myself to be an open-minded person, I’m somewhat offended when people think that everyone is religious and those that aren’t need to be ‘saved’.


39. Again, I find myself a very open-minded person, but two of the things I refuse to try to understand are Republican beliefs and Scientology.


40. You know how some people are racist, prejudice, sexist, etc.? Well, I’ve been told that I’m a ‘cliquest’ because strongly dislike the emo and scene styles.


41. I usually don’t finish things that I have started. For example, (like I mentioned above) I don’t usually finish stories I begin writing. I don’t finish many art projects I start, it takes me a long time to finish a movie, and it takes me a really long time to finish cleaning my room.


42. One of the reasons why I hate writing reports for school is because of the program Microsoft Word. It frustrates me greatly.


43. I consider myself to me a pretty good liar. I’m good with eye contact when I need to lie, but I usually end up blushing in the end which gives it away.


44. One of my dreams is to marry a retired actor and live in the woods in a house with a tower, away from the rest of the word.


45. I have an interest in a wide range of music. I listen to pop, R&B, metal, soundtrack stuff, rock, oldies, etc. The only genres I really can’t stand are opera, jazz, and orchestra like stuff unless it’s EXTREMELY powerful.


46. Unlike music, I don’t have a very wide range of movies I’m interested in. I like watching horrors and thrillers with this occasional comedy or romance. I’m also a sucker for any 80s film.


47. One of my worst fears is dying while I’m asleep. I like to be fully aware of what’s happening.


48. Another one of my worst fears is becoming attached to people. When I become attached to a person, it means that I’ll become very jealous if anyone else is involved with them. I worry that if they see how jealous I am, that they won’t think I’m a safe person to be around.


49. I don’t really understand why people are offended by nudity. D: Especially when they think that life is such a gift and all.


50. I dislike pretty much everything that has to do with the mouth except for the tongue. Teeth and chewing noises gross me out.


51. It’s hard for me to feel bad for people who have died during natural disasters. Like in hurricanes or tornados. I figure that there is a reason for it.


52. My dream wedding would take place on the rocks that Merry, Pippin, Frodo, Sam, Boromir, Legolas, Aragorn and Gimli (is that all of them?) grieved for Gandalf. I think the location is in New Zealand.


53. The form of my nonexistent future children’s names is a family name and a musician’s name.


54. I have a birthmark near an unmentionable place that I discovered a couple months ago. xD


55. The movie Requiem for a Dream is more powerful than D.A.R.E., and is one of my favorite movies. Seriously. If you have a teenage child you should watch it with them. That movie is one of the reasons why I will never consider doing drugs.


56. I like putting glue on my fingers and letting it dry to peel it off.


57. Another one of my favorite bands in Shiny Toy Guns. My best friend and I dubbed them ‘our band’ because it’s the only band that we both can agree we like. (I listen to the heavier stuff and he listens to more pop).


58. My step-dad says that I have a thing for guys named Andrew. I know three guys named Andrew and at some point, I’ve had a crush on each of them.


59. I have a fear of going over to other people’s houses to eat if they eat meat. Over the summer, my dad and step-mom didn’t accept that I ate meat and I had to survive off poptarts and chips. D: That’s part of the reason.


60. When I think, nearly every other word is a swear.


61. My favorite drink is a Strawberry Daiquiri. Virgin, of course. ;o


62. A video I found on YouTube narrated by Pamela Anderson is what inspired me to become a vegetarian.


63. Two of my most prized possessions are a seashell box given to me by my grandmother and Rollin’ Stone interviews with Axel Rose from May of ’92 given to me by my Mom.


64. When I was younger I used to watch a show called Big Wolf On Campus. One of the characters drove a hearse and that has been my dream car since then.


65. My aunt Lisa is my role-model.


66. I often scare my friend because I tell her the ideas I have of contraptions and traps similar to the ones in Saw.


67. My first CD ever was Britney Spears’ Oops… I Did it Again.


68. One of my favorite memories is of a day at the beach with two of mom’s friends and my old babysitters. J, I’ll call him, and I went for a walk on the beach and left our shoes in some random place. When we went to try to find them, we walked past them several times on accident because a couple had set up their spot and were making out. When J finally saw the shoes, we both couldn’t stop laughing.


69. I’ve looked into how much it costs to get pointed caps for your teeth so I could be a ‘vampire’.


70. I have glasses, but I barely wear them. They’re for reading.


71. I like to be confined into small places and don’t freak out in small areas, unless I can barely breathe.


72. AXE deodorant is the only kind that I’ve tired that doesn’t make me itch. ):


73. I often begin following trends once they’re considered ‘so last year’.


74. My guitars are named Griffin and Kadae.


75. My favorite smilie is ‘xD’ and I usually use it after every sentence when I am talking online, and sometimes even accidentally use it in my stories. xDD I’ll go through and be like, “’xD’? Why is this here? xDD”


76. I have a very strong conscience. Once, in third grade, a group of my friends (I guess you could call us the popular bullies) took a girl’s lunch box and hid it behind a trash can. I was so upset and felt so guilty that when I got him, I called the girl to tell her where her box was.


77. When I was around three or four, we lived in Maine in an apartment complex. One day while I was out playing, these teenagers decided it would be a good idea to put me in the baby swing and leave me there. I was a chunky toddler, so I got stunk in there and had to scream at the top of my lungs for my mom to come and get me. If I remember correctly my mom and the man helping to pull me out discussed calling the fire department. Since then I have always hated those swings.


78. One of my biggest pet-peeves is when people call black and white colors. Example:

Person 1: “What’s your favorite color?”

Person 2: “Black.”

Person 3: “Oh. You’re so badass. ;o”

-enters the chat- Me: “Psh. No. They’re not. Black isn’t a color.”


79. I used to walk around the house pretending to be Xena. I put a butterknife in my underwear and walked around. One time, I cut my chest and I have a bit of a scar.


80. My Top 10 most played songs on iTunes are:

I’m the Man – Anthrax (94 plays)

Du hast – Rammstein (91)

All Over You – Live (81)

Would? – Alice in Chains (74)

Touch, Peel & Stand – Days of the New (69)

Iris – Live (66)

More Than a Feeling – Boston (65)

DotA – Basshunter (50)

Music Is My Hot, Hot Sex – CSS (50)

Don’t Stop Believin’ – Journey (49)


81. My favorite food is a dish that my mom makes with pasta, peppers, black beans, onions and some other stuff. I think I’ve asked for it for my birthday the past two years.


82. One of my goals as an adult is to build a huge collection of movies. (Like, 1000+ movies.)


83. Depression started to kick in with me when I was about 11.


84. I probably think about something related to death as much as guys think about sex (studies say that’s almost every 8 seconds).


85. I’m jealous of how Canadians are so proud of their country.


86. I learned the ‘f’ word at a hockey game when I was like 8 or 9.


87. I’ve been brainstorming of ideas of what to paint on the rock in Lee for nearly 2 years.


88. Another reason why I would like to lose weight and keep it off is so I can get a huge tattoo on my back when I’m older.


89. I have a mannequin chest in my room that I stick needles into. I’ve considered dying patches of it red, but decided against it because mom might use it to model her bags.


90. I’ve nearly trained myself not to dream. For about a week, I was afraid to go to sleep because I killed someone in one. My dreams are often very clear and graphic, so I was tired of seeing the things I was and just told myself to stop. One dream I can remember was a dream of a wolf/beaver/fox thing that was chasing after me, and it has scared me for pretty much ever.


91. I’m afraid to go into my grandmother’s backroom in her house because I used to believe (and still kind of do) that there are evil white unicorn type creatures in there. They’re actually really cool, in my mind. I should try using them in a story sometime.


92. I think that 365 is one of the most challenging things that I’ve ever tried to do by myself! My set isn’t very exciting, but I am learning more about myself through my pictures and I’ve begun to see the world in a different way. Maybe that’s just because I am getting older, but I am not sure.


93. One of the first things people tell me online is “Holy cow? You’re 14? I thought you were like… 18 or something.” It gets on my nerves.


94. I’ve always wanted a dog but I’ve pretty much stopped begging my parents for one. My cats and Brooke would probably gang up on it.


95. I was in a fire when I was younger, but I can’t remember any of it. I think that’s one of the things that I’m most upset about not remembering. Maybe the smoke inhalation did something to my brain. That would explain a lot.


96. I have a blanket that I’ve had since I was a baby. Luckily it was rescued from the fire mentioned above. I seriously don’t know how different my life would be without that blanket. XD We call it the ‘ABC’ blanket because it has the alphabet all over it. It used to be really bright, but now it’s… pastel. xD


97. I purposefully burned the side of my eye to see what it would feel like. (Shoot… I don’t think I ever admitted that to mom…)


98. Even though barely anyone knows, I have a very perverted mind. I often find it very hard not to laugh at little things and have a laughing fit every time I see condoms in a store.


99. I like country/hick boys (men? I dunno if you can call them that) a lot for some reason. There are a lot of my dad’s friends that I’d probably like if they weren’t so stupid. xD


100. And… ugh. Last one. This is hard. Ohoh! My first celebrity crush was Hayden Christensen in the first Star Wars. I was so in love with that kid. 8D


Okay. This is a very boring list. If you actually made it through this all, cheers to you!


By S.L. Price


He hurled the ball high into the air, and it spun up and away and forgotten, the object that just moments before had been the most important thing in the building. Dwyane Wade began screaming. The clock ticked to zero, the horn sounded: But he knew already. He had known before anyone else in the arena that it was over, that his Miami Heat had come back yet again and won the 2006 NBA championship, that on this June night in Dallas he had, at 24, risen above his preordained peers to clutch the only prize that matters. The rest, though? He knew almost none of that.


Above Wade, above the American Airlines Center floor where the Mavericks and their shocked fans were edging toward the doors, the ball reached its peak, hovered an instant, started its fall. Already, the hierarchy of the basketball universe had been reshuffled, Wade's place in the game elevated and informed by long ago names and games. Time and again during these playoffs he pulled off heroics that echoed one basketball legend after another. Make room at the table, John Havlicek and Larry Bird: Wade stole New Jersey's final inbounds pass with nine tenths of a second left in Game 5 of the Eastern Conference semifinals to send the Nets packing. Move over, Willis Reed: Wade did you one better, marching dramatically onto the court in the second half of a vital opening-round Game 5 against Chicago after suffering a hip contusion, then, four weeks later, checking out of a hospital after a night of vomiting caused by a sinus infection to carry the Heat in the series-sealing Game 6 of the conference finals against Detroit.


Yet, the most resounding echo of all, naturally, came at the end. It was Wade who led Miami, down 0-2 in the Finals and about to be buried, out of a 13-point hole with 6:15 to play in Game 3. It was Wade who wound up with 15 points in the fourth quarter, 42 overall, Wade who stole Dirk Nowitzki's inbounds pass with three tenths of a second left to put a boot to the Mavericks' throat. In the Heat sweep to follow, the Chicago-born, Jordan-worshipping Wade made it safe, for perhaps the first time since number 23 retired, to compare a guard with Michael and not risk embarrassment. At every pivotal point in Miami's oddly flawed playoff run, Wade had lifted his play to a personal high. But in those final four games -- with every Dallas player, coach and fan keying on him -- he punctuated a rise unlike any the league has seen, averaging 39.2 points, 8.2 rebounds, 3.5 assists and 2.5 steals. No other player, in his first three NBA seasons, has scored more postseason points. No other player has come close.


"He just went off the charts," says former Heat coach Stan Van Gundy, now a consultant with the team. "Dwyane literally for six weeks played the game at a level that almost no one's ever played at. I don't know that Jordan ever played a better Finals. He's the best in the league right now, and the winning is what sets him apart from the other perimeter guys. LeBron James, Kobe Bryant and Carmelo Anthony are great and may eventually lead teams to championships. But the difference between Dwyane and Kobe is that when the Lakers won [three championships], Kobe had a huge part of it -- but Shaq was the lead guy. Last season Dwyane was the lead guy. He led them to a championship."


But it's not Wade's way to admit such a thing or concern himself -- even as he and his teammates hugged and danced after the Game 6 clincher -- with what any of it meant. For so long basketball had been his way to escape a legacy, not build one. "Thirteen points down with six minutes to go? That's not life or death," Wade says. "I've been through more than anybody knows. To me this is joy. This is when I can let it all out. This is my time."


So, yes, even as the ball plunged to the arena floor, sportswriters hit the keyboards, message boards hummed, talking heads babbled: The atmosphere of Sportsland was suddenly charged with a sense of revival. Wade had done it all again on this night -- 36 points, 10 rebounds, five assists, four steals -- and would be named Finals MVP, but he'd also made winning a title as much about a franchise, a city, as himself. Who does that anymore? "I have my favorite players," says Denver Nuggets coach George Karl. "For a long time they were John Stockton, Kevin Garnett, Tim Duncan. Now my favorite player to watch on film is Dwyane Wade. He plays the game the right way.... His spirit, his presence is fun to watch. He doesn't cheat the game with emotion or negative energy. He's always visibly focused, disciplined and team."


Wade had spoken all season about winning a title for old-timers Alonzo Mourning and Gary Payton, and now they had their rings. Coach Pat Riley, a onetime burnout case who hadn't won a championship in 18 years and had been vilified for replacing Van Gundy six weeks into the season, now stood vindicated. And a league that, in comparison with its glorious past, had been found wanting at last had the real deal: a throwback star with crossover cachet and 21st-century moves. For all that, not to mention the emotional vein tapped in South Florida's notoriously fractured populace, some 250,000 of whom would gather three days later for the team's victory rally in a resurging downtown Miami, Wade has been named SI's 2006 Sportsman of the Year.


Such praise is pleasant, of course. Wade likes it. If a coach, a league, even a city, can feel renewed through his actions, wonderful. But on that night in Dallas a woman stood wide-eyed as her son became a champion, and hers was the rebirth that mattered most. Jolinda Wade, recovering drug addict and onetime fugitive from the law, saw Wade scream and the ball come down and felt it very hard to breathe. How did I get here? she thought. How in God's name did we get here?


"No, you can't come with me," his older sister would say. This was 1988, on Chicago's South Side, and six-year-old Dwyane kept begging to come along. "Don't follow me, now," Tragil would say. "Stay home!" Then she would bang out the door of their first-floor apartment into the Englewood neighborhood's rough vibe, an 11-year-old girl wanting a little time on her own. Off she'd walk, sometimes down 59th, sometimes down Prairie, one block, two blocks....


"Hey, someone's following you," people would shout, smirking, and she'd whirl around and look: nothing. But she knew Dwyane was there. He was always there. Tragil had no say in that, not for a while; it was she who taught Dwyane to read and fight, she who wiped snot from his nose, she who often as not mixed the pork and beans with whatever was handy to make dinner -- if there were any pork or beans to be had. A welfare life they lived, surviving on food stamps and government-issued cheese. Every so often she'd try to leave him with their barely awake mother or the two older sisters who came and went, but little Dwyane would have none of that. He had to be with her. He had to be just like her. Soon after Tragil went out the door, he'd race outside, zip across the street, hide behind trash cans or parked cars whenever she checked over her shoulder -- until, too far from home to be sent back, he'd finally pop out behind her, all cocky. She had to take him with her.


"It became a joke; every time she'd leave she'd think I was following her -- even when I wasn't," Dwyane says. "That was my favorite: just the whole chasin', knowing that she loved me and knowing she was willing to have me around. She wanted to have fun with her friends, but I didn't have friends. I wanted to run with her."


The alternatives were going up to Granny's place on the third floor, his aunt's on the second or the apartment where Mom was sinking fast. Jolinda and Dwyane's father, Dwyane Sr., had split up soon after the boy was born, and though his dad would show on weekends and birthdays, Momma's new man was their fact of life. The man, Jolinda says, was "like from hell itself"; Dwyane saw her cowed and fearful and vowed to get him back someday. "I couldn't have him growing up around this, no," Jolinda says. "But I was caught. I was drowning."


In the years they had been together, Dwyane Sr. says, he and Jolinda "both had problems. Back in the '70s a lot of people were doing drugs, different kinds of drugs and smoking weed and stuff. We were too." But Jolinda spun out of control once she had Dwyane and left his dad; their two kids, Tragil and Dwyane Jr., knew enough to leave her alone when the bedroom door was closed and the music blared. When their mother wasn't out late drinking, the two kids would rustle up close to Jolinda to watch TV, Tragil staring at The Cosby Show and thinking, I want that. want to be in that life; Jolinda closing her eyes and hearing the voices of her children, sounding so far away. On other days Dwyane would have special events at school -- Momma, I'm having my first school picture tomorrow! -- but Jolinda was usually sleeping it off. Tragil got him dressed nice for that one.


"My addiction was heroin, cocaine, alcohol and cigarettes," Jolinda says. "Four of them beating down on me."


In Englewood, as in every mean pocket of urban America, this kind of story usually doesn't end well. Gangs and drug dealers roamed the blocks; gunshots popped day and night; Tragil saw one of Dwyane's kindergarten classmates running bags of white powder. Dwyane Sr. had by then moved across town into an apartment with his fiancée, Bessie McDaniel, and her three boys. He offered to take Dwyane, so one Friday in 1988 Tragil packed a weekend's worth of clothes and escorted her brother on a 15-minute bus ride, dropped him off, told him to call if anyone mistreated him and promised to pick him up. But she didn't. Jolinda can't remember a thing about the day her only son left home forever. For Dwyane it now stands as the last in a line of noble acts his sister performed to save him, but as a boy he called Tragil to say, "You lied to me. You said you'd come back and you didn't."


"At the time you feel relief that he's going to be in good hands," Tragil says. "Protected with Daddy. Later on it hit me that's my best friend. I missed him."


The following year Dwyane Sr. moved his son and the McDaniel clan to the somewhat safer environs of Robbins, in Chicago's south suburbs. Soon Tragil left her mother, then another daughter, Keisha, bolted, leaving only the oldest, Deanna, behind. "When I lost my kids? It seemed I lost the willingness to live," Jolinda says. "I just started surviving because I didn't see a way of getting them back." Three years later, in September 1992, she was arrested for the first time and pleaded guilty to possession of crack cocaine with the intent to sell. Dwyane Sr. took his 10-year-old son to see Jolinda while she was incarcerated at the Cook County jail. "I never went back again," Wade says. "I didn't want to see my mother locked up. I just couldn't." The following February she was sentenced to 14 months' probation.


But one week after her sentencing, Jolinda was arrested again and later convicted for trying to sell crack to an undercover police officer. "I'm trying to sell drugs to make ends meet to get money to do this and that; then it just came to the point I just sold drugs so I could keep my sick off," she says.


Jolinda spent 16 months in prison, then, on Oct. 29, 1995, was arrested for selling crack. Sentenced to four years in a state penitentiary, she served seven months before failing to report for a work-release program. In March 1997 a warrant was issued. "They called it an escape," she says. "I didn't go back: My addiction called me; I answered the call ... and there you go."


One evening last month Wade was sitting in Miami's American Airlines Arena after wrapping a photo shoot: D-Wade, Superstar, doing layups in a fine gray suit. The place was all but empty, just a half-dozen people checking Blackberries. "Seeing it," he said. "Seeing my mother on drugs was the darkest for me. People on drugs don't have the same comprehension; you talk to them, and they fall asleep. That hurts. And you know it."


Wade started talking about his father, the discipline he instilled, when Tragil walked over. For a while Dwyane had sent her Mother's Day cards. Then last spring Tragil, 29, moved to the Miami area to help manage her brother's life; who better to do that? She bent down and kissed Dwyane four times on the cheek and neck. Dwyane Sr. was coming to town. "Call me about Daddy," she said, and walked off.


"That's my girl," Dwyane murmured, watching her figure grow smaller. "Hey," he shouted. "Don't be kissing me like that in front of everybody!" And her laughter echoed back even after she was gone.


It's easy, when taking stock of Dwyane Wade, to take him at face value. He speaks softly, smiles sweetly (yes, Tragil taught him that too) and trails a litany of praise from teammates and opponents that usually includes words like humble, quiet and polite. Did you know he married his high school sweetheart? That he tithes to his church? It's easy to mistake him for some unflappable choirboy, untainted by the modern star's usual cocktail of ego and insecurity. But then most people don't know that Wade got his first technical foul in high school for giving the opposing crowd the finger as he ran upcourt after blocking a shot; don't know that he got so insulted by all the attention paid LeBron James and Carmelo Anthony at the 2004 All-Star rookie game that he played "angry" the rest of that season ("I was like a third wheel," he says. "It was, like, Move out of the way, Dwyane, let Carmelo and LeBron take a picture. I felt slighted. I thought, I can be on these guys' level, so what am I going to do to get there?"); don't know that he wore his any more doubters? T-shirt so often after the Heat's championship run that his sister had to tell him to stop.


Indeed, for those who don't know Wade, the most remarkable highlight of the 2006 playoffs was not his circus shot, a twisting, back-to-the-basket layup while falling over the shoulder of Detroit's Antonio McDyess in Game 6 of the Eastern Conference finals. It came in Game 4 of the first-round series against Chicago, when Wade, of all people, refused to make nice.


If anything had marked Wade's growth as a player during his three years in the league, it was his diplomacy. Though he quickly established himself as Miami's best player while a rookie, he made every accommodation for the aging Shaquille O'Neal that Bryant couldn't make in L.A. Wade had no hang-up about its being Shaq's ball, Shaq's team. "More than any young player I've been around, Dwyane has a very high level of maturity," says Van Gundy, who was coaching the Heat when O'Neal was traded to Miami, before the 2004-05 season. "As much acclaim as [Wade] gets, he will not let his voice rise above Shaq's and will let Shaq be the Man. That's essential for that team: A lot of them know, quite honestly, that Dwyane is the better player at this point. But they need Shaq, and to keep him feeling good you have to keep Shaq in that preeminent position. Dwyane's smart enough to understand that and mature enough to let it happen. He knows that he can get enough attention without getting into a battle with Shaq."


Yet, in that first-round game against Chicago, with the Heat playing miserably and the Bulls about to even the series, Wade wasn't about to defer. He called out Payton for blowing an assignment and turning over the ball, snapping at him repeatedly to "step up." Payton, a nine-time All-Star with an ego to match and one of the league's champion trash talkers, jabbered back, and the two of them kept going at it from the court to the huddle, the old junkyard dog backed up by the once cuddlesome pup, even as Riley stepped between them and commentators clucked.


"I liked that," Payton says now. "I liked the way he came at me." Not only did the incident remind Payton of himself, but it also gave him for the first time a glimpse into what Wade's college coach, Marquette's Tom Crean, calls "his controlled rage."


"He's not humble -- by far," Payton says. "When Dwyane gets on the court I can see the hunger in his face. He wants to win. He doesn't take prisoners. He wants to kill you."


But Wade didn't have that instinct when he first moved in with his dad, and Bessie McDaniel and her three sons, Demetris, Darnell and Kodhmus. Until then Dwyane had been surrounded by females, doting on him when they could. He didn't like basketball; he wanted to jump rope. "He was soft, he was a baby," says Demetris, two years Dwyane's senior. "With me and my brothers, he was around men. Crying wasn't even in the ball game."


In the backyard at the house in Robbins, the court was cramped, the competition endless and fierce: games of 21 to start, then two-on-two with Dwyane Sr. until long after night fell. No one called fouls. Everyone hacked. Everyone learned to attack, attack, attack the basket; layups were gold and jump shots surrender. Dwyane Sr. was his son's first coach, shuttling him between AAU and rec leagues -- Blue Island, Robbins, Midlothian, Chicago's Hayes Park. The father might have partied in the '70s, but a three-year stint in the U.S. Army late in that decade showed him the value of discipline. There were nights when former Sergeant Wade made the boy shoot only with his left hand, in tears and the clock going on midnight. Toughen up, his dad commanded. If you can shoot in the dark, you can shoot anywhere. "No mercy," says Dwyane's wife, Siohvaughn, who lived two blocks away. "I felt so sorry for him."


Dwyane loved going from park to park with his stepbrothers, taking on all comers and winning. But a part of him recoiled from the testosterone overload; he began dating Siohvaughn as a sophomore and spoke of wanting a family by the time he was 20. He had always had the survivor's knack for fitting in, and when his father and stepmother's arguing became too much Wade made another change in households. As a senior he scored 90 points in one day of a two-games-a-day Christmas tournament, and colleges took greater interest in him. But he couldn't work to raise his test scores with all the turmoil at home. So with Siohvaughn off to her freshman year at Eastern Illinois he found refuge around the corner, moving in with her mother, Darlene Funches, during his senior year. They helped one another: Dwyane became family to Darlene, whose daughter Erica had died in a car crash just before Dwyane and Siohvaughn started dating; Darlene made Dwyane study, helped pick Marquette, provided an outlet from the constant push to win.


"One thing my dad will never do?" Wade says. "He will never tell me how good I am -- still. I don't think the Heat is his favorite team, and he won't tell me even if it is. He always makes me mad. He's been doing that since I was a kid: I'd get a triple double in a game, and he would say, 'That's nothing.' I was, like, Why is he so hard on us? But I understand it now. That's his way of letting us know: We can always do better. He'll always do that."


A bit before noon on March 8, 2003, Wade walked onto the court at Milwaukee's Bradley Center for warmups, the din of a sellout crowd beginning to rise. He had never been more nervous. He had never felt such a need to play perfectly. This wasn't because Wade, a Marquette junior about to skip his senior year for the NBA draft, knew it would be his final collegiate home game. It wasn't because he had the chance to lead the school to its first Conference USA title with a victory over perennial champion Cincinnati. Just three days earlier Wade's mother had been released from a maximum-security prison in Dwight, Ill. Jolinda had attended only two of Dwyane's games, early in high school. This would be his first chance to show her what he had become.


Dwyane wasn't the only one with a stomach aflutter. Jolinda was flat-out scared. Do I look right? Is anybody going to say anything to me? Are newspeople going to come? Is anyone going to know that I'm his mom? She feared embarrassing him.


Dwyane, who hadn't seen his mom in nearly 16 months, kept stealing looks into the stands. Jolinda had come up with Tragil that morning from Chicago, after getting permission from her parole officer to leave the state, but Dwyane hadn't dared talk to her before the game, afraid an emotional overload would leave him sapped. Everything in his life had pointed to this moment; when Dwyane was born his mother had heard a word, blessing, in her head, and she had wanted that to be his name: Blessing Wade. He was glad it wasn't, but tried to live up to it. Throughout high school, during three years at Marquette, Wade drove himself to exhaustion because he believed he was her only hope. If he could only break out big, be that kid who rose from welfare -- if only she could see him do something special -- he could save her. Almost daily, over the last year, they had written to each other. "If anybody's going to give you inspiration," Dwyane wrote, "it's going to be me. I'm going to show you that you can overcome too."


It had taken a while. During Dwyane's freshman year, in 2000-01, their lives had diverged even further. Forced to sit out the season because he had fallen a point short on his ACT exam, Dwyane beefed up his skinny frame in the weight room and played point guard against the Marquette first team in practice, critiqued his teammates for the coaching staff, and learned how to better see and work the floor. During the Christmas break he proposed to Siohvaughn, and by the following spring they were married and she was pregnant. Wade was 20, and determined not to give his child the life that he'd had.


Meanwhile, in Chicago, Jolinda was still using and drinking. It had been nearly four years since that warrant for her escape had been issued. Tragil once talked her into going for a ride and, weeping, begged her mother to come to church with her. "God loves you," Tragil said. "Please." Dwyane would call his mother to say that he loved her too, and Jolinda cried because she knew she wasn't worthy. He never once turned his back on her.


Finally, on Oct. 14, 2001, during Dwyane's sophomore year, Jolinda sat in church and heard a passage from the Book of Timothy about "having the form of godliness, but denying the power thereof" and felt the hypocrite's shame. She called a friend and declared that the old Jolinda Wade had to die. The friend drove her to a house in South Bend, Ind., where, without methadone, with nothing but prayer and isolation, Jolinda sweated and got sick, and eventually, clean. She kicked alcohol and drugs that month. She kicked cigarettes the next. Then, in December that year, she met with Dwyane at a church kitchen and told him the good news -- and the bad. She was sober, but if she wanted to be a true mother to him and a grandmother to the baby to come, Jolinda said, she had to turn herself in.


On New Year's Eve, 2001, Jolinda presented herself to the Chicago police and returned to prison to serve out her sentence. For the next year and two months, while Dwyane was becoming a father to a son, Zaire, and getting married and becoming a basketball revelation, while he was leading Marquette through a 2002-03 season that would result in a 23-4 record and the school's first Final Four appearance in 26 years, the star's mother counted her days in prison. Jolinda read Dwyane's letters, felt stronger, but being locked up had left her rehabilitation unfinished. Once freed, she would have every opportunity to use again.


But there was something powerful about that Cincinnati game. For Dwyane, to have his mother, his sister, his wife and his son -- the people he loved most, his past and present and future -- together for the first time, watching him win his first championship, filled him with a sensation he'd never known. To see Jolinda, to see them all, cheering him? "It's what life is about," Wade says. For Jolinda, seeing Dwyane play the hero -- 26 points, 10 rebounds, making big plays, holding up his No. 1 finger at the end -- felt like a dream. After having read about it so many times, she was feeling it now: the Milwaukee crowd chanting "Wade! Wade!" -- still her name too -- and lifting him off the court when the game was over. Mother and son locked eyes, and she heard a voice in her head: Here comes another chance now, Jolinda. A chance to be a mother to your son.


"My God, another chance? Do you know how many years of his I missed?" Jolinda says. "Fifteen of him growing up, becoming. I had another chance at life."


That day, Dwyane says, changed everything. In late 2003 Jolinda began studying to become a Baptist pastor and in June '05 qualified for her license to preach (she will be officially ordained next month). Dwyane, by then completing his second NBA season, had bought her a house near his outside Chicago, talked to her daily, became stronger spiritually under her guidance. "Once the breakthrough came, so many positive changes happened in him," Siohvaughn says. "It really was like a domino effect. His reverence for God, for family; his priorities kind of shifted. It's not that he wasn't still driven, but his foundation was built all over again."


Jolinda says she has been clean for five years now and counting. "It wouldn't be fair to say 'That Thing' don't come back and talk to you," she says. "Alcohol comes back, heroin's voice comes back, and they all run together. But it's what you do with the voice when it comes. I don't listen to it today." And when Wade sees his mother preaching, when he sees what she has become after years of wandering lost? More than the NBA title, the individual awards, the fame and the money, that sight means the most to him. She is his hero.


That's why, for Dwyane and all the Wades, a miracle isn't some tale of the supernatural. It's real. It has a face. Even Crean, the Marquette coach, realized that when he saw mother and son hugging and crying in the empty locker room at Bradley Center after the big win over Cincinnati. Crean went off to address the media, and as he was finishing Wade appeared. No one else there knew Jolinda's story, but Dwyane hadn't hustled her out a backdoor. No, head high, Dwyane had his right arm around his mother's shoulders and held her hand with his left. Everyone turned to look. "He wanted to show his mother off," Crean says now. The coach felt his eyes filling. He rushed out, hoping no one would see.


On a cool Thursday afternoon in November, Dwyane and Tragil and Siohvaughn are sitting at a long table inside a gymnasium at the Miami Rescue Mission, flanked by Heat teammates and their spouses. Overtown now has some of the marks of Englewood then: Bleary-eyed men walking zigzag, sad-looking buildings, an emptiness that feels like a threat. But on this day the crowd is moving in orderly lines, women mostly, some weary, some defiant and proud, as the world champions hand out Thanksgiving turkeys. At one point Dwyane rises from his seat and wades into a pack of screaming children. He picks up one girl, her hair in white-beaded braids, and squeezes her close as she tucks her face into his shoulder.


When he comes back Dwyane exchanges stories with Tragil about their own days like this, lining up with their grandmother in church or at a grocery store, so excited to be getting something, anything, they didn't have at home. "It takes me back," he says. "It always does."


The day after Miami had drafted her brother with the No. 5 pick in June 2003 and Dwyane had taken his first trip on a private jet, Tragil was in his suite at the Mandarin Oriental Hotel in Biscayne Bay taking pictures, staring at little islands in the turquoise water far below. There had been a whirl of meetings and handshakes and a flood of information about his new team and town, but finally they were alone. "Dude," Tragil said slowly, as if trying out the words, "you're going to be a millionaire."


Dwyane blinked. "Say that again."


"You're going to be ... a millionaire."


"Oh, my God."


Before the Heat, Wade's only other employer had been a Kentucky Fried Chicken in Robbins. His first check was for $120. His first NBA check? "50-something thousand dollars," he says. "You know how you go home and lie down on the couch and watch TV all day? I was looking at my check all day, just sitting and looking at it. A lot of thoughts were going through my head, like, Man, my father didn't make this in a year, maybe even two. I'm making this in just a two-week span?"


But, when you have it, money carries nowhere near the psychic weight that it does when you don't. Sooner than he could imagine, Wade's amazement faded; in fact, in July he signed a three-year contract extension that, including an option for a fourth year, could pay him up to $62 million. (This season he's making $3.84 million with a pretax 10%, $384,000 going to his church in Chicago.) "God has blessed me with so many great earthly things," Wade says. "It seemed so dark for 21 years, and then I've come into this newfound money and life and excitement. It's scary because once you get to the point where you're so high? There's nowhere else for you to go but down. Will I fall? How hard is that fall going to be? What is going to come with that fall?"


No one close to Wade is nearly that worried about his future. For the last decade he has lived by a strict code: His mother did drugs, drank and smoked; Dwyane doesn't do any of that. His parents split up when he was a baby, leaving him without a father during his formative years; Dwyane married Siohvaughn after she became pregnant and spent part of his time in college raising a son. "A lot of times I'll look at that and say, 'Was that a good idea though?'" Tragil says of starting a family so young. "I tell him to think about it: You can't fix what happened to us with your own life."


But damned if Wade isn't going to try. He gave Zaire the middle name of Blessing, and Siohvaughn is expecting their second child. Just as he believes in the salvation of family, Wade is clear-sighted about the work it takes to keep the family whole. For high school sweethearts, sharing a lifetime together is hard enough without adding the explosive properties of fame, big money and a parade of groupies. "I pray," Siohvaughn says. "I do a lot of praying."


"If she wasn't scared she wouldn't have feelings," Wade says. "If it was the other way around, and she blew up famous? I'd be nervous. It's my job to keep her not scared; I've got to let her know that I'm here for her just like she's always been there for me. Hopefully it's forever. You take those vows, you say forever, you want it to be forever. I know things happen. A lot of people say, 'Don't you wish, when you came in the league, that you were single in Miami?' You know what? There's times in a young man's life when you want freedom, when you want to be by yourself, but I also understand when times get hard -- because they do get hard -- she's always there to back me up. She's always there to hug me and say, 'It's going to be O.K.' Those are the moments I look at her and know: It's all worth it."


But here's the factor, more than any other, that may decide if Dwyane Wade can survive even success: he likes difficulty. Ease makes him anxious. Perfect makes him squirm. But set him up with an early childhood from hell? Put him in a two-game hole in the Finals? He dares you to doubt him. Last month injuries to Shaq and Jason Williams sent Miami into free fall. With Wade carrying the load alone, the Heat went 7-9, lost to the lowly New York Knicks by 24 at home, gave no hint of a champion's edge. Publicly, Wade pronounced himself frustrated. But he was far from unhappy.


"To me, it's the bad moments that make a person," he says. "You're going to fall. It's how you get up that defines you as a man. Anybody can be great in life when things are going good. What about when things are going bad? This is what I like because this is how I'll know what kind of team I have. This is how I know what kind of player I am. How are we going to find a way to overcome this? That's going to decide whether we're a championship team and whether I'm a good player or great. I love it. It's my life."


Sports Illustrated Issue date: December 11, 2006

Bristol City's turf being replaced the stand behind was replaced by the current Dolman stand (named after a former chairman) in the 1960s.




21 November 2006 - Harry Dolman became chairman of Bristol City F.C. in 1949, a post he would hold for over 30 years. An engineer who had bought out the firm he worked for, he designed the first set of floodlights installed at Ashton Gate in the early 1950s. In 1970 The Dolman Stand is built at a cost of £235,000 and is named after chairman Harry Dolman.


When Harry Dolman, a giant of Bristol's industrial and sporting life, married Marina in 1961, he was 63 and she was just 24. Quita Morgan talks to Marina about life with the Bristol City chairman. Marina Dolman met her first paparazzo on her wedding day, when he jumped onto the running board of the Rolls-Royce.That lone celebrity-hunter was unlucky - he had to leap from the moving limo with neither picture nor quote.


But for Marina it was a first glimpse of her future as the glamorous young wife of Bristol City chairman Harry Dolman. She was 24 and pretty, he was 63 and wealthy. Soon their secret was out - and about to be splashed across the front pages. After marrying quietly at Quakers Friars early one April morning in 1961, the couple held a reception for close family and friends at the Grand Hotel in Broad Street. 'Someone must have tipped off the newspapers, because we had to dodge reporters as we left the hotel,' Marina recalls, flashing the same smile that must have captivated Harry some 45 years ago.


'The Rolls was taken round to the back of the hotel to avoid the press, but one of them still managed to spot us. It was my introduction to what life as Harry's wife would be like.' Throughout 16 years of marriage and nearly 30 of widowhood, Marina has been a fervent soccer fan.


As well as being president of Bristol City FC, she has also been an active president of the supporters' club since her husband's death in 1977. At 70, she no longer runs the Chew Magna house which she and Harry chose as newlyweds, but has downsized to a home in South Gloucestershire.


But there's no danger that she will ever give up going to football.


She has been a regular fixture in the directors' box at Ashton Gate since her honeymoon, and she's proud to have turned into its longest resident. A Dame of the Order of St John and a former trustee of Bristol Cathedral, Marina was born in Hong Kong in 1936.


'My father was in the army and we sailed from China to India when I was six months old,' she recalls. 'We moved to Northern Ireland in 1939 and then to Wales, after war was declared. My mother and I could no longer travel with my father because of the war, so at first we stayed at my grandparents' house in Pembroke Dock, and then my mother rented a house in Tenby.


'While we were staying with my grandparents, I remember seeing a German plane overhead, and then the oil tanks on Barrack Hill go up in flames when the bombs dropped. 'My mother told me it was an air raid, and she picked me up in her arms, wrapped me in a blanket, and carried me down to the cellar.


'That was why we moved to Tenby, but we often visited my grandparents. One Sunday, in 1941, my grandmother tried to persuade us to stay the night.


'I remember mummy hesitating. But then she said no, we had to get the bus back to Tenby because I must not miss school the next day.


'That night my grandparents' house was bombed and razed to the ground. Fortunately, the family were all in the cellar and survived, though one of my aunts was badly injured.


'In 1942, we rented half a house in Blackpool to be near my father. But when he was posted back to India in 1944, mother and I went back to Wales.


'When my father was demobbed, he joined the civil service.


'We moved to Bristol in 1947. I hated the city at first because it was such a contrast to the freedom and beauty of Pembrokeshire. Bristol in those early post-war days seemed a dull, dark, grey bomb site.


'One day my father took me to the Central Library to help me with an essay I had to write, and afterwards we went next door to Bristol Cathedral.


'As we walked in, the sun was shining through the windows, and that was the first time I felt happy and relaxed in Bristol.


'I was sent to Merrywood Grammar School in Knowle, which I hated at first but enjoyed more after a while. We had a terrific headmistress and a very sound all-round education.


'After leaving I worked in an office for six months before going to the Phyllis Christie private secretarial college in Cheltenham.


'After that I worked in Bath, London and Hanover, where I lived for 18 months until my mother became unwell and asked me to come home.


Then she spotted Harry Dolman's employment advert in the newspaper; the job required not only secretarial skills but also knowledge of French and German.


'I wasn't at all keen,' recalls Marina, 'I had never heard of Harry Dolman or his engineering company, Brecknell, Dolman and Rogers Ltd, on Pennywell Road.


'Anyway, I wanted to be an air stewardess, not a secretary, but I replied to the advert for my mother's sake.


'Harry interviewed me and asked lots of questions before saying: 'I'd better test your shorthand, I suppose.'


I shall never forget that test. It was a really horrible piece of technical jargon and engineering terminology, but fortunately I was quite good at shorthand, and was able to read it back to him.


'That was November, 1959, when I was 23, and I married Harry 15 months later. For more than a year, it was strictly business, and then one day in March, 1961, while we were opening the post together, we laughed about something in one of the letters, and out of the blue Harry said: 'If I asked you, would you marry me?' (he was recently widowed).


'I thought he was joking, but he asked me to think about it. He was 39 years older than I was, so there was a lot to think about and talk about.'


'My parents were not very happy about it, and said I was wasting my life.


'It might sound a clich??, but Harry was my soulmate and once we had decided, there was no point in waiting.


'We married by special licence. No one knew apart from our families and close friends, but it caused uproar as soon as word got out because of the age difference.


'I probably married an older man because I spent my early childhood, before my younger sister came along, living with much older people.


'My mother was one of eight, and I was very spoiled as the baby of the family, with uncles and aunts who used to take me out; it meant I grew up finding people of my own age rather immature.


'I think the age gap between Harry and me seemed more like 20 years rather than 40, because in those days I was older than my years and he was younger than his.


'I enjoyed my life with Harry, and we had a great time. Never for one solitary moment did I regret my decision, and I know he didn't.'