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This fictional image represents a pre-2012 London Underground Emergency Response Unit (ERU). Since early 2012, these units have run with blue lights and sirens, an arrangement made possible by designating them as police vehicles (with a modified livery) and allocating British Transport Police drivers. I opted for the earlier livery without blue lights because of the age of the vehicle depicted, which is based on an image taken on Malta by Peter Skerry. The standard ERU is a Mercedes-Benz of similar appearance but newer design. The following information is from a published Transport for London source.

 

A division of Tube Lines Ltd, the Emergency Response Unit (ERU) was established in 1993 to ensure that the network is made safe, and services restored as quickly as possible following a fire, derailment or other emergency. It is staffed by some of the most highly skilled and technically able employees on the Underground, who are ready and able to manage any situation or incident that could arise. With four depots around London, ERU covers the complete Underground network.

 

Each team has a van and a lorry ready for action, and they will cover anything from track vegetation problems to ultra-sonic rail defects. They carry everything needed for a track job in their van, and their rolling stock lorry is equipped to move a train. With set times to reach track and rail problems, they have to beat the clock and London’s traffic to get to an incident. For the most pressing emergencies, the police will escort the teams through the City (13-Oct-13).

 

All rights reserved. Follow the link below for terms and conditions, additional information about my work; and to request work from me:

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New hope in 2009

有段話我覺得不要翻成英文比較好,老美看了大概會不爽,這張圖我弄好後覺的很像黑人牙膏的mark說....TT我應該把它作成貼紙印出來的!以下就轉貼他的生平:

"Barack" and "Obama" redirect here. For other uses, see Barack (disambiguation) and Obama (disambiguation).

Barack Obama

   

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44th President of the United States

Incumbent

Assumed office

January 20, 2009

Vice President Joe Biden

Preceded by George W. Bush

 

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United States Senator

from Illinois

In office

January 3, 2005 – November 16, 2008

Preceded by Peter Fitzgerald

Succeeded by Roland Burris

 

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Member of the Illinois Senate

from the 13th district

In office

January 8, 1997 – November 4, 2004

Preceded by Alice Palmer

Succeeded by Kwame Raoul

 

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Born August 4, 1961 (1961-08-04) (age 47)[1]

Honolulu, Hawaii, United States[2]

Birth name Barack Hussein Obama II[2]

Nationality American

Political party Democratic

Spouse Michelle Obama (m. 1992)

Children Malia Ann (b. 1998)

Natasha (a.k.a. Sasha) (b. 2001)

Residence Chicago, Illinois (private)

White House, Washington, D.C. (official)

Alma mater Occidental College

Columbia University (B.A.)

Harvard Law School (J.D.)

Profession Community organizer

Attorney

Author

Professor

Politician

Religion Protestant Christian[3]

Signature

Website WhiteHouse.gov

This article is part of a series about

Barack Obama

Background · Illinois Senate · U.S. Senate

Political positions · Public image · Family

2008 primaries · Obama–Biden campaign

Transition · Inauguration · US Presidency

 

Barack Hussein Obama II (pronounced /bəˈrɑːk hʊˈseɪn oʊˈbɑːmə/; born August 4, 1961) is the 44th and current President of the United States. He is the first African American to hold the office. Obama was the junior United States Senator from Illinois from 2005 until he resigned following his 2008 election to the presidency. He was inaugurated as President on January 20, 2009.

 

Obama is a graduate of Columbia University and Harvard Law School, where he was the first African American president of the Harvard Law Review. He worked as a community organizer, and practiced as a civil rights attorney in Chicago before serving three terms in the Illinois Senate from 1997 to 2004. He also taught Constitutional Law at the University of Chicago Law School from 1992 to 2004. Following an unsuccessful bid for a seat in the U.S. House of Representatives in 2000, Obama was elected to the Senate in November 2004. Obama delivered the keynote address at the Democratic National Convention in July 2004.

 

As a member of the Democratic minority in the 109th Congress, Obama helped create legislation to control conventional weapons and to promote greater public accountability in the use of federal funds. He also made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, and Africa. During the 110th Congress, he helped create legislation regarding lobbying and electoral fraud, climate change, nuclear terrorism, and care for U.S. military personnel returning from combat assignments in Iraq and Afghanistan

Early life and career

Main article: Early life and career of Barack Obama

Barack Obama was born at the Kapi'olani Medical Center for Women & Children in Honolulu, Hawaii,[4][5] to Stanley Ann Dunham,[6] a White American from Wichita, Kansas,[7][8][9] and Barack Obama, Sr., a Luo from Nyang’oma Kogelo, Nyanza Province, Kenya. Obama's parents met in 1960 in a Russian language class at the University of Hawaii at Mānoa, where his father was a foreign student on scholarship.[10][11] The couple married on February 2, 1961.[12] Obama's parents separated when Obama was two years old, and they divorced in 1964.[11] Obama's father returned to Kenya and saw his son only once more before dying in an automobile accident in 1982.[13]

 

After her divorce, Dunham married Indonesian student Lolo Soetoro, who was attending college in Hawaii. When Soeharto, a military leader in Soetoro's home country, came to power in 1967, all students studying abroad were recalled and the family moved to Indonesia.[14] There Obama attended local schools in Jakarta, such as Besuki Public School and St. Francis of Assisi School, until he was ten years old.

 

He then returned to Honolulu to live with his maternal grandparents, Madelyn and Stanley Armour Dunham, while attending Punahou School from the fifth grade in 1971 until his graduation from high school in 1979.[15] Obama's mother returned to Hawaii in 1972 for five years, and then in 1977 went back to Indonesia, where she worked as an anthropological field worker. She stayed there most of the rest of her life, returning to Hawaii in 1994. She died of ovarian cancer in 1995.[16]

  

Right-to-left: Barack Obama and half-sister Maya Soetoro-Ng, with their mother Ann Dunham and grandfather Stanley Dunham, in Hawaii (early 1970s).Of his early childhood, Obama has recalled, "That my father looked nothing like the people around me — that he was black as pitch, my mother white as milk — barely registered in my mind."[17] In his 1995 memoir, he described his struggles as a young adult to reconcile social perceptions of his multiracial heritage.[18] He wrote that he used alcohol, marijuana and cocaine during his teenage years to "push questions of who I was out of my mind."[19] At the 2008 Civil Forum on the Presidency, Obama identified his high-school drug use as his "greatest moral failure."[20]

 

Some of his fellow students at Punahou School later told the Honolulu Star-Bulletin that Obama was mature for his age, and that he sometimes attended college parties and other events in order to associate with African American students and military service people. Reflecting later on his formative years in Honolulu, Obama wrote: "The opportunity that Hawaii offered — to experience a variety of cultures in a climate of mutual respect — became an integral part of my world view, and a basis for the values that I hold most dear."[21]

 

Following high school, Obama moved to Los Angeles, where he studied at Occidental College for two years.[22] He then transferred to Columbia University in New York City, where he majored in political science with a specialization in international relations.[23] Obama graduated with a B.A. from Columbia in 1983. He worked for a year at the Business International Corporation[24][25] and then at the New York Public Interest Research Group.[26][27]

 

After four years in New York City, Obama moved to Chicago, where he was hired as director of the Developing Communities Project (DCP), a church-based community organization originally comprising eight Catholic parishes in Greater Roseland (Roseland, West Pullman and Riverdale) on Chicago's far South Side. He worked there for three years from June 1985 to May 1988.[26][28] During his three years as the DCP's director, its staff grew from one to thirteen and its annual budget grew from $70,000 to $400,000. His achievements included helping set up a job training program, a college preparatory tutoring program, and a tenants' rights organization in Altgeld Gardens.[29] Obama also worked as a consultant and instructor for the Gamaliel Foundation, a community organizing institute.[30] In mid-1988, he traveled for the first time to Europe for three weeks and then for five weeks in Kenya, where he met many of his paternal relatives for the first time.[31]

 

Obama entered Harvard Law School in late 1988. He was selected as an editor of the Harvard Law Review at the end of his first year,[32] and president of the journal in his second year.[33] During his summers, he returned to Chicago where he worked as a summer associate at the law firms of Sidley & Austin in 1989 and Hopkins & Sutter in 1990.[34] After graduating with a Juris Doctor (J.D.) magna cum laude[35][36] from Harvard in 1991, he returned to Chicago.[32]

 

Obama's election as the first black president of the Harvard Law Review gained national media attention[33] and led to a publishing contract and advance for a book about race relations.[37] In an effort to recruit him to their faculty, the University of Chicago Law School provided Obama with a fellowship and an office to work on his book.[37] He originally planned to finish the book in one year, but it took much longer as the book evolved into a personal memoir. In order to work without interruptions, Obama and his wife, Michelle, traveled to Bali where he wrote for several months. The manuscript was finally published in mid-1995 as Dreams from My Father.[37]

 

From April to October 1992, Obama directed Illinois's Project Vote, a voter registration drive with a staff of ten and seven hundred volunteers; it achieved its goal of registering 150,000 of 400,000 unregistered African Americans in the state, and led to Crain's Chicago Business naming Obama to its 1993 list of "40 under Forty" powers to be.[38][39]

 

For twelve years, Obama served as a professor at the University of Chicago Law School teaching Constitutional Law. He was first classified as a Lecturer from 1992 to 1996 and then as a Senior Lecturer from 1996 to 2004.[40] He also joined Davis, Miner, Barnhill & Galland, a twelve-attorney law firm specializing in civil rights litigation and neighborhood economic development, where he was an associate for three years from 1993 to 1996, then of counsel from 1996 to 2004, with his law license becoming inactive in 2002.[26][41][42]

 

Obama was a founding member of the board of directors of Public Allies in 1992, resigning before his wife, Michelle, became the founding executive director of Public Allies Chicago in early 1993.[26][43] He served from 1994 to 2002 on the board of directors of the Woods Fund of Chicago, which in 1985 had been the first foundation to fund the Developing Communities Project, and also from 1994 to 2002 on the board of directors of the Joyce Foundation.[26] Obama served on the board of directors of the Chicago Annenberg Challenge from 1995 to 2002, as founding president and chairman of the board of directors from 1995 to 1999.[26] He also served on the board of directors of the Chicago Lawyers' Committee for Civil Rights Under Law, the Center for Neighborhood Technology, and the Lugenia Burns Hope Center.[26]

  

Political career

 

State legislator: 1997–2004

Main article: Illinois Senate career of Barack Obama

Obama was elected to the Illinois Senate in 1996, succeeding State Senator Alice Palmer as Senator from Illinois's 13th District, which then spanned Chicago South Side neighborhoods from Hyde Park-Kenwood south to South Shore and west to Chicago Lawn.[44] Once elected, Obama gained bipartisan support for legislation reforming ethics and health care laws.[45] He sponsored a law increasing tax credits for low-income workers, negotiated welfare reform, and promoted increased subsidies for childcare.[46] In 2001, as co-chairman of the bipartisan Joint Committee on Administrative Rules, Obama supported Republican Governor Ryan's payday loan regulations and predatory mortgage lending regulations aimed at averting home foreclosures.[47]

 

Obama was reelected to the Illinois Senate in 1998, defeating Republican Yesse Yehudah in the General Election, and reelected again in 2002.[48] In 2000, he lost a Democratic primary run for the U.S. House of Representatives to four-term incumbent Bobby Rush by a margin of two to one.[49][50]

 

In January 2003, Obama became chairman of the Illinois Senate's Health and Human Services Committee when Democrats, after a decade in the minority, regained a majority.[51] He sponsored and led unanimous, bipartisan passage of legislation to monitor racial profiling by requiring police to record the race of drivers they detained and legislation making Illinois the first state to mandate videotaping of homicide interrogations.[46][52] During his 2004 general election campaign for U.S. Senate, police representatives credited Obama for his active engagement with police organizations in enacting death penalty reforms.[53] Obama resigned from the Illinois Senate in November 2004 following his election to the U.S. Senate.[54]

  

2004 U.S. Senate campaign

See also: United States Senate election in Illinois, 2004

In mid-2002, Obama began considering a run for the U.S. Senate; he enlisted political strategist David Axelrod that fall and formally announced his candidacy in January 2003.[55] Decisions by Republican incumbent Peter Fitzgerald and his Democratic predecessor Carol Moseley Braun not to contest the race launched wide-open Democratic and Republican primary contests involving fifteen candidates.[56] Obama's candidacy was boosted by Axelrod's advertising campaign featuring images of the late Chicago Mayor Harold Washington and an endorsement by the daughter of the late Paul Simon, former U.S. Senator for Illinois.[57] He received over 52% of the vote in the March 2004 primary, emerging 29% ahead of his nearest Democratic rival.[58]

 

In July 2004, Obama wrote and delivered the keynote address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention in Boston, Massachusetts.[59] After describing his maternal grandfather's experiences as a World War II veteran and a beneficiary of the New Deal's FHA and G.I. Bill programs, Obama spoke about changing the U.S. government's economic and social priorities. He questioned the Bush administration's management of the Iraq War and highlighted America's obligations to its soldiers. Drawing examples from U.S. history, he criticized heavily partisan views of the electorate and asked Americans to find unity in diversity, saying, "There is not a liberal America and a conservative America; there's the United States of America."[60] Though it was not televised by the three major broadcast news networks, a combined 9.1 million viewers watching on PBS, CNN, MSNBC, Fox News and C-SPAN saw Obama's speech, which was a highlight of the convention and confirmed his status as the Democratic Party's brightest new star.[61]

 

Obama's expected opponent in the general election, Republican primary winner Jack Ryan, withdrew from the race in June 2004.[62] Two months later and less than three months before Election Day, Alan Keyes accepted the Illinois Republican Party's nomination to replace Ryan.[63] A long-time resident of Maryland, Keyes established legal residency in Illinois with the nomination.[64] In the November 2004 general election, Obama received 70% of the vote to Keyes's 27%, the largest victory margin for a statewide race in Illinois history.[65]

  

U.S. Senator: 2005–2008

Main article: United States Senate career of Barack Obama

Obama was sworn in as a senator on January 4, 2005.[66] Obama was the fifth African-American Senator in U.S. history, and the third to have been popularly elected.[67] He was the only Senate member of the Congressional Black Caucus.[68] CQ Weekly, a nonpartisan publication, characterized him as a "loyal Democrat" based on analysis of all Senate votes in 2005–2007. The National Journal ranked him as the "most liberal" senator based on an assessment of selected votes during 2007; in 2005 he was ranked sixteenth most liberal, and in 2006 he was ranked tenth.[69][70] In 2008, Congress.org ranked him as the eleventh most powerful Senator.[71] Obama announced on November 13, 2008 that he would resign his senate seat on November 16, 2008, before the start of the lame-duck session, to focus on his transition period for the presidency.[72][73] This enabled him to avoid the conflict of dual roles as President-elect and Senator in the lame duck session of Congress, which no sitting member of Congress had faced since Warren Harding.[74]

  

Legislation

See also: List of bills sponsored by Barack Obama in the United States Senate

 

Senate bill sponsors Tom Coburn (R-OK) and Obama discussing the Coburn–Obama Transparency Act.[75]Obama voted in favor of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 and cosponsored the Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act.[76] In September 2006, Obama supported a related bill, the Secure Fence Act.[77] Obama introduced two initiatives bearing his name: Lugar–Obama, which expanded the Nunn–Lugar cooperative threat reduction concept to conventional weapons,[78] and the Coburn–Obama Transparency Act, which authorized the establishment of USAspending.gov, a web search engine on federal spending.[79] On June 3, 2008, Senator Obama, along with Senators Thomas R. Carper, Tom Coburn, and John McCain, introduced follow-up legislation: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008.[80]

 

Obama sponsored legislation that would have required nuclear plant owners to notify state and local authorities of radioactive leaks, but the bill failed to pass in the full Senate after being heavily modified in committee.[81] Obama is not hostile to Tort reform and voted for the Class Action Fairness Act of 2005 and the FISA Amendments Act of 2008 which grants immunity from civil liability to telecommunications companies complicit with NSA warrantless wiretapping operations.[82]

 

In December 2006, President Bush signed into law the Democratic Republic of the Congo Relief, Security, and Democracy Promotion Act, marking the first federal legislation to be enacted with Obama as its primary sponsor.[83] In January 2007, Obama and Senator Feingold introduced a corporate jet provision to the Honest Leadership and Open Government Act, which was signed into law in September 2007.[84] Obama also introduced Deceptive Practices and Voter Intimidation Prevention Act, a bill to criminalize deceptive practices in federal elections[85] and the Iraq War De-Escalation Act of 2007,[86] neither of which have been signed into law.

  

Obama and U.S. Sen. Richard Lugar (R-IN) visit a Russian mobile launch missile dismantling facility in August 2005.[87]Later in 2007, Obama sponsored an amendment to the Defense Authorization Act adding safeguards for personality disorder military discharges.[88] This amendment passed the full Senate in the spring of 2008.[89] He sponsored the Iran Sanctions Enabling Act supporting divestment of state pension funds from Iran's oil and gas industry, which has not passed committee, and co-sponsored legislation to reduce risks of nuclear terrorism.[90][91] Obama also sponsored a Senate amendment to the State Children's Health Insurance Program providing one year of job protection for family members caring for soldiers with combat-related injuries.[92]

  

Committees

Obama held assignments on the Senate Committees for Foreign Relations, Environment and Public Works and Veterans' Affairs through December 2006.[93] In January 2007, he left the Environment and Public Works committee and took additional assignments with Health, Education, Labor and Pensions and Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs.[94] He also became Chairman of the Senate's subcommittee on European Affairs.[95] As a member of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee, Obama made official trips to Eastern Europe, the Middle East, Central Asia and Africa. He met with Mahmoud Abbas before he became President of the Palestinian Authority, and gave a speech at the University of Nairobi condemning corruption in the Kenyan government.[96][97][98][99]

  

2008 Presidential campaign

Main articles: Barack Obama presidential primary campaign, 2008 and Barack Obama presidential campaign, 2008

Wikinews has related news: Barack Obama elected 44th President of the United States

On February 10, 2007, Obama announced his candidacy for President of the United States in front of the Old State Capitol building in Springfield, Illinois.[100][101] The choice of the announcement site was symbolic because it was also where Abraham Lincoln delivered his historic "House Divided" speech in 1858.[102] Throughout the campaign, Obama emphasized the issues of rapidly ending the Iraq War, increasing energy independence, and providing universal health care.[103]

  

Obama stands on stage with his wife and two daughters just before announcing his presidential candidacy in Springfield, Illinois, Feb. 10, 2007.During both the primary process and the general election, Obama's campaign set numerous fundraising records, particularly in the quantity of small donations.[104][105][106] On June 19, Obama became the first major-party presidential candidate to turn down public financing in the general election since the system was created in 1976.[107]

 

A large number of candidates initially entered the Democratic Party presidential primaries. After a few initial contests, the field narrowed to a contest between Obama and Senator Hillary Clinton, with each winning some states and the race remaining close throughout the primary process.[108][109][110][111] On May 31, the Democratic National Committee agreed to seat all of the disputed Michigan and Florida delegates at the national convention, each with a half-vote, narrowing Obama's delegate lead.[112] On June 3, with all states counted, Obama passed the threshold to become the presumptive nominee.[113][114] On that day, he gave a victory speech in St. Paul, Minnesota. Clinton suspended her campaign and endorsed him on June 7.[115] From that point on, he campaigned for the general election race against Senator John McCain, the Republican nominee.

 

On August 23, 2008, Obama announced that he had selected Delaware Senator Joe Biden as his vice presidential running mate.[116]

  

Obama delivers his presidential election victory speech.At the Democratic National Convention in Denver, Colorado, Obama's former rival Hillary Clinton gave a speech in support of Obama's candidacy and later called for Obama to be nominated by acclamation as the Democratic presidential candidate.[117][118] On August 28, Obama delivered a speech to 84,000 supporters in Denver. During the speech, which was viewed by over 38 million people worldwide, he accepted his party's nomination and presented his policy goals.[119][120]

 

After McCain was nominated as the Republican presidential candidate, there were three presidential debates between Obama and McCain in September and October 2008.[121][122] In November, Obama won the presidency with 53% of the popular vote and a wide electoral college margin. His election sparked street celebrations in numerous cities in the United States[123] and abroad.

  

Election victory

Main article: Presidential transition of Barack Obama

 

President-elect Obama meets with President George W. Bush in the Oval Office, November 10, 2008.On November 4, 2008, Barack Obama defeated John McCain in the general election with 365 electoral votes to McCain's 173[124] and became the first African American to be elected President of the United States.[125][126][127][128] In his victory speech, delivered before a crowd of hundreds of thousands of his supporters in Chicago's Grant Park, Obama proclaimed that "change has come to America".[129]

 

On January 8, 2009, the joint session of the U.S. Congress met to certify the votes of the Electoral College for the 2008 presidential election. Based on the results of the electoral vote count, Barack Obama was declared to have been elected President of the United States and Joseph Biden was declared to have been elected Vice President of the United States.[130]

  

Presidency

Main article: Presidency of Barack Obama

The inauguration of Barack Obama as the forty-fourth President, and Joe Biden as Vice President, took place on January 20, 2009. The theme of the inauguration was "A New Birth of Freedom," commemorating the 200th anniversary of the birth of Abraham Lincoln.[131]

 

In his first few days in office, Obama issued executive orders and presidential memoranda reversing President Bush's ban on federal funding to foreign establishments that allow abortions (known as the Global Gag Rule),[132] and changed procedures to promote disclosure under the Freedom of Information Act,[133] directing the U.S. military to develop plans to withdraw troops from Iraq,[134] and reducing the secrecy given to presidential records,[135] and closing Guantanamo Bay detention camp "as soon as practicable and no later than" January 2010, and "Immediate Review of All Guantánamo Detentions".

  

Political positions

Main article: Political positions of Barack Obama

A method that some political scientists use for gauging ideology is to compare the annual ratings by the Americans for Democratic Action (ADA) with the ratings by the American Conservative Union (ACU).[136] Based on his years in Congress, Obama has a lifetime average conservative rating of 7.67% from the ACU,[137] and a lifetime average liberal rating of 90% from the ADA.[138]

  

Obama campaigning in Abington, Pennsylvania, October 2008.Obama was an early opponent of the Bush administration's policies on Iraq.[139] On October 2, 2002, the day President George W. Bush and Congress agreed on the joint resolution authorizing the Iraq War,[140] Obama addressed the first high-profile Chicago anti-Iraq War rally in Federal Plaza,[141] speaking out against the war.[142][143] On March 16, 2003, the day Bush issued his 48-hour ultimatum to Saddam Hussein to leave Iraq before the U.S. invasion of Iraq,[144] Obama addressed the largest Chicago anti-Iraq War rally to date in Daley Plaza and told the crowd that "it's not too late" to stop the war.[145] Although Obama had previously said he wanted all the U.S. troops out of Iraq within 16 months of becoming President, after he won the primary, he said he might "refine" that promise.[146]

 

Obama stated that if elected he would enact budget cuts in the range of tens of billions of dollars, stop investing in "unproven" missile defense systems, not "weaponize" space, "slow development of Future Combat Systems," and work towards eliminating all nuclear weapons. Obama favors ending development of new nuclear weapons, reducing the current U.S. nuclear stockpile, enacting a global ban on production of fissile material, and seeking negotiations with Russia in order to take ICBMs off high alert status.[147]

 

In November 2006, Obama called for a "phased redeployment of U.S. troops from Iraq" and an opening of diplomatic dialogue with Syria and Iran.[148] In a March 2007 speech to AIPAC, a pro-Israel lobby, he said that the primary way to prevent Iran from developing nuclear weapons is through talks and diplomacy, although he did not rule out military action.[149] Obama has indicated that he would engage in "direct presidential diplomacy" with Iran without preconditions.[150][151][152] Detailing his strategy for fighting global terrorism in August 2007, Obama said "it was a terrible mistake to fail to act" against a 2005 meeting of al-Qaeda leaders that U.S. intelligence had confirmed to be taking place in Pakistan's Federally Administered Tribal Areas. He said that as president he would not miss a similar opportunity, even without the support of the Pakistani government.[153]

 

In a December 2005, Washington Post opinion column, and at the Save Darfur rally in April 2006, Obama called for more assertive action to oppose genocide in the Darfur region of Sudan.[154] He has divested $180,000 in personal holdings of Sudan-related stock, and has urged divestment from companies doing business in Iran.[155] In the July–August 2007 issue of Foreign Affairs, Obama called for an outward looking post-Iraq War foreign policy and the renewal of American military, diplomatic, and moral leadership in the world. Saying that "we can neither retreat from the world nor try to bully it into submission," he called on Americans to "lead the world, by deed and by example."[156]

  

Obama speaking at a rally at the University of Missouri in Columbia, Missouri.In economic affairs, in April 2005, he defended the New Deal social welfare policies of Franklin D. Roosevelt and opposed Republican proposals to establish private accounts for Social Security.[157] In the aftermath of Hurricane Katrina, Obama spoke out against government indifference to growing economic class divisions, calling on both political parties to take action to restore the social safety net for the poor.[158] Shortly before announcing his presidential campaign, Obama said he supports universal health care in the United States.[159] Obama proposes to reward teachers for performance from traditional merit pay systems, assuring unions that changes would be pursued through the collective bargaining process.[160]

 

In September 2007, he blamed special interests for distorting the U.S. tax code.[161] His plan would eliminate taxes for senior citizens with incomes of less than $50,000 a year, repeal income tax cuts for those making over $250,000 as well as the capital gains and dividends tax cut,[162] close corporate tax loopholes, lift the income cap on Social Security taxes, restrict offshore tax havens, and simplify filing of income tax returns by pre-filling wage and bank information already collected by the IRS.[163] Announcing his presidential campaign's energy plan in October 2007, Obama proposed a cap and trade auction system to restrict carbon emissions and a ten year program of investments in new energy sources to reduce U.S. dependence on imported oil.[164] Obama proposed that all pollution credits must be auctioned, with no grandfathering of credits for oil and gas companies, and the spending of the revenue obtained on energy development and economic transition costs.[165]

 

Obama has encouraged Democrats to reach out to evangelicals and other religious groups.[166] In December 2006, he joined Sen. Sam Brownback (R-KS) at the "Global Summit on AIDS and the Church" organized by church leaders Kay and Rick Warren.[167] Together with Warren and Brownback, Obama took an HIV test, as he had done in Kenya less than four months earlier.[168] He encouraged "others in public life to do the same" and not be ashamed of it.[169] Addressing over 8,000 United Church of Christ members in June 2007, Obama challenged "so-called leaders of the Christian Right" for being "all too eager to exploit what divides us."[170]

  

Family and personal life

Main articles: Early life and career of Barack Obama and Family of Barack Obama

 

Barack Obama and his wife Michelle Obama.In June 1989, Obama met Michelle Robinson, who later became his wife, when he was employed as a summer associate at the Chicago law firm of Sidley Austin.[171] Assigned for three months as Obama's adviser at the firm, Robinson joined him at group social functions, but declined his initial requests to date.[172] They began dating later that summer, became engaged in 1991, and were married on October 3, 1992.[173] The couple's first daughter, Malia Ann, was born in 1998,[174] followed by a second daughter, Natasha ("Sasha"), in 2001.[175] Because of Michelle Obama's employment with the University of Chicago, the Obama daughters attended the private University of Chicago Laboratory Schools. When they moved to Washington, D.C., in January 2009, the girls started at the private Sidwell Friends School.[176]

 

Obama was known as "Barry" in his youth, but asked to be addressed with his given name during his college years.[177]

 

Applying the proceeds of a book deal, in 2005 the family moved from a Hyde Park, Chicago condominium to their current $1.6 million house in neighboring Kenwood.[178] The purchase of an adjacent lot and sale of part of it to Obama by the wife of developer and friend Tony Rezko attracted media attention because of Rezko's indictment and subsequent conviction on political corruption charges that were unrelated to Obama.[179][180]

 

In December 2007, Money magazine estimated the Obama family's net worth at $1.3 million.[181] Their 2007 tax return showed a household income of $4.2 million—up from about $1 million in 2006 and $1.6 million in 2005—mostly from sales of his books.[182]

  

Obama playing basketball with U.S. military at Camp Lemonier, Djibouti in 2006.[183]In a 2006 interview, Obama highlighted the diversity of his extended family. "Michelle will tell you that when we get together for Christmas or Thanksgiving, it's like a little mini-United Nations." he said. "I've got relatives who look like Bernie Mac, and I've got relatives who look like Margaret Thatcher."[184] Obama has seven half-siblings from his Kenyan father's family, six of them living, and a half-sister with whom he was raised, Maya Soetoro-Ng, the daughter of his mother and her Indonesian second husband.[185] Obama's mother was survived by her Kansas-born mother, Madelyn Dunham[186] until her death on November 2, 2008, just before the presidential election.[187] In Dreams from My Father, Obama ties his mother's family history to possible Native American ancestors and distant relatives of Jefferson Davis, president of the southern Confederacy during the American Civil War.[188] Obama's maternal and paternal grandfathers fought in World War II. Obama's great-uncle served in the 89th Division that overran Ohrdruf,[189] the first Nazi camp liberated by U.S. troops.[190]

 

Obama plays basketball, a sport he participated in as a member of his high school's varsity team.[191] He is an avid sports fan. Obama follows the Chicago Bears, Chicago White Sox, Chicago Bulls and West Ham United F.C.[192][193][194][195] While he has never been a heavy smoker, Obama has tried to quit smoking several times, including a well-publicized and ongoing effort which he began before launching his presidential campaign.[196] Obama has said he will not smoke in the White House.[197]

 

Obama is a Protestant Christian whose religious views have evolved in his adult life. In The Audacity of Hope, Obama writes that he "was not raised in a religious household." He describes his mother, raised by non-religious parents (whom Obama has specified elsewhere as "non-practicing Methodists and Baptists") to be detached from religion, yet "in many ways the most spiritually awakened person that I have ever known." He describes his father as "raised a Muslim," but a "confirmed atheist" by the time his parents met, and his stepfather as "a man who saw religion as not particularly useful." In the book, Obama explains how, through working with black churches as a community organizer while in his twenties, he came to understand "the power of the African-American religious tradition to spur social change."[198][199] He was baptized at the Trinity United Church of Christ in 1988 and was an active member there for two decades.[200][201]

 

Besides his native English, Obama speaks Indonesian (Bahasa Indonesia), at least on a colloquial level, which he learned during his four childhood years in Jakarta.[202] After the APEC summit in November 2008, Indonesian president Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono related a telephone conversation with Obama in Indonesian to Indonesian media. Obama had told Yudhoyono that he missed Indonesian food like Nasi Goreng, Bakso or Rambutan.[203]

  

Cultural and political image

Main article: Public image of Barack Obama

With his black Kenyan father and white American mother, his upbringing in Honolulu and Jakarta, and his Ivy League education, Obama's early life experiences differ markedly from those of African-American politicians who launched their careers in the 1960s through participation in the civil rights movement.[204] Expressing puzzlement over questions about whether he is "black enough", Obama told an August 2007 meeting of the National Association of Black Journalists that the debate is not about his physical appearance or his record on issues of concern to black voters. Obama said that "we're still locked in this notion that if you appeal to white folks then there must be something wrong."[205]

 

Echoing the inaugural address of John F. Kennedy, Obama acknowledged his youthful image in an October 2007 campaign speech, saying: "I wouldn't be here if, time and again, the torch had not been passed to a new generation."[206] A popular catch phrase distilled the concept: "Rosa sat so Martin could walk; Martin walked so Obama could run; Obama is running so our children can fly."[207]

  

From left: Presidents George H. W. Bush, Barack Obama, George W. Bush, Bill Clinton and Jimmy Carter meet in the Oval Office on January 7, 2009.Obama has been praised as a master of oratory on par with other renowned speakers in the past such as Martin Luther King, Jr.[208][209] His "Yes We Can" speech, which artists independently set to music in a video produced by Will.i.am, was viewed by 10 million people on YouTube in the first month,[210] and received an Emmy Award.[211] University of Virginia professor Jonathan Haidt researched the effectiveness of Obama's public speaking and concluded that part of his excellence is because the politician is adept at inspiring the emotion of elevation, the desire to act morally and do good for others.[212] Obama used these communication skills in a series of weekly internet video addresses during his pre-inauguration transition period;[213] he has suggested he will make a series of broadcast and internet addresses similar to Franklin D. Roosevelt's famous fireside chats throughout his term as president to explain his policies and actions.[214]

 

Many commentators mentioned Obama's international appeal as a defining factor for his public image.[215] Not only did several polls show strong support for him in other countries,[216] but Obama also established close relationships with prominent foreign politicians and elected officials even before his presidential candidacy, notably with then incumbent British Prime Minister Tony Blair, whom he met in London in 2005,[217] with Italy's Democratic Party leader and then Mayor of Rome Walter Veltroni, who visited Obama's Senate office in 2005,[218] and with French President Nicolas Sarkozy, who also visited him in Washington in 2006.[219]

 

Obama won Best Spoken Word Album Grammy Awards for abridged audiobook versions of both of his books; for Dreams from My Father in February 2006 and for The Audacity of Hope in February 2008.[220]

 

In December 2008, Time magazine named Barack Obama as its Person of the Year for his historic candidacy and election, which it described as "the steady march of seemingly impossible accomplishments."[221]

  

Notes

^ "President Barack Obama". www.whitehouse.gov.

^ a b "Birth Certificate of Barack Obama". Department of Health, Hawaii. PolitiFact.com (August 8, 1961). Retrieved on 2008-12-12.

^ "Obama's church choice likely to be scrutinized". Associated Press. msnbc.com (November 17, 2008). Retrieved on 2009-1-20.

^ Maraniss, David (August 24, 2008). "Though Obama Had to Leave to Find Himself, It Is Hawaii That Made His Rise Possible", Politics, Washington Post. Retrieved on 27 October 2008.

^ Serafin, Peter (March 21, 2004). "Punahou grad stirs up Illinois politics" (Article), Special to the Star-Bulletin, Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved on November 30 2008.

^ For Stanley Ann's first name, see Obama (1995, 2004), p. 19

^ "Born in the U.S.A.". FactCheck (August 21, 2008). Retrieved on October 24, 2008.

^ Hutton, Brian (May 3, 2007). "For sure, Obama's South Side Irish", Politics, The Chicago Sun-Times. Retrieved on 23 November 2008.

^ "Tiny Irish Village Is Latest Place to Claim Obama as Its Own - washingtonpost.com". Washingtonpost.com. Retrieved on 2008-11-08.

^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 9–10. For book excerpts, see "Barack Obama: Creation of Tales", East African (2004-11-01). Retrieved on 13 April 2008. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007.

^ a b Jones, Tim (2007-03-27). "Obama's mom: Not just a girl from Kansas: Strong personalities shaped a future senator", Chicago Tribune, reprinted in The Baltimore Sun. Retrieved on 27 October 2008.

^ Ripley, Amanda (2008-04-09). "The Story of Barack Obama's Mother", Time. Retrieved on 9 April 2007.

^ Merida, Kevin (2007-12-14). "The Ghost of a Father", Washington Post. Retrieved on 24 June 2008. See also: Ochieng, Philip (2004-11-01). "From Home Squared to the US Senate: How Barack Obama Was Lost and Found", East African. Retrieved on 24 June 2008. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007. In August 2006, Obama flew his wife and two daughters from Chicago to join him in a visit to his father's birthplace, a village near Kisumu in rural western Kenya. Gnecchi, Nico (2006-02-27). "Obama Receives Hero's Welcome at His Family's Ancestral Village in Kenya", Voice of America. Retrieved on 24 June 2008.

^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 44–45.

^ Serafin, Peter (2004-03-21). "Punahou Grad Stirs Up Illinois Politics", Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved on 13 April 2008. See also: Obama (1995, 2004), Chapters 3 and 4.

^ Ripley, Amanda (2008-04-09). "The Story of Barack Obama's Mother", Time. Retrieved on 24 June 2008. See also: Suryakusuma, Julia (2006-11-29). "Obama for President... of Indonesia", Jakarta Post. Retrieved on 24 June 2008.

^ Obama (1995), pp. 9–10.

^ Obama (1995), Chapters 4 and 5. See also: Serrano, Richard A (March 11, 2007). "Obama's Peers Didn't See His Angst" (paid archive), Los Angeles Times. Retrieved on 4 January 2008.

^ "Obama Gets Blunt with N.H. Students", Associated Press, Boston Globe (November 21, 2007). Retrieved on 4 January 2008. In Dreams from My Father, Obama writes: "Pot had helped, and booze; maybe a little blow when you could afford it." Obama (1995), pp. 93–94. For analysis of the political impact of the quote and Obama's more recent admission that he smoked marijuana as a teenager ("When I was a kid, I inhaled."), see: Romano, Lois (January 3, 2007). "Effect of Obama's Candor Remains to Be Seen", Washington Post. Retrieved on 4 January 2008. Seelye, Katharine Q (October 24, 2006). "Obama Offers More Variations From the Norm", New York Times. Retrieved on 4 January 2008.

^ Hornick, Ed (August 17, 2008). "Obama, McCain talk issues at pastor's forum", CNN.com. Retrieved on 4 January 2009.

^ Reyes, B. J (February 8, 2007). "Punahou Left Lasting Impression on Obama", Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved on 4 January 2008. "As a teenager, Obama went to parties and sometimes sought out gatherings on military bases or at the University of Hawaii that were mostly attended by blacks."

^ "Oxy Remembers "Barry" Obama '83". Occidental College (2007-01-29). Retrieved on 2008-04-13.

^ Boss-Bicak, Shira (January 2005). "Barack Obama '83", Columbia College Today. Retrieved on 9 June 2008.

^ "Curriculum Vitae". The University of Chicago Law School. Archived from the original on 2001-05-09. Retrieved on 2008-11-03.

^ Issenberg, Sasha (2008-08-06). "Obama shows hints of his year in global finance: Tied markets to social aid", Boston Globe. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.

^ a b c d e f g Chassie, Karen (ed.) (2007). Who's Who in America, 2008. New Providence, NJ: Marquis Who's Who. p. 3468. ISBN 9780837970110. www.marquiswhoswho.com/products/WAprodinfo.asp. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.

^ Scott, Janny (2007-10-30). "Obama's Account of New York Years Often Differs from What Others Say", The New York Times. Retrieved on 13 April 2008. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 133–140; Mendell (2007), pp. 62–63.

^ Secter, Bob; McCormick, John (2007-03-30). "Portrait of a pragmatist", Chicago Tribune, p. 1. Retrieved on 6 June 2008. Archived from the original on 9 February 2008. Lizza, Ryan (2007-03-19). "The Agitator: Barack Obama's Unlikely Political Education" (alternate link), New Republic. Retrieved on 13 April 2008. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 140–295; Mendell (2007), pp. 63–83.

^ Matchan, Linda (1990-02-15). "A Law Review breakthrough" (paid archive), The Boston Globe, p. 29. Retrieved on 6 June 2008. Corr, John (1990-02-27). "From mean streets to hallowed halls" (paid archive), The Philadelphia Inquirer, p. C01. Retrieved on 6 June 2008.

^ Obama, Barack (August–September 1988). "Why organize? Problems and promise in the inner city". Illinois Issues 14 (8–9): 40–42. reprinted in: Knoepfle, Peg (ed.) (1990). After Alinsky: community organizing in Illinois. Springfield, IL: Sangamon State University. pp. 35–40. ISBN 0962087335. Tayler, Letta; Herbert, Keith (2008-03-02). "Obama forged path as Chicago community organizer", Newsday, p. A06. Retrieved on 6 June 2008.

^ Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 299–437.

^ a b Levenson, Michael; Saltzman, Jonathan (2007-01-28). "At Harvard Law, a unifying voice", The Boston Globe. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Kantor, Jodi (2007-01-28). "In law school, Obama found political voice", The New York Times, p. 1. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Kodama, Marie C (2007-01-19). "Obama left mark on HLS", The Harvard Crimson. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Mundy, Liza (2007-08-12). "A series of fortunate events", The Washington Post, p. W10. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Heilemann, John (2007-10-22). "When they were young". New York 40 (37): 32–7, 132–3. www.printthis.clickability.com/pt/cpt?action=cpt&titl.... Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Mendell (2007), pp. 80–92.

^ a b Butterfield, Fox (1990-02-06). "First black elected to head Harvard's Law Review", The New York Times, p. A20. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Ybarra, Michael J (1990-02-07). "Activist in Chicago now heads Harvard Law Review" (paid archive), Chicago Tribune, p. 3. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Matchan, Linda (1990-02-15). "A Law Review breakthrough" (paid archive), The Boston Globe, p. 29. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Corr, John (1990-02-27). "From mean streets to hallowed halls" (paid archive), The Philadelphia Inquirer, p. C01. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Drummond, Tammerlin (1990-03-12). "Barack Obama's Law; Harvard Law Review's first black president plans a life of public service" (paid archive), Los Angeles Times, p. E1. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Evans, Gaynelle (1990-03-15). "Opening another door: The saga of Harvard's Barack H. Obama", Black Issues in Higher Education, p. 5. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Pugh, Allison J. (Associated Press) (1990-04-18). "Law Review's first black president aims to help poor" (paid archive), The Miami Herald, p. C01. Retrieved on 15 June 2008.

^ Aguilar, Louis (1990-07-11). "Survey: Law firms slow to add minority partners" (paid archive), Chicago Tribune, p. 1 (Business). Retrieved on 15 June 2008. "Barack Obama, a summer associate at Hopkins & Sutter in Chicago"

^ Adams, Richard (2007-05-09). "Barack Obama", The Guardian. Retrieved on 26 October 2008.

^ Mendell, David. "Barack Obama (American politician)". Retrieved on 2008-10-26.

^ a b c Scott, Janny (2008-05-18). "The story of Obama, written by Obama", The New York Times, p. 1. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. xiii–xvii.

^ White, Jesse (ed.) (2000). Illinois Blue Book, 2000, Millennium ed.. Springfield, IL: Illinois Secretary of State. p. 83. OCLC 43923973. www.sos.state.il.us/bb/toc.html. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.

^ Jarrett, Vernon (1992-08-11). "'Project Vote' brings power to the people" (paid archive), Chicago Sun-Times, p. 23. Retrieved on 6 June 2008. Reynolds, Gretchen (January 1993). "Vote of Confidence". Chicago 42 (1): 53–54. www.chicagomag.com/Chicago-Magazine/January-1993/Vote-of-.... Retrieved on 6 June 2008. Anderson, Veronica (September 27–October 3 1993). "40 under Forty: Barack Obama, Director, Illinois Project Vote". Crain's Chicago Business 16 (39): 43.

^ University of Chicago Law School (2008-03-27). "Statement regarding Barack Obama". University of Chicago Law School. Retrieved on 2008-06-10. Miller, Joe (2008-03-28). "Was Barack Obama really a constitutional law professor?". FactCheck.org. Retrieved on 2008-06-10. Holan, Angie Drobnic (2008-03-07). "Obama's 20 years of experience". PolitiFact.com. Retrieved on 2008-06-10.<

^ Robinson, Mike (Associated Press) (2007-02-10). "Obama got start in civil rights practice", The Boston Globe. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Pallasch, Abdon M (2007-12-17). "As lawyer, Obama was strong, silent type; He was 'smart, innovative, relentless,' and he mostly let other lawyers do the talking", Chicago Sun-Times, p. 4. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. "People" (paid archive), Chicago Tribune (1993-06-27), p. 9 (Business). Retrieved on 15 June 2008. "Business appointments" (paid archive), Chicago-Sun-Times (1993-07-05), p. 40. Retrieved on 15 June 2008. Miner, Barnhill & Galland (2008). "About Us". Miner, Barnhill & Galland – Chicago, Illinois. Retrieved on 2008-06-15. Obama (1995, 2004), pp. 438–439, Mendell (2007), pp. 104–106.

^ "ARDC Individual Attorney Record of Public Registration and Public Disciplinary and Disability Information as of October 17, 2008 at 12:52:13 PM". Attorney Registration and Disciplinary Commission of the Supreme Court of Illinois. Retrieved on 2008-10-19.

^ Public Allies (2008). "Fact Sheet on Public Allies' History with Senator Barack and Michelle Obama". Public Allies. Retrieved on 2008-06-06.

^ Jackson, David; Ray Long (2007-04-03). "Obama Knows His Way Around a Ballot", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 14 January 2008. [dead link] White, Jesse (2001). "Legislative Districts of Cook County, 1991 Reapportionment". Illinois Blue Book 2001–2002. Springfield: Illinois Secretary of State. p. 65. State Sen. District 13 = State Rep. Districts 25 & 26.

^ Slevin, Peter (2007-02-09). "Obama Forged Political Mettle in Illinois Capitol", Washington Post. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. Helman, Scott (2007-09-23). "In Illinois, Obama dealt with Lobbyists", Boston Globe. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. See also: "Obama Record May Be Gold Mine for Critics", Associated Press, CBS News (2007-01-17). Retrieved on 20 April 2008. "In-Depth Look at Obama's Political Career" (video), CLTV, Chicago Tribune (2007-02-09). Retrieved on 20 April 2008.

^ a b Scott, Janny (2007-07-30). "In Illinois, Obama Proved Pragmatic and Shrewd", The New York Times. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. See also: Pearson, Rick; Ray Long (2007-05-03). "Careful Steps, Looking Ahead", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008.

^ Allison, Melissa (2000-12-15). "State takes on predatory lending; Rules would halt single-premium life insurance financing", Chicago Tribune, p. 1 (Business). Retrieved on 1 June 2008. Long, Ray; Allison, Melissa (2001-04-18). "Illinois OKs predatory loan curbs; State aims to avert home foreclosures.", Chicago Tribune, p. 1. Retrieved on 1 June 2008.

^ "13th District: Barack Obama" (archive). Illinois State Senate Democrats (2000-08-24). Archived from the original on 2000-04-12. Retrieved on 2008-04-20. "13th District: Barack Obama" (archive). Illinois State Senate Democrats (2004-10-09). Archived from the original on 2004-08-02. Retrieved on 2008-04-20.

^ "Federal Elections 2000: U.S. House Results - Illinois". Federal Election Commission. Retrieved on 2008-04-24.. See also: "Obama's Loss May Have Aided White House Bid". and Scott, Janny (2007-09-09). "A Streetwise Veteran Schooled Young Obama", The New York Times. Retrieved on 20 April 2008.

^ McClelland, Edward (2007-02-12). "How Obama Learned to Be a Natural", Salon. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. See also: Wolffe, Richard; Daren Briscoe (2007-07-16). "Across the Divide", Newsweek, MSNBC. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. Helman, Scott (2007-10-12). "Early Defeat Launched a Rapid Political Climb", Boston Globe. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. and Wills, Christopher (2007-10-24). "Obama learned from failed Congress run", USA Today. Retrieved on 20 September 2008.

^ Calmes, Jackie (2007-02-23). "Statehouse Yields Clues to Obama", Wall Street Journal. Retrieved on 20 April 2008.

^ Tavella, Anne Marie (2003-04-14). "Profiling, taping plans pass Senate", Daily Herald, p. 17. Retrieved on 1 June 2008. Haynes, V. Dion (2003-06-29). "Fight racial profiling at local level, lawmaker says; U.S. guidelines get mixed review", Chicago Tribune, p. 8. Retrieved on 1 June 2008. Pearson, Rick (2003-07-17). "Taped confessions to be law; State will be 1st to pass legislation", Chicago Tribune, p. 1 (Metro). Retrieved on 1 June 2008.

^ Youngman, Sam; Aaron Blake (2007-03-14). "Obama's Crime Votes Are Fodder for Rivals", The Hill. Retrieved on 20 April 2008. See also: "US Presidential Candidate Obama Cites Work on State Death Penalty Reforms", Associated Press, International Herald Tribune (2007-11-12). Retrieved on 20 April 2008.

^ Coffee, Melanie (2004-11-06). "Attorney Chosen to Fill Obama's State Senate Seat", Associated Press, HPKCC. Retrieved on 20 April 2008.

^ Helman, Scott (2007-10-12). "Early Defeat Launched a Rapid Political Climb", Boston Globe. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.

^ Davey, Monica (2004-03-07). "Closely Watched Illinois Senate Race Attracts 7 Candidates in Millionaire Range", The New York Times. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.

^ Wallace-Wells, Ben (2007-04-01). "Obama's Narrator", The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.

^ Davey, Monica (2004-03-17). "From Crowded Field, Democrats Choose State Legislator to Seek Senate Seat", New York Times. Retrieved on 13 April 2008. See also: Jackson, John S (August 2006). "The Making of a Senator: Barack Obama and the 2004 Illinois Senate Race" (PDF), Occasional Paper of the Paul Simon Public Policy Institute, Southern Illinois University. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.

^ Bernstein, David (June 2007). "The Speech", Chicago Magazine. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.

^ Obama, Barack (2004-07-27). "Keynote Address at the 2004 Democratic National Convention" (text or video). BarackObama.com. Retrieved on 2008-04-13.

^ . (2004-08-02). "Star Power. Showtime: Some are on the rise; others have long been fixtures in the firmament. A galaxy of bright Democratic lights", Newsweek, pp. 48–51. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Samuel, Terence (2004-08-02). "A shining star named Obama. How a most unlikely politician became a darling of the Democrats", U.S. News & World Report, p. 25. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Lizza, Ryan. "The Natural. Why is Barack Obama generating more excitement among Democrats than John Kerry?", The Atlantic Monthly, pp. 30, 33. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Davey, Monica (2004-07-26). "A surprise Senate contender reaches his biggest stage yet", The New York Times, p. A1. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Leibovich, Mark (2004-07-27). "The other man of the hour", The Washington Post, p. C1. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Milligan, Susan (2004-07-27). "In Obama, Democrats see their future", The Boston Globe, p. B8. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Seelye, Katharine Q. (2004-07-28). "Senate nominee speaks of encompassing unity", The New York Times, p. A1. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Broder, David S. (2004-07-28). "Democrats focus on healing divisions; Addressing convention, newcomers set themes", The Washington Post, p. A1. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Bing, Jonathan; McClintock, Pamela (2004-07-29). "Auds resist charms of Dem stars", Daily Variety, p. 1. Retrieved on 15 November 2008. Mendell (2007), pp. 272–285.

^ "Ryan Drops Out of Senate Race in Illinois", CNN (2004-06-25). Retrieved on 13 April 2008.

^ Lannan, Maura Kelly (2004-08-09). "Alan Keyes Enters U.S. Senate Race in Illinois Against Rising Democratic Star", Associated Press, Union-Tribune (San Diego). Retrieved on 13 April 2008.

^ Liam, Ford; David Mendell (2004-08-13). "Keyes Sets Up House in Cal City", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.

^ "America Votes 2004: U.S. Senate / Illinois", CNN. Retrieved on 13 April 2008. Slevin, Peter (2007-11-13). "For Obama, a Handsome Payoff in Political Gambles", The Washington Post. Retrieved on 13 April 2008.

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^ "Breaking New Ground: African American Senators". U.S. Senate Historical Office. Retrieved on 2008-06-25.

^ "Member Info". Congressional Black Caucus. Retrieved on 2008-06-25. See also: Zeleny, Jeff (2005-06-26). "When It Comes to Race, Obama Makes His Point—With Subtlety", Chicago Tribune. Retrieved on 25 June 2008. Archived from the original on 16 February 2008.

^ Nather, David (2008-01-14). "The Space Between Clinton and Obama", CQ Weekly. Retrieved on 25 June 2008. See also: Curry, Tom (2008-02-21). "What Obama's Senate Votes Reveal", MSNBC. Retrieved on 25 June 2008.

^ "Obama: Most Liberal Senator In 2007", National Journal (2008-01-31). Retrieved on 25 June 2008.

^ KnowLegis. "Power Rankings: Senate". Retrieved on 2008-09-07.

^ Mason, Jeff (2008-11-16). "Obama resigns Senate seat, thanks Illinois". The Washington Post. The Washington Post Company. Retrieved on 2008-11-21.

^ Sidoti, Liz (2008-11-13). "Obama to Resign Senate Seat on Sunday". Time. Time Inc.. Retrieved on 2008-11-22.

^ Baker, Peter (2008-11-14). "ON THE WHITE HOUSE; If the Senate Reconvenes, Two Seats May Be Empty". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved on 2008-11-21.

^ "President Bush Signs Federal Funding Accountability and Transparency Act.". White House (2006-09-26).

^ U.S. Senate, 109th Congress, 1st Session (2005-05-12). "S. 1033, Secure America and Orderly Immigration Act". Thomas. Retrieved on 2008-04-27.

^ "Latinos Upset Obama Voted for Border Fence", CBS 2 (Chicago) (2006-11-20). Retrieved on 27 April 2008. Archived from the original on 27 September 2007.

^ "Lugar–Obama Nonproliferation Legislation Signed into Law by the President". Richard Lugar U.S. Senate Office (2007-01-11). Retrieved on 2008-04-27. See also: Lugar, Richard G; Barack Obama (2005-12-03). "Junkyard Dogs of War", Washington Post. Retrieved on 27 April 2008.

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^ S. 3077: Strengthening Transparency and Accountability in Federal Spending Act of 2008 Govtrack.us, 2007-2008 (110th Congress)

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For the avoidance of doubt, the term resolution is a measure of fineness of detail. Image dimensions (in pixels) and file size (in megabytes) are indicators of resolution - or lack of - but neither is an absolute guarantee. Increasing either of these will not increase resolution - the determining factor will always be the image that you started with. As a guide, I am looking for images of at least 1800x1200 pixels saved in TIFF (preferred) or JPEG format with a minimum file size of 1Mb. If JPEG, always use the highest quality setting available. In all cases, please provide original images without any post-camera or post-scan processing.

 

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Updated 01-May-16

 

I'm auctioning this print to help the people of Haïti.

 

I would like you to start the bidding at $5.00

 

8x10 inch print, printed on your choice of paper, will discuss at conclusion of bidding.

 

Please leave a comment with your offer.

 

WANT TO BID - BUT YOU DON'T HAVE A FLICKR ACCOUNT?

Please just email me with a bid and I will place the bid in the comments on your behalf: lltphoto (at) yahoo.com

 

Alternate photo will be considered upon request.

 

The bidding will end on Monday, January 25, 2010 at 10pm Central Standard Time. At this time, the person who wrote the highest amount will have 24 hours to give this amount to a legitimate charity involved in the effort for earthquake relief in Haiti and similar disasters or ongoing tragedies. On proof of donation (please take a screen grab of your donation confirmation page!), I will arrange for the print to be made and shipped to you.

 

I will pay for the print to be produced and pay for shipping, so all of your donation goes straight to the cause.

 

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Charitable organizations that offer aid to Haiti:

 

American Red Cross: Since its founding in 1881 by visionary leader Clara Barton, the American Red Cross has been the nation's premier emergency response organization.

 

Doctors Without Borders: Doctors Without Borders provides aid in nearly 60 countries to people whose survival is threatened by violence, neglect, or catastrophe, primarily due to armed conflict, epidemics, malnutrition, exclusion from health care, or natural disasters.

 

Hope for Haiti: Hope for Haiti has held the vision from the very beginning that the people of Haiti are the ones who take control of their future and we are here to lend a needed hand along the difficult path.

 

Meds and Food for Kids: Meds & Food for Kids is dedicated to saving the lives of Haiti’s malnourished children and other nutritionally vulnerable people.

 

Yele Haiti: Yéle Haiti is a Wyclef Jean's grassroots movement that builds global awareness for Haiti while helping to transform the country through programs in education, sports, the arts and environment.

 

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Please donate or choose an organization that you trust.

 

 

Information from: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yankee_Stadium

  

Yankee Stadium is a stadium located in The Bronx in New York City, New York. It serves as the home ballpark for the New York Yankees, replacing the previous Yankee Stadium, built in 1923. The new ballpark was constructed across the street, north-northeast of the 1923 Yankee Stadium, on the former site of Macombs Dam Park. The ballpark opened April 2, 2009, when the Yankees hosted a workout day in front of fans from the Bronx community. The first game at the new Yankee Stadium was a pre-season exhibition game against the Chicago Cubs played on April 3, 2009, which the Yankees won 7–4.[4] The first regular season game was played on April 16, a 10–2 Yankee loss to the Cleveland Indians.[5][6]

 

Much of the stadium incorporates design elements from the previous Yankee Stadium, paying homage to the Yankees' history. Although stadium construction began in August 2006, the project of building a new stadium for the Yankees is one that spanned many years and faced many controversies. The stadium was built on what had been 24 acres (97,000 m2) of public parkland. Replacement ballfields, slated to open when the new stadium did, have not been completed. Also controversial was the price tag of $2.3 billion, including $1.2 billion in taxpayer subsidies.[7] It was the third most expensive stadium[citation needed] after Wembley Stadium in London and New Meadowlands Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey.[citation needed]

 

Contents [hide]

1 History

1.1 Planning

1.2 Construction

1.3 Financing

2 Features

2.1 Design and layout

2.2 Field dimensions and playing surface

2.2.1 Comparison with the 1923 Stadium

2.3 Amenities and facilities

3 Accessibility and transportation

4 Public opinion

4.1 Opening and public perception

5 Yankee Stadium firsts

6 Other events

7 See also

8 References

9 External links

  

[edit] History

[edit] Planning

New York Yankees owner George Steinbrenner began campaigning for the building of a new stadium in the 1980s, even alleging unsafe conditions around the original Yankee Stadium despite the possibility that such statements could discourage attendance at his own team's games. Yankees ownership allegedly planned to move the team across the Hudson River to New Jersey. The Yankees also considered moving to the West Side of Manhattan, which was where the proposed West Side Stadium would later be considered for the New York Jets.[8][9]

 

New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani had already been instrumental in the construction of taxpayer-funded minor league baseball facilities MCU Park for the Mets' minor league Brooklyn Cyclones and Richmond County Bank Ballpark for the Staten Island Yankees. Shortly before leaving office in December 2001, he announced "tentative agreements" for both the New York Yankees and New York Mets to build new stadiums. Of $1.5 billion sought for the stadiums, city and state taxpayers would pick up half the tab for construction, $800 million, along with $390 million on extra transportation.[10] The plan also said that the teams would be allowed to keep all parking revenues, which state officials had already said they wanted to keep to compensate the state for building new garages for the teams.[11] The teams would keep 96% of ticket revenues and 100% of all other revenues, not pay sales tax or property tax on the stadium, and would get low-cost electricity from the state of New York.[11] Business officials criticized the plan as giving too much money to successful teams with little reason to move to a different city.[11]

 

Michael Bloomberg, who succeeded Giuliani as mayor in 2002, called the former mayor's agreements "corporate welfare" and exercised the escape clause in the agreements to back out of both deals, saying that the city could not afford to build new stadiums for the Yankees and Mets. Bloomberg said that unbeknownst to him, Giuliani had inserted a clause in this deal which loosened the teams' leases with the city and would allow the Yankees and Mets to leave the city on 60 days' notice to find a new home elsewhere if the city backed out of the agreement.[10][11] At the time, Bloomberg said that publicly funded stadiums were a poor investment. Under Bloomberg, the New York City government would only offer public financing for infrastructure improvements; the teams would have to pay for the stadium themselves.

 

The proposal for the current stadium was unveiled by the Yankees in 2004. The team scrapped plans to build a retractable roof, saving $200 million in construction costs.[12]

 

[edit] Construction

 

The stadium under construction in 2007 (top), and the completed venue next to the remains of the former facility in 2010 (bottom)Groundbreaking ceremonies for the stadium took place on August 16, 2006, the 58th anniversary of Babe Ruth's death, with Steinbrenner, Bloomberg and then-Governor of New York George Pataki among the notables donning Yankees hard hats and wielding ceremonial shovels to mark the occasion.[13][14] The Yankees continued to play in the previous Yankee Stadium during the 2007 and 2008 seasons while their new home stadium was built across the street.

 

During construction of the stadium, a construction worker and avid Boston Red Sox fan, buried a replica jersey of Red Sox player David Ortiz underneath the visitors' dugout with the objective of placing a "hex" on the Yankees, much like the "Curse of the Bambino" that had plagued the Red Sox long after trading Ruth to the Yankees. After the worker was exposed by co-workers, he was forced to help exhume the jersey.[15] The Yankees organization then donated the retrieved jersey to the Jimmy Fund, a charity started in 1948 by the Red Sox' National League rivals, the Boston Braves, but long championed by the Red Sox and particularly associated with Ted Williams.[16][17] The worker has since claimed to have buried a 2004 American League Championship Series program/scorecard, but has not said where he placed it.[18] These attempts did not work; the Yankees won the World Series in their first year in the new stadium.[19]

 

[edit] Financing

$1.5 million of New York state tax revenue will be used to build parking garages (as authorized by the State Legislature). The parking garage project would cost $320 million. City and state taxpayers will forgo up to $7.5 million annually in lost taxes resulting from the sale of $225 million in tax-exempt bonds authorized on October 9, 2007, by the New York City Industrial Development Agency (administered by the New York City Economic Development Corporation) to finance construction and renovation of the parking garages.[20][21] However, if the parking revenues are not enough to pay a reported $3.2 million land lease to the city, the entity that will operate the parking garages and collect revenue will be able to defer that payment.[22]

 

[edit] Features

The new stadium is meant to be very similar in design to the original Yankee Stadium, both in its original 1923 state and its post-renovation state in 1976. The exterior resembles the original look of the 1923 Yankee Stadium. The interior, a modern ballpark with greater space and increased amenities, features a playing field that closely resembles the previous ballpark before its closing. The stadium features 4,300 club seats and 68 luxury suites.

 

[edit] Design and layout

 

The Indiana limestone exterior, shown at Gate 4, mirrors the exterior of the original Yankee Stadium in 1923.The stadium was designed by the architect firm Populous (formerly HOK Sport). The exterior was made from 11,000 pieces of Indiana limestone, along with granite and pre-cast concrete.[23] The design closely mirrors the exterior of the original Yankee Stadium when it first opened in 1923.[23] The exterior features the building's name V-cut and gold-leaf lettered above each gate.[23] The interior of the stadium is adorned with hundreds of photographs capturing the history of the Yankees. The New York Daily News newspaper partnered with the Yankees for the exhibition "The Glory of the Yankees Photo Collection", which was selected from the Daily News' collection of over 2,000 photographs.[24] Sports & The Arts was hired by the Yankees to curate the nearly 1,300 photographs that adorn the building from sources including the Daily News, Getty Images, the Baseball Hall of Fame and Major League Baseball.

 

The seats are laid out similar to the original stadium's stands, with grandstand seating that stretches beyond the foul poles, as well as bleacher seats beyond the outfield fences. The Field Level and Main Level comprise the lower bowl, with suites on the H&R Block Level, and the Upper Level and Grandstand Level comprising the upper bowl.[25] Approximately two-thirds of the stadium's seating is in the lower bowl, the inverse from the original Yankee Stadium.[25] Approximately 51,000 fans can be seated, with a standing room capacity of 52,325.[26] The new stadium's seating is spaced outward in a bowl, unlike the stacked-tiers design at the old stadium. This design places most fans farther back but lower to the field, by about an average of 30 feet (9.1 m). Over 56 suites are located within the ballpark, triple the amount from the previous stadium.[23] Seats are 19–24 inches (48–61 cm) wide, up from the previous stadium's 18–22-inch (46–56 cm) wide seats, while there is 33–39 inches (84–99 cm) of leg room, up from 29.5 inches (75 cm) of leg room in the previous stadium.[25] Many lower level seats are cushioned, while all seats are equipped with cupholders.[25] To allow for the extra seating space, the stadium's capacity is reduced by more than 4,000 seats in comparison to the previous stadium.[25]

  

The frieze that lined the roof of the original Yankee Stadium from 1923-1973 is replicated in its original location.Many design elements of the ballpark's interior are inspired by the original Yankee Stadium. The roof of the new facility features a replica of the frieze that was a trademark of the previous ballpark.[25] In the original Yankee Stadium, a copper frieze originally lined the roof of the upper deck stands, but it was torn down during the 1974–75 renovations and replicated atop the wall beyond the bleachers.[25] The new stadium replicates the frieze in its original location along the upper deck stands.[25] Made of steel coated with zinc for rust protection, it is part of the support system for the cantilevers holding up the top deck and the lighting on the roof.[27] The wall beyond the bleacher seats is "cut out" to reveal the subway trains as they pass by, like they were in the original facility. A manually-operated auxiliary scoreboard is built into the left and right field fences, in the same locations it existed in the pre-renovation iteration of the original Yankee Stadium.[25]

  

The Great Hall is situated along the southern front of the stadium.Between the exterior perimeter wall and interior of the stadium is the "Great Hall", a large concourse that runs between Gates 4 and 6.[28] With seven-story ceilings, the Great Hall features more than 31,000 square feet (2,900 m2) of retail space and is lined with 20 banners of past and present Yankees superstars.[28] The Great Hall features a 5-by-383-foot (1.5 by 117 m) LED (light-emitting diode) ribbon display as well as a 25' by 36' LED video display above the entrance to the ballpark from Daktronics, a company in ‹See Tfd›Brookings, South Dakota.[28] [28]

 

Monument Park, which features the Yankees' retired numbers, as well as monuments and plaques dedicated to distinguished Yankees, has been moved from its location beyond the left field fences in the original Yankee Stadium to its new location beyond the center field fences at the new facility. The newly relocated Monument Park is now situated under the sports bar, this choice of location has drawn criticism as the many monuments are underneath the sports bar and not as in the open as in the previous Yankee Stadium. Fueling this criticism has been the advent of black shades that cover monuments on the back wall during games to prevent interference with the vision of the batter.[29] The new location of the monuments is meant to mirror their original placement in center field at the original pre-renovation Yankee Stadium, albeit when they were on the playing field. The transfer of Monument Park from the old stadium to the new stadium began on November 10, 2008.[30] The first monuments were put in place on February 23, 2009.[31] Yankees pitcher Mariano Rivera requested that the Yankees reposition the team's bullpen, as well as add a door to connect the Yankees' bullpen to Monument Park, in order to allow access to it by Yankee relievers. The organization complied with his request.[23][32]

 

[edit] Field dimensions and playing surface

 

The view from the Grandstand Level (400 Level).The field dimensions for the outfield fences have the same distance markers as the original facility prior to closing yet the dimensions are not identical.[33] Due to the design of the right-field stands and the inclusion of an embedded manual scoreboard, the right-field wall is an average of 5 feet (1.5 m) closer to home plate.[34] Overall, the fences measure 318 feet (97 m) to left field, 399 feet (122 m) to left-center field, 408 feet (124 m) to center field, 385 feet (117 m) to right-center field, and 314 to right field.[25][26] At the old Yankee Stadium, the right field wall curved from the right-field corner to straightaway center, while at the new ballpark the fence takes a sharp, almost entirely straight angle.[34] This results in a difference at certain points between the right field markers of as much as 9 feet (2.7 m).[34] The dimensions in left field are substantially the same despite the presence of an embedded auxiliary scoreboard there as well.[34]

 

The outfield fences measure 8 feet 5 inches (2.57 m) high from the left-field foul pole until the Yankees' bullpen, when the fences begin to gradually descend in height until the right field foul pole, where they are only 8 feet (2.4 m) tall.[25] This also marks a decrease from the previous Yankee Stadium, where the outfield walls stood at a height of approximately 10 feet (3.0 m).[33] The distance from home plate to the backstop is 52 feet 4 inches (15.95 m), a reduction of 20 feet (6.1 m) from the previous facility.[26] The field is made up of Kentucky bluegrass, the same surface as the previous stadium, which is grown on a 1,300 acres (530 ha) farm in Bridgeton, New Jersey. The grass is equipped with a drainage system (featuring over 14,000 feet (4,300 m) of pipe) that makes the field playable an hour after taking 2 inches (51 mm) of rain.[25]

 

[edit] Comparison with the 1923 Stadium

Characteristic Old Stadium [as of 2008] New Stadium

Opening Day April 18, 1923 April 16, 2009

Capacity 56,866 52,325 [35](including standing room)

Seat width 18 inches (46 cm)–22 inches (56 cm) 19 inches (48 cm)–24 inches (61 cm)

Legroom 29.5 inches (75 cm) 33 inches (84 cm)–39 inches (99 cm)

Concourse width (average) 17 feet (5.2 m) 32 feet (9.8 m)

Cup holders Select Field Level Seating For every seat in General Seating

Luxury suites 19 56

Club Seats N/A 4,300

Team stores 6,800 square feet (630 m2) 11,560 square feet (1,074 m2)

Restroom fixture ratio 1 per 89 fans 1 per 60 fans

Public elevators

(passenger lifts) 3

(Otis Traction) 16

(KONE Traction)

Video scoreboard 25 feet (7.6 m) by 33 feet (10 m)

(Standard Definition LED) 59 feet (18 m) by 101 feet (31 m)

(High Definition LED)

Distance from Home Plate to:

Backstop 72 feet 4 inches (22 m) 52 feet 4 inches (16 m)

Left Field 318 feet (97 m)

Left Center 399 feet (122 m)

Center Field 408 feet (124 m)

Right Center 385 feet (117 m)

Right Field 314 feet (96 m)

Sources: The New York Yankees [26] and Andrew Clem [36]

 

[edit] Amenities and facilities

 

A signature by Babe Ruth is one of many autographs in the "ball wall", the centerpiece of the Yankee Museum.Yankee Stadium features a wide array of amenities. It contains 63 percent more space, 500,000 square feet (46,000 m2) more in total, than the previous stadium, with wider concourses and open sight lines on concourses.[23] Along with 227 miles (365 km) of wired Ethernet cable, the building has sufficient fiber-optic cable wiring that Cisco Vice President and Treasurer David Holland calls the building "future proof".[23] Over 1,100 high-definition video monitors are placed within the stadium and approximately $10 million worth of baseball merchandise is housed within the ballpark.[23]

 

The center field scoreboard, which measures 59 x 101 feet (31 m) and offers 5,925 square feet (550.5 m2) of viewing area, was the third-largest high definition scoreboard in the world when it opened (behind the 8,736-square-foot (811.6 m2) board at newly renovated Kauffman Stadium and the new 8,066-square-foot (749.4 m2) board at the renovated Tokyo Racecourse).[37] Since then, it has also been surpassed by the world's largest scoreboard at the new Cowboys Stadium.[38] Displaying 5,925 ft (1,806 m)² of video, the scoreboard can display four 1080p high definition images simultaneously.[25]

 

The Yankees clubhouse features 30,000 ft (9,100 m)² of space, over 2.5 times the space of the clubhouse from the previous facility.[39] The dressing area alone features 3,344 ft (1,019 m)² of space, with each locker equipped with a safety deposit box and touch-screen computer.[39] The Yankees clubhouse features a weight room, training room, video room, and lounge area, while both teams' clubhouses have their own indoor batting cages.[39] The Yankees' therapy room features a hydrotherapy pool with an underwater treadmill.[39] The Yankees are believed to be the first team to chemically treat their uniforms, as well as the showering surfaces with an anti-bacterial agent that reduces the risk of infection.[39]

 

The Yankees Museum, located on the lower level at Gate 6, displays a wide range of Yankees' memorabilia.[40] A "Ball Wall" features hundreds of balls autographed by past and present Yankees, and there are plans to eventually add autographs for every living player who has played for the Yankees.[40] The centerpiece of the museum is a tribute to Don Larsen's perfect game in the 1956 World Series, with a commemorative home plate in the floor and statues of Larsen pitching to Yogi Berra.[40] Along with a facsimile of a current locker from the Yankees' clubhouse, fans can view the locker of the late Thurman Munson, which sat unoccupied in the previous stadium's Yankee clubhouse in honor of Munson.[40]

 

The ballpark offers a wide choice of restaurants. There are 25 fixed concessions stands, along with 112 moveable ones.[28] A Hard Rock Cafe is located within the ballpark, but it is open to anyone at the 161 St. and River Ave. entrance year round.[28] The Hard Rock Cafe at Yankee Stadium officially opened on March 30, 2009, and an opening ceremony took place on April 2, 2009.[41] A steakhouse called NYY Steak is located beyond right field.[28] Celebrity chefs will occasionally make appearances at the ballpark's restaurants and help prepare food for fans in premium seating over the course of the season.[28] Above Monument Park in center field is the Mohegan Sun sports bar, whose tinted black glass acts as the ballpark's batter's eye. The sports bar obstructs the view of approximately 600 bleacher seats in the right and left field bleachers, preventing fans from seeing the action occurring deep in the opposite side of the outfield. In response, the Yankees installed TV monitors on the sides of the sports bar's outer walls, and have reduced the price of these obstructed-view seats from $12 to $5.[42][43]

 

[edit] Accessibility and transportation

 

The stadium is serviced via subway by the 161st Street station on the IRT Jerome Avenue Line (top) (as well as the IND Concourse Line; not shown) and via railroad by the East 153rd Street Metro North station (bottom)The stadium is reachable via the 161st Street – Yankee Stadium station complex, the same that served the old Yankee Stadium, by the 4 B D trains of the New York City Subway. It is also served by the Yankees - East 153rd Street (Metro-North station), which opened on May 23, 2009,[44] which routinely features Hudson Line train service, but on game days, Harlem Line and New Haven Line trains as well as shuttle trains from Grand Central Terminal also platform there. The stadium is also served by multiple bus lines. On game days, NY Waterway operates the "Yankee Clipper" ferry route stopping at Port Imperial (Weehawken) and Hoboken in New Jersey and West 38th Street, the Wall Street Ferry Pier, and East 34th Street in Manhattan, and New York Water Taxi operates a free ferry to the stadium from the Wall Street Ferry Pier before every game only. For selected games, SeaStreak provides high-speed ferry service to Highlands, New Jersey.

 

Yankee Stadium is accessible by car via the Major Deegan Expressway (Interstate 87), with connections to Interstate 95, Interstate 278 and other major thoroughfares. Aside from existing parking lots and garages serving the stadium, construction for additional parking garages is planned. The New York State Legislature agreed to $70 million in subsidies for a $320 million parking garage project. On October 9, 2007, the New York City Industrial Development Agency approved $225 million in tax-exempt bonds to finance construction of three new parking garages that will have 3,600 new parking spaces, and renovation of the existing 5,569 parking spaces nearby.[45] Plans initially called for a fourth new garage, but this was eliminated before the final approval. The garages will be built (and renovated) by the Community Initiatives Development Corporation of Hudson, N.Y., a nonprofit entity that will use the parking revenue to repay the bonds and pay a $3 million yearly land lease to the City of New York. Parking is expected to cost $25 per game.[45]

 

[edit] Public opinion

[edit] Opening and public perception

 

Four F-16C Fighting Falcons from the 174th Fighter Wing fly over the "New" Yankee Stadium on Opening DayAlthough Yankee Stadium has been praised for its amenities and its usage of "classic" design elements from the original facility, the new stadium has been widely criticized for fan-unfriendly practices.[46][47] Seats within the first eight rows in the lower bowl, called the "Legends Suite", rank among the highest priced tickets in professional sports, with the average ticket in the section selling for $510 and the most expensive single game-day ticket costing $2,600.[46] Legends Suite Seats have been regularly empty, with many ticket holders in this section having given up their tickets, and others remaining unsold, despite most other seats in the ballpark selling out. This has created an "embarrassing" image on television of the seats behind home plate being almost completely vacant.[46] Consequently, a surplus of tickets for Legends Seats have emerged in the secondary market, and with supply exceeding demand, resale prices have dropped. Empty seats in the Legends Suite could even be seen during the 2009 playoffs, including World Series games. Even though all playoff games have been sellouts, Legends Suite ticket holders are in the lounges and the restaurant underneath instead of their seats.[48][49]

 

Legends Suite seats are also separate from the other lower bowl seating and are vigorously patrolled by stadium security, with the divider being described as a "concrete moat".[46][47] Fans that do not have tickets within this premium section in the front rows are not allowed to access it or stand behind the dugouts during batting practice to watch players hit and request autographs.[46][47]

 

The Yankee Stadium staff was also criticized for an incident during a May 4, 2009 game, which was interrupted by a rain delay.[50] Fans were told by some staff members that the game was unlikely to resume and consequently, many fans exited the stadium, only for the game to eventually resume play.[50] The fans that left the ballpark were not permitted to re-enter, per the stadium's re-entry policy, and many subsequently got into arguments with stadium personnel.[50] In response to the backlash the Yankees received for the incident, the staff members were required to sign a gag order preventing them from speaking to media, but they did indicate that communication for rain delays would be improved.[50]

 

After less than a season, cracks have appeared on the concrete ramps of the Stadium. The Yankees are trying to determine whether there was something wrong with the cement, or the ramps' installation or design. The company involved in designing the concrete mix were indicted on charges that they either faked or failed to perform some required tests and falsified the results of others.[51]

    

This article's factual accuracy may be compromised because of out-of-date information. Please help improve the article by updating it. There may be additional information on the talk page. (September 2010)

 

In 2009, the stadium was criticized for its propensity for allowing home runs. In its opening season, 237 home runs were hit.Yankee Stadium has quickly acquired a reputation as a "bandbox" and a "launching pad" due to the high number of home runs hit at the new ballpark.[52][53][54][55][56][57] Through its first 23 games, 87 home runs were hit at the venue, easily besting Enron Field's (now called Minute Maid Park) previous record set in 2000.[58] Early in the season, Yankee Stadium was on pace to break Coors Field's 1999 single-season record of 303 home runs allowed, and the hometown New York Daily News newspaper started publishing a daily graphic comparing each stadium's home run totals through a similar number of games.

 

ESPN commentator Peter Gammons has denounced the new facility as "one of the biggest jokes in baseball" and concludes that "[it] was not a very well-planned ballpark."[54] Likewise, Gammons' ESPN colleague Buster Olney has described the stadium as being "on steroids" and likened it to his childhood Wiffle-ball park.[52][59] Newsday columnist Wallace Matthews joined in the criticism, labeling the stadium "ridiculous" and decrying its cheapening of the home run.[53] Former Yankee Reggie Jackson termed the park "too small" to contain current player Alex Rodriguez and suggested it might enable the third baseman to hit 75 home runs in a season.[53]

 

A variety of theories have been posited to account for the dramatic increase in home runs at the new Yankee Stadium over the original stadium, foremost among these the sharper angles of the outfield walls[34] and the speculated presence of a wind tunnel.[52] During construction of the new ballpark, engineers commissioned a wind study, the results of which indicated there would be no noticeable difference between the two stadiums.[60] The franchise is planning to conduct a second study, but Major League rules prohibit it from making any changes to the playing field until the off-season.[60]

 

An independent study by the weather service provider AccuWeather in June 2009 concluded that the shape and height of the right field wall, rather than the wind, is responsible for the proliferation of home runs at the stadium.[61] AccuWeather's analysis found that roughly 20% of the home runs hit at the new ballpark would not have been home runs at the old ballpark due to the gentle curve of its right field corner, and its 10-foot (3.0 m) wall height.[61] Nothing was observed in wind speeds and patterns that would account for the increase.[61]

 

The number of home runs hit at the new stadium slowed significantly as the season progressed,[62] but a new single-season record for most home runs hit at a Yankee home ballpark was nonetheless set in the Yankees' 73rd home game of 2009 when Vladimir Guerrero of the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim hit the 216th home run of the season at the venue, surpassing the previous record of 215 set at the original Yankee Stadium in 2005.[63]

 

In 2010, the rate of home runs were markedly less as of May 15, 2010, with 35 home runs hit in 14 games for 2.5 per game (a projection of 205 - in 2009, the stadium was at 2.93 per game for a total of 237.) Several reasons were given for the sudden dropoff in home runs, including a lower April 2010 temperature (56 degrees in comparison with 63 the previous year), slower winds, poor pitching, a change in direction in winds,[64] as well as removal of the original Yankee Stadium and the effect this has had on wind currents.[citation needed] ESPN suggested the prolific home run totals of 2009 were a fluke.[64]

 

[edit] Yankee Stadium firsts

 

Logo for the inaugural season at the Stadium.Before the official Opening Day against the Cleveland Indians April 16, 2009, the Yankees hosted a two-game exhibition series at the Stadium in early April against the Chicago Cubs.[5] Grady Sizemore of the Indians was the first player to hit a grand slam off of Yankee pitcher Dámaso Marte. The Indians and 2008 Cy Young Award winner, Cliff Lee, spoiled the opening of the new stadium by winning 10-2. Before the Yankees went to bat for the first time, the bat that Babe Ruth used to hit his first home run at the old Yankee Stadium in 1923 was placed momentarily on home plate.[65] Jorge Posada hit the first Yankee home run in the new ballpark hitting his off Lee in the same game. Russell Branyan, while playing for the Seattle Mariners, was the first player to hit a home run off of the Mohegan Sun Restaurant in center field. Like its predecessor, the new Yankee Stadium hosted the World Series in its very first season; in the 2009 World Series, the Yankees defeated the Philadelphia Phillies 4 games to 2. It also became the latest stadium to host a World Series-clinching victory by its home team in the venue's first season (after the St. Louis Cardinals won the World Series at Busch Stadium in 2006), when, on November 4, 2009, the Yankees won their 27th World Series championship against the Phillies. The Yankees are the only team to inaugurate two stadiums with World Series wins and also appeared in the 1976 World Series following the refurbishment of the original Yankee Stadium.

 

Statistic Exhibition Regular season Postseason

First game April 3, 2009

Yankees 7, Cubs 4 April 16, 2009

Indians 10, Yankees 2 October 7, 2009

Yankees 7, Twins 2

Ceremonial First Pitch Reggie Jackson Yogi Berra Eric T. Olson

First Pitch Chien-Ming Wang CC Sabathia CC Sabathia

First Batter Aaron Miles (Cubs) Grady Sizemore (Indians) Denard Span (Twins)

First Hit Aaron Miles (Cubs) Johnny Damon Denard Span (Twins)

First Yankees Hit Derek Jeter Johnny Damon Derek Jeter

First Home Run Robinson Cano Jorge Posada Derek Jeter

First Win Chien-Ming Wang Cliff Lee (Indians) CC Sabathia

First Save Jonathan Albaladejo Mariano Rivera (4/17) Mariano Rivera

 

[edit] Other events

 

Football configuration for new Yankee Stadium.The first ever non-baseball event at the Stadium took place on April 25, 2009, with pastor and televangelist Joel Osteen holding a “Historic Night of Hope” prayer service.[66]

 

A New York University graduation ceremony took place on May 13, 2009 with the address being delivered by U.S. Secretary of State and former New York Senator Hillary Clinton. The 2010 NYU ceremony featured alumnus Alec Baldwin as a speaker.[67]

 

The promotional tour for the Manny Pacquiao-Miguel Cotto fight began with an event at Yankee Stadium on September 10, 2009.

 

On June 5, 2010, Yuri Foreman fought Cotto in the first boxing match in The Bronx since 1976. The fight was referred to as the "Stadium Slugfest." Cotto defeated Foreman with a TKO in the ninth round.[68]

 

The Army Black Knights will play a college football game at Yankee Stadium against The Notre Dame Fighting Irish on November 20, 2010. This will mark the two teams' first meeting in the Bronx since 1969.[69] Also, Army will play Air Force, Rutgers, and Boston College in 2011, 2012, and 2014 respectively at Yankee Stadium.

 

Yankee Stadium will also host the newly-created Pinstripe Bowl, an annual college football bowl game that will pit the third-place team from the Big East against the seventh-place team from the Big 12. Organizers plan to hold the inaugural game December 30, 2010.[70]

 

The Yankees were in discussions with the National Hockey League to have Yankee Stadium host the 2011 NHL Winter Classic. However, the NHL chose Heinz Field as the host. The stadium was a candidate to host the 2010 NHL Winter Classic before it was awarded to Boston's Fenway Park.[71]

 

Rappers Jay-Z and Eminem performed the first concert at Yankee Stadium on September 13, 2010.[72]

 

[edit] See also

Citi Field, a new baseball stadium for the New York Mets (National League) also opened in 2009, replacing the Mets' previous home Shea Stadium in northern Queens (New York City).

Barclays Center, an arena for the New Jersey Nets of the National Basketball Association to be built by and over the Metropolitan Transportation Authority's Atlantic Avenue railyards in northwestern Brooklyn (New York City) currently under construction.

New Meadowlands Stadium, a new football stadium for the New York Giants and the New York Jets of the National Football League which replaced Giants Stadium at the Meadowlands Sports Complex in East Rutherford, New Jersey that opened in 2010.

Red Bull Arena, a new stadium for the Major League Soccer team New York Red Bulls that opened in 2010, replacing the team's previous home, Giants Stadium.

[edit] References

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^ Yankee Stadium Populus.com

^ Stadium Comparison MLB.com

^ Yanks open Stadium against Cubs MLB.com

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^ www.fieldofschemes.com/documents/Yanks-Mets-costs.pdf

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^ Dog bites (Krazy) man Yankees.lhblogs.com

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^ www.seating-chart.info/mlb/american-league/yankee-stadium/

^ Andrew Clem www.andrewclem.com/Baseball/YankeeStadium_II.html

^ www.engadgethd.com/2007/10/03/kansas-city-royals-to-get-w... Kansas City Royals to get 'world's largest' HD LED scoreboard – endgadeget.com – Retrieved May 18, 2009

^ MJD (June 12, 2008). "Jerry Jones aims to make all Cowboys' fans blind by 2010". Sports.yahoo.com. sports.yahoo.com/nfl/blog/shutdown_corner/post/Jerry-Jone.... Retrieved November 28, 2008.

^ a b c d e "Tour the new House - Inside the Clubhouse". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/sports/baseball/yankees/yankeestadium.... Retrieved 2009-04-10.

^ a b c d "Tour the new House - Pinstripe Pride". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/sports/baseball/yankees/yankeestadium.... Retrieved 2009-04-10.

^ "New York Yankees-owned steakhouse will be part of new stadium". Daily News. Bloomberg News (New York). June 18, 2008. www.nydailynews.com/money/2008/06/18/2008-06-18_new_york_.... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ Best, Neil (February 24, 2009). "Old Yankee Stadium's obstructed views make a comeback". Newsday. www.newsday.com/services/newspaper/printedition/wednesday.... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ Best, Neil (February 25, 2009). "Yankees lower partial-view seat price to $5". Newsday. www.newsday.com/sports/ny-sptix2612496709feb26,0,5172494..... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ Metro-North Railroad (April 1, 2009). "Train Service to MTA Metro-North Railroad's Newest Station Yankees – E. 153rd Street Begins Saturday May 23, 2009". Press release. www.mta.info/mta/news/releases/?en=090401-MNR11. Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ a b N.Y.C. IDA Approves $325.3 Million, Most for Yankee Stadium Garages, The Bond Buyer, October 10, 2007

^ a b c d e Green, Sarah (May 5, 2009). "New Yankee Stadium Strikes Out With Customers". Harvard Business Publishing. blogs.harvardbusiness.org/cs/2009/05/new_yankee_stadium_i.... Retrieved 2009-05-07.

^ a b c Kepner, Tyler (Maay 6, 2009). "New Home, New Atmosphere". The New York Times. bats.blogs.nytimes.com/2009/05/06/new-home-new-atmosphere/. Retrieved 2009-05-07.

^ Miller, Scott (October 29, 2009). "Yankees create no excitement, and now pressure's on". CBS Sports.com. www.cbssports.com/mlb/story/12436398. Retrieved 2009-10-31.

^ Best, Neil (October 29, 2009). "Empty seats at Yankee Stadium not what they seem". Newsday. www.newsday.com/sports/empty-seats-at-yankee-stadium-not-.... Retrieved 2009-10-31.

^ a b c d Gagne, Matt (May 6, 2009). "Fallout from Yankeegate lingers with Stadium workers, irate fans". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/sports/baseball/yankees/2009/05/05/20.... Retrieved 2009-05-07.

^ Rashbaum, William K.; Belson, Ken (October 23, 2009). "Cracks Emerge in Ramps at New Yankee Stadium". The New York Times. www.nytimes.com/2009/10/24/nyregion/24stadium.html. Retrieved 2009-10-24.

^ a b c Olney, Buster (April 21, 2009). "New Yankee Stadium on steroids?". ESPN.com. sports.espn.go.com/mlb/news/story?id=4080195. Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ a b c Matthews, Wallace (May 20, 2009). "Home runs a cheap thrill at Yankee Stadium". Newsday. www.newsday.com/sports/baseball/ny-spwally2112790416may20.... Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ a b "Yankee Stadium: Biggest Joke in Baseball". New York Post. May 22, 2009. www.nypost.com/seven/05222009/sports/yankees/gammons_rips.... Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ Keown, Tim (April 28, 2009). "Trouble at the House that George Built". ESPN.com. sports.espn.go.com/espn/page2/story?page=keown/090428. Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ Roberts, Jeff (May 23, 2009). "Ruthian blasts now a common sight". NorthJersey.com. www.northjersey.com/sports/yankees/45886242.html. Retrieved 2009-05-23. [dead link]

^ McKee, Don (May 21, 2009). "Bronx launching pad awaits Phils". The Philadelphia Inquirer. www.philly.com/philly/news/breaking/20090521_Morning_Repo.... Retrieved 2009-05-23. [dead link]

^ "Phillies' Ruiz finishes Yanks in 11th, takes Lidge off hook". ESPN.com. sports.espn.go.com/mlb/recap?gameId=290524110. Retrieved 2009-05-29.

^ Olney, Buster (May 23, 2009). "Too many homers to right? Add a chicken coop". ESPN.com. insider.espn.go.com/espn/blog/index?entryID=4201092&n.... Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ a b Feinsand, Mark (April 21, 2009). "Homer's Odyssey: News tries to solve new Yankee Stadium's quandary". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/sports/baseball/yankees/2009/04/20/20.... Retrieved 2009-05-23.

^ a b c Dittmeier, Bobbie (June 10, 2009). "Study: Design cause of Stadium homers". MLB.com. www.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20090610&content_id=.... Retrieved 2009-06-10.

^ The New Stadium's a Bandbox TheYankeeUniverse.com

^ Hoch, Bryan (September 14, 2009). "Guerrero's homer sets Yankee Stadium mark". MLB.com. mlb.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20090914&content_id=.... Retrieved 2009-09-17.

^ a b Marchand, Andrew (April 30, 2010). "It is high, it is far, it is ... caught!". ESPN. sports.espn.go.com/new-york/mlb/news/story?id=5151275.

^ "Cleveland 10, New York 2". USA Today. April 16, 2009. content.usatoday.com/sportsdata/baseball/mlb/game/Indians.... Retrieved 2009-04-16.

^ Gibson, David (April 19, 2009). "God’s Will in Hard Times". New York Magazine. nymag.com/news/intelligencer/56161/. Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ "Alec Baldwin Speaks At NYU Graduation (PHOTOS)". The Huffington Post. May 12, 2010. www.huffingtonpost.com/2010/05/12/alec-baldwin-speaks-at-.... Retrieved 2010-05-13.

^ Weichselbaum, Simone; Schapiro, Rich (June 6, 2010). "Yankee Stadium slugfest: Miguel Cotto beats junior middleweight champ Yuri Foreman". Daily News (New York). www.nydailynews.com/ny_local/2010/06/06/2010-06-06_boxers.... Retrieved 2010-06-07.

^ Hoch, Bryan (July 20, 2009). "Yanks to host Notre Dame-Army game". MLB.com. mlb.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20090720&content_id=.... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ "First Pinstripe Bowl to Be Held Dec. 30". ESPN.com. March 9, 2010. sports.espn.go.com/ncf/news/story?id=4978803. Retrieved 2010-05-20.

^ "Yankee Stadium to host NHL game in 2011?". Newsday. July 20, 2009. www.newsday.com/sports/baseball/yankee-stadium-to-host-nh.... Retrieved 2010-01-16.

^ "Jay-Z, Eminem to play local ballparks". MLB.com. May 13, 2010. mlb.mlb.com/news/article.jsp?ymd=20100512&content_id=.... Retrieved 2010-05-13.

[edit] External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Yankee Stadium

Official Site

Virtual tour of new Yankee Stadium

Newsday.com New Yankee Stadium

Ballparks of Baseball

Ballparks.com overview of proposed stadium

Photographic Updates of the Construction of the New Yankee Stadium

Demolition of Yankee Stadium

Metro-North Railroad station at Yankee Stadium

  

For-Profit Blood Bank located around the corner from a homeless shelter downtown on 333 S. Preston St., Louisville, KY 40202.

 

"Plasma Biological Services is a Tennessee company with its principal office located in Memphis. The company is engaged in the business of drawing human source plasma and selling it for profit." www.eeoc.gov/eeoc/newsroom/release/10-27-15.cfm

 

"At least one of our corporate officers has served on its board of directors since its inception in 1971." (their lead page says "Providing blood and blood components since 1949") - Yet after an hour of searching I have been unable to locate any statement of corporate governance for this company. There is no Compact Privacy Policy below their website and no readily available Corporate Statement of Earnings or statement of Board of Governance or members. I have emailed the FDA and asked for verification of these claims - have not yet received any response. As of 6/16/16 their web site appears to be down for some reason: www.interstatebloodbank.com/

 

From their website:

"The Interstate Companies will gladly modify its operations to fit your special needs. In-Vivo and In-Vitro products are produced according to customer specifications which we incorporate into our Standard Operating Procedures.

 

Our products include the following:

 

Human Serum

Recovered Plasma

Source Plasma

Whole Blood

Red Blood Cells

Leukocytes (Buffy Coats)

Platelet Rich Plasma

Platelet Concentrates

Human Urine

Matched Serum & Plasma Sample sets

 

We collect our blood products in a variety of different anticoagulants including ACD, CPD, CPDA-1, Heparin and EDTA. We can collect custom products using your specified proprietary additive. If a product in which you are interested is not listed, please contact Customer Service, 901-384-6250.

 

We will gladly send you samples of any of our products for your evaluation."

  

Dell sees it this way:

"Interstate Blood Bank, Inc. (IBBI) a

division of The Interstate Companies,

collects and distributes life-saving

human plasma, which is the clear, liquid

portion of human blood. People need

plasma products to survive certain

traumatic injuries such as shock, and

to live with serious disorders including

hemophilia. Global pharmaceutical

companies also use plasma to create

products that help treat and prevent

diseases like tetanus, rabies, measles,

rubella and hepatitis B.

The U.S. Food and Drug Administration

and the International Quality Plasma

Program ensure that the organization’s

processes comply with regulations.

One such regulation is the federal

Clinical Lab Information Act, which

requires the protection of donors’

medical records as well as laboratory

data despite any outage or emergency.

To help meet requirements, IBBI

previously used Symantec Backup Exec

to replicate files from a laboratory in

Memphis, Tennessee, as well as 23

plasma donor centers and nine wholeblood

centers in 13 states. software.dell.com/documents/the-interstate-companies-case...

 

Received response from the FDA 16 June 2016 which essentially says: " "Please note that being registered with FDA does not mean a firm is in compliance with FDA regulations" -

 

Yet it goes on to say, "FDA is charged with protecting the safety of the nation’s blood supply and ensuring an adequate supply of suitable blood for use in the United States and regulates the procedures for the collection and screening of blood. We hope the following information will be helpful."

 

Full correspondence below (note disclaimer at bottom):

 

RE: 13438 FW: The Interstate Company Blood Donor Center

FromCBER OCOD Consumer Account cberocod@fda.hhs.gov

 

Received: from FDSWP09429.fda.gov ([169.254.3.43]) by FDSWP3311.fda.gov ([fe80::70da:c8ca:2d4c:e418%23]) with mapi id 14.03.0224.002; Thu, 16 Jun

2016 10:30:29 -0400

From: CBER OCOD Consumer Account

  

Dear Ms. Vinch:

 

Thank you for your e-mail inquiry concerning Interstate Blood Bank, Inc. in Louisville, KY. The Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (CBER), one of seven centers within the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), is responsible for the regulation of many biologically-derived products, including blood intended for transfusion, blood components and derivatives, vaccines and allergenic extracts, human cells, tissues, and cellular and tissue-based products (HCT/Ps), gene therapy and xenotransplantation products.

FDA is charged with protecting the safety of the nation’s blood supply and ensuring an adequate supply of suitable blood for use in the United States and regulates the procedures for the collection and screening of blood. We hope the following information will be helpful.

 

CBER requires all establishments that collect, manufacture, prepare, store blood and blood products under controlled conditions for further distribution, or process blood and blood products to register and submit a product list within 5 days after beginning operation. Blood and plasma establishments must register annually between November 15 and December 31 and update product listings every June and December. The Agency maintains a database of registered blood and plasma establishments in the Blood Establishment Registration (BER) database. Please note that being registered with FDA does not mean a firm is in compliance with FDA regulations. Registration with FDA means that an establishment has notified FDA of its business address and their blood products. Registration enables FDA to know what blood establishments are out there so we can do periodic inspections.

The link to the public query of registered blood establishments (BER) can be found at the following link on FDA’s website: www.fda.gov/BiologicsBloodVaccines/GuidanceComplianceRegu.... I was able to find the establishment in question in that database with a current registration. The listing has the address of the establishment along with contact information of the Corporate Medical Director for that facility should you wish to contact them. Additionally, the Blood Establishment Registration database shows the licensed blood and blood products the establishment has notified FDA they are manufacturing.

 

Please know that FDA does not have regulatory authority over the advertisement/information that Dell provides in the link you gave us. As noted above, the Agency regulates the blood and plasma establishments. The Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) that blood and plasma establishments must follow can be found in Title 21 of the CFRs, Parts 600-680 includes information for biological products: general, licensing, good manufacturing practice for blood and blood components, establishment registration for manufacturers of blood and blood products, product standards, requirements for human blood and blood products. A registered blood establishment must have a biologics license or an approved license supplement for each product it distributes in interstate commerce.

 

We hope this information is useful.

 

If you need further assistance, you may contact our office again at ocod@fda.hhs.gov or by phone at 1-800-835-4709.

 

Sincerely,

Jill Burkoff

 

Consumer Safety Officer

Consumer Affairs Branch

Division of Communication and Consumer Affairs

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

 

Follow us on Twitter: FDA CBER

 

This informal communication represents my best judgment at this time. It does not constitute an advisory opinion in accordance with 21 CFR 10.85, and does not necessarily represent the formal position of FDA or otherwise obligate the agency to the views expressed.

 

*************

My response:

  

Sent: Thursday, June 16, 2016 11:20 AM

To: CBER OCOD Consumer Account; CBER OCOD Consumer Account

Subject: Re: 13438 FW: The Interstate Company Blood Donor Center

 

Dear Ms. Burkoff:

 

Thank you for your rapid response. When was the last periodic FDA inspection of the below facility, please?

  

Sincerely,

Vicky Vinch

 

**************

 

FDA's response:

 

Dear Ms. Vinch:

 

Thank you for your follow-up e-mail.

 

Unfortunately, we will be unable to provide the information you are seeking. The dates of inspections of blood and plasma establishments are not posted on our website. You may request information that is not readily available on our website by submitting a Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) request to FDA. When submitting a FOIA request, please be as specific as possible with your request, specifying exactly the information that you would like to obtain. Information on submitting a FOIA request to FDA can be found at:

www.fda.gov/RegulatoryInformation/FOI/HowtoMakeaFOIAReque....

  

Sincerely,

Jill Burkoff

 

Consumer Safety Officer

Consumer Affairs Branch

Division of Communication and Consumer Affairs

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research

U.S. Food and Drug Administration

Follow us on Twitter: FDA CBER

This communication is consistent with 21 CFR 10.85 (k) and constitutes an informal communication that represents my best judgment at this time but does not constitute an advisory opinion, does not necessarily represent the formal position of FDA, and does not bind or otherwise obligate or commit the agency to the views expressed.

 

Return-Path:

Received: from fda-ifw-00.fda.gov (fda-ifw-00.fda.gov [150.148.0.65])

(using TLSv1 with cipher RC4-SHA (128/128 bits))

(No client certificate requested)

 

*************************************

 

My response:

 

Dear Jill -

 

Thank you for your timely response. I appreciate the input however I had submitted a previous FOIA request on the clinical trial results for Splenda back in 2009 (below) and still have not received those - perhaps you may not be aware the FDA is non-responsive to FOIA requests?

 

Thank you,

Vicky

 

1936 White Motor Company Model 706. I saw several of these "vintage" bright yellow tourist tour buses in Yellowstone on this trip. I think they look great and give the park visitor a feel for the history of the park's interesting history.

 

Here is an extract of information on these buses:

 

In 2007, eight “Old Yellow Buses” returned to Yellowstone National Park after 50 year absence. They are White Motor Company Model 706s that were used in Yellowstone and several other national parks starting in the 1930s.

 

The yellow buses carried visitors around Yellowstone until the 1950s when private vehicle usage increased to the point where they were not needed. They were sold and left to find other homes across the country.

 

The Skagway (Alaska) Streetcar Company purchased eight of the vehicles and used them for tours until 2001 when they were returned to Yellowstone.

 

After being refurbished, the eight were back to their original appearance, but updated to today’s commercial standards for safety and emissions. They once again transport visitors in the style and elegance of yesteryear.

 

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

 

THE CIRQUE OF THE TOWERS Backpacking Trip: September 7th through 9th 2012

Wind River Mountain Range - Wyoming

 

PREFACE:

 

I often write a "story" to go along with the photographs I post on my OLDMANTRAVELS flickr site. I can get pretty wordy and long winded with these stories but the beauty of the situation is you don't have to read one word of it if you don't want to. Just look at the photographs (if you want to).

 

On occasion I have received some flip Flickr flak for my long photo "stories" but, trust me, I am adept and ignoring criticism. Ask any of my photographer friends who try to talk me into using a tripod or even try to become a "real" photographer (instead of a hiker who likes to snap pictures).

 

So, you may be sitting in a work cubicle in a high rise office in L.A., wishing you were any where else in the world but preferably up in the mountains with a pack on your back. You may sitting in an easy chair in your ranch house in Halfway, Wyoming (I want to go there some day, just to say I have been there) looking at flickr photos on your PC or surfing flickr photos on your iPad in a cafe in Halfway, Oregon (I have been there. Cool little town).

 

But wherever you are, be it Halfway,Anywhere or Alltheway, Somewhere - I hope you enjoy some of the photographs and perhaps, some of the story that goes with them. Have fun.

 

INTRODUCTION:

 

Fred and I put together a backpacking trip into Titcomb Basin, in the Northern portion of Wyoming's Wind River Range for September of 2011. With Fred's consent, my brother and a friend of mine, accompanied us on that backpacking trip. We backpacked 27 miles over four days and had spectacular weather. No bugs and very few people. In fact, we pretty much had Upper and Lower Titcomb Lakes to ourselves.

 

The September 2011 Titcomb Basin backpack, was the first time Fred and I had hiked together. We got along great so it was only natural to plan a "follow up hike". During the always long, with short days, winter or 2011-12, we exchanged emails and it became evident that both of us longed for a return trip to the Wind River Range. So early in the year of 2012, we set our sights on the Cirque of the Towers, located in the Southern portion of the Wind River Range. The planning began in earnest.

 

For our 2012 backpacking trip, we invited Fred's sister, whom I shall call "SQ". Fred had told me about her before. He claimed that she was an excellent hiker, backpacker and outdoors person and would be fun to have on our backpacking trip. He was 100% right.

 

Both Fred and SQ both work (they aren't old living on government dole like me) so we set the Cirque of the Towers backpacking trip dates for Friday 9.6.12; Saturday 9.7.12; and Sunday 9.8.12. Weekends might mean more people on the trails but for good company on a backpacking trip, that didn't bother me...so subject to a "reasonable" weather forecast, those are the days we picked.

 

When we got we got within a ten day weather forecast window of our backpacking trip and the forecast looked good, the three of us agreed to "go for it". We all reserved cabins at the Log Cabin Motel in Pinedale, Wyoming for Thursday night September 6th. Our plan would be to head for the Big Sandy trail head on Friday morning - - backpacks loaded and ready.

 

As a shiftless (you could add lazy, stubborn, and unconventional to that) retiree, who no longer works (my wife still works part time), I was free to drive down to the trail head and return back home, at my own whims and predilections. Early on, my wife and I agreed not to include her on this particular backpacking trip as we didn't know how "tough or easy" the route up Jackass Pass (10,800') might be and it would be difficult to get the right days off in September.

 

"THE STORY" DAY ONE: I left our home in Eastern Washington at four in the morning. I had our small, old, high mileage SUV packed with both my backpacking gear and "road travel" gear. It had been packed and double checked, the night before.

 

As with any road trip or hike, the earlier I get going the better I like it. I'm like a kid in that respect. Can't wait.

 

I drove the interstate (I-90) east and at a steady pace. My goal was to reach a camping spot anywhere between Red Lodge, Montana and the Beartooth Pass, leading into the Northeast entrance of Yellowstone National Park.

 

I stayed on I-90 all the way through Spokane, Missoula, Three Forks, Bozeman, and the small town of Columbus, Montana. Here I left the interstate and purposefully drove a highway I had never traveled before. I took Montana highway 78 through Abarokee and "downtown" Roscoe to Red Lodge, Montana.

 

My plan was to camp between Red Lodge and Northeast entrance to Yellowstone NP, so I could travel the spectacular Beartooth Pass highway, right at dawn. My wife and I had tried to travel the pass a few years ago (from south to north) but it was closed so we improvised an took the scenic highway 296 highway to Cody, Wyoming on that trip. But it had been many years since last crossing the Beartooth Pass (10,947') and I was anxious to do so again.

 

There was a problem and that was forest fires. Whether started by lightening, careless people, or on purpose as "managed" fires as they call them, the smoke can diminish the scenic beauty of an area quickly and I had driven through lots of such wildfire smoke on this trip already.

 

I found an excellent place to camp just as dark started to arrive. I backed my old RAV4 up to within a stone's toss of the rumbling creek (Rock Creek) and slept in the bed I had prepared in the back of the old Toyota RAV4 with 150,000 miles on it. Breaking camp the next morning would consist of crawling from the bed in the back to the driver's seat and starting the engine (followed closely by turning the heat to high and the fan to full).

 

"THE STORY" DAY TWO: I arrived at the summit of Beartooth Pass at dawn. As I suspected and feared, the forest fire smoke filtered the landscape views and at times irritated my eyes. Still, I enjoyed every minute of the drive. It is big, spectacular country and I kept reminding myself that forest fires were as much a part of the grand scheme of Mother Nature, as were winds, rain, four seasons, and flowing rivers and streams.

 

I stopped to take a few photos at "Little Bear Lake" and then continued on through Cooke City and Silver Gate into Yellowstone. I drove slowly through Yellowstone, admiring the wildlife (bison, pronghorn, elk, deer, and sandhill cranes) and the scenery. Dunraven Pass had lots of wildfire smoke so I didn't linger there. On through Canyon Village then Lake Village exiting the park on highway 191.

 

Entering Grand Teton National Park on the venerable highway 191 route, I decided to stray from convention and loop over to Jenny Lake, a place I had not visited for many years. So at the south end of Jackson Lake, I took the Teton Park Road to the Jenny Lake visitor center. Lots of people. The tent camp was already full so I spent some quality time talking to a young lady park ranger, with a map spread out in front of us, talking about any places I might camp that night, that wouldn't be full. She recommended Gros Ventre camp, so off I went.

 

At Moose Junction I turned back north on hwy 191 to Antelope Flats Road and headed east. I went past the north end of "Mormon Row" but didn't take time to stop as I wanted most of all to secure a campsite for the night. I then took the paved narrow two lane road south to Kelly (a small "pocket town" on the Gros Ventre River), and turned back west to the Gros Ventre campground. On the way I passed the south end of the gravel road that travels the Mormon Row barns and homesteads, so I now had the lay of the land in my mind.

 

Two women at the campground office worked at finding me a campsite for the night that would lend itself to my goal of a quiet night's sleep with an early morning departure. They put me up at site #199 in Loop "D" for a modest "senior's rate" camp fee. It turned out perfect. My only camping neighbor was a nice couple from Emmett, Idaho, who were in a truck camper and as they said "prepared to camp until the leaves changed color". I liked that.

 

Having secured (posted my receipt on the campsite post) my camping spot for the night, I drove the gravel road north to enjoy the much photographed old buildings of Mormon Row

The places along this row of farms were built in the 1910s up into the early 1930s. The people, who lived here were mostly the Moultons, some Chambers, Thomas Murphy and Thomas Perry. Many of the buildings are gone and all that remain are now part of the national park system. The views of the Grand Teton Mountains from these old buildings are spectacular.

 

After taking some smoke filtered landscape photos at Mormon Row, I was hungry. I carried and ice chest full of cold soda pop and a well stocked plastic tote of sandwich making material, so I drove north up to the Snake River Overlook (a place my wife and I have often stopped at when driving highway 191 through Grand Teton NP).

 

Here I fixed and ate dinner, walked the rim of the Snake River and waited with others for the sun to set behind the Grand Teton range. Now I began to appreciate the forest fire smoke in the area as the sky turned bright orange and pink behind the mountains as the sun disappeared behind them. Well worth the wait. After the sunset scene, I drove back to my campsite, read John Muir's "Travels in Alaska" by LED headlamp, and fell blissfully asleep.

 

"THE STORY" DAY THREE: This was an uneventful, slow paced, rest up, organize, and get ready for the backpacking trip day. Enjoyable.

 

I drove the Moose Entrance to Wilson "scenic road" for the first time. The north end had some good "moose country" habitat and it was an enjoyable drive, but even early in the morning don't expect solitude. It is a popular route. Postscript: I didn't see a single moose along the MOOSE to Wilson road (which reminds me of a joke):

 

Said a well traveled young man: "I spent an entire week on the Canary Islands and during my entire stay, I didn't see one canary. I then traveled to the Virgin Islands for a week long visit there as well. And you know what? ..................... I didn't see a single canary there either.".

 

I stocked up on "hiking food" (scones) at the Albertson store in Jackson Hole, Wyoming then drove on to Hoback Junction and on to Pinedale, Wyoming. I checked into my cabin there and started organizing my backpacking gear, making sandwiches for the backpacking trip, reading, relaxing and hoping that Fred and SQ would arrive without problems from there homes in the Boise, Idaho area.

 

Fred called me by cell phone at 1:30 pm on Thursday and said that they were "on their way" with an ETA of around 9:30 pm (which is about when they arrived). Fred came to my cabin when they got to Pinedale (SQ went directly to her cabin) and the two of us talked about the upcoming hike plans and agreed upon when we would leave Pinedale in the morning.

  

"THE STORY" DAY FOUR: We drove to the Subway for our last "civilization" meal for a few days, then headed off to the Big Sandy trailhead. In some hiking guide books, they make finding the correct turns to make as complicated and difficult. We found quite the contrary. There are just two major turns to make after leaving the pavement on Wyoming highway 353. They aren't hard to find. The dirt roads are in great shape except the last ten miles (when you make the last turn north). There it is pretty rough in places but the scenery and anticipation of the high quality hiking to come, makes it a cinch as well.

 

We signed in at the trail head, shouldered our backpacks and headed up the 5.5 mile trail (with only 600 ft. of elevation gain) to Big Sandy Lake. Fred is a strong hiker and a professional photographer (in addition to his professional "day job"). So it is difficult for him to leave a tripod, camera body, or lens ... behind. SQ whispered to me that he was able to leave his wooden pin hole camera behind on this hike but he took it with him on our September 2011 Titcomb Basin hike.

 

Fred always carries the biggest and heaviest pack but he knows what he is capable of and takes the cameras, lenses, and photographic equipment it takes to get the professional results he does with his photography.

 

SQ had the next biggest and heaviest pack. She too is a strong competent hiker and backpacker and as Fred once warned me "She will out hike us both"...she did. So we put SQ in the lead and asked her to slow down if she saw us "fading" on the trail.

 

I'm the wimp. I carried the lightest load of the three of us. And here comes the first of a couple of backpacking vignettes: Leading up to our backpacking trip, Fred and I exchanged emails dithering and deliberating over how to save weight to carry on our backpacking trip.

This meant all was subject to being left behind , except camera gear for Fred (of course).

 

We both decided that with the favorable weather forecast, for example, we could leave rain pants behind. Nylon hiking pant and long poly prop underwear would handle that issue for me. Then the topic came up of "bear vaults". Both Fred and I have each owned one for years but NEVER has either of us used ours. Hell they weigh TWO pounds each and they are bulky. Besides, we are real men. We can hang our food properly in a bear bag over a cliff or on an sturdy tree limb. So went the thinking.

 

When I confirmed by phone that bear vaults weren't mandatory in the Wind River Range, Fred and I gleefully agreed that we would leave ours at home. Well you have probably already figured out the punch line. given our situation of "the beauty" (SQ) hiking with "the two beasts" (Fred and me). SQ brought her bear vault and Fred and I shamelessly made use of the bear vault SQ packed all the way to Big Sandy Lake in her large heavy backpack.

 

We leap frogged a few backpackers on our way up to Big Sandy Lake. Two women and their four pack carrying dogs became our instant trail favorites. We would run into each other on the backpack into Big Sandy Lake; on the trail coming out of the Cirque of the Towers on Saturday and at least twice on our backpack out to the trail head on Sunday.

 

The four happy hiking trail dogs were a real study in different dog personalities. Walter, was the smallest, slightest built dog of the four and clearly liked to lead. He was also the most affectionate to trail strangers (like us) and seemed to be having the most fun. He was a mutt, as many smart endearing dogs are and a mix between a beagle and Australian shepherd. The other three were magnificent purebred German Shepherds.

 

Walter was always "first up the trail". He made friends quickly with his adorable expression and straight forward manner. As soon as the three German Shepherds saw how well Walter was being petted and scratched behind his ears...they lined up and competed for attention.

 

Almost 75% of the people we saw hiking in and out of Big Sandy Lake had dogs with them and I can tell you that every dog we passed was well mannered and friendly. They were welcome trail companions in my book.

 

The three of us arrived at Big Sandy Lake and were impressed by both the appeal of the lake and the dramatic mountains that surround it. It is a truly lovely lake. I think if any of us had hiked the Cirque of the Towers trail up over Jackass Pass before, and seen the available "best tent sites" in the area, we might have continued to hike there on Friday. We had enough daylight. But with a wind and clouds rolling in at the moment, we decided it would be best to secure a good camping spot at the far end of Big Sandy Lake and then do our exploring with day hikes to the Cirque of the Towers and later to the Clear Lake & Deep Lake - East Temple Peak area - - if we had time.

 

That decided, we set up our three small lightweight backpacking tents in a well spaced row up the left bank of the almost dry creek bed of Lost Creek. The spacing would assure that SQ would not have to lose a night's sleep listening to two world class snorers (Fred and I have our reputations to uphold in that classification). SQ took the top site up close to the marmot's boulder field; then Fred's tent; then mine. We all had quality views of Sandy Mountain; Big Sandy Lake; Haystack and East Temple peaks.

 

Our intent was to spend both Friday and Saturday nights at our Big Sandy Lake/Lost Creek "base camp". Then we could spend all of our time hiking our favorite trails with light day packs (though with Fred's camera gear, I'm pretty certain his day pack load would be close to my entire backpack load in weight). This is what we did and it worked out great.

 

We ate camp dinner and talked for awhile and took a couple of short "reconnaissance" hikes close by camp. We now had a feel for the "Miller Lake/Little Sandy Lake" trail; the Clear Lake/Deep Lake trail; the Black Joe Lake trail as well as the trail junction for the hike up past North Lake and Arrowhead Lake, over Jackass Pass and into the spectacular Cirque of the Towers area.

 

We all retired to our tents for the night. I had brought along a copy of the Sep+Oct 2012 Washington Trails magazine for camp reading. The magazine came with membership in the Washington Trails Association that was "gifted" to me by a good hiking friend of mine, HC.

 

I turned on my LED headlamp and opened up the magazine. There on page three was a familiar name: Andy Porter. He was listed as a "guest contributor". He is a flickr contact of mine and he does indeed take excellent photographs. It seemed ironic, that I had written one person about a waterfall location, in the Cirque area between Hidden and Lonesome Lake, and that was Andy. He was quick to send me a Flickr email back with information that I requested. His Flickr site is: I8Seattle.

 

A quick side note: Flickr has been a wonderful resource for me when researching upcoming hikes and road trips. I really appreciate people like Andy, who willingly share information. I always write to thank people for their help. Some people sent me a flickr email a couple of months ago asking for camping information for the Titcomb Basin hike and some specific camp location questions. I wrote them providing what they asked, and never heard another word. There are people that are "takers" out there, who think nothing of requesting information then are too lazy (or rude) to send a two word reply back. Thank you.

 

Thanks Andy for the "waterfalls" info. Thanks too "HC" for the WTA membership gift and the Trails magazine that comes with it.

 

"THE STORY" DAY FIVE: Fred, the professional photographer, wanted to head up the 2+ mile trail over Jackass Pass before dawn, hiking with a headlamp. I told him I would be happy to join him and asked that he call for me outside my tent if he got up before I did.

 

SQ, who doesn't carry a camera but instead hikes to see and enjoy the scenery, said she would sleep in Saturday morning and start up the trail when she had something to eat and was good and ready. I hope you are starting to get the picture here. A competent smart woman hiker and her brother and her brother's hiking friend (me) that can't seem to wait to get going .. no matter what.

 

What happened Saturday morning? I got up at six. I went over to Fred's tent and said in a nice strong voice "Fred, Fred...Fred". No response. I headed down where we had placed SQ's Bear Vault (filled equally with her food, our food, and our camp food garbage). My intent was to open the bear vault and get some hiking food for my day hike up into the Cirque of the Towers.

 

The lid of the bear vault was iced over and try as I might I couldn't get it open. I squeezed the lid in; wrestled with it; cursed it; but could not open it. I admit to being shamed in knowing that a black bear in the Adirondack Mountains has learned to open the blasted things..yet I could not.

 

I decided with my ample "fat reserve" that I could make it without food for my day hike over and back to the Cirque of the Towers. I threw a couple bottles of diet Mt. Dew (my caffeine fix) in my pack; two small cameras (Canon G9 & G10) a few essentials and a coat, into my light Marmot "day pack" and got ready to head out.

 

Then I noticed that Fred's pack wasn't in sight. So I returned to his tent and called his name a few more times then opened the rain fly of his tent to find him gone.

 

I now concluded correctly that: #1 he had left before dawn and had been unable to stir me from my sleep. AND #2 incorrectly that Fred too had been unable to open the bear vault so he too would be hiking without trail food. I thought the ice and frost on the bear vault lid proved that but I was wrong. Fred (like the black bear in the Adirondacks) did get the vault open but had left so early that a new coating of ice and frost had formed on the lid by the time I tried it. Off I went.

 

It was light enough for me to hike easily without a headlamp up the Cirque of the Towers trail. It did get tough to find the route in a couple of places though and the trail was much more work that I thought it would be so it took a little longer than I might have guessed. I was just amazed that Fred had been able to successfully negotiate the route in the dark, even with a good map and headlamp, given that none of the three of us had ever hiked in the area.

 

I saw Fred's boot prints on the occasional dirt or sand portion of the trail. I just didn't know how early he had left camp, nor how fast or slow he might be hiking, given his load of camera gear.

 

I won't try to describe how magnificent the scenery was on this hike and I hope a photo or two of mine does some justice to it, but my head was constantly on swivel enjoying the ever unfolding beauty of this world class rock climbing area.

 

After a few steep ups and downs in the cairn marked trail, I came to a four way trail intersection above Arrowhead Lake. To my left a faint path lead down to the north end of Arrowhead Lake. to my right was a straight up the hill wide, heavily eroded, rock strewn trail that was clearly the route to Jackass pass (10,800 ft.).

 

Straight ahead was a faint but inviting "climbers' path" that led up to a notched saddle, that I just knew would have a tremendous view of the Cirque, the rock faces, and the landscape as the morning sun was starting to move down the rock faces. I chose to take the path straight ahead.

 

Coming over the crest of the saddle and looking down below at the Cirque and across at all the tremendous spires, faces, and peaks of the Cirque of the Towers was the most dramatic moment of this trip. Wonderful. Beyond words.

 

Right in the middle of the Cirque was "the waterfalls" I wanted to visit and photograph. It was right where Andy Porter said it would be. I could follow the creek down from Hidden Lake (not labeled on all maps you will see of the area) and then see it as it flowed down over the falls and on into the Lonesome Lake basin.

 

I studied the topography of the cirque basin for awhile and picked a line of travel that would avoid tight patches of alpine conifers and the boulder fields that might slow my progress. I had lots of choices and I sat off on what looked like the "best route" down to the waterfalls.

 

The waterfalls are small but their setting makes them dramatic. While at the falls I saw a few rock climbers making their way to Pingora or Wolf Head or some other peak of the Cirque of the Towers, with their rock climbing gear slung across their shoulders.

 

I met a retired backpacker from Kellogg, Idaho, who was camped a ways down stream from the waterfalls. He had his binoculars out and was getting ready to watch the rock climber ply their avocation and skills.

 

I contoured from the waterfalls over to intercept the trail between Lonesome Lake and Jackass Pass. No sign of Fred anywhere but I just knew wherever he was he had a big grin on his face and was happily following photo op after photo op. I knew he was in his element.

 

When I got to the main trail, without losing any altitude, it was a short hike up over Jackass Pass, heading south. Quietly I hoped I could hike fast enough to get back to camp at Big Sandy Lake, eat something (I was determined to get into the Yogi Bear proof bear vault) then head out for a hike to one or more of the lakes down by Temple Mountain.

 

Between Arrowhead Lake and North Lake, on the trail on my way back to Big Sandy Lake camp, I saw SQ coming up the trail at a nice even brisk pace. We hadn't talked much up to this point but there is something about a "side of the trail" talk, that brings out topic after topic.

 

When she found out I hadn't been able to get into the "anybody can do it" (except me), bear vault she started throwing food out of her day pack, insisting that I eat something of hers. I didn't have the heart to eat any of her precious trail chocolate but willingly ate one of her mini-bagel peanut butter and jelly sandwiches.

 

We talked on and on and every few minutes, hikers or climber going in or out of the Cirque of the Towers would stop by and the conversation would expand in topic and in number of participants. What fun.

 

Then we looked down the trail and saw a familiar face coming up the trail. It was "Walter the wonder dog" the trail beagle/Australian shepherd mix, sweetheart of a dog. He seemed to recognize us and made a bee line over for some ear scratching and encouraging "dog talk". He may have also spotted SQ's trail snacks.

 

A much repeated trail ritual ensued with Walter's big German Shepherd companions appearing on the trail The moment they spotted Walter getting attention they once again lined up for their share. The two women, who owned the dogs (by now regular "trail friends") came up too and another animated trail information sessions began again. They told me of how much they had enjoyed the granite slab rock hike between Deep and Clear Lakes, so that nugget of information lodged in my mind.

 

Finally SQ and I headed our different ways. She headed up toward Jackass Pass (armed with my recommendation for at least sampling the "climbers' trail" to the notch). She would find Fred and probably the two of them would spend the rest of the day in the Cirque of the Towers area. I expressed my wish to eat at camp; secure food; and then head south from Big Sandy Lake to hike the Clear Lake/Deep Lake slab stone route OR the entire loop if I found I had time (returning down the Miller Lake route).

 

By 1:30 pm I had successfully opened the bear vault back at "base camp" and had a big lunch. I packed my day pack with more water and my water filter and readied for a day hike toward Temple Mountain. I left an irreverent note for Fred and SQ in the bear vault, so they would know what time I headed out and what my intended destination would be.

 

More hikers and backpackers were now arriving at Big Sandy Lake. That came as no surprise to me given the great weather and it being a Saturday. What did surprise me is that when I took off on the trail up to Clear Lake, I didn't see another person or backpacking tent, until I had hiked up to Deep Lake and returned to Clear Lake. Then, and only then did I run into a few hikers.

 

The hike up the granite slab rock between Clear Lake and Deep Lake was the most enjoyable section of "trail" that I have hiked in the Wind River Range. I just loved it. The steep white granite walls of Haystack and East Temple Mountain were tremendous sights.

 

When I looked at my hiking maps the route from Clear to Deep Lake was obvious so I ignored the cairns and any trails wandering in and out of the woods and just hiked the slab rock to my heart's content. It was really great hiking.

 

I lingered at Deep Lake to filter some water (tasted great), and just enjoy the outstanding views. I was tempted to hang around or perhaps hike on over to Temple Lake so I could be at Deep Lake when the pink early evening light started to hit East Temple Peak. But I thought it best to return the way I came and get back to Big Sandy Lake "base camp" in time to have a early evening meal with Fred & SQ, who would likely be returning from the Cirque of the Towers at around the same time.

 

The weather forecast for Sunday was a 20% chance of rain, which according to hikers coming in, had jumped up to 30%. Fred and SQ had the two plus hour backpack out from Big Sandy Lake to the trail head to do Sunday morning; then a two plus hour drive to Pinedale; then an 8 hour trip back home to Boise - - to be ready for work Monday morning.

 

When the three of us ended up together at our tents at our Big Sandy Lake "base camp" we all agreed to "sleep in" then head out together first thing Sunday morning. Saturday night was a still star filled night. It was a great way to finish out this backpacking trip. We all went to sleep with our own thoughts.

 

"THE STORY" DAY SIX: We all got up the next morning about the same time. Without words we immediately ate something and started striking our tents and packing our packs. Ice had formed on the inside of my rain fly as I had slept with the rain fly door wide open. Still I wouldn't have missed the night view of the stars.

 

At 8 am Sunday morning we shouldered our backpacks and headed down the gentle easy trail from Big Sandy Lake back to our vehicles at the trail head.

 

We talked to several hikers and backpackers as they were heading in and we were heading out. We met two older, but fit looking, women with quality backpacking gear, coming up the trail. Their accents quickly gave them away. They were from Adelaide, Australia.

 

I quickly teased them about the 1/2 hour time zones I had run into when working the area in the 1980s. SQ and the two Aussie women found some common topic threads and a full scale trail meeting began in earnest. Fred and I slowly backed away into the shade of a small pine and watched with pleasure and amusement as the women adroitly shifted topics and punctuated their discussion with hand waving.

 

Then a familiar hiker came running down the trail toward us. Walter the wonder beagle. How funny. Same routine, different location. Now the two dog owning women hikers; joined the two Aussie women; and SQ (surrounded by attention seeking canines) and the trail meeting took on a life of its own.

 

I circled the trail meeting with my camera trying to catch a snapshot that would capture the essence and the spirit of the "meeting". The meeting finally ended and off we all went. it was a good ending to our trail encounters with other hikers and Walter will always have a special place in my heart and a deserved title as "Trail Ambassador" and a very cute and clever dog.

 

We were at our vehicles by 11 am and digging into our ice chests for cold rewards for our three day backpacking and day hiking efforts. We chatted and talked trip highlights at the trail head then convoyed our vehicles back to the paved road. I stopped to photograph a cow and calf moose along the road on the way back to Pinedale but ran into Fred & SQ at the Subway, where we parted ways for the last time on this trip.

 

It had been a wonderful backpacking trip for me. If you made a short list of the qualities you would want in backpacking and hiking companions it would probably include adjectives such as: dependable, fair, courteous, considerate, flexible tolerant, competent, confident, honest, happy, flexible, fit, and a couple of phrases like "great attitude" "self sufficient" etc. Fred and his sister were all of those and more.

 

I have a feeling we will hike together again, unless I get too old too soon to keep up with the two of them. If they ever switch to lighter packs, then I'm already out matched. But somehow, I think the two of them would be fine with hiking slower because that is the kind of nice people that they are. Thanks Fred. Thanks SQ.

 

By the way if you have not yet hiked this area and are thinking about doing so, I highly recommend the map "Cirque of the Towers Wind River Range" by Backpacker Magazine (mytopo - a Trimble company). Fred found it and being the considerate person that he is, bought and sent a copy of the map to both me and to his sister, before our backpacking trip.

 

Also: I have read many backpacking "guides" and the one that hits the right balance for me and seems to be filled with good and "reasonable" advice is: Backpacker: "The Hiking Light Handbook" (carry less and enjoy more) by Karen Berger. I highly recommend it.

 

After leaving Pinedale in the early afternoon I had a planned stop at Trappers Point, just north of Pinedale off highway 191. You can't miss the place now as they are putting in a million dollar "antelope, deer, elk, and cattle" overpass right near the site.. You take a short rough dirt road to the top of a hill and you are looking down upon where Horse Creek enters the Snake River. Here six of the sixteen fur trading "rendezvous" took place.

 

Looking down upon the scene it doesn't take much imagination to time transport your thoughts to the 1830s and 1840s and imagine the colorful events that took place where you are looking. You will be standing where many Native Americans have stood, when hunting at this natural big game corridor. You can understand why this location was chosen for the rendezvous with - - the combination of wood, water, grazing, and bountiful game that would have made this the "place to be" for those many years.

 

You will share views and boot prints with mountain men like Jim Bridger (my hero); the Sublette brothers; Thomas Fitzpatrick; and Jedediah Smith (his story is a great read).

 

After spending much time at Trappers Point, I drove the familiar route through Bondurant, to the Hoback Junction; then down the Snake River to Alpine. From here I purposefully took yet another back road I had never before driven. I took highway 34 through small towns like Freedom, Henry and Soda Springs. I saw moose and pronghorn along the way and lots of early fall color.

 

When I arrived at Interstate 15 the "get home" bug hit me in full and I kept with the interstates from then on, driving up to Pocatello; then over to Burley, Twin Falls, Boise, La Grande, Pendleton and home. I pulled into rest stops, picnic areas, forest camps etc. to catch three of four hours of sleep in my RAV car camping bed, then drove on sipping cold diet Pepsi and eating peanut butter and jelly sandwiches I made along the way using fresh coarse great tasting wheat bread I purchased near Daniel, Wyoming.

 

I got back home Monday morning. You might think I surprised my wife by getting home so early after leaving the trail head at close to noon on Sunday, but not so. She knows me well and greeted me with a big hug and a knowing smile. A good trip. I hope you enjoy some of the photographs and perhaps a bit of the "story" as well. OMT September 2012.

SS......IT'S ALL THEY ARE

 

IT'S ALL THE LEFT... THE LIBERALS,DEMOCRATS, PROGRESSIVES, SOCIALISTS...WHATEVER THEY CALL

THEMSELVES IT'S ALL THEY WILL EVER BE .............LIARS

==============================================

  

Conservatives are outraged at the IRS' disclosure late Friday that it had lost a trove of former administrator Lois Lerner's emails on the targeting of tea party groups, with one critic likening it to the infamous gap in a tape of President Richard Nixon's conversations during the Watergate scandal.

"Liars. They're such liars. Unbelievable," charged Washington attorney Cleta Mitchell, who is representing several groups in a federal lawsuit over the targeting in their applications for tax-exempt status. "This is outrageous. They're lying.

 

"This is like the 18-and-a-half minutes in Rose Mary Woods' tape," Mitchell said, referring to the gap in the audio tape of a June 20, 1972, conversation believed to have been held between Nixon and Chief of Staff H.R. Haldeman. "It's ridiculous. I just don't believe them."

 

Jenny Beth Martin, co-founder of the Tea Party Patriots, one of the groups that received its tax-exempt status after suing the IRS, said the revelation "doesn’t pass the smell test and smacks of obstruction of justice."

 

Jay Sekulow, chief counsel of the American Center for Law and Justice, which is representing 41 targeted groups in a federal lawsuit against the IRS, said "this is insanity."

 

"Hollywood couldn’t write a script with any more scandal and intrigue than what is unfolding in the IRS targeting scandal," he said in a report on the organization's website.

 

And Rep. Darrell Issa, chairman of the House Oversight and Government Reform Committee, suggested that the White House was being dishonest in saying that the emails were lost.

 

"Isn’t it convenient for the Obama administration that the IRS now says it has suddenly realized it lost Lois Lerner’s emails requested by Congress and promised by Commissioner John Koskinen?" the California Republican asked in a statement. "Do they really expect the American people to believe that, after having withheld these emails for a year, they're just now realizing the most critical time period is missing?"

 

The Internal Revenue Service told Congress late Friday that it could not locate many of Lerner's emails prior to 2011 because her computer crashed that summer.

 

Lerner headed the IRS division that processed applications for tax-exempt status. The agency was found in May 2013 to have improperly scrutinized applications for tax-exempt status by tea party, religious, and other conservative groups. The screening generally involved unusual delays and detailed requests for information.

 

The scrutiny started in 2010 and continued to just before the 2012 presidential election. Besides the Tea Party Patriots, other groups targeted were True the Vote, the Houston-based organization that combats election fraud, and Crossroads Grassroots Policy Strategies, a nonprofit political group advised by Republican strategist Karl Rove.

 

Lerner, who retired last September because of the scandal, was found in contempt of Congress in May after refusing to testify before Issa's committee.

 

When she first appeared before the oversight committee not long after the scandal broke, Lerner denied wrongdoing but refused to answer questions, citing her Fifth Amendment right against self-incrimination. She took the Fifth in a second hearing before the panel in March.

 

The Oversight Committee is one of three congressional panels that have been investigating the IRS scandal for more than a year. The others are the House Ways and Means Committee and the Senate Finance Committee.

 

The Justice Department and the IRS inspector general are also investigating.

 

Emails have since been disclosed showing that Lerner discussed working with Justice to prosecute nonprofits that she felt had "lied" about their political activities — and that the communications occurred within days of publicly acknowledging that the targeting had occurred.

 

In February, Koskinen, who took over the embattled agency in December, pledged to work with Congress on the various investigations.

 

The IRS said in a statement on Friday that it was able to generate 24,000 Lerner emails from 2009 to 2011 because Lerner had copied in other IRS employees. The agency said it pieced together the emails from the computers of 83 other IRS employees.

 

But an undetermined number are gone, the agency said.

 

Michigan Rep. Dave Camp, the Ways and Means Committee chairman, said that the missing emails primarily involve people from outside the IRS, "such as the White House, Treasury, Department of Justice, [Federal Election Commission], or Democrat offices."

 

"The fact that I am just learning about this, over a year into the investigation, is completely unacceptable and now calls into question the credibility of the IRS's response to congressional inquiries," Camp said in a statement. "There needs to be an immediate investigation and forensic audit by Department of Justice as well as the inspector general."

 

In addition, the IRS said in its statement that it had gone to great lengths cooperating with congressional investigations, spending nearly $10 million to produce more than 750,000 documents.

 

Overall, the IRS said it had produced 67,000 emails to and from Lerner, covering the period from 2009 to 2013.

 

"The IRS is committed to working with Congress," the agency said. "The IRS has remained focused on being thorough and responding as quickly as possible to the wide-ranging requests from Congress while taking steps to protect underlying taxpayer information."

 

The announcement drew the ire of many Republicans. Utah Sen. Orrin Hatch, the top GOP member on the Finance Committee, called the disclosure "an outrageous impediment" to its investigation.

 

"Even more egregious is the fact we are learning about this a full year after our initial request to provide the committee with any and all documents relating to our investigation," Hatch said in a statement. "And while the IRS has agreed to turn over additional documentation, I am still greatly troubled that the administration failed to notify the committee of this when they first became aware of it."

 

Mitchell called it standard fare for the Obama White House: a late-Friday afternoon release of major news.

 

"They do it over and over and over," she told Newsmax. "There are so many questions that are raised by this 'revelation.'"

 

They include, she posed: "Why are we just hearing this today, more than a year after the investigation started?

 

"What exactly are the FBI and NSA's forensics experts doing to retrieve this 'hard-drive crash'?" she added. "Do we believe that the FBI has not been called in — and that they have not been able to retrieve these 'lost' emails? There are so many things."

 

Mitchell said that she will be taking action next week in their federal lawsuit to prevent all federal agencies involved in the scandal — even Lerner's attorney, William Taylor III — from destroying any evidence in the case.

 

"We actually have remedies in federal court that Congress doesn't appear to have."

 

Read Latest Breaking News from Newsmax.com www.newsmax.com/Newsfront/Lerner-emails-missing-IRS/2014/...

 

===================================================

Nobody's buying the IRS story

by John Hayward 14 Jun 2014, 7:23 AM

 

In response to IRS Commissioner previously testified Lois Lerner emails were archived:

 

Not only did the Commish testify - under oath, I believe - that these emails were archived, but the IRS turns out to have explicit rules for making hard-copy backups of such correspondence. I'll repeat my immediate response upon learning of those rules: "Of course, given that the Obama Administration regards actual laws as mere suggestions, I can’t see any top officials paying a stiff price for ignoring inconvenient rules in a handbook. Or else the IRS will assure Congress it can expect those hard copies no later than June 2019, and sometime between now and then, it will regretfully announce that all the papers were consumed in a fire, or perhaps eaten by locusts."

 

Of course, everyone familiar with business and government IT practices called B.S. on this whole story in ten seconds flat. There's no way all of Lerner's emails were left unprotected on the hard drive of a single computer, without backups, in defiance of both government-wide and agency-specific rules, and only now does anyone think to inform Congress of this, over a year after the documents were demanded. If nothing else, IRS mail servers and their backups will have copies of the messages.

 

It shouldn't have taken anywhere near this long to provide two years' worth of email correspondence from properly maintained computer systems. I could do it myself in an hour, and while I probably don't have Lerner's volume of email (despite the repeated attempts of Hong Kong business magnates and Nigerian royalty to enlist my help with investing their millions) it wouldn't take me much longer if I did, and I'm not a top official in the mega-powerful agency that demands perfect record-keeping from everyone else.

 

Byron York is apparently hearing similar sentiments from his readership:

 

Over at National Journal, Ron Fournier is appropriately skeptical - his article is entitled "Did the IRS really lose Lois Lerner's emails? Let a special prosecutor find them" - but he still strains mightily to extend benefit of the doubt to the Obama Administration, even as it's clear his patience is wearing thin:

  

The announcement came late Friday, a too-cute-by-half cliche of a PR strategy to mitigate backlash. "The IRS told Congress it cannot locate many of Lois Lerner's emails prior to 2011 because her computer crashed during the summer of that year," The Associated Press reported.

 

Lerner headed the IRS division that processed applications for tax-exempt status. The IRS acknowledged last year that agents had improperly scrutinized applications for tax-exempt status by tea party and other conservative groups. The IRS also screened liberal groups, which Democrats claim as proof that there was no abuse of power.

 

Republicans lawmakers are prone not to trust any explanation from the White House. Their most conservative voters assumed from the start that the White House was targeting right-leaning groups for intimidation.

 

Do we really have to go over the details of the scandal again, or have Obama and his toadies done a good enough job of rewriting history? No, Ron, the IRS did not "also screen liberal groups." That talking point has been written into the Left's mythology of the IRS scandal, but the House Oversight Committee has made it abundantly clear that is not true. Liberal groups were belatedly added to the "Be On the Lookout" lists when people inside the Tax Exempt Organizations division realized how bad their pogrom against conservative groups looked. Only half a dozen left-leaning groups ever received any enhanced scrutiny, it wasn't comparable to what was done to Tea Party and pro-life groups, there were very solid non-political reasons for giving that tiny handful of left-wing groups a close look (i.e. they were reconstituted ACORN front groups) and crucially, they didn't get the endless slow-walking "no approval but no denial" treatment Obama's political enemies received.

 

And the reason "conservative voters assumed from the start that the White House was targeting right-leaning groups for intimidation" is that the IRS admitted as much. That's how all this started, with Lois Lerner's planted question at a tax conference, admitting improper use of IRS power to get out in front of a devastating internal audit. Everything said and done by the Administration since then has been an effort to take the sharp edges off the scandal by obscuring key facts, providing left-wingers with phony talking points, making a brief but hilariously transparent pretense of accountability (remember when Obama pretended to fire the temporary IRS commissioner who was leaving anyway... exactly the same way he pretended to fire an official in the early days of the VA scandal?) and most importantly, dragging the investigation out forever.

 

Here are the fruits of that strategy: long months after crucial documents were demanded by investigators, the IRS shrugs and says, "You know what? That stuff all got erased in a hard drive crash, like, um, three years ago or something." If the story hadn't been dragged out this long, the "loss" of those emails would have hit Washington like a nuclear blast. Instead, it's the epilogue to a story Obama and his media allies spent a year telling the American people was over.

 

Ron Fournier is right to call for a special prosecutor, and he wasn't timid about it, so good for him. But what does anyone expect to come of it, really? The IRS had a year to delete every trace of Lerner's dangerous correspondence; if we don't seize their systems with armed law-enforcement teams immediately, they'll have months more to finish the job while the wheels of investigative justice slowly grind along. The special prosecutor probably wouldn't have any results until after the midterm elections, well into Year Three of the IRS scandal. Lerner's just going to take the Fifth again, and so will everyone else that might take a fall. Corrupt Democrats like Elijah Cummings, who should not be allowed anywhere near either this investigation - or Congress, for that matter - will pile out of their clown cars to make the hearings a circus. And if that circus wobbles into the 2016 presidential election, we'll get to hear Hillary Clinton shriek "What difference, at this point, does it make?" all over again.

 

The grand lesson of the Obama years is that a Democrat president with a lapdog media can drag any scandal out until it dies of old age - becoming, at best, a partisan squabble in the collective memory of the lapdogs. Witness Politico's headline for their article on the latest developments: "IRS, Republicans clash over Lois Lerner emails." Oh, is that what this is? Just a bunch of Republicans yelling at the poor, defenseless IRS?

 

Bottom line: Obama's gambit to use the IRS as a political weapon worked. That means it's going to happen again.

  

Ariel Motor Company announce the launch of the latest addition to the Ariel family – the Ariel Ace motorcycle. The Ace represents the first new motorcycle from Ariel for over 50 years and builds on a history that began in 1870 making revolutionary bicycles and patenting the spoked wheel. More recently known for the iconic Atom, Ariel were famous throughout the last century for innovative motorcycles such as the 4 cylinder Ariel Square 4 and the 2 stroke, pressed steel frame Ariel Arrow. The new Ace reinforces Ariel’s tradition, both old and new, of all that’s best in British innovation, performance, quality and craftsmanship.

 

The new bike will be made in low volume by Ariel at their factory near Crewkerne, Somerset in quantities of between 100 – 150 motorcycles per annum alongside the Atom sports car. Orders are now being taking for the Ace with production beginning at the start of 2015.

 

The Ace builds on the long standing relationship between Ariel and Honda, that began with the Ariel Atom. The new motorcycle features a Honda 1237cc V4 engine and drive system combining the best high and low volume engineering, materials and production values together with a bespoke build system that has never been seen before on a production motorcycle.

 

The unique way that Ariel builds vehicles allows each motorcycle to be tailored and fitted to individual customer choice to give them exactly the bike they want and to personalise it to their own use and taste. From low riding cruiser, through street and naked machines, to super sport bikes the Ace will be built to owners’ specific requirements and desires. Adjustable footrests, brake and gear lever plus different seat heights and handlebar configurations allow the Ace to be personally fitted for each rider, whatever their size, to give the perfect riding position. Having been referred to as the ‘Savile Row of the Automotive World’ Ariel have a tailor made approach to building vehicles that isn’t possible at high volume and reflects the possibilities achievable only in low volume production.

 

This unique approach builds on motorcyclists’ great interest in individualising their machines and making them unique. With the Ace a great number of options will be available on ordering the bike to allow each one to be built giving a personal, but carefully designed and coherent outcome. Variants of front and rear suspension, low and high seats with pillion options, different sizes of tank, handlebars, wheels, exhausts, bodywork and more, as well as colours, finishes and materials, will form an extensive option list to ensure that each Ace motorcycle is completely unique to its owner.

 

Said Simon Saunders, Director of Ariel, “Motorcyclists have a real passion for their machines. They like them to be individual and they want them to be their bike, not just another bike identical to hundreds or thousands of others. The usual route is to buy a standard bike and then add various aftermarket components to change the bike into what they want. However with the Ace the uniqueness is built in as the bike is produced and each one will be as individual as its owner.”

 

“The first photos show just two different possibilities of specification for the bike, but the combinations are nearly endless and we plan to continue to add further options in the future. At Ariel once we understand what a customer wants, whatever it is, we can build the bike they need.”

 

Each Ace motorcycle will be handbuilt by one Ariel technician in an individual build bay, as with the Atom sports car, giving customers an even greater degree of personal relationship with the build of their motorcycle and the person building it, to the point of being able to visit their bike in build. Only when an Ariel technician is satisfied will the motorcycle gain his personal build plate and move on to final testing and inspection. Said James ‘Reg’ Feiven, chief technician at Ariel and part of the Ace design team, “Nearly every Ariel employee holds a full motorcycle licence and we’re passionate about motorcycles in all their forms as well as quality. The only pressure we have when building any Ariel, whether it’s a motorcycle or a car, is to make sure that it’s absolutely right. And one of the best rewards we have is seeing the smile on a customers’ face when they come to collect.”

 

The Ace is also upgradeable over a period of time. Owners of Ariel Aces can return their bikes to the factory where upgrades, modifications and new options can be fitted to change a customer’s bike for different uses or to modify the specification at any time. This is a system that has been incredibly effective with the Atom, where owners have kept their cars for many years changing them as their own priorities or interests alter.

 

Designed by the in house Ariel team the Ace respects Ariel’s past while looking forward with innovative ideas and design. The unique exterior perimeter space frame is identifiably Ariel and reflects the visible chassis of the Atom but is particular to the Ace both in material and design philosophy. Styling of the bike picks up on both traditional values and future trends in world superbike design. Using CAD and traditional clay modelling techniques the Ace was designed virtually and also in full size in Ariel’s own studio facility. Said Simon Saunders, “The many combinations of components made the design phase particularly difficult as we had to ensure that any Ace works as a coherent whole. Motorcyclists have a deep understanding of their machines and will appreciate the design, engineering and particular manufacturing techniques that have gone into the Ace. To us a machined from billet component or a piece of carbon fibre is a beautiful thing and I know that bikers feel the same way.”

 

Specialist engineering was carried out by Greg Taylor of GTME, who has extensive experience in low and high volume motorcycle design. Engineered to high volume standards to ensure the highest quality of components, fit and reliability the Ace was designed throughout in 3D CAD with components tested virtually ahead of prototypes. Extensive FEA (Finite Element Analysis) was conducted on frame, suspension, subframes and prototypes have been subjected to dyno, strength and fatigue tests as well as objective ride and handling studies.

 

Performance from the Ace has been aimed at the average rider being able to extract comfortable and consistently attainable performance from the bike, with a top speed of 165mph and 0-60mph figure of 3.4 seconds. Mapping and fuelling is carried out to Ariel specification although overall power output remains similar to the Honda VFR at over 170bhp. Said Simon Saunders, “We looked at an out and out, super lightweight race bike but they are already out there and are so far beyond the abilities of most riders that we took the decision to produce a really fast bike that was easy to ride and within the capabilities of most riders. Our motto is Serious Fun and those two words absolutely encapsulate what the Ace is all about.”

 

Prices for the Ace aim to start at £20,000, including tax in the UK, with a comprehensive option list to allow each bike to be tailored to order.

 

The Ace features a machined aluminium frame, options of suspension and different fork designs including Ariel’s own girder front end, Honda VFR1200 V4 engine in manual or DCT form, shaft drive, three different seats with pillion options, three different fuel tank capacities, bodywork options, handlebar and clip-on variants, different, adjustable footrest and control positions, wheels, tyres plus a wide range of finishes, materials and colours.

 

Frame

 

Heart of the Ace is an aluminium frame machined from solid billet with welded construction which is common to all variants of the Ace providing mounting points for various subframe, fuel tank, body and suspension options. Never before seen on a production motorbike the detailed engineering and beauty of functional form apparent in the frame follows a tradition established by Ariel with the Atom.

 

The load bearing frame, which exceeds industry rigidity standards, carries the engine, various seat packages, front and rear suspension as well as providing a safety cell for the fuel tank. Made from 6 individual billet aluminium sections each frame takes over 70 hours to machine before being welded together. Every frame is then anodised for protection and different colour finishes are available to increase customer choice and individualise the frame to each bike. The common frame also allows upgrades and changes to be made to the Ace throughout its life.

 

Different head angles, via interchangeable eccentric bearing holders, are achievable to tune the rake angle for different uses from 21.8 degrees to 28.4 degrees, with a standard mid-point of 25.1 degrees for neutral handling. Head angle is set by Ariel during build or can be altered when the bike is serviced.

 

Engine and transmission

 

The Ace uses the Honda V4 VFR1200 Unicam engine building on the relationship first seen in the Ariel Atom which uses a Honda Type R engine. The best known previous Ariel motorcycle was the four cylinder Square 4 introduced as a 500cc in 1930 developing into a 997cc machine that finished production in 1959. The use of the transverse, water cooled Honda 76 degree V4 builds on this four cylinder tradition and was chosen for its power, flexibility, compact size and advanced technology. At 1237cc and with 173bhp and 129Nm of torque the V4 gives enormous performance but remains within the ability of the average rider. Throttle by wire technology has been combined with Ariel’s fuel mapping and intake system to give progressive and responsive power delivery throughout the rev range. An important addition is the singular V4 exhaust note released by Ariel’s various exhaust systems making the Ace an aural as well as visible delight.

 

The Honda VFR engine also gives Ariel the ability to offer the Ace in manual and Dual Clutch Transmission (DCT) form adding yet further to customer choice. The 6 speed sequential manual offers standard motorcycle transmission whilst the DCT version can be used in fully ‘Auto’, ‘Sport’ or push button ‘Manual’ mode. This combined with the Honda shaft drive system mean absolute choice plus total peace of mind for Ace riders and the total reliability that Ariel customers have come to expect. From a 6 speed sports bike to a fully automatic long distance cruiser the Ace can deliver.

 

Suspension

 

The Ace features front suspension options of telescopic forks and the unique Ariel girder front end. Made from machined aluminium the Ariel girder forks give an option to standard telescopic forks which result in better handling, feel and sensitivity but at the same time feel familiar to any motorcycle rider. Due to the multi bearing top and bottom suspension arms, compliance is greatly improved and stiction reduced over conventional telescopic forks providing better response over different road surfaces and undulations as well as under braking to corners.

 

As an all new suspension system the challenge for Ariel was designing the girder fork suspension system to feel familiar to motorcycle riders. To achieve this kinematics (movement of the wheel through its suspension travel) and wheel rate (spring rate measured at wheel contact patch) had to closely match that of a telescopic fork suspension system. Although it is an entirely new and unconventional system it therefore feels reassuringly familiar to a rider used to telescopic forks. Featuring the latest Ohlins TTX dampers and springs which offer separate rebound and compression damping, together with spring preload, the Ariel girder system can be set up by owners to provide the exact level of response for their own particular needs and riding style.

 

To give further choice to Ariel customers the option of Ohlins Road & Track telescopic forks are available, tailored specifically for the Ace. Offering optimised weight and ultimate telescopic fork performance the Ohlins units come with rebound, compression and spring adjustment, tuneable for the use of the bike. As with the girder forks the head angle is adjustable in build or at service to provide different levels of steering response according to use and customer wishes.

 

Rear suspension is by Pro Link single sided cast aluminium swing arm, containing the shaft drive, with options of different gas damper. Again an Ohlins option with compression, rebound and spring adjustment is available tuned specifically to the Ace. Both front and rear suspension are further tuneable by Ariel to provide different heights, spring rates and special use requests.

 

Wheels, brakes and tyres

 

Front brakes are Nissin 320mm dual floating hydraulic discs with 6 piston callipers while the rear are Nissin 276mm disc with 2 piston calliper (plus park brake with DCT transmission). All versions of the Ace have electronic ABS brakes together with switchable traction control. Options of Brembo brakes will be available when the Ace goes into production and once final testing has been signed off. Goodridge hose and fittings are used throughout the Ace for all brake and clutch lines with an option of Goodridge Kevlar hose and lightweight fittings.

 

Wheels are five and seven spoke alloy with the option of BST full carbon fibre and aluminium lightweight wheels made specifically for the Ace. The carbon wheels show a 50% weight saving over the alloy wheels and centralise weight due to the lighter rim, resulting in improved performance and handling.

 

All Aces will come with a choice of Dunlop tyres. With an association stretching back to 1895 when Dunlop and Ariel effectively shared Trademarks and made bicycles it is particularly fitting that the relationship should be rekindled with the Ace. Whilst Dunlop went on to concentrate on the production of tyres Ariel concentrated on cycles before moving on to powered vehicles a couple of years later, then cars and motorbikes. Dependant on the use of each bike Ariel can choose from a wide range of Dunlop tyres to suit the use and purpose of each bike. The bikes pictured are fitted with Qualifier ll and GP Racer GPD211 tyres, used to enormous success in this year’s TT Races.

 

Bodywork

 

At the centre of the Ace modularity is the interchangeable bodywork and seating. Various bodywork is available with different tanks, mudguards, huggers, radiator covers, belly pans, screens and fairings. All are available in standard composite or carbon fibre. A selection of standard Ariel colours will be available plus the option of paint to any colour required or special paintwork and colour schemes. The fuel tanks are available in three different capacities from 14.1 to 21.3 Litres. Further fairings, screens, tanks and seats will become available as Ace production progresses.

 

Seats

 

Three versions of seats are available – low single seat, with additional and removable pillion passenger seat, a dual seat and a solo sports seat. The low seat features a seat height of 745mm allowing all riders to have both feet firmly on the ground and has the option of a quickly added or removed matching pillion seat. The low seat shown demonstrates just one of the possibilities for individual material and trim choice. Created by a Master Saddler, who holds a Royal Warrant, the seat uses three different kind of leather and contrasting stitching. The nearly unlimited possibilities of colour, material and trim plus the use of master craftsmen to tailor each bike to exacting standards demonstrates the care and attention to detail possible with Ariel’s unique production ability.

 

A slightly higher dual seat is a second option, again with trim, material and stitch options and features stowable/foldable pillion foot pegs. This feature also comes on the low pillion seat and allows the rider to simply fold up the footrests when not in use, creating a clean line but making pillion footrests available when required. The footrests lock in position when up or down released by a pull knob on the back of the footrest support.

 

The higher solo seat allows for a more sports riding position and again is available with a variety of trim options and different seat padding as well as a full carbon fibre option.

 

Controls

 

Three levels of footrests will be available – low, mid and high – to complement the various seats and achieve the desired seating position for each customer and their use. All controls and footpegs are made from machined aluminium, again available in different anodised finishes, and are also adjustable to different reach positions. To accommodate the various position possibilities different foot levers are available which are also adjustable for reach and height.

 

Handlebars are available in different heights, as well as finishes, in addition to clip-ons for telescopic forks. Hand controls have standard motorcycle controls including hazard and headlamp flashers and the DCT option features mode selection, push button gearchange control as well as a parking brake. The DCT version has no clutch or brake lever, all systems being controlled by electronics automatically or by manual buttons on the hand controls.

 

Instruments and electronics

 

Instrumentation is via a Race Technologies LCD dash, also found on the Atom. The instruments feature programmable gearshift lights plus multi screen information that can be set up and scrolled through by the rider. Control buttons are on the left hand side of the Ace behind the headstock. Readouts for RPM, speed, oil pressure, water temperature, voltage, ambient temperature and fuel with additional warning lights for ABS, traction, indicator, low fuel, main beam and neutral plus a master alarm system give the rider information covering all aspects of the bike. A further option is the addition of a data logger that can show real time performance as well as log to an in built SD card.

 

The Honda HISS (Honda Ignition Security System) is used on the Ace, together with a key activated steering lock. Further Tracker systems are available as options on the bike. Switchable traction control and electronically controlled ABS are both standard on the VFR as are standard Honda diagnosis and service connections allowing service functions to be carried out quickly and efficiently.

 

All lighting on the Ace is LED, with a 140mm headlight featuring cutting edge optics, which mimic natural sunlight, housed in a lightweight, die cast aluminium housing. Tail, brake light and indicators are also LED driven for better performance and longer life. Battery and electronic components are housed under the seat and tank units.

 

Further developments

 

Further components, bodywork, tuning parts and accessories will be developed as part of a continuing Ace design and engineering programme to further expand customer choice. As with the Ariel Atom new parts will be retro-fit compliant allowing Ace motorcycles to be upgraded over a period of time or as further developments are made.

 

Ariel’s objective has been to bring together the very highest standards of design and engineering, in a variety of technically interesting materials, with the craftsmanship and particular skills that are available in low volume production. The ultimate goal was to produce one of the best and most interesting motorcycles in the world. The Ace is the result of this and puts the Ariel name back on two wheels as well as four.

SS..........WHAT????................WHAT????...........YOU MEAN IT WASN'T THE EVIL VIDEO??????

SUSAN LIED??????.......HILLARY LIED??????....THE LAPDOG MEDIA LIED??????.....

EVERY STINKING LEFTIST IN CONGRESS LIED ABOUT IT TOO?????????? EVEN GOOD OLE AWWWW SHUCKS JAY CARNEY LIED??????? ....BARACK OBAMA "PRESIDENT" OF THE UNITED STATES LIED??????????????........................NOOOOOOOOO!!!!!!!!!! IT CAN'T BE

 

YA............... THEY ALL LIED TO YOU AGAIN YOU LEFTIST/LIBERAL/DEMOCRAT JACKASSES

AND YOU BOUGHT IT ..........HOOK LINE AND SINKER

  

BTW CNN.....FOX NEWS REPORTED THIS OVER A YEAR AGO....BUT OF COURSE THEY WERE ALL "NUTJOB EXTREMISTS" ETC ETC ETC .......TOO LITTLE TOO LATE FOR JOURNALISTIC INTEGRITY CNN.....

==================================================================

 

by KERRY PICKET 1 Aug 2013, 5:33 PM PDT

 

CNN reports the CIA had dozens of operatives in Benghazi during the deadly September 11 attack last year, yet since the attack, the spy agency has allegedly engaged in an intimidation campaign of its own members to keep personnel quiet about the events of that night and why the CIA was in eastern Libya to begin with.

“We’re getting calls from people who are close to people who were [in Benghazi at the time] that they were moving guns. So where are the guns?” asked Rep. Frank Wolf (R-VA), a sub-committee chairman of the Appropriations Committee. Wolf also wonders what Ambassador Chris Stevens was actually doing in Benghazi on that night. Stevens and three others were killed over the course of the attacks.

 

“Are they in a warehouse somewhere? Some people say they moved on to Turkey and then from Turkey to Syria," Wolf told Breitbart News on Thursday. "Did they fall into the hands of some of the Jihadis?"

"Nobody knows, so I think there are so many questions from the failure to respond to where the guns went,” he stated.

Wolf is currently attempting to create a Select Committee to investigate the Benghazi attack by launching a discharge petition from committee. He needs 218 signatures to take the issue to a vote on the floor.

 

Senator Rand Paul (R-KY) first asked then-Secretary of State Hillary Clinton during a congressional hearing about her knowledge of any gun running coming out of the CIA annex in January. Clinton claimed she did not know anything about the issue and referred Paul to the CIA for such questions.

Additionally, members of Congress’s Super Eight, (consisting of both parties’ leaders in both chambers, along with House and Senate Select Intelligence committee chairs and ranking members) would have been required to have been briefed on such gun running activity. Five of the eight members have either said they knew nothing about any gunrunning that was happening in Benghazi or claimed the issue cannot be spoken about because it is classified.

 

McClatchy News reported recently the similar response it received when asking about the issue regarding the U.S. government's role in arming Syrian rebels.

On January 24, House Speaker John Boehner (R-OH) told talk radio host Laura Ingraham in regards to Paul's remarks on gunrunning, “I’m somewhat familiar with the chatter about this and the fact that these arms were moving towards Turkey, but most what I know about this came from a classified source and I really can’t elaborate on it.”

According to CNN, CIA employees have been subjected to frequent polygraph examinations every month since January of this year. These types of examinations, however, are routinely done every three to four years; their frequency is being described as an “intimidation” tactic:

"Agency employees typically are polygraphed every three to four years. Never more than that," said former CIA operative and CNN analyst Robert Baer.

 

In other words, the rate of the kind of polygraphs alleged by sources is rare.

"If somebody is being polygraphed every month, or every two months it's called an issue polygraph, and that means that the polygraph division suspects something, or they're looking for something, or they're on a fishing expedition. But it's absolutely not routine at all to be polygraphed monthly, or bi-monthly," said Baer.

CIA spokesman Dean Boyd asserted in a statement that the agency has been open with Congress.

 

"The CIA has worked closely with its oversight committees to provide them with an extraordinary amount of information related to the attack on U.S. facilities in Benghazi," the statement said.

Wolf disagrees, telling Breitbart News, “It’s intimidation. If your fifty-years old and have a couple of kids in college and have a mortgage and you live in McLean you can't risk getting fired."

==================================================================

  

BENGHAZI – THE BIGGEST COVER-UP SCANDAL IN U.S. HISTORY? – WAS BENGHAZI A CIA GUN-RUNNING OPERATION FOR MUSLIM BROTHERHOOD & OTHER INSURGENTS FIGHTING IN SYRIA? -

Editorial Team Special Report

 

It’s never fun to admit you’ve been lied to and duped. There is no comfort in realizing a high-level group in government has conned you. The wound created from such a realization would be deep and painful when paired with extraordinary insult when you realize the cons are people you not only trusted, but people who are tasked with protecting your rights, your liberty, your life.

 

When these people betray you, you’re in trouble – big trouble. Unfortunately, we believe America is being betrayed by powerful individuals tasked with our protection. These people are found in the White House, the Congress, the CIA and other government entities – and they’re lying to you. Then they’re covering it up on an epic scale, in a never-before-seen manner.

 

Here are the basics of what the schemers in government and the complicit media would like for us all to focus on and buy into:

 

Why wasn’t there better security at the consulate (keep this misleading word in mind) in Benghazi?

Why didn’t authorization come to move special forces in for protection and rescue?

Why was an obscure video blamed when everyone knew the video had nothing to do with it?

Did Obama’s administration cover-up the true nature of the attacks to win an election?

Truth is, as we’re starting to believe, the above questions are convenient, tactical distractions. And truth is, answers to these questions, if they ever come, will never lead to revelations of the REAL TRUTH and meaningful punishment of anyone found responsible.

 

Rep. Darrell Issa knows this, members of the House Committee investigating the Benghazi attacks know this, the White House knows this, and much of the big corporate media infrastructure knows it, too. How do they know it? Because they know the truth. They know the truth, but cannot and/or will not discuss it in public.

 

Here are the basics that we (America, in general) should be focusing on, but aren’t:

 

Why do media outlets continue to refer to the “Special Mission Benghazi Compound” as a consulate?

Where are the so-called “terrorist” attackers/murderers? Have we stopped looking for them?

Who and where are the rest of the survivors and those evacuated after the attack?

Why did the attackers know they should target the Special Mission Benghazi Compound, and what was their true intention – what did they really want?

Why is there now so little discussion of the role the CIA played in the facilities that were attacked?

Why were 23 of the 30 American officials evacuated from Benghazi active within the CIA? Only 7 of the 30 worked for the State Department? Yet the media continue to characterize the Benghazi facility as a State Department installation?

Was the CIA Annex a facility used in a secret gun-running operation, and was Ambassador Chris Stevens involved?

Was the CIA Annex used to facilitate the flow of arms to (Muslim Brotherhood) insurgents fighting in Syria and possibly beyond?

Why are there two versions of the ARB (Accountability Review Board) Report? One is unclassified for public view, the other is highly classified, and while Congress can view it, they are legally forbidden to discuss it in public hearings or in news interviews.

We obviously don’t have answers to all of these questions, but we will provide you with an overview, some context and our reasoning for each of them.

 

THE “SPECIAL MISSION BENGHAZI COMPOUND”

 

According to public documents the State Department made available to Congress, Ambassador Stevens arrived in Benghazi on September 10th, 2012. The first order of business for Stevens was an urgent meeting at the CIA annex (We’ll discuss possibilities for this meeting later). Stevens was then escorted to the Special Mission Benghazi Compound, which had a villa that would be utilized for Stevens and his staff during their stay. The Special Mission Benghazi Compound did house a handful of State Department officials, but was also host to CIA operatives and officials. The Special Mission Benghazi Compound was not an actual embassy or consulate office and was not actually used as such.

 

The constant reference to the Special Mission Benghazi Compound as a “consulate” leads the casual news reader to believe the Ambassador may have worked out of this office as a facility made available for traditional, more public type of diplomatic operations. This was likely not the case in Benghazi. Stevens was not “stationed” at this facility. If you believe this to be an actual embassy type consulate office, you can also easily accept that the attack on September 11th was an attack meant simply for the purpose of projecting terror.

 

If you accept the premise this is an act of terror on the anniversary of 9/11, you’ll likely also accept the premise this is not the fault of the U.S. government. Questions will become fewer, those responsible will quietly slip away.

 

THE WELL ARMED MURDERERS – WHERE ARE THEY?

 

This question has no answers. Only a maze of peculiar dead ends. As a reminder, a United States Ambassador was brutally murdered. Where are the calls for those who killed him? Where are the hearings demanding that intelligence agencies give us an idea of where the investigation stands? Have we walked away from an aggressive pursuit of the killers? Have we concluded it was an “angry mob” who committed an act of terror and thus closed the books?

 

THE SURVIVORS AND OFFICIALS EVACUATED

 

Here we are eight months down the road from the 9/11/12 attack in Benghazi. We still have yet to discover the true identities of the many people evacuated. We keep saying they should be called up for hearings and questioned, yet they all seem to have vanished. Perhaps – and this is just something to consider, the government is not hiding them so they won’t speak… these people do not wish to speak because they know full well what was happening and what the consequences of disclosure could be. In fact, it’s very likely they were an integral part of what was being orchestrated from the Benghazi facilities, whatever that might be.

 

The calls for these individuals to be brought forward assume we accept the premise of an active, traditional consulate. In that, we think of it as an office where interns and passport staff may be working. Of course, interns and standard office staff would indeed be of great value in gathering intelligence to figure out what happened. But the Benghazi facilities were staffed by a few State Department personnel and many CIA operatives – not interns and standard consulate administration staffers.

 

These individuals didn’t want to go public with classified information before the attack, so why would they after the attack?

 

With regards to the whistleblowers who just testified to Congress, these guys were, for the most part, involved in security and/or related assignments. We see no reason to think the whistleblowers would have detailed knowledge of the CIA operations we believe were underway in Benghazi. Perhaps they were aware of CIA presence in Benghazi, but there is no doubt a strong CIA presence all over the Middle East.

 

WHAT WAS THE REAL REASON FOR THE CHOSEN TARGET OF ATTACK?

 

A Wall Street Journal article published before the classified government report/gag order was issued (one of only a few such articles in existence about the facilities) claims the Special Mission Benghazi Compound was set up for no purpose other than to function as a diplomatic front for the CIA. It’s possible the Special Mission Benghazi Compound was not only a front, but was actually a CIA facility operating under the cover of a State Department facility. This is not certain, however, but we do believe the information and activities at this facility were far less sensitive than that of the CIA annex. We believe this to be the case based on the actions taken by the CIA in the days following the attack on the compound.

 

The CIA immediately jumped into action, scrubbing the annex facility of any trace of CIA operations. All documents, files, traces of a clandestine presence in general, were completely removed and/or destroyed. Yet, the Special Mission Benghazi Compound was left unguarded and wide open for “looters”. And remember how long it took (weeks) for FBI investigators to be allowed in? Investigators who stayed a surprisingly short time and apparently came away with little or nothing?

 

There are other questions surrounding what then Secretary of State Hillary Clinton knew. You may recall that in the days following the attack, Hillary Clinton was oddly silent. Clinton was essentially hidden from the media, from Congress and/or anyone else with questions about the State Department’s role (or knowledge) in/of the attacks. The WSJ said “at 5:41 PM Eastern time, Mrs. Clinton called Mr. Petraeus. She wanted to make sure the two agencies were on the same page.” It’s entirely possible the State Department was fuzzy on what had actually happened and why. This lends even more credibility to the idea the Special Mission Benghazi Compound was simply a front for the broader CIA operations.

 

We do not assert the attackers went after the wrong facility, but certainly propose it be considered a possibility. Or, at the very least, might have assumed the facility had more significance. (It’s also possible they were searching for Stevens himself.)

 

Which brings us to the dirtiest of all possibilities. What we’re about to discuss could certainly be all coincidence, but the algorithm required for it to all be coincidence seems outside the realm of reality. Let’s get back to the arrival of Stevens in Benghazi.

 

WHY DID STEVENS ARRIVE IN BENGHAZI ON SEPTEMBER 10TH, 2012?

 

We mentioned Stevens arrived in Benghazi, Libya on September 10th, 2012, one day before the attack. Stevens immediately attended a classified meeting at the CIA annex before checking in at the Special Mission Benghazi Compound, where he would be staying while in Benghazi. According to the documents obtained by Congress, Stevens later met with an official from an outfit called Al Marfa Shipping and Maritime Services as well as an individual from the Arabian Gulf Oil Co. The final meeting of the evening took place with Ali Sait Akin, Turkey’s Consulate General to Benghazi.

 

Please keep this sequence of meetings at the front of your mind: CIA, Al Marfa Shipping and Maritime, Arabian Gulf Oil and Turkey.

 

The visit by Stevens came just 8 days after General David Petraeus, who was then head of the CIA, made a surprise visit to Ankara on September 2nd, 2012. The time of the General’s arrival in Ankara jives with the timeline mentioned in an article published by the Times of London. The article, published on September 14th, 2012, discusses the arrival of a certain ship at the Turkish Port of Iskenderun. Fox News had more (But, strangely, Fox News dropped the investigation and no longer mentions the discovery).

 

Through shipping records, Fox News has confirmed that the Libyan-flagged vessel Al Entisar, which means “The Victory,” was received in the Turkish port of Iskenderun — 35 miles from the Syrian border — on Sept. 6, just five days before Ambassador Chris Stevens, information management officer Sean Smith and former Navy Seals Tyrone Woods and Glen Doherty were killed during an extended assault by more than 100 Islamist militants.

 

The ship, which was coming from Libya, had curious cargo on board. From the same Fox News story.

 

According to an initial Sept. 14 report by the Times of London, Al Entisar was carrying 400 tons of cargo. Some of it was humanitarian, but also reportedly weapons, described by the report as the largest consignment of weapons headed for Syria’s rebels on the frontlines.

 

“This is the Libyan ship … which is basically carrying weapons that are found in Libya,” said Walid Phares, a Fox News Middle East and terrorism analyst. “So the ship came all the way up to Iskenderun in Turkey. Now from the information that is available, there was aid material, but there were also weapons, a lot of weapons.”

 

The cargo reportedly included surface-to-air anti-aircraft missiles, RPG’s and Russian-designed shoulder-launched missiles known as MANPADS.

 

The following part is extremely important and is what may connect the Petraeus visit to that of Stevens.

 

The ship’s Libyan captain told the Times of London that “I can only talk about the medicine and humanitarian aid” for the Syrian rebels. It was reported there was a fight about the weapons and who got what “between the free Syrian Army and the Muslim Brotherhood.”

 

This wasn’t just any fight. The Times of London said “the scale of the shipment and how it should be disbursed, has sparked a row between the FSA and the Muslim Brotherhood, who took control of the shipment when it arrived in Turkey.” Reports suggest a large portion of the shipment was indeed smuggled across the Syrian border, but much of the weapons were caught up in infighting amongst the Syrian insurgents. The Muslim Brotherhood had significant ties with Turkey and, from what we see in reports, were able to secure the ship and its cargo.

 

THE TIMELINE THE WHITE HOUSE DOESN’T WANT YOU TO FOCUS ON

 

So we’ve established a solid timeline here.

 

SEPT 2, 2012 – General Petraeus, head of CIA, arrives in Turkey on September 2nd and meets with Turkey’s President and top Turkish government officials.

SEPT 6, 2012 – On September 6th, a ship carrying 400 tons of cargo (much of it being arms), arrives from Libya. The ship is secured by Muslim Brotherhood operatives, due to connections with Turkish government. Other Syrian insurgent groups are furious and want control of the weapons.

SEPT 10, 2012 – Ambassador Stevens arrives in Benghazi, has meetings with CIA, the shipping company and a government official from Turkey.

From what we can tell, the attacks on the compound where Stevens was located began around an hour after the meeting with a Turkish official ended. On September 11th, 2012, Stevens was killed (very early morning hours).

 

THE POSSIBLE CHRISTOPHER STEVENS CIA/GUN-RUNNING CONNECTION

 

The unclassified version of the ARB report provides some fascinating and under-reported details about Christopher Stevens. The September situation was in no way his first experience with Benghazi. In fact, Stevens had a presence at the CIA annex before the Special Mission Benghazi Compound was created. Stevens was at the CIA annex in the summer of 2011, shortly before the CIA created the Special Mission Benghazi Compound, the facility that eventually became the diplomatic front for the CIA’s operations in Benghazi. Stevens was not, at the time, Ambassador to Libya. At the time Stevens was the Special Representative to the Libyan Rebel-Alliance.

 

According to the New York Times, Stevens had even dealt with applications coming from U.S. weapons dealers requesting licenses to sell arms to Libyan insurgents.

 

There is a history of Stevens’ involvement in weapons used by Libyan fighters. There is also history of Stevens’ involvement in CIA operations. There appears to be massive movement of Libya-based arms, through Turkish territory, into the hands of Muslim Brotherhood fighters opposing the Assad government in Syria. There was controversy over a shipment of arms involving the Muslim Brotherhood and other Syrian insurgent groups, and an hour after a day of meetings ended, the compound in Libya came under attack.

 

Meanwhile, virtually all of the narratives circulating here in America surround the failed response to the attacks, the lack of security and the fact it was all blamed on a YouTube video.

 

WHY IS CONGRESS REFUSING TO ASK THESE QUESTIONS?

 

The most likely answer here is that members of Congress know the answers and they understand how extremely risky their disclosure would be. That said, because of the level of classification involved, Congress cannot legally answer the questions, or even ask the questions of someone who may know the answers. Especially in a public hearing or in a media interview.

 

This would explain why current Congressional hearings focus on the response, or lack thereof, not the true reason the attacks happened in the first place.

 

THE LIES AND THE COVER-UP

 

We don’t like having to say this, but we’re all very likely being lied to, repeatedly and recklessly. Very little, if anything, we’re being told about why Benghazi happened is true or relevant. Are we alleging the above is 100 percent accurate? Not at all. We do believe it all plays a part, either directly or indirectly, in the attack, in the murders that took place in Benghazi on September 11th, 2012, and in the deceitful cover-up orchestrated by the government and thrust on the American people. Yet, not a single person who is elected to protect our lives and our rights is, so far, willing to say it.

 

Not one.

 

This story does not provide all the answers, but hopefully it provokes the correct kind of questions.

 

We ALL need to be asking them.

 

- See more at: www.libertynews.com/2013/05/benghazi-the-biggest-cover-up...

Information from: en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Yankee_Stadium

  

Yankee Stadium is a stadium located in The Bronx in New York City, New York. It serves as the home ballpark for the New York Yankees, replacing the previous Yankee Stadium, built in 1923. The new ballpark was constructed across the street, north-northeast of the 1923 Yankee Stadium, on the former site of Macombs Dam Park. The ballpark opened April 2, 2009, when the Yankees hosted a workout day in front of fans from the Bronx community. The first game at the new Yankee Stadium was a pre-season exhibition game against the Chicago Cubs played on April 3, 2009, which the Yankees won 7–4.[4] The first regular season game was played on April 16, a 10–2 Yankee loss to the Cleveland Indians.[5][6]

 

Much of the stadium incorporates design elements from the previous Yankee Stadium, paying homage to the Yankees' history. Although stadium construction began in August 2006, the project of building a new stadium for the Yankees is one that spanned many years and faced many controversies. The stadium was built on what had been 24 acres (97,000 m2) of public parkland. Replacement ballfields, slated to open when the new stadium did, have not been completed. Also controversial was the price tag of $2.3 billion, including $1.2 billion in taxpayer subsidies.[7] It was the third most expensive stadium[citation needed] after Wembley Stadium in London and New Meadowlands Stadium in East Rutherford, New Jersey.[citation needed]

 

Contents [hide]

1 History

1.1 Planning

1.2 Construction

1.3 Financing

2 Features

2.1 Design and layout

2.2 Field dimensions and playing surface

2.2.1 Comparison with the 1923 Stadium

2.3 Amenities and facilities

3 Accessibility and transportation

4 Public opinion

4.1 Opening and public perception

5 Yankee Stadium firsts

6 Other events

7 See also

8 References

9 External links

  

[edit] History

[edit] Planning

New York Yankees owner George Steinbrenner began campaigning for the building of a new stadium in the 1980s, even alleging unsafe conditions around the original Yankee Stadium despite the possibility that such statements could discourage attendance at his own team's games. Yankees ownership allegedly planned to move the team across the Hudson River to New Jersey. The Yankees also considered moving to the West Side of Manhattan, which was where the proposed West Side Stadium would later be considered for the New York Jets.[8][9]

 

New York City Mayor Rudolph Giuliani had already been instrumental in the construction of taxpayer-funded minor league baseball facilities MCU Park for the Mets' minor league Brooklyn Cyclones and Richmond County Bank Ballpark for the Staten Island Yankees. Shortly before leaving office in December 2001, he announced "tentative agreements" for both the New York Yankees and New York Mets to build new stadiums. Of $1.5 billion sought for the stadiums, city and state taxpayers would pick up half the tab for construction, $800 million, along with $390 million on extra transportation.[10] The plan also said that the teams would be allowed to keep all parking revenues, which state officials had already said they wanted to keep to compensate the state for building new garages for the teams.[11] The teams would keep 96% of ticket revenues and 100% of all other revenues, not pay sales tax or property tax on the stadium, and would get low-cost electricity from the state of New York.[11] Business officials criticized the plan as giving too much money to successful teams with little reason to move to a different city.[11]

 

Michael Bloomberg, who succeeded Giuliani as mayor in 2002, called the former mayor's agreements "corporate welfare" and exercised the escape clause in the agreements to back out of both deals, saying that the city could not afford to build new stadiums for the Yankees and Mets. Bloomberg said that unbeknownst to him, Giuliani had inserted a clause in this deal which loosened the teams' leases with the city and would allow the Yankees and Mets to leave the city on 60 days' notice to find a new home elsewhere if the city backed out of the agreement.[10][11] At the time, Bloomberg said that publicly funded stadiums were a poor investment. Under Bloomberg, the New York City government would only offer public financing for infrastructure improvements; the teams would have to pay for the stadium themselves.

 

The proposal for the current stadium was unveiled by the Yankees in 2004. The team scrapped plans to build a retractable roof, saving $200 million in construction costs.[12]

 

[edit] Construction

 

The stadium under construction in 2007 (top), and the completed venue next to the remains of the former facility in 2010 (bottom)Groundbreaking ceremonies for the stadium took place on August 16, 2006, the 58th anniversary of Babe Ruth's death, with Steinbrenner, Bloomberg and then-Governor of New York George Pataki among the notables donning Yankees hard hats and wielding ceremonial shovels to mark the occasion.[13][14] The Yankees continued to play in the previous Yankee Stadium during the 2007 and 2008 seasons while their new home stadium was built across the street.

 

During construction of the stadium, a construction worker and avid Boston Red Sox fan, buried a replica jersey of Red Sox player David Ortiz underneath the visitors' dugout with the objective of placing a "hex" on the Yankees, much like the "Curse of the Bambino" that had plagued the Red Sox long after trading Ruth to the Yankees. After the worker was exposed by co-workers, he was forced to help exhume the jersey.[15] The Yankees organization then donated the retrieved jersey to the Jimmy Fund, a charity started in 1948 by the Red Sox' National League rivals, the Boston Braves, but long championed by the Red Sox and particularly associated with Ted Williams.[16][17] The worker has since claimed to have buried a 2004 American League Championship Series program/scorecard, but has not said where he placed it.[18] These attempts did not work; the Yankees won the World Series in their first year in the new stadium.[19]

 

[edit] Financing

$1.5 million of New York state tax revenue will be used to build parking garages (as authorized by the State Legislature). The parking garage project would cost $320 million. City and state taxpayers will forgo up to $7.5 million annually in lost taxes resulting from the sale of $225 million in tax-exempt bonds authorized on October 9, 2007, by the New York City Industrial Development Agency (administered by the New York City Economic Development Corporation) to finance construction and renovation of the parking garages.[20][21] However, if the parking revenues are not enough to pay a reported $3.2 million land lease to the city, the entity that will operate the parking garages and collect revenue will be able to defer that payment.[22]

 

[edit] Features

The new stadium is meant to be very similar in design to the original Yankee Stadium, both in its original 1923 state and its post-renovation state in 1976. The exterior resembles the original look of the 1923 Yankee Stadium. The interior, a modern ballpark with greater space and increased amenities, features a playing field that closely resembles the previous ballpark before its closing. The stadium features 4,300 club seats and 68 luxury suites.

 

[edit] Design and layout

 

The Indiana limestone exterior, shown at Gate 4, mirrors the exterior of the original Yankee Stadium in 1923.The stadium was designed by the architect firm Populous (formerly HOK Sport). The exterior was made from 11,000 pieces of Indiana limestone, along with granite and pre-cast concrete.[23] The design closely mirrors the exterior of the original Yankee Stadium when it first opened in 1923.[23] The exterior features the building's name V-cut and gold-leaf lettered above each gate.[23] The interior of the stadium is adorned with hundreds of photographs capturing the history of the Yankees. The New York Daily News newspaper partnered with the Yankees for the exhibition "The Glory of the Yankees Photo Collection", which was selected from the Daily News' collection of over 2,000 photographs.[24] Sports & The Arts was hired by the Yankees to curate the nearly 1,300 photographs that adorn the building from sources including the Daily News, Getty Images, the Baseball Hall of Fame and Major League Baseball.

 

The seats are laid out similar to the original stadium's stands, with grandstand seating that stretches beyond the foul poles, as well as bleacher seats beyond the outfield fences. The Field Level and Main Level comprise the lower bowl, with suites on the H&R Block Level, and the Upper Level and Grandstand Level comprising the upper bowl.[25] Approximately two-thirds of the stadium's seating is in the lower bowl, the inverse from the original Yankee Stadium.[25] Approximately 51,000 fans can be seated, with a standing room capacity of 52,325.[26] The new stadium's seating is spaced outward in a bowl, unlike the stacked-tiers design at the old stadium. This design places most fans farther back but lower to the field, by about an average of 30 feet (9.1 m). Over 56 suites are located within the ballpark, triple the amount from the previous stadium.[23] Seats are 19–24 inches (48–61 cm) wide, up from the previous stadium's 18–22-inch (46–56 cm) wide seats, while there is 33–39 inches (84–99 cm) of leg room, up from 29.5 inches (75 cm) of leg room in the previous stadium.[25] Many lower level seats are cushioned, while all seats are equipped with cupholders.[25] To allow for the extra seating space, the stadium's capacity is reduced by more than 4,000 seats in comparison to the previous stadium.[25]

  

The frieze that lined the roof of the original Yankee Stadium from 1923-1973 is replicated in its original location.Many design elements of the ballpark's interior are inspired by the original Yankee Stadium. The roof of the new facility features a replica of the frieze that was a trademark of the previous ballpark.[25] In the original Yankee Stadium, a copper frieze originally lined the roof of the upper deck stands, but it was torn down during the 1974–75 renovations and replicated atop the wall beyond the bleachers.[25] The new stadium replicates the frieze in its original location along the upper deck stands.[25] Made of steel coated with zinc for rust protection, it is part of the support system for the cantilevers holding up the top deck and the lighting on the roof.[27] The wall beyond the bleacher seats is "cut out" to reveal the subway trains as they pass by, like they were in the original facility. A manually-operated auxiliary scoreboard is built into the left and right field fences, in the same locations it existed in the pre-renovation iteration of the original Yankee Stadium.[25]

  

The Great Hall is situated along the southern front of the stadium.Between the exterior perimeter wall and interior of the stadium is the "Great Hall", a large concourse that runs between Gates 4 and 6.[28] With seven-story ceilings, the Great Hall features more than 31,000 square feet (2,900 m2) of retail space and is lined with 20 banners of past and present Yankees superstars.[28] The Great Hall features a 5-by-383-foot (1.5 by 117 m) LED (light-emitting diode) ribbon display as well as a 25' by 36' LED video display above the entrance to the ballpark from Daktronics, a company in ‹See Tfd›Brookings, South Dakota.[28] [28]

 

Monument Park, which features the Yankees' retired numbers, as well as monuments and plaques dedicated to distinguished Yankees, has been moved from its location beyond the left field fences in the original Yankee Stadium to its new location beyond the center field fences at the new facility. The newly relocated Monument Park is now situated under the sports bar, this choice of location has drawn criticism as the many monuments are underneath the sports bar and not as in the open as in the previous Yankee Stadium. Fueling this criticism has been the advent of black shades that cover monuments on the back wall during games to prevent interference with the vision of the batter.[29] The new location of the monuments is meant to mirror their original placement in center field at the original pre-renovation Yankee Stadium, albeit when they were on the playing field. The transfer of Monument Park from the old stadium to the new stadium began on November 10, 2008.[30] The first monuments were put in place on February 23, 2009.[31] Yankees pitcher Mariano Rivera requested that the Yankees reposition the team's bullpen, as well as add a door to connect the Yankees' bullpen to Monument Park, in order to allow access to it by Yankee relievers. The organization complied with his request.[23][32]

 

[edit] Field dimensions and playing surface

 

The view from the Grandstand Level (400 Level).The field dimensions for the outfield fences have the same distance markers as the original facility prior to closing yet the dimensions are not identical.[33] Due to the design of the right-field stands and the inclusion of an embedded manual scoreboard, the right-field wall is an average of 5 feet (1.5 m) closer to home plate.[34] Overall, the fences measure 318 feet (97 m) to left field, 399 feet (122 m) to left-center field, 408 feet (124 m) to center field, 385 feet (117 m) to right-center field, and 314 to right field.[25][26] At the old Yankee Stadium, the right field wall curved from the right-field corner to straightaway center, while at the new ballpark the fence takes a sharp, almost entirely straight angle.[34] This results in a difference at certain points between the right field markers of as much as 9 feet (2.7 m).[34] The dimensions in left field are substantially the same despite the presence of an embedded auxiliary scoreboard there as well.[34]

 

The outfield fences measure 8 feet 5 inches (2.57 m) high from the left-field foul pole until the Yankees' bullpen, when the fences begin to gradually descend in height until the right field foul pole, where they are only 8 feet (2.4 m) tall.[25] This also marks a decrease from the previous Yankee Stadium, where the outfield walls stood at a height of approximately 10 feet (3.0 m).[33] The distance from home plate to the backstop is 52 feet 4 inches (15.95 m), a reduction of 20 feet (6.1 m) from the previous facility.[26] The field is made up of Kentucky bluegrass, the same surface as the previous stadium, which is grown on a 1,300 acres (530 ha) farm in Bridgeton, New Jersey. The grass is equipped with a drainage system (featuring over 14,000 feet (4,300 m) of pipe) that makes the field playable an hour after taking 2 inches (51 mm) of rain.[25]

 

[edit] Comparison with the 1923 Stadium

Characteristic Old Stadium [as of 2008] New Stadium

Opening Day April 18, 1923 April 16, 2009

Capacity 56,866 52,325 [35](including standing room)

Seat width 18 inches (46 cm)–22 inches (56 cm) 19 inches (48 cm)–24 inches (61 cm)

Legroom 29.5 inches (75 cm) 33 inches (84 cm)–39 inches (99 cm)

Concourse width (average) 17 feet (5.2 m) 32 feet (9.8 m)

Cup holders Select Field Level Seating For every seat in General Seating

Luxury suites 19 56

Club Seats N/A 4,300

Team stores 6,800 square feet (630 m2) 11,560 square feet (1,074 m2)

Restroom fixture ratio 1 per 89 fans 1 per 60 fans

Public elevators

(passenger lifts) 3

(Otis Traction) 16

(KONE Traction)

Video scoreboard 25 feet (7.6 m) by 33 feet (10 m)

(Standard Definition LED) 59 feet (18 m) by 101 feet (31 m)

(High Definition LED)

Distance from Home Plate to:

Backstop 72 feet 4 inches (22 m) 52 feet 4 inches (16 m)

Left Field 318 feet (97 m)

Left Center 399 feet (122 m)

Center Field 408 feet (124 m)

Right Center 385 feet (117 m)

Right Field 314 feet (96 m)

Sources: The New York Yankees [26] and Andrew Clem [36]

 

[edit] Amenities and facilities

 

A signature by Babe Ruth is one of many autographs in the "ball wall", the centerpiece of the Yankee Museum.Yankee Stadium features a wide array of amenities. It contains 63 percent more space, 500,000 square feet (46,000 m2) more in total, than the previous stadium, with wider concourses and open sight lines on concourses.[23] Along with 227 miles (365 km) of wired Ethernet cable, the building has sufficient fiber-optic cable wiring that Cisco Vice President and Treasurer David Holland calls the building "future proof".[23] Over 1,100 high-definition video monitors are placed within the stadium and approximately $10 million worth of baseball merchandise is housed within the ballpark.[23]

 

The center field scoreboard, which measures 59 x 101 feet (31 m) and offers 5,925 square feet (550.5 m2) of viewing area, was the third-largest high definition scoreboard in the world when it opened (behind the 8,736-square-foot (811.6 m2) board at newly renovated Kauffman Stadium and the new 8,066-square-foot (749.4 m2) board at the renovated Tokyo Racecourse).[37] Since then, it has also been surpassed by the world's largest scoreboard at the new Cowboys Stadium.[38] Displaying 5,925 ft (1,806 m)² of video, the scoreboard can display four 1080p high definition images simultaneously.[25]

 

The Yankees clubhouse features 30,000 ft (9,100 m)² of space, over 2.5 times the space of the clubhouse from the previous facility.[39] The dressing area alone features 3,344 ft (1,019 m)² of space, with each locker equipped with a safety deposit box and touch-screen computer.[39] The Yankees clubhouse features a weight room, training room, video room, and lounge area, while both teams' clubhouses have their own indoor batting cages.[39] The Yankees' therapy room features a hydrotherapy pool with an underwater treadmill.[39] The Yankees are believed to be the first team to chemically treat their uniforms, as well as the showering surfaces with an anti-bacterial agent that reduces the risk of infection.[39]

 

The Yankees Museum, located on the lower level at Gate 6, displays a wide range of Yankees' memorabilia.[40] A "Ball Wall" features hundreds of balls autographed by past and present Yankees, and there are plans to eventually add autographs for every living player who has played for the Yankees.[40] The centerpiece of the museum is a tribute to Don Larsen's perfect game in the 1956 World Series, with a commemorative home plate in the floor and statues of Larsen pitching to Yogi Berra.[40] Along with a facsimile of a current locker from the Yankees' clubhouse, fans can view the locker of the late Thurman Munson, which sat unoccupied in the previous stadium's Yankee clubhouse in honor of Munson.[40]

 

The ballpark offers a wide choice of restaurants. There are 25 fixed concessions stands, along with 112 moveable ones.[28] A Hard Rock Cafe is located within the ballpark, but it is open to anyone at the 161 St. and River Ave. entrance year round.[28] The Hard Rock Cafe at Yankee Stadium officially opened on March 30, 2009, and an opening ceremony took place on April 2, 2009.[41] A steakhouse called NYY Steak is located beyond right field.[28] Celebrity chefs will occasionally make appearances at the ballpark's restaurants and help prepare food for fans in premium seating over the course of the season.[28] Above Monument Park in center field is the Mohegan Sun sports bar, whose tinted black glass acts as the ballpark's batter's eye. The sports bar obstructs the view of approximately 600 bleacher seats in the right and left field bleachers, preventing fans from seeing the action occurring deep in the opposite side of the outfield. In response, the Yankees installed TV monitors on the sides of the sports bar's outer walls, and have reduced the price of these obstructed-view seats from $12 to $5.[42][43]

 

[edit] Accessibility and transportation

 

The stadium is serviced via subway by the 161st Street station on the IRT Jerome Avenue Line (top) (as well as the IND Concourse Line; not shown) and via railroad by the East 153rd Street Metro North station (bottom)The stadium is reachable via the 161st Street – Yankee Stadium station complex, the same that served the old Yankee Stadium, by the 4 B D trains of the New York City Subway. It is also served by the Yankees - East 153rd Street (Metro-North station), which opened on May 23, 2009,[44] which routinely features Hudson Line train service, but on game days, Harlem Line and New Haven Line trains as well as shuttle trains from Grand Central Terminal also platform there. The stadium is also served by multiple bus lines. On game days, NY Waterway operates the "Yankee Clipper" ferry route stopping at Port Imperial (Weehawken) and Hoboken in New Jersey and West 38th Street, the Wall Street Ferry Pier, and East 34th Street in Manhattan, and New York Water Taxi operates a free ferry to the stadium from the Wall Street Ferry Pier before every game only. For selected games, SeaStreak provides high-speed ferry service to Highlands, New Jersey.

 

Yankee Stadium is accessible by car via the Major Deegan Expressway (Interstate 87), with connections to Interstate 95, Interstate 278 and other major thoroughfares. Aside from existing parking lots and garages serving the stadium, construction for additional parking garages is planned. The New York State Legislature agreed to $70 million in subsidies for a $320 million parking garage project. On October 9, 2007, the New York City Industrial Development Agency approved $225 million in tax-exempt bonds to finance construction of three new parking garages that will have 3,600 new parking spaces, and renovation of the existing 5,569 parking spaces nearby.[45] Plans initially called for a fourth new garage, but this was eliminated before the final approval. The garages will be built (and renovated) by the Community Initiatives Development Corporation of Hudson, N.Y., a nonprofit entity that will use the parking revenue to repay the bonds and pay a $3 million yearly land lease to the City of New York. Parking is expected to cost $25 per game.[45]

 

[edit] Public opinion

[edit] Opening and public perception

 

Four F-16C Fighting Falcons from the 174th Fighter Wing fly over the "New" Yankee Stadium on Opening DayAlthough Yankee Stadium has been praised for its amenities and its usage of "classic" design elements from the original facility, the new stadium has been widely criticized for fan-unfriendly practices.[46][47] Seats within the first eight rows in the lower bowl, called the "Legends Suite", rank among the highest priced tickets in professional sports, with the average ticket in the section selling for $510 and the most expensive single game-day ticket costing $2,600.[46] Legends Suite Seats have been regularly empty, with many ticket holders in this section having given up their tickets, and others remaining unsold, despite most other seats in the ballpark selling out. This has created an "embarrassing" image on television of the seats behind home plate being almost completely vacant.[46] Consequently, a surplus of tickets for Legends Seats have emerged in the secondary market, and with supply exceeding demand, resale prices have dropped. Empty seats in the Legends Suite could even be seen during the 2009 playoffs, including World Series games. Even though all playoff games have been sellouts, Legends Suite ticket holders are in the lounges and the restaurant underneath instead of their seats.[48][49]

 

Legends Suite seats are also separate from the other lower bowl seating and are vigorously patrolled by stadium security, with the divider being described as a "concrete moat".[46][47] Fans that do not have tickets within this premium section in the front rows are not allowed to access it or stand behind the dugouts during batting practice to watch players hit and request autographs.[46][47]

 

The Yankee Stadium staff was also criticized for an incident during a May 4, 2009 game, which was interrupted by a rain delay.[50] Fans were told by some staff members that the game was unlikely to resume and consequently, many fans exited the stadium, only for the game to eventually resume play.[50] The fans that left the ballpark were not permitted to re-enter, per the stadium's re-entry policy, and many subsequently got into arguments with stadium personnel.[50] In response to the backlash the Yankees received for the incident, the staff members were required to sign a gag order preventing them from speaking to media, but they did indicate that communication for rain delays would be improved.[50]

 

After less than a season, cracks have appeared on the concrete ramps of the Stadium. The Yankees are trying to determine whether there was something wrong with the cement, or the ramps' installation or design. The company involved in designing the concrete mix were indicted on charges that they either faked or failed to perform some required tests and falsified the results of others.[51]

    

This article's factual accuracy may be compromised because of out-of-date information. Please help improve the article by updating it. There may be additional information on the talk page. (September 2010)

 

In 2009, the stadium was criticized for its propensity for allowing home runs. In its opening season, 237 home runs were hit.Yankee Stadium has quickly acquired a reputation as a "bandbox" and a "launching pad" due to the high number of home runs hit at the new ballpark.[52][53][54][55][56][57] Through its first 23 games, 87 home runs were hit at the venue, easily besting Enron Field's (now called Minute Maid Park) previous record set in 2000.[58] Early in the season, Yankee Stadium was on pace to break Coors Field's 1999 single-season record of 303 home runs allowed, and the hometown New York Daily News newspaper started publishing a daily graphic comparing each stadium's home run totals through a similar number of games.

 

ESPN commentator Peter Gammons has denounced the new facility as "one of the biggest jokes in baseball" and concludes that "[it] was not a very well-planned ballpark."[54] Likewise, Gammons' ESPN colleague Buster Olney has described the stadium as being "on steroids" and likened it to his childhood Wiffle-ball park.[52][59] Newsday columnist Wallace Matthews joined in the criticism, labeling the stadium "ridiculous" and decrying its cheapening of the home run.[53] Former Yankee Reggie Jackson termed the park "too small" to contain current player Alex Rodriguez and suggested it might enable the third baseman to hit 75 home runs in a season.[53]

 

A variety of theories have been posited to account for the dramatic increase in home runs at the new Yankee Stadium over the original stadium, foremost among these the sharper angles of the outfield walls[34] and the speculated presence of a wind tunnel.[52] During construction of the new ballpark, engineers commissioned a wind study, the results of which indicated there would be no noticeable difference between the two stadiums.[60] The franchise is planning to conduct a second study, but Major League rules prohibit it from making any changes to the playing field until the off-season.[60]

 

An independent study by the weather service provider AccuWeather in June 2009 concluded that the shape and height of the right field wall, rather than the wind, is responsible for the proliferation of home runs at the stadium.[61] AccuWeather's analysis found that roughly 20% of the home runs hit at the new ballpark would not have been home runs at the old ballpark due to the gentle curve of its right field corner, and its 10-foot (3.0 m) wall height.[61] Nothing was observed in wind speeds and patterns that would account for the increase.[61]

 

The number of home runs hit at the new stadium slowed significantly as the season progressed,[62] but a new single-season record for most home runs hit at a Yankee home ballpark was nonetheless set in the Yankees' 73rd home game of 2009 when Vladimir Guerrero of the Los Angeles Angels of Anaheim hit the 216th home run of the season at the venue, surpassing the previous record of 215 set at the original Yankee Stadium in 2005.[63]

 

In 2010, the rate of home runs were markedly less as of May 15, 2010, with 35 home runs hit in 14 games for 2.5 per game (a projection of 205 - in 2009, the stadium was at 2.93 per game for a total of 237.) Several reasons were given for the sudden dropoff in home runs, including a lower April 2010 temperature (56 degrees in comparison with 63 the previous year), slower winds, poor pitching, a change in direction in winds,[64] as well as removal of the original Yankee Stadium and the effect this has had on wind currents.[citation needed] ESPN suggested the prolific home run totals of 2009 were a fluke.[64]

 

[edit] Yankee Stadium firsts

 

Logo for the inaugural season at the Stadium.Before the official Opening Day against the Cleveland Indians April 16, 2009, the Yankees hosted a two-game exhibition series at the Stadium in early April against the Chicago Cubs.[5] Grady Sizemore of the Indians was the first player to hit a grand slam off of Yankee pitcher Dámaso Marte. The Indians and 2008 Cy Young Award winner, Cliff Lee, spoiled the opening of the new stadium by winning 10-2. Before the Yankees went to bat for the first time, the bat that Babe Ruth used to hit his first home run at the old Yankee Stadium in 1923 was placed momentarily on home plate.[65] Jorge Posada hit the first Yankee home run in the new ballpark hitting his off Lee in the same game. Russell Branyan, while playing for the Seattle Mariners, was the first player to hit a home run off of the Mohegan Sun Restaurant in center field. Like its predecessor, the new Yankee Stadium hosted the World Series in its very first season; in the 2009 World Series, the Yankees defeated the Philadelphia Phillies 4 games to 2. It also became the latest stadium to host a World Series-clinching victory by its home team in the venue's first season (after the St. Louis Cardinals won the World Series at Busch Stadium in 2006), when, on November 4, 2009, the Yankees won their 27th World Series championship against the Phillies. The Yankees are the only team to inaugurate two stadiums with World Series wins and also appeared in the 1976 World Series following the refurbishment of the original Yankee Stadium.

 

Statistic Exhibition Regular season Postseason

First game April 3, 2009

Yankees 7, Cubs 4 April 16, 2009

Indians 10, Yankees 2 October 7, 2009

Yankees 7, Twins 2

Ceremonial First Pitch Reggie Jackson Yogi Berra Eric T. Olson

First Pitch Chien-Ming Wang CC Sabathia CC Sabathia

First Batter Aaron Miles (Cubs) Grady Sizemore (Indians) Denard Span (Twins)

First Hit Aaron Miles (Cubs) Johnny Damon Denard Span (Twins)

First Yankees Hit Derek Jeter Johnny Damon Derek Jeter

First Home Run Robinson Cano Jorge Posada Derek Jeter

First Win Chien-Ming Wang Cliff Lee (Indians) CC Sabathia

First Save Jonathan Albaladejo Mariano Rivera (4/17) Mariano Rivera

 

[edit] Other events

 

Football configuration for new Yankee Stadium.The first ever non-baseball event at the Stadium took place on April 25, 2009, with pastor and televangelist Joel Osteen holding a “Historic Night of Hope” prayer service.[66]

 

A New York University graduation ceremony took place on May 13, 2009 with the address being delivered by U.S. Secretary of State and former New York Senator Hillary Clinton. The 2010 NYU ceremony featured alumnus Alec Baldwin as a speaker.[67]

 

The promotional tour for the Manny Pacquiao-Miguel Cotto fight began with an event at Yankee Stadium on September 10, 2009.

 

On June 5, 2010, Yuri Foreman fought Cotto in the first boxing match in The Bronx since 1976. The fight was referred to as the "Stadium Slugfest." Cotto defeated Foreman with a TKO in the ninth round.[68]

 

The Army Black Knights will play a college football game at Yankee Stadium against The Notre Dame Fighting Irish on November 20, 2010. This will mark the two teams' first meeting in the Bronx since 1969.[69] Also, Army will play Air Force, Rutgers, and Boston College in 2011, 2012, and 2014 respectively at Yankee Stadium.

 

Yankee Stadium will also host the newly-created Pinstripe Bowl, an annual college football bowl game that will pit the third-place team from the Big East against the seventh-place team from the Big 12. Organizers plan to hold the inaugural game December 30, 2010.[70]

 

The Yankees were in discussions with the National Hockey League to have Yankee Stadium host the 2011 NHL Winter Classic. However, the NHL chose Heinz Field as the host. The stadium was a candidate to host the 2010 NHL Winter Classic before it was awarded to Boston's Fenway Park.[71]

 

Rappers Jay-Z and Eminem performed the first concert at Yankee Stadium on September 13, 2010.[72]

 

[edit] See also

Citi Field, a new baseball stadium for the New York Mets (National League) also opened in 2009, replacing the Mets' previous home Shea Stadium in northern Queens (New York City).

Barclays Center, an arena for the New Jersey Nets of the National Basketball Association to be built by and over the Metropolitan Transportation Authority's Atlantic Avenue railyards in northwestern Brooklyn (New York City) currently under construction.

New Meadowlands Stadium, a new football stadium for the New York Giants and the New York Jets of the National Football League which replaced Giants Stadium at the Meadowlands Sports Complex in East Rutherford, New Jersey that opened in 2010.

Red Bull Arena, a new stadium for the Major League Soccer team New York Red Bulls that opened in 2010, replacing the team's previous home, Giants Stadium.

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[edit] External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Yankee Stadium

Official Site

Virtual tour of new Yankee Stadium

Newsday.com New Yankee Stadium

Ballparks of Baseball

Ballparks.com overview of proposed stadium

Photographic Updates of the Construction of the New Yankee Stadium

Demolition of Yankee Stadium

Metro-North Railroad station at Yankee Stadium

  

The United States Border Patrol is a federal law enforcement agency within U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP), a component of the Department of Homeland Security (DHS). Its 20,200 Agents[1] are primarily responsible for immigration and border law enforcement as codified in the Immigration and Nationality Act. Their duty is to prevent terrorists and terrorist weapons from entering the United States and to deter, detect, and apprehend illegal aliens and individuals involved in the illegal drug trade who enter the United States other than through designated ports of entry.

 

Additionally, the CBP enforces federal controlled substances laws (as codified in the Controlled Substances Act) when violations occur or are found during the enforcement of federal immigration laws, via delegated authority from the Drug Enforcement Administration.

 

Note that there are two personnel segments of U.S. Customs and Border Protection that people often confuse with each other, the CBP Officer [1], who wears a blue uniform and the Border Patrol Agent [2] who wears a green uniform.

 

Contents [hide]

1 History

2 Strategy

2.1 1986: Employer sanctions and interior enforcement

2.2 Inspection stations

2.2.1 El Paso Sector's Operation Hold the Line

2.2.2 San Diego Sector's Operation Gatekeeper

2.2.3 Tucson Sector's Operation Safeguard

2.3 Northern border

2.4 Border Patrol moves away from interior enforcement

2.5 The new strategy

3 Capabilities

4 Expansion

5 Special Operations Group

5.1 Other specialized programs

6 Border Patrol organization

6.1 Border Patrol Sectors

7 Training

7.1 Uniforms

7.2 Border Patrol (OBP) Ranks and Insignia

7.2.1 Border Patrol Shoulder Ornaments

8 Awards

8.1 Newton-Azrak Award for Heroism

9 Border Patrol Uniform Devices

10 Equipment

10.1 Weapons

10.2 Transportation

11 Line of duty deaths

12 Armed incursions

13 Ramos and Compean

14 Criticisms

14.1 Ineffective

14.2 Allegations of abuse

14.3 Corruption

15 National Border Patrol Council

16 National Border Patrol Museum

17 In popular culture

17.1 Books

17.2 Film

17.2.1 Documentaries

18 See also

19 References

20 External links

21 External Video

21.1 GAO and OIG Reports

  

[edit] History

 

Immigration inspectors, circa 1924Mounted watchmen of the United States Immigration Service patrolled the border in an effort to prevent illegal crossings as early as 1904, but their efforts were irregular and undertaken only when resources permitted. The inspectors, usually called "mounted guards", operated out of El Paso, Texas. Though they never totaled more than 75, they patrolled as far west as California trying to restrict the flow of illegal Chinese immigration.

 

In March 1915, Congress authorized a separate group of mounted guards, often referred to as "mounted inspectors". Most rode on horseback, but a few operated automobiles, motorcycles and boats. Although these inspectors had broader arrest authority, they still largely pursued Chinese immigrants trying to avoid the National Origins Act and Chinese Exclusion Act of 1882. These patrolmen were Immigrant Inspectors, assigned to inspection stations, and could not watch the border at all times. U.S. Army troops along the southwest border performed intermittent border patrolling, but this was secondary to "the more serious work of military training." Non-nationals encountered illegally in the U.S. by the army were directed to the immigration inspection stations. Texas Rangers were also sporadically assigned to patrol duties by the state, and their efforts were noted as "singularly effective".

 

The Border Patrol was founded on May 28, 1924 as an agency of the United States Department of Labor to prevent illegal entries along the Mexico–United States border and the United States-Canada border. The first two border patrol stations were in El Paso, Texas and Detroit, Michigan.[2] Additional operations were established along the Gulf Coast in 1927 to perform crewman control to insure that non-American crewmen departed on the same ship on which they arrived. Additional stations were temporarily added along the Gulf Coast, Florida and the Eastern Seaboard during the sixties when in Cuba triumphed the Cuban Revolution and emerged the Cuban Missile Crisis.

 

Prior to 2003, the Border Patrol was part of the Immigration and Naturalization Service (INS), an agency that was within the U.S. Department of Justice. INS was disbanded in March 2003 when its operations were divided between CBP, United States Citizenship and Immigration Services, and U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement.

 

The priority mission of the Border Patrol, as a result of the 9/11 attacks and its merging into the Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is to prevent terrorists and terrorist weapons from entering the United States of America. However, the Border Patrol's traditional mission remains as the deterrence, detection and apprehension of illegal immigrants and individuals involved in the illegal drug trade who generally enter the United States other than through designated ports of entry. The Border Patrol also operates 33 permanent interior checkpoints along the southern border of the United States.

 

Currently, the U.S. Border Patrol employs over 20,200 agents (as of the end of fiscal year 2009),[3] who are specifically responsible for patrolling the 6,000 miles of Mexican and Canadian international land borders and 2,000 miles of coastal waters surrounding the Florida Peninsula and the island of Puerto Rico. Agents are assigned primarily to the Mexico–United States border, where they are assigned to control drug trafficking and illegal immigration.[4] Patrols on horseback have made a comeback since smugglers have been pushed into the more remote mountainous regions, which are hard to cover with modern tracking strategies.[5]

 

[edit] Strategy

[edit] 1986: Employer sanctions and interior enforcement

 

Border Patrol Agents with a Hummer and Astar patrol for illegal entry into U.S.The Border Patrol's priorities have changed over the years. In 1986, the Immigration Reform and Control Act placed renewed emphasis on controlling illegal immigration by going after the employers that hire illegal immigrants. The belief was that jobs were the magnet that attracted most illegal immigrants to come to the United States. The Border Patrol increased interior enforcement and Form I-9 audits of businesses through an inspection program known as "employer sanctions". Several agents were assigned to interior stations, such as within the Livermore Sector in Northern California.

 

Employer sanctions never became the effective tool it was expected to be by Congress. Illegal immigration continued to swell after the 1986 amnesty despite employer sanctions. By 1993, Californians passed Proposition 187, denying benefits to illegal immigrants and criminalizing illegal immigrants in possession of forged green cards, I.D. cards and Social Security Numbers. It also authorized police officers to question non-nationals as to their immigration status and required police and sheriff departments to cooperate and report illegal immigrants to the INS. Proposition 187 drew nationwide attention to illegal immigration.

 

[edit] Inspection stations

United States Border Patrol Interior Checkpoints are inspection stations operated by the USBP within 100 miles of a national border (with Mexico or Canada) or in the Florida Keys. As federal inspection stations are also operated by the Mexican government within 50 km of its borders where they are officially known as a "Garita de Revisión." or Garitas, they are known also by that name to Latinos.

 

[edit] El Paso Sector's Operation Hold the Line

El Paso Sector Chief Patrol Agent (and future U.S. congressman) Silvestre Reyes started a program called "Operation Hold the Line". In this program, Border Patrol agents would no longer react to illegal entries resulting in apprehensions, but would instead be forward deployed to the border, immediately detecting any attempted entries or deterring crossing at a more remote location. The idea was that it would be easier to capture illegal entrants in the wide open deserts than through the urban alleyways. Chief Reyes deployed his agents along the Rio Grande River, within eyesight of other agents. The program significantly reduced illegal entries in the urban part of El Paso, however, the operation merely shifted the illegal entries to other areas.

 

[edit] San Diego Sector's Operation Gatekeeper

 

A Border Patrol Jeep stands watch over the U.S.-Mexico border at San Ysidro, California.San Diego Sector tried Silvestre Reyes' approach of forward deploying agents to deter illegal entries into the country. Congress authorized the hiring of thousands of new agents, and many were sent to San Diego Sector.[citation needed] In addition, Congressman Duncan Hunter obtained surplus military landing mats to use as a border fence.[citation needed] Stadium lighting, ground sensors and infra-red cameras were also placed in the area.[citation needed] Apprehensions decreased dramatically in that area as people crossed in different regions.

 

[edit] Tucson Sector's Operation Safeguard

California was no longer the hotbed of illegal entry and the traffic shifted to Arizona, primarily in Nogales and Douglas.[citation needed] The Border Patrol instituted the same deterrent strategy it used in San Diego to Arizona.

 

[edit] Northern border

In 2001, the Border Patrol had approximately 340 agents assigned along the Canada – United States border border. Northern border staffing had been increased to 1,128 agents to 1,470 agents by the end of fiscal year 2008, and is projected to expand to 1,845 by the end of fiscal year 2009, a sixfold increase. Resources that support Border Patrol agents include the use of new technology and a more focused application of air and marine assets.

 

The northern border sectors are Blaine (Washington), Buffalo (New York), Detroit (Selfridge ANGB, Michigan), Grand Forks (North Dakota), Havre (Montana), Houlton (Maine), Spokane (Washington), and Swanton (Vermont).

 

[edit] Border Patrol moves away from interior enforcement

In the 1990s, Congress mandated that the Border Patrol shift agents away from the interior and focus them on the borders.

 

After the September 11, 2001 attacks, the Department of Homeland Security created two immigration enforcement agencies out of the defunct Immigration and Naturalization Service: U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) and the U.S. Customs and Border Protection (CBP). ICE was tasked with investigations, detention and removal of illegal immigrants, and interior enforcement. CBP was tasked with inspections at U.S. ports of entry and with preventing illegal entries between the port of entry, transportation check, and entries on U.S. coastal borders. DHS management decided to align the Border Patrol with CBP. CBP itself is solely responsible for the nation's ports of entry, while Border Patrol maintains jurisdiction over all locations between ports of entry, giving Border Patrol agents federal authority absolutely[dubious – discuss] nationwide[dubious – discuss].

 

In July 2004, the Livermore Sector of the United States Border Patrol was closed. Livermore Sector served Northern California and included stations at Dublin (Parks Reserve Forces Training Area), Sacramento, Stockton, Fresno and Bakersfield. The Border Patrol also closed other stations in the interior of the United States including Roseburg, Oregon and Little Rock, Arkansas. The Border Patrol functions in these areas consisted largely of local jail and transportation terminal checks for illegal immigrants. These functions were turned over to U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement.

 

[edit] The new strategy

 

Cameras add "Smart Border" surveillance.In November 2005, the U.S. Border Patrol published an updated national strategy.[6] The goal of this updated strategy is operational control of the United States border. The strategy has five main objectives:

 

Apprehend terrorists and terrorist weapons illegally entering the United States;

Deter illegal entries through improved enforcement;

Detect, apprehend, and deter smugglers of humans, drugs, and other contraband;

Use "smart border" technology; and

Reduce crime in border communities, improving quality of life.

[edit] Capabilities

The border is a barely discernible line in uninhabited deserts, canyons, or mountains. The Border Patrol utilizes a variety of equipment and methods, such as electronic sensors placed at strategic locations along the border, to detect people or vehicles entering the country illegally. Video monitors and night vision scopes are also used to detect illegal entries. Agents patrol the border in vehicles, boats, aircraft, and afoot. In some areas, the Border Patrol employs horses, all-terrain motorcycles, bicycles, and snowmobiles. Air surveillance capabilities are provided by unmanned aerial vehicles.[3]

 

The primary activity of a Border Patrol Agent is "Line Watch". Line Watch involves the detection, prevention, and apprehension of terrorists, undocumented aliens and smugglers of aliens at or near the land border by maintaining surveillance from a covert position; following up on leads; responding to electronic sensor television systems and aircraft sightings; and interpreting and following tracks, marks, and other physical evidence. Major activities include traffic check, traffic observation, city patrol, transportation check, administrative, intelligence, and anti-smuggling activities.[4]

 

Traffic checks are conducted on major highways leading away from the border to detect and apprehend illegal aliens attempting to travel further into the interior of the United States after evading detection at the border, and to detect illegal narcotics.[3]

 

Transportation checks are inspections of interior-bound conveyances, which include buses, commercial aircraft, passenger and freight trains, and marine craft.[3]

 

Marine Patrols are conducted along the coastal waterways of the United States, primarily along the Pacific coast, the Caribbean, the tip of Florida, and Puerto Rico and interior waterways common to the United States and Canada. Border Patrol conducts border control activities from 130 marine craft of various sizes. The Border Patrol maintains watercraft ranging from blue-water craft to inflatable-hull craft, in 16 sectors, in addition to headquarters special operations components.[3]

 

Horse and bike patrols are used to augment regular vehicle and foot patrols. Horse units patrol remote areas along the international boundary that are inaccessible to standard all-terrain vehicles. Bike patrol aids city patrol and is used over rough terrain to support linewatch.[3] Snowmobiles are used to patrol remote areas along the northern border in the winter.

 

[edit] Expansion

Attrition in the Border Patrol was normally at 5%. From 1995-2001 attrition spiked to above 10%, which was a period when the Border Patrol was undergoing massive hiring. In 2002 the attrition rate climbed to 18%. The 18% attrition was largely attributed to agents transferring to the Federal Air Marshals after 9/11. Since that time the attrition problem has decreased significantly and Congress has increased journeyman Border Patrol Agent pay from GS-9 to GS-11 in 2002. The Border Patrol Marine Position was created in 2009 (BPA-M). This position will be updated to a GS-12 position sometime in 2010 or 2011. Border Patrol Field Training Officers may possibly be updated in 2010 to a temporary GS-12 pay rate. In 2005, Border Patrol attrition dropped to 4% and remains in the area of 4% to 6% as of 2009.[7]

 

The Intelligence Reform and Terrorism Prevention Act of 2004 (signed by President Bush on December 17, 2004) authorized hiring an additional 10,000 agents, "subject to appropriation". This authorization, if fully implemented, would nearly double the Border Patrol manpower from 11,000 to 21,000 agents by 2010.

 

In July 2005, Congress signed the Emergency Supplemental Spending Act for military operations in Iraq/Afghanistan and other operations. The act also appropriated funding to increase Border Patrol manpower by 500 Agents. In October 2005, President Bush also signed the DHS FY06 Appropriation bill, funding an additional 1,000 Agents.

 

In November 2005, President George W. Bush made a trip to southern Arizona to discuss more options that would decrease illegal crossings at the U.S. and Mexican border. In his proposed fiscal year 2007 budget he has requested an additional 1,500 Border Patrol agents.

 

The Secure Fence Act, signed by President George W. Bush on October 26, 2006, has met with much opposition. In October 2007, environmental groups and concerned citizens filed a restraining order hoping to halt the construction of the fence, set to be built between the United States and Mexico. The act mandates that the fence be built by December 2008. Ultimately, the United States seeks to put fencing around the 1,945-mile (3,130 km) border, but the act requires only 700 miles (1,100 km) of fencing. DHS secretary Michael Chertoff has bypassed environmental and other oppositions with a waiver that was granted to him by Congress in Section 102 of the act, which allows DHS to avoid any conflicts that would prevent a speedy assembly of the fence.[8][9]

 

This action has led many environment groups and landowners to speak out against the impending construction of the fence.[10] Environment and wildlife groups fear that the plans to clear brush, construct fences, install bright lights, motion sensors, and cameras will scare wildlife and endanger the indigenous species of the area.[11] Environmentalists claim that the ecosystem could be affected due to the fact that a border fence would restrict movement of all animal species, which in turn would keep them from water and food sources on one side or another. Desert plants would also feel the impact, as they would be uprooted in many areas where the fence is set to occupy.[12]

 

Property owners in these areas fear a loss of land. Landowners would have to give some of their land over to the government for the fence. Citizens also fear that communities will be split. Many students travel over the border every day to attend classes at the University of Texas at Brownsville. Brownsville mayor Pat Ahumada favors alternative options to a border fence. He suggests that the Rio Grande River be widened and deepened to provide for a natural barrier to hinder illegal immigrants and drug smugglers.[13]

 

The United States Border Patrol Academy is located in Artesia, New Mexico.

 

[edit] Special Operations Group

 

A Border Patrol Special Response Team searches room-by-room a hotel in New Orleans in response to Hurricane Katrina.

CBP BORSTAR canine team conducting rappeling trainingIn 2007, the Border Patrol created the Special Operations Group (SOG) headquartered in El Paso, TX to coordinate the specialized units of the agency.[14]

 

Border Patrol Tactical Unit (BORTAC)

National Special Response Team (NSRT)

Border Patrol, Search, Trauma and Rescue (BORSTAR)

Air Mobile Unit (AMU)

[edit] Other specialized programs

The Border Patrol has a number of other specialized programs and details.

 

Air and Marine Operations

K9 Units

Mounted Patrol

Bike patrol

Sign-cutting (tracking)

Snowmobile unit

Infrared scope unit

Intelligence

Anti-smuggling investigations

Border Criminal Alien Program

Multi-agency Anti-Gang Task Forces (regional & local units)

Honor Guard

Pipes and Drums

Chaplain

Peer Support

[edit] Border Patrol organization

 

David V. Aguilar, Acting Commissioner of Customs and Border ProtectionThe current Acting Chief of the Border Patrol is Michael J. Fisher who succeeded in 2010 David V. Aguilar, who is now the Acting Commissioner of Customs and Border Protection.

 

[edit] Border Patrol Sectors

There are 20 Border Patrol sectors, each headed by a Sector Chief Patrol Agent.

 

Northern Border (West to East):

 

Blaine Sector (Western Washington State, Idaho, and Western Montana.) - stations; Bellingham, Blaine, Port Angeles, Sumas.

Spokane Sector (Eastern Washington State)

Havre Sector (Montana)

Grand Forks Sector (North Dakota)

Detroit Sector (Selfridge Air National Guard Base, Michigan) - stations; Downtown Detroit, Marysville, Gibralter, Sault Sainte Marie, Sandusky Bay.

Buffalo Sector (New York) - stations; Buffalo, Erie, Niagura Falls, Oswego, Rochester, Wellesley Island.

Swanton Sector (Vermont)

Houlton Sector (Maine)

Southern Border (West to East):

 

San Diego Sector (San Diego, California)

El Centro Sector (Imperial County, California)

Yuma Sector (Western Arizona)- stations; Wellton, Yuma, Blythe

Tucson Sector (Eastern Arizona)

El Paso Sector (El Paso, Texas and New Mexico) - stations; Alamogordo, Albuquerque, Deming, El Paso, Fabens, Fort Hancock, Las Cruces, Lordsburg, Santa Teresa, Truth or Consequences, Ysleta

Marfa Sector (Big Bend Area of West Texas) - stations; Alpine, Amarillo, Big Bend, Fort Stockton, Lubbock, Marfa, Midland, Pecos, Presidio, Sanderson, Sierra Blanca, Van Horn

Del Rio Sector (Del Rio, Texas) - stations; Abilene, Brackettville, Carrizo Springs, Comstock, Del Rio, Eagle Pass North, Eagle Pass South, Rocksprings, San Angelo, Uvalde

Rio Grande Valley Sector (South Texas) - stations; Brownsville, Corpus Christi, Falfurrias, Fort Brown, Harlingen, Kingsville, McAllen, Rio Grande City, Weslaco

Laredo Sector (South Texas) - stations; Cotulla, Dallas, Freer, Hebbronville, Laredo North, Laredo South, Laredo West, San Antonio, Zapata

New Orleans Sector (Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama, and West Florida)

Miami Sector (Florida East and South)

Caribbean

 

Ramey Sector (Aguadilla, Puerto Rico) and the Virgin Islands, it is the only Border Patrol Sector located outside the continental United States

[edit] Training

All Border Patrol Agents spend 15 weeks in training at the Border Patrol Academy (if they are fluent in Spanish) in Artesia, New Mexico, which is a component of the Federal Law Enforcement Training Center (FLETC).Those who are not fluent in Spanish spend an additional eight weeks at the Academy. Recruits are instructed in Border Patrol and federal law enforcement subjects.

 

Border Patrol courses include: Immigration and Nationality Law, Criminal Law and Statutory Authority, Spanish, Border Patrol Operations, Care and Use of Firearms, Physical Training, Driver Training, and Anti-Terrorism.

 

FLETC courses include: Communications, Ethics and Conduct, Report Writing, Introduction to Computers, Fingerprinting, and Constitutional Law.[15]

 

The physical aspects of the Border Patrol Training Program are extremely demanding. At the end of 55 days, trainees must be able to complete a one and a half mile run in 13 minutes or less, a confidence course in two and a half minutes or less, and a 220 yard dash in 46 seconds or less. This final test is much easier than the day to day physical training during the program.[15]

 

[edit] Uniforms

The Border Patrol currently wears the following types of uniforms:

  

CBP officers at a ceremony in 2007Dress uniform – The dress uniform consists of olive-green trousers with a blue stripe, and an olive-green shirt, which may or may not have blue shoulder straps. The campaign hat is worn with uniform.

Ceremonial uniform – When required, the following items are added to the dress uniform to complete the ceremonial uniform: olive-green Ike jacket or tunic with blue accents (shoulder straps and cuffs, blue tie, brass tie tack, white gloves, and olive-green felt campaign hat with leather hat band. The campaign hat is worn with uniform.

Rough duty uniform – The rough duty uniform consists of green cargo trousers and work shirt (in short or long sleeves). Usually worn with green baseball cap or tan stetson.

Accessories, footwear, and outerwear – Additional items are worn in matching blue or black colors as appropriate.

Organization patches – The Border Patrol wears two:

The CBP patch is worn on the right sleeves of the uniform. It contains the DHS seal against a black background with a "keystone" shape. A "keystone" is the central, wedge-shaped stone in an arch, which holds all the other stones in place.

Border Patrol agents retain the circular legacy Border Patrol patch, which is worn on the left sleeve.

The Border Patrol uniform is getting its first makeover since the 1950s to appear more like military fatigues and less like a police officer's duty garb.[16] Leather belts with brass buckles are being replaced by nylon belts with quick-release plastic buckles, slacks are being replaced by lightweight cargo pants, and shiny badges and nameplates are being replaced by cloth patches.

 

[edit] Border Patrol (OBP) Ranks and Insignia

Location Title Collar insignia Shoulder ornament Pay grade

Border Patrol Headquarters Chief of the Border Patrol Gold-plated Senior Executive Service (SES)

Deputy Chief of the Border Patrol Gold-plated SES

Division Chief Gold-plated SES

Deputy Division Chief Gold-plated GS-15, General Schedule

Associate Chief Gold-plated GS-15

Assistant Chief Silver-plated GS-14

Operations Officer Oxidized GS-13

 

Border Patrol Sectors Chief Patrol Agent (CPA) Gold-plated SES or GS-15

Deputy Chief Patrol Agent (DCPA) Gold-plated SES/GS-15 or GS-14

Division Chief Gold-plated GS-15

Assistant Chief Patrol Agent (ACPA) Silver-plated GS-15 or GS-14

Patrol Agent in Charge (PAIC) Silver-plated GS-14 or GS-13

Assistant Patrol Agent in Charge (APAIC) Oxidized GS-13

Special Operations Supervisor (SOS) Oxidized GS-13

Field Operations Supervisor (FOS) Oxidized GS-13

Supervisory Border Patrol Agent (SBPA) Oxidized GS-12

Senior Patrol Agent (SPA) (Note: Being phased out through attrition) No insignia Currently GS-11 (Will be upgraded to full performance level GS-12 sometime during the 1st quarter of 2011)

Border Patrol Agent (BPA) No insignia GS-5, 7, 9, 11 (Upgrade to GS-12 pending)

 

Border Patrol Academy Chief Patrol Agent (CPA) Gold-plated GS-15

Deputy Chief Patrol Agent (DCPA) Gold-plated GS-15

Assistant Chief Patrol Agent (ACPA) Silver-plated GS-14

Training Operations Supervisor (TOS) Oxidized GS-14

Supervisory Border Patrol Agent (Senior Instructor) Oxidized GS-13

Supervisory Border Patrol Agent (Instructor) Oxidized GS-13

 

[edit] Border Patrol Shoulder Ornaments

     

[edit] Awards

Newton-Azrak Award for Heroism Commissioners Distinguished Career Service Award Commissioners Exceptional Service Medal Commissioners Meritorious Service Award Commissioners Special Commendation Award Chiefs Commendation Medal

No Image Available No Image Available No Image Available

 

Commissioners Excellence in Group Achievement Award Purple Cross Wound Medal Academy Honor Award Winner Border Patrol Long Service Medal 75th Anniversary of the Border Patrol Commemorative Medal

No Image Available No Image Available

  

[edit] Newton-Azrak Award for Heroism

The Border Patrol's highest honor is the Newton-Azrak Award for Heroism. This Award is bestowed to Border Patrol Agents for extraordinary actions, service; accomplishments reflecting unusual courage or bravery in the line of duty; or an extraordinarily heroic or humane act committed during times of extreme stress or in an emergency.

 

This award is named for Border Patrol Inspectors Theodore Newton[17] and George Azrak,[18] who were murdered by two drug smugglers in San Diego County in 1967.

 

[edit] Border Patrol Uniform Devices

Border Patrol Tactical Unit (BORTAC) Border Patrol Search, Trauma and Rescue Unit (BORSTAR) Special Response Team (NSRT) Honor Guard Border Patrol Pipes and Drums Cap Badge

No Image Available

K-9 Handler Chaplain Field Training Officer Peer Support

  

[edit] Equipment

[edit] Weapons

 

A Border Patrol Agent carrying an M14 rifle.Border Patrol Agents are issued the H&K P2000 double action pistol in .40 S&W. It can contain as many as 13 rounds of ammunition (12 in the magazine and one in the chamber).

 

Like other law enforcement agencies, the Remington 870 is the standard shotgun.

 

Border Patrol Agents also commonly carry the M4 Carbine and the H&K UMP 40 caliber submachine gun. The M14 rifle is used for mostly ceremonial purposes.

 

As a less than lethal option, the Border Patrol also uses the FN303.

 

[edit] Transportation

Unlike in many other law enforcement agencies in the United States, the Border Patrol operates several thousand SUVs and pickup trucks, which are known for their capabilities to move around in any sort of terrain. This vehicles may have individual revolving lights (strobes or LEDs) and/or light bars and sirens. An extensive modernization drive has ensured that these vehicles are equipped with wireless sets in communication with a central control room. Border Patrol vehicles may also have equipment such as speed radar, breathalyzers, and emergency first aid kits. Some sectors make use of sedans like the Ford Crown Victoria Police Interceptor or the Dodge Charger as patrol cars or high speed "interceptors" on highways. The Border Patrol also operates ATVs, motorcycles, snowmobiles, and small boats in the riverine environment. In 2005, all Border Patrol and ICE aircraft operations were combined under CBP's Office of Air and Marine. All CBP vessel operation in Customs Waters are conducted by Office of Air and Marine.

 

Color schemes of Border Patrol vehicles are either a long green stripe running the length of the vehicle or a broad green diagonal stripe on the door. Most Border Patrol vehicles are painted predominantly white.

 

The Border Patrol also extensively uses horses for remote area patrols. The U.S. Border Patrol has 205 horses As of 2005[update]. Most are employed along the Mexico–United States border. In Arizona, these animals are fed special processed feed pellets so that their wastes do not spread non-native plants in the national parks and wildlife areas they patrol.[19]

 

[edit] Line of duty deaths

Total line of duty deaths (since 1904): 105[20]

 

Aircraft accident: 14

Assault: 2

Automobile accident: 28

Drowned: 4

Fall: 4

Gunfire: 30

Gunfire (Accidental): 3

Heart attack: 6

Heat exhaustion: 1

Motorcycle accident: 2

Stabbed: 2

Struck by train: 3

Struck by vehicle: 3

Vehicle pursuit: 2

Vehicular assault: 3

[edit] Armed incursions

On August 7, 2008, Mexican troops crossed the border into Arizona and held a U.S. Border Patrol Agent at gunpoint. Agents stationed at Ajo, Arizona said that the Mexican soldiers crossed the border into an isolated area southwest of Tucson and pointed rifles at the agent, who has not been identified. The Mexicans withdrew after other American agents arrived on the scene.[21]

 

[edit] Ramos and Compean

In February 2005, Border Patrol Agents Ignacio Ramos and Jose Compean were involved in an incident while pursuing a van in Fabens, Texas. The driver, later identified as Aldrete Davila, was shot by Agent Ramos during a scuffle. Davila escaped back into Mexico, and the agents discovered that the van contained a million dollars worth of marijuana (about 750 pounds). None of the agents at the scene orally reported the shooting, including two supervisors. The Department of Homeland Security opened up an internal affairs investigation into the incident.[22] See also [23][24][25]

 

[edit] Criticisms

[edit] Ineffective

In 2006, a documentary called The Illegal Immigration Invasion[26] linked the scale of illegal immigration into the United States chiefly to the ineffectiveness of the Border Patrol. The film claimed that this is due to the lack of judicial powers of the Border Patrol and the effective hamstringing of the agency by the federal government. The film interviews people that deal with illegal immigration on a daily basis, as well as local citizens living in the border areas.

 

[edit] Allegations of abuse

There are allegations of abuse by the United States Border Patrol such as the ones reported by Jesus A. Trevino, that concludes in an article published in the Houston Journal of International Law (2006) with a request to create an independent review commission to oversee the actions of the Border Patrol, and that creating such review board will make the American public aware of the "serious problem of abuse that exists at the border by making this review process public" and that "illegal immigrants deserve the same constitutionally-mandated humane treatment of citizens and legal residents".[27]

In 1998, Amnesty International investigated allegations of ill-treatment and brutality by officers of the Immigration and Naturalization Service, and particularly the Border Patrol. Their report said they found indications of human rights violations during 1996, 1997 and early 1998.[28]

An article in Social Justice by Michael Huspek, Leticia Jimenez, Roberto Martinez (1998) cites that in December 1997, John Case, head of the INS Office of Internal Audit, announced at a press conference that public complaints to the INS had risen 29% from 1996, with the "vast majority" of complaints emanating from the southwest border region, but that of the 2,300 cases, the 243 cases of serious allegations of abuse were down in 1997. These serious cases are considered to be distinct from less serious complaints, such as "verbal abuse, discrimination, extended detention without cause."[29]

[edit] Corruption

Incidences of corruption in the U.S. Border Patrol include:

 

Pablo Sergio Barry, an agent charged with one count of harboring an illegal immigrant, three counts of false statements, and two counts of making a false document.[30] He plead guilty.[31]

Christopher E. Bernis, an agent indicted on a charge of harboring an illegal immigrant for nine months while employed as a U.S. Border Patrol agent.[32]

Jose De Jesus Ruiz, an agent whose girlfriend was an illegal immigrant, he was put on administrative leave pending an investigation.[32]

Oscar Antonio Ortiz, an illegal immigrant[33] who used a fake birth certificate to get into the Border Patrol admitted to smuggling more than 100 illegal immigrants into the U.S., some of them in his government truck,[34] and was helping to smuggle illegal immigrants and charged with conspiring with another agent to smuggle immigrants.

An unidentified patrol agent who was recorded on a wire tap stating that he helped to smuggle 30 to 50 immigrants at a time.[33]

[edit] National Border Patrol Council

National Border Patrol Council (NBPC) is the labor union which represents over 14,000 Border Patrol Agents and support staff. The NBPC was founded in 1968, and its parent organization is the American Federation of Government Employees, AFL-CIO. The NBPC's executive committee is staffed by current and retired Border Patrol Agents and, along with its constituent locals, employs a staff of a dozen attorneys and field representatives. The NBPC is associated with the Peace Officer Research Association of California’s Legal Defense Fund.[35]

 

[edit] National Border Patrol Museum

The National Border Patrol Museum is located in El Paso, Texas. The museum exhibits uniforms, equipment, photographs, guns, vehicles, airplanes, boats, and documents which depict the historical and current sector operations throughout the United States.

 

[edit] In popular culture

[edit] Books

Border Patrol by Alvin Edward Moore

The Border Patrol by Deborah Wells Salter

EWI: Entry Without Inspection (Title 8 U.S.C. § 1325 Improper entry by alien) by Fortuna Testarona Valiente

Tracks in the Sand: A Tale of the Border Patrol by Kent E Lundgren,

On The Line: Inside the U.S. Border Patrol by Alex Pacheco and Erich Krauss

Patrolling Chaos: The U.S. Border Patrol in Deep South Texas by Robert Lee Maril

The U.S. Border Patrol: Guarding the Nation (Blazers) by Connie Collwell Miller

My Border Patrol Diary: Laredo, Texas by Dale Squint

Holding the Line: War Stories of the U.S. Border Patrol by Gerald Schumacher

The Border Patrol Ate My Dust by Alicia Alarcon, Ethriam Cash Brammer, and Ethriam Cash Brammer de Gonzales

The Border: Exploring the U.S.-Mexican Divide by David J. Danelo

Beat The Border: An Insider's Guide To How The U.S. Border Works And How To Beat It by Ned Beaumont

West of the Moon: A Border Patrol Agent's Tale by D. B. Prehoda

The Journey: U.S. Border Patrol & the Solution to the Illegal Alien Problem by Donald R. Coppock

Border patrol: With the U.S. Immigration Service on the Mexican boundary, 1910-54 by Clifford Alan Perkins

Border Patrol: How U.S. Agents Protect Our Borders from Illegal Entry by Carroll B. Colby

In Mortal Danger: The Battle for America's Border and Security by Tom Tancredo

[edit] Film

Border Patrolman, a 1936 film in which a Border Patrolman Bob Wallace, played by George O'Brien, resigns in protest after being humiliated by the spoiled granddaughter of a millionaire.

Border Patrol, a 1943 film starring William C. Boyd, Andy Clyde, George Reeves, and Robert Mitchum

Borderline, a 1950 film noir starring Fred MacMurray about drug smuggling across the U.S./Mexico border

Border Patrol, a 1959 syndicated television series, starring Richard Webb as the fictitious deputy chief of the U.S. Border Patrol

Borderline, a 1980 movie starring Charles Bronson about a Border Patrol Agent on the U.S./Mexico border

The Border, a 1982 film starring Jack Nicholson

El Norte, a 1983 film portraying Central American Indian peasants traveling to the United States.

Flashpoint, a 1984 film starring Kris Kristofferson

Last Man Standing, a 1996 film starring Bruce Willis and Ken Jenkins as Texas Ranger Captain Tom Pickett who is investing the killing of an unnamed Immigration Inspector (played by Larry Holt) across the border in Mexico.

Men in Black, a 1997 science fiction comedy action film starring Tommy Lee Jones, Will Smith and Vincent D'Onofrio. The Border Patrol was portrayed as Immigration Inspectors

The Gatekeeper, a 2002 film by John Carlos Frey about the struggles of migrants at the Mexican/US border.

The Shepherd: Border Patrol, a 2007 film starring Jean-Claude Van Damme

Linewatch, a 2008 film starring Cuba Gooding, Jr., as a Border Patrol agent defending his family from a group of Los Angeles gang members involved in the illegal trade of importing narcotics into the United States.

[edit] Documentaries

Border Patrol: American's Gatekeepers A&E with former United States Attorney General Janet Reno

Investigative Reports: Border Patrol: America's Gatekeepers A&E Investigates

History the Enforcers : Border Patrol History Channel

[edit] See also

Border Protection Personnel

United States portal

Law enforcement/Law enforcement topics portal

List of United States federal law enforcement agencies

Immigration and Customs Enforcement

Border control

Ignacio Ramos

Illegal immigration

H.R. 4437

Minuteman Project

MQ-9 Reaper

No More Deaths

Office of CBP Air

United States Mexico barrier

United States-Canadian Border

la migra

[edit] References

^ "Reinstatements to the northern border". CPB.gov. US Customs and Border Protection. 2008-05-19. www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/border_security/border_patrol/reinsta.... Retrieved 2009-06-01.

^ www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/border_security/border_patrol/border_...

^ a b c d e f "Boarder Patrol overview". CPB.gov. US Customs and Boarder Protection. 2008-08-22. www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/border_security/border_patrol/border_.... Retrieved 2009-06-01.

^ a b "Who we are and what we do". CPB.gov. US Customs and Boarder Protection. 2008-09-03. www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/border_security/border_patrol/who_we_.... Retrieved 2009-06-01.

^ Gaynor, Tim (2008-01-23). "U.S. turns to horses to secure borders". Reuters. www.reuters.com/article/inDepthNews/idUSN2323280820080124.... Retrieved 2008-01-24.

^ www.cbp.gov/linkhandler/cgov/border_security/border_patro...[dead link]

^ Nuñez-Neto, Blas (2006-010-25) (PDF). Border security: The role of the U.S. Border Patrol. Congressional Research Service. p. 35. digital.library.unt.edu/govdocs/crs//data/2006/upl-meta-c.... Retrieved 2009-06-01.

^ Coyle, Marcia (2008-03-03). "Waivers for border fence challenged: Environmental groups take their complaints to Supreme Court". The Recorder.

^ Archibold, Randal C. (2008-04-02). "Government issues waiver for fencing along border". New York Times. www.nytimes.com/2008/04/02/us/02fence.html. Retrieved 2008-04-02.

^ "Conservation groups call for an immediate halt to construction of border fence in San Pedro National Conservation Area". US Newswire. 2007-10-05.

^ Gordon, David George (May 2000). "A 'grande' dispute". National Geographic World: p. 4.

^ Cohn, Jeffrey P. (2007). "The environmental impacts of a border fence". BioScience 57 (1): 96. doi:10.1641/B570116. www.bioone.org/doi/full/10.1641/B570116. Retrieved 2009-06-01.

^ "Expansive border fence stirs fights over land". Tell Me More. NPR. 2008-03-03.

^ 2007 State of the Border Patrol video[dead link]

^ a b "FAQs: Working for the Border Patrol-basic training". CPB.gov. US Customs and Boarder Protection. 2008-05-29. www.cbp.gov/xp/cgov/careers/customs_careers/border_career.... Retrieved 2009-06-01.

^ Spagat, Elliot (2007-08-16). "Border Patrol uniform gets first makeover since the 1950s". North County Times. www.nctimes.com/articles/2007/08/17/news/sandiego/18_64_3.... Retrieved 2009-06-01.

^ "Border Patrol Inspector Theodore L. Newton Jr.". The Officer Down Memorial Page. www.odmp.org/officer.php?oid=9933. Retrieved 2009-06-01.

^ "Border Patrol Inspector George F. Azrak". The Officer Down Memorial Page. www.odmp.org/officer.php?oid=1368. Retrieved 2009-06-01.

^ Rostien, Arthur H. (2005-06-09). "Border Patrol horses get special feed that helps protect desert ecosystem". Environmental News Network. www.enn.com/top_stories/article/1731. Retrieved 2009-06-01.

^ "United States Department of Homeland Security - Customs and Border Protection - Border Patrol". The Officer Down Memorial Page. www.odmp.org/agency/4830-united-states-department-of-home.... Retrieved 2009-06-01.

^ Meyers, Jim (2008-08-06). "Mexican troops cross border, hold border agent". Newsmax.com. newsmax.com/insidecover/mexican_troops_border/2008/08/06/.... Retrieved 2009-06-01.

^ "Glenn Beck: Ramos & Compean - the whole story". The Glenn Beck Program. Premiere Radio Networks. 2008-07-29. www.glennbeck.com/content/articles/article/196/13098/. Retrieved 2009-06-01.

^ "Error: no |title= specified when using {{Cite web}}". Ramos-Compean. ramos-compean.blogspot.com/. Retrieved 2009-06-01.

^ "2 Border Patrol agents face 20 years in prison". WorldDailyNet. 2006-08-07. www.worldnetdaily.com/news/article.asp?ARTICLE_ID=51417. Retrieved 2009-06-01.

^ "Ramos and Campean - court appeal". www.scribd.com/doc/219384/Ramos-and-Campean-Court-Appeal. Retrieved 2009-06-01.

^ (Google video) The illegal immigration invasion. October Sun Films. 2006-04-06. video.google.com/videoplay?docid=1451035544403625746. Retrieved 2009-06-01.

^ Jesus A. Trevino (1998). "Border violence against illegal immigrants and the need to change the border patrol's current complaint review process" (PDF). Houston Journal of International Law 21 (1): 85–114. ISSN 0194-1879. www.hjil.org/ArticleFiles/21_1_10.pdf. Retrieved 2009-06-01.

^ United States of America: Human rights concerns in the border region with Mexico. Amnesty International. 1998-05-19. web.amnesty.org/library/Index/engAMR510031998. Retrieved 2009-06-01.

^ Huspek, Michael; Roberto Martinez, and Leticia Jimenez (1998). "Violations of human and civil rights on the U.S.-Mexico border, 1995 to 1997: a report" (Reprint). Social Justice 25 (2). ISSN 1043-1578. findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_hb3427/is_n2_v25/ai_n28711.... Retrieved 2009-06-01.

The data compiled in this report suggest that law enforcement in the southwest region of the United States may be verging on lawlessness. This statement receives fuller support from announcements emanating from the INS. In December 1997, John Chase, head of the INS Office of Internal Audit, announced at a press conference that public complaints to the INS had risen 29% from 1996, with the "vast majority" of complaints emanating from the southwest border region. Over 2,300 complaints were filed in 1997 as opposed to the 1,813 complaints filed in 1996. Another 400 reports of "minor misconduct" were placed in a new category. Chase was quick to emphasize, however, that the 243 "serious" allegations of abuse and use of excessive force that could warrant criminal prosecution were down in 1997, as compared with the 328 in 1996. These "serious" cases are considered to be distinct from less serious complaints, such as "verbal abuse, discrimination, extended detention without cause.

 

^ June 23, 2005 "Border agent accused of hiding an illegal entrant". Arizona Daily Star. 2005-06-23. www.azstarnet.com/sn/border/81082.php June 23, 2005. Retrieved 2009-06-01.

^ "Border agent pleads guilty to harboring illegal entrant". Arizona Daily Star. 2005-09-22. www.azstarnet.com/sn/border/94491.php. Retrieved 2009-06-01.

^ a b "U.S. border agent indicted". Arizona Daily Star. 2005-03-11. www.azstarnet.com/sn/border/65117.php. Retrieved 2009-06-01.

^ a b "Boarder agent said to also be smuggler". SignOnSanDiego.com. Union-Tribune Publishing. 2005-08-05. www.signonsandiego.com/news/mexico/tijuana/20050805-9999-.... Retrieved 2009-06-01.

^ Spagat, Elliot (2006-07-28). "Border agent gets 5 years for smuggling". The Washington Post. www.washingtonpost.com/wp-dyn/content/article/2006/07/28/.... Retrieved 2009-06-01.

^ "About NBPC". National Border Patrol Council. 2008-08-14. www.nbpc.net/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&a.... Retrieved 2009-06-01.

[edit] External links

Official US Border Patrol website

US Border Patrol history

National Border Patrol Strategy(PDF)

Border Patrol official recruiting page

Border Patrol Supervisor's Association (BPSA)

Border Patrol agents killed in the line of duty

Large Border Patrol site

Border Patrol Museum official site

National Border Patrol Council official site

National Association of Former Border Patrol Officers

Friends of the Border Patrol

Congressional Research Service (CRS) Reports regarding the U.S. Border Patrol

Civilian Border Patrol Organizations: An Overview and History of the Phenomenon by the Congressional Research Service.

Border Patrol hiring forums and information for potential agents

National Border Patrol Museum

Pictures of Border Patrol vehicles

Crossing Guards in Training LA Times report on Border Patrol training.

The Coalition Against Illegal Immigration

Border Patrol unofficial Auxiliary NOT a Government Agency and not affiliated with the federal Department of Homeland Security (DHS)

[edit] External Video

Border Stories

[edit] GAO and OIG Reports

GAO Report: Border Patrol - Southwest Border Enforcement Affected by Mission Expansion and Budget August 1992

GAO Report: Border Control - Revised Strategy is Showing Some Positive Results December 1994

g96065.pdf GAO Report: Border Patrol - Staffing and Enforcement Activities March 1996

GAO Report: ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION - Southwest Border Strategy Results Inconclusive; More Evaluation Needed December 1997

USDOJ OIG Report: Operation Gatekeeper July 1998

GAO Report: ILLEGAL IMMIGRATION - Status of Southwest Border Strategy Implementation 1999

GAO Report: Border Patrol Hiring December 1999

GAO Report: Southwest Border Strategy - Resource and Impact Issues Remain After Seven Years August 2001

National Border Patrol Strategy March 2005

GAO Report: Effectiveness of Border Patrol Checkpoints July 2005

DHS OIG Report: An Assessment of the Proposal to Merge Customs and Border Protection with Immigration and Customs Enforcement November 2005

[hide]v • d • eBorder guards

 

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Retrieved from "http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_States_Border_Patrol"

Categories: Federal law enforcement agencies of the United States | Border guards | Specialist law enforcement agencies of the United States | History of immigration to the United States | United States Department of Homeland Security | Borders of the United States

Hidden categories: All articles with dead external links | Articles with dead external links from June 2009 | Articles with broken citations | Articles needing cleanup from December 2009 | All pages needing cleanup | All articles with unsourced statements | Articles with unsourced statements from February 2007 | All accuracy disputes | Articles with disputed statements from December 2009 | Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2005 | All articles containing potentially dated statements

Without music, life would be a mistake.

-Friedrich Nietzsche

*******************************************************************************

Do you wonder why voting makes no difference in Continuity of Government- COG's wars, predation and profits extracted by professional government criminals ?

 

The defeated USA remains ruled by continuity of the professional criminal corporate class.

-RT

*******************************************************************************

The Hidden Government Group Linking JFK, Watergate, Iran-Contra and 9/11

By Prof Peter Dale Scott

Global Research, October 11, 2014

Who What Why 5 October 2014

Region: USA

Theme: Culture, Society & History, Intelligence

 

Captains-America-Dick-Cheney-and-Donald-Rumsfeld-rigged-to-self-destruct.-By-Mr.-Fish1-298x300

 

First Published by WhoWhatWhy

 

Peter Dale Scott is considered the father of “Deep Politics”— the study of hidden permanent institutions and interests whose influence on the political realm transcends the elected, appointed and career officials who come and go.

 

A Professor of English at Berkeley and a former Canadian diplomat, he is the author of several critically acclaimed books on the pivotal events of our country’s recent past, including Deep Politics and the Death of JFK ; Drugs, Oil, and War: The United States in Afghanistan, Colombia, and Indochina (War and Peace Library); The Road to 9/11: Wealth, Empire, and the Future of America and American War Machine: Deep Politics, the CIA Global Drug Connection, and the Road to Afghanistan (War and Peace Library). He is also a poet, whose long work, Coming to Jakarta: A Poem about Terror, was hailed as “the most important political poem to appear in the English language in a very long time,” by Robert Hass, Poet Laureate of the United States from 1995 to 1997.

 

01Daniel Ellsberg said of his book Drugs, Oil and War, “It makes most academic and journalistic explanations of our past and current interventions read like government propaganda written for children.”

 

What follows is based on a recent Scott lecture entitled “The JFK Assassination and Other Deep Events”, and will be expanded on further in his next book, The American Deep State, due out in November.

 

***

 

For some time now, I have been analyzing American history in the light of what I have called structural deep events: events, like the JFK assassination, the Watergate break-in, Iran-Contra, or 9/11, which repeatedly involve law-breaking or violence, are mysterious to begin with, are embedded in ongoing covert processes, have political consequences that enlarge covert government, and are subsequently covered up by systematic falsifications in the mainstream media and internal government records.

 

The more I study these deep events, the more I see suggestive similarities between them, increasing the possibility that they are not unrelated external intrusions on American history, but parts of an endemic process, sharing to some degree or other a common source.

 

A deep state event seen from deep space. New York City, 9/11. NASA Photo

 

Image: Deep State Event—Deep View. New York City, 9/11. NASA Photo

 

For example, one factor linking Dallas, Watergate, Iran-Contra, and 9/11, has been the involvement in all four deep events of personnel involved in America’s highest-level emergency planning, known since the 1950s as Continuity of Government (COG) planning, or more colloquially inside the Pentagon as “the Doomsday Project.” A few of these actors may have been located at the top, as overseers of the secret COG system. Others – including some I shall talk about today – were located further down in its secret communications network.

 

I see this planning group as one among many in what I have chosen to call the American deep state, along with agencies like the CIA and NSA, the private groups like Booz Allen Hamilton to which more than half of the US intelligence budget is outsourced, and finally the powerful banks and corporations whose views are well represented in the CIA and NSA. But if only one group among many, the COG planning group is also special, because of its control of and access to a communications channel, not under government control, that can reach deeply into the US social structure. I discuss these matters at some length in my next book, The American Deep State, due out in November.

 

03COG planning was originally authorized by Truman and Eisenhower as planning for a response to a crippling atomic attack that had decapitated government. In consequence its planning group contemplated extreme measures, including what Alfonso Chardy in 1987 called “suspension of the Constitution.” And yet in Iran-Contra its asset of a secret communications network, developed for the catastrophe of decapitation, was used instead to evade an official embargo on arms sales to Iran that dated back to 1979. My question today is whether the network could have been similarly misused in November 1963.

 

The Iran-contra misuse has been well-documented. Oliver North supervised the sale of arms to Iran by using his resources as the National Security Council action officer for COG planning, under cover of a “National Program Office” that was overseen by then Vice-President George H. W. Bush. North and his superiors could thus use the COG emergency network, known then as Flashboard, for the arms sales to Iran that had to be concealed from other parts of the Washington bureaucracy as well as the public. So when North had to send emergency instructions for arms delivery to the US Embassy in Lisbon, instructions that directly contravened the embargo prohibiting such sales, he used the Flashboard network to avoid alerting the Ambassador and other unwitting personnel.

 

04The documented example of Iran-Contra allows me to explain what I am saying about the users of the COG network, and also what I am not saying. To begin with, I am not saying that a single “Secret Team” has for decades been using the COG network to manipulate the US Government from outside it. There is no evidence to suggest that North’s actions in Iran-Contra were known to any of his superiors other than CIA chief William Casey and probably George Bush. The point is that a very small group had access to a high-level secret network outside government review, in order to implement a program in opposition to government policy. They succumbed to the temptation to use this secure network that had been designed for other purposes. I have argued elsewhere that this secure network was used again on 9/11, to implement key orders for which the 9/11 Commission could find no records. Whether it was also used for illicit purposes is not known.

 

It is certain that the COG emergency network program survived North’s demise, and continued to be secretly developed for decades, at a cost of billions, and overseen by a team including Dick Cheney and Donald Rumsfeld. It is relevant that the two men’s presence on the committee spanned three administrations – those of Reagan, Bush I, and Clinton — even though at one point under Clinton neither man held a position inside the U.S. government. Such continuity was essential for a group so secret that few records existed of its activities. And on 9/11 COG plans were officially implemented for the first time, by Vice President Cheney and Defense Secretary Rumsfeld, the two men who had planned them for so many years.

 

Whether or not they knew about Iran-Contra, Cheney and Rumsfeld were on the COG planning committee at the time of Iran-Contra. There is no such obvious link between COG planning and Watergate, but the involvement of COG personnel in Watergate is nonetheless striking. James McCord, one of the Watergate burglars, was a member of a small Air Force Reserve unit in Washington attached to the Office of Emergency Preparedness (OEP) that was assigned “to draw up lists of radicals and to develop contingency plans for censorship of the news media and U.S. mail in time of war.” His unit was part of the Wartime Information Security Program (WISP), which had responsibility for activating “contingency plans for imposing censorship on the press, the mails and all telecommunications (including government communications) [and] preventive detention of civilian ‘security risks,’ who would be placed in military ‘camps.’” In addition, John Dean, perhaps the central Watergate figure, had overseen secret COG activities when serving as the associate deputy attorney general.

 

05In the case of the JFK assassination, I wish to focus on two men who functioned as part of the communications network of the Office of Emergency Planning (OEP), the agency renamed in 1968 as the Office of Emergency Preparedness (to which McCord was attached), and renamed again in 1982 as the National Program Office (for which Oliver North was the action officer).

 

These two men (there are others) are Winston Lawson, the Secret Service advance man who from the lead car of the motorcade was in charge of the Secret Service radio channels operating in the motorcade; and Jack Crichton, the army intelligence reserve officer who with Deputy Dallas Police Chief George Lumpkin selected the Russian interpreter for Marina Oswald’s first (and falsified) FBI interview.

 

Lawson has drawn the critical attention of JFK researchers, both for dubious actions he took before and during the assassination, and also for false statements he made after it (some of them under oath). For example, Lawson reported after the assassination that motorcycles were deployed on “the right and left flanks of the President’s car” (17 WH 605). On the morning of November 22, however, the orders had been changed (3 WH 244), so that the motorcycles rode instead, as Lawson himself testified to the Warren Commission, “just back of the President’s car” (4 WH 338; cf. 21 WH 768-70). Captain Lawrence of the Dallas Police testified that that the proposed side escorts were redeployed to the rear on Lawson’s own instructions (7 WH 580-81; cf. 18 WH 809, 21 WH 571). This would appear to have left the President more vulnerable to a possible crossfire.

 

Early on November 22, at Love Field, Lawson installed, in what would become the lead car, the base radio whose frequencies were used by all Secret Service agents on the motorcade. This radio channel, operated by the White House Communications Agency (WHCA), was used for some key decisions before and after the assassination, yet its records, unlike those of the Dallas Police Department (DPD) Channels One and Two, were never made available to the Warren Commission, or any subsequent investigation. The tape was not withheld because it was irrelevant; on the contrary, it contained very significant information.

 

06The WHCA actually reports to this day on its website that the agency was “a key player in documenting the assassination of President Kennedy.” However it is not clear for whom this documentation was conducted, or why it was not made available to the Warren Commission, the House Select Committee on Assassinations, or the Assassination Records Review Board (ARRB). It should have been.

 

For one thing, the WHCA tape, as Vincent Palamara has written, contains the “key” to the unresolved mystery of who, after the shooting, redirected the motorcade to Parkland hospital. The significance of this apparently straightforward command, about which there was much conflicting testimony, is heightened when we read repeated orders on the Dallas Police radio transcript to “cut all traffic for the ambulance going to Parkland code 3” (17 WH 395) – the ambulance in question having nothing to do with the president (whose shooting had not yet been announced on the DPD radio). In fact the ambulance had been dispatched about ten minutes before the assassination to pick someone from in front of the Texas School Book Depository (TSBD), who was wrongly suspected of having suffered an epileptic seizure.

 

Lawson later reported to the Secret Service that he heard on his radio “that we should proceed to the nearest hospital.” He wrote also that he “requested Chief Curry to have the hospital contacted,” and then that “Our Lead Car assisted the motorcycles in escorting the President’s vehicle to Parkland Hospital” (17 WH 632), cf. 21 WH 580). In other words, after hearing something on the WHCA radio, Lawson helped ensure that the President’s limousine would follow the route already set up by the motorcycles for the epileptic. (In his very detailed Warren Commission testimony, Lawson said nothing about the route having already been cleared. On the contrary he testified that “we had to do some stopping of cars and holding our hands out the windows and blowing the sirens and horns to get through” (4 WH 354).

 

The WHCA radio channel used by Lawson and others communicated almost directly to the WHCA base at Mount Weather in Virginia, the base facility of the COG network. From there, Secret Service communications were relayed to the White House, via the

 

batteries of communications equipment connecting Mount Weather with the White House and “Raven Rock” — the underground Pentagon sixty miles north of Washington — as well as with almost every US military unit stationed around the globe.

 

Jack Crichton, head of the 488th Army Intelligence Reserve unit of Dallas, was also part of this Mount Weather COG network. This was in his capacity as chief of intelligence for Dallas Civil Defense, which worked out of an underground Emergency Operating Center. As Russ Baker reports, “Because it was intended for ‘continuity of government’ operations during an attack, [the Center] was fully equipped with communications equipment.” In retrospect the Civil Defense Program is remembered derisively, for having advised schoolchildren, in the event of an atomic attack, to hide their heads under their desks.But in 1963 civil defense was one of the urgent responsibilities assigned to the Office of Emergency Planning, which is why Crichton, as much as Secret Service agent Lawson, could be in direct touch with the OEP’s emergency communications network at Mount Weather.

 

07Jack Crichton is of interest because he, along with DPD Deputy Chief George Lumpkin of the 488th Army Intelligence Reserve unit, was responsible for choosing a Russian interpreter for Marina Oswald from the right-wing Russian community. This man was Ilya Mamantov, who translated for Marina Oswald at her first DPD interview on November 22. What she allegedly said in Russian at this interview was later used to bolster what I have called the “phase one” story, still promoted from some CIA sources, that Russia and/or Cuba were behind the assassination.

 

As summarized by the FBI, Mamantov’s account of Marina’s Russian testimony was as follows:

 

MARINA OSWALD advised that LEE HARVEY OSWALD owned a rifle which he used in Russia about two years ago. She observed what she presumed to be the same rifle in a blanket in the garage at [Ruth Paine’s residence]…. MARINA OSWALD stated that on November 22, she had been shown a rifle in the Dallas Police Department…. She stated that it was a dark color like the one that she had seen, but she did not recall the sight.

 

These specific details – that Marina said she had seen a rifle that was dark and scopeless – were confirmed in an affidavit (signed by Marina and Mamantov, 24 WH 219) that was taken by DPD officer B.L. Senkel (24 WH 249). They were confirmed again by Ruth Paine, who witnessed the Mamantov interview, (3 WH 82). They were confirmed again the next night in an interview of Marina by the Secret Service, translated by Mamantov’s close friend Peter Gregory. But a Secret Service transcript of the interview reveals that the source of these details was Gregory, not Marina:

 

(Q) This gun, was it a rifle or a pistol or just what kind of a gun? Can she answer that?

 

(A) It was a gun

 

Mr. Gregory asked: Can you describe it?

 

NOTE: Subject said: I cannot describe it because a rifle to me like all rifles.

 

Gregory translation: She said she cannot describe it. It was sort of a dark rifle just like any other common rifle…

 

Subject in Russian: It was a hump (or elevation) but I never saw through the scope….

 

Gregory translation: She says there was an elevation on the rifle but there was no scope – no telescope.

 

We have to conclude not just that Gregory had falsified Marina’s testimony (“a rifle to me like all rifles”); but so probably had his friend Mamantov, who later testified no less than seven times to the Warren Commission that Marina had used the word “dark” to describe the gun. There were others in Dallas who claimed that Oswald’s gun indeed had been scopeless, until Oswald had a scope installed on it by Dallas gunsmith Dial Ryder. The Warren Report elaborately refuted this corroborated claim, and concluded that “the authenticity of the repair tag” used to support it was “subject to grave doubts.” (WR 317).

 

We can see here, what the Warren Commission did not wish to see, signs of a conspiracy to misrepresent Marina’s testimony, and possibly to link Oswald’s gun to a dark and scopeless rifle he had in the Soviet Union. Our concerns that Mamantov misrepresented her lead us to concerns about why two Army Intelligence Reserve officers from the 488th unit (Jack Crichton and Deputy DPD Chief George Lumpkin) selected Mamantov as her interpreter. Our concerns are increased when we see that B.L. Senkel, the DPD officer who took Marina’s suspect affidavit, was the partner of F.P. Turner, who collected the dubious rifle repair tag (24 WH 328), and that both men spent most of November 22 with DPD Deputy Chief Lumpkin. For example, they were with Lumpkin in the pilot car of the motorcade when Lumpkin was communicating with Winston Lawson in the lead car behind them.

 

I conclude that when we look at the conduct of the two men we know to have been parts of the COG emergency communications network in Dallas, we see patterns of sinister behavior that also involved others, or what we may call conspiratorial behavior. These concatenated efforts to implicate Oswald in a phase-one conspiracy narrative lead me to propose a hypothesis for which I have neither evidence nor an alternative explanation: namely, that someone on the WHCA network may have been the source for the important unexplained description on the Dallas Police tapes of a suspect who had exactly the false height and weight (5 feet 10 inches, 165 pounds) recorded for Oswald in his FBI and CIA files.

 

08Note that there are no other known sources ascribing this specific height and weight to Oswald. For example, when he was arrested and charged in Dallas that same day, Oswald was recorded as having a height of 5’9 ½ inches, and a weight of 131 pounds. The first reference to Oswald as 5’10”, 165 pounds, was that offered by Oswald’s mother Marguerite to FBI Agent Fain in May 1960, when Oswald himself was absent in Russia.

 

The DPD officer contributing the description on the Police Channel was Inspector Herbert Sawyer, who allegedly had heard it from someone outside the Texas School Book Depository (TSBD) whom he could not identify or describe. The Warren Report said categorically that his source was Howard Brennan (WR 5), and that on the evening of November 22, Brennan “identified Oswald as the person in the lineup who bore the closest resemblance to the man in the window but he said that he was unable to make a positive identification” (WR 145). But there are many reasons to doubt this, starting with conflicts in Brennan’s own testimony (as Anthony Summers reported in Conspiracy, pp. 109-10) . And Ian Griggs has made a strong case that Brennan never saw Oswald in a line-up that evening. (There are police records placing Oswald in three line-ups that day, and corroborating witness reports of them; but there is no evidence whatever that Brennan attended any of the three.)

 

There is another strong reason to doubt that the source was Brennan. Brennan testified later to the Warren Commission that he saw his suspect in a window of the Texas School Book Depository, “standing up and leaning against the left window sill.” Pressed to describe how much of the suspect he saw, Brennan answered, “I could see probably his whole body, from his hips up. But at the time that he was firing the gun, a possibility from his belt up” (3 WH 144).

 

The awkwardness of Brennan’s language draws attention to the fundamental problem about the description. It is hard to imagine anyone giving a full height and weight estimate from seeing someone who was only partially visible in a window. So there are intrinsic grounds for believing the description must have come from another source. And when we see that the same description is found in Oswald’s FBI and CIA files — and nowhere else – there are reasons to suspect the source was from government secret files.

 

We have seen that there was interaction in Dallas between the WHCA and DPD radio channels, thanks to the WHCA portable radio that Lawson had installed in the lead car of the presidential motorcade. This radio in turn was in contact by police radio with the pilot car ahead of it, carrying Dallas Police Department (DPD) Deputy Chief Lumpkin of the 488th Army Intelligence Reserve unit. At the same time, as noted above, it was in contact with the COG nerve center at Mount Weather, Virginia. And Mount Weather had the requisite secret communications to receive information from classified intelligence files, without other parts of the government being alerted.

 

Mount Weather COG Nerve Center

 

Image: Mount Weather COG Nerve Center

 

Permit me at this moment an instructive digression. It is by now well established that Kennedy in 1963 was concerned enough by “the threat of far-right treason” that he urgently persuaded Hollywood director John Frankenheimer “to turn [the novel] Seven Days in May into a movie.” In this book, to quote Wikipedia, a charismatic superior officer, Air Force General James Mattoon Scott, intend[s] to stage a coup d’état …. According to the plan, an undisclosed Army combat unit known as ECOMCON (Emergency COMmunications CONtrol) will seize control of the country’s telephone, radio, and television networks, while the conspiracy directs the military and its allies in Congress and the media from “Mount Thunder” (a continuity of government base based on Mount Weather).

 

It is no secret also that in 1963 Kennedy had aroused major right-wing dissatisfaction, largely because of signs of his increasing rapprochement with the Soviet Union. The plot of the book and movie reflects the concern of liberals at the time about generals like General Edwin Walker, who had resigned in 1961 after Kennedy criticized his political activities in the Army. (Walker had given his troops John Birch Society literature, along with the names of right-wing candidates to vote for.) We can assume however that Kennedy had no firm evidence of a Mount Weather conspiracy: if he had, it is unlikely his response would have just been to sponsor a fictionalized movie.

 

It is important at this stage to point out that, although COG elements like Mount Weather were considered part of the Pentagon, the COG “government in waiting” was at no time under military control. On the contrary, President Eisenhower had ensured that it was broadly based at the top, so its planners included some of the nation’s top corporate leaders, like Frank Stanton of CBS. By all accounts of COG leadership in the decades after Reagan took office in 1981, this so-called “shadow government” still included CEOs of private corporations, like Donald Rumsfeld and Dick Cheney, as well as three former CIA directors: Richard Helms, James Schlesinger, and George Bush.

 

Alfonso Chardy wrote in 1987 that the “virtual parallel government” empowering North to run Iran-Contra had also developed “a secret contingency plan that called for suspension of the Constitution, turning control of the United States over to FEMA.” Subsequently North was questioned in the Iran-Contra Hearings about this charge, but was prevented by the Committee Chairman, Democratic Senator Inouye, from answering in a public session.

 

Later, investigating the powerful COG planning group, CNN called it “a hidden government [in the USA] about which you know nothing.” James Mann emphasized its hawkish continuity, unaffected by changes of presidency in the White House:

 

Cheney and Rumsfeld were, in a sense, a part of the permanent, though hidden, national security apparatus of the United States, inhabitants of a world in which Presidents come and go, but America always keeps on fighting.”

 

Cheney and Rumsfeld in 1974

 

Image: Cheney and Rumsfeld in 1974

 

Going one step further, Andrew Cockburn quoted a Pentagon source to support a claim that a COG planning group under Clinton was now for the first time staffed “almost exclusively with Republican hawks.” In the words of his source, “You could say this was a secret government-in-waiting. The Clinton administration was extraordinarily inattentive, [they had] no idea what was going on.”

 

The Pentagon official’s description of COG planners as a “secret government-in-waiting” under Clinton (which still included both Cheney and Rumsfeld) is very close to the standard definition of a cabal, as a group of persons secretly united to bring about a change or overthrow of government. A very similar situation existed under Jimmy Carter, when some of those who would later figure in Iran-Contra (notably George H.W. Bush and Theodore Shackley) worked with chiefs of foreign intelligence services (the so-called Safari Club) “to start working with [former DCI Richard] Helms [then U.S. Ambassador to Iran] and his most trusted operatives outside of Congressional and even Agency purview.” This group began by backing guerrilla forces in Africa (notably UNITA of Jonas Savimbi in Angola), which they knew would not be backed by the CIA under William Colby or Stansfield Turner.

 

But some of these figures, notably Alexandre de Marenches of the French spy agency SDECE, became involved with Casey, Bush, Shackley, and others in a 1980 plot – the so-called Republican “October Surprise” – to prevent the reelection of Jimmy Carter. The essence of this plot was to frustrate Carter’s efforts to repatriate the hostages seized in the U.S. Tehran Embassy, by negotiating a Republican deal with the Iranians that would be more to their liking. (The hostages in fact were returned hours after Reagan took office in 1981.)

 

This Republican hostage plot in 1980 deserves to be counted as a fifth structural deep event in recent US history. Unquestionably the illicit contacts with Iran established by the October Surprise Group in 1980 became, as Alfonso Chardy wrote, the “genesis” of the Iran-Contra arms deals overseen by the COG/ Mount Weather planners in 1984-86.

 

In an important interview with journalist Robert Parry, the veteran CIA officer Miles Copeland claimed that a “CIA within the CIA” inspired the 1980 plot, having concluded by 1980 that Jimmy Carter (in Copeland’s words) “had to be removed from the presidency for the good of the country.” Copeland made it clear to Parry that he shared this view that Carter “represented a grave threat to the nation,” and former Mossad agent Ari Ben-Menashe told Parry that Copeland himself was in fact “the conceptual father” of the 1980 arms-for-hostages deal, and had “brokered [the] Republican cooperation with Israel.” And Copeland, together with his client Adnan Khashoggi whom he advised, went on with Shackley to help launch the 1984-85 Iranian arms deals as well.

 

However, just as Knebel in Seven Days may have overestimated the military component in the COG Mount Weather

 

Peter Dale Scott, Russ Baker, David Talbot, Daniel Ellsberg, Jefferson Morley at a recent lunch

 

Image: Peter Dale Scott, Russ Baker, David Talbot, Daniel Ellsberg, Jefferson Morley at a recent lunch

 

leadership, so Copeland may have dwelt too exclusively on the CIA component behind the October Surprise Group. In The Road to 9/11, I suggested that this CIA network overlapped with a so-called “Project Alpha,” working at the time for David Rockefeller and the Chase Manhattan Bank on Iran issues, which was chaired by the veteran establishment figure John J. McCloy.

 

I will conclude by again quoting James Mann’s dictum that the Mount Weather COG leadership constitutes a “permanent, though hidden, national security apparatus of the United States, … a world in which Presidents come and go, but America always keeps on fighting.” And I would like this audience to investigate whether elements of this enduring leadership, with its ever-changing mix of CIA veterans and civilian leaders, may have constituted “a secret government-in-waiting,” not just under Clinton in the 1990s, not just under Carter in 1980, but also under Kennedy in November 1963.

 

Notes:

 

[1] Peter Dale Scott, The American Deep State: Wall Street, Big Oil, and the Attack on U.S. Democracy (Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield, 2014 [forthcoming]). 1.

 

[2] For a partial list of anomalies between the JFK assassination and 9/11, see Peter Dale Scott, The War Conspiracy: JFK, 9/11, and the Deep Politics of War (New York: Skyhorse, 2013), 341-96.

 

[3] Tim Shorrock, Spies for Hire (New York: Simon & Schuster, 2008), 6.

 

[4] Alfonso Chardy, “Reagan Aides and the Secret Government,” Miami Herald, July 5, 1987, bellaciao.org/en/article.php3?id_article=9877: “Some of President Reagan’s top advisers have operated a virtual parallel government outside the traditional Cabinet departments and agencies almost from the day Reagan took office, congressional investigators and administration officials have concluded.”

 

[5] Iran-Contra Committee Counsel Arthur Liman, questioning Oliver North, “had North repeat his testimony that the diversion was Casey’s idea” (Arthur Liman, Lawyer: a life of counsel and controversy [New York: Public Affairs, 1998], 341).

 

[6] James Bamford, A Pretext for War: 9/11, Iraq, and the abuse of America’s intelligence agencies (New York: Doubleday, 2004), 72.

 

[7] Peter Dale Scott, The Road to 9/11: Wealth, Empire, and the Future of America (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), 213-14, 219-29.

 

[8] Bamford, A Pretext for War, 71-81.

 

[9] Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, All the President’s Men (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1974), 23.

 

[10] Jim Hougan, Secret Agenda (New York: Random House, 1984), 16. For more on WISP, see David Wise, The Politics of Lying: Government Deception, Secrecy, and Power (New York: Random House, 1973), 134-37.

 

[11] John Dean, Worse Than Watergate: The Secret Presidency of George W. Bush (New York: Little Brown, 2004), 120. In addition Howard Baker, in 1973 the ranking Republican member of the Senate Committee that investigated Watergate, was later part of the COG secret leadership (CNN Special Assignment, November 17, 1991).

 

[12] James Mann, Rise of the Vulcans: The History of Bush’s War Cabinet (New York: Viking, 2004), 142.

 

[13] Warren Commission Hearings, Vol. 9, p.106 (or 9 WH 106) ; Scott, Deep Politics, 275-76; Russ Baker, Family of Secrets: The Bush Dynasty, the Powerful Forces That Put It in the White House, and What Their Influence Means for America (New York: Bloomsbury Press, 2009), 119-22.

 

[14] “White House Communications Agency,” Signal Corps Regimental History, signal150.army.mil/white_house_communications_agency.html.

 

[15] In the 1990s the WHCA supplied statements to the ARRB concerning communications between Dallas and Washington on November 22 (NARA #172-10001-10002 to NARA #172-10000-10008). The Assassination Records Review Board also attempted to obtain from the WHCA the unedited original tapes of conversations from Air Force One on the return trip from Dallas, November 22, 1963. (Edited and condensed versions of these tapes had been available since the 1970s from the Lyndon Baines Johnson Library in Austin, Texas.) The attempt was unsuccessful: “The Review Board’s repeated written and oral inquiries of the White House Communications Agency did not bear fruit. The WHCA could not produce any records that illuminated the provenance of the edited tapes.” See Assassinations Records Review Board: Final Report, chapter 6, Part 1, 116, www.archives.gov/research/jfk/review-board/report/chapter....

 

[16] 17 WH 394-95, 23 WH 841; 17 WH 368, 395; Scott, Deep Politics and the Death of JFK, 273-74, 278. The alleged epileptic walked away from the ambulance after it arrived at Highland (Warren Commission Document 1245, 6-10).

 

[17] Statement of Special Agent Winston E. Lawson [to Secret Service],” 17 WH 632; Scott, Deep Politics and the Death of JFK, 278.

 

[18] Richard Pollock, “The Mysterious Mountain,” The Progressive, March, 1976; cf. “Mount Weather’s ‘Government-in-Waiting,’” www.serendipity.li/jsmill/mt_weather.htm.

 

[19] Russ Baker, Family of Secrets, 121.

 

[20] Dee Garrison , Bracing for Armageddon: Why Civil Defense Never Worked

 

(New York: Oxford University Press, 2006), 46.

 

[21] Warren Commission Exhibit 1778, 23 WH 383-84.

 

[22] Commission Document 344 – SS Howard Tape Copy of 01 Dec 1963, p. 23.

 

[23] Lee Harvey Oswald fingerprint card, 17 WH 308. The heaviest Oswald actually weighed was 150 pounds, when he left the Marines in 1959 (19 WH 584, 595).

 

[24] FBI report by Special Agent Fain, dated May 12, 1960, 17 WH 706. In the same report Marguerite named Oswald’s father as “Edward Lee Oswald.” His actual name was Robert Edward Lee Oswald (WR 669-70).

 

[25] Testimony of Inspector Herbert Sawyer, 6 WH 321-22: “I remember that he was a white man and that he wasn’t young and he wasn’t old.” Cf. Dallas Police Channel Two Tape at 12:25 PM (23 WH 916).

 

[26] Ian Griggs, “Did Howard Leslie Brennan Really Attend an Identification Lineup?”

 

spot.acorn.net/jfkplace/09/fp.back_issues/28th_Issue/id_d....

 

[27] Statement of Secret Service Winston Lawson, 17 WH 630: “I checked with Chief Curry as to location of Lead Car [at Love Field] and had WHCA portable radio put in and checked.”

 

[28] “The lead car was in radio contact with the pilot car by police radio, and with the Presidential limousine by Secret Service portable radios” (Pamela McElwain-Brown, “The Presidential Lincoln Continental SS-100-X,” Dealey Plaza Echo, Volume 3, Issue 2, 23, www.maryferrell.org/mffweb/archive/viewer/showDoc.do?docI...). Cf. Scott, Deep Politics and the Death of JFK, 272-75 (Lumpkin).

 

[29] David Talbot, Brothers: the hidden history of the Kennedy years (New York: Free Press, 2007), 148.

 

[30] en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Seven_Days_in_May.

 

[31] Jonathan M. Schoenwald, A time for choosing: the rise of modern American conservatism (New York: Oxford University Press, 2001), .

 

[32] Hope Yen, “Eisenhower Letters Reveal Doomsday Plan: Citizens Tapped to Take Over in Case of Attack,” AP, Deseret News, March 21, 2004, www.deseretnews.com/article/595050502/Eisenhower-letters-....

 

[33] CNN Special Assignment, November 17, 1991.

 

[34] Alfonso Chardy, “Reagan Aides and the Secret Government,” Miami Herald, July 5, 1987, bellaciao.org/en/article.php3?id_article=9877: “Some of President Reagan’s top advisers have operated a virtual parallel government outside the traditional Cabinet departments and agencies almost from the day Reagan took office, congressional investigators and administration officials have concluded.”

 

[35] Iran-Contra Committee Counsel Arthur Liman, questioning Oliver North, “had North repeat his testimony that the diversion was Casey’s idea” (Arthur Liman, Lawyer: a life of counsel and controversy [New York: Public Affairs, 1998], 341). Cf. The “October Surprise” allegations and the circumstances surrounding the release of the American hostages held in Iran: report of the Special Counsel to Senator Terry Sanford and Senator James M. Jeffords of the Committee on Foreign Relations, United States Senate, Volume 4, p. 33 (October Surprise Group).

 

[36] CNN Special Assignment, November 17, 1991.

 

[37] James Mann, Rise of the Vulcans, 145.

 

[38] Andrew Cockburn, Rumsfeld: His Rise, Fall, and Catastrophic Legacy (New York: Scribner, 2007), 88.

 

[39] Joseph J. Trento, Prelude to terror: the rogue CIA and the legacy of America’s private intelligence network (New York: Carroll & Graf, 2005), 61.

 

[40] Piero Gleijeses, Visions of Freedom: Havana, Washington, Pretoria and the struggle for Southern Africa, 1976-1991 (Chapel Hill: The University of North Carolina Press, [2013]), 66-68; Elaine Windrich, “The Laboratory of Hate: The Role of Clandestine Radio in the Angolan War,” International Journal of Cultural Studies 3(2), 2000.

 

[41] Alfonso Chardy, “Reagan Aides and the Secret Government,” Miami Herald, July 5, 1987, bellaciao.org/en/article.php3?id_article=9877: “The group, led by campaign foreign policy adviser Richard Allen, was founded out of concern Carter might pull off an “October surprise” such as a last-minute deal for the release of the hostages before the Nov. 4 election. One of the group’s first acts was a meeting with a man claiming to represent Iran who offered to release the hostages to Reagan.

 

Allen — Reagan’s first national security adviser— and another campaign aide, Laurence Silberman, told The Herald in April of the meeting. they said McFarlane, then a Senate Armed Services Committee aide, arranged and attended it. McFarlane later became Reagan’s national security adviser and played a key role in the Iran-contra affair. Allen and Silberman said they rejected the offer to release the hostages to Reagan.” [The Iranian was Houshang Lavi, and after Lavi’s death Robert Parry confirmed from Lavi’s diary that the meeting did take place].

 

[42] Alfonso Chardy, “Reagan Aides and the Secret Government,” Miami Herald, July 5, 1987, bellaciao.org/en/article.php3?id_article=9877.

 

[43] “America’s False History Allows the Powerful to Commit Crimes Without Consequence,” Mark Karlin Interview of Robert Parry, January 15, 2013, Truthout Interview, www.truth-out.org/progressivepicks/item/13904-americas-fa....

 

[44] Robert Parry, Trick or Treason, 175.

 

[45] Peter Dale Scott, The Road to 9/11: Wealth, Empire, and the Future of America

 

(Berkeley: University of California Press, 2007), 81-83, 88. A key figure was CIA veteran and Copeland friend Archibald Roosevelt, in 1980 a Carter foe and also employee of the Chase Manhattan Bank.

 

[46] Mann, Rise of the Vulcans, 145.

   

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