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Monument to the Americans who helped liberating France during WW II. It consists of three elements: The Wings of Hope, Rise of Freedom and The Wings of Fraternity. Executed by Anilore Banon, 2004.

Omaha Beach, Normandy, france.

 

"Les Braves"

 

Les Braves is a war memorial that is located on the shores of Omaha Beach in the village of St. Laurent-sur-Mer in Normandy, France and commemorates the fallen American soldiers, of World War ll who have lost their lives on the beaches of Normandy, June 6th 1944.

  

The memorial represents three elements: The Wings of Hope, Rise Freedom, and the Wings Of Fraternity. French sculptor Anilore Banon, created the monument in 2004, commissioned by the French government to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the D-Day Invasion Of Normandy. In the center, there are seven stainless steel columns and a group of five columns that curve upwards, two columns stand upright, with the tallest reaching 30 feet. Stainless steel wings gracefully stand on both sides.

  

Intended only as a temporary art piece, the sculpture still stands on the shores of Omaha Beach widely due to public interest and petition. The sculpture has been described as a blend of art and nature and has been able to withstand the forces of nature surprisingly well.

 

Source: Rotblattamrany

 

Omaha Beach, Monument "Les Braves" - Easy Green sector.

 

Omaha Beach

 

Omaha was divided into ten sectors, codenamed (from west to east): Able, Baker, Charlie, Dog Green, Dog White, Dog Red, Easy Green, Easy Red, Fox Green and Fox Red. On june 6, 1944 -D-Day - the initial assault on Omaha was to be made by two Regimental Combat Teams (RCT), supported by two tank battalions, with two battalions of Rangers also attached. The RCT's were part of the veteran 1st Infantry division ("The Big Red One") and the untested 29th ("Blue and Grey") , a National Guard unit.

 

The plan was to make frontal assaults at the "draws" (valleys) in the bluffs which dominate the coast in Normandy , codenamed west to east they were called D-1, D-3, E-1, E-3 and F-1 . These draws could then be used to move inland with reserves and vehicles.

 

The Germans were not stupid; they knew the draws were vital and concentrated their limited resources in defending them. To this end they built "Widerstandsneste" with AT guns, mortars, MG's in Tobrul's, trenches and bunkers, manned by soldiers of the German 716th and - more recently - 352nd Infantry Division, a large portion of whom were teenagers, though they were supplemented by veterans who had fought on the Eastern Front. All in all some 1100 German soldiers defended the entire Omaha beach sector of over 5 miles.

 

Preliminary bombardments were almost totally ineffective and when the initial waves landed at low tide they met with fiece opposition of an enemy well dug in and prepared.

 

Casualties were heaviest amongst the troops landing at either end of Omaha. At Fox Green and Easy Red, scattered elements of three companies were reduced to half strength by the time they gained the relative safety of the shingle, many of them having crawled the 300 yards (270 m) of beach just ahead of the incoming tide. Casualties were especially heavy amongst the first waves of soldiers and the gap assault teams - at Omaha these were tasked with blasting channels through the beach obstacles. German gunfire from the bluffs above the beach took a heavy toll on these men. The demolition teams managed to blast only six complete gaps and three partial ones; more than half their engineers were killed in the process.

 

Situation at Dog Green and on Easy Red on the other end of Omaha by mid morning was so bad with nearly all the troops essentially pinned down on the beach gen. Eisenhower seriously considered to abandon the operation; in "First Wave at OMAHA Beach", S.L.A. Marshall, chief U.S. Army combat historian, called it "an epic human tragedy which in the early hours bordered on total disaster."

 

As the US first waves assault forces and combat engineers landing directly opposite the "draws" were pinned down it was up to forces landing on the flanks of the strongpoints to penetrate the weaker German defences by climbing the bluffs. Doing this they had to overcome the minefields and barbed wire as well as machinegun fire from German positions but they did and they were able to attack some key strongpoints from the side and the rear, taking them out by early afternoon.

This happened on several spots at Omaha and essentially saved the day: individual acts of initiative by lower ranked officers and courage like that of First Lieutenant Jimmy Monteith, who led a group of men to take one of the key German widerstandsneste and was killed in action, succeeded where a flawed plan failed.

  

On the photo: Monument Les Braves

 

This monument was erected in 2004 roughly on the border of Dog Red and Easy Green sectors, at the St. Laurent draw. It was commissioned by the French government to celebrate the 60th anniversary of D-Day in 2004. It was designed by artist Anilore Banon . The memorial represents three elements: The Wings of Hope, Rise of Freedom, and the Wings Of Fraternity.

 

Shot with a Nikon D7000 and Tamron 28-25mm F2.8 lens, august 2012. Tonemapped using three differently exposed (handheld) shots.

 

See my other Omaha beach photo's for more viewpoints, panorama shots and notes on the fighting

 

My set of photo's of the British invasion beaches and other interesting places connected to D-Day

Utah Beach, Normandy, France

 

Les Braves

Sculpteur: Anilore Banon

 

"Les Braves" consists of three elements:

 

The Wings of Hope

So that the spirit that carried these men on June 6th 1944 continues to inspire us, reminding us that together it's always possible to change the future

 

Rise, Freedom!

So that the example of those who rose against barbarity, helps us remain strong against all forms of inhumanity.

 

The Wings of Fraternity

So that this surge of brotherhood always reminds us of our responsibility towards others as well as ourselves. On June 6th, 1944 these men were more than soldiers, they were our brothers.

 

Les Braves - French sculptor Anilore Banon's tribute to soldiers involved in the June 6, 1944 D-Day landings at Normandy beaches. A plaque near Omaha Beach describes Banon's philosophy in the three elements of her sculpture:

 

Wings of Hope - So that the spirit which carried these men on June 6, 1944 continues to inspire us, reminding us that together it is always possible to change the future.

 

Rise Freedom! - So that the example of those who rose against barbarity helps us remain standing strong against all forms of inhumanity.

 

The Wings of Fraternity - So that this surge of brotherhood always reminds us of our responsibility towards others, as well as ourselves.

To remember the soldiers who lost their lives on this beach during the d-day landings Anilore Banon was commissioned to create a sculpture. This sculpture "Les Braves" is split into three elements, "The Wings of Hope", "Rise of Freedom" and "The Wings of Fraternity".

Les Braves sculpture at Omaha Beach, Normandy

 

On the centre of Omaha Beach is the monument, to the Americans who liberated France.

It was placed on the beach, near the original monument erected close by many years ago.

It was commissioned by the French government to celebrate the 60th anniversary in 2004.

The sculpture was executed by Anilore Banon and consists of three elements.

 

The Wings of Hope

So that the spirit which carried these men on 6th June 1944, continues to inspire us, reminding us that together it is always possible to change the future.

 

Rise of Freedom

So that the example of those who rose up against barbarity, helps us remain standing strong against all forms on inhumanity.

 

The Wings of Fraternity

So that the surge of brotherhood always reminds of our responsibility towards others as well as ourselves.

DSC_0433GPPc4x3

 

The memorial represents three elements: The Wings of Hope, Rise Freedom, and the Wings Of Fraternity. French sculptor Anilore Banon, created the monument in 2004, commissioned by the French government to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the D-Day Invasion Of Normandy. In the centre, there are seven stainless steel columns and a group of five columns that curve upwards, two columns stand upright, with the tallest reaching 30 feet. Stainless steel wings gracefully stand on both sides.

 

For maximum effect, click the image, to go into the Lightbox, to view at the largest size; or, perhaps, by clicking the expansion arrows at top right of the page for a Full Screen view.

Don't use or reproduce this image on Websites/Blog or any other media without my explicit permission.

:copyright: All Rights Reserved - Jim Goodyear 2017.

petitions.moveon.org/sign/change-flickr-back

 

Les Braves is a war memorial that is located on the shores of Omaha Beach in the village of St. Laurent-sur-Mer in Normandy, France and commemorates the fallen American soldiers, of World War ll who have lost their lives on the beaches of Normandy, June 6th 1944.

  

The memorial represents three elements: The Wings of Hope, Rise Freedom, and the Wings Of Fraternity. French sculptor Anilore Banon, created the monument in 2004, commissioned by the French government to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the D-Day Invasion Of Normandy. In the center, there are seven stainless steel columns and a group of five columns that curve upwards, two columns stand upright, with the tallest reaching 30 feet. Stainless steel wings gracefully stand on both sides.

  

Intended only as a temporary art piece, the sculpture still stands on the shores of Omaha Beach widely due to public interest and petition. The sculpture has been described as a blend of art and nature and has been able to withstand the forces of nature surprisingly well.

 

Source: Rotblattamrany

 

On the centre of Omaha Beach is the monument, to the Americans who liberated France.

 

The sculptor consists of three elements

 

The Wings of Hope

 

So that the spirit which carried these men on 6th June 1944, continues to inspire us, reminding us that together it is always possible to change the future.

 

Rise of Freedom

 

So that the example of those who rose up against barbarity, helps us remain standing strong against all forms on inhumanity.

 

The Wings of Fraternity

 

So that the surge of brotherhood always reminds of our responsibility towards others as well as ourselves.

 

On 6th June 1944, these men were more than soldiers, they were our brothers

Les Braves is a war memorial that is located on the shores of Omaha Beach in the village of St. Laurent-sur-Mer in Normandy, France and commemorates the fallen American soldiers, of World War ll who have lost their lives on the beaches of Normandy, June 6th 1944.

 

The memorial represents three elements: The Wings of Hope, Rise Freedom, and the Wings Of Fraternity. French sculptor Anilore Banon, created the monument in 2004, commissioned by the French government to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the D-Day Invasion Of Normandy. In the center, there are seven stainless steel columns and a group of five columns that curve upwards, two columns stand upright, with the tallest reaching 30 feet. Stainless steel wings gracefully stand on both sides.

 

Intended only as a temporary art piece, the sculpture still stands on the shores of Omaha Beach widely due to public interest and petition. The sculpture has been described as a blend of art and nature and has been able to withstand the forces of nature surprisingly well.

Les Braves is a war memorial that is located on the shores of Omaha Beach in the village of St. Laurent-sur-Mer in Normandy, France and commemorates the fallen American soldiers, of World War ll who have lost their lives on the beaches of Normandy, June 6th 1944.

 

The memorial represents three elements: The Wings of Hope, Rise Freedom, and the Wings Of Fraternity. French sculptor Anilore Banon, created the monument in 2004, commissioned by the French government to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the D-Day Invasion Of Normandy. In the center, there are seven stainless steel columns and a group of five columns that curve upwards, two columns stand upright, with the tallest reaching 30 feet. Stainless steel wings gracefully stand on both sides.

 

Intended only as a temporary art piece, the sculpture still stands on the shores of Omaha Beach widely due to public interest and petition. The sculpture has been described as a blend of art and nature and has been able to withstand the forces of nature surprisingly well.

Source: Rotblattamrany

  

Monument by Anilore Banon at Omaha Beach, Normandy, France.

This is a memorial to the American forces, consisting of three elements: The Wings of Hope, Rise Freedom, and the Wings of Fraternity.

 

This memorial stands on the beach known as Omaha Beach in the village St. Laurent-sur-Mer in Normandy, France and commemorates the soldiers that fell on the beaches of Normandy on D-Day, June6, 1944. The memorial was dedicated on June 5 2004, for the 60th anniversary of the invasion.

   

My Website | My Blog

Anilore Banon's Omaha Beach monument 'Les Braves' at St Laurent-sur-Mer, Calvados, Normandy, France.

 

The sculpture comprises three parts: 'The Wings of Hope', 'The Rise of Freedom' and 'The Wings of Fraternity'. It was commissioned by the French government in 2004 to celebrate the 60th anniversary of the Normandy landings (see: parisparfait.typepad.com/paris_parfait/2006/04/normandy_s....

  

L’œuvre Les Braves, du sculpteur Anilore Banon, est érigée sur la plage d’Omaha Beach de Saint-Laurent-sur-Mer depuis 2004. Elle a été inaugurée le 5 juin 2004, à la veille du 60ème anniversaire du débarquement de Normandie. Cette œuvre, initialement installée temporairement car édifiée sur le domaine public maritime, est toujours « debout » car bénéficie d’un arrêté préfectoral autorisant son maintien, suite à la pétition « Il faut sauver les Braves ! ».

« L’œuvre Les Braves est constituée de trois éléments :

Les Ailes de l'Espoir

Pour que le souffre qui a porté ces hommes le 6 juin 1944

Continue de nous inspirer en nous rappelant qu'ensemble,

Il est toujours possible de changer l'avenir.

Debout la liberté

Pour que l'exemple de ceux qui se sont dressé contre la barbarie

nous aide à nous tenir debout face à toutes les formes d'inhumanité

Les Ailes de la Fraternité

Pour que cet élan de fraternité nous rappelle toujours notre responsabilité

envers l'autre comme envers nous-même.

Anilore Banon »

 

The wings of hope;

Rise, Freedom;

The wings of Fraternity

Les Braves sculpture at Omaha Beach, Normandy

 

On the centre of Omaha Beach is the monument, to the Americans who liberated France.

It was placed on the beach, near the original monument erected close by many years ago.

It was commissioned by the French government to celebrate the 60th anniversary in 2004.

The sculpture was executed by Anilore Banon and consists of three elements.

 

The Wings of Hope

So that the spirit which carried these men on 6th June 1944, continues to inspire us, reminding us that together it is always possible to change the future.

 

Rise of Freedom

So that the example of those who rose up against barbarity, helps us remain standing strong against all forms on inhumanity.

 

The Wings of Fraternity

So that the surge of brotherhood always reminds of our responsibility towards others as well as ourselves.

by Anilore Banon

 

Comment of the sculpteur:

 

I created this sculpture to honour the courage of these men: sons, husbands and fathers, who endangered and often sacrificed their lives in the hope of freeing the French people.

 

Les Braves consists of three elements:

 

The wings of Hope

So that the spirit which carried these men on June 6th, 1944 continues to inspire us, reminding us that together it is always possible to changing the future.

 

Rise, Freedom!

So that the example of those who rose against barbarity, helps us remain standing strong against all forms of inhumanity.

 

The Wings of Fraternity

So that this surge of brotherhood always reminds us of our responsibility towards others as well as ourselves.

 

On June 6th, 1944 these man were more than soldiers, they were our brothers

 

Omaha Beach Memorial, Normandy, France

'Les Braves' has 3 elements:

The Wings of Hope

Rise Freedom!

The Wings of Fraternity.

It was designed by sculptor Anilore Banon and commissioned by the French government to celebrate the 60th anniversary in 2004.

Les Braves consists of three elements:

The wings of Hope

So that the spirit which carried these men on June 6th, 1944 continues to inspire us, reminding us that together it is always possible to changing the future.

Rise, Freedom!

So that the example of those who rose against barbarity, helps us remain standing strong against all forms of inhumanity.

The Wings of Fraternity

So that this surge of brotherhood always reminds us of our responsibility towards others as well as ourselves.

On June 6th, 1944 these man were more than soldiers, they were our brothers.

Omaha Beach, Saint-Laurent-sur-Mer, Normandy, France.

 

The Wings of Hope, Rise of Freedom, and the Wings Of Fraternity on the shores of Omaha beach.

 

Shot with Panasonic DMC-LX100, processed with Lightroom.

The monument Les Braves is located on the center of Omaha Beach.

 

Sculpteur notes about the monument:

 

I created this scuplture to honour the courage of these men:

 

Sons, husbands and fathers, who endangered and often sacrificed their lives in the hope of freeing the French people.

 

Les Braves consists of three elements:

 

The wings of Hope

So that the spirit which carried these men on June 6th, 1944 continues to inspire us, reminding us that together it is always possible to changing the future.

 

Rise, Freedom!

So that the example of those who rose against barbarity, helps us remain standing strong against all forms of inhumanity.

 

The Wings of Fraternity

So that this surge of brotherhood always reminds us of our responsibility towards others as well as ourselves.

On June 6th, 1944 these man were more than soldiers, they were our brothers.

I went to China on my first substantive Foreign Service assignment in July 1963, well before I

completed the 2-year Chinese language programme at Hong Kong University. I packed off from the relative comfort of a familiar academic environment, thanks to an on-the-spot decision by Foreign Secretary M.J. Desai. A couple of months earlier, while transiting through Hong Kong airport he had heeded a complaint voiced by the Head of Mission at Beijing P.K. Bannerji, who had lamented that he did not have a single Chinese-speaking officer. 'Take one of these youngsters”, he replied, pointing to Bhupat Oza, then in the first year of his language studies, and myself in the second year. Before I knew what was happening, I was posted to China! Quite a distant cry from the styles of Foreign Service Board meetings, and the structured formalities of decision-making on personnel issues! This was the first of my encounters with chance, a powerful force which took me on a career full of excitement and discovery.

 

I travelled from Hong Kong by train, with senior colleague A.K. Damodaran and his family. He was moving from Bonn to take up his assignment as the First Secretary (Political) and the No. 2 in the Indian mission. He became in time valued elder brother, graced as he has been with a particularly calm and generous temperament, and a degree of concern for others, which is a rarity in any profession, much less in our Service. That day as we progressed through the measured formalities of crossing into China, walking across the famous bridge at Shenzhen, which marked the separation of the British colony from the mainland,

 

it was difficult to restrain my enthusiasm. One was finally getting to the country which has been such a parallel - and contrast-to India, the other Asian giant embarked on its own drama of human and social engineering.

 

In Beijing I found that life in the Indian Embassy was one of camaraderie and immersion in a collective enterprise. It was only much later, when I served and observed elsewhere, that I understood the extraordinary character of our Mission and its special esprit de corps. The India-China Border War of 1962 represented for all Indians a huge trauma. For someone immersed in Chinese language studies at that time at Hong Kong University’s Language Institute, it became a routine humiliation to study in class an editorial from a mainland or Hong Kong journal, scorning India’s case, or to listen to comments form a Chinese perspective on the unfolding events. Living in that environment one felt even more sharply the disbelief of most Indians that things could go so wrong, so fast. It put under cloud one’s fascination with China and the saga of its nation-building. But on reaching Beijing I found that it did not extinguish one’s admiration. If anything, it sharpened curiosity and the quest for personal understanding, as a “beginner China-watcher”. And truthfully, it also at times engendered a kind of “schadenfreude”, some glee at China’s own troubles, an attitude of “it serves them right!". Thus the little Indian community in the Chinese capital, made up exclusively of the diplomats and staff, found its own equilibrium in a cocktail of emotions. There was a collective sense or purpose at being located in a country at whose hands, we sensed, our nation had suffered. For myself, the other dominant mood was of excitement at living in a place where things were happening, not all of them clearly discernible; where information was at a premium. Among the small number of foreign diplomats and even fewer journalists, there was a special affinity, and friendships came easily, For the handful of us who spoke Chinese -or as non-Chinese would call it, the Mandarin dialect-there was direct access to local people, despite the severe restraints which were then enforced for the most innocent of such contacts. It may seem hard to imagine today, but for foreigners, China of yesteryear practised the most stringent internal controls, hardly in any after place found. In that environment the Indian Embassy came to win a reputation for professionalism, which has endured over the decades.It was a privilege to be on such a team.

 

In the early 1960s there were barely 35 diplomatic missions in Beijing, and just around 5 international correspondents. Besides the twice daily staple of the English language Hsinhua (Xinhua) News Agency bulletin, there were the 4 national dailies in Chinese, and a handful of weeklies and other periodicals. Those in the Embassy who travelled to Hong Kong on weekly courier duty with the diplomatic bag (and all of us took turns, from the Charge d’ Affaires downwards) could liven up the boring 30 hour journey by scrounging for local newspapers, simply unavailable in the capital, for little nuggets of local information. That journey was rather more adventurous than most would have preferred, starting off from Beijing at 6 o’clock in the morning in a Russian IL-14 or IL-16 aircraft (country-cousins of the World War II vintage Dakota and the like), with refueling stops at 3 cities before reaching Guangzhou, for an overnight halt in a hotel, and the next morning a train to the border, the walk across the bridge, and on to the cornucopia of consumerism which the Crown Colony represented even then. Bad weather at any point on the air journey meant an unscheduled halt at Changsha or Wuhan, when fellow-travellers - the odd diplomat or businessman among the passengers - learnt the virtues of bonding!

 

Right up to the 1970s when I came back to China as a First Secretary and second-ranking diplomat in the Mission, travel by resident foreigners was limited to a radius of 20 km. from the centre of the capital, the Forbidden City, the 3 permitted exceptions being the Great Wall and the Ming Tombs - both located to the west, at a distance of 45 and 40 km. respectively, and the airport to the east. All other trips required the specific authorization of the Foreign Ministry, and in the usual course, only the “open” cities could be visited - Shanghai, Hangzhou, Nanjing and the like. The list expanded gradually, when places like Chongqing in Sichuan were made accessible. The travel privileges first went to the "friendly” countries, in a subtle political hierarchy of favour-dispensation. One could say that for China, this was no more than the traditional way of dealing with foreigners.

 

For someone who spoke Chinese, travel was a special joy, because one had direct access to new experiences, and could learn a bit about the provinces and the far-flung regions which were not accessible as a matter of course. Sometimes there were unexpected encounters with people one could not meet in the tightly regulated conditions of life for foreigners in China.

 

I vividly recall a journey made from Beijing to Shanghai by train sometime in 1964. In the “soft” class 4.berth sleeper I had only one travelling companion - a professor of some sort (as I made out from his conversation with his wife and teenage daughter who had come to see him off at the railway station). After the train started we began a conversation and I was delighted to have a distinguished academic as a companion, We had dinner together in the dining car, quite a fine meal. The professor gradually disclosed that he had in fact visited India and knew Gandhiji’s secretary Mahadeo Desai, whom he had met in Poona. Respecting the circumstances and the context, I steered clear of political or sensitive issues, but got along very well with him. The next morning when I woke up I found that sometime during the night we had acquired a third travel-mate, a rather loud person who turned out to be an army officer. He engaged in a noisy conversation with the professor on international affairs, speaking of unspecified “reactionary countries” and how China would deal with them. I ignored him, and some time later, when we were alone in the train corridor, the professor said in a soft voice that some people had not liked the idea of his conversation with an Indian diplomat. and it was better if we did not have lunch together on the train before it reached Shanghai. I replied that I understood, and hoped I had not inadvertently created difficulty for him. He laughed and said that it was a small matter. There is a footnote to that chance encounter. When I narrated the incident later to one of our senior China scholars, he said that the professor had been his teacher, and that he was also one of the distinguished India experts in the Chinese Academy of Sciences (later the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences). The professor had been too discreet to speak much about himself. It was inconceivable at that time that open and friendly contacts could be sustained between the Embassy and such personalities,

 

Another such chance meeting took place during my second China assignment, in early-1971, during the course of a tour for the diplomatic corps to the historic cities of Luoyang and Xian. As we visited a museum devoted to stone tablets commemorating the deeds of historical figures of the Song dynasty, I paused to admire an inscription in Chinese and Sanskrit - quite rare -recalling the journey of Faxian to India. One museum staff member, with whom I had been in conversation volunteered the observation: ‘With such a shared history, how can we persist in our existing problems!“. It was good to learn that even in the harsh climate of what then was the last phase of the Cultural Revolution, there were some who made private gestures to affirm mar our relationships should be rather different.

 

In early 1964 Jagat S Mehta took over as the Head of Mission, the de facto ambassador but officially carrying the title of “Charge d’Affairs ad interim”, in keeping with the formally reduced level of representation in the two capitals, which was to persist till 1976. He provided strong leadership to the Embassy, and became for many of us a persuasive role model. For the junior-most diplomatic official, as I remained till fellow China-specialist, Bhupat Oza, arrived on the scene a year later, it meant working on a series of essays and studies on specific themes, ranging from aspects of China’s economy, to the education system and the pattern of basic technical education and culture. Under Jagat, the pattern was established, which was to persist for many years, that the Embassy would devote energy to as much in-depth reportage as was possible, given the scarcity Of data and independent information, The goal was thematic analysis covering the internal scene, with the object of understanding the complex nation, and disseminating our reports within the governmental system in Delhi and to other Indian Missions. This was the classic mode of dispatch-writing, modelled in style on the British diplomatic method. I recall particularly well the papers written on China’s “pan-work part-study schools”, a bit akin to vocational schools in other countries, as also the early notes on the intense debate which was emerging on cultural issues around early 1965. For instance, little could anyone imagine that the controversy which suddenly erupted in mid-1965 over a sensitive film, “Early Spring” (which some friends and I managed to see in the few weeks it was screened, before being banned), would herald the storm of the Cultural Revolution. No one could then decipher the complex and indirect signals. But even for those who were ignorant of the master-plan saw that an artificial controversy was being generated. Cultural objects like that film were being offered deliberately as scapegoats. The ulterior purpose was invisible till the time I ended my first tenure in China in September 1965.

 

It was in 1964 that some of us took the initiative to set up a lunch club, consisting exclusively of second and Third Secretaries - the foot-soldiers in every embassy. The first meeting took place in my home with the 6 founders, and the group soon expanded to 12, which we set as the outer limit. New participants were admitted only when someone left on transfer, or was promoted - in the latter case, the person was ceremoniously thrown out after a farewell lunch. When the lunch sessions became too convivial, ending at 4 P.M. or so Jagat Mehta expressed a bit of displeasure, and gave us the sobriquet “The Tails of Mission Lunch Club”. The name stuck, and the group was in vigour at least till the mid-70s when I was invited to the monthly meetings as one of the founders!

 

In the diplomatic missions (other than the socialist embassies of that time), there were a handful of Chinese-speakers. Roping in some Chinese personnel who either worked in embassies, or were teachers to diplomats learning the language -and were thus permitted to have contacts with these foreigners - some of us cobbled together a “club” where we could practise speaking skills, and enjoy the cultural and culinary ambiance of the capital. The socialist embassies had a phalanx of language-specialists, but not all of them spoke English, and in addition the Westerners had their inhibitions in dealing with them. We, on the other hand, straddled both camps. Clearly, from the perspective of the Chinese authorities who kept us under scrutiny, this was a “permitted” contact network, perhaps useful from their perspective in giving an insight into the diplomat fraternity. Special care was exerted by all the participants of what we came to call the “Yenjing Club” (after one of the historical names of Beijing) to steer clear of any issue which might embarrass our Chinese friends, or worse, lead to the end of that experiment. We met every couple of weeks, either in the home of a diplomat-member, or by preference, in one of the 140 restaurants that operated in the city, sometimes after a visit to the Beijing Opera, or one of the many regional operas, or to a film or the circus. Friendship developed, even within the constraints of cautious conversation, and we learnt a little of the fun of Chinese life, like the wine-drinking games. And we were zealous in our search for varied and exquisite cuisine -which was then outrageously inexpensive. Of course such a club could not survive the Cultural Revolution, and when I got back to China in 1970 such open contact, however innocent, was unthinkable. I cherish the frayed navy-blue club tie which David Wilson - then fellow-member and now Lord Wilson - had obtained from Hong Kong for each of us, inscribed all over with the Chinese characters "Yan Jing”.

 

One great institution of our China experience was the diplomatic tour, an annual event which brought to the fore the great organizational talent of the Chinese system. The traditional pattern was that the Head of Mission and spouse ware invited by the Foreign Ministry as guests, together with one other diplomat to accompany them. Under the latter provision, junior officers had their chance to visit far places, including some not on the list of “open” cities of that time, in the course of what was usually a week-long excursion, Sometimes the tour covered places which in those days were completely inaccessible, save under special arrangements-such as the lengthy car journey which took one group to the “national model” agricultural village of Dalian. This was also the opportunity to practise and utilize language skills. It was a challenge for the language-speakers to ferret out some local information which hopefully added to one’s fund of knowledge, or gave a special insight, even while this was resented by the Protocol Department “handlers” who were usually watchful to see that this particular segment of their charges did not stray too far. The group travelled mainly by special train, accompanied by a Foreign Ministry Vice Minister, the Chief of Protocol, and a bevy of officials. The hospitality was lavish, and the provinces vied with one another in offering to the “foreign guests” the best of the local cuisine specialities. If Lawrence Durrel had been around, he would have found a treasure hove of amusing anecdotes and ego jousts within the Diplomatic Corps, given the fact that a shared journey of a week or more brought out some of the rivalries and petty jealousies, already accentuated in the hot-house atmosphere of a restricted diplomatic post. During the car trips the Foreign Ministry took scrupulous care to ensure that the assignment of vehicles were in the correct protocol order. With the Dean of the Corps in the lead, seated naturally in Car No, 1. This led me once to wonder as to the vehicle number of the car in which the Vice Minister travelled, since he seemed always to be ahead, besides, of course, the escort and security convoy. His car bore No. 0 - a perfect compromise!

 

In 1964 one such trip took us to the fabled Huang Mountain of Anhui province. This mountain range, dotted with Buddhist temples, accessible only by steep foot-track and arduous series of steps, is a place of remarkable scenic beauty and has inspired much Chinese painting and poetry. It also became the revolutionary base of Marshal Chen Yi in 1927, after the collapse of the short-lived co-habitation between the Kuomintang (KMT) and the Communists in Shanghai. In f 964, the Marshal, in his role as China’s Foreign Minister, joined us for that particular segment of the trip, his very first return to a region which had many memories for him. As we scrambled up the seemingly endless gradients and steps - much like our own mountain places of pilgrimage - and were lodged in what must have originally been spartan dormitories for the travellers, we caught glimpses of him and wondered at the panorama of emotions which he must have experienced. The photographs I took of the mountain peaks in the early dawn, and of the pine trees along the many perpendicular crags, are a souvenir of a memorable and exhausting journey.

 

One might ask, did life in the Chinese capital give any special insight which might otherwise not have been available? Of course, one gained some flavour on matters of detail, in the ways narrated above. On the really big hidden events, it gave partial information, which could not always be interpreted fully. For instance, those who lived in Beijing through the hardest years of the suffering and deprivation of the Great Leap Forward, knew that the situation in the interior provinces was hard. But none could fully estimate the scale of the self-inflicted agricultural crisis which unfolded after 1958, immediately following the much-acclaimed initial phase. I recall attending a lecture by the noted Cambridge economist Joan Robinson at Delhi University in 1959, in which she had waxed eloquent about the Great Leap, to an audience composed mainly of students like myself, who could not possibly imagine that a person whose textbooks were mandatory reading, could be so wrong. The impact of the Leap persisted for many years, and was evidenced in the 60s in the efficient system of food coupons and travel permits which enforced tight rationing and also ensured that the cities - which were much better off - did not become magnets to a population exodus. Winston Churchill’s memorable phrase describing Russia could equally apply even more forcefully to China: “A riddle, wrapped in a mystery, inside an enigma”. Often it took hindsight to interpret the events that took place right under ones’ nose. An incident vividly underscores this factor.

 

In the days of my first assignment, I was a bachelor and shared a rather comfortable house within the Old City with another bachelor officer - it had originally housed our Counsellor, a post left vacant after the post-1962 scaling down in diplomatic representation. We had a couple of good friends who enjoyed dropping in on Sunday mornings, for coffee and conversation. One of them was a young colleague from an Asian country which enjoyed significantly better relations in China than we did, and he was a useful source of information. One morning, probably in early 1965, when this friend came and narrated this experience of a visit by their education minister, who ended his substantive programme with a meeting with Chairman Mao, customary for foreign visitors of that road in those days. Mao asked the visitor about his travels and his impressions, The visitor responded with fulsome praise of the things he had seen, the institutions visited and the education system in general. To this Mao gave a curious reply, saying that the visitor should not believe everything he had been told, and that things were not as good as apparent outwardly, This was said in the presence of the Chinese Education Minster, and we could not figure out what the Chairman had meant. It seemed to go beyond the typical expressions of Chinese politeness, when after the foreign guest who offers fulsome praise is told, in phrases which are part of the ancient syntax, that the praise is not merited. We could not believe that Mao was profoundly dissatisfied with the shape of the education system. Or that the entire polity needed a sharp cleansing action, to usher in a “permanent revolution” as subsequently claimed during the Cultural Revolution. As in the case of the artificial - or rather guided - debate on culture which unfolded at around the same time, we simply did not see the master design of the Great Helmsman.

 

Another good friend in those days was the journalist Jacques Marcuse, a Belgian who represented AFP in the Chinese capital in the 1960s. At a time when the Western media were represented only by Reuters and this agency, he was a familiar figure, distinguished by his monocle, and his sardonic humour. He had lived in Shanghai in the late 1930s and knew some of the leading figures from that time; this made him a cynic and sometimes rather sharp in his judgments. Jacques also had a fund of jokes, most of which he swore were true stories. His book “Peking Papers” contains many of the outrageous stories which I had heard first-hand from him - not always to be taken literally, but poking fun at some officials and others who were excessively serious. An example was his habit of inventing his own so-called sayings of Confucius - Jacques claimed that there was no one who ever responded that the “saying” cited was bogus, or that he did not recall any such statement by Confucius. Jacques was admired by his friends for another reason; at the bar at Beijing Airport, he had a standing arrangement to have “his” bottle of Maotai. Friends were welcome to dip into it as they awaited delayed flights - all one had to do was to call for Mr. Marcuses’ bottle!

 

When I came back to China in mid-1970 with a family, a wife, two children of 3 and 1 and a nanny in tow, the country had been through the trauma of the Cultural Revolution, though the likes of Lin Biao and Jiang Qing were very much in power, and the curtain would really come down on that particular experiment of Mao only some years later. In marry ways contacts between foreigners and the Chinese were even more difficult, but the presence of the children usually gave rise to friendly comment and gestures of natural affection, which tempered a little the alienation which arose in those artificial circumstances. This was particularly true of the outings to the parks, and the shopping forays for souvenir-hunting to which all diplomats fell prey in Beijing. For a Chinese-speaker, it was a particular joy to listen to the children prattle in the bell-like tones of perfectly spoken Beijing dialect, which they picked up so effortlessly from the Chinese cook and maid. Alas, they lost the language with equal speed when we left after a two-year stay. Diplomatic life was a bit changed from that of the 1960s with the number of embassies more than double the earlier figure, and the presence of many more African and Arab missions, besides the Western nations which set up representation in one large surge, after the French recognition of the People’s Republic of China in 1964 (the French Game with the zeal of new converts, to “interpret China to the world”). A second surge more or less coincided with the Nixon visit of 1971, Canadian recognition of the PRC, and the stationing of a shoal of Japanese correspondents, as a prelude to Japan’s recognition of its great neighbour. All this made for a much larger number of diplomats, journalists and business visitors, changing the intimacy of the former period for a more “normal” major capital. In other ways, life was less interesting than before, since the performing arts were still to revive from the decimation of the Cultural Revolution, and one encountered only the standard fare of revolutionary art, drama and music. The number of restaurants was also much reduced from the earlier numbers, and many of the fabled places-like the ”San Jwor" of the inner city with its memorable dishes of fresh-water eels - were gone! The subsequent period saw a gradual revival, of cuisine and of the arts, but I left China in September 1972, much before the real “normalization” of the post-Cultural Revolution life of China.

 

Living in China in those years enabled one to observe a complex political process, the shaping of a great, but secretive, Asian power. The early 1960s coincided with the intense ideological debate with the Soviet Union, and the early 1970s with the terminal phase of Mao’s last major social experiment. We said in those days that one sometimes wrote an analysis of China in the first 6 weeks of arrival, when the first encounter gave what seemed to be definitive insights. The alternative, especially for those who were not short-term visitors, was that one realized the limitations of one’s understanding, and chose the gradual unraveling of the many areas of ignorance, before venturing forth in print. It was rather like Einstein’s response to a gushing admirer who praised his vast fund of wisdom; he replied: What I know is but a fraction of what I do rot know!“. In the 1960s the air was thick with heavy polemical debate between the two communist giants, whose bilateral relationship deteriorated progressively. The smaller communist states were proxies in the debate, or were drawn into the vortex through their geo-political compulsions. Beijing was a useful observation point also for the evolution in these inter-relationships, ranging from the ultra-privileged status of Enver Hoxja’s Albania (which received massive material support in exchange for its total identification with China), to the fence-sitters like North Korea and North Vietnam of that time. The behaviour of the diplomatic missions of these countries in the rarefied atmosphere of Beijing became a side drama for outside observers like ourselves. Yugoslavia (in whose name the entire Sine-Soviet debate had first commenced, when the “Peoples’ Daily” thundered in 1961:“ls Yugoslavia a Communist Country?“) was for us the coolest of the lot, both on account of the uniform high professionalism of their diplomats, and because of our natural empathy and proximity to them. I was not in China in the difficult period of 1966-68, when the Cultural Revolution was at its climax, and when diplomatic missions were attacked by mobs manipulated by Jiang Qing and her ilk; the Beijing Diplomatic Corps showed its weakest face at that time through disunity, and currying of favour by a few embassies who believed that this was their road to narrow advantage. This is a small sad foot-note to that era.

 

Immediately after the India-China border war of 1962 which ended wiith a unilateral cease-fire and partial withdrawal of Chinese troops to their pre-war claim-line, China took the high road of urging negotiation and freezing of the difficult ‘issue, pending improvement of relations on other fronts. This was sound strategy from their perspective, but overlooked the extent of injury to India. In the treatment of the Indian Embassy in Beijing this sometimes took the form of petty pinpricks, combined with a few gestures of special consideration for about a year immediately after the war. This coincided with the remaining term of P.K. Banejee as the Head of Mission, who was summoned to meetings with Premier Zhou Enlai from time to time, almost invariably at no notice at all, and usually at night - since this legendary Zhou of the time (and almost the only one to have kept his repute intact) kept an owl’s hours, and commenced his work after sunset! My only personal encounter with him occurred in late-1963, when P.K. Banejee was given the special favour of a personal farewell call, and took with him 5 of his embassy colleagues, Premier Zhou was suave and smiling, essentially repeating the message loudly proclaimed by China to Asia and to the world, that China sought a negotiated border settlement, that it was prepared to wait till India was ready for this, and that in the interim the two countries which had so much in common should improve relations in other areas. At that meeting we had a taste of Zhou’s renowned alertness and charm. At one point he said something humorous, and noticing that I had smiled before the interpretation was completed, he immediately remarked that I spoke Chinese. After inquiry as to where I had learnt it, he complimented me on my accent! It should be said in parenthesis that the accent business is very serious for foreigners learning Chinese. At the same time, among the Chinese themselves, the range of accents is so vast that other than the few born in the immediate vicinity of the capital - which is where the Oxford accent of Chinese is located - speak in tones which betray their places of origin, even to the extent of incomprehension. Thus Mao’s Hunan accent was so strong that he needed interpreters to make himself understood to his own compatriots not used to him. Lin Biao was another one whose accent tested the limits of one’s comprehension range. While at the Language School at Hong Kong we cultivated several North Chinese friends, through lunch clubs and the like, to get speaking practice. One example was Steve Chou, a good and generous friend to many generations of Indian students,

 

I once mentioned to one of my teachers that Steve’s Beijing dialect was superb. How can that be, she responded, since he was born in Tianjing (150 km. away from the capital) and moved to Beijing only when he was 10 years old!

 

During the years I spent in China, there was no real India-China dialogue. After the Border War it was simply too early for India. In the 1964-65 period there was some gentle probing of intentions, given Jagat Mehta’s easy equation with the then Director of the Asia Division Zhang Wenjin, his counterpart in the futile “Official Talks” held in 195960, (he later became China’s Ambassador to the US, and Vice-Foreign Minister; a member of the Premier Zhou's top team), But this led to nothing, white preventing further downslide in relations. Some petty slights were received by the Indian Embassy, but for the main part the relationship was correct and the attitude of senior officials was constructive. When Asian or other diplomatic groups were received jointly, we were handled with perceptible coolness, but never in discourtesy. The Middle Kingdom has long practised a finely-turned method of subtle differentiation, and these habits ware a great deal deeper than the patina of communism. Seen with detachment, the Chinese manner of handling foreigners was a delight to watch, rooted as it has always been in profound self-confidence and a holistic vision of content and form.

 

My second sojourn began just after Chairman Mao’s deliberate gesture of reconciliation to the Indian Charge d’Affairs Brajesh Mishra at the top of the Tienanmen rostrum at the May Day parade of 1970, when he said directly to our envoy that “the two countries had long been friends and we could not go on quarrelling”. We know now through diverse sources that this was a calculated gesture bearing Mao’s personal stamp, and was meant to be taken seriously. And this was precisely the manner in which it was interpreted by the politically astute Head of Mission. One suspects that the premature manner in which the move was leaked to the Indian media, just at the time when Mishra was in Delhi to help in full assessment, and the gesture was even held to mild ridicule through its characterization as “the Mao Smile”, bore the stamp of our domestic pro-Soviet lobby. Further, we were even then probably not ready to move towards that window of opportunity.

 

1971 saw the build-up to the Bangladesh crisis and the 19.day war of December in the same year, and again the view from Beijing was revealing. China did not support the actions of Pakistan in its then Eastern wing, and clearly counselled caution, while making pro-forma expressions of support as the events moved to their denouement. The Indian brief was clearly to keep China informed of the increasingly impossible situation and the very limited goals of Indian policy, i. e. containment of the crisis. Brajesh Mishra played the vital role as the dialogue partner in this communication link, and was responsible for the accurate assessment that China would make public expressions of support to lslamabad but would stay out of any conflict. Thus the Embassy’s task for virtually the entire year was to manage this issue in a complex environment, and it came to dominate the bilateral relationship. It took China several months’ after the creation of Bangladesh to begin to come to terms with the realities of South Asia, and this produced an amusing incident.

 

As the Bangladesh crisis escalated, increasingly open criticism of India became the norm in Chinese speeches delivered at national day celebrations of various embassies and state banquets in honour of visiting foreign delegations, By local custom the diplomatic receptions took the form of sit-down dinners, while the Chinese banquets were even more formal, and again by local custom included all Heads of Missions in the guest-list. Mishra made it clear from the outset that he would not sit through direct criticism of India, and would walk-out, it soon became our internal and deliberate Embassy practice to inform the Chinese chauffeur of the flag-car that he should stand by with the car at the main entrance, in anticipation of likely walk-out. This worked well. Sometimes the speeches were delayed fill the meal was over - rather than delivered at the beginning as per Chinese custom -and this provoked comment in the diplomatic corps that it was to ensure that the Indian Charge finished his meal before making his exit! In the event, there eventually came the reception around the middle of 1972 when contrary to form, India was not criticized in the Chinese dignitary’s speech, marking the end of that particular phase, As it happened, the Soviet Union was attacked in that same reception speech, and the Soviet envoy, accompanied by his bloc phalanx staged a walk-out-much more impressive in sheer numbers. The effect was spoilt when the group came down the steps of the huge Palace of the People complex and were met by the Indian flag-car, tricolour and all, but alas not their own vehicle. They were not amused at the delay in mobilizing their transport to go home!

 

The Bangladesh war also produced for us the melodrama of assisting the then Pakistani diplomats of Bengali origin to establish contact with their own new government-in-the-making, since in the politically charged atmosphere of Beijing there were none but the most formal contacts with Pakistani diplomats - mainly I should add at the preference of the latter, who may have found that even routine courtesies, or return of courtesies to Indian counterparts, detracted from their self-image of victims of Indian machinations. This was my only, exposure to the cloak-and-dagger style, as roundabout means were mutually used to make soundings and first contacts, often via the spouses, since the latter often had their own friendships and equations! The establishment of these first links with the Bangladeshis, who became major players in their new nation, was a heart-warming experience. It also provided relief and counterpoint to the tension generated by the war, We celebrated the signing of the surrender documents by

 

the Pakistani generals in Dacca with champagne - the first and only time that my wife cultivated a high-class hangover. As we drove home she wondered why there were so many people on the road that late hour; I responded that they were just the early morning shift going to work!

 

A small instance of the quality of the evolving India-China relationship of 1970 was the visit to the Embassy by the renowned Mao biographer Edgar Snow, who was on what represented his last visit to China. I had met Snow a couple of years earlier, at the home of Professor Gilbert Etienne in Geneva (inviting me to that lunch meeting Gilbert had warned me not to get into an argument with Edgar Snow over India-China relations; I had replied that one could not argue with a legend!). Reading in the Chinese press around October 1970 that he was in Beijing as Mao’s personal guest, I tried to phone him and failing in that, sent him a note seeking a call. He telephoned some weeks later and said that he had been travelling in the provinces, and that he would come and meet me at the Embassy. He turned down my offer to call, and some days later drove up in his official limousine, for about 40 minutes of general conversation. He was too wily to give away any hard information and spoke in general terms of his positive impressions of the changes in the country. He also pumped me for information on some new document, which had emerged in the Hong Kong press about events on the mainland, relating to Chinese personalities, if I recall correctly. There was nothing of substance in the meeting. The significant aspect was that it took place at all, and that Snow made it a point to visit the Indian Embassy. It was a straw in the direction of normalization.

 

Another encounter with an author, perhaps a year later, had more in content. On the way back from a routine courier trip to Hong Kong I travelled with a Chinese-speaking American academic, who seemed interesting and we got into a conversation. She gave her name as Roxanne Witke, and she spoke of her interest in meeting Chinese leaders - rather a difficult task for an unknown visitor. A couple of weeks later I read in the Xinhua news bulletin that she had met Jiang Qing someone who seldom met foreign visitors. I tracked her down at the then premier lodging in the capital, the Beijing Hotel, and invited her to join my wife and myself for dinner at the Mongolian restaurant on Hou Hai lake, at the back of the Forbidden City. She accepted and, over the meal, she proceeded to unfold her extraordinary experience. This is narrated in her biography of that complex and, of course, controversial leader of the Cultural Revolution. The difference was that she spoke fresh from her first meeting with Madame Mao, at a point when Witke did not know that on her way out of the country through Guangzhou (still the only viable entry-exit point, even though direct flights to Shanghai from the West and Addis Ababa had commenced), she would be summoned back by the imperious lady for a series of additional meetings. The story of how later on attempts were made in the mid-70s to stop the publication of her book, at a time when Jiang Qing was under political attack and headed for downfall, are well-known.

 

The striking aspect for me in that dinner-meeting with Witke was the tale she unfolded, and her unerring prescience. She had earlier met Deng Yingchao, the spouse of Premier Zhou Enlai. Witke narrated the meticulous manner in which she had to prepare herself for the audience with Jiang Qing, listening to unpublished speeches where she could take notes but not see the text or record the reading on tape. She recounted that Jiang was truly concerned that she was not viewed with sympathy by the outside world, and felt that Witke could help in depicting a more human picture of her. Witke remarked that someone was trying to make her into a latter day Edgar Snow, and perhaps she was not displeased at the prospect. Jiang told her that Premier Zhou had urged her to go ahead with this meeting. Witke also spoke of the thorough investigation made into her academic and family background, plus the ways in which different Chinese interlocuters made known their knowledge of this. Then she went on to add her initial conclusion based on that first meeting, that someone was giving Jiang a long rope to hang herself. Witke also felt that she had unwittingly become enmeshed in China’s internal politics, and might be used in the manoeuvring by various personalities. This proved to be remarkably close to the truth, as the world learnt subsequently, when some of the inside stories on the events in China of the Mao era began to emerge. But to go back to that evening in the Mongolian restaurant, Hoxanne Witke told a story which gave deep insight into the inner workings of a land of enormous secrecy, and she seemed credible just for the reason that the account was vivid in personal detail.

 

My account of an Indian diplomat’s life in China some decades back, perhaps looks disjointed and sketchy. It describes some events and people that stand out in memory. It is intended to evoke some of the flavour of that time, and to underscore the wonder of one’s first start in a service career. Truly, it was a privilege to be exposed to China at a young age. It imprinted on me the enormous will and courage which this Asian giant mobilized, in its successful efforts to pull itself up by its own bootstraps. The circumstances of India are so different that direct comparisons are hard. But there is a great deal in the Chinese model which is relevant for us. The goals of democracy and freedom are absolute, and should not be compromised for economic achievement. A full 50 years after independence when the basic needs of our people are yet to be met, in education and health, in three square meals per day, in shelter and jobs, and even in drinking water, it can legitimately be asked - is this freedom? China’s record, evident in the excesses of the Great Leap and of the Cultural Revolution, suggests that it has swung in cycles of normalcy and extremes. The post-1979 economic reforms of Deng Xiaoping have brought great achievement and prosperity. But the tension between political and economic freedom, the contradictions and disparities between coastal and interior regions, and the restraints on individual freedom are among the issues which may pose for China its future challenges. Is individual liberty possible without the satisfaction of basic needs? Each society gropes for its own answers to these dilemmas. The comparable features and circumstances of India and China provide a basis for stronger cooperation, particularly in functional areas like agriculture or applied research. As we move to the next millennium, we must put aside the past, and seek out new ways of working together

  

More About Ambassador Kishan Rana

 

Ambassador Kishan Rana served as an Indian ambassador in Germany and consul general in San Francisco, and began his early career in China. His illustrious career in the Indian Foreign Service makes him well qualified discuss and reflect on India at the global level, as well as comparatively with China and other countries. Ambassador Rana’s status in the diplomatic corps and contacts with the policy establishment and security community in New Delhi will benefit our universities’ ties to India for faculty and student development.

 

Currently Ambassador Rana is active the Indian international affairs community and has handled projects for the Ministry of External Affairs. He advises the Ministry of Commerce and the Office of External Affairs in implementing plans to build India’s capacity at the global level. Professor Aseema Sinha, who is responsible for bringing this distinguished visitor on campus, hopes that his visit will establish new high-level linkages in India, address current projects such as the Emerging Powers Initiative and the India Initiative within the Division of International Studies, and provide a platform for discussion among many entities on campus, including: the Department of Political Science, the Center for South Asia, the Center for East Asian Studies, the India Initiative, the China Initiative, and Center for World Affairs and the Global Economy (WAGE).

 

Ambassador Rana was educated at St. Stephens College, Delhi University and holds a BA with honors and an MA in economics. He first joined the Indian Foreign Service in 1960 and was assigned in 1961 to the Indian Commission at Hong Kong to study Chinese. He then served at the Indian missions in Beijing (twice) and Geneva, and at the Ministry of External Affairs in New Delhi. Ambassador Rana served as the Indian Ambassador to Algeria (1975-79). Subsequent posts included ambassador or high commissioner to Czechoslovakia and Kenya and consul general in San Francisco, Mauritius, and Germany. He served as the joint-secretary in the prime minister’s office (1981-82) and in the Ministry of External Affairs (1982-83).

 

Ambassador Rana retired in 1995 and worked as a free-lance business advisor from 1995-99. Since 1999 he has been teaching and writing. Positions he has held include: professor emeritus, e-learning teaching faculty (since 2000), DiploFoundation, Malta and Geneva; commonwealth adviser to the Namibia Foreign Ministry (2000-01); honorary fellow, Institute of Chinese Studies, Delhi; archives by-fellow, Churchill College, Cambridge; public policy scholar, Woodrow Wilson Center, Washington, D.C. (2005); distinguished fellow, Institute of Diplomacy and Foreign Relations, Kuala Lumpur; and honorary fellow, Institute of Chinese Studies, Delhi.

 

ignca.nic.in/ks_41054.htm

Comment of the sculpteur:

I created this scuplture to honour the courage of these men:

Sons, husbands and fathers, who endangered and often sacrificed their lives in the hope of freeing the French people.

Les Braves consists of three elements:

The wings of Hope

So that the spirit which carried these men on June 6th, 1944 continues to inspire us, reminding us that together it is always possible to changing the future.

Rise, Freedom!

So that the example of those who rose against barbarity, helps us remain standing strong against all forms of inhumanity.

The Wings of Fraternity

So that this surge of brotherhood always reminds us of our responsibility towards others as well as ourselves.

On June 6th, 1944 these man were more than soldiers, they were our brothers.

Tales of the Caines family of Oldland Common in old Gloucestershire

 

Abraham and Benjamin Caines

 

genforum.genealogy.com/cains/messages/53.html

 

As early as 1727, an Abraham Caines was hanged at Gloucester Prison, having been charged and found guilty of theft. At his trial, it was noted that he was a member of a gang of thieves, and rogues, some of whom were his brothers.

 

Benjamin Caines, a later generation relative of the above, was also involved in petty crime, although he appears, in the main, to have 'got away' with his illegal activities until 1763 when, it is recorded, that he was convicted for the very minor crime of illegally selling beer without a licence. Perhaps he overstepped the mark once too often, and this led the local constable and/or magistrate deciding to 'teach him a lesson'.

 

Some 7 years prior to this conviction, Benjamin became the father of a son, and in the tradition of the time, gave his son the same Christian name. Although he may not have appreciated it at the time, he also passed on to his son the family trait of wanting to live on the wrong side of the law. Benjamin junior obviously found the family tradition to be very much to his liking, and as childhood turned into manhood, he set about becoming the patriarch of a family which was ordained to terrorise the parish and surrounding areas for over 60 years to come.

 

In 1777, at the age of 20 years, Benjamin junior married his sweetheart, Miss Ann Cool at St Mary the Virgin, Bitton. Whether or not Ann knew of her husband’s criminal activities when she married, will now never be known but, with the passage of time, and the personal production of no less than 10 children, the nature, and the subsequent pain of her family’s criminal activities must have become very obvious to her, as one by one, sons and daughters joined the family business and, the criminal fraternity.

 

Somewhat surprisingly, little is recorded of Benjamin’s own illegal activities, and thus we have to presume that they were either very minor, or that he was very crafty and was never, or rarely caught or that he was extremely lucky. Alternatively he may have played the 'God-father' role, and ensured that it was others who took the risks and the punishment. However, whatever was the truth of Benjamin’s good fortune or skill, the craft or luck of not being caught certainly deserted his siblings, and his subsequent 'inlaws'.

 

George Caines

 

archiver.rootsweb.ancestry.com/th/read/Bristol_and_Somers...

 

Benjamin’s eldest child was George, born in 1778, who at quite an early age had decided that he was going to maintain the family tradition and live a life of crime. For reasons, which will now never be known, George did not have the finesse, or luck of his forebears as before his 21st birthday, he was being sentenced at the Monmouth 1799 Lent Assizes, to one year’s imprisonment for passing counterfeit money. When arrested,at Pontypool with his cousin Francis Britton, both men were found to be in possession of a number of forged guineas, and it was said of them, that they belonged to a gang, who frequented country fairs as hawkers and pedlars.

 

The next few years appear to have passed without the Caines being caught for anything other than very minor crimes. Certainly there does not seem to be any record of a Caines being convicted by the local magistrates during the first few years of the new century.

 

Francis Caines

 

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However, much was to change when, in July 1804, four men were taken into custody in the city of Bath, charged with the theft of more than £400 worth of super fine cloth from premises at Freshford. (probably worth around £85,000 by today’s reckoning) One of this quartet was no less than Francis Caines, the second eldest son of Benjamin and Ann who, at 23 years of age, was in the gaol calendar, described as being an oyster and cider seller. By all accounts, the four, which also included from Bitton, Thomas Batt and Charles Fuller, had made quite a night of their illicit activities. Having participated in a late supper in Bath, they left the hostelry at around 10.00pm. and made their way to Bathwick where they broke into a stable, and succeeded in stealing a horse and cart. From there they drove to Freshford, arriving in the village at around mid-night.

 

They then smashed their way into a store holding the cloth, and then proceeded to load the material onto the cart for a successful return to Bath. (perhaps an early form of 'ram-raid'?)

 

As part of an elaborate plan, Fuller had previously gone to Bath, and had, under an assumed name, hired a coach house, just off Pulteney Street. It was therefore around 2.00am that the stolen horse and cart pulled up outside the coach house, and together with the rolls of cloth, were secreted inside. Despite their belief that they had made adequate plans to carry out the theft, they had probably attempted more than they could handle, and all four were, in a relatively short time, brought to trial. In the early 19th century, theft was still regarded as a very serious crime, particularly theft from anyone wealthy enough to have influence, and no doubt, the true owner of the cloth was regarded as being wealthy. At his trial Francis Caines did the honourable thing by confessing to his part in the theft, but his attempts (if that is what they were) to mitigate the punishment fell on deaf ears and, two months later, in September 1804 he became the first of the Caines to receive the ultimate punishment, and was hanged at Ilchester Gaol Somerset. As with John Carey, Francis Caines’ body was recovered by his family and brought home to Oldland, for subsequent burial at the same church where, some 27 years previously his parents had taken their marriage vows.

 

Betty Caines

 

In the meanwhile, their eldest daughter Betty, had started to live with a Timothy Bush, who subsidised his miner’s income with money received from the odd misdemeanour or dubious acquisition of property which just happened to come his way. Having provided Betty with two sons, Timothy’s relatively short life of crime resulted in him being convicted, together with a Thomas Wilmot and a Joseph Willis of horse theft. Such a theft was regarded as a very major invasion into the deeply held privileges of the rich, and, accordingly could be punishable by death.

 

Certainly all three were found guilty and condemned to death, but perhaps with providence smiling upon them, they were reprieved, having their sentences commuted to transportation for life. Accordingly, on the 26 August 1813, Timothy Bush sailed from these shores onboard the vessel General Hewart, bound for New South Wales, and the start of a new, if somewhat arduous life as a convict.

 

Back in 1800, George Caines was released from prison, quite undeterred from living a life of crime. Although for a number of years his criminal activities were relatively small or, went unnoticed by the authorities, some time, during the first decade of the new century, George teamed up with two other well known local thieves who, collectively, helped to promote the Cock Road Gang story.

 

Research shows that whilst collectively referred to as a gang, the individual members involved do not appear to have operated as a tight-knit cohesive group in the generally accepted sense of a gang, but appear to have been a much more loosely connected body drawn together by a common bond of crime, and a sense of strong family links. Certainly there is evidence through marriage registers that many of the participants were either cousins, or in-laws, and a study of the gaol calendars show the frequent appearance of the family names, Brain, Britton, Bryant, Fry, Isles, Ward, Webb and, Wilmot. It is not to say that everyone with those surnames should be regarded as having been a 'member of the gang', but many considered petty crime to be a way of life, not only for its thrill, but quite often, as a means to produce the bare necessities of life, such as food and clothing.

 

As already stated, George had joined forces with others, and collectively, they managed to relieve many of their fellow inhabitants of Oldland and the surrounding parishes of their money,. goods and chattels. In those cases where the owners were less than willing to hand over their possessions, George and his friends were only to happy to try and dissuade them from that particular course of action. Eventually greed, and no doubt over confidence and misplaced loyalty, caused George to over step the mark, and around 1812 he was arrested after having attempted to kill Benjamin Curtis.

 

Had Curtis been just a poor member of the general public, probably nothing more would have been said, but this Benjamin was a local constable who had been beaten about the head with the butt end of a gun, whilst trying to arrest Caines’ friend, Isaac Cox. At his subsequent trial, George Caines was found guilty, and as expected, was sentenced to be hung from the neck until dead. Somewhat surprisingly the death sentence was subsequently commuted to transportation for life, and during April 1815, George followed Betty’s 'husband' to the antipodes, sailing for New South Wales on board the vessel 'Fanny'.

 

With his two elder brothers no longer around, the third son, Thomas, was quick and willing to step into the fray, and to take on the mantle of leader. In fact, Thomas went one better and decided that his leadership would seem even more impressive if he took the exalted title of 'Captain'. Perhaps Thomas was more of a showman than a clever thief, as within a relatively short time of becoming 'captain of the gang' he fell foul of the law, and was to soon discover for himself the nature and quality of gaol life in the 19th. century.

 

Due, no doubt, to the death or, incarceration of the three eldest sons, an unnatural lull appears to have occurred in the major crime rate of the area, although it still continued in petty ways.

 

Thomas Caines

 

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With the main protagonists out of the way, there may have been less organisation of crime, and almost certainly less in the way of intimidation. It is perhaps therefore, not surprising, that towards the latter part of 1811, the honest, and respectable citizens of Oldland came out of their shells by deciding that they should meet the challenge of the rising crime figures head on, by forming themselves into a group, to be called the Kingswood Association, with the pious aim of exposing the thieves, housebreakers and wrongdoers. No doubt wishing to keep their hands clean, these honest and respectable citizens formed a sub-group on military lines called the Bitton Troop or Bitton Cavalry.

 

This group was raised, on the pretext of being able to assist the local constabulary, but almost certainly, the founder members saw this group of mounted citizens as vigilantes who, given the opportunity, could dish out their own form of retribution. The military wing of the association was headed by one Thomas Bevan, who undoubtedly, full of his own self importance, and not to be out done by Thomas Caines, also gave himself the style of 'Captain'.

 

Despite the undoubted enthusiasm of the association, and of those who formed with Thomas Bevan, the Bitton Troop, their efforts fell well short of what was required, (perhaps they knew their quarry too well or vice versa), and it was eventually left to the authorities in Bristol to take, what was then, the very exceptional measure of collecting together the city watchmen and the city guards, and for this body of men to proceed during the middle of the night, to the strongholds of those whom it was believed formed part of the 'gang'.

 

With the aid of the local constabulary, they surrounded each house in turn, arrested every adult male, and marched them back to Bristol. Of those arrested, some were liberated during the next day or so for lack of evidence, (there were no doubt a great number of wrongful arrests), whilst some were charged with crimes. Those who were subsequently found guilty, were either imprisoned, or transported, but as far as can be determined, the bulk of those adult males who fell into the net were mostly a few rowdies, and a few petty criminals, the majority of whom appear to have had no known association with the Cock Road Gang, and certainly none could in any way be regarded as being 'gang leaders'. Could it have been that the important members of the gang were 'tipped-off’ that authorities from Bristol were on their way or, did the local constabulary really not know where the gang leaders lived?.

 

Certainly none of the Caine family were involved in the round-up, and all that seems to have been achieved, is that the level of crime fell, or certainly did not get any worse for a while. This may of course been the main, if not the sole, aim of the exercise, and if it was, it had only a limited success rate, as by 1816, the fourth of the Caines sons came on the scene.

 

Named after his father and his father’s father, Benjamin, had by the start of the second decade, all the ill-advised confidence of youth. As a consequence, he had decided that he could do much better than his elder brothers, and make crime pay by attacking the elderly and the rich. During 1816, Benjamin carried out a number of minor crimes, none of which produced that much in the way of a financial return. It was, therefore, in the following year that Benjamin decided to really put his theories to work, and armed with sword and pistol, and accompanied by two fellow roughnecks, set off one summer evening with the sole aim to burgle the house of an elderly lady, Miss Sarah Prigg, of Bitton.

 

Unfortunately for young Benjamin, he was unable to put into practice his crime winning ideas, and he fared no better, and probably much worse than his brothers, by not only bungling the burglary, but also by making the fatal mistake of removing his mask. He at once became instantly recognised not only by Sarah, but also by her nephew James Evans, who happened to be lodging with her at the time of the burglary.

 

It may say a great deal about Benjamin’s character, inasmuch as at no time does he appear to have used either his sword or pistol, particularly after he was recognised. On the other hand, it could be that his naivet or surprise, or fear of being recognised, caused an understandable delay in his reaction, and as a consequence, he had no opportunity to draw either weapon. With his family’s reputation for crime, and his obvious recognition by the victims, it is perhaps not surprising that, within a short time of fleeing from Miss Prigg’s house in Bitton, Benjamin Caines was arrested by the local constable.

 

It was on the 4 August 1817, when the 22 year old Benjamin Caines arrived at Gloucester Gaol, charged on the oath of Sarah Prigg, with having broken into her dwelling house in Bitton, and feloniously stealing therefrom a quantity of wearing apparel, silver tea-spoons, cash notes, Irish cloth shifts and sheets and, sundry other articles to the value of £30 upwards. (probably around £15,000 in today’s valuation)

 

An entry in the Felons Register for the 13 August 1815, when Benjamin had previously appeared before the same magistrates bench, described him as being 5’7¼' tall, with light brown hair, a fresh complexion, dark grey eyes, a short nose, turned up a little at the end and long features. He had scars on two fingers of his left hand, and a scar on his left shin. His occupation was stated to be that of a fish carrier, and it was noted that he could read a little. Whilst held in the prison, it was reported that he had behaved very well.

 

It will be recalled that Benjamin’s elder brother, Thomas, had for the past few years, been spending his time in prison, and having now served his sentence was about to change places with his brother, by regaining his freedom, whilst Benjamin lost his.

 

However unpleasant a prison sentence was in the 19th century, it certainly did not create the right environment to help produce a reformed character. In Thomas’s case, it probably did just the opposite and produced a tougher individual even more determined to get his revenge and just rewards. Within weeks of being released, Captain Thomas was back performing his trade of relieving the general public of their property against their will. Unfortunately for Thomas, prison life had not sharpened his skills, and thus he immediately suffered no better success than before.

 

During Thomas’s incarceration, the Bitton Troop had been formed, and perhaps no one had thought it worthwhile to tell Thomas of their existence. Alternatively, it may simply have been that Thomas overlooked their presence, or perhaps more likely, the name led him to believe that they restricted their activities to the immediate area around Bitton. What ever the reason, Thomas was apprehended by a private of the Bitton Troop whilst in the act of helping himself to several sacks of wheat from an Inn at Cold Ashton.

 

By chance or design, both Thomas and Benjamin were brought before the Magistrates at the same Mid-summer Assizes of 1817, with Thomas being the first to be called. With his record, Thomas was never likely to be dealt with leniently, and true to form,the magistrates considered that they had no choice but to rid the community of yet another Caine and gang member. Accordingly Thomas was sentenced to 7 years transportation to the colonies.

 

By the time Benjamin came before the Court, those who sat in judgement had obviously decided that they had had enough of the Caine family, and that the punishment inflicted upon its members had to be as severe as possible. Even though it was accepted that Benjamin had refrained from using the weapons at his disposal when he robbed Miss Prigg, the Judge decided in his judgement to impose the maximum penalty, it being that Caines should be hung in chains in a public place, and there left to rot as an example to the rest of his family.

 

Fortunately for young Benjamin, the Judge was having one of his better days, and decided that he wished to err on the side of leniency. Accordingly, Benjamin’s sentence was commuted to the 'privilege' of being hanged in the normal way.

 

On Saturday, the 6 September 1817, Benjamin Caines received the Last Rites in the Chapel of Gloucester Prison, before walking with resignation, and much fortitude, to the scaffold above the Gate House.

 

With the sentence having been carried out, and death certified by the prison doctor, Benjamin’s body was handed over to his younger brother, and carried the 40 odd miles home to his father’s house in Oldland.

 

Although it was quite often the custom to lay the body out in the house, and for friends and neighbours to pay their respect, Benjamin senior decided to go one better. With a touch of the theatricals, and veering towards a farce, the body of young Benjamin was exhibited in the parlour, with a small charge made for those who had the somewhat macabre desire to look upon his earthly remains. The money so collected would then be used to help defray the funeral expenses.

 

Whether the local populace saw young Benjamin as some evil curiosity, or as some 19th century Robin Hood, or perhaps they had a personal desire to ensure that he was dead, will now never be known. However, what is known, is that the villagers, and others from the surrounding country side, eagerly turned out in their multitudes to hand over their few coppers, just to view the body. With so much money raised, the Caine family had sufficient funds to hold such a funeral as had never been seen before, or probably since, in the neighbourhood.

 

When the day of the funeral arrived, the remaining family gathered at the father’s house, together with six women from the village, all dressed entirely in white, to act as pallbearers. At the appointed time, the cortge left the house, with the coffin borne aloft, and was carried the two miles between Oldland and Bitton. Throughout the journey, the procession was flanked by many people, some of whom were, of course, Benjamin’s criminal friends and their relatives, who had turned out to pay their respects, and others who went just to be curious. The church of St. Mary the Virgin was packed for the service, and those who attended heard the vicar preach a solemn sermon using as his theme 'let him who stole, steal no more'.

 

Outside of the church, many friends and onlookers had gathered, not it might be added, in a sombre mood, but, more with the spirit of a carnival atmosphere. which soon prevailed over all of the mourners to the extent that, they spilled out into the church yard, merry-making throughout the remainder of the day. Such was the general mood of enjoyment, (no doubt aided by the liberal flow of alcohol), experienced by those who were there, that night had fallen whilst Benjamin’s coffin still rested in the church. Thus, when it was eventually agreed to commit his body to the ground, in the grave already occupied by his brother Francis for the past 13 years, candles had to be lit to provide sufficient light.

 

Over the next few months, those who remained loyal to the gang, embarked on a vicious rampage against persons considered to be part of the 'establishment', and in particular they seemed to take great delight in venting their loathsome anger or mentality, upon animals belonging to such persons. In one such instance, the horse belonging to George Haskins, the Bitton Constable, was crippled after having the large tendon at the back of both of it’s hind legs severed.

 

This inhumane attack on a dumb animal was carried out by Henry Willis, one of the lesser gang members, who in his own warped mind, may have thought that his action would enhance his reputation. Although it is not certain that Henry Willis carried out a further attack, his hallmark was on the next act of brutality, when the poor constable also had his cow similarly treated, and mangled. h general, during this period of vindictiveness, corn ricks were put to the torch; houses, gardens and fields in the area were plundered for anything which could be easily carried away, and despicably other animals were either killed or maimed.

 

Having eventually exhausted their fury, their heinous crimes finally petered out, and the establishment and their animals could relax. However, despite the nature and direction of these wicked acts, and despite there being at least one person under suspicion, not one of the perpetrators was ever brought to account.

 

A period of some 5 years elapsed before another of the Caines dynasty came to the fore when, in 1822, a George Groves was transported for stealing watches. Elizabeth (Betty) Caines was the eldest daughter of Benjamin and Ann, and it will no doubt be recalled that, she had for a while, lived with a certain Timothy Bush and, bore him two sons. Timothy then landed himself in trouble, or just got caught, which resulted in his being transported for life. Betty was not only a Caine , she was also a very resourceful woman, and whilst marriage was never uppermost in her mind, she was certainly not going to bring up her children on her own. Accordingly, not long after Timothy left these shores in 1813 for a new life on the other side of the world, Betty opened her door to one George Groves. Whilst living with her second common-law husband, it is believed that a son Thomas was born but, more about him later.

 

For Betty to have had two pseudo husbands, both transported to the other side of the world for theft, in the space of nine years, must rank as some form of dubious record and, for her, and her offspring's, worse was yet to come.

 

Timothy Bush had left Betty with two children, the eldest being James, born in 1805 and who was thus, only 8 years of age when his father was permanently taken from him. Whether it was patriarchal pressure from his maternal grandfather or, pressure from his mother or, simply his liking of the name will now never be known, but what is recorded is that James was commonly known as James Caines Bush or, frequently, just James Caines.

 

He may well have had a loving childhood whilst his father was there and, this may have continued during George Groves’ eight years stand-in as a step father. However, living in such a criminal environment, encouraged by his seniors life style, must have had a great influence on his young mind. Unfortunately, James turned out to be not very bright and may even have been 'simple minded', and the fact that he was growing up amongst thieves and rogues, meant that he was not to get a particularly good start in life, exacerbated by the misfortune of having his second father also taken away from him at the age of 17 years.

 

James Caines - Murder at Warmley

 

Two years after George Groves was transported, James became involved with an incident which was to have a very tragic result for this young man.

 

During the evening of the 27 November 1824, James in company with friends, was drinking at The Tennis Court Inn, Warmley. Also drinking at the bar was the local pound-keeper, Isaac Garden. Amongst James’ drinking companions was Francis Britton who started an argument with Garden over the cost of recovering a stray animal and, whilst the subject of the disagreement between these two had nothing whatsoever to do with James or the other friends, as so often happens in such circumstances, Britton’s friends became embroiled in the argument, and the disturbance grew. As far as can be determined, the sum total of James’ involvement during the commotion appears to have been no worse than the throwing of bits of broken clay pipe in the general direction of Mr.Garden.

 

Being somewhat outnumbered, Garden left the Inn of his own freewill, and it is believed, without either injury or hindrance. The disturbance in the public house is therefore likely to have been no worse than verbal abuse, accompanied perhaps, by some pushing and shoving. Once outside, Garden appears to have been accosted and knocked or pushed to the ground, but by whom, is unfortunately not recorded. Whether or not Garden was hurt or just shaken, is also not recorded, but for reasons best known to himself, instead of trying to make his own way home, he returned to the bar of the Inn.

 

One can only guess at Garden’s intention of taking this particular course of action, possibly he was prevented from making his way home by either force or fear or perhaps just feeling unwell. He may possibly have felt more secure inside the hostelry where he may have had friends, or alternatively, he wanted a drink to settle his nerves before quietly returning home.

 

There may have been the need for a drink or two, to build up sufficient 'Dutch Courage' to follow Britton and to settle a score on a hoped for one-to-one basis. Whatever theories we put to Garden’s motives will never be more than pure speculation, for all that is certain is that Garden remained behind in the Inn, apparently free of any further argument or intimidation, until after James and his friends left the warmth and comfort of the hostelry.

 

With the Inn closed for the night, and the dank, still air of a late November night invading the surrounding countryside, a coal miner, on his way home from a long fourteen hour shift, stumbled across the battered body of Isaac Garden.

 

Once his body had been identified, the local constable began to make enquiries, and, soon the story of the previous evening’s altercation, involving Garden and a known group of seven young men in The Tennis Court Inn, became public knowledge.

 

In reporting his findings to the local magistrates, the constable confirmed that Garden had met his untimely end in a most unpleasant and brutal way. With the then limitations in medical science, and in particular, forensic science, the magistrates had to rely a great deal on their and the constable’s judgement, which was that Garden had been killed by being hit about the head with a blunt instrument, believed to be a clothes-post which had been found near the body.

 

Also near to where the body lay, was found a knife which was subsequently identified as belonging to a Robert England, already named as being one of the young men in the group of seven. In addition to the knife, the constable had come across a set of muddy footprints, and the imprint in the ground, of a mark where someone had obviously sat down. Rather importantly, there was within this imprint, the additional outline which represented the shape of a patch, where the owner’s trousers had at one time been mended.

 

By now the constable had the names of the men involved in the altercation with Garden and so, the hunt was on for Francis and Isaac Britton, James Bush (alias Caines), Thomas Wilmot, Mark Whitting, Samuel Peacock and Robert England.

 

Within a relatively short space of time, the constable had arrested most of the above and, upon checking the state of their trousers, he was soon to have no doubt that the person who had sat near the body was none other than Mark Whitting.

 

Having been kept in local custody for almost a week, six of the men were, on the 9 December 1824, transferred to Gloucester Gaol, charged on the oath of George Haskins, with suspicion of having, on the night of Saturday 27 November 1824, in the parish of Oldland, feloniously assaulted, killed and murdered, one Isaac Garden.

 

In the Felons Register, the hand written entries, for the 9 December 1824, describe Francis Britton as being a labourer, 5'2¾' tall, with a pale complexion and rather stout, he was unable to read or write.

 

Samuel Peacock was a 5'4' tall cordwainer, also with a pale complexion, a long face, with a large nose and a scar on his forehead, he could both read and write.

 

Mark Whitting was another labourer, just shorter than Peacock, with brown hair and brown eyes, he could read a little, but not write. Robert England was the shortest man, just 5’0¾' tall, a collier by trade, with an oval face, very much marked by the after effects of smallpox.

 

Whilst Thomas Wilmot is not described, James Caines is shown to be 5'4½' tall, with brown hair, grey eyes, a dark complexion, and a full face with several visible scars resulting from his employment as a collier, he also could neither read or write.

 

This just leaves Isaac Britton, who was to arrive at the gaol some four days later, having been similarly charged with Garden’s murder.

 

Almost 170 years after the event, it is difficult to make a sound judgement on the subsequent actions of the presiding magistrates or judge. There are, of course, decisions taken in today’s Court Rooms which are hard to understand, and we should perhaps put the decisions taken in this case into the same category. However there does seem to be strong grounds for believing that the decisions then taken, were, to say the very least, preposterous, if not somewhat prejudicial.

 

During the constable’s enquiries, he had discovered that whilst the argument had started over a disagreement between Francis Britton and Isaac Garden, and was originally just between those two, when the altercation began to encompass Britton’s friends, it had been Thomas Wilmot who was the first to physically assault Garden.

 

Following such evidence as this (presumably there were witnesses to the attack), it might have been expected that Wilmot would have become one of the prime suspects of the violence perpetrated upon Garden, but this was not to be so as, all charges in this case against Wilmot were dropped and, he walked free.

 

Francis Britton was the instigator of the argument, and no doubt, egged on by his son Isaac and, the demon drink, appears to have taken a leading roll in upsetting Garden’s evening. No specific evidence was put forward to suggest that they were involved with the subsequent murder, and they were also found not guilty. Similarly the charge against Samuel Peacock was also dropped.

 

It will of course be remembered, that a knife belonging to Robert England was found near Garden’s body. Whilst there was no evidence that Garden had suffered any knife wounds, the discovery of the knife would seem to indicate that England had been at the scene, either before the murder was committed, or not long afterwards. It is of course possible that the knife had either been borrowed from England. and dropped by the murderer or, had been deliberately placed there just to incriminate him. Whatever the reason, the judge was satisfied that England was not involved, and like the other four, he also was found not guilty, and walked free.

 

Undoubtedly, a murder had been committed and someone had to be punished. If the crime had not been perpetrated by five of those involved in the altercation then, it must have been carried out by the other two, and it should not be forgotten, that for one of those left, there was the damning evidence of the trouser seat imprint whilst the other was, after all, a member of that infamous Caines family.

 

The only other 'evidence' which was brought before the learned judge was that, in the opinion of the constable, the muddy footprints matched those of Caines.

 

It would therefore appear to have been an open and shut case against Caines and Whitting with undisputed, (as far as the law was concerned), evidence in the mud surrounding Garden’s body, plus the known fact that both men were part of a group of seven who argued with, and may have pushed and shoved the poor unfortunate victim in the presence of witnesses in the bar of The Tennis Court Inn. No evidence was brought forward by the prosecution that either of the two defendants had struck the fatal blow, or that they were anywhere near Garden when the blows were made.

 

Whether James, or indeed any of the seven drinking companions, were ever involved in the murder of Isaac Garden, will now never be known. For the young, unintelligent James, there was an unfortunate legacy which caused his continued plea of not guilty to fall on deaf ears, this being that he liked to use Caines as his surname and that he was, without doubt, part of the Caines dynasty.

 

The fact that both Caines and Whitting may have simply watched the beating or, had gone to Garden’s help, after he had been killed by persons unknown, or had visited the site of the murder out of some morbid curiosity, does not seem to have entered the minds of those who tried the case. Certainly there was no benefit of the doubt shown and, thus, no way of escaping the hangman’s noose, as both young men were found guilty and sentenced to death.

 

Like his Uncle Benjamin before him, 20 year old James Caines Bush was publicly hanged at Gloucester prison on the 11th April 1825.

 

The following day, to add to his mother’s grief and worry, James’ younger brother Francis, was brought to Gloucester Prison in chains, charged with highway robbery. Subsequently, Francis was to follow in his father’s footsteps when, as a result of this charge, he was sentenced to be transported to Australia.

 

Although she perhaps brought about much of her own family’s adversity upon herself or perhaps the die was cast the moment she was born a Caines, sympathy must surely be given to Elizabeth (Betty) Caines for the many losses which occurred in a relatively short space of time. Born in 1781, she had, by the age of 41 years, experienced the loss of one son, to the hangman’s noose, plus two common-law husbands, and one other son, transported across to the other side of the world. In addition, Betty also suffered the loss of two brothers, executed, and two other brothers, transported. To have no less than three male relatives hanged and five transported, all in the space of just 21 years, is either down to extreme bad luck, or gross negligence and creates a probable record, unenvied by all.

 

By the year 1825, Betty was left with just five siblings remaining in and around Oldland, plus what is believed to be her son Thomas, the offspring of George Groves.

 

The family remained together for a further 7 years, during which time they continued to be involved in various crimes, mostly however of a relatively minor nature. As there appears to be no record of any prosecutions against the family between 1825-1831, it is just possible that they attempted to live a life of honesty, but it is more likely that the family simply kept a low profile, and were lucky.

 

However, either greed or over confidence brought this barren spell to an end, for 1832 saw changes in the luck of the Caines. During this year, in two unrelated instances, Thomas Caines (alias Groves), and his uncle, Samuel Caines, were arrested.

 

Separately they were charged and convicted of theft, and separately, they were both sentenced to be transported.

 

Thomas was, at the time just 19 years old when he was brought before the Magistrates at the Gloucester City Summer Assizes. He is shown as being a labourer, and received absolutely no lenience from the magistrates who no doubt, in recognising the name decided to sentence him to be transported for life. It was, therefore, on the 22nd. September 1832, that Thomas boarded the sailing vessel Camden, following in his uncle’s footsteps, bound for New South Wales and, out of our story.

 

Thus, 'poor~ Betty suffered the pain and anguish of losing a further two male relatives from her life, to bring the total to ten either hanged or, transported, in just over 30 years. It is perhaps not surprising, that by the time of the first published census in 1841 there are no Caines listed as being residents of Oldland.

 

When he boarded the sailing vessel Mary 111 on the 4 September 1832, bound for New South Wales, Samuel Caines left behind him a wife and three small daughters. Whether he ever saw them again is not certain as, he does not appear to have returned to England after serving the 7 year sentence. Quite likely he would have been unable to have raised the fare home, but it is possible that he had become used to living 'down-under'. Certainly, by 1842, Samuel Caines is not only recorded as a freeman, it is also shown that he was working as a hospital dispenser in Australia. Whether this was as a reformed character, is not recorded, it would however, be pleasant to believe that he had learned his lesson and having managed to get his family over to Australia , that they were able to carve out a new and honest lifestyle for themselves.

 

Whilst much has been said about Betty and her menfolk, she was not the only daughter of Benjamin and Ann Caines. The fifth child born of that union was the second daughter, christened Lydia, who arrived during the year of 1790.

 

As Lydia grew older and reached her adult years, she adopted her elder sister’s belief that marriage, as a legal entity, was not for her. Possibly, both sisters disliked the thought of being 'owned' by a husband or, perhaps, seeing the way in which their father and their brothers rebelled against authority and the community, they saw such a stance as being their way of rebelling. Whatever the reason, neither seemed to relish the legal niceties or dubious security of being a bride.

 

Like Betty, Lydia was not able to keep her menfolk out of trouble, and even went one better than her sister, by having all three of the men she chose to live with taken from her and transported as criminals.

 

A George Caines, alias Avery, is believed to have been one of Lydia’s sons, and by all accounts, he took to theft in quite a big way for, certainly he appears to have had quite grandiose ideas about the scale of his nocturnal activities. Little is known of him, and as far as can be determined in the local records, he managed to escape the clutches of the law for most of the time that he plied his trade. It is known that around 1832/33 he carried out a substantial burglary in Dyrham, which led to his subsequent arrest and trial. At that trial he was found guilty, and despite the fact that be had no previous proven convictions, his surname was sufficient reason for him to be sentenced to transportation for life.

 

With his departure, the long and sad story of the felonious Caines family virtually came to an end. Of those members of the family still left in the area, only a few continued to get into trouble with the law, and in all cases, the trouble seemed to have been no more than minor misdemeanours.

 

Obviously, after 60 years or more of being in the criminal limelight, the family name continued to attract rumours and accusations, all of which needed to be lived down as the years rolled by.

 

In 1842, an Edward Caines, who may or may not have been directly related to the infamous family, experienced taunts and beatings in a public house in the city of Bath, over his surname, and the Caines’ reputation which, no doubt by then, had been probably enlarged upon with the passing of time. In 'self-defence', Edward drew a knife, and turned upon his tormentors, but being completely outnumbered, he was overpowered and soon arrested.

 

At the subsequent trial, Caines explained why, under the greatest of provocation, he had drawn his knife. Whilst fully acknowledging these reasons, the presiding magistrates still decided that they could not sympathise with his difficulties and accordingly sentenced him to be transported for a minimum of seven years. It is perhaps, therefore, not surprising to find in the Oldland area, an absence of 'Caines' listed in the first published population census of 1841.

 

An interesting footnote to this story is, that having served his sentence in the penal colony, George Caines, the eldest son, who had been transported for life in 1815, subsequently became the landlord of a public house in Parramatta, Australia.

 

Furthermore, although it is not known if he named the hostelry himself, it is curious to note that the name given to it was 'The Jolly Sailor', perhaps brought on by one or two pleasant memories of drinking bouts in nearby Hanham.

 

Although this is the end of the Caines story, it must not be presumed that that family were necessarily the only villains in the area. As already stated, many other families both collectively and individually, were involved in one way or another. Life had many different values in the early nineteenth century to those held today.

 

There was, for example, no welfare state to 'fall-back on', life was extremely hard and tough, producing very few pleasures, and where even a minor (in today’s terms) illness could cause a great deal of pain and suffering. Death was probably more easily accepted simply because it was much more visible than it is today, particularly with a high infant mortality rate. In addition there was a huge gap in wealth and living conditions between the ruling class and, the working class.

 

The majority of the crime which occurred during the dynasty of the Caines, was probably petty and totally unsophisticated. Almost certainly, a great amount of crime, both petty and serious, went unrecorded and unpunished, and much was probably of a domestic nature.

Comment of the sculpteur:

I created this scuplture to honour the courage of these men:

Sons, husbands and fathers, who endangered and often sacrificed their lives in the hope of freeing the French people.

Les Braves consists of three elements:

The wings of Hope

So that the spirit which carried these men on June 6th, 1944 continues to inspire us, reminding us that together it is always possible to changing the future.

Rise, Freedom!

So that the example of those who rose against barbarity, helps us remain standing strong against all forms of inhumanity.

The Wings of Fraternity

So that this surge of brotherhood always reminds us of our responsibility towards others as well as ourselves.

On June 6th, 1944 these man were more than soldiers, they were our brothers.

Comment of the sculpteur:

I created this scuplture to honour the courage of these men:

Sons, husbands and fathers, who endangered and often sacrificed their lives in the hope of freeing the French people.

Les Braves consists of three elements:

The wings of Hope

So that the spirit which carried these men on June 6th, 1944 continues to inspire us, reminding us that together it is always possible to changing the future.

Rise, Freedom!

So that the example of those who rose against barbarity, helps us remain standing strong against all forms of inhumanity.

The Wings of Fraternity

So that this surge of brotherhood always reminds us of our responsibility towards others as well as ourselves.

On June 6th, 1944 these man were more than soldiers, they were our brothers.

Comment of the sculpteur:

I created this scuplture to honour the courage of these men:

Sons, husbands and fathers, who endangered and often sacrificed their lives in the hope of freeing the French people.

Les Braves consists of three elements:

The wings of Hope

So that the spirit which carried these men on June 6th, 1944 continues to inspire us, reminding us that together it is always possible to changing the future.

Rise, Freedom!

So that the example of those who rose against barbarity, helps us remain standing strong against all forms of inhumanity.

The Wings of Fraternity

So that this surge of brotherhood always reminds us of our responsibility towards others as well as ourselves.

On June 6th, 1944 these man were more than soldiers, they were our brothers.

An interactive version of this panorama can be found on the World Wide Panorama project here www.worldwidepanorama.org/worldwidepanorama/wwp1209/html/...

  

Shot using a Nikon D300 camera and Nikon 10.5mm f2.8 fisheye lens. This was all mounted on a Nodal Ninja 5 panoramic head atop a Manfrotto 055XProB tripod. Panorama was created with 6 shots round tilted down by 15 degrees and a single zenith shot looking straight up. Shots were then put together using Nikon Capture NX, PTGui Pro 8.3.6, SmartBlend 1.2.5, and Pano2VR 2.3 beta 4.

Omaha Beach Monument—"Les Braves: The Wings of Hope, Rise of Freedom, The Wings of Fraternity", Normandy France

This is just one third of the Les Braves sculpture on Omaha beach by Anilore Banon. He wrote:

 

"I created this sculpture to honour the courage of these men:

 

Sons, husbands and fathers, who endangered and often sacrificed their lives in the hope of freeing the french people.

 

Les Braves consists of three elements:

 

The Wings of Hope

So that the spirit which carried these men on June 6th, 1944 continues to inspire us, reminding us that together it is always possible to change the future.

 

Rise Freedom!

So that the example of those who rose against barbarity, help us remain standing strong against all forms of inhumanity.

 

The Wings of Fraternity

So that this surge of brotherhood always reminds us of our responsability towards others as well as ourselves.

On June 6th, 1944 these men were more than soldiers, they were our brothers."

 

It was first thing in the morning when I took this photo. The beach was empty and the day was peaceful and bright, a complete contrast to D-Day.

Les Braves is located on Omaha Beach in Normandy, France. It is a monument to the Americans who liberated France and was commissioned by the French government to celebrate the 60th anniversary in 2004.

 

It was sculptured by Anilore Banon and consists of three elements:

 

The Wings of Hope:

So that the spirit which carried these men on 6th June 1944, continues to inspire us, reminding us that together it is always possible to change the future.

 

Rise of Freedom:

So that the example of those who rose up against barbarity, helps us remain standing strong against all forms on inhumanity

 

The Wings of Fraternity:

So that the surge of brotherhood always reminds of our responsibility towards others as well as ourselves.

Comment of the sculpteur:

I created this scuplture to honour the courage of these men:

Sons, husbands and fathers, who endangered and often sacrificed their lives in the hope of freeing the French people.

Les Braves consists of three elements:

The wings of Hope

So that the spirit which carried these men on June 6th, 1944 continues to inspire us, reminding us that together it is always possible to changing the future.

Rise, Freedom!

So that the example of those who rose against barbarity, helps us remain standing strong against all forms of inhumanity.

The Wings of Fraternity

So that this surge of brotherhood always reminds us of our responsibility towards others as well as ourselves.

On June 6th, 1944 these man were more than soldiers, they were our brothers.

Comment of the sculpteur:

I created this scuplture to honour the courage of these men:

Sons, husbands and fathers, who endangered and often sacrificed their lives in the hope of freeing the French people.

Les Braves consists of three elements:

The wings of Hope

So that the spirit which carried these men on June 6th, 1944 continues to inspire us, reminding us that together it is always possible to changing the future.

Rise, Freedom!

So that the example of those who rose against barbarity, helps us remain standing strong against all forms of inhumanity.

The Wings of Fraternity

So that this surge of brotherhood always reminds us of our responsibility towards others as well as ourselves.

On June 6th, 1944 these man were more than soldiers, they were our brothers.

The Western Owl.

 

The sky was grey and dim yet in the distance Shalon could make out plumes of smoke rising over the distant plains and could hear the thunder clap of explosions echoing through out the entirety of the region. It would be only a matter of weeks before the fight, a fight that was neither hers, nor her friends concern, was upon them. Rain lightly misted on her hairless head and sighing forlornly she looked around at her people and their encampment. Or rather was left of them. Shalon was a Psi-Stalker of a small tribe called the Pale Skulls. The Pale Skulls had lived nomadically for many generations in relative isolation in the open plains, their only significant contact being with their some times friends and sometimes rivals, the Gursallu, a tribe of Simvan.

 

Two years prior a strange sickly man came from the east sowing disease and ruin. He passed through heading north by north west leaving a trail of sadness and wasting death. Before any Psi-Stalker or Simvan could retaliate he was gone as were the majority of both their numbers. Psi-Stalkers and Simvan are both very proud and tough people, but their toughness is forged directly from the ugly brutalities of survival which call above all for pragmatism. With both camps equaling less then fifty adults both together they did what had to be done and joined forces.

 

Yet more trouble came from the east. A war between Wizards and Men in high tech armor was raging. Strangers passed through their lands causing trouble and frequently black vehicles screamed across the sky. A few men left to the east to hire their services as scouts or warriors and never returned. Including a man named Skylo, whom Shalon was to marry. Skylo was the only man her age that was not a direct blood relative. Her customs forbid her to marry or bare a child with her father, an uncle, a brother or a half brother. To her now the east was death and the east was getting closer. The east had taken her tribe, had taken her man and taken away the chance at having a child and rebuilding her tribe.

 

Nursing a bottle of moonshine a few feet away was her Simvan friend Derok. Derok was a bit small by the standards of his people and his peers bullied him for it. Sensing that the Psi-Stalker men often treated him poorly as well. Not that he wasn't as tough as of them, he was just the runt and had to deal with twice the grief. Derok, like Shalon, knew that their time was short and was repairing to leave. They knew that too many people lay to the south, that the north, while an option, was already territory claimed by other Simvan and Psi-Stalkers, and yes that the east was death. While Derok knew it wasn't quite like that. Unlike Shalon he had more contact with outsiders. Being the runt he was forced to handle all the trading and negotiating with outsiders. From that he knew there was even more wilderness beyond the ugly cities of Wizards and Men in black armor and that beyond their pathetic war was another cradle of land they could live a good life in. But who wanted to wade through a war? Very little was known of the west, but no war was west and if only be default the west was not death.

 

Shalon walked over and took Derok's bottle from him. "How many days before were equipped enough to leave?", she asked. He was about to reply when the sky exploded above them.

Huge plumes of fire shot forth from the mouth of a vast red-scaled flying reptilian creature that was being chased and shot at by men in flying black armor. Missiles rained downed on their encampment, leaving many of the few Simvan and Psi-Stakers who were remaining a steaming vapor of red mist and charred debris. The journey west began quicker then they thought.

 

************************************************************

Whatever name it once knew itself by was a long forgotten memory. It didn't need to call itself anything. It had very little sense of self or identity, it merely was and it merely DID. What it did was hunt and kill. But others had millions of names for It, some names that were screamed in terror and other names spoken in awe struck whispered tones. It was a dreaded presence periodically emerging through out the deep south and magic zone like a earth quake or flash flood that wipes out whole communities.

 

It was one of the Corrupt, an unholy barely structured cult of killers in the willing service of a demonic god the called the Liberator who in turn transformed each of them into beastie killing machines. Yet even among the Corrupt it was singular. Amongst the corrupt it was a creature of fear and envy because it was the most brutal of them all. Some of the Corrupt envied it, seeing it as the epitome of the liberation offered by their hidden master, but all of them certainly feared it. To the Corrupt it was called Hyrzaku, a word in the language of demons meaning freedom, and to the Corrupt It was seen as a demi-god or avatar with-in their grim numbers.

 

Yet this was not true. It was merely one of them, but what it once was before turning to the Liberator was far greater then what the various Corrupt were before hand individually. It simply did not care to explain, or even remember. It did not care about or even acknowledge its fraternity. It merely hunted and killed. It would seek out were ever violence was and join in the fray in one manner or another. After a few years even the dark excesses of the magic zone would not tolerate its feral, aimless, wanderings. A unit of Mystic Knights lead by the notorious Lord Kalki, called from retirement from his Los Alamo fortress, was assembled to drive the thing into a rift and lunge it into the middle of Coalition held territory during the siege on Tolkeen.

 

For weeks It killed Tolkeenite and Coalition solder with equal disregard. It was like a pig at a troth, and gorged itself amongst the violence and gore, haloed in a garland of ruins, waste and entrails. During one of its indulgent, opportunistic days crashing the war it was hunting down a dog pack squad that was patrolling a ruined building on the outskirts of Tolkeen. Ensorcelled in shadow it stalked the biggest dog boy, a massive mutant wolf and pack leader into the basement. As It got to the basement It saw the Wolf across the interior of the open floor and the Wolf laughed. The hunter had became the hunted and the Coalition lead it here to bury. All it remembered was the whining roar of SAMAS jets, the cry of missiles and a black sea of rock falling upon It.

 

With its ruin womb It fell to further insanity as with in a few days of being trapped by the weight of the building its mind retreated into a nightmare of hallucinatory visions from its dark god. Briefly it recalled something of his former life. It could see its old hands, very strong, powerful scaly green clawed hands. It was a HE and He was proud of himself. It/He stood in a chamber lined with skulls of countless monsters and humanoids. Even though It/He knew that It/He had killed them all they were all still laughing at him. The view of the once proud trophy chamber grew to a tiny, warblely pin poke that seemed to be fractal and misty at the edges. He was lost in waves of paranoia and multifarious, distorted senses of self and reference. Then It/He was looking down at his old body before the transformation, bloody and mangled adrift in some unknown desert waste. That wasn't right, it didn't happen like that It knew, but one thing was true. The proud hunter was once hurt, and hurt more then its dying body was its vast hubris that was unwilling to drift calmly into death. It/He pleaded out of its bloated sense of entitlement to endure further to anything, to any sense of God, meaning or macrocosmic context. The hunter must hunt, and so the Liberator who saw in this creature a unique chance to create one of his most enduring and powerful expressions of his liberation yet heard his pleas. It/He saw and remembered how it was and It/He was It again.

 

Like any hunter It was patient. The kill took grace, poise and timing. It lay in its rock hell for weeks until one day it had a vision of a giant white owl soaked in blood and covered in ash. In the roar of the great bird wings flapping Its trap was being clawed away. Much to the shock of a unit of Coalition personnel bulldozing and leveling the area it clawed out of the rubble and slaughtered them all in a matter of minutes. It then saw the great bloody Owl once again and it was flying west. It followed.

************************************************************

 

Weeks passed sense they Derok and Shalon had abruptly fled. No one had followed, neither survivors nor the eastern fighters. Derok hoped some of their friends and family just escaped in another direction. They hadn't seen a soul sense and were grateful. They rode ever westward upon their Ostrosaurous steeds with grim memories and desperation pounding in on their hearts. Worst of all Derok had quickly ran out of liquor shortly into the trip and spent a few days with the shakes. He dreamed of getting as far west as he could and building a still as soon as possible. "Shalon, what does it mean for us to do this really? I'm mean were too separate races going into the unknown and for what? To grow old alone with children and tribe?", Derok asked. Shalon gave him a dirty look, then pulled a rock out of her boot and threw it at him. Laughing she said, "Derok my boy I'm surprised at you. We move because we are alive, this is what we do. We move, hunt and fight. We'll do this until death is no longer from the east but from all around us as is only fitting to both our great peoples".

 

After many great trials the two friends eventually found an area they thought could only be heaven. It was a vast wilderness of huge red-hued trees so massive one couldn't see their tops that was in turn filled with more game to hunt then the open plains ever boasted. They built themselves a tree fort and Derok went quickly to building a still. Shalon found that the area to the north of them was filled with little winged creatures of magic that she adored to hunt and drain. They were easy to find, always look for huge toadstools that they'd live in. These mushroom houses in turn were edible. In short order Derok had gathered a large assortment of beasts to their lair, from a stable of wild boars, to a few birds of prey he thought not likely natural to the world, but with in his means to subdue none the less.

 

Nearly a year had passed when one day Shalon was chasing the mushroom dwellers far to the south. Hiding in a tree she snatched one floating by and bit its head off. She absolutely hated how weak and dainty these creatures looked. Their colorful butterfly wings were too much for her to stand. She didn't care that they talked or pleaded with her. They dripped with the energy she needed to eat and they had so much of it she only had to eat two of them a month. Feeling bloated Shalon took a nap in the tree. She awoke to see a huge giant white covered in blood flying over head. Startled, she leaped to the forest floor and followed it. Pressing far more south then she had ever gone before she followed the great white bird to a little cluster of ruins around a small lake. The ruins had signs with language on them but she couldn't read. Though she saw that the signs also had the design of owls on them. Then all of a sudden the hair on neck stood up. This place was humming with energy and drove her on edge. Prying deeper she found a giant owl effigy at one end of the lake and before lay a gore stained and ash caked altar. This place was evil and so was this owl. This was magic and there for not of the natural order of things. She hated the place in a way similar to why she hated the mushroom dwellers, but the mushroom dwellers were clearly contemptibly weak. They existed as food for her to eat. She knew then and there however that the owl was not food but a fight. Maybe even it could kill her. She wasn't going to find out that day however. Shalon ran quickly back to Derok.

************************************************************

 

It traveled on westward where the owl went regardless of time or conclusion. Visions from the Great Liberator drove it further. It knew that in the western most reaches, with a vast an ancient forest, dwelled with in a grove a place of foul worship where the men of power of this world would gather for centuries to sacrifice their sense of caring. This was sacred to the Liberator and It understood its hidden master much further. He was the Great Annihilator, which gives Liberation by destroying concern, care, purpose or meaning. Meaning was delusion in an uncaring megaverse. Things simply did. The strongest things did best and did so for longer. That was that and that is what It also did.

 

It found the Grove and used magic to reveal the language of men written on signs about the place. One read, "Weaving Spiders come not here", which It dismissed though mainly because it confused him. Something only important from before Men shared the world with other creatures It figured. Pressing on It found a small lake and a giant owl effigy stood in view. It curled up in a ball before the statue and the giant bloody white swooped down in a loud buzzing roar like insects and flames, grabbed It in it's claws and took off upwards. It was torn in half and dropped from the sky. Crawling back to its missing lower half It frothed in agony as both halves reattached themselves and It knew that once a year It had to come back to this place. The other Corrupt who fawned over It in fear and awe thinking It was an avatar of the Liberator were mistaken, the white owl was. He would return east in a few more days and force them all to the western grove.

************************************************************

 

Upon reach the tree fort Shalon cried out to Derok, "Ready the Lizards and grab all the guns!". Confused as he may have been Derok did so with hesitation. A moment later he was coming to her both of their mounts and carrying to two plasma cannons they had in case of heavy-duty monsters. Derok look happily excited as he approach and Shalon didn't like it. "There's a place of devil worship and a giant ******* demonic white owl a few hours south of here, we have to kill it before it kills us", she said matter of fact way as she checked everything on her gun.” I guess then we ride", he responded and they both were off.

 

The two reached the lake and they very easily saw the Giant White Owl standing in front of the giant owl statue. Both statue and owl seemed obscene to the two, but such thoughts quickly left Shalon's mind as she could sense something moving in the trees but couldn't make it out. Panicing she cried out for Derok. He came to a halt, and then was knocked off his Riding lizard. In a quick abrupt burst an unseen force stuck Shalon and for her all went black.

 

The first thing that she could sense again was the smell of burning flesh. Her eyes opened to find Derok eviscerated and aflame before the statue. Next to it was a humanoid creature of muscle, claw, horns and full body black leather armor that cleaning off Derok's skull with its index finger claw. Screaming she pulled out her sword and ran towards It. Not immediately bothering to notice or react to Shalon's attack, in one simple seeming, subtle nonchalant fluid motion It grabbed her arm with one hand, drew his hulking rune cleaver and ran her through with the other. It then popped her head off and placed it before the giant owl effigy. It was to be the first two of many yet to come.

 

Death was the west after all.

Les Braves sculpture at Omaha Beach, Normandy

 

On the centre of Omaha Beach is the monument, to the Americans who liberated France.

It was placed on the beach, near the original monument erected close by many years ago.

It was commissioned by the French government to celebrate the 60th anniversary in 2004.

The sculpture was executed by Anilore Banon and consists of three elements.

 

The Wings of Hope

So that the spirit which carried these men on 6th June 1944, continues to inspire us, reminding us that together it is always possible to change the future.

 

Rise of Freedom

So that the example of those who rose up against barbarity, helps us remain standing strong against all forms on inhumanity.

 

The Wings of Fraternity

So that the surge of brotherhood always reminds of our responsibility towards others as well as ourselves.

Comment of the sculpteur:

I created this scuplture to honour the courage of these men:

Sons, husbands and fathers, who endangered and often sacrificed their lives in the hope of freeing the French people.

Les Braves consists of three elements:

The wings of Hope

So that the spirit which carried these men on June 6th, 1944 continues to inspire us, reminding us that together it is always possible to changing the future.

Rise, Freedom!

So that the example of those who rose against barbarity, helps us remain standing strong against all forms of inhumanity.

The Wings of Fraternity

So that this surge of brotherhood always reminds us of our responsibility towards others as well as ourselves.

On June 6th, 1944 these man were more than soldiers, they were our brothers.

Comment of the sculpteur:

I created this scuplture to honour the courage of these men:

Sons, husbands and fathers, who endangered and often sacrificed their lives in the hope of freeing the French people.

Les Braves consists of three elements:

The wings of Hope

So that the spirit which carried these men on June 6th, 1944 continues to inspire us, reminding us that together it is always possible to changing the future.

Rise, Freedom!

So that the example of those who rose against barbarity, helps us remain standing strong against all forms of inhumanity.

The Wings of Fraternity

So that this surge of brotherhood always reminds us of our responsibility towards others as well as ourselves.

On June 6th, 1944 these man were more than soldiers, they were our brothers.

Another shot of the WWII memorial on Omaha Beach. This memorial is in three parts. Two look like this one, and the third is similar, but without curved pieces. The three parts are called the Wings of Hope, Rise Freedom! and the Wings of Fraternity.

The monument Les Braves is located on the center of Omaha Beach.

 

Sculpteur notes about the monument:

 

I created this scuplture to honour the courage of these men:

 

Sons, husbands and fathers, who endangered and often sacrificed their lives in the hope of freeing the French people.

 

Les Braves consists of three elements:

 

The wings of Hope

So that the spirit which carried these men on June 6th, 1944 continues to inspire us, reminding us that together it is always possible to changing the future.

 

Rise, Freedom!

So that the example of those who rose against barbarity, helps us remain standing strong against all forms of inhumanity.

 

The Wings of Fraternity

So that this surge of brotherhood always reminds us of our responsibility towards others as well as ourselves.

On June 6th, 1944 these man were more than soldiers, they were our brothers.

This sculpture was executed by Anilore Banon to the americans who liberated France and consists of 3 elements.

 

The Wings of Hope

 

So that the spirit which carried these men on 6th June 1944, continues to inspire us, reminding us that together it is always possible to change the future.

 

Rise of Freedom

 

So that the example of those who rose up against barbarity, helps us remain standing strong against all forms on inhumanity.

 

The Wings of Fraternity

 

So that the surge of brotherhood always reminds of our responsibility towards others as well as ourselves.

 

On 6th June 1944, these men were more than soldiers, they were our brothers.

 

Anilore Banon

In front of the Omaha Beach Memorial is the Monument Les Braves by sculptor Anilore Banon. It was commissioned by the French Government for the 60th anniversary of D-Day in 2004.

 

It consists of three elements: 1) The Wings of Hope - So that the spirit which carried these men on 6th June 1944, continues to inspire us, reminding us that together it is always possible to change the future. 2) Rise of Freedom - So that the example of those who rose up against barbarity, helps us remain standing strong against all forms on inhumanity. 3) The Wings of Fraternity - So that the surge of brotherhood always reminds of our responsibility towards others as well as ourselves. On 6th June 1944, these men were more than soldiers, they were our brothers.

Les Braves by French sculptor Anilore Banon at Omaha Beach, Les Moulins. Commissioned by the French government to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the D-Day Invasion Of Normandy in 2004, the stainless steel memorial represents three elements: The Wings of Hope, Rise Freedom, and the Wings Of Fraternity. "I created this sculpture to honour the courage of these men: Sons, husbands and fathers, who endangered and often sacrificed their lives in the hope of freeing the French people." Anilore Banon

 

Omaha Beach was one of the five D-Day landing beaches on 6th June 1944. On D-Day, the 29th Infantry Division and nine companies of U.S. Army Rangers (redirected from Pointe du Hoc) were to assault the western half of the beach. The more experienced 1st Infantry Division was given the eastern half. Very little went as planned during the landing at Omaha. Difficulties in navigation caused the majority of landing craft to miss their targets. The defenses were unexpectedly strong, and inflicted heavy casualties on landing American troops. Under heavy fire, the engineers struggled to clear the beach obstacles, later landings bunched up around the few channels that were cleared. Weakened by the casualties taken just in landing, the surviving assault troops could not clear the heavily defended exits off the beach. This caused further problems and consequent delays for later landings. Only 100 of the 2,400 tons of supplies scheduled to be landed on D-Day were landed. Small penetrations were eventually achieved by groups of survivors making improvised assaults, scaling the bluffs between the most heavily defended points. By the end of the day, two small isolated footholds had been won, which were subsequently exploited against weaker defenses further inland, thus achieving the original D-Day objectives over the following days.

 

An accurate figure for allied casualties at Omaha Beach on 6 June is not known, sources vary between 2,000 and 4,700 killed, wounded, and missing with the heaviest losses incurred by the infantry, tanks and engineers in the first landings. The German 352nd division suffered 1,200 killed, wounded and missing - about 20% of its strength. The landings at Omaha Beach were portrayed in the opening Act of the 1998 film Saving Private Ryan, directed by Steven Spielberg and starring Tom Hanks. Many veterans consider it to be the most accurate representation of the Normandy Landings ever commited to film.

 

Once the beachhead had been secured, Omaha Beach became the location of one of the two "Mulberry" harbours, prefabricated artificial harbors towed in pieces across the English Channel and assembled just off shore (the second was at Arromanches, at Gold Beach, built by the British troops). Construction of Mulberry A at Omaha began the day after D-Day with the scuttling of ships to form a breakwater. Ten days later harbour became operational when the first pier was completed, however three days the area was hit by worst storm to hit Normandy in 40 years and the harbour was so badly damaged that the decision was taken not to repair it.

Les Braves by French sculptor Anilore Banon at Omaha Beach, Les Moulins. Commissioned by the French government to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the D-Day Invasion Of Normandy in 2004, the stainless steel memorial represents three elements: The Wings of Hope, Rise Freedom, and the Wings Of Fraternity. "I created this sculpture to honour the courage of these men: Sons, husbands and fathers, who endangered and often sacrificed their lives in the hope of freeing the French people." Anilore Banon

 

Omaha Beach was one of the five D-Day landing beaches on 6th June 1944. On D-Day, the 29th Infantry Division and nine companies of U.S. Army Rangers (redirected from Pointe du Hoc) were to assault the western half of the beach. The more experienced 1st Infantry Division was given the eastern half. Very little went as planned during the landing at Omaha. Difficulties in navigation caused the majority of landing craft to miss their targets. The defenses were unexpectedly strong, and inflicted heavy casualties on landing American troops. Under heavy fire, the engineers struggled to clear the beach obstacles, later landings bunched up around the few channels that were cleared. Weakened by the casualties taken just in landing, the surviving assault troops could not clear the heavily defended exits off the beach. This caused further problems and consequent delays for later landings. Only 100 of the 2,400 tons of supplies scheduled to be landed on D-Day were landed. Small penetrations were eventually achieved by groups of survivors making improvised assaults, scaling the bluffs between the most heavily defended points. By the end of the day, two small isolated footholds had been won, which were subsequently exploited against weaker defenses further inland, thus achieving the original D-Day objectives over the following days.

 

An accurate figure for allied casualties at Omaha Beach on 6 June is not known, sources vary between 2,000 and 4,700 killed, wounded, and missing with the heaviest losses incurred by the infantry, tanks and engineers in the first landings. The German 352nd division suffered 1,200 killed, wounded and missing - about 20% of its strength. The landings at Omaha Beach were portrayed in the opening Act of the 1998 film Saving Private Ryan, directed by Steven Spielberg and starring Tom Hanks. Many veterans consider it to be the most accurate representation of the Normandy Landings ever commited to film.

 

Once the beachhead had been secured, Omaha Beach became the location of one of the two "Mulberry" harbours, prefabricated artificial harbors towed in pieces across the English Channel and assembled just off shore (the second was at Arromanches, at Gold Beach, built by the British troops). Construction of Mulberry A at Omaha began the day after D-Day with the scuttling of ships to form a breakwater. Ten days later harbour became operational when the first pier was completed, however three days the area was hit by worst storm to hit Normandy in 40 years and the harbour was so badly damaged that the decision was taken not to repair it.

The Lincoln Memorial is an American national monument built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. It is located on the western end of the National Mall in Washington, D.C., across from the Washington Monument. The architect was Henry Bacon; the designer of the primary statue – Abraham Lincoln, 1920 – was Daniel Chester French; the Lincoln statue was carved by the Piccirilli Brothers;[2] and the painter of the interior murals was Jules Guerin. Dedicated in 1922, it is one of several monuments built to honor an American president. It has always been a major tourist attraction and since the 1930s has been a symbolic center focused on race relations.

 

The building is in the form of a Greek Doric temple and contains a large seated sculpture of Abraham Lincoln and inscriptions of two well-known speeches by Lincoln, "The Gettysburg Address" and his Second Inaugural Address. The memorial has been the site of many famous speeches, including Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" speech, delivered on August 28, 1963, during the rally at the end of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.

 

Like other monuments on the National Mall – including the nearby Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Korean War Veterans Memorial, and National World War II Memorial – the memorial is administered by the National Park Service under its National Mall and Memorial Parks group. It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since October 15, 1966. It is open to the public 24 hours a day. In 2007, it was ranked seventh on the List of America's Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects. Since 2010, approximately 6 million people visit the memorial annually.[3]

 

Contents [hide]

1History

1.1Vandalism

2Exterior

3Interior

4Statue

4.1Sculptural features

5Sacred space

6Depictions on U.S. currency

7In popular culture

8See also

9References

10External links

History[edit]

The first public memorial to Abraham Lincoln in Washington, D.C., was a statue by Lot Flannery erected in front of the District of Columbia City Hall in 1868, three years after Lincoln's assassination.[4][5] Demands for a fitting national memorial had been voiced since the time of Lincoln's death. In 1867, Congress passed the first of many bills incorporating a commission to erect a monument for the sixteenth president. An American sculptor, Clark Mills, was chosen to design the monument. His plans reflected the nationalistic spirit of the time, and called for a 70-foot (21 m) structure adorned with six equestrian and 31 pedestrian statues of colossal proportions, crowned by a 12-foot (3.7 m) statue of Abraham Lincoln. Subscriptions for the project were insufficient.[6]

 

The matter lay dormant until the start of the 20th century, when, under the leadership of Senator Shelby M. Cullom of Illinois, six separate bills were introduced in Congress for the incorporation of a new memorial commission. The first five bills, proposed in the years 1901, 1902, and 1908, met with defeat because of opposition from Speaker Joe Cannon. The sixth bill (Senate Bill 9449), introduced on December 13, 1910, passed. The Lincoln Memorial Commission had its first meeting the following year and U.S. President William H. Taft was chosen as the commission's president. Progress continued at a steady pace and by 1913 Congress had approved of the Commission's choice of design and location.

 

There were questions regarding the commission's plan. Many thought that architect Henry Bacon's Greek temple design was far too ostentatious for a man of Lincoln's humble character. Instead they proposed a simple log cabin shrine. The site too did not go unopposed. The recently reclaimed land in West Potomac Park was seen by many to be either too swampy or too inaccessible. Other sites, such as Union Station, were put forth. The Commission stood firm in its recommendation, feeling that the Potomac Park location, situated on the Washington Monument-Capitol axis, overlooking the Potomac River and surrounded by open land, was ideal. Furthermore, the Potomac Park site had already been designated in the McMillan Plan of 1901 to be the location of a future monument comparable to that of the Washington Monument.[6][7]

 

With Congressional approval and a $300,000 allocation, the project got underway. On February 12, 1914, a dedication ceremony was conducted and the following month the actual construction began. Work progressed steadily according to schedule. Some changes were made to the plan. The statue of Lincoln, originally designed to be 10 feet (3.0 m) tall, was enlarged to 19 feet (5.8 m) to prevent it from being overwhelmed by the huge chamber. As late as 1920, the decision was made to substitute an open portal for the bronze and glass grille which was to have guarded the entrance. Despite these changes, the Memorial was finished on schedule. Commission president William H. Taft – who was then Chief Justice of the United States – dedicated the Memorial on May 30, 1922 and presented it to President Warren G. Harding, who accepted it on behalf of the American people. Lincoln's only surviving son, 78-year-old Robert Todd Lincoln, was in attendance.[8]

 

The Memorial was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966.[9]

 

Vandalism[edit]

In September 1962, vandals painted the words "nigger lover" in foot-high pink letters on the rear wall.[10]

 

On the morning of July 26, 2013, the memorial was shut down after the statue's base and legs were splashed with green paint.[11] It reopened later that day.[12] A 58-year-old Chinese national, Jiamei Tian, was later found responsible for the vandalism. Following her arrest at the Washington National Cathedral, she was admitted to St. Elizabeths Hospital, a psychiatric facility, and was later found to be incompetent to stand trial; she has since been released from the hospital.[13]

 

Exterior[edit]

The exterior of the Memorial echoes a classic Greek temple and features Yule marble from Colorado. The structure measures 189.7 by 118.5 feet (57.8 by 36.1 m) and is 99 feet (30 m) tall. It is surrounded by a peristyle of 36 fluted Doric columns, one for each of the 36 states in the Union at the time of Lincoln's death, and two columns in-antis at the entrance behind the colonnade. The columns stand 44 feet (13 m) tall with a base diameter of 7.5 feet (2.3 m). Each column is built from 12 drums including the capital. The columns, like the exterior walls and facades, are inclined slightly toward the building's interior. This is to compensate for perspective distortions which would otherwise make the memorial appear to bulge out at the top when compared with the bottom, a common feature of Ancient Greek architecture.[14]

  

Detail of the Memorial's friezes

Above the colonnade, inscribed on the frieze, are the names of the 36 states in the Union at the time of Lincoln's death and the dates in which they entered the Union. Their names are separated by double wreath medallions in bas-relief. The cornice is composed of a carved scroll regularly interspersed with projecting lions' heads and ornamented with palmetto cresting along the upper edge. Above this on the attic frieze are inscribed the names of the 48 states present at the time of the Memorial's dedication. A bit higher is a garland joined by ribbons and palm leaves, supported by the wings of eagles. All ornamentation on the friezes and cornices was done by Ernest C. Bairstow.[14]

 

The Memorial is anchored in a concrete foundation, 44 to 66 feet (13 to 20 m) in depth, constructed by M. F. Comer and Company and the National Foundation and Engineering Company, and is encompassed by a 187-by-257-foot (57 by 78 m) rectangular granite retaining wall measuring 14 feet (4.3 m) in height.[14]

 

Leading up to the shrine on the east side are the main steps. Beginning at the edge of the Reflecting Pool, the steps rise to the Lincoln Memorial Circle roadway surrounding the edifice, then to the main portal, intermittently spaced with a series of platforms. Flanking the steps as they approach the entrance are two buttresses each crowned with an 11-foot (3.4 m) tall tripod carved from pink Tennessee marble[14] by the Piccirilli Brothers.[15]

 

Interior[edit]

The area where the statue stands is 60 feet wide, 74 feet long, and 60 feet high.[16] The interior of the Memorial is divided into three chambers by two rows of Ionic columns. These columns, four in each row, are 50 feet (15 m) tall and 5.5 feet (1.7 m) in diameter at their base. The north and south side chambers contain carved inscriptions of Lincoln's second inaugural address and his Gettysburg Address.[notes 1] Bordering these inscriptions are pilasters ornamented with fasces, eagles, and wreaths. The inscriptions and adjoining ornamentation were done by Evelyn Beatrice Longman.[14]

 

The Memorial is filled with symbolism: the 36 columns represent the states in the union at the time of Lincoln's death, the 48 stone festoons on the attic above the columns represent the 48 states in 1922. Above each of the inscriptions is a 60-by-12-foot (18.3 by 3.7 m) mural painted by Jules Guerin graphically portraying governing principles evident in Lincoln's life. On the south wall mural, Freedom, Liberty, Immortality, Justice, and the Law are pictured, while the north wall portrays Unity, Fraternity, and Charity. Both scenes contain a background of cypress trees, the emblem of Eternity. The murals were crafted with a special mixture of paint which included elements of kerosene and wax to protect the exposed artwork from fluctuations in temperature and moisture conditions.[17]

 

The ceiling of the Memorial, 60 feet (18 m) above the floor, is composed of bronze girders, ornamented with laurel and oak leaves. Between the girders are panels of Alabama marble, saturated with paraffin to increase their translucency. Despite the increased light from this device, Bacon and French felt the statue required even more light. They decided upon an artificial lighting system in which a louvered lighting panel would be set in the ceiling with metal slats to conceal the great floodlights. Custodians could adjust the lights from a control room, varying them according to the outside light. Funds for this expensive system were appropriated by Congress in 1926, and in 1929, seven years after the dedication, the statue was properly lighted. Since that time, only one major alteration has taken place in the Memorial's design. This was the addition of an elevator within the structure to aid handicapped visitors, which was installed in the mid-1970s.[17]

  

Abraham Lincoln, by Daniel Chester French

Statue[edit]

IN THIS TEMPLE

AS IN THE HEARTS OF THE PEOPLE

FOR WHOM HE SAVED THE UNION

THE MEMORY OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN

IS ENSHRINED FOREVER

Epitaph by Royal Cortissoz above Abraham Lincoln by Daniel Chester French

Main article: Abraham Lincoln (French 1920)

Lying between the north and south chambers is the central hall containing the solitary figure of Lincoln sitting in contemplation. The statue was carved by the Piccirilli Brothers under the supervision of the sculptor, Daniel Chester French, and took four years to complete. The statue, originally intended to be only 10 feet (3.0 m) tall, was, on further consideration, enlarged so that it finally stood 19 feet (5.8 m) tall from head to foot, the scale being such that if Lincoln were standing, he would be 28 feet (8.5 m) tall. The extreme width of the statue is the same as its height. The Georgia white marble sculpture weighs 175 short tons (159 t) and had to be shipped in 28 separate pieces.[17]

 

The statue rests upon an oblong pedestal of Tennessee marble 10 feet (3.0 m) high, 16 feet (4.9 m) wide, and 17 feet (5.2 m) deep. Directly beneath this lies a platform of Tennessee marble about 34.5 feet (10.5 m) long, 28 feet (8.5 m) wide, and 6.5 inches (0.17 m) high. Lincoln's arms rest on representations of Roman fasces, a subtle touch that associates the statue with the Augustan (and imperial) theme (obelisk and funerary monuments) of the Washington Mall.[18] The statue is discretely bordered by two pilasters, one on each side. Between these pilasters and above Lincoln's head stands the engraved epitaph,[17] composed by Royal Cortissoz, shown in the box to the left.[19]

 

Sculptural features[edit]

The sculpture has been at the center of two urban legends. Some have claimed that the face of General Robert E. Lee was carved onto the back of Lincoln's head,[20] and looks back across the Potomac toward his former home, Arlington House, now within the bounds of Arlington National Cemetery. Another popular legend is that Lincoln is shown using sign language to represent his initials, with his left hand shaped to form an "A" and his right hand to form an "L", the president's initials. The National Park Service denies both legends.[20]

  

The March on Washington in 1963 brought 250,000 people to the National Mall and is famous for Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech.

 

The location on the steps where King delivered the speech is commemorated with this inscription

However, historian Gerald Prokopowicz writes that, while it is not clear that sculptor Daniel Chester French intended Lincoln's hands to be formed into sign language versions of his initials, it is possible that French did intend it, because he was familiar with American Sign Language, and he would have had a reason to do so, that is, to pay tribute to Lincoln for having signed the federal legislation giving Gallaudet University, a university for the deaf, the authority to grant college degrees.[21] The National Geographic Society's publication, "Pinpointing the Past in Washington, D.C." states that Daniel Chester French had a son who was deaf and that the sculptor was familiar with sign language.[22][23] Historian James A. Percoco has observed that, although there are no extant documents showing that French had Lincoln's hands carved to represent the letters "A" and "L" in American Sign Language, "I think you can conclude that it's reasonable to have that kind of summation about the hands."[24]

 

Sacred space[edit]

As Sandage (1993) demonstrates, the Memorial has become a symbolically sacred venue especially for the Civil Rights movement. In 1939, the Daughters of the American Revolution refused to allow the African-American contralto Marian Anderson to perform before an integrated audience at the organization's Constitution Hall. At the suggestion of Eleanor Roosevelt, the wife of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harold L. Ickes, the Secretary of the Interior, arranged for a performance on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial on Easter Sunday of that year, to a live audience of 70,000, and a nationwide radio audience.

 

On August 28, 1963, the memorial grounds were the site of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, which proved to be a high point of the American Civil Rights Movement. It is estimated that approximately 250,000 people came to the event, where they heard Martin Luther King, Jr., deliver his historic speech, "I Have a Dream", before the memorial honoring the president who had issued the Emancipation Proclamation 100 years earlier. King's speech, with its language of patriotism and its evocation of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, was meant to match the symbolism of the Lincoln Memorial as a monument to national unity.[25] The D.C. police also appreciated the location because it was surrounded on three sides by water, so that any incident could be easily contained.[26] Twenty years later, on August 28, 1983, crowds gathered again to mark the 20th Anniversary Mobilization for Jobs, Peace and Freedom, to reflect on progress in gaining civil rights for African Americans and to commit to correcting continuing injustices. The "I Have a Dream" speech is such a part of the Lincoln Memorial story, that the spot on which King stood, on the landing eighteen steps below Lincoln's statue, was engraved in 2003 in recognition of the 40th anniversary of the event.

 

At the memorial on May 9, 1970, President Richard Nixon had a middle-of-the-night impromptu, brief meeting with protesters who, just days after the Kent State shootings, were preparing to march against the Vietnam War.

 

Depictions on U.S. currency[edit]

  

Reverse of a 2003 five-dollar note and 2006 Lincoln cent

From 1959 to 2008, the Lincoln Memorial was shown on the reverse of the United States one cent coin, which bears Lincoln's portrait bust on the front. The statue of Lincoln can be seen in the monument. This was done to mark the 150th anniversary of Lincoln's birth.

 

The memorial also appears on the back of the U.S. five dollar bill, the front of which bears Lincoln's portrait.

 

In popular culture[edit]

Literature

 

1978: In the Clive Cussler novel Vixen 03, the memorial is destroyed by a shell fired from the USS Iowa, however, the statue of Lincoln remains intact.

 

Lincoln Memorial and Reflecting Pool

 

at sunrise

 

at dusk

External video

Lincoln Memorial in June 2012.jpg

Laser Scan: Lincoln Memorial (0:33), DJS Associates[27]

Films

 

1939: In a key scene in the Frank Capra film Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, the statue and its inscription provide inspiration to freshman Senator Jefferson Smith, played by James Stewart.

1951: In the science fiction classic The Day the Earth Stood Still, Klaatu/Mr. Carpenter and Billy visit the Lincoln Memorial, provoking Klaatu, a visitor from the stars, to say: "Those are great words, he must have been a great man?"

1976: In the science fiction film Logan's Run, the statue of Lincoln reveals to the characters the look of old age.

1993: In more than one scene, Clint Eastwood and Rene Russo sit on the steps of the Memorial in In the Line of Fire.

1994: In a scene from the film Forrest Gump, Forrest (Tom Hanks) delivers a speech standing on a podium in front of the Memorial facing the reflecting pool.

1995: In a memorable scene in the film Nixon, President Richard Nixon (played by Anthony Hopkins) pays an impromptu, late-night visit to the Memorial, which is being occupied by Vietnam War protesters. The scene was based on a real-life incident when Nixon and his White House butler paid a visit to the Memorial in the early morning hours of May 9, 1970.

1996: In the science fiction movie Independence Day, the Lincoln Memorial can be seen as a massive alien spacecraft enters the sky around Washington, D.C.

2001: In the science fiction film Planet Of The Apes the Lincoln Memorial is shown in an alternate timeline as being a memorial for an ape named General Thade.

2004: In the Disney film National Treasure, main characters Ben Gates and Riley Poole discuss the possibility of stealing the Declaration of Independence while sitting on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial.

2005: In the comedy movie, Wedding Crashers, the two main characters, played by Owen Wilson and Vince Vaughn, watch the sunrise on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial and question whether they're getting too old to continue crashing weddings for sport.

2009: In the comedy movie Night at the Museum 2: Battle of the Smithsonian, the statue of Lincoln comes to life (voiced by Hank Azaria) and has a short conversation with the characters of Ben Stiller and Amy Adams and helps them defeat the Horus warriors.

2011: In the superhero movie, X-Men: First Class, Charles Xavier and Erik Lensherr are seen playing chess and talking on the steps of the memorial.

2011: In the science fiction movie, Transformers: Dark of the Moon, Megatron destroys the statue of Lincoln and then sits on the chair. This is a callback to "Atlantis, Arise!", a season 2 episode of the original The Transformers series where G1 Megatron did the same.

2013: In the movie White House Down, the President (played by Jamie Foxx) requests a fly-by of the Lincoln Memorial, at both the beginning and the end of the movie to pay homage to his hero.

2016: In the horror movie The Purge: Election Year, the Lincoln Memorial is shown with dead bodies and a fire with burning bodies on the steps and the columns having giant letters that spell out "PURGE" written in human blood.

Television

 

1991: In The Simpsons episode "Mr. Lisa Goes to Washington", Lisa Simpson goes to the Memorial hoping to be inspired by the spirit of Lincoln. She arrives to find a crush of tourists ahead of her, and detours to the Jefferson Memorial. The spirit of Thomas Jefferson speaks to her there, but is annoyed that she came to him only as a second choice.

1993: In the Ren & Stimpy Show episode "An Abe Divided", Ren and Stimpy get jobs working at the Lincoln Memorial where Ren overhears about treasure inside the memorial's head. Ren and Stimpy then saw off Lincoln's head only to find caramel corn inside, but are left with a headless-Lincoln. They spend the episode trying to fix their mess with disastrous results.

2004: In the "The Stormy Present" episode of the TV series The West Wing, President Josiah Bartlet (Martin Sheen) visits the Lincoln Memorial after being prompted by a letter to "Go see Lincoln and listen."

2015: In "Reunion", the penultimate episode of Falling Skies, it is determined that the alien queen is located at the Lincoln Memorial and this is where they must go to win the war. In the series finale "Reborn", resistance leader Tom Mason confronts the queen face to face in the ruins of the Lincoln Memorial and kills her, destroying the alien invaders. Months later, the Memorial has been rebuilt and is where a united humanity gathers to choose a new leader.

Video games

 

2000: In the video game Command and Conquer: Red Alert 2, the Lincoln Memorial can be seen in missions that take place in Washington, D.C. In the Allied Campaign Lincolns head was replaced by a head of Stalin before America was liberated. In the Soviet Campaign, it was destroyed for a cash bounty.

2008: In the video game Fallout 3, 200 years after a nuclear war set in 2077, the Lincoln Memorial has been badly damaged, including Lincoln's head having gone missing from the statue. The head is later found in the possession of several escaped slaves who want to return it to the memorial and restore it to its original condition.

Music videos

 

1985: The music video for "We Built This City (On Rock and Roll)" by Starship features a still shot of the Memorial interior. A view has the group and onlookers singing the refrain upwards to Lincoln's statue. The view then switches to the statue coming to life—literally moved by their conviction—standing up, and sings along.

 

The Lincoln Memorial is an American national monument built to honor the 16th President of the United States, Abraham Lincoln. It is located on the western end of the National Mall in Washington, D.C., across from the Washington Monument. The architect was Henry Bacon; the designer of the primary statue – Abraham Lincoln, 1920 – was Daniel Chester French; the Lincoln statue was carved by the Piccirilli Brothers;[2] and the painter of the interior murals was Jules Guerin. Dedicated in 1922, it is one of several monuments built to honor an American president. It has always been a major tourist attraction and since the 1930s has been a symbolic center focused on race relations.

 

The building is in the form of a Greek Doric temple and contains a large seated sculpture of Abraham Lincoln and inscriptions of two well-known speeches by Lincoln, "The Gettysburg Address" and his Second Inaugural Address. The memorial has been the site of many famous speeches, including Martin Luther King's "I Have a Dream" speech, delivered on August 28, 1963, during the rally at the end of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.

 

Like other monuments on the National Mall – including the nearby Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Korean War Veterans Memorial, and National World War II Memorial – the memorial is administered by the National Park Service under its National Mall and Memorial Parks group. It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places since October 15, 1966. It is open to the public 24 hours a day. In 2007, it was ranked seventh on the List of America's Favorite Architecture by the American Institute of Architects. Since 2010, approximately 6 million people visit the memorial annually.[3]

 

Contents [hide]

1History

1.1Vandalism

2Exterior

3Interior

4Statue

4.1Sculptural features

5Sacred space

6Depictions on U.S. currency

7In popular culture

8See also

9References

10External links

History[edit]

The first public memorial to Abraham Lincoln in Washington, D.C., was a statue by Lot Flannery erected in front of the District of Columbia City Hall in 1868, three years after Lincoln's assassination.[4][5] Demands for a fitting national memorial had been voiced since the time of Lincoln's death. In 1867, Congress passed the first of many bills incorporating a commission to erect a monument for the sixteenth president. An American sculptor, Clark Mills, was chosen to design the monument. His plans reflected the nationalistic spirit of the time, and called for a 70-foot (21 m) structure adorned with six equestrian and 31 pedestrian statues of colossal proportions, crowned by a 12-foot (3.7 m) statue of Abraham Lincoln. Subscriptions for the project were insufficient.[6]

 

The matter lay dormant until the start of the 20th century, when, under the leadership of Senator Shelby M. Cullom of Illinois, six separate bills were introduced in Congress for the incorporation of a new memorial commission. The first five bills, proposed in the years 1901, 1902, and 1908, met with defeat because of opposition from Speaker Joe Cannon. The sixth bill (Senate Bill 9449), introduced on December 13, 1910, passed. The Lincoln Memorial Commission had its first meeting the following year and U.S. President William H. Taft was chosen as the commission's president. Progress continued at a steady pace and by 1913 Congress had approved of the Commission's choice of design and location.

 

There were questions regarding the commission's plan. Many thought that architect Henry Bacon's Greek temple design was far too ostentatious for a man of Lincoln's humble character. Instead they proposed a simple log cabin shrine. The site too did not go unopposed. The recently reclaimed land in West Potomac Park was seen by many to be either too swampy or too inaccessible. Other sites, such as Union Station, were put forth. The Commission stood firm in its recommendation, feeling that the Potomac Park location, situated on the Washington Monument-Capitol axis, overlooking the Potomac River and surrounded by open land, was ideal. Furthermore, the Potomac Park site had already been designated in the McMillan Plan of 1901 to be the location of a future monument comparable to that of the Washington Monument.[6][7]

 

With Congressional approval and a $300,000 allocation, the project got underway. On February 12, 1914, a dedication ceremony was conducted and the following month the actual construction began. Work progressed steadily according to schedule. Some changes were made to the plan. The statue of Lincoln, originally designed to be 10 feet (3.0 m) tall, was enlarged to 19 feet (5.8 m) to prevent it from being overwhelmed by the huge chamber. As late as 1920, the decision was made to substitute an open portal for the bronze and glass grille which was to have guarded the entrance. Despite these changes, the Memorial was finished on schedule. Commission president William H. Taft – who was then Chief Justice of the United States – dedicated the Memorial on May 30, 1922 and presented it to President Warren G. Harding, who accepted it on behalf of the American people. Lincoln's only surviving son, 78-year-old Robert Todd Lincoln, was in attendance.[8]

 

The Memorial was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966.[9]

 

Vandalism[edit]

In September 1962, vandals painted the words "nigger lover" in foot-high pink letters on the rear wall.[10]

 

On the morning of July 26, 2013, the memorial was shut down after the statue's base and legs were splashed with green paint.[11] It reopened later that day.[12] A 58-year-old Chinese national, Jiamei Tian, was later found responsible for the vandalism. Following her arrest at the Washington National Cathedral, she was admitted to St. Elizabeths Hospital, a psychiatric facility, and was later found to be incompetent to stand trial; she has since been released from the hospital.[13]

 

Exterior[edit]

The exterior of the Memorial echoes a classic Greek temple and features Yule marble from Colorado. The structure measures 189.7 by 118.5 feet (57.8 by 36.1 m) and is 99 feet (30 m) tall. It is surrounded by a peristyle of 36 fluted Doric columns, one for each of the 36 states in the Union at the time of Lincoln's death, and two columns in-antis at the entrance behind the colonnade. The columns stand 44 feet (13 m) tall with a base diameter of 7.5 feet (2.3 m). Each column is built from 12 drums including the capital. The columns, like the exterior walls and facades, are inclined slightly toward the building's interior. This is to compensate for perspective distortions which would otherwise make the memorial appear to bulge out at the top when compared with the bottom, a common feature of Ancient Greek architecture.[14]

  

Detail of the Memorial's friezes

Above the colonnade, inscribed on the frieze, are the names of the 36 states in the Union at the time of Lincoln's death and the dates in which they entered the Union. Their names are separated by double wreath medallions in bas-relief. The cornice is composed of a carved scroll regularly interspersed with projecting lions' heads and ornamented with palmetto cresting along the upper edge. Above this on the attic frieze are inscribed the names of the 48 states present at the time of the Memorial's dedication. A bit higher is a garland joined by ribbons and palm leaves, supported by the wings of eagles. All ornamentation on the friezes and cornices was done by Ernest C. Bairstow.[14]

 

The Memorial is anchored in a concrete foundation, 44 to 66 feet (13 to 20 m) in depth, constructed by M. F. Comer and Company and the National Foundation and Engineering Company, and is encompassed by a 187-by-257-foot (57 by 78 m) rectangular granite retaining wall measuring 14 feet (4.3 m) in height.[14]

 

Leading up to the shrine on the east side are the main steps. Beginning at the edge of the Reflecting Pool, the steps rise to the Lincoln Memorial Circle roadway surrounding the edifice, then to the main portal, intermittently spaced with a series of platforms. Flanking the steps as they approach the entrance are two buttresses each crowned with an 11-foot (3.4 m) tall tripod carved from pink Tennessee marble[14] by the Piccirilli Brothers.[15]

 

Interior[edit]

The area where the statue stands is 60 feet wide, 74 feet long, and 60 feet high.[16] The interior of the Memorial is divided into three chambers by two rows of Ionic columns. These columns, four in each row, are 50 feet (15 m) tall and 5.5 feet (1.7 m) in diameter at their base. The north and south side chambers contain carved inscriptions of Lincoln's second inaugural address and his Gettysburg Address.[notes 1] Bordering these inscriptions are pilasters ornamented with fasces, eagles, and wreaths. The inscriptions and adjoining ornamentation were done by Evelyn Beatrice Longman.[14]

 

The Memorial is filled with symbolism: the 36 columns represent the states in the union at the time of Lincoln's death, the 48 stone festoons on the attic above the columns represent the 48 states in 1922. Above each of the inscriptions is a 60-by-12-foot (18.3 by 3.7 m) mural painted by Jules Guerin graphically portraying governing principles evident in Lincoln's life. On the south wall mural, Freedom, Liberty, Immortality, Justice, and the Law are pictured, while the north wall portrays Unity, Fraternity, and Charity. Both scenes contain a background of cypress trees, the emblem of Eternity. The murals were crafted with a special mixture of paint which included elements of kerosene and wax to protect the exposed artwork from fluctuations in temperature and moisture conditions.[17]

 

The ceiling of the Memorial, 60 feet (18 m) above the floor, is composed of bronze girders, ornamented with laurel and oak leaves. Between the girders are panels of Alabama marble, saturated with paraffin to increase their translucency. Despite the increased light from this device, Bacon and French felt the statue required even more light. They decided upon an artificial lighting system in which a louvered lighting panel would be set in the ceiling with metal slats to conceal the great floodlights. Custodians could adjust the lights from a control room, varying them according to the outside light. Funds for this expensive system were appropriated by Congress in 1926, and in 1929, seven years after the dedication, the statue was properly lighted. Since that time, only one major alteration has taken place in the Memorial's design. This was the addition of an elevator within the structure to aid handicapped visitors, which was installed in the mid-1970s.[17]

  

Abraham Lincoln, by Daniel Chester French

Statue[edit]

IN THIS TEMPLE

AS IN THE HEARTS OF THE PEOPLE

FOR WHOM HE SAVED THE UNION

THE MEMORY OF ABRAHAM LINCOLN

IS ENSHRINED FOREVER

Epitaph by Royal Cortissoz above Abraham Lincoln by Daniel Chester French

Main article: Abraham Lincoln (French 1920)

Lying between the north and south chambers is the central hall containing the solitary figure of Lincoln sitting in contemplation. The statue was carved by the Piccirilli Brothers under the supervision of the sculptor, Daniel Chester French, and took four years to complete. The statue, originally intended to be only 10 feet (3.0 m) tall, was, on further consideration, enlarged so that it finally stood 19 feet (5.8 m) tall from head to foot, the scale being such that if Lincoln were standing, he would be 28 feet (8.5 m) tall. The extreme width of the statue is the same as its height. The Georgia white marble sculpture weighs 175 short tons (159 t) and had to be shipped in 28 separate pieces.[17]

 

The statue rests upon an oblong pedestal of Tennessee marble 10 feet (3.0 m) high, 16 feet (4.9 m) wide, and 17 feet (5.2 m) deep. Directly beneath this lies a platform of Tennessee marble about 34.5 feet (10.5 m) long, 28 feet (8.5 m) wide, and 6.5 inches (0.17 m) high. Lincoln's arms rest on representations of Roman fasces, a subtle touch that associates the statue with the Augustan (and imperial) theme (obelisk and funerary monuments) of the Washington Mall.[18] The statue is discretely bordered by two pilasters, one on each side. Between these pilasters and above Lincoln's head stands the engraved epitaph,[17] composed by Royal Cortissoz, shown in the box to the left.[19]

 

Sculptural features[edit]

The sculpture has been at the center of two urban legends. Some have claimed that the face of General Robert E. Lee was carved onto the back of Lincoln's head,[20] and looks back across the Potomac toward his former home, Arlington House, now within the bounds of Arlington National Cemetery. Another popular legend is that Lincoln is shown using sign language to represent his initials, with his left hand shaped to form an "A" and his right hand to form an "L", the president's initials. The National Park Service denies both legends.[20]

  

The March on Washington in 1963 brought 250,000 people to the National Mall and is famous for Martin Luther King, Jr.'s "I Have a Dream" speech.

 

The location on the steps where King delivered the speech is commemorated with this inscription

However, historian Gerald Prokopowicz writes that, while it is not clear that sculptor Daniel Chester French intended Lincoln's hands to be formed into sign language versions of his initials, it is possible that French did intend it, because he was familiar with American Sign Language, and he would have had a reason to do so, that is, to pay tribute to Lincoln for having signed the federal legislation giving Gallaudet University, a university for the deaf, the authority to grant college degrees.[21] The National Geographic Society's publication, "Pinpointing the Past in Washington, D.C." states that Daniel Chester French had a son who was deaf and that the sculptor was familiar with sign language.[22][23] Historian James A. Percoco has observed that, although there are no extant documents showing that French had Lincoln's hands carved to represent the letters "A" and "L" in American Sign Language, "I think you can conclude that it's reasonable to have that kind of summation about the hands."[24]

 

Sacred space[edit]

As Sandage (1993) demonstrates, the Memorial has become a symbolically sacred venue especially for the Civil Rights movement. In 1939, the Daughters of the American Revolution refused to allow the African-American contralto Marian Anderson to perform before an integrated audience at the organization's Constitution Hall. At the suggestion of Eleanor Roosevelt, the wife of President Franklin D. Roosevelt, Harold L. Ickes, the Secretary of the Interior, arranged for a performance on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial on Easter Sunday of that year, to a live audience of 70,000, and a nationwide radio audience.

 

On August 28, 1963, the memorial grounds were the site of the March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom, which proved to be a high point of the American Civil Rights Movement. It is estimated that approximately 250,000 people came to the event, where they heard Martin Luther King, Jr., deliver his historic speech, "I Have a Dream", before the memorial honoring the president who had issued the Emancipation Proclamation 100 years earlier. King's speech, with its language of patriotism and its evocation of Lincoln's Gettysburg Address, was meant to match the symbolism of the Lincoln Memorial as a monument to national unity.[25] The D.C. police also appreciated the location because it was surrounded on three sides by water, so that any incident could be easily contained.[26] Twenty years later, on August 28, 1983, crowds gathered again to mark the 20th Anniversary Mobilization for Jobs, Peace and Freedom, to reflect on progress in gaining civil rights for African Americans and to commit to correcting continuing injustices. The "I Have a Dream" speech is such a part of the Lincoln Memorial story, that the spot on which King stood, on the landing eighteen steps below Lincoln's statue, was engraved in 2003 in recognition of the 40th anniversary of the event.

 

At the memorial on May 9, 1970, President Richard Nixon had a middle-of-the-night impromptu, brief meeting with protesters who, just days after the Kent State shootings, were preparing to march against the Vietnam War.

 

Depictions on U.S. currency[edit]

  

Reverse of a 2003 five-dollar note and 2006 Lincoln cent

From 1959 to 2008, the Lincoln Memorial was shown on the reverse of the United States one cent coin, which bears Lincoln's portrait bust on the front. The statue of Lincoln can be seen in the monument. This was done to mark the 150th anniversary of Lincoln's birth.

 

The memorial also appears on the back of the U.S. five dollar bill, the front of which bears Lincoln's portrait.

 

In popular culture[edit]

Literature

 

1978: In the Clive Cussler novel Vixen 03, the memorial is destroyed by a shell fired from the USS Iowa, however, the statue of Lincoln remains intact.

 

Lincoln Memorial and Reflecting Pool

 

at sunrise

 

at dusk

External video

Lincoln Memorial in June 2012.jpg

Laser Scan: Lincoln Memorial (0:33), DJS Associates[27]

Films

 

1939: In a key scene in the Frank Capra film Mr. Smith Goes to Washington, the statue and its inscription provide inspiration to freshman Senator Jefferson Smith, played by James Stewart.

1951: In the science fiction classic The Day the Earth Stood Still, Klaatu/Mr. Carpenter and Billy visit the Lincoln Memorial, provoking Klaatu, a visitor from the stars, to say: "Those are great words, he must have been a great man?"

1976: In the science fiction film Logan's Run, the statue of Lincoln reveals to the characters the look of old age.

1993: In more than one scene, Clint Eastwood and Rene Russo sit on the steps of the Memorial in In the Line of Fire.

1994: In a scene from the film Forrest Gump, Forrest (Tom Hanks) delivers a speech standing on a podium in front of the Memorial facing the reflecting pool.

1995: In a memorable scene in the film Nixon, President Richard Nixon (played by Anthony Hopkins) pays an impromptu, late-night visit to the Memorial, which is being occupied by Vietnam War protesters. The scene was based on a real-life incident when Nixon and his White House butler paid a visit to the Memorial in the early morning hours of May 9, 1970.

1996: In the science fiction movie Independence Day, the Lincoln Memorial can be seen as a massive alien spacecraft enters the sky around Washington, D.C.

2001: In the science fiction film Planet Of The Apes the Lincoln Memorial is shown in an alternate timeline as being a memorial for an ape named General Thade.

2004: In the Disney film National Treasure, main characters Ben Gates and Riley Poole discuss the possibility of stealing the Declaration of Independence while sitting on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial.

2005: In the comedy movie, Wedding Crashers, the two main characters, played by Owen Wilson and Vince Vaughn, watch the sunrise on the steps of the Lincoln Memorial and question whether they're getting too old to continue crashing weddings for sport.

2009: In the comedy movie Night at the Museum 2: Battle of the Smithsonian, the statue of Lincoln comes to life (voiced by Hank Azaria) and has a short conversation with the characters of Ben Stiller and Amy Adams and helps them defeat the Horus warriors.

2011: In the superhero movie, X-Men: First Class, Charles Xavier and Erik Lensherr are seen playing chess and talking on the steps of the memorial.

2011: In the science fiction movie, Transformers: Dark of the Moon, Megatron destroys the statue of Lincoln and then sits on the chair. This is a callback to "Atlantis, Arise!", a season 2 episode of the original The Transformers series where G1 Megatron did the same.

2013: In the movie White House Down, the President (played by Jamie Foxx) requests a fly-by of the Lincoln Memorial, at both the beginning and the end of the movie to pay homage to his hero.

2016: In the horror movie The Purge: Election Year, the Lincoln Memorial is shown with dead bodies and a fire with burning bodies on the steps and the columns having giant letters that spell out "PURGE" written in human blood.

Television

 

1991: In The Simpsons episode "Mr. Lisa Goes to Washington", Lisa Simpson goes to the Memorial hoping to be inspired by the spirit of Lincoln. She arrives to find a crush of tourists ahead of her, and detours to the Jefferson Memorial. The spirit of Thomas Jefferson speaks to her there, but is annoyed that she came to him only as a second choice.

1993: In the Ren & Stimpy Show episode "An Abe Divided", Ren and Stimpy get jobs working at the Lincoln Memorial where Ren overhears about treasure inside the memorial's head. Ren and Stimpy then saw off Lincoln's head only to find caramel corn inside, but are left with a headless-Lincoln. They spend the episode trying to fix their mess with disastrous results.

2004: In the "The Stormy Present" episode of the TV series The West Wing, President Josiah Bartlet (Martin Sheen) visits the Lincoln Memorial after being prompted by a letter to "Go see Lincoln and listen."

2015: In "Reunion", the penultimate episode of Falling Skies, it is determined that the alien queen is located at the Lincoln Memorial and this is where they must go to win the war. In the series finale "Reborn", resistance leader Tom Mason confronts the queen face to face in the ruins of the Lincoln Memorial and kills her, destroying the alien invaders. Months later, the Memorial has been rebuilt and is where a united humanity gathers to choose a new leader.

Video games

 

2000: In the video game Command and Conquer: Red Alert 2, the Lincoln Memorial can be seen in missions that take place in Washington, D.C. In the Allied Campaign Lincolns head was replaced by a head of Stalin before America was liberated. In the Soviet Campaign, it was destroyed for a cash bounty.

2008: In the video game Fallout 3, 200 years after a nuclear war set in 2077, the Lincoln Memorial has been badly damaged, including Lincoln's head having gone missing from the statue. The head is later found in the possession of several escaped slaves who want to return it to the memorial and restore it to its original condition.

Music videos

 

1985: The music video for "We Built This City (On Rock and Roll)" by Starship features a still shot of the Memorial interior. A view has the group and onlookers singing the refrain upwards to Lincoln's statue. The view then switches to the statue coming to life—literally moved by their conviction—standing up, and sings along.

 

Comment of the sculpteur:

I created this scuplture to honour the courage of these men:

Sons, husbands and fathers, who endangered and often sacrificed their lives in the hope of freeing the French people.

Les Braves consists of three elements:

The wings of Hope

So that the spirit which carried these men on June 6th, 1944 continues to inspire us, reminding us that together it is always possible to changing the future.

Rise, Freedom!

So that the example of those who rose against barbarity, helps us remain standing strong against all forms of inhumanity.

The Wings of Fraternity

So that this surge of brotherhood always reminds us of our responsibility towards others as well as ourselves.

On June 6th, 1944 these man were more than soldiers, they were our brothers.

Les Braves by French sculptor Anilore Banon at Omaha Beach, Les Moulins. Commissioned by the French government to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the D-Day Invasion Of Normandy in 2004, the stainless steel memorial represents three elements: The Wings of Hope, Rise Freedom, and the Wings Of Fraternity. "I created this sculpture to honour the courage of these men: Sons, husbands and fathers, who endangered and often sacrificed their lives in the hope of freeing the French people." Anilore Banon

 

Omaha Beach was one of the five D-Day landing beaches on 6th June 1944. On D-Day, the 29th Infantry Division and nine companies of U.S. Army Rangers (redirected from Pointe du Hoc) were to assault the western half of the beach. The more experienced 1st Infantry Division was given the eastern half. Very little went as planned during the landing at Omaha. Difficulties in navigation caused the majority of landing craft to miss their targets. The defenses were unexpectedly strong, and inflicted heavy casualties on landing American troops. Under heavy fire, the engineers struggled to clear the beach obstacles, later landings bunched up around the few channels that were cleared. Weakened by the casualties taken just in landing, the surviving assault troops could not clear the heavily defended exits off the beach. This caused further problems and consequent delays for later landings. Only 100 of the 2,400 tons of supplies scheduled to be landed on D-Day were landed. Small penetrations were eventually achieved by groups of survivors making improvised assaults, scaling the bluffs between the most heavily defended points. By the end of the day, two small isolated footholds had been won, which were subsequently exploited against weaker defenses further inland, thus achieving the original D-Day objectives over the following days.

 

An accurate figure for allied casualties at Omaha Beach on 6 June is not known, sources vary between 2,000 and 4,700 killed, wounded, and missing with the heaviest losses incurred by the infantry, tanks and engineers in the first landings. The German 352nd division suffered 1,200 killed, wounded and missing - about 20% of its strength. The landings at Omaha Beach were portrayed in the opening Act of the 1998 film Saving Private Ryan, directed by Steven Spielberg and starring Tom Hanks. Many veterans consider it to be the most accurate representation of the Normandy Landings ever commited to film.

 

Once the beachhead had been secured, Omaha Beach became the location of one of the two "Mulberry" harbours, prefabricated artificial harbors towed in pieces across the English Channel and assembled just off shore (the second was at Arromanches, at Gold Beach, built by the British troops). Construction of Mulberry A at Omaha began the day after D-Day with the scuttling of ships to form a breakwater. Ten days later harbour became operational when the first pier was completed, however three days the area was hit by worst storm to hit Normandy in 40 years and the harbour was so badly damaged that the decision was taken not to repair it.

Les Braves by French sculptor Anilore Banon at Omaha Beach, Les Moulins. Commissioned by the French government to commemorate the 60th anniversary of the D-Day Invasion Of Normandy in 2004, the stainless steel memorial represents three elements: The Wings of Hope, Rise Freedom, and the Wings Of Fraternity. "I created this sculpture to honour the courage of these men: Sons, husbands and fathers, who endangered and often sacrificed their lives in the hope of freeing the French people." Anilore Banon

 

Omaha Beach was one of the five D-Day landing beaches on 6th June 1944. On D-Day, the 29th Infantry Division and nine companies of U.S. Army Rangers (redirected from Pointe du Hoc) were to assault the western half of the beach. The more experienced 1st Infantry Division was given the eastern half. Very little went as planned during the landing at Omaha. Difficulties in navigation caused the majority of landing craft to miss their targets. The defenses were unexpectedly strong, and inflicted heavy casualties on landing American troops. Under heavy fire, the engineers struggled to clear the beach obstacles, later landings bunched up around the few channels that were cleared. Weakened by the casualties taken just in landing, the surviving assault troops could not clear the heavily defended exits off the beach. This caused further problems and consequent delays for later landings. Only 100 of the 2,400 tons of supplies scheduled to be landed on D-Day were landed. Small penetrations were eventually achieved by groups of survivors making improvised assaults, scaling the bluffs between the most heavily defended points. By the end of the day, two small isolated footholds had been won, which were subsequently exploited against weaker defenses further inland, thus achieving the original D-Day objectives over the following days.

 

An accurate figure for allied casualties at Omaha Beach on 6 June is not known, sources vary between 2,000 and 4,700 killed, wounded, and missing with the heaviest losses incurred by the infantry, tanks and engineers in the first landings. The German 352nd division suffered 1,200 killed, wounded and missing - about 20% of its strength. The landings at Omaha Beach were portrayed in the opening Act of the 1998 film Saving Private Ryan, directed by Steven Spielberg and starring Tom Hanks. Many veterans consider it to be the most accurate representation of the Normandy Landings ever commited to film.

 

Once the beachhead had been secured, Omaha Beach became the location of one of the two "Mulberry" harbours, prefabricated artificial harbors towed in pieces across the English Channel and assembled just off shore (the second was at Arromanches, at Gold Beach, built by the British troops). Construction of Mulberry A at Omaha began the day after D-Day with the scuttling of ships to form a breakwater. Ten days later harbour became operational when the first pier was completed, however three days the area was hit by worst storm to hit Normandy in 40 years and the harbour was so badly damaged that the decision was taken not to repair it.

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