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Identifier: storyoftextilesb00walt

Title: The story of textiles; a bird's-eye view of the history of the beginning and the growth of the industry by which mankind is clothed

Year: 1912 (1910s)

Authors: Walton, Perry, 1865-1941

Subjects: Textile industry Textile industry

Publisher: Boston, Mass., J. S. Lawrence

Contributing Library: The Library of Congress

Digitizing Sponsor: Sloan Foundation

  

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to three feet and more in height, has narrow lance-shaped leaves and branches at the top with a bright blueflower on each branch. Flax has been cultivated for thousands of years in Meso-potamia, Assyria, and Egypt, and is wild in the region be-tween the Persian Gulf, the Caspian and Black Seas. The stalk is a woody cylinder, more or less pithy andhollow when dry, and is enclosed in bark consisting of long,strong, silky fibres, cemented together by a kind of glueand encased in an outer bark or skin which adheres as ifglued to the fibre. The fibre, when freed from all else so faras possible by the process of rotting, to destroy the glue,breaking to free it from the woody part of the stalk, scrutch-ing to whip out the small particles of bark and stalk thatadhere, hatchelling to straighten it and free it from tangles,is nearly pure bast of a light gray and brown color, incliningto green. It is exceedingly tough, adapted to spinning andweaving, capable of being bleached to snowy whiteness,

 

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SPECIMENS OF NORTH DAKOTA GROWN RUSSIAN SEED-FLAX

  

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Title: Arboretum et fruticetum Britannicum; or, The trees and shrubs of Britain, native and foreign, hardy and half-hardy, pictorially and botanically delineated, and scientifically and popularly described; with their propagation, culture, management, and uses in the arts, in useful and ornamental plantations, and in landscape-gardening; preceded by a historical and geographical outline of the trees and shrubs of temperate climates throughout the world

Identifier: arboretumetfr02loud

Year: 1854. (1850s)

Authors: Loudon, J. C. (John Claudius), 1783-1843

Subjects: Trees; Shrubs; Plants

Publisher: London, Henry G. Bohn

Contributing Library: New York Botanical Garden, LuEsther T. Mertz Library

Digitizing Sponsor: The LuEsther T Mertz Library, the New York Botanical Garden

  

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CHAP. LXVII. COMPO'SITJE. 107S gardens, that we cannot but strongly recommend it for trial against every con- servative wall. Ddhl'ia. Cav. There is an arborescent 'species of this genus, which, in Mexico, is said to grow as high as 40 ft. A plant of it was introduced into the Liverpool Botanic Garden in 1835, and it was seen in the August of that year by Dr. Neill of Canonmills Cottage, who describes it as " a cutting, resembling a middle-sized trunk or small stem of an elder bush, as thick as a man's leg, and fully as woody as the elder. It was throwing out leaves very like those of our herbaceous species." {^Gard. Mag., vol, xi. p. 680.) On applying to Mr. Shepherd for information respecting this plant, he says nothing of the plant alluded to by Dr. Neill, but informs us that he has " a very fine plant, on a south wall, where it does better than in a green-house." He also informs us that, in the Walton Nursery, there are a fine old plant, and several young ones for sale; and that, in the green-house of C. Taylure, Esq., there is a plant from 11 ft. to 14 ft. high. We also learn from Messrs. Lod- diges, that they received the tree dahlia, a few years ago, from Mexico, but afterwards lost it. Mr. M'Nab informs us that there are plants of it in the Edinburgh Botanic Garden; and Mr. Campbell, that thra-e is one in the Botanical and Horticultural Garden at Manchester. Ataldnthus pinndUts D. Don (Pren&nthes pinnSita Lin.) is a native of TenerifTe, growing to the height of 3 ft., and producing its yellow flowers in June and July. Si'mchus fruficosns Jacq. Icon., I. t. 161., and our Jig. 853., is an evergreen suffVuticose plant, a native of Madeira, which grows to the height of 4ft., and produces its yellow flowers from April to July. It is a very handsome plant during the summer season, both on account of its large leaves and it showy flowers. A few years ago, there were plants in the conservatory of the Cambridge Botanic Garden;

 

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rernbn'm aculifolia Hook. {Bot. Mag., t. 3062.) is an evergreen shrub, a native of South America, growing to the height of 4 ft, and producing its pale purple flowers in December. A'ster L. Of this genus there are upwards of 20 species introduced, which are technically con- sidered as subligneous, suflTruticose, or somewhat woody. Of these the most remarkable is A. argoph'Sllus Lab. (Bot. Mag., t. 1563. ; and ont jig. 854.), a native of Van Diemen's Land, which grows to the height of 10 ft., and produces its white flowers from May to July. It is very hardy, and sometimes stands out in the open border, in the neighbourhood of London, for five or six years, without any protection whatever. The whole plant has a white aspect, and smells strongly of musk. This is the Haxt^nia argophylla of Caley. (See First Addit. Suj'p. to Hort. Brit.) A. an- £ustr.fblius Jacq. Sch., 3. t. 370., is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, which grows to the height of 6 ft., and produces its pale blue flowers from May to July. A. aculeatns Lab. {Bot. Cab., t. S.30. ; and our Jig. 855.) is a native of New Holland, which grows to the height of 2 ft or 3 ft., and produces its white flowers from March to July. Chrys6coma Comatirea L. {Bot. Mag., t. 1972. ; and our Jig. 856.) is a native of the Cape, where it grows to the height of 6 ft. It is an old inhabitant of our green-houses, and produces its yellow flowers from June to August. There are five or six other shrubby species, natives of the Cape, of still humbler growth. Brachi/lce'na nere(fblia Swt. (BAccharis nereifblia Lin.) is a Cape evergreen undershrub, growing to the height of 4 ft., and producing its â white flowers from August to November. Cortyxn carolininsis Jacq. Icon., t. 585., is an evergreen shrub, a native of Carolina, growing to the height of 5 ft., and producing its inirple flowers from July to October. There are several other frame and green- liouse suffruticose species ; but few of them exceed a foot in height. Poddnthus Mitlqui Lindl., and our^^. 857., is alow evergreen shrub, a native of Chili, which grows to the height of 8 ft. or 10 ft., and produces its yellow flowers from August to November. Itwas introduced inl8£4i 4b 2

  

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Identifier: 1921DesMoinesAndPolkCountyIowaCityDirectory

Title: 1921 Des Moines and Polk County, Iowa, City Directory

Year: 1921 (1920s)

Authors:

Subjects: des moines iowa polk county city directories

Publisher:

  

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W C1628 McGruder Wri(c)1705 Maxson L W1709 Riefsnyder W S 1710 Van Hook K Mrs 1712 Coleman A B 1713 Donahue E M1717 Vacant 1720 Knight W G 1721 Murray W M18th intersects19th intersects20th intersects21st intersects2110 McNaney W V22d intersects 2201 Deeds L E Mrs2203 Bell C H2205 Eottenfleld J D2207 Haynie C E2212 Smith V M2214 Pricer J Mrs 2219 Scalf J H 2220 Walker S E Mrs 2221 Colulter B H23d intersects2303 Ryan P J 2307 Beall V S 2308 Peer M A 2311 Gooden J C 2312 Sanders B W2315 Anders P W2318 Severe D L2320 Shrenk D M2325 Thompson R I24th intersects2403 Norton M J2407 Blanchard Chas Rev2409 Swisher P P^2412 Weed J C25th intersects2513 University Trans Co2515 Morain Chester L26th intersects2603 Adair S E Mrs2609 Linn F M2625 Underwood C A27th intersects2703 Wolfe Leslie2721 Johnston J E Rev2723 Sater G C2725 Boltpn L M28th intersects2905 Woodward W S2907 Emmert R A3021 Woody Eli3023 Peck W T31st intersects3108, Dowell R K37th intersects3701 Grefe T F3711 Hynes T J38th intersects

 

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3814 Hufford G E 3815 Thdmpson R L 3817 Cade H D 3818 Witter D M 3820 Sclimitt L A 3821 Kennard G Mrs3827 Hujton W E44th intersects 4412 Coon A J4418 Hurlbut H A4424 Imlay W J45th intersects4500 Howard E W Dr4508 Dusenberg E E4512 Ry^ G A4516 Sin^pson Geo4520 Gutmann Moses4522 Scdtt C OCARR from E 30th e toE 31st 1 s of Dean av 3000 Pispher J F 3001 Killen G C 3004 Scljuling H J 3005 Piske L A 3009 Parrack Monroe 3010 Ni^lson MartinBrooks Ely 3015 Humrickhouse P A 3016 Nielson M P 3017 Millard B E3022 Wright R W 3024 Collins J S 3025 Carlan W H 3026 Vacant 3027 Carlan A E3032 Baker T J 3034 Beckstrom J G 3035 Walton L HCAULDER from So W 5th w| to So W 14th1 s of Park av500 Sc(^tt W J 520 Buccello Louis 521 W^ddill B Mrs 603 Ellfott AM Mrs 604 Rupner M A 605 Kriigler C C612 Br^nchfield B E Dewey Mary Mrs620 McKowen H J720 Gillespie JF810 Myers H BCENTER from D Mriver jto 43d 4 n ofGrand! avE 2d intersectsE 3d intersects315 Porter O U325 Burnett Will327 Dunn M M Mrs mn S »~ -1 i c 3 ^

  

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Title: Letters from Fort St. George ... [serial]

Identifier: lettersfromftg16945madr

Year: 1679 (1670s)

Authors: Madras (India : Presidency) Madras (India : Presidency). Record Office

Subjects: East India Company British

Publisher: Madras : Printed by the Superintendent, Govt. Press

  

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ingombarr, 40, 54, 68-69, 76, 95, Triplicsne, Trivelioape, Triblicane, Tripolocanee, Trivulagurree, 11-12, 38, 95. v Troughtnn, 81.Torlington, Captn. Robert, 24-26. u Verago, 90. Tincate, 3. Tincate Puttee, Deode, 80. Vincate Rama, 54. Vincattee Chitte, 77. Vizagapatam, 4, 11, 13, 26, 31, 35-37, 41, 44, 46-48, 51-53, 55-57, 65, 07, 70-72, 75-79, 82, 92, 98-99,103- 105.Viziapoore, 13. w Walton, 69, 84. Wanderwash, Vandrawash, 12, 58. Ware, Richard, 74. Watts, 27. Welcome (ship), 38, 40, 82. West Coast, 23, 36, 44-46, 65 -66, 70, 77, 79, 83. Wiidon, 75. William (King), 42. Williams, Captn. Samuel, 13. Willson, Samuell, 14, 18, 22-24, 26, 29, 50, 60, 66. Wooddear, Woodier, 84, 90. Woodearpollam, 84. Wottamchnnd, Wottamachund, 39-40, 60. Wright, Thomas, 68, 70, 72, 77. Yale, Elihu, 27-28, 33, 44, 55, 77, 80. York Fort, Yorke Fort, 3, 5, 14-15, 17, 20, 22-24, 26,29, 32, 47, 50-51, 60-63, 65-66, 79-80. Zeilon, 91, 93. Zulphaker Caun, 6, 11, 13, 21, 27-58-59, 67, 73, 78, 85-86, 94. 43-44, 55

 

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I flushed this green Woodpecker out of the undergrowth as I walked on the Naze. It flew up and landed in a tree some way off. Light was poor and not a brilliant capture but happy to see a Green Woodpecker in a tree rather than on the ground.

 

Walton on the Naze

 

Feb 2010

Title: An encyclopædia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a statistical view of its present state, with suggestions for its future progress, in the British Isles

Identifier: encyclopdiaofg00loud

Year: 1827 (1820s)

Authors: Loudon, J. C. (John Claudius), 1783-1843

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: London : Printed for Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green

Contributing Library: University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

Digitizing Sponsor: University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

  

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aromatic flavor, U delicately acid, and allays thirst agreeably. It is a native of Martinique and Surinam, and was introduced here in 1690. It is grown in the stove, but has not yet been cultivated for its fruit 6006. The purple-fruited granadil/a {Hort. Trans, vol. iii. pi. iii.) {fig. 531.) is by some botanists considered as a variety of P. incamata, but by Sabine, who thus describes it {Hort. Trans, iii. 99-), as a distinct species. " The stem is thick and woody, the leaves three-lobed, and of considerable size j the flowers proceeding from the axilla of the leaves, fragrant, and of a white color, tinged with purple. The fruit when unripe, is green, but as it ripens changes to a dark livid purple, and much resembles the fruit of the purple egg-plant. The shape is eliptic, an inch and a half in diameter, and two inches from the stalk to the top ; the pulp is orange-colored, and the seeds numerous; the taste acid, and the flavor somewhat like that of the orange. It is a native of the Brazils, was introduced fromi Portugal by Boehm, in 1810, and has produced fruit abundantly in the stoves at Walton-on-Thames, at the royal gardens at Windsor, and other places. Such is the rapid growth of this species, that a single plant will in one season extend in a line over upwards of forty feet of glass, on which space it will produce from 400 to 500 fruit." 6007. The flesh -colored granadUla, or May apple, is the P. incamata, L. {Abb. in Geor. 1.12.) The root is perennial, send- ing up annually a number of herbaceous shoots, with three- lobed leaves, and sweet-scented flowers, variegated with pur- ple, and appears from July to September. The fruit when ripe is about the size of an apple, orange-colored, with a sweetish yellow pulp. It is a native of Virginia, was cultivated in the open air by Parkinson in 1629, and afterwards by Miller in the stove, with whom it bore fruit. 6008. Propagation and culture. All the sorts may be propagated from seed, layers, and even cuttings*', but layers come soonest into bearing. Having procured plants with good roots, plant such as are intended to fruit in a border in the stove, and train them to a trellis near the glass ; they will in general produce fruit the second year. The seedlings of the purple-fruited sort will produce fruit the first year. All the species will fruit even in large pots ; but Sabine says, the " best method is, to plant them in an angle of the bark-bed, which has been parted off, either by boards or nine-inch brick-work, as low as the pit goes. At the bottom of the cavity, formed by this division, should belaid some brick-rubbish, over which may be thrown a little dead tan", and the whole be then filled with equal parts of very old tan, and a compost of leaf-mould and rotten dung. Herein the roots will strike freely, and will even spread through the partition into the pit, growing into the fresh tan. Such roots may be trimmed and reduced whenever the tan is changed ; but should the plant have been some time in its station, it will be as well to leave part of the old tan in the bottom of the pit, in which the protruded roots may remain undisturbed. They do not require the full heat of the pine-stove, for they flourish best in a temperature of from 65 to 70 degrees; but they do not bring their fruit to perfection if "kept in a common green-house or conservatory, though they will grow and flower in it. The shoots as they advance must be trained near to, and under the in- clined glass of the stove : the first flowers will appear in May, and the blooming will continue until Sep- tember, the fruit setting the whole time; but if it does not set well, it will be advisable to impregnate the stigmas, by applying the pollen with a feather. As they grow, the very strong shoots should be cut out from their origin, for these do not bear fruit so abundantly as those which are less vigorous ; but the fruiting branches must not be shortened on any account. The temperature must be kept up equally, dur- ing the time of flowering and fruiting ; the crop wiil begin to come in in August, and will continue until January; but the earlier produce is the best. When the crop is all off, which will be early in January, the heat must be reduced to about 50°, so as to check or stop the growth ; this being effected, the shoots must be well cut in. As little old wood as possible, besides the main stem, which rises from the pit to the glass, and a few pieces (about two or three feet of each) of the old branches should be retained : for all that is to be trained under the glass to bear in each year, ought to be the growth of the same season. It is found that the shoots break better, and in greater quantity, from the older wood than from that of two years' standing. In this dormant and reduced state it is to be kept during January and February, after which the necessary heat may be applied to cause it to resume its functions for the ensuing season." 6009. The cocoa-nut-tree \s the Cocos nucifera, L. {Roxb. Cor. 1.1. 73.) Moncec. Hexan. L. and Palmce, B. P. {fig. 532.) It is an East Indian palm; but cultivated in most places within the tropics. The trees grow to a great height, with leaves thirteen or fourteen feet long; the flowers come out round the top of the trunk of the tree in large clusters, enclosed in a spatha or sheath ; and the nuts succeed them commonly ten or twelve together. Their form and use is familiar. 6010. Propagation and culture. The nuts are to be plant- ed where they are designed to remain, as the tree will not bear transplanting unless when very young. In a moist heat they will push in six weeks or two months. To cul- tivate for fruit, plant in the centre of the area of a house, twenty.five feet wide, and either lofty, or with a moveable roof, which will admit of being raised as the tree advances in height. In this way, with a strong heat, there can be no doubt this tree would produce fruit in England; but even if it did not, or did not for a great many years, the magnificence of its appearance, under such a mode of treat- ment, would compensate a curious horticulturist for the labor and expense. Though the cocoa-nuts to be obtained in the shops are supposed to be gathered before being ripe, yet they have been found to grow with no other care than planting in a large pot or box of rich earth, and plunging in a bark-bed. It may be observed here, that this is almost the only palm that could be cultivated in this country for perfecting its fruit; for the others being dioe- cious plants, unless a great number were grown together, there would be no legitimate means of impreg- nating the female blossoms. 6011. The plantain-tree {Musa paradisiaca, L. Hex. Monog. L. and Musacece, P. S.) rises with a soft, herbaceous, conical stalk, fifteen or twenty feet high, with leaves issuing from the top, often more than six feet long, and near two feet broad ; the spike of male and female flowers appear from the centre of the leaves, and is succeeded by pudding-shaped fruits, eight or nine inches long, above an inch in diame- ter, pale-yellow when ripe, of a soft, sweet, luscious flavor; the spikes often so largo as to weigh up- wards of rortv pounds. It is a native of the East Indies, and other parts of Asia, and probably of Africa,

 

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Title: An encyclopædia of gardening; comprising the theory and practice of horticulture, floriculture, arboriculture, and landscape-gardening, including all the latest improvements; a general history of gardening in all countries; and a statistical view of its present state, with suggestions for its future progress, in the British Isles

Identifier: encyclopdiaofg00loud

Year: 1827 (1820s)

Authors: Loudon, J. C. (John Claudius), 1783-1843

Subjects: Gardening

Publisher: London : Printed for Longman, Rees, Orme, Brown, and Green

Contributing Library: University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

Digitizing Sponsor: University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

  

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Book I. EXOTIC FRUITS LITTLE KNOWN. 783

 

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aromatic flavor, U delicately acid, and allays thirst agreeably. It is a native of Martinique and Surinam, and was introduced here in 1690. It is grown in the stove, but has not yet been cultivated for its fruit 6006. The purple-fruited granadil/a {Hort. Trans, vol. iii. pi. iii.) {fig. 531.) is by some botanists considered as a variety of P. incamata, but by Sabine, who thus describes it {Hort. Trans, iii. 99-), as a distinct species. " The stem is thick and woody, the leaves three-lobed, and of considerable size j the flowers proceeding from the axilla of the leaves, fragrant, and of a white color, tinged with purple. The fruit when unripe, is green, but as it ripens changes to a dark livid purple, and much resembles the fruit of the purple egg-plant. The shape is eliptic, an inch and a half in diameter, and two inches from the stalk to the top ; the pulp is orange-colored, and the seeds numerous; the taste acid, and the flavor somewhat like that of the orange. It is a native of the Brazils, was introduced fromi Portugal by Boehm, in 1810, and has produced fruit abundantly in the stoves at Walton-on-Thames, at the royal gardens at Windsor, and other places. Such is the rapid growth of this species, that a single plant will in one season extend in a line over upwards of forty feet of glass, on which space it will produce from 400 to 500 fruit." 6007. The flesh -colored granadUla, or May apple, is the P. incamata, L. {Abb. in Geor. 1.12.) The root is perennial, send- ing up annually a number of herbaceous shoots, with three- lobed leaves, and sweet-scented flowers, variegated with pur- ple, and appears from July to September. The fruit when ripe is about the size of an apple, orange-colored, with a sweetish yellow pulp. It is a native of Virginia, was cultivated in the open air by Parkinson in 1629, and afterwards by Miller in the stove, with whom it bore fruit. 6008. Propagation and culture. All the sorts may be propagated from seed, layers, and even cuttings*', but layers come soonest into bearing. Having procured plants with good roots, plant such as are intended to fruit in a border in the stove, and train them to a trellis near the glass ; they will in general produce fruit the second year. The seedlings of the purple-fruited sort will produce fruit the first year. All the species will fruit even in large pots ; but Sabine says, the " best method is, to plant them in an angle of the bark-bed, which has been parted off, either by boards or nine-inch brick-work, as low as the pit goes. At the bottom of the cavity, formed by this division, should belaid some brick-rubbish, over which may be thrown a little dead tan", and the whole be then filled with equal parts of very old tan, and a compost of leaf-mould and rotten dung. Herein the roots will strike freely, and will even spread through the partition into the pit, growing into the fresh tan. Such roots may be trimmed and reduced whenever the tan is changed ; but should the plant have been some time in its station, it will be as well to leave part of the old tan in the bottom of the pit, in which the protruded roots may remain undisturbed. They do not require the full heat of the pine-stove, for they flourish best in a temperature of from 65 to 70 degrees; but they do not bring their fruit to perfection if "kept in a common green-house or conservatory, though they will grow and flower in it. The shoots as they advance must be trained near to, and under the in- clined glass of the stove : the first flowers will appear in May, and the blooming will continue until Sep- tember, the fruit setting the whole time; but if it does not set well, it will be advisable to impregnate the stigmas, by applying the pollen with a feather. As they grow, the very strong shoots should be cut out from their origin, for these do not bear fruit so abundantly as those which are less vigorous ; but the fruiting branches must not be shortened on any account. The temperature must be kept up equally, dur- ing the time of flowering and fruiting ; the crop wiil begin to come in in August, and will continue until January; but the earlier produce is the best. When the crop is all off, which will be early in January, the heat must be reduced to about 50°, so as to check or stop the growth ; this being effected, the shoots must be well cut in. As little old wood as possible, besides the main stem, which rises from the pit to the glass, and a few pieces (about two or three feet of each) of the old branches should be retained : for all that is to be trained under the glass to bear in each year, ought to be the growth of the same season. It is found that the shoots break better, and in greater quantity, from the older wood than from that of two years' standing. In this dormant and reduced state it is to be kept during January and February, after which the necessary heat may be applied to cause it to resume its functions for the ensuing season." 6009. The cocoa-nut-tree \s the Cocos nucifera, L. {Roxb. Cor. 1.1. 73.) Moncec. Hexan. L. and Palmce, B. P. {fig. 532.) It is an East Indian palm; but cultivated in most places within the tropics. The trees grow to a great height, with leaves thirteen or fourteen feet long; the flowers come out round the top of the trunk of the tree in large clusters, enclosed in a spatha or sheath ; and the nuts succeed them commonly ten or twelve together. Their form and use is familiar. 6010. Propagation and culture. The nuts are to be plant- ed where they are designed to remain, as the tree will not bear transplanting unless when very young. In a moist heat they will push in six weeks or two months. To cul- tivate for fruit, plant in the centre of the area of a house, twenty.five feet wide, and either lofty, or with a moveable roof, which will admit of being raised as the tree advances in height. In this way, with a strong heat, there can be no doubt this tree would produce fruit in England; but even if it did not, or did not for a great many years, the magnificence of its appearance, under such a mode of treat- ment, would compensate a curious horticulturist for the labor and expense. Though the cocoa-nuts to be obtained in the shops are supposed to be gathered before being ripe, yet they have been found to grow with no other care than planting in a large pot or box of rich earth, and plunging in a bark-bed. It may be observed here, that this is almost the only palm that could be cultivated in this country for perfecting its fruit; for the others being dioe- cious plants, unless a great number were grown together, there would be no legitimate means of impreg- nating the female blossoms. 6011. The plantain-tree {Musa paradisiaca, L. Hex. Monog. L. and Musacece, P. S.) rises with a soft, herbaceous, conical stalk, fifteen or twenty feet high, with leaves issuing from the top, often more than six feet long, and near two feet broad ; the spike of male and female flowers appear from the centre of the leaves, and is succeeded by pudding-shaped fruits, eight or nine inches long, above an inch in diame- ter, pale-yellow when ripe, of a soft, sweet, luscious flavor; the spikes often so largo as to weigh up- wards of rortv pounds. It is a native of the East Indies, and other parts of Asia, and probably of Africa,

  

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Title: Monasticon Anglicanum, or, The history of the ancient abbies, and other monasteries, hospitals, cathedral and collegiate churches in England and Wales. With divers French, Irish, and Scotch monasteries formerly relating to England

Identifier: monasticonanglic01dugd

Year: 1693 (1690s)

Authors: Dugdale, William, Sir, 1605-1686 Wright, James, 1643-1713 Dodsworth, Roger, 1585-1654 Stevens, John, d. 1726

Subjects: Monasteries Church buildings

Publisher: London, Sam Keble; Hen. Rhodes

  

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t by advice of Geffry dc Clinton,did Eftablifli here. Canons inftead of Nuns. Nicholas de Stafford Son ofRobert, gavethis Houfe asaCell to Kenilmrth. King Henry the II. con- ^.Sfirmed all the Beneiaftions. The Church here was dedicated to StWulfad [Valued at 119 /. 14;. 11 ^. fer Amtuni.] ^ B R O K E, i« KutlanD, a Cell to Kenilworth. V 130. HVgh de Ferrariis granted to the Canons of Kenilworth the Land ofBroch, with the Wood-ground and Eflarrs, and this was by thealfent o[nalchelin\-{\s Nephew, and fFi/Zw/w his Brother, all which wasconfirmd to the faid Canons by King Henry the II. [Valued at 40/. fer Annum.] : L A N E R c o s T, 7« Cumberland. ^ THIS Houfe dedicated to God andSt.^J/^ry Magdalen, was foundedand endowed with large Revenues by Robert de FaUib,<s Son ofHubert deVallibm, he granted to the Canons here, ?«/fr ^/i«, Pafture andtpeding ui his Forefl ot Walton, for thirty Cows, and twenty Sows; witban the Bark of his Timbef-Trets in the Woods of his Barony, with a? the

 

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144 Canons Regular. Vol. I J. all the dry Wood lying any where in his Foreft for thefuppcrtof theirj,j_ Houfe. The Church here was dcdicarcd by Bermrd Bifhop of Car-lHe,An.ii69. King Richardthfi]. confirmd the fcveral Lands.&c. givento the Canons ot this Monaftery, The abovefaid. Herbert tie FalUlus was^^ thefirft EavonofGille/latic/^ which Barony went by a Daughrer to theNannie and Family of Multan, and in like manner from them to the Fami-ly of Dacres. [Valued at 77 /. 7 s. 11 d. per Annum.] D U N S T A B L E, i« ToeMo^Wljite. HEre was formerly a very Woody place juft in the meeting of tbofetwo Royal Ways of l^atlmg, and Icl^fieU, which ir».i.dethe Pnflagclo unfafe and full of Thieves, that there was hardly any Travelling.KiagHenrji the I. defiroustoreftifie this, cauled the Woods to be cittup,and a Royal Manfion to be builc near the place which was called /fztm-lury. He alfo caufed Proclamation all over the Kingdom that who everwould come and inhabit in that place, ftiould ha

  

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Title: American bee journal

Identifier: americanbeejourn4000hami

Year: 1861 (1860s)

Authors:

Subjects: Bee culture; Bees

Publisher: [Hamilton, Ill. , etc. , Dadant & Sons]

Contributing Library: UMass Amherst Libraries

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Nov. 8, 1900, AMERICAN BEE JOURNAL 717 The Novelty Pocket=Knife. Your Name and Address on one side—Three Bees on the other side.

 

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[This Cut is the Full Size of the Knife.] Your Name on the Knife.—When ordering, be sure to say just what name and address you wish put on the Knife. The Novelty Knife is indeed a novelty The novelty lies in the handle. It is made beautifully of iudestructible celluloid, which is as transparent as glass. Un- derneath the celluloid, on one side of the handle is placed the name and residence of the subscriber, and on the other side pictures of a Queen, Drone, and Worker, as shown here. The Material entering into this celebrated knife is of the very best quality; the blades are hand-forged out of the very finest English razor-steel, and we war- rant every blade. The bolsters are made of German silver, and will never rust or corrode. The rivets are hardened German silver wire; the linings are plate brass; the back springs of Sheffield spring-steel, and the finish of the handle as described above. It will last a last-iirae, with proper usage. Why Own the Novelty Knife ? In case a good knife is lost, the chances are the owner will never recover it; but if the " Novelty " is lost, having name and address of owner, the finder will return it; otherwise to try to destroy the name and ad- dress, would destrov the knife. If traveling, and you meet with a serious accident, and are so for* tunate as to have one of the " Novelties,'" your Pocket-Knife will serve as an identifier; and in case of death, your relatives will at once be notified of the accident. How appropriate this knife is for a present I What more lasting memento could a mother give to a son, a wife to a husband, a sister to a brother, or a lady to a gentleman, the knife having the name of the recipient on one side? The accompanying cut gives a faint idea, but cannot fully conve3' an exact representation ot this beautiful knife, "as the *■' Novelty " must be seen to be appreciated. How to Get this Valuable Knife.—We send it postpaid for Si 1^, or give it as a Premium to the one sending us 'i. hkee new subscribers to the Bee Journal (with $3.00.) We will club the Novelty Knife and the Bee Journal for one year, both for S1.''0. GEORGE W, YORK £ CO., 118 Mich, St„ Chicago, III. j8:registered:"Please allow about two weeks for your knife order to be filled. BEE-HIVES AND HONEY-BOXES. in car lots—wholesale or retail. Now is the time to get prices. We are the people who manufacture strictly first-class goods and sell them at prices that defy com- petition. Write us today. nterstate Box St Manufacturing Co., Hudson, Wis. Plea?'^ mention Bee Journal when writing saw. As the plant grows the blossoms continue to come out to the topmost branch. It is not a common plant in this section, and I have the only one I ever saw. It grows with a stout, woody stock, and dies in winter, springing up from the root in early spring. What is it ? and how came it to grow in my yard without planting ? F. R. Webster. Cheshire Co., N. H., Oct. 26. Prof. C. L.Walton, of the Lake View, Chicago, High School, says : The specimen is Japanese knotweed, Polygonum zuccarinii, and belongs to the buckwheat family. It is a native of Japan, and is cultivated in this country as an ornamental plant. In common with many other cultivated flowers it escaped, and is found grow- ing wild in restricted sections on the Atlantic coast. Belonging as it does to the buckwheat family, it furnishes considerable honey, as this seems to be a characteristic of the entire family. Just how the plant got started in Mr. Webster's garden I can not tell, but being a perennial it might have been planted bj' a former owner, or the wind or a bird might have carried the seed from a distance and dropt it there. C. L. Walton. Some Expepienee with Bees. I started with two colonies in mov- able-frame hives,and afterward bought two and caught one, and increast to 11 in two years. I bought 3 Italian queens of different breeders, and they are doing fine. My way of introducing them is to make the colony queenless for 3 days, go thru and destroy all cells, remove some brood for empty comb—if necessary, or early in the season—then remove the covering from the queen-cage, and the cork or card- board over the candy, lay it just over and between two frames, replace the We Cant flive Away Anything You pay for what you get in this world. You understand that. But as a business propo- Ig^ sition we want you to try our great medicine for Indigestion. Constipation, Biliousness, Sick Headache, Insomnia, "the Blues," and like complaints— NERVO-VIIAL Laxative Tablets We know you won't buy it, until you know something about it. The best way to get you to know how good it is, is to let you try it. That's what we do. Send Stamp for "Hejiltli" booklet, and we will send you a free sample package, that you may try it yourself. We know you will always keep it in the house, if you once try it. What fairer offer could we make? At all Druggists—10 and 25 cents. Handsome Stick Pin FREE I If, instead of sending for a sample, 3'ousend us 25c "\ve will send you ''Health" booklet.a 25c box and a handsome Kold stick-pin, set with emerald, ruby or pearl, warranted t<.) be worth double the money. Order by number. This is an extra intro- ductory offer. Only one pin to one person. If unsatisfactory, money returned. Send now while ihe offer is K<'<'d. IHODERIN REMEDY COMPANY, KEWANEE, ILLINOIS. iN ['JluS onijxi /// irill do f.t"( eihl us it promises. -Editors.] __\m H ^^^1^ . ■ii m r: _ ■ ^ —— -rlf*; ^fl ^*j" '3 "■"^ ^ » ':

  

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Title: American bee journal

Identifier: americanbeejourn1781hami

Year: 1861 (1860s)

Authors:

Subjects: Bee culture; Bees

Publisher: [Hamilton, Ill. , etc. , Dadant & Sons]

Contributing Library: UMass Amherst Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: UMass Amherst Libraries

  

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^——^»— ^^ ^^^ ^0^ ^'ir*<'<f**^f^ ^ DEVOTED TO SCIENTIFIC BEE-CULTURE AND THE PRODUCTION AND SALE OF PU HONEY. VOL. XVII. CHICAGO, ILL., JANUARY 19, 1881. No. 3. Published every Wednesday, by THOMAS G. NEWMAN, Editor and Proprietor, 974 WEST MADISON ST., CHICAGO, ILL, TERMS OP SUBSfRIPTIOXi WEEKLY—'51.' nuiubersi SS.OO a year, in advance. Three or Six Munihs at the same rate. SEMI-MONTHLY-The flrst and third numbers of each month, at JSl.OO a year, in advance. MONTHLY—The flrst number of each month, at 50 cents a year, in advance. |3rv~ Any person sending a Club of six is entitled to an extra copy < like the clubi which may be sent to any address desired. Sample copies furnished free. tW~ Remit by raonev-order, registered letter, ex- press or bank draft on Chicago or New York, payable to our order. Such only are at our risk. Checks on local banks cost tis 25 cents for collecting. Free of postage in the United States or Canada. Postage to Europe oO cents extra. Entered at Chicago pout office as second class matter. For the American Bee Journal. The Stingless Bees of South America. REV. L. JOHNSON. I received, a few days ago, a copy of Mr. Hawley's circular upon the sting- less bee, mentioned in the American Bee Journal of January 5th. As I suppose thousands of these circulars are distributed among the bee-keepers of America, many of wkotn are yet inexperienced, it is well to notice this new advocate for public favor. 1st. I think the introduction of an entirely new variety of bee at this time, whose merits are yet untried, is exceed- ingly injudicious. Only last year we received the Cyprian which is still on. trial. We do not yet know their true merits in their purity, much less when crossed with other varieties. We all know the difficulties we have encoimted with mixtures in the past. Let us not increase them, by introducing, to any great extent, new families, until we thoroughly test our present importa- tions. Think of approaching a hive of "bees we thought stingless, yet in which one-fourth or one-eighth are vindictive hybrids, armed with "venom-tipped javelins I" The very thought settles it. 2d. From the testimony of Mr. Wag- ner and others, who years ago investi- gated the merits of all these new claimants, their honey gathering quali- ties are uncertain, and their ability to endure our vigorous winters is exceed- ingly questionable. In truth from Mr. Hawley's statements, some of these bees produce a honey which is unfit for use. 3d. We consider the stings of our blacks and Italians an actual advantage. The bee-keeper who is careful and in- telligent in the management of his bees, need not be stung, and even if stung, in the course of a year or two he be-l comes so inoculated with the poison, | that he is no longer affected by it.: Thieves we know are prevalent every- where, and nothing often protects our I hives against their depredations, except the fear of being stung. Let it but once be generally known that our bees cannot sting, and our honey will be pilferred as constantly as our mellons and fruit. A big dog, and shot-gun, and a faithful guard must then occupy the place of the smoker, bee-vail and guantlets. As for myself I think the latter preferable and decidedly the cheapest. While we all want the best bee the world affords, we should not, increase our present difficulties by grasping at the near shadow of these untried rovers of the tangled wilds of Brazil. Walton, Ky., Jan. 3,1881. hive begins to drive the bees to the out- side for air, say when the mercury stands at about 90° to 100lJ in the shade. Work in hives thus treated will usually go on without interruption, when hives that are not suitably ventilated are almost wholly idle. On the approach of cool weather the ventilator should be closed until preparations for winter. About November 1st in this latitude, (better October 1st) the hives should be suitably packed for winter, when the ventilator in the bottom may be opened, and coarse straw or litter stuffed under the hive to prevent the cold air entering the hive until sufficiently tempered by its passage through the straw. to the seasons alluded to, will entirely prevent the closing of the ventilator with propolis, and at the same time prove the value of " lower ventilation in winter " and in summer. Des Moines, Iowa. For the American Bee Journal. Rocky Mountain Bee Plant. d. s. GRIMES.

 

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Cleome integrifolia, or Bocky-Mountain Bee Plant. For the American Bee Journal. Lower Ventilation in Winter. .T. M. SHUCK. The ventilator in the bottom of the hive, recommended by the lamented Quiuby. seems to be misunderstood by some of our bee-keepers (see article by Wm Camm in American Bee Jour- nal of Jan. 5, 1881.) This hole in the bottom of the hive was doubtless intended, originally to ventilate the hive during the heated term of the honey season, and was afterwards found to be useful in winter. In use,the ventilator should be closed from March 1st until the heat in the It may not be known upon what theory this ventilation is beneficial in winter, but long continued use and frequent tests have proven its value, which is of more importance than the mere theory. .Some eminent apiarists, advocate that the bottom ventilator be open and unprotected during the entire winter. While this latter practice seems ex- treme, some very fine results have at- tended it, but nothing equal to the more conservative practice of opening the ventilator for winter and protecting with straw in the way indicated. Strong wire-cloth should be used, that cannot be cut by rats or mice, and not more than ten meshes to the inch. Such wire-cloth as this, with the care as Some of the descriptions of this plant —Cleome integrifolia—hardly do it justice as a honey-producer. It grows to the height of four or five feet, with hard woody fibers like mustard, often meas- uring more than one inch in diameter. The seeds are borne in pods much the size and appearance of the black mus- tard. It blooms early in the spring, and continues in bloom until frost. As the season advances the spikes of the beautiful flowers continue to grow in length, with seeds and flowers in all stages of growth from the full pods to the new opening bloom. The leaves throw off a very offensive odor when handled. As a honey-producing plant it is second to no other. In our apiary we have forty colonies of bees, and although we are located among vegetable and fruit gardens our bees prefer this plant to all others. It is not troublesome in cultivated grounds, but prefers the roadside or waste places. We value it highly, and without doubt, is worthy the attention of bee-keepers. Denver, Col. For the American Bee Journal. My Report for 1880. W. D. WRIGHT. I have to report the poorest season since 1869 in this section. Last fall I placed half of my bees in a bee-house, above ground; they were in good con- dition when put in, and wintered quite well, considering the warm weather we had. As I was building a shop, with a bee cellar underneath, the rest of our bees were left upon the summer stands, until the cellar was ready to receive them, which was much later than I ex- pected; and as they were totally unpre- pared for wintering out of doors, they suffered considerably from cold snaps in the early winter. When removed to the cellar quite a number of them showed signs of dysentery. The weather was so warm after placing them in the cellar, that I could not keep it at the requisite temperature, consequently they were very uneasy. The cellar was also quite damp, which of course did not help matters any, and the result was that I lost quite heavily. As the weather turned out, they would proba- bly have wintered quite as well if they had been left on their summer stands the remainder of the winter. The spring was one of the worst for bees that I have ever experienced. There were but few pleasant days on which bees could flv with safety ; cold, bleak winds, and cloudy weather pie- vailed most of the time, when it was almost sure death to the little workers to venture beyond the entrance of their hives. Instead of increasing as usual in May. they were at a stand still, or even decreasing in numbers,

  

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Title: Arboretum et fruticetum britannicum; or, The trees and shrubs of Britain, native and foreign, hardy and half-hardy, pictorially and botanically delineated, and scientifically and popularly described; with their propagation, culture, management, and uses in the arts, in useful and ornamental plantations, and in landscape-gardening; preceded by a historical and geographical outline of the trees and shrubs of temperate climates throughout the world

Identifier: arboretumetfrut02loud

Year: 1838 (1830s)

Authors: Loudon, J. C. (John Claudius), 1783-1843

Subjects: Botany; Trees; Forests and forestry

Publisher: London, Printed for the author

Contributing Library: NCSU Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: NCSU Libraries

  

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CHAP. Lxvri. composit.t:. 1073 gardens, that we cannot but strongly recommend it for trial against every con- servative wall. Dd/ilia Cav. There is an arborescent "species of this genus, which, in Mexico, is said to grow as high as 40 ft. A plant of it was introduced into the Liverpool Botanic Garden in 1835, and it was 'seen in the August of that year by Dr. Neil! of Canonmills Cottage, who describes it as " a cutting, resembling a middle-sized trunk or small stem of an elder bush, as thick as a man's leg, and fully as woody as the elder. It was throwing out leaves very like those of our herbaceous species." (Gard. Mag., vol. xi. p. 680.) On applying to Mr. Shepherd for information respecting this plant, he says nothing of the plant alluded to by Dr. Neill, but informs us that he has " a very fme plant, on a south wall, where it does better than in a green-house." He also informs us that, in the Walton Nursery, there are a fine old plant, and several young ones for sale; and that, in the green-house of C. Taylure, Esq., there is a plant from 11 ft. to lift. high. We also learn from Messrs. Lod- diges, that they received the tree dahlia, a few years ago, from Mexico, but afterwards lost it. Mr. M'Nab informs us that there are plants of it in the Edinburgh Botanic Garden; and Mr. Campbell, that there is one in the Botanical and Horticultural Garden at Manchester. Ataldntkiis pinndlus 1>. Don (Pren&nthes pinnJlta Lin.) is a native of Teneriffe, growing to the height of ort., and producing its yellow flowers in June and July. Smc/ius frut/cnsus Jacq. Icon., 1. t. 161., and our Jig. 853., is an evergreen suffiuticose plant, a native of Madeira, which grows to the height of â 1ft., and produces its yellow flowers from April to July. It is a very handsome plant during the summer season, both on account of its large leaves and it showy flowers. A few years ago, there were plants in the conservatory of the Cambridge Botanic Garden.

 

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Vcriioyi\a acii/(folia Hook. (Bof. Mng., t. 3052.) is an evergreen shrub, a native of South America, growing to the height of 4 ft, and producing its pale purple flowers in December. A'ster L. Of this genus there are upwards of 20 species introduced, which are technically con- sidered as subligneous, suffruticose, or somewhat woody. Of these the most remarkable is A. argophyllus Lab. {Bot. Mag., t. ISfiJ. ; and our JJg. 85-1.), a native of Van Dienicn's Land, which grows to the height of 10 ft., and produces its white flowers from May to July. It is very hardy, and sometimes stands out in the open border, in the neighbourhood of London, for five or six years, without any protection whatever. The whole plant has a white aspect, and smells strongly of musk. This is the Haxtonm argophylla of Caley. (See Fir.'^t Addif. Siipp. to Hort. Brit.) A. an- gustifulius Jacq. Sch., 3. t. .'370,, is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, which grows to the height of 6 ft., and produces its pale blue flowers from May to July. A. aculcalus Lab. {Bot. Cab., t. 830. ; and our fig. 855.) is a native of New Holland, which grows to the height of 2 ft or'3 ft., and produces its white flowers from March to July. Chrysucoma Co?>iatirea L. {Bot. Mng., t. 1972. ; and our fe 856.) is a native of the Cape, where it grows to the height of 6 ft. It is an old inhabitant of our green-houses, and produces its yellow flowers from June to August. There are five or six other shrubby species, natives of the Cape, of still humbler growth. Brachylce^na ncrcijotia Swt. (SAccharis nereifblia Lin.) is a Cape evergreen undershrub, growing to the height of i ft., and producing its white flowers from August to November. Conyxa carolinensis Jacq. Icon., t. 585., is an evergreen shrub, a native of Carolina, growing to the height of 5 ft, and producing its purple flowers from July to October. There are several other frame and green- liouse suffVuticose species ; but few of them exceed a foot in height Poddntlius Mitiqui Lindl., and our fig. 857., is alow evergreen shrub, a. native of Chili, which grows to the height of 8 ft. or 10 ft., and produces jts yellow flowers from August to November. It was introduced in 1824; 4 n 2

  

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Title: Arboretum et fruticetum britannicum; or, The trees and shrubs of Britain, native and foreign, hardy and half-hardy, pictorially and botanically delineated, and scientifically and popularly described; with their propagation, culture, management, and uses in the arts, in useful and ornamental plantations, and in landscape-gardening; preceded by a historical and geographical outline of the trees and shrubs of temperate climates throughout the world

Identifier: arboretumetfruti02loud

Year: 1854 (1850s)

Authors: Loudon, J. C. (John Claudius), 1783-1843

Subjects: Trees; Shrubs

Publisher: London : Henry G. Bohn

Contributing Library: University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

Digitizing Sponsor: University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

  

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CHAl'. i.xvir. coMPO sit.t:. 1073 gardens, that we cannot but strongly recommend it for trial against every con- servative wall. Dahlia. Cav. There is an arborescent 'species of this genus, which, in Mexico, is said to grow as high as 40 ft. A plant of it was introduced into the Liverpool Botanic Garden in 1835, and it was seen in the August of that year by Dr. Neil! of Canonmills Cottage, who describes it as " a cutting, resembling a middle-sized trunk or small stem of an elder bush, as thick as a man's leg, and fully as woody as the elder. It was throwing out leaves very like those of our herbaceous species." (^Gard. Mag., vol. xi. p. 680.) On applying to Mr. Shepherd for information respecting this plant, he says nothing of the plant alluded to by Dr. Neill, but informs us that he has " a very fine plant, on a south wall, where it does better than in a green-house." He also informs us that, in the Walton Nursery, there are a fine old plant, and several young ones for sale; and that, in the green-house of C. Ta}lure, Esq., there is a plant from 11 ft. to 14-ft. high. We also learn from Messrs. Lod- diges, that they received the tree dahlia, a few years ago, from Mexico, but afterwards lost it. Mr. M'Nab informs us that there are plants of it in the Edinburgh Botanic Garden; and Mr. Campbell, that there is one in the Botanical and Horticultural Garden at Manchester. Ataldnthus pinndttts D. Don (Prpiiinthes pinnJlta Lin.) is a native of TencrifTc, growing to the height of 3 ft., and producing its yellow flowers in June and July. Sionchus frutichsus 3a.c<\. Icon., 1. t. liil., and o\ir fig. 853., is an evergreen suflTruticosc plant, a native of Madeira, which grows to the height of 4 ft., and produces its yellow flowers from April to July. It is a very handsome plant (luring the summer season, both on account of its large leaves audit showy flowers. A few years ago, there were plants in the conservatory of the Cambridge Botanic Garden.

 

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Vc^rnoma. acutifnlia Hook. (Bot. Mag., t. 3062.) is an evergreen shrub, a native of South America, growing to the height of 4 ft., and producing its pale purple flowers in December. A'ster L. Of this genus there are upwards of 20 species introduced, which are tcchnic.-iUy con- sidered as subligneous, suffruticose, or somewhat woody. Of these the most remarkable is A. argophyllus'La.h. {Bot. Mag., t. 15fi3.; and our/». 854,), a native of Van Diemen's Land, which grows to the height of 10 ft., and produces its white flowers from May to July. It is very hardy, and sometimes stands out in the open border, in the neighbourhood of London, for five or six years, without any protection whatever. The whole plant has a white aspect, and smells strongly of musk. This is the Haxtonw argophylla of Caley. (See First Adiiit. Supp. to Hort. Brit.) A. an. gjist/fotius Jacq. Sch., S. t. 370., is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, which grows to the height of 6 ft., and produces its pale blue flowers from May to July. A. aculr()tus Lab. [Bot. Cab., t. 830. ; and our fig. 855.) is a native of New Holland, which grows to the height of 2 ft or 3 ft., and produces its white flowers from March to July. Chrysocotna Comaurea L. [Bot. Mag., t. 1972. ; and our fig. 85fi.) is a native of the Capo, where it grows to the height of 6 ft. It is an old inhabitant of our green-houses, and produces its yellow flowers from June to August. There are five or six other shrubby species, natives of the Cape, of still humbler growth. Bracliylx'na wereifolia Swt (Baccharis Hcreifblia Lin.) is a Cape evergreen undershrub, growing to the height of 4 ft., and producing its white flowers from August tcNovember. Conyxa carolin^nsis Jacq. Icon., t. 585., is an evergreen shrub, a native of Carolina, growing to the height of 5 ft., and producing its purple flowers from July to October. There are several other frame and green- liouse suffruticose species ; but few of them exceed a foot in height. Poddnihus Mitiqui Lindl., and our fig. 857., is alow evergreen slirub, a native of Chili, which grows to the height of 8 ft. or 10 ft., and produces its yellow flowers from August to November. It was introduced in 1824; 4d 2

  

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Identifier: dictionaryofgree02smit

Title: Dictionary of Greek and Roman geography

Year: 1854 (1850s)

Authors: Smith, William, Sir, 1813-1893

Subjects: Classical geography

Publisher: London : Walton & Maberly

Contributing Library: University of California Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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tsboth of Diodorus and Strabo, that it occupied a sitenea7 to, hut distinct from, that of Sybaris (Diod.xii. 10; Strab. I. c): hence the position suggested ~by some local topographers at the foot of the hill ofTerranova, is probably too far iidand. It is morelikely that the true site is to be sought to the N.of the Coscile (the ancient Sybaris), a few miles fromthe sea, where, according to Zannonis map, ruins stillexist, attributed by that geographer to Sybaris, butwhich are probably in reality those of Thurii. Swin-burne, however, mentions Roman ruins as existingin the peninsula formed by the rivers Crathis andSybaris near their junction, which may perhaps bethose of Thurii. (Swinburne, Travels, vol. i. pp.291, 292 ; Romanelli, vol. i. p. 236.) The wholesubject is very obscure, and a careful exuniinutionof the localities is still much needed. The coins of Tiiurii are of great beauty; theirnumber and variety indeed gives us a higlior ideaof the opulence and prosperity of the city than

 

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coix or Tiiuuii. 1194 THUEIUII. we should gather from the statements of ancientwriters. [E. H. B.J THURIUM. TBoEOTiA, p. 412, b.] THYAMIA. [IliLius, p. 602, b.] THYAMIS {@va/j.Ls), a river of Epeirus, flowinginto the sea near a promontory of the same name.(Ptol. iii. 14. §§ 4, 5.) It formed the northernboundary of Tliesprotia, wliich it separated fromCestrine, a district of Chaonia (Thuc. i. 46 ; Strab.vii. p. 324 ; Pans. i. 11. § 2; Cic. ad Alt vii. 2, deLeg. ii. 3; Plin. iv. 1.) It is now called Ka-lama, apparently from the large reeds and aquaticplants which grow upon one of its principal tribu-taries. Its ancient name seems to have been derivedfrom the dva or juniper, which, Leake informs us,though not abundant near the sources of the river,is common in the woody hills which border themiddle of its course. The historian Phylarchusrelated (o/j. A then. iii. p. 73) that the Egyptianbean, which grew only in marshy places and nowherebut in Egypt, once grew for a short time upon the

  

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Identifier: storyoftextilesb1912walt

Title: The story of textiles; a bird's-eye view of the history of the beginning and the growth of the industry by which mankind is clothed

Year: 1912 (1910s)

Authors: Walton, Perry, 1865-1941

Subjects: Textile industry Textile industry

Publisher: Boston, Mass., J. S. Lawrence

Contributing Library: Boston College Libraries

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries

  

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to three feet and more in height, has narrow lance-shaped leaves and branches at the top with a bright blueflower on each branch. Flax has been cultivated for thousands of years in Meso-potamia, Assyria, and Egypt, and is wild in the region be-tween the Persian Gulf, the Caspian and Black Seas. The stalk is a woody cylinder, more or less pithy andhollow when dry, and is enclosed in bark consisting of long,strong, silky fibres, cemented together by a kind of glueand encased in an outer bark or skin which adheres as ifglued to the fibre. The fibre, when freed from all else so faras possible by the process of rotting, to destroy the glue,breaking to free it from the woody part of the stalk, scrutch-ing to whip out the small particles of bark and stalk thatadhere, hatchelling to straighten it and free it from tangles,is nearly pure bast of a light gray and brown color, incliningto green. It is exceedingly tough, adapted to spinning andweaving, capable of being bleached to snowy whiteness.

 

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SPECIMENS OF NORTH DAKOTA GROWN RUSSIAN SEED-FLAX ^K^^.

  

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Title: Arboretum et fruticetum britannicum, or : The trees and shrubs of Britain, native and foreign, hardy and half-hardy, pictorially and botanically delineated, and scientifically and popularly described ...

Identifier: arboretumetfru02loud

Year: 1844 (1840s)

Authors: Loudon, J. C. (John Claudius), 1783-1843

Subjects: Trees; Shrubs; Botany; Botany

Publisher: London : J. C. Loudon

Contributing Library: California Academy of Sciences Library

Digitizing Sponsor: California Academy of Sciences Library

  

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CHAP. LXVII. COMPO'SITJE. 107S gardens, that we cannot but strongly recommend it for trial against every con- servative wall. Dahlia Cav. There is an arborescent "species of this genus, which, in Mexico, is said to grow as high as 40 ft. A plant of it was introduced into the Liverpool Botanic Garden in 1835, and it was seen in the August of that year by Dr. Neill of Canonmills Cottage, who describes it as " a cutting, resembling a middle-sized trunk or small stem of an elder bush, as thick as a man's leg, and fully as woody as the elder. It was throwing out leaves very like those of our herbaceous species." (Gnrd. Mag., vol. xi. p. 680.) On applying to Mr. Shepherd for information respecting this plant, he says nothing of the plant alluded to by Dr. Neill, but informs us that he has " a very fine plant, on a south wall, where it does better than in a green-house." lie also informs us that, in the Walton Nursery, there are a fine old plant, and several young ones for sale; and that, in the green-house of C. Taylure, Esq., there is a plant from 11 ft. to 14 ft. high. We also learn from Messrs. Lod- diges, that they received the tree dahlia, a few years ago, from Mexico, but afterwards lost it. Mr. M'Nab informs us that there are plants of it in the Edinburgh Botanic Garden; and Mr. Campbell, that there is one in the Botanical and Horticultural Garden at Manchester. Atalanthus pinndtus D. Don (Prenanthes pinnata Lin.) is a native of TenerifFe, growing to the height of 3 ft., and producing its yellow flowers in June and July. Sdnckus frutiebsus Jacq. Icon., 1. t. 161., and our fig. 853., is an evergreen suffruticose plant, a native of Madeira, which grows to the height of 4 ft., and produces its yellow flowers from April to July. It is a very handsome plant during the summer season, both on account of its large leaves and it showy flowers. A few years ago, there were plants in the conservatory of the Cambridge Botanic Garden.

 

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Vernbriia acutifblia Hook. {Bot. Mag., t. 3062.) is an evergreen shrub, a native of South America, growing to the height of 4 ft, and producing its pale purple flowers in December. A'ster L. Of this genus there are upwards of 20 species introduced, which are technically con- sidered as subligneous, suffruticose, or somewhat woody. Of these the most remarkable is A. argophyllus Lab. (Bot. Mag., t. 1563.; and our fig. 854.), a native of Van Diemen's Land, which grows to the height of 10 ft., and produces its white flowers from May to July. It is very hardy, and sometimes stands out in the open border, in the neighbourhood of London, for five or six years, without any protection whatever. The whole plant has a white aspect, and smells strongly of musk. This is the HaxtomVr argophylla of Caley. (See First Addit. Supp. to Hort. Brit.) A. an- gustifalius Jacq. Sch., 3. t. 370., is a native of the Cape of Good Hope, which grows to the height of 6 ft, and produces its pale blue flowers from May to July. A. aculeatUS Lab. {Bot. Cab., t. 830. ; and om fig. 855.) is a native of New Holland, which grows to the height of 2 ft or 3 ft., and produces its white flowers from March to July. Chrysdcoma Comailrea L. {Bot. Mag., t 1972. ; and our fig. 856.) is a native of the Cape, where it grows to the height of 6 ft. It is an old inhabitant of our green-houses, and produces its yellow flowers from June to August. There are five or six other shrubby species, natives of the Cape, of still humbler growth. Brachylce^na nereifolia Swt (Zfaccharis nereifblia Lin.) is a Cape evergreen undershrub, growing to the height of 4 ft., and producing its white flowers from August to November. Conyxa carolintnsis Jacq. Icon., t. 585., is an evergreen shrub, a native of Carolina, growing to the height of 5 ft., and producing its purple flowers from July to October. There are several other frame and green- house suffruticose species ; but few of them exceed a foot in height Poddnthus Mitiqui Lindl., and our fig. 857., is alow evergreen shrub, a native of Chili, which grows to the height of 8 ft. or 10 ft, and produces its yellow flowers from August to November. It was introduced in 1824; 4b 2

  

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Title: Dune building and stabilization with vegetation

Identifier: dunebuildingstab00wood

Year: 1978 (1970s)

Authors: Woodhouse, W. W. (William Walton), 1910-

Subjects: Sand dunes; Grasses; Shore protection

Publisher: Fort Belvoir, Va. : U. S. Army, Corps of Engineers, Coastal Engineering Research Center

Contributing Library: MBLWHOI Library

Digitizing Sponsor: Boston Library Consortium Member Libraries

  

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Figure 29. Young dune initiated by seashore elder. is known to predict future use but the plant can be transplanted and con- tribute to attaining a more natural dune community. Community stability would be increased where it can be successfully introduced. It can grow throughout the pioneer and most of the intermediate zones. Further research is needed for firm suggestions or recommendations. Three types of cuttings have been planted. Rooted stems taken from fore- dune plants have survived better than unrooted stems. Rooted cuttings in peat pots were more susceptible to wind erosion but those that survived grew faster than bare cutting. Woody stems were better transplants than soft (new growth) stems (Colosi, et al., in preparation, 1978). Seedlings only establish in areas of little sand movement and favor- able moisture. Transplanting is successful on sand flats with a high water table. Transplanting to high, dry sites is not recommended. Sea- shore elder does not invade established foredunes but continues to grow with them after earlier establishment at lower elevations. (h) Pennywort {Hydroaotyle sp.). This is a very effective sand-stabilizing broad-leaf plant. It is widely distributed throughout the region. It is tolerant of dune conditions, responsive to fertiliza- tion, and can be planted easily by sprigging. It is primarily a stabi- lizer rather than a builder because the round, fleshy leaves grow very close to the sand surface and provide only a few centimeters of trapping capacity at any one time. When only stabilization is needed, it can be sprigged in the same manner as Bermuda grass and fertilized like bitter panicum and sea oats. 77

  

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