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BEST IN HUGE MAGNIFICATION !

 

PRINSES JULIANA Aalborg Denmark.

Romantic evening, six-pointed star, deep blue water, windless. Midnight temperature well above 20 degrees.

All conditions are present for a very pleasant evening.

 

MUSIC:

1. Spice Girls - Love Thing (Lyrics & Pictures) - YouTube

1.STE CLASS MUSIC AND 1.STE CLASS SPICES IMAGES 10/10 !

 

The Music makes a weak in a way that one becomes strong. Benny Andersen.

  

Camera: Sigma DP1.

Exposure: 10 sec.

Iso: 50.

Aperture: 8,0.

Tripod.

Self-timer.

Processing: Sigma Pro/PhotoFiltre/Raw/Tiff.

I am still amazed at the camera sharpness.

See the rivets and the windows on the ship's side in lightbox.

The camera has been discontinued but purchased as used.

 

It is the 22.nd July 2014.

We have a heat wave in Denmark, and now it is close to midnight. The temperature is over 25 degrees, and since it is the bright nights' country, there is never completely dark now. As the weather forecast promises calm, I have decided to photograph PRINSES JULIANA with the ship's new covered aft stern. I am almost exclusively interested in night scenes, so when there was a couple of hours to the blue hour, I went for a long walk on the waterfront in Aalborg. I went for a walk to NORDKRAFT, one of Europe's largest cultural centers. Think, here inside the ground floor there is made ​​sandy beach with a thick layer of sand. On the way back to the bridge, where I wanted to do the filming, I stopped where there were many people gathered. Here was electronic music, guided by a DJ. Coincidentally, I came to talk to a few girls who sat next to me. One girl had just graduated as a graphic designer and it's just such people as image processing images on the process for brochures, so it was very interesting. I later went to the bridge where I took approx. 90 pictures, as I felt that there was an optimal photo weather. There was as usual a lot of traffic, so I tried as much as possible to expose the heavy buses. Suddenly stopping a sympathetic man where I stand, and begin to give advice on how to photograph. It was nice, but I was busy.

The image used here is the last in the line of approx. 90 images.

 

I have eaten there several times and the food is excellent.

 

Motor sailing ship PRINSES JULIANA was built in Holland as a training ship.

PRINSES JULIANA served as a training ship to 1969.

From 1970 it has been used as a restaurant ship.

After a lifetime of 75 years, the ship was renovated,

and today's comfort and the quality is top notch.

View On Black (large won't hurt'cha')

 

Possibility: open a second window and play music while reading. www.youtube.com/watch?v=L5BkLQ2Pw_4&feature=fvst ~ "Love on a Real Train" – Tangerine Dream

 

You’d better believe that artists and photogs see things the rest of the world misses. Ain’t it grand? But, it would appear, I’m just preaching to the choir.

 

Thursday night, January 8. About 9pm. Just past Damen Street on west 99th street, in the Beverly neighborhood of Chicago, the warning gate on the railroad tracks lit up flashing red and the gates came down. A Metra commuter train was coming into the station.

 

My car was first in line this time; right up against the warning gate. I put it into park to wait it out. Sometimes, being stuck at a railroad crossing is a bit of a pain in the ass.

 

But, this night, it wasn’t. I began to notice things. It was snowing, I was warm and toasty, and there was an almost full moon darting in and out of the clouds, There were lights of differing colors darting about: flourescent green from the train’s windows, silver and blue from its sides, greenish-yellow from the station's window, and the eerie ochre-yellow of street lamps, punctuated here and there with clean whites from headlights and the night lights under the overhang of the station's roof.

 

I’ve always liked the wooden architecture of this old-timey commuter station too.

 

What was there not to love in this scene? Tangerine Dream’s “Love on a Real Train” was playing on my CD. The music, mixing with the sound of the warning bells and steam brake lines emitted from under the train, only served to heighten the beauty of it all.

 

Of course, I had a camera: I always have a camera. In this case the little Sony T200. It ain’t the D300, but it does a wonderful job on certain kinds of scenes.

 

Anyway, they say “it ain’t the camera, boy, but the photog what be wielding it.” Sometimes, in some hands, that seems to be true. On just enough occasions, true enough in mine.

 

I didn’t jump out of the car as I didn’t want snow melt on the lens. So, I put the camera right up to the windshield so the focus wouldn’t get fooled by the glass. I’ve had that happen: messed up some nice shots. Tell you what! Want a tech challenge? Try timing a slow-shutter, night shot in-between windshield wiper movements! :-)

 

The T200 has a nice, big and bright, three-inch display screen on the back of the camera: no view finder. It’s a nice feature to have when you can’t get your eye to a viewfinder to compose a shot.

 

And, I got some shots – through the windshield and the side window. The commuters, heading home to lives I sometimes wonder about, cleared out. Some of them looked at me too: possibly wondering "what the hell is he takin' pictures of?" Then, the train pulled off and the warning gates went up. I continued driving home - in the snow, with a smile on my face, as I kinda’ felt I had captured the mood of a quiet, winter’s moment on a velvety, snowy evening.

 

Think I did.

 

"Scratchy Window" texture courtesy of Jill: www.flickr.com/photos/borealnz/2473360890/in/set-72157610...

All little boys and girls should have a chance to play. Sadly, many are robbed of a childhood due to circumstances beyond their control. They never get to do things we take for granted…little things like…playing catch, riding bikes or…climbing trees…

 

She was only 10 years old at the time. Oh how she loved to climb trees. It was her only escape from a childhood full of work and fear. She had been working since the age of 5. She had no choice. It was the Great Depression and the family had little money. Many nights, they had nothing to eat. Making matters worse was that she was living during a time of war – World War II to be exact. It was Northern Italy, in late 1944.

 

Her little village was bombarded on a daily basis by Axis and Allied forces alike. Friend? Foe? Did it matter? The colours of the flag on a bomb don’t mean much to a 10 year old. A bomb destroys and kills. That is all one needs to know. None of that mattered this instant as the little girl climbed her favourite tree and was momentarily liberated from reality. She swung from branch to branch giggling in delight. For one brief instant there was solitude. Then suddenly, without warning, her temporary solace was shattered by an enormous explosion. The few remaining windows throughout the village shattered instantly as did the girl’s emotional refuge. The vibrations from the far off explosion caused her to fall from the tree.

 

This was in an era before internet, television or cell phones. Few people even had radio. It took days before the little girl and her fellow townspeople learned the cause of the explosion - a Nazi military train (there is a world of difference between Germans and Nazis) full of ammunition had been sabotaged. The rumour was that patriots were responsible. Regardless of political affiliations, pro or anti Fascist, the entire countryside soon began to tremble in fear. Posters in every village and town had warned the citizenry not to assist the patriots. Everyone knew the consequences. Execution. Mass execution. Any patriot and his or her entire extended family would be murdered.

 

A hushed silence descended upon the village. The fear only heightened when the SS arrived to commence interrogations. Meanwhile, the bombardments and fighting seemed to be getting louder and closer. Who was responsible for the sabotage? No one seemed to know…but once the SS found out! Unspeakable horrors. The 10 year-old girl lay awake at night awaiting the next bomb to fall.

 

Weeks of the same surreal, nightmarish routine continued…bombs, interrogations, bombs, fear, interrogations, more bombs, gunfire, yet more bombs…and then…as if angels had descended from the heavens…a quiet calm. Within hours tanks and trucks began rolling into town…different tanks…those with stars and stripes. The area had been liberated. Too frightened to believe her eyes…the little girl watched in silence as soldiers who spoke yet another foreign tongue took over her hamlet.

 

Reality did not set in until a couple of weeks later when there was a knock at her door. The little girl’s mother responded and was greeted by an assembly of the “new soldiers” and an interpreter. These men wished to speak with the little girl’s beloved uncle. Why? Now what? The girl again trembled. But this time…she was greeted with smiles. The family now discovered, for the first time, that her uncle had been one of the patriots responsible for blowing up the munitions train. At this time, the 10 year old learned another secret. The SS had acquired this knowledge, and had scheduled the execution of her uncle, and his entire family…including her. American troops had liberated her village…and saved her life and that of her entire family, 7 days prior to the scheduled annihilation.

 

The 10 year-old girl, Avelia, grew up and in 1956 emigrated to Canada where she married a man named Placido. Her name became Avelia Matteazzi…my mother.

 

All little boys and girls should have a chance to play catch, ride bikes or…climb trees. My mother didn’t climb too many trees after 1945, but thanks to the US 8th Infantry, she survived World War II…and as a result, I, and our 3 children, Jessica, Michael and David, were born…and had a chance to play…and climb trees. I have a photo of Jessica…when she was 10, climbing this very tree. Yes…just like her Nonna Avelia.

 

~ Dedicated to those who perished in war, to those who were persecuted in Auschwitz, or any other concentration or POW camp, and to brave soldiers everywhere who risk their lives for freedom so that children may have childhoods...and climb trees. Especially dedicated to the US 8th Infantry who liberated my parents` village in 1945 and saved my mother`s life and the lives of my entire maternal family. Words are not enough.

 

~ Text and image by G.P. Matteazzi

 

Abandoned Passenger Car

Hartwell, GA

Hart County

 

Explored!

LIGHTBOX OR VIEW ALL SIZES PLEASE

 

Credit to Toryu for tracks

 

Much much much better version i think.

  

The M2A2 Contestor MBT was introduced in 2007 and now serves as the primary main battle tank of the Confederacy.

Equipped with highly advanced thermal optics and targeting systems as well as more advanced and efficient weapon systems such as the Mk125A2 Main Gun-capable of firing next generation125mm armor piercing ballistic incendiary discarding sabot tungsten rounds, 125mm canister shot, a 125mm blunt nosed tungsten slug, or the more outdated 125mm HE round. The 7.62mm machine gun has been replaced by a 20mm 8-barrel gatling gun pumping out 3000 rounds per minute.

Its armor is covered in a stippled paint-like substance that greatly reduces its radar signature. The armor is a combination of Chobham, RH armor, Depleted Uranium strike plates, and Kevlar mesh.

The M2A2 is also outfitted with an Active Protection System which guards it from many types of guided munitions. It is also fitted with a form of a close-in laser defense system which is designed to detect, target, prioritize, and destroy incoming anti-tank rockets and rocket propelled grenades via a high intensity short burst energy weapon type emitter.

The belly of the tank is fitted with highly advanced range finders, thermal and night vision optics, optical zoom, target identification and prioritization, "drive-by-wire" controls in place of mechanical systems, atmospheric data sensors and a GPS system. With this equipment, a trained gunner can spot, acquire firing solutions, and eliminate several hostile threats at incredible ranges.

The Contestor is by far the most advanced and well equipped tanks on the battlefield.

Shot from window of a moving train. 1/10 sec at f 2,8 and iso 100.

Taken on a train somewhere in Cumbria, North West England.

 

Panasonic GH1 with Nikon 28mm f2.8 prime lens.

мα∂7єєη єℓ zαιη мктнянσм .. ƒι '3уαвι м∂7нσм ωαує∂

α∂5ℓ ƒℓι¢кя ω αנвянσм .. уzgяσσηι 7α'6ят єℓ 8αу∂

Model: Me

Place: The Palm

Taken By: AD unique

edi: Moshaks AD

  

mn zmaaan ma nzlt 9oora 3dla =P

Double exposure of portrait of girl and what she was looking at out the train window.

 

canon eos 300, 85mm 1.8, Kodak 200 film

A cat in a dirty window of a bookstore.

www.booksinrockford.com/

... offering you space to place new steps of change.

 

- Maya Angelou

 

I never make diptychs anymore. I used to love them. I still love them, actually, I just seldom think to create them anymore. So I'm going to start using them again.

 

I leave for NYC Tuesday at 5:30 a.m. Do you think I've even begun to pack yet? Of course not. But I'm excited. I haven't been since October of 2001, when my idea of photography was still a disposable camera (loved the ones you could take under water -- whatever happened to those?), and I can't wait to get my lens in front of the city sights. I love the mountains and often wonder if I'd ever be able to stomach living any place where their staggering peaks didn't greet me each morning from my bedroom window, but I'm looking forward to a change of pace and the new inspiration -- a "space to place new steps of change." And I'm taking the train in from Lynchburg. I've always wanted to take a long train ride.

If you like my work and wanna show it by inviting me to one of your groups, you are very welcome to do that, but please do not leave any graphic logos! I'll delete them.

 

Greetings from Poland!

Camara / Camera: Nikon D5100

Objetivo/Lense: Nikkor 50mm f1.8

Place: Venice, Italy

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Algunos derechos reservados // Some rights reserved

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**Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs Creative Commons

**Creative Commons Atribución-No Comercial - No Derivs

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If you wish to have a printed copy of this photo, please contact me.

Si te interesa obtener una copia impresa de esta foto, por favor contactad conmigo.

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The rearview of a south bound red line train, February 17, 2014.

 

© Andy Marfia 2014 All Rights Reserved

~Greg Anderson

Explored - July 22 #136 Thank you all for the wonderful comments and faves!

To whom it may concern. I leave tomorrow for Ireland. The details of this year's trip are secret of course, but trust me when i tell you that it will be dangerous. So i am posting a copy of my Last Will in preparation for the unlikely possibility that my enemies penetrate my defenses and somehow overpower me. This would require a force of human or cybernetic soldiers existing well beyond the scope of the worlds wealthiest military entities. So please do not worry, I am writing this because my lawyers are demanding it. My Will is divided into two parts, the first being a list of individuals to whom certain belongings have been awarded, and the second describes the post-mortem procedures I wish to to be performed on my body after careful examination by a qualified physician.

 

If you once found your name honored among the list of disciples, there is no guarantee that it remains. If this is the case i recommend you engage in a serious re-evaluation of your life from the perspective of the wayward child, and seek approbation as soon as I return. If the situation is reversed and you previously went conspicuously unrewarded but now find yourself illuminated among the chosen, then you should know that this reward does not mean I am happy with you. I am, simply put, short of people who are not on my revenge list. I remind you, as always, that this will is little more than a prescient announcement of the collapse of civilization, since the economic and political structures of the world will more than likely implode after the news of my demise is leaked to the public. So in addition to my will, I have provided a short survival guide detailing how to live through and possibly prosper in the impending anarchy. I offer this to you as consolation for your loss... your loss of me.

  

Part 1. Distribution of goods

 

1. The Mediterranean Island Compound. Brendan and Jen. You get the island but not the weapons. You two have never fully committed to my vision of the future and therefore I can not trust you with the arsenal. I also suggest that you avoid the western peninsula, as this is where I keep the genetically enhanced snakes.

 

2. W.M.D.'s I had given these to Brian, but now I think Marty might better be suited for this. He will more than likely forget about them and consequently they will not be used. The secret storehouse will be mine when I return.*

 

3. Videos of me cage fighting. These were lynda's, but now they go to Orange and K8. Shirtless, sweaty and mercilessly hot.

 

4. What is left of my sperm/genetic documentation. This information was to be donated to the insurrectionist rebel movement know as "The Fist of Democracy", who were going to use the data to create the perfect warrior. But now I think i will have it cloned and donated to sperm banks across the country in such prodigious numbers as to statistically outnumber any other potential father 200 to 1. The people of the world will need as much of me as they can get.

 

5. The computer map of the neuro-pathways of my brain. My lawyers engaged in a lengthy battle with the US military to regain control of this complicated Bio-software. It would be a waste to give it to any of you. I demand that this model be plugged into a computer and powered indefinitely. You may refer to it when in need of answers about life, strategic operations, or connect four.

 

6. My surfboard. Ben you asked for this. The caveat is that you may never ride it. In fact, I demand that you never even learn to surf.

 

7. Brian and suzette, As an engagement present, I am transferring ownership of my diamond mine to you both. The only problem is, it is currently staffed with slave children stolen from nearby villages so this is kind of like leaving 1,500 starving, overworked babies on your doorstep.

 

8. Albert and Juliet, You have both entered my life with the speed and fury of a level three, pandemic tropical disease. The resultant social dependence dictates that I offer you a place in the council of my future reign*. This will of course require that you are both frozen. I have alerted my Cryonics division, and on your respective 30th birthdays' you will be forcefully put to sleep.

 

8. Erin. You get my nanotechnology lab in silicon valley. I predict that you will squander the massive profits acquired from this resource. You are bad with money. Therefore all money will be placed into a trust fund. You will not be able to access this money until you have given birth to three male children. After the birth of your third son, who must be named William you may receive it in full. The choice in fathers is left to your questionable judgment.

 

9. Aieghdeigkna. I have something for you this time. I got you a pocket Chinese translator. Actually, he is less pocket sized than you might like since he is now 13. His name is Ling. Feed him well.

 

10. Tom. You get the videotapes of my old truck sitting on the street. This is my most prized possession.

 

11. Meredith: you are now the owner of my bedding design factory in SE Asia. We have a lab there filled with tiny beds in which tiny monkeys sleep to test our new products.

 

12. Trevor mcnaab. Fuck off... I will strike at you even from the grave..

 

13. Jennifer H. You get the robot guarded penthouse on Central park west. The robots have been programmed to kill you on site. They are armed with weapons such as, laser beam eyes, machine gun arms, and the ability to crush and stop your useless future right out of metaphysical existence. good luck.

 

14. Michelle, as a wedding present to you and Murat I give you the Atlantic undersea base. We have had some trouble lately with our hyper intelligent dolphins so you will have a bit of cleanup work to do once you take it over. My scientists have been telling me that the dolphins won't do any work without listening to Tina Turner.

 

15. Neinke, You still get southern Europe. I never really liked it anyway. Just check in at the Hague to collect. Oh yeah, they may "resist" at first so see #2 above. I'm sure Marty will let you borrow them.

 

16. Bryson, I have been developing a secret weapon. The weapon is designed to pull the moon closer to the earth. Earth's gravity will eventually kick in and the two planetary bodies will collide. This information was of course something I hoped would never reach the public. In fact I kind of regret building it in the first place but I was out late one night and when i got home I was sort of drunk and I guess it seemed like a good idea at the time, sooo... anyway, it's yours.

 

19. Steph, You are going to be with me on this trip so it is likely that if someone tries to kill me, I will have used your body as a shield. I therefore can not envision a situation in which you will be alive if I am dead, so I am not leaving you anything.

 

20. Corrina, You are given the apartment. You earned it. You must however seal off my room, curate it and once a year allow visitors in for a modest price.

 

18. The cadre of assassins is yours Damian. After all, you helped me train them. I can think of no one I trust them with more than you. I would ask one favor though. Please kill Trevor with them. Oh and just in case please kill Brian Ferrier as well. Thanks buddy.

 

19. Eric, We share the same birthday. In many ways we are very similar. This has forced me as i am sure it has you, to question life from the standpoint of astrology, genetics, behaviorism, sociology, psychology etc. etc. These analysis's are done in search of an answer for why we are so much alike. We are both architects, we both see the world as contemplative outsiders and we are the two greatest dancers in the world. It is for this reason that i demand we share the same death day. You have little time (if any) before they find you, better start running.

 

20. Mike Wrobel, Jon, and the rest of the "Demons of North" , You get my motorcycle. If at all possible, could you please MAKE IT FUCKING WORK! If you can't I demand that it be set on fire and pushed into the east river because I am pretty sure that it will be more useful down there than it is up here.

 

21. Kielty. You are given rights to the autobiography I paid someone to write for me.

 

22. Maureen. You get the Monster truck factory.

 

23. Ellen and Ute, you are both given architecture. All of it. From every basswood model to every non-cementatious epoxy based exterior panel slab. It is all yours, but I should warn you that it doesn't do anyone any actual good no matter how many late nights you waste on it.

 

24. Pinky, you get my hotel/internet dogfood empire. It is a rough combo.

 

24.5 Andy, my collection of priceless gems is yours. You must first solve a puzzle though. Please be at Union square at exactly 3:40 on January 31st 2008 under the statue of General Marquis de Lafayette to receive your first clue. Bring a change of underwear and whatever weapons you have.

 

25. There is a note written at the bottom which should be mailed to the president of the United States upon official statement of my death given by a qualified physician. Please send it for me.

 

26. Mom, Dad, Brianna, Virginia, James, Bwendan, Patrick... fuck it

the whole Oberlin, Dowd, Koneche, Goggin, Reilley, Gallagher, Jarabak, Cligget,

Pattersonian Tribe. As a special gift to you, just for having been born with even a shadowy resemblance to my messianic genetic coding, I offer you a seat in my future ruling council.*

(You must of course arrange and pay for your own Cryogenic storage.)

Anyone who makes it back will also be given a free yogurt.

 

To everyone else. As stated above, I offer you the knowledge that your civilizations will probably collapse shortly after they learn of my demise and therefore in the ensuing chaos, my possessions will not be of great importance to those who have received them. Please see the survival guide below.. I look forward to my awakening.

 

* See below funeral procedures explaining all matters relating to future reign.

 

Part 2. Funeral and Interment procedures

 

It is my wish that the physical manifestation of my self (ie. my body) undergo the following series of ceremonial and medical procedures after an official statement of death given by a qualified physician.

 

If I am proven dead.

1. Please carefully remove my brain. Please carefully reinsert my brain into a robot. Make sure the robot is designed with extremely powerful weapons and make sure that I am VERY relaxed at the time of insertion. (we all know what happens when the brain wakes up in the new robot body and in a fit of anxiety kills the room full of doctors.) Monitor my behavior for any signs of abnormality and then leave me alone so i can get down to business. It might be a good idea not to load the weapons until this point. Just as a precaution.

 

2. It is my wish that the liquid in my body be removed and replaced

with a gelatinous nitrogen mixture capable maintaining it's non-Newtonian, solid state at temperatures well below freezing. I then would very much appreciate being frozen. This is of course only after my brain has been removed and inserted into the Robot-Death-Machine (ummm. don't call it that publicly) described above.

 

3. After my rule is sufficiently established, a minimum of 100 years of tyranny (again please keep these descriptions to yourselves) I probably will want a body again. Since I really haven't seen anyone on this earth as strikingly handsome as myself, I will most likely want my own. Hence the freezing.

 

That is it. I do not expect much. I do expect swift and zealous obedience. Remember loyalty purchases reward. Hopefully none of this will be necessary yet but you never know. Have a good week.

 

William Oberlin

   

Letter to the president.

 

Dear mr president,

You are a puppet. Yes, sorry to have to tell it to you this way, but

you are nothing more than a figurehead who's policies and actions are the inevitable result of 60 years of armament build-up. When I return from the grave and peacefully rise to power, I look forward to sitting in your seat. Actually with my new robot body (you will see) I might have to install a much larger seat. In fact the white house of my rule will look slightly less neo-classical. The new architecture will have more of a shiny, stay-the-fuck-away, feel to it. Windows won't really be needed. All light will come from the fiber-optic treated exterior skin used to photo-voltaically power the hydrogen fuel cells and simultaneously light the sleek sexy interiors. These interiors will be occupied by models; beautiful ones in lingerie because I will have no need for a staff of weak-minded humans. My current brain, which is far superior to yours, will be augmented with state of the art processors upgraded weekly and funded with 1/3 of the world's countries' taxes. It will connected to a global network devoted to operating

the mechanical, electrical. political, and economic infrastructure of every city and suburb in the world. This will eliminate the need for a bureaucracy since I will run the entire planet myself, hence the models. They will be hot, mr. president. You are welcome to come visit occasionally. You can eat your puny-human foods, like egg sandwiches on a roll with cheese and sausage. You can have any delicious beverage you choose, it will be prepared by one of my beautiful sexy models!! We can discuss how similar my reign of terror is to your presidency, and if you get tired you can shut your brain down to take a nap while I communicate with the human colony on Z-Beta-Prime. So that is it. Hope to see you soon. The doctors will need to get me up and running quickly.

    

Survival Guide.

Ok, So if you are reading this then the world as you know it has ceased to function in a recognizable fashion. This could mean that your government has collapsed and the streets are occupied by mobs of shiv wielding looters. Or that the military, in response to what will have been referred to (i love to use pluperfect tense) as the greatest power vacuum in human history, has mobilized a coup. But whatever the case, it is certain that by now you have already killed your neighbor in an act of heroic self preservation. That's one down, 7 billion to go, because in your new world the only way to survive is to be the last one standing. This simple guide will provide the techniques and strategies that will keep you one step ahead of your post-apocalyptic competitors.

 

step one: mapping out your future.

there are two possible ways to survive in this new world and neither of them are pretty, but you will have to very quickly make your choice. You can either take a sedentary and consequently defensive approach, establishing a semi-permanent water source and agricultural life, or you can become a nomad scavenging, attacking and foraging whatever you come across. There are advantages and disadvantages to both.

The sedentary approach, if employed successfully, will allow you to lead a life of moderate comfort while the nomadic system offers you the opportunity to plunder which is equally important. Below are some simple rules to the establishment of both.

  

Sedentary Life Model

1. Do not wait for the dust of the apocalypse to clear before you join or start a settlement of humans. it is unadvisable to live in a fixed location outside the protection of a tribe or band. Those stationary few who shun the sheltered settlements in favor of isolation, will probably be forced to watch their families die at the hands of wandering raiding parties. This is usually just before being left for dead in a nuclear wasteland (if you are part of the raiding party, It should be noted that the people you leave alive tend to survive and seek revenge so be thorough and just kill them). Therefore, quickly seek out other survivors for defense and, if you have the courage, establish your role as leader.

2. Gather healthy people and valuables quickly. The strength of a society is dependant on the strength of it's citizens. Leave the old, sick, weak and injured behind. don't hesitate to remove their food, clothing and useful items as you do so. If they resist, kill them. In your world of violent resource acquisition young men and women between the ages of 16 and 30 are critical for the establishment of a well defended civilization. In the beginning these men and women will be used as farmers, builders and laborers as well as your fighting force. But soon, as your numbers grow, you will want to establish a professional military fed by the labor of the civilians. Never let this military forget who is in control. It is advised that you kill some of them in hand to hand combat duels about once a month just as a reminder.

3. Find a scientist. This can not be stressed enough. You will need a brain to your organizational brawn. In fact, find as many as possible but let us clarify the term scientist. We are not looking for meteorologists, microbiologists, agronomists, ethologists, cytologists sociologist, ect. Nor are we seeking any academic fields dependant on technologically expensive equipment. We need scientists of a practical nature. Like physicists, chemists, geologists, epidemiologists and this is the big one here, doctors, doctors, doctors. holy shit are these guys going to be cooler than they ever thought possible. You should keep them protected, give them immunity from your heavy handed legal system, shelter them and provide them with as much sex as they can handle. Their children will probably be just as valuable as they are.

4. Laws. step one, kill the lawyers, they will wrestle your newly acquired power away from you the first chance they get. Step two. establish a fighting arena to settle internal disputes because justice is best served at the hands of the individuals. Step three. establish a police force. Step four, remember that it is good to kill the troublemakers before they reach maturity. At the first sign of insurrection kill the troublemakers and his/her family. Kids love to grow up seeking revenge so don't give them the opportunity.

5. Stronghold. stronghold. stronghold. You need to keep your people and your food protected from your enemies. Caves are a good natural defense structure. If you don't have caves build walls. anyone who knows how to build, has a duty to work on your stronghold and palace ASAP. those who resist should quickly find themselves subjugated to waste management duty or thrown outside the protection of the camp.

6. Escape route. ALWAYS have a back-up plan. keep a hidden stash of food, weapons and clothing in a well fortified location far away from your settlement. If possible store enough provision to supply the minimum number of people you will need for a fresh start. If and when you are attacked and overrun take your best officers and their families with you to the new secret base. If necessary, use the lives of those subjects about whom you do not care as barter for your escape. Just make sure your conquerors don't follow.

 

Additional tips and helpful hints for the sedentary survivors.

try to keep as many skulls and disarticulated corpse parts staked or mounted around the perimeter of your encampment. This intimidates both the advancing raiding parties as well as any who might try to escape. Remember, signs and other nonverbal communication techniques might not work since few will know how to read. Since they won't be of much use to you, I suggest using the graphic designers of this world as your corpses.

Don't be too greedy. This applies to all levels of your life. Your new subjects might not appreciate your rule if they feel like you are going to swoop in any second and take their food or their women.

For some reason, children are relatively important to their parents, so try not to hurt them if possible, it breeds dissention.

 

Nomadic Life Model

 

The nomad is a hearty and healthy individual who has shunned the comforts of daily life in exchange for mobility and efficiency of resource collection. The nomad's life is an equation in search or balance. It is quite literally, an economy of means. One must travel light between water and food sources but never so light as to run short of supplies. The company of others is critical for survival, but never let your band expand large enough to outgrow your foraging intake. The successful nomad is constantly aware of his/her environment and never questions or challenges nature's wrath. The lack of shelter and protection from the elements is the Nomad's greatest enemy and the fight against this can only be fought with knowledge of your terrain. Use the rules below to help establish a working band of nomadic forgers.

 

1. Since this world will most likely be a barren wasteland of infertile soil, The foraging of the future will be based largely, if not exclusively, on the destruction of established settlements and the subsequent stripping of what few crops and storehouses they have. This will mean your foraging band (war party) will need to be fierce enough to attack and destabilize whatever strongholds you encounter. You will also require some method of transporting your spoils.

2. Find a vehicle. Even better than vehicles are pack animals. They provide companionship, Do not require gasoline or combustible fuel, and they can be used as an emergency food source.

 

3. Gather strong and healthy people to your group. Keep in mind that for every person you pick up you will need to acquire an equal amount in provisions during the raids. This can be a problem unless you have some resource wealthy targets within striking distance. At every conquered settlement it is advised to conscript new warriors from the young if needed.

 

4. Do not keep a fixed position for too long. Once you overrun a fortification, stay as long as it takes to re-supply and recoup from your attack then pack up and leave. Don't forget to arm yourself with as many weapons as are available. If you linger, you are open to retaliation from satellite camps, scavengers looking to capitalize on your work, and worse, rebellion from the conquered. Since it is not good to leave angry victims in your flank, you should kill anyone who might cause trouble before you advance.

 

5. Establish a code of law. Don't get too fancy here. Just pick some catch phrase that can be shouted by the masses but still allows sufficient room for your subjective interpretation. Just so the people know who is in charge make sure to slap your name on it. Something like "williams code, . An enemy of your brother is your enemy too. b. Stealing from your brother is stealing from the people! " Something like that. keep it simple. remember, there is no prison when you are on the move and resources are too scarce to justify mercy. Therefore, the penalty for all indiscretions should be death.

 

Additional tips:

Get a harem, you need to procreate prolifically.

Never miss an opportunity to attack. This is true even if you are outnumbered. Your enemies need to fear you more than you need your warriors.

Send the heads of your victims on a cart or a wagon to your next target just to let them know you're coming.

 

So that should do it. I recommend you keep this guide on you at all times during my trip because if something does go wrong and I don't make it, this may very well be the only possession you have left.

Auf Grund der Hitze in diesen Sommertagen 2013 war der Betrieb von Dampflokomotiven in Österreich verboten, also wurde mit zwei Dieselloks gefahren.

 

Informations (English and German) about this abandoned railway line and pictures of special trips with steam locos see comment.

 

Part of Res Noscenda: Trains - Züge - - Unorthodox Views of a Popular Motif // The World as Studio ~ die Welt als Atelier

 

DMC-G2 - P1660957 - 2013-08-15

A BNSF mixed freight twists through Lombard Canyon, spewing exhaust over the bowl's sun-dazzled inner rim.

 

Montana Rail Link's day-long work window was on the cusp of opening. This westbound sneaks through... with moments to spare.

From a train window. Taken during a railway journey from Truro to Ferryside. This is the genuine colouring with no editing.

Has Comic-Con come to town already?! No, it is just a passing red trolley getting in the way of my shot of San Diego’s Downtown Historic Gaslamp Quarter.

 

I have been trying to get a decent shot of San Diego’s Downtown Gaslamp District for years. So last week I headed to downtown hoping to resolve that.

 

My initial exposures were just of the Gaslamp neon sign and car light trails in the foreground. Nothing too exciting and after looking at the scene I said to myself that I needed something bold to contrast against the blue evening sky. Suddenly, the warning horn went off of a passing red trolley (San Diego’s light rail system) crossing an intersection behind me.

 

Bingo!

 

I crossed over the rail tracks and waited for the next red trolley to pass. Knowing that the cars have big, wide windows, I took a couple of exposure from 4-8 seconds, which allowed this unique framing.

 

Beam me up, San Diego!

 

Notes: Canon EOS 5D Mark II, Canon EF 17-40mm f/4L USM Lens, Tripod Mounted

 

Happy Travels!

 

One more photo in the comment section.

 

All Rights Reserved. Photos and Text ©Sam Antonio Photography 2014

 

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I visited this derelict site numerous times and waited for a train to pass by, FINALLY one arrived, 2 years late!

My pentax 50mm f1.4 lens has left me :( It was my most used lens, and it was my grandfather's. I've been scouring the internet to find another. It got smashed somehow on the train home from London, I tried taking some picture with it to see the effect but it was just blurs of colour. R.I.P.

~ Haruki Murakami

 

the train leaves at 8

 

Don't go far off, not even for a day,

because I don't know how to say it - a day is long

and I will be waiting for you, as in

an empty station when the trains are

parked off somewhere else, asleep.

~ Pablo Neruda

Just rounding the curve at Genoa.. Look closely at the engineer side window of the 5935, I thought this was pretty lucky because this was the farther away shot, (SD40-2's in run run 8 sure sounded great) Click here to hear that sound.. youtu.be/oBj-mOejASY?list=UUqjiLIMcsevluT4_sshildQ

Explore #385

View On Black and Large Size (recommended)

 

Pasajeros hacinados en un tren cualquiera. Estación de Agra (Uthar Pradesh).

 

La red ferroviaria de la India es gigantesca. Sus trenes constituyen el principal medio de comunicación en un país con más de mil millones de habitantes. Además de los desplazamientos cotidianos por causas laborales, la cultura tradicional de la nación exige que millones de personas que viven lejos de sus parientes realicen viajes frecuentes por motivos familiares, tales como nacimientos, fiestas, bodas o enfermedades.

 

Todos los días, un promedio de más de 8.350 trenes de pasajeros recorren 80.000 kilómetros con 12.500.000 usuarios, y los trenes de mercancías transportan más de 1.300.000 toneladas de carga. En conjunto, abarcan tres veces y media la distancia que nos separa de la Luna.

 

Estamos hablando de 6.867 estaciones, 7.500 locomotoras, más de 280.000 vagones de pasajeros y de carga, y un tendido de 107.969 kilómetros (incluidas las vías muertas). Se entiende, pues, que los ferrocarriles de la India den trabajo a 1.600.000 personas, la mayor plantilla de todo el mundo. Sin duda, una compañía gigantesca.

(Fuente: www.watchtower.org/s/20020708/article_01.htm)

 

*** Presentación completa de la galeria INDIA 2008 ***

 

El video "Miradas", con fotografías de INDIA 2008, en YouTube, y en www.alfonstrigas.com

Explored!

 

It's that time again: Wizarding Wednesdays~!

 

*lightning sound effects*

 

So, yea -- if we're to believe what has been 'leaked' and rumors that've been swirling around since last year, in 2014 this should be an actual, functioning train station that connects two distinct Wizarding World parks.

 

Diagon Alley, from what I've read, sounds awesome. My only concern (or question, rather) is what will they do for the ride between areas.

 

What would be super cool is -- by borrowing elements from King Kong 3D -- having the train travel through a tunnel that is playing seamless, HD-projections of the countryside the students travel through on their way to Hogwarts, all while throwing in Easter Eggs along the ride. I say tunnel because if it were simply LED screens as windows, you would lose any sense of depth, whereas if it were an enclosure you could peak ahead and behind to see what was happening.

 

Or maybe I'm just nuts, you know?

 

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Brindleyplace is a large mixed-use canalside development, in the Westside district of Birmingham. It is often written erroneously as Brindley Place, the name of the street (in turn named after the 18th century canal engineer James Brindley) around which it is built. It was developed by Argent Group PLC from 1993 onwards. In addition to shops, bars and restaurants, Brindleyplace is home to the National Sea Life Centre, Royal Bank of Scotland, Orion Media, Ikon Gallery of art and a Hilton Garden Inn. The site covers 17 acres (69,000 m²) of mixed-use redevelopment on a grand scale - the UK's largest such project. The Birmingham Canal Navigations Main Line Canal, seen here, separates Brindleyplace from the International Convention Centre on the opposite side, although there are linking fairy lit bridges. The National Indoor Arena (further up the canal), Old Turn Junction and bustling bars of Broad Street are nearby and it is easily accessible and within walking distance of the main bus and train routes.

 

The area occupied by Brindleyplace was, at the height of Birmingham's industrial past, the site of factories, however, by the 1970s as Britain's manufacturing went into decline, the factories closed down and the buildings lay derelict for many years.

 

Birmingham City Council's aim was to create an environment of water features, walkways and new office and leisure buildings, that would open out onto this adjacent canal. The scheme was assembled by the council in the 1980s. The council were also seeing success with the construction of the International Convention Centre with the Symphony Hall, and the National Indoor Arena. A development brief was drawn up, identifying the site as an area to attract people to compliment the convention centre.

 

Initial proposals were drawn up by Merlin, who teamed with developers Shearwater. However, Merlin pulled out of the scheme and were replaced by Rosehaugh. Rosehaugh had paid £26 million for the site in 1990. Rosehaugh revised Merlin's retail-led scheme to include more office space and a residential element. By 1992, a detailed set of proposals which included retailing and restaurants with a central square had been agreed. However, Rosehaugh went into receivership by the end of the year. Argent took over the scheme, paying £3 million to the receivers. Argent slightly amended the plans by separating the residential element from the rest of the scheme and commencing construction of the Water's Edge first, along with an office building.

 

By 1995, when Argent refinanced the scheme, the land value was back over £25 million. The Water's Edge was trading successfully and the housing element, Symphony Court, had sold all of its units. The price for the average family house in the scheme was over £200,000. Short term finance was supplied by Hypobank.

 

The BCN Main Line, or Birmingham Canal Navigations Main Line describes the evolving route of the Birmingham Canal between Birmingham and Wolverhampton in England.

 

The name Main Line was used to distinguish the main Birmingham to Wolverhampton route from the many other canals and branches built or acquired by the Birmingham Canal Navigations company.

 

The International Convention Centre opposite (abbreviated to ICC) is a major conference venue. The centre includes Symphony Hall and it faces Centenary Square. The building has this other entrance leading to the canals of Birmingham.

 

The building was designed by Percy Thomas Partnership and Renton Howard Wood Levin. The foundation stone was laid by Jacques Delors as a start of another 4 years and 5 months of construction. In all, over 1,500 workers helped construct the building. Over 60,000 cubic metres of concrete were used. The site was opened on 12 June 1991 by Queen Elizabeth II. Funds of £49.7 million were provided by the European Council. The total cost of construction was £200 million.

 

It is on the site of the Prince of Wales Theatre and Bingley Hall, the world's first purpose-built exhibition hall, opened in 1850. Also on the site were numerous houses fronting King Edward's Place as well as a brewery and inn. On the eastern side of this was King Alfreds Place which was also fronted by houses and a hotel. A listed Victorian cast iron urinal was removed before construction began, on condition that it be re-erected. Although it was taken to Tyseley Locomotive Works, it has never been restored.

 

The building was the focal point for the G8 summit meeting of world leaders in 1998.

 

On a specified date in August, the building is used by companies, organisations and/ or individuals as part of "Discovery Day" which features events co-ordinated all over the city. In 2004, an area was used as an indoor country fair. The fair featured a Ferris wheel and small rides. In spring 2008, the hall hosted its first party political conference, for the Labour Party.

 

The façade of the building is covered in blue tinted windows and white stone cladding. The entrance is adorned by a neon sculpture, by Ron Hasledon, named "Birdlife" which hangs above it. The entrance is used as a small performance area and small protests are sometimes held there. The south side of the building features a link bridge to the Hyatt Regency Hotel. When the pre-fabricated connecting bridge was delivered, it was found to be too short, as the plans for the hotel had been modified, moving it away from the ICC slightly, but the bridge makers had not been informed.

 

Inside the building, numerous connecting bridges and walkways line the atrium overhead connecting the eleven halls. The ICC has a total capacity of 8,000 delegates. The largest hall, "Hall Three" can hold up to 3,000 delegates when fully utilising its 3,000m2 space.

 

Inside there is a branch of the Castle Fine Art which sells original paintings and prints. There is a souvenir shop as well as the box office for tickets for both Symphony Hall and other local theatres.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Brindleyplace

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York Minster, York, England

 

I took my car to Knaresborough yesterday to have a few bits done to it and so had a few hours to kill so got the train back to York and thought I would have a visit to York Minster.

 

I have never actually visited York Minster before, I also even opted to go up the tower, a whole 270+ steps, phew!! I really enjoyed looking around the Minster but found it difficult from a photographic point of view, maybe I was having an off day? However this is one of the photos that I did get. This is from a bit just off of the main part of the Minster called Chapter House. Its an Octagonal shaped room and is awesome, spend about 30 minutes in here just looking at the detailing and taking images. Shame I couldn't use a tripod but I think I got most of lined up.

 

Photo Details

Sony Alpha SLT-A99 / ISO1000 / f/4 / 1/15s / Sony Carl Zeiss 16-35mm F2.8 ZA SSM @ 17mm

 

Software Used

Lightroom 5

Colour Efex Pro 2

Sharpener Pro 3

 

Location Information

York Minster is a cathedral in York, England, and is one of the largest of its kind in Northern Europe. The minster is the seat of the Archbishop of York, the second-highest office of the Church of England, and is the cathedral for the Diocese of York. It is run by a dean and chapter, under the Dean of York. The formal title of York Minster is "The Cathedral and Metropolitical Church of St Peter in York". The title "minster" is attributed to churches established in the Anglo-Saxon period as missionary teaching churches, and serves now as an honorific title. Services in the minster are sometimes regarded as on the High Church or Anglo-Catholic end of the Anglican continuum.

 

The minster has a very wide Decorated Gothic nave and chapter house, a Perpendicular Gothic Quire and east end and Early English north and south transepts. The nave contains the West Window, constructed in 1338, and over the Lady Chapel in the east end is the Great East Window, (finished in 1408), the largest expanse of medieval stained glass in the world. In the north transept is the Five Sisters Window, each lancet being over 52 feet (16 m) high.[citation needed] The south transept contains a famous rose window, while the West Window contains a famous heart-shaped design, colloquially known as 'The Heart of Yorkshire'.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/York_Minster

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what do you get when you mix a 2 year old girl, rail road tracks, her favorite bear in grave peril and an impending rain storm? A giant RUSH is what! This idea was too good to pass up and since today is the last day I'm in Deland before heading to yet another city to shoot we had no time to spare. We picked up Mia from Daycare and headed over to the tracks.

 

Jessica was the official kid wrangler as Joyce and myself got the gear ready. I knew my window of opportunity was short as it was but the weather made it just that much shorter. I opted to forgo the use of the Cyber Commander as I knew it would have taken too much time to setup. With two lights in tow we made our way about 50 yards down the tracks.

 

The wind had started to kick up and the temperature dropped significantly. I knew doom was impeding and my poor lights weren't dressed for the weather. I wasn't ready to give up so we pushed on. If I hadn't done this 279 times before I probably wouldn't of been able to formulate a lighting plan, get a exposure reading, block out the shot and shoot in the 4 minutes we had available to us. I, however, was able to pull it off. A few drops of rain weren't going to stop me as we kept resetting the tied up bear onto the tracks and letting little Mia go retrieve it. Contrary to what the picture depicts, she was very concerned with the safety of Mr. Bear. What looks like her putting the bear on the tracks was actually her taking it off!

 

I was only afforded 10 shots before the rain, wind and Mia were all telling me it was time to pack it up. To shield my lights I threw pieces of clothing on top of them. This wouldn't protect forever, but just long enough to get back to the car.

 

Now before anyone has a shit fit about a 2 year old on the tracks. The tracks weren't in use anymore and there wouldn't' be a train anywhere in the area till about 8:30pm. We were most definitely in the clear as this shot was taken in broad daylight.

 

My only issue was the shot had motion blur as I shot it at 1/60 and Mia was most definitely moving at at least 1/250 sec! However, it was too cute to pass up so I decided to pull out all the stops and photoshop the shit out of it and bring it back from the cutting room floor. Its not perfect but I feel that it will suffice for all intensive purposes. I wouldn't go as far as to say I'm 100% proud of it. But I can say that I can except it. My standards are very high so I'm not worried.

 

After the main shot we headed down to the Amtrack station to see what we could capture with the covered train station. By this time Mia had once again warmed up to me and now was a ball of energy. She barley would hold still let alone pose. I decided to just let things go and capture shots of this little Tasmanian devil bouncing up and down and running every which direction. I did manage to get some pretty cute shots. That is when she slowed down to not cause a blur of a baby! l swear, she was throwing that bear 5 feet in the air… poor thing (the bear of course)!

 

As a reward for her great performance Mia received a treat of Mc Donald's french fries. French Fries which she proceeded to shove into her mouth one at a time, chew up and store in her chubby little cheeks until she resembled a tiny chipmunk. Gross!

 

Tomorrow is an early rise to head nearly 300 miles south for yet another photo shoot! That drive will suck!!

 

Lighting:

 

AB800 Med Softbox 4:00 3/4 power

AB800 7 inch reflector 2:00 3/4 power

Triggered via Cyber Syncs

i have been lately fascinated with textures. i was told that they are addicting, i think i'm now grasping why there's an addiction out there. i can't say that i must do it on all my photos but it sure does add a lot more character to it, i.e. moodiness and darkness (that i love). on the other hand i'm also a fan of clean and minimal photos, those that should be simply left alone.

 

well, you guys might see a lot more textured photos in here as i try and experiment more. i have also started to upload more non-selfies here to dilute the many many many photos of myself. and btw, my photography class starts next week. happy evenings ahead.

_________________________

the vent: how did you do that?

took a photo of myself against the window. cropped face in half. uploaded to flickr. applied gritty and sepia using picnik. uploaded to photoshop 7. added first les brumes texture, selected pinlight, slapped second les brumes texture and selected multiply. uploaded again in flickr, from picnik applied cross processed effect. then played around with saturation and rotated photo to a slight angle. voila.

 

totw, movie lines (girl interrupted)

Susanna: [narrating] Have you ever confused a dream with life? Or stolen something when you have the cash? Have you ever been blue? Or thought your train moving while sitting still? Maybe I was just crazy. Maybe it was the 60's. Or maybe I was just a girl... interrupted.

 

the vent, how did you that

totw, movie lines

fgr, mugshot, half of it.

292/365 days

8/10/09

It is 7:13 A.M., October 8, 1995. In the cold night air of the Utah desert, you are standing 10 miles east of Green River near the Denver & Rio Grande Western main line, now operated as part of the Southern Pacific Lines. For the last quarter-hour the quiet of the desert night has been interrupted by an approaching eastbound merchandise freight, heavy with California and Oregon lumber, Kennecott tank cars and Geneva Steel coil and plate. With 5 diesels at full throttle, the train can make no better than 20 mph on the one percent climb to the summit at Thompson, 15 miles further. The sky is very clear, slowly getting brighter with solar rays just touching the upper atmosphere. Behind you, the sun will not break the horizon for another half hour. For the moment, you are in the pre-dawn violet light.

 

Look dead ahead. The full moon that lit the desert all night is just now setting behind Window Blind Peak, a full 31 miles to the west in the San Rafael Swell, the surface air distortion making the lunar disk appear yellow and oval. You hold your breath. For the briefest of moments, you see, hear and feel the power of a rail transportation network that works 24/7, 365, and just behind the train you see the effect of the rotation of the earth as the bright moon sinks from sight. You cannot take your eyes from the motion of either. The moon disappears in less than 60 seconds; the crew of the train passes a minute later.

 

You have always enjoyed the desert experience. Now you count yourself lucky to have been in the right place at the right time to witness such a sight. You wish you could share this with everyone.

Pulsa L para ver con fondo negro // Press L for viewing in black

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Please use Firefox for a better color experience // Por favor utiliza Firefox para una correcta visualizaciön de los colores.

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Camara /Camera: Nikon D80

Objetivo/Lense: Tamron 18-200

Edition: Lightroom 4.2 + Photoshop CS6

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Algunos derechos reservados // Some rights reserved

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**Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivs Creative Commons

**Creative Commons Atribución-No Comercial - No Derivs

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If you wish to have a printed copy of this photo, please contact me.

Si te interesa obtener una copia impresa de esta foto, por favor contactad conmigo.

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Shot with my Nikon Dƒ with an 85mm ƒ1,8, processed in Lightroom using VSCO Film Pack 04.

After the second inspiring morning in Morgan Territory I went home and began as I normally do and downloaded all the associated weather data for the event but I was even more curious to see what this setup had in store next. The forecast models depicted a cutoff low strengthening before dropping directly through California pushing winter like weather across the N'rn Sierras in about one week. A model consensus early on brought strong confidence the low would move over the N central Sierras with little variability in successive runs it was easy to see a third round was in order. So I checked my schedule.....I would have a day to get there before setting out and a day afterwards, another amazing alignment and everything else goes on hold.

 

The question was where in the Sierra? The setup was textbook but small variations in the path of the low could lead to drastic results so I had an initial target area from Mammoth Lakes to Sonora Pass, which would be fine tuned as the details become clearer as the storm approaches. The day I took off the low approached the coast and a large cloud shield developed ahead of the system and brought overcast skies to the S through Mammoth. To my N approaching the desolation wilderness there would be enough moisture to bring consistent showers with snow levels dropping below 10,000 ft rapidly to near 8,500ft. As usual I didn't get reservations to camp somewhere along Tioga pass, big mistake in early August! From White wolf across the entire Tioga pass every single campsite was taken, Lee Vining canyon- filled, and finally in June Lake I found some dirt to sleep on.

 

Exhausted I made the most regrettable decision of the trip and did not go to Mono Lake for sunrise. Although the water wouldn't be calm the display of cloud formations was exceptional, disappointed at myself I focused in on the main event. The silver lining was that the cloud formations were actually a great sign that I was in position being on the boundary where the dry warm air that was drawn N'wrd from ridging in advance of the low met the very cold slightly moist air associated with the low. This would also correspond to where the strongest wind gradient would be. This still covers way too much of a target area, since I was hiking into my location I only had a range of a mile to work with. To increase my chances of seeing something interesting I focused the target at the base of the low and the left front quadrant of where a jet streak would pass overhead sometime during the morning. Even better was as the axis crossing through the center of the low passes over me at some point that morning the natural turning of the winds around the low would strike perpendicular to the Sierra crest for a moment. Depending on how much moisture is associated with the system this perpendicular flow always creates some really interesting cloud formations, my favorite is when they take a radial pattern which intensifies as you close in on the axis of rotation.

 

My target area was reduced to N'rn Mono county S of Lundy canyon but N of Lee Vining. I distinctly remembered my Co-worker mention 20 lakes basin which lied directly in the target area and could be easily reached and enough time to set up camp in the high Sierra. This was the destination, now time to pack enough gear to comfortably enter the high Sierras at 10,000 ft endure a night with 70 mph winds, rain, sleet, snow, and temperatures with wind chill easily below 0 and wake up and be active before sunrise.

 

After arriving in the basin, none of the hardships mattered.....this place is unbelievably beautiful and it was coupled with a very dynamic atmosphere. I spent the better part of 3 hours scouting out a campsite to endure what the night had in store and to take in the surroundings. After technology is no longer an option this is when its really important to pay attention to visible clues to give you an idea as to your position in relation to the larger weather picture. Wind direction, strength, and movement over time in association with temperature variations will indicate if the low is approaching or moving away from you, nature has plenty of wind vanes to choose from. Combine that with your map and compass and sometimes you can visualize how things are playing out, although its a very rough estimate sometimes its all you need to get yourself in good enough position. The night was long, loud, and cold, I looked out of the tent only to watch the moon glimmer on an unnamed lake and set behind North Peak a few hours before sunrise. About 30 minutes before I was going to get started I looked outside and realized mid level clouds were streaking over the peak in a way I could have never imagined but by the time I got ready it was perfectly clear outside, not exactly inspiring but my heart certainly was racing.

 

Its rare that I am not listening to my natural environment when I am photographing in the morning particularly when it is speaking to me in so many ways. But I had heard enough from the previous mornight so I got a little help from something that always gets my spirit pounding: Taiko. My absolute favorite drumming group is Kodo, I always seek them out for inspiration. It brought a whole new level of focus as I felt almost separated by what was occurring around me as I was searching for connections in composition. I was listening to the composition Zoku when I noticed the first ripple in the sky and before long two additional evenly spaced horizontal lines formed and that wonderful rush of adrenaline surged through me as I realized a powerful standing wave formed and sent lines of clouds rolling across the Sierra crest at nearly 50 mph. At that same moment the morning sunlight hit the snow below north peak and a cloud rose in the foreground, almost in defiance of the forces in front of it and to top it off it looks like a shadow of a person raising their arms up is projected on the cloud.. I took more shots in 1 minute than in the past month.

 

This is probably the most important thing I can do as a meteorologist to improve my forecasting skills. Science can generally be an objective process separating the scientist from the experiment to preserve the accuracy but its also the pursuit of truth, natural laws, and answers. Sometimes you just need to prepare to do some experimenting yourself to see beyond the cookie cutter scenarios and watch how things play out in reality. Storm chasing is a perfect test to apply the skills and knowledge I've learned and for whatever reason a photograph has become the answer to me.

 

Which leads us to what comes next; I've been slowly placing myself in a series of tests before I set out on an epic adventure. A trip into the remote High Sierra, my first time to live for over a week with just what’s on my back and I'll be bringing my camera :). The itinerary is ambitious but I've been training for many years so I am very excited to take it on. Wish me luck and endurance and hopefully I can capture something out there. Not much forecasting involved in this trip except a little climatology to get the least amount of weather possible.... I decided to start before the new moon and end right after the Autumnal Equinox, right in that window before the major storms return when there is a little more balance with the weather and of course before the fall show.

Viadukt (der, auch das Viadukt; Schweiz, Österreich: das Viadukt) kommt aus dem Lateinischen (via = Weg + ducere = führen; PPP ductum) und bedeutet Wegleitung oder Wegführung oder sehr frei übersetzt Trasse. Als Viadukt werden auch mehr oder minder hohe und lange Straßenbrücken oder Brücken für Eisenbahnen bezeichnet, die steigungsarm ein Tal oder eine Senke mit Pfeilern und oft Bögen überspannen.

  

Bereits im Altertum, vor allem bei den antiken Römern, finden sich zahlreiche Viadukte. Aber erst mit der Entstehung der Eisenbahnen um 1830 setzte wieder verstärkt der Bau und Gebrauch dieser Bauwerke ein. Neben den bedeutenden, auf einer Höhe verlaufenden Aquädukten, gibt es noch die gewölbten Viadukte in der pränestinischen Heerstraße zwischen Rom und Gabii mit Halbkreisgewölben und Pfeilern aus Tuffquadern sowie die der Appischen Heerstraße bei Aricia. Der südfranzösische Pont Serme erreichte eine beachtliche Länge von 1500 Metern.

Es gibt keine allgemeingültige Definition des Begriffes Viadukt. Jeder Viadukt ist auch eine Brücke, und wird aus bautechnischer Sicht auch zusammen mit Brücken in dieselben Kategorien eingeteilt (Bogenbrücken, Balkenbrücken usw.). Der Begriff Viadukt hat mehr mit der Wirkung auf die Umgebung und mit seiner Funktion zu tun, bedeutende Verkehrswege möglichst umwegs- und steigungsarm zu führen. Ein Viadukt überquert nicht nur, er verbindet auch. Deshalb ist es meist von der lokalen Gegebenheiten abhängig, ab wann eine Brücke als Viadukt bezeichnet wird. In der Regel werden mehrfeldrige Brücken, die mehrheitlich über ein Gewässer führen, als Brücke und nicht als Viadukt bezeichnet. Ein Viadukt überquert also mehrheitlich Land, und könnte theoretisch – zumindest teilweise – durch einen Damm ersetzt werden.[2]

  

Ein Viadukt wird in der Regel von keinem Hauptbogen bestimmt, sondern besteht aus mehreren meist gleichmäßigen Bögen oder Öffnungen. Selbst wenn es eine Hauptöffung hat, macht diese nur einen kleinen Teil der Gesamtlänge des Viaduktes aus. Sehr häufig verwendet man die Bezeichnung Viadukt für ein Brückenbauwerk, das aus mehreren direkt aneinander gebauten Brücken besteht. So besteht beispielsweise das Lorraineviadukt aus vier hintereinander folgenden Brücken.

  

Gemäß Duden ist der Begriff Viadukt auch ein Synonym für Talbrücke und Überführung.

Viadukte werden aus Stein, Ziegeln, Beton, Eisen oder Holz gebaut. Im engeren Sinn versteht man unter Viadukt auch die kleineren Überführungen und Unterführungen von Straßen oder Eisenbahnen mit einer bis drei Öffnungen, welche überwölbt oder mit eisernen, auf steinernen Pfeilern ruhenden, massiv gewalzten oder aus Blech und Fassoneisen zusammengesetzten Trägern überspannt sind. Steinerne Viadukte haben zumeist Halbkreisgewölbe, schlanke Pfeiler und mit zunehmenden Höhen zwei, drei und vier Ebenen, die durch Zwischengewölbe gebildet werden. Entweder sind die Zwischenpfeiler gleich stark oder schwächer. Gruppenpfeiler sind dann vorhanden, wenn mehrere Zwischenpfeiler sich mit stärkeren Pfeilern abwechseln.

  

Der Viadukt von Millau wurde am 14. Dezember 2004 von Präsident Jacques Chirac eröffnet und ist eine der imposantesten Brücken der Welt: Von sieben Pfeilern getragen quert sie mit einer Länge von 2460 Metern und maximal 270 Metern Höhe als Autobahnbrücke das Tal des Tarn fünf Kilometer westlich von Millau.

Steinerne Viadukte

Die Ravennabrücke im Höllental (Schwarzwald) ist 58 m hoch und 225 m lang. Die Bogenweite der acht Bögen beträgt je 20 Meter. Der Eisenbahnviadukt wurde 1927/28 errichtet.

Der Ruhr-Viadukt bei Herdecke ist etwa 30 m hoch.

Der Ruhr-Viadukt bei Witten ist gut 800 m lang.

Der Altenbekener Viadukt wurde bereits 1853 eingeweiht.

Der Burtscheider Viadukt von 1838 bis 1840 ist eine der ältesten noch genutzten Eisenbahnbrücken Deutschlands.

Der Desenzanoviadukt bei Verona ist einstöckig und weist eine Höhe von 60 m auf.

Der Viadukt El Puente Nuevo in Ronda, Spanien, ist 120 m hoch.

Den Lockwoodviadukt in England zeichnen seine Pfeiler mit einem Schlankheitsgrad von 1/30 aus.

Der Viadukt über das Elstertal in Sachsen ist zweistöckig und weist eine Höhe von 69,75 m auf.

Der 1940 zerstörte Viadukt über das Göhltal bei Aachen war zweistöckig.

Der Viadukt von Chaumont ist dreistöckig und weist eine Höhe von 50 m auf.

Der Viadukt über das Göltzschtal bei Reichenbach im Vogtland in Sachsen ist teilweise vierstöckig, war bei ihrem Bau mit 80,37 m die höchste Eisenbahnbrücke der Welt und gilt bis heute als größte Ziegelsteinbrücke.

Einige Viadukte der Semmeringbahn weisen auch zusätzlich eine Krümmung im Grundriss auf.

Die Stadtbahnbögen entlang des Wiener Gürtels wurden als eigene Verkehrsebene für den Öffentlichen Nahverkehr errichtet. Heute hat sich in den Bögen eine rege Lokal-Szene entwickelt.

Der Himbächel-Viadukt der Odenwaldbahn.

Der Landwasserviadukt der Rhätischen Bahn.

Der Viadukt von Bolesławiec (Bunzlau) in Polen über den Bober ist 450 m lang und wurde von 1844 bis 1846 erbaut.

Der gemauerte Bogen der Salcanobrücke auf der Wocheinerbahn ist mit einer Spannweite von 85 m der größte jemals für einen Viadukt gebaute Bogen.

Über die beiden Viadukte bei Plein (Eifel) führt heute ein Radweg.

Der Hangviadukt bei Pünderich an der Mosel

Der Viadukt in Apolda ist 95 m lang, 23 m hoch und wurde am 2. Dezember 1846 fertiggestellt. Die Einweihungsfeier fand am 16. Dezember 1846 statt.

Der Bietigheimer Eisenbahnviadukt (Wahrzeichen der Stadt Bietigheim), erbaut von 1851 bis 1853 von Karl Etzel, Höhe circa 30 m, Spannweite 287 m. Er verfügt über 21 Bögen. Der Viadukt stellt die Verbindung zwischen Bietigheim-Bissingen und Bruchsal sicher.

Die zweite Lorzentobelbrücke im Kanton Zug (Schweiz) wurde 1910 als Bogenviadukt erbaut. Er hat Länge von 187 und eine maximale Höhe von 58 Metern.

Die Stadtbahntrasse in Berlin ist ein über 8 km langer Steinviadukt, der zwischen 1875 und 1882 errichtet wurde. Der Viadukt ist das längste Baudenkmal Deutschlands.[3]

Der Luxemburger Viadukt Pulvermühle wurde 1862 eingeweiht.

Der Castielertobel-Viadukt der Arosabahn von 1914 (bis 1942)

  

Eiserne Viadukte weisen meist steinerne Pfeiler auf wie der Viadukt bei Znaim oder eiserne Pfeiler auf steinernen Sockeln wie der Crumlinviadukt bei Newport in Südwales, das Saaneviadukt bei Freiburg im Üechtland, das Sitterviadukt bei St.Gallen, die Viadukte der Orleansbahn bei Baufseau d'Ahun und über die Cere, der Viadukt über die Gravine bei Castellaneta, der Pfrimmtalviadukt bei Marnheim in der Pfalz.

  

Auf der Bahnstrecke Erfurt–Ilmenau ist der eingleisige Talübergang bei Angelroda mit einem gusseisernen Viadukt errichtet worden, sowie in der Bahnstrecke Friedberg–Hanau der Viadukt über das Nidda-Tal.

  

Weitere eiserne Viadukte:

  

Castielertobel-Viadukt zwischen Calfreisen und Castiel

Firth-of-Tay-Brücke in Schottland

„Kentucky High Bridge“ der Cincinnati Southern, heute Norfolk Southern.

Portage-Viadukt der Erie Railroad, der an der Stelle eines abgebrannten hölzernen Viadukts in 86 Tagen über den Genesee River erbaut wurde.

Müngstener Brücke zwischen Remscheid und Solingen

Viadukt über das Tal der Aqua de Varrugas bei Lima in Peru mit einer Pfeilerhöhe von 76,8 m.

Fachwerkviadukte Kübelbach-, Ettenbach- und Stockerbachviadukt der Gäubahn Eutingen–Freudenstadt und das Sitterviadukt der Schweizerischen Südostbahn im Kanton St. Gallen mit ihrem markanten eisernen, halbparabligen Fachwerkträger (Fischbauchträger) gilt mit 99 m als die höchste Eisenbahnbrücke der Schweiz.

Viaduc de Millau über das Tal des Tarn (stählernes Fahrbahndeck)

Der Castielertobel-Viadukt im Schanfigg (bis 1942 Steinbogenbrücke)

  

Die Viadukte aus Holz hatten eine geringe Bedeutung und waren meist nur eine Zwischenlösung, da sie leicht durch den Funkenflug der Dampflokomotiven Feuer fingen und abbrannten. Dennoch wurden sie gebaut, da sie kostengünstig in der Errichtung waren. Als historische Beispiele können die abgebrannten Viadukte über den Genesee River bei Portage in den Vereinigten Staaten mit 57,4 m hohen Holzpfeilern und die Viadukte über die Msta in Russland mit 21,34 m hohen Holzpfeilern, beide auf gemauerten Sockeln, genannt werden.

  

Viadukte aus Stahl- und Spannbeton

Das Lehnenviadukt Beckenried in der Schweiz.

Das Neckartalviadukt bei Reutlingen (Baden-Württemberg)

Das Viadukt von Schengen ist die Überquerung der A 8 über die Mosel zwischen Perl und Schengen

Das Moselviadukt bei Vandières führt die Überquerung der französischen Schnellfahrstrecke LGV Est européenne Paris-Straßburg über die Mosel

Der Viadukt von Millau (auch Viaduc de Millau) über die französische Tarnschlucht ist die höchste Autobahnbrücke der Welt.

Der Langwieser Viadukt und der Gründjitobel-Viadukt bei Langwies waren bei ihrer Eröffnung 1914 die größten Stahlbeton-Eisenbahnbrücken der Welt

Der Schildescher Viadukt in Bielefeld.

Kreisviadukt

Eine besondere Form des Viadukts ist das Kreis- oder Kreiskehrviadukt. Es bewältigt ähnlich einem Kreiskehrtunnel einen Höhenunterschied, wobei die Höhendifferenz im Freien (auf dem Viadukt) und nicht im Berg überwunden wird. Das berühmteste Kreiskehrviadukt findet sich bei der Berninabahn in Brusio.

Ein Hangviadukt schafft in erster Linie eine (ggfs. schiefe) Ebene an einem Berghang, auf der ein Verkehrsweg errichtet werden kann. Eventuelle Einschnitte an der Hangflanke werden hier eher „nebenbei“ überbrückt. Ein bekannter Hangviadukt in Deutschland befindet sich bei Pünderich an der Mosel. Über ihn verläuft die Trasse der Moselstrecke.

  

A viaduct is a bridge composed of several small spans[1] for crossing a valley or a gorge.The term viaduct is derived from the Latin via for road and ducere, to lead. However, the ancient Romans did not use the term; it is a modern derivation from an analogy with aqueduct.[4] Like the Roman aqueducts, many early viaducts comprised a series of arches of roughly equal length. Viaducts may span land or water or both.

  

The longest viaduct in antiquity may have been the Pont Serme which crossed wide marshes in southern France.[6] In Romance languages, the word viaduct refers to a bridge which spans only land. A bridge spanning water is called ponte.

  

Over land

Viaducts are commonly used in many cities that are railroad centers, such as Chicago, Atlanta, Birmingham, London, and Manchester. These viaducts cross the large railroad yards that are needed for freight trains there, and also cross the multi-track railroad lines that are needed for heavy railroad traffic. These viaducts keep highway and city street traffic from having to be continually interrupted by the train traffic. Likewise, some viaducts carry railroads over large valleys, or they carry railroads over cities with many cross-streets and avenues.

  

Many viaducts over land connect points of similar height in a landscape, usually by bridging a river valley or other eroded opening in an otherwise flat area. Often such valleys had roads descending either side (with a small bridge over the river, where necessary) that become inadequate for the traffic load, necessitating a viaduct for "through" traffic.[7] Such bridges also lend themselves for use by rail traffic, which requires straighter and flatter routes.[8] Some viaducts have more than one deck, such that one deck has vehicular traffic and another deck having rail traffic. One example of this is the Prince Edward Viaduct in Toronto, Canada, that carries motor traffic on the top deck as Bloor Street, and metro as the Bloor-Danforth subway line on the lower deck, over the steep Don River valley. Others were built to span settled areas and crossed over roads beneath - the reason for many viaducts in London.

  

Over water

Viaducts over water are often combined with other types of bridges or tunnels to cross navigable waters. The viaduct sections, while less expensive to design and build than tunnels or bridges with larger spans, typically lack sufficient horizontal and vertical clearance for large ships. See the Chesapeake Bay Bridge-Tunnel.

  

The Millau Viaduct is a cable-stayed road-bridge that spans the valley of the River Tarn near Millau in southern France. Designed by the French bridge engineer Michel Virlogeux, in collaboration with architect Norman Robert Foster, it is the tallest vehicular bridge in the world, with one pier's summit at 343 metres (1,125 ft)—slightly taller than the Eiffel Tower and only 38 m (125 ft) shorter than the Empire State Building. It was formally dedicated on 14 December 2004 and opened to traffic two days later. The viaduct Danyang–Kunshan Grand Bridge in China is the longest bridge in the world according to Guinness World Records as of 2011.

  

Land use below viaducts

  

Where a viaduct is built across land rather than water, the space below the arches may be used for businesses such as car parking, vehicle repairs, light industry, bars and nightclubs. In the United Kingdom, many railway lines in urban areas have been constructed on viaducts, and so the infrastructure owner Network Rail has an extensive property portfolio in arches under viaducts.[10]

  

Past and future[edit]

Elevated expressways were built in rich cities such as Boston (Central Artery), Seoul, Tokyo, Toronto (Gardiner Expressway).[11] Some were demolished because they were ugly and divided the city.[citation needed] However in developing nations such as Thailand, India (Delhi-Gurgaon Expressway), China, Bangladesh, Pakistan, elevated expressways have been built and more are under construction to improve traffic flow, particularly as a workaround of land shortage when built atop surface roads.[citation needed] In Indonesia viaducts are used for railways in Java and also for highways such as the Jakarta Inner Ring Road.

  

Quelle:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viaduct

de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viadukt

 

Fotografie oder Photographie (aus griechisch φῶς, phos, im Genitiv: φωτός, photos, „Licht (der Himmelskörper)“, „Helligkeit“ und γράφειν, graphein, „zeichnen“, „ritzen“, „malen“, „schreiben“) bezeichnet

  

eine bildgebende Methode,[1] bei der mit Hilfe von optischen Verfahren ein Lichtbild auf ein lichtempfindliches Medium projiziert und dort direkt und dauerhaft gespeichert (analoges Verfahren) oder in elektronische Daten gewandelt und gespeichert wird (digitales Verfahren).

das dauerhafte Lichtbild (Diapositiv, Filmbild oder Papierbild; kurz Bild, umgangssprachlich auch Foto genannt), das durch fotografische Verfahren hergestellt wird; dabei kann es sich entweder um ein Positiv oder ein Negativ auf Film, Folie, Papier oder anderen fotografischen Trägern handeln. Fotografische Aufnahmen werden als Abzug, Vergrößerung, Filmkopie oder als Ausbelichtung bzw. Druck von digitalen Bild-Dateien vervielfältigt. Der entsprechende Beruf ist der Fotograf.

Bilder, die für das Kino aufgenommen werden. Beliebig viele fotografische Bilder werden in Reihen von Einzelbildern auf Film aufgenommen, die später mit einem Filmprojektor als bewegte Bilder (Laufbilder) vorgeführt werden können (siehe Film).

  

Der Begriff Photographie wurde erstmals (noch vor englischen oder französischen Veröffentlichungen) am 25. Februar 1839 vom Astronomen Johann Heinrich von Mädler in der Vossischen Zeitung verwendet.[2] Bis ins 20. Jahrhundert bezeichnete Fotografie alle Bilder, welche rein durch Licht auf einer chemisch behandelten Oberfläche entstehen. Mit der deutschen Rechtschreibreform 1901 wurde die Schreibweise „Fotografie“ empfohlen, was sich jedoch bis heute nicht ganz durchsetzen konnte. Gemischte Schreibungen wie „Fotographie“ oder „Photografie“ sowie daraus abgewandelte Adjektive oder Substantive waren jedoch zu jeder Zeit eine falsche Schreibweise.

  

Allgemeines

Die Fotografie ist ein Medium, das in sehr verschiedenen Zusammenhängen eingesetzt wird. Fotografische Abbildungen können beispielsweise Gegenstände mit primär künstlerischem (künstlerische Fotografie) oder primär kommerziellem Charakter sein (Industriefotografie, Werbe- und Modefotografie). Die Fotografie kann unter künstlerischen, technischen (Fototechnik), ökonomischen (Fotowirtschaft) und gesellschaftlich-sozialen (Amateur-, Arbeiter- und Dokumentarfotografie) Aspekten betrachtet werden. Des Weiteren werden Fotografien im Journalismus und in der Medizin verwendet.

  

Die Fotografie ist teilweise ein Gegenstand der Forschung und Lehre in der Kunstgeschichte und der noch jungen Bildwissenschaft. Der mögliche Kunstcharakter der Fotografie war lange Zeit umstritten, ist jedoch seit der fotografischen Stilrichtung des Pictorialismus um die Wende zum 20. Jahrhundert letztlich nicht mehr bestritten. Einige Forschungsrichtungen ordnen die Fotografie der Medien- oder Kommunikationswissenschaft zu, auch diese Zuordnung ist umstritten.

  

Im Zuge der technologischen Weiterentwicklung fand zu Beginn des 21. Jahrhunderts allmählich der Wandel von der klassischen analogen (Silber-)Fotografie hin zur Digitalfotografie statt. Der weltweite Zusammenbruch der damit in Zusammenhang stehenden Industrie für analoge Kameras aber auch für Verbrauchsmaterialien (Filme, Fotopapier, Fotochemie, Laborgeräte) führt dazu, dass die Fotografie mehr und mehr auch unter kulturwissenschaftlicher und kulturhistorischer Sicht erforscht wird. Allgemein kulturelle Aspekte in der Forschung sind z.B. Betrachtungen über den Erhalt und die Dokumentation der praktischen Kenntnis der fotografischen Verfahren für Aufnahme und Verarbeitung aber auch der Wandel im Umgang mit der Fotografie im Alltag. Zunehmend kulturhistorisch interessant werden die Archivierungs- und Erhaltungstechniken für analoge Aufnahmen aber auch die systemunabhängige langfristige digitale Datenspeicherung.

  

Die Fotografie unterliegt dem komplexen und vielschichtigen Fotorecht; bei der Nutzung von vorhandenen Fotografien sind die Bildrechte zu beachten.

  

Fototechnik

Prinzipiell wird meist mit Hilfe eines optischen Systems, in vielen Fällen einem Objektiv, fotografiert. Dieses wirft das von einem Objekt ausgesendete oder reflektierte Licht auf die lichtempfindliche Schicht einer Fotoplatte, eines Films oder auf einen fotoelektrischen Wandler, einen Bildsensor.

  

→ Hauptartikel: Fototechnik

Fotografische Kameras

→ Hauptartikel: Kamera

Der fotografischen Aufnahme dient eine fotografische Apparatur (Kamera). Durch Manipulation des optischen Systems (unter anderem die Einstellung der Blende, Scharfstellung, Farbfilterung, die Wahl der Belichtungszeit, der Objektivbrennweite, der Beleuchtung und nicht zuletzt des Aufnahmematerials) stehen dem Fotografen oder Kameramann zahlreiche Gestaltungsmöglichkeiten offen. Als vielseitigste Fotoapparatbauform hat sich sowohl im Analog- als auch im Digitalbereich die Spiegelreflexkamera durchgesetzt. Für viele Aufgaben werden weiterhin die verschiedensten Spezialkameras benötigt und eingesetzt.

  

Lichtempfindliche Schicht

Bei der filmbasierten Fotografie (z. B. Silber-Fotografie) ist die lichtempfindliche Schicht auf der Bildebene eine Dispersion (im allgemeinen Sprachgebrauch Emulsion). Sie besteht aus einem Gel, in dem gleichmäßig kleine Körnchen eines Silberhalogenids (zum Beispiel Silberbromid) verteilt sind. Je kleiner die Körnung ist, umso weniger lichtempfindlich ist die Schicht (siehe ISO-5800-Standard), umso besser ist allerdings die Auflösung („Korn“). Dieser lichtempfindlichen Schicht wird durch einen Träger Stabilität verliehen. Trägermaterialien sind Zelluloseacetat, früher diente dazu Zellulosenitrat (Zelluloid), Kunststofffolien, Metallplatten, Glasplatten und sogar Textilien (siehe Fotoplatte und Film).

  

Bei der Digitalfotografie besteht das Äquivalent der lichtempfindlichen Schicht aus Chips wie CCD- oder CMOS-Sensoren.

  

Entwicklung und Fixierung

Durch das Entwickeln bei der filmbasierten Fotografie wird auf chemischem Wege das latente Bild sichtbar gemacht. Beim Fixieren werden die nicht belichteten Silberhalogenid-Körnchen wasserlöslich gemacht und anschließend mit Wasser herausgewaschen, sodass ein Bild bei Tageslicht betrachtet werden kann, ohne dass es nachdunkelt.

  

Ein weiteres älteres Verfahren ist das Staubverfahren, mit dem sich einbrennbare Bilder auf Glas und Porzellan herstellen lassen.

  

Ein digitales Bild muss nicht entwickelt werden; es wird elektronisch gespeichert und kann anschließend mit der elektronischen Bildbearbeitung am Computer bearbeitet und bei Bedarf auf Fotopapier ausbelichtet oder beispielsweise mit einem Tintenstrahldrucker ausgedruckt werden. Bei der Weiterverarbeitung von Rohdaten spricht man auch hier von Entwicklung.

  

Der Abzug

Als Abzug bezeichnet man das Ergebnis einer Kontaktkopie, einer Vergrößerung, oder einer Ausbelichtung; dabei entsteht in der Regel ein Papierbild. Abzüge können von Filmen (Negativ oder Dia) oder von Dateien gefertigt werden.

  

Abzüge als Kontaktkopie haben dieselbe Größe wie die Abmessungen des Aufnahmeformats; wird eine Vergrößerung vom Negativ oder Positiv angefertigt, beträgt die Größe des entstehenden Bildes ein Vielfaches der Größe der Vorlage, dabei wird jedoch in der Regel das Seitenverhältnis beibehalten, das bei der klassischen Fotografie bei 1,5 bzw. 3:2 oder in USA 4:5 liegt.

Eine Ausnahme davon stellt die Ausschnittvergrößerung dar, deren Seitenverhältnis in der Bühne eines Vergrößerers beliebig festgelegt werden kann; allerdings wird auch die Ausschnittvergrößerung in der Regel auf ein Papierformat mit bestimmten Abmessungen belichtet.

  

Der Abzug ist eine häufig gewählte Präsentationsform der Amateurfotografie, die in speziellen Kassetten oder Alben gesammelt werden. Bei der Präsentationsform der Diaprojektion arbeitet man in der Regel mit dem Original-Diapositiv, also einem Unikat, während es sich bei Abzügen immer um Kopien handelt.

  

Geschichte der Fotografie

→ Hauptartikel: Geschichte und Entwicklung der Fotografie

Vorläufer und Vorgeschichte[Bearbeiten]

Der Name Kamera leitet sich vom Vorläufer der Fotografie, der Camera obscura („Dunkle Kammer“) ab, die bereits seit dem 11. Jahrhundert bekannt ist und Ende des 13. Jahrhunderts von Astronomen zur Sonnenbeobachtung eingesetzt wurde. Anstelle einer Linse weist diese Kamera nur ein kleines Loch auf, durch das die Lichtstrahlen auf eine Projektionsfläche fallen, von der das auf dem Kopf stehende, seitenverkehrte Bild abgezeichnet werden kann. In Edinburgh und Greenwich bei London sind begehbare, raumgroße Camerae obscurae eine Touristenattraktion. Auch das Deutsche Filmmuseum hat eine Camera obscura, in der ein Bild des gegenüberliegenden Mainufers projiziert wird.

  

Ein Durchbruch ist 1550 die Wiedererfindung der Linse, mit der hellere und gleichzeitig schärfere Bilder erzeugt werden können. 1685: Ablenkspiegel, ein Abbild kann so auf Papier gezeichnet werden.

  

Im 18. Jahrhundert kamen die Laterna magica, das Panorama und das Diorama auf. Chemiker wie Humphry Davy begannen bereits, lichtempfindliche Stoffe zu untersuchen und nach Fixiermitteln zu suchen.

  

Die frühen Verfahren

Die vermutlich erste Fotografie der Welt wurde im Frühherbst 1826 durch Joseph Nicéphore Nièpce im Heliografie-Verfahren angefertigt. 1837 benutzte Louis Jacques Mandé Daguerre ein besseres Verfahren, das auf der Entwicklung der Fotos mit Hilfe von Quecksilber-Dämpfen und anschließender Fixierung in einer heißen Kochsalzlösung oder einer normal temperierten Natriumthiosulfatlösung beruhte. Die auf diese Weise hergestellten Bilder, allesamt Unikate auf versilberten Kupferplatten, wurden als Daguerreotypien bezeichnet. Bereits 1835 hatte der Engländer William Fox Talbot das Negativ-Positiv-Verfahren erfunden. Auch heute werden noch manche der historischen Verfahren als Edeldruckverfahren in der Bildenden Kunst und künstlerischen Fotografie verwendet.

  

Im Jahr 1883 erschien in der bedeutenden Leipziger Wochenzeitschrift Illustrirte Zeitung zum ersten Mal in einer deutschen Publikation ein gerastertes Foto in Form einer Autotypie, einer um 1880 erfolgten Erfindung von Georg Meisenbach.

  

20. Jahrhundert

Fotografien konnten zunächst nur als Unikate hergestellt werden, mit der Einführung des Negativ-Positiv-Verfahrens war eine Vervielfältigung im Kontaktverfahren möglich. Die Größe des fertigen Fotos entsprach in beiden Fällen dem Aufnahmeformat, was sehr große, unhandliche Kameras erforderte. Mit dem Rollfilm und insbesondere der von Oskar Barnack bei den Leitz Werken entwickelten und 1924 eingeführten Kleinbildkamera, die den herkömmlichen 35-mm-Kinofilm verwendete, entstanden völlig neue Möglichkeiten für eine mobile, schnelle Fotografie. Obwohl, durch das kleine Format bedingt, zusätzliche Geräte zur Vergrößerung erforderlich wurden, und die Bildqualität mit den großen Formaten bei Weitem nicht mithalten konnte, setzte sich das Kleinbild in den meisten Bereichen der Fotografie als Standardformat durch.

  

Analogfotografie

→ Hauptartikel: Analogfotografie

Begriff

Zur Abgrenzung gegenüber den neuen fotografischen Verfahren der Digitalfotografie tauchte zu Beginn des 21. Jahrhunderts[3] der Begriff Analogfotografie oder stattdessen auch die zu diesem Zeitpunkt bereits veraltete Schreibweise Photographie wieder auf.

  

Um der Öffentlichkeit ab 1990 die seinerzeit neue Technologie der digitalen Speicherung von Bilddateien zu erklären, verglich man sie in einigen Publikationen technisch mit der bis dahin verwendeten analogen Bildspeicherung der Still-Video-Kamera. Durch Übersetzungsfehler und Fehlinterpretationen, sowie durch den bis dahin noch allgemein vorherrschenden Mangel an technischem Verständnis über die digitale Kameratechnik, bezeichneten einige Journalisten danach irrtümlich auch die bisherigen klassischen Film-basierten Kamerasysteme als Analogkameras[4][5].

  

Der Begriff hat sich bis heute erhalten und bezeichnet nun fälschlich nicht mehr die Fotografie mittels analoger Speichertechnik in den ersten digitalen Still-Video-Kameras, sondern nur noch die Technik der Film-basierten Fotografie. Bei dieser wird aber weder digital noch analog 'gespeichert', sondern chemisch/physikalisch fixiert.

  

Allgemeines

Eine Fotografie kann weder analog noch digital sein. Lediglich die Bildinformation kann punktuell mittels physikalischer, analog messbarer Signale (Densitometrie, Spektroskopie) bestimmt und gegebenenfalls nachträglich digitalisiert werden.

  

Nach der Belichtung des Films liegt die Bildinformation zunächst nur latent vor. Gespeichert wird diese Information nicht in der Analogkamera sondern erst bei der Entwicklung des Films mittels chemischer Reaktion in einer dreidimensionalen Gelatineschicht (Film hat mehrere übereinander liegende Sensibilisierungsschichten). Die Bildinformation liegt danach auf dem ursprünglichen Aufnahmemedium (Diapositiv oder Negativ) unmittelbar vor. Sie ist ohne weitere Hilfsmittel als Fotografie (Unikat) in Form von entwickelten Silberhalogeniden bzw. Farbkupplern sichtbar. Gegebenenfalls kann aus solchen Fotografien in einem zweiten chemischen Prozess im Fotolabor ein Papierbild erzeugt werden, bzw. kann dies nun auch durch Einscannen und Ausdrucken erfolgen.

  

Bei der digitalen Speicherung werden die analogen Signale aus dem Kamerasensor in einer zweiten Stufe digitalisiert und werden damit elektronisch interpretier- und weiterverarbeitbar. Die digitale Bildspeicherung mittels Analog-Digital-Wandler nach Auslesen aus dem Chip der Digitalkamera arbeitet (vereinfacht) mit einer lediglich zweidimensional erzeugten digitalen Interpretation der analogen Bildinformation und erzeugt eine beliebig oft (praktisch verlustfrei) kopierbare Datei in Form von differentiell ermittelten digitalen Absolutwerten. Diese Dateien werden unmittelbar nach der Aufnahme innerhalb der Kamera in Speicherkarten abgelegt. Mittels geeigneter Bildbearbeitungssoftware können diese Dateien danach ausgelesen, weiter verarbeitet und auf einem Monitor oder Drucker als sichtbare Fotografie ausgegeben werden.

  

Digitalfotografie

  

Die erste CCD (Charge-coupled Device) Still-Video-Kamera wurde 1970 von Bell konstruiert und 1972 meldet Texas Instruments das erste Patent auf eine filmlose Kamera an, welche einen Fernsehbildschirm als Sucher verwendet.

  

1973 produzierte Fairchild Imaging das erste kommerzielle CCD mit einer Auflösung von 100 × 100 Pixel.

  

Dieses CCD wurde 1975 in der ersten funktionstüchtigen digitalen Kamera von Kodak benutzt. Entwickelt hat sie der Erfinder Steven Sasson. Diese Kamera wog 3,6 Kilogramm, war größer als ein Toaster und benötigte noch 23 Sekunden, um ein Schwarz-Weiß-Bild mit 100x100 Pixeln Auflösung auf eine digitale Magnetbandkassette zu übertragen; um das Bild auf einem Bildschirm sichtbar zu machen, bedurfte es weiterer 23 Sekunden.

  

1986 stellte Canon mit der RC-701 die erste kommerziell erhältliche Still-Video-Kamera mit magnetischer Aufzeichnung der Bilddaten vor, Minolta präsentierte den Still Video Back SB-90/SB-90S für die Minolta 9000; durch Austausch der Rückwand der Kleinbild-Spiegelreflexkamera wurde aus der Minolta 9000 eine digitale Spiegelreflexkamera; gespeichert wurden die Bilddaten auf 2-Zoll-Disketten.

  

1987 folgten weitere Modelle der RC-Serie von Canon sowie digitale Kameras von Fujifilm (ES-1), Konica (KC-400) und Sony (MVC-A7AF). 1988 folgte Nikon mit der QV-1000C und 1990 sowie 1991 Kodak mit dem DCS (Digital Camera System) sowie Rollei mit dem Digital Scan Pack. Ab Anfang der 1990er Jahre kann die Digitalfotografie im kommerziellen Bildproduktionsbereich als eingeführt betrachtet werden.

  

Die digitale Fotografie revolutionierte die Möglichkeiten der digitalen Kunst, erleichtert insbesondere aber auch Fotomanipulationen.

  

Die Photokina 2006 zeigt, dass die Zeit der filmbasierten Kamera endgültig vorbei ist.[6] Im Jahr 2007 sind weltweit 91 Prozent aller verkauften Fotokameras digital,[7] die herkömmliche Fotografie auf Filmen schrumpft auf Nischenbereiche zusammen. Im Jahr 2011 besaßen rund 45,4 Millionen Personen in Deutschland einen digitalen Fotoapparat im Haushalt und im gleichen Jahr wurden in Deutschland rund 8,57 Millionen Digitalkameras verkauft.[8]

  

Siehe auch: Chronologie der Fotografie und Geschichte und Entwicklung der Fotografie

Fotografie als Kunst

  

Der Kunstcharakter der Fotografie war lange Zeit umstritten; zugespitzt formuliert der Kunsttheoretiker Karl Pawek in seinem Buch „Das optische Zeitalter“ (Olten/Freiburg i. Br. 1963, S. 58): „Der Künstler erschafft die Wirklichkeit, der Fotograf sieht sie.“

  

Diese Auffassung betrachtet die Fotografie nur als ein technisches, standardisiertes Verfahren, mit dem eine Wirklichkeit auf eine objektive, quasi „natürliche“ Weise abgebildet wird, ohne das dabei gestalterische und damit künstlerische Aspekte zum Tragen kommen: „die Erfindung eines Apparates zum Zwecke der Produktion … (perspektivischer) Bilder hat ironischerweise die Überzeugung … verstärkt, dass es sich hierbei um die natürliche Repräsentationsform handele. Offenbar ist etwas natürlich, wenn wir eine Maschine bauen können, die es für uns erledigt.“[9] Fotografien dienten gleichwohl aber schon bald als Unterrichtsmittel bzw. Vorlage in der Ausbildung bildender Künstler (Études d’après nature).

  

Schon in Texten des 19. Jahrhunderts wurde aber auch bereits auf den Kunstcharakter der Fotografie hingewiesen, der mit einem ähnlichen Einsatz der Technik wie bei anderen anerkannten zeitgenössische grafische Verfahren (Aquatinta, Radierung, Lithografie, …) begründet wird. Damit wird auch die Fotografie zu einem künstlerischen Verfahren, mit dem ein Fotograf eigene Bildwirklichkeiten erschafft.[10]

  

Auch zahlreiche Maler des 19. Jahrhunderts, wie etwa Eugène Delacroix, erkannten dies und nutzten Fotografien als Mittel zur Bildfindung und Gestaltung, als künstlerisches Entwurfsinstrument für malerische Werke, allerdings weiterhin ohne ihr einen eigenständigen künstlerischen Wert zuzusprechen.

  

Der Fotograf Henri Cartier-Bresson, selbst als Maler ausgebildet, wollte die Fotografie ebenfalls nicht als Kunstform, sondern als Handwerk betrachtet wissen: „Die Fotografie ist ein Handwerk. Viele wollen daraus eine Kunst machen, aber wir sind einfach Handwerker, die ihre Arbeit gut machen müssen.“ Gleichzeitig nahm er aber für sich auch das Bildfindungskonzept des entscheidenden Augenblickes in Anspruch, das ursprünglich von Gotthold Ephraim Lessing dramenpoetologisch ausgearbeitet wurde. Damit bezieht er sich unmittelbar auf ein künstlerisches Verfahren zur Produktion von Kunstwerken. Cartier-Bressons Argumentation diente also einerseits der poetologischen Nobilitierung, andererseits der handwerklichen Immunisierung gegenüber einer Kritik, die die künstlerische Qualität seiner Werke anzweifeln könnte. So wurden gerade Cartier-Bressons Fotografien sehr früh in Museen und Kunstausstellungen gezeigt, so zum Beispiel in der MoMa-Retrospektive (1947) und der Louvre-Ausstellung (1955).

  

Fotografie wurde bereits früh als Kunst betrieben (Julia Margaret Cameron, Lewis Carroll und Oscar Gustave Rejlander in den 1860ern). Der entscheidende Schritt zur Anerkennung der Fotografie als Kunstform ist den Bemühungen von Alfred Stieglitz (1864–1946) zu verdanken, der mit seinem Magazin Camera Work den Durchbruch vorbereitete.

  

Erstmals trat die Fotografie in Deutschland in der Werkbund-Ausstellung 1929 in Stuttgart in beachtenswertem Umfang mit internationalen Künstlern wie Edward Weston, Imogen Cunningham und Man Ray an die Öffentlichkeit; spätestens seit den MoMA-Ausstellungen von Edward Steichen (The Family of Man, 1955) und John Szarkowski (1960er) ist Fotografie als Kunst von einem breiten Publikum anerkannt, wobei gleichzeitig der Trend zur Gebrauchskunst begann.

  

Im Jahr 1977 stellte die documenta 6 in Kassel erstmals als international bedeutende Ausstellung in der berühmten Abteilung Fotografie die Arbeiten von historischen und zeitgenössischen Fotografen aus der gesamten Geschichte der Fotografie in den vergleichenden Kontext zur zeitgenössischen Kunst im Zusammenhang mit den in diesem Jahr begangenen „150 Jahren Fotografie“.

  

Heute ist Fotografie als vollwertige Kunstform akzeptiert. Indikatoren dafür sind die wachsende Anzahl von Museen, Sammlungen und Forschungseinrichtungen für Fotografie, die Zunahme der Professuren für Fotografie sowie nicht zuletzt der gestiegene Wert von Fotografien in Kunstauktionen und Sammlerkreisen. Zahlreiche Gebiete haben sich entwickelt, so die Landschafts-, Akt-, Industrie-, Theaterfotografie und andere mehr, die innerhalb der Fotografie eigene Wirkungsfelder entfaltet haben. Daneben entwickelt sich die künstlerische Fotomontage zu einem der malenden Kunst gleichwertigen Kunstobjekt. Neben der steigenden Anzahl von Fotoausstellungen und deren Besucherzahlen wird die Popularität moderner Fotografie auch in den erzielten Verkaufspreisen auf Kunstauktionen sichtbar. Fünf der zehn Höchstgebote für moderne Fotografie wurden seit 2010 auf Auktionen erzielt. Die aktuell teuerste Fotografie "Rhein II" von Andreas Gursky wurde im November 2011 auf einer Kunstauktion in New York für 4,3 Millionen Dollar versteigert.[11] Neuere Diskussionen innerhalb der Foto- und Kunstwissenschaften verweisen indes auf eine zunehmende Beliebigkeit bei der Kategorisierung von Fotografie. Zunehmend werde demnach von der Kunst und ihren Institutionen absorbiert, was einst ausschließlich in die angewandten Bereiche der Fotografie gehört habe.

  

Photography (see section below for etymology) is the art, science and practice of creating durable images by recording light or other electromagnetic radiation, either chemically by means of a light-sensitive material such as photographic film, or electronically by means of an image sensor.[1] Typically, a lens is used to focus the light reflected or emitted from objects into a real image on the light-sensitive surface inside a camera during a timed exposure. The result in an electronic image sensor is an electrical charge at each pixel, which is electronically processed and stored in a digital image file for subsequent display or processing.

  

The result in a photographic emulsion is an invisible latent image, which is later chemically developed into a visible image, either negative or positive depending on the purpose of the photographic material and the method of processing. A negative image on film is traditionally used to photographically create a positive image on a paper base, known as a print, either by using an enlarger or by contact printing.

  

Photography has many uses for business, science, manufacturing (e.g. photolithography), art, recreational purposes, and mass communication.

  

The word "photography" was created from the Greek roots φωτός (phōtos), genitive of φῶς (phōs), "light"[2] and γραφή (graphé) "representation by means of lines" or "drawing",[3] together meaning "drawing with light".[4]

  

Several people may have coined the same new term from these roots independently. Hercules Florence, a French painter and inventor living in Campinas, Brazil, used the French form of the word, photographie, in private notes which a Brazilian photography historian believes were written in 1834.[5] Johann von Maedler, a Berlin astronomer, is credited in a 1932 German history of photography as having used it in an article published on 25 February 1839 in the German newspaper Vossische Zeitung.[6] Both of these claims are now widely reported but apparently neither has ever been independently confirmed as beyond reasonable doubt. Credit has traditionally been given to Sir John Herschel both for coining the word and for introducing it to the public. His uses of it in private correspondence prior to 25 February 1839 and at his Royal Society lecture on the subject in London on 14 March 1839 have long been amply documented and accepted as settled fact.

  

History and evolution

Precursor technologies

Photography is the result of combining several technical discoveries. Long before the first photographs were made, Chinese philosopher Mo Di and Greek mathematicians Aristotle and Euclid described a pinhole camera in the 5th and 4th centuries BCE.[8][9] In the 6th century CE, Byzantine mathematician Anthemius of Tralles used a type of camera obscura in his experiments,[10] Ibn al-Haytham (Alhazen) (965–1040) studied the camera obscura and pinhole camera,[9][11] Albertus Magnus (1193–1280) discovered silver nitrate,[12] and Georg Fabricius (1516–71) discovered silver chloride.[13] Techniques described in the Book of Optics are capable of producing primitive photographs using medieval materials. [14][15][16]

  

Daniele Barbaro described a diaphragm in 1566.[17] Wilhelm Homberg described how light darkened some chemicals (photochemical effect) in 1694.[18] The fiction book Giphantie, published in 1760, by French author Tiphaigne de la Roche, described what can be interpreted as photography.[17]

  

The discovery of the camera obscura that provides an image of a scene dates back to ancient China. Leonardo da Vinci mentions natural cameras obscura that are formed by dark caves on the edge of a sunlit valley. A hole in the cave wall will act as a pinhole camera and project a laterally reversed, upside down image on a piece of paper. So the birth of photography was primarily concerned with developing a means to fix and retain the image produced by the camera obscura.

  

The first success of reproducing images without a camera occurred when Thomas Wedgwood, from the famous family of potters, obtained copies of paintings on leather using silver salts. Since he had no way of permanently fixing those reproductions (stabilizing the image by washing out the non-exposed silver salts), they would turn completely black in the light and thus had to be kept in a dark room for viewing.

  

Renaissance painters used the camera obscura which, in fact, gives the optical rendering in color that dominates Western Art. The camera obscura literally means "dark chamber" in Latin. It is a box with a hole in it which allows light to go through and create an image onto the piece of paper.

  

First camera photography (1820s)

Invented in the early decades of the 19th century, photography by means of the camera seemed able to capture more detail and information than traditional media, such as painting and sculpture.[19] Photography as a usable process goes back to the 1820s with the development of chemical photography. The first permanent photoetching was an image produced in 1822 by the French inventor Nicéphore Niépce, but it was destroyed in a later attempt to make prints from it.[7] Niépce was successful again in 1825. He made the View from the Window at Le Gras, the earliest surviving photograph from nature (i.e., of the image of a real-world scene, as formed in a camera obscura by a lens), in 1826 or 1827.[20]

  

Because Niépce's camera photographs required an extremely long exposure (at least eight hours and probably several days), he sought to greatly improve his bitumen process or replace it with one that was more practical. Working in partnership with Louis Daguerre, he developed a somewhat more sensitive process that produced visually superior results, but it still required a few hours of exposure in the camera. Niépce died in 1833 and Daguerre then redirected the experiments toward the light-sensitive silver halides, which Niépce had abandoned many years earlier because of his inability to make the images he captured with them light-fast and permanent. Daguerre's efforts culminated in what would later be named the daguerreotype process, the essential elements of which were in place in 1837. The required exposure time was measured in minutes instead of hours. Daguerre took the earliest confirmed photograph of a person in 1838 while capturing a view of a Paris street: unlike the other pedestrian and horse-drawn traffic on the busy boulevard, which appears deserted, one man having his boots polished stood sufficiently still throughout the approximately ten-minute-long exposure to be visible. Eventually, France agreed to pay Daguerre a pension for his process in exchange for the right to present his invention to the world as the gift of France, which occurred on 19 August 1839.

Meanwhile, in Brazil, Hercules Florence had already created his own process in 1832, naming it Photographie, and an English inventor, William Fox Talbot, had created another method of making a reasonably light-fast silver process image but had kept his work secret. After reading about Daguerre's invention in January 1839, Talbot published his method and set about improving on it. At first, like other pre-daguerreotype processes, Talbot's paper-based photography typically required hours-long exposures in the camera, but in 1840 he created the calotype process, with exposures comparable to the daguerreotype. In both its original and calotype forms, Talbot's process, unlike Daguerre's, created a translucent negative which could be used to print multiple positive copies, the basis of most chemical photography up to the present day. Daguerreotypes could only be replicated by rephotographing them with a camera.[21] Talbot's famous tiny paper negative of the Oriel window in Lacock Abbey, one of a number of camera photographs he made in the summer of 1835, may be the oldest camera negative in existence.[22][23]

  

John Herschel made many contributions to the new field. He invented the cyanotype process, later familiar as the "blueprint". He was the first to use the terms "photography", "negative" and "positive". He had discovered in 1819 that sodium thiosulphate was a solvent of silver halides, and in 1839 he informed Talbot (and, indirectly, Daguerre) that it could be used to "fix" silver-halide-based photographs and make them completely light-fast. He made the first glass negative in late 1839.

  

In the March 1851 issue of The Chemist, Frederick Scott Archer published his wet plate collodion process. It became the most widely used photographic medium until the gelatin dry plate, introduced in the 1870s, eventually replaced it. There are three subsets to the collodion process; the Ambrotype (a positive image on glass), the Ferrotype or Tintype (a positive image on metal) and the glass negative, which was used to make positive prints on albumen or salted paper.

  

Many advances in photographic glass plates and printing were made during the rest of the 19th century. In 1884, George Eastman developed an early type of film to replace photographic plates, leading to the technology used by film cameras today.

  

In 1891, Gabriel Lippmann introduced a process for making natural-color photographs based on the optical phenomenon of the interference of light waves. His scientifically elegant and important but ultimately impractical invention earned him the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1908.

  

Black-and-white

See also: Monochrome photography

All photography was originally monochrome, or black-and-white. Even after color film was readily available, black-and-white photography continued to dominate for decades, due to its lower cost and its "classic" photographic look. The tones and contrast between light and dark shadows define black and white photography.[24] It is important to note that some monochromatic pictures are not always pure blacks and whites, but also contain other hues depending on the process. The cyanotype process produces an image composed of blue tones. The albumen process, first used more than 150 years ago, produces brown tones.

  

Many photographers continue to produce some monochrome images, often because of the established archival permanence of well processed silver halide based materials. Some full color digital images are processed using a variety of techniques to create black and whites, and some manufacturers produce digital cameras that exclusively shoot monochrome.

  

Color

Color photography was explored beginning in the mid-19th century. Early experiments in color required extremely long exposures (hours or days for camera images) and could not "fix" the photograph to prevent the color from quickly fading when exposed to white light.

  

The first permanent color photograph was taken in 1861 using the three-color-separation principle first published by physicist James Clerk Maxwell in 1855. Maxwell's idea was to take three separate black-and-white photographs through red, green and blue filters. This provides the photographer with the three basic channels required to recreate a color image.

  

Transparent prints of the images could be projected through similar color filters and superimposed on the projection screen, an additive method of color reproduction. A color print on paper could be produced by superimposing carbon prints of the three images made in their complementary colors, a subtractive method of color reproduction pioneered by Louis Ducos du Hauron in the late 1860s.

  

Russian photographer Sergei Mikhailovich Prokudin-Gorskii made extensive use of this color separation technique, employing a special camera which successively exposed the three color-filtered images on different parts of an oblong plate. Because his exposures were not simultaneous, unsteady subjects exhibited color "fringes" or, if rapidly moving through the scene, appeared as brightly colored ghosts in the resulting projected or printed images.

  

The development of color photography was hindered by the limited sensitivity of early photographic materials, which were mostly sensitive to blue, only slightly sensitive to green, and virtually insensitive to red. The discovery of dye sensitization by photochemist Hermann Vogel in 1873 suddenly made it possible to add sensitivity to green, yellow and even red. Improved color sensitizers and ongoing improvements in the overall sensitivity of emulsions steadily reduced the once-prohibitive long exposure times required for color, bringing it ever closer to commercial viability.

  

Autochrome, the first commercially successful color process, was introduced by the Lumière brothers in 1907. Autochrome plates incorporated a mosaic color filter layer made of dyed grains of potato starch, which allowed the three color components to be recorded as adjacent microscopic image fragments. After an Autochrome plate was reversal processed to produce a positive transparency, the starch grains served to illuminate each fragment with the correct color and the tiny colored points blended together in the eye, synthesizing the color of the subject by the additive method. Autochrome plates were one of several varieties of additive color screen plates and films marketed between the 1890s and the 1950s.

  

Kodachrome, the first modern "integral tripack" (or "monopack") color film, was introduced by Kodak in 1935. It captured the three color components in a multilayer emulsion. One layer was sensitized to record the red-dominated part of the spectrum, another layer recorded only the green part and a third recorded only the blue. Without special film processing, the result would simply be three superimposed black-and-white images, but complementary cyan, magenta, and yellow dye images were created in those layers by adding color couplers during a complex processing procedure.

  

Agfa's similarly structured Agfacolor Neu was introduced in 1936. Unlike Kodachrome, the color couplers in Agfacolor Neu were incorporated into the emulsion layers during manufacture, which greatly simplified the processing. Currently available color films still employ a multilayer emulsion and the same principles, most closely resembling Agfa's product.

  

Instant color film, used in a special camera which yielded a unique finished color print only a minute or two after the exposure, was introduced by Polaroid in 1963.

  

Color photography may form images as positive transparencies, which can be used in a slide projector, or as color negatives intended for use in creating positive color enlargements on specially coated paper. The latter is now the most common form of film (non-digital) color photography owing to the introduction of automated photo printing equipment.

  

Digital photography

Main article: Digital photography

See also: Digital camera and Digital versus film photography

In 1981, Sony unveiled the first consumer camera to use a charge-coupled device for imaging, eliminating the need for film: the Sony Mavica. While the Mavica saved images to disk, the images were displayed on television, and the camera was not fully digital. In 1991, Kodak unveiled the DCS 100, the first commercially available digital single lens reflex camera. Although its high cost precluded uses other than photojournalism and professional photography, commercial digital photography was born.

  

Digital imaging uses an electronic image sensor to record the image as a set of electronic data rather than as chemical changes on film. [25] An important difference between digital and chemical photography is that chemical photography resists photo manipulation because it involves film and photographic paper, while digital imaging is a highly manipulative medium. This difference allows for a degree of image post-processing that is comparatively difficult in film-based photography and permits different communicative potentials and applications.

  

Photography gained the interest of many scientists and artists from its inception. Scientists have used photography to record and study movements, such as Eadweard Muybridge's study of human and animal locomotion in 1887. Artists are equally interested by these aspects but also try to explore avenues other than the photo-mechanical representation of reality, such as the pictorialist movement.

  

Military, police, and security forces use photography for surveillance, recognition and data storage. Photography is used by amateurs to preserve memories, to capture special moments, to tell stories, to send messages, and as a source of entertainment. High speed photography allows for visualizing events that are too fast for the human eye.

  

Technical aspects

Main article: Camera

The camera is the image-forming device, and photographic film or a silicon electronic image sensor is the sensing medium. The respective recording medium can be the film itself, or a digital electronic or magnetic memory.[26]

  

Photographers control the camera and lens to "expose" the light recording material (such as film) to the required amount of light to form a "latent image" (on film) or RAW file (in digital cameras) which, after appropriate processing, is converted to a usable image. Digital cameras use an electronic image sensor based on light-sensitive electronics such as charge-coupled device (CCD) or complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology. The resulting digital image is stored electronically, but can be reproduced on paper or film.

  

The camera (or 'camera obscura') is a dark room or chamber from which, as far as possible, all light is excluded except the light that forms the image. The subject being photographed, however, must be illuminated. Cameras can range from small to very large, a whole room that is kept dark while the object to be photographed is in another room where it is properly illuminated. This was common for reproduction photography of flat copy when large film negatives were used (see Process camera).

  

As soon as photographic materials became "fast" (sensitive) enough for taking candid or surreptitious pictures, small "detective" cameras were made, some actually disguised as a book or handbag or pocket watch (the Ticka camera) or even worn hidden behind an Ascot necktie with a tie pin that was really the lens.

  

The movie camera is a type of photographic camera which takes a rapid sequence of photographs on strips of film. In contrast to a still camera, which captures a single snapshot at a time, the movie camera takes a series of images, each called a "frame". This is accomplished through an intermittent mechanism. The frames are later played back in a movie projector at a specific speed, called the "frame rate" (number of frames per second). While viewing, a person's eyes and brain merge the separate pictures together to create the illusion of motion.[27]

  

Camera controls are interrelated. The total amount of light reaching the film plane (the 'exposure') changes with the duration of exposure, aperture of the lens, and on the effective focal length of the lens (which in variable focal length lenses, can force a change in aperture as the lens is zoomed). Changing any of these controls can alter the exposure. Many cameras may be set to adjust most or all of these controls automatically. This automatic functionality is useful for occasional photographers in many situations.

  

The duration of an exposure is referred to as shutter speed, often even in cameras that do not have a physical shutter, and is typically measured in fractions of a second. It is quite possible to have exposures from one up to several seconds, usually for still-life subjects, and for night scenes exposure times can be several hours. However, for a subject that is in motion use a fast shutter speed. This will prevent the photograph from coming out blurry.[29]

  

The effective aperture is expressed by an f-number or f-stop (derived from focal ratio), which is proportional to the ratio of the focal length to the diameter of the aperture. Longer lenses will pass less light even though the diameter of the aperture is the same due to the greater distance the light has to travel; shorter lenses (a shorter focal length) will be brighter with the same size of aperture.

  

The smaller the f/number, the larger the effective aperture. The present system of f/numbers to give the effective aperture of a lens was standardized by an international convention. There were earlier, different series of numbers in older cameras.

  

If the f-number is decreased by a factor of √2, the aperture diameter is increased by the same factor, and its area is increased by a factor of 2. The f-stops that might be found on a typical lens include 2.8, 4, 5.6, 8, 11, 16, 22, 32, where going up "one stop" (using lower f-stop numbers) doubles the amount of light reaching the film, and stopping down one stop halves the amount of light.

  

Image capture can be achieved through various combinations of shutter speed, aperture, and film or sensor speed. Different (but related) settings of aperture and shutter speed enable photographs to be taken under various conditions of film or sensor speed, lighting and motion of subjects and/or camera, and desired depth of field. A slower speed film will exhibit less "grain", and a slower speed setting on an electronic sensor will exhibit less "noise", while higher film and sensor speeds allow for a faster shutter speed, which reduces motion blur or allows the use of a smaller aperture to increase the depth of field.

  

For example, a wider aperture is used for lower light and a lower aperture for more light. If a subject is in motion, then a high shutter speed may be needed. A tripod can also be helpful in that it enables a slower shutter speed to be used.

  

For example, f/8 at 8 ms (1/125 of a second) and f/5.6 at 4 ms (1/250 of a second) yield the same amount of light. The chosen combination has an impact on the final result. The aperture and focal length of the lens determine the depth of field, which refers to the range of distances from the lens that will be in focus. A longer lens or a wider aperture will result in "shallow" depth of field (i.e. only a small plane of the image will be in sharp focus). This is often useful for isolating subjects from backgrounds as in individual portraits or macro photography.

  

Conversely, a shorter lens, or a smaller aperture, will result in more of the image being in focus. This is generally more desirable when photographing landscapes or groups of people. With very small apertures, such as pinholes, a wide range of distance can be brought into focus, but sharpness is severely degraded by diffraction with such small apertures. Generally, the highest degree of "sharpness" is achieved at an aperture near the middle of a lens's range (for example, f/8 for a lens with available apertures of f/2.8 to f/16). However, as lens technology improves, lenses are becoming capable of making increasingly sharp images at wider apertures.

  

Image capture is only part of the image forming process. Regardless of material, some process must be employed to render the latent image captured by the camera into a viewable image. With slide film, the developed film is just mounted for projection. Print film requires the developed film negative to be printed onto photographic paper or transparency. Digital images may be uploaded to an image server (e.g., a photo-sharing web site), viewed on a television, or transferred to a computer or digital photo frame. Every type can be printed on more "classical" mediums such as regular paper or photographic paper for examples.

  

Prior to the rendering of a viewable image, modifications can be made using several controls. Many of these controls are similar to controls during image capture, while some are exclusive to the rendering process. Most printing controls have equivalent digital concepts, but some create different effects. For example, dodging and burning controls are different between digital and film processes. Other printing modifications include:

Digital point-and-shoot cameras have become widespread consumer products, outselling film cameras, and including new features such as video and audio recording. Kodak announced in January 2004 that it would no longer sell reloadable 35 mm cameras in western Europe, Canada and the United States after the end of that year. Kodak was at that time a minor player in the reloadable film cameras market. In January 2006, Nikon followed suit and announced that they will stop the production of all but two models of their film cameras: the low-end Nikon FM10, and the high-end Nikon F6. On 25 May 2006, Canon announced they will stop developing new film SLR cameras.[34] Though most new camera designs are now digital, a new 6x6cm/6x7cm medium format film camera was introduced in 2008 in a cooperation between Fuji and Voigtländer.[35][36]

  

According to a survey made by Kodak in 2007 when the majority of photography was already digital, 75 percent of professional photographers say they will continue to use film, even though some embrace digital.[37]

  

The PMA say that in the year 2000 nearly a billion rolls of film were sold each year and by 2011 a mere 20 million rolls, plus 31 million single-use cameras.[38]

  

Quelle:

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photography

de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fotografie

   

This was taken near Emma Wood State beach (geotagged) in Ventura, this is a single RAW file tonemapped using Photomatix then tweaked using The Gimp as a TIFF file.

Please note that the EXIF information is lost in the TIFF conversion so what you see in the camera info is from a single JPEG, I did this for those who might want to check the camera settings.

 

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GREAT Music: Night Train - Amos Lee right click and open in new window/tab

 

INVITES ARE GREAT, BUT PLEASE IN MODERATION

 

All my public photos are free for personal use

Creative Commons license

60040 brings the Taffy Tug 2 Tour across the pointwork heading into Margam Yard, 60039 was on the rear, Sunday 24.8.14

Trains have a significant artistic appeal for any photographers' eye. It's the windows of the buggies. There are passengers seating inside the buggies - looking outside...waiting anxiously for the awaited departure of the transport. And thus it came into my viewfinder....a collection of faces framed in the window openings...truly - those are portraits with different emotions...and different expressions...those are really....portraits in a frame...

 

EXiF :

 

Camera : Nikon D5100

Lens : Tamron AF 17-50mm f2.8 IF

Focal Length : 50mm

Shutter Speed : 1/200 sec

Aperture : f/4.5

ISO : 250

 

ArchQuad Photography | 2013

Nikon F301

Nikkor 50mm f/1.8 Series E

DM Paradies 400

 

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CNW 404 leads a Westbound out of Winona, MN and is about to cross the diamond with the Milwaukee Road on 8/7/1979. This was a grab shot, and I wish I had more time to compose a better angle that did not include the guide wire in the foreground. Looks like one of the crew is wiping some of that Alco produced grime from the windows.

The Mighty Eiger and the Wetterhorn reflected on The Fallbodensee . No. 1411.

  

"The Eiger is a 3,970-metre (13,020 ft) mountain of the Bernese Alps, overlooking Grindelwald and Lauterbrunnen in the Bernese Oberland, just north of the main watershed and border with Valais. It is the easternmost peak of a ridge crest that extends across the Mönch to the Jungfrau at 4,158 m (13,642 ft), constituting one of the most emblematic sights of the Swiss Alps. While the northern side of the mountain rises more than 3,000 m (10,000 ft) above the two valleys of Grindelwald and Lauterbrunnen, the southern side faces the large glaciers of the Jungfrau-Aletsch area, the most glaciated region in the Alps. The most notable feature of the Eiger is its 1,800-metre-high (5,900 ft) north face of rock and ice, named Eigerwand or Nordwand, which is the biggest north face in the Alps.[3] This huge face towers the resort of Kleine Scheidegg at its base, on the homonymous pass connecting the two valleys.

 

The first ascent of the Eiger was made by Swiss guides Christian Almer and Peter Bohren (de) and Irishman Charles Barrington, who climbed the west flank on August 11, 1858. The north face, considered amongst the most challenging and dangerous ascents, was first climbed in 1938 by an Austrian-German expedition.[4] The Eiger has been highly-publicized for the many tragedies involving climbing expeditions. Since 1935, at least sixty-four climbers have died attempting the north face, earning it the German nickname Mordwand, literally "murder(ous) wall"—a pun on its correct title of Nordwand (North Wall).[5]

 

Although the summit of the Eiger can be reached by experienced climbers only, a railway tunnel runs inside the mountain, and two internal stations provide easy access to viewing-windows carved into the rock face. They are both part of the Jungfrau Railway line, running from Kleine Scheidegg to the Jungfraujoch, between the Mönch and the Jungfrau, at the highest railway station in Europe. The two stations within the Eiger are Eigerwand (behind the north face) and Eismeer (behind the south face), at around 3,000 metres.

 

The Eiger is mentioned in records dating back to the 13th century, but there is no clear indication of how exactly the peak gained its name. The three mountains of the ridge are commonly referred to as the Virgin (German: Jungfrau – translates to "virgin" or "maiden"), the Monk (Mönch), and the Ogre (Eiger; the standard German word for ogre is Oger). The name has been linked to the Latin term acer, meaning "sharp" or "pointed", but more commonly to the German eigen, meaning "own".

 

L’Eiger est un sommet individualisé des Alpes situé entièrement en Suisse dans le massif des Alpes bernoises. Son nom, attesté en 1252, ne signifie pas l'« ogre » contrairement aux idées reçues mais plus probablement « le grand épieu ». La confusion est due à la face nord qui a tué plusieurs personnes1. Cette dernière, la plus grande face des Alpes avec 1 600 m de hauteur1, presque totalement verticale ou déversante, fut considérée par l'alpinisme comme un des trois derniers grands problèmes des Alpes, avec les faces nord du Cervin et des Grandes Jorasses.

 

L'Eiger est traversé par le tunnel d'un chemin de fer à crémaillère de la compagnie de la Jungfraubahn. Il existe une gare dans la paroi de la face nord, appelée Eigerwand, qui permet au visiteur d'avoir une vue au sein de la face nord.

  

L'Eiger è una montagna svizzera delle Alpi bernesi, situata nella regione montuosa dell'Oberland. È particolarmente famosa per la sua parete nord, che ha costituito uno dei principali problemi alpinistici degli anni trenta.

  

Der Eiger ist ein 3'970 m ü. M. hoher Berg in den Berner Alpen. Er ist dem Hauptkamm der Berner Alpen etwas nördlich vorgelagert und steht vollständig auf dem Territorium des Schweizer Kantons Bern. Zusammen mit Mönch und Jungfrau dominiert der Eiger die Landschaft des zentralen Berner Oberlandes. Die etwa 3000 Meter über dem Tal aufragende Nordwestseite dieser drei Gipfel ist eines der bekanntesten „Dreigestirne“ der Alpen. Die Nordwand des Eigers fasziniert sowohl Bergsteiger als auch Alpin-Laien. Durch dramatische Besteigungsversuche dieser Wand wurde der Eiger weltweit bekannt und immer wieder ins Blickfeld der Öffentlichkeit gerückt – nicht zuletzt, da die gesamte Nordwand von Grindelwald und der Bahnstation Kleine Scheidegg einsehbar ist. Heute ist die Jungfraubahn mit ihrem Tunnel durch den Tigerfells ein Touristenmagnet. "

  

Wikipedia

comfortable training

 

Nikon D80, Nikkor 55-200/4-5.6, ISO 400, f/4,8, 1/400, 120mm

 

Thank you all for faves and comments

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Tuesday night, FEB. 23rd, 2010

I have an exciting real story to share!! (For a shorter version, please read the tag. ^ ^)

 

I got out of class around 20: 25 tonight. On my way to catch the school bus, this butterfly was fluttering on the 4th floor and then decided to rest on my jacket. It just rested there! It took me about an hour to take the school bus, walk through the train station crowds, and then take another city bus to get home. But it rested on my jacket (around the elbow) all the time!

 

I got more and more excited on the city bus that I had to SMS SJ to get my camera ready to take a pic of this butterfly if it really followed me all the way home and IT DID!!!! I told him to set the camera on ISO without a flash so as not to scare the sleepy butterfly. :D So, the pictures are grainy here.

 

Now it's about 22: 34, 2 hours later since it rested on me!! It is resting on our table now and we treat it with a slice of apple and a slice of pineapple. I think it's going to sleep in our apartment tonight!!!!!!! It is still on the table!! We turned off the living room lights now to let it sleep. ^____^

 

THANK YOU for your patience reading the story! :)

 

The following morning:

 

7 : 00 AM: I woke up for the first time, went to check out the butterfly Fifi in the living room, but it was still staying at the same spot on the table, not moving at all. I think it was sleeping. I went back to bed.

 

8: 30 AM: I woke up for the second time, and found Fifi was not on the table. The sunlight showered in through our French windows. I started looking for it. SJ said, "Follow the light." It took me only 20 seconds to find it fluttering at the bottom of our semi-transparent French windows, seeming to figure out why it couldn't fly through. I picked up its wings, opened the French windows, and let it go, "Bye bye, Fifi. Have a nice day and have a nice life!"

 

^_________^

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