new icn messageflickr-free-ic3d pan white
View allAll Photos Tagged Site+Recovery

St Joe Lead Mine

Park Hills Missouri

 

St. Joe State Park is located in the old "Lead Belt" region of southeast Missouri. The area's first successful mining venture began in the early 1700s when miners extracted lead by hand from shallow pits and operations were conducted only three to four months a year. Thanks to the introduction of the diamond-tipped drill by the St. Joe Lead Co. in 1869, the lead mining industry took off and the recovery of the world's richest known deposit of lead began in earnest. The company consolidated a number of small, independent diggings and emerged as the largest of four principal mining companies in southeast Missouri by 1900. For more than 100 years, this area produced nearly 80 percent of the nation's mined lead. The discovery of rich new deposits in other areas led to the demise of mining at the site. (mostateparks.com)

  

REPOST

  

St Stephen's Green, Dublin, April, 2007.

 

I have now removed all my photographs from the Creative Commons

Attribute Sharealike licence as I am unhappy with the way it has worked out.

 

All my photographs have been relicensed with full copyright to

me and All Rights Reserved.

 

Bloggers are welcome to use this photo provided they put in a link to my site.

  

Wood ducks at Crystal Springs Rhododendron Gardens.

From Audubon:

Early in 20th century, species was thought to be threatened with extinction. Main cause of decline probably loss of nest sites due to cutting of large trees, combined with hunting pressure. Legal protection and provision of nest boxes helped recovery; many thousands of nest boxes now occupied by Wood Ducks in U.S. and southern Canada. In recent years, apparently has been expanding range in north and west.

REPOST

  

Palmerston Park, Dublin

 

COMMENTS BLOCKED OFF - I CANNOT REPLY.

 

I have now removed all my photographs from the Creative Commons

Attribute Sharealike licence as I am unhappy with the way it has worked out.

 

All my photographs have been relicensed with full copyright to

me and All Rights Reserved.

 

Bloggers are welcome to use this photo provided they put in a link to my site.

  

Explore #143 6/26/09

 

It's What's Inside That Counts

 

Great news everybody!!

Lisa zoomed through surgery and is now lounging around in the recovery room!

Now for those of you who didn’t know, Zoom In Tight was scheduled for a double mastectomy today….but first she had to undergo back surgery yesterday to repair 2 fractured vertebrae!

Both surgeries went well.

Thanks in part I am sure to all of your prayers and good wishes.

 

Jill called and asked that I post so everyone will know all went well.

 

Personally, I am very relieved …. But as I think about what Lisa has gone through – surgery on both her front and her back - I strongly recommend that she zoom out of that hospital ASAP, before they realize that she has a bottom and top too!! :-)

 

We all love you Lisa!

 

And for those of you who have followed Zoom and DSMPhotos sites as they encouraged each other for their up coming surgeries... David's limes are just fine!! :-)

 

Joyous Healing, (Joy) has undergone surgery. We are praying for her recovery and healing. Please go to her site and leave a message of inspiration there. She is at a high risk and needs our prayers and support. Thank you, God bless you, Joy, and heal you completely! JJ and your friends on Flickr!

 

www.flickr.com/photos/joyousjoym/3145507911/

Better Large On Black

 

Chandler Veterans Oasis Park is about two miles from my home. Not only is it a park for recreation it is a Water reclamation plant for the city. The park was completed about a year and a half ago. The landscape plants are still rather new, it will take awhile for them to mature, but when they do it will be a great place for bird watching.

 

Info below from: City of Chandler website

This "non-traditional" facility capitalizes on the divergent and plentiful outdoor recreation opportunities at the site created by the park land, lake, and wetlands/groundwater recharge basins. The shallow basins will infiltrate high quality reclaimed water to the subsurface aquifer for storage and recovery as part of the City's comprehensive reclaimed water management plan. The Environmental Education Center serves as a gateway to the site, offering a diverse roster of programming related to the environment.

 

Veterans Oasis Park covers 113 acres and feature both lush wetland and arid habitat suitable for the diverse plants and wildlife of the Sonoran Desert. The park will also include 4½ miles of trails, wildlife viewing areas; ramadas and picnic areas; a butterfly and hummingbird habitat; an outdoor amphitheatre; a unique, learning-oriented playground; a 5-acre “urban fishing” lake; and interpretive signs and exhibits.

 

I HAVE BLOCKED OFF COMMENTS AS I WON'T HAVE THE TIME OR STRENGTH TO REPLY.

 

I have now removed all my photographs from the Creative Commons

Attribute Sharealike licence as I am unhappy with the way it has worked out.

 

All my photographs have been relicensed with full copyright to

me and All Rights Reserved.

 

Bloggers are welcome to use this photo provided they put in a link to my site.

  

Stob Dearg, Glencoe. Taken on a trip through on the way to Inverness last weekend. It's underexposed a fair amount due to a passing car going to totally ruin the shot, and so had to end the exposure about 30 seconds sooner than I wanted to, and noisy due to recovery in Photoshop (probably worse on here) but I still love the shot.

 

EXIF over there >>>>

 

Best viewed On Black

    

Follow me on 500px and Facebook

    

You can now check out my work on my own website and contact me for prints through the site at www.martinsteelephotography.com

    

Please do not use this image without my written permission, all images © Martin Steele Photography.

Post apocalyptic land - dark message for everyone...!

Have a great week guys.Thank you for comments and faves.

My Zenfolio site- noro8.zenfolio.com/

My DeviantART- noro8.deviantart.com/

 

stock- egypt-stock.deviantart.com/ mslissome.deviantart.com/ barkingstock4u.deviantart.com/ momotte2stocks.deviantart.com/

Thank you all my dears Flickr friends for your sweet comments! I do appreciate them very, very much

 

View On Black View My Recent

 

Listen

Adagio Secret Garden

 

My Books:

 

My book "Discover GUIMERÀ" (preview)

 

My book "Discover SANTA PAU" (preview)

 

My book "Discover BESALÚ" (preview)

 

The ancient Roman city of Iesso, mentioned by classic authors Pliny the Elder and Ptolemy, identified by the preserved archaeological site in the village of Guissona.

Iesso was founded around the year 100 BC exploiting the natural resources of the flat Guissona: the presence of abundant water and ease for the exploitation of agricultural land nearby. This city has developed over more than seven centuries an important and constructive business. The current state of research allows noted that the Roman city of Iesso is walled and polygonal form a plant of about 15 and 18 are long, with a regular urban development characterized by a network of orthogonal streets, according to the models of the Roman cities of the time. To the second century BC and first century BC, is the foundation of the Roman city of IESSO. A city perfectly organized and structured with orthogonal streets, with a wall that protects the city center, with areas of cemeteries and public spaces. Its economy is based on agriculture, although there are also small articles such as pottery and domestic looms. This city has a very long endurance reaching s. VI AD. After that date there is a little-known period archaeologically and historically, that extends until S.XI. It is the period of confrontation between the Arab world and the counties feudal Catalans, and our land becomes "no man's land", where the border between the two worlds.The story continues to s. XI, particularly between 1010 and 1023, in which there is a process of recovery from the county of Urgell. Finding a strategic defensive and is a sufficient defense tower or castle in the current PL. of Capdevila, around which the people were rising. Guissona is set to Closa medieval village.Since the eleventh century until the thirteenth, the domain of the village of Guissona is shared between the Bishop of Urgell and the family Fluvià. In this double lordship is in our arms, showing the lineage of Fluvià (the waves of water) and the domain of the bishop (the Greek cross). From s. XIII, the lordship passed entirely into the hands of the bishop, which explains the presence of several palaces Episcopal our people. The last of these palaces are built around the seventeenth century and occupied the land where currently there is the Plaza del Obispo Benlloch, the City Council and the Catholic Center. We must stress also the work of Fluvià, an episcopal palace unfinished initiated by Bishop Peter Cardona with a style of detransició beginning of the s. XVI, the work that still rest with us. Another example of the importance of this domain is the religious renewal that affects the parish church. At the end of the s. XVIII, the former Romanesque church dedicated to s. XI is demolished and in its place is a temple built in neoclassical style, the majestic dimensions that still exists today. Especially the Baroque altarpiece of Solomonic dedicated to the Virgin

 

In Wordpress In Blogger photo.net/photos/Reinante/ In Onexposure

REPOST

COMMENTS BLOCKED OFF.

  

I have now removed all my photographs from the Creative Commons

Attribute Sharealike licence as I am unhappy with the way it has worked out.

 

All my photographs have been relicensed with full copyright to

me and All Rights Reserved.

 

Bloggers are welcome to use this photo provided they put in a link to my site.

  

Mosteiro de S. Martinho de Tibães

 

Braga, Portugal.

 

Escadas que de acesso da Portaria à Galeria dos Gerais e Salão da Ouvidoria

 

( Flickers. O Norte em Movimento e P.F.F.G - Meeting Tibães, 05/08. )

 

_________

  

“The Monastery of St Martin of Tibães (Portuguese: Mosteiro de São Martinho de Tibães) is a monastery situated in the parish of Mire de Tibães, near Braga, in northern Portugal. It was the mother house of the Benedictine order in Portugal and Brazil, and it is famous for the exuberant baroque decoration of its church.”

 

“The first information about a monastic community in the region (i.e. the Monastery of Dumio, close to Tibaes, founded by Saint Martin of Braga) dates from the 6th century. Around 1060 the Monastery of Tibaes was founded and its feudal rights were granted by Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal, in 1110. During the Middle Ages, after the Kingdom of Portugal became independent, rich and vast proterties in the North of the country came into the possession of the Monastery. Due to the reconstruction works carried out in the 17th and 18th centuries, there are no architectural remnants from this early stage of the ensemble.”

“In 1567, the Monastery of Tibães became the mother house of the Order of Saint Benedict for Portugal and the colony of Brazil, with the first general gathering of the Order happening in Tibães in 1570. In the first half of the 17th century, in view of the ruined condition of the former buildings and the vast resources at their disposal, the monks started the great works which originated the ensemble that exists today. They began with the cloisters (Refectory and Cemetery cloisters) and the church, built between 1628 and 1661 in Mannerist style by architects Manuel Álvares and João Turriano. Until the beginning of the 18th century the new wings of the Monastery were finished, including the Gate House, the Dormitory, the Guest House, the Chapter House and the Library.”

“During the 17th and 18th centuries the Monastery was a site of considerable artistic activity and had an enormous influence in the Baroque and Rococo art of Northern Portugal. The decoration of the church, in particular, is a landmark in Portuguese Baroque, thanks to the work of artists like Cipriano da Cruz, André Soares and José de Santo António Vilaça.”

“Sold at an auction sale in 1864, the Tibães Monastery and all its surrounding areas fell into decay and ruin. A great part of the ensemble, including the Refectory Cloister, was destroyed in a fire in 1894. In 1986 the Monastery became a State property and an extensive recovery project was started that continues to this day.”

   

Wikipedia

   

[fr]: soirée nuageuse sur Penne d'Agenais, Lot et Garonne, France

  

[image info]: "HDR" from 3 exposures using PS CS3 "mean" (fr:moyenne) function on a smart object generated from the stacking of 3 different exposures manually blended with minimum exposure for highlights recovery. Basic levels and curves adjustments.

 

View BIGGER

 

More of the set Night Scenes. | More of the set Pittoresques Villages de France.

 

See my most interesting pictures here or take some time to view the slideshow .

 

If you wish to license some of my pictures, contact me directly on flickr or browse through my pictures on www.alamy.com/stock-photography/9BF67CE6-8AFD-4001-89A9-A... Giral.html.

 

History: The religious history of this site goes back a long way: a chapel dedicated to the Virgin Mary is known to have existed in the XIc, being a destination for pilgrims, including those on the way to Santiago de Compostela in Spain.

 

Histoire: Penn" est un mot celte qui signifie crête ou éperon, ce qui laisse à penser que le plateau fut occupé par les Gaulois. De plus, de nombreuses fouilles réalisées dans le village et aux alentours ont mis au jour les vestiges d'une occupation romaine.

 

Richard Cœur de Lion fait fortifier le château de Penne, qui deviendra ainsi une puissante place de guerre, la "clé du duché de Guyenne" selon certains textes du Moyen Âge.

 

Source Wikipedia

 

[ email | website | alamy | facebook | model mayhem | twitter ]

The Chetwynd Viaduct carried the Cork, Bandon and South Coast Railway line over a valley and the main Bandon road (now the N71) about 2 miles (3 km) southwest of Cork city. It was designed by Charles Nixon (a former pupil of I.K. Brunel) and built between 1849 and 1851 by Fox, Henderson and Co, which also built the Crystal Palace in London. It was in regular use until the line was closed in 1961, though during the dismantling of the line occasional 'recovery' trains passed over the bridge, until at least 1965.

 

The viaduct is 91 feet (28 m) high, has four 110 feet (34 m) spans, each span composed of four cast iron arched ribs, carried on masonry piers 20 feet (6 m) thick and 30 feet (9 m) wide. The overall span between end abutments is 500 feet (150 m).

 

The 100 feet (30 m) cast iron ribs were cast on site. When in situ they had transverse diagonal bracing and lattice spandrels that supported a deck of iron plates. These in turn supported the permanent way.

 

The structure was seriously damaged in the Irish Civil War in 1922, but was subsequently repaired. The decking was removed after closure in 1961.

 

Kelly Hill Road Roadside Marker Scheme site 07, January 2015, 2016 amd 2017.

 

This area is recovering from 2015's Sampson Flat bushfire.

 

Humbug Scrub, City of Playford, South Australia.

Stopped by my healthcare provider to get my TB test read...they were having an on-site Farmer's Market, so I picked a basket of Red Meds!

 

*The Goodness of the strawberries provide the health care

 

Stay Healthy & Thrive!

"If there is anything here that I can help with, I'd be happy to help."

Mark said to a Garhim at the repair site.

"LOOK OUT!!"

A voice shouted.

A cartload of stone had been backed into a leg of the scaffolding. The scaffolding toppled over.

Mark pushed a spear out of from where the worker was going to fall, and was himself flattened almost immediately.

'Is everyone alright?'

the others asked, running up the scene.

"I'm fine, how are..."

Mark stopped his question when he saw that the worker who had fallen was laughing breathlessly. It wasn't long before the contagious laughter spread to all present.

 

Everyone went back to work with smiles on their faces. Mark aided in the repair of the scaffolding.

Nothing would have gotten done if they had started blaming others for the accidents.

__________________________

Built for the 'CCCXII The Best Intentions' category over on classic-castle.com and 'GCIX-The Recovery' restricted size over on merlins-beard.com.

We arrived on the crash site to find the P-40 in fairly good condition. The pilot had put his wounded plane down gently on the only open piece of terrain he could find. Fortunately for him, the clearing was just long enough for his plane to stop. Otherwise it would have crashed smack into an overrun Japanese defensive line. The abandoned Ha-Go hung precariously over the edge of the ledge. It's ghostly outline seemed to sway back and forth with the wind. When we arrived at the cockpit, Mac and I had to break the glass to pull the half-conscience pilot from his warbird. We gently laid him in the back of the jeep and set off for base camp."

  

This is the first of a couple MOCs that my brother and I are doing together. Hope you like it.

God bless.

Morning clouds hang over evergreen forest below Union Peak, Crater Lake National Park, Oregon

 

(Image ID#: usor clnp-0528)

Single Frame w/ Nikon n800ss, Fuji Velvia, & GND Filter.

  

*** This is the first image I've posted here in almost a year. The last image I posted was as I came out of the tail end of an accident recovery period. I'm now back and rolling at full speed, and have been inspired by friends and fellow photographers to start posting and sharing again.

  

Thanks for looking...

  

© Gary Crabbe

 

*** Check out my flickr profile page for more information about me, for links to my website, blog, and other Social Media sites.

   

Note: My images are posted here for your personal

viewing pleasure only. All Rights are Reserved. Please

contact me through flickr or my web site

if you are interested in using this image for any

reason, or if you would like to purchase a Photographic Print. Thank You.

Once hooked on alcohol or drugs or both, the disease of addiction has only one goal and that is to rip your life apart on all levels, spiritually, mentally, emotionally and physically.

 

I have been around and involved with the field of recovery and twelfth step recovery groups for a little over 25 years. During that period of time I have seen the devastation that these addictions can cause.

 

I am posting this tonight for just recently I have learned of another victim of this disease. A young woman whose parents I have known since she was knee high to me is hooked on this disease and the husband and wife have divorced each blaming the other for what has happened to their daughter and then the daughter being kicked out the house because of where this disease has her and is taking her life.

 

Lower and lower, and it will not be long before another prison stay will happen or she will be found somewhere dead, for those are the eventual consequences of these diseases.....Locked Up, Or Covered Up.

 

A big reason for posting this is the frustration and resentment that I have for this disease and the lives it claims.

 

My hopes, are that someone out there may well see this image and may identify with the image and wake up enough to seek help or a friend will see and give the information to a suffering drunk or addict or both..

 

There is help and hope out there for the people suffering from these diseases.

 

That help is only a phone call away or a click off the mouse.

 

The information is located for two of these addictions at the following sites:

 

www.AA.org for Alcoholics Anonymous.

 

www.NA.org for Narcotics Anonymous.

 

Or a phone call to information will give you the numbers for Central Offices located within the state you live in.

 

Make that call or click the mouse and contact them, YOU ARE WORTH IT AND YOUR LOVED ONES ARE WORTH IT !

 

Love and peace, ONE DAY AT A TIME !

 

breeceart

We Only Need 2,405 more heroes to reach the 5,000 requested by the US GOVT.

Deadline 11 days away

 

PLEASE SIGN NEW GOVT. PETITION to STOP the HUNTING of WOLVES & post this on your site

 

Halt wolf hunts pending 9th District Court of Appeals decision and scientific research to confirm wolf recovery data.

 

Sign @ This Link:

 

wwws.whitehouse.gov/petitions#!/petition/halt-wolf-hunts-...

 

Lamar Valley Wolf Pack Pix:

www.profilesofnature.com/yellowstonetetons.html

"By the dawn of the 21st Century, New York had also emerged as one of the most strangely paradoxical cities on Earth. At once bewildering diverse and cosmopolitan and yet in many ways surprisingly insular and inward-looking. As if the process of globalization had mainly meant gathering in the world's peoples and riches without involvement in the world's conflicts and divisions" -Ric Burns, New York: A Documentary Film.

 

9/11/2001: Never Forget

  

The Tribute in Light is an art installation of 88 searchlights placed next to the site of the World Trade Center to create two vertical columns of light in remembrance of the September 11 attacks.

 

It initially ran as a temporary installation from March 11 to April 14, 2002, and was launched again in 2003 to mark the second anniversary of the attack. As of 2009, it has been repeated every year on September 11. It had been announced that 2008 would be its final year,[1] but the tribute was continued in 2009.[2] On December 17, 2009, it was confirmed that the tribute would continue through to the tenth anniversary of the attacks in 2011.

 

On clear nights, the lights could be seen from over 60 miles away, visible in all of New York City and most of suburban Northern New Jersey and Long Island, Fairfield, Connecticut, Westchester County and Rockland County, New York. The beams were clearly visible from the terrace at Century Country Club in Purchase, New York, from at least as far west as western Morris County, in Flanders, New Jersey, and as far south near Trenton, New Jersey in nearby Hamilton.

Since 2008, the generators that power Tribute in Light have been fueled with recycled biodiesel.[4]

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tribute_in_Light

 

History of the Project

 

Conceived in the aftermath of the September 11th tragedies, Tribute in Light is a temporary artistic gesture bringing together the vision and talent of numerous individuals who, shortly after the attacks, independently envisioned two beams of light rising from downtown New York. Finding support for their ideas, they joined forces in the spirit of the rescue and recovery effort downtown. The creative team consists of architects John Bennett and Gustavo Bonevardi of PROUN Space Studio, artists Julian LaVerdiere and Paul Myoda, architect Richard Nash Gould, and lighting designer Paul Marantz. Production support was provided by two non-profit cultural institutions The Municipal Art Society and Creative Time, with the assistance of Battery Park City Authority.

 

www.creativetime.org/programs/archive/2002/tribute/main.html

 

Explored! 103 on 9/12/2010.

Havneholmen, Port of Aarhus, Denmark, 2017

Architecture & landscape by C.F. Møller Architects

 

Havneholmen consists of 400 homes situated at one of the city's most attractive sites in the port area. The project combines urban development, focus on the microclimate and the wish to create a diverse and lively setting by the waterfront.

 

Havneholmen has a prime waterfront location overlooking Aarhus Bay. It consists of a series of tall, slim buildings topped with characteristic steel beams as a reference to the classical canal-side buildings with exterior hoists. Havneholmen is a key element of the creation of an attractive new quarter in the port area, near water, recreational areas, and the city's marina.

 

By combining smaller two-room and three-room flats with large five-room family homes, the aim was to ensure a diverse mix of residents. Furthermore, 140 of the homes are designed for senior life. The project focuses on a healthy indoor climate, with ample daylight flooding through the living rooms, ventilation with heat recovery, and separate balconies for all homes.

 

Havneholmen's communal courtyard at the heart of the complex offers a calm and tranquil setting that combines recreational space with green vegetation based on a coastal meadow theme.

 

More at www.cfmoller.com/p/-en/Havneholmen-i3003.html

The Rudolf W. van der Goot Rose Garden in Colonial Park of Franklin Township, NJ, is such an amazingly beautiful site, with so much meticulous thought and care that went in to the planning and design.

We learned about this garden that is nationally registered and known amongst flower aficionados, and visited it for the first time in August of 2014. The peak period for roses, in particular, was far gone, but a good number of late peaking ones and long lasting species which continued to display the glorious colors and shapes were present for us to appreciate what it might be during the peak season.

On this mid-June day, although the start of the peaking roses, two nights prior had been a severe thunderstorm, and as a result, the majority of the ones that should have been in full bloom were beaten to the ground . . . And for those hanging on by a thread had sustained too much damage to the point of no recovery.

Many new late bloomers were just beginning to show signs of early maturity in a few weeks, and a decent portion of the roses were still in the bud stages. So, those should look quite lovely down the line.

In any event, Colonial Park’s Rose Garden offered some other beautiful photo –ops, and we managed to capture a few beautiful scenes of the inner parts of a buttery, Grandfora Rose, a Prickly Pear Cactus, and a wonderful white Waterlily, along with a handsome Dragonfly by the fountain.

The park is not only about the nationally acclaimed rose park, but also known for its other countless flowers and insects, so it would be a great place for family with kids to enjoy.

 

A favorite designer/seamstress for our Pugs, Miss June of Junies Prissy Dog Clothes Boutique has sent Little Pearl a "get well" present. I think the genuine concern that people have shown over this wee bit miracle Chihuahua is so heartfelt. Thank you Miss June for this special Oriental satin jacket. Better days are ahead for this rescue furkid!

Senior/Special Needs Pugs Rescue Site

This one's from my archives... the trees aren't as nice as last year...

 

thank you all so much for your kind words, David's back home and on his way to recovery... :-)

   

thank you, my dear Flickr friends, for all your comments, favs and invites! you guys are the BEST!!

 

FOR SURE VIEW ON BLACK!! :-) "L"

 

please visit my web site

[group] Wagtails and pipits | [order] PASSERIFORMES | [family] Motacillidae | [latin] Anthus pratensis | [UK] Meadow Pipit | [FR] Pitpit farlouse | [DE] Wiesenpieper | [ES] Bisbita Comun | [NL] Graspieper | [IRL] Riabhóg Mhóna

 

spanwidth min.: 22 cm

spanwidth max.: 25 cm

size min.: 14 cm

size max.: 16 cm

Breeding

incubation min.: 11 days

incubation max.: 15 days

fledging min.: 10 days

fledging max.: 15 days

broods 2

eggs min.: 3

eggs max.: 6

 

Status: One of the commonest bird species in Ireland, favouring rough pastures and uplands.

 

Conservation Concern: Previously Green-listed, though Red-listed in Ireland since 2014, following sharp breeding declines thought to be a result of the unusually severe winters of 2009/10 and 2010/11. Populations have shown signs of significant recovery since. The European population is considered to be Secure.

 

Identification: A very non-descript bird when seen in the field. Meadow Pipits are brown above with black streaking on a white breast and belly. The beak and legs are pinkish. It looks very similar to a Skylark, but that species is slightly larger than a Meadow Pipit and has a broad white stripe above the eye. Rock Pipit is dark grey on the back and has much denser dark streaking on the breast.

 

Similar Species: Skylark and Rock Pipit.

 

Call: A rapid “vist-vist-vist” call is given when alarmed or flushed from cover. Performs a short song flight from a post, which acts as a song. The bird flies straight up, before parachuting back down to the original post.

 

Diet: Feeds on Invertebrates such as craneflies, mayflies and spiders and to a lesser extent on seeds.

 

Breeding: Very widespread breeding species in Ireland, with around 500,000 to 1,000,000 pairs. Found in bogs, uplands and areas of scrub and pasture.

 

Wintering: Generally sedentary, but moves to lowland areas from breeding sites in uplands. Significant numbers of European birds move to Ireland in winter.

 

Where to See: Common throughout Ireland.

  

Physical characteristics

 

The Meadow Pipit looks like a Song Thrush, but is only slightly larger than a Great Tit. The male and female Meadow Pipits are alike. Typically, the upperparts are grey to olive-brown in colour with darker streaks. The underparts are pale grey or buff coloured with bold streaks and spots on the breast and flanks. The belly and outer tail feathers are white. The legs are a dull pink. Juvenile Meadow Pipits are pinkish-buff and lack the dark streaks on the flanks. The Tree Pipit is very similar to the Meadow Pipit, but its general appearance is cleaner with more distinct markings, the legs are a paler pink and the hind claw is much shorter

 

Habitat

 

Breeds in middle, upper middle, and upper latitudes of west Palearctic, from temperate through boreal to fringe of arctic climatic zones, and from continental to oceanic regimes, accepting rainy, windy, and chilly conditions, but avoiding ice and prolonged snow cover as well as torrid and arid areas, within rather narrow temperature range of 10-20 degrees. Eurasian mainland chooses, as a ground-dweller, open areas of rather low fairly complete vegetation cover. Avoids extensive bare rock, stones, sand, soil, and close-cropped grass of herbage, and on the other hand tall dense vegetation, including woods, telegraph wires, stone walls, and other points of vantage.

 

Other details

 

Anthus pratensis is a widespread breeder across much of central and northern Europe, which constitutes >75% of its global breeding range. Its European breeding population is very large (>7,000,000 pairs), and was stable between 1970-1990. Although there were declines in countries such as the United Kingdom, France and Sweden during 1990-2000, the species was stable or increased across most of its European range? including in Norway and Russia?and probably declined only slightly overall.

 

Feeding

 

Diet based on invertebrates, with some plant seeds in autumn and winter. Feeds almost exclusively on ground, walking at steady rate picking invertebrates from leaves and plant stems. Occasionally takes insects in flight which it has disturbed but never flies after them.

 

Conservation

 

This species has an extremely large range, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the range size criterion (Extent of Occurrence 30% decline over ten years or three generations). The population size is extremely large, and hence does not approach the thresholds for Vulnerable under the population size criterion (10% in ten years or three generations, or with a specified population structure). For these reasons the species is evaluated as Least Concern. [conservation status from birdlife.org]

 

Breeding

 

Onset of laying affected by temperature in last third of March, becoming later with increasing altitude and latitude. April-August in central and western Europe, April-May in Britain, June-July in Swedish Lapland. Nest site is on ground, usually concealed in vegetation. Nest, cup of grasses and other plant material, lined finer vegetation and hair, building by female. Clutch size 3-5 eggs incubated for 11-15 days by female only.

 

Migration

 

Winters from British Isles, continental Europe and s Russia s to n Africa, Near East and Iraq. (Sibley Charles G. 1996)

  

Port Stephens, an open youthful tide dominated drowned valley estuary, is a large natural harbour of approximately 134 square kilometres (52 sq mi) located in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia.

Port Stephens lies within the Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park and is situated about 160 kilometres (99 mi) north-east of Sydney. The harbour lies wholly within the local government area of Port Stephens; although its northern shoreline forms the boundary between the Port Stephens and Mid-Coast local government areas.

Port Stephens is formed through the confluence of the Myall and Karuah rivers, Tilligerry Creek, and the Tasman Sea of the South Pacific Ocean. The lower port has a predominantly marine ecology and the upper port an estuarine ecology. The area to the east of Port Stephens comprises the Tomago/Tomaree/Stockton sand beds.

A narrow entrance between two striking hills of volcanic origin marks the opening of Port Stephens to the sea. The southern headland, Tomaree or South Head, rises to 120 metres (390 ft) above mean sea level (AMSL) while Yacaaba, the northern headland, is 210 m (690 ft) AMSL. The harbour is mostly shallow and sandy but contains sufficient deep water to accommodate large vessels. After its recovery from the wreck site in 1974 the bow of the MV Sygna, a 53,000 tonnes (52,163 long tons) Norwegian bulk carrier that was shipwrecked on Stockton Beach earlier that year, was moored in Port Stephens, at Salamander Bay, for almost two years.

With an area of approximately 134 square kilometres (52 sq mi), Port Stephens is larger than Sydney Harbour. Port Stephens extends approximately 24 km (15 mi) inland from the Tasman Sea and at its widest point, between Tanilba Bay and Tahlee, it is 6.5 km (4 mi) across. The narrowest point is between Soldiers Point and Pindimar where the distance is only 1.1 km (0.7 mi). Between Nelson Bay and Tea Gardens, in the most well known section of the port, it is 3.8 km (2.4 mi) wide.

The port was named by Captain Cook when he passed on 11 May 1770, honouring Sir Philip Stephens, who was Secretary to the Admiralty. Stephens was a personal friend of Cook and had recommended him for command of the voyage. It seems Cook's initial choice had actually been Point Keppel and Keppel Bay, but instead he used Keppel Bay later.

The first ship to enter the port was the Salamander, a ship of the Third Fleet that later gave the suburb of Salamander Bay its name, in 1791. In that same year escaped convicts, then known as 'bolters', discovered coal in the area.

In 1795 the crew of HMS Providence discovered a group of escaped convicts, living with the Worimi people. Port Stephens became a popular haven for escaped convicts and so in 1820 a garrison of soldiers was established at what is now known as Soldiers Point.

The 63 tonnes (62 long tons) cutter Lambton, commanded by Captain James Corlette, began shipping timber and wool out of the port in 1816. The suburb of Corlette was named after the captain.

Port Stephens has rather poor soil for the most part, and has limited agricultural potential. For this reason, no large towns developed there historically and it was never developed as a significant port. The major city and port of Newcastle developed at the mouth of the Hunter River, about 45 km (28 mi) south-west of Port Stephens.

Despite this, in 1920 there was a push for Port Stephens to be the capital city of a new state in a proposal originating from the country newspaper The Daily Observer. The proposal was the Observer's editor Victor Charles Thompson's idea in response to continuing rural Australian antipathy at the Sydney-centralised funding and governance that many rural newspapers claimed had neglected to aid rural Australian towns.

During World War II, the remoteness and lack of any significant civilian population led to the Royal Australian Navy establishing HMAS Assault, an amphibious landing training establishment, at Nelson Bay. The sick bay from HMAS Assault still stands and is used by the Port Stephens Community Arts Centre.

A number of small towns developed around the port as fishing, holiday and retirement communities. Since the 1970s, with improved road access from Sydney, and the increasing popularity of coastal retirement lifestyles, there has been major expansion of these towns.

Source: Wikipedia

 

"The natural obduracy of Varanasi refuses to submit to the humiliation of decay.

She refuses to desintegrate like other cities of prehistory.

She rejuvenates her virginity with each rape.

Wrecks, under which a lesser would long have been buried, have actually been lifted by her into monuments of glory and added faith.

Each wound inflicted on her body has smarted her to attain a heftier recovery and made her gain and added vigour.

Recessions replenish her; deluges fertilise her; death reincarnates her.

The breathtaking nobility of her fantastic river-side-beauty has inspired poets to string verses, artists to draw and paint, music makers to sing, and photographers to gawk and shoot."

("Varanasi rediscovered" by B. Bhattacharya)

 

This is a view of the central ghats of Varanasi (Benaras) shot from the boat of Anand on the Ganges while we were reaching Mana Mandira ghat.

View On Black

 

Join the photographer at www.facebook.com/laurent.goldstein.photography

 

© All photographs are copyrighted and all rights reserved.

Please do not use any photographs without permission (even for private use).

The use of any work without consent of the artist is PROHIBITED and will lead automatically to consequence.

 

------------------------------------

This is picture was stolen many times and appears on several websites without copyrights.

Whenever you upload photos without coryrights some people share them and they go from page to page, site to site, from person to person indefinitely.

80% of all images used commercially are ophan images, with no name and no identity therefore when you upload them to your page you become a partner of this piracy.

There is an international convention known as the Berne Convention or WIPO Copyright Treaty which is compulsory to everyone.

My images allow to sustain a social work in Varanasi therefore stealing is against this.

------------------------------------

Port Stephens, an open youthful tide dominated drowned valley estuary, is a large natural harbour of approximately 134 square kilometres (52 sq mi) located in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia.

Port Stephens lies within the Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park and is situated about 160 kilometres (99 mi) north-east of Sydney. The harbour lies wholly within the local government area of Port Stephens; although its northern shoreline forms the boundary between the Port Stephens and Mid-Coast local government areas.

Port Stephens is formed through the confluence of the Myall and Karuah rivers, Tilligerry Creek, and the Tasman Sea of the South Pacific Ocean. The lower port has a predominantly marine ecology and the upper port an estuarine ecology. The area to the east of Port Stephens comprises the Tomago/Tomaree/Stockton sand beds.

A narrow entrance between two striking hills of volcanic origin marks the opening of Port Stephens to the sea. The southern headland, Tomaree or South Head, rises to 120 metres (390 ft) above mean sea level (AMSL) while Yacaaba, the northern headland, is 210 m (690 ft) AMSL. The harbour is mostly shallow and sandy but contains sufficient deep water to accommodate large vessels. After its recovery from the wreck site in 1974 the bow of the MV Sygna, a 53,000 tonnes (52,163 long tons) Norwegian bulk carrier that was shipwrecked on Stockton Beach earlier that year, was moored in Port Stephens, at Salamander Bay, for almost two years.

With an area of approximately 134 square kilometres (52 sq mi), Port Stephens is larger than Sydney Harbour. Port Stephens extends approximately 24 km (15 mi) inland from the Tasman Sea and at its widest point, between Tanilba Bay and Tahlee, it is 6.5 km (4 mi) across. The narrowest point is between Soldiers Point and Pindimar where the distance is only 1.1 km (0.7 mi). Between Nelson Bay and Tea Gardens, in the most well known section of the port, it is 3.8 km (2.4 mi) wide.

The port was named by Captain Cook when he passed on 11 May 1770, honouring Sir Philip Stephens, who was Secretary to the Admiralty. Stephens was a personal friend of Cook and had recommended him for command of the voyage. It seems Cook's initial choice had actually been Point Keppel and Keppel Bay, but instead he used Keppel Bay later.

The first ship to enter the port was the Salamander, a ship of the Third Fleet that later gave the suburb of Salamander Bay its name, in 1791. In that same year escaped convicts, then known as 'bolters', discovered coal in the area.

In 1795 the crew of HMS Providence discovered a group of escaped convicts, living with the Worimi people. Port Stephens became a popular haven for escaped convicts and so in 1820 a garrison of soldiers was established at what is now known as Soldiers Point.

The 63 tonnes (62 long tons) cutter Lambton, commanded by Captain James Corlette, began shipping timber and wool out of the port in 1816. The suburb of Corlette was named after the captain.

Port Stephens has rather poor soil for the most part, and has limited agricultural potential. For this reason, no large towns developed there historically and it was never developed as a significant port. The major city and port of Newcastle developed at the mouth of the Hunter River, about 45 km (28 mi) south-west of Port Stephens.

Despite this, in 1920 there was a push for Port Stephens to be the capital city of a new state in a proposal originating from the country newspaper The Daily Observer. The proposal was the Observer's editor Victor Charles Thompson's idea in response to continuing rural Australian antipathy at the Sydney-centralised funding and governance that many rural newspapers claimed had neglected to aid rural Australian towns.

During World War II, the remoteness and lack of any significant civilian population led to the Royal Australian Navy establishing HMAS Assault, an amphibious landing training establishment, at Nelson Bay. The sick bay from HMAS Assault still stands and is used by the Port Stephens Community Arts Centre.

A number of small towns developed around the port as fishing, holiday and retirement communities. Since the 1970s, with improved road access from Sydney, and the increasing popularity of coastal retirement lifestyles, there has been major expansion of these towns.

Source: Wikipedia

 

"World Oceans Day was officially declared by the United Nations as June 8th each year beginning in 2009." en.wikipedia.org/wiki/World_Oceans_Day

  

A bit of history on womb ( sea ) death- ...

 

"Four minutes after midnight on March 24, 1989, the Exxon Valdez hit Bligh Reef in Alaska's Prince William Sound. Eleven million gallons of North Slope oil spewed into one of the most bountiful marine ecosystems in the world, killing birds, marine mammals, and fish, and devastating the ecosystem in the oil's path. Exxon says that the Sound has recovered. They're wrong.

 

Exxon Valdez Oil Spill: Could It Happen Again?

 

Extent of the Spill

 

In the 1989 spill, crude oil spread across Alaska's coastal seas covering 10,000 square miles, an area the size of Connecticut, Delaware, Rhode Island, and 25 Washington, D.C.s combined! Within a week, currents and winds pushed the slick 90 miles from the site of the tanker, out of Prince William Sound into the Gulf of Alaska. It eventually reached nearly 600 miles away from the wreck, contaminating 1,500 miles of shoreline -- about the length of California's coast. "

 

More: jomiller.com/exxonvaldez/report.html

   

"June 27, 2008 |

Prince William Sound and Fury: Oil Giant Dodges Punitive Damages for Valdez Spill

The U.S. Supreme Court capped damages for the Exxon Valdez oil spill at a fraction of what an Alaskan jury awarded"

 

More: www.scientificamerican.com/article.cfm?id=prince-william-...

  

-

 

Visualizing the BP Oil Spill Disaster: www.ifitwasmyhome.com/#loc=Chicago

 

& - -

 

Australian oil spill recovery plan could take 7 years(AFP) – Nov 3, 2009: www.google.com/hostednews/afp/article/ALeqM5g4UPWd3x4z2bt...

 

-

We foolishly assume that with time & the regenerative healing powers of the earth, that the Gulf of Mexico could return to normal.. But it will never be normal & also - this spill is FAR ( unimaginably ) worse than the Exxon Valdez spill..

 

What I learned from my research is that the damage being done in the Gulf of Mexico is & will be permanent.. - Permanent.

 

Bad: www.geog.ucsb.edu/~jeff/sb_69oilspill/active_oil_spill.jpg

  

-

   

Please do your part in the human experience & do all you can, to save life, create change & inspire others..

 

Eagle from Exxon spill: www.ibrrc.org/images/eagle_wash_Exxon_Valdez_89.jpg

 

More in note in image...

 

& please-- join Greenpeace on flickr- www.flickr.com/photos/greenpeaceusa09/

 

Port Stephens, an open youthful tide dominated drowned valley estuary, is a large natural harbour of approximately 134 square kilometres (52 sq mi) located in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia.

Port Stephens lies within the Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park and is situated about 160 kilometres (99 mi) north-east of Sydney. The harbour lies wholly within the local government area of Port Stephens; although its northern shoreline forms the boundary between the Port Stephens and Mid-Coast local government areas.

Port Stephens is formed through the confluence of the Myall and Karuah rivers, Tilligerry Creek, and the Tasman Sea of the South Pacific Ocean. The lower port has a predominantly marine ecology and the upper port an estuarine ecology. The area to the east of Port Stephens comprises the Tomago/Tomaree/Stockton sand beds.

A narrow entrance between two striking hills of volcanic origin marks the opening of Port Stephens to the sea. The southern headland, Tomaree or South Head, rises to 120 metres (390 ft) above mean sea level (AMSL) while Yacaaba, the northern headland, is 210 m (690 ft) AMSL. The harbour is mostly shallow and sandy but contains sufficient deep water to accommodate large vessels. After its recovery from the wreck site in 1974 the bow of the MV Sygna, a 53,000 tonnes (52,163 long tons) Norwegian bulk carrier that was shipwrecked on Stockton Beach earlier that year, was moored in Port Stephens, at Salamander Bay, for almost two years.

With an area of approximately 134 square kilometres (52 sq mi), Port Stephens is larger than Sydney Harbour. Port Stephens extends approximately 24 km (15 mi) inland from the Tasman Sea and at its widest point, between Tanilba Bay and Tahlee, it is 6.5 km (4 mi) across. The narrowest point is between Soldiers Point and Pindimar where the distance is only 1.1 km (0.7 mi). Between Nelson Bay and Tea Gardens, in the most well known section of the port, it is 3.8 km (2.4 mi) wide.

The port was named by Captain Cook when he passed on 11 May 1770, honouring Sir Philip Stephens, who was Secretary to the Admiralty. Stephens was a personal friend of Cook and had recommended him for command of the voyage. It seems Cook's initial choice had actually been Point Keppel and Keppel Bay, but instead he used Keppel Bay later.

The first ship to enter the port was the Salamander, a ship of the Third Fleet that later gave the suburb of Salamander Bay its name, in 1791. In that same year escaped convicts, then known as 'bolters', discovered coal in the area.

In 1795 the crew of HMS Providence discovered a group of escaped convicts, living with the Worimi people. Port Stephens became a popular haven for escaped convicts and so in 1820 a garrison of soldiers was established at what is now known as Soldiers Point.

The 63 tonnes (62 long tons) cutter Lambton, commanded by Captain James Corlette, began shipping timber and wool out of the port in 1816. The suburb of Corlette was named after the captain.

Port Stephens has rather poor soil for the most part, and has limited agricultural potential. For this reason, no large towns developed there historically and it was never developed as a significant port. The major city and port of Newcastle developed at the mouth of the Hunter River, about 45 km (28 mi) south-west of Port Stephens.

Despite this, in 1920 there was a push for Port Stephens to be the capital city of a new state in a proposal originating from the country newspaper The Daily Observer. The proposal was the Observer's editor Victor Charles Thompson's idea in response to continuing rural Australian antipathy at the Sydney-centralised funding and governance that many rural newspapers claimed had neglected to aid rural Australian towns.

During World War II, the remoteness and lack of any significant civilian population led to the Royal Australian Navy establishing HMAS Assault, an amphibious landing training establishment, at Nelson Bay. The sick bay from HMAS Assault still stands and is used by the Port Stephens Community Arts Centre.

A number of small towns developed around the port as fishing, holiday and retirement communities. Since the 1970s, with improved road access from Sydney, and the increasing popularity of coastal retirement lifestyles, there has been major expansion of these towns.

Source: Wikipedia

 

France, Paris, the bronze fountain, called “La fontaine des Mers'” was added in 1836 to the Place de la Concorde, the second one, the “Elevation of the Maritime” fountain, was installed in 1839, one fountaine on each side of the obelisk. Jacob Ignaz Hittorf designed both fountains & redesigned the Place de la Concorde between 1833 & 1846.

“Place de la Concorde”, the 8 hectares octagonal Place de la Concorde is the largest square in Paris, it is situated between the Tuilerie & the Champs-Elysées. In 1763, a statue of King “Louis XV” was erected at the site to celebrate the recovery of the king after a serious illness.

The architect Jacques-Ange Gabriel created the square surrounding the statue later in 1772, known as the place Louis XV.

In the 19th century the 3200 years old obelisk from the temple of Ramses II at Thebes was installed at the center of the Place de la Concorde. It is a 23 meters tall monolith in pink granite & weighs approximately 230 tons. In 1831, the Viceroy of Egypt offered it to Louis Philippe, he offered three obelisks, but only one was transported to Paris.

The obelisk, sometimes nicknamed '”L'aiguille de Cléopâtre”, Cleopatra's Needle, is covered with hieroglyphs picturing the reign of pharaohs Ramses II & Ramses III, pictures on the pedestal describe the transportation to Paris & its installation at the square in 1836.

 

:point_right: One World one Dream,

...Danke, Xièxie 谢谢, Thanks, Gracias, Merci, Grazie, Obrigado, Arigatô, Dhanyavad, Chokrane to you & over

7 million visits in my photostream with countless motivating comments

Se encuentra en la Alameda de Osuna, al noreste de la ciudad, y cuenta con una superficie de 14 hectáreas. Está considerado uno de los parques más bellos de la ciudad. De sus rincones destacan la plaza del Capricho, el Palacio, el estanque, la plaza de los Emperadores, o la fuente de los Delfines y de las Ranas.

 

Doña María Josefa de la Soledad Alonso Pimentel y Téllez Girón (1752-1834), Duquesa de Osuna (casada con el IX Duque de Osuna, Pedro Téllez Girón), fue una de las damas más importantes de la nobleza de la época, y la fundadora del parque de El Capricho, actualmente ubicado en Madrid capital.

 

En 1783 se compró el terreno en la villa de Alameda, para un año después en 1784, el arquitecto de la corte, Pablo Boutelou, expuso un proyecto inicial para el jardín. Empezó a construirse en el año 1787, terminándose finalmente 52 años más tarde, en 1839. Parece ser que se realizó para actividades sociales de los Duques, ya que la dama era la presidenta de la "Sociedad Económica de Amigos del País", entre otras funciones. La Duquesa falleció sin ver completamente concluido el recinto, en 1834.

  

Palacio de los duques de Osuna

Se realizó el encargo de diseño de los jardines al arquitecto francés Jean-Baptiste Mulot, proveniente de la corte de la reina María Antonieta de Francia.

Se le atribuyen referencias inglesas, francesas, e italianas, de la época en que fue construído, las cuales son reflejo de las influencias artísticas de los diseñadores del parque. Constituye el único jardín del romanticismo existente en Madrid. Muestras de ello son el laberinto de arbustos, los edificios, como el palacete, la pequeña ermita, o el hermoso salón de baile, además de los riachuelos que lo recorren y estanques, donde podemos encontrar cisnes y patos.

 

La Duquesa ordenó construir estanques, que conectaban el canal principal que recorre el parque con el salón baile, que es donde se llevaban a cabo las fiestas que realizaba. Este edificio se encuentra levantado sobre un pequeño manantial (donde podemos observar la figura de un jabalí que permanece bajo un arco mirando hacia el riachuelo), del que se surtía de agua el resto del parque, a pesar de que también se encontraba algún estanque, que aún hoy podemos contemplar.

 

Además, hizo plantar miles de ejemplares por todo el lugar de su flor favorita, la lila. Actualmente podemos deleitarnos con la belleza de los trabajos florales, sobretodo en primavera.

  

En la invasión francesa de comienzos del siglo XIX, concretamente en 1808, el recinto pasa a ser propiedad del general francés Agustín Belliard, quien parece ser que utilizó las instalaciones para sus tropas. Posteriormente, tras la retirada del ejército francés, el lugar regresó a manos de la Duquesa, quien llevó a cabo una reforma del mismo. Se repoblaron arbustos, y se construyó el casino de baile o palacete mencionado (1815), obra de de López Aguado (quien diseñó el Parque del Retiro). También se levantaron columnas y relieves que se consideran representación de las cuatro estaciones, primavera, verano, otoño e invierno.

 

Época de Pedro Alcántara

 

La belleza del parque no se detiene aquí. El recorrido nos lleva a observar la realidad de sus referencias, e incluso se quedan cortas, pues podemos maravillarnos con multitud de distintos ambientes.

En 1834, tras la muerte de la Duquesa de Osuna, la propiedad del recinto llegó a su nieto, Pedro Alcántara, también a través de López Aguado, agrega nuevas construcciones, como una zona de exedras en la plaza de los emperadores, dedicadas a su abuela, que como el resto, se encuentran rodeadas de abundante vegetación. Tras la muerte de Pedro Alcántara en 1844, es cedido a su hermano, quien lo descuida enormemente, acabando subastado 38 años después.

 

Época de la Guerra Civil

 

Como curiosidad, en la Guerra Civil Española cayó en manos del general José Miaja, defensor del bando republicano de Madrid, quien mandó construir túneles para protección de su misión, y constituyó una época en la que se degradó en buena medida el parque. Fue, por tanto, refugio del Estado Mayor del Ejército del Centro para la República, y aún hoy se conservan galerías de ello. En los alrededores del palacio emergen restos de respiraderos, que eran de utilidad para el uso del ejército. Previamente, en la época republicana, concretamente en 1932, había sido declarado Jardín Histórico, y en la época franquista, 1943, Jardín Artístico.

 

Además, posee numerosos monumentos, incluso una pequeña zona dedicada a Baco, también conocido como Dionisio (en griego), considerado en la mitología como dios protector de la agricultura y del teatro.

 

Época Actual

  

Tras décadas de relativo abandono, en 1974 fue comprado por el Ayuntamiento de Madrid, y en 1985 fue declarada Bien de Interés Cultural. Un año más tarde comenzó una remodelación que, en cierta medida, continúa actualmente. El recinto está siendo estudiado para acometer reformas y recuperación que permitan visitar y contemplar más zonas de este hermoso y curioso lugar.

 

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------

 

Found in the Alameda de Osuna, northeast of the city, and has an area of 14 hectares. It is considered one of the most beautiful parks of the city. Of its corners highlight caprice square, Palace, pond, the square of the emperors, or the source of Dolphin and las Ranas.

 

Doña María Josefa de Soledad Alonso Pimentel and Téllez Girón (1752-1834), Duchess de Osuna (married to 9th Duke of Osuna, Peter Téllez Girón), was one of the most important ladies of the nobility of the time, and the founder of the Park of El Capricho, currently located at capital Madrid.

 

1783 Bought the land in the village of Alameda, for a year later in 1784, the architect of the Court, Paul Boutelou, exhibited an initial draft for the garden. Started to build in the year 1787, eventually finishing 52 years later, in 1839. Seems to be made for the Dukes, social activities since the lady was the President of the "Sociedad economic of friends of the country", among other functions. La Duquesa died without seeing the premises, fully completed in 1834.

  

Palace of the Dukes of Osuna

The French architect Jean-Baptiste Mulot, coming from the Court of the Queen Marie Antoinette of France was commissioned to design the gardens.

English, French and Italian, which was built, references which are reflection of artistic influences of the designers of the Park are attributed to him. Constitutes the only existing in Madrid romantic garden. Samples of this are the labyrinth of shrubs, buildings, as the Palace, the small Hermitage, or the beautiful lounge dance, the streams that walk and ponds, where we can find swans and ducks.

 

La Duquesa ordered to construct ponds, connecting the main channel which runs through the park with the lounge dance, which is where parties was carried out. This building is raised on a small spring (where we can observe the figure of a wild boar which remains under an arch looking towards the Creek), of which the rest of the Park, produced water while also found some pond, which even today we can contemplate.

 

Also made planting thousands of copies by the place of her favorite flower, the lilac. Especially in spring we can now delight us with the beauty of the floral works.

  

In the early 19th century, specifically in 1808, French invasion site becomes property of the French general Agustín Belliard, who apparently used the facilities to their troops. Later, after the withdrawal of the French army, the place returned at the hands of the Duchess, who carried out a reform. Repopulated shrubs, and built the casino Ballroom or mentioned Manor (1815), the work of of López Aguado (who designed the Retiro Park). Also stood columns and reliefs deemed representation of the four seasons, spring, summer, autumn and winter.

 

Pedro Alcántara era

 

The beauty of the Park does not stop here. The route leads us to observe the reality of their references, and even fall short, because we can wonder with a multitude of different environments.

In 1834, after the death of the Duchess de Osuna, ownership of the site came to his grandson, Pedro Alcántara, also via López Aguado, adds new buildings as an area of exedrae in the plaza of the emperors, dedicated to his grandmother, which like the rest, are surrounded by abundant vegetation. After the death of Pedro Alcántara in 1844, loaned his brother, who neglects it enormously, ending 38 years later auctioned.

 

The civil war era

 

As a curiosity, in the Spanish Civil war fell into the hands of general José Miaja, supporter of the Republican side Madrid, who ordered the construction of tunnels for protection of their mission, and constituted an era in which is demoted to a large extent the Park. It was therefore the major State of the army of the Centre for the Republic, refuge and galleries of this are still preserved. In the vicinity of the Palace emerge vents, which were useful for the use of the army remains. Previously, in the Republican era, specifically in 1932, had been declared historical Garden, and in the Franco era, 1943, artistic garden.

 

In addition, has numerous monuments, even a small area dedicated to Bacchus, also known as Dionysius (in Greek), considered in mythology as protective God of agriculture and the theatre.

 

Current time

  

After decades of relative neglect, in 1974 it was purchased by the Ayuntamiento de Madrid, and in 1985 it was declared of cultural interest. A year later began a renovation that, to some extent, continues today. The site is being studied to undertake reforms and recovery to visit and see more areas of this beautiful

Exposure: 121 seconds, f/5.6, ISO 200

Date: 12 Jan. 2006, 8:46 pm

Location: Pontaic Mills, Warwick, RI

Notes:

 

View it large

 

The 350,000-square-foot site along the Pawtuxet River was home to the original Fruit of the Loom textile mill, dating back to the mid-1800s. Production stopped in the 1970s. The dominant point of the complex is the mill tower, dedicated by Abraham Lincoln in 1863. (clipped from the Town of Warwick website & Architectural Record)

 

I'm not sure of the current standing of the mill, although just about everyone has moved out of the complex. The magazine Architectural Record published a story several years back about how the site was a model of brownfield recovery and intended for adaptive re-use but I keep hearing rumors that it will be razed entirely...

 

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -

 

This time out it was Judyboy, Skazamaand Rizzolo and I. You should check out their streams for the way they approached the subjects. Also, you can see a group pool here of all our shots from the night or a slick slideshow here.

 

We spent about 4 hours setup on an abandoned concrete bridge shooting variations of this vignette. This was a bit different for us since we usually cover a larger site and move around quite a bit during the shoot. Unfortunately, the mill was locked up tight behind a barbed wire fence so lawful nighttime entry was not available.

       

Mosteiro de S. Martinho de Tibães

Braga, Portugal.

 

( Flickers. O Norte em Movimento e P.F.F.G - Meeting Tibães, 05/08. )

  

Aposentos do Abade Geral

  

__D.Abade Geral – Eleito no Capítulo Geral. Com os seus subordinados, governava o mosteiro por um período de 3 anos.

   

“The Monastery of St Martin of Tibães (Portuguese: Mosteiro de São Martinho de Tibães) is a monastery situated in the parish of Mire de Tibães, near Braga, in northern Portugal. It was the mother house of the Benedictine order in Portugal and Brazil, and it is famous for the exuberant baroque decoration of its church.”

 

“The first information about a monastic community in the region (i.e. the Monastery of Dumio, close to Tibaes, founded by Saint Martin of Braga) dates from the 6th century. Around 1060 the Monastery of Tibaes was founded and its feudal rights were granted by Henry of Burgundy, Count of Portugal, in 1110. During the Middle Ages, after the Kingdom of Portugal became independent, rich and vast proterties in the North of the country came into the possession of the Monastery. Due to the reconstruction works carried out in the 17th and 18th centuries, there are no architectural remnants from this early stage of the ensemble.”

“In 1567, the Monastery of Tibães became the mother house of the Order of Saint Benedict for Portugal and the colony of Brazil, with the first general gathering of the Order happening in Tibães in 1570. In the first half of the 17th century, in view of the ruined condition of the former buildings and the vast resources at their disposal, the monks started the great works which originated the ensemble that exists today. They began with the cloisters (Refectory and Cemetery cloisters) and the church, built between 1628 and 1661 in Mannerist style by architects Manuel Álvares and João Turriano. Until the beginning of the 18th century the new wings of the Monastery were finished, including the Gate House, the Dormitory, the Guest House, the Chapter House and the Library.”

“During the 17th and 18th centuries the Monastery was a site of considerable artistic activity and had an enormous influence in the Baroque and Rococo art of Northern Portugal. The decoration of the church, in particular, is a landmark in Portuguese Baroque, thanks to the work of artists like Cipriano da Cruz, André Soares and José de Santo António Vilaça.”

“Sold at an auction sale in 1864, the Tibães Monastery and all its surrounding areas fell into decay and ruin. A great part of the ensemble, including the Refectory Cloister, was destroyed in a fire in 1894. In 1986 the Monastery became a State property and an extensive recovery project was started that continues to this day.”

  

Wikipedia

    

"The Monastery of São Martinho de Tibães, former head office of the Portuguese Beneditine Congregation was acquired by the Portuguese State in 1986 and came under the responsibility of the Portuguese Institute for Architectural Heritage (IPPAR). It is undergoing an integrated process of restoration and rehabilitation co-funded by the ERDF - Operational Programme for Culture. The project for restoration and rehabilitation of the Novitiate, South Wing and Refectory Cloister, integrating the Monastery's application to the III Community Support Programme - 1st Stage includes the former refectory cloister that had been destroyed by a great fire at the end of the 19th century, the novitiate, the hospice and the South wing comprising the library, the kitchen and annexes. The aim of this intervention is to rehabilitate and restore most of the spaces that will be included in the circuit visits to the monastery (cemetery cloister, kitchens and annexes); to create a monastic order information centre and historic gardens on the upper floor of the south wing; and to reinstall a religious community in the former novitiate that will manage a small lodging house and a restaurant in the former hospice."

   

IPPAR

   

www.ippar.pt/monumentos/conjunto_tibaes.html

 

www.mosteirodetibaes.org/

 

Port Stephens, an open youthful tide dominated drowned valley estuary, is a large natural harbour of approximately 134 square kilometres (52 sq mi) located in the Hunter Region of New South Wales, Australia.

Port Stephens lies within the Port Stephens-Great Lakes Marine Park and is situated about 160 kilometres (99 mi) north-east of Sydney. The harbour lies wholly within the local government area of Port Stephens; although its northern shoreline forms the boundary between the Port Stephens and Mid-Coast local government areas.

Port Stephens is formed through the confluence of the Myall and Karuah rivers, Tilligerry Creek, and the Tasman Sea of the South Pacific Ocean. The lower port has a predominantly marine ecology and the upper port an estuarine ecology. The area to the east of Port Stephens comprises the Tomago/Tomaree/Stockton sand beds.

A narrow entrance between two striking hills of volcanic origin marks the opening of Port Stephens to the sea. The southern headland, Tomaree or South Head, rises to 120 metres (390 ft) above mean sea level (AMSL) while Yacaaba, the northern headland, is 210 m (690 ft) AMSL. The harbour is mostly shallow and sandy but contains sufficient deep water to accommodate large vessels. After its recovery from the wreck site in 1974 the bow of the MV Sygna, a 53,000 tonnes (52,163 long tons) Norwegian bulk carrier that was shipwrecked on Stockton Beach earlier that year, was moored in Port Stephens, at Salamander Bay, for almost two years.

With an area of approximately 134 square kilometres (52 sq mi), Port Stephens is larger than Sydney Harbour. Port Stephens extends approximately 24 km (15 mi) inland from the Tasman Sea and at its widest point, between Tanilba Bay and Tahlee, it is 6.5 km (4 mi) across. The narrowest point is between Soldiers Point and Pindimar where the distance is only 1.1 km (0.7 mi). Between Nelson Bay and Tea Gardens, in the most well known section of the port, it is 3.8 km (2.4 mi) wide.

The port was named by Captain Cook when he passed on 11 May 1770, honouring Sir Philip Stephens, who was Secretary to the Admiralty. Stephens was a personal friend of Cook and had recommended him for command of the voyage. It seems Cook's initial choice had actually been Point Keppel and Keppel Bay, but instead he used Keppel Bay later.

The first ship to enter the port was the Salamander, a ship of the Third Fleet that later gave the suburb of Salamander Bay its name, in 1791. In that same year escaped convicts, then known as 'bolters', discovered coal in the area.

In 1795 the crew of HMS Providence discovered a group of escaped convicts, living with the Worimi people. Port Stephens became a popular haven for escaped convicts and so in 1820 a garrison of soldiers was established at what is now known as Soldiers Point.

The 63 tonnes (62 long tons) cutter Lambton, commanded by Captain James Corlette, began shipping timber and wool out of the port in 1816. The suburb of Corlette was named after the captain.

Port Stephens has rather poor soil for the most part, and has limited agricultural potential. For this reason, no large towns developed there historically and it was never developed as a significant port. The major city and port of Newcastle developed at the mouth of the Hunter River, about 45 km (28 mi) south-west of Port Stephens.

Despite this, in 1920 there was a push for Port Stephens to be the capital city of a new state in a proposal originating from the country newspaper The Daily Observer. The proposal was the Observer's editor Victor Charles Thompson's idea in response to continuing rural Australian antipathy at the Sydney-centralised funding and governance that many rural newspapers claimed had neglected to aid rural Australian towns.

During World War II, the remoteness and lack of any significant civilian population led to the Royal Australian Navy establishing HMAS Assault, an amphibious landing training establishment, at Nelson Bay. The sick bay from HMAS Assault still stands and is used by the Port Stephens Community Arts Centre.

A number of small towns developed around the port as fishing, holiday and retirement communities. Since the 1970s, with improved road access from Sydney, and the increasing popularity of coastal retirement lifestyles, there has been major expansion of these towns.

Source: Wikipedia

 

I posted a version of this earlier via my phone. This is the version from my camera (now that I'm able to sit and process all warm and cozy in my neighborhood Starbucks while charging my devices and caffeinating my soul.)

I wanted to share this image again as it fills me with emotions and makes me feel very small and almost fragile. I've been to this spot on the Hudson RIver many times...to watch the sun and sailboats glide (up and down and back and forth respectively.) I've watched children play and old couples walk hand in hand, heard them giggling and whispering as the seabirds cheered them on.

What you don't see are the sailboats and powerboats washed up and piled up on the shore off to the right like discarded toys that some petulant child has grown tired of. I couldn't show you that yet as too many homes are flooded, people displaced, lives upended (and ended for 50 people who's families are in my prayers.) Pictures of piled up boats are for another day. Or maybe never.

No...all I can do is stare at the empty bench and feel thankful that the worst facing me is no power for a while. And remember that many many more are dealing with far worse. And staring off from wherever they are and hoping for a speedy recovery and for as much help as is required.

 

I have posted this to my RedBubble site and all proceeds will go to the American Red Cross: www.redbubble.com/people/alanshapiro/works/9533762-watchi...

or, just go straight here and help however you can (for this and the next event wherever it may happen)

www.redcross.org/charitable-donations

Singapore New National Indoor stadium on the extreme left to be completed soon!

 

Haze was pretty heavy since the last 2 days as well as today, the usual unstoppable crops burning phenomena from our neighboring Indonesia has once again cause health cycle concern once the unfavorable wind instantly envelope eastern part of our city.

 

After preaching all the repeated little hazy thingy, I did not manage to seize any favorable shot of the new site (national stadium) n hope to make another recovery shot in the nearest coming weeks when the construction came to a halt .

Obviously, from on site experience, the architecture design is non-substantial world breaking state of art or truly futuristic design, personally i feel is distinctively insufficient to inherit astonish records for Singapore from the present stage formation without adding visual quality streamline impact blend with surrounding. Is yet still not conveying any strong interestingness to call pilot project of the hype for the anticipating world, more alike our plain jane Singapore flyers .

 

How to get there? Just a minute walk with our Mass rapid train station or head across from the Tanjong Rhu or the Bebble Bay condominium . It would be more excited to overview the stadium at a greater height from any existing condo for visual majestic result. Can any potential residence offer a vantage point space for me...? It would be very helpful to assist the URA project and the Singapore's sport council to have this fulfillment project done soon.

FREE UTILITY FOR MAC USER part 1

FREE UTILITY FOR MAC USER part 2

_DSC1157 bw. ( mostra all' Ara Pacis Roma: Valentino )

View LARGE On Black Is BESTand Visit My BW photostream!

My site on the Web

  

Unauthorized use of writing or photos published on this site is illegal,

not to mention a bit of an ethical lapse. Please respect my rights.

© All rights reserved 2009 2010 fabio c. favaloro

UK find: Manchester England

Photo courtesy: Andy, el alamein 1942 TRUCK COLLECTION

Flickr site: www.flickr.com/photos/95448919@N07/

Santiago Island

Galapagos

Ecuador

 

This is the second island we visited. You had to approach this part of the island by boat. All the islands were created by the eruption of underwater volcanoes. You can see some of the lava along the beach.The small red marks on the lava in back are Sally Lightfoot Crabs.

 

Santiago, originally named James Island after England’s King James II, was the second of the Galapagos Islands visited by Charles Darwin. The Beagle arrived there on October 5, 1835. There they found a party of Spaniards who had come from Charles Island to dry fish and salt tortoise meat. About 6 mi inland they discovered two men living in a hovel, who were employed catching tortoises. Santiago had long been a source of water, wood, and tortoises for buccaneers and whalers, as well as Captain Porter of the USS Essex from 1812-1814. The Spaniards showed Darwin and his group the salt mine, now a visitor site. Darwin’s record of land iguanas is the only one that indicates there was a thriving population, as today land iguanas are extinct on Santiago. In The Voyage of the Beagle, Darwin wrote, “I cannot give a more forcible proof of their numbers, than by stating that when we were left at James Island, we could not for some time find a spot free from their burrows on which to pitch our single tent.”

 

During the 1920s and again in the 1960s, companies extracted salt from the Salt Mine Crater. They constructed roads and buildings at Puerto Egas, named for Hector Egas, the owner of the company that worked there in the 1960s. In the 1930s, a small group of people tried to colonize the island but ultimately failed. Their story is told in the book The Enchanted Islands: A Five-year Adventure in the Galapagos by Ainslie and Frances Conway. Goats, pigs, and donkeys were released on Santiago in the 1800s, causing havoc for the island ecosystem and many of its native species.

 

Santiago is visited by the majority of tourist boats with wonderful visitor sites at James Bay on the northwest and Sullivan Bay on the southeast. Puerto Egas at the south end of James Bay provides one of the best opportunities for visitors to see the Galapagos fur seal. The focus of conservation work on Santiago in the last decade has resulted in rapid recovery of much of the vegetation and many of the native species. However, the presence of introduced plants and black rats continue to cause problems within the natural ecosystem. Santiago also has several satellite islands, especially in the southeastern side of the island. Two of these, Bartolomé and Chinese Hat, are visitor sites, while others provide excellent dive sites.

  

060119-N-7241L-007

Persian Gulf (Jan. 19, 2006) - A waist catapult crew member gives a thumbs up indicating that the catapult is secure for recovery operations aboard the Nimitz-class aircraft carrier USS Theodore Roosevelt (CVN 71). Roosevelt and embarked Carrier Air Wing Eight (CVW-8) are currently on a regularly scheduled deployment conducting maritime security operations. U.S. Navy photo by Photographer's Mate Airman Apprentice Nathan Laird (RELEASED)

 

>>>------------------------------->

This Photo was uploaded from www.Trackpads.com

There are more than 1 million photos and videos available on our site. High Res and unstamped versions of these files are available in our Gallery.

 

Unless otherwise noted, these photos may be used without our permission.

I have closed off the comments as I don't have the time to reply.

 

I have now removed all my photographs from the Creative Commons

Attribute Sharealike licence as I am unhappy with the way it has worked out.

 

All my photographs have been relicensed with full copyright to

me and All Rights Reserved.

 

Bloggers are welcome to use this photo provided they put in a link to my site.

  

The manufacts are exceptional not only for the high quality of the marble and the rare painted decoration, but also for the history of the recovery. Most of the marble elements present the same manufacturing technique (lathe) and a polychrome decoration. The lab analysis confirmed that these objects were carved out using the same variety of marble, coming from the famous Paros and Aphrodisias quarries.The manufacts are presumed to come from a tomb dated to the second half of the fourth century B.C., likely belonging to a member of Daunian élite.This context represents a monumental and unique version of a funerary service: the shapes of the objects closely remind the fine Italic pottery and the bronze vases of the fourth century b.C. Among the most remarkable artworks in exhibition: the great marble crater with the print of a golden ivy wreath, the base for a table with gryphons snapping at a fawn and the podanipter, depicted with the splendid scene of the Nereids on sea monsters, carrying Achilles weapons. Although the exact dig site is still unknown, the marbles are thought to be furnishings from a chamber tomb belonging to an elite member of the local Dauni tribe and dated to the second half of the 4th century BC, when southern Italy was a Greek colony.'Such an extraordinary store of vases and marble furnishings, some of which are unusually painted by what is certainly a Greek hand, has never been found anywhere except in this tomb. The shallow podanipter is decorated with a stunning mythological scene in blues, oranges, yellows and purples showing Greek sea nymphs the Nereids riding sea monsters and carrying the weapons of Achilles, while on the sculpted table base traces of blue and orange can still be seen on the wings and crests of the griffins.The remaining marbles are shaped like large wine vases and water pitchers but are not hollow, underlining their decorative function in the tomb.

 

Queste preziose opere in marmo provengono dal territorio dell’antica Ausculum, l’odierna Ascoli Satriano in provincia di Foggia L’eccezionalità di questa serie di manufatti ha più ragioni: l’alta qualità del marmo, quello cristallino e trasparente scavato in galleria nell’isola di Paro che i Greci riservavano ai capolavori della scultura; la presenza della decorazione pittorica, così rara nei marmi giunti sino a noi e, soprattutto, la storia del ritrovamento di questi pezzi.Sono i marmi di Ausculum perchè scavati nei territori dell'antica Ausculum (Ascoli Satriano) (Foggia) , l'antico centro daunio noto per la battaglia tra Pirro e i Romani nel 279 a.C.C'è un grande bacino il cui interno è dipinto con la scena del trasporto , da parte delle Nereidi, delle armi di Achille , forgiate da Efesto.Ci sono poi dei vasi in marmo che imitano , nella forma, i vasi per liquidi in ceramica diffusi nella produzione ellenistica dell'Italia Meridionale.

 

The background picture is entitled: St. Louis, May 1940. "Downtown street on Sunday morning." and is the property of Shorpy.com. The original picture can be viewed here

  

* Obviously the following commentary is quite lengthy and makes for difficult reading "on screen". (If) you care to take to trouble of reading the entire text, my suggestion would be to copy the text and paste it into a Word document.

........... and you think the world is in chaos today?..............

  

The New York Stock Exchange crashed in October 1929 throwing the nation into the grips of poverty and financial despair. 1930 was the beginning of the Great Depression. It would last a decade in the United States, where, at its nadir in 1933, 25 percent of all workers and 37 percent of all nonfarm workers were completely out of work. Some people starved; many others lost their farms and homes. Homeless vagabonds sneaked aboard the freight trains that crossed the nation. Dispossessed cotton farmers, the “Okies,” stuffed their possessions into dilapidated Model Ts and migrated to California in the false hope that the posters about plentiful jobs were true. Although the U.S. economy began to recover in the second quarter of 1933, the recovery largely stalled for most of 1934 and 1935. A more vigorous recovery commenced in late 1935 and continued into 1937, when a new depression occurred. The American economy had yet to fully recover from the Great Depression when the United States was drawn into World War II in December 1941. Because of this agonizingly slow recovery, the entire decade of the 1930s in the United States is often referred to as the Great Depression.

 

Socialism declared the Death of Capitalism; Hitler rose to power; From July 1936 to April 1939 Spain was ravaged by a Civil War, In 1931, the Japanese Kwangtung Army attacked Chinese troops in Manchuria. Ominous clouds of impending war loomed on the horizon. In the United States, the majority of its citizens were too preoccupied with trying to survive another day under the strains of the depression to notice.

 

But all of this drove technology forward: Radio was now the dominant mass medium in the so-called civilized world; the first commercial intercontinental airline flights began.

 

Some inventions and innovations of the 1930s and 40’s that shaped the culture:

1930: Planet discovered: Pluto, by Clyde W. Tombaugh at Lowell Observatory

1930: Photoflash bulb

1930: Freon invented by Midgley et al.

1930: Artificial fabric polymerized from acetylene (J. Walter Reppe, Germany)

1930: High-octane gasoline invented by Ipatief (Russia)

1931: Cyclotron invented (Ernest O. Lawrence, USA)

1931: Neoprene (synthetic rubber) developed by Julius A. Nieuwland

1931: Synthetic resin, invented by Hill (England)

1931: Electronic microscope, Lroll & Ruska (Germany)

1932: Vitamin D discovered

1933: Electronic television invented by Philo Farnsworth (USA)

1933: Pure Vitamin C synthesized by Tadeusz Reichstein

1934: Launderette, invented by Cantrell (USA)

1935: Aircraft-detecting radar, by Robert Watson Watt

1935: First sulfa drug (Prontosil) for streptococcal infections (G. Domagk, Germany)

1936: Artificial Heart invented by Dr. Alexis Carrel

1937: Nylon patented for DuPont by Wallace H. Carothers

1937: First jet engine, built by Frank Whittle

1938: Fiberglass invented at Owens-Corning

1938: Teflon invented at Du Pont

1938: Vitamin E identified

1938: Fluorescent lamp, at General Electric

1939: First nylon stockings

1939: Polyethylene invented

1939: First helicopter, built by Igor Sikorsky (Russian-American)

1939: FM (Frequency Modulation) radio invented by Edwin H. Armstrong

1940: First USA helicopter flight, Vought-Sikorsky Corporation

1940: Penicillin perfected by Howard Florey as useful antibiotic

1940: Cavity Magnetron developed (key to Radar)

1940: First transuranic element (Neptunium) discovered (Philip Abelson & Edwin McMillan)

1940: First electron microscope, RCA

 

Meanwhile, Hitler's Nazi party gained power (in 1930), and soon led to the annexation of Austria (1938) and the invasion of Poland (1939), which drew France and Great Britain into World War II, despite the dithering of Neville Chamberlain. In June of 1940 the rapidly advancing German Army captured Paris. Franklin Delano Roosevelt is U.S. president (1932 into the next decade). Great Britain sees three kings in the decade: Edward VIII, George V, and George VI.

 

1930 – 1940 (what were we reading, what were we watching and what were we listening to)

 

BOOKS:

1932 Aldous Huxley: "Brave New World"

1932 “Tobacco Road” by Erskine Caldwell is published. It is about Georgia sharecroppers.

1938 Ayn Rand: "Anthem”

1939 James Joyce: "Finnegans Wake"

1939 “The Grapes of Wrath” by John Steinbeck is published.

 

MOVIES:

1931 “Frankenstein”

1932"The Mummy" - With Boris Karloff.

1933 “Deluge” - New York is wiped out by tsunami. Based on 1928 novel of same name by S.

Fowler Wright. (Plot sound familiar?)

1933 “The Invisible Man” - with Claude Rains as Dr. Jack Giffin, John Carradine, Walter Brennan,

directed by James Whale.

1933 “King Kong” - with Leslie Fenton, Conrad Veidt, Jill Esmond, George Merritt. Directed by Karl Hartl.

1934 "The Thin Man" - With William Powell, Myrna Loy, Maureen O'Sullivan. Based on the book by

Dashiell Hammett.

1935 "Top Hat" - With Fred Astaire, Ginger Rogers, Edward Everett Horton, Eric Blore.

1936 “Flash Gordon” (many sequels to follow)

1936"The Charge of the Light Brigade" - With Erroll Flynn, Olivia DeHavilland, Donald Crisp, Nigel

Bruce, Patric Knowles, David Niven.

1937 "Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs"

1938 "The Adventures of Robin Hood" - With Errol Flynn, Olivia de Havilland, Basil Rathbone, Claude

Rains, Eugene Pallette, Alan Hale. Directed by Michael Curtiz.

1939 "Gone With the Wind" - With Clark Gable, Vivien Leigh, Leslie Howard, Olivia DeHavilland,

Thomas Mitchell, Hattie McDaniel.

1940 "The Grapes of Wrath" - With Henry Fonda, Jane Darwell, John Carradine. Directed by John

Ford.

1940 "The Bank Dick" - With W.C. Fields, Cora Witherspoon, Una Merkel, Franklin Pangborn, Shemp

Howard, Grady Sutton.

 

MUSIC – 1940

“When You Wish Upon a Star” - Glenn Miller

“In The Mood” - Glenn Miller

“When The Swallows Come Back To Capistrano” - Ink Spots

“Frenesi” - Artie Shaw

“Beat Me Daddy, Eight To The Bar” - Will Bradley

“Tuxedo Junction” - Glenn Miller

“Body and Soul” - Coleman Hawkins

“I'll Never Smile Again” - Tommy Dorsey

“Sierra Sue” - Bing Crosby

“Blueberry Hill” - Glenn Miller

“Careless” - Glenn Miller

“Ferryboat Serenade” - Andrews Sisters

“The Woodpecker Song” - Glenn Miller

“Only Forever” - Bing Crosby

“Imagination” - Glenn Miller

 

RADIO:

Although the origins of television can be traced back as far as 1873 the discovery of the photoconductivity of the element selenium by Willoughby Smith, the first regularly scheduled television service in the United States was not available until July 2, 1928 and yet then it was in its infancy and certainly not perfected and not a widely accepted form of media. Radio was the media of the time. Most Americans, although barely able to put food on the table or clothes on their backs, had some type of radio in their living quarters.

 

1932, November 7th - the First radio broadcast of "Buck Rogers" www.buck-rogers.com/radio_serial/

 

What followed was a whole host of Science fiction, mystery, comedy, westerns, detective and music programs. During the mid to late 30’s and 40’s millions of American families gathered around their radios in the evening listening to their favorite radio shows. Radio broadcasts continued well into the late 50’s when eventually television became readily accessible and affordable to most Americans.

 

A few of the earliest radio shows:

“Flash Gordon” – September, 1935: www.oldradioworld.com/media/Flash%20Gordon%201935-09-07%2...

“The Town Crier” 1929 - 1942: www.oldradioworld.com/media/The%20Town%20Crier%20Twenty%2...

“Sam Bass, Death Valley Days” 1930 – 1945: www.oldradioworld.com/media/Death%20Valley%20Days%201936-...

“The Aldrich Family” – 1939 - 1953: www.oldradioworld.com/media/The%20Aldrich%20Family%201952...

 

If you would care to delve a little further into the world of radio entertainment (before the days of sex, graphic violence and endless commercials on TV), I suggest you check out this excellent site - www.oldradioworld.com/

  

Notable events:

1931 - Empire State Building opens in New York City

1931, September – Japanese invade Manchuria

1932 - Ford introduces the Model B, the first low-priced car to have a V-8 engine

1933 - Franklin Delano Roosevelt sworn in as President; he is the last president to be inaugurated on

March 4.

1933, February - Less than a month after Hitler became chancellor, the Reichstag burns down. When the police arrive they find Marinus van der Lubbe on the premises. Upon being tortured by the Gestapo van der Lubbe confesses to starting the fire. However he denies that he was part of a Communist

Conspiracy. Hitler later gives orders that all leaders of the German Communist Party "will be

hanged that very night." Hermann Goering announces that the Nazi Party plans "to exterminate" German communists.

1934 Chancellor Dollfuss of Austria assassinated by Nazis. Hitler becomes führer. USSR admitted to League of Nations.

1934 - John Dillinger is killed in Chicago

1935 - Mussolini invades Ethiopia; League of Nations invokes sanctions. Roosevelt opens second

phase of New Deal in U.S., calling for social security, better housing, equitable taxation, and farm assistance. Huey Long assassinated in Louisiana.

1935, September - The Nuremberg Race Laws deprive German Jews of their rights of citizenship, giving them the status of "subjects" in Hitler's Reich. The laws also make it forbidden for Jews to marry or have sexual relations with Aryans or to employ young Aryan women as household help. The Nazis settle on defining a "full Jew" as a person with three Jewish grandparents. Those with less were designated as Mischlinge or a "mixed blood."

1937, May - the German passenger airship, the Hindenburg, catches fire and is destroyed while attempting to dock during a electrical storm at the Lakehurst Naval Air Station. Of the 97 people on board, 15 are killed along with people killed on the ground. The exact cause for this disaster is still unknown.

1936, August – The 1936 Summer Olympics officially known as Games of the XI Olympiad, are held in Berlin, Germany. Jesse Owens wins four gold medals: the 100m sprint, the long jump, 200m sprint and after he was added to the 4 x 100 m relay team, he won his fourth on August 9.

* Owens was allowed to travel with and stay in the same hotels as whites, while at the time blacks in many parts of the United States were denied equal rights. After a New York City ticker-tape parade of Fifth Avenue in his honor, Owens had to ride the freight elevator at the Waldorf-Astoria to reach the reception honoring him.......... a sad chapter in the history of the United States. Owens said, "Hitler didn't snub me – it was FDR who snubbed me. The president didn't even send me a telegram." On the other hand, Hitler sent Owens a commemorative inscribed cabinet photograph of himself. Jesse Owens was never invited to the White House nor were honors bestowed upon him by president Franklin D. Roosevelt (FDR) or his successor Harry S. Truman during their terms. In 1955, President Dwight D. Eisenhower honored Owens by naming him an "Ambassador of Sports."

1936 - Germans occupy Rhineland. Italy annexes Ethiopia. Rome-Berlin Axis proclaimed (Japan to join

in 1940). Trotsky exiled to Mexico.

1937 - Hitler repudiates war guilt clause of Versailles Treaty; continues to build German power. Italy withdraws from League of Nations. U.S. gunboat Panay sunk by Japanese in Yangtze River.

Japan invades China, conquers most of coastal area. Amelia Earhart lost somewhere in Pacific

on round-the-world flight. Picasso's Guernica mural – an abstract depicting the chaos and human calamity of the Spanish Civil War.

1938, November - The Kristallnacht or the "Night of Broken Glass" is a night when the Gestapo and the SS go through towns of Austria and smash the windows of Jewish occupations. Thousands of homes and businesses are ransacked, 91 Jews are murdered and 25,000 to 30,000 are arrested and placed in concentration camps.

1938, March - The Anschluss, Germany takes over Austria. The German speaking part of Austria wanted to unite with Germany and Hitler states that this was his purpose for the annexation of Austria. However, this is against the Treaty of Versailles.

1939, September - Nazi-Germany attacks Poland, essentially the beginning of World War II. Many

countries around Germany declared war on Germany but do not take overt action against the Third Reich. Recently, Adolf Hitler had agreed in the Munich Agreement that he would not invade Poland. Great Britain and Poland have a mutual aid treaty that requires either country to come to the aid of the other in the event of war. When Germany invades Poland, Britain (and the Commonwealth) is obligated to come to the aid of Poland by declaring war on Germany. The United States, however, does not officially declare war against Germany. Many countries rise up and voiced anger over Hitler’s betrayal but only Britain and the Commonwealth take overt actions to try and stop Hilter’s military aggression.

1939 - President Roosevelt, appears at the opening of the 1939 New York World's Fair, becoming the first President to give a speech that is broadcast on television. Semi-regular broadcasts air during the next two years

1940, August - The Battle of Britain begins. The German Luftwaffe attempts to take over British airspace and destroy the Royal Air Force with the intention of eventually invading England. Against all odds, Britain and The Royal Air Force resist the Luftwaffe aggression causing Hitler to abandon the idea of invading Britain and to turn his attention to Russia.

1940, March - "Lend/Lease" is the name of the program under which the US supplied the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, China, France and other Allied nations with vast amounts of war material in return for military bases in Newfoundland, Bermuda, and the British West Indies. It

was intended to promote the defense of the US. This act also ended the neutrality of the United States.

1940, May (This picture) – A mostly vacant downtown area of St. Louis on an early Sunday

morning.

 

As this picture suggests, the United States lay basically asleep, as many Americans are either unaware , or prefer to ignore the ominous winds of war swirling all around them. In a few short months, the hammer would fall and Americans would find themselves anxiously gathered around their radios listening to the President of the United States announce:

 

“Yesterday, December 7th, 1941 - a date which will live in infamy - the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan.

 

The United States was at peace with that nation and, at the solicitation of Japan, was still in conversation with its government and its emperor looking toward the maintenance of peace in the Pacific.

Indeed, one hour after Japanese air squadrons had commenced bombing in the American island of Oahu, the Japanese ambassador to the United States and his colleagues delivered to our Secretary of State a formal reply to a recent American message. And while this reply stated that it seemed useless to continue the existing diplomatic negotiations, it contained no threat or hint of war or of armed attack.

 

It will be recorded that the distance of Hawaii from Japan makes it obvious that the attack was deliberately planned many days or even weeks ago. During the intervening time, the Japanese government has deliberately sought to deceive the United States by false statements and expressions of hope for continued peace.

 

The attack yesterday on the Hawaiian islands has caused severe damage to American naval and military forces. I regret to tell you that very many American lives have been lost. In addition, American ships have been reported torpedoed on the high seas between San Francisco and Honolulu.

 

Yesterday, the Japanese government also launched an attack against Malaya.

Last night, Japanese forces attacked Hong Kong.

Last night, Japanese forces attacked Guam.

Last night, Japanese forces attacked the Philippine Islands.

Last night, the Japanese attacked Wake Island.

And this morning, the Japanese attacked Midway Island.

Japan has, therefore, undertaken a surprise offensive extending throughout the Pacific area. The facts of yesterday and today speak for themselves. The people of the United States have already formed their opinions and well understand the implications to the very life and safety of our nation.

 

As commander in chief of the Army and Navy, I have directed that all measures be taken for our defense.

But always will our whole nation remember the character of the onslaught against us.

No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory.

 

I believe that I interpret the will of the Congress and of the people when I assert that we will not only defend ourselves to the uttermost, but will make it very certain that this form of treachery shall never again endanger us.

Hostilities exist. There is no blinking at the fact that our people, our territory and our interests are in grave danger.

 

With confidence in our armed forces - with the unbounding determination of our people - we will gain the inevitable triumph - so help us God.

 

I ask that the Congress declare that since the unprovoked and dastardly attack by Japan on Sunday, December 7th, 1941, a state of war has existed between the United States and the Japanese empire.”

  

From this day forward, life as American’s knew it, will be drastically and forever changed.

   

Please Pray for Delphine

 

Photoma World site : www.flickr.com/photos/34305729@N07/

 

14 year old Delphine, granddaughter of Yvette is hospitalized and very ill. Please pray for her and Yvette (Photoma World). Pray for Delphine’s speedy recovery and let have peace in Yvette heart.

 

I am saddened upon hearing the news and I am lost of word. I hope this dedication would help to cheer my dearest god mom up (Yvette).

 

I flipped the bible and these are what the Lord has to say and I truly believe it.

Psalm 91:1–2

He who dwells in the secret place of the Most High shall abide under the shadow of the Almighty. I will say of the Lord, “He is my refuge and my fortress; my God, in Him I will trust.”

 

Believe that His shalom which He has left with you will change all your difficult situations, bringing you from sickness, lack and mental anguish to health, prosperity and total wellness! “Shalom” does not just mean peace of mind, but also wholeness for your entire being — spirit, soul and body. It means having a sense of completeness and soundness. In other words, shalom encompasses your prosperity, health and total well-being.

 

John 14:27

Shalom (peace) I leave with you, My shalom I give to you; not as the world gives do I give to you…

 

I always rely on God in all situations. And it really helps. He never fails me..not once. So, I know He will attend to Delphine and have all guarding angels around her, He loves Delphine.

 

Lets pray!

 

Father in Heaven. You love us truly. You love us so much that you allow your only Son, Jesus to be sacrificed in exchange of our sins. We do not deserve this but your grace is amazing. Your love has no string attached and always kind. I trust in you and bow down before your Lord, to ask for speedy recovery of Delphine. I ask for a miracle healing now Lord. Please install peace in Yvete’s heart, in the parents’ hearts and in our heart Lord. May the spiritual operation be conducted now. Let the healing starts now my Lord.

 

I trust in you and have faith in you Lord. Thank you for healing Delphine and free her from illness. May your shalom be with Yvette and Delpine. In the name of Jesus I pray, Amen.

 

* This picture will not be shared to any group. But I hope it encourages everyone, whatever religions you may be, to be united and pray. Thank you.

Yellowstone National Park (Arapaho: Henihco'oo or Héetíhco'oo) is a national park located primarily in the U.S. state of Wyoming, although it also extends into Montana and Idaho. It was established by the U.S. Congress and signed into law by President Ulysses S. Grant on March 1, 1872. Yellowstone, widely held to be the first national park in the world, is known for its wildlife and its many geothermal features, especially Old Faithful Geyser, one of the most popular features in the park. It has many types of ecosystems, but the subalpine forest is most abundant. It is part of the South Central Rockies forests ecoregion.

 

Yellowstone National Park spans an area of 3,468.4 square miles (8,983 km2), comprising lakes, canyons, rivers and mountain ranges. Yellowstone Lake is one of the largest high-altitude lakes in North America and is centered over the Yellowstone Caldera, the largest supervolcano on the continent. The caldera is considered an active volcano. It has erupted with tremendous force several times in the last two million years. Half of the world's geothermal features are in Yellowstone, fueled by this ongoing volcanism. Lava flows and rocks from volcanic eruptions cover most of the land area of Yellowstone. The park is the centerpiece of the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, the largest remaining nearly-intact ecosystem in the Earth's northern temperate zone.

 

Hundreds of species of mammals, birds, fish and reptiles have been documented, including several that are either endangered or threatened. The vast forests and grasslands also include unique species of plants. Yellowstone Park is the largest and most famous megafauna location in the Continental United States. Grizzly bears, wolves, and free-ranging herds of bison and elk live in the park. The Yellowstone Park bison herd is the oldest and largest public bison herd in the United States. Forest fires occur in the park each year; in the large forest fires of 1988, nearly one third of the park was burnt. Yellowstone has numerous recreational opportunities, including hiking, camping, boating, fishing and sightseeing. Paved roads provide close access to the major geothermal areas as well as some of the lakes and waterfalls. During the winter, visitors often access the park by way of guided tours that use either snow coaches or snowmobiles.

 

The park is located at the headwaters of the Yellowstone River, from which it takes its historical name. Near the end of the 18th century, French trappers named the river "Roche Jaune", which is probably a translation of the Hidatsa name "Mi tsi a-da-zi" (Rock Yellow River). Later, American trappers rendered the French name in English as "Yellow Stone". Although it is commonly believed that the river was named for the yellow rocks seen in the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, the Native American name source is not clear.

 

The first detailed expedition to the Yellowstone area was the Cook–Folsom–Peterson Expedition of 1869, which consisted of three privately funded explorers. The Folsom party followed the Yellowstone River to Yellowstone Lake. The members of the Folsom party kept a journal and based on the information it reported, a party of Montana residents organized the Washburn-Langford-Doane Expedition in 1870. It was headed by the surveyor-general of Montana Henry Washburn, and included Nathaniel P. Langford (who later became known as "National Park" Langford) and a U.S. Army detachment commanded by Lt. Gustavus Doane.

 

The expedition spent about a month exploring the region, collecting specimens and naming sites of interest. A Montana writer and lawyer named Cornelius Hedges, who had been a member of the Washburn expedition, proposed that the region should be set aside and protected as a national park; he wrote a number of detailed articles about his observations for the Helena Herald newspaper between 1870 and 1871. Hedges essentially restated comments made in October 1865 by acting Montana Territorial Governor Thomas Francis Meagher, who had previously commented that the region should be protected. Others made similar suggestions. In an 1871 letter from Jay Cooke to Ferdinand V. Hayden, Cooke wrote that his friend, Congressman William D. Kelley had also suggested "Congress pass a bill reserving the Great Geyser Basin as a public park forever".

 

By 1915, 1,000 automobiles per year were entering the park, resulting in conflicts with horses and horse-drawn transportation. Horse travel on roads was eventually prohibited.

 

The Civilian Conservation Corps (CCC), a New Deal relief agency for young men, played a major role between 1933 and 1942 in developing Yellowstone facilities. CCC projects included reforestation, campground development of many of the park's trails and campgrounds, trail construction, fire hazard reduction, and fire-fighting work. The CCC built the majority of the early visitor centers, campgrounds and the current system of park roads.

 

During World War II, tourist travel fell sharply, staffing was cut, and many facilities fell into disrepair. By the 1950s, visitation increased tremendously in Yellowstone and other national parks. To accommodate the increased visitation, park officials implemented Mission 66, an effort to modernize and expand park service facilities. Planned to be completed by 1966, in honor of the 50th anniversary of the founding of the National Park Service, Mission 66 construction diverged from the traditional log cabin style with design features of a modern style. During the late 1980s, most construction styles in Yellowstone reverted to the more traditional designs. After the enormous forest fires of 1988 damaged much of Grant Village, structures there were rebuilt in the traditional style. The visitor center at Canyon Village, which opened in 2006, incorporates a more traditional design as well.

A large arch made of irregular-shaped natural stone over a road

 

The 1959 Hebgen Lake earthquake just west of Yellowstone at Hebgen Lake damaged roads and some structures in the park. In the northwest section of the park, new geysers were found, and many existing hot springs became turbid. It was the most powerful earthquake to hit the region in recorded history.

 

In 1963, after several years of public controversy regarding the forced reduction of the elk population in Yellowstone, United States Secretary of the Interior Stewart Udall appointed an advisory board to collect scientific data to inform future wildlife management of the national parks. In a paper known as the Leopold Report, the committee observed that culling programs at other national parks had been ineffective, and recommended management of Yellowstone's elk population.

 

The wildfires during the summer of 1988 were the largest in the history of the park. Approximately 793,880 acres (321,272 ha; 1,240 sq mi) or 36% of the parkland was impacted by the fires, leading to a systematic re-evaluation of fire management policies. The fire season of 1988 was considered normal until a combination of drought and heat by mid-July contributed to an extreme fire danger. On "Black Saturday", August 20, 1988, strong winds expanded the fires rapidly, and more than 150,000 acres (61,000 ha; 230 sq mi) burned.

 

The expansive cultural history of the park has been documented by the 1,000 archeological sites that have been discovered. The park has 1,106 historic structures and features, and of these Obsidian Cliff and five buildings have been designated National Historic Landmarks. Yellowstone was designated an International Biosphere Reserve on October 26, 1976, and a UN World Heritage Site on September 8, 1978. The park was placed on the List of World Heritage in Danger from 1995 to 2003 due to the effects of tourism, infection of wildlife, and issues with invasive species. In 2010, Yellowstone National Park was honored with its own quarter under the America the Beautiful Quarters Program.

Heritage and Research Center

 

The Heritage and Research Center is located at Gardiner, Montana, near the north entrance to the park. The center is home to the Yellowstone National Park's museum collection, archives, research library, historian, archeology lab, and herbarium. The Yellowstone National Park Archives maintain collections of historical records of Yellowstone and the National Park Service. The collection includes the administrative records of Yellowstone, as well as resource management records, records from major projects, and donated manuscripts and personal papers. The archives are affiliated with the National Archives and Records Administration.

 

Approximately 96 percent of the land area of Yellowstone National Park is located within the state of Wyoming. Another three percent is within Montana, with the remaining one percent in Idaho. The park is 63 miles (101 km) north to south, and 54 miles (87 km) west to east by air. Yellowstone is 2,219,789 acres (898,317 ha; 3,468.420 sq mi) in area, larger than the states of Rhode Island or Delaware. Rivers and lakes cover five percent of the land area, with the largest water body being Yellowstone Lake at 87,040 acres (35,220 ha; 136.00 sq mi). Yellowstone Lake is up to 400 feet (120 m) deep and has 110 miles (180 km) of shoreline. At an elevation of 7,733 feet (2,357 m) above sea level, Yellowstone Lake is the largest high altitude lake in North America. Forests comprise 80 percent of the land area of the park; most of the rest is grassland.

 

The Continental Divide of North America runs diagonally through the southwestern part of the park. The divide is a topographic feature that separates Pacific Ocean and Atlantic Ocean water drainages. About one third of the park lies on the west side of the divide. The origins of the Yellowstone and Snake Rivers are near each other but on opposite sides of the divide. As a result, the waters of the Snake River flow to the Pacific Ocean, while those of the Yellowstone find their way to the Atlantic Ocean via the Gulf of Mexico.

 

The park sits on the Yellowstone Plateau, at an average elevation of 8,000 feet (2,400 m) above sea level. The plateau is bounded on nearly all sides by mountain ranges of the Middle Rocky Mountains, which range from 9,000 to 11,000 feet (2,700 to 3,400 m) in elevation. The highest point in the park is atop Eagle Peak (11,358 feet or 3,462 metres) and the lowest is along Reese Creek (5,282 feet or 1,610 metres). Nearby mountain ranges include the Gallatin Range to the northwest, the Beartooth Mountains in the north, the Absaroka Range to the east, and the Teton Range and the Madison Range to the southwest and west. The most prominent summit on the Yellowstone Plateau is Mount Washburn at 10,243 feet (3,122 m).

 

Yellowstone National Park has one of the world's largest petrified forests, trees which were long ago buried by ash and soil and transformed from wood to mineral materials. This ash and other volcanic debris, are believed to have come from the park area itself. This is largely due to the fact that Yellowstone is actually a massive caldera of a supervolcano. There are 290 waterfalls of at least 15 feet (4.6 m) in the park, the highest being the Lower Falls of the Yellowstone River at 308 feet (94 m).

 

Three deep canyons are located in the park, cut through the volcanic tuff of the Yellowstone Plateau by rivers over the last 640,000 years. The Lewis River flows through Lewis Canyon in the south, and the Yellowstone River has carved two colorful canyons, the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone and the Black Canyon of the Yellowstone in its journey north.

 

Yellowstone is at the northeastern end of the Snake River Plain, a great U-shaped arc through the mountains that extends from Boise, Idaho some 400 miles (640 km) to the west. This feature traces the route of the North American Plate over the last 17 million years as it was transported by plate tectonics across a stationary mantle hotspot. The landscape of present-day Yellowstone National Park is the most recent manifestation of this hotspot below the crust of the Earth.

 

The Yellowstone Caldera is the largest volcanic system in North America. It has been termed a "supervolcano" because the caldera was formed by exceptionally large explosive eruptions. The magma chamber that lies under Yellowstone is estimated to be a single connected chamber, about 37 miles (60 km) long, 18 miles (29 km) wide, and 3 to 7 miles (5 to 12 km) deep. The current caldera was created by a cataclysmic eruption that occurred 640,000 years ago, which released more than 240 cubic miles (1,000 km³) of ash, rock and pyroclastic materials. This eruption was more than 1,000 times larger than the 1980 eruption of Mount St. Helens. It produced a caldera nearly five eighths of a mile (1 km) deep and 45 by 28 miles (72 by 45 km) in area and deposited the Lava Creek Tuff, a welded tuff geologic formation. The most violent known eruption, which occurred 2.1 million years ago, ejected 588 cubic miles (2,450 km³) of volcanic material and created the rock formation known as the Huckleberry Ridge Tuff and created the Island Park Caldera. A smaller eruption ejected 67 cubic miles (280 km³) of material 1.3 million years ago, forming the Henry's Fork Caldera and depositing the Mesa Falls Tuff.

 

Each of the three climactic eruptions released vast amounts of ash that blanketed much of central North America, falling many hundreds of miles away. The amount of ash and gases released into the atmosphere probably caused significant impacts to world weather patterns and led to the extinction of some species, primarily in North America.

Wooden walkways allow visitors to closely approach the Grand Prismatic Spring.

 

A subsequent caldera-forming eruption occurred about 160,000 years ago. It formed the relatively small caldera that contains the West Thumb of Yellowstone Lake. Since the last supereruption, a series of smaller eruptive cycles between 640,000 and 70,000 years ago, has nearly filled in the Yellowstone Caldera with >80 different eruptions of rhyolitic lavas such as those that can be seen at Obsidian Cliffs and basaltic lavas which can be viewed at Sheepeater Cliff. Lava strata are most easily seen at the Grand Canyon of the Yellowstone, where the Yellowstone River continues to carve into the ancient lava flows. The canyon is a classic V-shaped valley, indicative of river-type erosion rather than erosion caused by glaciation.

 

Each eruption is part of an eruptive cycle that climaxes with the partial collapse of the roof of the volcano's partially emptied magma chamber. This creates a collapsed depression, called a caldera, and releases vast amounts of volcanic material, usually through fissures that ring the caldera. The time between the last three cataclysmic eruptions in the Yellowstone area has ranged from 600,000 to 800,000 years, but the small number of such climactic eruptions cannot be used to make an accurate prediction for future volcanic events.

 

The most famous geyser in the park, and perhaps the world, is Old Faithful Geyser, located in Upper Geyser Basin. Castle Geyser, Lion Geyser and Beehive Geyser are in the same basin. The park contains the largest active geyser in the world—Steamboat Geyser in the Norris Geyser Basin. A study that was completed in 2011 found that at least 1283 geysers have erupted in Yellowstone. Of these, an average of 465 are active in a given year. Yellowstone contains at least 10,000 geothermal features altogether. Half the geothermal features and two-thirds of the world's geysers are concentrated in Yellowstone.

 

In May 2001, the U.S. Geological Survey, Yellowstone National Park, and the University of Utah created the Yellowstone Volcano Observatory (YVO), a partnership for long-term monitoring of the geological processes of the Yellowstone Plateau volcanic field, for disseminating information concerning the potential hazards of this geologically active region.

 

In 2003, changes at the Norris Geyser Basin resulted in the temporary closure of some trails in the basin. New fumaroles were observed, and several geysers showed enhanced activity and increasing water temperatures. Several geysers became so hot that they were transformed into purely steaming features; the water had become superheated and they could no longer erupt normally. This coincided with the release of reports of a multiple year United States Geological Survey research project which mapped the bottom of Yellowstone Lake and identified a structural dome that had uplifted at some time in the past. Research indicated that these uplifts posed no immediate threat of a volcanic eruption, since they may have developed long ago, and there had been no temperature increase found near the uplifts. On March 10, 2004, a biologist discovered 5 dead bison which apparently had inhaled toxic geothermal gases trapped in the Norris Geyser Basin by a seasonal atmospheric inversion. This was closely followed by an upsurge of earthquake activity in April 2004. In 2006, it was reported that the Mallard Lake Dome and the Sour Creek Dome— areas that have long been known to show significant changes in their ground movement— had risen at a rate of 1.5 to 2.4 inches (3.8 to 6.1 cm) per year from mid–2004 through 2006. As of late 2007, the uplift has continued at a reduced rate. These events inspired a great deal of media attention and speculation about the geologic future of the region. Experts responded to the conjecture by informing the public that there was no increased risk of a volcanic eruption in the near future. However, these changes demonstrate the dynamic nature of the Yellowstone hydrothermal system.

 

Yellowstone experiences thousands of small earthquakes every year, virtually all of which are undetectable to people. There have been six earthquakes with at least magnitude 6 or greater in historical times, including a 7.5‑magnitude quake that struck just outside the northwest boundary of the park in 1959. This quake triggered a huge landslide, which caused a partial dam collapse on Hebgen Lake; immediately downstream, the sediment from the landslide dammed the river and created a new lake, known as Earthquake Lake. Twenty-eight people were killed, and property damage was extensive in the immediate region. The earthquake caused some geysers in the northwestern section of the park to erupt, large cracks in the ground formed and emitted steam, and some hot springs that normally have clear water turned muddy. A 6.1‑magnitude earthquake struck inside the park on June 30, 1975, but damage was minimal.

 

For three months in 1985, 3,000 minor earthquakes were detected in the northwestern section of the park, during what has been referred to as an earthquake swarm, and has been attributed to minor subsidence of the Yellowstone caldera. Beginning on April 30, 2007, 16 small earthquakes with magnitudes up to 2.7 occurred in the Yellowstone Caldera for several days. These swarms of earthquakes are common, and there have been 70 such swarms between 1983 and 2008. In December 2008, over 250 earthquakes were measured over a four-day span under Yellowstone Lake, the largest measuring a magnitude of 3.9. In January 2010, more than 250 earthquakes were detected over a two-day period. Seismic activity in Yellowstone National Park continues and is reported hourly by the Earthquake Hazards Program of the U.S. Geological Survey.

 

On March 30, 2014, a magnitude 4.8 earthquake struck almost the very middle of Yellowstone near the Norris Basin at 6.34am; reports indicated no damage. This was the biggest earthquake to hit the park since February 22, 1980.

 

Over 1,700 species of trees and other vascular plants are native to the park. Another 170 species are considered to be exotic species and are non-native. Of the eight conifer tree species documented, Lodgepole Pine forests cover 80% of the total forested areas. Other conifers, such as Subalpine Fir, Engelmann Spruce, Rocky Mountain Douglas-fir and Whitebark Pine, are found in scattered groves throughout the park. As of 2007, the whitebark pine is threatened by a fungus known as white pine blister rust; however, this is mostly confined to forests well to the north and west. In Yellowstone, about seven percent of the whitebark pine species have been impacted with the fungus, compared to nearly complete infestations in northwestern Montana. Quaking Aspen and willows are the most common species of deciduous trees. The aspen forests have declined significantly since the early 20th century, but scientists at Oregon State University attribute recent recovery of the aspen to the reintroduction of wolves which has changed the grazing habits of local elk.

 

There are dozens of species of flowering plants that have been identified, most of which bloom between the months of May and September. The Yellowstone Sand Verbena is a rare flowering plant found only in Yellowstone. It is closely related to species usually found in much warmer climates, making the sand verbena an enigma. The estimated 8,000 examples of this rare flowering plant all make their home in the sandy soils on the shores of Yellowstone Lake, well above the waterline.

 

In Yellowstone's hot waters, bacteria form mats of bizarre shapes consisting of trillions of individuals. These bacteria are some of the most primitive life forms on earth. Flies and other arthropods live on the mats, even in the middle of the bitterly cold winters. Initially, scientists thought that microbes there gained sustenance only from sulfur. In 2005 researchers from the University of Colorado at Boulder discovered that the sustenance for at least some of the diverse hyperthermophilic species is molecular hydrogen.

 

Thermus aquaticus is a bacterium found in the Yellowstone hot springs that produces an important enzyme (Taq polymerase) that is easily replicated in the lab and is useful in replicating DNA as part of the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) process. The retrieval of these bacteria can be achieved with no impact to the ecosystem. Other bacteria in the Yellowstone hot springs may also prove useful to scientists who are searching for cures for various diseases.

 

Non-native plants sometimes threaten native species by using up nutrient resources. Though exotic species are most commonly found in areas with the greatest human visitation, such as near roads and at major tourist areas, they have also spread into the backcountry. Generally, most exotic species are controlled by pulling the plants out of the soil or by spraying, both of which are time consuming and expensive.

  

Yellowstone is widely considered to be the finest megafauna wildlife habitat in the lower 48 states. There are almost 60 species of mammals in the park, including the gray wolf, the threatened lynx, and grizzly bears. Other large mammals include the bison (often referred to as buffalo), black bear, elk, moose, mule deer, white-tailed deer, mountain goat, pronghorn, bighorn sheep, and mountain lion.

Bison graze near a hot spring

 

The Yellowstone Park bison herd is the largest public herd of American bison in the United States. The relatively large bison populations are a concern for ranchers, who fear that the species can transmit bovine diseases to their domesticated cousins. In fact, about half of Yellowstone's bison have been exposed to brucellosis, a bacterial disease that came to North America with European cattle that may cause cattle to miscarry. The disease has little effect on park bison, and no reported case of transmission from wild bison to domestic livestock has been filed. However, the Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service (APHIS) has stated that bison are the "likely source" of the spread of the disease in cattle in Wyoming and North Dakota. Elk also carry the disease and are believed to have transmitted the infection to horses and cattle. Bison once numbered between 30 and 60 million individuals throughout North America, and Yellowstone remains one of their last strongholds. Their populations had increased from less than 50 in the park in 1902 to 4,000 by 2003. The Yellowstone Park bison herd reached a peak in 2005 with 4,900 animals. Despite a summer estimated population of 4,700 in 2007, the number dropped to 3,000 in 2008 after a harsh winter and controversial brucellosis management sending hundreds to slaughter. The Yellowstone Park bison herd is believed to be one of only four free roaming and genetically pure herds on public lands in North America. The other three herds are the Henry Mountains bison herd of Utah, at Wind Cave National Park in South Dakota and on Elk Island in Alberta.

Elk Mother Nursing Her Calf

 

To combat the perceived threat of brucellosis transmission to cattle, national park personnel regularly harass bison herds back into the park when they venture outside of the area's borders. During the winter of 1996–97, the bison herd was so large that 1,079 bison that had exited the park were shot or sent to slaughter. Animal rights activists argue that this is a cruel practice and that the possibility for disease transmission is not as great as some ranchers maintain. Ecologists point out that the bison are merely traveling to seasonal grazing areas that lie within the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem that have been converted to cattle grazing, some of which are within National Forests and are leased to private ranchers. APHIS has stated that with vaccinations and other means, brucellosis can be eliminated from the bison and elk herds throughout Yellowstone.

A reintroduced northwestern wolf in Yellowstone National Park

 

Starting in 1914, in an effort to protect elk populations, the U.S. Congress appropriated funds to be used for the purposes of "destroying wolves, prairie dogs, and other animals injurious to agriculture and animal husbandry" on public lands. Park Service hunters carried out these orders, and by 1926 they had killed 136 wolves, and wolves were virtually eliminated from Yellowstone. Further exterminations continued until the National Park Service ended the practice in 1935. With the passing of the Endangered Species Act in 1973, the wolf was one of the first mammal species listed. After the wolves were extirpated from Yellowstone, the coyote then became the park's top canine predator. However, the coyote is not able to bring down large animals, and the result of this lack of a top predator on these populations was a marked increase in lame and sick megafauna.

Bison in Yellowstone National Park

 

By the 1990s, the Federal government had reversed its views on wolves. In a controversial decision by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service (which oversees threatened and endangered species), northwestern wolves, imported from Canada, were reintroduced into the park. Reintroduction efforts have been successful with populations remaining relatively stable. A survey conducted in 2005 reported that there were 13 wolf packs, totaling 118 individuals in Yellowstone and 326 in the entire ecosystem. These park figures were lower than those reported in 2004 but may be attributable to wolf migration to other nearby areas as suggested by the substantial increase in the Montana population during that interval. Almost all the wolves documented were descended from the 66 wolves reintroduced in 1995–96. The recovery of populations throughout the states of Wyoming, Montana and Idaho has been so successful that on February 27, 2008, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service removed the Northern Rocky Mountain wolf population from the endangered species list.

 

An estimated 600 grizzly bears live in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem, with more than half of the population living within Yellowstone. The grizzly is currently listed as a threatened species, however the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service has announced that they intend to take it off the endangered species list for the Yellowstone region but will likely keep it listed in areas where it has not yet recovered fully. Opponents of delisting the grizzly are concerned that states might once again allow hunting and that better conservation measures need to be implemented to ensure a sustainable population. Black bears are common in the park and were a park symbol due to visitor interaction with the bears starting in 1910. Feeding and close contact with bears has not been permitted since the 1960s to reduce their desire for human foods. Yellowstone is one of the few places in the United States where black bears can be seen coexisting with grizzly bears. Black bear observations occur most often in the park's northern ranges and in the Bechler area which is in the park's southwestern corner.

 

Population figures for elk are in excess of 30,000—the largest population of any large mammal species in Yellowstone. The northern herd has decreased enormously since the mid‑1990s; this has been attributed to wolf predation and causal effects such as elk using more forested regions to evade predation, consequently making it harder for researchers to accurately count them. The northern herd migrates west into southwestern Montana in the winter. The southern herd migrates southward, and the majority of these elk winter on the National Elk Refuge, immediately southeast of Grand Teton National Park. The southern herd migration is the largest mammalian migration remaining in the U.S. outside of Alaska.

 

In 2003 the tracks of one female lynx and her cub were spotted and followed for over 2 miles (3.2 km). Fecal material and other evidence obtained were tested and confirmed to be those of a lynx. No visual confirmation was made, however. Lynx have not been seen in Yellowstone since 1998, though DNA taken from hair samples obtained in 2001 confirmed that lynx were at least transient to the park. Other less commonly seen mammals include the mountain lion and wolverine. The mountain lion has an estimated population of only 25 individuals parkwide. The wolverine is another rare park mammal, and accurate population figures for this species are not known. These uncommon and rare mammals provide insight into the health of protected lands such as Yellowstone and help managers make determinations as to how best to preserve habitats.

 

Eighteen species of fish live in Yellowstone, including the core range of the Yellowstone cutthroat trout—a fish highly sought by anglers. The Yellowstone cutthroat trout has faced several threats since the 1980s, including the suspected illegal introduction into Yellowstone Lake of lake trout, an invasive species which consume the smaller cutthroat trout. Although lake trout were established in Shoshone and Lewis lakes in the Snake River drainage from U.S. Government stocking operations in 1890, it was never officially introduced into the Yellowstone River drainage. The cutthroat trout has also faced an ongoing drought, as well as the accidental introduction of a parasite—whirling disease—which causes a terminal nervous system disease in younger fish. Since 2001, all native sport fish species caught in Yellowstone waterways are subject to a catch and release law. Yellowstone is also home to six species of reptiles, such as the painted turtle and Prairie rattlesnake, and four species of amphibians, including the Boreal Chorus Frog.

 

311 species of birds have been reported, almost half of which nest in Yellowstone. As of 1999, twenty-six pairs of nesting bald eagles have been documented. Extremely rare sightings of whooping cranes have been recorded, however only three examples of this species are known to live in the Rocky Mountains, out of 385 known worldwide. Other birds, considered to be species of special concern because of their rarity in Yellowstone, include the common loon, harlequin duck, osprey, peregrine falcon and the trumpeter swan.

 

As wildfire is a natural part of most ecosystems, plants that are indigenous to Yellowstone have adapted in a variety of ways. Douglas-fir have a thick bark which protects the inner section of the tree from most fires. Lodgepole Pines —the most common tree species in the park— generally have cones that are only opened by the heat of fire. Their seeds are held in place by a tough resin, and fire assists in melting the resin, allowing the seeds to disperse. Fire clears out dead and downed wood, providing fewer obstacles for lodgepole pines to flourish. Subalpine Fir, Engelmann Spruce, Whitebark Pine, and other species tend to grow in colder and moister areas, where fire is less likely to occur. Aspen trees sprout new growth from their roots, and even if a severe fire kills the tree above ground, the roots often survive unharmed because they are insulated from the heat by soil. The National Park Service estimates that in natural conditions, grasslands in Yellowstone burned an average of every 20 to 25 years, while forests in the park would experience fire about every 300 years.

 

About thirty-five natural forest fires are ignited each year by lightning, while another six to ten are started by people— in most cases by accident. Yellowstone National Park has three fire lookout towers, each staffed by trained fire fighters. The easiest one to reach is atop Mount Washburn, though it is closed to the public. The park also monitors fire from the air and relies on visitor reports of smoke and/or flames. Fire towers are staffed almost continuously from late June to mid-September— the primary fire season. Fires burn with the greatest intensity in the late afternoon and evening. Few fires burn more than 100 acres (40 ha), and the vast majority of fires reach only a little over an acre (0.5 ha) before they burn themselves out. Fire management focuses on monitoring dead and down wood quantities, soil and tree moisture, and the weather, to determine those areas most vulnerable to fire should one ignite. Current policy is to suppress all human caused fires and to evaluate natural fires, examining the benefit or detriment they may pose on the ecosystem. If a fire is considered to be an immediate threat to people and structures, or will burn out of control, then fire suppression is performed.

 

In an effort to minimize the chances of out of control fires and threats to people and structures, park employees do more than just monitor the potential for fire. Controlled burns are prescribed fires which are deliberately started to remove dead timber under conditions which allow fire fighters an opportunity to carefully control where and how much wood is consumed. Natural fires are sometimes considered prescribed fires if they are left to burn. In Yellowstone, unlike some other parks, there have been very few fires deliberately started by employees as prescribed burns. However, over the last 30 years, over 300 natural fires have been allowed to burn naturally. In addition, fire fighters remove dead and down wood and other hazards from areas where they will be a potential fire threat to lives and property, reducing the chances of fire danger in these areas. Fire monitors also regulate fire through educational services to the public and have been known to temporarily ban campfires from campgrounds during periods of high fire danger. The common notion in early United States land management policies was that all forest fires were bad. Fire was seen as a purely destructive force and there was little understanding that it was an integral part of the ecosystem. Consequently, until the 1970s, when a better understanding of wildfire was developed, all fires were suppressed. This led to an increase in dead and dying forests, which would later provide the fuel load for fires that would be much harder, and in some cases, impossible to control. Fire Management Plans were implemented, detailing that natural fires should be allowed to burn if they posed no immediate threat to lives and property.

 

1988 started with a wet spring season although by summer, drought began moving in throughout the northern Rockies, creating the driest year on record to that point. Grasses and plants which grew well in the early summer from the abundant spring moisture produced plenty of grass, which soon turned to dry tinder. The National Park Service began firefighting efforts to keep the fires under control, but the extreme drought made suppression difficult. Between July 15 and 21, 1988, fires quickly spread from 8,500 acres (3,400 ha; 13.3 sq mi) throughout the entire Yellowstone region, which included areas outside the park, to 99,000 acres (40,000 ha; 155 sq mi) on the park land alone. By the end of the month, the fires were out of control. Large fires burned together, and on August 20, 1988, the single worst day of the fires, more than 150,000 acres (61,000 ha; 230 sq mi) were consumed. Seven large fires were responsible for 95% of the 793,000 acres (321,000 ha; 1,239 sq mi) that were burned over the next couple of months. A total of 25,000 firefighters and U.S. military forces participated in the suppression efforts, at a cost of 120 million dollars. By the time winter brought snow that helped extinguish the last flames, the fires had destroyed 67 structures and caused several million dollars in damage. Though no civilian lives were lost, two personnel associated with the firefighting efforts were killed.

 

Contrary to media reports and speculation at the time, the fires killed very few park animals— surveys indicated that only about 345 elk (of an estimated 40,000–50,000), 36 deer, 12 moose, 6 black bears, and 9 bison had perished. Changes in fire management policies were implemented by land management agencies throughout the United States, based on knowledge gained from the 1988 fires and the evaluation of scientists and experts from various fields. By 1992, Yellowstone had adopted a new fire management plan which observed stricter guidelines for the management of natural fires.

 

from Wikipedia

  

1 3 4 5 6 7 ••• 79 80