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An earthquake survivor poses for a photo outside her family's shelter in Port-au-Prince, Haiti, Feb. 22, 2010. The shelter was made from a tarp that was given to her family. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Joan E. Kretschmer/Released)

 

From the archives of Trackpads.com. www.trackpads.com

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Navy Adm. Mike Mullen, chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff conducts a walking tour of a devistated area of downtown Port Au Prince, Haiti on Feb. 26, 2010. (DoD photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Chad J. McNeeley/Released)

 

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Your Whole Office Solution! Telephone Systems • Data Services • WiFi • Mobility Solutions -

Structured Cabling • Unified Communications • Carrier Services www.gcctel.com/

 

Copyright photo.

 

Modern architecture of Abu Dhabi, UAE. 2012.

The new Grand Zayed Mosque.

Capital Gate Tower.

Etihad towers.

Yas Island Hotel.

 

Last of the "Abu Dhabi - 2012" Set.

 

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Concluding note at the end of "More Travel Notes with an Architectural Eye":

 

Some sort of summary:

 

Exploring the hillside community villages of Saorge, Touët, or Ste Agnès in the south of France, or enjoying the naturally-expressive forms of oast houses in Kent, we’ve valued characteristics of vernacular (local speak) architecture. Always with a strong sense of Place, often hands-on involvement, they’re telling and human. But what we’re not advocating is some kind of imitation now, from another time, from the other side of the world. Yet they remind us of fundamentals easily forgotten today — what is our time and Place? Can our development be as responsive in its values? As human, as lasting? Our “Place” has changed from static to a network of associations — no less important for that. Indeed, more interesting as our travels have shown.

 

And with great historic architecture such as King’s College Chapel or Ely Cathedral, we recognise the deep sense of ethics from centuries ago — pinnacles of human qualities in aspirations, vision, and skills. The best historic examples are essential enrichment to society, reminding us of values and possibilities. Rarely to be backward-preserved, and not artificially, but to be cherished into the long-term future, within changing context.

 

Further, we’ve seen again and again the importance of relationships, of setting; and the frequent failure of individualistic self-posturing blind to the context. Context has been fundamental to architecture for thousands of years.

 

The people of ancient Greek society, for example, had a genius for Place. They showed us that the interaction of architecture with its site is crucial as it speaks of the associations between people, their values, and the natural state. Traditional Greeks had a deep regard for their landscape and built assembled to human scale with a feeling of belonging, married to landform. Perhaps the supreme example was the Acropolis which taught us the importance of relation to sky and land, serial vision of approach, grouped unity, the importance of sequential spaces between buildings, human considerations, perception of forms in light, sculptural qualities and feel for crafted materials, but all in unified composition of architectural awareness. Fused in mind and response.

 

Twenty years ago Richard Economakis and the CCAM worked on the essential architectural-with-multi-discipline-support nature vital to conserving the Acropolis. They emphasized the multi-perspective in their report.

 

I don’t know what happened, perhaps political, but it seems it was handed over to academic archeologists. Latest reports are pleasing to see progress, skilled archeological details, but an apparent loss of the broad architectural vision that created it in the first place. Myopic. Self-posturing dogma details of restoration break the unity. They should have learnt from the Delphi Tholos.

 

If an historic building is architecturally conceived in the first place, then that skill/mentality should be of the essence in restoration/conservation.

 

For forward development, most important are the “human values” no matter how hard to define. Too often missing today.

 

With the rapid development of media technology, we’re living in an “environmental soup of disinformation”. Propaganda, conflation, and distortion become damaging. As Joe Bennett bluntly but tellingly puts it — bullshit. Not just ignorant or insolent, but constantly destructive; a collective shortcoming of that two-legged latecomer species — us. We should confine that, at most, to marketeers, media, and politicians — propagandists by nature if not necessity.

 

But as we’ve seen on our travels, that disease has crept into architecture too, reflecting our culture. We noted examples where disproportionate money for rapid development has resulted in architecture as meaningless advertising of the moment, fashion-designed by iconic starchitects from the other side of the world. Don’t those clichés make you cringe.

 

Architecture can be so telling of the best of our society. It’s a major investment of built setting which lasts for decades or centuries enhancing the quality of our lives. It’s an art which of essence should be humanly involved, not imposed from afar.

 

And these notes are secondary to go hand-in hand with the photos which together try to tell a meaningful story with visual communication. Not pretty pictures in themselves. We see in the supermarkets eye-catching glossies, dramatised, spectacular, visual marketeering, communication awry. Technically-skilled serious disinformation. Photoshop-created bubble-gum-wrapper pretending architecture. Well, I hope you won’t find too much of that among my photos of this trip — I don’t have the knowledge, software, or more importantly, intention. Better a meaningful fuzzy photo from an architect’s eye.

 

We also remember seeing examples of civilisations’ great modern architecture on this trip. The best of today fits closer to us and creatively inspires for the future — skilled, imaginative, meaningful. Sustaining and sustainable. Life-affirming. A triptych encapsulated three interiors for instance: the British Museum’s Great Court, resolved in concept, materials, and scale, the outside coming in; the uplifting grace and human detailing in the British Library; the crisply elegant top-lit composition of the new Ashmolean. All time-layering, all lasting, avoiding gimmicks and fashion, all human and civilised. Wonderful. Moreover, all are (free) public spaces!

 

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Remember to scroll down and click on View Larger.

 

The theme of this trip might be called cultural architecture, though like most important things that’s not single-issue, quantifiable, or definable. You may like to plan a trip about Mansfield in Menton, look for Leerie’s ladder in London, or enjoy your own explorations of civilisation’s built art, human and creative.

Enjoy!

 

If these links are not showing blue(alive) for you, copy complete and paste into your browser:

Dubai: www.flickr.com/photos/peteshep/sets/72157630212596670/

Alpes-Maritimes: www.flickr.com/photos/peteshep/sets/72157630755648788/

London: www.flickr.com/photos/peteshep/sets/72157631491308168/

South of London: www.flickr.com/photos/peteshep/sets/72157631661538623/

Red House Bexleyheath: www.flickr.com/photos/peteshep/sets/72157631741103851/

North of London: www.flickr.com/photos/peteshep/sets/72157631970837864/

Ruislip and Amersham: www.flickr.com/photos/peteshep/sets/72157631987670910/

West of London: www.flickr.com/photos/peteshep/sets/72157632103713172/

Abu Dhabi: www.flickr.com/photos/peteshep/sets/72157632108208479/

  

Peter Shep :-)

   

Modern humans (Homo sapiens) are the only remaining species of the hominids, a branch of social great apes characterized by erect posture and bipedal locomotion; manual dexterity and tool use; and a general trend toward larger and more complex brains. Early hominids, such as the australopithecines who had more apelike brains and skulls, are less often thought of or referred to as "human" than hominids of the genus Homo. Of these, Homo erectus, Homo ergaster, and Homo heidelbergensis are considered to be the most likely immediate ancestor of modern humans, Homo sapiens reached anatomical modernity about 200,000 years ago and began to exhibit full behavioral modernity around 50,000 years ago. Humans have become the most cosmopolitan species, with established populations on all but the smallest, driest, and coldest lands; and permanently manned bases in Antarctica, on offshore platforms, and orbiting the earth.

 

Humans are distinguished by their relatively larger brain with its particularly well-developed neocortex, prefrontal cortex and temporal lobes, which enable high levels of abstract reasoning, language, problem solving, and culture through social learning. Humans use tools to a much higher degree than any other animal, and are the only extant species known to build fires and cook their food, as well as the only known species to clothe themselves and create and use numerous other technologies and arts.

 

Humans are uniquely adept at utilizing systems of symbolic communication such as language and art for self-expression, the exchange of ideas, and organization. Humans create complex social structures composed of many cooperating and competing groups, from families and kinship networks to states. Social interactions between humans have established an extremely wide variety of values, social norms, and rituals, which together form the basis of human society. The human desire to understand and influence their environment, and explain and manipulate phenomena, has been the foundation for the development of science, philosophy, mythology, and religion. The scientific study of humans is the discipline of anthropology.

 

Humans began to practice sedentary agriculture about 12,000 years ago, domesticating plants and animals which allowed for the growth of civilization. Humans subsequently established various forms of government, religion, and culture around the world, unifying people within a region and leading to the development of states and empires. The rapid advancement of scientific and medical understanding in the 19th and 20th centuries led to the development of fuel-driven technologies and improved health, causing the human population to rise exponentially. By 2012 the global human population was estimated to be around 7 billion.

INTRODUCTION

 

Inflationary epoch

 

In physical cosmology the inflationary epoch was the period in the evolution of the early universe when, according to inflation theory, the universe underwent an extremely rapid exponential expansion. This rapid expansion increased the linear dimensions of the early universe by a factor of at least 10-26 (and possibly a much larger factor), and so increased its volume by a factor of at least 10-78.

 

The expansion is thought to have been triggered by the phase transition that marked the end of the preceding grand unification epoch at approximately 10−36 seconds after the Big Bang. One of the theoretical products of this phase transition was a scalar field called the inflaton field. As this field settled into its lowest energy state throughout the universe, it generated a repulsive force that led to a rapid expansion of space. This expansion explains various properties of the current universe that are difficult to account for without such an inflationary epoch.

 

It is not known exactly when the inflationary epoch ended, but it is thought to have been between 10−33 and 10−32 seconds after the Big Bang. The rapid expansion of space meant that elementary particles remaining from the grand unification epoch were now distributed very thinly across the universe. However, the huge potential energy of the inflation field was released at the end of the inflationary epoch, repopulating the universe with a dense, hot mixture of quarks, anti-quarks and gluons as it entered the electroweak epoch.

 

Overview

 

An expanding universe generally has a cosmological horizon, which, by analogy with the more familiar horizon caused by the curvature of the Earth's surface, marks the boundary of the part of the Universe that an observer can see. Light (or other radiation) emitted by objects beyond the cosmological horizon never reaches the observer, because the space in between the observer and the object is expanding too rapidly.

 

The observable universe is one causal patch of a much larger unobservable universe; other parts of the Universe cannot communicate with Earth yet. These parts of the Universe are outside our current cosmological horizon. In the standard hot big bang model, without inflation, the cosmological horizon moves out, bringing new regions into view. Yet as a local observer sees such a region for the first time, it looks no different from any other region of space the local observer has already seen: its background radiation is at nearly the same temperature as the background radiation of other regions, and its space-time curvature is evolving lock-step with the others. This presents a mystery: how did these new regions know what temperature and curvature they were supposed to have? They couldn't have learned it by getting signals, because they were not previously in communication with our past light cone.

 

Inflation answers this question by postulating that all the regions come from an earlier era with a big vacuum energy, or cosmological constant. A space with a cosmological constant is qualitatively different: instead of moving outward, the cosmological horizon stays put. For any one observer, the distance to the cosmological horizon is constant. With exponentially expanding space, two nearby observers are separated very quickly; so much so, that the distance between them quickly exceeds the limits of communications. The spatial slices are expanding very fast to cover huge volumes. Things are constantly moving beyond the cosmological horizon, which is a fixed distance away, and everything becomes homogeneous.

 

As the inflationary field slowly relaxes to the vacuum, the cosmological constant goes to zero and space begins to expand normally. The new regions that come into view during the normal expansion phase are exactly the same regions that were pushed out of the horizon during inflation, and so they are at nearly the same temperature and curvature, because they come from the same originally small patch of space.

 

The theory of inflation thus explains why the temperatures and curvatures of different regions are so nearly equal. It also predicts that the total curvature of a space-slice at constant global time is zero. This prediction implies that the total ordinary matter, dark matter and residual vacuum energy in the Universe have to add up to the critical density, and the evidence supports this. More strikingly, inflation allows physicists to calculate the minute differences in temperature of different regions from quantum fluctuations during the inflationary era, and many of these quantitative predictions have been confirmed.

 

Space expands

 

To say that space expands exponentially means that two inertial observers are moving farther apart with accelerating velocity. In stationary coordinates for one observer, a patch of an inflating universe has the following polar metric:

 

wikimedia.org/api/rest_v1/media/math/render/svg/34eb5c753...

 

This is just like an inside-out black hole metric—it has a zero in the dt component on a fixed radius sphere called the cosmological horizon. Objects are drawn away from the observer at r = 0 towards the cosmological horizon, which they cross in a finite proper time. This means that any inhomogeneities are smoothed out, just as any bumps or matter on the surface of a black hole horizon are swallowed and disappear.

 

Since the space–time metric has no explicit time dependence, once an observer has crossed the cosmological horizon, observers closer in take its place. This process of falling outward and replacement points closer in are always steadily replacing points further out—an exponential expansion of space–time.

 

This steady-state exponentially expanding spacetime is called a de Sitter space, and to sustain it there must be a cosmological constant, a vacuum energy proportional to Λ everywhere. In this case, the equation of state is p = −ρ. The physical conditions from one moment to the next are stable: the rate of expansion, called the Hubble parameter, is nearly constant, and the scale factor of the Universe is proportional to eHt. Inflation is often called a period of accelerated expansion because the distance between two fixed observers is increasing exponentially (i.e. at an accelerating rate as they move apart), while Λ can stay approximately constant (see deceleration parameter).

 

Few inhomogeneities remain

 

Cosmological inflation has the important effect of smoothing out inhomogeneities, anisotropies and the curvature of space. This pushes the Universe into a very simple state, in which it is completely dominated by the inflaton field, the source of the cosmological constant, and the only significant inhomogeneities are the tiny quantum fluctuations in the inflaton. Inflation also dilutes exotic heavy particles, such as the magnetic monopoles predicted by many extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics. If the Universe was only hot enough to form such particles before a period of inflation, they would not be observed in nature, as they would be so rare that it is quite likely that there are none in the observable universe. Together, these effects are called the inflationary "no-hair theorem" by analogy with the no hair theorem for black holes.

 

The "no-hair" theorem works essentially because the cosmological horizon is no different from a black-hole horizon, except for philosophical disagreements about what is on the other side. The interpretation of the no-hair theorem is that the Universe (observable and unobservable) expands by an enormous factor during inflation. In an expanding universe, energy densities generally fall, or get diluted, as the volume of the Universe increases. For example, the density of ordinary "cold" matter (dust) goes down as the inverse of the volume: when linear dimensions double, the energy density goes down by a factor of eight; the radiation energy density goes down even more rapidly as the Universe expands since the wavelength of each photon is stretched (redshifted), in addition to the photons being dispersed by the expansion. When linear dimensions are doubled, the energy density in radiation falls by a factor of sixteen (see the solution of the energy density continuity equation for an ultra-relativistic fluid). During inflation, the energy density in the inflaton field is roughly constant. However, the energy density in everything else, including inhomogeneities, curvature, anisotropies, exotic particles, and standard-model particles is falling, and through sufficient inflation these all become negligible. This leaves the Universe flat and symmetric, and (apart from the homogeneous inflaton field) mostly empty, at the moment inflation ends and reheating begins.

 

History

Precursors

 

In the early days of General Relativity, Albert Einstein introduced the cosmological constant to allow a static solution, which was a three-dimensional sphere with a uniform density of matter. Later, Willem de Sitter found a highly symmetric inflating universe, which described a universe with a cosmological constant that is otherwise empty. It was discovered that Einstein's universe is unstable, and that small fluctuations cause it to collapse or turn into a de Sitter universe.

 

In the early 1970s Zeldovich noticed the flatness and horizon problems of Big Bang cosmology; before his work, cosmology was presumed to be symmetrical on purely philosophical grounds. In the Soviet Union, this and other considerations led Belinski and Khalatnikov to analyze the chaotic BKL singularity in General Relativity. Misner's Mixmaster universe attempted to use this chaotic behavior to solve the cosmological problems, with limited success.

 

In the late 1970s, Sidney Coleman applied the instanton techniques developed by Alexander Polyakov and collaborators to study the fate of the false vacuum in quantum field theory. Like a metastable phase in statistical mechanics—water below the freezing temperature or above the boiling point—a quantum field would need to nucleate a large enough bubble of the new vacuum, the new phase, in order to make a transition. Coleman found the most likely decay pathway for vacuum decay and calculated the inverse lifetime per unit volume. He eventually noted that gravitational effects would be significant, but he did not calculate these effects and did not apply the results to cosmology.

 

In the Soviet Union, Alexei Starobinsky noted that quantum corrections to general relativity should be important for the early universe. These generically lead to curvature-squared corrections to the Einstein–Hilbert action and a form of f(R) modified gravity. The solution to Einstein's equations in the presence of curvature squared terms, when the curvatures are large, leads to an effective cosmological constant. Therefore, he proposed that the early universe went through an inflationary de Sitter era. This resolved the cosmology problems and led to specific predictions for the corrections to the microwave background radiation, corrections that were then calculated in detail.

 

In 1978, Zeldovich noted the monopole problem, which was an unambiguous quantitative version of the horizon problem, this time in a subfield of particle physics, which led to several speculative attempts to resolve it. In 1980 Alan Guth realized that false vacuum decay in the early universe would solve the problem, leading him to propose a scalar-driven inflation. Starobinsky's and Guth's scenarios both predicted an initial deSitter phase, differing only in mechanistic details.

 

Duration

 

A key requirement is that inflation must continue long enough to produce the present observable universe from a single, small inflationary Hubble volume. This is necessary to ensure that the Universe appears flat, homogeneous and isotropic at the largest observable scales. This requirement is generally thought to be satisfied if the Universe expanded by a factor of at least 10-26 during inflation.

 

Reheating

 

Inflation is a period of supercooled expansion, when the temperature drops by a factor of 100,000 or so. (The exact drop is model dependent, but in the first models it was typically from 1027 K down to 1022 K.) This relatively low temperature is maintained during the inflationary phase. When inflation ends the temperature returns to the pre-inflationary temperature; this is called reheating or thermalization because the large potential energy of the inflaton field decays into particles and fills the Universe with Standard Model particles, including electromagnetic radiation, starting the radiation dominated phase of the Universe. Because the nature of the inflation is not known, this process is still poorly understood, although it is believed to take place through a parametric resonance.

 

Motivations

 

Inflation resolves several problems in Big Bang cosmology that were discovered in the 1970s. Inflation was first proposed by Guth while investigating the problem of why no magnetic monopoles are seen today; he found that a positive-energy false vacuum would, according to general relativity, generate an exponential expansion of space. It was very quickly realised that such an expansion would resolve many other long-standing problems. These problems arise from the observation that to look like it does today, the Universe would have to have started from very finely tuned, or "special" initial conditions at the Big Bang. Inflation attempts to resolve these problems by providing a dynamical mechanism that drives the Universe to this special state, thus making a universe like ours much more likely in the context of the Big Bang theory.

Horizon problem

 

Main article: Horizon problem

 

The horizon problem is the problem of determining why the Universe appears statistically homogeneous and isotropic in accordance with the cosmological principle. For example, molecules in a canister of gas are distributed homogeneously and isotropically because they are in thermal equilibrium: gas throughout the canister has had enough time to interact to dissipate inhomogeneities and anisotropies. The situation is quite different in the big bang model without inflation, because gravitational expansion does not give the early universe enough time to equilibrate. In a big bang with only the matter and radiation known in the Standard Model, two widely separated regions of the observable universe cannot have equilibrated because they move apart from each other faster than the speed of light and thus have never come into causal contact. In the early Universe, it was not possible to send a light signal between the two regions. Because they have had no interaction, it is difficult to explain why they have the same temperature (are thermally equilibrated). Historically, proposed solutions included the Phoenix universe of Georges Lemaître. the related oscillatory universe of Richard Chase Tolman. and the Mixmaster universe of Charles Misner. Lemaître and Tolman proposed that a universe undergoing a number of cycles of contraction and expansion could come into thermal equilibrium. Their models failed, however, because of the buildup of entropy over several cycles. Misner made the (ultimately incorrect) conjecture that the Mixmaster mechanism, which made the Universe more chaotic, could lead to statistical homogeneity and isotropy.

Flatness problem

 

Main article: Flatness problem

 

The flatness problem is sometimes called one of the Dicke coincidences (along with the cosmological constant problem). It became known in the 1960s that the density of matter in the Universe was comparable to the critical density necessary for a flat universe (that is, a universe whose large scale geometry is the usual Euclidean geometry, rather than a non-Euclidean hyperbolic or spherical geometry).

 

Therefore, regardless of the shape of the universe the contribution of spatial curvature to the expansion of the Universe could not be much greater than the contribution of matter. But as the Universe expands, the curvature redshifts away more slowly than matter and radiation. Extrapolated into the past, this presents a fine-tuning problem because the contribution of curvature to the Universe must be exponentially small (sixteen orders of magnitude less than the density of radiation at big bang nucleosynthesis, for example). This problem is exacerbated by recent observations of the cosmic microwave background that have demonstrated that the Universe is flat to within a few percent.

 

Magnetic-monopole problem

 

The magnetic monopole problem, sometimes called the exotic-relics problem, says that if the early universe were very hot, a large number of very heavy[why?], stable magnetic monopoles would have been produced. This is a problem with Grand Unified Theories, which propose that at high temperatures (such as in the early universe) the electromagnetic force, strong, and weak nuclear forces are not actually fundamental forces but arise due to spontaneous symmetry breaking from a single gauge theory. These theories predict a number of heavy, stable particles that have not been observed in nature. The most notorious is the magnetic monopole, a kind of stable, heavy "charge" of magnetic field. Monopoles are predicted to be copiously produced following Grand Unified Theories at high temperature, and they should have persisted to the present day, to such an extent that they would become the primary constituent of the Universe. Not only is that not the case, but all searches for them have failed, placing stringent limits on the density of relic magnetic monopoles in the Universe. A period of inflation that occurs below the temperature where magnetic monopoles can be produced would offer a possible resolution of this problem: monopoles would be separated from each other as the Universe around them expands, potentially lowering their observed density by many orders of magnitude. Though, as cosmologist Martin Rees has written, "Skeptics about exotic physics might not be hugely impressed by a theoretical argument to explain the absence of particles that are themselves only hypothetical. Preventive medicine can readily seem 100 percent effective against a disease that doesn't exist!"

 

Early inflationary models

 

Guth proposed inflation in January 1980 to explain the nonexistence of magnetic monopoles; it was Guth who coined the term "inflation". At the same time, Starobinsky argued that quantum corrections to gravity would replace the initial singularity of the Universe with an exponentially expanding deSitter phase. In October 1980, Demosthenes Kazanas suggested that exponential expansion could eliminate the particle horizon and perhaps solve the horizon problem, while Sato suggested that an exponential expansion could eliminate domain walls (another kind of exotic relic).[51] In 1981 Einhorn and Sato published a model similar to Guth's and showed that it would resolve the puzzle of the magnetic monopole abundance in Grand Unified Theories. Like Guth, they concluded that such a model not only required fine tuning of the cosmological constant, but also would likely lead to a much too granular universe, i.e., to large density variations resulting from bubble wall collisions.

 

Guth proposed that as the early universe cooled, it was trapped in a false vacuum with a high energy density, which is much like a cosmological constant. As the very early universe cooled it was trapped in a metastable state (it was supercooled), which it could only decay out of through the process of bubble nucleation via quantum tunneling. Bubbles of true vacuum spontaneously form in the sea of false vacuum and rapidly begin expanding at the speed of light. Guth recognized that this model was problematic because the model did not reheat properly: when the bubbles nucleated, they did not generate any radiation. Radiation could only be generated in collisions between bubble walls. But if inflation lasted long enough to solve the initial conditions problems, collisions between bubbles became exceedingly rare. In any one causal patch it is likely that only one bubble would nucleate.

 

Slow-roll inflation

 

The bubble collision problem was solved by Linde and independently by Andreas Albrecht and Paul Steinhardt in a model named new inflation or slow-roll inflation (Guth's model then became known as old inflation). In this model, instead of tunneling out of a false vacuum state, inflation occurred by a scalar field rolling down a potential energy hill. When the field rolls very slowly compared to the expansion of the Universe, inflation occurs. However, when the hill becomes steeper, inflation ends and reheating can occur.

Effects of asymmetries

 

Eventually, it was shown that new inflation does not produce a perfectly symmetric universe, but that quantum fluctuations in the inflaton are created. These fluctuations form the primordial seeds for all structure created in the later universe. These fluctuations were first calculated by Viatcheslav Mukhanov and G. V. Chibisov in analyzing Starobinsky's similar model. In the context of inflation, they were worked out independently of the work of Mukhanov and Chibisov at the three-week 1982 Nuffield Workshop on the Very Early Universe at Cambridge University. The fluctuations were calculated by four groups working separately over the course of the workshop: Stephen Hawking; Starobinsky; Guth and So-Young Pi; and Bardeen, Steinhardt and Turner.

 

Observational status

 

Inflation is a mechanism for realizing the cosmological principle, which is the basis of the standard model of physical cosmology: it accounts for the homogeneity and isotropy of the observable universe. In addition, it accounts for the observed flatness and absence of magnetic monopoles. Since Guth's early work, each of these observations has received further confirmation, most impressively by the detailed observations of the cosmic microwave background made by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) spacecraft. This analysis shows that the Universe is flat to within at least a few percent, and that it is homogeneous and isotropic to one part in 100,000.

 

In addition, inflation predicts that the structures visible in the Universe today formed through the gravitational collapse of perturbations that were formed as quantum mechanical fluctuations in the inflationary epoch. The detailed form of the spectrum of perturbations called a nearly-scale-invariant Gaussian random field (or Harrison–Zel'dovich spectrum) is very specific and has only two free parameters, the amplitude of the spectrum and the spectral index, which measures the slight deviation from scale invariance predicted by inflation (perfect scale invariance corresponds to the idealized de Sitter universe). Inflation predicts that the observed perturbations should be in thermal equilibrium with each other (these are called adiabatic or isentropic perturbations). This structure for the perturbations has been confirmed by the WMAP spacecraft and other cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments, and galaxy surveys, especially the ongoing Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These experiments have shown that the one part in 100,000 inhomogeneities observed have exactly the form predicted by theory. Moreover, there is evidence for a slight deviation from scale invariance. The spectral index, ns is equal to one for a scale-invariant spectrum. The simplest inflation models predict that this quantity is between 0.92 and 0.98.[66][67][68][69] From WMAP data it can be inferred that ns = 0.963 ± 0.012, implying that it differs from one at the level of two standard deviations. This is considered an important confirmation of the theory of inflation.

 

Various inflation theories have been proposed that make radically different predictions, but they generally have much more fine tuning than should be necessary. As a physical model, however, inflation is most valuable in that it robustly predicts the initial conditions of the Universe based on only two adjustable parameters: the spectral index (that can only change in a small range) and the amplitude of the perturbations. Except in contrived models, this is true regardless of how inflation is realized in particle physics.

 

Occasionally, effects are observed that appear to contradict the simplest models of inflation. The first-year WMAP data suggested that the spectrum might not be nearly scale-invariant, but might instead have a slight curvature. However, the third-year data revealed that the effect was a statistical anomaly. Another effect remarked upon since the first cosmic microwave background satellite, the Cosmic Background Explorer is that the amplitude of the quadrupole moment of the CMB is unexpectedly low and the other low multipoles appear to be preferentially aligned with the ecliptic plane. Some have claimed that this is a signature of non-Gaussianity and thus contradicts the simplest models of inflation. Others have suggested that the effect may be due to other new physics, foreground contamination, or even publication bias.

 

An experimental program is underway to further test inflation with more precise CMB measurements. In particular, high precision measurements of the so-called "B-modes" of the polarization of the background radiation could provide evidence of the gravitational radiation produced by inflation, and could also show whether the energy scale of inflation predicted by the simplest models (1015–1016 GeV) is correct. In March 2014, it was announced that B-mode CMB polarization consistent with that predicted from inflation had been demonstrated by a South Pole experiment. However, on 19 June 2014, lowered confidence in confirming the findings was reported; on 19 September 2014, a further reduction in confidence was reported and, on 30 January 2015, even less confidence yet was reported.

 

Other potentially corroborating measurements are expected from the Planck spacecraft, although it is unclear if the signal will be visible, or if contamination from foreground sources will interfere. Other forthcoming measurements, such as those of 21 centimeter radiation (radiation emitted and absorbed from neutral hydrogen before the first stars formed), may measure the power spectrum with even greater resolution than the CMB and galaxy surveys, although it is not known if these measurements will be possible or if interference with radio sources on Earth and in the galaxy will be too great.

 

Dark energy is broadly similar to inflation and is thought to be causing the expansion of the present-day universe to accelerate. However, the energy scale of dark energy is much lower, 10−12 GeV, roughly 27 orders of magnitude less than the scale of inflation.

 

Theoretical status

In Guth's early proposal, it was thought that the inflaton was the Higgs field, the field that explains the mass of the elementary particles. It is now believed by some that the inflaton cannot be the Higgs field although the recent discovery of the Higgs boson has increased the number of works considering the Higgs field as inflaton. One problem of this identification is the current tension with experimental data at the electroweak scale, which is currently under study at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Other models of inflation relied on the properties of Grand Unified Theories. Since the simplest models of grand unification have failed, it is now thought by many physicists that inflation will be included in a supersymmetric theory such as string theory or a supersymmetric grand unified theory. At present, while inflation is understood principally by its detailed predictions of the initial conditions for the hot early universe, the particle physics is largely ad hoc modelling. As such, although predictions of inflation have been consistent with the results of observational tests, many open questions remain.

Fine-tuning problem

 

One of the most severe challenges for inflation arises from the need for fine tuning. In new inflation, the slow-roll conditions must be satisfied for inflation to occur. The slow-roll conditions say that the inflaton potential must be flat (compared to the large vacuum energy) and that the inflaton particles must have a small mass.[clarification needed] New inflation requires the Universe to have a scalar field with an especially flat potential and special initial conditions. However, explanations for these fine-tunings have been proposed. For example, classically scale invariant field theories, where scale invariance is broken by quantum effects, provide an explanation of the flatness of inflationary potentials, as long as the theory can be studied through perturbation theory.

 

Andrei Linde

Linde proposed a theory known as chaotic inflation in which he suggested that the conditions for inflation were actually satisfied quite generically. Inflation will occur in virtually any universe that begins in a chaotic, high energy state that has a scalar field with unbounded potential energy. However, in his model the inflaton field necessarily takes values larger than one Planck unit: for this reason, these are often called large field models and the competing new inflation models are called small field models. In this situation, the predictions of effective field theory are thought to be invalid, as renormalization should cause large corrections that could prevent inflation. This problem has not yet been resolved and some cosmologists argue that the small field models, in which inflation can occur at a much lower energy scale, are better models. While inflation depends on quantum field theory (and the semiclassical approximation to quantum gravity) in an important way, it has not been completely reconciled with these theories.

 

Brandenberger commented on fine-tuning in another situation. The amplitude of the primordial inhomogeneities produced in inflation is directly tied to the energy scale of inflation. This scale is suggested to be around 1016 GeV or 10−3 times the Planck energy. The natural scale is naïvely the Planck scale so this small value could be seen as another form of fine-tuning (called a hierarchy problem): the energy density given by the scalar potential is down by 10−12 compared to the Planck density. This is not usually considered to be a critical problem, however, because the scale of inflation corresponds naturally to the scale of gauge unification.

  

TO BE CONTINUED.......SAKURAI

 

See also:

Michio Kaku (1994). Hyperspace: A Scientific Odyssey Through Parallel Universes, Time Warps, and the Tenth Dimension, Part I, chapter 3, The Man Who "Saw" the Fourth Dimension (about tesseracts in years 1870–1910). ISBN 0-19-286189-1.

Rucker, Rudy (1984), The Fourth Dimension /A Guided Tour of the Higher Universes, Houghton Mifflin, p. 18, ISBN 0-395-39388-4

In particular, Hinton, Charles Howard (1904). Fourth Dimension. pp. 11–14. ISBN 1-5645-9708-3.

Andrew Forsyth (1930) Geometry of Four Dimensions, link from Internet Archive.

Gamow, George (1988). One Two Three . . . Infinity: Facts and Speculations of Science (3rd ed.). Courier Dover Publications. p. 68. ISBN 0-486-25664-2. Extract of page 68

E. H. Neville (1921) The Fourth Dimension, Cambridge University Press, link from University of Michigan Historical Math Collection.

   

www.starnow.co.uk/christopherw33618

 

The British Transport Police (BTP) (Welsh: Heddlu Trafnidiaeth Prydeinig) is a special police force[4] that polices railways and light-rail systems in Great Britain, for which it has entered into an agreement to provide such services.[5] 95% of the Force's funding comes from Britain's privatised train companies. British Transport Police officers do not have jurisdiction in Northern Ireland unless working under mutual aid arrangements for the Police Service of Northern Ireland in which case any duties performed on a railway will be merely incidental to working as a constable in Northern Ireland.

 

Contents

 

1 Jurisdiction

2 Structure

2.1 Divisions

2.1.1 B Division

2.1.2 C Division

2.1.3 D Division

2.2 Former divisions

3 History

3.1 Foundation

3.1.1 "Policeman" v. "Constable"

3.2 Navigators

3.3 Historical crime

3.4 Reorganisation

3.5 Inter-war years

3.6 World War II

3.7 Post war

4 How the BTP is funded

5 Attestation

5.1 in England and Wales

5.2 in Scotland

6 Communications and Control rooms

7 Powers and status of officers

7.1 General powers

7.2 Outside natural jurisdiction

7.2.1 On the request of constable

7.2.2 On the request of a Chief Constable (Mutual Aid)

7.2.3 Spontaneous requirement outside natural jurisdiction

7.2.4 Channel Tunnel

7.2.5 Cross-border powers

7.3 Status

8 Accident investigation

9 Crime on the railway

9.1 Route crime

9.2 Performance

10 Special Constabulary

11 Police Community Support Officers (PCSO)

12 Proposed merger

13 See also

14 References

15 External links

 

Jurisdiction

 

As well as having jurisdiction of the system operated by Network Rail consequential to being a former part of British Railways, the BTP are also responsible for policing:

 

The London Underground system

The Docklands Light Railway

High Speed 1

The Sunderland line of the Tyne and Wear Metro (between Fellgate and South Hylton)

The Midland Metro

Croydon Tramlink

The Glasgow Subway (since early 2007)

The Emirates Air Line

 

This amounts to around 10,000 miles of track and more than 3,000 railway stations and depots. There are more than 1 billion passenger journeys annually on the mainline alone.

 

In addition, British Transport Police in conjunction with the French National Police - Police aux Frontières - police the international services operated by Eurostar.[6]

 

It is not responsible for policing the rest of the Tyne and Wear Metro or the Manchester Metrolink or any other railway with which it does not have a service agreement; it can act as a constabulary for a transport system in Great Britain with which it commences a service agreement.

 

A BTP constable can act as a police constable outside of their normal railway jurisdiction as described in the "Powers and status of officers" section.

Structure

BTP officers patrolling with dogs in Waterloo Station

 

As of 2009, BTP has 2,871 Police Constables,[3] 218 Special Constables, 326 Police Community Support Officers, and 1334 police staff throughout England, Wales, and Scotland.[7] In terms of regular officer numbers this means BTP is the 19th largest police force in England & Wales and Scotland in comparison to the 45 territorial police forces of Great Britain.[7] Since June 2009 the Chief Constable has been Andy Trotter OBE, QPM and is due to be succeeded by Paul Crowther OBE later in 2014.[8]

 

BTP has appeared on UK television in Railcops.[9]

Divisions

 

From 1 April 2014 the divisional structure changed from the previous seven division structure to a four division structure - according to BTP this new structure will 'deliver a more efficient Force, generating savings to reinvest in more police officers across the railway network'.[10] A Division refers to the Force Headquarters (FHQ) and houses the command team, major investigations, forensic support and other centralised departments.

B Division

 

Divisional Commander: Chief Superintedent Paul Brogden.[10]

 

This division covers London and the South East and southern areas of England. This division is further divided into the following sub-divisions:

 

East - Sub-divisional Commander: Superintendent Richard Moffatt.[11]

Transport for London - Sub-divisional Commander: Superintendent Matt Wratten.[12]

South - Sub-divisional Commander: Superintendent Jason Bunyard.[13]

 

C Division

 

Divisional Commander: Chief Superintendent Peter Holden.[10]

 

This division covers the North East, North West, the Midlands, South West areas of England and Wales. This division is further divided into the following sub-divisions:

 

Pennine - Sub-divisional Commander: Superintendent Eddie Wylie.[14]

Midland - Sub-divisional Commander: Superintendent Allan Gregory.[15]

Wales - Sub-divisional Commander: Superintendent Andy Morgan.[16]

 

D Division

 

Divisional Commander: Chief Superintendent Ellie Bird.[10]

 

This division covers Scotland. There are no sub-divisions within D Division.[17]

Former divisions

 

Prior to April 2014, BTP was divided into seven geographical divisions:

 

Scotland (Area HQ in Glasgow)

North Eastern (Area HQ in Leeds)

North Western (Area HQ in Manchester)

London North (Area HQ in London - Caledonian Road)

London Underground (Area HQ in London - Broadway)

London South (Area HQ in London - Bridge Street)

Wales & Western (Area HQ in Birmingham)

 

Prior to 2007, there was an additional Midland Division however this was absorbed into the North Eastern Division.

History

Foundation

 

The first railway employees described as "police" can be traced back to 30 June 1826. A regulation of the Stockton and Darlington Railway refers to the police establishment of "One Superintendent, four officers and numerous gate-keepers". This is the first mention of Railway Police anywhere and was three years before the Metropolitan Police Act was passed. They were not, however, described as "constables" and the description may refer to men controlling the trains not enforcing the law. Specific reference to "constables" rather than mere "policemen" is made by the BTP website article "A History of Policing the Railway"[18] which states "The London, Birmingham and Liverpool Railway Companion of 1838 reports "Each Constable, besides being in the employ of the company, is sworn as a County Constable". Further reference is made by the BTP[19] to "an Act of 1838...which according to J.R. Whitbread in 'The Railway Policeman[20] was the first legislation to provide for any form of policing of the railway whilst under construction, i.e. to protect the public from the navvies more or less."

 

The modern British Transport Police was formed by the British Transport Commission Act 1949[21] which combined the already-existing police forces inherited from the pre-nationalisation railways by British Railways, those forces having been previously formed by powers available under common law to parishes, landowners and other bodies to appoint constables to patrol land and/or property under their control. This is distinct from the establishment of a police force by statute, as applicable to the Metropolitan Police in 1829; BTP did not have jurisdiction on a statutory basis until the enactment of the Transport Police (Jurisdiction) Act 1994,[22] which was subsequently amended by the Railways and Transport Safety Act 2003.[23]

"Policeman" v. "Constable"

 

Some early 19th century references to "railway police" or "policemen" do not concern constables but instead describe the men responsible for the signalling and control of the movement of trains (it is still common colloquial practice within railway staff for their modern equivalents in signal boxes and signalling centres to be called "Bobbies"). These personnel carried out their duties mostly in the open beside the track and were often dressed in a similar manner (e.g. a top hat and frock coat) to early police constables but were not directly concerned with law enforcement. Historical references (including those originating from the BTP itself) to when the first group of true "constables" was organised to patrol a railway should be treated with caution. This warning is repeated by the Metropolitan Police (MP) web page dealing with MP records of service which on the matter of records of other forces held by the Public Record Office (now the National Archives) states: "The occasional references to 'Police Department' in the railway staff records relate to signalmen etc. Although some were simultaneously County Constables."[24]

Navigators

 

A huge workforce was required to build the ever expanding railway system. These armies of rough workers - navigators, or "navvies" for short - brought fear into rural Victorian England. The Special Constables Act 1838 was passed which required railway and other companies to bear the cost of constables keeping the peace near construction works.

Historical crime

 

The continually expanding network of railways gave criminals new opportunities to move around the country and commit crime. The railways were pioneers of the electric telegraph and its use often involved the arrest of criminals arriving or departing by train. On 1 January 1845 a Railway Police Sergeant became the first person to arrest a murderer following the use of an electric telegraph.

 

In 1838 the Royal Mail was conveyed by rail for the first time. The first mail thefts were reported shortly afterwards. In 1848 the Eastern Counties Railway lost 76 pieces of luggage in just one day, and by the following year thefts from the largest six railways amounted to over £100,000 a year.

 

The first railway murder was committed by Franz Muller, who robbed and killed a fellow passenger on a North London Railway train in 1864.

 

The first arrest abroad by the British Police was made in 1874 when a Metropolitan Police Inspector accompanied by a Railway Police Inspector went to the United States to arrest an embezzler.

Reorganisation

 

From 1900, several railway companies re-organised their police forces. The London, Brighton and South Coast Railway virtually reformed their police force from scratch in that year, followed by the Great Eastern Railway, the North Eastern Railway and Midland Railway in 1910, the Caledonian Railway in 1917 and lastly the Great Western Railway in 1918.

Inter-war years

 

The Railways Act 1921 amalgamated over one hundred separate railway systems (of which about 20 had organised police forces) into four groups:

 

The Great Western Railway

The London and North Eastern Railway

The London, Midland and Scottish Railway

The Southern Railway

 

Each had its own police force controlled by a Chief of Police. These four forces were organised in the same way; each split into a number of divisions headed by a superintendent, divided into a number of divisions posts led by an inspector. Detectives worked with their uniformed colleagues at most locations. Many 'non-police' duties were retained however, with officers acting as crossing keepers or locking and sealing wagons.

World War II

 

During the war, the strength of the railway police doubled. With many men conscripted, special constables and women police were again employed.

Post war

Two parked BTP vehicles in York

 

In 1947 the Transport Act created the British Transport Commission (BTC) which unified the railway system. On 1 January 1949 the British Transport Commission Police were created, formed from the four old railway police forces, canal police and several minor dock forces. In 1957 the Maxwell-Johnson enquiry found that policing requirements for the railway could not be met by civil forces and that it was essential that a specialist police force be retained. On 1 January 1962 the British Transport Commission Police ceased to cover British Waterways property[25] and exactly a year later when the BTC was abolished the name of the force was amended to the British Transport Police. In 1984 London Buses decided not to use the British Transport Police. The British Transport Docks Board followed in 1985.

 

The force played a central role in the response to the 7 July 2005 London bombings. Three of the incidents were at London Underground stations: Edgware Road (Circle Line), Russell Square and Aldgate stations.

 

On 15 July 2006, a Dog Section Training School was opened at the Force Training establishment near Tadworth, Surrey.

 

In May 2011, the Secretary of State for Transport Philip Hammond announced that British Transport Police would create an armed capability of its own with the added benefit of additional resilience and capacity of the overall UK police armed capability.[26] The BTP are deployed on armed patrols using Glock 17 pistols, LMT AR-15 CQB carbines as well as tasers.[27]

How the BTP is funded

 

The British Transport Police is largely funded by the train operating companies, Network Rail, and the London Underground – part of Transport for London.[28] Around 95% of BTP's funding comes from the train operating companies.[29] Other operators with whom the BTP has a service agreement also contribute appropriately. This funding arrangement does not give the companies power to set objectives for the BTP, but there are industry representatives serving as members of the police authority.[30] The police authority decides objectives. The industry membership represent 5 out of 13 members.

 

There is also substantial counter-terrorism funding from the Home Office.

 

The police authority has agreed its budget for 2011/2012 at £250.2M.

Attestation

See also: Police Oath

 

Constables of the BTP are required by s.24 of the Railways and Transport Safety Act 2003 to make one of the following attestations, depending on the jurisdiction in which they have been appointed:

in England and Wales

 

I...of the British Transport Police do solemnly and sincerely declare and affirm that I will well and truly serve the Queen in the office of constable, with fairness, integrity, diligence, and impartiality, upholding fundamental human rights and according equal respect to all people; and that I will, to the best of my power, cause the peace to be kept and preserved and prevent all offences against people and property; and that while I continue to hold said office I will, to the best of my skill and knowledge, discharge all the duties thereof faithfully and according to law.

 

[Police Act 1996, Schedule 4 as amended.]

 

The attestation can be made in Welsh.

in Scotland

 

Constables are required to take the oath referred to (but not defined) in s.16 Police (Scotland) Act 1967, which is in simpler form, merely declaring faithfully to execute the duties of his or her office.[31]

 

Communications and Control rooms

 

As of March 2009, BTP operates two control rooms and one Call Handling Centre:

 

First Contact Centre: Based in Birmingham and responsible for handling all routine telephone traffic. This facility was created further to criticism by HMIC.[32][33]

Force Control Room – Birmingham: Based in Birmingham – alongside the First Contact Centre – and responsible for the East Midlands, West Midlands, Wales, the North West of England, the North East of England, the South West of England and Scotland.

Force Control Room – London: Responsible for the Greater London area (including the London Underground and Mainline) and the Home Counties.

 

Powers and status of officers

General powers

 

Under s.31 of the Railways and Transport Safety Act 2003, British Transport Police officers have "all the power and privileges of a constable" when:

 

on track, (any land or other property comprising the permanent way of any railway, taken together with the ballast, sleepers and metals laid thereon, whether or not the land or other property is also used for other purposes, any level crossings, bridges, viaducts, tunnels, culverts, retaining walls, or other structures used or to be used for the support of, or otherwise in connection with, track; and any walls, fences or other structures bounding the railway or bounding any adjacent or adjoining property)[34]

on network, (a railway line, or installations associated with a railway line)[34]

in a station, (any land or other property which consists of premises used as, or for the purposes of, or otherwise in connection with, a railway passenger station or railway passenger terminal (including any approaches, forecourt, cycle store or car park), whether or not the land or other property is, or the premises are, also used for other purposes)[34]

in a light maintenance depot,

on other land used for purposes of or in relation to a railway,

on other land in which a person who provides railway services has a freehold or leasehold interest, and

throughout Great Britain for a purpose connected to a railway or to anything occurring on or in relation to a railway.

 

"Railway" means a system of transport employing parallel rails which provide support and guidance for vehicles carried on flanged wheels, and form a track which either is of a gauge of at least 350 millimetres or crosses a carriageway (whether or not on the same level).[35]

 

A BTP constable may enter:

 

track,

a network,

a station,

a light maintenance depot, and

a railway vehicle.

 

without a warrant, using reasonable force if necessary, and whether or not an offence has been committed.[36] It is an offence to assault or impersonate a BTP constable.[37]

Outside natural jurisdiction

 

They need however to move between railway sites and often have a presence in city centres. Consequently, BTP officers can be called upon to intervene in incidents outside their natural jurisdiction. ACPO estimate that some such 8,000 incidents occur every year. As a result of the Anti-terrorism, Crime and Security Act 2001[38] BTP officers can act as police constables outside their normal jurisdiction in the following circumstances:

On the request of constable

 

If requested by a constable of:

 

a Home Office police force,

the Ministry of Defence Police (MDP), or

the Civil Nuclear Constabulary (CNC)

 

to assist him/her in the execution of their duties in relation to a particular incident, investigation or operation, a BTP constable also has the powers of the requesting officer for the purposes of that incident, investigation or operation.[39] If a constable from a territorial police force makes the request, then the powers of the BTP constable extend only to the requesting constable's police area.[39] If a constable from the MDP or CNC makes the request, then the powers of the BTP officer are the same as those of the requesting constable.[39]

Arkadin, a leading global collaboration service provider, was awarded the 2011 Audio Conferencing Service Provider of the Year at the 2012 Frost & Sullivan India ICT Awards. Arkadin's exemplary revenue growth, outstanding leadership and customer adoption were cited as key factors through Frost & Sullivan's comprehensive research and analysis of leading audio service providers in the country.

 

Founded in 2001, Arkadin is a leading Global Collaboration Service Provider offering a complete range of remote collaboration solutions from audio, web and video conferencing to Unified Communications with a global network of 50 operating centers in 29 countries. Arkadin enables all types and sizes of organizations to communicate and collaborate effectively using its user-friendly and cost-efficient solutions to increase business productivity. To know more about Arkadin, please visit www.arkadin.co.in

  

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Conwy_Castle

  

Conwy Castle (English: Conway Castle; Welsh: Castell Conwy) is a medieval fortification in Conwy, on the north coast of Wales. It was built by Edward I, during his conquest of Wales, between 1283 and 1289. Constructed as part of a wider project to create the walled town of Conwy, the combined defences cost around £15,000, a huge sum for the period. Over the next few centuries, the castle played an important part in several wars. It withstood the siege of Madog ap Llywelyn in the winter of 1294–95, acted as a temporary haven for Richard II in 1399 and was held for several months by forces loyal to Owain Glyndŵr in 1401.

 

Following the outbreak of the English Civil War in 1642, the castle was held by forces loyal to Charles I, holding out until 1646 when it surrendered to the Parliamentary armies. In the aftermath the castle was partially slighted by Parliament to prevent it being used in any further revolt, and was finally completely ruined in 1665 when its remaining iron and lead was stripped and sold off. Conwy Castle became an attractive destination for painters in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Visitor numbers grew and initial restoration work was carried out in the second half of the 19th century. In the 21st century the ruined castle is managed by Cadw as a tourist attraction.

 

UNESCO considers Conwy to be one of "the finest examples of late 13th century and early 14th century military architecture in Europe", and it is classed as a World Heritage site.[1] The rectangular castle is built from local and imported stone and occupies a coastal ridge, originally overlooking an important crossing point over the River Conwy. Divided into an Inner and an Outer Ward, it is defended by eight large towers and two barbicans, with a postern gate leading down to the river, allowing the castle to be resupplied from the sea. It retains the earliest surviving stone machicolations in Britain and what historian Jeremy Ashbee has described as the "best preserved suite of medieval private royal chambers in England and Wales".[2] In keeping with other Edwardian castles in North Wales, the architecture of Conwy has close links to that found in the kingdom of Savoy during the same period, an influence probably derived from the Savoy origins of the main architect, James of Saint George.

  

History

  

13th century

  

Before the English construction of the town of Conwy, the site was occupied by Aberconwy Abbey, a Cistercian monastery favoured by the Welsh princes.[3] The site also controlled an important crossing point over the River Conwy between the coastal and inland areas of North Wales, and was defended for many years by Deganwy Castle.[3] The kings of England and the Welsh princes had vied for control of the region since the 1070s and the conflict had been renewed during the 13th century, leading to Edward I intervening in North Wales for the second time during his reign in 1282.[4]

  

Edward invaded with a huge army, pushing north from Carmarthen and westwards from Montgomery and Chester. Edward captured Aberconwy in March 1283 and decided that the location would form the centre of a new county: the abbey would be relocated eight miles inland and a new English castle and walled town would be built on the monastery's former site.[5] The ruined castle of Deganwy was abandoned and never rebuilt.[6] Edward's plan was a colonial enterprise and placing the new town and walls on top of such a high-status native Welsh site was in part a symbolic act to demonstrate English power.[7]

 

Work began on cutting the ditch around Conwy Castle within days of Edward's decision.[8] The work was controlled by Sir John Bonvillars and overseen by master mason James of St. George, and the first phase of work between 1283 and 1284 focused on creating the exterior curtain walls and towers.[9] In the second phase, from 1284 and 1286, the interior buildings were erected, while work began on the walls for the neighbouring town.[10] By 1287, the castle was complete.[10] Huge amounts of labourers were mobilised from across England for the task, massed at Chester and then brought into Wales for each summer building season.[11] Edward's accountants did not separate the costs of the town walls from that of the castle, and the total cost of the two projects came to around £15,000, a huge sum for the period.[10][nb 1]

 

The castle's constable was, by a royal charter of 1284, also the mayor of the new town of Conwy, and oversaw a castle garrison of 30 soldiers, including 15 crossbowmen, supported by a carpenter, chaplain, blacksmith, engineer and a stonemason.[13] In 1294 Madog ap Llywelyn rebelled against English rule. Edward was besieged at Conwy by the Welsh between December and January 1295, supplied only by sea, before forces arrived to relieve him in February.[14] Chronicler Walter of Guisborough suggested that given the austere conditions Edward refused to drink his own private supply of wine, and instead had it shared out amongst the garrison.[15] For some years afterwards, the castle formed the main residence for visiting senior figures, and hosted Edward's son, the future Edward II in 1301 when he visited the region to receive homage from the Welsh leaders.[16]

  

14th–15th centuries

  

Conwy Castle was not well maintained during the early 14th century and by 1321 a survey reported it was poorly equipped, with limited stores and suffering from leaking roofs and rotten timbers.[17] These problems persisted until Edward, the Black Prince took over control of the castle in 1343.[17] Sir John Weston, his chamberlain, conducted repairs, building new stone support arches for the great hall and other parts of the castle.[17] After the death of the Black Prince, however, Conwy fell into neglect again.[17]

 

At the end of the 14th century, the castle was used as a refuge by Richard II from the forces of his rival, Henry Bolingbroke.[18] On 12 August 1399, after returning from Ireland, Richard made his way to the castle where he met Bolingbroke's emissary, Henry Percy, for negotiations.[19] Percy swore in the chapel he would not harm the king. On 19 August, Richard surrendered to Percy at Flint Castle, promising to abdicate if his life were spared.[20] The king was then taken to London, he died later in captivity at Pontefract Castle.[19]

 

Henry Bolingbroke took the English throne to rule as Henry IV in 1400, but rebellion broke out in North Wales shortly afterwards under the leadership of Owain Glyndŵr.[19] In March 1401, Rhys ap Tudur and his brother Gwilym, cousins of Owain Glyndŵr, undertook a surprise attack on Conwy Castle.[19] Pretending to be carpenters repairing the castle, the two gained entry, killed the two watchmen on duty and took control of the fortress.[19] Welsh rebels then attacked and captured the rest of the walled town.[21] The brothers held out for around three months, before negotiating a surrender; as part of this agreement the pair were given a royal pardon by Henry.[19]

 

During the War of the Roses between 1455 and 1485, fought by the rival factions of the Lancastrians and the Yorkists, Conwy was reinforced, but played little part in the fighting.[22] Henry VIII conducted restoration work in the 1520s and 1530s, during which time the castle was being used as a prison, a depot and as a potential residence for visitors.[22]

 

17th–21st centuries

  

Conwy Castle fell into disrepair again by the early 17th century.[23] Charles I sold it to Edward Conway in 1627 for £100, and Edward's son, also called Edward, inherited the ruin in 1631.[23][nb 2] In 1642 the English Civil War broke out between the Charles' royalist supporters and Parliament.[23] John Williams, the Archbishop of York, took charge of the castle on behalf of the king, and set about repairing and garrisoning it at his own expense.[23] In 1645, Sir John Owen was appointed governor of the castle instead, however, leading to a bitter dispute between the two men.[25] The Archbishop defected to Parliament, the town of Conwy fell in August 1646 and in November General Thomas Mytton finally took the castle itself after a substantial siege.[26]

 

In the aftermath of the siege, Colonel John Carter was appointed governor of the castle and fresh repairs were carried out.[26] In 1655 the Council of State appointed by Parliament ordered the castle to be slighted, or put beyond military use: the Bakehouse tower was probably deliberately partially pulled down at this time as part of the slighting.[26] With the restoration of Charles II in 1660, Conway was returned to Edward Conway, the Earl of Conway, but five years later Edward decided to strip the remaining iron and lead from the castle and sell it off.[27] The work was completed under the supervision of Edward Conway's overseer William Milward, despite opposition from the leading citizens of Conwy, and turned the castle into a total ruin.[28]

 

By the end of the 18th century, the ruins were considered picturesque and sublime, attracting visitors and artists, and paintings of the castle were made by Thomas Girtin, Moses Griffith, Julius Caesar Ibbetson, Paul Sandby and J. M. W. Turner.[28] Several bridges were built across the River Conwy to linking the town and Llandudno during the 19th century, including a road bridge in 1826 and a rail bridge in 1848. These improved communication links with the castle and further increased tourist numbers.[29] In 1865 Conwy Castle passed from the Holland family, who had leased it from the descendants of the Conways, to the civic leadership of Conwy town. Restoration work on the ruins then began, including the reconstruction of the damaged Bakehouse tower.[29] In 1953 the castle was leased to the Ministry of Works and Arnold Taylor undertook a wide range of repairs and extensive research into the castle's history.[30] An additional road bridge was built to the castle in 1958.[29] Already protected as a scheduled monument, in 1986 it was also declared part of the World Heritage Site of the "Castles and Town Walls of King Edward in Gwynedd".[31]

 

In the 21st century the castle is managed by Cadw as a tourist attraction and 186,897 tourists visited the castle in 2010; a new visitor centre was opened in 2012.[32] The castle requires ongoing maintenance and repairs cost £30,000 over the 2002–03 financial year.[33]

  

Architecture

  

UNESCO considers Conwy Castle one of "the finest examples of late 13th century and early 14th century military architecture in Europe".[1] It hugs a rocky coastal ridge of grey sand- and limestone, and much of the stone from the castle is largely taken from the ridge itself, probably when the site was first cleared.[34] The local stone was not of sufficient quality to be used for carving details such as windows, however, and accordingly sandstone was brought in from the Creuddyn peninsula, Chester and the Wirral.[35] This sandstone was more colourful than the local grey stone, and was probably deliberately chosen for its appearance.[35]

 

The castle has a rectangular plan and is divided into an Inner and Outer Ward, with four large, 70-foot (21 m) tall towers on each side; originally the castle would have been white-washed using a lime render.[36] The outside of the towers still have the putlog holes from their original construction, where timbers were inserted to create a spiralling ramp for the builders.[37] Although now somewhat decayed, the battlements originally sported triple finial designs and featured a sequence of square holes running along the outside of the walls.[38] It is uncertain what these holes were used for – they may have been drainage holes, supports for defensive hoarding or for displaying ornamental shields.[38]

 

The main entrance to the castle is through the western barbican, an exterior defence in front of the main gate.[39] When first built, the barbican was reached over a drawbridge and a masonry ramp that came up sharply from the town below; the modern path cuts east along the outside of the walls.[39] The barbican features the earliest surviving stone machicolations in Britain, and the gate would originally have been protected by a portcullis.[40]

   

The gate leads through to the Outer Ward which, when first built, would have been full of various administrative and service buildings.[41] The north-west tower was reached through the porter's lodge and contained limited accommodation and space for stores.[42] The south-west tower may have been used either by the castle's constable, or by the castle's garrison, and also contained a bakehouse.[42] On the south side of the ward is a range of buildings that included the great hall and chapel, sitting on top of the cellars, which are now exposed.[43] The stubs and one surviving stone arches from the 1340s can still be seen.[44] Behind the great hall was the tower used by the constable for detaining prisoners; this included a special room for holding prisoners, called the "dettors chambre" ("debtors' chamber") in the 16th century, and an underground dungeon.[45] On the north side of the ward was a range of service buildings, including a kitchen, brewhouse and bakehouse, backed onto by the kitchen tower, containing accommodation and store rooms.[46]

 

The Inner Ward was originally separated from the Outer Ward by an internal wall, a drawbridge and a gate, protected by a ditch cut into the rock.[47] The ditch was filled in during the 16th century and the drawbridge removed.[48] The spring-fed castle well built alongside the gate survives, and today is 91-foot (28 m) deep.[48] Inside, the ward contained the chambers for the royal household, their immediate staff and service facilities; today, historian Jeremy Ashbee considers them to be the "best preserved suite of medieval private royal chambers in England and Wales".[2] They were designed to form a royal palace in miniature, that could, if necessary, be sealed off from the rest of castle and supplied from the eastern gate by sea almost indefinitely.[49]

   

The royal rooms were positioned on the first floor of a range of buildings that ran around the outside of the ward, facing onto a courtyard.[50] The four towers that protected the Inner Ward contained service facilities, with the Chapel Tower containing the private royal chapel.[50] Each tower has an additional watchtower turret, probably intended both for security and to allow the prominent display of the royal flag.[51] The arrangement was originally similar to that of the 13th century Gloriette at Corfe Castle, and provided a combination of privacy for the king while providing extensive personal security.[52] The two sets of apartments were later unified into a single set of rooms, including a great chamber, outer chamber and inner chamber.[53]

 

On the east side of the Inner Ward is another barbican, enclosing the castle garden.[54] This was overlooked by the royal apartments, and changed in style over the years: in the early 14th century there was a lawn, in the late 14th century vines, in the 16th century crab-apple trees and a lawn and in the 17th century formal ornamental flowers.[55] A postern gate originally led down to the river where a small dock was built, allowing key visitors to enter the castle in private and for the fortress to be resupplied by boat, although this gate is now concealed by the later bridges built on the site.[56]

 

The architecture of Conwy has close to links to that found in the kingdom of Savoy in the same period.[57] These include window styles, the type of crenellation used on the towers and positioning of putlog holes, and are usually ascribed to the influence of the Savoy architect Master James.[57] The links between Conwy and Savoy are not straightforward, however, as in some cases the relevant Savoy structures were built after James had left the region.[58] The similarity in architectural details may, therefore, be the result of the wider role played by Savoy craftsmen and engineers on the Conwy project.[58]

 

New hope in 2009

有段話我覺得不要翻成英文比較好,老美看了大概會不爽,這張圖我弄好後覺的很像黑人牙膏的mark說....TT我應該把它作成貼紙印出來的!以下就轉貼他的生平:

"Barack" and "Obama" redirect here. For other uses, see Barack (disambiguation) and Obama (disambiguation).

Barack Obama

   

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44th President of the United States

Incumbent

Assumed office

January 20, 2009

Vice President Joe Biden

Preceded by George W. Bush

 

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United States Senator

from Illinois

In office

January 3, 2005 – November 16, 2008

Preceded by Peter Fitzgerald

Succeeded by Roland Burris

 

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Member of the Illinois Senate

from the 13th district

In office

January 8, 1997 – November 4, 2004

Preceded by Alice Palmer

Succeeded by Kwame Raoul

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Born August 4, 1961 (1961-08-04) (age 47)[1]

Honolulu, Hawaii, United States[2]

Birth name Barack Hussein Obama II[2]

Nationality American

Political party Democratic

Spouse Michelle Obama (m. 1992)

Children Malia Ann (b. 1998)

Natasha (a.k.a. Sasha) (b. 2001)

Residence Chicago, Illinois (private)

White House, Washington, D.C. (official)

Alma mater Occidental College

Columbia University (B.A.)

Harvard Law School (J.D.)

Profession Community organizer

Attorney

Author

Professor

Politician

Religion Protestant Christian[3]

Signature

Website WhiteHouse.gov

This article is part of a series about

Barack Obama

Background · Illinois Senate · U.S. Senate

Political positions · Public image · Family

2008 primaries · Obama–Biden campaign

Transition · Inauguration · US Presidency

 

Barack Hussein Obama II (pronounced /bəˈrɑːk hʊˈseɪn oʊˈbɑːmə/; born August 4, 1961) is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama was the junior United States Senator from Illinois from 2005 until he resigned following his 2008 election to the presidency. He was inaugurated as President on January 20, 2009.

 

Obama is a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School, where he was the first African American president of the Harvard Law Review. He worked as a community organizer, and practiced as a civil rights attorney in Chicago before serving three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004. He also taught Constitutional Law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. Following an unsuccessful bid for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives in 2000, Obama was elected to the Senate in November 2004. Obama delivered the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in July 2004.

 

As a member of the Democratic minority in the 109th Congress, Obama helped create legislation to control conventional weapons and to promote greater public accountability in the use of federal funds. He also made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. During the 110th Congress, he helped create legislation regarding lobbying and electoral fraud, climate change, nuclear terrorism, and care for U.S. military personnel returning from combat assignments in Iraq and Afghanistan

Early life and career

Main article: Early life and career of Barack Obama

Barack Obama was born at the Kapi'olani Medical Center for Women & Children in Honolulu, Hawaii,[4][5] to Stanley Ann Dunham,[6] a White American from Wichita, Kansas,[7][8][9] and Barack Obama, Sr., a Luo from Nyang’oma Kogelo, Nyanza Province, Kenya. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Mānoa, where his father was a foreign student on scholarship.[10][11] The couple married on February 2, 1961.[12] Obama's parents separated when Obama was two years old, and they divorced in 1964.[11] Obama's father returned to Kenya and saw his son only once more before dying in an automobile accident in 1982.[13]

 

After her divorce, Dunham married Indonesian student Lolo Soetoro, who was attending college in Hawaii. When Soeharto, a military leader in Soetoro's home country, came to power in 1967, all students studying abroad were recalled and the family moved to Indonesia.[14] There Obama attended local schools in Jakarta, such as Besuki Public School and St. Francis of Assisi School, until he was ten years old.

 

He then returned to Honolulu to live with his maternal grandparents, Madelyn and Stanley Armour Dunham, while attending Punahou School from the fifth grade in 1971 until his graduation from high school in 1979.[15] Obama's mother returned to Hawaii in 1972 for five years, and then in 1977 went back to Indonesia, where she worked as an anthropological field worker. She stayed there most of the rest of her life, returning to Hawaii in 1994. She died of ovarian cancer in 1995.[16]

  

Right-to-left: Barack Obama and half-sister Maya Soetoro-Ng, with their mother Ann Dunham and grandfather Stanley Dunham, in Hawaii (early 1970s).Of his early childhood, Obama has recalled, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me — that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk — barely registered in my mind."[17] In his 1995 memoir, he described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multiracial heritage.[18] He wrote that he used alcohol, marijuana and cocaine during his teenage years to "push questions of who I was out of my mind."[19] At the 2008 Civil Forum on the Presidency, Obama identified his high-school drug use as his "greatest moral failure."[20]

 

Some of his fellow students at Punahou School later told the Honolulu Star-Bulletin that Obama was mature for his age, and that he sometimes attended college parties and other events in order to associate with African American students and military service people. Reflecting later on his formative years in Honolulu, Obama wrote: "The opportunity that Hawaii offered — to experience a variety of cultures in a climate of mutual respect — became an integral part of my world view, and a basis for the values that I hold most dear."[21]

 

Following high school, Obama moved to Los Angeles, where he studied at Occidental College for two years.[22] He then transferred to Columbia University in New York City, where he majored in political science with a specialization in international relations.[23] Obama graduated with a B.A. from Columbia in 1983. He worked for a year at the Business International Corporation[24][25] and then at the New York Public Interest Research Group.[26][27]

 

After four years in New York City, Obama moved to Chicago, where he was hired as director of the Developing Communities Project (DCP), a church-based community organization originally comprising eight Catholic parishes in Greater Roseland (Roseland, West Pullman and Riverdale) on Chicago's far South Side. He worked there for three years from June 1985 to May 1988.[26][28] During his three years as the DCP's director, its staff grew from one to thirteen and its annual budget grew from $70,000 to $400,000. His achievements included helping set up a job training program, a college preparatory tutoring program, and a tenants' rights organization in Altgeld Gardens.[29] Obama also worked as a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, a community organizing institute.[30] In mid-1988, he traveled for the first time to Europe for three weeks and then for five weeks in Kenya, where he met many of his paternal relatives for the first time.[31]

 

Obama entered Harvard Law School in late 1988. He was selected as an editor of the Harvard Law Review at the end of his first year,[32] and president of the journal in his second year.[33] During his summers, he returned to Chicago where he worked as a summer associate at the law firms of Sidley & Austin in 1989 and Hopkins & Sutter in 1990.[34] After graduating with a Juris Doctor (J.D.) magna cum laude[35][36] from Harvard in 1991, he returned to Chicago.[32]

 

Obama's election as the first black president of the Harvard Law Review gained national media attention[33] and led to a publishing contract and advance for a book about race relations.[37] In an effort to recruit him to their faculty, the University of Chicago Law School provided Obama with a fellowship and an office to work on his book.[37] He originally planned to finish the book in one year, but it took much longer as the book evolved into a personal memoir. In order to work without interruptions, Obama and his wife, Michelle, traveled to Bali where he wrote for several months. The manuscript was finally published in mid-1995 as Dreams from My Father.[37]

 

From April to October 1992, Obama directed Illinois's Project Vote, a voter registration drive with a staff of ten and seven hundred volunteers; it achieved its goal of registering 150,000 of 400,000 unregistered African Americans in the state, and led to Crain's Chicago Business naming Obama to its 1993 list of "40 under Forty" powers to be.[38][39]

 

For twelve years, Obama served as a professor at the University of Chicago Law School teaching Constitutional Law. He was first classified as a Lecturer from 1992 to 1996 and then as a Senior Lecturer from 1996 to 2004.[40] He also joined Davis, Miner, Barnhill & Galland, a twelve-attorney law firm specializing in civil rights litigation and neighborhood economic development, where he was an associate for three years from 1993 to 1996, then of counsel from 1996 to 2004, with his law license becoming inactive in 2002.[26][41][42]

 

Obama was a founding member of the board of directors of Public Allies in 1992, resigning before his wife, Michelle, became the founding executive director of Public Allies Chicago in early 1993.[26][43] He served from 1994 to 2002 on the board of directors of the Woods Fund of Chicago, which in 1985 had been the first foundation to fund the Developing Communities Project, and also from 1994 to 2002 on the board of directors of the Joyce Foundation.[26] Obama served on the board of directors of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge from 1995 to 2002, as founding president and chairman of the board of directors from 1995 to 1999.[26] He also served on the board of directors of the Chicago Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, the Center for Neighborhood Technology, and the Lugenia Burns Hope Center.[26]

  

Political career

 

State legislator: 1997–2004

Main article: Illinois Senate career of Barack Obama

Obama was elected to the Illinois Senate in 1996, succeeding State Senator Alice Palmer as Senator from Illinois's 13th District, which then spanned Chicago South Side neighborhoods from Hyde Park-Kenwood south to South Shore and west to Chicago Lawn.[44] Once elected, Obama gained bipartisan support for legislation reforming ethics and health care laws.[45] He sponsored a law increasing tax credits for low-income workers, negotiated welfare reform, and promoted increased subsidies for childcare.[46] In 2001, as co-chairman of the bipartisan Joint Committee on Administrative Rules, Obama supported Republican Governor Ryan's payday loan regulations and predatory mortgage lending regulations aimed at averting home foreclosures.[47]

 

Obama was reelected to the Illinois Senate in 1998, defeating Republican Yesse Yehudah in the General Election, and reelected again in 2002.[48] In 2000, he lost a Democratic primary run for the U.S. House of Representatives to four-term incumbent Bobby Rush by a margin of two to one.[49][50]

 

In January 2003, Obama became chairman of the Illinois Senate's Health and Human Services Committee when Democrats, after a decade in the minority, regained a majority.[51] He sponsored and led unanimous, bipartisan passage of legislation to monitor racial profiling by requiring police to record the race of drivers they detained and legislation making Illinois the first state to mandate videotaping of homicide interrogations.[46][52] During his 2004 general election campaign for U.S. Senate, police representatives credited Obama for his active engagement with police organizations in enacting death penalty reforms.[53] Obama resigned from the Illinois Senate in November 2004 following his election to the U.S. Senate.[54]

  

2004 U.S. Senate campaign

See also: United States Senate election in Illinois, 2004

In mid-2002, Obama began considering a run for the U.S. Senate; he enlisted political strategist David Axelrod that fall and formally announced his candidacy in January 2003.[55] Decisions by Republican incumbent Peter Fitzgerald and his Democratic predecessor Carol Moseley Braun not to contest the race launched wide-open Democratic and Republican primary contests involving fifteen candidates.[56] Obama's candidacy was boosted by Axelrod's advertising campaign featuring images of the late Chicago Mayor Harold Washington and an endorsement by the daughter of the late Paul Simon, former U.S. Senator for Illinois.[57] He received over 52% of the vote in the March 2004 primary, emerging 29% ahead of his nearest Democratic rival.[58]

 

In July 2004, Obama wrote and delivered the keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Boston, Massachusetts.[59] After describing his maternal grandfather's experiences as a World War II veteran and a beneficiary of the New Deal's FHA and G.I. Bill programs, Obama spoke about changing the U.S. government's economic and social priorities. He questioned the Bush administration's management of the Iraq War and highlighted America's obligations to its soldiers. Drawing examples from U.S. history, he criticized heavily partisan views of the electorate and asked Americans to find unity in diversity, saying, "There is not a liberal America and a conservative America; there's the United States of America."[60] Though it was not televised by the three major broadcast news networks, a combined 9.1 million viewers watching on PBS, CNN, MSNBC, Fox News and C-SPAN saw Obama's speech, which was a highlight of the convention and confirmed his status as the Democratic Party's brightest new star.[61]

 

Obama's expected opponent in the general election, Republican primary winner Jack Ryan, withdrew from the race in June 2004.[62] Two months later and less than three months before Election Day, Alan Keyes accepted the Illinois Republican Party's nomination to replace Ryan.[63] A long-time resident of Maryland, Keyes established legal residency in Illinois with the nomination.[64] In the November 2004 general election, Obama received 70% of the vote to Keyes's 27%, the largest victory margin for a statewide race in Illinois history.[65]

  

U.S. Senator: 2005–2008

Main article: United States Senate career of Barack Obama

Obama was sworn in as a senator on January 4, 2005.[66] Obama was the fifth African-American Senator in U.S. history, and the third to have been popularly elected.[67] He was the only Senate member of the Congressional Black Caucus.[68] CQ Weekly, a nonpartisan publication, characterized him as a "loyal Democrat" based on analysis of all Senate votes in 2005–2007. The National Journal ranked him as the "most liberal" senator based on an assessment of selected votes during 2007; in 2005 he was ranked sixteenth most liberal, and in 2006 he was ranked tenth.[69][70] In 2008, Congress.org ranked him as the eleventh most powerful Senator.[71] Obama announced on November 13, 2008 that he would resign his senate seat on November 16, 2008, before the start of the lame-duck session, to focus on his transition period for the presidency.[72][73] This enabled him to avoid the conflict of dual roles as President-elect and Senator in the lame duck session of Congress, which no sitting member of Congress had faced since Warren Harding.[74]

  

Legislation

See also: List of bills sponsored by Barack Obama in the United States Senate

 

Senate bill sponsors Tom Coburn (R-OK) and Obama discussing the Coburn–Obama Transparency Act.[75]Obama voted in favor of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and cosponsored the Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act.[76] In September 2006, Obama supported a related bill, the Secure Fence Act.[77] Obama introduced two initiatives bearing his name: Lugar–Obama, which expanded the Nunn–Lugar cooperative threat reduction concept to conventional weapons,[78] and the Coburn–Obama Transparency Act, which authorized the establishment of USAspending.gov, a web search engine on federal spending.[79] On June 3, 2008, Senator Obama, along with Senators Thomas R. Carper, Tom Coburn, and John McCain, introduced follow-up legislation: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008.[80]

 

Obama sponsored legislation that would have required nuclear plant owners to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks, but the bill failed to pass in the full Senate after being heavily modified in committee.[81] Obama is not hostile to Tort reform and voted for the Class Action Fairness Act of 2005 and the FISA Amendments Act of 2008 which grants immunity from civil liability to telecommunications companies complicit with NSA warrantless wiretapping operations.[82]

 

In December 2006, President Bush signed into law the Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act, marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor.[83] In January 2007, Obama and Senator Feingold introduced a corporate jet provision to the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, which was signed into law in September 2007.[84] Obama also introduced Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act, a bill to criminalize deceptive practices in federal elections[85] and the Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007,[86] neither of which have been signed into law.

  

Obama and U.S. Sen. Richard Lugar (R-IN) visit a Russian mobile launch missile dismantling facility in August 2005.[87]Later in 2007, Obama sponsored an amendment to the Defense Authorization Act adding safeguards for personality disorder military discharges.[88] This amendment passed the full Senate in the spring of 2008.[89] He sponsored the Iran Sanctions Enabling Act supporting divestment of state pension funds from Iran's oil and gas industry, which has not passed committee, and co-sponsored legislation to reduce risks of nuclear terrorism.[90][91] Obama also sponsored a Senate amendment to the State Children's Health Insurance Program providing one year of job protection for family members caring for soldiers with combat-related injuries.[92]

  

Committees

Obama held assignments on the Senate Committees for Foreign Relations, Environment and Public Works and Veterans' Affairs through December 2006.[93] In January 2007, he left the Environment and Public Works committee and took additional assignments with Health, Education, Labor and Pensions and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs.[94] He also became Chairman of the Senate's subcommittee on European Affairs.[95] As a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Obama made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa. He met with Mahmoud Abbas before he became President of the Palestinian Authority, and gave a speech at the University of Nairobi condemning corruption in the Kenyan government.[96][97][98][99]

  

2008 Presidential campaign

Main articles: Barack Obama presidential primary campaign, 2008 and Barack Obama presidential campaign, 2008

Wikinews has related news: Barack Obama elected 44th President of the United States

On February 10, 2007, Obama announced his candidacy for President of the United States in front of the Old State Capitol building in Springfield, Illinois.[100][101] The choice of the announcement site was symbolic because it was also where Abraham Lincoln delivered his historic "House Divided" speech in 1858.[102] Throughout the campaign, Obama emphasized the issues of rapidly ending the Iraq War, increasing energy independence, and providing universal health care.[103]

  

Obama stands on stage with his wife and two daughters just before announcing his presidential candidacy in Springfield, Illinois, Feb. 10, 2007.During both the primary process and the general election, Obama's campaign set numerous fundraising records, particularly in the quantity of small donations.[104][105][106] On June 19, Obama became the first major-party presidential candidate to turn down public financing in the general election since the system was created in 1976.[107]

 

A large number of candidates initially entered the Democratic Party presidential primaries. After a few initial contests, the field narrowed to a contest between Obama and Senator Hillary Clinton, with each winning some states and the race remaining close throughout the primary process.[108][109][110][111] On May 31, the Democratic National Committee agreed to seat all of the disputed Michigan and Florida delegates at the national convention, each with a half-vote, narrowing Obama's delegate lead.[112] On June 3, with all states counted, Obama passed the threshold to become the presumptive nominee.[113][114] On that day, he gave a victory speech in St. Paul, Minnesota. Clinton suspended her campaign and endorsed him on June 7.[115] From that point on, he campaigned for the general election race against Senator John McCain, the Republican nominee.

 

On August 23, 2008, Obama announced that he had selected Delaware Senator Joe Biden as his vice presidential running mate.[116]

  

Obama delivers his presidential election victory speech.At the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado, Obama's former rival Hillary Clinton gave a speech in support of Obama's candidacy and later called for Obama to be nominated by acclamation as the Democratic presidential candidate.[117][118] On August 28, Obama delivered a speech to 84,000 supporters in Denver. During the speech, which was viewed by over 38 million people worldwide, he accepted his party's nomination and presented his policy goals.[119][120]

 

After McCain was nominated as the Republican presidential candidate, there were three presidential debates between Obama and McCain in September and October 2008.[121][122] In November, Obama won the presidency with 53% of the popular vote and a wide electoral college margin. His election sparked street celebrations in numerous cities in the United States[123] and abroad.

  

Election victory

Main article: Presidential transition of Barack Obama

 

President-elect Obama meets with President George W. Bush in the Oval Office, November 10, 2008.On November 4, 2008, Barack Obama defeated John McCain in the general election with 365 electoral votes to McCain's 173[124] and became the first African American to be elected President of the United States.[125][126][127][128] In his victory speech, delivered before a crowd of hundreds of thousands of his supporters in Chicago's Grant Park, Obama proclaimed that "change has come to America".[129]

 

On January 8, 2009, the joint session of the U.S. Congress met to certify the votes of the Electoral College for the 2008 presidential election. Based on the results of the electoral vote count, Barack Obama was declared to have been elected President of the United States and Joseph Biden was declared to have been elected Vice President of the United States.[130]

  

Presidency

Main article: Presidency of Barack Obama

The inauguration of Barack Obama as the forty-fourth President, and Joe Biden as Vice President, took place on January 20, 2009. The theme of the inauguration was "A New Birth of Freedom," commemorating the 200th anniversary of the birth of Abraham Lincoln.[131]

 

In his first few days in office, Obama issued executive orders and presidential memoranda reversing President Bush's ban on federal funding to foreign establishments that allow abortions (known as the Global Gag Rule),[132] and changed procedures to promote disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act,[133] directing the U.S. military to develop plans to withdraw troops from Iraq,[134] and reducing the secrecy given to presidential records,[135] and closing Guantanamo Bay detention camp "as soon as practicable and no later than" January 2010, and "Immediate Review of All Guantánamo Detentions".

  

Political positions

Main article: Political positions of Barack Obama

A method that some political scientists use for gauging ideology is to compare the annual ratings by the Americans for Democratic Action (ADA) with the ratings by the American Conservative Union (ACU).[136] Based on his years in Congress, Obama has a lifetime average conservative rating of 7.67% from the ACU,[137] and a lifetime average liberal rating of 90% from the ADA.[138]

  

Obama campaigning in Abington, Pennsylvania, October 2008.Obama was an early opponent of the Bush administration's policies on Iraq.[139] On October 2, 2002, the day President George W. Bush and Congress agreed on the joint resolution authorizing the Iraq War,[140] Obama addressed the first high-profile Chicago anti-Iraq War rally in Federal Plaza,[141] speaking out against the war.[142][143] On March 16, 2003, the day Bush issued his 48-hour ultimatum to Saddam Hussein to leave Iraq before the U.S. invasion of Iraq,[144] Obama addressed the largest Chicago anti-Iraq War rally to date in Daley Plaza and told the crowd that "it's not too late" to stop the war.[145] Although Obama had previously said he wanted all the U.S. troops out of Iraq within 16 months of becoming President, after he won the primary, he said he might "refine" that promise.[146]

 

Obama stated that if elected he would enact budget cuts in the range of tens of billions of dollars, stop investing in "unproven" missile defense systems, not "weaponize" space, "slow development of Future Combat Systems," and work towards eliminating all nuclear weapons. Obama favors ending development of new nuclear weapons, reducing the current U.S. nuclear stockpile, enacting a global ban on production of fissile material, and seeking negotiations with Russia in order to take ICBMs off high alert status.[147]

 

In November 2006, Obama called for a "phased redeployment of U.S. troops from Iraq" and an opening of diplomatic dialogue with Syria and Iran.[148] In a March 2007 speech to AIPAC, a pro-Israel lobby, he said that the primary way to prevent Iran from developing nuclear weapons is through talks and diplomacy, although he did not rule out military action.[149] Obama has indicated that he would engage in "direct presidential diplomacy" with Iran without preconditions.[150][151][152] Detailing his strategy for fighting global terrorism in August 2007, Obama said "it was a terrible mistake to fail to act" against a 2005 meeting of al-Qaeda leaders that U.S. intelligence had confirmed to be taking place in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas. He said that as president he would not miss a similar opportunity, even without the support of the Pakistani government.[153]

 

In a December 2005, Washington Post opinion column, and at the Save Darfur rally in April 2006, Obama called for more assertive action to oppose genocide in the Darfur region of Sudan.[154] He has divested $180,000 in personal holdings of Sudan-related stock, and has urged divestment from companies doing business in Iran.[155] In the July–August 2007 issue of Foreign Affairs, Obama called for an outward looking post-Iraq War foreign policy and the renewal of American military, diplomatic, and moral leadership in the world. Saying that "we can neither retreat from the world nor try to bully it into submission," he called on Americans to "lead the world, by deed and by example."[156]

  

Obama speaking at a rally at the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri.In economic affairs, in April 2005, he defended the New Deal social welfare policies of Franklin D. Roosevelt and opposed Republican proposals to establish private accounts for Social Security.[157] In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, Obama spoke out against government indifference to growing economic class divisions, calling on both political parties to take action to restore the social safety net for the poor.[158] Shortly before announcing his presidential campaign, Obama said he supports universal health care in the United States.[159] Obama proposes to reward teachers for performance from traditional merit pay systems, assuring unions that changes would be pursued through the collective bargaining process.[160]

 

In September 2007, he blamed special interests for distorting the U.S. tax code.[161] His plan would eliminate taxes for senior citizens with incomes of less than $50,000 a year, repeal income tax cuts for those making over $250,000 as well as the capital gains and dividends tax cut,[162] close corporate tax loopholes, lift the income cap on Social Security taxes, restrict offshore tax havens, and simplify filing of income tax returns by pre-filling wage and bank information already collected by the IRS.[163] Announcing his presidential campaign's energy plan in October 2007, Obama proposed a cap and trade auction system to restrict carbon emissions and a ten year program of investments in new energy sources to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil.[164] Obama proposed that all pollution credits must be auctioned, with no grandfathering of credits for oil and gas companies, and the spending of the revenue obtained on energy development and economic transition costs.[165]

 

Obama has encouraged Democrats to reach out to evangelicals and other religious groups.[166] In December 2006, he joined Sen. Sam Brownback (R-KS) at the "Global Summit on AIDS and the Church" organized by church leaders Kay and Rick Warren.[167] Together with Warren and Brownback, Obama took an HIV test, as he had done in Kenya less than four months earlier.[168] He encouraged "others in public life to do the same" and not be ashamed of it.[169] Addressing over 8,000 United Church of Christ members in June 2007, Obama challenged "so-called leaders of the Christian Right" for being "all too eager to exploit what divides us."[170]

  

Family and personal life

Main articles: Early life and career of Barack Obama and Family of Barack Obama

 

Barack Obama and his wife Michelle Obama.In June 1989, Obama met Michelle Robinson, who later became his wife, when he was employed as a summer associate at the Chicago law firm of Sidley Austin.[171] Assigned for three months as Obama's adviser at the firm, Robinson joined him at group social functions, but declined his initial requests to date.[172] They began dating later that summer, became engaged in 1991, and were married on October 3, 1992.[173] The couple's first daughter, Malia Ann, was born in 1998,[174] followed by a second daughter, Natasha ("Sasha"), in 2001.[175] Because of Michelle Obama's employment with the University of Chicago, the Obama daughters attended the private University of Chicago Laboratory Schools. When they moved to Washington, D.C., in January 2009, the girls started at the private Sidwell Friends School.[176]

 

Obama was known as "Barry" in his youth, but asked to be addressed with his given name during his college years.[177]

 

Applying the proceeds of a book deal, in 2005 the family moved from a Hyde Park, Chicago condominium to their current $1.6 million house in neighboring Kenwood.[178] The purchase of an adjacent lot and sale of part of it to Obama by the wife of developer and friend Tony Rezko attracted media attention because of Rezko's indictment and subsequent conviction on political corruption charges that were unrelated to Obama.[179][180]

 

In December 2007, Money magazine estimated the Obama family's net worth at $1.3 million.[181] Their 2007 tax return showed a household income of $4.2 million—up from about $1 million in 2006 and $1.6 million in 2005—mostly from sales of his books.[182]

  

Obama playing basketball with U.S. military at Camp Lemonier, Djibouti in 2006.[183]In a 2006 interview, Obama highlighted the diversity of his extended family. "Michelle will tell you that when we get together for Christmas or Thanksgiving, it's like a little mini-United Nations." he said. "I've got relatives who look like Bernie Mac, and I've got relatives who look like Margaret Thatcher."[184] Obama has seven half-siblings from his Kenyan father's family, six of them living, and a half-sister with whom he was raised, Maya Soetoro-Ng, the daughter of his mother and her Indonesian second husband.[185] Obama's mother was survived by her Kansas-born mother, Madelyn Dunham[186] until her death on November 2, 2008, just before the presidential election.[187] In Dreams from My Father, Obama ties his mother's family history to possible Native American ancestors and distant relatives of Jefferson Davis, president of the southern Confederacy during the American Civil War.[188] Obama's maternal and paternal grandfathers fought in World War II. Obama's great-uncle served in the 89th Division that overran Ohrdruf,[189] the first Nazi camp liberated by U.S. troops.[190]

 

Obama plays basketball, a sport he participated in as a member of his high school's varsity team.[191] He is an avid sports fan. Obama follows the Chicago Bears, Chicago White Sox, Chicago Bulls and West Ham United F.C.[192][193][194][195] While he has never been a heavy smoker, Obama has tried to quit smoking several times, including a well-publicized and ongoing effort which he began before launching his presidential campaign.[196] Obama has said he will not smoke in the White House.[197]

 

Obama is a Protestant Christian whose religious views have evolved in his adult life. In The Audacity of Hope, Obama writes that he "was not raised in a religious household." He describes his mother, raised by non-religious parents (whom Obama has specified elsewhere as "non-practicing Methodists and Baptists") to be detached from religion, yet "in many ways the most spiritually awakened person that I have ever known." He describes his father as "raised a Muslim," but a "confirmed atheist" by the time his parents met, and his stepfather as "a man who saw religion as not particularly useful." In the book, Obama explains how, through working with black churches as a community organizer while in his twenties, he came to understand "the power of the African-American religious tradition to spur social change."[198][199] He was baptized at the Trinity United Church of Christ in 1988 and was an active member there for two decades.[200][201]

 

Besides his native English, Obama speaks Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia), at least on a colloquial level, which he learned during his four childhood years in Jakarta.[202] After the APEC summit in November 2008, Indonesian president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono related a telephone conversation with Obama in Indonesian to Indonesian media. Obama had told Yudhoyono that he missed Indonesian food like Nasi Goreng, Bakso or Rambutan.[203]

  

Cultural and political image

Main article: Public image of Barack Obama

With his black Kenyan father and white American mother, his upbringing in Honolulu and Jakarta, and his Ivy League education, Obama's early life experiences differ markedly from those of African-American politicians who launched their careers in the 1960s through participation in the civil rights movement.[204] Expressing puzzlement over questions about whether he is "black enough", Obama told an August 2007 meeting of the National Association of Black Journalists that the debate is not about his physical appearance or his record on issues of concern to black voters. Obama said that "we're still locked in this notion that if you appeal to white folks then there must be something wrong."[205]

 

Echoing the inaugural address of John F. Kennedy, Obama acknowledged his youthful image in an October 2007 campaign speech, saying: "I wouldn't be here if, time and again, the torch had not been passed to a new generation."[206] A popular catch phrase distilled the concept: "Rosa sat so Martin could walk; Martin walked so Obama could run; Obama is running so our children can fly."[207]

  

From left: Presidents George H. W. Bush, Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton and Jimmy Carter meet in the Oval Office on January 7, 2009.Obama has been praised as a master of oratory on par with other renowned speakers in the past such as Martin Luther King, Jr.[208][209] His "Yes We Can" speech, which artists independently set to music in a video produced by Will.i.am, was viewed by 10 million people on YouTube in the first month,[210] and received an Emmy Award.[211] University of Virginia professor Jonathan Haidt researched the effectiveness of Obama's public speaking and concluded that part of his excellence is because the politician is adept at inspiring the emotion of elevation, the desire to act morally and do good for others.[212] Obama used these communication skills in a series of weekly internet video addresses during his pre-inauguration transition period;[213] he has suggested he will make a series of broadcast and internet addresses similar to Franklin D. Roosevelt's famous fireside chats throughout his term as president to explain his policies and actions.[214]

 

Many commentators mentioned Obama's international appeal as a defining factor for his public image.[215] Not only did several polls show strong support for him in other countries,[216] but Obama also established close relationships with prominent foreign politicians and elected officials even before his presidential candidacy, notably with then incumbent British Prime Minister Tony Blair, whom he met in London in 2005,[217] with Italy's Democratic Party leader and then Mayor of Rome Walter Veltroni, who visited Obama's Senate office in 2005,[218] and with French President Nicolas Sarkozy, who also visited him in Washington in 2006.[219]

 

Obama won Best Spoken Word Album Grammy Awards for abridged audiobook versions of both of his books; for Dreams from My Father in February 2006 and for The Audacity of Hope in February 2008.[220]

 

In December 2008, Time magazine named Barack Obama as its Person of the Year for his historic candidacy and election, which it described as "the steady march of seemingly impossible accomplishments."[221]

  

Notes

^ "President Barack Obama". www.whitehouse.gov.

^ a b "Birth Certificate of Barack Obama". Department of Health, Hawaii. PolitiFact.com (August 8, 1961). Retrieved on 2008-12-12.

^ "Obama's church choice likely to be scrutinized". Associated Press. msnbc.com (November 17, 2008). Retrieved on 2009-1-20.

^ Maraniss, David (August 24, 2008). "Though Obama Had to Leave to Find Himself, It Is Hawaii That Made His Rise Possible", Politics, Washington Post. Retrieved on 27 October 2008.

^ Serafin, Peter (March 21, 2004). "Punahou grad stirs up Illinois politics" (Article), Special to the Star-Bulletin, Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved on November 30 2008.

^ For Stanley Ann's first name, see Obama (1995, 2004), p. 19

^ "Born in the U.S.A.". FactCheck (August 21, 2008). Retrieved on October 24, 2008.

^ Hutton, Brian (May 3, 2007). "For sure, Obama's South Side Irish", Politics, The Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved on 23 November 2008.

^ "Tiny Irish Village Is Latest Place to Claim Obama as Its Own - washingtonpost.com". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved on 2008-11-08.

^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 9–10. For book excerpts, see "Barack Obama: Creation of Tales", East African (2004-11-01). Retrieved on 13 April 2008. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007.

^ a b Jones, Tim (2007-03-27). "Obama's mom: Not just a girl from Kansas: Strong personalities shaped a future senator", Chicago Tribune, reprinted in The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved on 27 October 2008.

^ Ripley, Amanda (2008-04-09). "The Story of Barack Obama's Mother", Time. Retrieved on 9 April 2007.

^ Merida, Kevin (2007-12-14). "The Ghost of a Father", Washington Post. Retrieved on 24 June 2008. See also: Ochieng, Philip (2004-11-01). "From Home Squared to the US Senate: How Barack Obama Was Lost and Found", East African. Retrieved on 24 June 2008. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. In August 2006, Obama flew his wife and two daughters from Chicago to join him in a visit to his father's birthplace, a village near Kisumu in rural western Kenya. Gnecchi, Nico (2006-02-27). "Obama Receives Hero's Welcome at His Family's Ancestral Village in Kenya", Voice of America. Retrieved on 24 June 2008.

^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 44–45.

^ Serafin, Peter (2004-03-21). "Punahou Grad Stirs Up Illinois Politics", Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved on 13 April 2008. See also: Obama (1995, 2004), Chapters 3 and 4.

^ Ripley, Amanda (2008-04-09). "The Story of Barack Obama's Mother", Time. Retrieved on 24 June 2008. See also: Suryakusuma, Julia (2006-11-29). "Obama for President... of Indonesia", Jakarta Post. Retrieved on 24 June 2008.

^ Obama (1995), pp. 9–10.

^ Obama (1995), Chapters 4 and 5. See also: Serrano, Richard A (March 11, 2007). "Obama's Peers Didn't See His Angst" (paid archive), Los Angeles Times. Retrieved on 4 January 2008.

^ "Obama Gets Blunt with N.H. Students", Associated Press, Boston Globe (November 21, 2007). Retrieved on 4 January 2008. In Dreams from My Father, Obama writes: "Pot had helped, and booze; maybe a little blow when you could afford it." Obama (1995), pp. 93–94. For analysis of the political impact of the quote and Obama's more recent admission that he smoked marijuana as a teenager ("When I was a kid, I inhaled."), see: Romano, Lois (January 3, 2007). "Effect of Obama's Candor Remains to Be Seen", Washington Post. Retrieved on 4 January 2008. Seelye, Katharine Q (October 24, 2006). "Obama Offers More Variations From the Norm", New York Times. Retrieved on 4 January 2008.

^ Hornick, Ed (August 17, 2008). "Obama, McCain talk issues at pastor's forum", CNN.com. Retrieved on 4 January 2009.

^ Reyes, B. J (February 8, 2007). "Punahou Left Lasting Impression on Obama", Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved on 4 January 2008. "As a teenager, Obama went to parties and sometimes sought out gatherings on military bases or at the University of Hawaii that were mostly attended by blacks."

^ "Oxy Remembers "Barry" Obama '83". Occidental College (2007-01-29). Retrieved on 2008-04-13.

^ Boss-Bicak, Shira (January 2005). "Barack Obama '83", Columbia College Today. Retrieved on 9 June 2008.

^ "Curriculum Vitae". The University of Chicago Law School. Archived from the original on 2001-05-09. Retrieved on 2008-11-03.

^ Issenberg, Sasha (2008-08-06). "Obama shows hints of his year in global finance: Tied markets to social aid", Boston Globe. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.

^ a b c d e f g Chassie, Karen (ed.) (2007). Who's Who in America, 2008. New Providence, NJ: Marquis Who's Who. p. 3468. ISBN 9780837970110. www.marquiswhoswho.com/products/WAprodinfo.asp. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.

^ Scott, Janny (2007-10-30). "Obama's Account of New York Years Often Differs from What Others Say", The New York Times. Retrieved on 13 April 2008. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 133–140; Mendell (2007), pp. 62–63.

^ Secter, Bob; McCormick, John (2007-03-30). "Portrait of a pragmatist", Chicago Tribune, p. 1. Retrieved on 6 June 2008. Archived from the original on 9 February 2008. Lizza, Ryan (2007-03-19). "The Agitator: Barack Obama's Unlikely Political Education" (alternate link), New Republic. Retrieved on 13 April 2008. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 140–295; Mendell (2007), pp. 63–83.

^ Matchan, Linda (1990-02-15). "A Law Review breakthrough" (paid archive), The Boston Globe, p. 29. Retrieved on 6 June 2008. Corr, John (1990-02-27). "From mean streets to hallowed halls" (paid archive), The Philadelphia Inquirer, p. C01. Retrieved on 6 June 2008.

^ Obama, Barack (August–September 1988). "Why organize? Problems and promise in the inner city". Illinois Issues 14 (8–9): 40–42. reprinted in: Knoepfle, Peg (ed.) (1990). After Alinsky: community organizing in Illinois. Springfield, IL: Sangamon State University. pp. 35–40. ISBN 0962087335. Tayler, Letta; Herbert, Keith (2008-03-02). "Obama forged path as Chicago community organizer", Newsday, p. A06. Retrieved on 6 June 2008.

^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 299–437.

^ a b Levenson, Michael; Saltzman, Jonathan (2007-01-28). "At Harvard Law, a unifying voice", The Boston Globe. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Kantor, Jodi (2007-01-28). "In law school, Obama found political voice", The New York Times, p. 1. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Kodama, Marie C (2007-01-19). "Obama left mark on HLS", The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Mundy, Liza (2007-08-12). "A series of fortunate events", The Washington Post, p. W10. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Heilemann, John (2007-10-22). "When they were young". New York 40 (37): 32–7, 132–3. www.printthis.clickability.com/pt/cpt?action=cpt&titl.... Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Mendell (2007), pp. 80–92.

^ a b Butterfield, Fox (1990-02-06). "First black elected to head Harvard's Law Review", The New York Times, p. A20. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Ybarra, Michael J (1990-02-07). "Activist in Chicago now heads Harvard Law Review" (paid archive), Chicago Tribune, p. 3. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Matchan, Linda (1990-02-15). "A Law Review breakthrough" (paid archive), The Boston Globe, p. 29. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Corr, John (1990-02-27). "From mean streets to hallowed halls" (paid archive), The Philadelphia Inquirer, p. C01. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Drummond, Tammerlin (1990-03-12). "Barack Obama's Law; Harvard Law Review's first black president plans a life of public service" (paid archive), Los Angeles Times, p. E1. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Evans, Gaynelle (1990-03-15). "Opening another door: The saga of Harvard's Barack H. Obama", Black Issues in Higher Education, p. 5. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Pugh, Allison J. (Associated Press) (1990-04-18). "Law Review's first black president aims to help poor" (paid archive), The Miami Herald, p. C01. Retrieved on 15 June 2008.

^ Aguilar, Louis (1990-07-11). "Survey: Law firms slow to add minority partners" (paid archive), Chicago Tribune, p. 1 (Business). Retrieved on 15 June 2008. "Barack Obama, a summer associate at Hopkins & Sutter in Chicago"

^ Adams, Richard (2007-05-09). "Barack Obama", The Guardian. Retrieved on 26 October 2008.

^ Mendell, David. "Barack Obama (American politician)". Retrieved on 2008-10-26.

^ a b c Scott, Janny (2008-05-18). "The story of Obama, written by Obama", The New York Times, p. 1. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. xiii–xvii.

^ White, Jesse (ed.) (2000). Illinois Blue Book, 2000, Millennium ed.. Springfield, IL: Illinois Secretary of State. p. 83. OCLC 43923973. www.sos.state.il.us/bb/toc.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.

^ Jarrett, Vernon (1992-08-11). "'Project Vote' brings power to the people" (paid archive), Chicago Sun-Times, p. 23. Retrieved on 6 June 2008. Reynolds, Gretchen (January 1993). "Vote of Confidence". Chicago 42 (1): 53–54. www.chicagomag.com/Chicago-Magazine/January-1993/Vote-of-.... Retrieved on 6 June 2008. Anderson, Veronica (September 27–October 3 1993). "40 under Forty: Barack Obama, Director, Illinois Project Vote". Crain's Chicago Business 16 (39): 43.

^ University of Chicago Law School (2008-03-27). "Statement regarding Barack Obama". University of Chicago Law School. Retrieved on 2008-06-10. Miller, Joe (2008-03-28). "Was Barack Obama really a constitutional law professor?". FactCheck.org. Retrieved on 2008-06-10. Holan, Angie Drobnic (2008-03-07). "Obama's 20 years of experience". PolitiFact.com. Retrieved on 2008-06-10.<

^ Robinson, Mike (Associated Press) (2007-02-10). "Obama got start in civil rights practice", The Boston Globe. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Pallasch, Abdon M (2007-12-17). "As lawyer, Obama was strong, silent type; He was 'smart, innovative, relentless,' and he mostly let other lawyers do the talking", Chicago Sun-Times, p. 4. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. "People" (paid archive), Chicago Tribune (1993-06-27), p. 9 (Business). Retrieved on 15 June 2008. "Business appointments" (paid archive), Chicago-Sun-Times (1993-07-05), p. 40. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Miner, Barnhill & Galland (2008). "About Us". Miner, Barnhill & Galland – Chicago, Illinois. Retrieved on 2008-06-15. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 438–439, Mendell (2007), pp. 104–106.

^ "ARDC Individual Attorney Record of Public Registration and Public Disciplinary and Disability Information as of October 17, 2008 at 12:52:13 PM". Attorney Registration and Disciplinary Commission of the Supreme Court of Illinois. Retrieved on 2008-10-19.

^ Public Allies (2008). "Fact Sheet on Public Allies' History with Senator Barack and Michelle Obama". Public Allies. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.

^ Jackson, David; Ray Long (2007-04-03). "Obama Knows His Way Around a Ballot", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 14 January 2008. [dead link] White, Jesse (2001). "Legislative Districts of Cook County, 1991 Reapportionment". Illinois Blue Book 2001–2002. Springfield: Illinois Secretary of State. p. 65. State Sen. District 13 = State Rep. Districts 25 & 26.

^ Slevin, Peter (2007-02-09). "Obama Forged Political Mettle in Illinois Capitol", Washington Post. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. Helman, Scott (2007-09-23). "In Illinois, Obama dealt with Lobbyists", Boston Globe. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. See also: "Obama Record May Be Gold Mine for Critics", Associated Press, CBS News (2007-01-17). Retrieved on 20 April 2008. "In-Depth Look at Obama's Political Career" (video), CLTV, Chicago Tribune (2007-02-09). Retrieved on 20 April 2008.

^ a b Scott, Janny (2007-07-30). "In Illinois, Obama Proved Pragmatic and Shrewd", The New York Times. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. See also: Pearson, Rick; Ray Long (2007-05-03). "Careful Steps, Looking Ahead", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008.

^ Allison, Melissa (2000-12-15). "State takes on predatory lending; Rules would halt single-premium life insurance financing", Chicago Tribune, p. 1 (Business). Retrieved on 1 June 2008. Long, Ray; Allison, Melissa (2001-04-18). "Illinois OKs predatory loan curbs; State aims to avert home foreclosures.", Chicago Tribune, p. 1. Retrieved on 1 June 2008.

^ "13th District: Barack Obama" (archive). Illinois State Senate Democrats (2000-08-24). Archived from the original on 2000-04-12. Retrieved on 2008-04-20. "13th District: Barack Obama" (archive). Illinois State Senate Democrats (2004-10-09). Archived from the original on 2004-08-02. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.

^ "Federal Elections 2000: U.S. House Results - Illinois". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved on 2008-04-24.. See also: "Obama's Loss May Have Aided White House Bid". and Scott, Janny (2007-09-09). "A Streetwise Veteran Schooled Young Obama", The New York Times. Retrieved on 20 April 2008.

^ McClelland, Edward (2007-02-12). "How Obama Learned to Be a Natural", Salon. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. See also: Wolffe, Richard; Daren Briscoe (2007-07-16). "Across the Divide", Newsweek, MSNBC. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. Helman, Scott (2007-10-12). "Early Defeat Launched a Rapid Political Climb", Boston Globe. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. and Wills, Christopher (2007-10-24). "Obama learned from failed Congress run", USA Today. Retrieved on 20 September 2008.

^ Calmes, Jackie (2007-02-23). "Statehouse Yields Clues to Obama", Wall Street Journal. Retrieved on 20 April 2008.

^ Tavella, Anne Marie (2003-04-14). "Profiling, taping plans pass Senate", Daily Herald, p. 17. Retrieved on 1 June 2008. Haynes, V. Dion (2003-06-29). "Fight racial profiling at local level, lawmaker says; U.S. guidelines get mixed review", Chicago Tribune, p. 8. Retrieved on 1 June 2008. Pearson, Rick (2003-07-17). "Taped confessions to be law; State will be 1st to pass legislation", Chicago Tribune, p. 1 (Metro). Retrieved on 1 June 2008.

^ Youngman, Sam; Aaron Blake (2007-03-14). "Obama's Crime Votes Are Fodder for Rivals", The Hill. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. See also: "US Presidential Candidate Obama Cites Work on State Death Penalty Reforms", Associated Press, International Herald Tribune (2007-11-12). Retrieved on 20 April 2008.

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^ Baldwin, Tom (2007-12-21). "Stay-At-Home Barack Obama Comes Under Fire for a Lack of Foreign Experience", Sunday Times (UK). Retrieved on 27 April 2008.

^ Larson, Christina (September 2006). "Hoosier Daddy: What Rising Democratic Star Barack Obama Can Learn from an Old Lion of the GOP", Washington Monthly. Retrieved on 27 April 2008.

^ Goudie, Chuck (2006-01-12). "Obama Meets with Arafat's Successor", WLS-TV. Retrieved on 27 April 2008.

^ "Obama Slates Kenya for Fraud", News24.com (2006-08-28). Retrieved on 27 April 2008.

^ Wamalwa, Chris (2006-09-02). "Envoy Hits at Obama Over Graft Remark", The Standard (Nairobi). Retrieved on 27 April 2008. Archived from the original on 10 October 2007. Moracha, Vincent; Mangoa Mosota (2006-09-04). "Leaders Support Obama on Graft Claims", The Standard (Nairobi). Retrieved on 27 April 2008. Archived from the original on 7 October 2007.

^ Pearson, Rick; Long, Ray (February 10, 2007). "Obama: I'm running for president", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 20 September 2008.

^ "Obama Launches Presidential Bid", BBC News (2007-02-10). Retrieved on 14 January 2008.

^ "Presidential Campaign Announcement" (video), Obama for America, Brightcove.TV (2007-02-10). Retrieved on 14 January 2008.

^ "Barack Obama on the Issues: What Would Be Your Top Three Overall Priorities If Elected?", Washington Post. Retrieved on 14 April 2008. See also: Falcone, Michael (2007-12-21). "Obama's 'One Thing'", The New York Times. Retrieved on 14 April 2008.

^ Malone, Jim (July 2, 2007). "Obama Fundraising Suggests Close Race for Party Nomination", Voice of America. Retrieved on 14 January 2008.

^ Cummings, Jeanne (September 26, 2007). "Small Donors Rewri

it may positively stun some people when they look closely at an old map; most certainly an old map that shows accurately a lot of the past history of a place that is now familiar territory to only a few men and women of The Greatest Generation.

 

the streets of the Capital City have these perpendicular hack-marks down the centers...what are they telling the modern viewer??.... that Light Rail was a concept that a man named Frank Sprague thought would work anywhere in the world, no matter how steep the grades might be...

 

Richmond Union Passenger Company:

The Richmond system was not the first attempt to operate an electric trolley. According to the IEEE, there were at least 74 earlier attempts to provide electric trolley service in over 60 communities in North America, the United Kingdom, and continental Europe. However, these earlier attempts were not reliable enough to replace the existing animal-powered trolleys.

 

The Richmond system was designed by Frank Julian Sprague. After trials in late 1887, it began regular operation on February 2, 1888, with 10 streetcars. Electric power was supplied through overhead trolley wires (450 volts) for two 7.5 horsepower (5.6 kW) motors on each car. Large cars weighed 6900 pounds, provided 40 seats, and carried up to 100 passengers; small cars weighed 6700 pounds with 22 seats and up to 65 passengers. Running speed was 7.5 miles/hour, with 15 miles/hour as a maximum speed. By June 1888 the system contained 40 cars running on some 12 miles (19 km) of track, including steep grades, and with 30 curves.

 

Its success proved that electric traction was both safe and reliable. The Boston City Council, after inspecting Richmond's system on September 7, 1888, approved construction the second such project by the West End Street Railway. Boston's trolley was closely patterned upon Richmond's, and again demonstrated its practicality. By 1895 almost 900 electric street railways and nearly 11,000 miles (18,000 km) of track had been built in the United States, and in a little over a decade animal-powered street railways had essentially vanished.

 

Richmond's electric trolley service ended on November 25, 1949.

 

now, can you believe that?? Richmond was actually at the cutting edge of a modern technology in the 1880's?? and BOSTON people came down here to take a look at what we had done so THEY COULD COPY IT??

 

WOW.

 

now we have a company called Rolls Royce, locating a plant down in Prince George County, just 30 miles to the south, and they are going to show the world how to build jet engine turbines using computer operated additive manufacturing machines. This technology, that is suddenly receiving much attention in the major medias, is a HUGE leap into a form of ‘making things’, i.e., ‘manufacturing’, that will be a THIRD WAVE in the great leveling processes of modern history. The FIRST WAVE: the development of electricity production and distribution, first in the democracies of the North and, after World War One, in the rest of the World. The SECOND WAVE: the development of mass communications linkages, just in the recent four decades, in which the computer, the internet, the cell phone, and the social network began to make a person in Mali realize that he has a lot in common with a person in Frankfurt. The THIRD WAVE will be the development of additive manufacturing; the ability, one day, of a shade-tree mechanic who needs a certain part for his antique Studebaker, to be able to take the old one, photograph it with a digital camera, diagram it with a 3-D AutoCADD Program, and then MAKE it from a bag of composite-material-granules and his 3-D Hot Metal Printer into an exact reproduction of the part that broke, and has not been made by anyone since the 1960’s.

  

this THIRD WAVE is going to turn on it’s head the Economies of Scale class that you took in college. Well the little old economics professor always said ‘the real world is a special case’.

 

and....maybe the Bostonians will be paying us another visit soon....

 

with Main Street Station dead center in this map, you must first notice that RVA is the Virginia Capital of Railroads.

www.piedmontsub.com/Richmond.shtml

  

Some years ago, at a Times-Dispatch newspaper Public Forum, a Federal Reserve Board Governor who works at our local Federal Reserve Bank at the foot of 8th Street in the heart of the city, was asked a question. ‘how do you know when the economy is coming back up again?’, and he answered that he could tell, on his morning jog across a bridge over the old Atlantic Coast Line Beltline tracks that run between the lanes of the I-195 corridor, by the number of freight trains he could look down and see stopped cold on the rails by the traffic controller of Acca Yards. THAT was the best indication he could find as to how well the national economy was doing… did he know that his office was a few hundred feet over what was once a small freight yard of that same railroad, that in the 1970’s was torn up in order for the foundations of the Bank, designed by the same architect who did the World Trade Center in New York City, to be dug into the thick sandy clay of the Virginia Piedmont?

 

the old short lines that made Richmond and Petersburg a strategic target for the Yankee General named U. S. Grant, can be identified on the map. the politicians and clerks that operated the Government of the Confederacy made their fiery and famous exit from town 'The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down', on the trains of the Richmond and Danville Railroad. Two days later, Abraham Lincoln came up to Rocketts Landing on the River Queen, to pay a visit to the White House of the Confederacy, and to sit in the chair of Jefferson Davis’ office. Years later, after the hostilities had died away and the ashes were gone, the Danville ‘Road and the Richmond and York River Railroad were bought up and unified as the Southern Railway Company, and you can sit on the deck of Legends Brewery on an early Spring Friday night and see the old freight-yard office over toward the south river bank. the Norfolk and Western railway would merge with this company one day to form NorfolkSouthern.

 

Not far from Rocketts Landing is Fulton Bottom, an old African-American neighborhood that was virtually abandoned in the mid-Twentieth century and eventually destroyed by urban renewal projects. Why?...where did the people go?...most of the male breadwinners that settled their families there had good paying jobs until the 1960’s…on the Railroads. Then came along the Interstate Highway System. A Federally subsidized program for the Trucking Industry…and it still is to this day. These black and brown men worked in the car shops, the engine shops, the rail yards, all around the town… yes, as axle oilers, steam engine firemen, engine hostelers, spike drivers, track gang men, sledgehammer mechanics, boilermakers, coaling tower operators. Hard, grimy, thankless, hot, dangerous, hellish work. But it got unionized...eventually…and it paid the bills...and the Railroads began to die after the Second World War...and so did Fulton Bottom. The Interstate Highway System………….

 

Next to Fulton Bottom, to the south, is naturally Fulton Yard(s), home of the massive CSX freight and coal car operation; for most of the 110 years, from the day Collis P. Huntington, a small-time California hardware store owner who had sold a LOT of equipment, somewhat overpriced, to gold-bug crazed men looking for fortunes in 1849, had taken over a number of short line railroads in the Virginias after the Civil War, until the deregulation of transportation companies in the mid-1980’s, this rail-yard was where eastbound coal trains stopped, the weary crews changed over, and the pusher locomotives were coupled to the rear of the train just back of the caboose, to push the entire consist up the high grade just to the east, and over into the Chickahominy River Basin. This flatland had been one of the legendary and huge ‘Indian Fields’ that once dotted the riverine plains of Tsenacomacah, or Tidewater Virginia, as the people of the Powhatan Confederation once called the place in the Algonquian language back when the English first arrived in 1607. a slew of English ‘Captains’ had crossed over this field, or one to the north, between the riverbank near the old Ship Lock Canal Bridge, and the foot of a very steep hill, which they had climbed up, a hill that was very prominent and strategically utilized for tribal defense, to visit one Tanx-Powhatan in the summer of 1607. Was this hill the modern-day Powhatan Hill, or Chimborazo Hill or Libby Terrace Hill? Good gracious, perhaps the occupants of these various promontory abodes should have a good, old-fashioned, round-robin rugby match every October to obtain the bragging rights for the next year.

 

the Richmond Bridge Company: you see this huge building as you go south on I-95 headed to the Ruritan Club Shad Planking or Nags Head (the back way, so you can go to Wakefield and have some Virginia Diner ham-biscuits for breakfast, or can go thru Edenton NC and lust over the Victorian houses). that giant of a brick & steel structure was, at one time, a mechanical shop for the Seaboard Air Line Railroad, a presumptuously monikered and under-capitalized undertaking, that got a late start in the 1900's, with the beginning of the "let's go to Florida for a week of horse race gambling" craze. did Tony Curtis and Marilyn Monroe actually spend a night in the same berth on one of those New York to Miami specials???. well, Some Like It Hot you know....

 

the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad, the very important link with the port of Wilmington NC that came under General Grant's eye of interest in August of 1864, was later united with the Petersburg and Weldon line, and one or two more lines, to form the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. the tobacco factory and storage warehouses that you see at Jefferson Davis Highway and Maury Street, next to the rails of this road, used the contents of the hogsheads of North Carolina flue-cured leaf that were off-loaded there to eventually end up in the cigarettes smoked by thousands of boys-become-fighting-men in the Eighth Army Air Force as it bombed the Nazi war plants… is it just a legend that there was a pack of Lucky Strikes in the survival kit?

 

and is keeping a separation between the passenger rails and the freight rails a new idea??? maybe you should think again and read the words of King Solomon some more...

 

the trolley tracks coming into town from Ashland, down the middle of Hermitage Road, almost parallel to the Richmond Fredericksburg and Potomac tracks... it appears some of the people with investment money to spend were thinking that the RF&P railroad would be happy to shed off some paying-passengers so that their high-dollar freight trains would not have to wait on the rails very long on the morning run north to Potomac Yards. a good way to kill two birds with one stone. whenever you are playing a round of golf at Belmont Golf course, take a good look at the well engineered little bridge that goes over the stream known to Lakesiders as North Run, that enabled these inter-urban trolley tracks to make their way up to the Center of the Universe...

 

it was called the Richmond and Chesapeake Bay Railway. it's investors made tracks to Ashland, but never the Bay. the trick with any railroad-trolley line construction is to get the Location Engineer to put the route along contour lines, not across them; along side of creeks and rivers if necessary, on just one side thereof, holding bridges to a minimum; up on high and flat ground as often as possible. back in our history when land was plentiful for the settlers, and was being sold by the square mile by the Federal Government, the common sense wisdom was to build towns and farms and industries on 'good, high ground', and avoid swamps and mosquitoes and drainage problems. so therefore, railroadmen had few squablles about placement of tracks, because both they and the local citizens were usually on the same page about things.

 

Edward Gillette, one of the men like Jed Hotchkiss, who did a huge amount of this location work in the West after the Civil War ended, would later on write in his bio that one of the most important facets of putting down railroad track was to make sure maintenance of those tracks was stupid-simple for future owners/operators of them. easily said, but not so done.

 

And currently there is a small, but growing number of people, who would like this old foregone right-of-way to either become another addition to the inventory of Rails-to-Trails, or a Light Rail line again, which is not entirely a pipe dream, since Dominion Resources/Virginia Power is still using most of the strip for the transmission of high-voltage electrical current.

 

In RVA, the THIRD WAVE is rolling on down the rivah…

  

the issue of a Shockoe Valley ballpark is one of the last man getting on the boat and then asking for everyone else’s money, as if he was the gate keeper. American Politicians are never in the vanguard of anything because we have scheduled elections on this side of the pond, so they are always head-stuck up a crony’s butt trying to get more money for the next election. They cannot see or plan on the future because they are always beholden to special contributors who dwell at the back of the crowd, not leading, but following the people who have the vision of what the world can be with the right innovations and changes. they never believed in The Shockoe Bottom back decades ago when out-of-town investors initially came into the area and began to renovate it and build restaurants, and shops and then sank millions of dollars of their own capital into Tobacco Row’s amazing, nationally renowned renovation of the old brick tobacco mills into lofts and apartments. NOW the City Hall Boys want to help "the last people into the boat" in their crowd of cronies, the ones who want to wait until the bets are safe, the ones who need your tax money to fall back on in case they lose their wagers, the ones who always need the cover of City Hall to make anything happen, to come in and build a ballpark in the middle of a Flood Zone and hope that nobody notices…

YOU make the call Mr. and Ms. Taxpayer…

.

===========================================

“…. People say they love a lot of things, but they really don’t. It’s just a word that’s been overused. When you put your life on the line for somebody, that’s love. But you’ll never know it until you’re in the moment. When someone will die for you, that’s love, too.”

 

Bob Dylan, in interview with Mikal Gilmore, excerpted from Rolling Stone magazine, Issue No. 1166, September 27, 2012

========================================

 

THIS IS ONE OF THE BEST SHORT STORIES EVER WRITTEN BY AN AMERICAN AUTHOR

 

Subject: Burial At Sea

Powerful stuff. Please take time to read all of this. I wish each American could read this one. I feel too many of us fail to grasp what our young troops have done for us for so long, the freedoms they have protected for us. To only those who would and could appreciate it. This account is one of a kind...a powerful one that touches your heart. Read this slowly and to the end. Tough duty then as it is now.

 

Burial at Sea” by LtCol George Goodson, USMC (Ret)

In my 76th year, the events of my life appear to me, from time to time, as a series of vignettes. Some were significant; most were trivial.

War is the seminal event in the life of everyone that has endured it. Though I fought in Korea and the Dominican Republic and was wounded there, Vietnam was my war.

Now 37 years have passed and, thankfully, I rarely think of those days in Cambodia , Laos , and the panhandle of North Vietnam where small teams of Americans and Montangards fought much larger elements of the North Vietnamese Army. Instead I see vignettes: some exotic, some mundane:

*The smell of Nuc Mam.

*The heat, dust, and humidity.

*The blue exhaust of cycles clogging the streets.

*Elephants moving silently through the tall grass.

*Hard eyes behind the servile smiles of the villagers.

*Standing on a mountain in Laos and hearing a tiger roar.

*A young girl squeezing my hand as my medic delivered her baby.

*The flowing Ao Dais of the young women biking down Tran Hung Dao.

*My two years as Casualty Notification Officer in North Carolina , Virginia , and Maryland .

It was late 1967. I had just returned after 18 months in Vietnam . Casualties were increasing. I moved my family from Indianapolis to Norfolk , rented a house, enrolled my children in their fifth or sixth new school, and bought a second car.

A week later, I put on my uniform and drove 10 miles to Little Creek, Virginia. I hesitated before entering my new office. Appearance is important to career Marines. I was no longer, if ever, a poster Marine. I had returned from my third tour in Vietnam only 30 days before. At 5’9″, I now weighed 128 pounds – 37 pounds below my normal weight. My uniforms fit ludicrously, my skin was yellow from malaria medication, and I think I had a twitch or two.

I straightened my shoulders, walked into the office, looked at the nameplate on a Staff Sergeant’s desk and said, “Sergeant Jolly, I’m Lieutenant Colonel Goodson. Here are my orders and my Qualification Jacket.”

Sergeant Jolly stood, looked carefully at me, took my orders, stuck out his hand; we shook and he asked, “How long were you there, Colonel?” I replied “18 months this time.” Jolly breathed, “Jesus, you must be a slow learner Colonel.” I smiled.

Jolly said, “Colonel, I’ll show you to your office and bring in the Sergeant Major. I said, “No, let’s just go straight to his office.”

Jolly nodded, hesitated, and lowered his voice, “Colonel, the Sergeant Major. He’s been in this G*dd@mn job two years. He’s packed pretty tight. I’m worried about him.” I nodded.

Jolly escorted me into the Sergeant Major’s office. “Sergeant Major, this is Colonel Goodson, the new Commanding Office. The Sergeant Major stood, extended his hand and said, “Good to see you again, Colonel.” I responded, “Hello Walt, how are you?” Jolly looked at me, raised an eyebrow, walked out, and closed the door.

I sat down with the Sergeant Major. We had the obligatory cup of coffee and talked about mutual acquaintances. Walt’s stress was palpable.

Finally, I said, “Walt, what’s the h-ll’s wrong?” He turned his chair, looked out the window and said, “George, you’re going to wish you were back in Nam before you leave here.. I’ve been in the Marine Corps since 1939. I was in the Pacific 36 months, Korea for 14 months, and Vietnam for 12 months. Now I come here to bury these kids. I’m putting my letter in. I can’t take it anymore.” I said, “OK Walt. If that’s what you want, I’ll endorse your request for retirement and do what I can to push it through Headquarters Marine Corps.”

Sergeant Major Walt Xxxxx retired 12 weeks later. He had been a good Marine for 28 years, but he had seen too much death and too much suffering. He was used up.

Over the next 16 months, I made 28 death notifications, conducted 28 military funerals, and made 30 notifications to the families of Marines that were severely wounded or missing in action. Most of the details of those casualty notifications have now, thankfully, faded from memory. Four, however, remain.

MY FIRST NOTIFICATION My third or fourth day in Norfolk , I was notified of the death of a 19 year old Marine. This notification came by telephone from Headquarters Marine Corps. The information detailed:

*Name, rank, and serial number.

*Name, address, and phone number of next of kin.

*Date of and limited details about the Marine’s death.

*Approximate date the body would arrive at the Norfolk Naval Air Station.

*A strong recommendation on whether the casket should be opened or closed.

The boy’s family lived over the border in North Carolina , about 60 miles away. I drove there in a Marine Corps staff car. Crossing the state line into North Carolina , I stopped at a small country store / service station / Post Office. I went in to ask directions.

Three people were in the store. A man and woman approached the small Post Office window. The man held a package. The Storeowner walked up and addressed them by name, “Hello John . Good morning Mrs. Cooper.”

I was stunned. My casualty’s next-of-kin’s name was John Cooper !

I hesitated, then stepped forward and said, “I beg your pardon. Are you Mr. and Mrs. John Copper of (address.)

The father looked at me-I was in uniform – and then, shaking, bent at the waist, he vomited. His wife looked horrified at him and then at me.

Understanding came into her eyes and she collapsed in slow motion. I think I caught her before she hit the floor.

The owner took a bottle of whiskey out of a drawer and handed it to Mr. Cooper who drank. I answered their questions for a few minutes. Then I drove them home in my staff car. The storeowner locked the store and followed in their truck. We stayed an hour or so until the family began arriving.

I returned the storeowner to his business. He thanked me and said, “Mister, I wouldn’t have your job for a million dollars.” I shook his hand and said; “Neither would I.”

I vaguely remember the drive back to Norfolk . Violating about five Marine Corps regulations, I drove the staff car straight to my house. I sat with my family while they ate dinner, went into the den, closed the door, and sat there all night, alone.

My Marines steered clear of me for days. I had made my first death notification.

THE FUNERALS Weeks passed with more notifications and more funerals.. I borrowed Marines from the local Marine Corps Reserve and taught them to conduct a military funeral: how to carry a casket, how to fire the volleys and how to fold the flag.

When I presented the flag to the mother, wife, or father, I always said, “All Marines share in your grief.” I had been instructed to say, “On behalf of a grateful nation.” I didn’t think the nation was grateful, so I didn’t say that.

Sometimes, my emotions got the best of me and I couldn’t speak. When that happened, I just handed them the flag and touched a shoulder.

They would look at me and nod. Once a mother said to me, “I’m so sorry you have this terrible job.” My eyes filled with tears and I leaned over and kissed her.

ANOTHER NOTIFICATION Six weeks after my first notification, I had another. This was a young PFC. I drove to his mother’s house. As always, I was in uniform and driving a Marine Corps staff car. I parked in front of the house, took a deep breath, and walked towards the house. Suddenlythe door flew open, a middle-aged woman rushed out. She looked at me and ran across the yard, screaming “NO! NO! NO! NO!”

I hesitated. Neighbors came out. I ran to her, grabbed her, and whispered stupid things to reassure her. She collapsed. I picked her up and carried her into the house. Eight or nine neighbors followed. Ten or fifteen later, the father came in followed by ambulance personnel. I have no recollection of leaving.

The funeral took place about two weeks later. We went through the drill. The mother never looked at me. The father looked at me once and shook his head sadly.

ANOTHER NOTIFICATION One morning, as I walked in the office, the phone was ringing. Sergeant Jolly held the phone up and said, “You’ve got another one, Colonel.” I nodded, walked into my office, picked up the phone, took notes, thanked the officer making the call, I have no idea why, and hung up. Jolly, who had listened, came in with a special Telephone Directory that translates telephone numbers into the person’s address and place of employment.

The father of this casualty was a Longshoreman. He lived a mile from my office. I called the Longshoreman’s Union Office and asked for the Business Manager. He answered the phone, I told him who I was, and asked for the father’s schedule.

The Business Manager asked, “Is it his son?” I said nothing. After a moment, he said, in a low voice, “Tom is at home today.” I said, “Don’t call him. I’ll take care of that.” The Business Manager said, “Aye, Aye Sir,” and then explained, “Tom and I were Marines in WWII.”

I got in my staff car and drove to the house. I was in uniform. I knocked and a woman in her early forties answered the door. I saw instantly that she was clueless. I asked, “Is Mr. Smith home?” She smiled pleasantly and responded, “Yes, but he’s eating breakfast now. Can you come back later?” I said, “I’m sorry. It’s important, I need to see him now.”

She nodded, stepped back into the beach house and said, “Tom, it’s for you.”

A moment later, a ruddy man in his late forties, appeared at the door. He looked at me, turned absolutely pale, steadied himself, and said, “Jesus Christ man, he’s only been there three weeks!”

Months passed. More notifications and more funerals. Then one day while I was running, Sergeant Jolly stepped outside the building and gave a loud whistle, two fingers in his mouth…. I never could do that… and held an imaginary phone to his ear.

Another call from Headquarters Marine Corps. I took notes, said, “Got it.” and hung up. I had stopped saying “Thank You” long ago.

Jolly, “Where?”

Me, “Eastern Shore of Maryland . The father is a retired Chief Petty Officer. His brother will accompany the body back from Vietnam .”

Jolly shook his head slowly, straightened, and then said, “This time of day, it’ll take three hours to get there and back. I’ll call the Naval Air Station and borrow a helicopter. And I’ll have Captain Tolliver get one of his men to meet you and drive you to the Chief’s home.”

He did, and 40 minutes later, I was knocking on the father’s door. He opened the door, looked at me, then looked at the Marine standing at parade rest beside the car, and asked, “Which one of my boys was it, Colonel?”

I stayed a couple of hours, gave him all the information, my office and home phone number and told him to call me, anytime.

He called me that evening about 2300 (11:00PM). “I’ve gone through my boy’s papers and found his will. He asked to be buried at sea. Can you make that happen?” I said, “Yes I can, Chief. I can and I will.”

My wife who had been listening said, “Can you do that?” I told her, “I have no idea. But I’m going to break my ass trying.”

I called Lieutenant General Alpha Bowser, Commanding General, Fleet Marine Force Atlantic, at home about 2330, explained the situation, and asked, “General, can you get me a quick appointment with the Admiral at Atlantic Fleet Headquarters?” General Bowser said,” George, you be there tomorrow at 0900. He will see you.

I was and the Admiral did.. He said coldly, “How can the Navy help the Marine Corps, Colonel.” I told him the story. He turned to his Chief of Staff and said, “Which is the sharpest destroyer in port?” The Chief of Staff responded with a name.

The Admiral called the ship, “Captain, you’re going to do a burial at sea. You’ll report to a Marine Lieutenant Colonel Goodson until this mission is completed.”

He hung up, looked at me, and said, “The next time you need a ship, Colonel, call me. You don’t have to sic Al Bowser on my ass.” I responded, “Aye Aye, Sir” and got the h-ll out of his office.

I went to the ship and met with the Captain, Executive Officer, and the Senior Chief. Sergeant Jolly and I trained the ship’s crew for four days.

Then Jolly raised a question none of us had thought of. He said, “These government caskets are air tight. How do we keep it from floating?”

All the high priced help including me sat there looking dumb. Then the Senior Chief stood and said, “Come on Jolly. I know a bar where the retired guys from World War II hang out.”

They returned a couple of hours later, slightly the worst for wear, and said, “It’s simple; we cut four 12″ holes in the outer shell of the casket on each side and insert 300 lbs of lead in the foot end of the casket. We can handle that, no sweat.”

The day arrived. The ship and the sailors looked razor sharp. General Bowser, the Admiral, a US Senator, and a Navy Band were on board. The sealed casket was brought aboard and taken below for modification. The ship got underway to the 12-fathom depth.

The sun was hot. The ocean flat. The casket was brought aft and placed on a catafalque. The Chaplin spoke. The volleys were fired. The flag was removed, folded, and I gave it to the father. The band played “Eternal Father Strong to Save.” The casket was raised slightly at the head and it slid into the sea.

The heavy casket plunged straight down about six feet. The incoming water collided with the air pockets in the outer shell. The casket stopped abruptly, rose straight out of the water about three feet, stopped, and slowly slipped back into the sea. The air bubbles rising from the sinking casket sparkled in the in the sunlight as the casket disappeared from sight forever.

The next morning I called a personal friend, Lieutenant General Oscar Peatross, at Headquarters Marine Corps and said, “General, get me the f*ck out of here. I can’t take this sh_t anymore.” I was transferred two weeks later.

I was a good Marine but, after 17 years, I had seen too much death and too much suffering. I was used up.

Vacating the house, my family and I drove to the office in a two-car convoy. I said my goodbyes. Sergeant Jolly walked out with me. He waved at my family, looked at me with tears in his eyes, came to attention, saluted, and said, “Well Done, Colonel. Well Done.”

I felt as if I had received the Medal of Honor!

That is all

s/f

Tags: Burial at Sea, George Goodson, Lt Col George Goodson USMC (Ret)

  

A BIT MORE ABOUT THE COLONEL:

www.thesandgram.com/2009/12/22/internet-legend-ltcol-geor...

THE STORY THAT APPEARED IN THE MARINE CORPS GAZETTE

www.marinecorpsgazette-digital.com/marinecorpsgazette/200...

 

oasisgrp.org/

 

www.flickr.com/photos/10393601@N08/2705089414www.flickr.c...

 

==================================================================

 

With Regret

Whitney Houston's death, while a sad thing, was the direct result of very unwise life choices. It dominates the news.

Charlie Sheen is 45 and his story is all over the news because he is a substance abuser, an adulterer, sexually promiscuous and obnoxious.

Lindsay Lohan is 24 and her story is all over the news because she is a celebrity drug addict and thief.

Something as frivolous as Kim Kardashian’s stupid wedding [and short-lived marriage] was shoved down our throats.

 

Meanwhile.....

Justin Allen, 23

Brett Linley, 29

Matthew Weikert, 29

Justus Bartett, 27

Dave Santos, 21

Jesse Reed, 26

Matthew Johnson, 21

Zachary Fisher, 24

Brandon King 23

Christopher Goeke, 23

and Sheldon Tate, 27.....

 

Are all Marines that gave their lives last month for you. There is no media for them; not even a mention of their names. Honor THEM by sending this on.

============================================

postscript:

The Medal of Honor is a Valor medal and says this on the Medal itself. it is bestowed on men and women in the military who, in moments of extreme danger, have been willing to sacrifice everything they have to save the life or lives of other persons. it does not belong to the recipient of the Medal. it belongs to everyone BUT the recipient. it belongs to the People of the United States of America as a tribute to the extreme and continuing value that we still place on Honor....a set of Beliefs and Values and Faith that the Nation was founded upon and that will live forever…and the recipient has been recognized by The People of this Country for acting on those Beliefs, those Values and that Faith ‘above and beyond the Call of Duty’.

 

www.marines.com/home

 

the owners of the Frenchman’s Rough Map:

www.colonialwilliamsburg.com/

 

the Second (maybe Third) Cittie of the Colony:

www.henricus.org/

 

the folks with the records:

www.dhr.virginia.gov/

 

those whom the POTUS has to salute:

www.cmohs.org/

 

www.amazon.com/

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedia

 

www.monster.com/

 

www.tikvatisrael.com/

 

www.nasa.gov/

 

rvamag.com/

 

www.airforce.com/;http://www.navy.com/;https://www.cia.go...; www.nscorp.com/;

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=kschL6-ViEs

www.whitehouse.gov/ www.whitehouse.gov/about/tours-and-events

www.si.com/swimsuit/2015/ www.fluor.com/pages/default.aspx

jenniferlawrencefoundation.com/ en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jennifer_Lawrence

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jihadi_John

www.cnn.com/2015/02/27/europe/jihadi-john-mohammed-emwazi...

www.cyclingnews.com/races/uci-road-world-championships-2014

richmond2015.com/ navyseals.com/nsw/bud-s-basic-underwater-demolition-seal-...

keystone-xl.com/?gclid=Cj0KEQiAsdCnBRC86PeFkuDJt_MBEiQAUX...

www.energytomorrow.org/?gclid=Cj0KEQiAsdCnBRC86PeFkuDJt_M...

www.economist.com/ www.generaldynamics.com/

www.ge.com/?gclid=Cj0KEQiAsdCnBRC86PeFkuDJt_MBEiQAUXJfLdH...

www.kevincostner.com/

DENNIS TAFLAMBAS

www.dktassociates.com/

www.victoriassecret.com/ www.wunderground.com/ www.bp.com/

www.economist.com/ www.halliburton.com/ www.csx.com/

www.netflix.com/us/ www.playboymagazinestore.com/

corporate.exxonmobil.com/ time.com/

   

Couldn't resist posting this photo. The first on my trip to Italy. Happy weekend my friends.

View On Black

 

Photo: Bryan Flint, Director of Communications, DNR

www.antonioleo.it/

www.creathead.it/italian/dettaglio_creativo.php?iId=42608

 

7029- 4-1-2011

8537-26-2-2011

10.480-2-6-2011

11.064-22/8/2011

12,196-27/2/2012

La capacità di superare ostacoli nell'ambiente esterno al nido è dovuto soprattutto all'intelligenza collettiva delle colonie di formiche. Le singole operaie, tuttavia, hanno una capacità di apprendimento ed un'intelligenza individuale relativamente sviluppata. Esperimenti di laboratorio mostrano che le operaie riescono a districarsi facilmente da labirinti di media complessità, capacità che sfruttano durante l'approvvigionamento delle risorse alimentari nell'ambiente esterno al nido.[senza fonte] Qui, le operaie si orientano grazie agli spostamenti del sole (come gran parte degli insetti) ed ai riferimenti materiali, oltre che alle tracce di feromone rilasciate sulla superficie del terreno dalle compagne.

 

it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Formicidae

 

Visit the macro e microcosmo set

www.flickr.com/photos/antoniologic/sets/72157613914031548/

 

Ants are social insects of the family Formicidae (pronounced /fɔrˈmɪsəˌdiː/), and along with the related wasps and bees, they belong to the order Hymenoptera. Ants evolved from wasp-like ancestors in the mid-Cretaceous period between 110 and 130 million years ago and diversified after the rise of flowering plants.[3] Today, more than 12,500 species are classified with upper estimates of about 22,000 species.[4][5][6] They are easily identified by their elbowed antennae and a distinctive node-like structure that forms a slender waist.

Ants form colonies that range in size from a few dozen predatory individuals living in small natural cavities to highly organised colonies which may occupy large territories and consist of millions of individuals. These larger colonies consist mostly of sterile wingless females forming castes of "workers", "soldiers", or other specialised groups. Nearly all ant colonies also have some fertile males called "drones" and one or more fertile females called "queens". The colonies are sometimes described as superorganisms because the ants appear to operate as a unified entity, collectively working together to support the colony.[7]

Ants have colonised almost every landmass on Earth. The only places lacking indigenous ants are Antarctica and certain remote or inhospitable islands. Ants thrive in most ecosystems, and may form 15–25% of the terrestrial animal biomass.[8] Their success has been attributed to their social organisation and their ability to modify habitats, tap resources, and defend themselves. Their long co-evolution with other species has led to mimetic, commensal, parasitic, and mutualistic relationships.[9]

Ant societies have division of labour, communication between individuals, and an ability to solve complex problems.[10] These parallels with human societies have long been an inspiration and subject of study.

Many human cultures make use of ants in cuisine, medication and rituals. Some species are valued in their role as biological pest control agents.[11] However, their ability to exploit resources brings ants into conflict with humans, as they can damage crops and invade buildings. Some species, such as the red imported fire ant, are regarded as invasive species, since they have established themselves in new areas where they have been accidentally introduced.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ant

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Scheme_ant_worker_anatomy-en.svg

100121-N-2953W-496

PORT-AU-PRINCE, Haiti (Jan. 21, 2010) The guided-missile destroyer USS Higgins (DDG 76) operates off the coast of Haiti refueling aircraft used to deliver supplies to those affected by the earthquake. Higgins, operating with the aircraft carrier USS Carl Vinson (CVN 70), is supporting humanitarian and disaster relief efforts as part of Operation Unified Response after a 7.0 magnitude earthquake caused severe damage in Haiti on Jan. 12, 2010. (U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Adrian White/Released)

Wireless Web Enabled Camera Monitoring Systems.

 

www.monitor-systems-engineering.com/wireless_web_enabled_...

 

Monitor Systems Engineering (Pixavi) are major players in the field of high definition wireless camera based communication, conferencing and monitoring systems. Monitor Systems Engineering SUPPLY, INSTALL and COMMISSION Wireless Web Enabled Camera Monitoring Systems for all key industries; (1) oil and gas, (2) manufacturing, (3) energy, (4) shipping and yards, (5) surveillance, (6) teli-medicine, (7) police, (8) fire fighting, (9) peacekeeping, (10) journalism and (11) architecture.

 

By limiting the need for long and costly cabling and wiring, Monitor Systems Engineering provides a high quality, cost effective wireless solution. Monitor Systems Engineering are able to deliver various wireless camera configurations and solutions for your industry and specific application.

 

Industry Scenarios

 

Wireless Web Enabled Camera Monitoring Systems.

 

(1) oil and gas: The complexity of the offshore oil rigs, often required very dedicated service persons that can quickly determine faults should they arise. However, on some occasions, the call for even greater knowledge resources are required to help recommend a proper service action, in order to prevent a shut down. The Xcaster EX-5000, Ex certified, wireless video conferencing system, is able to combat the toughest of elements and situations.

 

With real-time video and audio, the offshore service persons can seek assistance from onshore knowledge banks, to determine the best and most safest routine to complete the service job.

 

(2) manufacturing: A car manufacturer has a team of 20 crash test experts located all around the world. The manufacturer has built a brand new crash test center at a certain location. Traditionally the experts would travel to this site once a month to perform crash tests and evaluate the results. Today, this crash test center is using Monitor Systems wireless video conferencing products to communicate, document and analyze crash tests. The experts can stay at their fixed location and do not have to spend valuable time and resources on travel.

 

Cut your costs with a system from Monitor Systems Engineering, contact us today for more details about what we can offer your key industry.

 

(3) energy: A power company has several power plants in operation. Often times, service personnel are required to assist in a resource heavy maintenance routine, but due to logistical complications, it just is not possible to travel to the site when the problem arises.

 

Enter the Xcaster ST-5000 and its real-time, video and audio capabilities. Service personnel on site, can send images and audio to other knowledgeable centers for help in order to make critical repair recommendations, so that the equipment and the power plant can continue to operate.

 

(4) shipping and yards: A shipyard in Korea is building a ship for a Norwegian company. The complexity of ship building puts complex demands on communication between the vendor and the customer. By utilizing wireless video conferencing and advanced unified communication, the two parties are able to solve complex problems without having to travel to the site and thereby saves both time and cost.

 

The Xcaster series of products allows for quick and reliable remote collaboration from the field, in order to help make solid and exact build recommendations.

 

(5) surveillance: A large sporting event is planned in one of the world’s biggest countries. The event is a possible target for terrorists and unwarranted activists. To ensure that both safety and intelligence is managed, a comprehensive HD CCTV camera network is installed on the site. The introduction of wireless, battery operated cameras clearly poses benefits in such situations. The Monitor Systems Engineering Xcaster and Xcam products, along with the wireless infrastructure products, provides a very credible ad hoc and temporary surveillance capability. This capability gives event organizers, police and security official a great weapon to combat potential infiltrators.

 

(6) teli-medicine: An emergency vehicle comes to a large accident site which, in turn, puts high demands on the emergency personnel.

 

Luckily, the personnel are equipped with the Xcaster ST-5000 wireless video conferencing devices and can thereby consult with physicians and medical experts virtually anywhere in the world.

 

With high quality (High-Definition) images and video, plus two-way audio, life saving information can quickly be transmitted, in order to provide the field personnel with better information that will help the patient.

 

(7) police: Special Weapons and Tactics (SWAT) teams must analyze large quantities of information in order to make critical tactical determinations. Often, the large amount of information cannot be processed quickly enough to translate in proper reconnaissance information. However, with the use of live video and real time communication, like with the Xcaster ST-5000, SWAT officers, in conjunction with an operation center, can often be supportive in determining a proper course of action.

 

Live, in-the-field video and audio becomes the best tool to combat the situation!

 

(8) fire fighting: A firefighter is facing considerable risk when entering critical situations.

 

The more information that is available to the fireman, before his/her arrives at a scene, can ultimately mean life and death in some very specific cases.

 

With the rugged Xcaster technology in hand, on-scene fire officials can quickly report, in real-time video and audio, back to command posts, that can quickly offer tactical recommendations, which can translate into a more effective and efficient handling at the incident.

 

(9) peacekeeping: There exists, unfortunately, problematic areas of the world that require dedicated peacekeeping missions. In one example, a new peacekeeping representative runs into a potentially troubling situation while on a basic mission to check on a remote refugee center. As the representative is somewhat inexperienced, he / she can utilize the Xcaster series of products, in order to record or send live video and images from the incident. Officials in regional support centers, can quickly get a full view of the event, and offer the in the field representative, good advice and information on how to handle a potentially very complex situation. Solid and reliable information is a key factor in helping to solve problems and make decisions.

 

(10) journalism: The use of live, in the field correspondence has become increasingly popular in the media business. Traditional broadcasting equipment is becoming outdated, and the faster, more effective Xcaster technology is gaining footing in a very demanding arena of usage. With the Xcaster ST-5000, reporters can quickly access a wireless network to transmit a full, High-Definition quality, live, wireless video conferencing report from the field, when a developing story is unfolding.

 

The video feed can be transferred using Internet access or satellite links and stand ready to go live within seconds.

 

(11) architecture: It is often critical that architects work through problems and issues during the building phase in close coordination with the construction builders themselves. Irregardless of where the building is being built, the architect can use the Xcaster wearable video conferencing technology to connect parties directly in-real time to any situation requiring advanced collaboration. Through efficient and effective wireless video conferencing technology and wireless networking, architects, construction contractors and property developers can now start increasing efficiency, competitiveness and profit margins.

 

Further Reading

 

Oil and Gas Industry:

 

Applications within the oil and gas industry: Monitor Systems Engineering is proving its worthiness in some of the world’s toughest environments. The oil and gas offshore installations have long been deemed a very brutal and unforgiving place of business. With the introduction of Monitor Systems Engineering technology to these areas, large oil and gas companies have gained cost saving attributes and a safer working environment.

 

Over the past eight years, many of the world leading Oil & Gas companies along with Oil & Gas service companies have utilized the Monitor Systems Engineering intrinsically safe video cameras to communicate and collaborate within these harsh conditions. The ATEX Camera with its two way audio and video allows workers in the field to address issues, problems and situations with colleagues anywhere in the world. With its dynamic and revolutionary technology, the new Xcaster EX-5000 high definition wireless video conferencing system enables fast, secure and effective information flow from point to point allowing for discussions or effective multiparty collaboration all in real time.

 

To shut down or not to shut down: The decision to order a shut down is costly. Both time, money and safety elements are on the line. During these situations the Monitor Systems Engineering technology has time and again proven itself as an invaluable tool essential to critical information flow. On many occasions, the live video streams have helped managers, engineers and roughnecks alike to illustrate problems, and to determine quick and responsible paths to corrective measure to quickly have the shut down minimized. On many occasions, shut-downs have all together been completely averted, simply by establishing a video collaboration between parties onshore and offshore, to which colleagues could quickly conclude that issues could otherwise be handled without shutting down production!

  

Refineries: The Xcaster EX-5000 mobile video conferencing system is able to deploy at a moments notice when time is critical. With the ability to operate in hazardous areas both onshore and offshore, this Wi-Fi camera is able to maneuver quickly to various parts of the oil rig or production plant. By using the Monitor Systems Engineering EX-AP-A explosive proof, ATEX certified access points in these ATEX required areas, the Xcaster EX-5000 equipment can immediately begin to send High Definition (HD) quality video via the wireless network to virtually any point in the world. The Xcaster EX5000 is also able to help in cases of E-learning and safety inspection. Essentially: Maximize your resources and minimize travel needs.

 

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Manufacturing Industry:

 

Applications within the manufacturing industry: The manufacturing industry is a very demanding and competitive industry. On occasion, large machinery breaks down and consequently requires immediate servicing in order to keep the production facility operating. However, sometimes key service personnel are not able to respond quickly, due to logistical distances, thereby keeping the machinery at full stop and not producing.

 

The Xcaster ST-5000 has been designed with just such situations in mind. By utilizing the Monitor Systems Engineering wireless video conferencing technology, company officials and service agents can quickly via two-way audio and video, determine what the problem is by being able to actually see the faulty equipment directly from the site, back to wherever in the world the service agents are.

 

Through an established wireless network at the site, the Xcaster ST-5000 can quickly and effectively communicate utilizing IP video streaming to establish a true, in field and live mobile video conferencing collaboration session. The key service agents can thus maintain help to trouble-shoot the faulty machinery and in most cases get the machinery rolling again, so that manufacturing routines are not halted, and profits not lost. In this situation, discussion, diagnoses, and error checking can all be done in real-time!

 

In order to allocate more and dedicated service personnel, management and consultants to various operations, the wireless video conferencing systems by Monitor Systems Engineering, can help create a better forum of resources in which to pool from. In the case of heavy machinery, service companies can outfit a designated service person with the ST-5000 wireless video conferencing system, in order to collaborate and discuss a repair with other company service members that might be located anywhere in the world, in order to discuss a proper course of action for a repair.

 

Safety is also a major concern during repair operations. Service personnel can quickly and efficiently, utilize the real-time audio and video features of the Monitor Systems Engineering ST-5000, discuss an effective service routine with managers far away, to ensure that a safe work routine will done.

 

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Energy Industry:

 

Applications within the energy industry: The commercial energy industry is a very important segment of our global community. Large electrical and generating plants play a large role in our everyday lives. And with today’s focus on the environment, new and reusable energy sources are creating the need for technical and communications equipment and solutions that are environmentally friendly as well. The demands for more and simplistic methods to share work is increasing. The requirement for more information from the field is also on the rise.

 

On many occasions, researchers and scientists alike, require technology tools that allow them to discuss and be present in conferences, meetings and industry seminars to share their opinions and findings. The Monitor Systems Engineering line of wireless video conferencing equipment, including the Xcaster ST-5000 and EX-5000 model, allows these individuals to quickly and effective report directly from distant locations. They are able to share visual images of progresses, send high quality images of various findings, as well as discuss solutions and opinions with other scientists and participants around the world.

 

Monitor Systems Engineering with it solid knowledge regarding products designed to operate and function in demanding environments, has created a line of products that include the very latest wireless 802.11n technology and HD video. We have implemented them into a tough and durable package, that offers live mobile video conferencing capabilities, all in High-Definition (HD) quality images.

 

Large power plants rely on a high level of safety and predictability. The increasing number of power plants puts high demand on expertise and skillful understanding on how to address continual concerns on maintaining the optimal running conditions in these large facilities. With the Monitor Systems Engineering line of wireless, mobile video conferencing solutions, technicians, plant project managers and experts can maintain stabile communications from the field to any location in the world.

 

The Monitor Systems Engineering technology bridges distance, creates efficiencies and allows for real-time collaboration, so that knowledge can reach those areas of need.

 

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Shipping and Yard Industry:

 

Applications within Shipping and the Yard Industry: The commercial shipping industry requires precise and dedicated information to insure that cargo and ships adhere to logistical conditions and time requirements. The Xcaster ST5000 and EX5000 mobile video conferencing systems provide a stabile communication platform to provide shipping companies a method to review and check the status of loading and off loading operations and cargo registration in remote ports of the world. Featuring Wi-Fi based technology, crews are able to stream live video, while discussing specific load shipping with agents and customer alike, sometimes located continents away.

 

Ship Yards: are increasing utilizing parts and services from various locations around the world. Actual ship construction can take place in Norway, ship design in the United Kingdom and hull manufacturing in Poland. The key to a successful building platform is to ensure that all these parties are continual updated on work progress and that eventual delays and construction circumstances are reported promptly.

 

Introduction of the Monitor Systems Engineering Xcaster line of wireless video conferring cameras, has brought about a revolution in information gathering and information allocation to this industry If managers in Norway, require visual inspection of hull assembly in Poland, the Xcaster mobile video equipment can quickly be engaged to walk inside and outside the hull sections in Poland, to provide a real-time, IP video conference to any and all people in the organization, that need this information. By utilizing network video in this regard, all parties save travel time, and can otherwise gain useful knowledge from the comfort of their respected place of work, all without having to leave their office.

 

Transportation and storage: In locating items for transport or discussing load operations on ships in harbors, the Monitor Systems Engineering Xcaster series of wireless video conferencing technologies, helps transportation agencies by being able communicate with other staff members on or off location. Transport personnel can access files, talk with other crew members and discuss loading operations by way of high quality audio, IP video and data to an array of different groups.

 

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Surveillance Industry:

 

Application within the Surveillance Industry: Dependable surveillance equipment is a critical element of the total security efforts each company or organization puts forward to protect life and property. The ability to view, survey and detect an activity before a crime or intrusion is committed, saves costs towards theft and large scale property damage.

 

As a CCTV manufacturer, Monitor Systems Engineering can afford a company or organization at any level affordable and high-quality wireless CCTV solutions. Monitor Systems Engineering can custom design our security cameras to fit many types of physical and environmental settings. Monitor Systems Engineering designs its security camera systems to comply and interact with all types and standards of company network parameters.

 

As a leader in developing products associated with wireless technologies, Monitor Systems Engineering has many years of experience which is reflected in its line products and solutions. Monitor Systems Engineering has delivered its wireless CCTV solutions to military organizations, the oil & gas industry, security agencies, and energy industry to name a few. The Monitor Systems Engineering wireless security camera solution has been proven in many challenging circumstances, and continues to prevail as a high performance and reliable system for CCTV needs.

 

Rugged, corrosive resistant material and proven High Definition camera technology create a solid wireless CCTV security camera solution that is effective to combat the very toughest of environmental circumstances. By limiting the need for long and costly cabling and wiring, Monitor Systems Engineering can position a high quality security camera system to fit the needs of many different conditions.

 

Monitor Systems Engineering is able to deliver various wireless security camera configurations and solutions, dependent on the breadth and scope of what each individual customer requires. Additionally, Monitor Systems Engineering has the capability to apply solar panel driven wireless technology, should this be of interest.

 

Today’s world is becoming increasingly dependant on solid and well functioning surveillance technology. The increasing threats of terrorist groups and criminal activity are putting high demands on video quality. Monitor Systems Engineering has the skill and knowledge to present a full and dedicated wireless CCTV security camera solution for your organization today.

 

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Tele-medicine Industry:

 

Applications within Telemedicine Industry: Emergencies are critical periods, when seconds count. Quick, decisive action is required to save lives. Unfortunately, some accidents do happen in very remote locations, allowing only critical first aid to victims before extrication to a medical facility sometimes hours away. With the Monitor Systems Engineering Xcaster ST-5000 series of High Definition wireless video conferencing cameras, medics treating wounded person have an innovative tool at their disposal to help in their efforts.

 

By utilizing IP video, audio and data communication, the remote medical assistance groups are offered a way in which doctors, nurses and other medical personnel can be readily available to help at any time, regardless of location or time zone.

 

With the essential video collaboration link between field and hospital established, the Xcaster ST-5000 operating on SIP, H323 protocols, provides doctors at the hospital quality still images, and high quality High Definition (HD) video streaming to ascertain the nature of injuries, thus allowing them to prescribe a course of treatment to the medics in the field.

 

Real-time, Wi-Fi capable, the Monitor Systems Engineering Xcaster ST-5000 wireless video conferencing system allows for a visual and audio window between the remote location and the medical staff far away. Ultimately, the medics in the remote location, actually become “doctors in the field” as they can quickly gain strategic treatment recommendations by using the powerful visual medium and discussion, so that the wounded patient can receive the very best treatment for their injuries before arriving at the central hospital.

 

Quick, effective and reliable information can save lives. The Monitor Systems Engineering Xcaster ST5000 can help bridge the gap that time and distance often brings to critical situations.

 

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Law Enforcement / Security Industry:

 

Applications within Law Enforcement / Security Industry: Police, intelligence officers, Law enforcement officers and security personnel are often times presented with many hazardous circumstances and situations which challenge their training and skill on a daily bases. Monitor Systems Engineering video collaboration technology can help give officers at every level an advantage, by utilizing real-time audio and IP based, live video streams during emergency situations to attain more insightful information to ensure that a proper course of action is taken.

 

In the event of a crisis situation, officers in the field utilizing the Xcaster ST-5000 are able to report, in real-time, back to command central, so that quick and precise planning and action can be taken. Through a dedicated Wi-Fi network, the Monitor Systems Engineering Xcaster wireless video collaboration tool can bring the situation to virtually anyone, anywhere in the world. The video streams are encrypted with highly advanced algorithms like AES.

 

With a greater visual and audio overview of the situation, officers stand a much greater chance of successfully ending a potentially tragic situation. Trough both a dedicated audio and visual medium, officers can quickly communicate back to commanders that can, in turn respond with tactical recommendations, thus creating a safer, more well prepared operation.

 

Monitor Systems Engineering can also help during training sessions. Officers allocated with the Xcaster ST-5000 wearable video conferencing system, can be educated on tactical methods from instructors that might otherwise be sitting in central locations somewhere else in the city, country or world.

 

Utilizing the stabile 802.11 abgn network standards, the Monitor Systems Engineering Xcaster wireless video conferencing technology brings reconnaissance routines, anti-terror training and skillful insights to a new level. Via powerful live video stream, over IP, the Xcaster technology delivers secure and tactical information to the sources that can help!

 

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Fire Fighting Industry:

 

Applications within Fire Fighting Industry: Firefighters often times arrive at a critical emergency scene with little actual knowledge of the situation they have been requested to respond to. A reported small contained structure fire at the time they leave the firehouse can quite easily escalate to a full, very complex, multi structural building fire by the time they arrive at the scene.

 

In order to help determine the best logistical approach to battle the fire, firefighters and on scene fire officials can quickly transmit live IP video and images from the scene, back to commanders ready to assist with instructions, guidance or suggestions on how to best combat the fire. The revolutionary Monitor Systems Engineering Xcaster EX-5000 wireless video conferencing technology creates a running forum of up-to-date, real-time information for all the fire fighting personnel to join. Time is critical, and the more accurate and secure the information is, the better organized the firefighters will be when they engage the fire itself.

 

The explosive proof, Monitor Systems Engineering Xcaster EX5000, is designed and certified to tackle harsh and unforgiving environments. And as the level of on-scene activity grows, and as temperatures rise, the Xcaster is able to deliver High Definition (HD) live and still images to fire command. In return, command officials can afford firefighters crucial tactical recommendations that otherwise create an advantage in how best to contain and resolve the emergency.

 

The Xcaster technology can also be recommended for use at fire training academies. Individual fire cadets, equipped with the Xcaster mobile video conferencing unit, allow training officials to monitor step by step maneuvers by the cadets and thus be able to quickly afford them insightful knowledge during the training exercise, which will ultimately serve them well once they are in the field in real operations.

 

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Military Industry:

 

Wireless Video Streaming within Military Industry: With the increased demand for peacekeeping missions, so is the demand for knowledge resources to help control, inform and delegate materials and mission critical information to those troubled areas.

 

Monitor Systems Engineering has a wide variety of products and solutions, that can help facilitate even the most troubling of situations, within the most demanding of environments. Should the need call for high-quality, mobile, wireless video conferencing, or durable weather proof antennas that confirm to toughest criteria, Monitor Systems Engineering has the solution to help the cause.

 

With the Xcaster ST-5000 mil spec. wireless video conferencing system, peacekeeping forces and aid workers can freely move within difficult terrain, maneuver through brush and obstacles, to report in real-time to operation centers, quickly and efficiently. With High-Definition image quality, the Monitor Systems Engineering Xcaster ST-5000, transfers the detailed images straight from the field, thought a dedicated network, back to the operations centers.

 

Should a dedicated wireless network not be readily available, the Monitor Systems Engineering Xcaster ST-5000 has a built-in flash memory allowing it to function as a rugged mobile video camera, as well as a still image camera, producing high quality video and pictures. Once the mission reporting in the field is complete, the mission worker can bring the Xcaster back the operations center, and upload all the video and images, and stream this information directly back to those decision makers, responsible for managing the mission. With the image information in hand, clear and decisive measures can then be taken as to how to handle a particular situation.

 

Should the demand require real-time, video streaming from the field, Monitor Systems Engineering can create custom wireless network infrastructures for very demanding customers, in demanding environmental conditions. The Monitor Systems Engineering EX-ANT-B antenna is one of a handful of wireless infrastructure products that are constructed to handle extreme conditions, poor weather and demanding environments. Designed principally for the Oil and Gas industry, the explosive proof, intrinsically safe, EX-ANT-B antenna has proven that it is very much able to work in other harsh and demanding environments, outside the bounds of this particular industry in order to help create a dedicated wireless network. The EX-ANT-B antenna can be affixed to a number of standard access points available on the market. Connected, the rugged EX-ANT-B antenna and access point deliver a dedicated wireless environment to which the Xcaster ST-5000 or EX-5000 can freely operate in order to report live and wirelessly from field.

 

As the situation in a troubled area intensifies, so does the need for constructive and meaningful information. Monitor Systems Engineering presents several levels of equipment and technology that can significantly help to keep workers, officials and commanders abreast of the situation, in real-time, in full HD image quality and in constant dialog. Anytime, anywhere the situation may call.

 

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Journalism / Media News Industry:

 

Applications within Journalism / Media News Industry: News organizations associated with print and visual media reporting depend on quick and reliable facts to ensure that their reports generate the clearest and most concise information possible. The Monitor Systems Engineering Xcaster technology allows local, nation and global news agencies to report directly from the field, in real time, through both real-time video and audio streaming directly to network television or internet portals on their respected websites.

 

The Monitor Systems Engineering Xcaster ST-5000, with its ability to operate as both a Wi-Fi still image camera or powerful video recorder, can otherwise quickly engage the wireless network (802.11 abgn) transferring into a real-time video streaming system to be able to report all the stored images or video segments directly to the network.

 

Should the reporters find themselves in the field covering an important news story, the Xcaster offers dependable, proven technology to help transfer images and dialog directly from the area or event. Sporting events, weather reports and critical news updates, can all benefit from using the revolutionary Xcaster technology.

 

Generating interest and opinion are critical factors in news content. The Xcaster gives the journalist a significantly greater opportunity to process these facts, allowing for more complete and accurate reporting.

 

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Architecture / Building Industry:

 

Applications within Architecture / Building Industry: Architects and civil construction engineers require a solid understanding of their work sites in order to correctly place, build and detail structures. In coordination with its customers and third party contractors, the architect or property developer can hold live, in the field, video conference meetings in order to gain insightful knowledge on the project. Quick, efficient and useful feedback from the customer, construction manager and project official are essential in order that the optimal building criterion is realized.

 

In today’s modern communications world, wireless networks are becoming more common and prominent, even on building construction sites. By engaging the wireless 802.11 abgn network at the construction site, the architect can deploy a Monitor Systems Engineering Xcaster ST-5000, wireless video conferencing system to communicate with live IP video, real-time video steaming and full duplex audio to his/her clients virtually anywhere in the world. The Xcaster ST-5000 mobile video conferencing technology, can also allow architects to take high quality still images, as well as High Definition (HD) quality mobile video for archiving and storage on the Monitor Systems Engineering Xdrive.

 

It is often critical that architects work through problems and issues during the building process phases in close coordination with the builders themselves. Through efficient and effective wireless video conferencing, architects can establish solutions and criteria that are critical to the construction progress.

 

In essence, as buildings and construction routines become more complex, architects on location take advantage of the using a mobile video system by having the ability to send and receive, high quality HD video, high resolution still images and collaborate on specific project tasks from remote locations to central facilities or other locations situated elsewhere in the world.

 

The increasing presence in the construction industry of third party contractors with very narrow and specialized fields of know-how, requires a common, clear and thorough understanding of the work site.

 

Building construction: It is often critical that architects work through problems and issues during the building process phases in close coordination with the builders themselves. Regardless of where the building is being built, the architect can utilize the Monitor Systems Engineering Xcaster wearable video conferencing technology, to connect parties directly in real time at any situation requiring advanced collaboration dud ring the building process. Through efficient and effective wireless video conferencing technology and wireless networking, construction contractors and property developers can now start increasing efficiency, competitiveness and profit margins.

Architect: BSK Arkitekter – Lise-Lott Söderlund

Built in: 2003

Client: Postfastigheter and AP-Fastigheter - Arcona

 

BSK Arkitekter won an invited international architectural competition in May 2000 to design the HQ of Posten, the Swedish postal service.

 

The building was designed as a single volume along the slope of the hill between the Tomteboda Mail Terminal and former Police Academy. A unifying, transparent ground floor follows the topography of the hill. All workplaces are gathered in a raised container and the office plans consists of two parallel ship with an intermediate atrium. In this there are stairs and footbridges for communication, and cocoons for meeting rooms.

 

Approximately one thousand postal workers moved into the Ark in November and December 2003 and the Ark was officially opened on 12 February 2004

 

Architect: BSK Arkitekter – Lise-Lott Söderlund

Built in: 2003

Client: Postfastigheter and AP-Fastigheter - Arcona

 

BSK Arkitekter won an invited international architectural competition in May 2000 to design the HQ of Posten, the Swedish postal service.

 

The building was designed as a single volume along the slope of the hill between the Tomteboda Mail Terminal and former Police Academy. A unifying, transparent ground floor follows the topography of the hill. All workplaces are gathered in a raised container and the office plans consists of two parallel ship with an intermediate atrium. In this there are stairs and footbridges for communication, and cocoons for meeting rooms.

 

Approximately one thousand postal workers moved into the Ark in November and December 2003 and the Ark was officially opened on 12 February 2004

 

When using this photo, please attribute: * Photo by NEC Corporation of America with Creative Commons license.

 

Showcased in this image is UNIVERGE® 3C, NEC’s premiere software-based platform, is redefining enterprise communications. A complete solution, 3C combines full IP-PBX functionality with an advanced set of unified communications and collaboration applications. 3C provides the agility for today’s changing workforce, empowering users to communicate whenever, however and from where ever you work on any device. Learn more at necam.com/uc

Global Professional Services, Chennai, India specializes in recruiting executive personnel with outstanding track records create competitive advantage and sustainable value to any organisation. Our success and proven track record can be attributed to our deep understanding of HR dynamics in organizations and leadership requirements of companies at various levels. Rich experience in working across industries.

Pavilhão Mourisco - Moorish Pavilion Headquarters of OSWALDO CRUZ FOUNDATION in Rio de Janeiro. Built in 1905 by the portuguese architect Luiz Moraes Junior. Some information about the Oswaldo Cruz Foundation - FIOCRUZ (Fiocruz webpage):

 

"To promote health and social development, to forge and disseminate scientific and technological knowledge, to be an agent of citzenship. Such are the concepts that have guided Fundação Oswaldo Cruz (Fiocruz), the most prominent science and technology health institution in Latin America, attached to the Brazilian Ministry of Health. Inaugurated on May 25, 1900 under the name of Federal Serotherapy Institute, Fiocruz was given the mission of fighting the great problems of public health in Brazil. Therefore, Fiocruz became a think tank concerned with Brazilian reality and experimental medicine. Today the institution is noted for its excellence in a wide range of health activities, including research development, hospital and ambulatory care services; production of vaccines, drugs, reactants, and diagnostic kits; human resources teaching and training; information and communication regarding health, science and technology; quality control of products and services, and the implementation of social programs. It has over 7,500 employees and health professionals with different engagements, a workforce proud of being at the service of life. Fiocruz is located on a 800,000-square meter campus at Manguinhos, a suburban area in the North Side of Rio de Janeiro. Around three historical buildings of the old Federal Serotherapy Institute – the Moorish Pavilion, the Watch Pavilion and the Mews -, there are ten of Fiocruz’s thirteen technical-scientific units and all the technical and administrative support units. Another five units are located at Rio de Janeiro, Belo Horizonte, Salvador, Recife e Manaus. Apart from these fixed units, Fiocruz presence is seen in the whole country, through its support to the Unified Health System, its proposals on public health policy-making, its research actions, its scientific expeditions, and the extent of its services and health products." www.fiocruz.br/cgi/cgilua.exe/sys/start.htm?UserActiveTem...

  

Unified Communications

Architect: BSK Arkitekter – Lise-Lott Söderlund

Built in: 2003

Client: Postfastigheter and AP-Fastigheter - Arcona

 

BSK Arkitekter won an invited international architectural competition in May 2000 to design the HQ of Posten, the Swedish postal service.

 

The building was designed as a single volume along the slope of the hill between the Tomteboda Mail Terminal and former Police Academy. A unifying, transparent ground floor follows the topography of the hill. All workplaces are gathered in a raised container and the office plans consists of two parallel ship with an intermediate atrium. In this there are stairs and footbridges for communication, and cocoons for meeting rooms.

 

Approximately one thousand postal workers moved into the Ark in November and December 2003 and The ark was officially opened on 12 February 2004

 

Today, whole world is unified with various communication solutions that has proliferated unprecedented growth in both business world and personal world.

Mission

To provide intelligent, reliable, efficient and cost effective Unified Communication Solutions that empowers individuals and businesses to excel in their endeavors and create outstanding value to all.

Abstract: A Universe of combustion powered by en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Dark_matter as being en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanobacteria that powers the combustion chain by means of its role in making N2O (and other combustion gasses) as visualized powering this photo as a sea of examples of theory as the reality of the Universe whereby it is possible 'Billions' are successfully 'Served' so much Bacterial Dark Energy as expressed so many 'Happy Meals' or, Big Mac's -- which to my mind are comprised of so many macromolecules which can be measures in terms of calories that produce heat as measured by BTU's British or for the purpose of this discussion, (Bacterial Thermal Units) of calories burned or converted to some other gear in the box that is my thesis which is that: bacteria's atomic core acts as the nuclear engine of fast food's 'motor' to power a world by being served by the billion under the 'Golden Arches' as a example of how my inventor's paradoxical reasoning flows from facts; old and fresh off the presses of Science; by means of reading and remembering the reporting in the: Science News, Wired, New York Times, The Wall Street Journal, et al..

 

My meal plan over my sales career and beyond has featured heaping helping of a traveling stack of recursive reading material in the form of magazines and newspapers, which got read cover to cover and then re-read for subtext + the answers, while working myriad 'problems' in a wide variety of food and chemical process plants selling machinery to help industries by means better mixing commodities to create value added products, and or by measure of the ingredients constituent 'energy departments' by means their light bending properties as a 'organic lens' by means to focus my learning about applied industrial en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Refractometry over the years to form a unique point of view that provides a singular lens to understand the (refractual)-factual information available to all -- which to draw conclusions that, if in fact confirms and explains this thesis, in every aspect) while maintaining the consistency of the 'line of logic' as condensed into the 'nutshell' of the case: which makes possible nutshells --> by which "Nitrous oxide is emitted by bacteria in soils and oceans, and thus has been a part of Earth's atmosphere for millennia. ... Nitrous oxide reacts with ozone in the stratosphere. Nitrous oxide is the main naturally occurring regulator of stratospheric ozone. Nitrous oxide is a major greenhouse gas. Considered over a 100-year period, it has 298 times more impact per unit weight than carbon dioxide. Thus, despite its low concentration, nitrous oxide is the fourth largest contributor to these greenhouse gases. It ranks behind water vapor, carbon dioxide, and methane. Control of nitrous oxide is part of efforts to curb greenhouse gas emissions. " - en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrous_oxide

.

This 'data stack' has been compiled and essayed as way to explain and drive home the point of a insight by means a photo as examples served, to help unify a general understanding of Quantum Mechanics by bringing it into harmony with the Quantum Dynamic by means of the 'tone' in the signal that is found by removing the noise which forms 'wrong notes' in the music that causes distortion in the current comprehension the fine grain detail that is the Devil making the details of less than clear and of use (for his own devises), hence "Dark Matter and Energy", which has the power in the the micro to macro over the Universe to 'bend of light' which is "spooky action at a distance" as well as organic chemistry, with the power (God willing as well, the energy and logical means) to run the World Economy as well Solar System in the present, by means drawing on the power of the past in the meta, so as to expand the future at Λ.

 

The great common denominator is understood to be the organic power of the bonds of atom in action over space and time in the micro and macro to bend light which therefore, hence, consequential powers the present, by means the energy of the past, with exactly enough 'juice' to expand the future at at rate we know as the Cosmological Constant which happens to be the Macro Economic rate of inflation or other activity, when measured precisely over time in a given economy; as explained by Dark Matter and Energy being 'the stuff of the food and combustion chains' literal -- "power and light" -- as represented by a well oiled food chain of, fruits and vegetables, grains, meats, dairy, spice, Tea, and Coffee, with plenty of cooking oil and or motor oil to deliver same about all of which has a refractive index which determines price by means 'refinement, intensity and purity, etc.'.

 

Hence I conclude the economic activity inside each ingredient has the power to bend light at a given rate which is the power be worth more or less due; the presence or absence of Dark Matter or Energy - as being some 'star stuff' that makes 'gas that goes boom', by means the power of bacteria, at some level to cause a function of taste, smell and or the 'heat of the kitchen' that powers a person, group, or planet to expand at the Cosmological Constant by means the 'secret sauce' of spice on top floating atop a river of coffee, drained daily to achieve a insight into cracking the code that is the redundant power to run a Solar System from the micro to the macro and therefore power 'the program' with enough intensity to handle the business of light bending which I hold to be the answer to the Dark Matter and Energy Riddle:tm:; which; creates, distributes and, bends light, -- by means the power of complimentary quark repair as understood and explained to us by Niels Bohr.

 

From this line of logic come a bonus answer {answer 'blowing in' the planetary weather patterns[for fun fact reality checking]} -- which is picture 'visualized' (and verbalized) as t the 'planetary gearbox' running micro to macro by means the complete set of "planetary gears" -- Earth being the third gear, (counter rotating) as a example of how in this (and every) Solar system, per the Cosmological Principle's planetary rotation is powered by means of rotary evaporation, condensation, and quark repair's energy which explains the precision rotation and counter rotation of the Planets sorting the major elements from the Sun to the Black Hole in the Center Galley and back to Faint Young Star Power, in addition to explaining how the food chain and combustion chains run the worlds markets on so much 'horse power' by means of the food, fuel and mineral supplies which are understood to be 'of this world and more or less constantly 'bug based' to have mass which makes for substance that is organic, ---> then -- perhaps some or all of the Dark Matter and Energy riddle can begin to be considered (re)solved given the existing pieces of the natural machinery explained with out having to invent or discover strange new mysterious here to fore unknown 'matter' or 'stuff' that is the light -- 'illustrated' in its quantum mechanic and dynamic operations.

 

Therefore, Bacteria micro phylogenetic ilk form the vital cogs in the gearbox of the machinery of the of the perpetual manufacture of all elements of combustion and the biomass of any given hydrocarbon atomic bit and, or molecule that runs this economy or, any given eco or solar system.

 

Hence, Bacteria self-identifies itself as being THE prime candidate as the engine and (con)vector of Dark Matter and Energy on multiple levels of micro to macro levels and layers of Time and Space -- explained.

 

Further evidence of 'bacteria power' being a heretofore, 'secret agent' and, or 'sauce' of the hydrogen bonding process; E.g.; www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2011/08/110810132832.htm

"Hydrogen-Powered Symbiotic Bacteria Found in Deep-Sea Hydrothermal Vent Mussels"

  

Consequently, to connect the known dots that we as a planet full of various species which are bacterial powered, and therefore 'connected' - because of 'we are, what we eat' technology, it is not too great a leap in logic to see the micro to the macro of what I perceive the food and combustion chain moving along in the form of burgers, cars, people, lights, with the common atomic denominator of complimentary paired quarks of the non combustible expansive atomic core of Bacteria which pumps the N20 'laughing back' in a witches brewing tangled with the incomplete combustion of VOC's aka en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Volatile_organic_compound 's which are sorted by means Hawking Radiation with the Dark Matter/Energy being the Bacteria that makes combustion possible on a atomic level to matter at the junction of the CNO cycles where one or another family of Bacteria uses matter as fuel to bind en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nitrus_oxide to en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Carbon , by means the 'intestinal fortitude' of en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanobacteria functioning as the atomic core of Dark Matter and Energy in its role in combustion process at the atomic level, bring light to life as heat and the building blocks of the food chain where there is no waste whereby matter bound is form and released in Hydrogen bonds of demi-big bang being 'ripped' free and re broken to 'dribble out' and vent safely though a series of (black at night type) holes in the Earths ozone, past the gas giants of the solar system, and or then, back up to the 'mother ship' of a Black Hole in the middle of the galaxy to be reprocessed into basic matter and new stars; imho, and according to my version of the General Unified Theory the remainder of the combusted Matter is spun off from the inferno in a Energy input = Energy output to/fro Earth over Space Time in visual form as a large pile of 'mass equivalence' goes 'up in smoke' c/o Bacteria in concert with the food chain, as ordained by people, and their Stars.

 

A bacterial 'method of accounting' for the elements of the combustion chains common denominators power supply in the case of everything in the above photo from; the grill, to vehicles fuels, to the lights, to the ingredients served food chain creation, all draw by means the power of bacteria and returning energy to the Sun as organic chemistry in the waste streams returning V.O.C.'s + 'free radicals' back to Black Holes for 'rework' by means the food and combustion chains machinery along with resultant thermal energy as heat - not unlike a watch, all pieces of the machinery are required which to tell time, and or power, key, and, gear the Universes continuously running of a waste free process with zero inefficiencies in the (re) winding of the atomic clockworks of the; en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Phylogenetic_tree.svg by means of the 'arrow of time' being organic and thus a natural explanation and account for the Material Science and Physics of the Past, Present, and, Future expanding the Universe in the micro and macro at the en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cosmological_constant .

  

By means of McDonald's cunning control of the food chains macro and micro of ingredients respective half life through the applied combination of combustion and the Bose Einstein condensate as expressed in the freezer and refrigeration processes with the heat of the deep frier and grill wiped clean of 'bugs' by the hygiene process ("If you have time to clean you have time to clean")^ to grease the wheels of maximum predictability to add velocity as a expression of 'fast food' running at ultra high velocity of the supply chain, so as to be both profitable and by keeping the flipping quantum burgers and selling them as levers on the 'half life' of life which is so much en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Energy-mass_equivalence on the 'hoof and or bun' or Dark Matter and Energy fueling the present, driving the futures expansion, while drawing off the power of the past, in the process of repairing the pasts quarks, while moving the industrial age super high speed supply chain fast, from freezer to grill, such that very little spoils in becoming breakfast, lunch or dinner in the many super saturated heartbeats kept in motion - so to speak in praise of the high velocity of the nutrition moving by means of a menu offered at the counter or 24/7 at drive thru that binds and connects a world by 'bill of fare' from a common 'supply chain' to forge the common bond of 'been there, ate that'; got that "Happy Meal" feeling and connectivity by means of 'you are what you eat', as one of the 'billions served' and thus bonded at a atomic level this 'Small World:tm: is formed and powered said as a gear in the machinery of moving the Universe forward at exactly the Cosmological Constant one burger and fry in the fabric of Space to keep the 'arrow of time' in 'free flight' by means the perpetual power of Dark Matter and Energy.

 

Bacteria' sub-atomic bond's further self identify themselves as Dark Matter in terms of; en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Food_energy when busted through the above mentioned data points over Space Time shot though the single cellular 'buns' of the expanse of the power of said Bacteria whose role in the formation of all fuels that have the power and volume and necessary gas byproducts fuel the building blocks and heat the life as we know it of a expanding Universe, as I understand the Grande Scheme as it seems to be -- making more sense every day, in light of the evidence w/o bacteria there is no serving billions and billions over the course of space and time breakfast, lunch, and dinner, anyplace, anytime, anywhere; with perfectly predictable results.

 

While searching for Bacteria as the missing link in the Dark Matter puzzle and or cog in the Universal gear box, by looking for evidence that amounts to proof of the above thesis in a late 20st century hydrocarbon fueled economy based and chase scene as a conceptual word problem/thought exercise of the quantum dynamics of the following to power the atomic chain reaction that is the contents of this clip, (and the following cinematic immortal chase scene) from The Blues Brothers film, from the point of the line; 'Hit It': E.g. www.youtube.com/watch?v=gvKs2VLmVnY it is all one vast Cyanobacteria powered Hydrocarbon coming unglued in a cinematic en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chain_reaction set of events that flow from that '...full tank of gas' and those of the Illinois State Police and Chicago Police Department pursuit fleets respective fuel supplies by my estimates and a per this hypothesis, which also can be made as a means of the (bacteria) count for a Dark Matter math made of the original quality of the crude oil or gas sourced as energy not needed to remove it is some sort of V.O.C. or sulfur in the refining processes as I (begin to attempt to) under stand that phase of the hydrocarbon world, by thinking through what Nature did to produce the worlds resource map over time and space in the micro and macro c/o the predictable expansion of the 'Bacteria count' (method of comprehending this system writ large is), that it is the metaphorical and literal chemical keys to the locks that 'unchain' the Energy of the rest of the Dark Material Energies machinery in the subatomic bits as expressed and transmitted in larger life forms of the; en.wikipedia.org/wiki/File:Phylogenetic_tree.svg by means the turning of the wheels in the perpetual generational workings of the 'circle of life', species specific grade grind.

 

It is key to my understanding the organic driver of Matter over time and space as the vector of radiant Energy from the Sun up the food chain, with the feed back loop to the source Stars paired quark, and or Black Hole so the Yin Yang of the Universe is observed yet expansion happens at the speed of light curved at the rate of expansion of the this corner of the Universe as defined by its mix of atoms as apples of the proverbial/metaphorical/literal Phylogenetic tree to which all life is connected as "Star stuff" back at some Sun -- in to/fro runs that never stops this and all other local worlds turning by means of the power of quarks in free flight repair.*

 

Further insight to my thinking on Dark Matter can be achieved though the point of view of the functionality of the Chicago Mercantile Exchange as a thought experiment the price theory calculations of the trading of the relative Dark Material 'bacteriological load' of what wikipedia cites as; "Agricultural Commodity Contracts to include: Live Cattle, Lean Hogs,Feeder Cattle, Class IV Milk, Class III Milk, Frozen Pork Bellies, International Skimmed Milk Powder (ISM), Nonfat Dry Milk, Deliverable Nonfat Dry Milk, Dry Whey, Cash-Settled Butter, Butter, Random Length Lumber, Softwood Pulp, Hardwood Pulp. " - en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Chicago_Mercantile_Exchange hence, whole crops and 'great herds' have their market price known in dollar value and therefore understood by the 'group mind' as expressed by the market on a dynamic basis as a set of outcomes based on decisions which would therefor also enable a Game Theory analysis of the functions of the interplay of bacteria as Dark Matter over Time and Space on the Markets writ large so as to make a certain amount of micro and macro economic sense out of reality to my mind -- as a function of its Dark Matter in motion and working out such things as impacts on crop rotation and micro climate as expressed in soil, flora, fauna, and in the end expressed as the en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Foreign_exchange_market as reflected in the worth of a countries economic fortune and political sense as determined by the rest of the world as an expression of the market (volatility expressed as a aspect of the Geo Politic) to put a numerical fine point on this biological bacterial concept as having a economic and political reality in its ultimate expression, where as we know; " en.wikipedia.org/wiki/All_politics_is_local " material-logically, and economically speaking and understanding the language of 'knowledge being power'.

  

Therefore, kindly consider the concept of the 'lines of communication' as a historic reflection of this method of bacterial transmission of the hydrogen and nitrogen bonds by means the; en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Spice_Route and its consequence; as a means transmission by mode of market propelled by men moving matter to markets in their bacterial based bodies made of what they ate as they hauling spices in flowing robes more or less doing the bidding of The Bacteria (as matter and antimatter in the form of bodies and antibodies) the runs their Genome as a means of maintaining health and spread direction by means slaying en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Maxwell%27s_demon by overwhelming the Demon with the message in the material in the form of the spices transported to form immunity. A soul 'being you are what you ate' is therefore as intense as its 'spice matrix', held together by such things as those same trace nutrients salts that make the whole micro a expression of the en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nutrient_cycle of the macro as seen above in the spice rout 'moving matter'/the en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Mass-energy_equivalence of dehydrated spice 'on the hoof'/over time and space 'in sickness and health' using the spice to charge the immune system to the stars, and thereby expand the human 'group mind' in the process. So goes bacteria and the immune system running down the en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Efficient_energy_use highway somewhere as the saying, movie title and, quark repair goes; 'Back to the Future" to form the present as the arrow of time accounted for.

 

Back to present where let's consider for a moment the line of cars at the drive through running on hydrocarbons which are spewing the byproducts of combustion out their exhaust pipes as so much proto-photo-chemical glue bacteria/N2O and then digested by the process into so many VOC's emissions and ozone and or the local Dark Matter mat (you see as dirty snow/particulates) which then tends to coat the local population in a binding network of common chemical bonds care of the haze of bacteria spewed forth bacteria working their digestive magic by making and breaking hydrocarbons into bits of matter to yield energy as well as unintended consequences of letting loose bacteria to form more N2O and thus make matter in a loop, which explains quite a bit in a expanding Universe with that en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Faint_young_Sun_paradox in need of resolution as accounting does providing the 'gas' in the form of none other than Bacteria/and the combustion gas producers in the Phylogenetic tree that make themselves the self evident candidates for the vital role of Dark Matter in producing Energy, by means of a technical explanation of the organic reality of the engineering of heat, light, and life made possible.

 

*Attributions and Notes;

Part of the Title of this essay is a reference from a James Q. Wilson appreciation and quotation in the Wall Street Journal;

online.wsj.com/news/articles/SB10001424052970203986604577...

- "The joke about the French philosopher—"We know it works in fact, but will it work in theory?"

  

Sources and Thanks;

Wikipedia multiple instances as links indicate, The New York Times, The Blues Brothers (movies), The Science News, The Science Daily, The Scientific American, Smithsonian (magazine and websites), Grand Master Cho, Donald Street Jr., (the spirits of) Larry Bird, Bruce Lee, Floyd Little, Keith Moon, Ray Kroc, Kenneth G. Wilson, Niels Bohr, Lewis Alvarez, Hans Bethe, Richard Feynman,Carl Woese, my Grandparents, parents, as expressed in 'the group spirit and mind' found in the halls of Education, Science and Industry all inclusive.

 

Magazines and Newspapers read with regularity; Wired, New Yorker, New York Times, Atlantic, The Economist, The Science News, Smithsonian, Rolling Stone, Vanity Fair, Wooden Boat, The Guardian, and The Wall Street Journal.

Thanks to the folks, their content provided on pages served by wikipedia, Linkedin, 'The' google and youtube.

  

All citations and video links are strictly for informational power of navel gazing and educational purposes only.

All brain farts and typos mine. 'Pardon my prose', this is a work in progress and can be read with that in mind and clean through w/o hitting the links then on second pass go in for the hypertext as topically curious.

Note: no entertainment value or incidental rights explicit or implicit assumed by citations to to or fro links contained herein.

Not unlike the original ideas about Dark Matter and Energy or any incidental cosmic-intellectual sod busted along the way of this thought exercise verbalized as semi complete set of insights, to go with the rest of my analysis of the "'Color Theory' of Dark Matter and Energy", are my uncompensated business (in passive-aggressive search of a publisher) that ponders another paragraph on the how the Universe works through the lens that is outside looking in at Bacteria's nuclear material manifesting itself as a function of the expansion of the Universe as powered by nothing less than the Dark Material heart that beats by means the expansive radiant Energy of Cyanobacteria, made oh so edible at McDonald's.

 

rev. 1/17/2014

 

^ "Some people say he (McDonald's founder Ray Kroc) was almost obsessed with cleanliness." - money.howstuffworks.com/mcdonalds1.htm

 

* My topically related hyper-detailed, and 'dense as a young Star' 'Full Report' on why; "'The Dark Side of' Matter and Energy Sets the Speed of Lights Limits, A Photo Essay with Image 'Remixed' by 'Dream 11'"

flic.kr/p/8zt3aQ

  

For clarity, 'roll-over' notes presented as continuous comment moving from the bottom Right to the lower Left by way of the 'Finish Line' in the 'roll-over' mode noting in that order the pickup truck driver, sign, and drive up window as a series of metaphors, folded down to this, with apologies for the technology;

 

No doubt driver is off working on a en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_deduction proof of Bacteria as Dark Matter and Energy in his spare time, when not otherwise engaged in survival. Never mind, the guy across the street with the camera did all that in his head. You can check via this intense method, and or by just reading on into this train of a chain reaction of thought that is parked right here in this space.

 

The "FinishLine" and Time are illusory concepts unless you happen to be en..wikipedia.org/wiki/Michael_Phelps because it seems more the case as once more or less was stated that;

“Life is a (bacteriological driven) journey, not a destination.”

Not unlike ― Robert Frosts road predating McDonalds and thus 'less traveled' non the less memorable and a immortal 'difference maker', E,g.;

www.poemhunter.com/poem/the-road-not-taken/

 

The Road Not Taken

 

Two roads diverged in a yellow wood,

And sorry I could not travel both

And be one traveler, long I stood

And looked down one as far as I could

To where it bent in the undergrowth;

 

Then took the other, as just as fair,

And having perhaps the better claim

Because it was grassy and wanted wear,

Though as for that the passing there

Had worn them really about the same,

 

And both that morning equally lay

In leaves no step had trodden black.

Oh, I marked the first for another day!

Yet knowing how way leads on to way

I doubted if I should ever come back.

 

I shall be telling this with a sigh

Somewhere ages and ages hence:

Two roads diverged in a wood, and I,

I took the one less traveled by,

And that has made all the difference.

 

- Robert Frost

 

Humans Carry More Bacterial Cells than Human Ones n -- is bunk -- www.sciencenews.org/article/body%E2%80%99s-bacteria-don%E...

 

Never the less there are bacteria running the health 'code' if you have any grip on -- health and good eating in general to form a whole package that can comprehend the 'body census' POV as formed;

By Melinda Wenner

www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=strange-but-tru...

 

Which seems to be confirmed by The New York Times on July 14, 2014 in Personal Health -- as

"We Are Our Bacteria"

By Jane E. Brody; nyti.ms/1zBrZrJ

 

Further proof in the cosmic 'pudding' of this 'line of logic' applied as matter made as not only burgers, but The Bahamas being Cyanoacterial 'born' from the micro to the 'Big Macro'' --> e.g.:

Bahamas Bacteria May Feast on Dust from the Saharan Desert

By Laura Geggel, | July 29, 2014 03:01pm ET

www.livescience.com/47072-sahara-dust-great-bahama-bank.html

 

and then there is the distinct -

 

"Possible layout of the quarks in a pentaquark particle. The five quarks might be tightly bound (left). The five quarks might be tightly bound. They might also be assembled into a meson (one quark and one anti quark) and a baryon (three quarks), weakly bound together."

 

lifeboat.com/blog/2015/08/exotic-pentaquark-particle-disc... --

 

Therefore, hence, consequently, I deduce that is whence we derive in and from Nature the needed sub atomic gears in the fabric of the Universe which are formed by the (2x2 quarks + 1 en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axion )accounted for now as being present in the form factors of the colors blue and green quarks two each, plus the 'wild red' Axion (that transports the above linked font of information by means the power of "The (micro) RGB Light") manufactured in that thar recurring blue-green en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cyanobacteria producing the -- 'show must go on business' -- which in turn forms the 'stage' that is the Saharan dust that explains the Bahamas’ paradoxical existence by "Windblown nutrients may fertilize island-building bacteria" as a footprint formed in the macro.

 

BY Thomas Sumner July 11, 2014

Magazine issue: Vol. 186 No. 3, August 9, 2014

 

"Dust-fertilized cyanobacteria could also explain the origin of carbonate rocks elsewhere in the ocean that formed over 400 million years ago, before mollusks and corals evolved, Swart says."

www.sciencenews.org/article/saharan-dust-explains-bahamas...

 

Also this same issue rises like unwelcome phoenix in the same 'waters' of the mid Atlantic -- as cosmic glue factory brews anew batch of the 'super bloom';

(side note -- google --> glue factory + smell)-; blogs.discovermagazine.com/d-brief/2016/07/06/why-toxic-c...

 

As proof in the (logical) pudding, that makes pudding, Planets, and the Universe, perpetually possible -- by means the gears of nature being organic and borne by light electrically as explained by "Albert Einstein's mathematical description of how the photoelectric effect was caused by absorption of quanta of light was in one of his 1905 papers, named "On a Heuristic Viewpoint Concerning the Production and Transformation of Light". "

 

- en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Photoelectric_effect illustrated.

  

CJC

Rev. 6/8/2016

   

"It hardly comes as any surprise that after being held in solitary confinement for five years and being subjected to torture, these detainees would reject the legal system and offers to represent them. It is highly suspect that the government changed its protocols for the interaction of the defendants on the very day they were arraigned. For several years they've been held separately without communication and yet, on the day of their arraignment, they were allowed to interact with the obvious goal of allowing them to present a unified rejection of legal representation.

 

"No matter who is representing these defendants, many of whom have been abused and tortured, there needs to be a process in place that adheres to the values of due process and the rule of law that are the foundations of American justice — and this isn't it. Without constitutional guarantees in place, any verdict rendered by these proceedings will be regarded as illegitimate by the American people and in the eyes of the world."

 

-- Anthony Romero commenting on Khalid Sheikh Mohammed's rejection of legal defense on June 5, 2008. www.aclu.org/safefree/detention/35536prs20080605.html

 

Support the John Adams Project:

www.aclu.org/safefree/detention/johnadams.html

SS........EVERY VOTE FOR OBAMA........EVERY VOTE....WAS A VOTE TO DESTROY YOUR OWN COUNTRY

YOU FOOLISH IGNORANT PEOPLE

 

islam a system/obama spends your $20 million to bring Hamas "refugees" to US.You just spent $20,000,000 to move members and supporters of Hamas, a terrorist organization, to the United States ; housing, food, the whole enchilada.

 

HB 1388 PASSED

This is the news that didn't make the headlines.

 

By executive order, President Barack Obama has ordered the expenditure of $20.3 million in "migration assistance" to the Palestinian refugees and "conflict victims" in Gaza .

 

The "presidential determination", which allows hundreds of thousands of Palestinians with ties to Hamas to resettle in the United States , was signed and appears in the Federal Register.

 

Few on Capitol Hill, or in the media, took note that the order provides a free ticket replete with housing and food allowances to individuals who have displayed their overwhelming support to the Islamic Resistance Movement (Hamas) in the parliamentary election of January 2006.

 

Now we learn that he is allowing thousands of Palestinian refuges to move to, and live in, the US at American taxpayer expense.

 

These important, and insightful, issues are being "lost" in the blinding bail-outs and "stimulation" packages.

  

---

Islam is not a religion, nor is it a cult. In its fullest form, it is a complete, total, 100% system of life.

 

Islam has religious, legal, political, economic, social, and military

components. The religious component is a beard for all of the other

components.

 

Islamization begins when there are sufficient Muslims in a country to

agitate for their religious privileges.

 

When politically correct, tolerant, and culturally diverse societies

agree to Muslim demands for their religious privileges, some of the

other components tend to creep in as well.

 

Here's how it works:

 

As long as the Muslim population remains around or under 2% in any given

country, they will be for the most part be regarded as a peace-loving

minority, and not as a threat to other citizens. This is the case in:

 

United States -- Muslim 0.6%

Australia -- Muslim 1.5%

Canada -- Muslim 1.9%

China -- Muslim 1.8%

Italy -- Muslim 1.5%

Norway -- Muslim 1.8%

 

At 2% to 5%, they begin to proselytize from other ethnic minorities and

disaffected groups, often with major recruiting from the jails and among

street gangs. This is happening in:

 

Denmark -- Muslim 2%

Germany -- Muslim 3.7%

United Kingdom -- Muslim 2.7%

Spain -- Muslim 4%

Thailand -- Muslim 4.6%

 

From 5% on, they exercise an inordinate influence in proportion to their

percentage of the population. For example, they will push for the

introduction of halal (clean by Islamic standards) food, thereby

securing food preparation jobs for Muslims. They will increase pressure

on supermarket chains to feature halal on their shelves -- along with

threats for failure to comply. This is occurring in:

 

France -- Muslim 8%

Philippines -- 5%

Sweden -- Muslim 5%

Switzerland -- Muslim 4.3%

The Netherlands -- Muslim 5.5%

Trinidad & Tobago -- Muslim 5.8%

 

At this point, they will work to get the ruling government to allow them

to rule themselves (within their ghettos) under Sharia, the Islamic Law.

The ultimate goal of Islamists is to establish Sharia law over the

entire world.

 

When Muslims approach 10% of the population, they tend to increase

lawlessness as a means of complaint about their conditions. In Paris, we

are already seeing car-burnings. Any non-Muslim action offends Islam and

results in uprisings and threats, such as in Amsterdam, with opposition

to Mohammed cartoons and films about Islam. Such tensions are seen

daily, particularly in Muslim sections in:

 

Guyana -- Muslim 10%

India -- Muslim 13.4%

Israel -- Muslim 16%

Kenya -- Muslim 10%

Russia -- Muslim 15%

 

After reaching 20%, nations can expect hair-trigger rioting, jihad

militia formations, sporadic killings, and the burnings of Christian

churches and Jewish synagogues, such as in:

 

Ethiopia -- Muslim 32.8%

 

At 40%, nations experience widespread massacres, chronic terror attacks,

and ongoing militia warfare, such as in:

 

Bosnia -- Muslim 40%

Chad -- Muslim 53.1%

Lebanon -- Muslim 59.7%

 

From 60%, nations experience unfettered persecution of non-believers of

all other religions (including non-conforming Muslims), sporadic ethnic

cleansing (genocide), use of Sharia Law as a weapon, and Jizya, the tax

placed on infidels, such as in:

 

Albania -- Muslim 70%

Malaysia -- Muslim 60.4%

Qatar -- Muslim 77.5%

Sudan -- Muslim 70%

 

After 80%, expect daily intimidation and violent jihad, some State-run

ethnic cleansing, and even some genocide, as these nations drive out the

infidels, and move toward 100% Muslim, such as has been experienced and

in some ways is on-going in:

 

Bangladesh -- Muslim 83%

Egypt -- Muslim 90%

Gaza -- Muslim 98.7%

Indonesia -- Muslim 86.1%

Iran -- Muslim 98%

Iraq -- Muslim 97%

Jordan -- Muslim 92%

Morocco -- Muslim 98.7%

Pakistan -- Muslim 97%

Palestine -- Muslim 99%

Syria -- Muslim 90%

Tajikistan -- Muslim 90%

Turkey -- Muslim 99.8%

United Arab Emirates -- Muslim 96%

 

100% will usher in the peace of 'Dar-es-Salaam' -- the Islamic House of

Peace. Here there's supposed to be peace, because everybody is a Muslim,

the Madrasses are the only schools, and the Koran is the only word, such

as in:

 

Afghanistan -- Muslim 100%

Saudi Arabia -- Muslim 100%

Somalia -- Muslim 100%

Yemen -- Muslim 100%

 

Unfortunately, peace is never achieved, as in these 100% states the most

radical Muslims intimidate and spew hatred, and satisfy their blood lust

by killing less radical Muslims, for a variety of reasons.

 

'Before I was nine, I had learned the basic canon of Arab life. It was me

against my brother; me and my brother against our father; my family

against my cousins and the clan; the clan against the tribe; the tribe

against the world, and all of us against the infidel. -- Leon Uris, 'The

Haj'

 

It is important to understand that in some countries, with well under

100% Muslim populations, such as France, the minority Muslim populations

live in ghettos, within which they are 100% Muslim, and within which

they live by Sharia Law. The national police do not even enter these

ghettos. There are no national courts, nor schools, nor non-Muslim

religious facilities. In such situations, Muslims do not integrate into

the community at large. The children attend madrasses. They learn only

the Koran. To even associate with an infidel is a crime punishable with

death. Therefore, in some areas of certain nations, Muslim Imams and

extremists exercise more power than the national average would indicate.

 

Today's 1.5 billion Muslims make up 22% of the world's population. But

their birth rates dwarf the birth rates of Christians, Hindus,

Buddhists, Jews, and all other believers. Muslims will exceed 50% of the

world's population by the end of this century.

 

Well, boys and girls, today we are letting the fox guard the henhouse.

The wolves will be herding the sheep!

 

Obama appoints two devout Muslims to Homeland Security posts. Doesn't

this make you feel safer already?

 

Obama and Janet Napolitano appoint Arif Alikhan, a devout Muslim, as

Assistant Secretary for Policy Development.

 

DHS Secretary Janet Napolitano swore in Kareem Shora, a devout Muslim

who was born in Damascus, Syria, as ADC National Executive Director as a

member of the Homeland Security Advisory Council (HSAC).

 

NOTE: Has anyone ever heard a new government official being identified

as a devout Catholic, a devout Jew or a devout Protestant...? Just

wondering.

 

Devout Muslims being appointed to critical Homeland Security positions?

Doesn't this make you feel safer already??

 

That should make the US' homeland much safer, huh!!

Was it not "Devout Muslim men" that flew planes into U.S. buildings 8

years ago?

 

Was it not a Devout Muslim who killed 13 at Fort Hood?

 

Also: This is very interesting and we all need to read it from start to finish. Maybe this is why our American Muslims are so quiet and not speaking out about any atrocities. Can a good Muslim be a good American? This question was forwarded to a friend who worked in Saudi Arabia for 20 years. The following is his reply:

Theologically - no . . . Because his allegiance is to Allah, The moon God of Arabia

Religiously – no… Because no other religion is accepted by His Allah except Islam (Quran, 2:256)(Koran)

Scripturally - no… Because his allegiance is to the five Pillars of Islam and the Quran.

Geographically – no… Because his allegiance is to Mecca, to which he turns in prayer five times a day.

Socially - no… Because his allegiance to Islam forbids him to make friends with Christians or Jews..

Politically - no…Because he must submit to the mullahs (spiritual leaders), who teach annihilation of Israel and destruction of America, the great Satan.

Domestically - no… Because he is instructed to marry four Women and beat and scourge his wife when she disobeys him (Quran 4:34)

Intellectually - no… Because he cannot accept the American Constitution since it is based on Biblical principles and he believes the Bible to be corrupt.

Philosophically - no… Because Islam, Muhammad, and the Quran do not allow freedom of religion and expression.. Democracy and Islam cannot co-exist. Every Muslim government is either dictatorial or autocratic.

Spiritually - no… Because when we declare 'one nation under God,' the Christian's God is loving and kind, while Allah is NEVER referred to as Heavenly father, nor is he ever called love in The Quran's 99 excellent names.

Therefore, after much study and deliberation....

Perhaps we should be very suspicious of ALL MUSLIMS

in this country. - - - They obviously cannot be both 'good' Muslims and good Americans.

Call it what you wish, it's still the truth. You had better believe it. The more who understand this, the better it will be for our country and our future. The religious war is bigger than we know or understand.

Can a muslim be a good soldier???

 

Army Maj. Nidal Malik Hasan, opened fire at Ft. Hood and Killed 13. He is a good Muslim!!!

Footnote: The Muslims have said they will destroy us from within.

SO FREEDOM IS NOT FREE.

    

Read more at www.liveleak.com/view?i=e5e_1278697923#QZHeOOKCU7ulgPgt.99

 

==============================================================================

2ND ARTICLE

 

An Explanatory Memorandum on the General Strategic Goal for the Brotherhood in North America

by Mohamed Akram

May 19, 1991

 

View the full document

 

Summary:

 

This May 1991 memo was written by Mohamed Akram, a.k.a. Mohamed Adlouni, for the Shura Council of the Muslim Brotherhood. In the introductory letter, Akram referenced a "long-term plan…approved and adopted" by the Shura Council in 1987 and proposed this memo as a supplement to that plan and requested that the memo be added to the agenda for an upcoming Council meeting. Appended to the document is a list of all Muslim Brotherhood organizations in North America as of 1991.

 

Notable quotes:

 

Enablement of Islam in North America, meaning: establishing an effective and stable Islamic Movement led by the Muslim Brotherhood which adopts Muslims' causes domestically and globally, and which works to expand the observant Muslim base, aims at unifying and directing Muslims' efforts, presents Islam as a civilization alternative, and supports the global Islamic state, wherever it is.

 

In order for Islam and its Movement to become "a part of the homeland" in which it lives, "stable" in its land, "rooted" in the spirits and minds of its people, "enabled" in the live [sic] of its society and has firmly-established "organizations" on which the Islamic structure is built and with which the testimony of civilization is achieved, the Movement must plan and struggle to obtain "the keys" and the tools of this process in carry [sic] out this grand mission as a "Civilization Jihadist" responsibility which lies on the shoulders of Muslims and – on top of them – the Muslim Brotherhood in this country.

 

The process of settlement is a "Civilization-Jihadist Proecess" with all the word means. The Ikhwan must understand that their work in America is a kind of grand Jihad in eliminating and destroying the Western civilization from within and "sabotaging" its miserable house by their hands and the hands of the believers so that it is eliminated and God's religion is made victorious over all other religions. Without this level of understanding, we are not up to this challenge and have not prepared ourselves for Jihad yet. It is a Muslim's destiny to perform Jihad and work wherever he is and wherever he lands until the final hour comes, and there is no escape from that destiny except for those who chose to slack. But, would the slackers and the Mujahedeen be equal.

 

SS.......SHUTTERBROKE POSTED A LINK TO THE 2ND ARTICLE IN COMMENT SECTION BELOW

 

==========================================================================

3rd ARTICLE ...2012 ELECTION RESULTS

 

islam of course was very very happy with the 2012 election outcome

as stated in their press releases and letters

Islamists Congratulate Obama On Election Win "Look Forward" To Working With Him

November 9, 2012

 

MIM: Islamists are lauding the re election of Obama who they consider to be one of them. The White House's open door policy for radical Islamist groups and individuals will continue. It is also a curious "coincidence" that two terrorist operatives were "delisted" one from the 'designated terrorist list' and another from an FBI 'no fly' list one day after the election. Both Islamists are now in the United States. See"Terror Tied Muslims Dropped From Government Watch Lists - Bin Laden Friend Enaam Arnaout and Hamas Operative Muhammed Salah". www.militantislammonitor.org/article/id/5477

 

Obama was endorsed by Muslim Brotherhood leader Hasan al - Turabi a Bin Laden friend from Sudan. Al-Turabi stated that "he's gentle with the Muslims generally". www.militantislammonitor.org/article/id/5470

 

The boiler plate congratulatory statements by Islamist groups below state that they are "looking forward" to working with Obama and his administration and encourages Muslims to take a leading role in shaping American society and furthering their agenda for global dominance. This means pushing for the implementation of sharia,special priviledges for Muslims, criminalizing criticism of Islam and replacing the Constitution with the Koran.

 

ISNA November 7, 2012

 

The Islamic Society of North America joins our fellow Americans and world leaders in congratulating Barack Obama on his re-election to a second term as the President of the United States. We also wish to acknowledge Governor Mitt Romney for a hard fought campaign that helped advance our national discourse on issues of critical importance.

 

Obama's election in 2008 as our first African American President demonstrated that America strongly embraces its increasingly pluralistic identity. President Obama has since enhanced this vision by expanding the Whitehouse Office for Faith-Based and Neighborhood Partnerships improving outreach to minority communities across the United States. He has also struggled persistently to reverse the economic downturn, improve international relations, reform our health care system and address climate change. While much more work needs to be done, we congratulate him for his efforts in these areas for the past four years.

 

The next four years will be a pivotal time to continue efforts to boost the economy, increase jobs across America, and address a number of other critical issues. We ask all Americans to join us in praying that President Obama provides the nation with outstanding leadership during this next term, acting with conscience and compassion for all people and upholding the rights of the people he serves.

 

We hope and pray that the conclusion of this election season will lead to a newly re-energized and bipartisan approach to the numerous issues that our nation and our world are facing. Among other things, we urge President Obama and his Administration to bring about:

 

•Comprehensive standards to prevent religiously based discrimination and violence across the country, especially among members of federal and local law enforcement

•More effective and robust poverty assistance for those still struggling from the economic downturn

•Renewed efforts to promote peace and stability in the Middle East.

•The closure of the prison at Guantanamo Bay

•A comprehensive plan to address climate change by reducing pollution, supporting clean energy solutions, and preserving our national resources.

•Continued support for the Arab Spring and popular movements toward freedom and democracy across the globe

•Comprehensive immigration reform

•A reduction in the national debt

We look forward to working with the President and his Administration on these and other issues to strengthen our union and better our world.

 

www.isna.net/articles/News/ISNA-Congratulates-President-B...

 

------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

WASHINGTON, Nov. 5 /PRNewswire-USNewswire/ -- The Council on American-Islamic Relations (CAIR) today congratulated President-elect Barack Obama on his election win and offered the Muslim community's support for ensuring that America remains both safe and free.

 

In a statement, CAIR National Executive Director Nihad Awad said:

 

"CAIR, America's largest Islamic civil rights and advocacy group, offers its congratulations to President-elect Barack Obama on his historic election to our nation's highest office. President-elect Obama's victory sends the unmistakable message that America is a nation that offers equal opportunity to people of all backgrounds.

 

"While congratulating President-elect Obama on his win, we also recognize the heavy burden placed on those in a leadership role. To be effective, any person in a position of authority needs the support and sound advice of those he or she leads.

 

"We look forward to having the opportunity to work with the Obama administration in protecting the civil rights of all Americans, projecting an accurate image of America in the Muslim world and playing a positive role in securing our nation."

 

CAIR has 35 offices and chapters nationwide and in Canada. Its mission is to enhance the understanding of Islam, encourage dialogue, protect civil liberties, empower American Muslims, and build coalitions that promote justice and mutual understanding.

 

CONTACT: CAIR National Communications Director Ibrahim Hooper, 202-488-8787 or 202-744-7726, E-Mail: ihooper@cair.com; CAIR Communications Coordinator Amina Rubin, 202-488-8787, E-Mail: arubin@cair.com

   

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

MANA Congratulates President-elect Barack Hussein Obama

 

The Muslim Alliance in North America congratulates President-elect Barack Hussein Obama on winning his bid for President of the United States of America. This election was historic in many ways and we know Muslims became actively involved.

 

We pray that Allah, Most High, will purify Obama's heart, guide his actions and policies, and protect him and his family as he leads this nation. Furthermore, we encourage American Muslims to engage in forging an agenda and shaping the future of our society.

 

Let us all strive to be at the forefront of change in America--fighting for truth, justice and peace, and advocating for issues and policies that impact American Muslims and Muslims around the world, insha'Allah. I'm thankful to Allah that this striving is truly what drives the goals and initiatives at MANA.

 

May Allah, Most High, keep all of us rightly guided and obedient to His will.

www.mana-net.org/pages.php?ID=activism&NUM=1011

 

---------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

MPAC Congratulates

President Obama on His Re-Election

 

November 7, 2012

 

MPAC congratulates President Barack Obama for winning a second term as President of the United States of America. At the Election Night Results Party held in the Washington, DC area last night, more than 150 American Muslims gathered to await the results and broke into applause and cheering when the results were announced.

 

Yesterday, our nation and the world watched as the election results came in precinct by precinct and state by state, and in the end, Obama won both the electoral and popular vote of Americans. Obama received 303 electoral votes and 50 percent of the popular votes.

 

"As history has shown and we've all experienced first-hand, campaign season can prove to be very divisive," said Salam Al-Marayati, MPAC President. "We applaud and congratulate the American people for moving past the negativity and maintaining the bigger picture of an ever-progressive and inclusive America."

 

Al-Marayati was joined by commentators Ahmed Younis and Wajahat Ali for a candid and lively discussion last night at the gathering in Washington, DC. After all this time and campaign work, they agreed, the real work begins today for America.

 

As Obama mentioned in his acceptance speech last night, "the role of citizens in our democracy does not end with your vote." Obama has four more years as the leader of our nation and as such, we look forward to engaging him on the difficult issues, both in frustrating times and prosperous moments.

 

We expect much from this administration, as we would of any administration, and we are confident that our continued engagement will prove fruitful for the benefit of all Americans.

 

The American Muslim community has put forth many questions that need to be answered. Will Obama make real immigration reform a priority? Will Obama keep his '08 campaign promise of closing Guantanamo Bay? Will he continue drone strikes? Will he take action to end the atrocities in Syria?

 

MPAC looks forward to working with both the administration and lawmakers from both parties to ensure that our nation moves forward. Last night, Americans sent a message to their political leaders that they want them to work together and stop the political gridlock.

 

www.mpac.org/programs/government-relations/mpac-congratul...

 

-------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Freedom and Justice Party Congratulates Obama on Re-Election As US President – Ikhwanweb:

 

The Egyptian Muslim Brotherhood has issued a statement congratulating President Obama on his reelection. According to the statement:

 

Wednesday, November 7,2012 23:32 IkhwanWeb The Freedom and Justice Party sent a congratulatory message to Barack Obama on his re-election as President of the United States, expressing hope his second term would witness more fruitful cooperation between the Egyptian and American peoples for the benefit of both countries. The FJP also expressed hope US foreign policy would change to play the leading role expected of it as a super power and a real and fair partner in dealing with the Palestinian issue."

    

View large.

 

Special NOTE: On Feb. 8, 2012 I attached a comment, readable & easily discoverable on Page 2 of the comments below, that details the vast corporatist scheme, fronted by Jeb Bush, financed in part with hundreds of millions from Rupert Murdoch (FOX nooze), to privatize American public education & reduce it to 'virtual' schools - not to improve anything (as national & international educational research studies clearly show), but rather to become the final recipients of the taxes people pay so that they can skim huge profits off of the top while providing grotesquely inferior services & lots of lying propaganda to keep the public bamboozled. I beg everyone to read the report.

 

The McGuffey's Ecclectic Spelling Book was published in 1879.

 

Raymond Cyrus Hoiles (1878-1970) founded Freedom Communications, a newspaper publishing & broadcasting company that has never hesitated to shape the news to fit right wing ideology. When Hoiles was alive & roaring I lived in Orange County, California, home of the equally right wing Walt Disney & Walter Knott, & was frequently compelled to suffer people who agreed with Hoiles' constantly editorialized insistence that public education was a form of theft & communism that must at once be got rid of. Hoiles was motivated by his fundamentalist Christian persuasions, & quite serious. We should restrain our laughter at the abysmal stupidity of his example, because in many ways he & people like him won & are still winning control of public education. - To introduce the article below, I'll say a little about the Christian strategy.

 

For many years Orange County's teachers worked under a Draconian ruling that forbade the teaching of values. There is no way around the fact, however, that the statement, "Values may not be taught," is itself a value statement belonging to a class of propositions known as Epimenidean Paradoxes. A comparably illustrative sentence would be, "This is not a sentence." Or, a favorite of the best hypnotists, used when addressing a resistant subject, "Do not obey any instruction which I give you."

 

What, then, was intended by those who created the paradoxical Orange County law? Well, if any teacher dared to say or imply something that would be disagreeable to any person whose beliefs began & ended with church, flag & free-for-all capitalism, then that teacher could be charged with teaching values & be suspended. One family friend, a young man teaching at an elementary school in Anaheim, was charged, hounded, publicly disgraced, threatened with death & discharged from his post, immediately after which he died from a heart attack. The case was depicted in Life Magazine. His only crime was that he was Jewish. His wife, also a teacher, remained bereft & embittered the rest of her long life.

 

These people became increasingly invisible over time, largely by devising ever more clever ways for gaining control of both education policy & the public dialogue about education.

 

Ralph Reed, working for Pat Robertson & the Christian Coalition, devised the "stealth agenda" to place fundamentalists in every local school board in America. The plan helped select & fund candidates, who in accord with Reed's instructions never mentioned their religion or religious connections when campaigning for office. In 1983 Reed rigged an election at his university - he got started early, in other words. Recently we learned that Mr. Reed & Jack Abramoff were associate crooks. The revelation forced Reed to abandon his run to become the lieutenant governor of Georgia. Mr. Reed will not disappear, however. He remains a darling of the far Christian right, & owns Century Strategies, a dirty-tricks political consulting & lobbying organization. In 1999 Karl Rove got reed a nice contract with Enron, which was paying Reed $30,000 per month. And guess who recently went to Georgia to try to save poor Reed? Rudy Giuliani, who has the hots to be the next U.S. president & is pandering to the Christians so he can be their new burning Bush.

 

Stealthiness did not go away when the Christian Coalition folded & Reed went off on his own to rig elections for big bucks. Rather, the stealth moved into policy matters. For instance, all the phony propaganda claiming religious & private education is more successful, creating the excuse to promote vouchers (for which the motives are both religious & racist). Or, most recently, Bush's No Child Left Behind Act, which was sought by the Christians not because they believed all the testing of students would lead to improved education, but rather because they wanted teachers to be made too busy preparing students for endless tests about facts to find time to do the great evil thing, which is the teaching of concepts. Teaching concepts leads to teaching logic, scientific & other academic methodologies which by their nature instill respect for critical - read, skeptical - thinking. Dogmatists, advertisers & con men have equal cause to fear skepticism.

-------------------------

 

From: Truthdig.com

 

Taking Back Our Schools--and Fixing Them

 

Full text with links: www.truthdig.com/report/item/20060425_taking_back_our_sch...

 

Posted on Apr. 25, 2006

 

By Wellford Wilms

 

The recent news reported in The New York Times that schools are throwing out science, social studies and art to make time for drilling students in remedial math and reading is a sign of things gone terribly wrong. Former New York State Commissioner of Education Thomas Sobol told the Times that narrowing education to just math and reading would be akin to restricting violin students to playing scales day after day. “They’d lose their zest for music.” But most schools that serve poor populations, like those in Cuero, Texas, are squeezed to meet federal math and reading standards. Cuero Superintendent Henry Lind told the paper, “When you have so many hours per day and you’re behind in some area that’s being hammered on, you have to work on that.”

 

But by the looks of things, hammering students for higher test scores isn’t making much of a difference. Most students have already lost their zest for learning. How do we know? In Los Angeles, upwards of 50% of Latino and African American students never finish high school. This is just the tip of the iceberg.

 

I’ve been a professor of education at UCLA for more than 25 years and am convinced that despite the fads that come and go, nothing has put a dent in the public schools’ failure to educate inner-city children. In fact, things are getting worse. But I am also convinced that we’ve been looking in the wrong places for solutions. My own research across a wide array of organizations—corporations, trade unions, public schools, colleges, teacher unions and police agencies—suggests another way of looking at the problem and that solutions will come from a new direction.

 

This essay is a proposition—one that I hope will spark a lively debate among Truthdig readers and inform policy leaders. Future essays will examine Los Angeles Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa’s campaign to take over the public schools, analyze whether teacher unions can be a force for productive change, and expose promising ways to rebuild public investment in the schools.

 

Let’s start with Jonathan Kozol’s new book, “The Shame of the Nation: The Restoration of Apartheid Schooling in America.” It is a scathing indictment of American social policy that banned racial segregation in public schools in 1955 and then turned a blind eye to its implementation. Today, Kozol says, schools are more segregated than ever. But he fails to explain why resegregation has occurred. Because Kozol overlooks the root causes of the problem, his solutions—spending more money on dysfunctional schools and wishing for a social mandate to desegregate the schools—miss the point.

 

To be sure the problems are undeniable. Kozol examines the appalling condition of big-city schools. In school after school we see children who are brimming with potential but who are walled off from the larger society and abandoned by the schools. Most middle-class white Americans simply cannot comprehend the horrid schools that Kozol describes. Ceilings fall in, toilets are filthy, libraries, music and arts have been stripped away. Teachers in these schools, who are paid 40% less than teachers in the suburbs, are forced to teach “scripted” lessons that are written for children who are deemed incapable of learning.

 

It is all part of the latest reform pushed by the Bush administration’s No Child Left Behind initiative, a reform aimed at the singular pursuit of increasing test scores. Learning has been stripped of its intrinsic meaning and reduced to simplistic steps—“Authentic Writing,” “Active Listening,” “Accountable Talk”—that hamper teachers in teaching anything but how to take a test. Behind it all is an attempt to impose control, much as mass production techniques were used a century ago, to standardize instruction to fit new immigrants to the system.

 

Meanwhile, millions of children are failing. In nearly half of the high schools in America’s 100 largest districts, fewer than 50% of students graduate in four years. Most of these students are from poor Latino and African-American families. And from 1993 to 2000 the number of failing schools has mushroomed by 75%. Mayor Villaraigosa calls Los Angeles’ high dropout rates “numbers that should put a chill down your spine.”

 

The reasons, Kozol argues, are lack of money and racial discrimination that produce inferior and segregated schools. No doubt this is partly true. We have tried to desegregate the schools for a half-century and failed. Middle-class white parents have voted for individual freedom with their feet, enrolling their children in private schools, leaving the public schools more segregated than ever. The same is true for middle-class black families. Gail Foster, an educator who has studied black independent schools, was quoted in 2004 in The New York Times as saying: “Many of the most empowered parents and families are removing their children. What’s left, in even working-class communities, are schools filled with the least empowered families. Families with the least parent involvement to offer, families with the least help with homework to offer. There’s been a continual outflow for at least 10 years, and it isn’t stopping now.”

 

More money is not the answer either. Kozol points to wide disparities in educational expenditures ranging from $11,700 per student in New York City to $22,000 in suburban Manhasset. Disturbing as that is, study after study shows that equalizing money does not necessarily equalize learning.

 

In 1966, sociologist James Coleman conducted the most extensive study ever made of desegregating education and found that what mattered most in students’ learning was the economic status of their peers rather than the racial makeup of the school. He also found that school funding was not closely related to students’ achievement—their families’ economic status was far more predictive. Coleman’s findings were controversial and led to a bitter debate, but they have been replicated many times. Daniel Patrick Moynihan summed it up best when he commented shortly after Coleman’s groundbreaking study, “We should begin to see that the underlying reality is not race but social class.”

 

Since social class matters because money follows privilege, and since desegregation will take generations to eradicate, what can be done now? Are poor children doomed to attend grossly inadequate schools? Surely not. We must find ways to remove the influences that have crippled the schools. Money must be diverted from bloated bureaucracies that snuff out innovation. Instead it must go directly to schools where principals and teachers can influence what is taught and what children learn, and help bring parents back into the fold. Otherwise, it is going down a rat hole.

 

Parents have a significant role to play in their children’s education, but their voices have been largely silenced. Over the last 40 years, we have witnessed the decline of civic involvement and the growing dominance of self-interest over the greater good, a social deterioration that sociologist Robert Putnam calls “hollowing out” in his 2000 book “Bowling Alone.” One result, as the old saying goes, is that “the rich get richer” and the poor fall ever further behind in crumbling schools.

 

Over the last 25 years, education in general has been taken from ordinary citizens and teachers by politicians, administrators, union leaders, publishers, test makers, consultants, university professors, hardware and software developers and the media, each playing its part in keeping alive the illusion of reform. All in all, this $1-trillion industry has replaced the common interest, and no one, it seems, can muster the will to rein it in.

 

Local control is only a dim memory. Decisions now come from the top—from the federal and state governments, school boards and high-level administrators who have little knowledge of what goes on in the classroom. Teachers are left out of these decisions, carrying on the best they can, safe in the assumption that the newest fad, like those before it, will blow over. Parents are all but forgotten.

 

While command-and-control management may seem to produce results in the short run, it strips schools of the capacity to develop the stable leadership that is necessary to sustain success. Principals are besieged with demands from district offices and from the educational fads that emanate from publishers and university researchers. Many principals know that they put their careers in peril unless they do what their bosses want. One elementary school principal told me, “District directives undermine our own abilities to think for ourselves, to believe in what we see and know.” When schools discover something that works, it is rarely sustained because they lack authority or stable leadership.

 

In 1969 when I worked for the U.S. Department of Health, Education and Welfare, I monitored the schools in impoverished Ocean Hill-Brownsville in New York City. The local school board hired a charismatic superintendent, who fired incompetent teachers and hired young and idealistic ones. The firings set the local board at odds with the huge teachers’ union, which demanded due process for the fired teachers. The superintendent, Rhody McCoy, was convinced that good teachers had to respect the children they taught. He put it in plain words: “If you’re convinced that this kid is doomed by nature or by something else to lead a shrunken and curtailed life, then you’re basically incompetent to teach that child.” The experiment worked. Observing classrooms left no doubt in my mind that students were learning. Eager first-graders sat attentively on the floor in semicircles shouting out answers to fraction problems and reading aloud. The schools buzzed with excitement as parent helpers streamed in and out of classrooms. But in a bitter power struggle the board seized authority and the experiment ended.

 

Years later, in 1985, Deborah Meier, a passionate educator who founded Harlem’s Central Park East Secondary School, achieved stunning successes that led the school to be celebrated as a model alternative school in Time magazine. But it could not be sustained beyond Meier’s unique leadership. Today, 10 years after Meier left, a respected children’s advocacy group, Insideschools and Advocates for Children, reports that the Harlem school “…has fallen on hard times in recent years with rapid staff turnover, low staff morale and uneven discipline.”

 

In risk-averse environments like public schools, few principals will stick out their necks, because they don’t want to buck the bosses downtown. Courageous and visionary principals like Rhody McCoy and Deborah Meier keep coming. But charismatic leadership is no match for heavy-handed district management, which always wins out.

 

Take Foshay Learning Center in Los Angeles, for example. In 1989, Howard Lappin took over a failing middle school. With the help of teachers and an infusion of money, Lappin wrested control from the district and transformed Foshay. The school expanded into a K-12 “learning center” and became largely autonomous of the district’s bureaucratic requirements. Teachers and administrators decided who would be hired and what would be taught. Foshay succeeded, and in 2000 its high school was selected by Newsweek as one of the 100 best in America. But in 2001 Lappin retired, and his unique leadership was lost. Today Foshay is being threatened with sanctions by the district and the county because gains in students’ test scores have stalled. As the school has fallen under the district’s “one-size-fits all” bureaucratic requirements, the impact has been to undermine the once vibrant teacher leadership that made the school so enviable.

 

The problem with public education is not with the teachers, or with the children, but the way we organize the schools. Probably the greatest casualties are teachers themselves, who are forced to accept decisions by authorities about teaching that they know to be nonsense. One professor interviewed by Kozol said that forcing an absurdity on teachers teaches something: acquiescence. For example, in study after study, teachers report that relying on test scores as sole marks of student achievement and teaching scripted lessons destroy students’ natural love of learning. And such practices also erode teachers’ professional authority, which is fundamental to student learning.

 

Why is it so hard to foster the only kind of reform that really works, which is right in the schoolhouse? Because politicians, school board members and administrators are under intense pressure to produce immediate results, i.e., higher and higher test scores—a goal that is pursued through directives from districts with little input of principals, teachers and parents. Superintendents serve at the pleasure of school boards, and most board members are elected or appointed and have limited terms of office. As test scores have become the measure of educational quality, everyone is under immense pressure to show fast results or be turned out.

 

No wonder that school boards hire superintendents who promise to deliver quick results. But few do. Superintendents last on average only three or four years. Many are thwarted by outmoded bureaucracies that were designed a century ago using top-down control practiced in American industry to mass-produce learning. Within these organizations, power has quietly accumulated, making them all but impervious to outside influence. Sid Thompson, former superintendent of the Los Angeles Unified School District, told me: “Trying to change the district is like trying to change the direction of a fast-moving freight train. You might knock it off course for a moment, but before you know it it’s rattling right down the tracks again.”

 

Frustration and suspicion about who might emerge from the shadows to sabotage their plans often lead superintendents to jealously guard their power. In 2002, Day Higuchi, then president of United Teachers Los Angeles, the Los Angeles teacher union, had high hopes for working with the school district’s new “can-do” superintendent, Roy Romer. Higuchi hoped that Romer would endorse a new union initiative called Lesson Study, a plan to help teachers work collectively to improve classroom lessons. At a breakfast meeting that I attended, Higuchi presented Romer with an invitation to work with the union to develop and spread Lesson Study across the district. When Higuchi finished, Romer flipped over his paper placemat and with a red felt pen drew a box with an S in it. “That’s me,” he said. Beneath he drew 11 boxes with smaller s’s in them, representing the 11 local superintendents, and below that, a number of small boxes with roofs, representing schools and teachers. Then, pulling his face near to Higuchi’s, he drew bold red arrows pointing downward from the top. Romer jabbed his pen in the air to accentuate each word: “You cannot usurp my authority to manage this district!” It was a dumbfounding moment, one that revealed the true underside of the use of power. Here was a chance for a new superintendent to forge a small but significant step with the union, but Romer, who recently announced his resignation, explained that he was “in a hurry.” He clearly had little time for ideas that were at odds with his own. In the end his refusal to work with the union undermined the possibility of creating a broader base of power that could transcend self-interest.

 

Nor are the unions exempt from self-interest. A few years ago I helped establish a national group of union presidents called TURN (Teacher Union Reform Network) who were dedicated to remaking their unions as forces to improve education. One way was to cooperate with administrators and encourage teachers to use their classroom know-how to redesign teaching at the schoolhouse. But hostility and mistrust run deep. The union leaders became nervous, fearing that fellow unionists would attack them for “collaborating” with the enemy and that if the effort to collaborate failed they would share the blame. Don Watley, president of the New Mexico Federation of Educational Employees, commented: “It’s like the Normandy landing. We’ve got the best troops in the world. We’ve got the best officers in the world. And we’ve got the best equipment in the world. But at 0800 when we hit the beach half of us are going to get killed!” Sadly, in the years to come, the ingrained mistrust, and the unpredictable dance of union politics, prevented these unionists from becoming a positive force in educational reform. Instead, they have been reduced to stockpiling power, much as the Soviets and Americans stockpiled nuclear weapons during the Cold War, to oppose any hostile moves the other side might make.

 

So what can be done to break the standoff between teacher unions and districts? How can teachers’ professional authority be restored? How can parents be awakened and brought back into the fold? Experience shows that it can be done. Schools such as Harlem’s Central Park East Secondary, Los Angeles’ Foshay Learning Center, those in Ocean Hill-Brownsville, and many others attest to the fact that schools can be made into safe places where children learn. Sustaining them is the hard part.

 

There is little doubt that trying to build good schools with command-and-control management doesn’t work. School boards, superintendents and union officials need to clear the obstacles—unnecessary bureaucratic requirements and outmoded work rules—to make innovation at the schoolhouse possible. These top-level educational leaders also must make resources available to support new ways of teaching. Jonathan Kozol has it right. Teaching is the only reform that counts and it can be done only at the schoolhouse by teachers, principals, parents and students working together.

 

Turning school districts upside down will also mean turning a century of top-down management on its head. But where is such bold leadership to be found? One promising place is among big-city mayors. But they must resist trying to take over the schools, as they did in New York, Chicago and Boston with mixed results at best. Instead, popular mayors could use their influence and visibility to tell the truth about the condition of education and to build a popular consensus about how change must occur.

 

In the next essay I am going to examine what mayors can do. Waiting for the schools to be saved by someone else is nonsense. Only concerted local action offers a chance. Doubters should recall Margaret Mead’s observation: “Never doubt that a small group of concerned people can change the world. Indeed, it’s the only thing that ever has.”

 

A Progressive Journal of News and Opinion. Editor, Robert Scheer. Publisher, Zuade Kaufman.

Copyright © 2006 Truthdig, L.L.C. All rights reserved.

 

###

  

Telesphere's unified communications cloud solution allows you to easily transfer calls from your desk to your mobile phone without interruption.

Architect: BSK Arkitekter – Lise-Lott Söderlund

Built in: 2003

Client: Postfastigheter and AP-Fastigheter - Arcona

 

BSK Arkitekter won an invited international architectural competition in May 2000 to design the HQ of Posten, the Swedish postal service.

 

The building was designed as a single volume along the slope of the hill between the Tomteboda Mail Terminal and former Police Academy. A unifying, transparent ground floor follows the topography of the hill. All workplaces are gathered in a raised container and the office plans consists of two parallel ship with an intermediate atrium. In this there are stairs and footbridges for communication, and cocoons for meeting rooms.

 

Approximately one thousand postal workers moved into the Ark in November and December 2003 and the Ark was officially opened on 12 February 2004

 

When using this photo, please attribute: * Photo by NEC Corporation of America with Creative Commons license.

100228-N-9740S-016

CARIBBEAN SEA (Feb. 28, 2010) An MH-60S Sea Hawk helicopter from Helicopter Sea Combat Squadron (HSC) 22 delivers pallets of supplies to the multi-purpose amphibious assault ship USS Bataan (LHD 5) as the amphibious dock landing ship USS Carter Hall (LSD 50) transits nearby. Carter Hall and Bataan are supporting Operation Unified Response off the coast of Haiti after a 7.0 magnitude earthquake Jan. 12. (U.S. Navy photo by Chief Mass Communication Specialist Tony Sisti/Released)

 

>>>------------------------------->

This Photo was uploaded from www.Trackpads.com

There are more than 1 million photos and videos available on our site. High Res and unstamped versions of these files are available in our Gallery.

 

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This image shot at the Hijra Sammelan in Mumbai had garnered 235299 views than I blocked it for a few years from my hijra set and Flickr timeline , now I have bought it back..the hijra lady is Simran a rare hybrid beauty from Delhi.

  

“Tantra teaches that lovemaking between a man and woman, when entered into with awareness, is a gateway to both sexual and spiritual ecstasy. In India, traditional Tantrikas spent many years under the guidance of a spiritual teacher and engaged in elaborate yogic rituals to purify and master the body and mind.”

 

The Kama Sutra: The Book of Love

A Definition of Kama Sutra

By Suzie Heumann

 

Almost everyone has heard of the Kama Sutra. “Kama” means all things pleasurable, such as sexuality and sensuality; it also encompasses eating, gaming, cultural activities, activities with friends. Kama is the name of the Indian God that represents the sexual nature in man, much like Eros did to the Greeks. “Sutra” means a short book or aphorisms. Thus the Kama Sutra is an ancient manual of love. The Kama Sutra is most often associated with sex and sex positions. That’s not all it offers, though.

 

The Kama Sutra details many kissing techniques, the Sixty-Four Arts, courting practices, modes of touching including biting and scratching, sexual positions or asanas, how to treat marriage partners as well as consorts, the concocting of aphrodisiacs, and much more. Past cultures honored our sexual life force and understood that teaching the next generation was supremely important. In the past 3,000 years we’ve seen the development of sex manuals throughout all of the Eastern cultures. These demonstrate the care and mentoring that people knew was vital if the values of that culture were to carry on.

 

The Kama Sutra has as much to offer modern couples as it did their counterparts in ancient India. Perhaps the most well known of all love manuals, it was translated from Sanskrit in the middle 1800s by an English adventurer named Sir Richard Burton. At the time of his death he is reputed to have been fluent in 40 languages.

 

When the Kama Sutra appeared in print it shocked Victorian England, and upon Sir Richard’s death, his wife burned many of the other books he had translated but not published. Most of them have not been re-translated and many may be lost forever.

 

It is believed that today’s version of the Kama Sutra was compiled and put into written form from a rich tradition of oral history. Written in Sanskrit by a man named Vatsyayana, its structure appears as poetry and verse. The descriptions of the positions are short and to the point, as if they were reminders to the couple rather than detailed instruction. Sutras likely were taught as oral poetry.

 

Tantra and Tantric Sexuality: A Key to Wholeness

A Definition of Tantra and Tantric Sex

 

By Suzie Heumann

 

In our rush to categorize and assign meaning to our experiences, we often elevate the spiritual above the events of our normal lives. Yet what we find most moving is spiritual. When we are deeply affected, able to let go and banish our always-assessing egos, we are having a spiritual experience.

 

Many people able to reach deep ecstatic sexual states liken these to transcendental spiritual experiences. They discover that the distinction between the physical and the spiritual is not as clear as they were taught. They may even feel that they have come to know God, or ultimate reality, through sex. Tantra and the Kama Sutra both view sexuality as vital aspects of the path to enlightenment.

 

The approximate Sanskrit definition of “Tantra” is “web” or a union of opposites that, when united, becomes one with everything in the universe. Tantric practice unifies the many contradictory aspects of the self (e.g., masculine and feminine, spirit and matter, dark and light) into a harmonious whole.

 

Developed in India, Tantric practices were at their height between 500 to 1300 AD. Today Tantra is a living system designed to promote rapid growth towards enlightenment. Tantra’s components include yoga, meditation, deity worship, whole-body health, and Ayurvedic medicine.

 

There has been a renewal of interest in Tantric practice in the West. Many couples are looking to improve their sex life. Perhaps because our society is maturing or because of a widespread awakening of consciousness, we seem to be gravitating towards the lessons in conscious intimacy that Tantra has to offer. Most of us know very little about our own bodies and our potential for pleasure.

 

Though most of us won’t seek out a guru to guide us in our Tantric practice, learning even the simplest of the techniques can bring a sense of greater communion with our partners, our natures, and, ultimately, with our souls. One’s love life may dramatically improve when tantric practices are learned. Our spirits open when we engage in more trusting sexual relationships that involve communication, the spirit of playfulness, and being open to discovery.

 

Hijdas making love

the tantric way

gay abundance as foreplay

before you click main menu

you have to pay

orgiastic oracular

untesticular tirade

on a silver plattered tray

holding back to delay

culinary joys of a gourmet

sexual shield some sword play

a condom caricatured toupee

moments that spillway

without stopping halfway

safe sex and some cabaret

an ass and some horse play

kamasutra is passe

tantric sex makes headway

where there is a will there is a way

unsafe sex does not pay

tantric exploration on a yacht off gateway

 

April 26th, 2007

  

When using this photo, please attribute: * Photo by NEC Corporation of America with Creative Commons license.

 

Showcased in this image is UNIVERGE:registered: 3C, NEC’s premiere software-based platform, is redefining enterprise communications. A complete solution, 3C combines full IP-PBX functionality with an advanced set of unified communications and collaboration applications. 3C provides the agility for today’s changing workforce, empowering users to communicate whenever, however and from where ever you work on any device. Learn more at necam.com/uc

100128-N-6889J-005 GULFPORT, Miss. (January 28, 2010) Seabees assigned to Naval Mobile Construction Battalion (NMCB) 7 detachment Horn of Africa (HOA) prepare uniforms and civilian attire to be sprayed down with insect repellent at the "Bee Grinder" on board Naval Construction Battalion Center. The spray will help prevent the spread of Malaria while deployed throughout the region. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 2nd Class Gregory N. Juday. (RELEASED).

tlc2003, Telephone Recording Basics - Thought Leadership Website Launched

 

Southfield, MI (PRWEB) April 29, 2008 -- DSS Corporation, (www.equature.com) launched a new Telephone Recording Basics thought leadership website (www.telephonerecordingbasics.com). This is the first in a series to come.

 

The website (www.telephonerecordingbasics.com) is designed for IT Staff and Management Teams who need a Full Cycle Telephone Recording Solution to protect their businesses. The site covers a broad range of requirements that an effective next generation telephone recording platform must have to obtain the 7 objectives of: Unified Communications Intelligence (UCI), Liability Recording/Order Verification, Compliance, Voice Recording Business Value, Voice Search Productivity, Knowledge Management and Quality Management.

 

The topics include: telephone recording as well as full cycle communications capture including VoIP, Screen Data, Chat, and Email.

 

This telephone recording website focuses on 7 objectives which include the following:

 

1. Unified Communications: Cisco® and Microsoft® are pioneering this field by making it easier to connect with people regardless of communications type. You can receive a phone call as well as a text message anywhere in the world from your office phone. "Presence anywhere" is a concept that allows for the consolidation of phone numbers and "location independence" for communication. Organizations that harness this power by capturing it with a 360° full cycle solution will be able to increase revenue, decrease expenses and reduce risk.

 

2. 100% Liability Recording/Order Verification: Organizations have a fiduciary responsibility to their employees and constituents for security. Capturing all communications (voice, email, chat) allows for the elimination of He/Said, She/Said scenarios. Telephone recording and full communications capture are required for verification of orders. This can save organizations millions of dollars in return credits and mistakes. Regardless if you are a broker/dealer, manufacturer of window treatments or taking orders for freight delivery, this method of order verification will reduce expenses and mitigate risk.

 

3. Compliance: Compliance with PCI (Payment Credit Industry) Requirements, HIPPA, Sarbanes-Oxley (SOX), NASD/SEC rules, Gramm-Leach-Bliley and FOIA (Freedom of Information Act) are forcing organizations to archive and retain voice recordings and other communication records like chat and email.

 

4. Voice Recording Business Value: Users want access to voice recordings as well as other communications because they contain business value. That value may not be needed for 1 year, but when it is needed, users must have it. If organizations do not capture it the business value is wasted. Information is power and provides organizations a competitive advantage.

 

5. Voice Search Productivity: The old paradigm was to record calls and allow a few people access. Knowledge is only as good as the people using it. Limit the people's access and limit the power of the knowledge assets. Enterprise Search Capabilities with unlimited access are required for next generation voice recording.

 

6. Knowledge Management: 360° communications capture (Voice, Email, Chat) produces one of the biggest repositories of intellectual property and business information for organizations. An effective full cycle recording solution can harness these information assets, allowing for reporting, mining and analytics.

 

7. Quality Management: An effective voice recording platform must have a Quality Assessment module so department heads can score their team members' communications. This critical add-on is required for team building, improving customer service and to satisfy internal communication needs.

 

The site www.telephonerecordingbasics.com also provides a whitepaper addressing these issues and provides requirements to procure an effective telephone recording solution.

 

For more information on Telephone Recording best practices, please visit: www.telephonerecordingbasics.com

 

DSS Corporation (www.equature.com ), headquartered in Southfield, Michigan, specializes in operational improvement and customer satisfaction for the government and private sectors.

 

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Architect: BSK Arkitekter – Lise-Lott Söderlund

Built in: 2003

Client: Postfastigheter and AP-Fastigheter - Arcona

 

BSK Arkitekter won an invited international architectural competition in May 2000 to design the HQ of Posten, the Swedish postal service.

 

The building was designed as a single volume along the slope of the hill between the Tomteboda Mail Terminal and former Police Academy. A unifying, transparent ground floor follows the topography of the hill. All workplaces are gathered in a raised container and the office plans consists of two parallel ship with an intermediate atrium. In this there are stairs and footbridges for communication, and cocoons for meeting rooms.

 

Approximately one thousand postal workers moved into the Ark in November and December 2003 and the Ark was officially opened on 12 February 2004

 

A Dutch soldier of Alpha Company, 42nd Infantry Battalion, 13th Mechanized Brigade provides security while conducting an attack during exercise Allied Spirit I at the Joint Multinational Readiness Center in Hohenfels, Germany, Jan. 20, 2015. Exercise Allied Spirit includes more than 2,000 participants from Canada, Hungary, Netherlands, United Kingdom, and the U.S. Allied Spirit is exercising tactical interoperability and testing secure communications within Alliance members. (U.S. Army photo by Pfc. Lloyd Villanueva/Released)

it may positively stun some people when they look closely at an old map; most certainly an old map that shows accurately a lot of the past history of a place that is now familiar territory to only a few men and women of The Greatest Generation.

 

the streets of the Capital City have these perpendicular hack-marks down the centers...what are they telling the modern viewer??.... that Light Rail was a concept that a man named Frank Sprague thought would work anywhere in the world, no matter how steep the grades might be...

 

Richmond Union Passenger Company:

The Richmond system was not the first attempt to operate an electric trolley. According to the IEEE, there were at least 74 earlier attempts to provide electric trolley service in over 60 communities in North America, the United Kingdom, and continental Europe. However, these earlier attempts were not reliable enough to replace the existing animal-powered trolleys.

 

The Richmond system was designed by Frank Julian Sprague. After trials in late 1887, it began regular operation on February 2, 1888, with 10 streetcars. Electric power was supplied through overhead trolley wires (450 volts) for two 7.5 horsepower (5.6 kW) motors on each car. Large cars weighed 6900 pounds, provided 40 seats, and carried up to 100 passengers; small cars weighed 6700 pounds with 22 seats and up to 65 passengers. Running speed was 7.5 miles/hour, with 15 miles/hour as a maximum speed. By June 1888 the system contained 40 cars running on some 12 miles (19 km) of track, including steep grades, and with 30 curves.

 

Its success proved that electric traction was both safe and reliable. The Boston City Council, after inspecting Richmond's system on September 7, 1888, approved construction the second such project by the West End Street Railway. Boston's trolley was closely patterned upon Richmond's, and again demonstrated its practicality. By 1895 almost 900 electric street railways and nearly 11,000 miles (18,000 km) of track had been built in the United States, and in a little over a decade animal-powered street railways had essentially vanished.

 

Richmond's electric trolley service ended on November 25, 1949.

 

now, can you believe that?? Richmond was actually at the cutting edge of a modern technology in the 1880's?? and BOSTON people came down here to take a look at what we had done so THEY COULD COPY IT??

 

WOW.

 

now we have a company called Rolls Royce, locating a plant down in Prince George County, just 30 miles to the south, and they are going to show the world how to build jet engine turbines using computer operated additive manufacturing machines. This technology, that is suddenly receiving much attention in the major medias, is a HUGE leap into a form of ‘making things’, i.e., ‘manufacturing’, that will be a THIRD WAVE in the great leveling processes of modern history. The FIRST WAVE: the development of electricity production and distribution, first in the democracies of the North and, after World War One, in the rest of the World. The SECOND WAVE: the development of mass communications linkages, just in the recent four decades, in which the computer, the internet, the cell phone, and the social network began to make a person in Mali realize that he has a lot in common with a person in Frankfurt. The THIRD WAVE will be the development of additive manufacturing; the ability, one day, of a shade-tree mechanic who needs a certain part for his antique Studebaker, to be able to take the old one, photograph it with a digital camera, diagram it with a 3-D AutoCADD Program, and then MAKE it from a bag of composite-material-granules and his 3-D Hot Metal Printer into an exact reproduction of the part that broke, and has not been made by anyone since the 1960’s.

  

this THIRD WAVE is going to turn on it’s head the Economies of Scale class that you took in college. Well the little old economics professor always said ‘the real world is a special case’.

 

and....maybe the Bostonians will be paying us another visit soon....

 

with Main Street Station dead center in this map, you must first notice that RVA is the Virginia Capital of Railroads.

www.piedmontsub.com/Richmond.shtml

  

Some years ago, at a Times-Dispatch newspaper Public Forum, a Federal Reserve Board Governor who works at our local Federal Reserve Bank at the foot of 8th Street in the heart of the city, was asked a question. ‘how do you know when the economy is coming back up again?’, and he answered that he could tell, on his morning jog across a bridge over the old Atlantic Coast Line Beltline tracks that run between the lanes of the I-195 corridor, by the number of freight trains he could look down and see stopped cold on the rails by the traffic controller of Acca Yards. THAT was the best indication he could find as to how well the national economy was doing… did he know that his office was a few hundred feet over what was once a small freight yard of that same railroad, that in the 1970’s was torn up in order for the foundations of the Bank, designed by the same architect who did the World Trade Center in New York City, to be dug into the thick sandy clay of the Virginia Piedmont?

 

the old short lines that made Richmond and Petersburg a strategic target for the Yankee General named U. S. Grant, can be identified on the map. the politicians and clerks that operated the Government of the Confederacy made their fiery and famous exit from town 'The Night They Drove Old Dixie Down', on the trains of the Richmond and Danville Railroad. Two days later, Abraham Lincoln came up to Rocketts Landing on the River Queen, to pay a visit to the White House of the Confederacy, and to sit in the chair of Jefferson Davis’ office. Years later, after the hostilities had died away and the ashes were gone, the Danville ‘Road and the Richmond and York River Railroad were bought up and unified as the Southern Railway Company, and you can sit on the deck of Legends Brewery on an early Spring Friday night and see the old freight-yard office over toward the south river bank. the Norfolk and Western railway would merge with this company one day to form NorfolkSouthern.

 

Not far from Rocketts Landing is Fulton Bottom, an old African-American neighborhood that was virtually abandoned in the mid-Twentieth century and eventually destroyed by urban renewal projects. Why?...where did the people go?...most of the male breadwinners that settled their families there had good paying jobs until the 1960’s…on the Railroads. Then came along the Interstate Highway System. A Federally subsidized program for the Trucking Industry…and it still is to this day. These black and brown men worked in the car shops, the engine shops, the rail yards, all around the town… yes, as axle oilers, steam engine firemen, engine hostelers, spike drivers, track gang men, sledgehammer mechanics, boilermakers, coaling tower operators. Hard, grimy, thankless, hot, dangerous, hellish work. But it got unionized...eventually…and it paid the bills...and the Railroads began to die after the Second World War...and so did Fulton Bottom. The Interstate Highway System………….

 

Next to Fulton Bottom, to the south, is naturally Fulton Yard(s), home of the massive CSX freight and coal car operation; for most of the 110 years, from the day Collis P. Huntington, a small-time California hardware store owner who had sold a LOT of equipment, somewhat overpriced, to gold-bug crazed men looking for fortunes in 1849, had taken over a number of short line railroads in the Virginias after the Civil War, until the deregulation of transportation companies in the mid-1980’s, this rail-yard was where eastbound coal trains stopped, the weary crews changed over, and the pusher locomotives were coupled to the rear of the train just back of the caboose, to push the entire consist up the high grade just to the east, and over into the Chickahominy River Basin. This flatland had been one of the legendary and huge ‘Indian Fields’ that once dotted the riverine plains of Tsenacomacah, or Tidewater Virginia, as the people of the Powhatan Confederation once called the place in the Algonquian language back when the English first arrived in 1607. a slew of English ‘Captains’ had crossed over this field, or one to the north, between the riverbank near the old Ship Lock Canal Bridge, and the foot of a very steep hill, which they had climbed up, a hill that was very prominent and strategically utilized for tribal defense, to visit one Tanx-Powhatan in the summer of 1607. Was this hill the modern-day Powhatan Hill, or Chimborazo Hill or Libby Terrace Hill? Good gracious, perhaps the occupants of these various promontory abodes should have a good, old-fashioned, round-robin rugby match every October to obtain the bragging rights for the next year.

 

the Richmond Bridge Company: you see this huge building as you go south on I-95 headed to the Ruritan Club Shad Planking or Nags Head (the back way, so you can go to Wakefield and have some Virginia Diner ham-biscuits for breakfast, or can go thru Edenton NC and lust over the Victorian houses). that giant of a brick & steel structure was, at one time, a mechanical shop for the Seaboard Air Line Railroad, a presumptuously monikered and under-capitalized undertaking, that got a late start in the 1900's, with the beginning of the "let's go to Florida for a week of horse race gambling" craze. did Tony Curtis and Marilyn Monroe actually spend a night in the same berth on one of those New York to Miami specials???. well, Some Like It Hot you know....

 

the Richmond and Petersburg Railroad, the very important link with the port of Wilmington NC that came under General Grant's eye of interest in August of 1864, was later united with the Petersburg and Weldon line, and one or two more lines, to form the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. the tobacco factory and storage warehouses that you see at Jefferson Davis Highway and Maury Street, next to the rails of this road, used the contents of the hogsheads of North Carolina flue-cured leaf that were off-loaded there to eventually end up in the cigarettes smoked by thousands of boys-become-fighting-men in the Eighth Army Air Force as it bombed the Nazi war plants… is it just a legend that there was a pack of Lucky Strikes in the survival kit?

 

and is keeping a separation between the passenger rails and the freight rails a new idea??? maybe you should think again and read the words of King Solomon some more...

 

the trolley tracks coming into town from Ashland, down the middle of Hermitage Road, almost parallel to the Richmond Fredericksburg and Potomac tracks... it appears some of the people with investment money to spend were thinking that the RF&P railroad would be happy to shed off some paying-passengers so that their high-dollar freight trains would not have to wait on the rails very long on the morning run north to Potomac Yards. a good way to kill two birds with one stone. whenever you are playing a round of golf at Belmont Golf course, take a good look at the well engineered little bridge that goes over the stream known to Lakesiders as North Run, that enabled these inter-urban trolley tracks to make their way up to the Center of the Universe...

 

it was called the Richmond and Chesapeake Bay Railway. it's investors made tracks to Ashland, but never the Bay. the trick with any railroad-trolley line construction is to get the Location Engineer to put the route along contour lines, not across them; along side of creeks and rivers if necessary, on just one side thereof, holding bridges to a minimum; up on high and flat ground as often as possible. back in our history when land was plentiful for the settlers, and was being sold by the square mile by the Federal Government, the common sense wisdom was to build towns and farms and industries on 'good, high ground', and avoid swamps and mosquitoes and drainage problems. so therefore, railroadmen had few squablles about placement of tracks, because both they and the local citizens were usually on the same page about things.

 

Edward Gillette, one of the men like Jed Hotchkiss, who did a huge amount of this location work in the West after the Civil War ended, would later on write in his bio that one of the most important facets of putting down railroad track was to make sure maintenance of those tracks was stupid-simple for future owners/operators of them. easily said, but not so done.

 

And currently there is a small, but growing number of people, who would like this old foregone right-of-way to either become another addition to the inventory of Rails-to-Trails, or a Light Rail line again, which is not entirely a pipe dream, since Dominion Resources/Virginia Power is still using most of the strip for the transmission of high-