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La Défense . Paris .Puteaux . Ile de France

 

Fire and Air Thanks to francesco melchionda for this title !!

 

urban sounds

Be careful, I assume no responsibility for any damage to your eardrums :)

  

Nikon D300

processed with Color Efex Pro 4 (CEP4)

 

***************************************************

Increasingly appalled about Flickr

This morning June 3 , I discovered that all the pictures I had replaced were no longer available ; not visible on my stream as well as in groups

I consulted the forum

 

www.flickr.com/help/forum/en-us/72157652177057112/

 

and I had to spend an hour to rotate about a third of my photos

It is really no longer possible

Is it really our job to fix Flickr bugs ??

Visiting some groups I administer , I found lots of unavailable pictures

Not fair for the photographers who posted ;((

 

Working in France , Paris , with Chrome (or FF , the same)

 

and yesterday , in the evening , I had only pandas , "not found" , or "server closed the request "

Unable to do anything .....;fed up

 

Possibly , an issue with local servers ,once again ,that never happened before , but I can't move elsewhere , all I can do is to leave Flickr for another site where grass could be greener :)

*****************************************************

 

I've seen a new contest , once again :))

Incorrigible ...so much so that I sometimes forget to vote :(

 

=================================

created for May Contest: Architectural Detail in Spotlight Your Best

 

I hesitated , because I have other pictures fitting the theme in my stream (and many others on my HDD)

But at least , this one is new , not seen hundreds times :))

 

always liked contests :)

As said Pierre de Coubertin " Participation is more important than winning"

" l'important ce n'est pas de gagner , mais de participer "!!

 

Might be my main reason to continue to exist on Flickr ? ..... not for long .....

 

Yay !! Winner first place tie in May Contest: Architectural Detail in Spotlight Your Best Thanks !

Win from time to time is always very encouraging to continue .... Haha :)

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NikonD300 Nikkor 70-300 AF VR

golden reflections in a late afternoon

intentionally highly enhanced with Color Efex Pro (unlike my usual way !!)

 

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Posted on Sunday for Sliders Sunday !

 

Happy Sliders Sunday... HSS !!

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Thank you for your kind visit , comments , faves and invitations

I'll try to catch up , but really , heart, (or enthusiasm) is gone because of the slowness and complexity of the nth new page

 

HAVE A PEACEFUL WEEK AHEAD

 

===================================

 

PLEASE !

Read what I've written below, in the first comment box

Thanks for reading !

 

===================================

 

Please

# No invitation to private groups unless you send me an invitation to the groups , so that I can see them

 

# No invitation to Multi-Levels groups ( I mean generally more than 3 or 4 levels )

I've neither time nor patience to count awards for 5, 6,7,8 levels or even up to 10 or 12 (!)

But I always have time for any kind of contests !!!!

_

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

THANK YOU everyone for your visits, comments and favs!

I appreciate your invites and awards very much!

 

:copyright: ALL RIGHTS RESERVED. Use without permission is illegal.

 

~ Napoleon Hill ~ (October 26, 1883 – November 8, 1970) was an American author in the area of the new thought movement who was one of the earliest producers of the modern genre of personal-success literature.

 

This is the Earth Globe inside the Japan Pavilion and part of the World Showcase within Epcot at Walt Disney World Resort.

 

It is located is between The American Adventure and Morocco pavilions.

 

The Earth Globe

 

Wikipedia

 

The Earth Globe is part of "IllumiNations: Reflections of Earth" and is a night time show performed nightly at Epcot at the Walt Disney World Resort near Orlando, Florida. The show utilizes fireworks, pyrotechnics, laser lights, fountains, and fire to create a visual production on the park's World Showcase Lagoon. It premiered on October 1, 1999.

 

The centerpiece of the show is the Earth Globe, a 28-foot (8.5 m) diameter globe housed on a 350 ton barge. The world's first spherical video display system, the globe is wrapped in 15,600 LED clusters, each consisting of 12 light-emitting diodes. The Earth Globe starts its journey from the edge of the World Showcase Lagoon, a 40-acre (160,000 m2) man-made lake in Epcot, before anchoring itself in the middle of the lagoon. The Globe is 28 feet (8.5 m) in diameter and sits on top of a 10-foot pedestal. It contains 258 FlashWorks mini strobe lights (43 per petal) and is controlled by 6 computer processors. This is the only barge in the show with a driver on board, who uses an infrared guidance system. The Earth Globe is considered to be the most complicated piece of show action equipment ever made by Disney.

 

Jerold Kaplan of Walt Disney Imagineering designed and engineered the Earth Globe and supporting barge. The detailed engineering for the barge and its propulsion and control systems were provided by Glowacki Engineering of Orange Park, FL. The Earth Globe Barge was built by Sun State Marine Services in Green Cove Springs, FL and was delivered in four major components which were assembled on site. The LED video display is run by a Pentium II server running Microsoft Windows 95/8 using a Serial ATA drive. There are two servers constantly running the same programs at the same time for fail-safe support. If one goes down, they can instantly switch to the other server which presumably will still be running. The video control software, written by Derek Brown for Hitech Electronic Displays of Clearwater, Florida, communicates with on-board PLCs using two interfaces. The serial interface is used to receive the 4 character command codes separated by spaces to signify the end of each command. The NIDAQ (National Instrument Data Acquisition) card is used to provide status back to the PLCs. There are 8 optically isolated status channels. One channel is used to provide a heartbeat signal to tell the PLC that the software is on and functioning. The file formats are uncompressed AVIs passed through a masking filter to put the pixels in the spots for the countries.

 

The Mapmaker’s Song

 

The mapmaker downed his tools.

I’ve caught it, every alley, every street,

every fanlight and window-ledge,

the city fixed and framed.

Now I want everything else.

I want to be a historian of footsteps,

a cartographer of hemlines and eyelids,

I want to catch what the pavements say

when they sing to each other

in their deep laboratories, plotting

every journey since the place began.

I want the whole

unlosable database, the repeating place,

kings stalking the server farms,

tailbacks and looped alarms,

I want to be where

brushstrokes flicker on a bank of screens,

where graveyards tilt

and quiet populations crowd the air,

their quarters risen again

their furniture

smashing through the floors.

I want to stand at the centre

of a great clutter

mapping ashes, mapping bones,

archivist, enumerator, hanger-on

signing the returns

of an infinite census.

I want to be,

beyond everything I’ve reached or drawn,

not much at all, or all there is,

a geographer of breath,

a curator of hands.

I want to lie in the atrium

of the museum of the fingertip

and touch, touch, touch.

 

Peter Sirr

The Mapmaker’s Song

 

The mapmaker downed his tools.

I’ve caught it, every alley, every street,

every fanlight and window-ledge,

the city fixed and framed.

Now I want everything else.

I want to be a historian of footsteps,

a cartographer of hemlines and eyelids,

I want to catch what the pavements say

when they sing to each other

in their deep laboratories, plotting

every journey since the place began.

I want the whole

unlosable database, the repeating place,

kings stalking the server farms,

tailbacks and looped alarms,

I want to be where

brushstrokes flicker on a bank of screens,

where graveyards tilt

and quiet populations crowd the air,

their quarters risen again

their furniture

smashing through the floors.

I want to stand at the centre

of a great clutter

mapping ashes, mapping bones,

archivist, enumerator, hanger-on

signing the returns

of an infinite census.

I want to be,

beyond everything I’ve reached or drawn,

not much at all, or all there is,

a geographer of breath,

a curator of hands.

I want to lie in the atrium

of the museum of the fingertip

and touch, touch, touch.

 

Peter Sirr

The Mapmaker’s Song

 

The mapmaker downed his tools.

I’ve caught it, every alley, every street,

every fanlight and window-ledge,

the city fixed and framed.

Now I want everything else.

I want to be a historian of footsteps,

a cartographer of hemlines and eyelids,

I want to catch what the pavements say

when they sing to each other

in their deep laboratories, plotting

every journey since the place began.

I want the whole

unlosable database, the repeating place,

kings stalking the server farms,

tailbacks and looped alarms,

I want to be where

brushstrokes flicker on a bank of screens,

where graveyards tilt

and quiet populations crowd the air,

their quarters risen again

their furniture

smashing through the floors.

I want to stand at the centre

of a great clutter

mapping ashes, mapping bones,

archivist, enumerator, hanger-on

signing the returns

of an infinite census.

I want to be,

beyond everything I’ve reached or drawn,

not much at all, or all there is,

a geographer of breath,

a curator of hands.

I want to lie in the atrium

of the museum of the fingertip

and touch, touch, touch.

 

Peter Sirr

My metal salad servers all blinged up! Wanted to catch the reflections of the window and rich warm wood of the walls in the metal. I like the way the warmth offsets the cool of the metal.

" “If you miss me, you can’t text, you can’t email, you can’t post it on my Facebook wall. If you really miss me, you come and see me.”

 

"I began to think of all of the billions of intimate exchanges sent daily via fingers and screens, bouncing between satellites and servers. With all this texting, emailing, and social networking, I started wondering, are we all becoming so in touch with one another that we are in danger of losing touch?

 

"Whether you like it or not, the digital age has produced a new format for modern romance, and natural selection may be favoring the quick-thumbed quip peddler over the confident, ice-breaking alpha male. Or maybe we are hiding behind the cloak of digital text and spell-check to present superior versions of ourselves while using these less intimate forms of communication to accelerate the courting process. So what’s it really good for?

 

"There is some argument about who actually invented text messaging, but I think it’s safe to say it was a man. Multiple studies have shown that the average man uses about half as many words per day as women, thus text messaging. It eliminates hellos and goodbyes and cuts right to the chase. Now, if that’s not male behavior, I don’t know what is. Should we think of texting as a modern whisper in your lover’s ear?

 

"But the reality is that we communicate with every part of our being, and there are times when we must use it all. When someone needs us, he or she needs all of us. There’s no text that can replace a loving touch when someone we love is hurting.

 

"We haven’t lost romance in the digital age, but we may be neglecting it. In doing so, antiquated art forms are taking on new importance. The power of a hand-written letter is greater than ever. It’s personal and deliberate means more than an email or text ever will. It has a unique scent. It requires deciphering. But, most important, it’s flawed There are errors in handwriting, punctuation, grammar, and spelling that show our vulnerability. And vulnerability is the essence of romance. It’s the art of being uncalculated, the willingness to look foolish, the courage to say,

 

“This is me, and I’m interested in you enough to show you my flaws with the hope that you may embrace me for all that I am but, more importantly, all that I am not.” "

 

- Ashton Kutcher

 

Musings on the lost art of the hand written letter ~ ~

 

Who knew I'd ever quote Ashton Kutcher ?

 

I like to hear a voice for the important things ~ don't get me wrong, I sill love my technology

 

Textures from KKlassen

www.youtube.com/watch?v=PXdxp__J6UY&feature=related

 

Bus window open - it was summer - so no glass to shoot through. Just lot's of wonderful smells to enjoy, or endure, as we passed through Chinatown, along 22nd St. near Wentworth Ave.

 

Especially the smell of the roasted duck and the Peking Duck. I've got a serious "jones" for that. Duck skin, sweet dark meat and bean curd sauce.

 

Doens't look like much of a shiny, glass-paned, red-curtained, touristy spot. It ain't; mainly Chinese in here. No English on the menu. If the Chinese eat at a place, the food is more theirs, not Chinese for American consumption.

 

www.flickr.com/photos/godblessbotox/2496542120/ - Peking Duck by Jeremy

 

www.flickr.com/photos/mrdayglo/4190090733/ - Roast Duck in window by Paul

 

Dont be shy. Ask your server for help or you might end up with Peking duck feet, instead of Peking duck meat. Unless you speak Chinese and know what they are saying about you "round-eyes" in the house that night, if you enjoyed it and wish to come back, leave a nice tip.

 

texture/brushes: Distressed Jewell

The warm color of the setting sun shines brightly on the midtown Manhattan skyline in the summer of 2010 gives the buildings and structures even the clouds a rich golden hue. Because of the Palisades and the Lincoln Tunnel Helix, the window to capture this color is very tight as the setting sun is quickly obstructed, so I was fortunate to be on the water front in Weehawken New Jersey on a clear day patiently waiting for just the right light.

The location on the waterfront from which this photograph was captured is referred to as Lincoln Harbor in Weehawken New Jersey. Not because it has anything to do with our 16th president, but rather it name is derived from the Lincoln Tunnel (which was named for our 16th president) entrance and the approach helix which is directly west of this waterfront location.

Historically, this is near where in 1804 Alexander Hamilton and Aaron Burr came across from New York for the infamous duel that ended one’s life and completely changed the course of the other’s life. When I was lad, looking over this area near the Lincoln Tunnel was a mass of rail yards. The rail yards that were in this particular area in Weehawken were those of the Erie-Lackawanna , though originally the Erie Railroad, somewhat abandoned as I recall, though there were locomotives, cars and trailers in the yards. The skeleton of buildings by the water, probably very close to where I took the picture that once housed an intricate terminal I remember thinking to myself, it must have been impressive when it was in operation. Just north of this location where the New York Central’s West Shore Line had a massive ferry terminal which was the location of the first New Jersey to New York well, let’s call it ferry route which was granted as a patent in 1700 by Richard Coote, the governor of New York. When the last ferry left the terminal in 1959 it ended 259 years of continuous ferry service, evolving from the sail & row service of the 1700’s to the last steam powered ferry, ironically called the Weehawken the name of this township since 1859. The Erie yard had seven piers, A-H, where A,B & H were open piers and C,D,E & F were closed piers that had a double purpose as drop off and pick up points and as a warehouse to store the goods. Today only Pier D and its pier-shed survive as remnants of the rail era which were designated as a site of the New Jersey Register of Historic Places and serves today as office space. Where C would have been there is Chart House Restaurant on the very end that probably has the best view of Mid-Town Manhattan in New Jersey, where my son currently works as a server. I’ve include a link at the end of this narrative of someone who’s father worked at Pier D that’s definitely worth reading.

Taken with an Olympus EVOLT E-510 with Olympus Digital Zuiko 14-42MM F3.5-5.6 lens, HDR of RAW images processed with Photomatix, cleaned up in Adobe Lightroom

 

erierr.railfan.net/whwkn.html

 

I'm moving files from an old server and I realized I hadn't shared this one. It's not the best scan (from film) but I'll try to get a better one.

 

We were on a 3-day XC ski trip out to Glacier Point in Yosemite in Feb 1999, and it was mostly overcast all day. We were outside after dinner but finally went in to warm up. We had a couple of writers from the Santa Rosa Press Democrat on the trip who were doing a story. After maybe 20 minutes inside, one of them looked out through the fogged-up windows of the day lodge (where we were staying) and shouted "Look at the sunset!"

 

We ran out and saw this glorious scene. The clouds decided to part in the last few minutes and let Half Dome put on a show. One of the writers put on his skis and posed for the other, and that's the shot that made the top of their article. (I can't find it on their site, sigh.) I waited a minute and went out with my poles, set them up as a bipod with camera on top and braced it against me to get the shot.

 

If you've never been to Yosemite, you really should try to visit some time, and even better if you can go in the off season. It's an amazing place. Go walk the trails, go skiing, take some time to drink it all in. And take good care of it.

Day 200 of 365: a year in songs and photos

Song: Far, Waiting For Sunday

 

I took one picture today - a church steeple through my car window during a brief rainstorm on my drive home from work. As I snapped the picture, this song came on a mix cd I had popped in. Perfect timing. Perfect song.

 

I was going to take a photo of 200 somethings for today, but I'm exhausted and just want to sink into the couch and get maybe 200 minutes of sleep in a row. So I'll just celebrate my 200 day milestone with a very heavily processed photo of the only thing I felt like shooting today.

 

The birds are from a photo I took last year. Additional texture from Nesster, from the T4L group.

flickr.com/photos/nesster

 

I really love this song. Listen to it. I mean, I put up links to songs every night, but I went through the trouble of uploading this one to my server for you. So give it a listen? Thanks.

 

www.fasterthantheworld.com/music/far.mp3

 

I'm always frightened

I wear my helmet every day

I'm scared the sky might tumble down from heaven

I blame my neighbors

I wish that they'd all move away

They're all on welfare, kill babies, pass bad laws, start all the wars

I wait for a miracle

I go to big building, I pray

I dance with demons, they whisper my fate

Scare me into thinking I'm saved

We're all so tired

We wear our raincoats every day

To keep the wet and wind and world out

Waiting for Sunday

    

[embedded content]Promotional Data Center Tour – Blue Orca Digital

St Augustine Website Design and Server Hosting

Local website design and server hosting in the St Augustine, St Johns and Jacksonville areas of Florida. … Windows Shared Hosting, – Dedicated Servers, – EZ...

 

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[embedded content]Promotional Data Center Tour – Blue Orca Digital

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Local website design and server hosting in the St Augustine, St Johns and Jacksonville areas of Florida. … Windows Shared Hosting, – Dedicated Servers, – EZ...

 

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One of the images I took while on a visit to Howden Minster (UK). This magnificent building adorns the skyline of this small market town. The 'new' part of the building is adjacent to some 14th century ruins. 17/04/10

 

See more here.

 

www.english-heritage.org.uk/server/show/nav.16955

nesta vídeo aula aprenda a instalar o Group Policy Management pelo Windows PowerShell.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=nIrD03tbaTY&feature=youtu.be

nesta vídeo aula, aprenda a limpar os arquivos armazenados no perfil de usuário no Group Policy Management.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=myqyOJC4c64

UPDATED: This photo is over five years old and is out-dated. If you are interested in seeing what my half of our office looks like Click Here. I've switched almost entirely over to Mac and things are a lot simpler overall.

 

Old Description of Office as it Was in 2005:

I spend a lot of time here. It's my half of our home office (my wife has the other half). I work out of my house about 40% of the time, and my wife works out of the house in the evenings and weekends. We both work a good bit... so we are in this room more than any other in our house.

 

Anyways, my side of our office is filled with tech stuff. I have two large tower cases (one is a server, the other is my desktop), my work laptop, my personal laptop and my Macinotsh G4.

 

These machines connect to another group of computers in my basement (I have six runs of CAT5e cabling between my 2nd floor office and basement). I run my firewall (Smoothwall), two test linux systems, and another Windows XP machine running next to my music/audio stuff, all out of my basement to avoid the complete geek overrun of the office. In fact soon the server and desktop machines will also move to the basement and into a custom rack enclosure (along with my other mess of boxes downstairs) I will then build another AMD dual core system to be my desktop computer. As my current desktop is headed to be a virtualization server (VMWare) which will act as a test bed /home lab for me.

 

All the fast stuff connects via gigabit ethernet (Server, Main Desktop, G4 Macintosh, downstairs XP machine and my wife's HP nc8230 laptop), the other stuff has to stay in the slow lane with fast ethernet connections, or wireless connections if I feel like walking about.

 

Click here to see a photo of our book case on the other side of the room.

 

Here is a link to the photo of my real office which isn't nearly as exciting.

 

NOTE: This photo made it into Flickr's 'Explore" as one of the top five hundred most interesting photos on a particular day. You can see all of my photo's that have made it into the Flickr Explore pages here.

High-dynamic-range imaging (HDRI or HDR) is a set of techniques used in imaging and photography to reproduce a greater dynamic range of luminosity than possible using standard digital imaging or photographic techniques. HDR images can represent more accurately the range of intensity levels found in real scenes, from direct sunlight to faint starlight, and is often captured by way of a plurality of differently exposed pictures of the same subject matter.[1][2][3][4]

 

Non-HDR cameras take photographs with a limited exposure range, resulting in the loss of detail in bright or dark areas. HDR compensates for this loss of detail by capturing multiple photographs at different exposure levels and combining them to produce a photograph representative of a broader tonal range.

 

The two primary types of HDR images are computer renderings and images resulting from merging multiple low-dynamic-range (LDR)[5] or standard-dynamic-range (SDR)[6] photographs. HDR images can also be acquired using special image sensors, like oversampled binary image sensor. Tone mapping methods, which reduce overall contrast to facilitate display of HDR images on devices with lower dynamic range, can be applied to produce images with preserved or exaggerated local contrast for artistic effect.

In photography, dynamic range is measured in EV differences (known as stops) between the brightest and darkest parts of the image that show detail. An increase of one EV or one stop is a doubling of the amount of light. Compare that, for example, 210=1024:

High-dynamic-range photographs are generally achieved by capturing multiple standard photographs, often using exposure bracketing, and then merging them into an HDR image. Digital photographs are often encoded in a camera's raw image format, because 8 bit JPEG encoding doesn't offer enough values to allow fine transitions (and introduces undesirable effects due to the lossy compression).

 

The images from any camera that allows manual exposure control can be used to create HDR images. This includes film cameras, though the images may need to be digitized so they can be processed with software HDR methods.

 

Some cameras have an auto exposure bracketing (AEB) feature with a far greater dynamic range than others, from the 3 EV of the Canon EOS 40D, to the 18 EV of the Canon EOS-1D Mark II.[10] As the popularity of this imaging method grows, several camera manufactures are now offering built-in HDR features. For example, the Pentax K-7 DSLR has an HDR mode that captures an HDR image and outputs (only) a tone mapped JPEG file.[11] The Canon PowerShot G12, Canon PowerShot S95 and Canon PowerShot S100 offer similar features in a smaller format.[12] Even some smartphones now include HDR modes, and most platforms have apps that provide HDR picture taking.[13]

 

Color film negatives and slides consist of multiple film layers that respond to light differently. As a consequence, transparent originals (especially positive slides) feature a very high dynamic range.[14]

 

Camera characteristics

Camera characteristics such as gamma curves, sensor resolution, noise, photometric calibration and spectral calibration affect resulting high-dynamic-range images.[15][15]

 

Tone mapping

Main article: Tone mapping

Tone mapping reduces the dynamic range, or contrast ratio, of an entire image while retaining localized contrast.

 

Software

Several software applications are available on the PC, Mac and Linux platforms for producing HDR files and tone mapped images. Notable titles include

Adobe Photoshop

Dynamic Photo HDR

HDR PhotoStudio

Luminance HDR

Oloneo PhotoEngine

Photomatix Pro

PTGui

Comparison with traditional digital images

Information stored in high-dynamic-range images typically corresponds to the physical values of luminance or radiance that can be observed in the real world. This is different from traditional digital images, which represent colors that should appear on a monitor or a paper print. Therefore, HDR image formats are often called scene-referred, in contrast to traditional digital images, which are device-referred or output-referred. Furthermore, traditional images are usually encoded for the human visual system (maximizing the visual information stored in the fixed number of bits), which is usually called gamma encoding or gamma correction. The values stored for HDR images are often gamma compressed (power law) or logarithmically encoded, or floating-point linear values, since fixed-point linear encodings are increasingly inefficient over higher dynamic ranges.[16][17][18]

 

HDR images often don't use fixed ranges per color channel—other than for traditional images—to represent many more colors over a much wider dynamic range. For that purpose, they don't use integer values to represent the single color channels (e.g.m, 0..255 in an 8 bit per pixel interval for red, green and blue) but instead use a floating point representation. Common are 16-bit (half precision) or 32-bit floating point numbers to represent HDR pixels. However, when the appropriate transfer function is used, HDR pixels for some applications can be represented with as few as 10–12 bits for luminance and 8 bits for chrominance without introducing any visible quantization artifacts.

The idea of using several exposures to fix a too-extreme range of luminance was pioneered as early as the 1850s by Gustave Le Gray to render seascapes showing both the sky and the sea. Such rendering was impossible at the time using standard methods, the luminosity range being too extreme. Le Gray used one negative for the sky, and another one with a longer exposure for the sea, and combined the two into one picture in positive.[20]

 

Manual tone mapping was accomplished by dodging and burning – selectively increasing or decreasing the exposure of regions of the photograph to yield better tonality reproduction. This is effective because the dynamic range of the negative is significantly higher than would be available on the finished positive paper print when that is exposed via the negative in a uniform manner. An excellent example is the photograph Schweitzer at the Lamp by W. Eugene Smith, from his 1954 photo essay A Man of Mercy on Dr. Albert Schweitzer and his humanitarian work in French Equatorial Africa. The image took 5 days to reproduce the tonal range of the scene, which ranges from a bright lamp (relative to the scene) to a dark shadow.[22]

 

Ansel Adams elevated dodging and burning to an art form. Many of his famous prints were manipulated in the darkroom with these two methods. Adams wrote a comprehensive book on producing prints called The Print, which features dodging and burning prominently, in the context of his Zone System.

 

With the advent of color photography, tone mapping in the darkroom was no longer possible, due to the specific timing needed during the developing process of color film. Photographers looked to film manufacturers to design new film stocks with improved response over the years, or shot in black and white to use tone mapping methods.

Film capable of directly recording high-dynamic-range images was developed by Charles Wyckoff and EG&G "in the course of a contract with the Department of the Air Force".[23] This XR film had three emulsion layers, an upper layer having an ASA speed rating of 400, a middle layer with an intermediate rating, and a lower layer with an ASA rating of 0.004. The film was processed in a manner similar to color films, and each layer produced a different color.[24] The dynamic range of this extended range film has been estimated as 1:108.[25] It has been used to photograph nuclear explosions,[26] for astronomical photography,[27] for spectrographic research,[28] and for medical imaging.[29] Wyckoff's detailed pictures of nuclear explosions appeared on the cover of Life magazine in the mid-1950s.

 

Late-twentieth century[edit]

The concept of neighborhood tone mapping was applied to video cameras by a group from the Technion in Israel led by Prof. Y.Y.Zeevi who filed for a patent on this concept in 1988.[30] In 1993 the first commercial medical camera was introduced that performed real time capturing of multiple images with different exposures, and producing an HDR video image, by the same group.[31]

 

Modern HDR imaging uses a completely different approach, based on making a high-dynamic-range luminance or light map using only global image operations (across the entire image), and then tone mapping this result. Global HDR was first introduced in 1993[1] resulting in a mathematical theory of differently exposed pictures of the same subject matter that was published in 1995 by Steve Mann and Rosalind Picard.[2]

 

The advent of consumer digital cameras produced a new demand for HDR imaging to improve the light response of digital camera sensors, which had a much smaller dynamic range than film. Steve Mann developed and patented the global-HDR method for producing digital images having extended dynamic range at the MIT Media Laboratory.[32] Mann's method involved a two-step procedure: (1) generate one floating point image array by global-only image operations (operations that affect all pixels identically, without regard to their local neighborhoods); and then (2) convert this image array, using local neighborhood processing (tone-remapping, etc.), into an HDR image. The image array generated by the first step of Mann's process is called a lightspace image, lightspace picture, or radiance map. Another benefit of global-HDR imaging is that it provides access to the intermediate light or radiance map, which has been used for computer vision, and other image processing operations.[32]

 

In 2005, Adobe Systems introduced several new features in Photoshop CS2 including Merge to HDR, 32 bit floating point image support, and HDR tone mapping.

 

While custom high-dynamic-range digital video solutions had been developed for industrial manufacturing during the 1980s, it was not until the early 2000s that several scholarly research efforts used consumer-grade sensors and cameras.[34] A few companies such as RED[35] and Arri[36] have been developing digital sensors capable of a higher dynamic range. RED EPIC-X can capture HDRx images with a user selectable 1-3 stops of additional highlight latitude in the 'x' channel. The 'x' channel can be merged with the normal channel in post production software. With the advent of low-cost consumer digital cameras, many amateurs began posting tone mapped HDR time-lapse videos on the Internet, essentially a sequence of still photographs in quick succession. In 2010 the independent studio Soviet Montage produced an example of HDR video from disparately exposed video streams using a beam splitter and consumer grade HD video cameras.[37] Similar methods have been described in the academic literature in 2001[38] and 2007.[39]

 

Modern movies have often been filmed with cameras featuring a higher dynamic range, and legacy movies can be upgraded even if manual intervention would be needed for some frames (as this happened in the past with black&white films’ upgrade to color). Also, special effects, especially those in which real and synthetic footage are seamlessly mixed, require both HDR shooting and rendering. HDR video is also needed in all applications in which capturing temporal aspects of changes in the scene demands high accuracy. This is especially important in monitoring of some industrial processes such as welding, predictive driver assistance systems in automotive industry, surveillance systems, to name just a few possible applications. HDR video can be also considered to speed up the image acquisition in all applications, in which a large number of static HDR images are needed, as for example in image-based methods in computer graphics. Finally, with the spread of TV sets with enhanced dynamic range, broadcasting HDR video may become important, but may take a long time to occur due to standardization issues. For this particular application, enhancing current low-dynamic range rendering (LDR) video signal to HDR by intelligent TV sets seems to be a more viable near-term solution.

 

More and more CMOS image sensors now have high dynamic range capability within the pixels themselves. Such pixels are intrinsically non-linear (by design) so that the wide dynamic range of the scene is non-linearly compressed into a smaller dynamic range electronic representation inside the pixel.[41] Such sensors are used in extreme dynamic range applications like welding or automotive.

 

Some other sensors designed for use in security applications can automatically provide two or more images for each frame, with changing exposure. For example a sensor for 30fps video will give out 60fps with the odd frames at a short exposure time and the even frames at a longer exposure time. Some of the sensor may even combine the two images on-chip so that a wider dynamic range without in-pixel compression is directly available to the user for display or processing.

 

Quelle:

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-dynamic-range_imaging

 

de.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Dynamic_Range_Image

  

Photography (see section below for etymology) is the art, science and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film, or electronically by means of an image sensor.[1] Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. The result in an electronic image sensor is an electrical charge at each pixel, which is electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing.

 

The result in a photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, which is later chemically developed into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing.

 

Photography has many uses for business, science, manufacturing (e.g. photolithography), art, recreational purposes, and mass communication.

 

The word "photography" was created from the Greek roots φωτός (phōtos), genitive of φῶς (phōs), "light"[2] and γραφή (graphé) "representation by means of lines" or "drawing",[3] together meaning "drawing with light".[4]

 

Several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently. Hercules Florence, a French painter and inventor living in Campinas, Brazil, used the French form of the word, photographie, in private notes which a Brazilian photography historian believes were written in 1834.[5] Johann von Maedler, a Berlin astronomer, is credited in a 1932 German history of photography as having used it in an article published on 25 February 1839 in the German newspaper Vossische Zeitung.[6] Both of these claims are now widely reported but apparently neither has ever been independently confirmed as beyond reasonable doubt. Credit has traditionally been given to Sir John Herschel both for coining the word and for introducing it to the public. His uses of it in private correspondence prior to 25 February 1839 and at his Royal Society lecture on the subject in London on 14 March 1839 have long been amply documented and accepted as settled fact.

 

History and evolution

Precursor technologies

Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Di and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.[8][9] In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experiments,[10] Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965–1040) studied the camera obscura and pinhole camera,[9][11] Albertus Magnus (1193–1280) discovered silver nitrate,[12] and Georg Fabricius (1516–71) discovered silver chloride.[13] Techniques described in the Book of Optics are capable of producing primitive photographs using medieval materials. [14][15][16]

 

Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566.[17] Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694.[18] The fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what can be interpreted as photography.[17]

 

The discovery of the camera obscura that provides an image of a scene dates back to ancient China. Leonardo da Vinci mentions natural cameras obscura that are formed by dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley. A hole in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and project a laterally reversed, upside down image on a piece of paper. So the birth of photography was primarily concerned with developing a means to fix and retain the image produced by the camera obscura.

 

The first success of reproducing images without a camera occurred when Thomas Wedgwood, from the famous family of potters, obtained copies of paintings on leather using silver salts. Since he had no way of permanently fixing those reproductions (stabilizing the image by washing out the non-exposed silver salts), they would turn completely black in the light and thus had to be kept in a dark room for viewing.

 

Renaissance painters used the camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western Art. The camera obscura literally means "dark chamber" in Latin. It is a box with a hole in it which allows light to go through and create an image onto the piece of paper.

 

First camera photography (1820s)

Invented in the early decades of the 19th century, photography by means of the camera seemed able to capture more detail and information than traditional media, such as painting and sculpture.[19] Photography as a usable process goes back to the 1820s with the development of chemical photography. The first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed in a later attempt to make prints from it.[7] Niépce was successful again in 1825. He made the View from the Window at Le Gras, the earliest surviving photograph from nature (i.e., of the image of a real-world scene, as formed in a camera obscura by a lens), in 1826 or 1827.[20]

 

Because Niépce's camera photographs required an extremely long exposure (at least eight hours and probably several days), he sought to greatly improve his bitumen process or replace it with one that was more practical. Working in partnership with Louis Daguerre, he developed a somewhat more sensitive process that produced visually superior results, but it still required a few hours of exposure in the camera. Niépce died in 1833 and Daguerre then redirected the experiments toward the light-sensitive silver halides, which Niépce had abandoned many years earlier because of his inability to make the images he captured with them light-fast and permanent. Daguerre's efforts culminated in what would later be named the daguerreotype process, the essential elements of which were in place in 1837. The required exposure time was measured in minutes instead of hours. Daguerre took the earliest confirmed photograph of a person in 1838 while capturing a view of a Paris street: unlike the other pedestrian and horse-drawn traffic on the busy boulevard, which appears deserted, one man having his boots polished stood sufficiently still throughout the approximately ten-minute-long exposure to be visible. Eventually, France agreed to pay Daguerre a pension for his process in exchange for the right to present his invention to the world as the gift of France, which occurred on 19 August 1839.

Meanwhile, in Brazil, Hercules Florence had already created his own process in 1832, naming it Photographie, and an English inventor, William Fox Talbot, had created another method of making a reasonably light-fast silver process image but had kept his work secret. After reading about Daguerre's invention in January 1839, Talbot published his method and set about improving on it. At first, like other pre-daguerreotype processes, Talbot's paper-based photography typically required hours-long exposures in the camera, but in 1840 he created the calotype process, with exposures comparable to the daguerreotype. In both its original and calotype forms, Talbot's process, unlike Daguerre's, created a translucent negative which could be used to print multiple positive copies, the basis of most chemical photography up to the present day. Daguerreotypes could only be replicated by rephotographing them with a camera.[21] Talbot's famous tiny paper negative of the Oriel window in Lacock Abbey, one of a number of camera photographs he made in the summer of 1835, may be the oldest camera negative in existence.[22][23]

 

John Herschel made many contributions to the new field. He invented the cyanotype process, later familiar as the "blueprint". He was the first to use the terms "photography", "negative" and "positive". He had discovered in 1819 that sodium thiosulphate was a solvent of silver halides, and in 1839 he informed Talbot (and, indirectly, Daguerre) that it could be used to "fix" silver-halide-based photographs and make them completely light-fast. He made the first glass negative in late 1839.

 

In the March 1851 issue of The Chemist, Frederick Scott Archer published his wet plate collodion process. It became the most widely used photographic medium until the gelatin dry plate, introduced in the 1870s, eventually replaced it. There are three subsets to the collodion process; the Ambrotype (a positive image on glass), the Ferrotype or Tintype (a positive image on metal) and the glass negative, which was used to make positive prints on albumen or salted paper.

 

Many advances in photographic glass plates and printing were made during the rest of the 19th century. In 1884, George Eastman developed an early type of film to replace photographic plates, leading to the technology used by film cameras today.

 

In 1891, Gabriel Lippmann introduced a process for making natural-color photographs based on the optical phenomenon of the interference of light waves. His scientifically elegant and important but ultimately impractical invention earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1908.

 

Black-and-white

See also: Monochrome photography

All photography was originally monochrome, or black-and-white. Even after color film was readily available, black-and-white photography continued to dominate for decades, due to its lower cost and its "classic" photographic look. The tones and contrast between light and dark shadows define black and white photography.[24] It is important to note that some monochromatic pictures are not always pure blacks and whites, but also contain other hues depending on the process. The cyanotype process produces an image composed of blue tones. The albumen process, first used more than 150 years ago, produces brown tones.

 

Many photographers continue to produce some monochrome images, often because of the established archival permanence of well processed silver halide based materials. Some full color digital images are processed using a variety of techniques to create black and whites, and some manufacturers produce digital cameras that exclusively shoot monochrome.

 

Color

Color photography was explored beginning in the mid-19th century. Early experiments in color required extremely long exposures (hours or days for camera images) and could not "fix" the photograph to prevent the color from quickly fading when exposed to white light.

 

The first permanent color photograph was taken in 1861 using the three-color-separation principle first published by physicist James Clerk Maxwell in 1855. Maxwell's idea was to take three separate black-and-white photographs through red, green and blue filters. This provides the photographer with the three basic channels required to recreate a color image.

 

Transparent prints of the images could be projected through similar color filters and superimposed on the projection screen, an additive method of color reproduction. A color print on paper could be produced by superimposing carbon prints of the three images made in their complementary colors, a subtractive method of color reproduction pioneered by Louis Ducos du Hauron in the late 1860s.

 

Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii made extensive use of this color separation technique, employing a special camera which successively exposed the three color-filtered images on different parts of an oblong plate. Because his exposures were not simultaneous, unsteady subjects exhibited color "fringes" or, if rapidly moving through the scene, appeared as brightly colored ghosts in the resulting projected or printed images.

 

The development of color photography was hindered by the limited sensitivity of early photographic materials, which were mostly sensitive to blue, only slightly sensitive to green, and virtually insensitive to red. The discovery of dye sensitization by photochemist Hermann Vogel in 1873 suddenly made it possible to add sensitivity to green, yellow and even red. Improved color sensitizers and ongoing improvements in the overall sensitivity of emulsions steadily reduced the once-prohibitive long exposure times required for color, bringing it ever closer to commercial viability.

 

Autochrome, the first commercially successful color process, was introduced by the Lumière brothers in 1907. Autochrome plates incorporated a mosaic color filter layer made of dyed grains of potato starch, which allowed the three color components to be recorded as adjacent microscopic image fragments. After an Autochrome plate was reversal processed to produce a positive transparency, the starch grains served to illuminate each fragment with the correct color and the tiny colored points blended together in the eye, synthesizing the color of the subject by the additive method. Autochrome plates were one of several varieties of additive color screen plates and films marketed between the 1890s and the 1950s.

 

Kodachrome, the first modern "integral tripack" (or "monopack") color film, was introduced by Kodak in 1935. It captured the three color components in a multilayer emulsion. One layer was sensitized to record the red-dominated part of the spectrum, another layer recorded only the green part and a third recorded only the blue. Without special film processing, the result would simply be three superimposed black-and-white images, but complementary cyan, magenta, and yellow dye images were created in those layers by adding color couplers during a complex processing procedure.

 

Agfa's similarly structured Agfacolor Neu was introduced in 1936. Unlike Kodachrome, the color couplers in Agfacolor Neu were incorporated into the emulsion layers during manufacture, which greatly simplified the processing. Currently available color films still employ a multilayer emulsion and the same principles, most closely resembling Agfa's product.

 

Instant color film, used in a special camera which yielded a unique finished color print only a minute or two after the exposure, was introduced by Polaroid in 1963.

 

Color photography may form images as positive transparencies, which can be used in a slide projector, or as color negatives intended for use in creating positive color enlargements on specially coated paper. The latter is now the most common form of film (non-digital) color photography owing to the introduction of automated photo printing equipment.

 

Digital photography

Main article: Digital photography

See also: Digital camera and Digital versus film photography

In 1981, Sony unveiled the first consumer camera to use a charge-coupled device for imaging, eliminating the need for film: the Sony Mavica. While the Mavica saved images to disk, the images were displayed on television, and the camera was not fully digital. In 1991, Kodak unveiled the DCS 100, the first commercially available digital single lens reflex camera. Although its high cost precluded uses other than photojournalism and professional photography, commercial digital photography was born.

 

Digital imaging uses an electronic image sensor to record the image as a set of electronic data rather than as chemical changes on film. [25] An important difference between digital and chemical photography is that chemical photography resists photo manipulation because it involves film and photographic paper, while digital imaging is a highly manipulative medium. This difference allows for a degree of image post-processing that is comparatively difficult in film-based photography and permits different communicative potentials and applications.

  

Photography gained the interest of many scientists and artists from its inception. Scientists have used photography to record and study movements, such as Eadweard Muybridge's study of human and animal locomotion in 1887. Artists are equally interested by these aspects but also try to explore avenues other than the photo-mechanical representation of reality, such as the pictorialist movement.

 

Military, police, and security forces use photography for surveillance, recognition and data storage. Photography is used by amateurs to preserve memories, to capture special moments, to tell stories, to send messages, and as a source of entertainment. High speed photography allows for visualizing events that are too fast for the human eye.

 

Technical aspects

Main article: Camera

The camera is the image-forming device, and photographic film or a silicon electronic image sensor is the sensing medium. The respective recording medium can be the film itself, or a digital electronic or magnetic memory.[26]

 

Photographers control the camera and lens to "expose" the light recording material (such as film) to the required amount of light to form a "latent image" (on film) or RAW file (in digital cameras) which, after appropriate processing, is converted to a usable image. Digital cameras use an electronic image sensor based on light-sensitive electronics such as charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The resulting digital image is stored electronically, but can be reproduced on paper or film.

 

The camera (or 'camera obscura') is a dark room or chamber from which, as far as possible, all light is excluded except the light that forms the image. The subject being photographed, however, must be illuminated. Cameras can range from small to very large, a whole room that is kept dark while the object to be photographed is in another room where it is properly illuminated. This was common for reproduction photography of flat copy when large film negatives were used (see Process camera).

 

As soon as photographic materials became "fast" (sensitive) enough for taking candid or surreptitious pictures, small "detective" cameras were made, some actually disguised as a book or handbag or pocket watch (the Ticka camera) or even worn hidden behind an Ascot necktie with a tie pin that was really the lens.

 

The movie camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on strips of film. In contrast to a still camera, which captures a single snapshot at a time, the movie camera takes a series of images, each called a "frame". This is accomplished through an intermittent mechanism. The frames are later played back in a movie projector at a specific speed, called the "frame rate" (number of frames per second). While viewing, a person's eyes and brain merge the separate pictures together to create the illusion of motion.[27]

 

Camera controls are interrelated. The total amount of light reaching the film plane (the 'exposure') changes with the duration of exposure, aperture of the lens, and on the effective focal length of the lens (which in variable focal length lenses, can force a change in aperture as the lens is zoomed). Changing any of these controls can alter the exposure. Many cameras may be set to adjust most or all of these controls automatically. This automatic functionality is useful for occasional photographers in many situations.

 

The duration of an exposure is referred to as shutter speed, often even in cameras that do not have a physical shutter, and is typically measured in fractions of a second. It is quite possible to have exposures from one up to several seconds, usually for still-life subjects, and for night scenes exposure times can be several hours. However, for a subject that is in motion use a fast shutter speed. This will prevent the photograph from coming out blurry.[29]

 

The effective aperture is expressed by an f-number or f-stop (derived from focal ratio), which is proportional to the ratio of the focal length to the diameter of the aperture. Longer lenses will pass less light even though the diameter of the aperture is the same due to the greater distance the light has to travel; shorter lenses (a shorter focal length) will be brighter with the same size of aperture.

 

The smaller the f/number, the larger the effective aperture. The present system of f/numbers to give the effective aperture of a lens was standardized by an international convention. There were earlier, different series of numbers in older cameras.

 

If the f-number is decreased by a factor of √2, the aperture diameter is increased by the same factor, and its area is increased by a factor of 2. The f-stops that might be found on a typical lens include 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, 32, where going up "one stop" (using lower f-stop numbers) doubles the amount of light reaching the film, and stopping down one stop halves the amount of light.

 

Image capture can be achieved through various combinations of shutter speed, aperture, and film or sensor speed. Different (but related) settings of aperture and shutter speed enable photographs to be taken under various conditions of film or sensor speed, lighting and motion of subjects and/or camera, and desired depth of field. A slower speed film will exhibit less "grain", and a slower speed setting on an electronic sensor will exhibit less "noise", while higher film and sensor speeds allow for a faster shutter speed, which reduces motion blur or allows the use of a smaller aperture to increase the depth of field.

 

For example, a wider aperture is used for lower light and a lower aperture for more light. If a subject is in motion, then a high shutter speed may be needed. A tripod can also be helpful in that it enables a slower shutter speed to be used.

 

For example, f/8 at 8 ms (1/125 of a second) and f/5.6 at 4 ms (1/250 of a second) yield the same amount of light. The chosen combination has an impact on the final result. The aperture and focal length of the lens determine the depth of field, which refers to the range of distances from the lens that will be in focus. A longer lens or a wider aperture will result in "shallow" depth of field (i.e. only a small plane of the image will be in sharp focus). This is often useful for isolating subjects from backgrounds as in individual portraits or macro photography.

 

Conversely, a shorter lens, or a smaller aperture, will result in more of the image being in focus. This is generally more desirable when photographing landscapes or groups of people. With very small apertures, such as pinholes, a wide range of distance can be brought into focus, but sharpness is severely degraded by diffraction with such small apertures. Generally, the highest degree of "sharpness" is achieved at an aperture near the middle of a lens's range (for example, f/8 for a lens with available apertures of f/2.8 to f/16). However, as lens technology improves, lenses are becoming capable of making increasingly sharp images at wider apertures.

 

Image capture is only part of the image forming process. Regardless of material, some process must be employed to render the latent image captured by the camera into a viewable image. With slide film, the developed film is just mounted for projection. Print film requires the developed film negative to be printed onto photographic paper or transparency. Digital images may be uploaded to an image server (e.g., a photo-sharing web site), viewed on a television, or transferred to a computer or digital photo frame. Every type can be printed on more "classical" mediums such as regular paper or photographic paper for examples.

 

Prior to the rendering of a viewable image, modifications can be made using several controls. Many of these controls are similar to controls during image capture, while some are exclusive to the rendering process. Most printing controls have equivalent digital concepts, but some create different effects. For example, dodging and burning controls are different between digital and film processes. Other printing modifications include:

Digital point-and-shoot cameras have become widespread consumer products, outselling film cameras, and including new features such as video and audio recording. Kodak announced in January 2004 that it would no longer sell reloadable 35 mm cameras in western Europe, Canada and the United States after the end of that year. Kodak was at that time a minor player in the reloadable film cameras market. In January 2006, Nikon followed suit and announced that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras: the low-end Nikon FM10, and the high-end Nikon F6. On 25 May 2006, Canon announced they will stop developing new film SLR cameras.[34] Though most new camera designs are now digital, a new 6x6cm/6x7cm medium format film camera was introduced in 2008 in a cooperation between Fuji and Voigtländer.[35][36]

 

According to a survey made by Kodak in 2007 when the majority of photography was already digital, 75 percent of professional photographers say they will continue to use film, even though some embrace digital.[37]

 

The PMA say that in the year 2000 nearly a billion rolls of film were sold each year and by 2011 a mere 20 million rolls, plus 31 million single-use cameras.[38]

 

Quelle:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photography

de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fotografie

 

High-dynamic-range imaging (HDRI or HDR) is a set of techniques used in imaging and photography to reproduce a greater dynamic range of luminosity than possible using standard digital imaging or photographic techniques. HDR images can represent more accurately the range of intensity levels found in real scenes, from direct sunlight to faint starlight, and is often captured by way of a plurality of differently exposed pictures of the same subject matter.[1][2][3][4]

 

Non-HDR cameras take photographs with a limited exposure range, resulting in the loss of detail in bright or dark areas. HDR compensates for this loss of detail by capturing multiple photographs at different exposure levels and combining them to produce a photograph representative of a broader tonal range.

 

The two primary types of HDR images are computer renderings and images resulting from merging multiple low-dynamic-range (LDR)[5] or standard-dynamic-range (SDR)[6] photographs. HDR images can also be acquired using special image sensors, like oversampled binary image sensor. Tone mapping methods, which reduce overall contrast to facilitate display of HDR images on devices with lower dynamic range, can be applied to produce images with preserved or exaggerated local contrast for artistic effect.

In photography, dynamic range is measured in EV differences (known as stops) between the brightest and darkest parts of the image that show detail. An increase of one EV or one stop is a doubling of the amount of light. Compare that, for example, 210=1024:

High-dynamic-range photographs are generally achieved by capturing multiple standard photographs, often using exposure bracketing, and then merging them into an HDR image. Digital photographs are often encoded in a camera's raw image format, because 8 bit JPEG encoding doesn't offer enough values to allow fine transitions (and introduces undesirable effects due to the lossy compression).

 

The images from any camera that allows manual exposure control can be used to create HDR images. This includes film cameras, though the images may need to be digitized so they can be processed with software HDR methods.

 

Some cameras have an auto exposure bracketing (AEB) feature with a far greater dynamic range than others, from the 3 EV of the Canon EOS 40D, to the 18 EV of the Canon EOS-1D Mark II.[10] As the popularity of this imaging method grows, several camera manufactures are now offering built-in HDR features. For example, the Pentax K-7 DSLR has an HDR mode that captures an HDR image and outputs (only) a tone mapped JPEG file.[11] The Canon PowerShot G12, Canon PowerShot S95 and Canon PowerShot S100 offer similar features in a smaller format.[12] Even some smartphones now include HDR modes, and most platforms have apps that provide HDR picture taking.[13]

 

Color film negatives and slides consist of multiple film layers that respond to light differently. As a consequence, transparent originals (especially positive slides) feature a very high dynamic range.[14]

 

Camera characteristics

Camera characteristics such as gamma curves, sensor resolution, noise, photometric calibration and spectral calibration affect resulting high-dynamic-range images.[15][15]

 

Tone mapping

Main article: Tone mapping

Tone mapping reduces the dynamic range, or contrast ratio, of an entire image while retaining localized contrast.

 

Software

Several software applications are available on the PC, Mac and Linux platforms for producing HDR files and tone mapped images. Notable titles include

Adobe Photoshop

Dynamic Photo HDR

HDR PhotoStudio

Luminance HDR

Oloneo PhotoEngine

Photomatix Pro

PTGui

Comparison with traditional digital images

Information stored in high-dynamic-range images typically corresponds to the physical values of luminance or radiance that can be observed in the real world. This is different from traditional digital images, which represent colors that should appear on a monitor or a paper print. Therefore, HDR image formats are often called scene-referred, in contrast to traditional digital images, which are device-referred or output-referred. Furthermore, traditional images are usually encoded for the human visual system (maximizing the visual information stored in the fixed number of bits), which is usually called gamma encoding or gamma correction. The values stored for HDR images are often gamma compressed (power law) or logarithmically encoded, or floating-point linear values, since fixed-point linear encodings are increasingly inefficient over higher dynamic ranges.[16][17][18]

 

HDR images often don't use fixed ranges per color channel—other than for traditional images—to represent many more colors over a much wider dynamic range. For that purpose, they don't use integer values to represent the single color channels (e.g.m, 0..255 in an 8 bit per pixel interval for red, green and blue) but instead use a floating point representation. Common are 16-bit (half precision) or 32-bit floating point numbers to represent HDR pixels. However, when the appropriate transfer function is used, HDR pixels for some applications can be represented with as few as 10–12 bits for luminance and 8 bits for chrominance without introducing any visible quantization artifacts.

The idea of using several exposures to fix a too-extreme range of luminance was pioneered as early as the 1850s by Gustave Le Gray to render seascapes showing both the sky and the sea. Such rendering was impossible at the time using standard methods, the luminosity range being too extreme. Le Gray used one negative for the sky, and another one with a longer exposure for the sea, and combined the two into one picture in positive.[20]

 

Manual tone mapping was accomplished by dodging and burning – selectively increasing or decreasing the exposure of regions of the photograph to yield better tonality reproduction. This is effective because the dynamic range of the negative is significantly higher than would be available on the finished positive paper print when that is exposed via the negative in a uniform manner. An excellent example is the photograph Schweitzer at the Lamp by W. Eugene Smith, from his 1954 photo essay A Man of Mercy on Dr. Albert Schweitzer and his humanitarian work in French Equatorial Africa. The image took 5 days to reproduce the tonal range of the scene, which ranges from a bright lamp (relative to the scene) to a dark shadow.[22]

 

Ansel Adams elevated dodging and burning to an art form. Many of his famous prints were manipulated in the darkroom with these two methods. Adams wrote a comprehensive book on producing prints called The Print, which features dodging and burning prominently, in the context of his Zone System.

 

With the advent of color photography, tone mapping in the darkroom was no longer possible, due to the specific timing needed during the developing process of color film. Photographers looked to film manufacturers to design new film stocks with improved response over the years, or shot in black and white to use tone mapping methods.

Film capable of directly recording high-dynamic-range images was developed by Charles Wyckoff and EG&G "in the course of a contract with the Department of the Air Force".[23] This XR film had three emulsion layers, an upper layer having an ASA speed rating of 400, a middle layer with an intermediate rating, and a lower layer with an ASA rating of 0.004. The film was processed in a manner similar to color films, and each layer produced a different color.[24] The dynamic range of this extended range film has been estimated as 1:108.[25] It has been used to photograph nuclear explosions,[26] for astronomical photography,[27] for spectrographic research,[28] and for medical imaging.[29] Wyckoff's detailed pictures of nuclear explosions appeared on the cover of Life magazine in the mid-1950s.

 

Late-twentieth century[edit]

The concept of neighborhood tone mapping was applied to video cameras by a group from the Technion in Israel led by Prof. Y.Y.Zeevi who filed for a patent on this concept in 1988.[30] In 1993 the first commercial medical camera was introduced that performed real time capturing of multiple images with different exposures, and producing an HDR video image, by the same group.[31]

 

Modern HDR imaging uses a completely different approach, based on making a high-dynamic-range luminance or light map using only global image operations (across the entire image), and then tone mapping this result. Global HDR was first introduced in 1993[1] resulting in a mathematical theory of differently exposed pictures of the same subject matter that was published in 1995 by Steve Mann and Rosalind Picard.[2]

 

The advent of consumer digital cameras produced a new demand for HDR imaging to improve the light response of digital camera sensors, which had a much smaller dynamic range than film. Steve Mann developed and patented the global-HDR method for producing digital images having extended dynamic range at the MIT Media Laboratory.[32] Mann's method involved a two-step procedure: (1) generate one floating point image array by global-only image operations (operations that affect all pixels identically, without regard to their local neighborhoods); and then (2) convert this image array, using local neighborhood processing (tone-remapping, etc.), into an HDR image. The image array generated by the first step of Mann's process is called a lightspace image, lightspace picture, or radiance map. Another benefit of global-HDR imaging is that it provides access to the intermediate light or radiance map, which has been used for computer vision, and other image processing operations.[32]

 

In 2005, Adobe Systems introduced several new features in Photoshop CS2 including Merge to HDR, 32 bit floating point image support, and HDR tone mapping.

 

While custom high-dynamic-range digital video solutions had been developed for industrial manufacturing during the 1980s, it was not until the early 2000s that several scholarly research efforts used consumer-grade sensors and cameras.[34] A few companies such as RED[35] and Arri[36] have been developing digital sensors capable of a higher dynamic range. RED EPIC-X can capture HDRx images with a user selectable 1-3 stops of additional highlight latitude in the 'x' channel. The 'x' channel can be merged with the normal channel in post production software. With the advent of low-cost consumer digital cameras, many amateurs began posting tone mapped HDR time-lapse videos on the Internet, essentially a sequence of still photographs in quick succession. In 2010 the independent studio Soviet Montage produced an example of HDR video from disparately exposed video streams using a beam splitter and consumer grade HD video cameras.[37] Similar methods have been described in the academic literature in 2001[38] and 2007.[39]

 

Modern movies have often been filmed with cameras featuring a higher dynamic range, and legacy movies can be upgraded even if manual intervention would be needed for some frames (as this happened in the past with black&white films’ upgrade to color). Also, special effects, especially those in which real and synthetic footage are seamlessly mixed, require both HDR shooting and rendering. HDR video is also needed in all applications in which capturing temporal aspects of changes in the scene demands high accuracy. This is especially important in monitoring of some industrial processes such as welding, predictive driver assistance systems in automotive industry, surveillance systems, to name just a few possible applications. HDR video can be also considered to speed up the image acquisition in all applications, in which a large number of static HDR images are needed, as for example in image-based methods in computer graphics. Finally, with the spread of TV sets with enhanced dynamic range, broadcasting HDR video may become important, but may take a long time to occur due to standardization issues. For this particular application, enhancing current low-dynamic range rendering (LDR) video signal to HDR by intelligent TV sets seems to be a more viable near-term solution.

 

More and more CMOS image sensors now have high dynamic range capability within the pixels themselves. Such pixels are intrinsically non-linear (by design) so that the wide dynamic range of the scene is non-linearly compressed into a smaller dynamic range electronic representation inside the pixel.[41] Such sensors are used in extreme dynamic range applications like welding or automotive.

 

Some other sensors designed for use in security applications can automatically provide two or more images for each frame, with changing exposure. For example a sensor for 30fps video will give out 60fps with the odd frames at a short exposure time and the even frames at a longer exposure time. Some of the sensor may even combine the two images on-chip so that a wider dynamic range without in-pixel compression is directly available to the user for display or processing.

 

Quelle:

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/High-dynamic-range_imaging

 

de.wikipedia.org/wiki/High_Dynamic_Range_Image

  

Photography (see section below for etymology) is the art, science and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film, or electronically by means of an image sensor.[1] Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. The result in an electronic image sensor is an electrical charge at each pixel, which is electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing.

 

The result in a photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, which is later chemically developed into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing.

 

Photography has many uses for business, science, manufacturing (e.g. photolithography), art, recreational purposes, and mass communication.

 

The word "photography" was created from the Greek roots φωτός (phōtos), genitive of φῶς (phōs), "light"[2] and γραφή (graphé) "representation by means of lines" or "drawing",[3] together meaning "drawing with light".[4]

 

Several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently. Hercules Florence, a French painter and inventor living in Campinas, Brazil, used the French form of the word, photographie, in private notes which a Brazilian photography historian believes were written in 1834.[5] Johann von Maedler, a Berlin astronomer, is credited in a 1932 German history of photography as having used it in an article published on 25 February 1839 in the German newspaper Vossische Zeitung.[6] Both of these claims are now widely reported but apparently neither has ever been independently confirmed as beyond reasonable doubt. Credit has traditionally been given to Sir John Herschel both for coining the word and for introducing it to the public. His uses of it in private correspondence prior to 25 February 1839 and at his Royal Society lecture on the subject in London on 14 March 1839 have long been amply documented and accepted as settled fact.

 

History and evolution

Precursor technologies

Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Di and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.[8][9] In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experiments,[10] Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965–1040) studied the camera obscura and pinhole camera,[9][11] Albertus Magnus (1193–1280) discovered silver nitrate,[12] and Georg Fabricius (1516–71) discovered silver chloride.[13] Techniques described in the Book of Optics are capable of producing primitive photographs using medieval materials. [14][15][16]

 

Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566.[17] Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694.[18] The fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what can be interpreted as photography.[17]

 

The discovery of the camera obscura that provides an image of a scene dates back to ancient China. Leonardo da Vinci mentions natural cameras obscura that are formed by dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley. A hole in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and project a laterally reversed, upside down image on a piece of paper. So the birth of photography was primarily concerned with developing a means to fix and retain the image produced by the camera obscura.

 

The first success of reproducing images without a camera occurred when Thomas Wedgwood, from the famous family of potters, obtained copies of paintings on leather using silver salts. Since he had no way of permanently fixing those reproductions (stabilizing the image by washing out the non-exposed silver salts), they would turn completely black in the light and thus had to be kept in a dark room for viewing.

 

Renaissance painters used the camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western Art. The camera obscura literally means "dark chamber" in Latin. It is a box with a hole in it which allows light to go through and create an image onto the piece of paper.

 

First camera photography (1820s)

Invented in the early decades of the 19th century, photography by means of the camera seemed able to capture more detail and information than traditional media, such as painting and sculpture.[19] Photography as a usable process goes back to the 1820s with the development of chemical photography. The first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed in a later attempt to make prints from it.[7] Niépce was successful again in 1825. He made the View from the Window at Le Gras, the earliest surviving photograph from nature (i.e., of the image of a real-world scene, as formed in a camera obscura by a lens), in 1826 or 1827.[20]

 

Because Niépce's camera photographs required an extremely long exposure (at least eight hours and probably several days), he sought to greatly improve his bitumen process or replace it with one that was more practical. Working in partnership with Louis Daguerre, he developed a somewhat more sensitive process that produced visually superior results, but it still required a few hours of exposure in the camera. Niépce died in 1833 and Daguerre then redirected the experiments toward the light-sensitive silver halides, which Niépce had abandoned many years earlier because of his inability to make the images he captured with them light-fast and permanent. Daguerre's efforts culminated in what would later be named the daguerreotype process, the essential elements of which were in place in 1837. The required exposure time was measured in minutes instead of hours. Daguerre took the earliest confirmed photograph of a person in 1838 while capturing a view of a Paris street: unlike the other pedestrian and horse-drawn traffic on the busy boulevard, which appears deserted, one man having his boots polished stood sufficiently still throughout the approximately ten-minute-long exposure to be visible. Eventually, France agreed to pay Daguerre a pension for his process in exchange for the right to present his invention to the world as the gift of France, which occurred on 19 August 1839.

Meanwhile, in Brazil, Hercules Florence had already created his own process in 1832, naming it Photographie, and an English inventor, William Fox Talbot, had created another method of making a reasonably light-fast silver process image but had kept his work secret. After reading about Daguerre's invention in January 1839, Talbot published his method and set about improving on it. At first, like other pre-daguerreotype processes, Talbot's paper-based photography typically required hours-long exposures in the camera, but in 1840 he created the calotype process, with exposures comparable to the daguerreotype. In both its original and calotype forms, Talbot's process, unlike Daguerre's, created a translucent negative which could be used to print multiple positive copies, the basis of most chemical photography up to the present day. Daguerreotypes could only be replicated by rephotographing them with a camera.[21] Talbot's famous tiny paper negative of the Oriel window in Lacock Abbey, one of a number of camera photographs he made in the summer of 1835, may be the oldest camera negative in existence.[22][23]

 

John Herschel made many contributions to the new field. He invented the cyanotype process, later familiar as the "blueprint". He was the first to use the terms "photography", "negative" and "positive". He had discovered in 1819 that sodium thiosulphate was a solvent of silver halides, and in 1839 he informed Talbot (and, indirectly, Daguerre) that it could be used to "fix" silver-halide-based photographs and make them completely light-fast. He made the first glass negative in late 1839.

 

In the March 1851 issue of The Chemist, Frederick Scott Archer published his wet plate collodion process. It became the most widely used photographic medium until the gelatin dry plate, introduced in the 1870s, eventually replaced it. There are three subsets to the collodion process; the Ambrotype (a positive image on glass), the Ferrotype or Tintype (a positive image on metal) and the glass negative, which was used to make positive prints on albumen or salted paper.

 

Many advances in photographic glass plates and printing were made during the rest of the 19th century. In 1884, George Eastman developed an early type of film to replace photographic plates, leading to the technology used by film cameras today.

 

In 1891, Gabriel Lippmann introduced a process for making natural-color photographs based on the optical phenomenon of the interference of light waves. His scientifically elegant and important but ultimately impractical invention earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1908.

 

Black-and-white

See also: Monochrome photography

All photography was originally monochrome, or black-and-white. Even after color film was readily available, black-and-white photography continued to dominate for decades, due to its lower cost and its "classic" photographic look. The tones and contrast between light and dark shadows define black and white photography.[24] It is important to note that some monochromatic pictures are not always pure blacks and whites, but also contain other hues depending on the process. The cyanotype process produces an image composed of blue tones. The albumen process, first used more than 150 years ago, produces brown tones.

 

Many photographers continue to produce some monochrome images, often because of the established archival permanence of well processed silver halide based materials. Some full color digital images are processed using a variety of techniques to create black and whites, and some manufacturers produce digital cameras that exclusively shoot monochrome.

 

Color

Color photography was explored beginning in the mid-19th century. Early experiments in color required extremely long exposures (hours or days for camera images) and could not "fix" the photograph to prevent the color from quickly fading when exposed to white light.

 

The first permanent color photograph was taken in 1861 using the three-color-separation principle first published by physicist James Clerk Maxwell in 1855. Maxwell's idea was to take three separate black-and-white photographs through red, green and blue filters. This provides the photographer with the three basic channels required to recreate a color image.

 

Transparent prints of the images could be projected through similar color filters and superimposed on the projection screen, an additive method of color reproduction. A color print on paper could be produced by superimposing carbon prints of the three images made in their complementary colors, a subtractive method of color reproduction pioneered by Louis Ducos du Hauron in the late 1860s.

 

Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii made extensive use of this color separation technique, employing a special camera which successively exposed the three color-filtered images on different parts of an oblong plate. Because his exposures were not simultaneous, unsteady subjects exhibited color "fringes" or, if rapidly moving through the scene, appeared as brightly colored ghosts in the resulting projected or printed images.

 

The development of color photography was hindered by the limited sensitivity of early photographic materials, which were mostly sensitive to blue, only slightly sensitive to green, and virtually insensitive to red. The discovery of dye sensitization by photochemist Hermann Vogel in 1873 suddenly made it possible to add sensitivity to green, yellow and even red. Improved color sensitizers and ongoing improvements in the overall sensitivity of emulsions steadily reduced the once-prohibitive long exposure times required for color, bringing it ever closer to commercial viability.

 

Autochrome, the first commercially successful color process, was introduced by the Lumière brothers in 1907. Autochrome plates incorporated a mosaic color filter layer made of dyed grains of potato starch, which allowed the three color components to be recorded as adjacent microscopic image fragments. After an Autochrome plate was reversal processed to produce a positive transparency, the starch grains served to illuminate each fragment with the correct color and the tiny colored points blended together in the eye, synthesizing the color of the subject by the additive method. Autochrome plates were one of several varieties of additive color screen plates and films marketed between the 1890s and the 1950s.

 

Kodachrome, the first modern "integral tripack" (or "monopack") color film, was introduced by Kodak in 1935. It captured the three color components in a multilayer emulsion. One layer was sensitized to record the red-dominated part of the spectrum, another layer recorded only the green part and a third recorded only the blue. Without special film processing, the result would simply be three superimposed black-and-white images, but complementary cyan, magenta, and yellow dye images were created in those layers by adding color couplers during a complex processing procedure.

 

Agfa's similarly structured Agfacolor Neu was introduced in 1936. Unlike Kodachrome, the color couplers in Agfacolor Neu were incorporated into the emulsion layers during manufacture, which greatly simplified the processing. Currently available color films still employ a multilayer emulsion and the same principles, most closely resembling Agfa's product.

 

Instant color film, used in a special camera which yielded a unique finished color print only a minute or two after the exposure, was introduced by Polaroid in 1963.

 

Color photography may form images as positive transparencies, which can be used in a slide projector, or as color negatives intended for use in creating positive color enlargements on specially coated paper. The latter is now the most common form of film (non-digital) color photography owing to the introduction of automated photo printing equipment.

 

Digital photography

Main article: Digital photography

See also: Digital camera and Digital versus film photography

In 1981, Sony unveiled the first consumer camera to use a charge-coupled device for imaging, eliminating the need for film: the Sony Mavica. While the Mavica saved images to disk, the images were displayed on television, and the camera was not fully digital. In 1991, Kodak unveiled the DCS 100, the first commercially available digital single lens reflex camera. Although its high cost precluded uses other than photojournalism and professional photography, commercial digital photography was born.

 

Digital imaging uses an electronic image sensor to record the image as a set of electronic data rather than as chemical changes on film. [25] An important difference between digital and chemical photography is that chemical photography resists photo manipulation because it involves film and photographic paper, while digital imaging is a highly manipulative medium. This difference allows for a degree of image post-processing that is comparatively difficult in film-based photography and permits different communicative potentials and applications.

  

Photography gained the interest of many scientists and artists from its inception. Scientists have used photography to record and study movements, such as Eadweard Muybridge's study of human and animal locomotion in 1887. Artists are equally interested by these aspects but also try to explore avenues other than the photo-mechanical representation of reality, such as the pictorialist movement.

 

Military, police, and security forces use photography for surveillance, recognition and data storage. Photography is used by amateurs to preserve memories, to capture special moments, to tell stories, to send messages, and as a source of entertainment. High speed photography allows for visualizing events that are too fast for the human eye.

 

Technical aspects

Main article: Camera

The camera is the image-forming device, and photographic film or a silicon electronic image sensor is the sensing medium. The respective recording medium can be the film itself, or a digital electronic or magnetic memory.[26]

 

Photographers control the camera and lens to "expose" the light recording material (such as film) to the required amount of light to form a "latent image" (on film) or RAW file (in digital cameras) which, after appropriate processing, is converted to a usable image. Digital cameras use an electronic image sensor based on light-sensitive electronics such as charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The resulting digital image is stored electronically, but can be reproduced on paper or film.

 

The camera (or 'camera obscura') is a dark room or chamber from which, as far as possible, all light is excluded except the light that forms the image. The subject being photographed, however, must be illuminated. Cameras can range from small to very large, a whole room that is kept dark while the object to be photographed is in another room where it is properly illuminated. This was common for reproduction photography of flat copy when large film negatives were used (see Process camera).

 

As soon as photographic materials became "fast" (sensitive) enough for taking candid or surreptitious pictures, small "detective" cameras were made, some actually disguised as a book or handbag or pocket watch (the Ticka camera) or even worn hidden behind an Ascot necktie with a tie pin that was really the lens.

 

The movie camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on strips of film. In contrast to a still camera, which captures a single snapshot at a time, the movie camera takes a series of images, each called a "frame". This is accomplished through an intermittent mechanism. The frames are later played back in a movie projector at a specific speed, called the "frame rate" (number of frames per second). While viewing, a person's eyes and brain merge the separate pictures together to create the illusion of motion.[27]

 

Camera controls are interrelated. The total amount of light reaching the film plane (the 'exposure') changes with the duration of exposure, aperture of the lens, and on the effective focal length of the lens (which in variable focal length lenses, can force a change in aperture as the lens is zoomed). Changing any of these controls can alter the exposure. Many cameras may be set to adjust most or all of these controls automatically. This automatic functionality is useful for occasional photographers in many situations.

 

The duration of an exposure is referred to as shutter speed, often even in cameras that do not have a physical shutter, and is typically measured in fractions of a second. It is quite possible to have exposures from one up to several seconds, usually for still-life subjects, and for night scenes exposure times can be several hours. However, for a subject that is in motion use a fast shutter speed. This will prevent the photograph from coming out blurry.[29]

 

The effective aperture is expressed by an f-number or f-stop (derived from focal ratio), which is proportional to the ratio of the focal length to the diameter of the aperture. Longer lenses will pass less light even though the diameter of the aperture is the same due to the greater distance the light has to travel; shorter lenses (a shorter focal length) will be brighter with the same size of aperture.

 

The smaller the f/number, the larger the effective aperture. The present system of f/numbers to give the effective aperture of a lens was standardized by an international convention. There were earlier, different series of numbers in older cameras.

 

If the f-number is decreased by a factor of √2, the aperture diameter is increased by the same factor, and its area is increased by a factor of 2. The f-stops that might be found on a typical lens include 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, 32, where going up "one stop" (using lower f-stop numbers) doubles the amount of light reaching the film, and stopping down one stop halves the amount of light.

 

Image capture can be achieved through various combinations of shutter speed, aperture, and film or sensor speed. Different (but related) settings of aperture and shutter speed enable photographs to be taken under various conditions of film or sensor speed, lighting and motion of subjects and/or camera, and desired depth of field. A slower speed film will exhibit less "grain", and a slower speed setting on an electronic sensor will exhibit less "noise", while higher film and sensor speeds allow for a faster shutter speed, which reduces motion blur or allows the use of a smaller aperture to increase the depth of field.

 

For example, a wider aperture is used for lower light and a lower aperture for more light. If a subject is in motion, then a high shutter speed may be needed. A tripod can also be helpful in that it enables a slower shutter speed to be used.

 

For example, f/8 at 8 ms (1/125 of a second) and f/5.6 at 4 ms (1/250 of a second) yield the same amount of light. The chosen combination has an impact on the final result. The aperture and focal length of the lens determine the depth of field, which refers to the range of distances from the lens that will be in focus. A longer lens or a wider aperture will result in "shallow" depth of field (i.e. only a small plane of the image will be in sharp focus). This is often useful for isolating subjects from backgrounds as in individual portraits or macro photography.

 

Conversely, a shorter lens, or a smaller aperture, will result in more of the image being in focus. This is generally more desirable when photographing landscapes or groups of people. With very small apertures, such as pinholes, a wide range of distance can be brought into focus, but sharpness is severely degraded by diffraction with such small apertures. Generally, the highest degree of "sharpness" is achieved at an aperture near the middle of a lens's range (for example, f/8 for a lens with available apertures of f/2.8 to f/16). However, as lens technology improves, lenses are becoming capable of making increasingly sharp images at wider apertures.

 

Image capture is only part of the image forming process. Regardless of material, some process must be employed to render the latent image captured by the camera into a viewable image. With slide film, the developed film is just mounted for projection. Print film requires the developed film negative to be printed onto photographic paper or transparency. Digital images may be uploaded to an image server (e.g., a photo-sharing web site), viewed on a television, or transferred to a computer or digital photo frame. Every type can be printed on more "classical" mediums such as regular paper or photographic paper for examples.

 

Prior to the rendering of a viewable image, modifications can be made using several controls. Many of these controls are similar to controls during image capture, while some are exclusive to the rendering process. Most printing controls have equivalent digital concepts, but some create different effects. For example, dodging and burning controls are different between digital and film processes. Other printing modifications include:

Digital point-and-shoot cameras have become widespread consumer products, outselling film cameras, and including new features such as video and audio recording. Kodak announced in January 2004 that it would no longer sell reloadable 35 mm cameras in western Europe, Canada and the United States after the end of that year. Kodak was at that time a minor player in the reloadable film cameras market. In January 2006, Nikon followed suit and announced that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras: the low-end Nikon FM10, and the high-end Nikon F6. On 25 May 2006, Canon announced they will stop developing new film SLR cameras.[34] Though most new camera designs are now digital, a new 6x6cm/6x7cm medium format film camera was introduced in 2008 in a cooperation between Fuji and Voigtländer.[35][36]

 

According to a survey made by Kodak in 2007 when the majority of photography was already digital, 75 percent of professional photographers say they will continue to use film, even though some embrace digital.[37]

 

The PMA say that in the year 2000 nearly a billion rolls of film were sold each year and by 2011 a mere 20 million rolls, plus 31 million single-use cameras.[38]

 

Quelle:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photography

de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fotografie

 

It’s not a proper app but a web-based app looking like a real one :)

 

But as you know we are no android-users so we need your help here. Please have a look on my profile and follow the link to the Android (and probably even Windows) app – well, with your phone obviously – and try it out.

 

You need to register with our server but don’t worry, we do not save your information for us, just for the map. We cannot see your password, we are even not able to retrieve it when lost ;)

 

We would appreciate your feedback!

Before we had sleek server rooms with racks of computerized data, we had the library model, where everyone went to a central location for information among countless shelves of analog books.

 

Auckland University's library. One the first shots from my DP1.

garyadair.com/323393.

Im having the same connectivity issues as the other two reviewers (Noah and Casey). We have two servers where I installed the cards, running Windows 2003 Standard Server with SP1 and all updates; the servers are connected to 3COM gigabit switch. The connection starts just fine, but it cuts off in about 2 to 4 min of medium file traffic, and the servers become inaccessible not even responding to pings. The card needs to be reset to restore the connection only to drop it again in the next 3 minutes. We tested the switch to ensure its working, and we tested the cabling, as well, everything seemed working fine. Finally, we gave up and installed more expensive Intel 82541PI Gigabit cards. No problems since then.

created for the Textures Only Competition #23

Thanks to Jurvetson for the Frozen Sun; textures by dommend, Denkbeeldenstorm, ghostbones and me:-)

---

inspired by a wonderful bedtime story from Theodor Storm

(for reading: english abstract und das Original)

---

on black

 

My photos on darckr

Andrew Manalis specializing in Linux and Windows VPS Canada wide and offering hosting services to customers around the world from its location in Toronto, Ontario, announces its new partnership with software developer Smarter Tools Inc. based in Phoenix, Arizona. Andrew Manalis is now offering the Andrew Manalis product line including the Andrew Manalis mail server, Andrew Manalis customer service software and Andrew Manalis web log analytics and SEO software to its Windows virtual private servers hosting customers. These applications offer rich tools to improve email infrastructure, website analytics statistics and help desk set-up. Ideal for small to midsized businesses, users can enjoy the benefits of improved communications and customer service, as well as gain deeper insights to improve conversions and overall business efficiency and ROI. * (Andrew Manalis VPN HOSTING)

www.facebook.com/paintingwithlightbyschauer

twitter.com/ChristianSchaue

Photography (see section below for etymology) is the art, science and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film, or electronically by means of an image sensor.[1] Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. The result in an electronic image sensor is an electrical charge at each pixel, which is electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing.

 

The result in a photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, which is later chemically developed into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing.

 

Photography has many uses for business, science, manufacturing (e.g. photolithography), art, recreational purposes, and mass communication.

 

The word "photography" was created from the Greek roots φωτός (phōtos), genitive of φῶς (phōs), "light"[2] and γραφή (graphé) "representation by means of lines" or "drawing",[3] together meaning "drawing with light".[4]

 

Several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently. Hercules Florence, a French painter and inventor living in Campinas, Brazil, used the French form of the word, photographie, in private notes which a Brazilian photography historian believes were written in 1834.[5] Johann von Maedler, a Berlin astronomer, is credited in a 1932 German history of photography as having used it in an article published on 25 February 1839 in the German newspaper Vossische Zeitung.[6] Both of these claims are now widely reported but apparently neither has ever been independently confirmed as beyond reasonable doubt. Credit has traditionally been given to Sir John Herschel both for coining the word and for introducing it to the public. His uses of it in private correspondence prior to 25 February 1839 and at his Royal Society lecture on the subject in London on 14 March 1839 have long been amply documented and accepted as settled fact.

 

History and evolution

Precursor technologies

Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Di and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.[8][9] In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experiments,[10] Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965–1040) studied the camera obscura and pinhole camera,[9][11] Albertus Magnus (1193–1280) discovered silver nitrate,[12] and Georg Fabricius (1516–71) discovered silver chloride.[13] Techniques described in the Book of Optics are capable of producing primitive photographs using medieval materials. [14][15][16]

 

Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566.[17] Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694.[18] The fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what can be interpreted as photography.[17]

 

The discovery of the camera obscura that provides an image of a scene dates back to ancient China. Leonardo da Vinci mentions natural cameras obscura that are formed by dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley. A hole in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and project a laterally reversed, upside down image on a piece of paper. So the birth of photography was primarily concerned with developing a means to fix and retain the image produced by the camera obscura.

 

The first success of reproducing images without a camera occurred when Thomas Wedgwood, from the famous family of potters, obtained copies of paintings on leather using silver salts. Since he had no way of permanently fixing those reproductions (stabilizing the image by washing out the non-exposed silver salts), they would turn completely black in the light and thus had to be kept in a dark room for viewing.

 

Renaissance painters used the camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western Art. The camera obscura literally means "dark chamber" in Latin. It is a box with a hole in it which allows light to go through and create an image onto the piece of paper.

 

First camera photography (1820s)

Invented in the early decades of the 19th century, photography by means of the camera seemed able to capture more detail and information than traditional media, such as painting and sculpture.[19] Photography as a usable process goes back to the 1820s with the development of chemical photography. The first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed in a later attempt to make prints from it.[7] Niépce was successful again in 1825. He made the View from the Window at Le Gras, the earliest surviving photograph from nature (i.e., of the image of a real-world scene, as formed in a camera obscura by a lens), in 1826 or 1827.[20]

 

Because Niépce's camera photographs required an extremely long exposure (at least eight hours and probably several days), he sought to greatly improve his bitumen process or replace it with one that was more practical. Working in partnership with Louis Daguerre, he developed a somewhat more sensitive process that produced visually superior results, but it still required a few hours of exposure in the camera. Niépce died in 1833 and Daguerre then redirected the experiments toward the light-sensitive silver halides, which Niépce had abandoned many years earlier because of his inability to make the images he captured with them light-fast and permanent. Daguerre's efforts culminated in what would later be named the daguerreotype process, the essential elements of which were in place in 1837. The required exposure time was measured in minutes instead of hours. Daguerre took the earliest confirmed photograph of a person in 1838 while capturing a view of a Paris street: unlike the other pedestrian and horse-drawn traffic on the busy boulevard, which appears deserted, one man having his boots polished stood sufficiently still throughout the approximately ten-minute-long exposure to be visible. Eventually, France agreed to pay Daguerre a pension for his process in exchange for the right to present his invention to the world as the gift of France, which occurred on 19 August 1839.

Meanwhile, in Brazil, Hercules Florence had already created his own process in 1832, naming it Photographie, and an English inventor, William Fox Talbot, had created another method of making a reasonably light-fast silver process image but had kept his work secret. After reading about Daguerre's invention in January 1839, Talbot published his method and set about improving on it. At first, like other pre-daguerreotype processes, Talbot's paper-based photography typically required hours-long exposures in the camera, but in 1840 he created the calotype process, with exposures comparable to the daguerreotype. In both its original and calotype forms, Talbot's process, unlike Daguerre's, created a translucent negative which could be used to print multiple positive copies, the basis of most chemical photography up to the present day. Daguerreotypes could only be replicated by rephotographing them with a camera.[21] Talbot's famous tiny paper negative of the Oriel window in Lacock Abbey, one of a number of camera photographs he made in the summer of 1835, may be the oldest camera negative in existence.[22][23]

 

John Herschel made many contributions to the new field. He invented the cyanotype process, later familiar as the "blueprint". He was the first to use the terms "photography", "negative" and "positive". He had discovered in 1819 that sodium thiosulphate was a solvent of silver halides, and in 1839 he informed Talbot (and, indirectly, Daguerre) that it could be used to "fix" silver-halide-based photographs and make them completely light-fast. He made the first glass negative in late 1839.

 

In the March 1851 issue of The Chemist, Frederick Scott Archer published his wet plate collodion process. It became the most widely used photographic medium until the gelatin dry plate, introduced in the 1870s, eventually replaced it. There are three subsets to the collodion process; the Ambrotype (a positive image on glass), the Ferrotype or Tintype (a positive image on metal) and the glass negative, which was used to make positive prints on albumen or salted paper.

 

Many advances in photographic glass plates and printing were made during the rest of the 19th century. In 1884, George Eastman developed an early type of film to replace photographic plates, leading to the technology used by film cameras today.

 

In 1891, Gabriel Lippmann introduced a process for making natural-color photographs based on the optical phenomenon of the interference of light waves. His scientifically elegant and important but ultimately impractical invention earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1908.

 

Black-and-white

See also: Monochrome photography

All photography was originally monochrome, or black-and-white. Even after color film was readily available, black-and-white photography continued to dominate for decades, due to its lower cost and its "classic" photographic look. The tones and contrast between light and dark shadows define black and white photography.[24] It is important to note that some monochromatic pictures are not always pure blacks and whites, but also contain other hues depending on the process. The cyanotype process produces an image composed of blue tones. The albumen process, first used more than 150 years ago, produces brown tones.

 

Many photographers continue to produce some monochrome images, often because of the established archival permanence of well processed silver halide based materials. Some full color digital images are processed using a variety of techniques to create black and whites, and some manufacturers produce digital cameras that exclusively shoot monochrome.

 

Color

Color photography was explored beginning in the mid-19th century. Early experiments in color required extremely long exposures (hours or days for camera images) and could not "fix" the photograph to prevent the color from quickly fading when exposed to white light.

 

The first permanent color photograph was taken in 1861 using the three-color-separation principle first published by physicist James Clerk Maxwell in 1855. Maxwell's idea was to take three separate black-and-white photographs through red, green and blue filters. This provides the photographer with the three basic channels required to recreate a color image.

 

Transparent prints of the images could be projected through similar color filters and superimposed on the projection screen, an additive method of color reproduction. A color print on paper could be produced by superimposing carbon prints of the three images made in their complementary colors, a subtractive method of color reproduction pioneered by Louis Ducos du Hauron in the late 1860s.

 

Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii made extensive use of this color separation technique, employing a special camera which successively exposed the three color-filtered images on different parts of an oblong plate. Because his exposures were not simultaneous, unsteady subjects exhibited color "fringes" or, if rapidly moving through the scene, appeared as brightly colored ghosts in the resulting projected or printed images.

 

The development of color photography was hindered by the limited sensitivity of early photographic materials, which were mostly sensitive to blue, only slightly sensitive to green, and virtually insensitive to red. The discovery of dye sensitization by photochemist Hermann Vogel in 1873 suddenly made it possible to add sensitivity to green, yellow and even red. Improved color sensitizers and ongoing improvements in the overall sensitivity of emulsions steadily reduced the once-prohibitive long exposure times required for color, bringing it ever closer to commercial viability.

 

Autochrome, the first commercially successful color process, was introduced by the Lumière brothers in 1907. Autochrome plates incorporated a mosaic color filter layer made of dyed grains of potato starch, which allowed the three color components to be recorded as adjacent microscopic image fragments. After an Autochrome plate was reversal processed to produce a positive transparency, the starch grains served to illuminate each fragment with the correct color and the tiny colored points blended together in the eye, synthesizing the color of the subject by the additive method. Autochrome plates were one of several varieties of additive color screen plates and films marketed between the 1890s and the 1950s.

 

Kodachrome, the first modern "integral tripack" (or "monopack") color film, was introduced by Kodak in 1935. It captured the three color components in a multilayer emulsion. One layer was sensitized to record the red-dominated part of the spectrum, another layer recorded only the green part and a third recorded only the blue. Without special film processing, the result would simply be three superimposed black-and-white images, but complementary cyan, magenta, and yellow dye images were created in those layers by adding color couplers during a complex processing procedure.

 

Agfa's similarly structured Agfacolor Neu was introduced in 1936. Unlike Kodachrome, the color couplers in Agfacolor Neu were incorporated into the emulsion layers during manufacture, which greatly simplified the processing. Currently available color films still employ a multilayer emulsion and the same principles, most closely resembling Agfa's product.

 

Instant color film, used in a special camera which yielded a unique finished color print only a minute or two after the exposure, was introduced by Polaroid in 1963.

 

Color photography may form images as positive transparencies, which can be used in a slide projector, or as color negatives intended for use in creating positive color enlargements on specially coated paper. The latter is now the most common form of film (non-digital) color photography owing to the introduction of automated photo printing equipment.

 

Digital photography

Main article: Digital photography

See also: Digital camera and Digital versus film photography

In 1981, Sony unveiled the first consumer camera to use a charge-coupled device for imaging, eliminating the need for film: the Sony Mavica. While the Mavica saved images to disk, the images were displayed on television, and the camera was not fully digital. In 1991, Kodak unveiled the DCS 100, the first commercially available digital single lens reflex camera. Although its high cost precluded uses other than photojournalism and professional photography, commercial digital photography was born.

 

Digital imaging uses an electronic image sensor to record the image as a set of electronic data rather than as chemical changes on film. [25] An important difference between digital and chemical photography is that chemical photography resists photo manipulation because it involves film and photographic paper, while digital imaging is a highly manipulative medium. This difference allows for a degree of image post-processing that is comparatively difficult in film-based photography and permits different communicative potentials and applications.

  

Photography gained the interest of many scientists and artists from its inception. Scientists have used photography to record and study movements, such as Eadweard Muybridge's study of human and animal locomotion in 1887. Artists are equally interested by these aspects but also try to explore avenues other than the photo-mechanical representation of reality, such as the pictorialist movement.

 

Military, police, and security forces use photography for surveillance, recognition and data storage. Photography is used by amateurs to preserve memories, to capture special moments, to tell stories, to send messages, and as a source of entertainment. High speed photography allows for visualizing events that are too fast for the human eye.

 

Technical aspects

Main article: Camera

The camera is the image-forming device, and photographic film or a silicon electronic image sensor is the sensing medium. The respective recording medium can be the film itself, or a digital electronic or magnetic memory.[26]

 

Photographers control the camera and lens to "expose" the light recording material (such as film) to the required amount of light to form a "latent image" (on film) or RAW file (in digital cameras) which, after appropriate processing, is converted to a usable image. Digital cameras use an electronic image sensor based on light-sensitive electronics such as charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The resulting digital image is stored electronically, but can be reproduced on paper or film.

 

The camera (or 'camera obscura') is a dark room or chamber from which, as far as possible, all light is excluded except the light that forms the image. The subject being photographed, however, must be illuminated. Cameras can range from small to very large, a whole room that is kept dark while the object to be photographed is in another room where it is properly illuminated. This was common for reproduction photography of flat copy when large film negatives were used (see Process camera).

 

As soon as photographic materials became "fast" (sensitive) enough for taking candid or surreptitious pictures, small "detective" cameras were made, some actually disguised as a book or handbag or pocket watch (the Ticka camera) or even worn hidden behind an Ascot necktie with a tie pin that was really the lens.

 

The movie camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on strips of film. In contrast to a still camera, which captures a single snapshot at a time, the movie camera takes a series of images, each called a "frame". This is accomplished through an intermittent mechanism. The frames are later played back in a movie projector at a specific speed, called the "frame rate" (number of frames per second). While viewing, a person's eyes and brain merge the separate pictures together to create the illusion of motion.[27]

 

Camera controls are interrelated. The total amount of light reaching the film plane (the 'exposure') changes with the duration of exposure, aperture of the lens, and on the effective focal length of the lens (which in variable focal length lenses, can force a change in aperture as the lens is zoomed). Changing any of these controls can alter the exposure. Many cameras may be set to adjust most or all of these controls automatically. This automatic functionality is useful for occasional photographers in many situations.

 

The duration of an exposure is referred to as shutter speed, often even in cameras that do not have a physical shutter, and is typically measured in fractions of a second. It is quite possible to have exposures from one up to several seconds, usually for still-life subjects, and for night scenes exposure times can be several hours. However, for a subject that is in motion use a fast shutter speed. This will prevent the photograph from coming out blurry.[29]

 

The effective aperture is expressed by an f-number or f-stop (derived from focal ratio), which is proportional to the ratio of the focal length to the diameter of the aperture. Longer lenses will pass less light even though the diameter of the aperture is the same due to the greater distance the light has to travel; shorter lenses (a shorter focal length) will be brighter with the same size of aperture.

 

The smaller the f/number, the larger the effective aperture. The present system of f/numbers to give the effective aperture of a lens was standardized by an international convention. There were earlier, different series of numbers in older cameras.

 

If the f-number is decreased by a factor of √2, the aperture diameter is increased by the same factor, and its area is increased by a factor of 2. The f-stops that might be found on a typical lens include 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, 32, where going up "one stop" (using lower f-stop numbers) doubles the amount of light reaching the film, and stopping down one stop halves the amount of light.

 

Image capture can be achieved through various combinations of shutter speed, aperture, and film or sensor speed. Different (but related) settings of aperture and shutter speed enable photographs to be taken under various conditions of film or sensor speed, lighting and motion of subjects and/or camera, and desired depth of field. A slower speed film will exhibit less "grain", and a slower speed setting on an electronic sensor will exhibit less "noise", while higher film and sensor speeds allow for a faster shutter speed, which reduces motion blur or allows the use of a smaller aperture to increase the depth of field.

 

For example, a wider aperture is used for lower light and a lower aperture for more light. If a subject is in motion, then a high shutter speed may be needed. A tripod can also be helpful in that it enables a slower shutter speed to be used.

 

For example, f/8 at 8 ms (1/125 of a second) and f/5.6 at 4 ms (1/250 of a second) yield the same amount of light. The chosen combination has an impact on the final result. The aperture and focal length of the lens determine the depth of field, which refers to the range of distances from the lens that will be in focus. A longer lens or a wider aperture will result in "shallow" depth of field (i.e. only a small plane of the image will be in sharp focus). This is often useful for isolating subjects from backgrounds as in individual portraits or macro photography.

 

Conversely, a shorter lens, or a smaller aperture, will result in more of the image being in focus. This is generally more desirable when photographing landscapes or groups of people. With very small apertures, such as pinholes, a wide range of distance can be brought into focus, but sharpness is severely degraded by diffraction with such small apertures. Generally, the highest degree of "sharpness" is achieved at an aperture near the middle of a lens's range (for example, f/8 for a lens with available apertures of f/2.8 to f/16). However, as lens technology improves, lenses are becoming capable of making increasingly sharp images at wider apertures.

 

Image capture is only part of the image forming process. Regardless of material, some process must be employed to render the latent image captured by the camera into a viewable image. With slide film, the developed film is just mounted for projection. Print film requires the developed film negative to be printed onto photographic paper or transparency. Digital images may be uploaded to an image server (e.g., a photo-sharing web site), viewed on a television, or transferred to a computer or digital photo frame. Every type can be printed on more "classical" mediums such as regular paper or photographic paper for examples.

 

Prior to the rendering of a viewable image, modifications can be made using several controls. Many of these controls are similar to controls during image capture, while some are exclusive to the rendering process. Most printing controls have equivalent digital concepts, but some create different effects. For example, dodging and burning controls are different between digital and film processes. Other printing modifications include:

Digital point-and-shoot cameras have become widespread consumer products, outselling film cameras, and including new features such as video and audio recording. Kodak announced in January 2004 that it would no longer sell reloadable 35 mm cameras in western Europe, Canada and the United States after the end of that year. Kodak was at that time a minor player in the reloadable film cameras market. In January 2006, Nikon followed suit and announced that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras: the low-end Nikon FM10, and the high-end Nikon F6. On 25 May 2006, Canon announced they will stop developing new film SLR cameras.[34] Though most new camera designs are now digital, a new 6x6cm/6x7cm medium format film camera was introduced in 2008 in a cooperation between Fuji and Voigtländer.[35][36]

 

According to a survey made by Kodak in 2007 when the majority of photography was already digital, 75 percent of professional photographers say they will continue to use film, even though some embrace digital.[37]

 

The PMA say that in the year 2000 nearly a billion rolls of film were sold each year and by 2011 a mere 20 million rolls, plus 31 million single-use cameras.[38]

 

Quelle:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photography

 

I was at Brickhouse Cafe with a neighbour when this scene appeared outside the window; we mentioned it to our server, and eventually the whole restaurant - including the staff - emptied outside to look and take photos.

 

Rainbows are effectively San Francisco's version of the Bat-Signal.

garyadair.com/1137002.

Picked up this TV last week, and really starting to love it. Takes a bit to get used to the google TV, lots of options, but its pretty impressive. I like the remote, When youre working with apps has a wii like function to move the cursor around the screen by moving the remote(you can also use directional buttons) has a good keyboard on back. Loving the PIP feature where I can be in a google TV app but still watch TV. I "cut" the cord (well have basic cable now) and Google chrome (web browser) works great and I can watch allot of videos (including flash based) like HGTV (wife) and the Daily show. Also have amazon prime, so I can stream allot of shows for free (has netflix too, but no Hulu on any google tv) Comes with 2 IR blasters to control your cable box (if you have one, has built in OTA tuner) and AV equipment. I have a Tivo for DVR (Google TV right now has no DVR abilities but can control DVRs with IR blaster) and the TV controls it pretty good (see below) Added an external 200gb HD to the USB port on the TV. Can store apps and media files on it (had to format it Fat32, use FAT32Format windows application). Most apps can also access my NAS to play media. Apps from google play store Vimu player, plays every file I throw at it. Mizuu a media center like app that will look @ all your files and download info about the movieshows, along screen art and put it in a very eye pleasing way. Mitty, just check it out..crazy.... The onlive app (lets you stream & play computer games from their servers to the TV) is not working right now. Onlive tech support said they are working on it but no ETA. Also had an issue with my Tivo premiere not getting the right channel codes from google TV for OTA channels (IR blaster sends whole numbers instead of 2.1, 2.2, 4.2 etc.), but now I have basic cable so that isnt a problem any more TV picture itself is great, like most TVs today. With OTA the quality is amazing, but cable still looks great too. The are a ton of options to fool with the picture that I have yet to tackle except for true motion which I turned off (Like every TV that has this, makes any show look like a soap opera) So far this TV is doing exactly what I wanted to it do, allow me to cut most of my cable bill (just internet and basic cable now)saving me allot of $$ and my wife approves, and can use it without much fuss

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Photography (see section below for etymology) is the art, science and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film, or electronically by means of an image sensor.[1] Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. The result in an electronic image sensor is an electrical charge at each pixel, which is electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing.

 

The result in a photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, which is later chemically developed into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing.

 

Photography has many uses for business, science, manufacturing (e.g. photolithography), art, recreational purposes, and mass communication.

 

The word "photography" was created from the Greek roots φωτός (phōtos), genitive of φῶς (phōs), "light"[2] and γραφή (graphé) "representation by means of lines" or "drawing",[3] together meaning "drawing with light".[4]

 

Several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently. Hercules Florence, a French painter and inventor living in Campinas, Brazil, used the French form of the word, photographie, in private notes which a Brazilian photography historian believes were written in 1834.[5] Johann von Maedler, a Berlin astronomer, is credited in a 1932 German history of photography as having used it in an article published on 25 February 1839 in the German newspaper Vossische Zeitung.[6] Both of these claims are now widely reported but apparently neither has ever been independently confirmed as beyond reasonable doubt. Credit has traditionally been given to Sir John Herschel both for coining the word and for introducing it to the public. His uses of it in private correspondence prior to 25 February 1839 and at his Royal Society lecture on the subject in London on 14 March 1839 have long been amply documented and accepted as settled fact.

 

History and evolution

Precursor technologies

Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Di and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.[8][9] In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experiments,[10] Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965–1040) studied the camera obscura and pinhole camera,[9][11] Albertus Magnus (1193–1280) discovered silver nitrate,[12] and Georg Fabricius (1516–71) discovered silver chloride.[13] Techniques described in the Book of Optics are capable of producing primitive photographs using medieval materials. [14][15][16]

 

Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566.[17] Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694.[18] The fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what can be interpreted as photography.[17]

 

The discovery of the camera obscura that provides an image of a scene dates back to ancient China. Leonardo da Vinci mentions natural cameras obscura that are formed by dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley. A hole in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and project a laterally reversed, upside down image on a piece of paper. So the birth of photography was primarily concerned with developing a means to fix and retain the image produced by the camera obscura.

 

The first success of reproducing images without a camera occurred when Thomas Wedgwood, from the famous family of potters, obtained copies of paintings on leather using silver salts. Since he had no way of permanently fixing those reproductions (stabilizing the image by washing out the non-exposed silver salts), they would turn completely black in the light and thus had to be kept in a dark room for viewing.

 

Renaissance painters used the camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western Art. The camera obscura literally means "dark chamber" in Latin. It is a box with a hole in it which allows light to go through and create an image onto the piece of paper.

 

First camera photography (1820s)

Invented in the early decades of the 19th century, photography by means of the camera seemed able to capture more detail and information than traditional media, such as painting and sculpture.[19] Photography as a usable process goes back to the 1820s with the development of chemical photography. The first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed in a later attempt to make prints from it.[7] Niépce was successful again in 1825. He made the View from the Window at Le Gras, the earliest surviving photograph from nature (i.e., of the image of a real-world scene, as formed in a camera obscura by a lens), in 1826 or 1827.[20]

 

Because Niépce's camera photographs required an extremely long exposure (at least eight hours and probably several days), he sought to greatly improve his bitumen process or replace it with one that was more practical. Working in partnership with Louis Daguerre, he developed a somewhat more sensitive process that produced visually superior results, but it still required a few hours of exposure in the camera. Niépce died in 1833 and Daguerre then redirected the experiments toward the light-sensitive silver halides, which Niépce had abandoned many years earlier because of his inability to make the images he captured with them light-fast and permanent. Daguerre's efforts culminated in what would later be named the daguerreotype process, the essential elements of which were in place in 1837. The required exposure time was measured in minutes instead of hours. Daguerre took the earliest confirmed photograph of a person in 1838 while capturing a view of a Paris street: unlike the other pedestrian and horse-drawn traffic on the busy boulevard, which appears deserted, one man having his boots polished stood sufficiently still throughout the approximately ten-minute-long exposure to be visible. Eventually, France agreed to pay Daguerre a pension for his process in exchange for the right to present his invention to the world as the gift of France, which occurred on 19 August 1839.

Meanwhile, in Brazil, Hercules Florence had already created his own process in 1832, naming it Photographie, and an English inventor, William Fox Talbot, had created another method of making a reasonably light-fast silver process image but had kept his work secret. After reading about Daguerre's invention in January 1839, Talbot published his method and set about improving on it. At first, like other pre-daguerreotype processes, Talbot's paper-based photography typically required hours-long exposures in the camera, but in 1840 he created the calotype process, with exposures comparable to the daguerreotype. In both its original and calotype forms, Talbot's process, unlike Daguerre's, created a translucent negative which could be used to print multiple positive copies, the basis of most chemical photography up to the present day. Daguerreotypes could only be replicated by rephotographing them with a camera.[21] Talbot's famous tiny paper negative of the Oriel window in Lacock Abbey, one of a number of camera photographs he made in the summer of 1835, may be the oldest camera negative in existence.[22][23]

 

John Herschel made many contributions to the new field. He invented the cyanotype process, later familiar as the "blueprint". He was the first to use the terms "photography", "negative" and "positive". He had discovered in 1819 that sodium thiosulphate was a solvent of silver halides, and in 1839 he informed Talbot (and, indirectly, Daguerre) that it could be used to "fix" silver-halide-based photographs and make them completely light-fast. He made the first glass negative in late 1839.

 

In the March 1851 issue of The Chemist, Frederick Scott Archer published his wet plate collodion process. It became the most widely used photographic medium until the gelatin dry plate, introduced in the 1870s, eventually replaced it. There are three subsets to the collodion process; the Ambrotype (a positive image on glass), the Ferrotype or Tintype (a positive image on metal) and the glass negative, which was used to make positive prints on albumen or salted paper.

 

Many advances in photographic glass plates and printing were made during the rest of the 19th century. In 1884, George Eastman developed an early type of film to replace photographic plates, leading to the technology used by film cameras today.

 

In 1891, Gabriel Lippmann introduced a process for making natural-color photographs based on the optical phenomenon of the interference of light waves. His scientifically elegant and important but ultimately impractical invention earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1908.

 

Black-and-white

See also: Monochrome photography

All photography was originally monochrome, or black-and-white. Even after color film was readily available, black-and-white photography continued to dominate for decades, due to its lower cost and its "classic" photographic look. The tones and contrast between light and dark shadows define black and white photography.[24] It is important to note that some monochromatic pictures are not always pure blacks and whites, but also contain other hues depending on the process. The cyanotype process produces an image composed of blue tones. The albumen process, first used more than 150 years ago, produces brown tones.

 

Many photographers continue to produce some monochrome images, often because of the established archival permanence of well processed silver halide based materials. Some full color digital images are processed using a variety of techniques to create black and whites, and some manufacturers produce digital cameras that exclusively shoot monochrome.

 

Color

Color photography was explored beginning in the mid-19th century. Early experiments in color required extremely long exposures (hours or days for camera images) and could not "fix" the photograph to prevent the color from quickly fading when exposed to white light.

 

The first permanent color photograph was taken in 1861 using the three-color-separation principle first published by physicist James Clerk Maxwell in 1855. Maxwell's idea was to take three separate black-and-white photographs through red, green and blue filters. This provides the photographer with the three basic channels required to recreate a color image.

 

Transparent prints of the images could be projected through similar color filters and superimposed on the projection screen, an additive method of color reproduction. A color print on paper could be produced by superimposing carbon prints of the three images made in their complementary colors, a subtractive method of color reproduction pioneered by Louis Ducos du Hauron in the late 1860s.

 

Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii made extensive use of this color separation technique, employing a special camera which successively exposed the three color-filtered images on different parts of an oblong plate. Because his exposures were not simultaneous, unsteady subjects exhibited color "fringes" or, if rapidly moving through the scene, appeared as brightly colored ghosts in the resulting projected or printed images.

 

The development of color photography was hindered by the limited sensitivity of early photographic materials, which were mostly sensitive to blue, only slightly sensitive to green, and virtually insensitive to red. The discovery of dye sensitization by photochemist Hermann Vogel in 1873 suddenly made it possible to add sensitivity to green, yellow and even red. Improved color sensitizers and ongoing improvements in the overall sensitivity of emulsions steadily reduced the once-prohibitive long exposure times required for color, bringing it ever closer to commercial viability.

 

Autochrome, the first commercially successful color process, was introduced by the Lumière brothers in 1907. Autochrome plates incorporated a mosaic color filter layer made of dyed grains of potato starch, which allowed the three color components to be recorded as adjacent microscopic image fragments. After an Autochrome plate was reversal processed to produce a positive transparency, the starch grains served to illuminate each fragment with the correct color and the tiny colored points blended together in the eye, synthesizing the color of the subject by the additive method. Autochrome plates were one of several varieties of additive color screen plates and films marketed between the 1890s and the 1950s.

 

Kodachrome, the first modern "integral tripack" (or "monopack") color film, was introduced by Kodak in 1935. It captured the three color components in a multilayer emulsion. One layer was sensitized to record the red-dominated part of the spectrum, another layer recorded only the green part and a third recorded only the blue. Without special film processing, the result would simply be three superimposed black-and-white images, but complementary cyan, magenta, and yellow dye images were created in those layers by adding color couplers during a complex processing procedure.

 

Agfa's similarly structured Agfacolor Neu was introduced in 1936. Unlike Kodachrome, the color couplers in Agfacolor Neu were incorporated into the emulsion layers during manufacture, which greatly simplified the processing. Currently available color films still employ a multilayer emulsion and the same principles, most closely resembling Agfa's product.

 

Instant color film, used in a special camera which yielded a unique finished color print only a minute or two after the exposure, was introduced by Polaroid in 1963.

 

Color photography may form images as positive transparencies, which can be used in a slide projector, or as color negatives intended for use in creating positive color enlargements on specially coated paper. The latter is now the most common form of film (non-digital) color photography owing to the introduction of automated photo printing equipment.

 

Digital photography

Main article: Digital photography

See also: Digital camera and Digital versus film photography

In 1981, Sony unveiled the first consumer camera to use a charge-coupled device for imaging, eliminating the need for film: the Sony Mavica. While the Mavica saved images to disk, the images were displayed on television, and the camera was not fully digital. In 1991, Kodak unveiled the DCS 100, the first commercially available digital single lens reflex camera. Although its high cost precluded uses other than photojournalism and professional photography, commercial digital photography was born.

 

Digital imaging uses an electronic image sensor to record the image as a set of electronic data rather than as chemical changes on film. [25] An important difference between digital and chemical photography is that chemical photography resists photo manipulation because it involves film and photographic paper, while digital imaging is a highly manipulative medium. This difference allows for a degree of image post-processing that is comparatively difficult in film-based photography and permits different communicative potentials and applications.

  

Photography gained the interest of many scientists and artists from its inception. Scientists have used photography to record and study movements, such as Eadweard Muybridge's study of human and animal locomotion in 1887. Artists are equally interested by these aspects but also try to explore avenues other than the photo-mechanical representation of reality, such as the pictorialist movement.

 

Military, police, and security forces use photography for surveillance, recognition and data storage. Photography is used by amateurs to preserve memories, to capture special moments, to tell stories, to send messages, and as a source of entertainment. High speed photography allows for visualizing events that are too fast for the human eye.

 

Technical aspects

Main article: Camera

The camera is the image-forming device, and photographic film or a silicon electronic image sensor is the sensing medium. The respective recording medium can be the film itself, or a digital electronic or magnetic memory.[26]

 

Photographers control the camera and lens to "expose" the light recording material (such as film) to the required amount of light to form a "latent image" (on film) or RAW file (in digital cameras) which, after appropriate processing, is converted to a usable image. Digital cameras use an electronic image sensor based on light-sensitive electronics such as charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The resulting digital image is stored electronically, but can be reproduced on paper or film.

 

The camera (or 'camera obscura') is a dark room or chamber from which, as far as possible, all light is excluded except the light that forms the image. The subject being photographed, however, must be illuminated. Cameras can range from small to very large, a whole room that is kept dark while the object to be photographed is in another room where it is properly illuminated. This was common for reproduction photography of flat copy when large film negatives were used (see Process camera).

 

As soon as photographic materials became "fast" (sensitive) enough for taking candid or surreptitious pictures, small "detective" cameras were made, some actually disguised as a book or handbag or pocket watch (the Ticka camera) or even worn hidden behind an Ascot necktie with a tie pin that was really the lens.

 

The movie camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on strips of film. In contrast to a still camera, which captures a single snapshot at a time, the movie camera takes a series of images, each called a "frame". This is accomplished through an intermittent mechanism. The frames are later played back in a movie projector at a specific speed, called the "frame rate" (number of frames per second). While viewing, a person's eyes and brain merge the separate pictures together to create the illusion of motion.[27]

 

Camera controls are interrelated. The total amount of light reaching the film plane (the 'exposure') changes with the duration of exposure, aperture of the lens, and on the effective focal length of the lens (which in variable focal length lenses, can force a change in aperture as the lens is zoomed). Changing any of these controls can alter the exposure. Many cameras may be set to adjust most or all of these controls automatically. This automatic functionality is useful for occasional photographers in many situations.

 

The duration of an exposure is referred to as shutter speed, often even in cameras that do not have a physical shutter, and is typically measured in fractions of a second. It is quite possible to have exposures from one up to several seconds, usually for still-life subjects, and for night scenes exposure times can be several hours. However, for a subject that is in motion use a fast shutter speed. This will prevent the photograph from coming out blurry.[29]

 

The effective aperture is expressed by an f-number or f-stop (derived from focal ratio), which is proportional to the ratio of the focal length to the diameter of the aperture. Longer lenses will pass less light even though the diameter of the aperture is the same due to the greater distance the light has to travel; shorter lenses (a shorter focal length) will be brighter with the same size of aperture.

 

The smaller the f/number, the larger the effective aperture. The present system of f/numbers to give the effective aperture of a lens was standardized by an international convention. There were earlier, different series of numbers in older cameras.

 

If the f-number is decreased by a factor of √2, the aperture diameter is increased by the same factor, and its area is increased by a factor of 2. The f-stops that might be found on a typical lens include 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, 32, where going up "one stop" (using lower f-stop numbers) doubles the amount of light reaching the film, and stopping down one stop halves the amount of light.

 

Image capture can be achieved through various combinations of shutter speed, aperture, and film or sensor speed. Different (but related) settings of aperture and shutter speed enable photographs to be taken under various conditions of film or sensor speed, lighting and motion of subjects and/or camera, and desired depth of field. A slower speed film will exhibit less "grain", and a slower speed setting on an electronic sensor will exhibit less "noise", while higher film and sensor speeds allow for a faster shutter speed, which reduces motion blur or allows the use of a smaller aperture to increase the depth of field.

 

For example, a wider aperture is used for lower light and a lower aperture for more light. If a subject is in motion, then a high shutter speed may be needed. A tripod can also be helpful in that it enables a slower shutter speed to be used.

 

For example, f/8 at 8 ms (1/125 of a second) and f/5.6 at 4 ms (1/250 of a second) yield the same amount of light. The chosen combination has an impact on the final result. The aperture and focal length of the lens determine the depth of field, which refers to the range of distances from the lens that will be in focus. A longer lens or a wider aperture will result in "shallow" depth of field (i.e. only a small plane of the image will be in sharp focus). This is often useful for isolating subjects from backgrounds as in individual portraits or macro photography.

 

Conversely, a shorter lens, or a smaller aperture, will result in more of the image being in focus. This is generally more desirable when photographing landscapes or groups of people. With very small apertures, such as pinholes, a wide range of distance can be brought into focus, but sharpness is severely degraded by diffraction with such small apertures. Generally, the highest degree of "sharpness" is achieved at an aperture near the middle of a lens's range (for example, f/8 for a lens with available apertures of f/2.8 to f/16). However, as lens technology improves, lenses are becoming capable of making increasingly sharp images at wider apertures.

 

Image capture is only part of the image forming process. Regardless of material, some process must be employed to render the latent image captured by the camera into a viewable image. With slide film, the developed film is just mounted for projection. Print film requires the developed film negative to be printed onto photographic paper or transparency. Digital images may be uploaded to an image server (e.g., a photo-sharing web site), viewed on a television, or transferred to a computer or digital photo frame. Every type can be printed on more "classical" mediums such as regular paper or photographic paper for examples.

 

Prior to the rendering of a viewable image, modifications can be made using several controls. Many of these controls are similar to controls during image capture, while some are exclusive to the rendering process. Most printing controls have equivalent digital concepts, but some create different effects. For example, dodging and burning controls are different between digital and film processes. Other printing modifications include:

Digital point-and-shoot cameras have become widespread consumer products, outselling film cameras, and including new features such as video and audio recording. Kodak announced in January 2004 that it would no longer sell reloadable 35 mm cameras in western Europe, Canada and the United States after the end of that year. Kodak was at that time a minor player in the reloadable film cameras market. In January 2006, Nikon followed suit and announced that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras: the low-end Nikon FM10, and the high-end Nikon F6. On 25 May 2006, Canon announced they will stop developing new film SLR cameras.[34] Though most new camera designs are now digital, a new 6x6cm/6x7cm medium format film camera was introduced in 2008 in a cooperation between Fuji and Voigtländer.[35][36]

 

According to a survey made by Kodak in 2007 when the majority of photography was already digital, 75 percent of professional photographers say they will continue to use film, even though some embrace digital.[37]

 

The PMA say that in the year 2000 nearly a billion rolls of film were sold each year and by 2011 a mere 20 million rolls, plus 31 million single-use cameras.[38]

 

Quelle:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photography

de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fotografie

  

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militarysurpluscenter.com/cheap-command-hq-tent-tunnel-co...

Il. Title- ( - sang sur mains - ) Mike Mullen having a nice steak dinner with a 'clear conscience' ... ( On top of dead Afghani civilians & dead soldiers.. Egomaniac.. ) Yes Wikileaks shared this piece inspired by them & their work: twitter.com/wikileaks/status/21824111844 it & the entire Wikileaks series is not- for sale.

At some point there may be an exhibition with funds going towards WL & Bradley Manning.

 

But for now none of the pieces in the series are commercially available or for sale to private individuals.

 

They do have free use by Wikileaks however.

More work to be posted soon.

  

Dimensions: 18" x 24.5" acid free paper, acrylics, gouache & ebony pencil

 

"Mr. Assange can say whatever he likes about the greater good he thinks he and his source are doing, but the truth is they might already have on their hands the blood of some young soldier or that of an Afghan family," Mullen said."

 

www.foxnews.com/politics/2010/07/29/pentagon-wikileaks-bl...

 

MMm no- Mullen..How can we end these wars ASAP- & STOP you from getting any MORE blood on YOUR hands..

  

( News from Wikileaks Twitter feed, 8 - 19 - 2012: "In fact, being from another planet, he might even have picked up on something that most Americans would be unlikely to notice -- that, with only slight alterations, Mullen’s blistering comment about Assange could be applied remarkably well to Mullen himself. “Chairman Mullen,” that Martian might have responded, “can say whatever he likes about the greater good he thinks he is doing, but the truth is he already has on his hands the blood of some young soldiers and that of many Afghan families.” "

www.cbsnews.com/stories/2010/08/06/opinion/main6748239.shtml )

   

War Diary - wardiary.wikileaks.org/ Timeline: wartimeline.haineault.com/

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Mullen#2007_Senate_testimon...

  

& from the Pentagon- "“We want whatever they have returned to us and we want whatever copies they have expunged… We demand that they do the right thing. If doing the right thing is not good enough for them, then we will figure out what alternatives we have to compel them to do the right thing." mashable.com/2010/08/05/pentagon-wikileaks-demand/

 

The NERVE.. -

  

Wikileaks - "What we didn't hear from the Pentagon last week: "killing all those innocent people is bad. Sorry. We will stop that" Thursday, August 05, 2010

YES.

 

-

 

"Thousands of children and adults had been killed and the US could have announced a broad inquiry into these killings, "but he decided to treat these issues with contempt''.

He said: "This behaviour is unacceptable. We will continue to expose abuses by this administration and others."" - www.guardian.co.uk/world/2010/jul/30/us-military-wikileak...

 

-

 

( From Wikileaks twitter- Aug 19 2010 _ ) -

 

Wikileaks vs the Pentagon: Phony Fingerpointing

Tom Engelhardt:: Who Really Has Blood On Their Hands?

  

"Consider the following statement offered by Admiral Mike Mullen, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, at a news conference last week. He was discussing Julian Assange, the founder of Wikileaks as well as the person who has taken responsibility for the vast, still ongoing Afghan War document dump at that site. "Mr. Assange,” Mullen commented, “can say whatever he likes about the greater good he thinks he and his source are doing, but the truth is they might already have on their hands the blood of some young soldier or that of an Afghan family.”

 

Now, if you were the proverbial fair-minded visitor from Mars (who in school civics texts of my childhood always seemed to land on Main Street, U.S.A., to survey the wonders of our American system), you might be a bit taken aback by Mullen’s statement. After all, one of the revelations in the trove of leaked documents Assange put online had to do with how much blood from innocent Afghan civilians was already on American hands.

 

The British Guardian was one of three publications given early access to the leaked archive, and it began its main article this way: “A huge cache of secret U.S. military files today provides a devastating portrait of the failing war in Afghanistan, revealing how coalition forces have killed hundreds of civilians in unreported incidents. They range from the shootings of individual innocents to the often massive loss of life from air strikes...” Or as the paper added in a piece headlined “Secret CIA paramilitaries’ role in civilian deaths”: “Behind the military jargon, the war logs are littered with accounts of civilian tragedies.

 

The 144 entries in the logs recording some of these so-called ‘blue on white’ events, cover a wide spectrum of day-by-day assaults on Afghans, with hundreds of casualties.” Or as it also reported, when exploring documents related to Task Force 373, an “undisclosed ‘black’ unit” of U.S. special operations forces focused on assassinating Taliban and al-Qaeda “senior officials”: “The logs reveal that TF 373 has also killed civilian men, women, and children and even Afghan police officers who have strayed into its path.”

 

Admittedly, the events recorded in the Wikileaks archive took place between 2004 and the end of 2009, and so don’t cover the last six months of the Obama administration’s across-the-board surge in Afghanistan. Then again, Admiral Mullen became chairman of the Joint Chiefs in October 2007, and so has been at the helm of the American war machine for more than two of the years in question.

 

He was, for example, chairman in July 2008, when an American plane or planes took out an Afghan bridal party -- 70 to 90 strong and made up mostly of women -- on a road near the Pakistani border. They were "escorting the bride to meet her groom as local tradition dictates." The bride, whose name we don’t know, died, as did at least 27 other members of the party, including children. Mullen was similarly chairman in August 2008 when a memorial service for a tribal leader in the village of Azizabad in Afghanistan’s Herat Province was hit by repeated U.S. air strikes that killed at least 90 civilians, including perhaps 15 women and up to 60 children. Among the dead were 76 members of one extended family, headed by Reza Khan, a "wealthy businessman with construction and security contracts with the nearby American base at Shindand airport."

 

Mullen was still chairman in April 2009 when members of the family of Awal Khan, an Afghan army artillery commander on duty elsewhere, were killed in a U.S.-led raid in Khost province in eastern Afghanistan. Among them were his "schoolteacher wife, a 17-year-old daughter named Nadia, a 15-year-old son, Aimal, and his brother, employed by a government department.” Another daughter was wounded and the pregnant wife of Khan's cousin was shot five times in the abdomen.

 

Mullen remained chairman when, in November 2009, two relatives of Majidullah Qarar, the spokesman for the Minister of Agriculture, were shot down in cold blood in Ghazni City in a Special Operations night raid; as he was -- and here we move beyond the Wikileaks time frame -- when, in February 2010, U.S. Special Forces troops in helicopters struck a convoy of mini-buses, killing up to 27 civilians, including women and children; as he also was when, in that same month, in a special operations night raid, two pregnant women and a teenage girl, as well as a police officer and his brother, were shot to death in their home in a village near Gardez, the capital of Paktia province. After which, the soldiers reportedly dug the bullets out of the bodies, washed the wounds with alcohol, and tried to cover the incident up. He was no less chairman late last month when residents of a small town in Helmand province in southern Afghanistan claimed that a NATO missile attack had killed 52 civilians, an incident that, like just about every other one mentioned above and so many more, was initially denied by U.S. and NATO spokespeople and is now being “investigated.” "

  

www.cbsnews.com/stories/2010/08/06/opinion/main6748239.shtml

    

-

 

"What is interesting is who is responsible for the killings.

 

Of the 1,325 civilian deaths recorded by the Afghan human rights group, 23 per cent were attributed to Nato or Afghan government forces. The Taliban and their allies were responsible for 68 per cent of the deaths.

 

The UN study claimed the civilian death toll was slightly lower at 1,271 with anti-government forces blamed for 76 per cent of the casualties.

 

Chronicling precise figures is extremely difficult because most parts of the country are inaccessible.

 

Crucially, both studies suggested that the proportion of deaths attributed to Nato and Afghan government forces were down compared to last year because of fewer air strikes.

 

This is important because clumsy air strikes on innocent villages and unfair raids on their houses has been driving a lot of Afghans to pick up arms on behalf of insurgents."

 

by, Hamida Ghafour

More: www.thenational.ae/apps/pbcs.dll/article?AID=/20100811/OP...

 

& -

"My countrymen called me a prostitute

(Filed: 26/10/2004)

 

Fourteen months ago, Hamida Ghafour went to Afghanistan to cover her native countrys postwar reconstruction for this newspaper. But, as a westernised Afghan, her homecoming wasnt as welcoming as she had hoped"

www.afghanistan.org/news_detail.asp?17220

 

I am skeptical about agendas.. It can be confusing, this is why for better or worse one must have THE FACTS - it would have been better if we had them from the START.

 

Without facts no one cares what we do- or who we kill, because we simply don't have ANY concept of how a decade long war is going..

 

“The government is engaging in selective prosecution to ensure that employees keep their mouths shut,” says Stephen Khon, a lawyer specializing in whistleblowing cases. “All of a sudden the whistleblower becomes public enemy number one. There is no proportionality.” www.alternet.org/world/147778/how_the_military_destroys_t...

  

This- - you MUST watch-- It's of Afghani's asking for peace & for us to leave- "Wikileaks Assange, stand freely for love & we in Afg will stand with you.." From: www.youtube.com/watch?v=k9E_nXiPj9g

 

US war crimes: soldiers speak out. - www.youtube.com/watch?v=tj6s1V0Dpuw

  

From Wikileaks Twitter- "UNAMA Human Rights Unit issued recommendations in the report including:

 

• The Taliban should withdraw all orders and statements calling for the killing of civilians; and, the Taliban and other AGEs should end the use of IEDs and suicide attacks, comply with international humanitarian law, cease acts of intimidation and killing including assassination, execution and abduction, fully respect citizens’ freedom of movement and stop using civilians as human shields.

 

• International military forces should make more transparent their investigation and reporting on civilian casualties including on accountability; maintain and strengthen directives restricting aerial attacks and the use of night raids; coordinate investigation and reporting of civilian casualties with the Afghan Government to improve protection and accountability; improve compensation processes; and, improve transparency around any harm to civilians caused by Special Forces operations.

 

• The Afghan Government should create a public body to lead its response to major civilian casualty incidents and its interaction with international military forces and other key actors, ensure investigations include forensic components, ensure transparent and timely compensation to victims; and, improve accountability including discipline or prosecution for any Afghan National Security Forces personnel who unlawfully cause death or injury to civilians or otherwise violate the rights of Afghan citizens."

unama.unmissions.org/Default.aspx?tabid=1741&ctl=Deta...

 

From Wikileaks Twitter- CBC

 

"A bomb is found tucked into a school typewriter. Insurgents dressed in military uniforms attack an education chief. School guards are tied up while the building is bombed to smithereens. Teachers and students at an all-girls high school are poisoned through the drinking water."

 

"School attacks

Year Number of attacks against schools

2005 98

2006 220

2007 236

2008 348

2009 610

 

Source: UNICEF. Data for 2008 and 2009 are from the UN Country Task Force on Children, and previous years are from the Ministry of Education."

 

"Education for children up in Afghanistan since 2002- .

"Nine years ago, about 100,000 students were enrolled in schools. The figure now stands at more than seven million students, one-third of whom are girls, according to the Afghanistan Ministry of Education.

 

"It's one of those sectors where we've seen radical and dramatic progress since 2002," notes Rowell.

 

"No one knows where the country is going … but education is a beacon of success."

 

Read more: www.cbc.ca/world/story/2010/08/06/f-afghanistan-education...

 

& www.cbc.ca/news/interactives/database-afghan-war-logs/

 

""

 

"New Petition Gains Prominent Signatures: “Defend WikiLeaks – End the Secret Wars” - Sign: seminal.firedoglake.com/diary/64042

"One of the most difficult tasks men can perform, however much others may despise it, is the invention of good games and it cannot be done by men out of touch with their instinctive selves." - Jung.

   

Treating Soldier Stress: www.time.com/time/photogallery/0,29307,2008931_2172992,00...

 

"Afghan War Diary

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

  

The Afghan War Diary (also called The War Logs) is a collection of internal U.S. military logs of the War in Afghanistan published by Wikileaks on 25 July 2010.

The logs consist of 91,731 documents, covering the period between January 2004 and December 2009. Most of the documents were classified as "secret", which The New York Times called "a relatively low level of classification".

As of 28 July 2010, only 75,000 of the documents have been released to the public, a move which Wikileaks says is "part of a harm minimization process demanded by [the] source". Prior to releasing the initial 75,000 documents, Wikileaks made the logs available to The Guardian, The New York Times and Der Spiegel in its German and English on-line edition which published reports per previous agreement on that same day, July 25, 2010."

 

&

 

"In June 2010, Guardian journalist Nick Davies and WikiLeaks founder Julian Assange established that the US army had built a huge database with six years of sensitive military intelligence material, to which many thousands of US soldiers had access and some of them had been able to download copies, and WikiLeaks had one copy which it proposed to publish online, via a series of uncensorable global servers.

 

Wikileaks describes itself as "a multi-jurisdictional public service designed to protect whistleblowers, journalists and activists who have sensitive materials to communicate to the public."

 

In an interview with the U.K.'s Channel 4, Wikileaks founder Julian Assange said that "we have a stated commitment to a particular kind of process and objective, and that commitment is to get censored material out and never to take it down." He contrasted the group with other media outlets by saying that "other journalists try to verify sources. We don't do that, we verify documents. We don't care where it came from." He denied that the group has an inherent bias against the Afghanistan War, saying that "We don't have a view about whether the war should continue or stop – we do have a view that it should be prosecuted as humanely as possible." However, he also said that he believes the leaked information will turn world public opinion to think more negatively of the war."

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Afghan_War_Diary

  

"War has become a luxury that only small nations can afford." -

Hannah Arendt

 

"The leak of tens of thousands of Afghanistan war-related documents tells us more than the sum total of many official communiqués about the war. On balance, more disclosure is a good thing, but the leaking of raw military intelligence is a special case that requires a careful, rather than a cavalier, approach.

 

There is not enough information about the war, and much official information is misleading. In Canada, the federal government's quarterly reports contain a few updates based on its goals in Kandahar, but little else that informs. The government has already shown itself to be an unreliable source on issues relating to Afghan detainees.

 

The situation is now too dangerous for the most trustworthy chroniclers – journalists, UN personnel – to go outside NATO-protected areas.

 

So reliable, independent information is lacking. The circumstances in this war make such information even more necessary."

 

www.theglobeandmail.com/news/opinions/editorials/we-neede...

  

"Instead, many eyes will now pore over this data from many different directions, looking for patterns and attempting to eliminate the noise, disinformation and fog of war.

Many will look to it to criticise and condemn the US presence in Afghanistan, but if those on the other side – those who support such military incursions – have any sense, they too will use it to understand better the war in which they find themselves and adapt their counsel to fit more accurately the facts on the ground.

That’s the benefit, usually, of an open society. We get to triangulate on the truth by gathering facts in the public space, then providing them to all sides to chew over. We use this against our own illusions and those of more closed societies who can only view the world through one narrow perspective.": www.irishtimes.com/newspaper/finance/2010/0730/1224275801...

  

wikileaks.org/

 

( en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Media_ecology )

 

"The first phase was chilling, in part because the banter of the soldiers was so far beyond the boundaries of civilian discourse. “Just fuckin’, once you get on ’em, just open ’em up,” one of them said. The crew members of the Apache came upon about a dozen men ambling down a street, a block or so from American troops, and reported that five or six of the men were armed with AK-47s; as the Apache maneuvered into position to fire at them, the crew saw one of the Reuters journalists, who were mixed in among the other men, and mistook a long-lensed camera for an RPG. The Apaches fired on the men for twenty-five seconds, killing nearly all of them instantly."

 

Read more www.newyorker.com/reporting/2010/06/07/100607fa_fact_khat...

  

"With the release of the WikiLeaks documents, Arab media may finally feel vindicated, as Western media finally start to give greater prominence to civilian casualties." newamericamedia.org/2010/07/wikileaks-documents-validate-...

 

"Wikileaks confirmed: A plan to kill American geologist with poison beer

 

The Wikileaks documents contain a claim that Pakistan and Afghanistan insurgents were working to poison alcoholic drinks in Afghanistan. While that's unproven, one US adviser in Afghanistan tells the Monitor he was almost poisoned that way in 2007." : www.csmonitor.com/World/Asia-South-Central/2010/0728/Wiki...

  

"This is duplicitous only if you close your eyes to the Pakistani reality, which the Americans never did. There was ample evidence, as the WikiLeaks show, of covert ISI ties to the Taliban. The Americans knew they couldn't break those ties. They settled for what support Pakistan could give them while constantly pressing them harder and harder until genuine fears in Washington emerged that Pakistan could destabilize altogether. Since a stable Pakistan is more important to the United States than a victory in Afghanistan—which it wasn't going to get anyway—the United States released pressure and increased aid. If Pakistan collapsed, then India would be the sole regional power, not something the United States wants."

 

www.billoreilly.com/site/rd?satype=13&said=12&url...

 

"How to read the Afghanistan war logs: video tutorial

David Leigh, the Guardian's investigations editor, explains the online tools we have created to help you understand the secret US military files on the war in Afghanistan": www.guardian.co.uk/world/datablog/video/2010/jul/25/afgha...

 

"Jonathan Foreman, writing for the right of center National Review's Corner blog, hopes the documents will force America to deal with the possible deceptions being made by ally Pakistan. "It is possible that the publication of documents that provide actual evidence — rather than rumors — of the role of ISI personnel in Taliban planning, logistics, and strategy will give the West greater leverage in dealing with Islamabad and might force Pakistan’s political elite to confront the reality of the ISI’s secret activities. If so, that would be a silver lining to what is otherwise a military disaster abetted by the U.S. and British media."

www.nbclosangeles.com/news/politics/NATL-The-Importance-o...

  

"The real significance of the Afghan war diaries lies in what Wikileaks represents as a movement, as an evolution in journalism. One analyst has called it the emergence of open source journalism. Julian Assange makes it possible for anybody anywhere in the world to submit secret documents for publication." www.thehindu.com/opinion/columns/Sevanti_Ninan/article541...

  

A War Without End: www.spiegel.de/international/world/0,1518,708314,00.html

  

"Julian Assange on the Afghanistan war logs: 'They show the true nature of this war'

 

Julian Assange, the founder of Wikileaks, explains why he decided to publish thousands of secret US military files on the war in Afghanistan Afghanistan war logs expose truth of occupation": www.guardian.co.uk/world/video/2010/jul/25/julian-assange...

 

The history of US leaks: www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-10769495

 

Freedom of Information Act: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Freedom_of_Information_Act_(United_...

 

"A long-delayed Afghanistan war funding bill, stripped of billions for teachers and black farmers, is back before the House and walking now into the storm over the Internet leak of battlefield reports stirring old doubts about U.S. policy and relations with Pakistan.": www.politico.com/news/stories/0710/40254.html & www.politico.com/news/stories/0710/40251.html

  

This is a large study/drawing, Assange/Wikileakers of the organization Wikileaks ( wikileaks.org ) uses 'matches from sources' to disclose US gov secrecy ( behind large black curtains ) & to also finally bring some much needed attention & closure to some of these revelations ( set ablaze ).

   

This ongoing series is dedicated to everyone who has needlessly had their lives destroyed, been injured or die in this almost past decade of war. For the sources, journalists & average citizens who risk their lives to inform us.

Reuters reporters Namir Eldeen, Saeed Chmagh & the good samaritan ( father ) who died trying to save them & of course his two surviving small children who will forever be impacted by the brutality of war for decades to come.

 

Please help Private Bradley Manning- www.bradleymanning.org/

  

"One surprising consequence of the war in Iraq is the surrender of postmodernism to a victorious modernism. This has been largely overlooked in North America.

 

In reaction to the U.S. intervention in Iraq, Jacques Derrida, a famous postmodernist, signed on as co-author of an article drafted by the German philosopher Jürgen Habermas, previously an opponent of his, in an unmistakable endorsement of modernist Enlightenment principles. Derrida, the apostle of deconstructionism, is now advocating some decidedly constructive and Eurocentric activism.

 

The article appeared simultaneously in two newspapers on May 31, in German in Frankfurter Allgemeine Zeitung as "After the War: The Rebirth of Europe," and in French in Libération, less triumphantly, as "A Plea for a Common Foreign Policy: The demonstrations of Feb. 15 against the war in Iraq designed a new European public space."

 

Other famous intellectuals joined in with supportive newspaper articles of their own: Umberto Eco (of The Name of the Rose) and Gianni Vattimo in Italy and an American philosopher, Richard Rorty. This provoked much discussion in Europe, but only a few comments so far in North America, the Boston Globe and the Village Voice being rare exceptions.

 

This week in Montreal, there was an anti-globalization riot in which windows were broken in protest against a World Trade Organization (WTO) meeting. But the Habermas-Derrida declaration praises the WTO and even the International Monetary Fund as part of Weltinnenpolitik: maddeningly hard to translate, but something like "global domestic policy" or "external internal policy."

 

Yet it is not much of a stretch to claim the young anti-globalists as disciples of postmodernism and Derrida, who has hitherto been a foe of "logocentrism" (putting reason at the centre), "phallologocentrism" (reason is an erect male organ and, as such, damnably central) and Eurocentrism (the old, old West is the homeland of all of the above).

 

Derrida added a note to the article, observing most people would recognize Habermas's style and thinking in the piece, and that he hadn't had time to write a separate piece. But notwithstanding his "past confrontations" with Habermas (Derrida had objected to being called a "Judaistic mystic," for one thing), he agreed with the article he had signed, which calls for new European responsibilities "beyond all Eurocentrism" and the strengthening of international law and international institutions."

 

More: www.16beavergroup.org/mtarchive/archives/000361.php

 

"In early 2003, both Habermas and Derrida were very active in opposing the coming Iraq War, and called for in a manifesto that later became the book Old Europe, New Europe, Core Europe for a tighter union of the states of the European Union in order to provide a power capable of opposing American foreign policy. Derrida wrote a foreword expressing his unqualified subscription to Habermas's declaration of February 2003, "February 15, or, What Binds Europeans Together: Plea for a Common Foreign Policy, Beginning in Core Europe,” in Old Europe, New Europe, Core Europe which was a reaction to the Bush administration demands upon European nations for support for the coming Iraq War[25]. Habermas has offered further context for this declaration in an interview."

 

More: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/J%c3%bcrgen_Habermas#Habermas_and_D...

  

Habermas: ”The asymmetry between the concentrated destructive power of the electronically controlled clusters of elegant and versatile missiles in the air and the archaic ferocity of the swarms of bearded warriors outfitted with Kalashnikovs on the ground remains a morally obscene sight

 

I consider Bush' s decision to call for a "war against terrorism" a serious mistake, both normatively and pragmatically. Normatively, he is elevating these criminals to the status of war enemies; and pragmatically, one cannot lead a war against a "network" if the term "war" is to retain any definite meaning.”

     

Derrida: “To say it all too quickly and in passing, to amplify and clarify just a bit what I said earlier about an absolute threat whose origin is anonymous and not related to any state, such "terrorist" attacks already no longer need planes, bombs, or kamikazes: it is enough to infiltrate a strategically important computer system and introduce a virus or some other disruptive element to paralyze the economic, military, and political resources of an entire country or continent. And this can be attempted from just about anywhere on earth, at very little expense and with minimal means. The relationship between earth, terra territory, and terror has changed, and it is necessary to know that this is because of knowledge, that is, because of technoscience.

 

It is technoscience that blurs the distinction between war and terrorism. In this regard, when compared to the possibilities for destruction and chaotic disorder that are in reserve, for the future, in the computerized networks of the world, "September 11" is still part of the archaic theater of violence aimed at striking the imagination. One will be able to do even worse tomorrow, invisibly, in silence, more quickly and without any bloodshed, by attacking the computer and informational networks on which the entire life (social, economic, military, and so on) of a "great nation," of the greatest power on earth, depends.”

 

www.16beavergroup.org/mtarchive/archives/000361.php

 

I am incredibly- delighted at all the vital discussions about the war & US gov that are FINALLY taking place- & on a mass scale- as a result of this leak .. Simply miraculous..

  

FREEDOM & PEACE ( transparency, diplomacy & the evolution of such ) FOR ALL WAR NATIONS.

  

( WARNING - links ( after excerpt ) are NOT for sensitive viewers- ) "Wikileaks have released over 150 supressed images. This is the tip of the iceberg, keep looking, keep publishing.In the last week Wikileaks has released over 150 censored photos and videos of the Tibet uprising and has called on bloggers around the world to help drive the footage through the Chinese internet censorship regime — the so called “Great Firewall of China”The transparency group’s move comes as a response to the the Chinese Public Security Bureau’s carte-blanche censorship of youtube, the BBC, CNN, the Guardian and other sites carrying video footage of the Tibetan people’s recent heroic stand against the inhumane Chinese occupation of Tibet."

fortuzero.wordpress.com/2008/03/31/tibet-western-media-sa...

 

file.wikileaks.org/file/tibet-protest-photos/index.html

 

FREE TIBET!!!!!!!!!!!!

   

Also other dire & serious issues ( out of countless ) - that expose corruption by corporations & gov's:

 

"A documentary about intensive pig farming due to be screened at the Guardian Hay festival on Sunday is facing a legal threat from one of the companies it investigates. Pig Business criticises the practices of the world's largest pork processor, Smithfield Foods, claiming it is responsible for environmental pollution and health problems among residents near its factories."

 

www.guardian.co.uk/film/2009/may/29/pig-business-document...

 

"In an investigation broadcast on BBC Radio 5 on November 14, 2004,[79] it was reported that the site is still contaminated with 'thousands' of metric tons of toxic chemicals, including benzene hexachloride and mercury, held in open containers or loose on the ground. A sample of drinking water from a well near the site had levels of contamination 500 times higher than the maximum limits recommended by the World Health Organization.[80]

 

In 2009, a day before the 25th anniversary of the disaster, Centre for Science and Environment (CSE), a Delhi based pollution monitoring lab, released latest tests from a study showing that groundwater in areas even three km from the factory up to 38.6 times more pesticides than Indian standards."

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Bhopal_disaster

   

-

 

The Blue Mask - Lou Reed - www.goear.com/listen/9960779/the-blue-mask-lou-reed ( & O Superman ) www.goear.com/listen/02cf55d/o-superman-(for-massenet)-la...

 

Lou Reed The Blue Mask

 

Lyrics:

 

They tied his arms behind

his back to teach him how to

swim They put

blood in his coffee and milk

in his gin They stood over the

soldier in

the midst of the squalor

There was war in his body and

it caused his

brain to holler

Make the sacrifice

mutilate my face

If you need someone to kill

I'm a man without a will

Wash the razor in the rain

Let me luxuriate in pain

Please don't set me free

Death means a lot to me

The pain was lean and it made

him scream he knew he was alive

They put a

pin through the nipples on his chest

He thought he was a saint

I've made love to my mother,

killed my father and my brother

What am I

to do

When a sin goes too far, it's

like a runaway car It cannot

be controlled

Spit upon his face and scream

There's no Oedipus today

This is no play you're thinking you

are in What will you say

Take the blue mask down from my face and

look me in the eye I get a

thrill from punishment

I've always been that way

I loathe and despise repentance

You are permanently stained

Your weakness buys indifference

and indiscretion in the streets

Dirty's what you are and clean is what

you're not You deserve to be

soundly beat

Make the sacrifice

Take it all the way

There's no won't high enough

To stop this desperate day

Don't take death away

Cut the finger at the joint

Cut the stallion at his mount

And stuff it in his mouth

---

  

-

   

"He who joyfully marches to music rank and file, has already earned my contempt. He has been given a large brain by mistake, since for him the spinal cord would surely suffice. This disgrace to civilization should be done away with at once. Heroism at command, how violently I hate all this, how despicable and ignoble war is; I would rather be torn to shreds than be a part of so base an action. It is my conviction that killing under the cloak of war is nothing but an act of murder. "

  

Albert Einstein

  

IMAGINE THE HAPPINESS & GREAT WORK AHEAD OF US WE COULD HAVE AT THE END OF THE WARS!!!!!!!!!

 

www.goear.com/listen/48d6016/hora-de-la-mehedinti-romania...

 

NO MORE WAR & FREEDOM FOR ALL WAR NATIONS!!!!!!!!!

 

Peace.

El nuevo emplazamiento de los servidores

 

---------

 

The new server place

 

- Taken at 12:22 AM on November 26, 2006 - cameraphone upload by ShoZu

If a company needs periodic printing jobs, with one or a couple of copies than it's far much better to purchase a printer, or even an all-in-one that incorporates printer, fax, scanner and photo copier jobs. These are cost-effective printers and a printer rental for these would be a waste of cash.

 

Where printer rental is a financially beneficial concept is for companies that produce several copies day in and day out, that offer printed copy to customers, that utilize their business printer to item advertising products, etc. If the jobs that will certainly be carried out by the business printer are comprehensive, particularly if they need graphics, looking at and batches of 100 or even more, a printer rental is typically a more sound choice than a printer purchase. Among the benefits of a printer rental or lease is the service and on website repair work that include business printer rental.

 

Right here is a common printer rental offer.

 

This business focuses on the effective Hewlett Packard 4600 color laser printer rental although it likewise provides numerous makes and designs of both laser and inkjet printers.

 

The printer rental company has a big stock of printers both white and black in addition to color. You can have your printer rental straight linked to your company's company computer system or you can lease printers that are network allowed. This printer rental supplier can set up the printer with the IP you'll require and the entrance info if you understand your business's network settings.

 

Something to bear in mind, nevertheless, is that you might need to upgrade your printer motorists whether your os is Windows or Mac. This company will certainly assist you get that achieved.

 

Another choice you might desire to think about when you get your printer rental is the leasing of a cordless server for your later printer. This printer rental supplier can lease the cordless server to you and can likewise incorporate all the hardware into your network.

 

This printer rental offers an One Hundred Percent fulfillment assurance. Consisted of in the printer rental are the company's guarantee of sales professionals with printer and other rental devices proficiency, and a big stock of top of the line items that consist of Hewlett Packard, NEC, Apple; Compaq, Leader and Fujitsu, and others.

 

Printer rental consists of software application loading and setup prior to shipment. Your printer rental devices is checked for quality guarantee, to guarantee that the devices you are leasing works as it should.

 

Technical support of the printer rental devices is 1 Day a day, 7 days a week. The feedback time for on-site shipment, service and support is brief, and the specialists all bring 2 method radios for immediate communication with customers.

Replacement service is ensured on printer rental devices that is defective, and assist desk support is offered and limitless through toll totally free number.

  

If the jobs that will certainly be carried out by the business printer are comprehensive, particularly if they need graphics, looking at and batches of 100 or even more, a printer rental is typically a more sound choice than a printer purchase. One of the benefits of a printer rental or lease is the service and on website repair work that come with the company printer rental.

 

You can have your printer rental straight linked to your company's company computer system or you can lease printers that are network allowed. If you understand your business's network settings, this printer rental supplier can set up the printer with the IP you'll require and the entrance info.

 

Another choice you might desire to think about when you get your printer rental is the leasing of a cordless server for your later printer. printcom.com.au/rental-9.html

An open letter to our loyal friends, free account holders, and creative Pro members,

 

Happy Halloween to all of you !

 

Here at Flickr Headquarters, over the last six months we have been getting a few complaints --- especially from our esteemed pro paying members, and even a few disgruntled comments from our one-terabyte "freebie members".

 

There seems to be a unanimous opinion among a handful of you that our Flickr pages are running slower than snails swimming in molasses due to our awesome scrolling format, and that one or two minor little bugs are causing some inconsequential problems.

 

Apparently, these problems only occurs on those extremely rare occasions when someone clicks on any buttons at any time on any page that has anything to do with....

 

(1) trying to log on,

 

(2) accessing Flickr from your tool bar,

 

(3) uploading your own photos,

 

(4) looking at your own photos,

 

(5) looking at other peoples photos,

 

(6) trying to get the "Fave Button" to work,

 

(7) getting your caption corrections and revisions to save,

 

(8) getting your hypertext markups to save,

 

(9) refreshing your Home Page (or any other page),

 

(10) checking your new and highly-inflated awesome daily stats (which sometimes read zero),

 

(11) posting comments,

 

(12) finding out where your "Collections" went

 

(13) Saving to Sets

 

(14) Sending to Groups

 

(15) Getting the Organizr to Organize

 

(16) In-Photo Notes not working

 

(17) The Up-Loader is quirky

 

(18) The "new" Nokia Maps that we promised would be way better, still aren't way better.

 

(19) finding any meaningful help at the HELP pages,

 

and finally.....

 

(20) other insignificant, hardly-noticeable, minor little problems. For example, your attempted actions totally timing out, or, one of our Flickr staff accidentally deleting your entire account.

 

*

 

About GEOTAGGING... any problems with that might be related to our super-duper, top-of-the-line MAPS which we obtained by attaching alligator clips to the back of a NOKIA Smart Phone. Yes, we know that for half of you, the maps are so bad they are not worth the cyber-paper they are printed on. But, you will get used to it after a while. Everyone does.

 

We also think that some of the problems might be due to the "worm-hole effect" --- that is, the bugs that exist in our bank of servers on one side of the room, somehow jump over to unrelated servers on the other side of the room, due to something called quantum tunneling.

 

It's also possible the culprit might be our PHOTO UP-LOADER, which still has a few bugs in it (apparently from an old mattress we found in an abandoned Motel).

 

Actually, we're not really sure why we continue to have all of these problems, but are looking into it.

 

*

 

PROOF THAT WE CARE

 

Although lacking the nervous systems of you "normal people", we here at Flickr do feel your pain, and the tech support staff --- including our chief hardware and software engineers seen above --- are working hard to solve these alleged problems.

 

In fact, we are now on our SECOND "new format" rollout of 2013, and BETA TESTING of our new "Photo Experience" should result in a new Flickr that is just as awesome as the last new Flickr of six months ago.

 

In order to make it as up-to-date a possible, were are taking all of the easy-to-read, multi-word tags that you've carefully crafted over the years, and running them all together into one alphabet soup of hash-tags. We copied this idea from TWITTER, and know that all of you will love it.

 

#Flickrisalmostcertainlythebestonlinephotomanagementandsharingapplicationintheworld

 

*

 

In order to PROVE TO YOU that we are doing all we can, we are allowing Okinawa Soba to post the above restricted photograph of us holding a special meeting to discuss these issues.

 

Although Flickr does not usually reveal corporate secrets and technical details, the leader of our trouble-shooting team (seated in the center) is holding a very small, hi-tech piece of newly acquired equipment on the table in front of him.

 

We believe this new up-grade to our system will solve any problems you might be experiencing.

 

The forthcoming solution to every bug and every problem Flickr has ever had is explained in the photo note that appears on the table, which may be accessed by Flickr's top secret method of moving the cursor over the hi-lighted note box. We ask that you not reveal this to anyone working over at PHOTO BUCKET or IPERNIA.

 

Yellow notes in photo are taken directly from transcripts of our highly technical discussion.

 

HOWEVER, before solving these issues that are of such importance to you all, we are first waiting for one of our Flickr interns to bring us a mop. We need to clean up the floor after we're done drinking our beer --- which seems to go right through us.

 

We thank you for your patience.

 

Sincerely,

 

Flickr Tech Support.

 

*

 

PS. While we at Flickr DO NOT RECOMMEND OR ENDORSE THE ACTIONS LISTED BELOW, until we can get things fixed, several Flickr members have found one or more of the following options to be very helpful in solving any recurring problems with the Flickr pages.

 

(1) Popping two Aspirin and a couple of large Cyanide capsules with a glass of milk.

 

(2) Jumping off the highest bridge you can find.

 

(3) Throwing yourself under a fast-moving Diesel Locomotive.

 

(4) Emptying a 12-Gauge Shotgun Blast directly into your computer from point-blank range.

 

(5) Deleting your account, and starting from scratch with IPERNIA.

 

Most report that the last two are not as effective as the first three in solving the problem.

  

Anyone who is starting out in web page design needs to understand the basic principles of properly designed websites. This article is among the many resources available to new designers, providing a great starting point. Read on to learn tips you can use to create better web designs.

 

Visitors wish to have use of a website quickly, which explains why your website should load easily. If a person needs to wait while your site loads, there's an opportunity they will get impatient and visit another site, plus they may not go to your site again.

 

Give a link where your visitors can give you feedback. This will make it simpler to identify trouble spots and to create a more user-friendly site. In case a visitor feel involved, she or he would want to view your website again.

 

Don't allow pop-ups on your own website. You'll only annoy your visitors using this type of content, irrespective of how important the details within the pop-up windows is. Whenever you add pop-up windows to your site, you operate the potential risk of frustrating people to the level they won't return.

 

You need to utilize free resources to construct your website. Many people think that they have to use costly software, however that there are a variety of free, quality tools that can help you start whilst keeping your website running. Hit your preferred internet search engine and investigate to discover a bit of software that fits your requirements.

 

Carry out a thorough error check of your site, including checking for broken links. Check links regularly since you are designing, and ensure to carry out a check before uploading your site towards the server. In case your visitors cannot access the details they require due to broken links, they will get frustrated and then leave. Therefore, you would like to double-make sure that things are being employed as it must so that you can avoid this from happening.

 

Like we've said, designers that are in the beginning stages need to find out the fundamentals of design to create enticing sites that actually work properly. Since there are plenty of resources available, it may be difficult to decide where to begin. By using the recommendations within the article above, it is possible to begin learning the fundamentals of web page design. youtube.com/watch?v=Wza0G889zDQ

Exam Number/Code : 70-411

Exam Name : Administering Windows Server 2012

Questions and Answers : 130 Q&As

Update Time: 2013-05-13

www.exam1pass.com/70-411-exam.html

via allGraph bit.ly/18GK1wL

 

Tasco Essentials 10x50Binocularby Bushnell 328 days in the top 100(37)

 

Buy new: $28.79 – $500.00

 

(Visit the Best Sellers in Camera & Photo list for authoritative information on this product’s current rank.)

 

#5: Pendaflex Essentials File… Pendaflex Essentials File Folders, 1/3 Cut, Top Tab, Letter, Manila, 100 Per Box, ...

 

#8: GoPro HERO3: White Edition GoPro HERO3: White Edition by GoPro 110 days in the top 100 ...

 

#6: Windows Small Business Server Windows Small Business Server 2011 Essentials by Microsoft Software 246% Sales Rank in ...

 

At Military Surplus Center, the privacy of our visitors is of extreme importance to us (See this article to learn more about Privacy Policies.). This privacy policy document outlines the types of personal information is received and collected by Military Surplus Center and how it is used.Log FilesLike many other Web sites, Military Surplus Center makes use of log files. The information inside the log files includes internet protocol (IP) addresses, type of browser, Internet Service Provider (ISP), date/time stamp, referring/exit pages, and number of clicks to analyze trends, administer the site, track user's movement around the site, and gather demographic information. IP addresses, and other such information are not linked to any information that is personally identifiable.Cookies and Web BeaconsMilitary Surplus Center does use cookies to store information about visitors preferences, record user-specific information on which pages the user access or visit, customize Web page content based on visitors browser type or other information that the visitor sends via their browser.DoubleClick DART CookieGoogle, as a third party vendor, uses cookies to serve ads on Military Surplus Center.Google's use of the DART cookie enables it to serve ads to users based on their visit to Military Surplus Center and other sites on the Internet.Users may opt out of the use of the DART cookie by visiting the Google ad and content network privacy policy at the following URL - www.google.com/privacy_ads.html.These third-party ad servers or ad networks use technology to the advertisements and links that appear on Military Surplus Center send directly to your browsers. They automatically receive your IP address when this occurs. Other technologies ( such as cookies, JavaScript, or Web Beacons ) may also be used by the third-party ad networks to measure the effectiveness of their advertisements and / or to personalize the advertising content that you see.Military Surplus Center has no access to or control over these cookies that are used by third-party advertisers.You should consult the respective privacy policies of these third-party ad servers for more detailed information on their practices as well as for instructions about how to opt-out of certain practices. Military Surplus Center's privacy policy does not apply to, and we cannot control the activities of, such other advertisers or web sites.If you wish to disable cookies, you may do so through your individual browser options. More detailed information about cookie management with specific web browsers can be found at the browser's respective websites.

 

militarysurpluscenter.com/cheap-command-hq-tent-tunnel-co...

At Military Surplus Center, the privacy of our visitors is of extreme importance to us (See this article to learn more about Privacy Policies.). This privacy policy document outlines the types of personal information is received and collected by Military Surplus Center and how it is used.Log FilesLike many other Web sites, Military Surplus Center makes use of log files. The information inside the log files includes internet protocol (IP) addresses, type of browser, Internet Service Provider (ISP), date/time stamp, referring/exit pages, and number of clicks to analyze trends, administer the site, track user's movement around the site, and gather demographic information. IP addresses, and other such information are not linked to any information that is personally identifiable.Cookies and Web BeaconsMilitary Surplus Center does use cookies to store information about visitors preferences, record user-specific information on which pages the user access or visit, customize Web page content based on visitors browser type or other information that the visitor sends via their browser.DoubleClick DART CookieGoogle, as a third party vendor, uses cookies to serve ads on Military Surplus Center.Google's use of the DART cookie enables it to serve ads to users based on their visit to Military Surplus Center and other sites on the Internet.Users may opt out of the use of the DART cookie by visiting the Google ad and content network privacy policy at the following URL - www.google.com/privacy_ads.html.These third-party ad servers or ad networks use technology to the advertisements and links that appear on Military Surplus Center send directly to your browsers. They automatically receive your IP address when this occurs. Other technologies ( such as cookies, JavaScript, or Web Beacons ) may also be used by the third-party ad networks to measure the effectiveness of their advertisements and / or to personalize the advertising content that you see.Military Surplus Center has no access to or control over these cookies that are used by third-party advertisers.You should consult the respective privacy policies of these third-party ad servers for more detailed information on their practices as well as for instructions about how to opt-out of certain practices. Military Surplus Center's privacy policy does not apply to, and we cannot control the activities of, such other advertisers or web sites.If you wish to disable cookies, you may do so through your individual browser options. More detailed information about cookie management with specific web browsers can be found at the browser's respective websites.

 

militarysurpluscenter.com/cheap-command-hq-tent-tunnel-co...

Get your website live with server connectivity.

Servers Ultimate Pro ift.tt/1zK3Kbc today shopping trends

 

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This cable is one of 2 that I am using for my internal DVDRW drive in an HP Proliant N40L for my Windows Home Server 2011. The other is a StarTech Molex to Sata power adapter, which is required for this DVDRW drive. I feel that the review is a little short but the cable is great, was inexpensive, and arrived on time. I have been using StarTech cables and Amazon Basics for the past year or so and have no complaints.

..the thoughtful server

seen in St. Paul, MN

A change of pace

 

A few years ago I talked myself into an invitation to get a special tour of an old hydro power plant that is only a few miles from my house. It happens to be one of the first hydroelectric power stations built in the world, and as you can see by the date of the wall was turned on in 1898.

 

This is the first of several images I took there, but its also probably one of the best I got. It turned out to be a very challenging shoot. First of all the entire facility is two hundred feet down an open elevator shaft that was dug into the solid rock by the waterfall where this was built. I had to have an engineer with me at all moments and could only go in very specific places. (If you look closely you can see that this is spinning and actually generating electricity at the time I took this) Generators like this actually cast out fields of energy and if me or my tripod were to get to close the electricity could leap out and kill me. So I had to be a good boy and not climb all over the equipment like I wanted to. It was very hard to get the lens into good positions with these limitations. I also was not allowed to bring any lights down, So had to work with the very dark ambient light that was there, mostly open bulbs hanging from the ceiling. And since I'm in a deep dark cave, no windows of course, not any fill at all really. It was also *very loud* so I could not communicate very well with my minder. Given all those restrictions, I am happy with this result.

 

*****

 

If you want to geek out a bit about hydro power, read on: As I write these words, this particular power plant is being retrofitted with modern generators, so this old beast is now gone. This in fact was the oldest generator in the plant and even though it was constructed around 1898 was still functioning and putting out power that people in our region use. (Apparently the magnetos were rewound sometime in the 70's and they had to hire experts who could come in and rebuild this in the old school ways. There were I think 6 generators in the cave, but only two I think in the beginning. The man who built the power station had the foresight to use AC power (Westinghouse) rather than Edison's DC power. Edison built a plant at Niagara falls that made DC power but moving the DC power to the customers was very expensive and difficult, and it did not last long. The world chose AC power of course and DC power went away like sony's betamax. After building this power plant, the other challenge was that the power had to be carried by one of the first transmission lines ever built back to Tacoma. (some 45 miles I think) a massive task in its own for the times as they had to clear there way through wild forest. (Some of the key technology in this AC generator was made possible by the inventions of Nikolai Tesla who claimed to get his inventions completely realized in dreams or simultaneous flashes of insight. )

 

At this power plant they've added more generators about 4 times so they can capture more of the hydroelectric potential. Each time they added new versions the efficiency and capacity just about doubled. So if the first one made x power from x flow of water, the next generation drew 2x (twice as much) water and was twice as efficient. so each generation of new equipment meant quadrupling of energy efficiancy. And that has held true until this day. The most recent generators, are very powerful and effiecient relative to this old equipment. But until this last retro fit that started in 2009, they never replaced any of the old ones. So for the last hundred years are so they have been getting less than half of what could have been gotten from this precious clean resource. Why you wonder? Cheap petrochemicals made it more efficient to just burn more gas or coal rather than spend money to replace the old equipment. That era is coming to an end obviously and hence they are doing this major improvement. One of the reasons this is all of interest to me is that its revealing of how human societies make decisions. Choosing dirty fuels and not facing the hidden costs to health and the environment that when added up probably cost us more than just refitting the hydro power plant earlier. (It should also be noted that hydro power alone could not have given us all our energy needs so we probably would have been burning dirty fuels all along. But not facing real costs never gives us a chance to think about it in the first place. Maybe we would have developed other alternatives.)

 

So.... just across the mountains from this waterfall, on the eastern side of the Cascade range, is Grand Coulee Damn which still is one of the largest hydro electric power plants in the world. It was built during the depression with federal development money, (so sometimes government does get it right) and even though its only about 40 years later than this place, Grand Coulee generates electricity on a massive scale. (compare the generator above to this: scienceservice.si.edu/pages/010041.htm ) So much electricity, that when the aircraft industry started needing lots of aluminum for all the airplanes they were building because of world war II, They eventually turned to The Pacific Northwest because the amounts of electricity you need to smelt aluminum are vast. And that is why, my friends, Boeing is in the Seattle region today. Cheap electricity. Also of interest, they have since put a whole series of damns on the Columbia river and make lots and lots of power. Guess what the The 'Aluminum Plant' hog of electricity is today? Server Farms. Google, Microsoft and yes Yahoo/flickr all need massive amounts of power to store data, these very words and photos actually. And that is why they are building their server farms up here in the Pacific North West. Lots of relatively cheap electricity for spinning drives and the air conditioning to keep them cool. Server Farms take up more power than the largest Steel foundries. That always blows my mind a bit. So you see, in a strange ways you could never have imagined, this image here in my stream has many hidden meanings. Who could have predicted way back in 1898, that this machine would one day create the energy to preserve the image of itself and help spread those pixels across the world

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