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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hijra_(South_Asia)

  

Hijra (for translations, see [n 1]) is a term used in South Asia – particularly in India and Pakistan – to refer to trans women (male-to-female transgender individuals).[1][2] In different areas of Pakistan and India, transgender people are also known as Aravani, Aruvani or Jagappa.[3]

 

In Pakistan and Bangladesh, the hijras are officially recognized as third gender by the government,[4][5] being neither completely male nor female. In India also, transgender people have been given the status of third gender and are protected as per the law despite the social ostracism. The term more commonly advocated by social workers and transgender community members themselves is khwaja sira (Urdu: خواجہ سرا‎) and can identify the individual as a transsexual person, transgender person (khusras), cross-dresser (zenanas) or eunuch (narnbans).[6][7]

 

Hijras have a recorded history in the Indian subcontinent from antiquity onwards as suggested by the Kama Sutra period. This history features a number of well-known roles within subcontinental cultures, part gender-liminal, part spiritual and part survival.

 

In South Asia, many hijras live in well-defined and organised all-hijra communities, led by a guru.[8][9] These communities have sustained themselves over generations by "adopting" boys who are in abject poverty, rejected by, or flee, their family of origin.[10] Many work as sex workers for survival.[11]

 

The word "hijra" is an Urdu word derived from the Semitic Arabic root hjr in its sense of "leaving one's tribe,"[12] and has been borrowed into Hindi. The Indian usage has traditionally been translated into English as "eunuch" or "hermaphrodite," where "the irregularity of the male genitalia is central to the definition."[13] However, in general hijras are born with typically male physiology, only a few having been born with intersex variations.[14] Some Hijras undergo an initiation rite into the hijra community called nirwaan, which refers to the removal of the penis, scrotum and testicles.[11]

 

Since the late 20th century, some hijra activists and Western non-government organizations (NGOs) have lobbied for official recognition of the hijra as a kind of "third sex" or "third gender," as neither man nor woman.[15] Hijras have successfully gained this recognition in Bangladesh and are eligible for priority in education.[16] In India, the Supreme Court in April 2014 recognised hijra and transgender people as a 'third gender' in law.[17][18][19]

 

Nepal, Pakistan, India, and Bangladesh have all legally recognized the existence of a third gender, including on passports and other official documents.

  

Terminology

  

The Urdu and Hindi word hijra may alternately be romanized as hijira, hijda, hijada, hijara, hijrah and is pronounced [ˈɦɪdʒɽaː]. This term is generally considered derogatory in Urdu and the word Khwaja Sara is used instead. Another such term is khasuaa (खसुआ) or khusaraa (खुसरा). In Bengali hijra is called হিজড়া, hijra, hijla, hijre, hizra, or hizre.

 

A number of terms across the culturally and linguistically diverse Indian subcontinent represent similar sex or gender categories. While these are rough synonyms, they may be better understood as separate identities due to regional cultural differences. In Odia, a hijra is referred to as hinjida, hinjda or napunsaka, in Telugu, as napunsakudu (నపుంసకుడు), kojja (కొజ్జ) or maada (మాడ), in Tamil Nadu, Thiru nangai (mister woman), Ali, aravanni, aravani, or aruvani, in Punjabi, khusra and jankha, in Sindhi khadra, in Gujarati, pavaiyaa (પાવૈયા).

 

In North India, the goddess Bahuchara Mata is worshipped by Pavaiyaa (પાવૈયા). In South India, the goddess Renuka is believed to have the power to change one's sex. Male devotees in female clothing are known as Jogappa. They perform similar roles to hijra, such as dancing and singing at birth ceremonies and weddings.[21]

 

The word kothi (or koti) is common across India, similar to the Kathoey of Thailand, although kothis are often distinguished from hijras. Kothis are regarded as feminine men or boys who take a feminine role in sex with men, but do not live in the kind of intentional communities that hijras usually live in. Additionally, not all kothis have undergone initiation rites or the body modification steps to become a hijra.[22] Local equivalents include durani (Kolkata), menaka (Cochin),[23] meti (Nepal), and zenana (Pakistan).

 

Hijra used to be translated in English as "eunuch" or "hermaphrodite,"[13] although LGBT historians or human rights activists have sought to include them as being transgender.[24] In a series of meetings convened between October 2013 and Jan 2014 by the transgender experts committee of India's Ministry of Social Justice and Empowerment, hijra and other trans activists asked that the term "eunuch" be discontinued from usage in government documents, as it is not a term with which the communities identify.

  

Gender and sexuality

  

These identities have no exact match in the modern Western taxonomy of gender and sexual orientation,[24] and challenge Western ideas of sex and gender.[11]

 

In India, some Hijras do not define themselves by specific sexual orientation, but rather by renouncing sexuality altogether. Sexual energy is transformed into sacred powers. However, these notions can come in conflict with the practical, which is that hijras are often employed as prostitutes.[25] Furthermore, in India a feminine male who takes a "receptive" role in sex with a man will often identify as a kothi (or the local equivalent term). While kothis are usually distinguished from hijras as a separate gender identity, they often dress as women and act in a feminine manner in public spaces, even using feminine language to refer to themselves and each other. The usual partners of hijras and kothis are men who consider themselves heterosexual as they are the ones who penetrate.[26] These male partners are often married, and any relationships or sex with "kothis" or hijras are usually kept secret from the community at large. Some hijras may form relationships with men and even marry,[27] although their marriage is not usually recognized by law or religion. Hijras and kothis often have a name for these masculine sexual or romantic partners; for example, panthi in Bangladesh, giriya in Delhi or sridhar in Cochin.[23]

  

Social status and economic circumstances

  

Most hijras live at the margins of society with very low status; the very word "hijra" is sometimes used in a derogatory manner. The Indian lawyer and author Rajesh Talwar has written a book highlighting the human rights abuses suffered by the community titled 'The Third Sex and Human Rights.'[28] Few employment opportunities are available to hijras. Many get their income from extortion (forced payment by disrupting work/life using demonstrations and interference), performing at ceremonies (toli), begging (dheengna), or sex work ('raarha')—an occupation of eunuchs also recorded in premodern times. Violence against hijras, especially hijra sex workers, is often brutal, and occurs in public spaces, police stations, prisons, and their homes.[29] As with transgender people in most of the world, they face extreme discrimination in health, housing, education, employment, immigration, law, and any bureaucracy that is unable to place them into male or female gender categories.[30]

 

In 2008, HIV prevalence was 27.6% amongst hijra sex workers in Larkana.[6] The general prevalence of HIV among the adult Pakistani population is estimated at 0.1%.[31]

 

In October 2013, Pakistani Christians and Muslims (Shia and Sunni) put pressure on the landlords of Imamia Colony to evict any transgender residents. "Generally in Pakistan, Khwaja Sira are not under threat. But they are in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa Province because of a 'new Islam' under way", I.A. Rehman, the director of the Human Rights Commission of Pakistan.[32]

 

In a study of Bangladeshi hijras, participants reported not being allowed to seek healthcare at the private chambers of doctors, and experiencing abuse if they go to government hospitals.[33]

 

Beginning in 2006, hijras were engaged to accompany Patna city revenue officials to collect unpaid taxes, receiving a 4-percent commission.[34]

 

Since India's Supreme Court re-criminalized homosexual sex on 13 December 2013, there has been a sharp increase in the physical, psychological and sexual violence against the transgender community by the Indian Police Service, nor are they investigating even when sexual assault against them is reported.[35]

 

On 15 April 2014, in National Legal Services Authority v. Union of India, the Supreme Court of India ruled that transgender people should be treated as a third category of gender or as a socially and economically "backward" class entitled to proportional access and representation in education and jobs.[36]

  

Language

  

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The hijra community due to its peculiar place in sub-continental society which entailed marginalisation yet royal privileges developed a secret language known as Hijra Farsi. The language has a sentence structure loosely based on Urdu and a unique vocabulary of at least a thousand words. Beyond the Urdu-Hindi speaking areas of subcontinent the vocabulary is still used by the hijra community within their own native languages.

  

In South Asian politics

  

In 2013, transgender people in Pakistan were given their first opportunity to stand for election.[37] Sanam Fakir, a 32-year-old hijra, ran as an independent candidate for Sukkur, Pakistan's general election in May.[38]

 

The governments of both India (1994)[39] and Pakistan (2009)[40] have recognized hijras as a "third sex", thus granting them the basic civil rights of every citizen. In India, hijras now have the option to identify as a eunuch ("E") on passports and on certain government documents. They are not, however, fully accommodated; in order to vote, for example, citizens must identify as either male or female. There is also further discrimination from the government. In the 2009 general election, India's election committee denied three hijras candidature unless they identified themselves as either male or female.

 

In April 2014, Justice KS Radhakrishnan declared transgender to be the third gender in Indian law, in a case brought by the National Legal Services Authority (Nalsa) against Union of India and others.[17][18][19] The ruling said:[41]

 

Seldom, our society realises or cares to realise the trauma, agony and pain which the members of Transgender community undergo, nor appreciates the innate feelings of the members of the Transgender community, especially of those whose mind and body disown their biological sex. Our society often ridicules and abuses the Transgender community and in public places like railway stations, bus stands, schools, workplaces, malls, theatres, hospitals, they are sidelined and treated as untouchables, forgetting the fact that the moral failure lies in the society's unwillingness to contain or embrace different gender identities and expressions, a mindset which we have to change.

 

Justice Radhakrishnan said that transgender people should be treated consistently with other minorities under the law, enabling them to access jobs, healthcare and education.[42] He framed the issue as one of human rights, saying that, "These TGs, even though insignificant in numbers, are still human beings and therefore they have every right to enjoy their human rights", concluding by declaring that:[41]

 

Hijras, Eunuchs, apart from binary gender, be treated as "third gender" for the purpose of safeguarding their rights under Part III of our Constitution and the laws made by the Parliament and the State Legislature.

Transgender persons' right to decide their self-identified gender is also upheld and the Centre and State Governments are directed to grant legal recognition of their gender identity such as male, female or as third gender.

A bill supported by all political parties was tabled in Indian parliament to ensure transgender people get benefits akin reserved communities like SC/STs and is taking steps to see that they get enrollment in schools and jobs in government besides protection from sexual harassment.[43]

  

History

  

The ancient Kama Sutra mentions the performance of fellatio by feminine people of a third sex (tritiya prakriti).[44] This passage has been variously interpreted as referring to men who desired other men, so-called eunuchs ("those disguised as males, and those that are disguised as females"[45]), male and female trans people ("the male takes on the appearance of a female and the female takes on the appearance of the male"),[46] or two kinds of biological males, one dressed as a woman, the other as a man.[47]

 

During the era of the British Raj, authorities attempted to eradicate hijras, whom they saw as "a breach of public decency."[48] Anti-hijra laws were repealed; but a law outlawing castration, a central part of the hijra community, was left intact, though rarely enforced. Also during British rule in India they were placed under the Criminal Tribes Act 1871 and labelled a "criminal tribe," hence subjected to compulsory registration, strict monitoring and stigmatized for a long time; after independence however they were denotified in 1952, though the centuries-old stigma continues.[49]

  

In religion

  

The Indian transgender hijras or Aravanis ritually marry the Hindu god Aravan and then mourn his ritual death (seen) in an 18-day festival in Koovagam, India.

Many practice a form of syncretism that draws on multiple religions; seeing themselves to be neither men nor women, hijras practice rituals for both men and women.

 

Hijras belong to a special caste. They are usually devotees of the mother goddess Bahuchara Mata, Lord Shiva, or both.

  

Hijras and Bahuchara Mata

  

Bahuchara Mata is a Hindu goddess with two unrelated stories both associated with transgender behavior. One story is that she appeared in the avatar of a princess who castrated her husband because he would run in the woods and act like a woman rather than have sex with her. Another story is that a man tried to rape her, so she cursed him with impotence. When the man begged her forgiveness to have the curse removed, she relented only after he agreed to run in the woods and act like a woman. The primary temple to this goddess is located in Gujarat[50] and it is a place of pilgrimage for hijras, who see Bahucahara Mata as a patroness.

  

Hijras and Lord Shiva

  

One of the forms of Lord Shiva is a merging with Parvati where together they are Ardhanari, a god that is half Shiva and Half Parvati. Ardhanari has special significance as a patron of hijras, who identify with the gender ambiguity.[50]

  

Hijras in the Ramayana

  

In some versions of the Ramayana,[51] when Rama leaves Ayodhya for his 14-year exile, a crowd of his subjects follow him into the forest because of their devotion to him. Soon Rama notices this, and gathers them to tell them not to mourn, and that all the "men and women" of his kingdom should return to their places in Ayodhya. Rama then leaves and has adventures for 14 years. When he returns to Ayodhya, he finds that the hijras, being neither men nor women, have not moved from the place where he gave his speech. Impressed with their devotion, Rama grants hijras the boon to confer blessings on people during auspicious inaugural occasions like childbirth and weddings. This boon is the origin of badhai in which hijras sing, dance, and give blessings.[

  

Hijras in the Mahabharata

  

Mahabharata includes an episode in which Arjun, a hero of the epic, is sent into an exile. There he assumes an identity of a eunuch-transvestite and performs rituals during weddings and childbirths that are now performed by hijras.[53]

 

In the Mahabharata, before the Kurukshetra War, Iravan offers his lifeblood to goddess Kali to ensure the victory of the Pandavas, and Kali agrees to grant him power. On the night before the battle, Iravan expresses a desire to get married before he dies. No woman was willing to marry a man doomed to die in a few hours, so Arjuna as Brihinala marries him. In South India, hijras claim Iravan as their progenitor and call themselves "aravanis."[52]

 

"Sangam literature use ' word 'Pedi' to refer to people born with Intersex condition, it also refers to antharlinga hijras and various Hijra, The Aravan cult in Koovagam village of Tamil Nadu is a folk tradition of the transwomen, where the members enact the legend during an annual three-day festival. "This is completely different from the sakibeki cult of West Bengal, where transwomen don't have to undergo sex change surgery or shave off their facial hair. They dress as women still retaining their masculine features and sing in praise of Lord Krishna,". "Whereas, since the Tamil society is more conservative and hetero-normative, transwomen completely change themselves as women. In the ancient times, even religion has its own way of accepting these fringe communities." The Bachura Devi worship in Gujarat and Jogappa cult of Karanataka are the other examples.the kinds of dialects and languages spoken by these community in different parts of the country and the socio-cultural impact on the lingo. 'Hijra Farsi' is the transgender dialect, a mix of Urdu, Hindi and Persian spoken in the northern belt of India, Pakistan and Afghanistan and 'Kothi Baashai' is spoken by the transgender community in Karnataka, Andhra, Orissa and parts of Tamil Nadu. "They even have sign languages and typical mannerisms to communicate. The peculiar clap is one such"

 

—Gopi Shankar Madurai, National Queer Conference 2013[54][55]

Each year in Tamil Nadu, during April and May, hijras celebrate an eighteen-day religious festival. The aravani temple is located in the village Koovagam in the Ulundurpet taluk in Villupuram district, and is devoted to the deity Koothandavar, who is identified with Aravan. During the festival, the aravanis reenact a story of the wedding of Lord Krishna and Lord Aravan, followed by Aravan's subsequent sacrifice. They then mourn Aravan's death through ritualistic dances and by breaking their bangles. An annual beauty pageant is also held, as well as various health and HIV or AIDS seminars. Hijras from all over the country travel to this festival. A personal experience of the hijras in this festival is shown in the BBC Three documentary India's Ladyboys and also in the National Geographic Channel television series Taboo.

  

Hijras in Islam

  

There is evidence that Indian hijras identifying as Muslim also incorporate aspects of Hinduism. Still, despite this syncretism, Reddy (2005) notes that a hijra does not practice Islam differently from other Muslims and argues that their syncretism does not make them any less Muslim. Reddy (2003) also documents an example of how this syncretism manifests: in Hyderabad, India a group of Muslim converts were circumcised, something seen as the quintessential marker of male Muslim identity.[clarification needed]

 

In films and literature

  

Bangladesh

  

The film Common Gender (2012) relates the story of the Bangladesh hijra and their struggle for survival.

  

India

  

Hijras have been portrayed on screen in Indian cinema since its inception, historically as comic relief. A notable turning point occurred in 1974 when real hijras appeared during a song-and-dance sequence in Kunwaara Baap ("The Unmarried Father"). There are also hijras in the Hindi movie Amar Akbar Anthony (1977) who accompany one of the heroes, Akbar (Rishi Kapoor), in a song entitled "Tayyab Ali Pyar Ka Dushman" ("Tayyab Ali, the Enemy of Love"). One of the first sympathetic hijra portrayals was in Mani Ratnam's Bombay (1995). 1997's Tamanna[56] starred male actor Paresh Rawal in a central role as "Tiku", a hijra who raises a young orphan. Pooja Bhatt produced and also starred in the movie, with her father Mahesh Bhatt co-writing and directing. Deepa Mehta's Water features the hijra character "Gulabi" (played by Raghubir Yadav), who has taken to introducing the downtrodden, outcast widows of Varanasi to prostitution. Not surprisingly, perhaps, the film generated much controversy. There is a brief appearance of hijras in the 2004 Gurinder Chadha film Bride & Prejudice, singing to a bride-to-be in the marketplace. There's also a loose reference, in the guise of "Rocky" ("Rokini") in Deepha Mehta's Bollywood/Hollywood.

 

The 1997 Hindi film Darmiyaan: In Between directed & co-written by Kalpana Lajmi is based on the subject of Hijra, wherein a fictitious story of an actress bearing a son that turns out to be neuter.

 

In the 2000 Tamil film Appu directed by Vasanth, a remake of the Hindi film Sadak, the antagonist is a brothel-owning hijra played by Prakash Raj. (In Sadak, the brothel-owning character was played by Sadashiv Amrapurkar under the name "Maharani".)

 

In 2005, a fiction feature film titled Shabnam Mausi was made on the life of a eunuch politician Shabnam Mausi. It was directed by Yogesh Bharadwaj and the title role played by Ashutosh Rana.

 

Jogwa, a 2009 Marathi film, depicts the story of a man forced to be hijra under certain circumstances. The movie has received several accolades.[57]

 

In Soorma Bhopali, Jagdeep encounters a troupe of hijra on his arrival in Bombay. The leader of this pack is also played by Jagdeep himself.

 

In Anil Kapoor's Nayak, Johnny Lever, who plays the role of the hero's assistant, gets beaten up by hijras, when he is caught calling them "hijra" (he is in habit of calling almost everyone who bothers him by this pejorative and no one cares much, except this once ironically, as the addressees are literally what he is calling them.)

 

One of the main characters in Khushwant Singh's novel Delhi, Bhagmati is a hijra. She makes a living as a semi-prostitute and is wanted in the diplomatic circles of the city.

 

Vijay TV's Ippadikku Rose, a Tamil show conducted by postgraduate educated transgender woman Rose is a very successfully running program that discusses various issues faced by youth in Tamil Nadu, where she also gives her own experiences.

 

In addition to numerous other themes, the 2008 movie Welcome to Sajjanpur by Shyam Benegal explores the role of hijras in Indian society.

 

In the Malayalam movie Ardhanaari, released on 23 November 2012, director Santhosh Sowparnika tries to depict the life of a transgender person. Manoj K Jayan, Thilakan, Sukumari and Maniyanpilla Raju perform leading roles.

 

In August, 2015, a music video featuring 7 hijras dressed in outfits or uniforms of various professions and singing the National Anthem of India created by a YouTube channel Yathartha Pictures went viral for being the first National Anthem video sung by hijras in India.[58][59] The hijras featured in the video were brought together by the Humsafar Trust, a Mumbai-based NGO which promotes LGBT rights.[60][61]

  

Tamil

  

Vaadamalli by novelist Su.Samuthiram is the first Tamil novel about Aravaani community in Tamil Nadu, published in 1994. Later transgender activist A. Revathi became first Hijra to write about transgender issues and gender politics in Tamil, her works have been translated in more than 8 languages and acting as a primary resources on Gender Studies in Asia. Her book is part of research project for more than 100 universities. She is the author of Unarvum Uruvamum (Feelings of the Entire Body); is the first of its kind in English from a member of the hijra community.[62][63][64] She also acted,directed several stage plays on Gender and Sexuality issues in Tamil and Kannada."The Truth about Me: A Hijra Life Story" by Transgender A.Revathi[65] is part of the syllabus for Final Year students of The American College in Madurai. Later Naan Saravanan Alla" (2007) and Vidya's "I am Vidya" (2008) became first transwoman autobiography.[66][67]

  

Pakistan

  

The 1992 film Immaculate Conception[68] by Jamil Dehlavi is based upon the culture-clash between a western Jewish couple seeking fertility at a Karachi shrine known to be blessed by a Sufi fakir called 'Gulab Shah' and the group of Pakistani eunuchs who guard it.

 

Murad (which means desire; the English title was Eunuch's Motherhood), was an award winning biographical Telefilm drama made by Evergreen Media Europe for Pakistan's television channel Indus TV that aired in 2003. The cast had the country's top male television actors playing "hijras": Sohail Asghar, Nabeel, Qazi Wajid, Kamran Jilani. It was directed by Kamran Qureshi, written by Zafar Mairaj and produced by Iram Qureshi. It won both Best TeleFilm and Best Director awards at 2003 Indus Telefilm Festival.[69][70] The story revolves around "Saima", a trans woman, who adopts a helpless child "Murad" and her relationship with him against the backdrop of her struggling throughout her life and her "desire" for her son. She has sent him away to live at a hostel so she can earn a living as a dancer, after her son gets cross with her, due to teasing (verbal and sexual) they face while dancing. This was the first time that influential male actors came out to support "hijra" rights during interviews; noting that in Pakistani English at that time eunuch was the term to describe a transgender person, and "khwaja sara" (also khwaja sira) had not yet replaced what is now considered a derogatory term due to decades of heckling and name calling, "hijra".[71][72]

 

In 2004, Kamran Qureshi directed a trans drama, Moorat ("effigy," however, the English title was Eunuch's Wedding. It was produced by famous actor and producer Humayun Saeed and Abdullah Kadwani with more than a dozen star-studded cast members for a 33-episode series.[73][74] It was nominated for Best Drama Serial, Abid Ali for Best Actor, and Maria Wasti for Best Actress at the Lux Style Awards 2005.[69][75] The show was credited for making people understand the pain and abuse that khwaja sara (hijra) constantly endure when people make fun of the way they look or dress without knowing them or how they were naturally born this way. The story involves a young lady who is arranged to marry. It turns out her husband is transgender. The story unfolds trans community and their deprived and isolated world. It portrays eloquently how they, too, are not far away from the human emotions and feelings and their world not much different from the heterosexual community. Even though they are in plain sight, they are tthey are taboo subjects and are not taken seriously. This makes them suffer endlessly in silence wrapped in slurs. The 33-episode series therefore touches on transgender abuse, women abuse, poverty, immorality of arranged marriages, and child abuse.[76]

 

Bol (Urdu: بول meaning Speak), is a 2011 Urdu-language social drama Pakistani film. It concerns a patriarch, Hakim, who is a misogynist, a domestic abuser, a bigot, and a zealot who forces religion on his family. They face financial difficulties due to Hakim wanting a son. He rejects his transgender daughter, Saifi, as he wanted an heir and she identifies as a girl. Saifi is deeply loved by the rest of her family. As she grows up, men want to take advantage of her and she does not understand at first. However, her oldest sister intervenes and teaches Saifi about what kind of touching is inappropriate. As Saifi grows older, she is not allowed to leave the house. She finds her sister's dresses compelling and tries them on, revealing her gender identity. A neighbour played by famous South Asian singer Atif Aslam, who is in love with one of the sisters, gets Saifi a job at a place where they paint trucks, with the blessing of Saifi's sisters and mother. Saifi dresses like a boy; however, other boys sense her lack of self-esteem and eventually gang-rape her. She is saved when another transgender person, played by Almas Bobby (a transgender actor), finds her and takes her home. Hakim overhears Saifi telling her mother and Zainab what happened. When everybody is asleep, Hakim locks the room and suffocates his child for luring the men for the "shame" he would have to bear if the story got out.[77] It received several positive reviews from critics and went on to win the Best Hindi film award in IRDS Film awards 2011 by Institute for Research and Documentation in Social Sciences (IRDS).[78]

  

Outside South Asia

  

The novel Bombay Ice by Leslie Forbes features an important subplot involving the main character's investigation of the deaths of several hijra sex-workers.

 

The novel City of Djinns by William Dalrymple also features a chapter on hijras.

 

The novel A Son of the Circus by John Irving features a plot-line involving hijras.

 

In the graphic novel Habibi by Craig Thompson, the protagonist, Zam, is adopted by a group of hijras.

 

In the 2009 Brazilian soap opera Caminho das Índias (Portuguese: "The way to India"), hijras are shown in some occasions, especially at weddings and other ceremonies where they are paid for their blessing.

 

In the TV comedy Outsourced (2011), a hijra is hired by Charlie as a stripper for Rajiv's "bachelor party", much to Rajiv's utter horror.

 

A short film, under the direction of Jim Roberts, is being made by Rock Star Productions in which the protagonist is portrayed as a hijra. This film is set to be released on 1 May.[year needed][citation needed]

 

Kamran Ahmed Mirza is a popular gender performance artist in Oregon, United States.

  

Documentaries

  

Jareena, Portrait of a Hijda (1990)

Ladyboys (1992)

Bombay Eunuch (2001)

The Hijras: India's Third Gender (2001)

India's Ladyboys (2003)

Between the Lines: India's Third Gender (2005)

Middle Sexes (HBO documentary includes segment on modern Hijda) (2005)

Shabnam Mausi (2005)

The Hijras of India (BBC radio documentary)

Kiss the Moon (2009)

Call me Salma (2009)

Mohammed to Maya also titled Rites of Passage (2012)

Mediaone Global Entertainment Limited presents

A film by Majestic Multimedia Limited

Preface

Chikku Bhukku

 

Mediaone Global Entertainment Limited presents a film by Majestic Multimedia Limited, which has set new standards for Tamil film production with their recent blockbuster “Dhaam Dhoom” They have aimed to reach even higher with their forthcoming film “Chikku Bukku”

The film stars Aarya, who did a stunning performance in “Naan Kadavul”. Shriya Saran who has done a “never before” performance in this film. Debutante Preetika has a very important role in the film and she is the younger sister of Bollywood star Amrita Rao.

K. Manigandan, who was the Associate Director to Jeeva for 12B, Ullam Ketkumme and Unnale Unnale, took over and successfully completed Dhaam Dhoom, after the untimely demise of Jeeva. Media One Global Entertainment Limited, who was impressed with Manigandan in Dhaam Dhoom, recommended him to Direct Chikku Bukku.

The film has completed shooting and the Audio is released on Aug 13th 2010. The audio rights have been acquired by Think Music. After their recent mega budget film Endhiran , Chikku Bukku will be their next consecutive audio release by Think Music.

Arya with his earlier performance in Varudu has created a brand for himself with the telugu audience, Shriya who’s an leading Actress in the Telugu, considering the kind of response that these lead actors hold, the film will release in Tamil and Telugu.

Most of the technicians who had worked with Jeeva are part of the Chikku Bukku team. Camera was handled by R.B. Gurudhev, Dialogues were written by S.Ramakrishnan, and lyrics were done by Padmashree.Valee / Pa.Vijay and music by Colonial Cousins Hari and lesle, Additional song and

Background score was done by Pravin Mani while Rekha Chinni Prakash and Dinesh did the choreography. The costumes were handled by V.Sai and Deepali Noor.

The film is a Romantic travelogue, which starts in London and ends in karaikudi. The shooting took place in around trendy areas of London, scenic locales of chikmagalur, Madikeri and traditional houses of Karaikudi.

The lead pair Aarya and Shriya is not new to the fraternity. Casting them was so fresh and lively as the script demanded stars with individual stardom coming together for the very first time, debutante starlet Preetika, Apparently she is the younger sister of bollywood star Amrita Rao. The draft of the film revolves around these three characters’. Their characterizations are portrayed so appealing, all the stars gel into their respective roles. I would consider my crew as greatest strength, casting of a script makes the fifty per of the film happen, Initially shaping up Aarya from his previous roles portrayed by him to a Next door boy look didn’t happen in a fraction, such as shreya who has been doing characters’ of colors fitted in perfectly for their characterizations.

Aarya and Shriya shaped themselves into the draft and did everything possible for the characters. Aarya was such a positive person, he carried his role so sensibly, a prankster in real life, delivered his expressions so easily, all the actors lived into their characterizations. We also agree on arguments which happened on the sets, but all of it was only a creative process rather than destructive arguments. Aarya, Shriya, Preethika all three were so determined that they would take up rehearsals before every shots, on the process it paved wave to explore their characters’ through their acting.

The music done by Colonial Cousins Hari & lesle. Hariharan the legendary singer has once again composed for ChikkuBhukku, Am sure the inseparable pair would do justice to a romantic feel good film. They have scored feet taping numbers, which has an equal mixture of melody and rap. We have experimented on different voices for our tracks; especially recording with Wadali brothers the desi sensational singers of Punjab for the first time in a filmic score was amazing. We needed fresh and peppy voices for this romantic flick the singers have sung with no influence from the past work. All the numbers turned out to be experimental, two other rappers and singers have made their debutante song in the film, the music which inspired me from the past as an influence thought the film.

   

Two additional songs and background score are being composed by Pravin Mani, who has been a longtime associate to A.R.Rahaman and who has worked with A.R.Rahman in Ghazini , Slum dog millionaire and Endhiran. Both the composers have contributed to the Romantic feel of the film and their compositions are inseparable.

The Director of Photography was R.B.Gurudhev the visualizer of Chikkubhukku. Guru’s senses of colors are always particular; he colors a frame depending on the mood and the phase of the scene in the draft. His brilliance in framing an artist moulds them into the roots of their character. A visual crafts men, has tuned my ideas into a visual story.

A romantic travelogue the film starts in London and ends in Karaikudi, Not only the film is based on a journey the process of making was itself a journey to many exotic locations. Scenic locales of Chikmangalore, Madikeri, Mandalpet, Kudremug of Karnataka, and splendorous locations in London. The shooting took place in around trendy areas of London, St, paul’s cathedral, westminister, Cannary warf, Piccadilly Circus etc and traditional houses of Karaikudi. We have shot in many hill stations where it was the first ever time a camera could be placed.

The diversity between spectacular locations in London, Rain forests near exotic western Ghats in Karnataka and monumental Karaikudi would give a new look and grandeur to Chikku Bukku

Adding to the film, website is also launched. For the audience to know more about the film.

You can now log on to www.chikkubhukkuthemovie.com

Chikku Bhukku, a nostalgic clang of a train, is bound to give its viewers, a new Romantic Journey, which would be enjoyed by one and all.

    

Song-1: Chikku Bukku…

Lyric: Pa.VIJAY

Singers: Benny dayal

Rahul nambiyar

Maya, Sree Charan

 

Song-2: Oru Nila..

Lyric: Valee

Singers: Shankar mahadevan

Chandrayee Battacharya

Uma Padmanabhan

 

Song-3: Engengeyo…

Lyric: Pa. VIJAY

Singers: Benny Dayal

Lavanya

 

Song-4: Smile…

Composer: Pravin mani

Lyric: Pa.Vijay

Singers: Suchith suresan

 

Song-5: Thooral Nindralum…

Lyric: Valee

Singers: Hariharan

Wadali Brothers

  

Song-6: Vizhi Oru Paadhi…

Lyric: Valee

Singers: Adnan sami

Sujatha

 

Song-7: Adi saarale…

Composer: Pravin mani

Lyric: Pa.Vijay

Singers: Pradeep Vijay

Suvi

  

Photo Copyright 2012, dynamo.photography.

All rights reserved, no use without license

 

+++++++ from Wikipedia +++++++

 

Bikaner (About this sound pronunciation (help·info)) is a city in the northwest of the state of Rajasthan in northern India. It is located 330 kilometres (205 mi) northwest of the state capital, Jaipur. Bikaner city is the administrative headquarters of Bikaner District and Bikaner division.

 

Formerly the capital of the princely state of Bikaner, the city was founded by Rao Bika in 1486[1][2][3] and from its small origins it has developed into the fourth largest city in Rajasthan. The Ganges Canal, completed in 1928, and the Indira Gandhi Canal, completed in 1987, facilitated its development.

 

The city celebrates its foundation day on Akshaya Tritiya by flying kites and eating special Rajasthani food that includes Bajre Ka Khichda and Imli ka Paani (Tamarind Water) among other snacks. The celebration lasts for two days, known as Chhoti Akha Teej and Badi Akha Teej. People can be seen flying kites during these two days right from the early morning at 5-6am till late sunset. Given the extreme desert weather, standing for long hours under the bright Sun is a torture in itself. Hence, a quick home-made drink like Tamarind Water really helps in controlling body temperature and prevents from heat stroke.

 

Contents

 

1 History

2 Transport

3 Climate

4 Junagarh Fort

5 Laxmi Niwas Palace

6 Karni Mata Temple

6.1 Mukam Bishnoi Temple

7 Bhandasar Jain Temple

8 Demographics

9 People from Bikaner

10 See also

11 References

12 External links

 

History

Further information: History of Bikaner

 

Prior to the mid 15th century, the region that is now Bikaner was a barren wilderness called Jangladesh.[4] Rao Bika established the city of Bikaner in 1488. He was the first son of Maharaja Rao Jodha of the Rathor clan, the founder of Jodhpur and conquered the largely arid country in the north of Rajasthan. As the first son of Jodha he wanted to have his own kingdom, not inheriting Jodhpur from his father or the title of Maharaja. He therefore decided to build his own kingdom in what is now the state of Bikaner in the area of Jangladesh. Though it was in the Thar Desert, Bikaner was considered an oasis on the trade route between Central Asia and the Gujarat coast as it had adequate spring water. Bika's name was attached to the city he built and to the state of Bikaner ("the settlement of Bika") that he established. Bika built a fort in 1478, which is now in ruins, and a hundred years later a new fort was built about 1.5 km from the city centre, known as the Junagarh Fort.[5][6][7]

 

Around a century after Rao Bika founded Bikaner, the state's fortunes flourished under the sixth Raja, Rai Singhji, who ruled from 1571 to 1611. During the Mughal Empire's rule in the country, Raja Rai Singh accepted the suzerainty of the Mughals and held a high rank as an army general at the court of the Emperor Akbar and his son the Emperor Jahangir. Rai Singh's successful military exploits, which involved winning half of Mewar kingdom for the Empire, won him accolades and rewards from the Mughal emperors. He was given the jagirs (lands) of Gujarat and Burhanpur. With the large revenue earned from these jagirs, he built the Chintamani durg (Junagarh fort) on a plain which has an average elevation of 760 feet (230 m). He was an expert in arts and architecture, and the knowledge he acquired during his visits abroad is amply reflected in the numerous monuments he built at the Junagarh fort.[5][7][8]

 

Maharaja Karan Singh, who ruled from 1631 to 1639, under the suzerainty of the Mughals, built the Karan Mahal palace. Later rulers added more floors and decorations to this Mahal. Anup Singh ji, who ruled from 1669 to 1698, made substantial additions to the fort complex, with new palaces and the Zenana quarter, a royal dwelling for women and children. He refurbished the Karan Mahal with a Diwan-i-Am (public audience hall) and called it the Anup Mahal.Maharaja Gaj Singh, who ruled from 1746 to 1787 refurbished the Chandra Mahal (the Moon palace).

 

During the 18th century, there was internecine war between the rulers of Bikaner and Jodhpur and also amongst other thakurs, which was put down by British troops.[7]

 

Following Maharaja Gaj Singh, Maharaja Surat Singh ruled from 1787 to 1828 and lavishly decorated the audience hall (see illustration) with glass and lively paintwork. Under a treaty of paramountcy signed in 1818, during Maharaja Surat Singh's reign, Bikaner came under the suzerainty of the British, after which the Maharajas of Bikaner invested heavily in refurbishing Junagarh fort.[9]

Left: Lalgarh Palace, built (Indo-Saracenic style) for Maharaja Ganga Singh and named after his father, presently a heritage hotel and also a residence of the Bikaner Royal Family. Right: Ganga Singh as a member of the Imperial War Cabinet at No. 10 Downing Street, 1917.

 

Dungar Singh, who reigned from 1872 to 1887, built the Badal Mahal, the 'weather palace', so named in view of a painting of clouds and falling rain, a rare event in arid Bikaner.

 

General Maharaja Ganga Singh, who ruled from 1887 to 1943, was the best-known of the Rajasthan princes and was a favourite of the British Viceroys of India. He was appointed a Knight Commander of the Order of the Star of India, served as a member of the Imperial War Cabinet, represented India at the Imperial Conferences during the First World War and the British Empire at the Versailles Peace Conference. His contribution to the building activity in Junagarh involved separate halls for public and private audiences in the Ganga Mahal and a durbar hall for formal functions. He also built the Ganga Niwas Palace, which has towers at the entrance patio. This palace was designed by Sir Samuel Swinton Jacob, the third of the new palaces built in Bikaner. He named the building Lalgarh Palace in honour of his father and moved his main residence there from Junagarh Fort in 1902. The hall where he held his Golden Jubilee (in 1938) as Bikaner's ruler is now a museum.[7][9][10]

 

Ganga Singh's son, Lieutenant-General Sir Sadul Singh, the Yuvaraja of Bikaner, succeeded his father as Maharaja in 1943, but acceded his state to the Union of India in 1949. Maharaja Sadul Singh died in 1950, being succeeded in the title by his son, Karni Singh (1924-1988).[6] The Royal Family still lives in a suite in Lalgarh Palace, which they have converted into a heritage hotel.[7][9]

Transport

 

The internal transport system in Bikaner consists of autorickshaws. Bikaner railway station is on the Jodhpur-Bathinda line. Bikaner is connected to some of major Indian cities via broad gauge railway. The city has direct rail connections to Sri Ganganagar, Kolkata, Chennai, Delhi, Mumbai, Alwar, Bhubaneswar, Sambalpur, Bilaspur, Kanpur, Agra, Jalandhar, Baroda, Hyderabad, Guwahati, Jaipur, Surat, Gurgaon, Puri, Coimbatore, Thiruvananthapuram, Chandigarh, Kota, Kollam, Jammu, Jodhpur and Ahmedabad, Pune, Indore, Vijayawada.Connections can be made for other major Indian cities like Silchar, Indore,[clarification needed] Jhansi, Ranchi, Bhopal, Gwalior, Jabalpur, Panipat, Kurukshetra, Faridabad.

 

Bikaner is well served with roads and is linked directly to Delhi, Jaipur, Agra, Alwar, Ludhiana, Sri Ganganagar, Bhatinda, Ambala, Panipat, Ahmedabad, Haridwar, Jodhpur, and many other cities. National highways 11, 15, and 89 meet at Bikaner.

 

Bikaner has Domestic Civil Airport where daily flights to Jaipur[JAI] and Delhi[DEL] are currently in operation. Bikaner to Ahemdabad via Jodhpur flight will be scheduled soon.

Climate

Sand dunes near Bikaner, Rajasthan

 

Bikaner is situated in the middle of the Thar desert and has a hot semi-arid climate (Köppen climate classification BSh) with very little rainfall and extreme temperatures. In summer temperatures can exceed 45 °C, and during the winter they may dip below freezing.

 

The climate in Bikaner is characterised by significant variations in temperature. In the summer season it is very hot when the temperatures lie in the range of 28–53.5 °C (82.4–128.3 °F). In the winter, it is fairly cold with temperatures lying in the range of −4–23.2 °C (24.8–73.8 °F).[11] Annual rainfall is in the range of 260–440 millimetres (10–17 in).[11][12]

Climate data for Bikaner

Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year

Record high °C (°F) 32.9

(91.2) 37.2

(99) 42.8

(109) 48.2

(118.8) 52.4

(126.3) 49.9

(121.8) 47.8

(118) 43.4

(110.1) 43.9

(111) 42.2

(108) 38.5

(101.3) 33.5

(92.3) 52.4

(126.3)

Average high °C (°F) 23.0

(73.4) 25.5

(77.9) 31.8

(89.2) 38.2

(100.8) 41.7

(107.1) 41.6

(106.9) 37.8

(100) 36.6

(97.9) 36.7

(98.1) 36.2

(97.2) 30.7

(87.3) 25.3

(77.5) 33.76

(92.78)

Daily mean °C (°F) 14.3

(57.7) 17.1

(62.8) 23.4

(74.1) 30.2

(86.4) 34.3

(93.7) 35.2

(95.4) 32.8

(91) 31.7

(89.1) 30.7

(87.3) 27.7

(81.9) 21.5

(70.7) 16.1

(61) 26.25

(79.26)

Average low °C (°F) 5.6

(42.1) 8.8

(47.8) 15.0

(59) 22.1

(71.8) 26.8

(80.2) 28.8

(83.8) 27.7

(81.9) 26.8

(80.2) 24.7

(76.5) 19.1

(66.4) 12.1

(53.8) 6.9

(44.4) 18.7

(65.66)

Record low °C (°F) −4

(25) −2.5

(27.5) −0.6

(30.9) 8.3

(46.9) 13.7

(56.7) 17.8

(64) 20.5

(68.9) 20.6

(69.1) 16.5

(61.7) 7.6

(45.7) 0.6

(33.1) −2.8

(27) −4

(25)

Average precipitation mm (inches) 5.5

(0.217) 9.1

(0.358) 8.6

(0.339) 7.2

(0.283) 26.4

(1.039) 45.7

(1.799) 108.6

(4.276) 65.7

(2.587) 36.7

(1.445) 4.8

(0.189) 0.8

(0.031) 1.4

(0.055) 320.5

(12.618)

Average precipitation days 0.8 1.0 1.5 0.9 2.6 3.2 6.6 5.6 3.0 0.6 0.3 0.5 26.6

Average relative humidity (%) 49 43 34 25 27 39 58 61 52 36 40 48 42.7

Source: IMD extremes upto(2010)

Junagarh Fort

Junagarh Fort, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India

 

The Junagarh Fort and its temples and palaces are preserved as museums and provide insight into the grandiose living style of the past Maharanas of Rajasthan.

Laxmi Niwas Palace

 

The Laxmi Niwas Palace is a former residential palace built by Maharajah Ganga Singh, the ruler of the former state of Bikaner. It was designed by the British architect, Col Samuel Swinton Jacob in the year 1902. The style of architecture is Indo-Saracenic. It is now a luxury Heritage hotel owned by Golden Triangle Fort & Palace P. Ltd. The magnificent structure in red sandstone is one of the most popular destinations for tourists in Bikaner.[13] The Shri ram heritage a unit of Rao Bikaji Groups home stay by Brigadier Jagmal Singh Rathore VrC, VsM descendant of Rao Bika ji Founder of Bikaner, Rao Bikaji Camel safari a unit of Rao Bikaji Groups

Karni Mata Temple

 

The Karni Mata Temple or the Rat Temple of Rajasthan is situated 30 kms away from the Bikaner city and is dedicated to Karni Mata, a famous mystic of her times, believed to be an incarnation of goddess Durga. The construction of the temple was completed in mughal style, in the early 20th century by Maharaja Ganga Singh. The temple was further adorned by Kundanlal Verma of Hyderabad-based Karni Jewelers in 1999. The silver gates of the temple and the marble carvings were also donated by him.The Karni Mata Temple

Main article: Karni Mata Temple

 

The Karni Mata Temple

 

The world-famous shrine of Karni Mata can be found in the town of Deshnoke 30 km south from Bikaner on the road to Jodhpur. Karni Mata is worshiped as an incarnation of Goddess Durga.

Mukam Bishnoi Temple

 

The Mukam Temple can be found in near by Nokha. The Mukam is holy place of 29 rules follwer Bishnois.

Bhandasar Jain Temple

Bhandasar Jain Temple

 

Bhandasar Jain Temple is famous for its beautiful leaf paintings, frescoes and ornamented mirror work. This temple was constructed by Bhandasa Oswal in 15th century. This temple is constructed using red sand stone with beautiful paintings on walls and pillars of the sanctum and mandapa. The temple is dedicated to the 5th tirthankar sumatinatha. [According to legends40,000 kilograms of ghee / The temple consist of garbhagriha, antarala, mahamandapa and ardhamandapa[14]

Demographics

Religions in Bikaner

Religion Percent

Hindus

 

78.67%

Muslims

 

17.27%

Population Growth of Bikaner City

Census Pop. %±

1891 56,300

1901 53,100 -5.7%

1911 55,800 5.1%

1921 69,400 24.4%

1931 85,900 23.8%

1941 127,200 48.1%

1951 117,100 -7.9%

1961 150,600 28.6%

1971 208,900 38.7%

1981 280,400 34.2%

1991 416,300 48.5%

2001 529,690 27.2%

2011 644,406 21.7%

source:[15]

People from Bikaner

 

Karni Singh - politician and clay pigeon/skeet champion.

Col Rajyavardhan Singh Rathore - Olympic medalist trap shooter, Minister of State for Information & Broadcasting

Rameshwar Lal Dudi - politician

Bulaki Das Kalla - politician

Dr Tanveer Malawat - World Record Holder Philanthropist Surgeon. Name in Limca Book of Records.

Bharat Vyas - Bollywood lyricist

Anuradha Acharya - CEO, Ocimum Bio Solutions Multinational Company

T.D Dogra - Former Director All India Institute of Medical Sciences New Delhi.[16] Vice-Chancellor of SGT University, Budhera, Gurgaon, Haryana.[17]

Karan Singh Yadav - Cardio-thoracic surgeon turn Politician

Mohammed Usman Arif - Politician and former Governor of Uttar Pradesh.

Ghulam Mohammad - Music composer, Bollywood

Santosh Joshi - classical singer

Pannalal Barupal - Indian independence activist, Congress MP from Ganga Nagar.

Harish Bhadani - Hindi and Rajasthani Poet.

Rao Bika - Founder of Bikaner

Surajratan Fatehchand Damani - Member of the 2nd Lok Sabha of India from the Jalore constituency of Rajasthan and a member of the Indian National Congress (INC) political party. He later become member of 4th, 5th and 6th Lok Sabha from the Solapur constituency of Maharashtra.

Devi Singh Bhati - Ex-member of the Rajasthan Legislative Assembly from Kolayat in Rajasthan state in India.

Raja Hasan - Play back singer, a finalist on Sa Re Ga Ma Pa Challenge 2007.

Kishan Singh Rathore - recipient of Mahavir Chakra for bravery displayed in Indo-Pakistani War of 1947 .

Mubarak Begum

Sandeep Acharya - crowned the winner of Indian Idol (season 2) on 22 April 2006.

Shiv Kumari of Kotah - an Indian Hindu royal and the daughter of Maharaja Ganga Singh of Bikaner.

Rajyashree Kumari - former shooter from India. She was conferred the Arjuna Award in shooting in 1968.

Sidhi Kumari - member of Rajasthan Legislative Assembly from Bikaner East, elected in 2008 on as a candidate of Bharatiya Janata Party.

Nand Kishore Achyarya - Indian playwright, poet, and critic who was born in Bikaner, Rajasthan

Arjun Ram Meghwal - elected to the 15th and 16th Lok Sabha, lower house of the Parliament of India from Bikaner constituency, Rajasthan in 2009 and in 2014. Also awarded the Best parliamentarian Award in 2013.

Magan Singh Rajvi - former Indian football player. He hails from Rajasthan. He was given the Arjuna Award in 1973 for his achievements as a football player.

Narpat Singh Rajvi - former Minister and MLA

Abdul Rehman Rana - Pakistani former politician and soldier from Jaranwala, the city of Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan.

Akbar Khan - visually impaired Singer, Composer, Writer and a Banker honoured with National Award in 1989.[18]

Ambika Dutt Ranga - Indian footballer

Kanwar Sen - Civil Engineer

Indra Chandra Shastri - Indian author and philosopher

Ahmad Bakhsh Sindhi - was Law and Justice Minister in Rajasthan

Colonel Rao Bahadur Thakur Sir Sadul Singh was a senior administrator in Bikaner State.

Sudhir Tailang - cartoonist

Shaukat Usmani - member of the émigré Communist Party of India and Freedom fighter

Hisam-ud-din Usta - artisan-painter

Vijay Shankar Vyas - agricultural economist of India

Shri Harakh Chand Nahata, Indian businessman and social leader

Khemchand Prakash - music composer in Hindi film industry.

Shiv R. Jhawar - Indian-American author, public speaker and entrepreneur

Satish Kumar - renowned philosopher from Dungergarh Bikaner.

Mubarak Begum - Indian vocalist who sang in the Hindi and Urdu languages.

Hemant Seakhani - An Entrepreneur.

 

See also

 

Magra sheep

Bikaner State

Bikaner Camel Corps

Bikaneri Bhujia

List of universities and colleges in Bikaner

List of schools in Bikaner, Rajasthan

 

References

 

Patnaik, Naveen. (1990). A Desert Kingdom: The Rajputs of Bikaner. George Weidenfeld & Nicolson Ltd., London.

 

"bkn.co.in". bkn.co.in. Retrieved 2013-09-12.

"PRACHINA - Bikaner Cultural Centre & Museum, Prachina - Cultural capital of marwar, Bikaner Museum, Prachina Museum, Bikaner Royal family, Western influence in Bikaner, Contemporary Crafts, Bikaner Period Room, Ritual Crafts, Aristocratic Textile & Costumes, Royal Portraits, Glass and Cut Glass Objects, Decorative Wall Painting, Aristocratic Locomotive, Museum Galleries". Prachinamuseum.org. Retrieved 2013-09-12.

kalaloda. "Bikaner History, India". Travelgrove.com. Retrieved 2013-09-12.

"Bikaner". Archived from the original on 2007-08-19. Retrieved 2007-09-08.

Ring, Trudy; Robert M. Salkin; Sharon La Boda (1996). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. Bikaner. Taylor & Francis. p. 129. ISBN 1-884964-04-4. Retrieved 2009-12-07.

Ward, Philip (1989). Northern India, Rajasthan, Agra, Delhi: a travel guide. Junagarh Fort. Pelican Publishing Company. pp. 116–119. ISBN 0-88289-753-5. Retrieved 2009-12-07.

"History". National Informatics centre, Bikaner district. Archived from the original on 12 December 2009. Retrieved 2009-12-07.

"Junagarh Fort, Bikaner". Archived from the original on 2009-04-16. Retrieved 2009-12-07.

Ring p.133

Ring p.132

"Bikaner". Archived from the original on 9 January 2010. Retrieved 2009-12-09.

"Climate of Bikaner". Retrieved 2009-12-09.

"Laxmi Niwas Palace (Bikaner, Rajasthan) - Hotel Reviews". TripAdvisor. Retrieved 2013-09-12.

asijaipurcircle.nic.in/Bhandasar jain temple.html

"Historical Census of India".

"Venugopal removed, T D Dogra is new AIIMS director, The Times of India". The Times Of India. Nov 30, 2007. Retrieved 19 May 2013.

"SGT University". Retrieved 19 May 2013.

 

"Information website about Akbar Khan, Bikaner, Rajasthan, India". Akbarkhan.co.in. Retrieved 2013-09-15.

  

I made costumes of Amitji in Bade Miya Chote Miya and Lal Badshah

  

from wikipedia

  

Amitabh Bachchan ([əmɪtaːbʱ bəttʃən] ( listen), born Amitabh Harivansh Bachchan on 11 October 1942) is an Indian film actor. He first gained popularity in the early 1970s as the "angry young man" of Hindi cinema, and has since appeared in over 180 Indian films in a career spanning more than four decades.[1][2] Bachchan is regarded as one of the greatest and most influential actors in the history of Indian cinema.[3][4][5]

Bachchan has won numerous major awards in his career, including three National Film Awards as Best Actor, and fourteen Filmfare Awards. He is the most-nominated performer in any major acting category at Filmfare, with 37 nominations overall. In addition to acting, Bachchan has worked as a playback singer, film producer and television presenter. He also had a stint in politics in the 1980s. He has received both the Padma Shri and the Padma Bhushan civilian awards from the Indian government.

Bachchan was born in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh. His father, Harivansh Rai Bachchan, was a Hindi poet, and his mother, Teji Bachchan, was a Sikh from Faisalabad (now in Pakistan).[6] Bachchan was initially named Inquilaab, inspired from the famous phrase Inquilab Zindabad, during the Indian independence struggle. However, at the suggestion of fellow poet Sumitranandan Pant, Harivansh Rai changed the name to Amitabh which means, "the light that would never go off." Though his surname was Shrivastava, his father had adopted the pen-name Bachchan (meaning child-like in colloquial Hindi), under which he published all his works. It is with this last name that Amitabh debuted in films, and, for all public purposes, it has become the surname of all members of his family. Bachchan's father died in 2003, and his mother in 2007.[7]

Amitabh is the elder of Harivansh Rai Bachchan's two sons, the second being Ajitabh. His mother had a keen interest in theatre and had been offered a role in a film, but preferred her domestic duties. She had some degree of influence in Bachchan's choice of career because she always insisted that he should take the centre stage.[8]

 

Bachchan made his film debut in 1969 as a voice narrator in Mrinal Sen's National Award winning film Bhuvan Shome. Thereafter he got his first acting role as one of the seven protagonists in Saat Hindustani, a film directed by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas and featuring Utpal Dutt, Madhu and Jalal Agha. Though the film was not a financial success, Bachchan won his first National Film Award for Best Newcomer.[9]

Anand (1971) followed, where he starred alongside Rajesh Khanna. Bachchan's role as a doctor with a cynical view of life garned him his first Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award. He then played his first negative role as an infatuated lover-turned-murderer in Parwaana (1971). This was followed by several films including Reshma Aur Shera (1971). During this time, he made a guest appearance in the film Guddi which starred his future wife Jaya Bhaduri. He narrated part of the film Bawarchi. In 1972, he made an appearance in the road action comedy Bombay to Goa, directed by S. Ramanathan. Many of his films during this early period did not do well, but that was about to change.[10]

Rise to stardom: 1973–1983

Director Prakash Mehra cast him in the leading role for the film Zanjeer (1973) as Inspector Vijay Khanna. The film was a sharp contrast to the romantically themed films that had generally preceded it and established Amitabh in a new persona—the "angry young man" of Bollywood cinema.[2] He earned a Filmfare nomination for Best Actor. Filmfare considers this one of the iconic performances of Bollywood history.[10] The year 1973 was also when he married Jaya, and around this time they appeared in several films together; not only in Zanjeer but in films such as Abhimaan which followed and was released only a month after their marriage. Later, Bachchan played the role of Vikram in the film Namak Haraam, a social drama directed by Hrishikesh Mukherjee and scripted by Biresh Chatterjee addressing themes of friendship. His supporting role won him his second Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award.[citation needed]

  

Bachchan in Deewar.

In 1974, Bachchan made several guest appearances in films such as Kunwara Baap and Dost, before playing a supporting role in Roti Kapda Aur Makaan. The film, directed and written by Manoj Kumar, addressed themes of honesty in the face of oppression and financial and emotional hardship. Bachchan then played the leading role in film Majboor, released on 6 December 1974, which was a remake of the Hollywood film Zigzag. The film was only a moderate success at the box office.[11] In 1975, he starred in a variety of film genres from the comedy Chupke Chupke, the crime drama Faraar to the romantic drama Mili. 1975 was the year when he appeared in two films which are regarded as important in Hindi cinematic history. He starred in the Yash Chopra directed film Deewaar, opposite Shashi Kapoor, Nirupa Roy, and Neetu Singh, which earned him a Filmfare Nomination for Best Actor. The film became a major hit at the box office in 1975, ranking in at number 4.[12] Indiatimes Movies ranks Deewaar amongst the Top 25 Must See Bollywood Films.[13] Released on 15 August 1975 was Sholay (meaning flames), which became the highest grossing film of all time in India, earning INR 2,36,45,00,000 equivalent to US$ 60 million, after adjusting for inflation.[14] Bachchan played the role of Jaidev. In 1999, BBC India declared it the "Film of the Millennium" and like Deewar, has been cited by Indiatimes movies as amongst the Top 25 Must See Bollywood Films.[13] In that same year, the judges of the 50th annual Filmfare Awards awarded it with the special distinction award called Filmfare Best Film of 50 Years.

Bachchan starred in comedies such as Chupke Chupke (1975) and Amar Akbar Anthony (1977) and in films such as Kabhie Kabhie (1976). In 1976, he was once again cast by director Yash Chopra in his second film, Kabhi Kabhie, a romantic tale in which Bachchan starred as a young poet named Amit Malhotra who falls deeply in love with a beautiful young girl named Pooja played by actress Rakhee Gulzar. The film saw him again nominated for the Filmfare Best Actor Award. In 1977, he won his first Filmfare Best Actor Award for his performance in Amar Akbar Anthony where he played the third lead opposite Vinod Khanna and Rishi Kapoor as Anthony Gonsalves. In 1978 he starred in all four of the highest grossing films of India in that year.[15] He once again resumed double roles in films such as Kasme Vaade as Amit and Shankar and Don playing the characters of Don, a leader of an underworld gang and his look alike Vijay. His performance won him his second Filmfare Best Actor Award. He also performed in Trishul and Muqaddar Ka Sikandar which both earned him further Filmfare Best Actor nominations. He was billed a "one-man industry" by the French director François Truffaut.[16]

In 1979, for the first time, Amitabh was required to use his singing voice for the film Mr. Natwarlal in which he starred alongside Rekha. His performance in the film saw him nominated for both the Filmfare Best Actor Award and the Filmfare Best Male Playback Awards. In 1979, he also received Best Actor nomination for Kaala Patthar (1979) and then went on to be nominated again in 1980 for the Raj Khosla directed film Dostana, in which he starred opposite Shatrughan Sinha and Zeenat Aman. Dostana proved to be the top grossing film of 1980.[17] In 1981, he starred in Yash Chopra's melodrama film Silsila, where he starred alongside his wife Jaya and rumoured lover Rekha. Other films of this period include Ram Balram (1980), Shaan (1980), Lawaaris (1981), and Shakti (1982) which pitted him against legendary actor Dilip Kumar.[18]

1982 injury while filming Coolie

On 26 July 1982, while filming Coolie in the University Campus in Bangalore, Bachchan suffered a near fatal intestinal injury during the filming of a fight scene with co-actor Puneet Issar.[19] Bachchan was performing his own stunts in the film and one scene required him to fall onto a table and then on the ground. However as he jumped towards the table, the corner of the table struck his abdomen, resulting in a splenic rupture from which he lost a significant amount of blood. He required an emergency splenectomy and remained critically ill in hospital for many months, at times close to death. The public response included prayers in temples and offers to sacrifice limbs to save him, while later, there were long queues of well-wishing fans outside the hospital where he was recuperating.[20] Nevertheless, he spent many months recovering and resumed filming later that year after a long period of recuperation. The film was released in 1983, and partly due to the huge publicity of Bachchan's accident, the film was a box office success.[21]

The director, Manmohan Desai, altered the ending of Coolie after Bachchan's accident. Bachchan's character was originally intended to have been killed off but after the change of script, the character lived in the end. It would have been inappropriate, said Desai, for the man who had just fended off death in real life to be killed on screen. Also, in the released film the footage of the fight scene is frozen at the critical moment, and a caption appears onscreen marking this as the instant of the actor's injury and the ensuing publicity of the accident.[20]

Later, he was diagnosed with Myasthenia gravis. His illness made him feel weak both mentally and physically and he decided to quit films and venture into politics. At this time he became pessimistic, expressing concern with how a new film would be received and stated before every release, "Yeh film to flop hogi!" ("This film will flop").[22]

Politics: 1984–87

In 1984, Bachchan took a break from acting and briefly entered politics in support of long-time family friend, Rajiv Gandhi. He contested Allahabad's seat of 8th Lok Sabha against H. N. Bahuguna, former Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and won by one of the highest victory margins in general election history (68.2% of the vote).[23] His political career, however, was short-lived: he resigned after three years, calling politics a cesspool. The resignation followed the implication of Bachchan and his brother in the "Bofors scandal" by a newspaper, which he vowed to take to court. Bachchan was eventually found not guilty of involvement in the ordeal.[24]

His old friend, Amar Singh, helped him during a financial crisis due to the failure of his company ABCL. Therefore Bachchan started to support Amar Singh's political party, the Samajwadi party. Jaya Bachchan joined the Samajwadi Party and became a Rajya Sabha member.[25] Bachchan has continued to do favors for the Samajwadi party, including advertisements and political campaigns. These activities have recently gotten him into trouble again in the Indian courts for false claims after a previous incident of submission of legal papers by him, stating that he is a farmer.[26]

A 15 year press ban against Bachchan was imposed during his peak acting years by Stardust and some of the other film magazines. In his own defense, Bachchan claimed to have banned the press from entering his sets until late 1989.[27]

Slump and retirement: 1988–1992

In 1988, Bachchan returned to films, playing the title role in Shahenshah, which was a box office success due to the hype of Bachchan's comeback.[28] After the success of his comeback film however, his star power began to wane as all of his subsequent films failed at the box office. The 1991 hit film, Hum, for which he won his third Filmfare Best Actor Award, looked like it might reverse this trend, but the momentum was short-lived as his string of box office failures continued. Notably, despite the lack of hits, it was during this period that Bachchan won his first National Film Award for Best Actor, for his performance as a Mafia don in the 1990 film Agneepath. These years would be the last he would be seen on screen for some time. After the release of Khuda Gawah in 1992, Bachchan went into semi-retirement for five years. In 1994, one of his delayed films Insaniyat was released but was also a box office failure.[29]

Producer and acting comeback 1996–99

Bachchan turned producer during his temporary retirement period, setting up Amitabh Bachchan Corporation, Ltd. (A.B.C.L.) in 1996, with the vision of becoming a 10 billion rupees (approx 250 million $US) premier entertainment company by the year 2000. ABCL's strategy was to introduce products and services covering the entire section of the India's entertainment industry. Its operations were mainstream commercial film production and distribution, audio cassettes and video discs, production and marketing of television software, celebrity and event management. Soon after the company was launched in 1996, the first film was produced by the company. Tere Mere Sapne failed to do well at the box office but launched the careers of actors such as Arshad Warsi and South films star Simran. ABCL produced a few other films, none of which did well.

In 1997, Bachchan attempted to make his acting comeback with the film Mrityudata, produced by ABCL. Though Mrityudaata attempted to reprise Bachchan's earlier success as an action hero, the film was a failure both financially and critically. ABCL was the main sponsor of the 1996 Miss World beauty pageant, Bangalore but lost millions. The fiasco and the consequent legal battles surrounding ABCL and various entities after the event, coupled with the fact that ABCL was reported to have overpaid most of its top level managers, eventually led to its financial and operational collapse in 1997. The company went into administration and was later declared a failed company by Indian Industries board. The Bombay high court, in April 1999, restrained Bachchan from selling off his Bombay bungalow 'Prateeksha' and two flats till the pending loan recovery cases of Canara Bank were disposed of. Bachchan had, however, pleaded that he had mortgaged his bungalow to Sahara India Finance for raising funds for his company.[30]

Bachchan attempted to revive his acting career and had average success with Bade Miyan Chote Miyan (1998),[29] and received positive reviews for Sooryavansham (1999)[31] but other films such as Lal Baadshah (1999) and Hindustan Ki Kasam (1999) were box office failures.

Return to prominence: 2000–present

 

In 2000, Amitabh Bachchan appeared in Yash Chopra's box-office hit, Mohabbatein, directed by Aditya Chopra. He played a stern, older figure that rivalled the character of Shahrukh Khan. His role won him his third Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award. Other hits followed, with Bachchan appearing as an older family patriarch in Ek Rishtaa: The Bond of Love (2001), Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham... (2001) and Baghban (2003). As an actor, he continued to perform in a range of characters, receiving critical praise for his performances in Aks (2001), Aankhen (2002), Khakee (2004) and Dev (2004). One project that did particularly well for Bachchan was Sanjay Leela Bhansali's Black (2005). The film starred Bachchan as an aging teacher of a deaf-blind girl and followed their relationship. His performance was unanimously praised by critics and audiences and won him his second National Film Award for Best Actor and fourth Filmfare Best Actor Award. Taking advantage of this resurgence, Amitabh began endorsing a variety of products and services, appearing in many television and billboard advertisements. In 2005 and 2006, he starred with his son Abhishek in the hit films Bunty Aur Babli (2005), the Godfather tribute Sarkar (2005), and Kabhi Alvida Na Kehna (2006). All of them were successful at the box office.[32][33] His later releases in 2006 and early 2007 were Baabul (2006),[34] Ekalavya and Nishabd (2007), which failed to do well at the box office but his performances in each of them were praised by critics.[35]

In May 2007, two of his films Cheeni Kum and the multi-starrer Shootout at Lokhandwala were released. Shootout at Lokhandwala did very well at the box office and was declared a hit in India, while Cheeni Kum picked up after a slow start and only had average success.[36] A remake of his biggest hit, Sholay (1975), entitled Ram Gopal Varma Ki Aag, released in August of that same year and proved to be a major commercial failure in addition to its poor critical reception.[36] The year also marked Bachchan's first appearance in an English-language film, Rituparno Ghosh's The Last Lear. The film premiered at the 2007 Toronto International Film Festival on 9 September 2007. He received positive reviews from critics who hailed his performance as his best ever since Black.[37] Bachchan was slated to play a supporting role in his first international film, Shantaram, directed by Mira Nair and starring Hollywood actor Johnny Depp in the lead. The film was due to begin filming in February 2008 but due to the writer's strike, was pushed to September 2008.[38] The film is currently "shelved" indefinitely.[39] Vivek Sharma's Bhoothnath, in which he plays the title role as a ghost, was released on 9 May 2008. Sarkar Raj, the sequel of the 2005 film Sarkar, released in June 2008 and received a positive response at the box-office. Paa, which released at the end of 2009 was a highly anticipated project as it saw him playing his own son Abhishek's Progeria-affected 13-year-old son, and it opened to favourable reviews, particularly towards Bachchan's performance. It won him his third National Film Award for Best Actor and fifth Filmfare Best Actor Award. In 2010, he debuted in Malayalam film through Kandahar, directed by Major Ravi and co-starring Mohanlal.[40] The film was based on the hijacking incident of the Indian Airlines Flight 814.[41] Bachchan did not receive any remuneration for this film.[42]

Television career

In the year 2000, Bachchan stepped up to host India's adaptation of the British television game show, Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? entitled, Kaun Banega Crorepati. As it did in most other countries where it was adopted, the program found immediate success. He has hosted all but one of the seasons of the show. Canara Bank withdrew its law suit against Bachchan in November 2000. Bachchan hosted KBC till November 2005, when he fell ill. At that time he was admitted to Lilavati Hospital's ICU once more, to undergo surgery for diverticulitis of the small intestine.[43] During the period and that following his recovery, most of his projects were put on hold, including KBC.[44] He has hosted all but one season of the show. Its success set the stage for his return to film popularity. In 2009 Oscar winning movie Slumdog Millionaire in the first question of Who Wants to be a Millionaire? contest "Amitabh Bachchan" was the correct answer to the question "Who was the star of Zanjeer? Feroz Abbas Khan performed as Amitabh Bachchan in a scene in the movie while Anil Kapoor performed as the host of the contest. Bachchan hosted the third season of the reality show Bigg Boss in 2009.[45]

Chittorgarh Fort (Hindi/Rajasthani: चित्तौड दुर्ग Chittorgarh Durg) is the largest fort in India and the grandest in the state of Rajasthan. It is a World Heritage Site. The fort, plainly known as Chittor, was the capital of Mewar and is today situated several kilometres south of Bhilwara. It was initially ruled by Guhilot and later by Sisodias, the Suryavanshi clans of Chattari Rajputs, from the 7th century, until it was finally abandoned in 1568 after the siege by Emperor Akbar in 1567. It sprawls majestically over a hill 180 m in height spread over an area of 280 ha above the plains of the valley drained by the Berach River. The fort precinct with an evocative history is studded with a series of historical palaces, gates, temples and two prominent commemoration towers. These monumental ruins have inspired the imagination of tourists and writers for centuries.

 

The fort was sacked three times between the 15th and 16th centuries; in 1303 Allauddin Khilji defeated Rana Ratan Singh, in 1535 Bahadur Shah, the Sultan of Gujarat defeated Bikramjeet Singh and in 1567 Emperor Akbar defeated Maharana Udai Singh II who left the fort and founded Udaipur. Each time the men fought bravely rushing out of the fort walls charging the enemy but lost every time. Following these defeats, Jauhar was committed thrice by more than 13,000 ladies and children of the Rajput heroes who laid their lives in battles at Chittorgarh Fort, first led by Rani Padmini wife of Rana Rattan Singh who was killed in the battle in 1303, and later by Rani Karnavati in 1537 AD.

 

Thus, the fort represents the quintessence of tribute to the nationalism, courage, medieval chivalry and sacrifice exhibited by the Mewar rulers of Sisodia and their kinsmen and women and children, between the 7th and 16th centuries. The rulers, their soldiers, the women folk of royalty and the commoners considered death as a better option than dishonor in the face of surrender to the foreign invading armies.

 

GEOGRAPHY

Chittorgarh, located in the southern part of the state of Rajasthan, 233 km from Ajmer, midway between Delhi and Mumbai on the National Highway 8 (India) in the road network of Golden Quadrilateral. Chittorgarh is situated where National Highways No. 76 & 79 intersect.

 

The fort rises abruptly above the surrounding plains and is spread over an area of 2.8 km2. The highest elevation at the fort is 1,075 m. It is situated on the left bank of the Berach river (a tributary of the Banas River) and is linked to the new town of Chittorgarh (known as the 'Lower Town') developed in the plains after 1568 AD when the fort was deserted in light of introduction of artillery in the 16th century, and therefore the capital was shifted to more secure Udaipur, located on the eastern flank of Aravalli hill range. Mughal Emperor Akbar attacked and sacked this fort which was but one of the 84 forts of Mewar,but the capital was shifted to Aravalli hills where heavy artillery & cavalry were not effective. A winding hill road of more than 1 km length from the new town leads to the west end main gate, called Ram Pol, of the fort. Within the fort, a circular road provides access to all the gates and monuments located within the fort walls.

 

The fort that once boasted of 84 water bodies has only 22 of them now. These water bodies are fed by natural catchment and rainfall, and have a combined storage of 4 billion litres that could meet the water needs of an army of 50,000. The supply could last for four years. These water bodies are in the form of ponds, wells and step wells.

 

HISTORY

Chittorgarh Fort is considered to be the largest fort of India in terms of area. It is stated that the fort was constructed by the Mauryans during the 7th century AD and hence derives its name after the Mauryan ruler, Chitrangada Mori, as inscribed on coins of the period. Historical records show Chittorgarh fort as the capital of Mewar for 834 years. It was established in 734 AD by Bappa Rawal, founder ruler in the hierarchy of the Sisodia rulers of Mewar. It is also said that the fort was gifted to Bappa Rawal as part of Solanki princess’s dowry in the 8th century. The fort was looted and destroyed at the hands of Emperor Akbar in 1568 AD and subsequently never resettled but only refurbished in 1905 AD. Three important battles were fought for control of the fort; in 1303, Ala-ud-din Khilji besieged the fort; in 1535, Sultan of Gujarat Bahadur Shah besieged the fort; and in 1568, Mughal Emperor Akbar attacked the fort. Not that there were only defeats at the fort. Excluding the periods of siege, the fort had always remained in possession of the Sisodias of the Guhilot (or Gehlot/Guhila) clan of Rajputs, who descended from Bappa Rawal. There were also success stories of establishment of the fort and its reconstruction after every siege, before it was finally abandoned in 1568, all of which are narrated.

 

Chittor is cited in the Mahabharat epic. It is said that Bhima, the second of the Pandava brothers of Epic Mahabaharata fame, known for his mighty strength gave a powerful hit with his fist to the ground that resulted in water springing up to form a large reservoir. It is called Bhimlat kund, an artificial tank named after Bhima. Folk legend also mentions that Bhima started building the fort.

 

BAPPA RAWAL

The earliest history linked to the Bappa Rawal's fort is that of the Huna Kingdom of Sialkot (of Mihir Kula 515-540 AD) that was destroyed by Yashodharman. This was subsequently seized by a new dynasty of kshatriyas called Tak or Taxaka. According to historians, the Taxak Mori were the lords of Chittor from a very early period. After a few generations, the Guhilots supplanted them. From 725 to 735 AD, there were numerous defenders who appear to have considered the cause of Chittor their own, the Tak from Asirgarh. This race appears to have retained possession of Asirgarh for at least two centuries after this event and one of its chieftain Bappa Rawal was the most conspicuous leader in the lineage of Prithvi Raj. In the poems of Chandar he is called the "Standard, bearer, Tak of Asir."

 

SIEGE OF 1303

Ala ud din Khilji, Sultan of Delhi, rallied his forces against Mewar, in 1303 AD. The Chittorgarh fort was till then considered impregnable and grand, atop a natural hill. But his immediate reason for invading the fort was his obsessive desire to capture Rani Padmini, the unrivalled beautiful queen of Rana Ratan Singh and take her into his harem. The Rana, out of politeness, allowed the Khilji to view Padmini through a set of mirrors. But this viewing of Padmini further fired Khilji’s desire to possess her. After the viewing, as a gesture of courtesy, when the Rana accompanied the Sultan to the outer gate, he was treacherously captured. Khilji conveyed to the queen that the Rana would be released only if she agreed to join his harem. But the queen had other plans. She agreed to go to his camp if permitted to go in a Royal style with an entourage, in strict secrecy. Instead of her going, she sent 700 well armed soldiers disguised in litters and they rescued the Rana and took him to the fort. But Khilji chased them to the fort where a fierce battle ensued at the outer gate of the fort in which the Rajput soldiers were overpowered and the Rana was killed. Khilji won the battle on August 26, 1303. Soon thereafter, instead of surrendering to the Sultan, the royal Rajput ladies led by Rani Padmini preferred to die through the Rajput’s ultimate tragic rite of Jauhar (self immolation on a pyre). In revenge, Khilji killed thirty thousand Hindus. He entrusted the fort to his son Khizr Khan to rule and renamed the fort as 'Khizrabad'. He also showered gifts on his son by way of

 

a red canopy, a robe embroidered with gold and two standards one green and the other black and threw upon him rubies and emeralds.

 

He returned to Delhi after the fierce battle at the fort.

 

RANA HAMMIR & SUCCESSORS

Khizr Khan’s rule at the fort lasted till 1311 AD and due to the pressure of Rajputs he was forced to entrust power to the Sonigra chief Maldeva who held the fort for 7 years. Hammir Singh, usurped control of the fort from Maldeva by “treachery and intrigue” and Chittor once again regained its past glory. Hammir, before his death in 1364 AD, had converted Mewar into a fairly large and prosperous kingdom. The dynasty (and clan) fathered by him came to be known by the name Sisodia after the village where he was born. His son Ketra Singh succeeded him and ruled with honour and power. Ketra Singh’s son Lakha who ascended the throne in 1382 AD also won several wars. His famous grandson Rana Kumbha came to the throne in 1433 AD and by that time the Muslim rulers of Malwa and Gujarat had acquired considerable clout and were keen to usurp the powerful Mewar state.

 

RANA KUMBHA & CLAN

There was resurgence during the reign of Rana Kumbha in the 15th century. Rana Kumbha, also known as Maharana Kumbhakarna, son of Rana Mokal, ruled Mewar between 1433 AD and 1468 AD. He is credited with building up the Mewar kingdom assiduously as a force to reckon with. He built 32 forts (84 fortresses formed the defense of Mewar) including one in his own name, called Kumbalgarh. But his end came in 1468 AD at the hands of his own son Rana Udaysimha (Uday Singh I) who assassinated him to gain the throne of Mewar. This patricide was not appreciated by the people of Mewar and consequently his brother Rana Raimal assumed the reins of power in 1473. After his death in May 1509, Sangram Singh (also known as Rana Sanga), his youngest son, became the ruler of Mewar, which brought in a new phase in the history of Mewar. Rana Sanga, with support from Medini Rai (a Rajput chief of Alwar), fought a valiant battle against Mughal emperor Babar at Khanwa in 1527. He ushered in a period of prestige to Chittor by defeating the rulers of Gujarat and also effectively interfered in the matters of Idar. He also won small areas of the Delhi territory. In the ensuing battle with Ibrahim Lodi, Rana won and acquired some districts of Malwa. He also defeated the combined might of Sultan Muzaffar of Gujarat and the Sultan of Malwa. By 1525 AD, Rana Sanga had developed Chittor and Mewar, by virtue of great intellect, valour and his sword, into a formidable military state. But in a decisive battle that was fought against Babar on March 16, 1527, the Rajput army of Rana Sanga suffered a terrible defeat and Sanga escaped to one of his fortresses. But soon thereafter in another attack on the Chanderi fort the valiant Rana Sanga died and with his death the Rajput confederacy collapsed.

 

SIEGE OF 1534

Bahadur Shah who came to the throne in 1526 AD as the Sultan of Gujarat besieged the Chittorgarh fort in 1534. The fort was sacked and, once again the medieval dictates of chivalry determined the outcome. Following the defeat of the Rana, it is said 13,000 Rajput women committed jauhar (self immolation on the funeral pyre) and 3,200 Rajput warriors rushed out of the fort to fight and die.

 

SIEGE OF 1567

The final Siege of Chittorgarh came 33 years later, in 1567, when the Mughal Emperor Akbar invaded the fort. Akbar wanted to conquer Mewar, which was being ably ruled by Rana Uday Singh II, a fine prince of Mewar. To establish himself as the supreme lord of Northern India, he wanted to capture the renowned fortress of Chittor, as a precursor to conquering the whole of India. Shakti Singh, son of the Rana who had quarreled with his father, had run away and approached Akbar when the later had camped at Dholpur preparing to attack Malwa. During one of these meetings, in August 1567, Shakti Singh came to know from a remark made in jest by emperor Akbar that he was intending to wage war against Chittor. Akbar had told Shakti Singh in jest that since his father had not submitted himself before him like other princes and chieftains of the region he would attack him. Startled by this revelation, Shakti Singh quietly rushed back to Chittor and informed his father of the impending invasion by Akbar. Akbar was furious with the departure of Shakti Singh and decided to attack Mewar to humble the arrogance of the Ranas. In September 1567, the emperor left for Chittor, and on October 20, 1567, camped in the vast plains outside the fort. In the meantime, Rana Udai Singh, on the advice of his council of advisors, decided to go away from Chittor to the hills of Udaipur. Jaimal and Patta, two brave army chieftains of Mewar, were left behind to defend the fort along with 8,000 Rajput warriors under their command. Akbar laid siege to the fortress. The Rajput army fought valiantly and Akbar himself had narrowly escaped death. In this grave situation, Akbar had prayed for divine help for achieving victory and vowed to visit the shrine of the sufi saint Khwaja at Ajmer. The battle continued till February 23, 1568. On that day Jaymal was seriously wounded but he continued to fight with support from Patta. Jayamal ordered jauhar to be performed when many beautiful princesses of Mewar and noble matrons committed self-immolation at the funeral pyre. Next day the gates of the fort were opened and Rajput soldiers rushed out bravely to fight the enemies. Jayamal and Patta who fought bravely were at last killed in action. One figure estimates that 30,000 soldiers were killed in action. Akbar immediately repaired himself to Ajmer to perform his religious vow.

 

RETURN OF THE FORT TO MEWAR

But in 1616, Jehangir returned Chittor fort to the Rajputs, when Maharana Amar Singh was the chief of Mewar. However, the fort was not resettled though it was refurbished several centuries later in 1905 during British Raj.

 

PRECINCTS

The fort which is roughly in the shape of a fish has a circumference of 13 km with a maximum width of 3 km and it covers an area of 700 acres. The fort is approached through a zig zag and difficult ascent of more than 1 km from the plains, after crossing over a bridge made in limestone. The bridge spans the Gambhiri River and is supported by ten arches (one has a curved shape while the balance have pointed arches). Apart from the two tall towers, which dominate the majestic fortifications, the sprawling fort has a plethora of palaces and temples (many of them in ruins) within its precincts.

 

The 305 hectares component site, with a buffer zone of 427 hectares, encompasses the fortified stronghold of Chittorgarh, a spacious fort located on an isolated rocky plateau of approximately 2 km length and 155m width.

 

It is surrounded by a perimeter wall 4.5 kilometres long, beyond which a 45° hill slope makes it almost inaccessible to enemies. The ascent to the fort passes through seven gateways built by the Mewar ruler Rana Kumbha (1433- 1468) of the Sisodia clan. These gates are called, from the base to the hill top, the Paidal Pol, Bhairon Pol, Hanuman Pol, Ganesh Pol, Jorla Pol, Laxman Pol, and Ram Pol, the final and main gate.

 

The fort complex comprises 65 historic built structures, among them 4 palace complexes, 19 main temples, 4 memorials and 20 functional water bodies. These can be divided into two major construction phases. The first hill fort with one main entrance was established in the 5th century and successively fortified until the 12th century. Its remains are mostly visible on the western edges of the plateau. The second, more significant defence structure was constructed in the 15th century during the reign of the Sisodia Rajputs, when the royal entrance was relocated and fortified with seven gates, and the medieval fortification wall was built on an earlier wall construction from the 13th century.

 

Besides the palace complex, located on the highest and most secure terrain in the west of the fort, many of the other significant structures, such as the Kumbha Shyam Temple, the Mira Bai Temple, the Adi Varah Temple, the Shringar Chauri Temple, and the Vijay Stambh memorial were constructed in this second phase. Compared to the later additions of Sisodian rulers during the 19th and 20th centuries, the predominant construction phase illustrates a comparatively pure Rajput style combined with minimal eclecticism, such as the vaulted substructures which were borrowed from Sultanate architecture. The 4.5 km walls with integrated circular enforcements are constructed from dressed stone masonry in lime mortar and rise 500m above the plain. With the help of the seven massive stone gates, partly flanked by hexagonal or octagonal towers, the access to the fort is restricted to a narrow pathway which climbs up the steep hill through successive, ever narrower defence passages. The seventh and final gate leads directly into the palace area, which integrates a variety of residential and official structures. Rana Kumbha Mahal, the palace of Rana Kumbha, is a large Rajput domestic structure and now incorporates the Kanwar Pade Ka Mahal (the palace of the heir) and the later palace of the poetess Mira Bai (1498-1546). The palace area was further expanded in later centuries, when additional structures, such as the Ratan Singh Palace (1528–31) or the Fateh Prakash, also named Badal Mahal (1885-1930), were added. Although the majority of temple structures represent the Hindu faith, most prominently the Kalikamata Temple (8th century), the Kshemankari Temple (825-850) the Kumbha Shyam Temple (1448) or the Adbuthnath Temple (15th- 16th century), the hill fort also contains Jain temples, such as Shringar Chauri (1448) and Sat Bis Devri (mid-15th century) Also the two tower memorials, Kirti Stambh (13th-14th century) and Vijay Stambha (1433-1468), are Jain monuments. They stand out with their respective heights of 24m and 37m, which ensure their visibility from most locations of the fort complex. Finally, the fort compound is home to a contemporary municipal ward of approximately 3,000 inhabitants, which is located near Ratan Singh Tank at the northern end of the property.

 

GATES

The fort has total seven gates (in local language, gate is called Pol), namely the Padan Pol, Bhairon Pol, Hanuman Pol, Ganesh Pol, Jodla Pol, Laxman Pol and the main gate named the Ram Pol (Lord Rama's Gate). All the gateways to the fort have been built as massive stone structures with secure fortifications for military defense. The doors of the gates with pointed arches are reinforced to fend off elephants and cannon shots. The top of the gates have notched parapets for archers to shoot at the enemy army. A circular road within the fort links all the gates and provides access to the numerous monuments (ruined palaces and 130 temples) in the fort.

 

During the second siege, Prince Bagh Singh died at the Padan Pol in 1535 AD. Prince Jaimal of Badnore and his clansman Kalla were killed by Akbar at a location between the Bhairon Pol and Hanuman Pol in the last siege of the fort in 1567 (Kalla carried the wounded Jaimal out to fight). Chhatris, with the roof supported by corbeled arches, have been built to commemorate the spots of their sacrifice. Their statues have also been erected, at the orders of Emperor Akbar, to commemorate their valiant deaths. At each gate, cenotaphs of Jaimal (in the form of a statue of a Rajput warrior on horseback) and Patta have also been constructed. At Ram Pol, the entrance gate to the fort, a Chaatri was built in memory of the 15 year old Patta of Kelwa, who had lost his father in battle, and saw the sword yielding mother and wife on the battle field who fought valiantly and died at this gate. He led the saffron robed Rajput warriors, who all died fighting for Mewar’s honour. Suraj Pol (Sun Gate) provides entry to the eastern wall of the fort. On the right of Suraj Pol is the Darikhana or Sabha (council chamber) behind which lie a Ganesha temple and the zenana (living quarters for women). A massive water reservoir is located towards the left of Suraj Pol. There is also a peculiar gate, called the Jorla Pol (Joined Gate), which consists of two gates joined together. The upper arch of Jorla Pol is connected to the base of Lakshman Pol. It is said that this feature has not been noticed anywhere else in India. The Lokota Bari is the gate at the fort’s northern tip, while a small opening that was used to hurl criminals into the abyss is seen at the southern end.

 

VIJAY STAMBHA

The Vijay Stambha (Tower of Victory) or Jaya Stambha, called the symbol of Chittor and a particularly bold expression of triumph, was erected by Rana Kumbha between 1458 and 1468 to commemorate his victory over Mahmud Shah I Khalji, the Sultan of Malwa, in 1440 AD. Built over a period of ten years, it raises 37.2 metres over a 4.4 m2 base in nine stories accessed through a narrow circular staircase of 157 steps (the interior is also carved) up to the 8th floor, from where there is good view of the plains and the new town of Chittor. The dome, which was a later addition, was damaged by lightning and repaired during the 19th century. The Stamba is now illuminated during the evenings and gives a beautiful view of Chittor from the top.

 

KIRTI STAMBHA

Kirti Stambha (Tower of Fame) is a 22 metres high tower built on a 9.1 m base with 4.6 m at the top, is adorned with Jain sculptures on the outside and is older (probably 12th century) and smaller than the Victory Tower. Built by a Bagherwal Jain merchant Jijaji Rathod, it is dedicated to Adinath, the first Jain tirthankar (revered Jain teacher). In the lowest floor of the tower, figures of the various tirthankars of the Jain pantheon are seen in special niches formed to house them. These are digambara monuments. A narrow stairway with 54 steps leads through the six storeys to the top. The top pavilion that was added in the 15th century has 12 columns.

 

RANA KUMBHA PALACE

At the entrance gate near the Vijaya Stamba, Rana Kumbha's palace (in ruins), the oldest monument, is located. The palace included elephant and horse stables and a temple to Lord Shiva. Maharana Udai Singh, the founder of Udaipur, was born here; the popular folk lore linked to his birth is that his maid Panna DaiPanna Dhai saved him by substituting her son in his place as a decoy, which resulted in her son getting killed by Banbir. The prince was spirited away in a fruit basket. The palace is built with plastered stone. The remarkable feature of the palace is its splendid series of canopied balconies. Entry to the palace is through Suraj Pol that leads into a courtyard. Rani Meera, the famous poetess saint, also lived in this palace. This is also the palace where Rani Padmini, consigned herself to the funeral pyre in one of the underground cellars, as an act of jauhar along with many other women. The Nau Lakha Bandar (literal meaning: nine lakh treasury) building, the royal treasury of Chittor was also located close by. Now, across from the palace is a museum and archeological office. The Singa Chowri temple is also nearby.

 

FATEH PRAKASH PALACE

Located near Rana Khumba palace, built by Rana Fateh Singh, the precincts have modern houses and a small museum. A school for local children (about 5,000 villagers live within the fort) is also nearby.

 

GAUMUKH RESERVOIR

A spring feeds the tank from a carved cow’s mouth in the cliff. This pool was the main source of water at the fort during the numerous sieges.

 

PADMINI´S PALACE

Padmini's Palace or Rani Padmini's Palace is a white building and a three storied structure (a 19th-century reconstruction of the original). It is located in the southern part of the fort. Chhatris (pavilions) crown the palace roofs and a water moat surrounds the palace. This style of palace became the forerunner of other palaces built in the state with the concept of Jal Mahal (palace surrounded by water). It is at this Palace where Alauddin was permitted to glimpse the mirror image of Rani Padmini, wife of Maharana Rattan Singh. It is widely believed that this glimpse of Padmini's beauty besotted him and convinced him to destroy Chittor in order to possess her. Maharana Rattan Singh was killed and Rani Padmini committed Jauhar. Rani Padmini's beauty has been compared to that of Cleopatra and her life story is an eternal legend in the history of Chittor. The bronze gates to this pavilion were removed and transported to Agra by Akbar.

 

OTHER SIGHTS

Close to Kirti Sthamba is the Meera Temple, or the Meerabai Temple. Rana Khumba built it in an ornate Indo–Aryan architectural style. It is associated with the mystic saint-poet Mirabai who was an ardent devotee of Lord Krishna and dedicated her entire life to His worship. She composed and sang lyrical bhajans called Meera Bhajans. The popular legend associated with her is that with blessings of Krishna, she survived after consuming poison sent to her by her evil brother-in-law. The larger temple in the same compound is the Kumbha Shyam Temple (Varaha Temple). The pinnacle of the temple is in pyramid shape. A picture of Meerabai praying before Krishna has now been installed in the temple.

 

Across from Padmini’s Palace is the Kalika Mata Temple. Originally, a Sun Temple dated to the 8th century dedicated to Surya (the Sun God) was destroyed in the 14th century. It was rebuilt as a Kali temple.

 

Another temple on the west side of the fort is the ancient Goddess Tulja Bhavani Temple built to worship Goddess Tulja Bhavani is considered sacred. The Tope Khana (cannon foundry) is located next to this temple in a courtyard, where a few old cannons are still seen.

 

JAUHAR MELA

The fort and the city of Chittorgarh host the biggest Rajput festival called the "Jauhar Mela". It takes place annually on the anniversary of one of the jauhars, but no specific name has been given to it. It is generally believed that it commemorates Padmini’s jauhar, which is most famous. This festival is held primarily to commemorate the bravery of Rajput ancestors and all three jauhars which happened at Chittorgarh Fort. A huge number of Rajputs, which include the descendants of most of the princely families, hold a procession to celebrate the Jauhar. It has also become a forum to air one's views on the current political situation in the country.

Gautham Vasudev Menon (born 25 February 1973), more commonly known as Gautham Menon, is an Indian film director and producer, who predominantly works in Tamil cinema. Many of his films have been critically acclaimed, most notably his semi-autobiographical Vaaranam Aayiram (2008), Vinnaithaandi Varuvaayaa (2010) and his action-thrillers Kaakha Kaakha (2003), Vettaiyaadu Vilaiyaadu (2006). Vaaranam Aayiram won the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Tamil. Gautham Menon spearheaded releasing movies of same content in different languages, simultaneously. He produces films through his London Stock Exchange-listed Photon Kathaas film production company.Early life and education[edit]

Gautham was born to a Malayali father and Tamil mother on 25 February 1973 in Ottapalam, a town in Palakkad district of Kerala. Although, born in Kerala he grew up in Trichy, Tamil Nadu.[1][2] He studied Mechanical Engineering in Mookambigai College of Engineering, Trichy.[3][4]

 

Career[edit]

Early work, 2001[edit]

Gautham Menon was a student of mechanical engineering at Mookambigai College of Engineering, Trichy in the batch of 1993, and his time there inspired to make his lead characters of Minnale, Vaaranam Aayiram and Vinnaithaandi Varuvaayaa, students of the same course.[5] He claims to have been inspired by films such as Dead Poets Society and Nayagan and expressed his desire to his parents to change career path and become a filmmaker and consequently wrote his first film at his college hostel. His mother insisted he became an ad film maker by shooting various commercials and took an apprenticeship under filmmaker Rajiv Menon. He went on to work as an assistant director for Minsara Kanavu in 1997, in which he also appeared in a cameo role.[6]

 

Gautham Menon launched a Tamil romantic film O Lala in 2000 with the project eventually changing producers and title into Minnale with Madhavan, who was at the beginning of his career, being signed on to portray the lead role.[7] About the making of the film, Menon revealed that he found it difficult as the team was new to the industry with only the editor of the film, Suresh Urs, being a prominent technician in the industry.[8] Menon had come under further pressure when Madhavan had insisted that Menon narrated the story to his mentor, Mani Ratnam, to identify if the film was a positive career move after the success of his Alaipayuthey. Despite initial reservations, Menon did so and Ratnam was unimpressed; however Menon has cited that he thought that Madhavan "felt sorry" and later agreed to continue with the project.[8] The film also featured Abbas and newcomer Reemma Sen in significant roles, whilst Menon introduced Harris Jayaraj as music composer with the film.[7] The film was advertised as a Valentine's Day release in 2001 and told the tale of a young man who falls in love with the girl engaged to his ex-college rival and how he manages to get married to her. Upon release it went on to become a large success commercially and won positive reviews from critics with claims that the film had a lot of " lot of verve and vigour" and that it was "technically excellent".[9]

 

The success of the film led to producer Vashu Bhagnani signing him on to direct the Hindi language remake of the film, Rehnaa Hai Terre Dil Mein, which also featured Menon in a short role; having Madhavan with Dia Mirza and Saif Ali Khan added to the film. Menon was initially apprehensive but said it took "half an hour" to agree and against his intentions, the producer opted against retaining the technical crew of the original.[6] He changed a few elements, deleted certain scenes and added some more for the version. However in comparison, the film gained poor reviews with a critic citing that "the presentation is not absorbing" though stating that he " handled certain sequences with aplomb"; the film subsequently went on to become a below average grosser at the box office.[10] The failure of the film left him disappointed, with Menon claiming in hindsight that the film lacked the simplicity of the original with the producer's intervention affecting proceedings.[11] In 2011, the producer of the film approached him to remake the film with the producer's son Jackky Bhagnani in the lead role, but Menon was uninterested with the offer.[12]

 

Police duology, 2003–06[edit]

Menon returned in 2003 by directing the realistic police thriller Kaakha Kaakha featuring Suriya, Jyothika and Jeevan in the lead roles. The film portrayed the personal life of a police officer and how his life is affected by gangsters, showing a different perspective of police in comparison to other Tamil films of the time.[11] Menon revealed that he was inspired to make the film after reading of articles on how encounter specialists shoot gangsters and how their families get threatening calls in return, and initially approached Madhavan, Ajith Kumar and then Vikram for the role without success, with all three actors citing that they did not want to play a police officer. The lead actress Jyothika asked Menon to consider Suriya for the role, and he was subsequently selected after Menon saw his portrayal in Nandha.[13] He held a rehearsal of the script with the actors, a costume trial with Jyothika and then enrolled Suriya in a commando training school before beginning production, which he described as a "very planned shoot".[13] The film consequently opened to very positive reviews from critics on the way to becoming another success for Menon, with critics labeling it as a "career high film".[14] Furthermore, the film was described as for "action lovers who believe in logical storylines and deft treatment" with Menon being praised for his linear narrative screenplay.[15]

 

Gautham Menon subsequently remade the film in the Telugu language for producer Venkata Raju and went on to claim that the new version was better than the previous version and that his new lead actor Venkatesh was more convincing that Surya in the role.[16] The film also featured actress Asin and Saleem Baig in prominent roles and went on to earn commercial and critical acclaim with reviewers citing that "film redeems itself due to the technical excellence and masterful craft of Gautham", drawing comparisons of Menon with noted film makers Mani Ratnam and Ram Gopal Varma.[17] In July 2004, Menon also agreed terms to direct and produce another version of Kaakha Kaakha in Hindi with Sunny Deol in the lead role and revealed that the script was written five years ago with Deol in mind, but the film eventually failed to take off.[18] Producer Vipul Shah approached him to direct the Hindi version of the film in 2010 as Force with John Abraham and Genelia D'Souza, and Menon initially agreed before pulling out again.[19] Menon and the original producer, Dhanu, also floated an idea of an English-language version with a Chechnyan backdrop, though talks with a potential collaboration with Ashok Amritraj collapsed.[13]

 

Gautham Menon was then signed on to direct a venture starring Kamal Haasan and produced by Kaja Mohideen, and initially suggested a one-line story which went on to become Pachaikili Muthucharam for the collaboration.[13] Kamal Haasan wanted a different story and thus the investigative thriller film Vettaiyaadu Vilaiyaadu, was written with Jyothika, Kamalinee Mukherjee, Prakash Raj, Daniel Balaji and Saleem Baig added to the cast. The film told another episode from a police officer's life, with an Indian cop moved to America to investigate the case of psychotic serial killers before returning to pursue the chase in India. During the shooting, the unit ran into problems after the producer had attempted suicide and as a result, Kamal Haasan wanted to quit the project.[13] Menon subsequently convinced him to stay on as they had taken advance payments. He has since revealed that unlike Kamal Haasan's other films, he did not take particular control of the script or production of the film. The film however had gone through change from the original script with less emphasis on the antagonists than Menon had hoped and he also revealed that scenes for songs were forced in and shot without him.[13] The film released in August 2006 and went on to become his third successive hit film in Tamil and once again, he won rave reviews for his direction.[20][21] Menon later expressed interest in remaking the film in Hindi with Amitabh Bachchan in the lead role without the love angle, though the project fell through after discussions. In 2012, he re-began negotiations with producers to make a Hindi version of the film with Shahrukh Khan in the lead role.[22] He has stated his intent on making a trilogy of police episode films, with a possible third featuring Vikram in the lead role.[13]

 

Success, 2007–08[edit]

His next project, Pachaikili Muthucharam, based on the novel Derailed by James Siegel, featured Sarath Kumar and Jyothika in the lead roles and was released in February 2007. Initially the lead role was offered to Kamal Haasan who passed the opportunity, while actors Cheran and Madhavan declined citing date and image problems respectively.[23] Menon met Sarath Kumar at an event where he cited he was looking to change his 'action' image and Menon subsequently cast him in the lead role.[23] During production, the film ran into further casting trouble with Simran dropping out her assigned role and was replaced by Shobana after another actress, Tabu, also rejected the role.[24] Shobana was also duly replaced by a newcomer, Andrea Jeremiah to portray the character of Kalyani in the film. The film was under production for over a year and coincided with the making of his previous film which was largely delayed. The film initially opened to positive reviews with a critic citing that Menon is "growing with each passing film. His style is distinctive, his vision clear, his team rallies around him and he manages to pull it off each time he attempts".[25][26] However the film became a financial failure for the producer, Venu Ravichandran and in regard to the failure of the film, Menon went on to claim that Sarath Kumar was "wrong for the film" and that he tweaked the story to fit his image; he also claimed that his father's ailing health and consequent death a week before the release had left him mentally affected.[23]

 

His next release, Vaaranam Aayiram, saw him re-collaborate with Suriya, who played dual roles in the film. The film illustrates the theme of how a father often came across in his son's life as a hero and inspiration, and Menon dedicated the film to his late father who had died in 2007.[27] The pre-production of the film, then titled Chennaiyil Oru Mazhaikaalam began in 2003, with Menon planning his a romantic film with Suriya as a follow-up to their successful previous collaboration, Kaakha Kaakha.[28] Abhirami was signed and then dropped due to her height before a relatively new actress at the time Asin was selected to make her debut in Tamil films with the project. The first schedule of the film began in January 2004 in Visakhapatanam and consequently romantic scenes with Suriya and Asin were shot for ten days and then a photo shoot with the pair.[28] The film was subsequently stalled and was eventually relaunched with a new cast including Divya Spandana, Simran and Sameera Reddy in 2006 with Oscar Ravichandran stepping in as producer, who opted for a change of title. Menon has described the film as "autobiographical and a very personal story and if people didn’t know, that 70% of this [the film] is from my life".[23] The film's production process became noted for the strain and the hard work that Suriya had gone through to portray the different roles with production taking close to two years.[27] The film released to a positive response, with critics heaping praise on Suriya's performance while claiming that the film was "just a feather in Gautam's hat" and that it was "hardly a classic".[29] The film was made at a budget of 150 million rupees and became a commercial success, bringing in almost 220 million rupees worldwide.[27] It went on to become Menon's most appreciated work till date winning five Filmfare Awards, nine Vijay Awards and the National Film Award for Best Feature Film in Tamil for 2008 amongst other accolades.

 

Romance and experimentation, 2010–present[edit]

In 2010, Menon made a return to romantic genre after nine years with the Tamil romantic film Vinnaithaandi Varuvaayaa, starring Silambarasan and Trisha Krishnan.[30] The film explored the complicated relationship between a Hindu Tamil assistant director, Karthik, and a Syrian Christian Malayali girl, Jessie and their resultant emotional conflicts. The film featured music by A. R. Rahman in his first collaboration with Menon whilst cinematographer Manoj Paramahamsa was also selected to be a part of the technical crew. Menon cited that he was "a week away from starting the film with a newcomer" before his producer insisted they looked at Silambarasan, with Menon revealing that he was unimpressed with the actor's previous work.[8] The film was in production for close to a year and throughout the opening week of filming, promotional posters from classic Indian romantic films were released featuring the lead pair.[31] Prior to release, the film became the first Tamil project to have a music soundtrack premiere outside of India, with a successful launch at the BAFTA in London.[32] Upon release, the film achieved positive reviews, with several critics giving the film "classic" status, whilst also become a commercially successful venture.[33][34] Reviewers praised Menon citing that "credit for their perfect portrayal, of course, goes to Gautam Menon. This is one director who's got the pulse of today's urban youth perfectly" and that "crafted a movie that will stay in our hearts for a long, long time."[34] The film was simultaneously released with a Telugu version, titled Ye Maaya Chesave featuring a fresh cast of Naga Chaitanya and debutante Samantha in the lead roles. Like the Tamil version, the film won critical acclaim and being given "classic" status from critics.[35][34][36]

 

Menon had also made progress over the previous two years directing the psychological thriller Nadunisi Naaygal featuring his assistant and debutant Veera Bahu and Sameera Reddy in the lead roles. Menon claimed that the film was inspired by a true event from the USA, while also claiming that a novel also helped form the story of the film.[8] During the making, he explicitly revealed that the film was for "the multiplex audience" and would face a limited release, citing that "it will not cater to all sections of the audience".[8] He promoted the film by presenting a chat show dubbed as Koffee with Gautham where he intereviewed Bharathiraja and Silambarasan, both of whom had previously worked in such psychological thriller films with Sigappu Rojakkal and Manmadhan. The film, which was his first home production under Photon Kathaas and did not have a background score, told the story of a victim of child abuse and the havoc he causes to women, narrating the events of a particular day. The film opened to mixed reviews with one critic citing it as "above average" but warning that "don’t go expecting a typical Gautham romantic film" and that it "is definitely not for the family audiences", while criticizing that "there are too many loopholes in the story, raising doubts about logic".[37] In contrast another critic dubbed it as an "unimpressive show by l director Menon, as it is neither convincing nor appealing, despite having some engrossing moments".[38] A group of protesters held a protest outside Gautham's house on reason for misusing a goddess name in his film and also showing explicit sex and violent scenes, claiming that it was against the Indian, in particular Tamil culture.[39]

 

Menon returned to Bollywood with the Hindi remake of Vinnaithaandi Varuvaayaa, titled Ekk Deewana Tha, with Prateik Babbar and Amy Jackson in the lead roles.[40] Unlike the South Indian versions, the film opened to unanimously below average reviews, with critics noting the story "got lost in translation",[41] and became a box office failure.[42] Post-release, Menon admitted that he "got the casting wrong", and subsequently other Hindi films he had pre-planned were dropped.[43] During the period, Menon also began pre-production work on the first film of an action-adventure series of films titled Yohan starring Vijay in the title role. However after a year of pre-production, the director shelved the film citing differences of opinion about the project.[44] Menon's next releases were the romantic films Neethaane En Ponvasantham in Tamil and Yeto Vellipoyindhi Manasu in Telugu, both co-produced by Photon Kathaas. Jiiva and Nani played the lead roles in each version respectively, while Samantha was common in both films. Ilaiyaraaja was chosen as music composer for the film, which told the story of three stages in the life of a couple.[45][46] A third Hindi version Assi Nabbe Poorey Sau, was also shot simultaneously with Aditya Roy Kapoor essaying the lead role, though the failure of Ek Deewana Tha saw production ultimately halted.[47][48] The films both opened to average reviews and collections, with critics noting Menon "falls into the trap every seasoned filmmaker dreads -- of repeating his own mandatory formula" though noting that the film has its "sparkling moments".[49][50] The lukewarm response of the film prompted a legal tussle to ensue between Menon and the film's producer Elred Kumar, prompting the director to release an emotionally charged letter attempting to clear his name of any financial wrongdoing.[51] Menon was then briefly associated with the anthology film, X, helping partially direct a script written by Thiagarajan Kumararaja before opting out and being replaced by Nalan Kumarasamy.[52] He also began production work on a big-budgeted venture titled Dhruva Natchathiram, signing up an ensemble cast including Suriya, Trisha Krishnan and Arun Vijay, with a series of posters issued and an official launch event being held. However in October 2013, the lead actor walked out of the film citing Menon's lack of progress in developing the script and the film was subsequently dropped.[53]

 

Menon's upcoming films include the romantic drama Sattendru Maaruthu Vaanilai with Silambarasan,[54] and an untitled project with Ajith Kumar that entered production in April 2014.[55]

Anirudh Ravichander (born 16 October 1991)[1] is an Indian film composer and singer. He made his debut in the Tamil film, 3 directed by Aishwarya R. Dhanush. The song, "Why This Kolaveri Di", that Anirudh had composed for the Tamil film 3, went viral on YouTube[2] and has tracked more than 80 million views.[3]Early life[edit]

Anirudh is the son of actor Ravi Raghavendra, nephew of Latha Rajinikanth, and cousin of Aishwarya and Soundarya Rajinikanth.[4][5] His mother Lakshmi is a dancer.[6] Anirudh was a part of a band in school called Zinx. At the age of 10, he started composing music and landed his first break – '3' at the age of 21.

 

He did his schooling at Padma Seshadri Bala Bhavan, K.K. Nagar. He graduated from Loyola College, Chennai in 2011, which according to him was just a back up in case his music career did not take off. Anirudh learnt classical piano from Trinity College of Music, London. He also learnt Carnatic music, and was part of a Carnatic fusion band.[7]

 

Career[edit]

Anirudh was selected to make his debut as music composer in his cousin Aishwarya R. Dhanush's directorial debut 3 starring Dhanush and Shruti Haasan. While pursuing his degree at Loyola College, he had done background scores for about short films by Aishwaryaa and was convinced by her to also work on her first commercial venture.[8] Furthermore at the launch of the film in August 2011, Anirudh revealed that he had played the keyboard for compositions by A. R. Rahman and was a part of a band called Zinx.[9] In early November 2011, a leaked version of a song from the film, "Why This Kolaveri Di" circulated online and the film's team decided to subsequently release it officially on 16 November 2011 with a music video shot featuring Dhanush singing the song at AM studios, accompanied by composer Anirudh on a keyboard. It instantly became viral on social networking sites for its quirky "Tanglish" (portmanteau word of Tamil and English) lyrics.[10] Soon, the song became the most searched YouTube video in India and an internet phenomenon across Asia.[11][12][13][14] Within a few weeks, YouTube honoured the video with a '"Recently Most Popular" Gold Medal award and "Trending" silver medal award for receiving a large number of hits in a short time.[15][16] The song was been built around a South Indian folk rhythm. Its instrumentation consists of nadaswaram, shehnai, saxophone, urumee and thavil drums, acoustic guitar, and keyboards mixed with electronic synths and scratches. The vocals utilize the singing style of Tamil folk culture. Lyrically, the song revolves around the film's main actor being dumped by his girlfriend; the song is sung by the character in a drunken state, with many of the lines nonsensical. According to composer, 3's director Aishwarya Rajinikanth Dhanush wanted a light-hearted song about failed love. Ravichander quickly composed the tune in about 10 minutes.[14] Dhanush then began work on the lyrics, which he completed in about 20 minutes of playful singing and writing.[17]

 

The remaining songs of the album were released in December 2011 and also won very positive reviews from critics. The album featured Mohit Chauhan debuting in Tamil with "Po Nee Po", while Dhanush, Shruti Haasan and Airtel Super Singer contestant Sathya Prakash were also amongst the performers. A reviewer from Behindwoods.com noted "Anirudh Ravichander has delivered so much variety in his very first album. Such a promising debut by a composer hasn't been seen in recent Tamil cinema history", while Rediff.com's reviewer noted that "all the songs in 3 are good and come with appealing instrumental arrangements", concluding that it was "an intriguing collection."[18][19] Anirudh also received praise for his background score in the film. He consequently went on to gain recognition for the film through accolades, notably the Vijay Award for Best Find of the Year as well as nominations at the South Indian International Movie Awards and the 60th Filmfare Awards South.[20] He also worked on the Telugu and Hindi version of the film with Adnan Sami and Vishal Dadlani singing as a part of the album, though the dubbed Hindi film never released.[21] Anirudh teamed up with Dhanush soon after to produce a Kolaveri-inspired track titled "Sachin anthem" commemorating Sachin Tendulkar in association with health drink, Boost.[22][23]

 

Next, he sang and composed a single for David starred Vikram and Jiiva – a multilingual multi-starrer directed by Bejoy Nambiar, "Kanave Kanave" in Tamil and "Yun Hi Re" in Hindi. The album also opened to very positive reviews, with a critic noting Anirudh's song was "the pick of the album".[24][25] His next album was Dhanush's maiden home production Ethir Neechal, which won positive reviews. Behindwoods.com noted "the album does well to consolidate Anirudh’s sensational debut".[26] While Dhanush sang two songs in the film and Mohit Chauhan was also used again, Anirudh introduced rappers Yo Yo Honey Singh, Hiphop Tamizha into Tamil film music. Similarly the background music of the film was praised with a reviewer noting Anirudh "certainly proved his mettle yet again with his exceptional music."[27] Moreover, Sony Music India released the complete background score of Ethir Neechal via YouTube owing to its popularity.[28] His next soundtrack, Vanakkam Chennai released in July 2013, and reached top spot in iTunes India Top Album category within few days of its release. Prior to release Anirudh had revealed that it was his "best work til date", and the composer featured as a vocalist in six of the seven songs in the film. For the song "Oh Penne", he used Vishal Dadlani for the first time in Tamil music, while a promotional international version was also recorded featuring British singer Arjun. Another promotional song, "Chennai City Gangster", saw him collaborate again with Hiphop Tamizha and British Indian rapper Hard Kaur, with the trio also featuring in a music video for the film. Anirudh also recorded songs with Assamese jazz singer Papon and his ex-girlfriend Andrea Jeremiah, while also working with lyricist Madhan Karky in the well-received folk love song "Osaka Osaka".[29] A critic from Behindwoods noted "Anirudh exploded onto the Tamil music scene with a hat-trick". His background music for the film was well received by reviewers.[30][31] In September 2013, he was signed on to compose the background music and re-recording for Selvaraghavan's fantasy film Irandam Ulagam, after Harris Jayaraj had opted out. Anirudh noted his happiness at working with Selvaraghavan early in his career, despite being called up as a replacement and subsequently recorded for the film in Budapest.[32] The film opened to mixed reviews and became a box office disaster, however reactions to Anirudh's work were positive.[33]

 

Anirudh's next release saw him work with Dhanush again, as a lyricist and producer, for Velaiyilla Pattathari. The album featured veteran S. Janaki as the only other singer apart from Dhanush and Anirudh, and won positive reviews upon release in February 2014.[34] Maan Karate's soundtrack released shortly after and also won favourable reviews from critics.[35] Both films are slated to release in mid 2014. He has confirmed that he will provide music for a film starring Siva Karthikeyan – Senthil Kumar's Taana and then for Kaththi, A. R. Murugadoss's venture starring Vijay. In early 2013, it was announced that Anirudh would make his acting debut Vignesh Shivan's Naanum Rowdythaan produced by Gautham Menon, after selecting it from twenty other scripts he had heard.[36] However production work stalled, with Anirudh noting he will give priority to a career in music composing and agreed to work on the soundtrack for the film, now featuring Gautham Karthik. Furthermore, he signed on to compose music for a film made and featuring newcomers, Aakko, with initial publicity posters for the film featuring solely on Anirudh's status as the movie's composer.[37]

FREEDOM PARK was the EPICENTRE of ANTI-CORRUPTION and

PRO-JANLOKPAL protests in BANGALORE..

 

Bangaloreans showed solidarity along with the rest of the country to a 74year

old man SHREE ANNA HAZARE who sat for 12days without food for the

cause of the comman man..

 

I bring you a collection of patriotic emotions that were on display..

None of these were staged and were spontaneous..

 

NIVEDITHA PRAKASH Thank you for the embedding help

 

ANOOP NEGI He's has shot similar emotions on the streets of PUNE

 

VIJAY 20D. Thank You.

 

If you can spend 6 MINUTES of ur time i have a video slideshow which might give u

a better sense of perspective..It is on youtube..

 

PLEASE WATCH

 

PS: My photostream has never seen normal individuals.

I'am thankful for these and many more abnormal yet very

emotional patriots who were the backbone of a great cause.

Chittorgarh Fort (Hindi/Rajasthani: चित्तौड दुर्ग Chittorgarh Durg) is the largest fort in India and the grandest in the state of Rajasthan. It is a World Heritage Site. The fort, plainly known as Chittor, was the capital of Mewar and is today situated several kilometres south of Bhilwara. It was initially ruled by Guhilot and later by Sisodias, the Suryavanshi clans of Chattari Rajputs, from the 7th century, until it was finally abandoned in 1568 after the siege by Emperor Akbar in 1567. It sprawls majestically over a hill 180 m in height spread over an area of 280 ha above the plains of the valley drained by the Berach River. The fort precinct with an evocative history is studded with a series of historical palaces, gates, temples and two prominent commemoration towers. These monumental ruins have inspired the imagination of tourists and writers for centuries.

 

The fort was sacked three times between the 15th and 16th centuries; in 1303 Allauddin Khilji defeated Rana Ratan Singh, in 1535 Bahadur Shah, the Sultan of Gujarat defeated Bikramjeet Singh and in 1567 Emperor Akbar defeated Maharana Udai Singh II who left the fort and founded Udaipur. Each time the men fought bravely rushing out of the fort walls charging the enemy but lost every time. Following these defeats, Jauhar was committed thrice by more than 13,000 ladies and children of the Rajput heroes who laid their lives in battles at Chittorgarh Fort, first led by Rani Padmini wife of Rana Rattan Singh who was killed in the battle in 1303, and later by Rani Karnavati in 1537 AD.

 

Thus, the fort represents the quintessence of tribute to the nationalism, courage, medieval chivalry and sacrifice exhibited by the Mewar rulers of Sisodia and their kinsmen and women and children, between the 7th and 16th centuries. The rulers, their soldiers, the women folk of royalty and the commoners considered death as a better option than dishonor in the face of surrender to the foreign invading armies.

 

GEOGRAPHY

Chittorgarh, located in the southern part of the state of Rajasthan, 233 km from Ajmer, midway between Delhi and Mumbai on the National Highway 8 (India) in the road network of Golden Quadrilateral. Chittorgarh is situated where National Highways No. 76 & 79 intersect.

 

The fort rises abruptly above the surrounding plains and is spread over an area of 2.8 km2. The highest elevation at the fort is 1,075 m. It is situated on the left bank of the Berach river (a tributary of the Banas River) and is linked to the new town of Chittorgarh (known as the 'Lower Town') developed in the plains after 1568 AD when the fort was deserted in light of introduction of artillery in the 16th century, and therefore the capital was shifted to more secure Udaipur, located on the eastern flank of Aravalli hill range. Mughal Emperor Akbar attacked and sacked this fort which was but one of the 84 forts of Mewar,but the capital was shifted to Aravalli hills where heavy artillery & cavalry were not effective. A winding hill road of more than 1 km length from the new town leads to the west end main gate, called Ram Pol, of the fort. Within the fort, a circular road provides access to all the gates and monuments located within the fort walls.

 

The fort that once boasted of 84 water bodies has only 22 of them now. These water bodies are fed by natural catchment and rainfall, and have a combined storage of 4 billion litres that could meet the water needs of an army of 50,000. The supply could last for four years. These water bodies are in the form of ponds, wells and step wells.

 

HISTORY

Chittorgarh Fort is considered to be the largest fort of India in terms of area. It is stated that the fort was constructed by the Mauryans during the 7th century AD and hence derives its name after the Mauryan ruler, Chitrangada Mori, as inscribed on coins of the period. Historical records show Chittorgarh fort as the capital of Mewar for 834 years. It was established in 734 AD by Bappa Rawal, founder ruler in the hierarchy of the Sisodia rulers of Mewar. It is also said that the fort was gifted to Bappa Rawal as part of Solanki princess’s dowry in the 8th century. The fort was looted and destroyed at the hands of Emperor Akbar in 1568 AD and subsequently never resettled but only refurbished in 1905 AD. Three important battles were fought for control of the fort; in 1303, Ala-ud-din Khilji besieged the fort; in 1535, Sultan of Gujarat Bahadur Shah besieged the fort; and in 1568, Mughal Emperor Akbar attacked the fort. Not that there were only defeats at the fort. Excluding the periods of siege, the fort had always remained in possession of the Sisodias of the Guhilot (or Gehlot/Guhila) clan of Rajputs, who descended from Bappa Rawal. There were also success stories of establishment of the fort and its reconstruction after every siege, before it was finally abandoned in 1568, all of which are narrated.

 

Chittor is cited in the Mahabharat epic. It is said that Bhima, the second of the Pandava brothers of Epic Mahabaharata fame, known for his mighty strength gave a powerful hit with his fist to the ground that resulted in water springing up to form a large reservoir. It is called Bhimlat kund, an artificial tank named after Bhima. Folk legend also mentions that Bhima started building the fort.

 

BAPPA RAWAL

The earliest history linked to the Bappa Rawal's fort is that of the Huna Kingdom of Sialkot (of Mihir Kula 515-540 AD) that was destroyed by Yashodharman. This was subsequently seized by a new dynasty of kshatriyas called Tak or Taxaka. According to historians, the Taxak Mori were the lords of Chittor from a very early period. After a few generations, the Guhilots supplanted them. From 725 to 735 AD, there were numerous defenders who appear to have considered the cause of Chittor their own, the Tak from Asirgarh. This race appears to have retained possession of Asirgarh for at least two centuries after this event and one of its chieftain Bappa Rawal was the most conspicuous leader in the lineage of Prithvi Raj. In the poems of Chandar he is called the "Standard, bearer, Tak of Asir."

 

SIEGE OF 1303

Ala ud din Khilji, Sultan of Delhi, rallied his forces against Mewar, in 1303 AD. The Chittorgarh fort was till then considered impregnable and grand, atop a natural hill. But his immediate reason for invading the fort was his obsessive desire to capture Rani Padmini, the unrivalled beautiful queen of Rana Ratan Singh and take her into his harem. The Rana, out of politeness, allowed the Khilji to view Padmini through a set of mirrors. But this viewing of Padmini further fired Khilji’s desire to possess her. After the viewing, as a gesture of courtesy, when the Rana accompanied the Sultan to the outer gate, he was treacherously captured. Khilji conveyed to the queen that the Rana would be released only if she agreed to join his harem. But the queen had other plans. She agreed to go to his camp if permitted to go in a Royal style with an entourage, in strict secrecy. Instead of her going, she sent 700 well armed soldiers disguised in litters and they rescued the Rana and took him to the fort. But Khilji chased them to the fort where a fierce battle ensued at the outer gate of the fort in which the Rajput soldiers were overpowered and the Rana was killed. Khilji won the battle on August 26, 1303. Soon thereafter, instead of surrendering to the Sultan, the royal Rajput ladies led by Rani Padmini preferred to die through the Rajput’s ultimate tragic rite of Jauhar (self immolation on a pyre). In revenge, Khilji killed thirty thousand Hindus. He entrusted the fort to his son Khizr Khan to rule and renamed the fort as 'Khizrabad'. He also showered gifts on his son by way of

 

a red canopy, a robe embroidered with gold and two standards one green and the other black and threw upon him rubies and emeralds.

 

He returned to Delhi after the fierce battle at the fort.

 

RANA HAMMIR & SUCCESSORS

Khizr Khan’s rule at the fort lasted till 1311 AD and due to the pressure of Rajputs he was forced to entrust power to the Sonigra chief Maldeva who held the fort for 7 years. Hammir Singh, usurped control of the fort from Maldeva by “treachery and intrigue” and Chittor once again regained its past glory. Hammir, before his death in 1364 AD, had converted Mewar into a fairly large and prosperous kingdom. The dynasty (and clan) fathered by him came to be known by the name Sisodia after the village where he was born. His son Ketra Singh succeeded him and ruled with honour and power. Ketra Singh’s son Lakha who ascended the throne in 1382 AD also won several wars. His famous grandson Rana Kumbha came to the throne in 1433 AD and by that time the Muslim rulers of Malwa and Gujarat had acquired considerable clout and were keen to usurp the powerful Mewar state.

 

RANA KUMBHA & CLAN

There was resurgence during the reign of Rana Kumbha in the 15th century. Rana Kumbha, also known as Maharana Kumbhakarna, son of Rana Mokal, ruled Mewar between 1433 AD and 1468 AD. He is credited with building up the Mewar kingdom assiduously as a force to reckon with. He built 32 forts (84 fortresses formed the defense of Mewar) including one in his own name, called Kumbalgarh. But his end came in 1468 AD at the hands of his own son Rana Udaysimha (Uday Singh I) who assassinated him to gain the throne of Mewar. This patricide was not appreciated by the people of Mewar and consequently his brother Rana Raimal assumed the reins of power in 1473. After his death in May 1509, Sangram Singh (also known as Rana Sanga), his youngest son, became the ruler of Mewar, which brought in a new phase in the history of Mewar. Rana Sanga, with support from Medini Rai (a Rajput chief of Alwar), fought a valiant battle against Mughal emperor Babar at Khanwa in 1527. He ushered in a period of prestige to Chittor by defeating the rulers of Gujarat and also effectively interfered in the matters of Idar. He also won small areas of the Delhi territory. In the ensuing battle with Ibrahim Lodi, Rana won and acquired some districts of Malwa. He also defeated the combined might of Sultan Muzaffar of Gujarat and the Sultan of Malwa. By 1525 AD, Rana Sanga had developed Chittor and Mewar, by virtue of great intellect, valour and his sword, into a formidable military state. But in a decisive battle that was fought against Babar on March 16, 1527, the Rajput army of Rana Sanga suffered a terrible defeat and Sanga escaped to one of his fortresses. But soon thereafter in another attack on the Chanderi fort the valiant Rana Sanga died and with his death the Rajput confederacy collapsed.

 

SIEGE OF 1534

Bahadur Shah who came to the throne in 1526 AD as the Sultan of Gujarat besieged the Chittorgarh fort in 1534. The fort was sacked and, once again the medieval dictates of chivalry determined the outcome. Following the defeat of the Rana, it is said 13,000 Rajput women committed jauhar (self immolation on the funeral pyre) and 3,200 Rajput warriors rushed out of the fort to fight and die.

 

SIEGE OF 1567

The final Siege of Chittorgarh came 33 years later, in 1567, when the Mughal Emperor Akbar invaded the fort. Akbar wanted to conquer Mewar, which was being ably ruled by Rana Uday Singh II, a fine prince of Mewar. To establish himself as the supreme lord of Northern India, he wanted to capture the renowned fortress of Chittor, as a precursor to conquering the whole of India. Shakti Singh, son of the Rana who had quarreled with his father, had run away and approached Akbar when the later had camped at Dholpur preparing to attack Malwa. During one of these meetings, in August 1567, Shakti Singh came to know from a remark made in jest by emperor Akbar that he was intending to wage war against Chittor. Akbar had told Shakti Singh in jest that since his father had not submitted himself before him like other princes and chieftains of the region he would attack him. Startled by this revelation, Shakti Singh quietly rushed back to Chittor and informed his father of the impending invasion by Akbar. Akbar was furious with the departure of Shakti Singh and decided to attack Mewar to humble the arrogance of the Ranas. In September 1567, the emperor left for Chittor, and on October 20, 1567, camped in the vast plains outside the fort. In the meantime, Rana Udai Singh, on the advice of his council of advisors, decided to go away from Chittor to the hills of Udaipur. Jaimal and Patta, two brave army chieftains of Mewar, were left behind to defend the fort along with 8,000 Rajput warriors under their command. Akbar laid siege to the fortress. The Rajput army fought valiantly and Akbar himself had narrowly escaped death. In this grave situation, Akbar had prayed for divine help for achieving victory and vowed to visit the shrine of the sufi saint Khwaja at Ajmer. The battle continued till February 23, 1568. On that day Jaymal was seriously wounded but he continued to fight with support from Patta. Jayamal ordered jauhar to be performed when many beautiful princesses of Mewar and noble matrons committed self-immolation at the funeral pyre. Next day the gates of the fort were opened and Rajput soldiers rushed out bravely to fight the enemies. Jayamal and Patta who fought bravely were at last killed in action. One figure estimates that 30,000 soldiers were killed in action. Akbar immediately repaired himself to Ajmer to perform his religious vow.

 

RETURN OF THE FORT TO MEWAR

But in 1616, Jehangir returned Chittor fort to the Rajputs, when Maharana Amar Singh was the chief of Mewar. However, the fort was not resettled though it was refurbished several centuries later in 1905 during British Raj.

 

PRECINCTS

The fort which is roughly in the shape of a fish has a circumference of 13 km with a maximum width of 3 km and it covers an area of 700 acres. The fort is approached through a zig zag and difficult ascent of more than 1 km from the plains, after crossing over a bridge made in limestone. The bridge spans the Gambhiri River and is supported by ten arches (one has a curved shape while the balance have pointed arches). Apart from the two tall towers, which dominate the majestic fortifications, the sprawling fort has a plethora of palaces and temples (many of them in ruins) within its precincts.

 

The 305 hectares component site, with a buffer zone of 427 hectares, encompasses the fortified stronghold of Chittorgarh, a spacious fort located on an isolated rocky plateau of approximately 2 km length and 155m width.

 

It is surrounded by a perimeter wall 4.5 kilometres long, beyond which a 45° hill slope makes it almost inaccessible to enemies. The ascent to the fort passes through seven gateways built by the Mewar ruler Rana Kumbha (1433- 1468) of the Sisodia clan. These gates are called, from the base to the hill top, the Paidal Pol, Bhairon Pol, Hanuman Pol, Ganesh Pol, Jorla Pol, Laxman Pol, and Ram Pol, the final and main gate.

 

The fort complex comprises 65 historic built structures, among them 4 palace complexes, 19 main temples, 4 memorials and 20 functional water bodies. These can be divided into two major construction phases. The first hill fort with one main entrance was established in the 5th century and successively fortified until the 12th century. Its remains are mostly visible on the western edges of the plateau. The second, more significant defence structure was constructed in the 15th century during the reign of the Sisodia Rajputs, when the royal entrance was relocated and fortified with seven gates, and the medieval fortification wall was built on an earlier wall construction from the 13th century.

 

Besides the palace complex, located on the highest and most secure terrain in the west of the fort, many of the other significant structures, such as the Kumbha Shyam Temple, the Mira Bai Temple, the Adi Varah Temple, the Shringar Chauri Temple, and the Vijay Stambh memorial were constructed in this second phase. Compared to the later additions of Sisodian rulers during the 19th and 20th centuries, the predominant construction phase illustrates a comparatively pure Rajput style combined with minimal eclecticism, such as the vaulted substructures which were borrowed from Sultanate architecture. The 4.5 km walls with integrated circular enforcements are constructed from dressed stone masonry in lime mortar and rise 500m above the plain. With the help of the seven massive stone gates, partly flanked by hexagonal or octagonal towers, the access to the fort is restricted to a narrow pathway which climbs up the steep hill through successive, ever narrower defence passages. The seventh and final gate leads directly into the palace area, which integrates a variety of residential and official structures. Rana Kumbha Mahal, the palace of Rana Kumbha, is a large Rajput domestic structure and now incorporates the Kanwar Pade Ka Mahal (the palace of the heir) and the later palace of the poetess Mira Bai (1498-1546). The palace area was further expanded in later centuries, when additional structures, such as the Ratan Singh Palace (1528–31) or the Fateh Prakash, also named Badal Mahal (1885-1930), were added. Although the majority of temple structures represent the Hindu faith, most prominently the Kalikamata Temple (8th century), the Kshemankari Temple (825-850) the Kumbha Shyam Temple (1448) or the Adbuthnath Temple (15th- 16th century), the hill fort also contains Jain temples, such as Shringar Chauri (1448) and Sat Bis Devri (mid-15th century) Also the two tower memorials, Kirti Stambh (13th-14th century) and Vijay Stambha (1433-1468), are Jain monuments. They stand out with their respective heights of 24m and 37m, which ensure their visibility from most locations of the fort complex. Finally, the fort compound is home to a contemporary municipal ward of approximately 3,000 inhabitants, which is located near Ratan Singh Tank at the northern end of the property.

 

GATES

The fort has total seven gates (in local language, gate is called Pol), namely the Padan Pol, Bhairon Pol, Hanuman Pol, Ganesh Pol, Jodla Pol, Laxman Pol and the main gate named the Ram Pol (Lord Rama's Gate). All the gateways to the fort have been built as massive stone structures with secure fortifications for military defense. The doors of the gates with pointed arches are reinforced to fend off elephants and cannon shots. The top of the gates have notched parapets for archers to shoot at the enemy army. A circular road within the fort links all the gates and provides access to the numerous monuments (ruined palaces and 130 temples) in the fort.

 

During the second siege, Prince Bagh Singh died at the Padan Pol in 1535 AD. Prince Jaimal of Badnore and his clansman Kalla were killed by Akbar at a location between the Bhairon Pol and Hanuman Pol in the last siege of the fort in 1567 (Kalla carried the wounded Jaimal out to fight). Chhatris, with the roof supported by corbeled arches, have been built to commemorate the spots of their sacrifice. Their statues have also been erected, at the orders of Emperor Akbar, to commemorate their valiant deaths. At each gate, cenotaphs of Jaimal (in the form of a statue of a Rajput warrior on horseback) and Patta have also been constructed. At Ram Pol, the entrance gate to the fort, a Chaatri was built in memory of the 15 year old Patta of Kelwa, who had lost his father in battle, and saw the sword yielding mother and wife on the battle field who fought valiantly and died at this gate. He led the saffron robed Rajput warriors, who all died fighting for Mewar’s honour. Suraj Pol (Sun Gate) provides entry to the eastern wall of the fort. On the right of Suraj Pol is the Darikhana or Sabha (council chamber) behind which lie a Ganesha temple and the zenana (living quarters for women). A massive water reservoir is located towards the left of Suraj Pol. There is also a peculiar gate, called the Jorla Pol (Joined Gate), which consists of two gates joined together. The upper arch of Jorla Pol is connected to the base of Lakshman Pol. It is said that this feature has not been noticed anywhere else in India. The Lokota Bari is the gate at the fort’s northern tip, while a small opening that was used to hurl criminals into the abyss is seen at the southern end.

 

VIJAY STAMBHA

The Vijay Stambha (Tower of Victory) or Jaya Stambha, called the symbol of Chittor and a particularly bold expression of triumph, was erected by Rana Kumbha between 1458 and 1468 to commemorate his victory over Mahmud Shah I Khalji, the Sultan of Malwa, in 1440 AD. Built over a period of ten years, it raises 37.2 metres over a 4.4 m2 base in nine stories accessed through a narrow circular staircase of 157 steps (the interior is also carved) up to the 8th floor, from where there is good view of the plains and the new town of Chittor. The dome, which was a later addition, was damaged by lightning and repaired during the 19th century. The Stamba is now illuminated during the evenings and gives a beautiful view of Chittor from the top.

 

KIRTI STAMBHA

Kirti Stambha (Tower of Fame) is a 22 metres high tower built on a 9.1 m base with 4.6 m at the top, is adorned with Jain sculptures on the outside and is older (probably 12th century) and smaller than the Victory Tower. Built by a Bagherwal Jain merchant Jijaji Rathod, it is dedicated to Adinath, the first Jain tirthankar (revered Jain teacher). In the lowest floor of the tower, figures of the various tirthankars of the Jain pantheon are seen in special niches formed to house them. These are digambara monuments. A narrow stairway with 54 steps leads through the six storeys to the top. The top pavilion that was added in the 15th century has 12 columns.

 

RANA KUMBHA PALACE

At the entrance gate near the Vijaya Stamba, Rana Kumbha's palace (in ruins), the oldest monument, is located. The palace included elephant and horse stables and a temple to Lord Shiva. Maharana Udai Singh, the founder of Udaipur, was born here; the popular folk lore linked to his birth is that his maid Panna DaiPanna Dhai saved him by substituting her son in his place as a decoy, which resulted in her son getting killed by Banbir. The prince was spirited away in a fruit basket. The palace is built with plastered stone. The remarkable feature of the palace is its splendid series of canopied balconies. Entry to the palace is through Suraj Pol that leads into a courtyard. Rani Meera, the famous poetess saint, also lived in this palace. This is also the palace where Rani Padmini, consigned herself to the funeral pyre in one of the underground cellars, as an act of jauhar along with many other women. The Nau Lakha Bandar (literal meaning: nine lakh treasury) building, the royal treasury of Chittor was also located close by. Now, across from the palace is a museum and archeological office. The Singa Chowri temple is also nearby.

 

FATEH PRAKASH PALACE

Located near Rana Khumba palace, built by Rana Fateh Singh, the precincts have modern houses and a small museum. A school for local children (about 5,000 villagers live within the fort) is also nearby.

 

GAUMUKH RESERVOIR

A spring feeds the tank from a carved cow’s mouth in the cliff. This pool was the main source of water at the fort during the numerous sieges.

 

PADMINI´S PALACE

Padmini's Palace or Rani Padmini's Palace is a white building and a three storied structure (a 19th-century reconstruction of the original). It is located in the southern part of the fort. Chhatris (pavilions) crown the palace roofs and a water moat surrounds the palace. This style of palace became the forerunner of other palaces built in the state with the concept of Jal Mahal (palace surrounded by water). It is at this Palace where Alauddin was permitted to glimpse the mirror image of Rani Padmini, wife of Maharana Rattan Singh. It is widely believed that this glimpse of Padmini's beauty besotted him and convinced him to destroy Chittor in order to possess her. Maharana Rattan Singh was killed and Rani Padmini committed Jauhar. Rani Padmini's beauty has been compared to that of Cleopatra and her life story is an eternal legend in the history of Chittor. The bronze gates to this pavilion were removed and transported to Agra by Akbar.

 

OTHER SIGHTS

Close to Kirti Sthamba is the Meera Temple, or the Meerabai Temple. Rana Khumba built it in an ornate Indo–Aryan architectural style. It is associated with the mystic saint-poet Mirabai who was an ardent devotee of Lord Krishna and dedicated her entire life to His worship. She composed and sang lyrical bhajans called Meera Bhajans. The popular legend associated with her is that with blessings of Krishna, she survived after consuming poison sent to her by her evil brother-in-law. The larger temple in the same compound is the Kumbha Shyam Temple (Varaha Temple). The pinnacle of the temple is in pyramid shape. A picture of Meerabai praying before Krishna has now been installed in the temple.

 

Across from Padmini’s Palace is the Kalika Mata Temple. Originally, a Sun Temple dated to the 8th century dedicated to Surya (the Sun God) was destroyed in the 14th century. It was rebuilt as a Kali temple.

 

Another temple on the west side of the fort is the ancient Goddess Tulja Bhavani Temple built to worship Goddess Tulja Bhavani is considered sacred. The Tope Khana (cannon foundry) is located next to this temple in a courtyard, where a few old cannons are still seen.

 

JAUHAR MELA

The fort and the city of Chittorgarh host the biggest Rajput festival called the "Jauhar Mela". It takes place annually on the anniversary of one of the jauhars, but no specific name has been given to it. It is generally believed that it commemorates Padmini’s jauhar, which is most famous. This festival is held primarily to commemorate the bravery of Rajput ancestors and all three jauhars which happened at Chittorgarh Fort. A huge number of Rajputs, which include the descendants of most of the princely families, hold a procession to celebrate the Jauhar. It has also become a forum to air one's views on the current political situation in the country.

All my images are copyrighted.

If you intend to use any of my pictures, for any usage, you need to contact me first.

Thank you.

  

 

“Mind Without Fear

 

Where the mind is without fear and the head is held high;

 

Where knowledge is free;

 

Where the world has not been broken up

into fragments by narrow domestic walls;

 

Where words come out from the depth of truth;

 

Where tireless striving stretches its arms towards perfection;

 

Where the clear stream of reason

has not lost its way into the dreary desert sand of dead habit;

 

Where the mind is led forward by thee into ever-widening thought and action---

 

Into that heaven of freedom, my Father, let my country awake.

“ –

Mind Without Fear by Pandit Rabindranath Tagore

 

 

I dedicate this picture in honor of all brave officers who fought and gave their lives for our tomorrow in Sept’28th Mumbai,Terror attack.

 

Constable : Jayant Paul

Constable : Yogesh Patil

Constable : Ambadas Pawar

Railway Police : M.C. Choudhary

NSG Commando : Gajendra Singh

Inspector : Shashank Shinde

Sub Inspector : Prakash More

Constable : A.R. Chitte

Constable : Vijay Khandekar

Asst. Sub Inspector : v. Obale

Sub Inspector : Babusaheb Durgude

Sub Inspector : Nanasaheb Bhonsale

Major : Sndeep Unnikrishnan

Add. Commissioner Police : Ashok Kamte

Sr. Police Inspector : Vijay Salaskar

ATS Chief : Hemant Karkare

  

I took this shot in Monterey bay, California. This sole Seagull was flying high, reminded me of a soul who’s mind is without fear.

  

Condemn Terrorism !!!

    

The shot

Non - HDR

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dera_Ismail_Khan

  

Dera Ismail Khan (Pashto: ډېره اسماعيل خان, Urdu: ڈیرہ اسماعیل خان) is a city in Khyber-Pakhtunkhwa Province, Pakistan. It is situated on the west bank of the Indus River, 200 miles (320 km) west of Lahore and 120 miles (190 km) northwest of Multan.[1] The city is the capital of the district and tehsil of the same name. In Pakistan, its name is often abbreviated to D. I. Khan

  

History

 

Dera Ismail Khan was founded toward the end of the fifteenth century by Ismail Khan, a son of the Arab adventurer Malik Sohrab, who named the town after himself. Dera means "settlement" or "abode". The original town was swept away by a flood in 1823, and the existing buildings are all of relatively modern construction.[1] The present town stands four miles (6 km) back from the permanent channel of the river.

However, later research does not support this theory. Firstly, Malik Sohrab was not an Arab adventurer but a Hote Baluch who was appointed Soobadar of this area by the Langha rulers of Multan. Similarly the city could not have been founded towards the end of fifteenth century; because when Babar came here in 1506 he passed through this plane which is now called Dama'an and referred to it as Dasht and went up to Tank but did not mention any city around here in his Tuzk (Memoirs, originally published in Turkish). Later we are told that when in 1540 Sher Shah came to Khushab, Ismail Khan of Dera Ismail Khan went to Khushab to meet him there. So the city must have been founded in the first quarter of the sixteenth century.[3] After the flood destruction of 1823, the present city was founded by Nawab Sher Muhammad Khan Sadozai in 1825, but he preferred to retain the old name for it. (ibid, Page 146)

 

British era

During British rule the town contained two bazaars, the Hindu and Muslim population living in separate quarters. The town stands on a level plain, with a slight fall to the river, but is badly drained. It is surrounded by a thin mud wall, with nine gates, enclosing an area of about 500 acres (2.0 km2). The cantonment, which lies southeast of the town, has an area of 44 square miles (110 km2), excluding the portion known as Fort Akalgarh on the northwest side. The civil lines are to the south.[1]

The Derajat Brigade had its winter headquarters at Dera Ismail Khan, and the garrison consisted of a mountain battery, a regiment of Native cavalry, and three regiments of Native infantry. Detachments from these regiments helped to garrison the outposts of Drazinda, Jandola, and Jatta. The municipality was constituted in 1867. The income during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged Rs. 55,000, and the expenditure Rs. 53,000. The income and expenditure in 1903-4 were Rs. 55,500 and Rs. 55,800 respectively. The chief source of income was octroi (Rs. 48,000); the chief items of expenditure were conservancy (Rs. 8,785), education (Rs. 7,246), hospitals and dispensaries (Rs. 6,302), public safety (Rs. 7,733), public works (Rs. 2,143), and administration (Rs. 5,546). The receipts and expenditure of cantonment funds during the ten years ending 1902-3 averaged RS. 2,700 and Rs. 2,800 respectively.[1]

The local trade of Dera Ismail Khan was of second-rate importance, but some foreign traffic with Khorasan passed through it. Powinda caravans of Afghan merchants traversed the town twice a year on their road to and from India; and, with the increasing security of the Gomal route, these caravans were yearly swelling in numbers. The chief imports were English and native piece-goods, hides, salt, and fancy wares; and the exports, grain, wood, and ghee. The local manufactures are lungis and lacquered woodwork. The town possesses a civil hospital; its chief educational institutions are two aided Anglo-vernacular high schools, one maintained by the Church Missionary Society and the other by the Bharatri Sabha, and an Anglo-vernacular middle school maintained by the municipality.

 

Languages

Siraiki is the main language spoken in this region. A good portion of the people are conversant in Urdu. English is understood by the educated.

  

2008-09 suicide bombings

This town has seen a bloody surge in sectarian schism, which has caused the loss of hundreds of innocent lives, especially those belonging to the Shia community. Being somewhat neglected by the electronic media coverage, only incidents involving bomb blasts are usually reported, whereas target killings on a day-to-day basis are not usually reported by the local newspapers and TV channels.

On August 19, 2008 a suicide bomber targeting Shias blew himself up in a hospital waiting room, killing 32 people,[6] including seven police officers who had been deployed to guard a local Shiite leader—Basit Ali Zaidi. Twenty members of Zaidi family died on the spot while many more were injured. It is believed that the attack is one of several by the Taliban, who have taken responsibility for it, intending to demonstrate their reach and pressure the government to call off its offensive in Swat and the Bajaur Agency of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas, which had begun less than two weeks previously.[7][8]

On November 21, 2008, Shiite religious leader Allama Nazir Hussain Shah was shot dead in sectarian killing along with Shah Iqbal Hussain. During his funeral prayers, a suicide bomber blew himself up, killing 9 people and injuring 39.[9]

Once again, on February 20, 2009 a suicide bomber blew himself during a funeral procession of a Shia local, killing more than 32 while injuring 157.

 

Demographics

According to the 1901 census the population of Dera Ismail Khan was 31,737, of whom 18,662 were Muslims, 11,486 Hindus, and 1,420 Sikhs. Of the total, 3,450 lived in the cantonment.[11] After the partition of India, many of the city's Hindu residents settled in India, primarily in Model Town, Vijay Nagar and Derawal Nagar colony in Delhi.[12]

In 1999 it had a population of 31,737, down from its 1981 census tally of 64,358. The population is a mix of ethnic Balochi and Pashtun segments, with a significant minority of Urdu-speaking immigrants. Urdu, the national language, is understood and spoken by the majority of residents, while Seraiki is the major language of the district. Pashto is also spoken, primarily within the Pashtun community. Natives of Dera Ismail Khan are known as Derawals.

 

Communication

The city is connected to Bannu via the highway, which further connects it to the provincial capital of Peshawar via Kohat and Darra Adam Khel. Another road connects D. I. Khan to Mianwali through Chashma Barrage. The third major road connects it to Bhakkar in Punjab, situated on the eastern bank of the Indus River. A bridge on the Indus River was constructed in the early 1980s, before which the approach to Bhakkar was made through a boat bridge.

The city has telephone, telegraph, and internet facilities — although the telegraph has recently been abandoned, in line with the government policy of transitioning away from telegraph communications throughout the country.

 

Educational institutions

The city is home to many educational institutions, including:

•Gomal University

•Al-Khair University

•CIT College of Information & Technology

•Gomal Medical College

•Allama Iqbal Open University

  

Tourist areas

Although the city is relatively new, rebuilt following the 1823 flood, many of its original structures remain — the original wall is still visible around the old city. A popular tourist destination is a pre-Islamic fort called Bilot, 30 miles (48 km) from the Dera Ismail Khan on Dera Ismail Khan - Chashma highway. These ruins are situated on a hill.

A sacred Sikh shrine is located in the Chota Bazaar of Dera Ismail Khan; Guru Nanak visited this place during his fourth itinerary. At the site where he stayed a dharamsala was built by his devotees. It is a large building, its main gate opens in the Chota Bazaar. Inside this door there is a double-storey square building, where Prakash used to take place. There are residential rooms around this building for pilgrims. Inside the darbar there is a thara sahib (pious seat) where Guru Nanak Dev Ji once sat. The Government Higher Secondary School No. 3 is currently housed in this building. This dharamsala was maintained by SGPC before 1947 and presently it is in the hands of the Waqf department. The banks of the Indus River are an attractive place for tourists. On the right side of Rehmania Street, the Hindu Baggai Saith house is a very old building of D. I. Khan, as is the Satures Building in Shieve Shah Muhalla.

  

Tourist areas

Although the city is relatively new, rebuilt following the 1823 flood, many of its original structures remain — the original wall is still visible around the old city. A popular tourist destination is a pre-Islamic fort called Bilot, 30 miles (48 km) from the Dera Ismail Khan on Dera Ismail Khan - Chashma highway. These ruins are situated on a hill.

A sacred Sikh shrine is located in the Chota Bazaar of Dera Ismail Khan; Guru Nanak visited this place during his fourth itinerary. At the site where he stayed a dharamsala was built by his devotees. It is a large building, its main gate opens in the Chota Bazaar. Inside this door there is a double-storey square building, where Prakash used to take place. There are residential rooms around this building for pilgrims. Inside the darbar there is a thara sahib (pious seat) where Guru Nanak Dev Ji once sat. The Government Higher Secondary School No. 3 is currently housed in this building. This dharamsala was maintained by SGPC before 1947 and presently it is in the hands of the Waqf department. The banks of the Indus River are an attractive place for tourists. On the right side of Rehmania Street, the Hindu Baggai Saith house is a very old building of D. I. Khan, as is the Satures Building in Shieve Shah Muhalla.

  

Transport

The nearest railway station is 20 km away at Darya Khan, on the eastern and opposite bank of the Indus River.

•Daewoo bus service to all major cities of Pakistan

•Air link via Pakistan International Airlines to all major cities of Pakistan

•Karachi bus terminal

•Lahore Adda

•Baloch Runners

•Main Lari Adda D. I. Khan

•Niazi bus stand

 

Chittorgarh Fort (Hindi/Rajasthani: चित्तौड दुर्ग Chittorgarh Durg) is the largest fort in India and the grandest in the state of Rajasthan. It is a World Heritage Site. The fort, plainly known as Chittor, was the capital of Mewar and is today situated several kilometres south of Bhilwara. It was initially ruled by Guhilot and later by Sisodias, the Suryavanshi clans of Chattari Rajputs, from the 7th century, until it was finally abandoned in 1568 after the siege by Emperor Akbar in 1567. It sprawls majestically over a hill 180 m in height spread over an area of 280 ha above the plains of the valley drained by the Berach River. The fort precinct with an evocative history is studded with a series of historical palaces, gates, temples and two prominent commemoration towers. These monumental ruins have inspired the imagination of tourists and writers for centuries.

 

The fort was sacked three times between the 15th and 16th centuries; in 1303 Allauddin Khilji defeated Rana Ratan Singh, in 1535 Bahadur Shah, the Sultan of Gujarat defeated Bikramjeet Singh and in 1567 Emperor Akbar defeated Maharana Udai Singh II who left the fort and founded Udaipur. Each time the men fought bravely rushing out of the fort walls charging the enemy but lost every time. Following these defeats, Jauhar was committed thrice by more than 13,000 ladies and children of the Rajput heroes who laid their lives in battles at Chittorgarh Fort, first led by Rani Padmini wife of Rana Rattan Singh who was killed in the battle in 1303, and later by Rani Karnavati in 1537 AD.

 

Thus, the fort represents the quintessence of tribute to the nationalism, courage, medieval chivalry and sacrifice exhibited by the Mewar rulers of Sisodia and their kinsmen and women and children, between the 7th and 16th centuries. The rulers, their soldiers, the women folk of royalty and the commoners considered death as a better option than dishonor in the face of surrender to the foreign invading armies.

 

GEOGRAPHY

Chittorgarh, located in the southern part of the state of Rajasthan, 233 km from Ajmer, midway between Delhi and Mumbai on the National Highway 8 (India) in the road network of Golden Quadrilateral. Chittorgarh is situated where National Highways No. 76 & 79 intersect.

 

The fort rises abruptly above the surrounding plains and is spread over an area of 2.8 km2. The highest elevation at the fort is 1,075 m. It is situated on the left bank of the Berach river (a tributary of the Banas River) and is linked to the new town of Chittorgarh (known as the 'Lower Town') developed in the plains after 1568 AD when the fort was deserted in light of introduction of artillery in the 16th century, and therefore the capital was shifted to more secure Udaipur, located on the eastern flank of Aravalli hill range. Mughal Emperor Akbar attacked and sacked this fort which was but one of the 84 forts of Mewar,but the capital was shifted to Aravalli hills where heavy artillery & cavalry were not effective. A winding hill road of more than 1 km length from the new town leads to the west end main gate, called Ram Pol, of the fort. Within the fort, a circular road provides access to all the gates and monuments located within the fort walls.

 

The fort that once boasted of 84 water bodies has only 22 of them now. These water bodies are fed by natural catchment and rainfall, and have a combined storage of 4 billion litres that could meet the water needs of an army of 50,000. The supply could last for four years. These water bodies are in the form of ponds, wells and step wells.

 

HISTORY

Chittorgarh Fort is considered to be the largest fort of India in terms of area. It is stated that the fort was constructed by the Mauryans during the 7th century AD and hence derives its name after the Mauryan ruler, Chitrangada Mori, as inscribed on coins of the period. Historical records show Chittorgarh fort as the capital of Mewar for 834 years. It was established in 734 AD by Bappa Rawal, founder ruler in the hierarchy of the Sisodia rulers of Mewar. It is also said that the fort was gifted to Bappa Rawal as part of Solanki princess’s dowry in the 8th century. The fort was looted and destroyed at the hands of Emperor Akbar in 1568 AD and subsequently never resettled but only refurbished in 1905 AD. Three important battles were fought for control of the fort; in 1303, Ala-ud-din Khilji besieged the fort; in 1535, Sultan of Gujarat Bahadur Shah besieged the fort; and in 1568, Mughal Emperor Akbar attacked the fort. Not that there were only defeats at the fort. Excluding the periods of siege, the fort had always remained in possession of the Sisodias of the Guhilot (or Gehlot/Guhila) clan of Rajputs, who descended from Bappa Rawal. There were also success stories of establishment of the fort and its reconstruction after every siege, before it was finally abandoned in 1568, all of which are narrated.

 

Chittor is cited in the Mahabharat epic. It is said that Bhima, the second of the Pandava brothers of Epic Mahabaharata fame, known for his mighty strength gave a powerful hit with his fist to the ground that resulted in water springing up to form a large reservoir. It is called Bhimlat kund, an artificial tank named after Bhima. Folk legend also mentions that Bhima started building the fort.

 

BAPPA RAWAL

The earliest history linked to the Bappa Rawal's fort is that of the Huna Kingdom of Sialkot (of Mihir Kula 515-540 AD) that was destroyed by Yashodharman. This was subsequently seized by a new dynasty of kshatriyas called Tak or Taxaka. According to historians, the Taxak Mori were the lords of Chittor from a very early period. After a few generations, the Guhilots supplanted them. From 725 to 735 AD, there were numerous defenders who appear to have considered the cause of Chittor their own, the Tak from Asirgarh. This race appears to have retained possession of Asirgarh for at least two centuries after this event and one of its chieftain Bappa Rawal was the most conspicuous leader in the lineage of Prithvi Raj. In the poems of Chandar he is called the "Standard, bearer, Tak of Asir."

 

SIEGE OF 1303

Ala ud din Khilji, Sultan of Delhi, rallied his forces against Mewar, in 1303 AD. The Chittorgarh fort was till then considered impregnable and grand, atop a natural hill. But his immediate reason for invading the fort was his obsessive desire to capture Rani Padmini, the unrivalled beautiful queen of Rana Ratan Singh and take her into his harem. The Rana, out of politeness, allowed the Khilji to view Padmini through a set of mirrors. But this viewing of Padmini further fired Khilji’s desire to possess her. After the viewing, as a gesture of courtesy, when the Rana accompanied the Sultan to the outer gate, he was treacherously captured. Khilji conveyed to the queen that the Rana would be released only if she agreed to join his harem. But the queen had other plans. She agreed to go to his camp if permitted to go in a Royal style with an entourage, in strict secrecy. Instead of her going, she sent 700 well armed soldiers disguised in litters and they rescued the Rana and took him to the fort. But Khilji chased them to the fort where a fierce battle ensued at the outer gate of the fort in which the Rajput soldiers were overpowered and the Rana was killed. Khilji won the battle on August 26, 1303. Soon thereafter, instead of surrendering to the Sultan, the royal Rajput ladies led by Rani Padmini preferred to die through the Rajput’s ultimate tragic rite of Jauhar (self immolation on a pyre). In revenge, Khilji killed thirty thousand Hindus. He entrusted the fort to his son Khizr Khan to rule and renamed the fort as 'Khizrabad'. He also showered gifts on his son by way of

 

a red canopy, a robe embroidered with gold and two standards one green and the other black and threw upon him rubies and emeralds.

 

He returned to Delhi after the fierce battle at the fort.

 

RANA HAMMIR & SUCCESSORS

Khizr Khan’s rule at the fort lasted till 1311 AD and due to the pressure of Rajputs he was forced to entrust power to the Sonigra chief Maldeva who held the fort for 7 years. Hammir Singh, usurped control of the fort from Maldeva by “treachery and intrigue” and Chittor once again regained its past glory. Hammir, before his death in 1364 AD, had converted Mewar into a fairly large and prosperous kingdom. The dynasty (and clan) fathered by him came to be known by the name Sisodia after the village where he was born. His son Ketra Singh succeeded him and ruled with honour and power. Ketra Singh’s son Lakha who ascended the throne in 1382 AD also won several wars. His famous grandson Rana Kumbha came to the throne in 1433 AD and by that time the Muslim rulers of Malwa and Gujarat had acquired considerable clout and were keen to usurp the powerful Mewar state.

 

RANA KUMBHA & CLAN

There was resurgence during the reign of Rana Kumbha in the 15th century. Rana Kumbha, also known as Maharana Kumbhakarna, son of Rana Mokal, ruled Mewar between 1433 AD and 1468 AD. He is credited with building up the Mewar kingdom assiduously as a force to reckon with. He built 32 forts (84 fortresses formed the defense of Mewar) including one in his own name, called Kumbalgarh. But his end came in 1468 AD at the hands of his own son Rana Udaysimha (Uday Singh I) who assassinated him to gain the throne of Mewar. This patricide was not appreciated by the people of Mewar and consequently his brother Rana Raimal assumed the reins of power in 1473. After his death in May 1509, Sangram Singh (also known as Rana Sanga), his youngest son, became the ruler of Mewar, which brought in a new phase in the history of Mewar. Rana Sanga, with support from Medini Rai (a Rajput chief of Alwar), fought a valiant battle against Mughal emperor Babar at Khanwa in 1527. He ushered in a period of prestige to Chittor by defeating the rulers of Gujarat and also effectively interfered in the matters of Idar. He also won small areas of the Delhi territory. In the ensuing battle with Ibrahim Lodi, Rana won and acquired some districts of Malwa. He also defeated the combined might of Sultan Muzaffar of Gujarat and the Sultan of Malwa. By 1525 AD, Rana Sanga had developed Chittor and Mewar, by virtue of great intellect, valour and his sword, into a formidable military state. But in a decisive battle that was fought against Babar on March 16, 1527, the Rajput army of Rana Sanga suffered a terrible defeat and Sanga escaped to one of his fortresses. But soon thereafter in another attack on the Chanderi fort the valiant Rana Sanga died and with his death the Rajput confederacy collapsed.

 

SIEGE OF 1534

Bahadur Shah who came to the throne in 1526 AD as the Sultan of Gujarat besieged the Chittorgarh fort in 1534. The fort was sacked and, once again the medieval dictates of chivalry determined the outcome. Following the defeat of the Rana, it is said 13,000 Rajput women committed jauhar (self immolation on the funeral pyre) and 3,200 Rajput warriors rushed out of the fort to fight and die.

 

SIEGE OF 1567

The final Siege of Chittorgarh came 33 years later, in 1567, when the Mughal Emperor Akbar invaded the fort. Akbar wanted to conquer Mewar, which was being ably ruled by Rana Uday Singh II, a fine prince of Mewar. To establish himself as the supreme lord of Northern India, he wanted to capture the renowned fortress of Chittor, as a precursor to conquering the whole of India. Shakti Singh, son of the Rana who had quarreled with his father, had run away and approached Akbar when the later had camped at Dholpur preparing to attack Malwa. During one of these meetings, in August 1567, Shakti Singh came to know from a remark made in jest by emperor Akbar that he was intending to wage war against Chittor. Akbar had told Shakti Singh in jest that since his father had not submitted himself before him like other princes and chieftains of the region he would attack him. Startled by this revelation, Shakti Singh quietly rushed back to Chittor and informed his father of the impending invasion by Akbar. Akbar was furious with the departure of Shakti Singh and decided to attack Mewar to humble the arrogance of the Ranas. In September 1567, the emperor left for Chittor, and on October 20, 1567, camped in the vast plains outside the fort. In the meantime, Rana Udai Singh, on the advice of his council of advisors, decided to go away from Chittor to the hills of Udaipur. Jaimal and Patta, two brave army chieftains of Mewar, were left behind to defend the fort along with 8,000 Rajput warriors under their command. Akbar laid siege to the fortress. The Rajput army fought valiantly and Akbar himself had narrowly escaped death. In this grave situation, Akbar had prayed for divine help for achieving victory and vowed to visit the shrine of the sufi saint Khwaja at Ajmer. The battle continued till February 23, 1568. On that day Jaymal was seriously wounded but he continued to fight with support from Patta. Jayamal ordered jauhar to be performed when many beautiful princesses of Mewar and noble matrons committed self-immolation at the funeral pyre. Next day the gates of the fort were opened and Rajput soldiers rushed out bravely to fight the enemies. Jayamal and Patta who fought bravely were at last killed in action. One figure estimates that 30,000 soldiers were killed in action. Akbar immediately repaired himself to Ajmer to perform his religious vow.

 

RETURN OF THE FORT TO MEWAR

But in 1616, Jehangir returned Chittor fort to the Rajputs, when Maharana Amar Singh was the chief of Mewar. However, the fort was not resettled though it was refurbished several centuries later in 1905 during British Raj.

 

PRECINCTS

The fort which is roughly in the shape of a fish has a circumference of 13 km with a maximum width of 3 km and it covers an area of 700 acres. The fort is approached through a zig zag and difficult ascent of more than 1 km from the plains, after crossing over a bridge made in limestone. The bridge spans the Gambhiri River and is supported by ten arches (one has a curved shape while the balance have pointed arches). Apart from the two tall towers, which dominate the majestic fortifications, the sprawling fort has a plethora of palaces and temples (many of them in ruins) within its precincts.

 

The 305 hectares component site, with a buffer zone of 427 hectares, encompasses the fortified stronghold of Chittorgarh, a spacious fort located on an isolated rocky plateau of approximately 2 km length and 155m width.

 

It is surrounded by a perimeter wall 4.5 kilometres long, beyond which a 45° hill slope makes it almost inaccessible to enemies. The ascent to the fort passes through seven gateways built by the Mewar ruler Rana Kumbha (1433- 1468) of the Sisodia clan. These gates are called, from the base to the hill top, the Paidal Pol, Bhairon Pol, Hanuman Pol, Ganesh Pol, Jorla Pol, Laxman Pol, and Ram Pol, the final and main gate.

 

The fort complex comprises 65 historic built structures, among them 4 palace complexes, 19 main temples, 4 memorials and 20 functional water bodies. These can be divided into two major construction phases. The first hill fort with one main entrance was established in the 5th century and successively fortified until the 12th century. Its remains are mostly visible on the western edges of the plateau. The second, more significant defence structure was constructed in the 15th century during the reign of the Sisodia Rajputs, when the royal entrance was relocated and fortified with seven gates, and the medieval fortification wall was built on an earlier wall construction from the 13th century.

 

Besides the palace complex, located on the highest and most secure terrain in the west of the fort, many of the other significant structures, such as the Kumbha Shyam Temple, the Mira Bai Temple, the Adi Varah Temple, the Shringar Chauri Temple, and the Vijay Stambh memorial were constructed in this second phase. Compared to the later additions of Sisodian rulers during the 19th and 20th centuries, the predominant construction phase illustrates a comparatively pure Rajput style combined with minimal eclecticism, such as the vaulted substructures which were borrowed from Sultanate architecture. The 4.5 km walls with integrated circular enforcements are constructed from dressed stone masonry in lime mortar and rise 500m above the plain. With the help of the seven massive stone gates, partly flanked by hexagonal or octagonal towers, the access to the fort is restricted to a narrow pathway which climbs up the steep hill through successive, ever narrower defence passages. The seventh and final gate leads directly into the palace area, which integrates a variety of residential and official structures. Rana Kumbha Mahal, the palace of Rana Kumbha, is a large Rajput domestic structure and now incorporates the Kanwar Pade Ka Mahal (the palace of the heir) and the later palace of the poetess Mira Bai (1498-1546). The palace area was further expanded in later centuries, when additional structures, such as the Ratan Singh Palace (1528–31) or the Fateh Prakash, also named Badal Mahal (1885-1930), were added. Although the majority of temple structures represent the Hindu faith, most prominently the Kalikamata Temple (8th century), the Kshemankari Temple (825-850) the Kumbha Shyam Temple (1448) or the Adbuthnath Temple (15th- 16th century), the hill fort also contains Jain temples, such as Shringar Chauri (1448) and Sat Bis Devri (mid-15th century) Also the two tower memorials, Kirti Stambh (13th-14th century) and Vijay Stambha (1433-1468), are Jain monuments. They stand out with their respective heights of 24m and 37m, which ensure their visibility from most locations of the fort complex. Finally, the fort compound is home to a contemporary municipal ward of approximately 3,000 inhabitants, which is located near Ratan Singh Tank at the northern end of the property.

 

GATES

The fort has total seven gates (in local language, gate is called Pol), namely the Padan Pol, Bhairon Pol, Hanuman Pol, Ganesh Pol, Jodla Pol, Laxman Pol and the main gate named the Ram Pol (Lord Rama's Gate). All the gateways to the fort have been built as massive stone structures with secure fortifications for military defense. The doors of the gates with pointed arches are reinforced to fend off elephants and cannon shots. The top of the gates have notched parapets for archers to shoot at the enemy army. A circular road within the fort links all the gates and provides access to the numerous monuments (ruined palaces and 130 temples) in the fort.

 

During the second siege, Prince Bagh Singh died at the Padan Pol in 1535 AD. Prince Jaimal of Badnore and his clansman Kalla were killed by Akbar at a location between the Bhairon Pol and Hanuman Pol in the last siege of the fort in 1567 (Kalla carried the wounded Jaimal out to fight). Chhatris, with the roof supported by corbeled arches, have been built to commemorate the spots of their sacrifice. Their statues have also been erected, at the orders of Emperor Akbar, to commemorate their valiant deaths. At each gate, cenotaphs of Jaimal (in the form of a statue of a Rajput warrior on horseback) and Patta have also been constructed. At Ram Pol, the entrance gate to the fort, a Chaatri was built in memory of the 15 year old Patta of Kelwa, who had lost his father in battle, and saw the sword yielding mother and wife on the battle field who fought valiantly and died at this gate. He led the saffron robed Rajput warriors, who all died fighting for Mewar’s honour. Suraj Pol (Sun Gate) provides entry to the eastern wall of the fort. On the right of Suraj Pol is the Darikhana or Sabha (council chamber) behind which lie a Ganesha temple and the zenana (living quarters for women). A massive water reservoir is located towards the left of Suraj Pol. There is also a peculiar gate, called the Jorla Pol (Joined Gate), which consists of two gates joined together. The upper arch of Jorla Pol is connected to the base of Lakshman Pol. It is said that this feature has not been noticed anywhere else in India. The Lokota Bari is the gate at the fort’s northern tip, while a small opening that was used to hurl criminals into the abyss is seen at the southern end.

 

VIJAY STAMBHA

The Vijay Stambha (Tower of Victory) or Jaya Stambha, called the symbol of Chittor and a particularly bold expression of triumph, was erected by Rana Kumbha between 1458 and 1468 to commemorate his victory over Mahmud Shah I Khalji, the Sultan of Malwa, in 1440 AD. Built over a period of ten years, it raises 37.2 metres over a 4.4 m2 base in nine stories accessed through a narrow circular staircase of 157 steps (the interior is also carved) up to the 8th floor, from where there is good view of the plains and the new town of Chittor. The dome, which was a later addition, was damaged by lightning and repaired during the 19th century. The Stamba is now illuminated during the evenings and gives a beautiful view of Chittor from the top.

 

KIRTI STAMBHA

Kirti Stambha (Tower of Fame) is a 22 metres high tower built on a 9.1 m base with 4.6 m at the top, is adorned with Jain sculptures on the outside and is older (probably 12th century) and smaller than the Victory Tower. Built by a Bagherwal Jain merchant Jijaji Rathod, it is dedicated to Adinath, the first Jain tirthankar (revered Jain teacher). In the lowest floor of the tower, figures of the various tirthankars of the Jain pantheon are seen in special niches formed to house them. These are digambara monuments. A narrow stairway with 54 steps leads through the six storeys to the top. The top pavilion that was added in the 15th century has 12 columns.

 

RANA KUMBHA PALACE

At the entrance gate near the Vijaya Stamba, Rana Kumbha's palace (in ruins), the oldest monument, is located. The palace included elephant and horse stables and a temple to Lord Shiva. Maharana Udai Singh, the founder of Udaipur, was born here; the popular folk lore linked to his birth is that his maid Panna DaiPanna Dhai saved him by substituting her son in his place as a decoy, which resulted in her son getting killed by Banbir. The prince was spirited away in a fruit basket. The palace is built with plastered stone. The remarkable feature of the palace is its splendid series of canopied balconies. Entry to the palace is through Suraj Pol that leads into a courtyard. Rani Meera, the famous poetess saint, also lived in this palace. This is also the palace where Rani Padmini, consigned herself to the funeral pyre in one of the underground cellars, as an act of jauhar along with many other women. The Nau Lakha Bandar (literal meaning: nine lakh treasury) building, the royal treasury of Chittor was also located close by. Now, across from the palace is a museum and archeological office. The Singa Chowri temple is also nearby.

 

FATEH PRAKASH PALACE

Located near Rana Khumba palace, built by Rana Fateh Singh, the precincts have modern houses and a small museum. A school for local children (about 5,000 villagers live within the fort) is also nearby.

 

GAUMUKH RESERVOIR

A spring feeds the tank from a carved cow’s mouth in the cliff. This pool was the main source of water at the fort during the numerous sieges.

 

PADMINI´S PALACE

Padmini's Palace or Rani Padmini's Palace is a white building and a three storied structure (a 19th-century reconstruction of the original). It is located in the southern part of the fort. Chhatris (pavilions) crown the palace roofs and a water moat surrounds the palace. This style of palace became the forerunner of other palaces built in the state with the concept of Jal Mahal (palace surrounded by water). It is at this Palace where Alauddin was permitted to glimpse the mirror image of Rani Padmini, wife of Maharana Rattan Singh. It is widely believed that this glimpse of Padmini's beauty besotted him and convinced him to destroy Chittor in order to possess her. Maharana Rattan Singh was killed and Rani Padmini committed Jauhar. Rani Padmini's beauty has been compared to that of Cleopatra and her life story is an eternal legend in the history of Chittor. The bronze gates to this pavilion were removed and transported to Agra by Akbar.

 

OTHER SIGHTS

Close to Kirti Sthamba is the Meera Temple, or the Meerabai Temple. Rana Khumba built it in an ornate Indo–Aryan architectural style. It is associated with the mystic saint-poet Mirabai who was an ardent devotee of Lord Krishna and dedicated her entire life to His worship. She composed and sang lyrical bhajans called Meera Bhajans. The popular legend associated with her is that with blessings of Krishna, she survived after consuming poison sent to her by her evil brother-in-law. The larger temple in the same compound is the Kumbha Shyam Temple (Varaha Temple). The pinnacle of the temple is in pyramid shape. A picture of Meerabai praying before Krishna has now been installed in the temple.

 

Across from Padmini’s Palace is the Kalika Mata Temple. Originally, a Sun Temple dated to the 8th century dedicated to Surya (the Sun God) was destroyed in the 14th century. It was rebuilt as a Kali temple.

 

Another temple on the west side of the fort is the ancient Goddess Tulja Bhavani Temple built to worship Goddess Tulja Bhavani is considered sacred. The Tope Khana (cannon foundry) is located next to this temple in a courtyard, where a few old cannons are still seen.

 

JAUHAR MELA

The fort and the city of Chittorgarh host the biggest Rajput festival called the "Jauhar Mela". It takes place annually on the anniversary of one of the jauhars, but no specific name has been given to it. It is generally believed that it commemorates Padmini’s jauhar, which is most famous. This festival is held primarily to commemorate the bravery of Rajput ancestors and all three jauhars which happened at Chittorgarh Fort. A huge number of Rajputs, which include the descendants of most of the princely families, hold a procession to celebrate the Jauhar. It has also become a forum to air one's views on the current political situation in the country.

It's not only about the famous 4....the salute goes to and beyond them to the unsung heros who also have loving and caring families weeping for them on the loss.

 

Shaheed ATS chief Hemant Karkare

Shaheed Anti extortion cell chief Vijay Salasker

Shaheed Additional Comissionor Ashoke Kamte

Shaheed Deputy Inspector Baburao Sahibrao

Shaheed Assistant Inspector General Nana Saheb Bhonsle

Shaheed Shashank Shinde

Shaheed Prakash More

Shaheed B G Ombade

Shaheed N C Chaudhary

Shaheed Jayvant Patil

Shaheed Yogesh Patil

Shaheed Ambadas Pawar

Shaheed A.R Chitle

Shaheed NSG Major Sandeep Unnikrishnan

Shaheed NSG Commando Gajendra Singh

 

May all my bretheren be blessed with same guts of steel and spirits which can move mountains, if the time calls for...

JAIHIND

238,033 items / 1,997,510 views

 

Last I met Sir when Bala asked me to come to Lilavati Hospital 1103 and he called me close to him as he could barely talk and asked Mr Akshay Kumar to see that he too patronizes me.. and I burst into tears I was reprimanded by Dimpleji but poets have nothing but tears and so my claypot of a heart burst and now it is overflowing today I shall miss him and so will both my grand daughters Marziya Shakir 4 year old and Nerjis Asif Shakir 1 year old.

We will miss Ashirwad .. we will miss his Blessings..

May His Soul Rest In Peace.

Goodbye Sir...

 

From Wikipedia

 

Rajesh Khanna pronunciation (help·info); (born Jatin Khanna) ( 29 December 1942 - 18 July 2012) is an Indian actor of Hindi films,[1] who has also been a film producer and a politician.

  

He appeared in 163 feature films of which 128 as the lead protagonist including 106 as the solo lead hero films and 22 two hero projects and did 17 short films.[2] He won three Filmfare Best Actor Awards and was nominated for the same fourteen times. He received the maximum BFJA Awards for Best Actor (Hindi) – four times[3] and nominated 25 times. He was awarded the Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award in 2005. Khanna is referred to as the "First Superstar" of Hindi cinema.[4][5][6][7] He made his debut in 1966 with Aakhri Khat and rose to prominence with his performances in films like Raaz, Baharon Ke Sapne, Ittefaq and Aradhana'

 

Early life

 

Khanna was born in Amritsar on 29 December 1942. He was adopted and raised by foster parents who were relatives of his biological parents. Khanna lived in Thakurdwar near Girgaon. Khanna attended St. Sebastian’s Goan High School in Girgaum, along with his friend Ravi Kapoor, who later took the stage name Jeetendra. Their mothers were friends.[8] Khanna gradually started taking interest in theatre and did a lot of stage and theater plays in his school[9] and college days and won many prizes in the inter college drama competitions.[10] Khanna became a rare newcomer who struggled in his own MG sports car to get work in theatre and films in the early sixties.[11] Both friends later studied in Kishinchand Chellaram College(KC).[12] When Jeetendra went for his first film audition, it was Khanna who tutored him. Khanna's uncle changed Khanna's first name to Rajesh when Khanna decided to join films. His friends and his wife call him Kaka.[13]

[edit]Adult life

 

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Khanna fell in love with the then fashion designer and actress Anju Mahendru.[14] They were in the relationship for seven years. Mahendru states that the couple did not speak to each other for 17 years after the breakup.[15] Later Khanna married Dimple Kapadia in March 1973, six months before Dimple's debut film Bobby released[16] and has two daughters from the marriage.[17] Khanna and Dimple Kapadia separated in 1984 as his schedule kept him away much of the time and Dimple became interested in pursuing an acting career,[18] and thereafter lived separately, but did not complete the divorce proceedings.[19] In the eighties Tina Munim was romantically involved with Khanna till the time she decided to leave the industry to pursue her higher studies.[20] Years of separation brought about mutual understanding between Rajesh Khanna and Dimple Kapadia.[15] Reporter Dinesh Raheja stated that “the bitterness between Rajesh and Dimple washed away", noting that they are seen together at parties and that Dimple campaigned for Khanna's election and also worked in his film Jai Shiv Shankar.[21] Their elder daughter Twinkle Khanna, an interior decorator and a former film actress, is married to actor Akshay Kumar[22] while their younger daughter Rinke Khanna, also a former Hindi film actress,[23] is married to a London-based investment banker Samir Saran.[24]

[edit]Early career (1966–1975)

 

Rajesh Khanna was one of eight finalists in the 1965 All India Talent Contest organised by United Producers and Filmfare from more than ten thousand contestants.[25] Subsequently Khanna won the contest.[26] He made his film debut in the 1966 film Aakhri Khat directed by Chetan Anand, followed by Raaz directed by Ravindra Dave both of which were a part of his predetermined prize for winning the All-India United Producers’ Talent Competition.[27] G.P. Sippy and Nasir Hussain were the first to sign Rajesh Khanna after he won the contest.[28] Aakhri Khat was India’s entry for the Best Foreign Language Film at the 40th Oscar Academy Awards in 1967.[29] Khanna in an interview to Hindu newspaper said,"Though “Aakhri Khat” is my first film, I received my first break as a leading actor in Ravindra Dave's, “Raaz” in 1967. My heroine was Babita, already a popular actress then. Though I had lots of confidence, I was shy in facing the camera initially. In my first three shots, I had to perform with stress on my body language and dialogue delivery. Though I was right with my dialogues, my movements were not up to the mark. Ravindra Dave explained me my scenes and movements very clearly correcting my way of walking".[30] Being under contract with United Producers, he got projects like Aurat, Doli and Ittefaq.[31] He was then noticed for his performances in films like Baharon Ke Sapne, Aurat (1967), Doli, Aradhana and Ittefaq. Later Waheeda Rehman suggested Asit Sen to take Khanna for the lead role in Khamoshi.[32] Through Aradhana he rose to "instant national fame" and film critics referred to him as the first superstar of India.[33][34] In that film, Rajesh Khanna was cast in a double role (father and son) opposite Sharmila Tagore and Farida Jalal. The film also saw the resurgence of Kishore Kumar, who eventually became the official playback voice of Rajesh Khanna. The Kishore Kumar-Rajesh Khanna combination worked miracles and it was almost impossible to see them as separate identities. They became a singer-actor duo and together they gave many songs till 1991.[35] Then in year 1971, Haathi Mere Saathi became the biggest hit and also became the biggest grosser ever till then. Khanna is also credited with giving Salim Khan and Javed Akhtar their first chance to become screenplay writers by offering them work in Haathi Mere Saathi.[36] Javed Akhthar accepted in an interview "One day, he went to Salimsaab and said that Mr. Devar had given him a huge signing amount with which he could complete the payment for his bungalow Aashirwad. But the film's script was far from being satisfactory. He told us that if we could set right the script, he would make sure we got both money and credit."[37]

Rajesh acted alongside Mumtaz in eight successful films.[38] They were neighbours and got along very well, and as a result they shared a great on-screen chemistry. After Khanna married, Mumtaz decided to marry millionaire Mayur Madhwani in 1974. At the time, she was doing three films Aap ki Kasam, Roti and Prem Kahani with Khanna. She decided to quit movies only after completing these films. When she left films Khanna felt very lost. In one of her interviews, Mumtaz was quoted saying "I would pull his leg and tease him about his fan following. Whenever Rajesh entered a hotel in Madras, there was a queue of 600 girls waiting to see him at midnight. As a result, even I would get some importance, as people would ask for my autograph as well. He was very generous with his associates, and would party a lot."

During the peak of his career he would be mobbed during public appearances. Fans kissed his car, which would be covered with lipstick marks, and lined the road, cheering and chanting his name. Female fans sent him letters written in their blood.[39] There used to be a line of cars of his producers and hysterical fans outside his bungalow every day. Actor Mehmood parodied him in Bombay to Goa where the driver and conductor of the bus were called 'Rajesh' and 'Khanna'. Even today, he remains the favourite of mimicry artists, who copy his trademark style and dialogue delivery. During the filming of Amar Prem there was a scene that needed to be filmed at Howrah Bridge with a boat carrying Khanna with Sharmila moving under the bridge. The authorities ruled this scene out as they realized that if the public found out that the hero of the film would be there, it may create problems on the bridge itself, and that it might collapse due to the amount of people trying to get a glimpse of their favourite actor.[40] Film critic Monojit Lahiri remembers “Girls married themselves to photographs of Rajesh Khanna, cutting their fingers and applying the blood as sindoor. Rajesh was God, there has never been such hysteria.”[41]

Several songs sung by Kishore Kumar in the 1970s were based on Rajesh Khanna. During the filming of the song 'Mere Sapnon Ki Rani' in Aradhana, Sharmila Tagore was shooting for a Satyajit Ray film and director Shakti Samanta had to shoot their scenes separately and then join the scenes together.In the seventies, his chemistry with Sharmila Tagore, Mumtaz, Asha Parekh, Zeenat Aman and Hema Malini were also popular with audiences.[42]

The BBC made a film on him, titled Bombay Superstar, in 1974, the shooting for which began the same time when he got married and his film Daag premiered.[43] In the video it can be noticed that Khanna was shooting for Aap Ki Kasam. A textbook prescribed by the Bombay University contained an essay, 'The Charisma of Rajesh Khanna!'.[44]

Sharmila Tagore said in interview to Indian Express, “Women came out in droves to see Kaka (Khanna). They would stand in queues outside the studios to catch a glimpse, they would marry his photographs, they would pull at his clothes. Delhi girls were crazier for him than Mumbai girls. He needed police protection when he was in public. I have never seen anything like this before and since.”[45]

Music remained one of the biggest attractions of all Rajesh Khanna films throughout his career. Many of the musical scores for Khanna's films were composed by Sachin Dev Burman, R.D. Burman and Laxmikant-Pyarelal. The trio of Rajesh Khanna, Kishore Kumar and R.D. Burman went on to make a number of popular films, including Kati Patang, Amar Prem, Shehzada, Apna Desh, Mere Jeevan Saathi, Aap Ki Kasam, Ajnabee, Namak Haraam, Maha Chor, Karm, Phir Wohi Raat, Aanchal, Kudrat, Ashanti, Agar Tum Na Hote, Awaaz, Hum Dono and Alag Alag.

Rajesh Khanna had 15 consecutive solo superhits between 1969 to 1971, which is still an unbroken record in Indian film history.[46] In calculation of the 15 films, 2 hero films like Maryada,Andaz and films with box office result as hits were excluded -Mere Jeevan Saathi, Choti Bahu and Shehzada.

Khanna considered Guru Dutt, Meena Kumari and Geeta Bali as his idols.Khanna dislosed in an interview," My inspirations include, Dilip Kumar's dedication and intensity, Raj Kapoor's spontaneity, Dev Anand's style and Shammi Kapoor's rhythm."[30]

[edit]1976–1978

 

Between 1976 and 1978, Khanna acted in 4 box office hits and in nine films that were not commercially successful. Seven of the unsuccessful films were critically acclaimed and have achieved strong cult status over the years among the viewers and these films included Mehbooba,[47] Bundal Baaz, Tyaag, Palkon Ki Chhaon Mein, Naukri, Chakravyuha and Janata Havaldar which were directed by Shakti Samanta, Shammi Kapoor, Din Dayal Sharma, Meeraj, Hrishikesh Mukherjee, Basu Chatterjee and Mehmood Ali, respectively. Khanna persuaded Samanta to cast his sister-in-law Simple Kapadia opposite him in Anurodh.[48] Films starring Rajesh Khanna and directed by Shakti Samanta tended to be commercially successful, but Mehbooba was an exception.[49][50] The change from romantic and social movies to action oriented multi-starrers caused the decline of Khanna's career in terms of box office ratings to some extent. The declaration of emergency in India had angered the masses and this helped films having the lead character revolting against corruption becoming successes. Actor Joy Mukherjee made Chhailla Babu, a suspense thriller in 1977, which became the only successful film of his as a director[51] and the unexpected success of the Chhailla Babu gave a boost to the career of Khanna.[52] However, Khanna continued basically in solo hero social sober household meaningful films during this era and played a variety of characters in films of various genres. During this phase too he had box office hits like Maha Chor,[53] Chhailla Babu,[54] Anurodh and Karm.

[edit]1979–1991

 

After 1978, Khanna starred in critically acclaimed commercially successful films[55][56] such as Amardeep, Phir Wohi Raat, Bandish,[57] Thodisi Bewafaii, Dard, Kudrat, Dhanwan, Ashanti (1982 film), Avtaar, Agar Tum Na Hote, Souten, Jaanwar, Asha Jyoti, Awaaz,[58] Naya Kadam,[59] Hum Dono, Babu, Aaj Ka M.L.A. Ram Avtar,[60] Shatru,[61] Insaaf Main Karoonga, Anokha Rishta, Nazrana, Angaarey, Adhikar (1986),Amrit, Awam (film) (from 1979–1991). Director Bharathiraja decided to remake his 1978 Tamil box office hit film "Sigappu Rojakkal" in Hindi with Khanna playing the role of a psychopath.[62] Kamal Haasan who played the same role in Tamil won South Filmfare Best Actor Award for his portrayal.[63] But the Hindi movie was seen as controversial by traditional and orthodox Hindi moviegoers and was not a commercial success, although Khanna's performance has been rated later higher by critics than the original.[64]

Tina Munim and Rajesh Khanna became the leading on and off screen couple of the 80’s with hits like Fiffty Fiffty, Suraag, Souten, Aakhir Kyun, Bewafai, Insaaf Main Karoonga and Adhikar(1986).[65] Ram Awatar Agnihotri wrote that Tina Munim showed the first sparks of the dedicated actress she would become in the films "Alag Alag" and "Adhikar", both with Khanna.[66] His on screen pair with Shabana Azmi, Smita Patil,Padmini Kolhapuri and Poonam Dhillon was also popular in the eighties[67]He also acted in the Marathi hit film "Sundara Satarkar" in 1981.[68] He has performed in the least number of multi-starrer films in comparison to his contemporaries and portrayed the central character in the few multistarrers he acted. Khanna delivered multi-starrer superhits like Rajput, Dharm Aur Qanoon,[69] Paapi Pet Ka Sawaal Hai, Zamana (1985), Dil-E-Nadan and Ghar Ka Chiraag. He did three potboiler movies with Jeetendra, which were blockbusters-Dharam Kanta,[70] Nishaan and Maqsad.[71] In the year 1984, his film Maqsad became the 2nd highest box office superhit film earning 8.5 crores.[72]Aaj Ka M.L.A. Ram Avtar is one of the memorable political films of Rajesh Khanna. Khanna played the character of a corrupt politician in this film. Viewers praised his role in the film.[73] The year 1985 saw him turn a producer with Alag Alag. Eleven films, with Khanna in the lead, released in 1985 and eight of these became hits and in addition had two films with him in special appearance.[74] Before joining politics one of his last films as the lead hero was Swarg released in 1990. David Dhawan regards Swarg as his most favorite directorial venture and said in an interview " Swarg did well. Though a serious film, people even today talk about it as it struck a chord. I was working with Rajesh Khanna for the first time. I shared a good rapport with him. He never threw tantrums on the sets."[75]

He experimented with films of different genres like tragedy in Babu as a rickshaw puller, thriller in Redrose as a psycopath, political adventure in Awam, negative roles in Dhanwan and Redrose, fantasy in Bundalbaaz and Jaanwar, crime in Phir Wohi Raat and Angarey, suspense in Chakravyuha and Iteefaq, comedy in Hum Dono and Masterji, action in Ashanti, family dramas like Aanchal and Amrit and Agar Tum Na Hote, variety of social films like Avtaar, Naya Kadam, Akhir Kyun and with different themes like reincarnation theme in Kudrat, patriotism in Prem Kahani, immature young love theme handled in different ways in films like Anokha Rishta, Nazrana and Dil E Nadan and did college romance in Bandish. He has played variety of characters as the lead hero – as a postman in Palkon Ki Chaon Mein, as a lawyer who proves that his senior has committed a rape 25 years earlier in Kudrat, as a politician in Aaj Ka MLA Ram Avtaar, as a young musician forced by fate to marry two women in Asha Jyoti, as professional advocate in Awaaz, fisherman in Prem Bandhan, a revolutionary patriot who is torn apart by love and policeman like in Prem Kahanai, as a righteous farmer in Bandhan etc.

He shared a close relationship with R.D. Burman[76] and Kishore Kumar. The trio were friends and have worked together in thirty two films.[77] Work of Pancham with Khanna is regarded as legendary and far superior than any other actor-music director combinations.[78] The king of playback singing Kishore Kumar had even credited Rajesh Khanna for his resurgence, so much so that he sang for Alag Alag, the first film produced by Rajesh Khanna without charging anything.[79][80] In 1985 Pancham found himself being sidelined after failure of few films but Rajesh Khanna was among the few who continued to stand by him.[81] Rajesh and Pancham worked together even after the death of Kishore in the films Jai Shiv Shankar, the unreleased film Police Ke Peechhe Police (both produced by Khanna ) and Sautela Bhai. Khanna even helped Leena Gangully and Amit Kumar in completing Mamta Ki Chhaon Mein, the last film directed by Kishore who died before the completion of the film.

Pyarelal quoted in an interview that “Rajesh Khanna was lucky for us and we were lucky for him too. From the 1969 Do Raaste to the 1986 Amrit, we gave hits together both as films and as music scores.... When we went on our first overseas concert tour in 1984, he came and danced to three songs. He was very particular about his music and would take a tape home if he could not assess a song. He would then give his feedback after a day or two. But if he liked a song at the sitting, he would loudly shout “Wah! Wah!” in appreciation…. It was God’s blessing that we came up with such a vast range of hit songs for him, including in his home productions Roti and films like Chhailla Babu, Chakravyuha, Fiffty Fiffty, Amar Deep and Bewafai. Incidentally, he had a stake in Mehboob Ki Mehndi too.[38] He had great interest in music and a terrific sense of melody too. His music is dominated by Pancham (R.D. Burman) and us and we accepted Shakti Samanta’s Anurodh only because Rajesh Khanna had some misunderstanding with Pancham then and did not want to work with him."[38] Khanna would always request music directors to fit in Kishore Kumar wherever possible. In fact, Kishoreda was very reluctant to sing "Waada Tera Waada" in Dushman and suggested Laxmikant Pyarelal to get it sung by Rafi. Then Laxmikant made Kishoreda meet Rajesh Khanna and Khanna winked at Laxmikant and told Kishoreda that in that case the song should be scrapped. On hearing this Kishore immediately agreed to sing it by himself for Khanna.[38]

Actors who were part of the cast of most of his films include Ashok Kumar, Sujit Kumar, Prem Chopra, Madan Puri, Asrani, Bindu, Vijay Arora, Roopesh Kumar, Dina Pathak and A. K. Hangal, who remained part of his " working team" since the start until the late eighties. The lyricist whom he preferred for his movies was Anand Bakshi. Films by Shakti Samanta with Khanna in the lead, music by Pancham and lyrics by Anand Bakshi had people swooning over. The films Samanta directed without Khanna in the eighties were duds.[82][83] His other close friends from the film industry include Raj Babbar, J. Om Prakash and Jeetendra.

Celebrities of the post-2000 era, like Madhur Bhandarkar, say that they take at least three or four turns in Carter Road even today only to see Khanna.[84] The younger generation stars like Imran Khan still regard Rajesh Khanna as someone who would take the top slot as the most romantic hero of all time.[85] Shahrukh Khan idolises Rajesh Khanna and has opined,"Rajesh Khanna you can’t touch".[86] Actor Tom Alter confessed “I still dream of being Rajesh Khanna. For me, in the early 1970s, he was the only hero – romantic to the core, not larger than life, so Indian and real – he was my hero; the reason I came into films and he still is.”[87] Actor Irrfan Khan accepted in an interview, "The kind of craze witnessed by Rajesh Khanna has not been duplicated by anyone. He was the biggest and the most real star Bollywood has produced. I'd say stardom is that feeling of being possessed by your idol; you are so overwhelmed with euphoria you lose touch with reality."[88] Rajesh Khanna was the last superstar to set fashion trends.[89] The trend of wearing guru kurtas and belt on shirts became famous in seventies and eighties because of Khanna.[90]

Khanna was awarded Filmfare Special Award in 1991 for having starred in 101 films as the solo lead hero and just 21 two hero films in short span of 25 years. Khanna gave 35 Golden Jubilee Hits in period 1967-1975 and 3 in 1976-78 and 35 more in 1979-1991 and gave 22 Silver Jubilee Hits in period 1966-1991.By 2011, he held record for the Hindi actor with most number of author backed lead hero films - 106 solo hero films and having done only 22 two hero films.[91]

[edit]Later career (1992-present)

 

From the early nineties onwards he stopped acting and served as M.P. of New Delhi Constituency from 1991 to 1996. During that period, he returned to acting, playing the lead in Khudai(1994), which was about a father and son both falling in love for the same woman. After 1992, he appeared in only 10 films and declined most film offers. He made a comeback as a NRI in Aa Ab Laut Chalen(1999), and Kyaa Dil Ne Kahaa(2002) and played the solo lead in films Sautela Bhai in 1996, Pyar Zindagi Hai in 2001 and Wafaa in 2008.He did 4 television serials in period 2000-2009.

[edit]Television

 

He is a life member of the International Film And Television Research Centre, the International Film And Television Club and the Asian Academy of Film & Television.[92] He is the Guest Faculty of 'Specialized Cinema Courses At Asian School Of Media Studies'. On 10 April 1999 Khanna inaugurated the live concert of S.P. Balasubramanyam held at Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium, Hyderabad as a tribute to Pancham.[93] In 2001 and 2002, Rajesh played the lead in two television serials: Aapne Parai (B4U & DD Metro)[94] and Ittefaq (Zee TV).[95] He performed in a video album based on Tagore's songs (Rabindra Sangeet) without payment.[96] He also endorsed Star se Superstar tak – a talent hunt programme in 2007 and donated a Gold Trophy of Rs.1 crore. In its Silver Jubilee Episode on 14–15 March 2008, K for Kishore aired a Rajesh Khanna special. He signed on to star in a TV serial with Creative Eye Banner (Dhiraj Kumar) in 2007, and in 2008 performed in a TV serial, Bhabhima, with Leena Ganguly as his co-star. His successful TV serial Raghukul Reet Sada Chali Aayi began in November 2008 and ended in September 2009.[97] Khanna cited the lack of good roles for actors like him in the films as the reason for him not appearing much in films after 2001. He said in an interview on being queried about his decision to do TV serials, "The reach of TV is much more than cinema today and one episode of my serial is likely to be watched by more people than a super-hit film".[98] In 2009, on his 67th birthday, Shemaroo Entertainment released his films and a song collection titled Screen Legends-Rajesh Khanna-the Original Superstar.[99] In May 2012, Havells, the fan making company endorsed Khanna as Brand Ambassador for their new ad campaign featuring him in solo advertisements.[100]

[edit]Political and business career

 

Rajesh Khanna was a member of Parliament for the Congress Party, from the New Delhi constituency, where he won the 1992 by-election, retaining his seat until the 1996 election.[101] When Khanna was M.P he worked full time as a politician and did not accept new acting assignements.[102] He has since been a political activist for the Congress Party and campaigned for Congress in Punjab for 2012 elections.[103]

Khanna and a group of foreign investors have bought land in Shirdi on which they plan to build a religious resort for disciples of Sai Baba of Shirdi.[104]

[edit]Health

 

In June, 2012, it was reported that Rajesh Khanna's health had been deterorating for some time,[105] [106] On 23 June 2012 he was admitted to Lilavati Hospital due to some health complications. He was discharged on 8 July 2012 from the hospital and was reported to be fine.[107] [108][109][110] On 14th July 2012, Rajesh Khanna was readmitted in city's Lilavati hospital. He was admitted due to weakness and low blood pressure," Mr Khanna's estranged wife, Dimple Kapadia said. [11

PATIALA - 19 November 2013

Statue of Iron Man of India Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel will be installed at the Sardar Sarovar Dam in Gujarat which will be double the length of Statue of Liberty in America. Talking with the media persons here today BJP Kisan Morcha National Secretary Sukhminderpal Singh Grewal said that the way Statue of Liberty represents America the Statue of Unity will represent India. He said that the statue will be a symbol of the immense contribution of Sardar Patel and his legendary persona. He said that Patel unified the 562 princely states of India after which the statue will be named as the Statue of Unity. Grewal said that every household and every person in the state will be associated with this project which will be source of inspiration for the unified India and also for the generations to come. He said that this is a dream project of Gujarat Chief Minister and future Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi. He said that BJP Leaders and Workers will collect iron from every household from all villages of India. Grewal said that keeping in view the stature of Sardar Patel the statue will be 182 m (600 ft) high which would be equal to a 60 storey building whereas the Statue of Liberty is 93 m high. Grewal said that Sardar Patel was a farmers leader and the Bardoli Satygraha gave him the name of Sardar. He said that the iron collected from 6.5 lakh farmers of the country will be used in erecting Statue of Unity. He said that the national level, state level and district level, Iron Collection Coordination Committees have been formed by Om Prakash Dhankar our National Chief to collect iron from the households of farmers. He said that these committees will include people from all the walks of life. He said that the committees will have complete record of the iron collected from different places. Grewal said that at the national level MP Thavarchand Gehlot from Madhya Pradesh, former union minister and MP Bihar Hukumdev Narayan Yadav, former minister Sarjuram from Jharkhand, Dr K Laxman form Andhra Pradesh, Sudhir Muntigavkar from Maharashtra, former MP Vijay Pal Tomar from Uttar Pradesh and Hridyanath Singh from Delhi will coordinate with our National President BJP Kisan Morcha Om Prakash Dhankar. He said that the state coordinators of committees include Subhash Barala from Haryana, Jagtar Saini from Punjab, former minister Jairam Thakur from Himachal, Purushottam Mahajan from Chandigarh, Dr Nirmal Singh from Jammu and Kashmir and former union minister Bachchi Singh Rawat from Uttarakhand. Grewal said that the work on collecting iron will start on October 31 on the day of birth anniversary of Sardar Patel and will continue till Republic Day on January 26, 2014. He said that Bhoomi Pujan will be held at the Sardar Sarovar Dam on October 31 wherein thousands will be participating from all over India. Sukhminderpal Singh Grewal appealed people of India to come forward and contribute generously for this noble cause.

from wikipedia

  

Dadar (Marathi: दादर) is a place in Mumbai, and is also a railway station on both the Western (Dadar) and Central lines (Dadar T.T.) of the Mumbai Suburban Railway network. Dadar is situated in the heart of Mumbai, and Dadar station is the only railway station common to both the Central and Western lines. This makes the station a transit point for thousands of passengers using the Mumbai Suburban Railway and one of the most crowded railway stations on the network.

  

History

   

Portuguese Church, Dadar (West)

  

Dadar chowpatty(beach)

  

Shivaji Park Ground

In the 16th century, the area was known as lower Mahim as it was located on the island of Mahim, one of the Seven islands of Bombay which, after Bombay Island proper, was the most important during the whole of the Portuguese period.[1] The Portuguese Franciscans built a church here in 1596 called Nossa Senhora de Salvação, which is popularly known today as Portuguese Church and is a familiar Dadar landmark.[2]

The Dadar-Matunga-Wadala-Sion scheme of 1899-1900 was the first planned suburban scheme in Mumbai (formerly Bombay). The Bombay Improvement Trust devised the plan to relieve congestion in the centre of the town following the plague epidemics of the 1890s. According to the survey plan, 60,000 people were to be housed at Dadar-Matunga and an equal number in Sion-Matunga. 85,000 people were to be accommodated in the developments in Sewri-Wadala.

Among the institutions moved to Dadar under the CIT plan were Victoria Jubilee Technical Institute, now known as Veermata Jijabai Technological Institute and King George school, now known as IES' Raja Shivaji Vidyasankul (now a collection of several schools).

Ramnarain Ruia College in 1937 and Ramniranjan Podar College was founded in 1939, completing Dadar’s transition from residential suburb to diverse neighbourhood. Both colleges are run by SP Mandali.

Dadar also has the Institute Of Hotel Management -IHMCTAN MUMBAI.

By 1937 Shivaji Park and the surrounding areas were developed. This public space was to become an important stage in the political drama leading up to India's independence. Later political history in Bombay also unfolded in this park.

Shivaji Park ground is famous as the Cricket Education ground. Many cricketers like Ashok Mankad, Vinoo Mankad, Vijay Hazare, Salim Durani, Ajit Wadekar, Sunil Gavaskar, Sandip Patil, Sachin Tendulkar, Vinod Kambli, and Ajit Agarkar, Sanjay Manjrekar have trained here.

[edit]Description

 

Dadar has long been a cultural center, not only for Maharashtrians and the Marathi speaking population, but for the entire Indian diaspora.

Dadar is divided into East and West by the railway line. Dadar East is popularly called Dadar Central or Dadar T.T. because the former Dadar Tram Terminus (which was closed with the closure of the tram network in Mumbai) is located here. Dadar West is sometimes referred to as Dadar B.B. because it lies along the western line, which was once part of the Bombay & Baroda & Central India (BB&CI) Railway. Dadar West market is a very popular shopping destination for residents of central Mumbai, the suburbs, and distant satellite towns.

Dadar vegetable market was the heart of the city and was responsible for distributing vegetables across all of Mumbai. It is said that one can get all possible things in Dadar. It is also famous for its underworld.

Dadar is home to the famous Shivaji Park, a huge playground that has been home to some of the best cricket players in the world, including Sachin Tendulkar and Sunil Gavaskar. The Shivaji Park Residential area, a predominantly upper middle class residential zone, has also become a highly sought after residential area in South Mumbai because of its proximity to the Dadar Chowpatty, Shivaji Park, Mahatma Gandhi Olympic Swimming Pool and the famous Siddhivinayak temple in Prabhadevi. One of the largest primary and secondary schools in Mumbai, run by the Indian Education Society (IES) and also Balmohan Vidyamandir is located in Dadar. There are both Marathi and English medium schools from standards 1 through 10.

Dadar is home to the Plaza movie theatre, which was damaged during the 1993 bomb-blasts/riots. It has now reopened and remains one of the theaters in Mumbai that show Marathi movies.

Dadar is also home to Chaitya Bhoomi, where the last rites of Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar were performed. On December 6 there is a huge ceremony in his memory.

It is also home to the Mumbai Mayor's Bungalow, the official residence of the Mayor of Mumbai and the famous Sena Bhavan, headquarters of the political party Shiv Sena.

Dadar has Lokmanya Tilak Bridge, the oldest bridge in Mumbai, built in 1923. This bridge is made of entirely of granite and hard English-made metal. The bridge is an important connection between east and west Dadar. Approximately 10,000 cars use the bridge each day.

Dadar is also very famous for Maharashtrian food like Batata Vada, Vada Pav, Thalipith, Sabudana Vada, Misal Pav, Usual Pav, Puri Bhajji, and Piyush (a sweet drink). There are many restaurants that serve Maharashtrian food. These include Prakash Hotel, Dattatraya Hotel, Aswaad Hotel, and Tambe for food and Panshikar for Sweets.

[edit]Railways Transport

 

Dadar is a prominent Train Terminus in the city of Mumbai and offers various trains for passenger transport. There are two Dadar stations, one for the Western Railway (Churchgate-Dahanu Road) and one for the Central Railway (CST-Kalyan). Both stations are major interchanges.

[edit]Prominent Residential Neighbourhoods in Dadar

 

Shivaji Park

Hindu colony

Lokmanya Tilak Colony

Khandke Building

Dadar Parsi Colony

Kabutar Khana

Shiv Sena Bhavan

Shivaji Mandir

Prakash Hotel

Shardashram Society

Portuguese Church

 

Bollywood veteran Rajesh Khanna was at his dramatic best when he received the lifetime achievement trophy at the International Indian Film Academy (IIFA) awards in Macau from his "Anand" co-star Amitabh Bachchan late on Saturday (June 13) night.

 

Khanna, who featured in hits like "Aradhana", "Kati Patang" and "Amar Prem" in his four-decade long career, kept referring to Big B as "babumoshai", in the manner in which he addressed Bachchan in their 1971 heartwarming hit "Anand".

 

It took me 40 years and 180 films to get this IIFA Life time Achievement award-along journey I must say I am very grateful to IIFA, (event organisers) Wizcraft, committee members and babumoshai. Babumoshai, thank you very very much," Khanna said in his acceptance speech.

 

“It is after 16 years later that we are together on a stage. I thank him from the bottom of my heart," he added.

 

Khanna, 66, also belted dialogues from his famous films to entertain the audience. And he even appreciated Bachchan's successful journey in his professional life.

 

Life should be big, not necessarily long, and my babumoshai is living life big - living life king size. (Look) from where to where he has reached in so many years. We started with ’Anand' and today we are on this platform. He is very dear to me, he is my babumoshai," he said.

 

Khanna received a standing ovation from industry members as well as the audience.

 

Whatever I am, I am because of you, my audience. My audience members, Hindu, Muslim, Sikh or Christian - everyone was responsible to make me an actor to a star to a superstar to what I am today. Thank you all," he said.

 

www.masala.com/12738-thank-you-babumoshai-rajesh-khanna-t...

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Rajesh Khanna pronunciation (help·info); (born Jatin Khanna on 29 December 1942) is an Indian actor of Hindi films,[1] and has been Hindi film producer and an Indian politician.

He appeared in 163 films of which 106 had him as the solo lead hero and 22 were two hero projects.[2] He won three Filmfare Best Actor Awards and was nominated for the same fourteen times. He received the maximum BFJA Awards for Best Actor (Hindi) – four times and nominated 25 times. He was awarded the Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award in 2005. Khanna is referred to as the “First Superstar” of Hindi cinema.[3][4][5][6] He made his debut in 1966 with Aakhri Khat and rose to prominence with his performances in films like Raaz, Baharon Ke Sapne, Ittefaq and Aradhana.

 

Khanna was born in Amritsar on 29 December 1942. He was adopted and raised by foster parents who were relatives of his biological parents. Khanna lived in Thakurdwar near Girgaon. Khanna attended St. Sebastian’s Goan High School in Girgaum, along with his friend Ravi Kapoor, who later took the stage name Jeetendra. Their mothers were friends.[7] Khanna gradually started taking interest in theatre and did a of stage and theater plays in his school[8] and college days and won many prizes in the inter college drama competitions.[9] Khanna became a rare newcomer who struggled in his own MG sports car to get work in theatre and films in the early sixties.[10] Both friends later studied in Kishinchand Chellaram College(KC).[11] When Jeetendra went for his first film audition, it was Khanna who tutored him. Khanna's uncle changed Khanna's first name to Rajesh when Khanna decided to join films. His friends and his wife call him Kaka.[12]

[edit]Adult life

 

See also: Dimple Kapadia, Kishore Kumar, R.D.Burman, Jeetendra, and Simple Kapadia

In the late 1960s and early 1970s, Khanna fell in love with the then fashion designer and actress Anju Mahendru.[13] They were in the relationship for seven years. Mahendru states that the couple did not speak to each other for 17 years after the breakup.[14] Later Khanna married Dimple Kapadia in 1973 and has two daughters from the marriage.[15] Khanna and Dimple Kapadia separated in 1984 as his schedule kept him away much of the time and Dimple became interested in pursuing an acting career,[16] and thereafter lived separately, but did not complete the divorce proceedings.[17] In the eighties Tina Munim was romantically involved with Khanna till the time she decided to leave the industry to pursue her higher studies.[18] Years of separation brought about mutual understanding between Rajesh Khanna and Dimple Kapadia.[14] Reporter Dinesh Raheja stated that “the bitterness between Rajesh and Dimple washed away", noting that they are seen together at parties and that Dimple campaigned for Khanna's election and also worked in his film Jai Shiv Shankar.[19] Their elder daughter Twinkle Khanna, an interior decorator and a former film actress, is married to actor Akshay Kumar[20] while their younger daughter Rinke Khanna, also a former Hindi film actress,[21] is married to a London-based investment banker Samir Saran.[22]

[edit]Early career (1966–1975)

 

Rajesh Khanna was one of eight finalists in the 1965 All India Talent Contest organised by United Producers and Filmfare from more than ten thousand contestants.[23] Subsequently Khanna won the contest.[24] He made his film debut in the 1966 film Aakhri Khat directed by Chetan Anand, followed by Raaz directed by Ravindra Dave both of which were a part of his predetermined prize for winning the All-India United Producers’ Talent Competition.[25] G.P. Sippy and Nasir Hussain were the first to sign Rajesh Khanna after he won the contest.[26] Khanna in an interview to Hindu newspaper said,"Though “Aakhri Khat” is my first film, I received my first break as a leading actor in Ravindra Dave's, “Raaz” in 1967. My heroine was Babita, already a popular actress then. Though I had lots of confidence, I was shy in facing the camera initially. In my first three shots, I had to perform with stress on my body language and dialogue delivery. Though I was right with my dialogues, my movements were not up to the mark. Ravindra Dave explained me my scenes and movements very clearly correcting my way of walking".[27] Being under contract with United Producers, he got projects like Aurat, Doli and Ittefaq.[28] He was then noticed for his performances in films like Baharon Ke Sapne, Aurat (1967), Doli, Aradhana and Ittefaq. Later Waheeda Rehman suggested Asit Sen to take Khanna for the lead role in Khamoshi.[29] Through Aradhana he rose to "instant national fame" and film critics referred to him as the first superstar of India.[30][31] In that film, Rajesh Khanna was cast in a double role (father and son) opposite Sharmila Tagore and Farida Jalal. The film also saw the resurgence of Kishore Kumar, who eventually became the official playback voice of Rajesh Khanna. The Kishore Kumar-Rajesh Khanna combination worked miracles and it was almost impossible to see them as separate identities. They became a singer-actor duo and together they gave many songs till 1991.[32] Then in year 1971, Haathi Mere Saathi became the biggest hit and also became the biggest grosser ever till then.Khanna is also credited with giving Salim Khan and Javed Akhtar their first chance to become screenplay writers by offering them work in Haathi Mere Saathi.[33] Javed Akhthar accpeted in an interview "One day, he went to Salimsaab and said that Mr. Devar had given him a huge signing amount with which he could complete the payment for his bungalow Aashirwad. But the film's script was far from being satisfactory. He told us that if we could set right the script, he would make sure we got both money and credit."[34]

Rajesh acted alongside Mumtaz in eight successful films.[35] They were neighbours and got along very well, and as a result they shared a great on-screen chemistry. After Khanna married, Mumtaz decided to marry millionaire Mayur Madhwani in 1974. At the time, she was doing three films Aap ki Kasam, Roti and Prem Kahani with Khanna. She decided to quit movies only after completing these films. When she left films Khanna felt very lost. In one of her interviews, Mumtaz was quoted saying "I would pull his leg and tease him about his fan following. Whenever Rajesh entered a hotel in Madras, there was a queue of 600 girls waiting to see him at midnight. As a result, even I would get some importance, as people would ask for my autograph as well. He was very generous with his associates, and would party a lot."

During the peak of his career he would be mobbed during public appearances. Fans kissed his car, which would be covered with lipstick marks, and lined the road, cheering and chanting his name. Female fans sent him letters written in their blood.[36] There used to be a line of cars of his producers and hysterical fans outside his bungalow every day. Actor Mehmood parodied him in Bombay to Goa where the driver and conductor of the bus were called 'Rajesh' and 'Khanna'. Even today, he remains the favourite of mimicry artists, who copy his trademark style and dialogue delivery. During the filming of Amar Prem there was a scene that needed to be filmed at Howrah Bridge with a boat carrying Khanna with Sharmila moving under the bridge. The authorities ruled this scene out as they realized that if the public found out that the hero of the film would be there, it may create problems on the bridge itself, and that it might collapse due to the amount of people trying to get a glimpse of their favourite actor.[37] Film critic Monojit Lahiri remembers “Girls married themselves to photographs of Rajesh Khanna, cutting their fingers and applying the blood as sindoor. Rajesh was God, there has never been such hysteria.”[38]

Several songs sung by Kishore Kumar in the 1970s were based on Rajesh Khanna. During the filming of the song 'Mere Sapnon Ki Rani' in Aradhana, Sharmila Tagore was shooting for a Satyajit Ray film and director Shakti Samanta had to shoot their scenes separately and then join the scenes together.

The BBC made a film on him, titled Bombay Superstar, in 1974, the shooting for which began the same time when he got married and his film Daag premiered.[39] In the video it can be noticed that Khanna was shooting for Aap Ki Kasam. A textbook prescribed by the Bombay University contained an essay, 'The Charisma of Rajesh Khanna!'.[40]

Sharmila Tagore said in interview to India Express, “Women came out in droves to see Kaka (Khanna). They would stand in queues outside the studios to catch a glimpse, they would marry his photographs, they would pull at his clothes. Delhi girls were crazier for him than Mumbai girls. He needed police protection when he was in public. I have never seen anything like this before and since.”[41]

Music remained one of the biggest attractions of all Rajesh Khanna films throughout his career. Many of the musical scores for Khanna's films were composed by Sachin Dev Burman, R.D. Burman and Laxmikant-Pyarelal. The trio of Rajesh Khanna, Kishore Kumar and R.D. Burman went on to make a number of popular films, including Kati Patang, Amar Prem, Shehzada, Apna Desh, Mere Jeevan Saathi, Aap Ki Kasam, Ajnabee, Namak Haraam, Maha Chor, Karm, Phir Wohi Raat, Aanchal, Kudrat, Ashanti, Agar Tum Na Hote, Awaaz, Hum Dono and Alag Alag.

Rajesh Khanna had 15 consecutive solo superhits between 1969 to 1972, which is still an unbroken record in Indian film history.[42] The commercial success of his films declined during 1976–78.In calculation of the 15 films, 2 hero films like Maryada,Andaz and films with box office result as hits were excluded -Mere Jeevan Saathi, Choti Bahu and Shehzada.

Khanna considered Guru Dutt, Meena Kumari and Geeta Bali as his idols.Khanna dislosed in an interview," My inspirations include, Dilip Kumar's dedication and intensity, Raj Kapoor's spontaneity, Dev Anand's style and Shammi Kapoor's rhythm."[27]

[edit]1976–1978

 

Between 1976 and 1978, Khanna acted in nine films that were not commercially successful. Seven of these were rated highly by critics upon their release and have achieved strong cult status over the years among the viewers and these films included Mehbooba,[43] Bundal Baaz, Tyaag, Palkon Ki Chhaon Mein, Naukri, Chakravyuha and Janata Havaldar which were directed by Shakti Samanta, Shammi Kapoor, Din Dayal Sharma, Meeraj, Hrishikesh Mukherjee, Basu Chatterjee and Mehmood Ali, respectively. Khanna persuaded Samanta to cast his sister-in-law Simple Kapadia opposite him in Anurodh.[44] Films starring Rajesh Khanna and directed by Shakti Samanta tended to be commercially successful, but Mehbooba was an exception.[45][46] K. Balachander then remade his film Arangetram in Hindi as Aaina with Mumtaz in the lead and Khanna in a cameo appearance in 1977. This film was also unsuccessful. The change from romantic and social movies to action oriented multi-starrers caused the decline of Khanna's career in terms of box office ratings to some extent. The declaration of emergency in India had angered the masses and this helped films having the lead character revolting against corruption becoming success.[47] Actor Joy Mukherjee made Chhailla Babu, a suspense thriller in 1977, which became the only successful film of his as a director[48] and the unexpected success of the Chhailla Babu gave a boost to the career of Khanna.[49] However, Khanna continued basically in solo hero social sober household meaningful films during this era and played a variety of characters in films of various genres. During this phase too he had box office hits like Maha Chor,[50] Chhailla Babu,[51] Anurodh and Karm.

[edit]Later career (1979–present)

 

After 1978, Khanna starred in critically acclaimed commercially successful films[52][53] such as Amardeep, Phir Wohi Raat, Bandish,[54] Thodisi Bewafaii, Dard, Kudrat, Dhanwan, Avtaar, Agar Tum Na Hote, Souten, Jaanwar, Asha Jyoti, Awaaz,[55] Naya Kadam,[56] Hum Dono, Babu, Aaj Ka M.L.A. Ram Avtar,[57] Shatru,[58] Insaaf Main Karoonga, Anokha Rishta, Nazrana, Angaarey, Adhikar (1986) and Amrit(from 1979–1991). Director Bharathiraja decided to remake his 1978 Tamil box office hit film "Sigappu Rojakkal" in Hindi with Khanna playing the role of a psychopath.[59] Kamal Haasan who played the same role in Tamil won South Filmfare Best Actor Award for his portrayal.[60] But the Hindi movie was seen as controversial by traditional and orthodox Hindi moviegoers and was not a commercial success, although Khanna's performance has been rated later higher by critics than the original.[61]

Tina Munim and Rajesh Khanna became the leading on and off screen couple of the 80’s with hits like Fiffty Fiffty, Suraag, Souten, Aakhir Kyun, Bewafai, Insaaf Main Karoonga and Adhikar(1986).[62] Ram Awatar Agnihotri wrote that Tina Munim showed the first sparks of the dedicated actress she would become in the films "Alag Alag" and "Adhikar", both with Khanna.[63] He also acted in the Marathi hit film "Sundara Satarkar" in 1981.[64] He has performed in the least number of multi-starrer films in comparison to his contemporaries and portrayed the central character in the few multistarrers he acted. Khanna delivered multi-starrer superhits like Rajput, Dharam Aur Kanoon,[65] Zamana, Dil-E-Nadan, Ashanti, Awam (film) and Ghar Ka Chiraag. He did three potboiler movies with Jeetendra, which were blockbusters-Dharam Kanta,[66] Nishaan and Maqsad.[67] Aaj Ka M.L.A. Ram Avtar is one of the memorable political films of Rajesh Khanna. Khanna played the character of a corrupt politician in this film. Viewers praised his role in the film.[68] The year 1985 saw him turn a producer with Alag Alag. Eleven films, with Khanna in the lead, released in 1985 and seven of these became hits and in addition had two films with him in special appearance.[69] Before joining politics one of his last films as the lead hero was Swarg released in 1990. David Dhawan regards Swarg as his most favorite directorial venture and said in an interview " Swarg did well. Though a serious film, people even today talk about it as it struck a chord. I was working with Rajesh Khanna for the first time. I shared a good rapport with him. He never threw tantrums on the sets."[70]

He experimented with films of different genres like tragedy in Babu as a rickshaw puller, thriller in Redrose as a psycopath, political adventure in Awam, negative roles in Dhanwan and Redrose, fantasy in Bundalbaaz and Jaanwar, crime in Phir Wohi Raat and Angarey, suspense in Chakravyuha and Iteefaq, comedy in Hum Dono and Masterji, action in Ashanti, family dramas like Aanchal and Amrit and Agar Tum Na Hote, variety of social films like Avtaar, Naya Kadam, Akhir Kyun and with different themes like reincarnation theme in Kudrat, patriotism in Prem Kahani, immature young love theme handled in different ways in films like Anokha Rishta, Nazrana and Dil E Nadan and did college romance in Bandish. He has played variety of characters as the lead hero – as a postman in Palkon Ki Chaon Mein, as a lawyer who proves that his senior has committed a rape 25 years earlier in Kudrat, as a politician in Aaj Ka MLA Ram Avtaar, as a young musician forced by fate to marry two women in Asha Jyoti, as professional advocate in Awaaz, fisherman in Prem Bandhan, a revolutionary patriot who is torn apart by love and policeman like in Prem Kahanai, as a righteous farmer in Bandhan etc.

He shared a very close relationship with R.D. Burman[71] and Kishore Kumar. The trio were very close friends and have worked together in more than thirty films.[72] Work of Pancham with Khanna is regarded as legendary and far superior than any other actor-music director combinations.[73] The king of playback singing Kishore Kumar had even credited Rajesh Khanna for his resurgence, so much so that he sang for Alag Alag, the first film produced by Rajesh Khanna without charging anything.[74][75] In 1985 Pancham found himself being sidelined after failure of few films but Rajesh Khanna was among the few who continued to stand by him.[76] Rajesh and Pancham worked together even after the death of Kishore in the films Jai Shiv Shankar, the unreleased film Police Ke Peechhe Police (both produced by Khanna ) and Sautela Bhai. Khanna even helped Leena Gangully and Amit Kumar in completing Mamta Ki Chhaon Mein, the last film directed by Kishore who died before the completion of the film.

Actors who were part of the cast of most of his films include Ashok Kumar, Sujit Kumar, Prem Chopra, Madan Puri, Asrani, Bindu, Vijay Arora, Roopesh Kumar, Dina Pathak and A. K. Hangal, who remained part of his " working team" since the start until the late eighties. The lyricist whom he preferred for his movies was Anand Bakshi. Films by Shakti Samanta with Khanna in the lead, music by Pancham and lyrics by Anand Bakshi had people swooning over. The films Samanta directed without Khanna in the eighties were duds.[77][78] His other close friends from the film industry include Raj Babbar, J. Om Prakash and Jeetendra.

Pyarelal quoted in an interview that “Rajesh Khanna was lucky for us and we were lucky for him too. From the 1969 Do Raaste to the 1986 Amrit, we gave hits together both as films and as music scores.... When we went on our first overseas concert tour in 1984, he came and danced to three songs. He was very particular about his music and would take a tape home if he could not assess a song. He would then give his feedback after a day or two. But if he liked a song at the sitting, he would loudly shout “Wah! Wah!” in appreciation…. It was God’s blessing that we came up with such a vast range of hit songs for him, including in his home productions Roti and films like Chhailla Babu, Chakravyuha, Fiffty Fiffty, Amar Deep and Bewafai. Incidentally, he had a stake in Mehboob Ki Mehndi too.[35]

Celebrities of the post-2000 era, like Madhur Bhandarkar, say that they take at least three or four turns in Carter Road even today only to see Khanna.[79] The younger generation stars like Imran Khan still regard Rajesh Khanna as someone who would take the top slot as the most romantic hero of all time.[80] Shahrukh Khan idolises Rajesh Khanna and has opined,"Rajesh Khanna you can’t touch".[81] Actor Tom Alter confessed “I still dream of being Rajesh Khanna. For me, in the early 1970s, he was the only hero – romantic to the core, not larger than life, so Indian and real – he was my hero; the reason I came into films and he still is.”[82] Actor Irrfan Khan accepted in an interview, "The kind of craze witnessed by Rajesh Khanna has not been duplicated by anyone. He was the biggest and the most real star Bollywood has produced. I'd say stardom is that feeling of being possessed by your idol; you are so overwhelmed with euphoria you lose touch with reality."[83] Rajesh Khanna was the last superstar to set fashion trends.[84] The trend of wearing guru kurtas and belt on shirts became famous in seventies and eighties because of Khanna.[85]

From the early nineties onwards he stopped acting and served as M.P. of New Delhi Constituency from 1991 to 1996. During that period, he returned to acting, appearing in Khudai(1994). He made a comeback as a NRI in Aa Ab Laut Chalen(1999), and Kyaa Dil Ne Kahaa(2002). In September 2007, he officially announced his planned return to the big screen, signing a contract for several new films, including some television serials.

[edit]Television

 

He is a life member of the International Film And Television Research Centre, the International Film And Television Club and the Asian Academy of Film & Television.[86] He is the Guest Faculty of 'Specialized Cinema Courses At Asian School Of Media Studies'. On 10 April 1999 Khanna inaugurated the live concert of S.P. Balasubramanyam held at Lal Bahadur Shastri Stadium, Hyderabad as a tribute to Pancham.[87] In 2001 and 2002, Rajesh played the lead in two television serials: Aapne Parai (B4U & DD Metro)[88] and Ittefaq (Zee TV).[89] He performed in a video album based on Tagore's songs (Rabindra Sangeet) without payment, and is currently in the process of creating his own music channel "R.K. Music Channel".[90] He also endorsed Star se Superstar tak – a talent hunt programme in 2007 and donated a Gold Trophy of Rs.1 crore. In its Silver Jubilee Episode on 14–15 March 2008, K for Kishore aired a Rajesh Khanna special. He signed on to star in a TV serial with Creative Eye Banner (Dhiraj Kumar) in 2007, and in 2008 performed in a TV serial, Bhabhima, with Leena Ganguly as his co-star. His successful TV serial Raghukul Reet Sada Chali Aayi began in November 2008 and ended in September 2009.[91] Khanna cites the lack of good roles for actors like him in the films these days. He said in an interview on being queried about his decision to do TV serials, "The reach of TV is much more than cinema today and one episode of my serial is likely to be watched by more people than a super-hit film".[92] In 2009, on his 67th birthday, Shemaroo Entertainment released his films and a song collection titled Screen Legends-Rajesh Khanna-the Original Superstar.[93]

[edit]Political and business career

 

Rajesh Khanna was a member of Parliament for the Congress Party, from the New Delhi constituency, where he won the 1992 by-election, retaining his seat until the 1996 election.[94] He has since been a political activist for the Congress Party.

Khanna and a group of foreign investors have bought land in Shirdi on which they plan to build a religious resort for disciples of Sai Baba of Shirdi.[95]

[edit]Awards, honours and recognitions

 

Main article: List of Rajesh Khanna's awards, honours and recognitions

[edit]Filmography

 

[edit]Actor

Main article: Rajesh Khanna filmography

[edit]Producer

YearFilm

1985Alag Alag

1989Police Ke Peeche Police

1990Jai Shiv Shankar

[edit]Co-Producer

YearFilm

1971Mehboob Ki Mehndi

1974Roti

1995Barsaat

[edit]Playback Singer

Baharon Ke Sapne (1967)

Safar (1970)

Raja Rani (1973)

Shehzada (1972)

Amar Prem (1972)

Daag (1973)

Ajnabee

Souten (1983)

   

Goud Saraswat Brahmins (GSB) have made significant contribution to a variety of fields like literature, business, sports, cinema, law, etc. The following is list of notable individuals belonging to GSB community (including its sub-communities)

Government and law

 

Sir B. N. Rau, jurist (was judge on International Court in the Hague and President of United Nations Security Council. Prepared the original draft of Constitution of India. Also drafted Constitution of Burma (Myanmar) in 1947.)

Suresh Tendulkar, former Chief Economic Advisor to Prime Minister

Justice K. T. Telang (1850-1892) Judge Bombay High Court & Youngest Vice Chancellor of Bombay University. Exceptional legal mind, Educationist, Scholar of Sanskrit

[edit]RBI

Sir B. R. Rau, former Governor of RBI

Subir Gokarn, present Deputy Governor of RBI

Shiralkar Shrinath S. : Dy.Governor of Reserve Bank of India from 18th Dec.1970 to 25 July 1976.

[edit]Science and technology

 

Prof. Jayant Baliga, named by Scientific American one of “Eight Heroes of Semiconductor Revolution”, holder of over 100 patents including that for IGBT

Arun Netravali, Chief Scientist of Alcatel Lucent, France. Pioneer of digital technology including HDTV, MPEG compression. Formerly President of renowned Bell Labs

Dr. Anil Kakodkar, Head of Nuclear Programme of India

Prashant Kamat, rated as one of top 100 chemists of past decade by Times Higher Education Group.

Achyut Kanvinde, considered as one of forefathers of modern Indian architecture.

[edit]Literature

 

[edit]Marathi

Pu La Deshpande

Kaka Kalelkar (the only person to win Sahitya Akadami award for his writings in two languages - marathi & Gujarati)

Mama Varerkar, playwright

Mangesh Padgaonkar, famous poet

Baa Bha Borkar, poet in marathi and konkani

Jaywant Dalvi

Vijay Tendulkar, leading playwright of India

Ratnakar Matkari

Arati Prabhu (C. T. Khanolkar)

Dr. Subhash Bhende

Laxmanrao Sardessai, noted poet in marathi, konkani as well as Portuguese

Vijaya Rajadhyaksha

Vasant Sabnis

Sunita Deshpande

Mangesh Rajadhyaksha

Ramesh Mantri

Girija Keer

Pu Shi Rege

Sumati Kshetramade

Bal Samant

Narayan Govind Kalelkar, winner of Sahitya Akadami award in year 1967

Anant Priolkar

Ravindra Pinge

Shridhar Tilve

[edit]Kannada

Girish Karnad, a Jnanapeetha awardeee

Rashtrakavi M Govinda Pai, one of the greatest Kannada poets. Was fluent in 25 languages.

Gourish Kaikini, Sanskrit and Kannada scholar

Jayant Kaikini

Mangesh V. Nadkarni

Arvind Nadkarni

Sundar Nadkarni

Gangadhar Chittal

Yashwant Chittal

Dinakara Desai

P. Mangesh Rao

Santosh Kumar Gulwadi

[edit]Konkani

Basti Vaman Shenoy

Ravindra Kelekar, a Jnanapeetha awardeee

Shenoi Goembab

R. V. Pandit

B.V. Baliga

[edit]Other

Santha Rama Rau (English writer)

Uncle Pai (Anant Pai, publisher of Amar Chitra Katha. He was described as the most famous 'Uncle' after Chacha Nehru by former PM Atalji)

[edit]Scholars and academicians

 

Sir Dr. R. G. Bhandarkar (Sanskrit scholar, Orientalist, social reformer)

Dharmanand D. Kossambe (Internationally known Scholar of Buddhism)

Damodar D. Kossambe(Polymath)

Kashinath Trimbak Telang (Sanskrit scholar, former judge of Mumbai High Court from 1889 till death in 1893 and Vice-Chancellor of Mumbai University. Translated Sanskrit epics in English. Also was the first Secretary of Indian National Congress)

B. R. Shenoy(Famous economist, first ever economist to speak against socialist planning of India governments)

Ajit Rangnekar, Dean, Indian School of Business, Hyderabad (rated as 12th best business school by Financial Times)

Rajnarayan Chandavarkar

S. B. Mujumdar, founder of Symbiosis Society

[edit]Doctors

Dr. Bhau Daji Laud - first doctor of India

Dwarkanath Kotnis - (Surgeon in China during 1938-42 Second Sino-Japanese War)

M. G. Kini - considered by the Indian Orthopedic surgical community as the forerunner of Orthopedic Surgery in India

A. V. Baliga

Annapoorna Kini

Dr. Shreedhar Shantaram Ajgaonkar - founder of Diabetic Association of India (1955) and first specialized hospital for the diabetics in Mumbai – now known as S. L. Raheja hospital.

[edit]Business and industry

 

Vijay Mallya, Chairman of UB Group

Dr. T. M. A. Pai, founder of Manipal Group and Syndicate Bank

[edit]IT industry

Nandan Nilekani, Co-founder of Infosys

Rohith Bhat, Robosoft Technologies

Sunil Gaitonde, founder of GS Labs, member of TiE Board of Directors

[edit]Banking

[edit]Past

A. S. R. Pai, Co-founder of Canara Bank

[edit]Art and music

 

Suman Kalyanpur

Anuradha Paudwal

Hema Sardesai

Laxmikant Kudalkar (of Laxmikant-Pyarelal duo)

Vasant Desai

Vasant Prabhu

Bhaskar Chandavarkar

Pandit Upendra Bhat

Mohanrao Palekar

Pandit Ratnakar Pai

Ramesh L. Nadkarni

Aditya Kalyanpur

Nityanand Haldipur

Nandu Bhende

Uday Benegal of rock band Indus Creed

Gautam Rajadhyaksha

Mohan Samant, named among the "hundred leading artists in the world today in TIME magazine in 1963

V. S. Gaitonde, Painter

Maya Kamath—Lady cartoonist of international fame

Puttur Narasimha Nayak

[edit]Cinema & theatre

 

Dadasaheb (Ramchandra Gopal) Torne – true Father of Indian Cinema (though Dadasaheb Phalke is credited as such), as he created first motion picture in India (Pundlik) in year 1912. He was also the first to open distribution offices, produced first Talkie in India along with Ardeshir Irani (Alam Ara), first double role cinema in India (Aout ghatkecha raja) and also first silver jubilee film in India (Shyam Sunder)

Guru Dutt (born Vasanth Kumar Shivshankar Padukone), named in the list of CNN’s “top 25 Asian Actors of All Time”

Shyam Benegal

Kalpana Lajmi

Durga Khote - First lady of Indian silver screen. Acted with all distinguished actors of the country of her time

Leena Chandavarkar

Amol Palekar

Nitish Bharadwaj

Isha Koppikar

Deepika Padukone

Urmila Matondkar

Amrita Rao

Manjari Phadnis

Ashok Saraf

Sachin Pilgaonkar

Supriya Pilgaonkar (Sabnis)

Varsha Usgaonkar

Nishikant Kamat, director of films like Dombivali Fast, Satchya Aat Gharat

Priya Tendulkar

Milind Gunaji

Ninad Kamat

Radhika Pandit, actress from the South

Preetika (Preeta Rao), actress the from South

Shankar Nag, Kannada matinee idol

Anant Nag, veteran Kannada actor

Sundar Rao Nadkarni - the director of the record-creating Tamil film Haridas.

[edit]Journalists

 

Shobha De (Rajadhyaksha) (Famous author and columnist, Editor of Stardust magazine)

M V Kamath (former Editor, Illustrated Weekly of India & ex-Chairman, Prasar Bharathi)

Rajdeep Sardesai (Prominent TV personality of IBNLive)

T. V. R. Shenoy (former Editor of The Week and Sunday Mail)

[edit]Sports

 

[edit]Cricket

Sachin Tendulkar

Khandu Rangnekar

Sunil Gavaskar

Rohan Gavaskar

Madhav Mantri

Dilip Vengsarkar

Dilip Sardesai

Bapu Nadkarni

Ajit Pai

Chandrakant Pandit

Amol Muzumdar

Suru Nayak

[edit]Other

Prakash Padukone - Badminton

Vandana Shanbagh – Athletics, Winner of Silver medal in 1987 Asian Games

Dinesh Nayak - Indian hockey team player

[edit]Defence & Armed forces

 

[edit]Air Force

Air Chief Marshal Lakshman Katre, IAF, Chief of the Air Staff

Air Chief Marshal Hrushikesh Moolgavkar, IAF, Chief of the Air Staff

Air Chief Marshal Pradeep Vasant Naik, IAF, Chief of Air Staff

Wing Commander Vishwanath Balakrishna Sawardekar, IAF, AVSM, KC[1]

[edit]Navy

Admiral J.G Nadkarni: Indian Navy, Chief of Naval Staff

[edit]Army

Lt.General Prakash Gokarn: Retd.Signal Officer-in-Chief,Army H.Q.,Was Secretary of Army`s Reorganization and Restructuring Expert committee for upgrading organisation and &Weapon Systems of the Army.Was awarded Ati Vishist Seva Medal and Param Vishist Seva Medal for distinguished services of the most exceptional level by the President of India.

[edit]Other

Ashok Nayak, Chairman, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL)[2]

[edit]Politics and social service

 

Kamaladevi Chattopadhyaay née Dhareshwar

U. Srinivas Mallya

Karnad Sadashiv Rao

Suresh Prabhu

Manohar Parrikar, Chief Minister of Goa

Digambar Kamat, former Chief Minister of Goa

Medha Patkar

Ram Krishna Baliga, former Chairman of Keonics and father of Electronics City of Bangalore

Gurudas Kamat

Ahilya Rangnekar

Sir Narayan Ganesh Chandavarkar - former President of Indian National Congress

Radhabai Subbarayan

Murlidhar Chandrakant Bhandare - Governor, Orissa

[edit]Historical figures

 

Lakshman Prabhu (Minister of Silhara dynasty, built Banaganga tank and Walkeshwar temple)

Rama Kamath

Rudra Pai (Minister of Silhara dynasty)

Mahadevaiyya Prabhu (Minister of Silhara dynasty)

Somanaiyya Prabhu (Minister of Silhara dynasty)

Anant Pai Prabhu (Minister of Silhara dynasty)

Naro Ram Mantri(Minister in Sahu Maharaj's court)

Ramachandra Baba Sukthankar (official in Peshwa court)

Timaji kamath (An admiral of Vijayanagar empire)

Jivbadada Kerkar (Bakshi of Sindhia army)

Lakhbadada Lad (An officer of Sindhia army)

Lalaji Gulgule (An officer of Sindhia army)

Appaji Ram (Diplomat of Hyder Ali/Tippu Sultan)

Baloba Tatya (official of Sindhia court)

[edit]Spiritual field

 

Shri Gaudapadacharya - The propounder of Advaita philosophy (considered first pontiff – Swamiji – of Kavale math, Goa)

Shri Govinda Bhagavatpadacharya - Disciple of Sri Gouda padacharya and Guru of Adi Shankaracharya (considered second pontiff – Swamiji – of Kavale math, Goa)

[edit]Firsts

 

Bal Mangesh Wagle, First Barrister (advocate) of India[3]

Dr. Ramakrishna Vitthal Laud, First Doctor of India[4] and also first Indian Sheriff[3]

Dr. R G Bhandarkar, first Graduate and Post-graduate batch of Mumbai University/ India

Rao Bahadur S S Talmiki, founder of first Co-op Housing Society in the whole of Asia[5]

Sir B. N. Rau, first Indian judge on International Court at the Hague and also first Indian President of United Nations Security Council

Lalith Rao (Hindustani musician) First lady engineer in India who did doctorate[6]

Nileshwar Narayan Pai (ex-Chairman of Corporation Bank and IDBI Bank) - the first Gold Medalist in the Chartered Accountancy exam when it was introduced.[6]

 

JAGRAON , November 21

The whole country has been divided into seven zones in order to impart training and to acquaint the members with the collection of iron for the Statue of Unity. This was stated by Sukhminderpal Singh Grewal, National Secretary, BJP Kisan Morcha.

 

Talking to the media persons here today, he said a workshop in each region would be held from November 24 onwards by our national coordinator of Iron Collection Committee Om Prakash Dhankar. Grewal said the regional workshop of Northern region i.e. Jammu and Kashmir, Punjab, Himachal Pradesh and Haryana states would be held at Chandigarh on December 9.

 

He said all members of the state committees and district co-coordinators’ would participate in these workshops. Grewal said the meeting of the Southern region consisting of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Lakshwadeep, Puducherry and Andaman and Nicobar Islands would be held at Hyderabad on November 24 from morning till evening.

 

Grewal said the workshop regarding Western region, including Maharashtra, Goa, Daman and Diu, Dadar Nagar Haweli and Gujarat would be organised at Mumbai on November 26.

 

He said similarly, the workshop pertaining to North-East region i.e. Meghalaya, Tripura, Nagaland, Manipur, Arunachal Pradesh and Assam would be held at Guwahati on November 28.

 

He said the Eastern region workshop consisting of Sikkim, West Bengal, Odisha, Jharkhand and Bihar would be held at Patna on November 30.

 

He said the workshop in respect of Uttar Pradesh and Uttarakhand would be held at Lucknow on December 10. Grewal further added that the similar workshop in respect of election bound states would be held after the results were declared on December 13.

 

Grewal said the resource persons from Gujarat and senior ministers as well as the members of central committee would participate in these workshops to pertain training.

135,539 items / 1,037,639 views

 

I am told by the caretaker Bahadur who died recently that one of her fans built this Mausoleum and would come and place flowers and pray.. but than I dont know the truth, and when you die you add wings to the stories that attach to you and make you more legendary than you are...and the Shia grave yard is a hard bed of incomplete stories of Lifes Drama a sudden curtain call.. a bow in vain..

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Meena Kumari or Mahjabeen Bano (1 August 1932 - 31 March 1972), was an Indian movie actress and poetess. She is regarded as one of the most prominent actresses to have appeared on the screens of Hindi Cinema. During a career spanning 30 years from her childhood to her death, she starred in more than ninety films, many of which have achieved classic and cult status today.

 

Kumari gained a reputation for playing grief-stricken and tragic roles, and her performances have been praised and reminisced throughout the years. Like one of her best-known roles, Chhoti Bahu, in Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam (1962), Kumari became addicted to alcohol. Her life and prosperous career were marred by heavy drinking, troubled relationships, an ensuing deteriorating health, and her death from liver cirrhosis in 1972.

 

Kumari is often cited by media and literary sources as "The Tragedy Queen", both for her frequent portrayal of sorrowful and dramatic roles in her films and her real-life story.[1][2]

 

Mahjabeen Bano was the third daughter of Ali Baksh and Iqbal Begum; Khursheed and Madhu were her two elder sisters. At the time of her birth, her parents were unable to pay the fees of Dr. Gadre, who had delivered her, so her father left her at a Muslim orphanage, however, he picked her up after a few hours.

 

Her father, a Shia Muslim, was a veteran of Parsi theater, played harmonium, taught music, and wrote Urdu poetry. He played small roles in films like Id Ka Chand and composed music for films like Shahi Lutere.

 

Her mother, Prabhwati Devi, was the second wife of Ali Baksh. Before meeting and then marrying Ali Baksh, she was a stage actress and dancer, under the stage name, Kamini. After marriage, she converted from Hinduism to Islam, and changed her name to Iqbal Begum.

 

(It is said that Prabhwati Devi's mother, Hem Sundari, had been married into the Tagore family, but she was disowned by that family after being widowed.)

[edit] Career

[edit] Early work

 

When Mahjabeen was born, Ali Bakhsh aspired to get roles as an actor in Rooptara Studios. At the urging of his wife, he got Mahjabeen too into movies despite her protestations of wanting to go to school. Young Mahjabeen is said to have said, "I do not want to work in movies; I want to go to school, and learn like other children."

 

As Mahjabeen embarked on her acting career at the age of 7, she was renamed Baby Meena. Farzand-e-Watan or Leatherface (1939) was her first movie, which was directed for Prakash Studios by Vijay Bhatt. She became practically the sole breadwinner of her family during the 1940s. Her early adult acting, under the name Meena Kumari, was mainly in mythological movies like Veer Ghatotkach (1949), Shri Ganesh Mahima (1950), and fantasy movies like Alladin and The Wonderful Lamp (1952).

[edit] Breakthrough

Meena Kumari, (here with Rehman), performed a landmark role, as Choti Bahu, in Abrar Alvi's, Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam, 1962

 

Meena Kumari gained fame with her role as a heroine in Vijay Bhatt's Baiju Bawra (1952). This heroine always negated herself for the material and spiritual advancement of the man she loved and was even willing to annihilate herself to provide him the experience of pain so that his music would be enriched. She became the first actress to win the Filmfare Best Actress Award in 1953 for this performance.

 

Meena Kumari highly successfully played the roles of a suffering woman in Parineeta (1953), Daera (1953), Ek Hi Raasta (1956), Sharda (1957), and Dil Apna Aur Preet Parayi (1960). Though she cultivated the image of a tragedienne, she also performed commendably in a few light-hearted movies like Azaad (1955), Miss Mary (1957), Shararat (1959), and Kohinoor (1960).

 

One of her best-known roles was in Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam (1962), which was produced by Guru Dutt. Kumari played Chhoti Bahu, an alcoholic wife. The film was a major critical and commercial success, which was attributed by critics to Kumari's performance, which is regarded as one of the best performances of Hindi Cinema.[3] The role was famous for its uncanny similarity to Meena Kumari's own life. At that time, she herself was on a road to gradual ruin in her own personal life. Like her character, she began to drink heavily, though she carried on. In 1962, she made history by getting all the three nominations for Filmfare Best Actress Award, for her roles in Aarti, Main Chup Rahungi, and Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam. She won the award for Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam. Upperstall.com wrote about her performance,

 

While each of the performances are spot on, if there is one person who is the heart and soul of the film, it is Meena Kumari. Her portrayal of Chhoti Bahu is perhaps the greatest performance ever seen on the Indian Screen. The sequence where Chhoti Bahu dresses for her husband singing Piya Aiso Jiya Main is a poignant exploration of a woman's expectations and sexual desire. And later on when she has become a desperate alcoholic, you cannot help but cry with her in the sequence where she pleads with her husband to stay with her and then angrily turns on him to tell him how she has prostituted her basic values and morals to please him. However the common factors between the actress's life and Chhoti Bahu are too dramatic to be merely coincidental - The estranged marital relationship, the taking of alcohol, turning towards younger male company, the craving to be understood and loved - all elements evident in Meena Kumari's own life.[4]

 

[edit] Later work

 

For four more years, Kumari performed successfully in Dil Ek Mandir (1963), Kaajal (1965), and Phool Aur Patthar (1966), all of which earned her Filmfare nominations, with Kaajal garnering her a fourth and last win of the Best Actress award. However, after divorcing her husband in 1964, her addiction to alcohol became stronger, and she often dulled her senses with liquor. She also relied more and more on intimate relationships with younger men like Dharmendra. Her subsequent releases, including Chandan Ka Palna and Majhli Didi did not do well.[1]

 

Kumari's heavy drinking had badly damaged her liver, and in 1968 she fell seriously ill.[1][5] She was taken to London and Switzerland for treatment. Back home, she started settling her debts and made peace with her estranged sister, Madhu, whom she had not spoken to for two years.[5] Because of her heavy drinking, she increasingly lost her good looks, and when she returned, she began playing character roles in movies like Jawab (1970) and Dushmun (1972).[1]

 

She developed an attachment to writer-lyricist Gulzar and acted in his directorial debut Mere Apne (1971). Kumari presented an acclaimed portrayal of an elderly woman who got caught between two street gangs of frustrated, unemployed youth and got killed, her death making the youth realise the futility of violence.

 

Pakeezah, starring Kumari and directed by her ex-husband Kamal Amrohi, took 14 years to reach the silver screen. First planned by Amrohi in 1958, the film went on the studio floors in 1964, but the shooting came to a standstill after their separation in March 1964, when it was more than halfway complete.[5] In 1969, Sunil Dutt and Nargis previewed some reels of the shelved film and convinced the estranged Amrohi and Kumari to complete it.[1] Hindustan Times described the meeting which Dutt had organised between the two:

“ Not much was said, but streams of tears were shed... Amrohi greeted her with a token payment of a gold guinea and the promise that he’d make her look as beautiful as the day she had started the film.[5] ”

 

Gravelly ill, Kumari was determined to complete the film and, well aware of the limited time left for her to live, went out of her way to complete it at the earliest. Despite her rapidly deteriorating health, she gave the finishing touches to her performance. Initially, after its release in February 1972, Pakeezah opened to a lukewarm response from the public; however, after Meena Kumari's death less than two months later, people flocked to see it, making it a major box-office success. The film has since gained a cult and classic status, and Kumari's performance as a golden-hearted Lucknow prostitute drew major praise. She posthumously received her twelfth and last Filmfare nomination.

 

Throughout her life, Kumari had a love-hate relationship with movies, and besides being a top-notch actress, she was a talented poetess, and recorded a disc of her Urdu poems, I write, I recite with music by Khayyam.

[edit] Death

 

Three weeks after the release of Pakeezah, Meena Kumari became seriously ill, and died on 31 March 1972 of cirrhosis of the liver. At her death, she was in more or less the same financial circumstance as her parents at the time of her birth: It is said that when she died in a nursing home, there was no money to pay her hospital bills.

[edit] Relationship with Kamal Amrohi

 

In 1952, on the sets of one of her films, Meena Kumari fell in love with and married film director, Kamal Amrohi, who was fifteen years elder than her and was already married. She wrote about Amrohi:

 

Dil saa jab saathi paya

Bechaini bhi woh saath le aaya

 

When I found someone like my heart

He also brought sorrow with him

 

Soon after marriage, Kamal Amrohi and Meena Kumari produced a film called Daera (1953), which was based on their love story. They also planned another film, Pakeezah. However, it took sixteen years (1956 to 1972) before Pakeezah reached the silver screen. (The scenes in Pakeezah's popular song, Inhi logon ne, were originally filmed in black and white, and were later reshot in color.)

 

It is said that Amrohi did not want children with Meena Kumari because she was not a Syed. They raised Kamal Amrohi's son, Tajdaar, who was greatly attached to his chhoti ammi (younger mother).

 

Due to their strong personalities, however, Meena Kumari and Kamal Amrohi started to develop conflicts, both professionally and in their married life. Their conflicts led to separation in 1960, and ultimately divorce in 1964. Highly affected Meena Kumari, who, once a happy woman, became depressed and found solace in heavy drinking.They remarried, but Meena Kumari had become an alcoholic by then.

 

She expressed her sorrows prominently in her poetry. About Kamal Amrohi she wrote:

 

Tum kya karoge sunkar mujhse meri kahani

Belutf zindagi ke kisse hain pheeke pheeke

 

Why do you want to listen to my story:

Colourless tales of a joyless life

 

At the time of the divorce, she wrote:

 

Talaak to de rahe ho Nazar-e-kahar ke saath

Jawani bhi mere lauta do Mehar ke saath

 

You are divorcing me with rage in your eyes

Return to me, also, my youth along with the bridal-price!

 

[edit] Filmography

 

1) Gomti Ke Kinare (1972) .... Ganga

2) Pakeezah (1972) .... Nargis/Sahibjaan

3) Dushmun (1971) .... Malti R. Din

4) Mere Apne (1971) .... Anandi Devi/Auaji (Aunt)

5) Jawab (1970) .... Vidya

6) Saat Phere (1970)

7) Abhilasha (1968) .... Mrs. Meena Singh

8) Baharon Ki Manzil (1968) .... Nanda S. Roy/Radha Shukla

9) Bahu Begum (1967) .... Zeenat Jahan Begum

10) Chandan Ka Palna (1967) .... Shobha Rai

11) Majhli Didi (1967) .... Hemangini 'Hema'

12) Noorjehan (1967)

13) Phool Aur Patthar (1966) .... Shanti Devi

14) Pinjre Ke Panchhi (1966) .... Heena Sharma

15) Bheegi Raat (1965)

16) Jadui Angoothi (1965)

17) Kaajal (1965) .... Madhavi

18) Purnima (1965) .... Purnima V. Lal

19) Maain Bhi Ladki Hun (1964) .... Rajni

20) Benazir (1964) .... Benazir

21) Chitralekha (1964) .... Chitralekha

22) Gazal (1964) .... Naaz Ara Begum

23) Sanjh Aur Savera (1964) .... Gauri

24) Akeli Mat Jaiyo (1963) Seema

25) Dil Ek Mandir (1963) .... Sita

26) Kinare Kinare (1963)

27) Aarti (1962) .... Aarti Gupta

28) Main Chup Rahungi (1962) .... Gayetri

29) Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam (1962) .... Chhoti Bahu

30) Bhabhi Ki Chudiyan (1961) .... Geeta, Shyam's wife

31) Pyaar Ka Saagar (1961) .... Radha/Rani B. Gupta

32) Zindagi Aur Khwab (1961) .... Shanti

33) Bahaana (1960)

34) Dil Apna Aur Preet Parai (1960) .... Karuna

35) Kohinoor (1960)

36) Ardhangini (1959) .... Chhaya

37) Chand (1959)

38) Char Dil Char Raahein (1959) .... Chavli

39) Chirag Kahan Roshni Kahan (1959) .... Ratna

40) Jagir (1959)

41) Madhu (1959)

42) Satta Bazaar (1959) .... Jamuna

43) Shararat (1959)

44) Farishta (1958)

45) Sahara (1958) .... Leela

46) Savera (1958)

47) Yahudi (1958) .... Hannah

48) Miss Mary (1957) .... Miss Mary/Laxmi

49) Sharada (1957) .... Sharada Ram Sharan

50) Bandhan (1956)

51) Ek-Hi-Rasta (1956) .... Malti

52) Halaku (1956) .... Niloufer Nadir

53) Mem Sahib (1956) .... Meena

54) Naya Andaz (1956)

55) Shatranj (1956)

56) Adil-E-Jahangir (1955)

57) Azaad (1955) .... Shobha

58) Bandish (1955) .... Usha Sen

59) Rukhsana (1955)

60) Baadbaan (1954)

61) Chandni Chowk (1954) .... Zarina

62) Ilzam (1954)

63) Daera (1953) .... Sheetal

64) Dana Paani (1953)

65) Do Bigha Zamin (1953) .... Thakurain

66) Foot Path (1953) .... Mala

67) Naulakha Haar (1953) .... Bijma

68) Parineeta (1953) .... Lalita

69) Aladdin Aur Jadui Chirag (1952)

70) Baiju Bawra (1952) .... Gauri

71) Tamasha (1952) .... Kiran

72) Hanumaan Pataal Vijay (1951)

73) Lakshmi Narayan (1951)

74) Madhosh (1951) .... Soni

75) Sanam (1951)

76) Anmol Ratan (1950)

77) Hamara Ghar (1950)

78) Magroor (1950)

79) Shri Ganesh Mahima (1950)

80) Veer Ghatotkach (1949) .... Surekha

81) Bichchade Balam (1948)

82) Piya Ghar Aaja (1947)

83) Bachchon Ka Khel (1946)

84) Duniya Ek Sarai (1946)

85) Lal Haveli (1944)

86) Pratiggya (1943)

87) Garib (1942)

88) Bahen (1941) (as Baby Meena) .... Bina

89) Kasauti (1941)

90) Nai Roshni (1941)

91) Ek Hi Bhool (1940)

92) Pooja (1940)

93) Leatherface (1939)

[edit] Filmfare Awards

 

Awards won

 

* 1954 Filmfare Best Actress Award - Baiju Bawra

 

* 1955 Filmfare Best Actress Award - Parineeta

 

* 1963 Filmfare Best Actress Award - Sahib Bibi Aur Ghulam

 

* 1966 Filmfare Best Actress Award - Kaajal

 

Awards nominated

 

* 1956 Filmfare Best Actress Award - Azaad

 

* 1959 Filmfare Best Actress Award - Sahara

 

* 1960 Filmfare Best Actress Award - Chirag Kahan Roshni Kahan

 

* 1963 Filmfare Best Actress Award - Aarti

 

* 1963 Filmfare Best Actress Award - Main Chup Rahungi

 

* 1964 Filmfare Best Actress Award - Dil Ek Mandir

 

* 1967 Filmfare Best Actress Award - Phool Aur Patthar

 

* 1973 Filmfare Best Actress Award - Pakeezah (posthumous nomination)[6]

 

[edit] Biography

 

One of the first biographies of Meena Kumari was written just after her death by Vinod Mehta in the year 1972. It was simply titled Meena Kumari.

Bhamian Kalan, Ludhiana, October 29:

A statue of Iron Man of India Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel will be installed at the Sardar Sarovar Dam in Gujrat, which will be double the length of Statue of Liberty in America. National BJP Leader and Kisan Morcha All India Secretary Sukhminderpal Singh Grewal stated that All India President BJP kisan Morcha Om Prakash Dhankar, is the national coordinator of the coordination committee that will collect iron from every household of rural India. Grewal stated this while addressing the media persons here today. He said the statue will be a symbol of the immense contribution of Sardar Patel and his legendary persona. Patel unified the 562 princely states of India after which the statue will be named as the Statue of Unity. Kisan Morcha All India Secretary said that every household and every person in the states will be associated with this project, which will be source of inspiration for the unified India and also for the generations to come. He said this is a dream project of Gujrat’s chief minister and future Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi. Keeping in view the stature of Sardar Patel, the statue will be 182 m (600 ft) high, which would be equal to a 60 storeys building, whereas the Statue of Liberty is 93 m high. The way Statue of Liberty represents America, the Statue of Unity will represent India. Grewal said that Sardar Patel was a farmers’ leader. Bardoli Satygraha gave him the name of Sardar. The iron collected from 6.5 lakh farmers of the country will be used in erecting Statue of Unity. At national level, state level and district level, Iron Collection Coordination Committees have been formed to collect iron from the households of farmers. These committees will include people from all the walks of life. The committees will have complete record of the iron collected from different places. Grewal stated that at the national level MP Thavarchand Gehlot from Madhya Pradesh, former union minister and MP Bihar Hukumdev Narayan Yadav, former minister Sarjuram from Jharkhand, Dr K Laxman form Andhra Pradesh, Sudhir Muntigavkar from Maharashtra, former MP Vijay Pal Tomar from Uttar Pradesh and Hridyanath Singh from Delhi will coordinate with Op Dhankar our kisan morcha National President. Grewal told that the state coordinators of committees include Subhash Barala from Haryana, Jagtar Saini from Punjab, former minister Jairam Thakur from Himachal, Purushottam Mahajan from Chandigarh, Dr Nirmal Singh from Jammu-Kashmir and former union minister Bachchi Singh Rawat from Uttarakhand. He stated that the work on collecting iron will start on October 31 on the day of birth anniversary of Sardar Patel and will continue till Republic Day on January 26, 2014. Grewal told that bhoomi pujan will be held at the Sardar Sarovar Dam on October 31 wherein thousands will be participating. BJP Kisan Morcha National Secretary Grewal appealed people of India to come forward and contribute generously for national cause.

 

MANSA - 17 November 2013

Statue of Iron Man of India Sardar Vallabh Bhai Patel will be installed at the Sardar Sarovar Dam in Gujarat which will be double the length of Statue of Liberty in America. While addressing the media persons here today, BJP Kisan Morcha National Secretary Sukhminderpal Singh Grewal said that the statue will be a symbol of the immense contribution of Sardar Patel and his legendary persona. He said that Patel unified the 562 princely states of India after which the statue will be named as the Statue of Unity. Grewal said that every household and every person in the state will be associated with this project which will be source of inspiration for the unified India and also for the generations to come. He said that this is a dream project of Gujarat Chief Minister and future Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi. He said that BJP Leaders and Workers will collect iron from every household from all villages of India. Grewal said that keeping in view the stature of Sardar Patel the statue will be 182 m (600 ft) high which would be equal to a 60 storey building whereas the Statue of Liberty is 93 m high. He said that the way Statue of Liberty represents America the Statue of Unity will represent India. Grewal said that Sardar Patel was a farmers leader and the Bardoli Satygraha gave him the name of Sardar. He said that the iron collected from 6.5 lakh farmers of the country will be used in erecting Statue of Unity. He said that the national level, state level and district level, Iron Collection Coordination Committees have been formed by Om Prakash Dhankar our National Chief to collect iron from the households of farmers. He said that these committees will include people from all the walks of life. He said that the committees will have complete record of the iron collected from different places. Grewal said that at the national level MP Thavarchand Gehlot from Madhya Pradesh, former union minister and MP Bihar Hukumdev Narayan Yadav, former minister Sarjuram from Jharkhand, Dr K Laxman form Andhra Pradesh, Sudhir Muntigavkar from Maharashtra, former MP Vijay Pal Tomar from Uttar Pradesh and Hridyanath Singh from Delhi will coordinate with our National President BJP Kisan Morcha Om Prakash Dhankar. He said that the state coordinators of committees include Subhash Barala from Haryana, Jagtar Saini from Punjab, former minister Jairam Thakur from Himachal, Purushottam Mahajan from Chandigarh, Dr Nirmal Singh from Jammu and Kashmir and former union minister Bachchi Singh Rawat from Uttarakhand. Grewal said that the work on collecting iron will start on October 31 on the day of birth anniversary of Sardar Patel and will continue till Republic Day on January 26, 2014. He said that Bhoomi Pujan will be held at the Sardar Sarovar Dam on October 31 wherein thousands will be participating from all over India. Sukhminderpal Singh Grewal appealed people of India to come forward and contribute generously for this cause.

 

General Officer Commanding (GOC) of the Indian army's Srinagar-based 15 Corps, Lieutenant General Om Prakash, lays a wreath at a war memorial during "Vijay Diwas" (or victory day celebration) in a military garrison in Srinagar July 26, 2012. The Indian army commemorates 'Vijay Diwas'annually in memory of more than 500 soldiers who were killed thirteen years ago during a war with Pakistan. The war took place in the mountains of the Kargil and Drass sectors, at the Line of Control or a military ceasefire line, which divided Kashmir between the two south Asian rivals.

Ludhiana: 01 November 2014 -

BJP's National Leader from Punjab, All India Secretary, BJP Morcha and Prabhari Himachal Pradesh Advocate, Sukhminderpal Singh Grewal today appreciation Hon'ble Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi's speech on Sikhs during USA tour at Madison Square Garden New York. Grewal said that Shri Narendra Modi mentioned the sacrifices of the Sikh Guru’s and claimed that their sarifices were for India and humanity. After BJP workers meeting, talking with the media persons at their residence Kothi No 17A, Lodhi Enclave, Near Gulmohar Villas, Backside Magnet Resort, Barewal Road, Ludhiana today morning, Grewal said that living up to his image of a rockstar, Shri Narendra Modi delivered his the best ever performance which was lapped up by his frenzied fans, who just could not get enough of him. The 18,000 a very strong crowd which packed the stadium, cheered and applauded him periodically during his hour long speech while the place resonated with chants of "Modi, Modi, Modi, Modi" and also "Bharat Mata ki Jai, Bharat Mata ki Jai". Grewal said that the prime minister touched all the right buttons as he made a direct appeal to Indian Americans to become involved in India's development, promising them easy visa norms, better Governance and quick decision making. He showcased his Government's future plans, gave details of the decisions already taken and promised to do much more, at this time sr, BJP Leaders Tarnjit Singh, Ravi Bahri, Kala topi, Judgebir Manchanda, Dooger Singh, Sandip Puri, Vijay Suri, Balwinder Singh Binder and many other BJP workers were present.

 

General Officer Commanding (GOC) of the Indian army's Srinagar-based 15 Corps, Lieutenant General Om Prakash salutes at a war memorial during 'Vijay Diwas'(or victory day celebration) at a military garrison in Srinagar on July 26, 2012. Indian troops observe memorial day each year in memory of their colleagues who have been killed in the three wars with Pakistan and in counter insurgency operations.

208,378 items / 1,704,247 views

 

Today Big B Big Gun Once Angry Eng Man of Bollywood turns 69 crowds outside his bungalow .. I worked with Amitji in Bade Miya Chote Miya dressing Amitji was not a difficult task but making him look like Govinda took my breath away..

   

About Mr Amitabh Bachchan Wikipedia

 

Amitabh Bachchan (Hindi: अमिताभ बच्चन [əmɪtaːbʱ bəttʃən] ( listen), born Amitabh Harivansh Bachchan on 11 October 1942) is an Indian film actor. He first gained popularity in the early 1970s as the "angry young man" of Hindi cinema, and has since become one of the most prominent figures in the history of Indian cinema.[1][2]

 

Bachchan has won numerous major awards in his career, including four National Film Awards, three of which are in the Best Actor category, and fourteen Filmfare Awards. He is the most-nominated performer in any major acting category at Filmfare, with 36 nominations overall. In addition to acting, Bachchan has worked as a playback singer, film producer and television presenter, and was an elected member of the Indian Parliament from 1984 to 1987.

  

Born in Allahabad, Uttar Pradesh, Amitabh Bachchan hails from a Hindu Kayastha family.[3][4] His father, Dr. Harivansh Rai Bachchan was a well-known Hindi poet, while his mother, Teji Bachchan was a Sikh-Punjabi from Faisalabad (now in Pakistan).[5] Bachchan was initially named Inquilaab, inspired from the famous phrase Inquilab Zindabad, during the Indian independence struggle. However, at the suggestion of fellow poet Sumitranandan Pant, Harivansh Rai changed the name to Amitabh which means, "the light that would never go off." Though his surname was Shrivastava, his father had adopted the pen-name Bachchan (meaning child-like in colloquial Hindi), under which he published all his works. It is with this last name that Amitabh debuted in films, and, for all public purposes, it has become the surname of all members of his family. Bachchan's father died in 2003, and his mother in 2007.[6]

 

Amitabh is the eldest of Harivansh Rai Bachchan's two sons, the second being Ajitabh. His mother had a keen interest in theatre and had been offered a role in a film, but preferred her domestic duties. She had some degree of influence in Bachchan's choice of career because she always insisted that he should take the centre stage.[7] He attended Allahabad's Jnana Prabodhini and Boys' High School (BHS), followed by Nainital's Sherwood College, where he majored in the art stream. He later went on to study at Kirori Mal College of the University of Delhi and completed a Bachelor of Science degree. In his twenties, Bachchan gave up a job as freight broker for the shipping firm, Bird and Co., based in Calcutta now known as Kolkata, to pursue a career in acting.

Career

Early work: 1969–1972

 

Bachchan made his film debut in 1969 as a voice narrator in Mrinal Sen's National Award winning film Bhuvan Shome. Thereafter he got his first acting role as one of the seven protagonists in Saat Hindustani, a film directed by Khwaja Ahmad Abbas and featuring Utpal Dutt, Madhu and Jalal Agha. Though the film was not a financial success, Bachchan won his first National Film Award for Best Newcomer.[8]

 

Anand (1971) followed, where he starred alongside Rajesh Khanna. Bachchan's role as a doctor with a cynical view of life garned him his first Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award. Amitabh then played his first negative role as an infatuated lover-turned-murderer in Parwaana (1971). This was followed by several films including Reshma Aur Shera (1971). During this time, he made a guest appearance in the film Guddi which starred his future wife Jaya Bhaduri. He narrated part of the film Bawarchi. In 1972, he made an appearance in the road action comedy Bombay to Goa, directed by S. Ramanathan.

Rise to stardom: 1973–1983

 

Director Prakash Mehra cast him in the leading role for the film Zanjeer (1973) as Inspector Vijay Khanna. The film was a sharp contrast to the romantically themed films that had generally preceded it and established Amitabh in a new persona—the "angry young man" of Bollywood cinema,.[2] He earned a Filmfare Nomination for Best Actor. 1973 was also the year he married Jaya and around this time they appeared in several films together, not only in Zanjeer but in films such as Abhimaan which followed and was released only a month after their marriage. Later, Bachchan played the role of Vikram in the film Namak Haraam, a social drama directed by Hrishikesh Mukherjee and scripted by Biresh Chatterjee addressing themes of friendship. His supporting role won him his second Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award.

 

In 1974, Bachchan made several guest appearances in films such as Kunwara Baap and Dost, before playing a supporting role in Roti Kapda Aur Makaan. The film, directed and written by Manoj Kumar, addressed themes of honesty in the face of oppression and financial and emotional hardship. Bachchan then played the leading role in film Majboor, released on 6 December 1974, which was a remake of the Hollywood film Zigzag. The film was only a moderate success at the box office.[9] In 1975, he starred in a variety of film genres from the comedy Chupke Chupke, the crime drama Faraar to the romantic drama Mili. 1975 was the year when he appeared in two films which are regarded as important in Hindi cinematic history. He starred in the Yash Chopra directed film Deewar, opposite Shashi Kapoor, Nirupa Roy, and Neetu Singh, which earned him a Filmfare Nomination for Best Actor. The film became a major hit at the box office in 1975, ranking in at number 4.[10] Indiatimes Movies ranks Deewaar amongst the Top 25 Must See Bollywood Films.[11] Released on 15 August 1975 was Sholay (meaning flames), which became the highest grossing film of all time in India, earning INR 2,36,45,00,000 equivalent to US$ 60 million, after adjusting for inflation.[12] Bachchan played the role of Jaidev. In 1999, BBC India declared it the "Film of the Millennium" and like Deewar, has been cited by Indiatimes movies as amongst the Top 25 Must See Bollywood Films.[11] In that same year, the judges of the 50th annual Filmfare awards awarded it with the special distinction award called Filmfare Best Film of 50 Years.

 

Bachchan starred in comedies such as Chupke Chupke (1975) and Amar Akbar Anthony (1977) and in films such as Kabhie Kabhie (1976). In 1976, he was once again cast by director Yash Chopra in his second film, Kabhi Kabhie, a romantic tale in which Bachchan starred as a young poet named Amit Malhotra who falls deeply in love with a beautiful young girl named Pooja played by actress Rakhee Gulzar. The film saw him again nominated for the Filmfare Best Actor Award. In 1977, he won his first Filmfare Best Actor Award for his performance in Amar Akbar Anthony where he played the third lead opposite Vinod Khanna and Rishi Kapoor as Anthony Gonsalves. In 1978 he starred in all four of the highest grossing films of India in that year.[13] He once again resumed double roles in films such as Kasme Vaade as Amit and Shankar and Don playing the characters of Don, a leader of an underworld gang and his look alike Vijay. His performance won him his second Filmfare Best Actor Award. He also performed in Trishul and Muqaddar Ka Sikander which both earned him further Filmfare Best Actor nominations. He was billed a "one-man industry" by the French director François Truffaut.[14]

 

In 1979, for the first time, Amitabh was required to use his singing voice for the film Mr. Natwarlal in which he starred alongside Rekha. His performance in the film saw him nominated for both the Filmfare Best Actor Award and the Filmfare Best Male Playback Awards. In 1979, he also received Best Actor nomination for Kaala Patthar (1979) and then went on to be nominated again in 1980 for the Raj Khosla directed film Dostana, in which he starred opposite Shatrughan Sinha and Zeenat Aman. Dostana proved to be the top grossing film of 1980.[15] In 1981, he starred in Yash Chopra's melodrama film Silsila, where he starred alongside his wife Jaya and rumoured lover Rekha. Other films of this period include Ram Balram (1980), Shaan (1980), Lawaaris (1981), and Shakti (1982) which pitted him against legendary actor Dilip Kumar.[16]

1982 injury while filming Coolie

 

On 26 July 1982, while filming Coolie in the University Campus in Bangalore, Bachchan suffered a near fatal intestinal injury during the filming of a fight scene with co-actor Puneet Issar.[17] Bachchan was performing his own stunts in the film and one scene required him to fall onto a table and then on the ground. However as he jumped towards the table, the corner of the table struck his abdomen, resulting in a splenic rupture from which he lost a significant amount of blood. He required an emergency splenectomy and remained critically ill in hospital for many months, at times close to death. The public response included prayers in temples and offers to sacrifice limbs to save him, while later, there were long queues of well-wishing fans outside the hospital where he was recuperating.[18] Nevertheless, he spent many months recovering and resumed filming later that year after a long period of recuperation. The film was released in 1983, and partly due to the huge publicity of Bachchan's accident, the film was a box office success.[19]

 

The director, Manmohan Desai, altered the ending of Coolie after Bachchan's accident. Bachchan's character was originally intended to have been killed off but after the change of script, the character lived in the end. It would have been inappropriate, said Desai, for the man who had just fended off death in real life to be killed on screen. Also, in the released film the footage of the fight scene is frozen at the critical moment, and a caption appears onscreen marking this as the instant of the actor's injury and the ensuing publicity of the accident.[18]

 

Later, he was diagnosed with Myasthenia gravis. His illness made him feel weak both mentally and physically and he decided to quit films and venture into politics. At this time he became pessimistic, expressing concern with how a new film would be received. Before every release he would negatively state, "Yeh film to flop hogi!" ("This film will flop").[20]

Politics: 1984–87

 

In 1984, Bachchan took a break from acting and briefly entered politics in support of long-time family friend, Rajiv Gandhi. He contested Allahabad's seat of 8th Lok Sabha against H. N. Bahuguna, former Chief Minister of Uttar Pradesh and won by one of the highest victory margins in general election history (68.2% of the vote).[21] His political career, however, was short-lived: he resigned after three years, calling politics a cesspool. The resignation followed the implication of Bachchan and his brother in the "Bofors scandal" by a newspaper, which he vowed to take to court. Bachchan was eventually found not guilty of involvement in the ordeal.[22]

 

His old friend, Amar Singh, helped him during a financial crisis due to the failure of his company ABCL. Therefore Bachchan started to support Amar Singh's political party, the Samajwadi party. Jaya Bachchan joined the Samajwadi Party and became a Rajya Sabha member.[23] Bachchan has continued to do favors for the Samajwadi party, including advertisements and political campaigns. These activities have recently gotten him into trouble again in the Indian courts for false claims after a previous incident of submission of legal papers by him, stating that he is a farmer.[24]

 

A 15 year press ban against Bachchan was imposed during his peak acting years by Stardust and some of the other film magazines. In his own defense, Bachchan claimed to have banned the press from entering his sets until late 1989.[25]

Slump and retirement: 1988–1992

 

In 1988, Bachchan returned to films, playing the title role in Shahenshah, which was a box office success due to the hype of Bachchan's comeback.[26] After the success of his comeback film however, his star power began to wane as all of his subsequent films failed at the box office. The 1991 hit film, Hum, for which he won his third Filmfare Best Actor Award, looked like it might reverse this trend, but the momentum was short-lived as his string of box office failures continued. Notably, despite the lack of hits, it was during this period that Bachchan won his first National Film Award for Best Actor, for his performance as a Mafia don in the 1990 film Agneepath. These years would be the last he would be seen on screen for some time. After the release of Khuda Gawah in 1992, Bachchan went into semi-retirement for five years. In 1994, one of his delayed films Insaniyat was released but was also a box office failure.[27]

Producer and acting comeback 1996–99

 

Bachchan turned producer during his temporary retirement period, setting up Amitabh Bachchan Corporation, Ltd. (A.B.C.L.) in 1996, with the vision of becoming a 10 billion rupees (approx 250 million $US) premier entertainment company by the year 2000. ABCL's strategy was to introduce products and services covering the entire section of the India's entertainment industry. Its operations were mainstream commercial film production and distribution, audio cassettes and video discs, production and marketing of television software, celebrity and event management. Soon after the company was launched in 1996, the first film was produced by the company. Tere Mere Sapne failed to do well at the box office but launched the careers of actors such as Arshad Warsi and South films star Simran. ABCL produced a few other films, none of which did well.

 

In 1997, Bachchan attempted to make his acting comeback with the film Mrityudaata, produced by ABCL. Though Mrityudaata attempted to reprise Bachchan's earlier success as an action hero, the film was a failure both financially and critically. ABCL was the main sponsor of the 1996 Miss World beauty pageant, Bangalore but lost millions. The fiasco and the consequent legal battles surrounding ABCL and various entities after the event, coupled with the fact that ABCL was reported to have overpaid most of its top level managers, eventually led to its financial and operational collapse in 1997. The company went into administration and was later declared a failed company by Indian Industries board. The Bombay high court, in April 1999, restrained Bachchan from selling off his Bombay bungalow 'Prateeksha' and two flats till the pending loan recovery cases of Canara Bank were disposed of. Bachchan had, however, pleaded that he had mortgaged his bungalow to Sahara India Finance for raising funds for his company.[28]

 

Bachchan attempted to revive his acting career and had average success with Bade Miyan Chote Miyan (1998),[27] and received positive reviews for Sooryavansham (1999)[29] but other films such as Lal Baadshah (1999) and Hindustan Ki Kasam (1999) were box office failures.

Television career

 

In the year 2000, Bachchan stepped up to host India's adaptation of the British television game show, Who Wants to Be a Millionaire? entitled, Kaun Banega Crorepati. As it did in most other countries where it was adopted, the program found immediate success. Canara Bank withdrew its law suit against Bachchan in November 2000. Bachchan hosted KBC till November 2005, and its success set the stage for his return to film popularity. In 2009 Oscar winning movie Slumdog Millionaire in the first question of Who Wants to be a Millionaire? contest "Amitabh Bachchan" was the correct answer to the question "Who was the star of Zanjeer? Feroz Abbas Khan performed as Amitabh Bachchan in a scene in the movie while Anil Kapoor performed as the host of the contest. Bachchan hosted the third season of the reality show Bigg Boss in 2009.[30]

Return to prominence: 2000–present

 

In 2000, Amitabh Bachchan appeared in Yash Chopra's box-office hit, Mohabbatein, directed by Aditya Chopra. He played a stern, older figure that rivalled the character of Shahrukh Khan. His role won him his third Filmfare Best Supporting Actor Award. Other hits followed, with Bachchan appearing as an older family patriarch in Ek Rishtaa: The Bond of Love (2001), Kabhi Khushi Kabhie Gham (2001) and Baghban (2003). As an actor, he continued to perform in a range of characters, receiving critical praise for his performances in Aks (2001), Aankhen (2002), Khakee (2004) and Dev (2004). One project that did particularly well for Bachchan was Sanjay Leela Bhansali's Black (2005). The film starred Bachchan as an aging teacher of a deaf-blind girl and followed their relationship. His performance was unanimously praised by critics and audiences and won him his second National Film Award for Best Actor and fourth Filmfare Best Actor Award. Taking advantage of this resurgence, Amitabh began endorsing a variety of products and services, appearing in many television and billboard advertisements. In 2005 and 2006, he starred with his son Abhishek in the hit films Bunty Aur Babli (2005), the Godfather tribute Sarkar (2005), and Kabhi Alvida Na Kehna (2006). All of them were successful at the box office.[31][32] His later releases in 2006 and early 2007 were Baabul (2006),[33] Eklavya and Nishabd (2007), which failed to do well at the box office but his performances in each of them were praised by critics.[34]

 

In May 2007, two of his films Cheeni Kum and the multi-starrer Shootout at Lokhandwala were released. Shootout at Lokhandwala did very well at the box office and was declared a hit in India, while Cheeni Kum picked up after a slow start and was declared an overall average hit.[35] A remake of his biggest hit, Sholay (1975), entitled Ram Gopal Varma Ki Aag, released in August of that same year and proved to be a major commercial failure in addition to its poor critical reception.[35] The year also marked Bachchan's first appearance in an English-language film, Rituparno Ghosh's The Last Lear. The film premiered at the 2007 Toronto International Film Festival on 9 September 2007. He received positive reviews from critics who hailed his performance as his best ever since Black.[36] Bachchan was slated to play a supporting role in his first international film, Shantaram, directed by Mira Nair and starring Hollywood actor Johnny Depp in the lead. The film was due to begin filming in February 2008 but due to the writer's strike, was pushed to September 2008.[37] The film is currently "shelved" indefinitely.[38] Vivek Sharma's Bhoothnath, in which he plays the title role as a ghost, was released on 9 May 2008. Sarkar Raj, the sequel of the 2005 film Sarkar, released in June 2008 and received a positive response at the box-office. His latest movie was Paa, which released at the end of 2009. Paa was a highly anticipated project as it saw him playing his own son Abhishek's Progeria-affected 13-year-old son, and it opened to favourable reviews, particularly towards Bachchan's performance. It won him his third National Film Award for Best Actor and fifth Filmfare Best Actor Award. In 2010, he debuted in Malayalam film through Kandahar, directed by Major Ravi and co-starring Mohanlal.[39] The film was based on the hijacking incident of the Indian Airlines Flight 814.[40] Bachchan did not receive any remuneration for this film.[41]

Health

2005 hospitalisation

 

In November 2005, Amitabh Bachchan was admitted to Lilavati Hospital's ICU once more, to undergo surgery for diverticulitis of the small intestine.[42] This occurred after Bachchan complained of pains in his abdomen some days prior. During the period and that following his recovery, most of his projects were put on hold, including the television show he was in the process of hosting, Kaun Banega Crorepati. Amitabh returned to work in March 2006.[43]

Voice

 

Bachchan is known for his deep, baritone voice. He has been a narrator, a playback singer and presenter for numerous programmes. Renowned film director Satyajit Ray was so impressed with Bachchan's voice, that he decided to use his voice as commentary in Shatranj Ke Khiladi since he could not find a suitable role for him.[44] In 2005, Bachchan has lent his voice to the Oscar-winning French documentary March of the Penguins, directed by Luc Jacquet.[45]

Controversies and criticism

Barabanki land case

 

In the runup to the Uttar Pradesh state assembly elections, 2007, Bachchan made a film extolling the virtues of the Mulayam Singh government. His Samajwadi Party was routed, and Mayawati came to power.

 

On 2 June 2007 a Faizabad court ruled that he had legally acquired agricultural land designated specifically for landless Dalit farmers.[46] It was speculated that he might be investigated on related charges of forgery, as he has allegedly claimed he was a farmer.[47] On 19 July 2007, after the scandal broke out, Bachchan surrendered the land acquired in Barabanki in Uttar Pradesh and Pune. He wrote to the chief minister of Maharashtra, Vilasrao Deshmukh, to donate the lands that were allegedly acquired illegally in Pune.[48] However, the Lucknow Court has put a stay on the land donation and said that the status quo on the land be maintained.

 

On 12 October 2007, Bachchan abandoned his claim in respect of the land at Daulatpur village in Barabanki district.[49] On 11 December 2007, the Lucknow bench of the Allahabad High Court gave a clean chit to Bachchan in a case pertaining to alleged fraudulent allotment of government land to him in Barabanki district. A single Lucknow bench of Justice said there was no finding that the actor "himself committed any fraud or manipulated any surreptitious entry in the revenue records".[50][51]

 

After receiving a positive verdict in Barabanki case, Amitabh Bachchan intimated to Maharashtra government that he did not wish to surrender his land in Maval tehsil of Pune district.[52]

  

Apart from National Film Awards, Filmfare Awards and other competitive awards which Bachchan won for his performances throughout the years, he has been awarded several honours for his achievements in the Indian film industry. In 1991, he became the first artist to receive the Filmfare Lifetime Achievement Award, which was established in the name of Raj Kapoor. Bachchan was crowned as Superstar of the Millennium in 2000 at the Filmfare Awards. The Government of India awarded him with the Padma Shri in 1984 and the Padma Bhushan in 2001. France's highest civilian honour, the Knight of the Legion of Honour, was conferred upon him by the French Government in 2007, for his "exceptional career in the world of cinema and beyond".[62]

 

In 1999, Bachchan was voted the Greatest Star of stage or screen of the Millennium by BBC online poll where he defeated many Hollywood legends.[63] In 2001, he was honoured with the Actor of the Century award at the Alexandria International Film Festival in Egypt in recognition of his contribution to the world of cinema.[64] Many other honours for his achievements were conferred upon him at several International Film Festivals, including the Lifetime Achievement Award at the 2010 Asian Film Awards.[65]

 

In June 2000, he became the first living Asian to have been immortalised in wax at London's prestigious Madame Tussauds Wax Museum.[66] Another statue was installed at New York [67] and Hong Kong in 2009.[68]

 

In 2003, he was conferred with the Honorary Citizenship of the French town of Deauville.[69] He was honoured with an Honorary Doctorate by the Jhansi University in 2004,[70] the Delhi University in 2006,[71] the De Montfort University in Leicester, UK in 2006,[72] the University Brandan Foster by the Leeds Metropolitan University in Yorkshire in 2007.[73] Another an Honorary Doctorate was conferred by the Queensland University of Technology in Australia in 2009. But he turns down the honour as mark of protest to racial attacks on Indian students.[74]

 

Severals books have been written about Bachchan. Amitabh Bachchan: the Legend was published in 1999,[75] To be or not to be: Amitabh Bachchan in 2004,[76] AB: The Legend: (A Photographer's Tribute) in 2006 [77]/, Amitabh Bachchan: Ek Jeevit Kimvadanti in 2006,[78] Amitabh: The Making of a Superstar in 2006,[79] Looking for the Big B: Bollywood, Bachchan and Me in 2007 [80] and Bachchanalia in 2009.[81] Bachchan himself has also written a book in 2002: Soul Curry for you and me – An Empowering Philosophy That Can Enrich Your Life.[82

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Cast : Tusshar Kapoor, Amrita Rao, Ram Kapoor, Madhoo, Prem Chopra, Jai Kalra, Kiran Kumar

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Producer : Kamal Kumar Barjatya, Rajkumar Barjatya, Ajit Kumar Barjatya

Singers : Neeraj Sridhar, Vijay Prakash, Gayatri Ganjawala, Kunal Ganjawala, Mohit Chauhan, Reeky Dev, Jenice Sobti, Vinnie Hutton Shivangi Kashyap, Shreya Ghoshal

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Ludhiana: 01 November 2014 -

BJP's National Leader from Punjab, All India Secretary, BJP Morcha and Prabhari Himachal Pradesh Advocate, Sukhminderpal Singh Grewal today appreciation Hon'ble Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi's speech on Sikhs during USA tour at Madison Square Garden New York. Grewal said that Shri Narendra Modi mentioned the sacrifices of the Sikh Guru’s and claimed that their sarifices were for India and humanity. After BJP workers meeting, talking with the media persons at their residence Kothi No 17A, Lodhi Enclave, Near Gulmohar Villas, Backside Magnet Resort, Barewal Road, Ludhiana today morning, Grewal said that living up to his image of a rockstar, Shri Narendra Modi delivered his the best ever performance which was lapped up by his frenzied fans, who just could not get enough of him. The 18,000 a very strong crowd which packed the stadium, cheered and applauded him periodically during his hour long speech while the place resonated with chants of "Modi, Modi, Modi, Modi" and also "Bharat Mata ki Jai, Bharat Mata ki Jai". Grewal said that the prime minister touched all the right buttons as he made a direct appeal to Indian Americans to become involved in India's development, promising them easy visa norms, better Governance and quick decision making. He showcased his Government's future plans, gave details of the decisions already taken and promised to do much more, at this time sr, BJP Leaders Tarnjit Singh, Ravi Bahri, Kala topi, Judgebir Manchanda, Dooger Singh, Sandip Puri, Vijay Suri, Balwinder Singh Binder and many other BJP workers were present.

 

One of the most humble kind courteous human being , a great versatile actor ..I have known Bhaiji as he is fondly called since 1975 .. and he has always supported me and we share a great rapport..

 

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

 

Kiran Kumar (Kashmiri: किरण कुमार (Devanagari), کرن کمار (Nastaleeq)) is a Mumbai-based Kashmiri Indian actor. He has worked in many Hindi and Gujarati films. He has been the hero in most of the Gujarati movies.[citation needed] He is the son of veteran character actor Jeevan.

 

Kiran Dhar (stage name- Kiran Kumar) is a descendant of a Kashmir royal family.He is the son of legendary character actor Jeevan. He is married to a Gujarati actress Sushma Verma.[citation needed] They have two children: Vikas Kumar who was working with David Dhawan as an Assistant Director and Srishti, who is a Mass Media graduate and runs a jewellery and clothing label with her mother called "Sush & Shish".

Kiran is a Kashmiri by birth and has ties with the Royal Family by virtue of being the grand son of the Vazir-e-Vazarat of Gilgit.[1] He is a devout believer of Sai baba and has a production house named after the saint- "Sainama Visions"

 

Recently he has been honoured with the life membership of International Film And Television Club of Asian Academy Of Film & Television

He is a member of CINTAA and is a part of the core committee. He was responsible, along with others, in organising the "Star CINTAA superstars ka jalwa" - a televised event that brought the entire hindi film and television industry together to perform and raise funds for CINTAA.

[edit]Career

 

He attended Daly College, a boarding school in Indore. He enrolled at R. D. National College in Bandra, Mumbai, and later joined the Film and Television Institute of India (FTTI) in Pune.[1] As a young boy it was the film industry which drew him because of his father's association with it.[citation needed] Kumar starred in Do Boond Pani in 1971, and went on to play the lead in several movies. Due to bad decisions to choose roles his career saw a slump with the onset of movies like jungle mein mangal and other such oddball films. During this phase Kumar started to work in Gujarati movies, where he quickly reached cult status getting him the "Bachhan of Gujarati cinema" title. Rakesh Roshan's "Khudgarz" got him back to Hindi cinema, and then on negative roles in films like "Tezaab" and "Khuda Gawah" won him accolades as an antihero.

Sunil Mehta's Prem Kishan was his first television serial. He's established himself as a reining star in the television industry with serials like Zindagi, Ghutan, Sahil, Manzil, Katha Sagar, Aur Phir ek Din, Papa, miilee, chhajje chajje ka pyar and more.

He was in the process of starting a production house called "Sainama Visions" for which the pilot episode of a show called "Aashiana" was also shot.

[edit]Films

   

Om Allah (2011)

Aseema: Beyond Boundaries (2009)

Aisi Deewangi (2009) (credit only) .... SP Jaidev Rana

Modh (2009)

Love Has No Language (2008) .... Mr Roy

Mr. White Mr. Black (2008)

Sandwich (2006) .... Balbir Singh

Dosti: Friends Forever (2005) .... Thapar

Chetna: The Excitement (2005) .... Jairaj Mittal

Revati (2005)

Chand Sa Roshan Chehra (2005) .... Heroine's Father

Ho Jaata Hai Pyaar (2005) .... Balwant Roy

AK 47 (2004)

Julie (2004) .... Wadhawan

Meri Biwi Ka Jawab Nahin (2004)Osman .... ASP Chaurasia

Agni Pankh (2004) .... Shamsher Singh Shekawat

LOC: Kargil (2003) .... Col. Bawa, 17 JAT

Humein Tumse Pyar Ho Gaya Chupke Chupke (2003) .... Surendra Nath

Surya (2003) .... Thakur's brother

Oops! (2003) .... Mr. Rai

Dabdaba (2003) .... Rajpal Singh

Dil Vil Pyar Vyar Murat (2002) .... Mittal

Jaani Dushman: Ek Anokhi Kahani (2002) .... Police Inspector

Gangobai (2002)

Mujhse Dosti Karoge! (2002) .... Mr. Khanna

Yeh Hai Jalwa (2002) .... Club Owner's elder brother

... aka "Youthful Life" - International (English title) (informal literal title)

Aap Mujhe Achche Lagne Lage (2002) .... Pratap Dholakia

... aka "Head Over Heels in Love" - India (English title) (informal title) ... aka "I've Started to Like You" - India (English title) (literal title)

Junoon (2002)

Ek Aur Visphot (2002) .... Subedar Bhuta Singh

Tum Jiyo Hazaron Saal (2002) .... Mr. Kapur

Moksha: Salvation (2001) .... Head lawyer

Dial 100 (2001) .... Bajaj

Kyo Kii... Main Jhuth Nahin Bolta (2001) .... Khurana

Yeh Raaste Hain Pyaar Ke (2001)

Qatil Haseeno Ka (2001) .... Police Inspector

Jagira (2001)

Galiyon Ka Badshah (2001)

Inteqam (2001) .... Inspector Madhukar Shende

Hum Deewane Pyar Ke (2001) .... Aslambhai

Aaj Ka Gunda (2001)

Dil Ne Phir Yaad Kiya (2001) .... Mahendra Pratap Khanna (Rahul's dad)

Maharaani (2001) .... Inspector Jagjit Singh

Bhooka Sher (2001)

Hadh: Life on the Edge of Death (2001) .... Dalal

Shikari (2000) .... Arjun Singh

Woh Bewafa Thi (2000)

Dhadkan (2000) .... Anjali's father

Daku Ramkali (2000)

Jallad No. 1 (2000) .... Inspector Arjun

Apradhi Kaun (2000) .... MLA Malhotra

Bechainee (2000) .... Swami Prakash Anand

Gair (1999) .... Sampat

Dracula (1999) .... Abdullah

Sarfarosh-E-Hind (1999) .... Ranjit Singh

Benaam (1999) .... Jagral

Aaag Hi Aag (1999) .... Police Commissioner

Kudrat (1998) .... Vijay's uncle

Sar Utha Ke Jiyo (1998)

Yamraaj (1998) .... Officer Hamid Khan

Pyaar Kiya To Darna Kya (1998) .... Akash Khanna

Zanjeer (1998)

Phool Bane Patthar (1998) .... ACP Jaspal Choudhary

Qahar (1997) .... Nageshwar Patel (Velji's brother)

Krishna Arjun (1997) .... Rana

Loha (1997) .... Police Commissioner

Ek Phool Teen Kante (1997)

Do Ankhen Barah Hath (1997)

Dil Kitna Nadan Hai (1997)

Auzaar (1997)

Dil Ke Jharoke Main (1997) .... Heera Pratap

Judge Mujrim (1997) .... D.V.M.

Kaalia (1997)

Ajay (1996) .... Chote Raja Ranbir

Sapoot (1996)

Rangbaaz (1996)

Zordaar (1996) .... Fox

Himmat (1996) .... Kundan

Aur Nagina (1996)

Vishwasghaat (1996) .... Advocate Chhadha

English Babu Desi Mem (1996) .... Bheema Khalasi

Jurmana (1996) .... Police Commissioner

Army (1996) .... Jailer Raghuvir Singh

Ke Avtaar (1995) .... Dhamu Dada

Veer (1995) .... Police Inspector Amar Mukhtar

Gaddaar (1995) .... Professor Nag

Hathkadi (1995)

Sauda (1995) .... Pradeep Singh

Guneghar (1995) .... Habibullah

Bewafa Sanam (1995) .... Jailer Ram Prasad Shukla

Fauji (1995) .... Dhurjan Singh

Nazar Ke Samne (1994) .... Advocate Sangram Singh Sahni

Amaanat (1994) .... Rajeshwar/Lankeshwar

Jazbaat (1994)

Dilbar (1994) .... Defending Lawyer

Anjaam (1994) .... Inpsector Arjun Singh

The Law (1994) .... Police Commissioner Kiran Shroff

... aka "Kanoon" - India (original title)

Madhosh (1994)

Sangdil Sanam (1994) .... Shankar Dayal Khurana

... aka "Sangdil Sanam: The Heartless Lover" - USA (DVD box title)

Ganga Aur Ranga (1994) .... Police Commissioner

Eena Meena Deeka (1994) .... Bhujang

Aag Aur Chingari (1994)

Karan (1994)

Gopalaa (1994) .... Mahamaya B. Singh

Juaari (1994)

Sholay Aur Toofan (1994)

Kasam Teri Kasam (1993)

Shatranj (1993) .... Prajapati

Ke Dushman (1993) .... Raghva

Boy Friend (1993)

Khoon Ka Sindoor (1993)

Chor Aur Chaand (1993) .... Inspector Vivek

Police Wala (1993) .... Tejeshwar Choudhury

Intaquam (1993)

Platform (1993) .... Inspector Joshi

Baaghi Sultana (1993)

Phoolan Hasina Ramkali (1993)

Gurudev (1993) .... Bhola Pandey

Game (1993) .... Qamaal Khan

Ki Shatranj (1993) .... Dhogra

Kohra (1993) .... IGP Suryakant Sharma/Mr. John

Zakhmo Ka Hisaab (1993) .... Dhaneshwar

Pyar (1993) .... Rajkumar Chauhan

Bedardi (1993) .... Kanhaiya aka K.K. aka Kanya

Pehchaan (1993) .... Yogi Shankar

(1993) .... Tikka

Rani Aur Maharani (1993)

Anaam (1992) .... Hyder Ali

Zamana (1992)

Fire (1992) .... Anwar Khan

... aka "Angaar" - India (original title)

Mashooq (1992) .... Shankar Kumar

Bol Radha Bol (1992) .... Inspector Dholakia

Jaan Se Pyaara (1992) .... Jagtap Singh

Basanti Tangewali (1992)

(1992) .... Kapoor - Sarita's husband

Adharm (1992) .... Jaggan Verma

Vishwatma (1992) .... Naagdansh Jurhad

Dada (1992) .... Bhairav Singh

Khuda Gawah (1992) .... Pasha

Tilak (1992)

Parda Hai Parda (1992)

(1992) .... Kumar

Daulat Ki Jung (1992) .... Rana

Radha Ka Sangam (1992)

Jeevan Daata (1991) .... Shivram/Vishwaraj Singh

Rupaye Dus Karod (1991)

Shiv Ram (1991)

Henna (1991) .... Ashraf

Do Matwale (1991) .... Kasturi

Inspector Balram (1991) .... Sayed Mohammad Shah

Pyar Ka (1991) .... Mahendra Behl (Raj's Father)

Paap Ki Aandhi (1991) .... Gorakh - Bade

Khoon Ka Karz (1991) .... Ramesh 'Robin'

Aaj Ka Samson (1991) .... Karan Singh

Patthar Ke Phool (1991) .... Karim Khan

Roohani Taaqat (1991)

Shankara (1991) .... Kehar Singh

Sau Crore (1991)

Hag Toofan (1991)

Apmaan Ki Aag (1990) .... Kailash

Baaghi: A Rebel for Love (1990) .... Colonel D.N. Sood

Thanedaar (1990) .... Thakur Azghar Singh

Agneekaal (1990) .... D.S.P. Anand Saxena

Aaj Ka Arjun (1990) .... Lakhan

Chor Pe Mor (1990) .... Dhanpat Inderjeet Garodia 'D.I.G.'

C.I.D. (1990) .... Roshan Lala

Zahreelay (1990) .... Taneja

Maha-Sangram (1990) .... Vishwaraj 'Vishwa'

Khatarnaak (1990) .... Jaunpuriya

Atishbaz (1990) .... Tony 'Tiger' Gonsalves

Lashkar (1989) .... Sangram 'Sanga' Singh

Dost (1989) .... Nagendra S. Singh

Na-Insaafi (1989) .... Numbari Kaalia

Khooni Murdaa (1989) .... Ranjeet ... aka "Deadly Corpse" - USA (informal English title)

Ghabrahat (1989)

Boss (1989)

Jurrat (1989) .... Raja

Hum Bhi Insaan Hain (1989)

Main Tera Dushman (1989) .... Inspector Kiran Kumar

Mahaadev (1989) .... Umesh Heera

Kala Bazaar (1989) .... Jaggan Dhamaliya ... aka "Black Market" - International (English title) (informal literal title)

Rama O Rama (1988) .... Sahoo dada

Agnee (1988) .... Sheru Menghi

Tezaab Is Acid (1988) .... Lotiya Pathan

Hero Hiralal (1988) .... Prem Kumar

Ganga Tere Desh Mein (1988) .... Zalim Singh

Zulm Ko Jala Doonga (1988)

Khatron Ke Khiladi (1988)

Falak (The Sky) (1988) .... Bagga

Zinda Jala Doonga (1988)

Qatil (1988) .... Inspector Shyam Verma4

Kab Tak Chup Rahungi (1988)

Kudrat Ka Kanoon (1987) .... Inspector Pandey

Khudgarz (1987) .... Sudhir

Daraar (1987)

Karamdaata (1986) .... Street dancer in song "Pyar tujhse hi kiya".

Yeh Preet Na Hogi Kam (1986)

Maut Ke Saudagar (1986)

Zakhmi Sher (1984)

Kaise Kaise Log (1983) .... Verma

Kanchan Aur Ganga (1982)

Jagya Tyathi Sawaar (1981)

Garvi Naar Gujaratan (1981)

Teen Ekkey (1980)

Dhamaka (1980)

Ashaati Beej (1979)

Pandit Aur Pathan (1977) .... Inspector Anand

Abhi To Jee Lein (1977) .... Deepak

Kulvadhu (1977)

Bhoola Bhatka (1976) .... Ram Shivprasad Khanna

Raees (1976)

Raja Kaka (1974)

Mr. Romeo (1974) .... Suresh Saxena

Anjaan Raahen (1974) .... Gautam

Azad Mohabbat (1974) .... Actor

... aka "Free Love" - India (English title)

Apradhi (1974) .... Inspector Shankar

Chalaak (1973) .... Amar

Jalte Badan (1973) .... Kiran

Aaj Ki Taaza Khabar (1973) .... Sunil Mehta

Jangal Mein Mangal (1972) .... Rajesh

Bindiya Aur Bandook (1972)

Inspector (1970)

Love in Simla (1960)

Senior BJP Leader and BJP Investor Cell Punjab State Chief Sukhminderpal Singh Grewal warned Sukhbir Badal to restrain from invading “Right to Freedom of Speech and Expression" enshrined in Article 19(1)(a) of Constitution of India and termed Freedom of Press, "a Treasured Privilege”. Grewal stated that Sukhbir Badal have imposed an undeclared Emergency similar to an Internal Emergency declared by Indira Gandhi in 1975. Grewal stated that the modus operandi of Sukhbir Badal is similar to Indira Gandhi, Late Congress tyrant, who suppressed thought process of the editors through her 3 point programme: allocation of Government advertising; shotgun merger of News agencies; and use of fear arousal techniques on Newspaper Publishers, Journalists and Individual Shareholders. Grewal added that Sukhbir Badal is one step ahead of Indira, apart from ensuring huge allocation of Government advertising, forced takeovers and consolidation of Cable TV Networks through “benami companies” viz. Shan-e-Punjab, DIGI Cable and Fastway Cable and misuse of power against stakeholders of media houses who don’t toe to his line, Sukhbir went on to enterprise his own TV Channels such as PTC Group of TV Channels for self embellishment and quck buck. Since, Sukhbir Badal now controls 95% of the Cable TV Networks, thus Punjab Today and Zee Punjabi News Channels were simply blacked out from Cable TV Networks when they tried to air anything unacceptable to “Chotti Indira Gandhi”.

 

Grewal equated the current situation with June, 1975, when Indira Gandhi led Congress Government declared a State of Emergency and suspended civil liberties, thereafter the Government tightened its controls on the Indian Mass Media, especially on the Newspapers which had reputation of being free and lively. “Leaders learn from others mistakes and don’t do blunders themselves”, advised Grewal. “Sukhbir shouldn’t create an emergency like situation and repeat historic blunder orchestrated by Indira Gandhi during Internal Emergency of 1975”, added Grewal.

 

Grewal stressed upon the importance of free mass media in a democratic process of nation building and advised the Press to look beyond advertising. Grewal stated that Sh. L.K Advani, Sardar Prakash Singh Badal and other veteran Leaders of SAD BJP alliance have opposed Internal Emergency declared by Indira Gandhi and even spent Jail terms. Grewal advised Sardar Prakash Singh Badal to intervene and ask Sukhbir to take corrective action else this may result in heavy losses to the alliance in upcoming Lok Sabha Elections as opportunist leaders like Captain Amarinder Singh his adulator Sukhpal Singh Khaira are using the situation as an opportunity to vein false propaganda against SAD BJP alliance.

Welcome to Our Website: www.bjpindia.in

Sukhminderpal Singh Grewal

Vice Chairman, PSIEC. (Govt. Of Punjab)

Punjab Small Industry and Export Corporation Ltd.

National Secretary BJP Kisan Morcha

Incharge, Jammu and Kashmir

National Joint Secretary, FAIPT.

Fedration Of All India Petroleum Traders

Incharge, North Zone (Petrol Pumps)

Former Punjab State President, BJYM

Bharatiya Janata Yuva Morcha (Punjab BJP Youth Wing)

Former Punjab State President, BJP Investor Cell

Former Punjab State Member, FCI.

Food Corporation Of India (Govt. Of India)

 

Senior BJP Leader and BJP Investor Cell Punjab State Chief Sukhminderpal Singh Grewal warned Sukhbir Badal to restrain from invading “Right to Freedom of Speech and Expression" enshrined in Article 19(1)(a) of Constitution of India and termed Freedom of Press, "a Treasured Privilege”. Grewal stated that Sukhbir Badal have imposed an undeclared Emergency similar to an Internal Emergency declared by Indira Gandhi in 1975. Grewal stated that the modus operandi of Sukhbir Badal is similar to Indira Gandhi, Late Congress tyrant, who suppressed thought process of the editors through her 3 point programme: allocation of Government advertising; shotgun merger of News agencies; and use of fear arousal techniques on Newspaper Publishers, Journalists and Individual Shareholders. Grewal added that Sukhbir Badal is one step ahead of Indira, apart from ensuring huge allocation of Government advertising, forced takeovers and consolidation of Cable TV Networks through “benami companies” viz. Shan-e-Punjab, DIGI Cable and Fastway Cable and misuse of power against stakeholders of media houses who don’t toe to his line, Sukhbir went on to enterprise his own TV Channels such as PTC Group of TV Channels for self embellishment and quck buck. Since, Sukhbir Badal now controls 95% of the Cable TV Networks, thus Punjab Today and Zee Punjabi News Channels were simply blacked out from Cable TV Networks when they tried to air anything unacceptable to “Chotti Indira Gandhi”.

 

Grewal equated the current situation with June, 1975, when Indira Gandhi led Congress Government declared a State of Emergency and suspended civil liberties, thereafter the Government tightened its controls on the Indian Mass Media, especially on the Newspapers which had reputation of being free and lively. “Leaders learn from others mistakes and don’t do blunders themselves”, advised Grewal. “Sukhbir shouldn’t create an emergency like situation and repeat historic blunder orchestrated by Indira Gandhi during Internal Emergency of 1975”, added Grewal.

 

Grewal stressed upon the importance of free mass media in a democratic process of nation building and advised the Press to look beyond advertising. Grewal stated that Sh. L.K Advani, Sardar Prakash Singh Badal and other veteran Leaders of SAD BJP alliance have opposed Internal Emergency declared by Indira Gandhi and even spent Jail terms. Grewal advised Sardar Prakash Singh Badal to intervene and ask Sukhbir to take corrective action else this may result in heavy losses to the alliance in upcoming Lok Sabha Elections as opportunist leaders like Captain Amarinder Singh his adulator Sukhpal Singh Khaira are using the situation as an opportunity to vein false propaganda against SAD BJP alliance.

Welcome to Our Website: www.bjpindia.in

Sukhminderpal Singh Grewal

Vice Chairman, PSIEC. (Govt. Of Punjab)

Punjab Small Industry and Export Corporation Ltd.

National Secretary BJP Kisan Morcha

Incharge, Jammu and Kashmir

National Joint Secretary, FAIPT.

Fedration Of All India Petroleum Traders

Incharge, North Zone (Petrol Pumps)

Former Punjab State President, BJYM

Bharatiya Janata Yuva Morcha (Punjab BJP Youth Wing)

Former Punjab State President, BJP Investor Cell

Former Punjab State Member, FCI.

Food Corporation Of India (Govt. Of India)

  

Photograph from Mobile Developer Summit 2012 held in Bangalore, India, 9-10 October 2012, produced by Saltmarch Media. Photograph ©Copyright Saltmarch Media. Non-commercial use permitted with attribution and linkback to this page on Saltmarch's Flickr photostream. All other rights reserved.

Photograph from Mobile Developer Summit 2012 held in Bangalore, India, 9-10 October 2012, produced by Saltmarch Media. Photograph ©Copyright Saltmarch Media. Non-commercial use permitted with attribution and linkback to this page on Saltmarch's Flickr photostream. All other rights reserved.

Photograph from Mobile Developer Summit 2012 held in Bangalore, India, 9-10 October 2012, produced by Saltmarch Media. Photograph ©Copyright Saltmarch Media. Non-commercial use permitted with attribution and linkback to this page on Saltmarch's Flickr photostream. All other rights reserved.

Photograph from Mobile Developer Summit 2012 held in Bangalore, India, 9-10 October 2012, produced by Saltmarch Media. Photograph ©Copyright Saltmarch Media. Non-commercial use permitted with attribution and linkback to this page on Saltmarch's Flickr photostream. All other rights reserved.

Photograph from Mobile Developer Summit 2012 held in Bangalore, India, 9-10 October 2012, produced by Saltmarch Media. Photograph ©Copyright Saltmarch Media. Non-commercial use permitted with attribution and linkback to this page on Saltmarch's Flickr photostream. All other rights reserved.

"Fame is a bee.

It has a song --

It has a sting --

Ah, too, it has a wing. "

 

~ Emily Dickinson, 1830-1886 ~

  

B was so delighted to have a photo taken with the famous Vijay Amritraj. So this is her moment of fame....!!

 

About Vijay (taken from Wikipedia):

 

Distinctions

 

* He compiled a career singles win-lose record 384-296, winning 16 singles titles to go along with 13 in doubles.

* He beat the best, including John McEnroe at his peak in 1984 (in the first round in Cincinnati).

* He had five career wins over Jimmy Connors in their 11 matches.

* He reached his career high ranking in singles of World No. 16 in July 1980.

* Both his son Prakash Amritraj and nephew, Stephen Amritraj are professional tennis players.

 

Acting career

 

Vijay also had a brief acting career, appearing with Roger Moore in the James Bond film Octopussy as Vijay, and in Star Trek IV: The Voyage Home as a starship captain. He was also a regular character in the NBC TV Series The Last Precinct, and the Yakov Smirnoff comedy What a Country, as well as a guest star on various television shows such as Hart to Hart. He has since gone on to become a sports commentator, has been a judge at the Miss Universe pageant, and has developed a successful multimedia business.

 

Foundation

 

In 2006, after completing his assignment as a "United Nations Messenger of Peace", Vijay Amritraj founded "The Vijay Amritraj Foundation".[4][5] The foundation's mission is to bring hope, help and healing to the defenseless and innocent victims of disease, tragedy and circumstance in India. Driven by a firm belief that "in giving we receive", the foundation pledges to make a real difference for those who are most in need of the helping hand of humanity. After an extraordinarily successful debut in 2006, the Foundation raised enough funds to immediately begin supporting various Charitable Organizations in India. Over the next decade, the Foundation aims to have a meaningful presence in all the states of the Indian Union, and to make a positive difference in the lives of the less fortunate citizens of these states. Today, many noteworthy persons are associated with the Foundation, including World Leaders, Statesmen, Business Leaders, and Philanthropists; among them, George H. W. Bush -Former President of the United States, Reddy S. Jay Reddy - Chairman & CEO of The CORBISCO Group, Sashi Tharoor - Former Under Secretary General of the United Nations, and General the Lord Guthrie of Craigiebank - Chief of the Defence Staff of the United Kingdom during the Blair Administration. The Foundation conducts a highly successful Golf Tournament every year, followed by a gala dinner event in Beverly Hills, California.

 

Hope Mr Amritraj doesn't mind this photo - if you see this and object, Vijay, please get in touch through flickr and I will remove it!

Photograph from Mobile Developer Summit 2012 held in Bangalore, India, 9-10 October 2012, produced by Saltmarch Media. Photograph ©Copyright Saltmarch Media. Non-commercial use permitted with attribution and linkback to this page on Saltmarch's Flickr photostream. All other rights reserved.

Photograph from Mobile Developer Summit 2012 held in Bangalore, India, 9-10 October 2012, produced by Saltmarch Media. Photograph ©Copyright Saltmarch Media. Non-commercial use permitted with attribution and linkback to this page on Saltmarch's Flickr photostream. All other rights reserved.

Photograph from Mobile Developer Summit 2012 held in Bangalore, India, 9-10 October 2012, produced by Saltmarch Media. Photograph ©Copyright Saltmarch Media. Non-commercial use permitted with attribution and linkback to this page on Saltmarch's Flickr photostream. All other rights reserved.