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The world would never be the same again

 

It was a year of seismic social and political change across the globe. From the burgeoning anti-Vietnam war and civil rights movements in the United States, protests and revolutions in Europe and the first comprehensive coverage of war and resultant famine in Africa.

 

To some, 1968 was the year of sex, drugs, and rock and roll. Yet it was also the year of the Martin Luther King, Jr., and Bobby Kennedy assassinations; the riots at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago; Prague Spring; the antiwar movement and the Tet Offensive; Black Power; the generation gap; avant-garde theater; the upsurge of the women’s movement; and the beginning of the end for the Soviet Union.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=7ehCU3oUtVY

 

1968 In both Europe and America Japanese imported cars and other goods were continuing to rise and trouble the governments of UK and USA as they worried about industries in their own countries being effected and jobs lost. In the spring of 1968 on 4th April The Rev Martin Luther King was assassinated and Robert Kennedy was mortally wounded when he is shot by Sirhan Sirhan.

 

The peace movement had continued to grow and more and more Americans were against the war in Vietnam, and once again more riots occurred throughout cities in America. The music scene was once again set by the "Beatles" and the "Rolling Stones" , and fashion flirted with see through blouses and midis and maxis skirts joined the Mini Skirt as part of the fashion trends. There is a Flu Pandemic in Hong Kong and the first Black power salute is seen on Television worldwide during an Olympics medal ceremony.

 

Another 96 Indians and Pakistanis from Kenya had arrived in Britain, the latest in a growing exodus of Kenyan Asians fleeing from laws which prevent them making a living. The party included nine children under two, and all flew in on cut-price one-way tickets costing about £60 - less than half the normal single fare. Omar Sharmar, an Indian who was forced to close his haulage business in Mombasa when the government refused to grant him a licence, estimates he has lost £2,000.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=tMamOIdcS9A

 

Enoch Powell's Rivers Of Blood Speech

 

The Conservative right-winger Enoch Powell has made a hard-hitting speech attacking the government's immigration policy. Addressing a Conservative association meeting in Birmingham, Mr Powell said Britain had to be mad to allow in 50,000 dependents of immigrants each year.

 

He compared it to watching a nation busily engaged in heaping up its own funeral pyre.

 

The MP for Wolverhampton South West called for an immediate reduction in immigration and the implementation of a Conservative policy of "urgent" encouragement of those already in the UK to return home.

 

"It can be no part of any policy that existing families should be kept divided. But there are two directions on which families can be reunited," he said.

 

Mr Powell compared enacting legislation such as the Race Relations Bill to "throwing a match on to gunpowder".

 

He said that as he looked to the future he was filled with a sense of foreboding.

 

"Like the Roman, I seem to see the river Tiber foaming with much blood," he said.

 

He estimated that by the year 2000 up to seven million people - or one in ten of the population - would be of immigrant descent.

 

Mr Powell, the shadow defence spokesman, was applauded during and after his 45-mintue speech.

 

However, it is likely his comments will be less warmly received by the Conservative party leader, Edward Heath.

 

Several opinion polls were stating that the majority of the public shares Mr Powell's fears.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=6gkBr-qvo-4

 

Top Of The Pops from 15th February 1968 introduced by Jimmy Savile & Dave Cash and featuring: Manfred Mann - Mighty Quinn, The Foundations - Back On My Feet Again, Status Quo - Pictures Of Matchstick Men, Alan Price Set - Don't Stop The Carnival, Brenton Wood - Gimme Little Sign, The Move - Fire Brigade, Hermans Hermits - I Can Take Or Leave Your Loving, Amen Corner - Bend Me Shape Me, Dave Dee, Dozy, Beaky, Mick & Tich - Legend Of Xanadu.

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=qrBwPfcJpfI

 

1968 Timeline

 

January – The Ford Escort car is introduced to replace the Anglia.

 

Dutch Elm Disease continues to increase with tens of thousands of trees now destroyed.

 

British Post office introduces First Class Post.

 

London Bridge sold for 1 million. and later re-erected in Arizona.

 

The popular rock band the Beatles released the “White Album,” an untitled double album that featured some of the legendary band’s most experimental music. Many of the songs were written when the band was in Rishikesh, India while they were attending a meditation camp. While the album received mixed reviews at the time, it still reached the number one spot on the music charts in both the United Kingdom and United States. Modern critics mark the album as on of the best albums ever created and it remains popular today.

 

The first public demonstration of the computer mouse, video conferencing, teleconferencing, email, and hypertext.

 

1 January – The Colour television licence is introduced when a £5 "colour supplement" is added to the £5 monochrome licence fee, therefore making the cost of a colour licence £10.

 

1 January – Cecil Day-Lewis is announced as the new Poet Laureate.

 

5 January – Gardeners' World debuts on BBC1 television, featuring Percy Thrower.

 

8 January – The Prime Minister, Harold Wilson, endorses the 'I'm Backing Britain' campaign, encouraging workers to work extra time without pay or take other actions to help competitiveness, which is spreading across Britain.

 

16 January – The Prime Minister announces that the Civil Defence Corps is being stood down.

 

4 February – 96 Indians and Pakistanis arrive in Britain from Kenya. Some 1,500 Asians have now arrived in Britain from Kenya, where they were forced out by increasingly draconian immigration laws.

 

4 February – The cult series The Prisoner finishes its first run on British television.

 

16 February – The Beatles, Mike Love, Mia Farrow, Donovan and others travel to India to visit Maharishi Mahesh Yogi at Rishikesh.

 

6 – 18 February – Great Britain and Northern Ireland compete at the Winter Olympics in Grenoble, France, but do not win any medals.

 

18 February – David Gilmour joins Pink Floyd, replacing founder Syd Barrett, who had checked himself into a psychiatric hospital.

 

14 February – Northampton, the county town of Northamptonshire, is designated as a New town, with the Wilson government hoping to double its size and population by 1980.

 

24 February – Announcement of the first discovery (last year) of a pulsar by astronomer Jocelyn Bell Burnell working with Antony Hewish at the University of Cambridge.

 

1 March – First performance of an Andrew Lloyd Webber–Tim Rice musical, Joseph and the Amazing Technicolor Dreamcoat in its original form as a "pop cantata", by pupils of Colet Court preparatory school in Hammersmith.

 

2 March – Coal mining in the Black Country, which played a big part in the Industrial Revolution, ends after some 300 years with the closure of Baggeridge Colliery near Sedgley.

 

12 March – Mauritius achieves independence from British Rule.

 

15 March – George Brown, British Foreign Secretary, resigns.

 

17 March – A demonstration in London's Grosvenor Square against U.S. involvement in the Vietnam War leads to violence – 91 police injured, 200 demonstrators arrested.

 

30 March – The Yardbirds record their live album Live Yardbirds at the Anderson Theater.

 

1 April – Thames Valley Police is formed by the amalgamation of Berkshire Constabulary, Buckinghamshire Constabulary, Oxford City Police, Oxfordshire Constabulary and Reading Borough Police.

 

6 April – The 13th Eurovision Song Contest is held in the Royal Albert Hall, London. The winning song, Spain's "La, la, la" is sung by Massiel, after Spanish authorities refused to allow Joan Manuel Serrat to perform it in Catalan. The UK finish in second place, just one point behind, with the song "Congratulations" sung by Cliff Richard, which goes on to outsell the winning Spanish entry throughout Europe.

 

7 April – Motor racing world champion Jim Clark, 32, is killed when his car leaves the track at 170 mph and smashes into a tree during a Formula 2 race at Hockenheim.

 

11 April – Popularity of Harold Wilson's Labour government is shown to be slumping as opinion polls show the Conservatives, led by Edward Heath, with a lead of more than 20 points.

 

18 April – London Bridge sold to American entrepreneur Robert P. McCulloch who rebuilds it at Lake Havasu City, Arizona.

 

20 April – Enoch Powell makes his controversial Rivers of Blood Speech on immigration. The speech is made at the Midland Hotel in Birmingham to a meeting of the Conservative Political Centre at 2:30 pm. The Birmingham-based television company ATV saw an advance copy of the speech that morning, and its news editor ordered a television crew to go to the venue, where they filmed sections of the speech.

 

The speech provokes great outcry among the British public, making Powell one of the most popular and loathed politicians in the country, and leading to his dismissal from the Shadow Cabinet by Conservative party leader Edward Heath.

 

21 April – Enoch Powell is dismissed from the Shadow Cabinet by Opposition leader Edward Heath due to the Rivers of Blood Speech, despite several opinion polls stating that the majority of the public shares Mr Powell's fears.

 

23 April – Five and ten pence coins are introduced in the run-up to Decimalisation, which will be complete within the next three years.

 

27 April – The Abortion Act 1967 comes into effect, legalising abortion on a number of grounds, with free provision through the National Health Service.

 

3 May – Mr Frederick West (aged 45) becomes Britain's first heart transplant patient.

 

4 May – Mary Hopkin performs on the British TV show Opportunity Knocks. Hopkin catches the attention of model Twiggy, who recommends her to Paul McCartney. McCartney would soon sign Hopkin to Apple Records.

 

8 May – The Kray Twins, 34-year-old Ronnie and Reggie, are among 18 men arrested in dawn raids across London. They stand accused of a series of crimes including murder, fraud, blackmail and assault. Their 41-year-old brother Charlie Kray is one of the other men under arrest.

 

11 May – Manchester City win the Football League First Division title.

 

14 May – At a press conference, John Lennon and Paul McCartney introduce the Beatles' new business concept, Apple Corps, Ltd., a disastrously mismanaged entertainment company that included a recording studio, a record label, and clothing store.

 

16 May – Ronan Point tower block at Newham in east London collapses after a gas explosion, killing four occupants.

 

18 May – West Bromwich Albion win the FA Cup for the fifth time, with Jeff Astle scoring the only goal of the game against Everton at the Wembley Stadium.

 

20 May – Harlech (which became HTV in 1970) starts its dual service for Wales and the West Country, replacing the interim ITSWW, which had replaced TWW on 4 March.

 

22 May – The General Assembly of the Church of Scotland permits the ordination of women as ministers.

 

29 May – Manchester United become the first English winners of the European Cup after beating Benfica 4-1 in extra-time at Wembley Stadium.

 

30 May – The Beatles begin recording The White Album (officially titled, simply, The Beatles). Sessions would span over 4 months, ending on 14 October.

 

7 June – Start of Ford sewing machinists strike at the Dagenham assembly plant: women workers strike for pay comparable to that of men.

 

8 June – Martin Luther King, Jr.'s killer, James Earl Ray, arrested in London.

 

8 June - premiere of Harrison Birtwistle's opera Punch and Judy in the Jubilee Hall, Aldeburgh during the Aldeburgh Festival.

 

10 June – National Health Service reintroduces prescription charges.

 

14 June - Manfred Mann appear in the first edition of the BBC2 series Colour Me Pop.

 

18 June – Frederick West, Britain's first heart transplant, dies 46 days after his operation.

 

20 June – Austin Currie, Member of Parliament at Stormont in Northern Ireland, along with others, squats a house in Caledon to protest discrimination in housing allocations.

 

4 July – Alec Rose returns from a 354-day single-handed round-the-world trip for which he receives a knighthood the following day.

 

7 July – The Yardbirds perform for the last time before disbanding.

 

10 July – Floods in South West England.

 

Flooding had been occurring throughout the South West from mid-day but the full fury of the flood was felt during the hours of darkness. By 5.am almost every stream, brook and river in the area had burst its banks causing death, devastation and despair on a scale greater than any in living memory.

 

That night, seven people lost their lives, hundreds more suffered a terrifying ordeal of hardship and loss, bridges that had stood for centuries were washed away or severely damaged and countless houses, shops, factories and other properties were engulfed. It was a night that re-kindled the ‘spirit of the blitz’, a night when numerous selfless acts of heroism and community spirit prevailed.

 

As night gave way to day and the full extent of the disaster was revealed, it became obvious that for a great many people life would not return to normal for a number of days yet to come.. . for same it never did.

 

www.flickr.com/photos/brizzlebornandbred/sets/72157603190...

 

17 July – The Beatles animated film Yellow Submarine debuts in London.

 

28 July – Final day on air for ABC which had broadcast to the North and Midlands regions during weekends.

 

The 1968 Contract Round sees the end of weekend franchises in these regions. From the following day, Granada and ATV broadcast seven days a week. The North is split into two regions with Granada broadcasting to the North West and Yorkshire Television broadcasting to the Yorkshire region. It is also the last day on air for ATV London which lost its weekend franchise to the newly formed London Weekend Television.

 

29 July – ATV begins broadcasting seven days a week in the Midlands, while Granada begins broadcasting seven days a week to the North West and Yorkshire Television does likewise in its newly created region.

 

30 July – Thames Television goes on air, having taken over the ITV London weekday franchise from Rediffusion, London. Thames is a result of a merger between ABC and Rediffusion, ABC having been awarded the London weekday franchise.

 

30 July – Magpie premieres on ITV.

 

31 July – Popular sitcom Dad's Army begins its nine-year run on BBC1.

 

August - John McVie marries Christine Perfect.

 

2 August – London Weekend Television takes over the ITV London weekend franchise from ATV London. They went on air initially using the name London Weekend Television but then adopted the name London Weekend before reverting to London Weekend Television (often abbreviated to LWT) in 1978.

 

August – Independent Television technicians strike immediately after the 1968 franchise changes, causing a national stoppage. The individual companies are off the air for several weeks and an emergency service is established.

 

The ITV Emergency National Service is presented by management personnel with no regional variations. This was the first time that a uniform presentation practice was adopted across all regions.

 

4 August – Yes performs for the first time, at a summer camp.

 

8 August – Royal Navy Leander-class frigate HMS Scylla is launched at Devonport, the last ship to be built in a Royal Dockyard.

 

11 August – British Rail's last steam train service runs on the standard gauge: steam locomotives make the 314-mile return passenger journey from Liverpool to Carlisle before being dispatched to the scrapyard or preservation.

 

31 August – First Isle of Wight Festival. Headline Acts – Jefferson Airplane. Other Acts – Arthur Brown, The Move, Smile, Tyrannosaurus Rex, Plastic Penny, Fairport Convention and The Pretty Things.

 

September - The new school year in England sees the first local authorities adopt three tier education, where 5-7 infant, 7-11 junior schools are replaced by 5-8 or 5-9 first schools and 8-12 or 9-13 middle schools, with the transfer age to grammar and secondary modern schools being increased to 12 or 13.

 

Japanese car maker Nissan began importing its range of Datsun badged family cars to Britain.

 

7 September – Led Zeppelin performs for the first time, billed as The New Yardbirds (the Yardbirds had disbanded two months earlier, and guitarist Jimmy Page subsequently formed this new group).

 

8 September – Tennis player Virginia Wade wins the 1968 U.S. Open Women's Singles event.

 

15 September – Floods in South East England.

 

15 September - Song of Summer, Ken Russell's noted TV documentary about Frederick Delius, is shown for the first time as part of the BBC's Omnibus series.

 

16 September – General Post Office divides post into first-class and second-class services.

 

19 September – The Who begin recording Tommy, a rock opera that tells the story about a deaf, dumb and blind boy, including his experiences with life and the relationship with his family.

 

26 September – Theatres Act 1968 ends censorship of the theatre.

 

27 September – The US musical Hair opens in London following the removal of theatre censorship.

 

October – The M1 motorway is completed when the final 35-mile section opens between Rotherham and Leeds.

 

2 October – A woman from Birmingham gives birth to the first recorded instance of live Sextuplets in the UK.

 

5 October – A civil rights march in Derry, Northern Ireland, which includes several Stormont and British MPs, is batoned off the streets by the Royal Ulster Constabulary.

 

6 October – British racing drivers Jackie Stewart, Graham Hill and John Surtees take the first three places at the United States Grand Prix.

 

8 October – Enoch Powell warns that immigrants "may change the character" of England.

 

12 – 27 October – Great Britain and Northern Ireland compete at the Olympics in Mexico City and win 5 gold, 5 silver and 3 bronze medals.

 

13 October – The rebuilt Euston railway station opens.

 

18 October – National Giro opens for business through the General Post Office, with administrative headquarters at Bootle.

 

27 October – Police and protestors clash at an anti-Vietnam War protest outside the Embassy of the United States in London.

 

31 October – Alan Bennett's play Forty Years On premiered at the Apollo Theatre in the West End.

 

8 November – John Lennon and his wife Cynthia are divorced.

 

18 November – James Watt Street fire: A warehouse fire in Glasgow kills 22.

 

21 November – The Cyril Lord carpet business goes into receivership.

 

22 November – The Kinks Are the Village Green Preservation Society released.

 

22 November – The Beatles (also known as "The White Album") by The Beatles is released.

 

26 November – The Race Relations Act is passed, making it illegal to refuse housing, employment or public services to people in Britain because of their ethnic background.

 

26 November – Cream plays their farewell concert at the Royal Albert Hall. It will be the last time Eric Clapton, Jack Bruce, and Ginger Baker play together until their 1993 induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.

 

29 November – The Dawley New Town (Designation) Amendment (Telford) Order extends the boundaries of Dawley New Town in Shropshire and renames it Telford.

 

30 November – The Trade Descriptions Act comes into force, preventing shops and traders from describing goods in a misleading way.

 

2 December - Jimi Hendrix's manager Chas Chandler quits over differences with Hendrix during the recording of Electric Ladyland.

 

17 December - Mary Bell, an 11-year-old girl from Newcastle upon Tyne, is sentenced to life detention for the manslaughter of two small boys.

 

Official opening of first phase of the Royal Mint's new Llantrisant plant in South Wales.

 

22 December – The Animals reunite for one benefit concert at the Newcastle City Hall while Eric Burdon & The Animals are disbanding.

 

Obituarie: Chas Chandler

 

When Jimi Hendrix set fire to his guitar, Chas Chandler was ready with the lighter fuel. When Slade were desperate for a new image, Chandler dressed the band up as skinheads. The tough, outspoken Geordie was the perfect manager for both these diverse talents. A fouder member of The Animals, he could sympathise with musicians and understand their problems. As a canny businessman he also understood the power of publicity and the importance of image.

Few Sixties stars were able to make the jump from pop to business. They lacked the discipline and know-how. But when Chandler quit The Animals and swapped his caftan for a suit, he swiftly became one of the most respected and successful managers and producers of the rock age.

 

He discovered Jimi Hendrix, but it was his energy and commitment that helped turn a shy young American backing guitarist into a dynamic performer and a rock legend. Their mutual regard was based on trust and friendship. When their partnership eventually broke down, Chandler found it a bitter blow. But just before Hendrix died in September 1970, he called upon his old manager once more for help and guidance. Chas Chandler was a man that anxious artists knew they could trust.

 

He was born Bryan Chandler in Heaton, near Newcastle in 1938. After leaving school his first job was as a turner in the Tyneside shipyards. The first brush with with music came when he took up playing a homemade guitar. He later switched to bass and was in the Alan Price Trio when singer Eric Burdon joined the band in 1962.

 

Renamed The Animals, they quickly became one of Britain's most dynamic R&B groups. From Newcastle's Club A Go Go, they came to London in 1964, when they had a massive hit with "House of the Rising Sun". Many more followed, among them "Don't Let Me Be Misunderstood" (1964) and "We've Got To Get Out Of This Place" (1965), but disillusioned by their lack of financial reward and exhausted by touring,

 

The Animals broke up in late 1966. Said Chandler: "We toured non-stop for three years, doing 300 gigs a year and we hardly got a penny. But our manager Mike Jeffery did all right. 25 per cent of the gross of 300 gigs a year, that was good money."

 

During the Animals' last US tour Chandler was advised by Keith Richards' girlfriend, Linda Keith, to see an up-coming guitarist, Jimmy James, who was playing with the Blue Flames at the Cafe Wha in New York's Greenwich Village.

 

Chandler was especially impressed by Jimmy James's performance of the Tim Rose song "Hey Joe", offered to be his manager and invited him to London. James asked Chandler if he could introduce him to Eric Clapton and Jeff Beck, and that clinched the deal.

 

Chandler had already decided to stop playing himself. "I was never that good on bass guitar," he confessed. He brought his new find, now renamed Jimi Hendrix, to London in September 1966, and recruited Mitch Mitchell and Noel Redding to form Hendrix's new group The Experience. He also formed a partnership with The Animals' manager Mike Jeffery to look after Hendrix's business affairs for the next two years.

 

Chandler eventually produced all Hendrix's hit singles including "Hey Joe", "Purple Haze", and "The Wind Cries Mary" and his first two albums, Are You Experienced and Axis: bold as love.

 

He first presented The Experience at a series of London showcase gigs where Mick Jagger and Paul McCartney were among the stars who flocked to see Hendrix kitted out in Afro hairstyle and military uniform.

 

When The Experience played with The Walker Brothers at the Finsbury Park Astoria in London, Hendrix and Chandler debated how they could liven up their act.

 

The journalist Keith Altham said that as Pete Townshend smashed up his guitar, it was a pity Hendrix couldn't set his on fire: "Chas immediately ordered his roadie Gerry Stickells to get some lighter fuel. Jimi only ever set fire to his guitar three times but it made history."

 

In 1968 Chandler quit as Hendrix's manager half way through the Electric Ladyland album sessions, fed up with endless re-recording and the surfeit of hangers-on in the studio. He fell out with Jeffery over the way Hendrix's career was being handled, and in 1969 returned to London to his Swedish wife Lotta, who was expecting their first child. Shortly afterwards he set up Montgrow Productions with Robert Stigwood.

 

Their aim was to find and develop new talent but Stigwood didn't share Chandler's enthusiasm for his next discovery, the Wolverhampton band Slade, and pulled out, leaving Chas Chandler as their sole manager. He paid off their previous management with pounds 100 and encouraged the adoption of a skinhead look, with cropped hair and bovver boots. Slade's lead singer Noddy Holder said that the band "worshipped" Chandler for the way he had transformed their fortunes.

 

Under his guidance they became of the most prolific hit makers of the 1970s - their singles included "Coz I Luv You" (1971) and "We've Got to Get Out of this Place" (1972) - though they failed to gain American success. In 1979 he withdrew from management and formed his own record label Barn Productions. At the same time he separated from his first wife, and left London to retire to Newcastle, where he married his second wife, Madeleine Stringer, a former Newcastle beauty queen.

 

In 1983 he became part of the re-formed Animals, and had to relearn the bass guitar. It was not a happy experience. The group spent most of the time arguing and at one point Chandler was seen grabbing Eric Burdon by the scruff of the neck.

 

In recent years he helped local bands in the North East to record their own music, and he also set up in business with architect and saxophonist Nigel Stranger. They established Park Arena Ltd, which developed the 10,500- seater Newcastle Arena, the largest sports and entertainment venue in the north-east. It opened last year after nine years work, and has already featured artists such as Neil Diamond, David Bowie and Pulp.

 

A big-built man who liked to drink and smoke, he had, said Keith Altham "enormous drive and self-belief. It was that enthusiasm that helped both Jimi Hendrix and Slade become stars. He'd just tell everyone: 'They are the best in the world!'"

 

Bryan "Chas" Chandler, bass player, manager and record producer: born Newcastle upon Tyne 18 December 1938; married twice (two sons, two daughters); died Newcastle 17 July 1996.

 

ITV

 

4 April – Freewheelers (1968–1973)

30 July – Magpie (1968–1980)

15 August – Nearest and Dearest (1968–1973)

21 September – Strange Report (1968–1969)

24 September – How We Used To Live (1968–2002)

25 September – The Champions (1968–1969)

5 November – Father, Dear Father (1968–1973)

8 November – Please Sir! (1968–1972)

16 November – Journey to the Unknown (1968–1969)

Unknown – The Big Match (1968–1992)

 

1967-1968 Football

 

First Division - Manchester City

Second Division - Ipswich Town

Third Division - Oxford United

Fourth Division - Luton Town

FA Cup - West Bromwich Albion

League Cup - Leeds United

Charity Shield - Manchester United and Tottenham Hotspur (shared)

Home Championship - England

# www.youtube.com/watch?v=MqWeOmICIdQ&feature=related

  

Albert Owen designated second home in London and claimed monthly mortgage interest of £1,288 in August 2007. Claimed £629 for television, £73 for painting and decorating and £89 for cutlery

 

James Paice claims mortgage interest on south London flat. Spent £2,684 on furniture in May 2004 and in March 2007, spent another £2,130

 

Ian Paisley claims rent on second home in west London. December 2003, claimed for night at Jolly Hotel St Ermin’s in the city, including £3 on minibar

 

Nick Palmer rents second home in London. Switched between rental properties, claiming £424 in August 2005 for removal costs. Later switched back to rental flat in the original block

 

Owen Paterson claimed mortgage interest of £1,041 a month on flat near Parliament. Switched to another property in 2005, payments rose to £1,657

 

Ian Pearson has second home in West Midlands, claims mortgage interest. Other claims: £240 for 20 hours of gardening

 

Andrew Pelling does not claim additional costs allowance (ACA). Claimed the smaller London Supplement, which was £2,812 last year

 

Mike Penning , a shadow health minister, charged the taxpayer £2.99 for a stainless steel dog bowl

 

John Penrose's second home is Thames-side flat near Parliament, with tracker mortgage, on which he claims monthly interest payments of around £2,000

 

Eric Pickles claimed for £200 in petty cash monthly between 2005 and the middle of 2008. Claimed mortgage interest of less than £250 a month and service charges of £750 a year for a flat in east London. One of the lower claimers. Stopped using the additional costs allowance to run a second home when made party chairman.

 

James Plaskitt asked by fees office not to claim nominal sums such as £400 or £300 a month for groceries without submitting evidence of expenditure

 

Greg Pope claimed £1,590 for shopping at John Lewis in March 2006. In September 2006, submitted claim of £560 for two paintings, for which a receipt with no company letterhead was submitted

 

Stephen Pound is not eligible for second home allowance. Claimed £160 for guided tour of Palace of Westminster under Incidental Expenses Provision (IEP)

 

Bridget Prentice claimed no ACA. Office IEP expenses include £230 in 2004 for accountant to prepare her tax return

 

Gordon Prentice claimed £2,262 for items bought at John Lewis, including a £749 television, £649 fridge freezer and various furniture for London flat on top of £900-a-month mortgage

 

John Prescott claimed for two lavatory seats in two years

 

Adam Price claimed for books, including Bring Home the Revolution: The Case for a British Republic, by Jonathan Freedland. Queried by fees office

 

Dawn Primarolo claimed on second home in Bristol. In 2004, switched to London flat and claimed mortgage interest payments

 

Mark Prisk accidentally claimed £1,726 rather than £1,182 for one month’s mortgage interest on London home. Error was spotted by officials

 

Mark Pritchard moved flats in Westminster in 2007, claiming for £199 vacuum cleaner, £1,000 furnishings, kitchen utensils worth £66, bedding of £45 and a £145 microwave

 

Gwyn Prosser paid his brother from his taxpayer-funded expenses to carry out work on his London flat - despite the fact that he lived almost 200 miles away.

 

John Pugh rents London flat for £1,280 a month; rent claims rose to £1,500. In July 2006, told fees office his daughter would be staying while at university, so he would reduce claims on rent and utilities. Claims remained close to maximum

 

Ken Purchase spent £1,465 on new blinds for second home in south London in 2005-06. Regularly claims up to maximum £400 a month for food. Monthly mortgage interest payments were £580 last year, leaving an ACA of £14,713

 

James Purnell avoided paying capital gains tax on the sale of his London flat after claiming expenses for accountancy advice. Bought expensive gadgets. Spent taxpayers’ money advertising at football and rugby league matches

 

Bill Rammell claimed £475 a month mortgage interest in 2008 for second home located in constituency. Claimed £1,360 for replastering and installing downlights in bedroom

 

Nick Raynsford: as an inner London MP, he is not eligible to claim a second home allowance, but he claimed the maximum London Supplement of £2,812 last year

 

John Redwood has admitted being paid twice after submitting an identical £3,000 decorating bill on his second home allowance

 

Andy Reed has a flat as second home in Westminster. In 2007, claimed £1,180 for the flat but this fell to £727 for a mortgage interest payment in 2008. Website states he claims about £450 aper month in mortgage interest payments

 

Jamie Reed claimed £8,640 stamp duty and £3,943 in legal fees when he bought London home in May 2006. Claimed £2,336 for two beds and two mattresses, but this was reduced to £1,000 by the fees office

 

Alan Reid claimed more than £1,500 on his parliamentary expenses for staying in hotels and bed-and-breakfasts near his home

 

John Reid used his allowance to pay for slotted spoons, an ironing board and a glittery loo seat

 

Willie Rennie's second home is a flat in Lambeth, south London. In 2005, claimed £708 for new cooker and fridge freezer. In 2007, claimed for £1,350 monthly rent

 

Sir Malcolm Rifkind claimed the smaller London Supplement, which amounted to £2,812 last year

 

Linda Riordan bought flat in Kennington in early 2006, claims for mortgage interest. Claims for beds/headboards refused, but £219 bedding, £1,310 sofa bed/chair and £1,936 carpet approved. Regularly claims maximum £400 for unreceipted monthly food bills

 

Andrew Robathan claimed monthly mortgage interest payments on London home of more than £3,300 before notifying the fees office he was switching his second home to a new property in his constituency, “which we are going to refurbish”

 

Angus Robertson successfully appealed to the fees office when they turned down his claim for a £400 home cinema system

 

Hugh Robertson rents second home in London for more than £1,800 a month. Main home, in Kent, belongs to his wife’s family. He checked with fees office that this arrangement was in order, they confirmed it was

 

John Robertson rents a second home in London for about £1,100 a month and has claimed £675 in window cleaning at the property since 2005

 

Laurence Robertson designates constituency house as second home, claiming £900 monthly mortgage interest and about £800 a year heating oil. Pays wife Susan’s travel and phone from office allowance. She works for him but they are separated

 

Geoffrey Robinson has not made any claims on his second home allowance since 2004/05

 

Peter and Iris Robinson both claimed expenses based on the same £1,223 bill when they submitted their parliamentary claims in 2007

 

Dan Rogerson bought London flat in 2005. Claimed £2,500 stamp duty, £1,572 legal fees, £340 survey; £1,108 furniture. In March 2008, changed mortgage to interest-only, allowing maximum benefits of ACA

 

Terry Rooney claimed interest payments on mortgage for home in Bradford using second home allowance. Between March 2007 and April 2008, claimed £1,200 for cleaning

 

Andrew Rosindell claimed more than £125,000 in second home expenses for a flat in London, while designating his childhood home 17 miles away - where his mother lived - as his main address

 

Paul Rowen claimed mortgage interest payments for second home in Battersea, south London. In 2007, claimed for a £325 rug, a chest of drawers costing £295 and an £85 bedside table, all from John Lewis

 

Frank Roy claimed £455 on “assorted bedding, curtains and furnishings” in March 2006. In July, submitted bill for £750 towards £795 HD-ready 32 in television with DVD player. In January 2008, claimed £265 for sink waste disposal unit

 

Chris Ruane claimed £4,560 part costs of buying flat in March 2006, then claimed £10,958 for remainder following month. Fees office noted on claim that this could not be paid because costs were incurred in 2005-06 financial year and it was then 2006-07

 

Joan Ruddock claimed £235 for training on debt advice provided by Shelter, the charity, in May 2008. Confirmed she paid tax on reimbursed accountacy fees

 

David Ruffley claimed for new furniture and fittings after “flipping” his second home from London to a new flat in his constituency

 

Bob Russell claims mortgage interest for south London flat he shares with fellow MP Mike Hancock. In July 2006, claimed £1,035 for replacing windows

 

Christine Russell claims rent on second home in London, which she shares with fellow MP Helen Southworth

 

Joan Ryan spent thousands of pounds on repairs and decorations at her constituency home before switching her designated second home to a London property

 

Alex Salmond claimed £400 per month for food when the Commons was not even sitting. He also billed the taxpayer £14,100 to try to impeach Tony Blair

 

Martin Salter has not made any claims on his second home allowance since 2004/05

 

Adrian Sanders claimed rent on his London flat of up to £988 a month. Claimed for £55 vase from the Dartington Cider Press Centre in Totnes, Devon

 

Mohammed Sarwar claimed almost £100,000 to cover mortgage interest that he paid from an account with a Swiss bank.

 

Alison Seabeck claims £1,100 a month mortgage interest for her constituency home, but billed £65 for a night in local hotel plus £10 breakfast after she had left her keys in London

 

Andrew Selous designates constituency property as second home, on which he claims monthly mortgage interest payments of more than £1,600

 

Grant Shapps claimed just £7,269 on his second homes allowance in 2007/08

 

Virendra Sharma chose not to claim designated second home expenses under ACA after entering Parliament in a by-election in July, 2007, although he was entitled to them as an outer London MP. Took £1,958 in London supplement in 2007-08 and £15,988 in office expenses.

 

Jonathan Shaw claimed £240 in London hotel bills plus £800 monthly flat renta in March 2005, saying it was being redecorated

 

Barry Sheerman claimed mortgage interest payments of about £900 a month on London second home, £1,338 for 20 in Apple iMac on office expenses

 

Richard Shepherd has repaid £162 to the Fees Office after deciding he should not have claimed for cleaning and gardening at his constituency home

 

Jim Sheridan used his allowances to reclaim the cost of a 42-inch plasma TV, leather bed and hundreds of pounds worth of furniture. Claimed £2,091 for three-seater sofa, two-seater sofa bed, coffee table and lamp table for London home bought from Edinburgh dfs store in March 2006

 

Clare Short claimed thousands of pounds of taxpayers' money to which she was not entitled within months of standing down as a Cabinet minister

 

Mark Simmonds claims up to £2,696 a month for interest-only mortgage on second home in London

 

Sion Simon claimed £5,400 in stamp duty after moving house in London in May 2008. Also claimed £1,850 on refurbishing new home that month

 

Alan Simpson claimed £4,000 towards the cost of replacing the boiler at second home in Lambeth. In September 2007, claimed £10,000 towards £11,020 on stripping out old kitchen

 

David Simpson bought London flat in March 2006. Over two days, claimed £6,234 for furniture. Claimed £1,082 monthly mortgage interest payments

 

Keith Simpson has claimed almost £200 for light bulbs on his expenses

 

Marsha Singh claimed mortgage interest payments for London flat as second home. Claimed for £750 television, £229 DVD player and £400 music player with handwritten receipt

 

Andrew Slaughter is not eligible to claim ACA. In 2007, claimed for a fountain pen nib costing £90 using his IEP

 

Andrew Smith spent more than £30,000 of taxpayers’ money giving his house a makeover

 

Angela Smith sought payment for four beds for a one-bedroom London flat

 

Angela C Smith spent nearly £11,000 over two years on setting up a second home in London

 

Geraldine Smith spent £235 on picture and £185 on mirror for London flat in August 2005. Bought Bali table lamp, floor lamp and three cushions for total of £620 one month later

 

advice using expenses intended to fund their parliamentary and constituency offices. Bought expensive gadgets including an iPhone for her husband.

 

John Smith claimed £57,955 in second home expenses in four years without submitting a single receipt.

 

Sir Robert Smith claimed about £910 a month for mortgage interest payments on Lambeth flat in 2008-09

 

Anne Snelgrove claimed £4,100 for furniture including a bedstead, sofa and chest of drawers. Also claimed £499.97 for a television set, £454.70 for crockery and kitchen equipment, £655 on a table, chairs and bookcase, and £55 on towels.

 

Nicholas Soames claimed up to £1,340 a month for mortgage interest on Westminster home

 

Sir Peter Soulsby fell behind with the rent at his offices but when the £472 bailiffs bill arrived he billed the taxpayer

 

Helen Southworth claims rent on second home in London, which she shares with fellow MP Christine Russell. Claimed £709 for a television, £259 for an air conditioning unit and £239 for a Dyson cleaner

 

John Spellar claims for his constituency home in the West Midlands. Claimed £600 for a tree surgeon, £1.99 for a washing up brush and 47p for a pair of rubber gloves

 

Caroline Spelman made no claims for mortgage interest or rent on her second home in 2006-07 and 2007-08

 

Michael Spicer claimed for work on his helipad and received thousands of pounds for gardening bills

 

Bob Spink claimed about £25,000 for fees and refurbishment when he bought a flat in 2004. Included was £11,000 for decorators’ fees, £3,400 for a leather sofa, £3,000 for carpets and curtains

 

Richard Spring claimed monthly mortgage interest payments of more than £1,300 on a property in Suffolk. Also claimed £35.25 to treat a wasps’ nest

 

Sir John Stanley claims for rent on London flat, also claims for food, utilities, council tax and a cleaner

 

Phyllis Starkey claims for rent on home in consituency, along with utilities and council tax. Also owns a house in Oxford from which rental income is received

 

Anthony Steen claimed £87,000 on country mansion with 500 trees. He has announced he will step down at the next election

 

Ian Stewart claims rent on flat in London. Also claimed for a £500 leather suite and a £1,247 computer bought from the shopping channel QVC

 

Howard Stoate claimed thousands in DIY bills 'to ease the burden on the taxpayer'

 

Gavin Strang claims for his flat in London and for up to £400 per month in food. Also receives rental income from farmland and woodland in Perthshire

 

Jack Straw only paid half the amount of council tax that he claimed on his parliamentary allowances over four years but later rectified the over-claim. Used his office expenses to pay for a degree studied by a member of his staff

 

Gary Streeter claims for the mortgage interest on his constituency home in Plymouth, also claimed for food and £1.60 for a pack of 10 lightbulbs

 

Gisela Stuart claims for mortgage interest on constituency home in Birmingham and up to £2,000 per year for food. Also owns a family home in Worcestershire and a flat in London

 

Graham Stringer: hotel stays when in London and claims up to £4,800 per year for food. Hotel bills have included snacks such as Pringles crisps at £1.75

 

Graham Stuart shares a flat in London with Conservative MP David Mundell, shares costs with him and claims for rent, council tax and utilities. Bills for household items included £426 for duvet, pillows and towels

 

Andrew Stunell claims for mortgage interest on flat in London, also claimed for £5,545 replacement windows by Everest. Claims more than £1,000 per year for food in some years

 

Gerry Sutcliffe claims for mortgage interest on constituency home in Bingley. Claimed £3,790 for fitted bedroom, £2,616 for new gutters and sofit boards, and £1,745 for two sofas

 

Desmond Swayne has a second home in London, on which he paid a £652 monthly mortgage interest in 2005-06. Rose to £711 in 2007-08. Charged £6,131 for new kitchen and £411 for tree work in 2006

 

Jo Swinson included receipts for eyeliner, a “tooth flosser” and 29p dusters with her parliamentary expenses claims

 

Hugo Swire, the former shadow culture secretary, designated his first home in London and claimed for rent at his second home in Devon. He said London was his main home and his daughter went to school in the capital. In June, 2007, he claimed £349 for a satellite navigation system to “cover the 176.25 square miles of his constituency”.

 

Robert Syms claimed more than £2,000 worth of furniture on expenses for his designated second home in London, but had it all delivered to his parents’ address in Wiltshire

 

Mark Tami has a second home in Bromley, Kent. Bought London home in Dec 2007, claimed £9,000 stamp duty and mortgage interest rate increased to £1,300

 

Sir Peter Tapsell claimed rent for second home in London, which rose from £4,821 a quarter in 2006 to £5,417 a quarter in 2008. Total claims over fours years of £87,729

 

Dari Taylor claimed flat in south-east London as second home and charged monthly mortgage interest of £1,000 in 2008. Fees office asked for evidence of mortgage in October 2007

 

David Taylor has a second home in London, monthly mortgage interest payments of £375 in 2005 rose to £700 after buying new second home in 2007

 

Ian Taylor said he will retire at the next election after it emerged that he made second home claims on a flat in London although his main home is within 40 minutes’ commuting distance of Westminster

 

Matthew Taylor claims for flat in London while also owning another flat in London which he rents out. Bills include £350 for gardening, £1,373 for curtains and blinds

 

Richard Taylor claims for renting flat in London and for council tax. No claims for furniture, cleaning, utilities or food

 

Sarah Teather did not claim on her second homes allowance between 2004 and 2008

 

Gareth Thomas used public money to settle a £1,000 accountancy bill to recover a tax "over-payment" of £2,000. Has repaid more than £1,600 he claimed for gardening, £1,200 he overclaimed for council tax and mortgage interest payments and £30 for wine and other personal items

 

Emily Thornberry is not entitled to claim for a second home as an inner London MP. However, takes home the London Supplement, which was £2,812 last year

 

John Thurso claimed rent on designated second home in London and for hotels across Scotland because of “vast area of constituency”. Approved by fees office

 

Stephen Timms is an outer London MP who chooses not to claim second homes allowance. Claims the London Supplement which amounted to £2,812 last year

 

Paddy Tipping claimed mortgage interest payments of about £500 per month on a flat in London. His overall claims were only just over half the maximum amount claimed by some MPs

 

Mark Todd defended his expenses claims as "essentials" but included a marble table and an espresso coffee machine

 

Baroness Tonge claimed mortgage interest on her second home allowance as an MP, then after her retirement leased the property to a fellow MP who in turn recovered the rent from the taxpayer

 

Don Touhig spent thousands of pounds redecorating his constituency home before “flipping” his allowance to a flat in London

 

David Tredinnick tried to claim the £125 cost of attending a course on "intimate relationships" through his Parliamentary expenses

 

Jon Trickett claimed £761.68 per month in mortgage interest payments for a second home in London. Also claimed for food, utilities and council tax

 

Paul Truswell stays in hotels in London while at Westminster, usually paying £119 for a room, also claimed for £4.95 packets of nuts from the minibar. In 2007-08, claimed £2,255 for food and £18 for laundry

 

Andrew Turner used his office expenses to pay for his girlfriend, who is also his parliamentary assistant, to have "life coaching" classes

 

Des Turner claimed mortgage interest payments of up to £450 per month on a flat in London as his designated second home. Also claimed up to £400 per month food. Claimed roughly half of the maximum available under the second homes allowance.

 

Neil Turner claimed for mortgage interest on flat in London, and up to £400 per month for food some months. Also claims utilities, council tax and for small amounts of furniture

 

Derek Twigg moved his designated second home from constituency to flat near Parliament in 2004, now claims £1,343 a month in rent. Claimed £110 for an iron and radio in 2005, and £77 for same items two years later

 

Lord Tyler claimed for the mortgage interest on his family-owned flat in Westminster – and then sold his share to his daughter a month after he quit as an MP

 

Andrew Tyrie nominates a flat in property near his constituency as second home. Claims £700 a month in mortgage interest payments and £6,000 a year on service charges

 

Kitty Ussher resigned as Treasury minister after he expenses files showed she avoided paying up to £17,000 in tax on the sale of her constituency home

 

Ed Vaizey had £2,000 worth of furniture delivered to his London home when he was claiming his Commons allowance on a second home in Oxfordshire.

 

Shailesh Vara tried to claim £1,500 on his expenses for costs incurred before he was elected

 

Keith Vaz claimed £75,500 for a second flat near Parliament even though he already lived just 12 miles from Westminster

 

Sir Peter Viggers included with his expense claims the £1,645 cost of a floating duck house in the garden pond at his Hampshire home. He has announced he will step down at the next election and admitted he made a "ridiculous and grave error of judgment"

 

Theresa Villiers claimed almost £16,000 in stamp duty and professional fees on expenses when she bought a London flat, even though she already had a house in the capital. She has agreed to stop claiming the second home allowance

 

Rudi Vis receives second home allowance and claims £2,300 a month interest on a mortgage he took out in 2006 on his constituency home. Says main home is in Suffolk

 

Charles Walker claims £700 in mortgage interest payments for flat in Wandsworth, constituency home is 21 miles from Westminster. Claimed £6,732 for decoration, carpets, curtains and re-wiring at flat

 

Ben Wallace claimed for more than £700 to stay at Carlton Club after May 2005 general election. Included the cost of at least three Daily Telegraphs on bill. Most claims made up of rent, council tax bills and utility bills

 

Joan Walley claimed for more than £4,400 of furniture in London flat in 2004-05 and a £195 blanket. In 2005-06, claimed for £1,199 LCD Sony television. Fees office cut bill to £750

 

Robert Walter attempted to claim £1,008 for handmade carpets he bought while on a trip to India. Claimed for £16,000 moving costs; estate agents’ commission, stamp duty and solicitors’ fees. Then claimed for two flat screen televisions worth £749 and £399 and eight chairs worth £744

 

Lynda Waltho claimed £1,680 for food in one year. Billed taxpayer for £472 bed, £81 sheets, towels and a pillow and £1,022 of electrical equipment. Also claimed for £380 armchair and £8.32 kettle

 

Claire Ward, the MP responsible for keeping the Queen informed about Parliament, submitted monthly expense claims for hundreds of pounds of "petty cash" while claiming maximum allowances

 

Bob Wareing claimed for more than £4,000 in food bills in 2004-05. Then claimed for £176 air conditioning unit, as well as a £19.99 kettle for his Westminster flat

 

Nigel Waterson claimed mortgage interest/rent payments and food bills at his second home in Beckenham, Kent. Also billed taxpayer £1,055 to paint house and garage

 

Angela Watkinson claimed £3,100 to redecorate flat including new doors, latches and locks in 2005-06. Then claimed £6,350 for a new bathroom, as well as £804 for a television, microwave and fridge

 

Tom Watson and Iain Wright spent £100,000 of taxpayers' money on the London flat they once shared

 

Dave Watts claimed for refurbishment to kitchen (£3,543), bathroom (£3,500) and £742 redecoration. Also claimed for £549 Philips LCD 26 in television

 

Steve Webb sold his London flat and bought another nearby, while the taxpayer picked up an £8,400 bill for stamp duty

 

Mike Weir claimed £1,300 per month rent for his second home in London plus bills for utilities, telephone, council tax and food

 

Alan Whitehead claimed mortgage interest payments of up to £730 per month on his second home in London. Also claimed £1,942.98 for a replacement boiler

 

John Whittingdale claimed £1,828.30 for bathroom fitting, £1,800 for a replacement boiler, £774.50 on a sofa and rug from Laura Ashley and £1,014 on a bed

 

Malcolm Wicks was entitled to claim for a second home allowance but instead claimed for the more moderate London subsidy of £2,812

 

Ann Widdecombe claimed just £858 on her second home allowance in 2007/08. However, she did spend more than £9,000 of taxpayers' money on her own personal newspaper cuttings service over a four year period.

 

Bill Wiggin claimed interest payments for a property which had no mortgage

 

Betty Williams claimed mortgage interest payments of £519 per month on London flat. Also claimed service charge, utilities, telephone and food but made few other claims

 

Hywel Williams claimed more than £1,000 per month in mortgage interest payments on London flat. Also claimed £2,408.75 for a plumbing bill

 

David Willetts, the Conservatives' choice for skills minister, needed help changing light bulbs. He has agreed to repay the bill

 

Alan Williams claimed just £5,221 on his second homes allowance in 2007/08

 

Mark Williams claimed up to £1,300 per month to rent a flat in London as his second home but made few other claims under the allowance

 

Stephen Williams claimed up to £1,500 per month to cover rent at his second home, a flat in London. Also claimed for food and utility bills but made few other claims

 

Roger Williams claimed £1,200 per month in rent for a flat in London, which he designated as his second home. Also claimed for food, utilities and cleaning

 

Phil Willis spent thousands of pounds of public funds on mortgage interest payments, redecoration and furnishings for a flat where his daughter now lives.

 

Jenny Willott claimed up to £1,500 per month to live in a flat in London as her second home. Also claimed £519 for a sofa, £933.50 for a bed and £850 for a mattress

 

Michael Wills claims about £1,120 a month in interest for the mortgage on his house in Wiltshire. On one occasion, the fees office agreed to pay £2,633 for a claim made two months after the deadline for 2005-06 had passed. He said a “genuine mistake” had been made by a “trusted and normally reliable member of staff”.

 

David Wilshire claimed thousands of pounds of taxpayers money for monthly payments towards the cost of replacing curtains and carpets at some point in the future. Claimed up to £1,375 per month in mortgage interest payments and also claimed for council tax, service charges and food

 

Phil Wilson claimed £1,250 per month in rent for a London flat, which he designated as his second home. Also claimed £350 for a sofa bed

 

Rob Wilson did not claim on his second homes allowance between 2004 and 2008

 

Sammy Wilson originally claimed for hotels when in London. Later jointly bought a property in the city with another MP. Claimed £6,150 stamp duty, £1,406.90 solicitors’ fees and £2,914 on furniture

 

David Winnick claimed just £36,354 on his second homes allowance between 2004-8

 

Sir Nicholas Winterton and his wife Ann claimed more than £80,000 for a London flat owned by a trust controlled by their children. They have announced they will stand down at the next general election

 

Rosie Winterton submitted claims for “soundproofing” the bedroom of her London home and received thousands of pounds for gardening and decorating. She paid back more than £8,000 in mortgage payments that she claimed wrongly on her parliamentary expenses

 

Peter Wishart claimed £1,400 per month in rent for a second home in London. Also claimed for food but made few other claims under the second homes allowance

 

Mike Wood claimed just over £500 per month to live in a flat in London. Also claimed £3,421.76 for a central heating boiler, £599.99 for a television and £1,332 for a new bathroom

 

Phil Woolas submitted receipts including comics, nappies and women's clothing as part of his claims for food

 

Shaun Woodward received £100,000 to help pay mortgage

 

Anthony Wright claims rent for London flat, also claimed £498 for TV, £90 for trouser press. Accepted £10,000 cash payment from owners of flat, which meant taxpayer-funded rent went up

 

David Wright accepted a £16,787 payment from the owners of his flat in return for giving up the right to cheap rent, then moved out. Claimed £599 for a TV but a £64.99 claim for a razor was turned down

 

Iain Wright and Tom Watson spent £100,000 of taxpayers' money on the London flat they once shared

 

Jeremy Wright claims for flat in London. Spent £2,884 on furniture when he became an MP, including £809 for a bed and £399 for a television

 

Tony Wright claims for his rent in Dolphin Square complex in London, £995 for Venetian blinds, £1,630 for a new sofa and chairs and £799 for a sideboard

 

Derek Wyatt billed 75p for scotch eggs

 

Tim Yeo claimed for a pink laptop computer from John Lewis in the weeks leading up to Christmas.

 

George Young claimed the maximum second home allowance on his London flat for the past two years. He also billed taxpayers for the cost of a video camera so that he could broadcast clips of himself at work on YouTube

 

Richard Younger-Ross spent £1,235 on four mirrors and bought 'Don Juan’ bookca

  

# www.youtube.com/watch?v=JSoY6Uv2OSA&feature=fvst

 

MPs' expenses: Full list of Labour MPs investigated by the Telegraph

 

All of the Labour MPs named by the Telegraph's investigation into how politicians exploited the system of parliamentary allowances to subsidise their lifestyles and multiple homes.

 

Last Updated: 3:26PM BST 25 May 2009

 

The Houses of Parliament in Westminster Photo: PA

MPs' expenses investigation in depth

 

Douglas Alexander spent more than £30,000 doing up his constituency home – which then suffered damage in a house fire. Claimed the cost of hiring a “media trainer” on their office expenses. Spent taxpayers’ money advertising at football and rugby league matches. Bought expensive gadgets. Claimed for party political propaganda

  

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Margaret Moran: Second home 'flip' paid £22,500 dry rot bill: MPs' expenses Hilary Armstrong was told that allowing the Labour Party to pay for and run a computer at her taxpayer-funded home could make her “politically vulnerable”

 

Ian Austin split a claim for stamp duty on buying his second home in London into two payments and tried to claim it back over two financial years.

 

John Austin claimed more than £10,000 for redecorating his London flat, which was 11 miles from his main home, before selling it for a profit.

 

Vera Baird claimed the cost of Christmas tree decorations

 

Ed Balls and wife Yvette Cooper “flipped” the designation of their second home to three different properties within two years. Balls , the Schools Secretary, also attempted to claim £33 for poppy wreaths

 

Margaret Beckett made a £600 claim for hanging baskets and pot plants

 

Hilary Benn claimed only £42,113 on his second homes allowance in four years. Faces questions over party funding after it emerged he paid rent to the Labour Party from expenses. Claimed for party political propaganda

 

Liz Blackman went on last-minute shopping sprees before the end of each financial year, in an apparent attempt to make sure she claimed as close to maximum expenses as possible

 

Tony Blair re-mortgaged his constituency home and claimed almost a third of the interest around the time he was buying another property in London

 

Hazel Blears did not pay capital gains tax on a property she sold despite having told the Commons authorities it was her second home. She has since agreed to paid the tax but denied any wrongdoing. Claimed the costs of accountancy advice using expenses intended to fund their parliamentary and constituency offices. Bought expensive gadgets. Claimed for party political propaganda

 

Ben Bradshaw used his allowance to pay the mortgage interest on a flat he owned jointly with his boyfriend

 

Kevin Brennan had a £450 television delivered to his family home in Cardiff even though he reclaimed the money back on his London second home allowance

 

Gordon Brown's house swap let the PM claim thousands

 

Nick Brown claimed £18,800, without receipts, in expenses for food over four years amid total expenses of £87,000

 

Russell Brown reclaimed the maximum allowed under the Commons expenses system for his bathroom to be refurbished at his rented designated second home in London

 

Chris Bryant changed second home twice in two years to claim £20,000

 

Andy Burnham had an eight-month battle with the fees office after making a single expenses claim for more than £16,500. Burnham, the Cutlure Secretary, avoided paying tax on a £16,600 property windfall. Claimed for party political propaganda

 

Dawn Butler, the Labour whip, over-claimed £2,600 in rent on her constituency home.

 

Stephen Byers claimed more than £125,000 for repairs and maintenance at a London flat owned outright by his partner, where he lives rent-free

 

Ronnie Campbell claimed a total of £87,729 for furniture for his London flat

 

Ben Chapman deliberately over-claimed for interest on the mortgage of his London house by about £15,000 with the approval of the fees office, documents seen by the Telegraph suggest. He is facing possible suspension from the PLP

 

David Chaytor admits claiming almost £13,000 in interest payments for a mortgage that he had already repaid. He has been suspended from the Parliamentary Labour Party

 

Michael Clapham submitted a receipt for the pair of glasses bought for his wife

 

David Clelland claimed for the cost of “buying out” his partner’s £45,000 stake in his London flat

 

Harry Cohen claimed thousands of pounds for redecorating his second home before selling it and charging taxpayers £12,000 in stamp duty and fees on a new property

 

Michael Connarty sold some of the contents of his London home to Jim Devine, a close colleague, before charging the taxpayer thousands of pounds for goods delivered to addresses in Scotland

 

Yvette Cooper and husband Ed Balls “flipped” the designation of their second home to three different properties within two years. Cooper bought expensive gadgets and claimed for party political propaganda

 

Jim Cunningham shunned the opportunity to by furniture and his expenses were in the bottom 40 of any MP

 

Tam Dalyell attempted to claim £18,000 for bookcases two months before he retired as an MP

 

Alistair Darling's stamp duty was paid by the public. Claimed the costs of accountancy advice using expenses intended to fund their parliamentary and constituency offices. Claimed for party political propaganda

 

Ian Davidson paid £5,500 to a family friend to renovate his flat and then took him shooting with members of the House of Lords

 

Tory defector Quentin Davies repaired window frames at his18th-century mansion, charging £10,000 to expenses

 

Jim Devine bought Michael Connarty's furniture on expenses

 

David Drew used to own a home in London but decided to forgo it in favour of staying in hotels while in the capital

 

Angela Eagle claimed just £155 a month mortgage interest on her second home for a period and even underclaimed for council tax

 

Maria Eagle claimed thousands of pounds on refurbishing a bathroom at one of her flats just months before switching her designated second home to a property with a higher mortgage

 

Natascha Engel went on a shopping spree within months of being elected, spending thousands of pounds of taxpayers’ cash

 

Frank Field claimed just £44,338 on his second home allowance between 2004 and 2008

 

Michael Fallon claimed £8,300 too much in expenses for the mortgage on his second home.

 

Caroline Flint claimed £14,000 for fees for new flat

 

Barbara Follett used £25,000 of taxpayers' money to pay for private security patrols at her home

 

Neil Gerrard made no claims against the second home allowance

 

Ian Gibson claimed almost £80,000 in four years for mortgage interest and bills on a London flat which was the main home of his daughter

 

Linda Gilroy said that she was paying back £1,891

 

Paul Goggins, the Northern Ireland Minister, claimed almost £45,000 for a "second home", while a friend lived there rent-free

 

Helen Goodman claimed for a week's stay in a cottage in her constituency over a bank holiday

 

Mike Hall claimed thousands of pounds in expenses for the cost of cleaners, cleaning products and laundry bills for his London home

 

Patrick Hall's second home costs were a modest half of the total allowance

 

Fabian Hamilton declared his mother’s London house as his main residence while over-charging the taxpayer by thousands of pounds for a mortgage on his family home in Leeds

 

Harriet Harman hired Scarlett MccGwire for “consultancy” services on the public purse. Claimed for party political propaganda. Bought expensive gadgets.Claimed for party political propaganda

 

Jimmy Hood used his second homes allowance to claim up to £1,000 per month without providing receipts

 

Geoff Hoon established a property empire worth £1.7 million after claiming taxpayer-funded expenses for at least two properties. He also did not pay capital gains tax on the sale of his London home in 2006. Claimed the costs of accountancy advice using expenses intended to fund their parliamentary and constituency offices. Bought expensive gadgets

 

Phil Hope spent more than £10,000 in one year refurbishing a small London flat. He has promised to pay back £41,000 to the taxpayer

 

Kelvin Hopkins claims just a fraction of the available second-home allowance by taking the train to Westminster from his home town

 

David Howarth has not made any claims on his second home allowance since 2004/05

 

John Hutton faces questions over party funding after it emerged he paid rent to the Labour Party from expenses. Spent taxpayers’ money advertising at football and rugby league matches. Used his office expenses to pay for a degree studied by a member of his staff

 

Glenda Jackson did not claim on her second homes allowance between 2004 and 2008

 

Brian Jenkins claims little or no mortgage interest for his property in London

 

Alan Johnson claimed just £43,596 for his second home in 2004-8

 

Diana Johnson claimed nearly £1,000 to cover the cost of hiring an architect for a decorating project at her second home

 

Helen Jones claimed £87,647 in second home allowances for her London flat between 2004 and 2008

 

Gerald Kaufman charged the taxpayer £1,851 for a rug he imported from a New York antiques centre and tried to claim £8,865 for a television

 

Alan and Ann Keen claimed almost £40,000 a year on a central London flat although their family home was less than 10 miles away

 

Ruth Kelly has claimed more than £31,000 to redecorate and furnish her designated second home in the past five years. She also claimed thousands of pounds to pay for flood damage at her home, despite having a building insurance policy

 

Fraser Kemp made repeat purchases of household items over the space of several weeks

 

David Kidney said he was were paying back £2,450

 

David Lepper he was placed 545th out of 645 MPs in 2007-08, claiming only £11,175 of his second home allowance

 

Tom Levitt agrees the fees office was right to reject a claim of £16.50 for a Remberance Sunday wreath

 

Bob Laxton insisted he was 'too busy' to shop around when he attempted to claim £1,049 for a TV

 

Ian Lucas made £45,000 profit when he sold a London flat on which he had claimed second home expenses

 

Khalid Mahmood enjoyed nine nights with his girlfriend at a luxury London hotel, costing the taxpayer £175 a night

 

Sarah McCarthy-Fry, a junior minister, tried to claim a pair of £100 hair straighteners on her parliamentary expenses

 

Lord Mandelson faces questions over the timing of his house claim which came after he had announced he would step down

 

Fiona MacTaggart claimed just £3,392 on her second homes allowance in 2007/08

 

Shahid Malik claimed £66,000 on his second property while paying less than £100 a week for his main house. He has resigned as justice minister pending an investigation

 

Judy Mallaber rarely claims for food

 

Bob Marshall-Andrews claimed £118,000 for expenses at his second home, including stereo equipment, extensive redecoration and a pair of Kenyan carpets.

 

Gordon Marsdon claimed just £9,739 on his second homes allowance in 2007/08

 

Michael Martin used taxpayers' money to pay for chauffeur-driven cars to his local job centre and Celtic's football ground

 

Tommy McAvoy claimed £86,565 in second home allowances between 2004 and 2008 for his flat in Westminster

 

Steve McCabe over-claimed on his mortgage by £4,059 during the course of two years

 

Sarah McCarthy-Fry tried to claim a pair of £100 hair straighteners on her parliamentary expenses.

 

Ian McCartney spent £16,000 furnishing and decorating his designated second home but paid the money back two years later. McCartney, a former Labour Party chairman, will not stand at general election, citing "health reasons"

 

Michael Meacher claimed just £32,825 on his second homes allowance between 2004-8

 

David Miliband's spending was queried by his gardener. Faces questions over party funding after it emerged he paid rent to the Labour Party from expenses. Claimed for party political propaganda

 

Ed Miliband claimed just £7,670 on his second home allowance in 2007/08. Hired Scarlett MccGwire for “consultancy” services on the public purse

 

Austin Mitchell claimed for security shutters, ginger crinkle biscuits and the cost of reupholstering his sofa. He has offered to donate his old sofa coverings to make amends

 

Laura Moffatt has given up a riverside apartment she used to pay for on her parliamentary expenses in favour of a camp bed in her House of Commons office.

 

Madeleine Moon spent thousands in furniture shops near her Welsh constituency house and claimed the money back on her London designated second home allowance

 

Margaret Moran switched the address of her second home, allowing her to claim £22,500 to fix a dry rot problem. She has agreed to repay the money while insisting she acted within the rules. She could face an investigation for allegedly using Commons stationery to keep neighbours away from her fourth property in Spain. She also billed the taxpayer for nearly £4,000 in legal fees in settling a dispute with one of her staff and faces a challenge at the next general election from Esther Rantzen .

 

Julie Morgan makes do with a small flat in south London costing the taxpayer less than 10,000 a year

 

Elliot Morley claimed parliamentary expenses of more than £16,000 for a mortgage which had already been paid off

 

George Mudie claimed £62,000 in expenses for his London flat in four years, while having a mortgage of just £26,000

 

Chris Mullin watches a 30-year-old black and white television at his second home and claims the £45 cost of the licence on his expenses

 

Paul Murphy had a new plumbing system installed at taxpayers’ expense because the water in the old one was “too hot”

 

John Prescott claimed for two lavatory seats in two years

 

James Purnell avoided paying capital gains tax on the sale of his London flat after claiming expenses for accountancy advice. Bought expensive gadgets. Spent taxpayers’ money advertising at football and rugby league matches

 

John Randall was entitled to a second home allowance but instead claimed the less lucrative London subsidy

 

John Reid used his allowance to pay for slotted spoons, an ironing board and a glittery loo seat

 

Geoffrey Robinson has not made any claims on his second home allowance since 2004/05

 

Joan Ryan spent thousands of pounds on repairs and decorations at her constituency home before switching her designated second home to a London property

 

Martin Salter has not made any claims on his second home allowance since 2004/05

 

Jim Sheridan used his allowances to reclaim the cost of a 42-inch plasma TV, leather bed and hundreds of pounds worth of furniture

 

Caroline Spelman made no claims for mortgage interest or rent on her second home in 2006-07 and 2007-08

 

Andrew Smith spent more than £30,000 of taxpayers’ money giving his house a makeover

 

Angela Smith sought payment for four beds for a one-bedroom London flat.

 

Jacqui Smith claimed the costs of accountancy advice using expenses intended to fund their parliamentary and constituency offices. Bought expensive gadgets

 

Jack Straw only paid half the amount of council tax that he claimed on his parliamentary allowances over four years but later rectified the over-claim. Used his office expenses to pay for a degree studied by a member of his staff

 

Mark Todd defended his expenses claims as "essentials" but included a marble table and an espresso coffee machine

 

Don Touhig spent thousands of pounds redecorating his constituency home before “flipping” his allowance to a flat in London

 

Kitty Ussher asked the Commons authorities to fund extensive refurbishment of her Victorian family home

 

Keith Vaz claimed £75,500 for a second flat near Parliament even though he already lived just 12 miles from Westminster

 

Claire Ward, the MP responsible for keeping the Queen informed about Parliament, submitted monthly expense claims for hundreds of pounds of "petty cash" while claiming maximum allowances.

 

Tom Watson and Iain Wright spent £100,000 of taxpayers' money on the London flat they once shared

 

Malcolm Wicks was entitled to claim for a second home allowance because he is an outer London MP but instead claimed for the more moderate London subsidy of £2,812

 

David Winnick claimed just £36,354 on his second homes allowance between 2004-8

 

Alan Williams claimed just £5,221 on his second homes allowance in 2007/08

 

Shaun Woodward received £100,000 to help pay mortgage

 

Phil Woolas submitted receipts including comics, nappies and women's clothing as part of his claims for food

 

Iain Wright and Tom Watson spent £100,000 of taxpayers' money on the London flat they once shared

 

Derek Wyatt billed 75p for scotch eggs

 

# www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/mps-expenses/5349413/...

 

Oops. I intended to turn south on Wyoming highway 189 to go from Daniel Junction to the small town of Daniel (in search for a back road to the overlook of the confluence of Horse Creek and the Green River). But even over the objections of my NUVI lady navigator and erstwhile traveling companion, I turned wet on highway 354 instead.

 

Serendipity: As a result of my wrong turn (recalculating, recalculating, you took the wrong turn stupid, recalculating) I got to visit the site of old Fort Bonneville, which has an interesting story of its own.

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

Union Pass, Wyoming & Green River/Horse Creek - Road Trip.

 

I had been suffering from what felt like "walking pneumonia" for a couple of weeks, and had just started feeling a little better. I decided what would do me a lot of good, would be get on a road trip.

 

I left my hiking and backpacking gear at home, and determined to just enjoy driving back roads and visit and travel a few historic and scenic places along the way. A "windows down", back road, take your time....road trip.

 

DAY ONE: I drove the freeway from my home in Eastern Washington to Pocatello, Idaho on day one. I got a good night's sleep at a motel in Pocatello and started driving early the next morning, with back road routes on my mind.

 

DAY TWO: I headed south a short ways on I-15 then turned east on highway 30. I would travel in reverse a scenic back highway route, that I had driven for the first time a year ago. I drove through Lava Hot Springs; Soda Springs; Henry (a major city); and over to Freedom - - on the Idaho and Wyoming border.

 

From Freedom it was north to Alpine, Wyoming then highway 26 to Hoback Junction. The stretch of highway from Alpine to Hoback Junction was a "zoo". LOTS of people traveling to squeeze in that last vacation before school starts.

 

There were so many river rafters (commercial) carrying 12 to 16 "river tourists" like eggs in a double wide carton, on the Snake River, that you could walk across the river and up and down the river without getting your feet wet, jumping from overcrowded rubber raft to the next. All the support camps and transport buses added to the carnival like atmosphere. Though not for me, those on the commercial rafts seem to be having a great time, and that is what life is all about.

 

Most of the automobile traffic headed north towards Jackson, Wyoming at the Hoback Junction. I turned up the historic Hoback River road (hwy 189/191) and enjoyed less traffic and great scenery as I headed for Daniel Junction via Bondurant.

 

Before I reached Daniel Junction though irony and serendipity converged and I came upon a "wildfire fighting camp", just off the highway and spread out across a sage brush flat.

 

I had moved a photograph of the victims of Mann Gulch up to the front of my Flickr photostream page just before I left home. August 5th, 2013 was the 64th anniversary of the Mann Gulch fire fatalities, and it just seemed like something I wanted to do.

 

Also I had just finished reading the story of the 1994 fire fighting tragedy of Storm King Mountain in Colorado. I had also been exchanging a few emails with a person telling me they were friends with the sister of one of the Mann Gulch victims (David Navone).

 

So, as I left my home, it seemed as though "wildfire" stories were very much in my mind, including the most recent incident at Yarnell, Arizona ~ where 19 firefighters lost their lives.

 

There were no signs telling the public to keep out, so I drove in to see a wildfire fighting camp first hand. I drove slowly, and moved completely off the road when any "official" vehicle came the other way. I did not want to interfere in anyway with the job they were doing.

 

I drove to far end of the camp to the Helitack unit. I parked off in the sage brush and asked two firefighters if I could take some photos, if I stayed out of the way. Permission granted. Then I drove back on the dirt road, to the center of the operation. What a collection of agencies there were. I saw signs and personnel of the forest service; BLM; Homeland Security; and every fire fighting agency and group you could imagine.

 

Again, I approached some of the men appearing to be in charge, and asked if I could take some non-commercial photos if I stayed out of the way. Permission granted. My car was parked off the road in front of what appeared to be the mess tent.

 

I clicked away at the "mobile shower" unit; the chow line trailer; the mess hall tents; the "sleeping" camp tents, and so forth. I finally ended up at a yurt that appeared to be an "information center", with one fellow working on a computer and maps of the fire fighting activity around the inside.

 

When I asked if I could take some photos of the inside of the yurt, again permission was granted but a young lady asked if she could speak to me, after she finished up a conversation with one of the firefighting people.

 

Her name was "Holly". She said she was the public relations and public information "manager" for the operation. Though she said she was not an employee of the BLM or Forest Service or any other agency, she appeared to be "official" and recognized as such by all those in camp.

 

Holly told me she could escort me around and that I could probably take photos of most everywhere we went. I sheepishly admitted, I had already "toured the area", asking permission as I went, staying out of the way, but had taken LOTS of photos. She grinned.

 

Holly took me around the heart of the camp and gave me a lot of interesting information about the operation. I found out that the mess hall was being operated by "inmates", who had one guard with them and were being paid $200 a day for their work. Holly said all of them were polite and did everything they could not to do something to spoil being able to work outside and be able to see the stars in the night sky, when their work day was done.

 

I spent a lot more time at the fire camp than I had intended but it was so interesting, timely, and informative ... that I had a hard time leaving (especially when I met the official camp dog, a large easy going loveable black Labrador Retriever).

 

I told Holly of my intentions to visit the Green River Rendezvous "exact site" on this trip and then drive up over historic Union Pass towards Dubois, Wyoming...a dirt road that would take me over the north end of the Wind River Range. She told me that there were a few active fires in the area, but didn't think I would have trouble crossing the pass or camping in the area.

 

I left the fire camp and drove to Daniel Junction to get a bite to eat, gas up the RAV4, and see if I could find a road that would take me as close as I could get to where Horse Creek joined the Green River.

 

I had visited and photographed the Green River from Trappers' Point Monument last year, but that was three miles down the Green River from where the center of the fur trappers' rendezvous had taken place and I wanted to see the exact location as close as I could come to it.

 

The rendezvous system was unique. Supplies were brought in from St. Louis by wagon. Mountain men, Indians, missionaries, an artist or two, overland travelers - - all showed up. It was primarily a place and an event, to allow the Mountain Men to sell their beaver pelts, and buy up supplies for the next year of trapping (without the need to travel to and from St. Louis). It was also a time for them to spend much of their money earned on gambling and drinking. There were horse races, tall tales, and a celebratory atmosphere to the whole thing. A rendezvous might last three or four weeks. A good time was had by many and most.

 

The 1833, 1835, 1836, 1837, 1839, and the last rendezvous of 1840 - - all took place at the confluence of Horse Creek and the Green River. The lay of the land remains much like it was then but private ranches and farms now fill the entire area around the confluence.

 

I took the wrong turn and ended up visiting the Fort Bonneville site first. It has quite a history of its own as does Captain Bonneville (Spy, agent, military man, fur trader, or all of the above?).

 

Then I returned to Daniel Junction and took the correct turn to Daniel, Wyoming, where I parked my car and went into the small town post office at Daniel. I was armed with maps and questions. Fortunately I met another helpful type.

 

Holly had been of great help at the fire camp and now "Dee" was more than happy to give me exact, accurate, and precise information about the De Smet memorial, where I would have outstanding landscape views and be able to look down right at the confluence of Horse Creek and the Green River.

 

I hurried off and followed Dee's instructions to the letter, and arrived at what she told me would be a place of outstanding views. I took photograph after photograph of this interesting site. A private ranch is at the end of the road. There is a cemetery. A tall water tank tower.

 

A stone monument where Father De Smet performed one of the first Catholic masses in the west. And then there was the incongruent boulder and plaque monument to: Pinckey W. Sublette. He was the youngest of the five Sublette brothers, several of whom were famous participants in the fur trading, trapping, and rendezvous activities.

 

I haven't been able to find much information about Pinckey Sublette, but I will keep looking. This is what makes a road trip so much fun. Finds like this, that ask questions that demand attempts at answering them.

 

I returned to Daniel and took a cold can of soda and a few Pocatello, Idaho cinnamon rolls into Dee, and to thank he for helping me out with directions.

 

Now to Union Pass....or so I hoped. I had a bed made out in the back of my RAV4 and also had an inexpensive but functional "camp tent" with me. My thought was to camp up high near Union Pass and hopefully be out of mosquito territory, by being up high, where the nights should be cool (or so I of course hoped). I did note that one of the lakes I would travel by on my drive up over Union Pass, would be......Mosquito lake.

 

I had spotted a wild fire from the De Smet Monument, which I could see burning in the Wind River Range in the distance. I didn't know it then, but what I was seeing was the Kendall Mountain fire, which was being allowed to burn, as long as it didn't threaten the ranches and buildings to in the valley to the west. Seems aspen need a good fire to do well and this was part of the strategy of letting the Kendall fire to continue to burn within a perimeter agreed to by the fire fighting managers.

 

I drove toward Pinedale, Wyoming and then turned north on highway 352. This was the paved highway that would take me to the dirt, Union Pass road. I had never driving this highway and I had never crossed Union Pass. The pass had been on my "to do list" for a few years, and it felt great to be on my way.

 

I had made a note to check out the Kendall Dace, along the way. They are two inch long freshwater fish, that occur no other place in the world. They live in a hot springs creek where the water temperature stays at 84 degrees, all year round.

 

As it turned out, I got so caught up with the scenery, the wildfires,- - that I forgot to take the turn toward the Green River Lakes, and see the dace. A good excuse for a return to the area.

 

The Union Pass dirt road was fun to drive. Windows down but I had to roll them up from time to time, when ATV riders came by the other way. There were plenty of them and they all seemed to be having a great time despite all the dust they had to eat, from time to time, traveling the road.

 

I got on a long stretch of the dirt road with no ATVs in sight, and I saw a lone backpacker hiking north, the same direction I was heading, along the road. I slowed way down so I wouldn't cover him in a cloud of dust as I passed him.

 

He was a young man (30s), in outstanding shape, tanned, carrying a large internal frame pack that was perfectly organized. He had a smile on his face that only a skilled, competent, motivated, and dedicated backpacker can have.

 

His name was Gary. He had, what to me was a strong English accent, but when I asked where he was from he said the Adirondacks. I smiled and said "then you know of the only black bear in North America, who has learned the trick to opening "bear proof" bear vaults." He laughed and in his nice English accent added "....and she has a cub now that has learned the trick as well".

 

I offered Gary an ice cold soda from my ice chest giving him a choice of Pepsi or caffeine thick Mt. Dew. He went for the can of Mt. Dew. He asked where I was headed and I told him Union Pass, but I half expected to run into a road block, due to all the fire activity I was seeing in the area.

 

He told me he was looking for the Gros Ventre trail head. I told him he had missed the best part of the Wind River Range by not hiking the Cirque of Towers and/or the Titcomb Basin area. Again he smiled, and said that he had started his hike at the south end of the Wind River Range, so he hadn't "missed much". He told me he had got off the route due to the wildfires and was no planning to backpack to Jackson, Wyoming.

 

Gary spotted my Wyoming topo atlas on the seat and asked if he could have a look. It seems, when he had abandoned his original route due to the fires, he didn't have any map at all for his proposed "detour" to Jackson. He fixed that by taking my topo map atlas and spreading across the hood of my car, and taking photos with his cell phone. Smart thinking.

 

I offered to move my stuff around so I could give him a ride to where he would leave the road for a trail, but he seemed happy and determined to "walk". I took his empty can of Mt. Dew and then gave him a large cold plastic bottle of Mt. Dew, which he gladly accepted, then we parted ways. Holly, Dee, and now Gary. You meet the nicest people on a road trip.

 

My drive over Union Pass (the historic route over the continental divide north of the Wind River Range) and dropped down to the highway north of Dubois. I now started for Lander, Wyoming with the thought of a motel room there OR keep driving and camp among the sage on South Pass (the historic wagon trail route over the Continental Divide, south of the Wind River Range).

 

I watched antelope and wildfire smoke on my drive toward Lander, Wyoming. The wind picked up and it seemed as though a storm might be on the way. Then serendipity struck once again on this road trip. A pow wow. Outstanding. I always love to attend a Native American pow wow. The beating of the drums, the chants, the dancing and most of all the fascinating costumes. And now, here was one going on in a small park in Lander, Wyoming on a week day (31 July 2013).

 

I grabbed a camera and headed for the dancing. What fun! Snap, snap, snap went my camera shutter. The Wind River reservation is home to both the Northern Arapaho and Eastern Shoshone. The Arapaho outnumber the Shoshone on the reservation two to one. Sacagawea was a member of the Lemhi Shoshone band of Northern Shoshone.

 

After many traditional dances, the MC invited spectators to dance and that the best would be given "Sacagawea" metals, with the Indians serving as judges. The tom toms started up and a lively and brave group of "tourists" did their best. I was standing by the tom tom and chanting group, when the biggest of the four, encouraged me to join the dancing and to hand him my camera and he would take photos. I convinced him that I would be an embarrassment to all present if I danced...so he let me off the hook.

 

Like the fire fighting operation between Bondurant and Daniel Junction, I had a hard time leaving the pow wow...though it seemed to be winding down to its conclusion. I didn't want to get a motel and the wind was still picking up, so I decided to drive to South Pass. A few years ago I had parked my four wheel drive pickup among the sage and hiked the gentle saddle that is "South Pass".

 

I had always intended to return on day and spend the night at this historic crossing and this night seemed to be the "right night" to do so. I drove into the dark and remembering well the lay of the land at South Pass, drove to a prominent point among the sage and bedded down in the back of my RAV4 for the night. The Milky Way was bright at this high desert pass and I got a good night's sleep. I had covered a lot of back roads and enjoyed many wonderful experiences on this second day of my road trip.

 

Looking at my map that night with the aid of my LED headlamp, I saw for the first time that the Continental Divide splits south of South Pass. It travels around the Great Divide Basin of Sweetwater county Wyoming. I hadn't realized that such a basin exists. Water flowing off the continental divide almost always ends up in the Pacific or the Atlantic ocean but not here in Wyoming. Here the water flowing into the Great Divide Basin...goes nowhere, except the basin itself.

 

DAY THREE -SIX: Leaving South Pass early I headed for Salt Lake City. There I spent Thursday, Friday, Saturday, and Sunday with my wife, kids, and granddaughter. On Sunday we took our 10 month old granddaughter to the Salt Lake City zoo. What a hoot...for her...and for all of us.

 

DAY SEVEN: I left Salt Lake City and drove the freeway to Ontario, Oregon. There was lots of smoke in the air all the way across Idaho. A dust storm came up outside of Boise, and strong winds continued all the way to Ontario, where I got motel room for the night.

 

DAY EIGHT: Looking over maps at a big chicken friend steak, gravy, hash browns, and eggs breakfast at Denny's, I decided to take my time going on home and drive a couple of roads I had never driven before. So, I skipped the freeway and headed from Ontario to Vale and up over the Blue Mountains.

 

Oregon highway 26 from Vale through Brogan and Unity and on to Bates, Oregon - - was fun driving. Relaxed. I saw a black angus chasing a coyote across a pasture (too close to a calf). I checked out campgrounds for future reference and use all the way across the Blue Mountains, finding one I favored.

 

Then at Bates I took a road never before traveled. I drove the Middle Fork of the John Day River from Bates to highway 395. The canyon was pretty but the river seemed sad with all the cattle traffic it endured, more like a moving water trough and cattle toilet, than I fine clear country stream. White tail deer raced me along the road in several places and I enjoyed the blue heron, fishing along the river banks as I drove with my window rolled down.

 

Once on Oregon 395 I was on familiar road, as I drove north, but just to get in one more "new" section of back road, I took the Butter Creek Road to reach Hermiston, Oregon. That was fun and beautiful farm country. At Hermiston, I once again gassed up the car, ate too much fast food, and headed for home.

 

I hope you enjoy some of the photographs of the people and places, I took along the way on this short week long road trip.

 

OMT 14 August 2013

Identifier: polksindianapoli00rlpo_18

Title: Polk's Indianapolis (Marion County, Ind.) city directory

Year: 1880 (1880s)

Authors: R.L. Polk & Co

Subjects:

Publisher: Indianapolis : R.L. Polk & Co.

Contributing Library: Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center

Digitizing Sponsor: Internet Archive

  

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Text Appearing Before Image:

. Alexander Joseph, carp, res ii S Pine. Alexander Milton K, bookkpr J. A. Closser& Co, res 452 N New Jersey. Alexander Norton E, res 78 W Michigan. Alexander Robert, (cold), lab, bds 75 NAlabama. Alexander Samuel, res 79 N Delaware. Alexander Samuel, res 423 West Washing-ton. Alexander Samuel, cabinetmkr, res 123E Ohio. Alexander Samuel, lab, bds 73 N Alabama. Alexander Samuel, (cold), porter, res 120Agnes. Alexander Stephen, (cold), lab, 210 NMeridian. Alexman Anna, (wid Christof), res 327 EWabash. Alf Willis, (cold), lab, res 80 Ash. Alford Henry A, elk U. S. pension office,res 222 N Delaware. Alford Thomas G, elk M OConnor & Co, res222 N Delaware. Algeo John, elk Leon Kahn, res 279 Christ-ian ave. Algeo Samuel, elk R. Wallace, res 159 NPine. Algeo Wm J, baker, res 159 N Pine. Alhand Alaska, wheelmkr, bds 511 S Il-linois. Alhand John A, wheelmkr, bds 15 Rus-sell ave. Alig George, elk, res 44 Stevens. Alisch August, mach hand, res 159 Shelby. fTAS. P. <& W. W. WEAVER,

 

Text Appearing After Image:

UNDERTAKERS and FURNISHERS No. 33 N. Illinois St., Y. M. C A. Building, nearly opposite the Bates House. Branch office and Livery Stables, Corner South and Illinois Streets. Alisch Frederick, lab, res 367 Olive. Alison Kenner W, commission, bds Mc-Keehan House. Alkier John, bookmkr, bds 30 W Mary-land. Alkire John W, mach, res 17 W Maryland. Allardt Maxmillian T, architect, res 214Olive. Allee Robert J, brakeman, bds 206 Blake. Allen Anna Mrs, seamstress, res 181 Pat-terson. Allen Anna H (wid Henry) livery, 27 and29 E Pearl, res 132 W Vermont. Allen Benjamin, res 354 N Pine. Allen Charles, brakeman, bds 202 E Wash-ington. Allen Charles, conductor, bds 117 N Illi-nois. Allen Charles, hoseman engine co No 3,res 291 Virginia ave. Allen Charles, news agent, res lOi Brad-shaw. Allen Charles W, fireman, res 293 Virginiaave. Allen Cyrus (cold) lab, res 374 W Second. Allen Cyrus B jr Rev, pastor Garden Bap-tist Church, res 128 W Ohio. Allen David (cold) lab, res rear 143 StMary. Allen Donia M

  

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~*Photography Originally Taken By: www.CrossTrips.Com Under God*~

 

Vancouver is a city on the north bank of the Columbia River in the U.S. state of Washington and the county seat of Clark County. In 2007, the United States Census Bureau estimated that the city's population was 160,800.[3] It is part of the Portland-Vancouver metropolitan area.

 

The larger city of Vancouver, British Columbia is located 305 miles (491 km) north of Vancouver, Washington. Both cities were named for sea captain George Vancouver, but the Canadian city was not incorporated until 1886, nearly thirty years after Vancouver, Washington, and more than sixty years after the name Fort Vancouver was first used. City officials have periodically suggested changing the city's name to Fort Vancouver, Vancouver USA, or even Old Vancouver to reduce confusion with Vancouver, British Columbia. Washington residents distinguish between the two cities by referring to the Canadian Vancouver as "Vancouver, B.C." Current mayor Royce Pollard is an advocate of the unofficial moniker "America's Vancouver."

 

History

 

The Vancouver area was inhabited by a variety of Native American tribes, most recently the Chinook and Klickitat nations, with permanent settlements of timber longhouses.[4] The Chinookan and Klickitat names for the area were reportedly Skit-so-to-ho and Ala-si-kas, respectively, meaning "land of the mud-turtles".[5] First European contact was in 1775, with approximately half of the indigenous population dead from small pox before the Lewis and Clark expedition camped in the area in 1806.[4] Within another fifty years, other actions and diseases such as measles, malaria and influenza had reduced the Chinookan population from an estimated 80,000 to "to a few dozen refugees, landless, slaveless and swindled out of a treaty."[4]

 

Meriwether Lewis wrote that the Vancouver area was "the only desired situation for settlement west of the Rocky Mountains." The first permanent European settlement did not occur until 1824, when Fort Vancouver was established as a fur trading post of the Hudson's Bay Company. From that time on, the area was settled by both the US and Britain under a "joint occupation" agreement. Joint occupation ended on June 15, 1846, with the signing of the Oregon Treaty, which gave the United States full control of the area. The City of Vancouver was incorporated on January 23, 1857 and in 2007 marks its sesquicentennial.[6]

 

Based on an act in the 1859-1860 legislature, Vancouver was briefly the capital of the Washington Territory, before being returned to Olympia, Washington by a 2-1 ruling of the territory's supreme court, in accordance with Isaac Stevens' preference and concern that proximity to Oregon might give its southern neighbor undue influence.[7][8][9]

 

U.S. Army Captain (and future President) Ulysses S. Grant was quartermaster at what was then known as Columbia Barracks for 15 months beginning in September 1852. Soon after leaving Vancouver, he resigned from the army and did not serve again until the outbreak of the American Civil War. Other notable generals to have served in Vancouver include George B. McClellan, Philip Sheridan, Oliver O. Howard and 1953 Nobel Peace Prize recipient George Marshall.

 

Army presence in Vancouver was very strong, as the Department of the Columbia built and moved to Vancouver Barracks, the military reservation for which stretched from the river to what is currently Fourth Plain Boulevard and was the largest Army base in the region until surpassed by Fort Lewis, 120 miles (190 km) to the north. Built on the old company gardens and skirmish range, Pearson Army Field (later Pearson Field Airport) was a key facility, and at one point the US Army Signal Corps operated the largest spruce cut-up plant in the world to provide much-needed wood for airplanes. Vancouver became the end point for two ultra-long flights from Moscow, USSR over the North Pole. The first of these flights was performed by Valery Chkalov in 1937 . Chkalov was originally scheduled to land at an airstrip in nearby Portland, OR, but redirected at the last minute to Vancouver's Pearson Airfield. Today there is a street named for him in Vancouver.

 

Separated from Oregon until 1917, when the Interstate Bridge began to replace ferries, Vancouver had three shipyards just downstream which produced ships for World War I before World War II brought an enormous economic boom. An Alcoa aluminum plant opened on September 2, 1940, using inexpensive power from the nearby New Deal hydropower turbines at Bonneville Dam. After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, Henry Kaiser opened a shipyard next to the U.S. Army reserve, which by 1944 employed as many as 36,000 people in a twenty-four hours a day, seven days a week production of liberty ships, LST's, and "baby flat tops". This influx of shipyard workers boosted the population from 18,000 to over 80,000 in just a few months, leading to the creation of the Vancouver Housing Authority and six new residential developments: Fruit Valley, Fourth Plain Village, Bagley Downs, Ogden Meadows, Burton Homes and McLoughlin Heights. Each of these was later incorporated into the city, and are well-known neighborhoods, while the neighboring "shipyard city" of Vanport, Oregon, would be destroyed by the Memorial Day flood of 1948.

 

In 1956, Willie Nelson moved to Vancouver to begin his musical career, recording "Lumberjack". The single sold fairly well, but did not establish a career. Nelson continued to work as a radio announcer in Vancouver and sing in clubs. He sold a song called "Family Bible" for $50; the song was a hit for Claude Gray in 1960, has been covered widely and is often considered a gospel music classic.

 

Vancouver has recently experienced conflicts with other Clark County communities because of rapid growth in the area. As a result of urban growth and annexation, Vancouver is often thought of as split between two areas, East and West Vancouver, divided by NE Andresen Road. West Vancouver is home to downtown Vancouver and some of the more historical parts of the city, as well as recent high-density mixed-use development.

 

More than one-third of the Vancouver urban area's population has spilled into an unincorporated urban area north of its city limits, including the communities of Hazel Dell, Felida, Orchards and Salmon Creek. If county leaders had approved a major annexation plan in 2006, Vancouver would have passed Tacoma and Spokane to become the state's second-largest city.

 

Downtown revitalization

 

In 1997 the city of Vancouver decided to dedicate the next 15-20 years to redevelop and revitalize a huge portion of the downtown core. The first projects started in the early 2000s with the construction of many tall condominium structures around Esther Short park and in the Uptown Village neighborhood. The most lauded outside investment was the construction of a Hilton hotel directly across from the park. Currently the city is building a new shopping complex, including a Fred Meyer, just outside of the downtown core. The Columbian newspaper is in the final stages of building a new seven-story building adjacent to the Hilton. There are plans in the future for a new development along C Street in downtown that would include a new library, a new Marriott hotel and roughly 250 new condominiums, along with other projects remain processing to start:

 

* Riverwest - Mixed use project which includes a condominiums building, hotel/condominiums building, offices building, and a new main library.

* The Luxe - 6 story offices and condominiums building.

* Waterfront Redevelopment - Which include 10K Residents Envision, Retails, Offices, Parks, and more.

* Prestige Plaza - 6 story building which includes condominiums and offices.

 

Geography and climate

 

Vancouver is located at 45°38'1" North, 122°36'11" West (45.633743, -122.603011)[12] just north of the Columbia River, just west of where the Columbia River Gorge bisects the volcanic Cascade Range and just east of where the Willamette River enters the Columbia. When clouds do not blanket the Puget-Willamette trough formed by the Cascade and Coast Range, Mount Hood, Mount Saint Helens and Mount Adams are all visible from somewhere in Vancouver.

 

According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 46.1 square miles (119.5 km²), of which, 42.8 square miles (110.8 km²) of it is land and 3.3 square miles (8.7 km²) of it is water. The total area is 7.14% water.

 

Vancouver lies just north of Portland, Oregon and shares a similar climate, with certain key exceptions. High pressures east of the Cascade Range create something of a venturi effect, leading to cold east winds down the Columbia River Gorge. Unsheltered by the Willamette Valley, Vancouver has historically seen colder temperatures, including "silver thaw" storms where freezing rain cakes limbs and power lines. Such storms can paralyze Vancouver, frequently froze the river and in 1916 cut electric power in the city for almost two weeks. Close proximity to the river was also a concern for flooding, before dams constricted the river, destroying features such as Celilo Falls. Periodic floods have been a nuisance, with two of the most destructive in June of 1894 and May, 1948. The 1948 Memorial Day flood almost topped the Interstate Bridge's support piers and completely destroyed nearby Vanport, Oregon. Other unusual storms include the Columbus Day windstorm of 1962 and an April 5, 1972 tornado which rated F3 on the Fujita scale, striking a local school. A F1 tornado stuck on January 10, 2008 just after noon causing moderate damage along a 2-mile path from Vancouver Lake to the unicnorporated Hazel Dell area. No injuries or deaths were caused, however, moderate damage to a number of structures was reported as well as numerous uprooted large trees. The warmer counter-part to these cold gorge winds is the Pineapple Express, a subtropical jet stream that brings warm moist air from the southern Pacific Ocean.

 

Because of its proximity to Portland, many people who live in Vancouver work in Portland. In 2003, 70% of workers in Vancouver worked in Clark County. Those who live in Clark County and work in Oregon have to pay Oregon's relatively high income tax. (Washington State does not have such a tax.) Additionally, they may choose to shop in Portland to take advantage of a wider variety of shopping choices, and the fact that Oregon has no sales tax. However, there is a risk in such avoidance because Washington does have a use tax that is due on all purchases made in Oregon that are then returned to Washington. Vancouver residents "shop at their own risk" when attempting to avoid the sales tax in Oregon although the rule is rarely, if ever, enforced and currently there are no checkpoints when crossing back into Washington from Portland.

 

Because many Vancouver residents work in Portland, Oregon there is typically significant rush hour traffic congestion on two bridges that cross the Columbia River, the Interstate Bridge and the Glenn Jackson Bridge. In 2006 there were 278,043 weekday vehicle crossings on the two bridges.

 

Demographics

 

As of the census[1] of 2000, there were 143,560 people, 56,628 households, and 36,298 families living in the city. The population density is 3,354.7 people per square mile (1,295.4/km²). There were 60,039 housing units at an average density of 1,403.0/sq mi (541.7/km²). The racial makeup of the city was 84.81% White, 2.50% African American, 0.97% Native American, 4.51% Asian, 0.54% Pacific Islander, 2.86% from other races, and 3.80% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 6.29% of the population. 16.4% were of German, 9.2% English, 8.4% Irish and 7.9% American ancestry according to Census 2000. 84.7% spoke English, 4.8% Spanish, 2.8% Russian, 1.2% Ukrainian and 1.0% Vietnamese as their first language.

 

There were 56,628 households out of which 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.3% were married couples living together, 12.1% had a female householder with no husband present, and 35.9% were non-families. 27.6% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.50 and the average family size was 3.06.

 

In the city the population was spread out, with 26.7% under the age of 18, 9.8% from 18 to 24, 32.1% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, and 10.7% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 33 years. For every 100 females there were 96.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 93.8 males.

 

The median income for a household in the city was $41,618, and the median income for a family was $47,696. Males had a median income of $37,306 versus $26,940 for females. The per capita income for the city was $20,192. 9.4% of families and 12.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.1% of those under the age of 18 and 8.2% of those 65 and older.

 

Economy

 

The economy of Vancouver has paralleled that of the region generally. Moving from a salmon and trade-based indigenous economy by the Chinook people, the Hudson's Bay Company pioneered extractive industries such as the fur trade and timber. Subsistence agricultural gave way to market and export crops such as apples, strawberries and prunes. Largely bypassed by the railroad in the 1880's, when the Oregon Steam Navigation company would ferry trains across the river downstream from St. Helens, Oregon to Kalama, Washington, early downtown development was focused around Washington Street (where ferries arrived), lumber and Vancouver Barracks activities such as a large spruce mill for manufacturing airplanes. A 1908 railroad swing bridge across the Columbia allowed greater industrial developments such as the Standifer Shipyard during the first world war. With the Interstate Bridge and Bonneville Dam Vancouver saw an industrial boom in the 1940's, including the Kaiser shipyard and Alcoa, as well as a Boise Cascade paper mill, just west of the Interstate Bridge.[14]

 

As the old growth forests were depleted and heavy industry left the United States, Vancouver's economy has largely changed to high tech and service industry jobs, with many residents commuting to Portland, Oregon. As of 2007, the largest employers in Clark County are government agencies (including school districts) and Kroger corporation's Fred Meyer grocery stores. Rounding out the list are "high tech" manufacturers such as Hewlett-Packard, WaferTech, SEH America and labor subcontractors such as Volt Services Group. Vancouver also contains the corporate headquarters for Nautilus, Inc. and The Holland (parent company of the Burgerville, USA restaurant chain).[15]

 

Downtown is home to a variety of independently-owned small businesses, while outer areas are dominated by clone town strip malls and franchise stores.

 

Vancouver is also increasingly popular with retirees, partially because of its proximity to Portland and Washington's lack of a state income tax.

 

Education

 

Public schools

 

Vancouver has two school districts:

 

The Vancouver School District covers most of west Vancouver and has six high schools: Hudson's Bay High School, Columbia River High School, Fort Vancouver High School, Lewis and Clark High School, Skyview High School, and the Vancouver School of Arts and Academics (grades 6-12). It also has six middle schools: Alki Middle School, Discovery Middle School, Gaiser Middle School, Jason Lee Middle School, Thomas Jefferson Middle School, and McLoughlin Middle School.

 

The Evergreen School District covers most of east Vancouver and has four high schools: Evergreen High School, Mountain View High School, Heritage High School, and Union High School.

 

Vancouver is also home to the Washington School for the Deaf and Washington State School for the Blind

 

Private schools

 

* Cascadia Montessori School - Montessori school offering 1st through 8th grade

* Clark County Christian School - Pre-School through 12th grade

* Columbia Adventist Academy - 9th through 12th grade

* Columbia Ridge Baptist Academy- 1st through 12th grade

* Cornerstone Christian School - NS through 8th grade

* Firm Foundation Christian School - Pre-K through 9th grade

* The Gardner School - Pre-K through 8th Grade

* Kings Way Christian School - Pre-School through 11th grade

* Our Lady of Lourdes - Private Catholic school offering kindergarten through 8th grade

* Vancouver Christian High School - Private Christian High School 9th through 12th grade

* Vancouver Community Christian - Kindergarten through 12th grade

* St. Joseph Catholic Grade School - Kindergarten through 8th grade

 

Colleges and universities

 

* Clark College (two year)

* Washington State University, Vancouver

 

Architecture and notable buildings

 

Mother Joseph was one of the first architects in the region, and because of its relatively long history, Vancouver contains a variety of buildings. Homes vary from Victorians and craftsman bungalows downtown, to small wartime tract housing and ranch-styles mid-town, with rural styles and "McMansions" in the outer ring. In addition to the reconstructed Fort Vancouver at the Fort Vancouver National Historic Site, the city was named one of the National Register of Historic Places' "Dozen Distinctive Destinations" for 2003.[16]

 

Other notable buildings in Vancouver include:

 

* The Covington House at 4201 Main Street, a log cabin and boarding school built in approximately 1848

* Officers Row, including The Grant House (first house on the Columbia Barracks) and the Queen Anne-style 1866 Marshall House

* Mother Joseph's Providence Academy, constructed in 1874, where Evergreen Boulevard crosses Interstate 5

* Saint James Church (originally part of the Quebec diocese), saw its first Roman Catholic mass celebrated August 16, 1885

* The Carnegie Library at Sixteenth and Main, which opened on New Year's Eve, 1909, to showcase its unusual electric lights

* The 1914 Chicago-style U.S. National Bank (now the Heritage Building) at Fifth and Main

* The 1916 U.S. Post Office at 1211 Daniels Street

* The vertical-lift Interstate Bridge, which opened on Valentine's Day, 1917, Oregon's 58th anniversary

* The 1935 art deco telephone exchange building at Eleventh and Washington

* The 1941 Clark County courthouse, designed by prolific local architect Day Hillborn

* Smith Tower, a round downtown apartment building for the elderly, built in 1965

 

Many of these buildings have been re-purposed. The 1867 Slocum House, an Italianate villa style residence originally built one block south of its current location in Esther Short Park. It was moved to its present location at Esther Short Park in 1966 and now houses a community theatre company.[17] The Carnegie Library was expanded in the 1940's, becoming the Clark County historical museum after a new library was built in 1963.[1] Other buildings have been torn down for urban renewal or renovated to house professional offices such as lawyers and accountants.

 

Public libraries

 

Fort Vancouver Regional Library District

 

Annual events

 

Each Fourth of July, Vancouver hosts a fireworks display on the grounds of Fort Vancouver National Historic Site that draws many people to the city. The display, which typically runs for 45 minutes, is the largest west of the Mississippi River.

 

Late August features the Vancouver Wine and Jazz Festival in Esther Short Park, the largest jazz festival in SW Washington.

 

Each September sees St. Joseph Catholic School host the Vancouver Sausage Fest, drawing attendance upwards of 100,000 over three days.

 

Arts groups

 

* The Vancouver Area Theatre Alliance incorporating: The Old Slocum House Theatre Company, Magenta Theatre, Vancouver OnStage The New Blue Parrot and Clark College's theatre department.

* Vancouver Community Band [2]

* The Felida Players Group - founded in 2006 by Will and Molly Sloan.

* Junior Symphony of Vancouver

* Vancouver Symphony Orchestra - a regional orchestra

* Arts Equity Inc. at The Main Street Theatre - Vancouver's first professional theater

* Bravo! Vancouver - a monthly orchestral/chorale concert series -

 

Local media

 

* The Columbian

* The local Comcast franchise has various public-access television channels, including FVTV, and CVTV[3]

* The Oregonian (based in Portland, Oregon; this paper also covers some southwest Washington news)

* The Vancouver Business Journal covers local business news[4]

* The Vancouver Voice is southwest Washington's only alternative periodical

 

Nearby cities

 

* Portland, Oregon

* Battle Ground, Washington

* Camas, Washington

* Washougal, Washington

* Ridgefield, Washington

 

Transportation

 

Vancouver has two interstate freeways, I-5 and I-205, both of which run North–South, into Portland, Oregon. It also has two heavily travelled state highways within the city limits. SR 14 begins at I-5 in downtown Vancouver and makes its way east. It is a freeway all the way until Camas. SR 500 begins from I-5 at 39th Street in north Vancouver, travels east connecting with I-205, and continues east into the suburb of Orchards where the freeway terminates at Fourth Plain Road, and meets with the south end of north-southbound 117th Ave.,SR 503. A third state highway, SR 501, starts at I-5 and heads west through downtown and continues along a path that runs between the Columbia River and Vancouver Lake.

 

The Port of Vancouver operates a port on the Columbia River, which separates Oregon to the south and Washington to the north. It handles over 400 ocean-going vessels annually, as well as a number of barges which ply the river and its tributaries as far as Lewiston, Idaho.

 

The area's mass transit system is C-TRAN, the Clark County Public Transportation Benefit Area Authority, which operates 135 buses, vanpools, and paratransit vehicles. There are also a number of express routes into Portland's downtown.

 

In 1994, Clark County voters defeated a ballot measure to extend Portland's MAX Light Rail system north into Vancouver [5]. Portland extended the MAX line in 2004 as far north as the Multnomah County Expo Center in north Portland, approximately 1-mile (2 km) south of downtown Vancouver.

 

Vancouver has always been well served by rail; current freight railroads operating in Vancouver include the BNSF, Union Pacific Railroad, and the local shortline Lewis and Clark Railway.

 

Amtrak, the national passenger rail system, provides service to Vancouver. The Amtrak station is in west Vancouver. Amtrak train 11, the southbound Coast Starlight, is scheduled to depart Vancouver at 1:08pm with service to Portland, Oregon, Sacramento, California, Emeryville, California (with bus connection to San Francisco), and Los Angeles. Amtrak train 14, the northbound Coast Starlight, is scheduled to depart Vancouver at 4:36pm daily with service to Kelso-Longview, Centralia, Olympia-Lacey, Tacoma and Seattle. Amtrak train 27, the westbound Empire Builder, is scheduled to depart Vancouver at 9:18am daily with service to Portland. Amtrak train 28, the eastbound Empire Builder, is scheduled to depart Vancouver at 5:07pm daily with service to Spokane, Washington, Grand Forks, North Dakota, St Paul-Minneapolis, and Chicago. Amtrak Cascades trains, operating as far north as Vancouver, British Columbia and as far south as Eugene, Oregon, serve Vancouver several times daily in both directions.

 

Pearson Field Airport, located near downtown Vancouver, is the main airport serving the city. The airport is intended primarily for general aviation without any commercial air service. The nearest commercial airport is Portland International Airport (PDX).

 

In 2008, Vancouver passed a citywide law requiring anyone on a wheeled device such as a bicycle, skateboard, scooter or skates to wear a helmet while on any sidewalk, street, trail or other public property. Many local cyclists opposed the law as a misuse of city funds and police efforts, as well as encroachment on personal freedoms. Despite some reservations from the public, the Vancouver City Council passed the measure 5-1.

 

ismeretlen pár / unknown pair

 

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Fényképész / Photographer

 

Charles Reutlinger (German, Karlsruhe 1816–1881 Karlsruhe)

 

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Verzó / Verso

 

CH. REUTLINGER

photographe

21, Boulevard Montmartre, 21

PARIS.

 

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The Reutlinger Studio

1850 - 1930

Paris, France

The most notable studio of its day was the Reutlinger Studio. Known for their portrayal of the rich and famous, in the most lavish settings which included palm trees, tapestries, and a great variety of other valuable decorations, the fashionable Paris based studio was founded in 1850 by Charles Reutlinger, of German descent.

Charles Reutlinger, a member of the "Society of French Photographers, 1862, photographed many of the best-known artists, scientists, musicians and writers of his time. He belonged to an elite group of photographers who had studios on the boulevards à.la.mode and whose photographs were featured in the most prestigious newspapers and magazines, including the first society of "La Illustration", a weekly journal that catered to the concerns of the upper echelon of society. Among these photographers were Gustave Gray, Eugene Disdéri, and the studio of Bertsch and Arnaud.

 

In 1880, Charles became ill and decided to turn his studio over to his brother Emile. Prior to his death in 1881, Charles Reutlinger was awarded many credits during his life. His brother, Emile, ran the studio until 1890, with little credits to his name.

In 1883, after only 3 years of running the Reutlinger Studios, Emile summoned his first-born son, Leopold born, March 17, 1863, and raised in Callao, Peru, to come to Paris to begin working with his father in the family photography business.

 

Leopold Reutlinger had a well-established socialite clientele and a very elaborate studio given to him upon his arrival in Paris, although officially, the Reutlinger Studio was given to him in 1890. The young Reutlinger adapted quickly to the upper echelon of society photography Charles had established many years before his arrival.

 

Léopold Reutlinger produced a vast number of images, ranging from portraits, performers, showgirls, and theatre stars. He photographed for advertising purposes, as well as, for magazines and newspapers. By the early 1900's, Leopold had far surpassed his Uncle Charles accomplishments. The rich and famous held Leopold Reutlinger in the highest esteem, requesting him whenever a professional photograph was needed.

 

He frequently held exhibitions of his work in the offices of the newspapers and magazines where he was employed. Announcements of his works were published in the newspapers and magazines. Of course, all the socialites attended these showings.

 

To his credit, Reutlinger introduced a very distinctive style of merging photographic images with art nouveau fantasy overlays. He added to that process exceptionally well-done hand tinting. The Reutlinger Studio became known for their unusual art nouveau styles of postcard designs, especially for portraits of actresses. These postcards were not cheaply produced, nor were they cheaply sold. This part of his business was very successful and sought-after, as thousands of his art nouveau postcards were produced.

 

By the age of 30, Leopold Reutlinger was a man of great reputation. Now, wealthy, successful, and having the best of everything money could buy, Leopold could pick and choose photographic projects.

 

Léopold continued in a very successful business until 1930, when he lost an eye in an accident with a champagne cork, forcing him into retirement, ending the reign of the Reutlinger Studios. He died in Paris at the age of 74 on 16 March, 1937.

 

Although, Leopold Reutlinger had an inherited life, never having to struggle in establishing his business, he worked very hard to maintain the high standards of his forefathers and is highly accredited for the advancement of new styles in postcard design, all the while, photographing the most beautiful and famous people in the world.

e-vint.com/e-reutlinger.html

 

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Charles Reutlinger was born in 1816 and came from a French family. He founded his studio in 1850 and photographed many of the best-known artists, musicians and writers of his time, including Liszt, Verdi and Berlioz. In 1880, Charles Reutingler handed over his studio to his brother Emile Reutlinger. Emile's son Leopold-Emile Reutlingerbegan to work for his father when he went to Paris from Peru in 1883. He took over the Reutlinger studio in 1890 and produced photographs for advertising purposes, as well as for magazines and newspapers. He frequently held exhibitions of his work in the offices of the newspapers that he worked for. Leopold-Emile also added erotic images to the Reutlinger portfolio.

The studio flourished, making photographs for commercial and advertising usage, but also mass-producing portraits of performers for the adoring and collecting public. Leopold-Emile stopped working in 1930 when he lost an eye in an accident with a champagne cork.

 

The Reutlinger studio was located in the heart of the capital of fashion, Paris. It consisted of palm trees, columns, tapestries, rugs, and an assortment of steps and stairways on which the flowing trains from the ladies' gowns could be resplendently fanned out. The most attractive models were sought, and often the prettiest ladies with the best figures were found at the Folies Bèrgeres, the Comedie Français, or the Opera Bouffe. Therefore, it is not unusual to see early photographs of Paris-based opera singers, such as Lina Cavalieri who performed for the Folies Bèrgeres, prior to their operatic debuts.

 

The Reutlinger Studio, closed its doors in 1937.

jewelryaccessories.com/fashion-photographers/354-reutling...

 

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The british journal of photography visited to the studio in 1867

books.google.hu/books?id=05wOAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA426&lp...

 

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National Portrait Gallery Reutlinger collection /54 portrait!/:

www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/person/mp82485/charles-...

 

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Online exhibitions > Reutlinger Studio

www.luminous-lint.com/app/vexhibit/_PHOTOGRAPHER_Reutling...

 

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art Charles Reutlinger collection:

www.metmuseum.org/collections/search-the-collections?&amp...

  

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Atelier Reutlinger in wonderings.net

wonderings.net/vintage-postcards/atelier-reutlinger/

 

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Reutliger photos in painting in light's Photostream:

www.flickr.com/search/?w=34574252@N02&q=reutlinger

How Israeli Wall Street Federal Reserves Counterfeiting Bar Mitzvah prints its racketeering members limitless free cash for pulling record bank heists and arrogant lifestyles operating you as GOPDEM's limitless ATM's:

 

Counterfeit cash is not easy money, it's free money for the private Israeli banker Zion Tribe the counterfeit cash printers.

 

But why would you care about them stealing the value of your money by inflating what it takes to purchase everything? It's kool...if you are a .01% tribe member printing your own limitless banker paychecks.

 

Besides, you're probably "the world's most powerful sports fan" anyway, as Wall Street media reminds you. So why would you notice their ancient crime tribe robbing you?....being as heroic and powerful, smart and as athletic as you are.

-RT

*******************************************************************************

The Federal Reserve Bails Out Wall Street. Since 2008, the Fed has Granted Unlimited Credit to Banks at an Official Rate of 0.25%

By Eric Toussaint

 

Global Research, October 02, 2014

Committee for the Abolition of Third World Debt

Region: USA

Theme: Global Economy

 

wall street globalresearch.ca

 

Since 2008, the Fed has granted unlimited credit to banks at an official rate of 0.25%. In fact, as the General Accounting Office (GAO) has revealed, the Fed has lent close to $16 trillion at an interest rate below 0.25%. |1| The report shows it has not followed its own prudential rules and has not notified Congress.

 

According to an enquiry by a US Congress Committee, there is clear and evident collusion between the Fed and the big banks:

 

The CEO of JPMorgan Chase served on the New York Fed’s board of directors at the same time that his bank received more than $390 billion in financial assistance from the Fed. Moreover, JPMorgan Chase served as one of the clearing banks for the Fed’s emergency lending programs. |2|

 

According to an independent study by the Levy Institute, which has the collaboration of economists such as Joseph Stiglitz, Paul Krugman and James K. Galbraith, Fed assistance to banks was much more than the $16 trillion revealed by the GAO; it was $29 trillion dollars. |3|

 

The big European banks had access to Fed funds until the beginning of 2011. Dexia got a loan of $159 billion dollars, |4| Barclays $868 billion, Royal Bank of Scotland $541 billion, Deutsche Bank $354 billion, UBS $287 billion, Crédit Suisse $260 billion, BNP-Paribas $175 billion, Dresdner Bank $135 billion and Société Générale $124 billion. The end of this funding, under pressure from Congress, was one of the reasons that from May-June 2011, the US Money Market Funds started to block their loans to European banks, considering that without support from the Fed the European banks incurred too high a risk.:

The Federal Reserve System of the United States

 

The Federal Reserve System, or Fed, is the United States’ Central Bank. It is an independent structure with a private activity within the US government and has the responsibility for US monetary policy and thus a strong influence on the world’s financial markets. In the terms of US law, the mission of the Fed is to guarantee price stability and full employment and to ensure the stability of the financial system by taking the necessary measures to predict and attenuate financial crises and panics. To achieve this, the Fed has three important means: it controls interest-rates that influence consumption, investment and inflation; it controls the money supply which permits the stability of prices in times of crisis; and it supervises and regulates financial institutions.

 

The Fed was created by the Federal Reserve Act of 1913 as a reaction to the growing instability of the North American financial system at the end of the nineteenth and beginning of the twentieth century. Until then the US did not have centralized control and regulation of its financial system. Each state had the charge of regulating and controlling the banks that were within its jurisdiction. The Fed was established to ensure the stability of the US financial system by becoming the lender of last resort and so to be able to supply resources to banks facing difficulties.

 

The institutional structure of the Fed is made up of twelve regional banks overseen globally by a Board of Governors. These regional banks function as Joint Stock Companies possessing non negotiable and non transferable shares in the Federal Reserve System; the stock may not be sold, traded, or pledged as security for a loan; dividends are, by law, six per cent per year. These shares permit the banks their participation in the elections of the regional counsellors of the Fed. The councils are made up of nine members: three are chosen by the banks and represent their interests; three more, representing industrial and commercial interests, are also chosen by the banks; the last three are chosen by the national Board of Governors.

 

The Board of Governors is charged with overseeing the twelve regional Federal Reserve Banks and with helping implement the United States’ monetary policy. It has a maximum of seven members (currently five) who are nominated by the President of the United States and confirmed by the Senate for a fourteen-year term of office. One of the principal functions of the Board is to pilot the Federal Open Market Committee (FOMC), which fixes interest-rates and determines the country’s general monetary policy.

 

There are two basic differences between the Fed and its European counter-part, the ECB. While the Fed’s mission is to simultaneously guarantee price stability and full employment, the ECB has for principal mission to maintain low and stable inflation levels within the Eurozone. The other difference is in the capacities to regulate and control their financial institutions. The Fed has the means to regulate and supervise all the financial institutions operating under the Federal Reserve System, while the ECB is dependent on the central banks of each of the Eurozone countries for the application of its regulations and control over its institutions. Finally, the European Commission has approved an extension of the ECB’s powers, as from autumn 2014, to responsibility for the direct control of the big banks that are subject to the European system. We shall see what we shall see.

Antique c.1910 Mable Ross - Gold 14K Filled Hunter 3 Genuine Rose Diamonds Elgin National Pocket Watch 0s 15 Jewel

 

Includes original advertising flyer!

 

Dedicated to: Mable Ross acquired through private estate.

 

Manufactured: Elgin National Watch Company; Elgin, Illinois circa; 1910

 

Dial Measures: 1 - 1/16" wide

Watch Measures: 1 - 3/8"" wide

 

Condition: Good No cracks, damage or repairs. Very beautiful and in working order. Runs slow. The movement will need to be cleaned & oiled. Minor wear to case and glass from normal use. Please refer to all photos of this beautiful time piece.

 

Description: This is truly a magnificent Antique c.1910 Gold 14K Filled Hunter Elgin National Pocket Watch. Delicate Size0s with 15 Jewels unadjusted. Traditional classic Hunter "clam shell" style. Rich detailed gilded metal case with black Roman numerals and a white chapter ring. Included is the original (not copy) Sears Advertising Magazine Ad.

 

Elgin Serial Number: 15460448

 

Production Year :1910

Size : 0s

Jewels : 15 jewels

Grade : 354

Model : 2

Class : 116

Run Quantity : 3000

Production Dates : 1906 to 1916

Total Grade Production : 274000

Movement Configuration : Hunter Case

Movement Setting : Pendant Wind and Set

Movement Finish : Nickel Damaskeening

Plate : 3/4 Plate

Barrel : Going Barrel

Adjusted : No

 

History:

 

Miss Mabel ROSS, born 1880 in St. Andrews, NB, CAN. Mabel migrated

~1894 as a teen and came down with only one of her parents.

 

~1909 Mabel, 30, married Carleton Homer

HUTCHINSON, born 1870 MA. The 1910 census has Carleton and Mabel living on Wash. St. in Boston. Carleton was a banker in 1907 (stocks &

bonds.) Carleton and Mabel lived in Hanover in 1920 and 1930

 

Series: T624 Roll: 613 Page: 29

 

Carleton's

first wife, and the mother of his 2 children, was Caroline HENEFELT. Carleton was in the Army from ~1888 to 1893

 

Elgin National Watch Company:

 

The National Watch Company of Chicago, Illinois was incorporated on August 27, 1864 with a capital of $100,000. The incorporators were Philo Carpenter, Howard Z. Culver, Benjamin W. Raymond, George M. Wheeler, Thomas S. Dickerson, Edward H. Williams and W. Robbins.

 

In September of 1864 a visit was made by some company representatives to the Waltham Watch Co. and seven of their key people where lured away to work for the newly formed company and they were nicknamed the Seven Stars. The bait used was a $5,000 a year salary for 5 years, a $5,000 bonus and one acre of land on the company's, soon to be acquired, 35 acre site (some things never seem to change). Since turn about is fair play, Elgin lost several of the Seven Stars to the Illinois Watch Co. a few years later in 1869.

 

The Seven Stars were all machinists first and watchmakers second. One of these men was Charles S. Moseley and he became the factory's first superintendent. He had been in the watch business since 1852.

 

The Elgin businessmen had been informed that if they wanted the company to be located in Elgin they would have to donate 35 acres of land. The towns people would also have to put up $25,000 (keep in mind that the war was on and all the young men where gone). The requested location for the company was on a farm with absentee owners. The owners refused to sell unless the entire farm property of 71 acres was purchased at a price of $3,550. Four local businessmen purchased the land and donated the 35 acres. The company was re-organized on April 25, 1865 with a capitol of $500,000.

 

The first officers were:

Benjamin W. Raymond, President Philo Carpenter, Vice President Thomas S. Dickerson, Treasurer George M. Wheeler, Secretary

 

The first movement was delivered from the factory April 1, 1867 and was named in honor of Benjamin W. Raymond. It was an 18 size, key wind, and full plate, with quick train and straight-line escapement arranged to set on the face and was adjusted to temperature. At that time watches took six months to complete and the B. W. Raymond model sold for $117 at a time when pork chops sold for three cents a pound (several years ago this watch was bought at auction by the city of Elgin for $15,000).

 

On July 16, 1867, a new watch was made and it was named the H. Z. Culver. The slow train was then adopted on all the new movements brought out and they appeared on the market as follows; J. T. Ryerson, October 14, 1867; H. H. Taylor, November 20, 1867; G.W. Wheeler, November 26, 1867 and Matthew Laflin, January 2, 1868. (Laflin and Ryerson both sat on the Elgin's board of directors and Laflin's family did so for more than 70 years.)

 

On May 20, 1869 the first "Lady Elgin" made its appearance and was the first of a series of 10 size movements and it was also key wind. This was followed on August 24, 1870 by the Francis Rubie, which was adjusted to temperature, on September 8, 1871 by the Gail Borden (of Elsie fame) and on December 20, 1871 by the Dexter Street.

 

Elgin and most other watch companies sold their movements to wholesaler's who then sold them to the jewelry shops. The customer would pick out the case of his choice, add the dial and then the jeweler would put them together. Only about 10% of the cases sold were solid gold.

 

The first stem wind movement was placed on the market June 28, 1873. It was a B. W. Raymond movement made over, and was followed shortly by the Culver, Taylor, Wheeler, Laflin and Ogden movements.

 

On May 12, 1874 during a special stockholder's meeting held in Chicago, the name of the company was changed to "The Elgin National Watch Company. This was thought to be advisable because the movements manufactured by the company were universally known as and called "Elgin Watches" or the "Watch from Elgin".

 

Seven new grades of 10 size, six grades of 12 size and five grades of 14 size, three quarter plate, key wind movements, were made by the company between September 29, 1875 and December 29, 1876. Most of these new patterns were made for the foreign markets, which demanded movements differing in some respects from those made for home consumption.

 

The company placed its first nickel movement upon the market, August 15, 1877. A new line of 8 size, stem wind watches were introduced on June 11, 1878, and in the fall of 1878 four grades of 16 size, three quarter plate, stem wind movements began production. These were interchangeable and could be used in hunting or open face cases and were considered quite a novelty at that time. These are called convertible models in today's market and sell at a premium.

 

In 1888 the factory was producing about 7,500 movements per week, about one fifth of which were key wind and one tenth of the movements were nickel. The factory had 2,300 employees at this time and they were split 50/50 between men and women but not so their pay. The women earned about $6 per week while some of the men earned as much as $3 per day and this was for a 6-day workweek.)

 

During World War I the United States Army had the Elgin factory train more than 350 men to make the precision repairs required in the battlefields.

 

It was during the Second World War that all civilian work was stopped and Elgin made military watches, chronometers for the U.S. Navy, fuses for artillery shells, altimeters and instruments for aircraft and sapphire bearings used in the aiming of cannon. The Elgin Company was awarded ten Army-Navy "E" awards, for full filling contracts ahead of schedule.

 

The Elgin Company diversified after World War II making decorator clocks, transistor radios, wedding rings, but the heart's beat was the Elgin watch. That heart beat had been getting slower every year and Elgin ceased to depend on the watch factory as its main enterprise. The clock tower of the National Street plant was torn down October 7, 1966.

 

The world's largest watch manufacturing complex was located in several buildings from its inception in 1864 until the last Elgin movement made in the United States was completed in Elgin, South Carolina, in 1968.

 

Plant No. 1, the Main Plant, was located on National Street in Elgin, Illinois. The original building, opened in 1866, was expanded over the years. In 1925 it contained 583,343 square feet of floor space, the equivalent of 13.4 acres. This area was reduced to 454,800 square feet by 1947. The company sold it in 1965, and it was razed in 1965-66.

 

An observatory at 312 Watch Street, Elgin, Illinois, was constructed in 1909-10 to time watches by the stars. It was turned over to School District U46 in 1960.

 

The Elgin Watchmakers College, 267 South Grove Avenue, Elgin, was opened in 1921. The doors closed in 1960. The building was razed in 1985.

 

Plant No. 2 was located at 366 Bluff City Boulevard in Elgin, Illinois. Opened in 1925, it was acquired by the Elgin National Watch Company in 1940. In 1947 it had 64,930 square feet. No. 2 was closed in 1949 and re-opened in 1951. It was sold by Elgin National Industries in 1972, but a small watch repair operation continued to occupy it.

 

Plant No. 3 at 932 Benton Street, Aurora, Illinois. It was acquired for jewel production in 1942 and closed in 1950. In 1947 it contained 30,370 square feet.

 

The Lincoln, Nebraska, plant was purchased in 1945. It had 218,100 square feet in 1947. The operation was closed in 1958, and the building was sold to the University of Nebraska.

 

The Elgin, South Carolina, plant-a new building with 72,000 square feet of production space-was opened in 1963. It closed in 1968.

 

A leased plant at 1565 Fleetwood Drive, Elgin, Illinois, was occupied beginning in 1964 when operations were transferred from the obsolete Main Plant. Watch production was now centered in South Carolina, and this was the site of the casing, fitting, shipping, service, and trade material departments as well as offices. It was closed up about 1970.

 

From its inception, the company maintained its general offices in Chicago, Illinois. These were transferred to the Main Plant in Elgin in 1932 and 1940.

 

Perfect for any collector or for practical use.

 

***All general responses must include name and telephone number. We will ship anywhere. Sizes are approximate.

 

It's the buyer's responsibility to pay customs fees, duties, import taxes, and related charges.

 

Note: Color of item might deviate slightly in comparison to the original article due to differences in computer monitors and different lighting conditions. Please read description of color. I personally inspect and clean each item before it posts on ebay. It will be well-packaged in bubble wrap and/or packing peanuts...etc., to withstand ordinary travel without damage.

 

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Greenwich Village, Manhattan

 

Constructed around 1838 for merchant Henry J. Wyckoff, 159 Charles Street is significant as a relatively rare surviving residential building of the early period of development of the far western section of Greenwich Village and has associations through its occupants with some of the area’s most significant businesses, the maritime trade and brewing industry. It is one of the few surviving Greek Revival style rowhouses in the Hudson River waterfront section of Manhattan, specifically the area west of the Greenwich Village Historic District between West 14th Street and Lower Manhattan. Wyckoff, a prominent tea and wine merchant, built nine buildings on the former grounds of Newgate prison of which this is the only survivor. No. 159 Charles Street was initially leased to merchant James Hammond who operated a lumber business at Leroy and West Streets. Later tenants included local business owners and maritime workers including dock master Archer Martine and schooner captain Alexander Cunningham.

 

In the 1880s the building was acquired by the neighboring Beadleston & Woerz brewery and was used to house brewery workers and in 1930s and 1940s served as the corporation’s offices. A three-story-plus-basement three-bay­wide brick house with brownstone detailing, 159 Charles Street exhibits the simple forms and planar surfaces characteristic of the Greek Revival style. Its most notable feature is the handsome entry incorporating a stone surround with pilasters and a heavy entablature, tall wood pilasters framing a paneled doorway, sidelights, transom bar, and toplights. The house retains its brownstone base and original decorative wrought iron areaway fence ornamented with anthemia. The house’s historic bracketed metal cornice probably dates from the 1870s or 1880s.

 

DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS

  

Early Development of the Far West Village

 

In the early seventeenth century, the area now known as the Far West Village was a Lenape encampment for fishing and planting known as Sapokanican.2 During Dutch rule the second director general (1633-37) of New Amsterdam, Wouter Van Twiller, “claimed” a huge area of land in and around Greenwich Village for his personal plantation, Bossen Bouwerie, where he cultivated tobacco. Starting in the 1640s freed African slaves, such as Anthony Portugies, Paulo d’Angola, Simon Congo, Groot Manuel and Manuel Trumpeter, were granted and farmed parcels of land near current-day Washington Square, Minetta Lane, and Thompson Street establishing the nucleus of a community of African-Americans that remained in this location until the Civil War.

 

Under British rule during the eighteenth century, the area of Greenwich Village was the location of the small rural hamlet of Greenwich. This building is located to the west of that development in an area that was part of a vast tract of land along the North (Hudson) River amassed during the 1740s by Sir Peter Warren. An admiral in the British Navy, Warren earned a fortune in prize money and had extensive land holdings throughout the New York region. As historian Jill Lepore suggests based on a review of documents at The New-York Historical Society, “Warren appears to have owned a sizable number of slaves.”3 Warren’s three daughters, who resided in England, inherited the property after his death in 1752 and slowly sold off portions of the land. In 1788, Richard Amos, one of Warren’s trustees, acquired the portion of the estate north of today’s Christopher Street, between Hudson and Washington Streets.

 

The land west of this tract was purchased by 1794 by Abijah Hammond, another of Warren’s trustees and also owner of holdings to the southeast. Amos began having streets laid out in his parcel in 1796 and had subdivided the land into lots by 1817. Charles Street, said to be named for his relative, Charles Christopher Amos, was laid out by 1799. According to the Federal censuses for New York (1790-1800), Hammond owned several slaves, while Amos had none.

 

Between 1796 and 1797 the first penitentiary in New York State, known as the “State Prison at Greenwich” or Newgate State Prison was constructed on a four-acre site extending between today’s Christopher and Perry Streets and Washington Street and the North (Hudson) River shoreline on land acquired from Abijah Hammond. Newgate’s massive buildings, surrounded by high stone walls, were designed by Joseph-Francois Mangin, later the architect of City Hall (1802-11, with John Mc Comb, Jr.) and (old) St. Patrick’s Cathedral (1809-15) on Mott Street.4 Prisoners were transferred there from the old Bridewell Prison in City Hall Park. “A more pleasant, airy, and salubrious spot could not have been selected in the vicinity of New York,”5 stated an observer in 1801, and the prison, one of the area’s most imposing structures, became a tourist attraction. Ferry service was established from the prison’s dock to Hoboken in 1799.

 

The Greenwich Hotel, opened in 1809, near the prison; it became a popular summer resort and daily stage service was begun from the hotel to lower Manhattan in 1811. Amos (later West 10th), Perry, and Charles Streets were surveyed in 1796 and, extending westerly only to the prison grounds, deeded to the City by Richard Amos in 1809. North of the prison, Hammond (later West 11th) Street was laid out by 1799 and had a wharf leading to the river. South of the prison, landfill extended the shoreline westward, and West Street was laid out by 1824. Christopher Street, the northern boundary to the Trinity Church Farm, was laid out by 1799 and opened as a street in 1817.

 

By the early 1820s it was obvious that Newgate prison was a failure, subject to frequent riots and attempts to burn the buildings. Many of the Newgate prisoners were West Indian blacks who had a history of opposition to white authority. In 1824 a commission appointed to look into the problem recommended closing Newgate and erecting a new prison farther north along the Hudson River at Sing Sing (later Ossining), New York. The City of New York acquired the Newgate State Prison from the state in 1826, and the prisoners were moved to Sing Sing in 1828-29. In March 1829 Common Council adopted a resolution to extend Charles Street and Amos (West 10th) Street westward to West Street and to have the former prison grounds laid out into 100 lots to be sold at public auction, reserving the blockfront along West Street between Christopher and Amos Streets for a public market.

 

In April 1829, Henry I. Wyckoff, a prominent merchant and former government official, purchased nine lots at the auction including this property at 159 Charles Street.

 

Henry J. Wyckoff

 

Henry J. Wyckoff was born in Flatbush in October 1768.8 He was the son of Mary Nostrandt Wyckoff and John Wyckoff, a descendant of Pieter Claesen Wyckoff. Mary and John Wyckoff resided in Manhattan, where John was a partner in an export-import firm engaged in an extensive trade with European ports. Henry Wyckoff also became a merchant, establishing a partnership,Suydam & Wyckoff, with John Suydam in 1794. Located on the East River waterfront, first at Coenties Slip and later on South Street, Suydam & Wyckoff dealt in teas, wines, and groceries, andaccording to Old Merchants of New York City “did a very heavy business for thirty years.”9 Considered one of the leading businessmen of his day, Wyckoff was one of the directors of theMerchants’ Bank when it incorporated in 1805. He was also one of the organizers of the Eagle Fire Insurance Company and became its president in 1809, a position he held until 1815.

 

Wyckoff was also active in New York City government, serving as a fire warden, election inspector, street assessor, andtax assessor during the early 1800s. From 1821 to 1825 he represented the First Ward as an Aldermanin the Common Council, the precursor to today’s City Council, and was described in Old Merchants of New York as “one of those good old-fashioned Aldermen, such as New York used to have in the olden time.”10 As an Alderman Wyckoff served on committees that determined policy on civicimprovements, tax assessments, licenses, and land-use.

 

In 1795 Henry Wyckoff married Phebe Suydam, a cousin of his business partner. The Wyckoffs lived in Lower Manhattan, initially on Stone Street and later on Pearl Street. In 1802 they moved to a house at 6 Broadway. Henry Wyckoff was residing there when he died in 1839. His wife continued to occupy that house until it burned in a major fire in 1845 and afterwards moved toBrooklyn. The Wyckoffs had three children: Maria Ann (1796-1836) who married dry goodsmerchant Francis Olmstead, Ferdinand Suydam (1798-1827), and Henry Suydam (1804-52) who became a merchant and married Elizabeth Brinckerhoff Suydam. According to the federal census of 1800 Henry J. Wyckoff’s household also included two slaves and one free black person in 1800.12 In the 1810 census he no longer had slaves residing in his home but his household included two live-infree black servants.

 

Like many wealthy businessmen of the period, Henry J. Wyckoff invested his surplus capitalin real estate. His holdings included commercial properties at 70 and 72 Broad Street in the heart of the financial district and a factory building at Washington and Laight Streets.14 Wyckoff also built a number of row houses in Greenwich Village including a pair of houses at 108 and 110 Bank Street (nolonger extant) and the three story Greek Revival residences at 75 and 77 Horatio Street (built c. 1835) which are within the Greenwich Village Historic District. His largest investment was the nine lots he purchased at the auction of the former prison grounds.15 Six of these lots were on the south side of Perry Street (Nos. 158 and 166-172) where Wyckoff built houses during the 1830s that were leased to tenants.16 He also erected an industrial building which was used as a steel factory (foundry) on thenorth side of Charles Lane behind 172 Perry Street (c. 1829).

 

Two of his buildings at 656 and 658Washington Street, erected in the late 1830s, had ground floor commercial space and apartments in theupper floors. This building, No. 159 Charles, was constructed c. 1838 and like the other houses Wyckoff built in the neighborhood was an investment property. Although Henry Wyckoff died soonafter the house was completed it remained a part of his estate until 1889 providing income for his widow and later for his grandchildren.

 

159 Charles Street and the Growth of Greenwich Village’s Far West Side

 

Now one of the few surviving buildings dating from the initial urban development of the Greenwich Village Hudson River waterfront, 159 Charles Street is a significant reminder of the history of this waterfront community.17 The population of Greenwich Village quadrupled between 1825 and 1840 as a number of cholera and yellow fever epidemics in Lower Manhattan led merchants to relocate to Greenwich. Commercial development and congestion in the area near City Hall Park, also encouraged many wealthy New Yorkers to move northward, particularly to the area east of Sixth Avenue. Throughout the nineteenth century, Greenwich Village developed as a primarily residential precinct with accompanying institutions and commercial activities. However, the western section of Greenwich Village developed as a mixed-use area intermingling middle-class and professional-class housing with industrial and commercial buildings, often serving maritime-related businesses.

 

Several factors helped to spur commercial activity in the area. New piers were constructed at the foot of Christopher Street and Charles Street in 1828 and the pier at Hammond (West 11th) Street was rebuilt c. 1829-30.18 By 1842 there were also piers at Amos (West 10th) Street, Jane Street, and Gansevoort Street. The Christopher Street pier, used initially as a transfer depot for lumber and building materials, became the Manhattan terminus for the Hoboken ferry in 1841. By 1842, the Amos (West 10th) Street pier was a passenger stop for the North River (Hudson River) steamboats.19 In 1846, the Hudson River Railroad was incorporated and began constructing its line along West Street, terminating in a station at Chambers Street in 1851 (the station was replaced by the St. John’s Park Terminal in 1868).

 

In addition, sections of the old Newgate prison building survived on the block between Amos and Charles Streets near Washington Street and were adapted for reuse, initially by Jacob Lorillard, who converted the buildings into a sanatorium spa in 1831, and then by Nash, Beadleston & Co. (later Beadleston & Woerz), who established the Empire Brewery there in 1845. The brewery became a major commercial presence in the neighborhood, employing many workers and attracting related businesses. Other businesses located in the blocks between Christopher Street and Bank Streets, West and Washington Streets included the Greenwich Market (known as the Weehawken Market, operated 1834-44), a soap factory, lumber mill, lime shed, foundries and iron works.20 On Charles Street a coal yard was located on the south side of the street nearly opposite this house and the property to the east of this house at 155-157 Charles Street was developed as an ice depot.

 

Nevertheless a thriving middle-class residential neighborhood developed amidst these businesses. By 1835 there were twelve houses on the north side of Charles Street between West and Washington Streets, most of which were owner-occupied.21 The residents were primarily local businessmen, artisans, and carters who likely were involved in hauling goods docked at the neighborhood wharves.22 When 159 Charles Street was constructed in 1838, Henry Wyckoff leased the house to James Hammond, the proprietor of a lumber business at the corner of West and Leroy Streets, who had previously lived on Morton Street. Hammond lived in this house with his wife and three children until 1844. By 1849 the house was being leased to two families. The primary tenant was probably businessman Archibald Martine who had a feed store on West Street, near Charles Street.

 

Martine and his wife and son occupied a portion of this house until at least 1860. During the late 1840s and early 1850s the family of druggist John H. Douglass also resided at 159 Charles Street. By 1860, when the federal census was taken, Archer Martine had become a dock master and he and his family shared this house with the family of sea captain Alexander Cunningham.23 A Scottish immigrant, Capt. Cunningham commanded and owned several ships that sailed between New York City and Eastern and Southern ports.

 

In the period following the Civil War this section of Greenwich Village was no longer a desirable location for single-family residences. In 1870 this building was occupied by the families of boatman Abraham Tompkins, hatter David Roberts, and tinsmith Alfred Bailey, a total of fourteen people.25 By the 1880s there were five families (twenty people) residing here. They ranged in income from the relatively affluent steamboat captain James Lounsbery who occupied a portion of the house with his wife, three children and a live-in-servant, to truckman Gilbert G. Tucker and his wife Eliza who supplemented their income by renting a portion of their flat to two boarders. The number of occupants of this house in the third quarter of the nineteenth century who earned their living through maritime pursuits is a reflection of the growing importance of the Hudson River piers which could accommodate larger deeper-draw vessels than the East River piers and therefore were used for coastal and transatlantic steamships.

 

By 1870 New York had become the busiest port in the United States and West Street had become one of the city’s primary commercial arteries. Growth in the neighborhood was also spurred by the opening of an elevated railroad line (the el) along Greenwich Street in 1869 and by the city’s creation of the Gansevoort Market for regional produce in 1879 (north of Horatio Street) and West Washington Market for meat, poultry, and dairy in 1889.

 

Beadleston & Woerz’s Ownership of 159 Charles Street (1889-1947)

 

The large number of people residing at 159 Charles Street in 1880s was probably both a reflection of the scarcity and high cost of housing in Manhattan and the increasing demand for worker housing in this neighborhood with its rapidly growing industries. Among the fastest growing businesses in the area during this period was Beadleston & Woerz’s Empire Brewery. This firm had been established by Ebenezer Beadleston (1803-89), who settled in New York City in 1837 where he began selling the ales of A [braham] Nash & Co. of Troy, N.Y. Around 1845 Nash, Beadleston & Co. established a brewery on West Tenth Street near Washington Street on a lot extending through the block to Charles Street opposite this house. The business continued under the Beadleston’s sons, William Henry Beadleston (1840-95) and Alfred Nash Beadleston (?- 1917) who formed a partnership with Ernest G. W. Woerz (?-1916) in 1877.

 

In 1889 Beadleston & Woerz was incorporated with a capitalization of just under a million dollars.26 The firm replaced its original brewery building at 291 West 10th Street in 1879. Over the years the brewery expanded its works onto several other former industrial sites in the neighborhood so that it occupied portions of the four blocks from Christopher to Charles Street between West and Greenwich Streets. William Henry and Alfred Nash Beadleston built or acquired a number of buildings in the neighborhood to house their workers.27 No. 159 Charles Street was purchased by William Henry Beadleston in 1889 and was later transferred to the ownership of the firm. It became one of several houses on the north side of Charles Street between West and Washington Streets that were owned by Beadleston & Woerz and were for the most part leased to brewery workers. Census records indicate that three families including that of brewery worker Ernest Reinhardt occupied this house in 1890.

 

In 1900 all three families were headed by German immigrants who worked at the brewery. One family, that of Franz and Maria Baldes, resided in the house from at least 1900 to 1910 with Baldes rising from a laborer to foreman at the brewery.28

 

After the enactment of prohibition Beadleston & Woerz continued to operate as a producer of beverages. In 1929 the firm sold a portion of its bottling plant at Washington and West 10th Street to the New York Central Railroad which constructed a warehouse building on the site.29 Between 1937 and 1939 Beadleston & Woerz replaced the remainder of its main brewery building at West 10th and Washington Streets with a modern three-story factory building which was leased to commercial tenants.30 The firm’s other real estate holdings were either sold or leased and the company was primarily a real estate firm headed by Ebenezer Beadleston’s grandson Alfred Beadleston and Ernest Woerz’s son Frederick Woerz with its offices at 159 Charles Street.31 Frederick Woerz died in 1947, Alfred Beadleston began liquidating the corporation’s real estate.32

 

This building and the neighboring buildings at 151-157 Charles Street were purchased by the Davidson Transfer & Storage Company, a moving company which had offices at 149 Charles Street., and was subsequently transferred to the ownership of a related firm, the Terminal Leasing Corporation.

 

Greek Revival Style Rowhouses in Manhattan and the Far Western Village

 

As the city of New York grew in the period after the Revolution, large plots of land in Manhattan were sold and subdivided for the construction of groups of brick-clad houses. Their architectural style has been called “Federal” after the new republic, but in form and detail they continued the Georgian style of Great Britain. Federal style houses were constructed from the Battery as far north as 23rd Street between the 1790s and 1830s. The size of the lot dictated the size of the house: typically each house lot was 20 or 25 feet wide by 90 to 100 feet deep, which accorded with the rectilinear plan of New York City, adopted as the Commissioners’ Plan in 1811. The rowhouse itself would be as wide as the lot, and 35 to 40 feet deep. This allowed for a stoop and small front yard, or areaway, and a fairly spacious rear yard. During the early 19th century, several houses were often constructed together, sharing common party walls, chimneys, and roof timbering to form a continuous group.

 

The houses, of load-bearing masonry or modified timber-frame construction, had brick-clad front facades. With the increasing availability of pattern books, such as Asher Benjamin’s American Builders Companion (published in six editions between 1806 and 1827), local builders had access to drawings and instructions for exterior and interior plans and details.

 

Federal style rowhouses usually had a three-bay facade with two full stories over a high basement and an additional half story under a peaked roof with the ridge line running parallel to the front facade. The front facade was usually clad in red brick laid in the Flemish bond pattern, with stone trim, commonly brownstone. The planar quality of the facades was relieved by ornament in the form of lintels, entrances, stoops and areaways with iron railings, cornices, and dormers. The most ornamental feature was the doorway, often framed with columns and sidelights and topped with a rectangular transom or fanlight, and having a wooden paneled door. The wood-framed sashes were double hung and multi-light (typically six-over-six). A wooden cornice with a molded fascia extended across the front along the eave. Pedimented or segmental dormers on the front roof slope usually had decorative wood trim.

 

Around 1830, builders in New York City began to incorporate some Greek Revival style features on grander Federal style houses, such as the Seabury Tredwell (“Old Merchant’s”) House (1831-32), 29 East 4th Street. During the early 1830s, fashionable rowhouses were constructed in a Greek Revival style that was distinct from the earlier Federal style houses. Local builders were influenced by the designs and builder’s guides of architects such as Asher Benjamin, Minard Lafever, and Alexander Jackson Davis. Some examples were “high style,” such as the nine marble-fronted houses with a continuous Corinthian colonnade known as LaGrange Terrace or Colonnade Row (1832-33, attributed to Seth Greer), of which Nos. 428-434 Lafayette Street survive. Many rows of speculatively-built Greek Revival style houses were constructed, particularly in the Greenwich Village and Chelsea neighborhoods, during the period of enormous growth and development in New York City during the 1830s-40s.

 

Greek Revival style rowhouses, which became widely popular, basically continued many of the traditions of Federal style houses, including three-bay front facades, brick cladding with brownstone trim, and raised stoops and areaways with iron railings. They differed, however, in stylistic details, in their emphasis on flat planar surfaces and simple forms, and in scale, being taller and somewhat grander at a full three stories above a basement (with higher ceilings per story). By this period, technological advances in brickmaking allowed for higher quality, machine-pressed brick. The brick was laid in a bond other than Flemish, such as stretcher bond. Ornamentation was spare, including simple, molded rectangular lintels and a flat roofline capped by a denticulated and molded wooden cornice (sometimes with attic windows). Like on Federal style houses, the most ornamental feature was the doorway.

 

The Greek Revival style doorway was recessed, with a rectangular transom, sidelights, and paneled (often a single vertical panel) door. On grander houses, the entrance featured a portico with Doric or Ionic columns flanking the doorway and supporting a prominent entablature. Examples of this type include “The Row” (1832-33), 1-13 Washington Square North, and the Samuel Tredwell Skidmore House (1845), 37 East 4th Street. More commonly, the entrance featured a brownstone surround with wide pilasters supporting an entablature. No. 159 Charles Street is of this latter type. The wood-framed sashes were double-hung and typically six-over-six (often nine-over­nine or six-over-nine on the parlor level).

 

Examples of surviving Federal and Greek Revival style rowhouses in the far western section of Greenwich Village include: the rare, vernacular wood-framed No. 132 Charles Street (c. 1819), attributed to carpenter Matthew Armstrong, a co-owner/occupant who was active in neighborhood development, and extended one story c. 1853, attributed to carpenters/owner-occupants John and Levi Springsteen; Nos. 651, 653 and 655 Washington Street (1829), 3-1/2-story, brick-clad Federal style houses owned by merchant Samuel Norsworthy; No. 398 West Street (1830-31), a 3-1/2-story, brick-clad Federal style house built for flour merchant Isaac Amerman; No. 7 Weehawken Street (c. 1830­31), a 3-story, brick-clad rowhouse/stable owned by carpenter Jacob P. Roome; No. 131 Charles Street (1834), an intact, relatively rare and late example of a 2-1/2-story, brick-clad Federal style house, owned by stone cutter David Christie and a designated New York City Landmark since 1966; No. 269 West 10th Street (c. 1835), a Greek Revival style (now altered) house for widow Hannah Jenkins; No. 161 Charles Street (c. 1835), a 3-story Greek Revival style house built by Abraham Romaine (altered at the ground story and by a multi-story penthouse addition.); and No. 354 West 11th Street (c. 1841-42), a fine 3-story Greek Revival style constructed by carver and composition ornament manufacturer William Fash and today a designated New York City Landmark.

 

Aspects of No. 159 Charles Street’s design that reflect the Greek Revival style are its three­story-plus-basement height, the emphasis on planar wall surfaces achieved in part by the use of machine-pressed brick laid in stretcher bond (now painted), stoop and areaway with wrought-iron railings trimmed with Greek anthemia, entrance surround with wide pilasters carrying a full entablature, recessed doorway, with door articulated with shallow recessed panels typical of the Greek Revival style, pilasters, sidelights, transom bars and transom. The original flat stone lintels and sills have been covered with non-historic metal lintels and sills. The Italianate style paneled frieze and decorative bracketed cornice probably dates from the 1870s or 1880s.

 

Subsequent History

 

This building remained in the ownership of the Terminal Leasing Company until 1964. In the mid-1950s it was occupied James Hargan. In 1964 the building was purchased by realtor Chester W. Krone, Jr. who converted it into two duplex apartments and who resided in the building.36 In 1966 Krone sold the building to Charles D. Rogers and Frederick Lock.37 Lock died around 1983 and Rogers purchased his interest in the house. In 1985 Miguel Chacour and stock analyst Barbara H. Chacour, who had been living at 159 Charles Street since 1980, purchased an interest in the building. In 1992, after Charles Rogers died, his interest passed to Robert C. La Mont. La Mont died in 1995 and John McClenahan and Deborah Robin True purchased his interest in the building. They sold their interest to Robert Cromwell Coulson, publisher of Pink Pages, in 2004.

 

Description

This 3-story-plus-basement Greek Revival style rowhouse is clad in machine-pressed red brick laid in stretcher bond (now painted) above a brownstone base (now parged). The areaway is bordered by stone curbs (now parged) which support original wrought-iron railings and a gate ornamented with anthemia. The brownstone stoop leading down to the areaway is historic. The areaway is paved with historic flagstone but the steps down to the entrance beneath the front stoop are non-historic. The iron-gate beneath the stoop is non-historic. The basement entry has a historic paneled wood door. The two basement windows have non-historic six-over-six wood sashes and non-historic iron grates. The high stone stoop has been parged with stucco; it has non-historic wrought-iron railings. The entrance has a brownstone surround with pilasters supporting a full entablature with a molded architrave and cornice and a frieze band above the cornice.

 

The recessed entry has historic wood reveals and features tall pilasters that extend the entire height of the entry. They set off the historic (perhaps original) Greek Revival style paneled wood door (non-historic hardware and letter slot). Flanking the door are historic multi-pane sidelights supported by paneled wood dados. Transom bars articulated with a simple drip molding support the double-light center transom and two small side transom windows. All of the windows above basement level have non-historic metal lintels and sills. The upper-story windows contain non-historic replacement sash. Through-the-wall air conditioners are located below the western window of the first and second stories. The facade is terminated by a c. 1870s-1880s metal entablature with a paneled frieze, decorative scrolled brackets, and molded pressed metal cornice (the west portion of the cornice was replaced in 2006).

 

Visible above the second story, the brick eastern sidewall of the house is parged with stucco and is largely concealed by vines. There is a non-historic metal railing on the roof near the east wall. The rear façade is blocked from view by the extensively altered two-story former carriage house/back house facing onto Charles Lane. The former carriage house/back house is not included in this designation and the landmark site extends only to the south wall of that building.

 

- From the 2007 NYCLPC Landmark Designation Report

# www.youtube.com/watch?v=mMR2BZuqY8A

 

## Ten worst moments for MPs captured on film....

 

www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/mps-expenses/5435376/...

 

MPs' expenses: Full list of MPs investigated by the Telegraph

 

All of the MPs named by the Telegraph's investigation into how politicians - from Gordon Brown's Cabinet to backbenchers of all parties - exploited the system of parliamentary allowances to subsidise their lifestyles and multiple homes.

 

Last Updated: 6:59PM BST 25 May 2009

 

The Houses of Parliament in Westminster Photo: PA

MPs' expenses investigation in depth

 

Gerry Adams and four other Sinn Fein MPs claimed more than £500,000 over five years even though they refuse to attend Parliament

 

Adam Afriyle has not made any claims on his second home allowance

 

Douglas Alexander spent more than £30,000 doing up his constituency home – which then suffered damage in a house fire. Claimed the cost of hiring a “media trainer” on their office expenses. Spent taxpayers’ money advertising at football and rugby league matches. Bought expensive gadgets. Claimed for party political propaganda

 

Michael Ancram put the cost of having his swimming pool boiler serviced on his parliamentary allowances. He has agreed to repay the money

 

James Arbuthnot claimed from the public finances for cleaning his swimming pool at a country residence. He has agreed to repay the money

 

Hilary Armstrong was told that allowing the Labour Party to pay for and run a computer at her taxpayer-funded home could make her “politically vulnerable”

 

Ian Austin split a claim for stamp duty on buying his second home in London into two payments and tried to claim it back over two financial years.

 

John Austin claimed more than £10,000 for redecorating his London flat, which was 11 miles from his main home, before selling it for a profit.

 

Vera Baird claimed the cost of Christmas tree decorations

 

Ed Balls and wife Yvette Cooper “flipped” the designation of their second home to three different properties within two years. Mr Balls, the Schools Secretary, also attempted to claim £33 for poppy wreaths

 

Norman Baker asked if he could claim for a bicycle and a computer so he could listen to music and email family and friends

 

Greg Barker made a £320,000 profit selling a flat the taxpayer had helped pay for. He has agreed to repay £10,000.

 

Margaret Beckett made a £600 claim for hanging baskets and pot plants

 

Alan Beith claimed £117,000 in second home allowances while his wife, Baroness Maddock, claimed £60,000 in House of Lords expenses for staying at the same address

 

Hilary Benn claimed only £42,113 on his second homes allowance in four years. Faces questions over party funding after it emerged he paid rent to the Labour Party from expenses. Claimed for party political propaganda

 

Richard Benyon did not claim on his second homes allowance in 2007/08

 

John Bercow “flipped” his second home from his constituency to a £540,000 flat in London and claimed the maximum possible allowances for it. Bercow, a candidate for next Speaker, "repaid" £6,500 capital gains tax on the sale of two properties

 

Sir Paul Beresford, who works up to three days a week as a dentist, designated his west London property, which includes his surgery, as his second home on his parliamentary allowances

 

Liz Blackman went on last-minute shopping sprees before the end of each financial year, in an apparent attempt to make sure she claimed as close to maximum expenses as possible

 

Tony Blair re-mortgaged his constituency home and claimed almost a third of the interest around the time he was buying another property in London

 

Hazel Blears did not pay capital gains tax on a property she sold despite having told the Commons authorities it was her second home. She has since agreed to paid the tax but denied any wrongdoing. Claimed the costs of accountancy advice using expenses intended to fund their parliamentary and constituency offices. Bought expensive gadgets. Claimed for party political propaganda

 

Crispin Blunt told to stop claiming Commons allowance on his home because his children live there

 

Tim Boswell claimed only £22,230 on his second homes allowance between 2004 and 2008

 

Ben Bradshaw used his allowance to pay the mortgage interest on a flat he owned jointly with his boyfriend

 

Tom Brake did not claim on his second home allowance between 2004-8

 

Kevin Brennan had a £450 television delivered to his family home in Cardiff even though he reclaimed the money back on his London second home allowance

 

James Brokenshire claimed just £368 on his second homes allowance in 2007/8 and nothing in the preceding three years

 

Gordon Brown's house swap let the PM claim thousands

 

Nick Brown claimed £18,800, without receipts, in expenses for food over four years amid total expenses of £87,000

 

Russell Brown reclaimed the maximum allowed under the Commons expenses system for his bathroom to be refurbished at his rented designated second home in London

 

At £10,000 Angela Browning paid over-the-odds for her website say experts, but it was the taxpayer who eventually settled the bill

 

Malcolm Bruce was able to exploit the expenses system and claim for costs at two homes

 

Chris Bryant changed second home twice in two years to claim £20,000 Andy Burnham had an eight-month battle with the fees office after making a single expenses claim for more than £16,500. Burnham, the Cutlure Secretary, avoided paying tax on a £16,600 property windfall. Claimed for party political propaganda

 

David Burrowes did not claim for the second home allowance at all

 

Paul Burstow doesn't claim for a second home although he is entitled to

 

Alistair Burt claimed £1,000 too much in expenses for his rent, but was allowed to keep the money.

 

Dawn Butler, the Labour whip, over-claimed £2,600 in rent on her constituency home.

 

Stephen Byers claimed more than £125,000 for repairs and maintenance at a London flat owned outright by his partner, where he lives rent-free

 

Vince Cable forgoes the second home allowance, but asked whether he could claim backdated payments of the London supplement instead

 

David Cameron limited his claims to mortgage interest payments and utility bills. He will repay the only maintenance bill he claimed - £600 for the removal of wisteria

 

Menzies Campbell hired a top interior designer to refurbish his small flat in central London at taxpayers’ expense. He will repay the £1,490.66 cost of an interior designer

 

Ronnie Campbell claimed a total of £87,729 for furniture for his London flat

 

Ben Chapman deliberately over-claimed for interest on the mortgage of his London house by about £15,000 with the approval of the fees office, documents seen by the Telegraph suggest. He is facing possible suspension from the PLP

 

David Chaytor admits claiming almost £13,000 in interest payments for a mortgage that he had already repaid. He has been suspended from the Parliamentary Labour Party

 

Christoper Chope transported a sofa from his second home in London to a tradesman near his main residence in his constituency of Christchurch, Dorset, to be repaired at a cost of £881

 

Michael Clapham, a Labour backbencher, submitted a receipt for the pair of glasses bought for his wife

 

James Clappison owns 24 houses but billed more than £100,000, including thousands for gardening and redecoration

 

Kenneth Clarke managed to avoid paying the full rate of council tax on either of his two homes by effectively claiming that neither is his main residence. He has agreed to pay the full rate in future but defended his past behaviour.

 

Nick Clegg claimed the maximum allowed under his parliamentary second home allowance

 

David Clelland claimed for the cost of “buying out” his partner’s £45,000 stake in his London flat

 

Geoffrey Clifton-Brown “flipped” his second home designation from London to his Gloucestershire home, before buying a £2,750,000 house

 

Harry Cohen claimed thousands of pounds for redecorating his second home before selling it and charging taxpayers £12,000 in stamp duty and fees on a new property

 

Michael Connarty sold some of the contents of his London home to Jim Devine, a close colleague, before charging the taxpayer thousands of pounds for goods delivered to addresses in Scotland.

 

Expelled Tory MP Derek Conway, whose payments to his two sons first highlighted the abuse of the MPs expenses system, claimed for office 270 miles from constituency

 

Yvette Cooper and husband Ed Balls “flipped” the designation of their second home to three different properties within two years. Cooper bought expensive gadgets and claimed for party political propaganda

 

Stephen Crabb claimed his “main home” was a room in another MP’s flat, after buying a new house for his family at taxpayers’ expense

 

Jim Cunningham shunned the opportunity to by furniture and his expenses were in the bottom 40 of any MP

 

Tam Dalyell attempted to claim £18,000 for bookcases two months before he retired as an MP

 

Alistair Darling's stamp duty was paid by the public. Claimed the costs of accountancy advice using expenses intended to fund their parliamentary and constituency offices

 

Ed Davey did not claim on his second home allowance between 2004-8

 

Ian Davidson paid £5,500 to a family friend to renovate his flat and then took him shooting with members of the House of Lords

 

Tory defector Quentin Davies repaired window frames at his18th-century mansion, charging £10,000 to expenses

 

David Davis spent more than £10,000 of taxpayers’ money on home improvements in four years, including a new £5,700 portico at his home in Yorkshire.

 

Jim Devine bought Michael Connarty's furniture on expenses

 

Jonathan Djanogly , the millionaire shadow business minister, claimed £5,000 to have electric gates installed at his Huntington home

 

Pat Doherty and four other Sinn Fein MPs claimed more than £500,000 over five years even though the Sinn Fein MPs refuse to attend Parliament

 

Nadine Dorries , who claimed the expenses expose was a “McCarthy­ite witch hunt”, disowned by David Cameron

 

David Drew used to own a home in London but decided to forgo it in favour of staying in hotels while in the capital

 

Alan Duncan spent thousands from his allowance on gardening, including repairs to his lawnmower. He has agreed to repay £5,000

 

Ian Duncan Smith, the former Conservative leader, claimed no second home expesnes in the last year, commuting from his outer London constituency

 

Philip Dunne has not made any claims on his second home allowance since 2005/06

 

Angela Eagle claimed just £155 a month mortgage interest on her second home for a period and even underclaimed for council tax

 

Maria Eagle claimed thousands of pounds on refurbishing a bathroom at one of her flats just months before switching her designated second home to a property with a higher mortgage

 

Natascha Engel went on a shopping spree within months of being elected, spending thousands of pounds of taxpayers’ cash

 

Lynne Featherstone did not claim on her second homes allowance in between 2004 and 2008

 

Frank Field claimed just £44,338 on his second home allowance between 2004 and 2008

 

Caroline Flint claimed £14,000 for fees for new flat

 

Barbara Follett used £25,000 of taxpayers' money to pay for private security patrols at her home

 

Andrew George used parliamentary expenses for a London flat used by his student daughter. He also claimed hundreds of pounds for hotel stays with his wife. He has said he will repay £20 for a hotel breakfast

 

Neil Gerrard made no claims against the second home allowance

 

Ian Gibson claimed almost £80,000 in four years for mortgage interest and bills on a London flat which was the main home of his daughter

 

Michelle Gildernew and four other Sinn Fein MPs claimed more than £500,000 over five years even though the Sinn Fein MPs refuse to attend Parliament

 

Cheryl Gillan bought dog food using her allowance but agreed to pay it back after being contacted by the Telegraph

 

Linda Gilroy said that she was paying back £1,891

 

Paul Goggins, the Northern Ireland Minister, claimed almost £45,000 for a "second home", while a friend lived there rent-free

 

Julia Goldsworthy spent thousands of pounds on expensive furniture just days before the deadline for using up parliamentary allowances. She has promised to pay back £1,005 for a leather rocking chair

 

Helen Goodman claimed for a week's stay in a cottage in her constituency over a bank holiday

 

Michael Gove spent thousands on his London home before "flipping" his Commons allowance to another address. He has agreed to repay £7,000

 

Chris Grayling claimed for a London flat even though his constituency home is only 17 miles from the House of Commons. He has agreed to stop doing so

 

James Gray successfully claimed £2,000 for the future redecoration of his “second home” on the day that he moved out.

 

John Gummer's gardening, including the removal of moles from his lawn, cost the taxpayer £9,000

 

Mike Hall claimed thousands of pounds in expenses for the cost of cleaners, cleaning products and laundry bills for his London home

 

Patrick Hall's second home costs were a modest half of the total allowance

 

Fabian Hamilton declared his mother’s London house as his main residence while over-charging the taxpayer by thousands of pounds for a mortgage on his family home in Leeds

 

Mike Hancock was ranked 548 out of 645 MPs, claiming only £10, 859 of his scond home allowance in 2007-08

 

Harriet Harman hired Scarlett MccGwire for “consultancy” services on the public purse. Claimed for party political propaganda and bought expensive gadgets.

 

Nick Harvey had to be reminded twice by parliamentary officials to submit receipts with his expenses claims

 

Alan Haselhurst charged the taxpayer almost £12,000 for gardening bills at his farmhouse in Essex, his expenses claims show.

 

David Heathcoat-Amory’s gardener used hundreds of sacks of horse manure and the MP submitted the receipts to Parliament

 

Nick Herbert charged taxpayers more than £10,000 for stamp duty and fees when he and his partner bought a home together in his constituency

 

Douglas Hogg included with his expenses claims the cost of having the moat cleared, piano tuned and stable lights fixed at his country manor house. He has agreed to repay £2,200 for the moat clearing

 

Jimmy Hood used his second homes allowance to claim up to £1,000 per month without providing receipts

 

Geoff Hoon established a property empire worth £1.7 million after claiming taxpayer-funded expenses for at least two properties. He also did not pay capital gains tax on the sale of his London home in 2006. Claimed the costs of accountancy advice using expenses intended to fund their parliamentary and constituency offices. Bought expensive gadgets, including digital cameras and camcorders

 

Phil Hope spent more than £10,000 in one year refurbishing a small London flat. He has promised to pay back £41,000 to the taxpayer

 

Kelvin Hopkins claims just a fraction of the available second-home allowance by taking the train to Westminster from his home town

 

Stewart Hosie made thousands of pounds of expense claims for furnishings, including £160 for scatter cushions

 

David Howarth has not made any claims on his second home allowance since 2004/05

 

Chris Huhne regularly submits receipts for bus tickets and groceries including pints of milk, fluffy dusters, lavatory rolls and chocolate HobNobs. He has promised to pay back £119 for a trouser press

 

John Hutton faces questions over party funding after it emerged that he was paid rent to the Labour Party. Spent taxpayers’ money advertising at football and rugby league matches. Used his office expenses to pay for a degree studied by a member of his staff

 

Glenda Jackson did not claim on her second homes allowance between 2004 and 2008

 

Stewart Jackson claimed more than £66,000 for his family home, including hundreds of pounds on refurbishing his swimming pool. He has agreed to repay the costs associated with his pool

 

Bernard Jenkins rents his sister-in-law's farmhouse as a second home and charged £50,000 to his expenses

 

Brian Jenkins claims little or no mortgage interest for his property in London

 

Alan Johnson claimed just £43,596 for his second home in 2004-8

 

Diana Johnson claimed nearly £1,000 to cover the cost of hiring an architect for a decorating project at her second home

 

Helen Jones claimed £87,647 in second home allowances for her London flat between 2004 and 2008

 

Gerald Kaufman charged the taxpayer £1,851 for a rug he imported from a New York antiques centre and tried to claim £8,865 for a television

 

Alan and Ann Keen claimed almost £40,000 a year on a central London flat although their family home was less than 10 miles away

 

Ruth Kelly has claimed more than £31,000 to redecorate and furnish her designated second home in the past five years. She claimed thousands of pounds in expenses to pay for damage caused to her home by flooding, although at the time she had a building insurance policy

 

Fraser Kemp made repeat purchases of household items over the space of several weeks

 

David Kidney said he was were paying back £2,450

 

Julie Kirkbride's husband Andrew Mackay resigned as David Cameron's aide after it emerged that the two MPs were making claims that meant they effectively had no main home but two second homes, both funded with public money.

 

Greg Knight, an MP with a collection of classic cars, claimed £2,600 in expenses for repair work on the driveway at his designated second home

 

Susan Kramer did not claim on her second home allowance between 2004-8

 

Andrew Lansley spent more than £4,000 of taxpayers’ money renovating his country home months before he sold it. He will repay £2,600 of decorating fees

 

Labour backbencher Bob Laxton insisted he was 'too busy' to shop around when he attempted to claim £1,049 for a TV

 

David Lepper he was placed 545th out of 645 MPs in 2007-08, claiming only £11,175 of his second home allowance

 

Oliver Letwin repaired a pipe beneath his tennis court using taxpayers' money. He has agreed to repay the money

 

Tom Levitt agrees the fees office was right to reject a claim of £16.50 for a Remberance Sunday wreath

 

Julian Lewis attempted to claim £6,000 in expenses for a wooden floor at his second home

 

David Lidington charged the taxpayer nearly £1,300 for his dry cleaning and claimed for toothpaste, shower gel, body spray and vitamin supplements on his second home allowance

 

Ian Lucas made £45,000 profit when he sold a London flat on which he had claimed second home expenses

 

Peter Luff bought three lavatory seats, three food mixers, two microwaves and 10 sets of bed linen while kitting out his country house and London flat at taxpayers’ expense

 

Lord Mandelson faces questions over the timing of his house claim which came after he had announced he would step down

 

Andrew Mackay resigned as David Cameron's aide after it emerged that he and his wife Julie Kirkbride were making claims that meant they effectively had no main home but two second homes, both funded with public money.

 

David Maclean spent thousands of pounds of taxpayers’ money renovating a farmhouse before selling it for £750,000.

 

Angus MacNeil, the MP whose police complaint triggered the cash-for-peerages inquiry, tried to charge the taxpayer for his drinks bills, a chocolate bar and hundreds of pounds of "petty cash".

 

Fiona MacTaggart claimed just £3,392 on her second homes allowance in 2007/08

 

Khalid Mahmood enjoyed nine nights with his girlfriend at a luxury London hotel, costing the taxpayer £175 a night

 

Anne Main allowed her daughter to live rent-free at a flat paid for by taxpayer-funded second home allowances

 

Shahid Malik claimed £66,000 on his second property while paying less than £100 a week for his main house. He has resigned as justice minister pending an investigation

 

Judy Mallaber rarely claims for food

 

John Maples declared a private members’ club as his main home to the parliamentary authorities. He claimed the maximum second home allowance on his family house while apparently not having a “main” property to maintain

 

Bob Marshall-Andrews claimed £118,000 for expenses at his second home, including stereo equipment, extensive redecoration and a pair of Kenyan carpets.

 

Rob Marris claimed just £11,973 on his second homes allowance in 2007/08

 

Gordon Marsdon claimed just £9,739 on his second homes allowance in 2007/08

 

Michael Martin used taxpayers' money to pay for chauffeur-driven cars to his local job centre and Celtic's football ground

 

Francis Maude claimed almost £35,000 in two years for mortgage interest payments on a London flat when he owned a house just a few hundred yards away. He has agreed to stop claiming for a second home

 

Theresa May claimed just £4,288 on her second home allowance in 2007/08

 

Tommy McAvoy claimed £86,565 in second home allowances between 2004 and 2008 for his flat in Westminster

 

Steve McCabe over-claimed on his mortgage by £4,059 during the course of two years

 

Sarah McCarthy-Fry tried to claim a pair of £100 hair straighteners on her parliamentary expenses.

 

Ian McCartney spent £16,000 furnishing and decorating his designated second home but paid the money back two years later. McCartney, a former Labour Party chairman, will not stand at general election, citing "health reasons"

 

Martin McGuinness and four other Sinn Fein MPs claimed more than £500,000 over five years even though the Sinn Fein MPs refuse to attend Parliament

 

Patrick McLoughlin, the senior MP asked by David Cameron to scrutinise Tory expenses, claimed £3,000 for new windows at his second home.

 

Michael Meacher claimed just £32,825 on his second homes allowance between 2004-8

 

David Miliband's spending was queried by his gardener. Faces questions over party funding after it emerged he paid rent to the Labour Party from expenses. Claimed for party political propaganda

 

Ed Miliband claimed just £7,670 on his second home allowance in 2007/08. Ed Miliband claimed just £7,670 on his second home allowance in 2007/08. Hired Scarlett MccGwire for “consultancy” services on the public purse

 

Ann Milton did not make any claims on her second home allowance in 2007/08

 

Austin Mitchell claimed for security shutters, ginger crinkle biscuits and the cost of reupholstering his sofa. He has offered to donate his old sofa coverings to make amends

 

Laura Moffatt has given up a riverside apartment she used to pay for on her parliamentary expenses in favour of a camp bed in her House of Commons office.

 

Madeleine Moon spent thousands in furniture shops near her Welsh constituency house and claimed the money back on her London designated second home allowance

 

Margaret Moran switched the address of her second home, allowing her to claim £22,500 to fix a dry rot problem. She has agreed to repay the money while insisting she acted within the rules. She could face an investigation for allegedly using Commons stationery to keep neighbours away from her fourth property in Spain. She also billed the taxpayer for nearly £4,000 in legal fees in settling a dispute with one of her staff and faces a challenge at the next general election from Esther Rantzen .

 

Julie Morgan makes do with a small flat in south London costing the taxpayer less than 10,000 a year

 

Elliot Morley claimed parliamentary expenses of more than £16,000 for a mortgage which had already been paid off

 

George Mudie claimed £62,000 in expenses for his London flat in four years, while having a mortgage of just £26,000.

 

Chris Mullin, a former minister, watches a 30-year-old black and white television at his second home and claims the £45 cost of the licence on his expenses

 

Conor Murphy and four other Sinn Fein MPs claimed more than £500,000 over five years even though the Sinn Fein MPs refuse to attend Parliament

 

Paul Murphy had a new plumbing system installed at taxpayers’ expense because the water in the old one was “too hot”

 

Lembit Opik had to pay £2,499 for a 42-inch plasma television after purchasing it while Parliament was dissolved

 

George Osborne was rebuked by the Commons authorities for using public money to fund his "political" website. He also claimed money for a chauffeur-driven car which he has agreed to repay

 

Mike Penning , a shadow health minister, charged the taxpayer £2.99 for a stainless steel dog bowl

 

John Prescott claimed for two lavatory seats in two years

 

James Purnell avoided paying capital gains tax on the sale of his London flat after claiming expenses for accountancy advice. Bought expensive gadgets. Spent taxpayers’ money advertising at football and rugby league matches

 

John Redwood has admitted being paid twice after submitting an identical £3,000 decorating bill on his second home allowance

 

Alan Reid claimed more than £1,500 on his parliamentary expenses for staying in hotels and bed-and-breakfasts near his home

 

John Reid used his allowance to pay for slotted spoons, an ironing board and a glittery loo seat

 

Angus Robertson successfully appealed to the fees office when they turned down his claim for a £400 home cinema system

 

Geoffrey Robinson has not made any claims on his second home allowance since 2004/05

 

Peter and Iris Robinson both claimed expenses based on the same £1,223 bill when they submitted their parliamentary claims in 2007

 

David Ruffley claimed for new furniture and fittings after “flipping” his second home from London to a new flat in his constituency

 

Joan Ryan spent thousands of pounds on repairs and decorations at her constituency home before switching her designated second home to a London property

 

Alex Salmond claimed £400 per month for food when the Commons was not even sitting

 

Martin Salter has not made any claims on his second home allowance since 2004/05

 

Grant Shapps claimed just £7,269 on his second homes allowance in 2007/08

 

Jim Sheridan used his allowances to reclaim the cost of a 42-inch plasma TV, leather bed and hundreds of pounds worth of furniture.

 

Clare Short claimed thousands of pounds of taxpayers' money to which she was not entitled within months of standing down as a Cabinet minister

 

Keith Simpson has claimed almost £200 for light bulbs on his expenses

 

Andrew Smith spent more than £30,000 of taxpayers’ money giving his house a makeover

 

Angela Smith sought payment for four beds for a one-bedroom London flat

 

Jacqui Smith claimed the costs of accountancy advice using expenses intended to fund their parliamentary and constituency offices. Bought expensive gadgets including an iPhone for her husband.

 

Michael Spicer claimed for work on his helipad and received thousands of pounds for gardening bills

 

Sir Peter Soulsby fell behind with the rent at his offices but when the bailiffs bill (£472) arrived it was passed over to the fees office

 

Anthony Steen claimed £87,000 on country mansion with 500 trees. He has announced he will step down at the next election

 

Jack Straw only paid half the amount of council tax that he claimed on his parliamentary allowances over four years but later rectified the over-claim. Used his office expenses to pay for a degree studied by a member of his staff

 

Jo Swinson included receipts for eyeliner, a “tooth flosser” and 29p dusters with her parliamentary expenses claims

 

Robert Syms claimed more than £2,000 worth of furniture on expenses for his designated second home in London, but had it all delivered to his parents’ address in Wiltshire

 

Sarah Teather did not claim on her second homes allowance between 2004 and 2008

 

Mark Todd defended his expenses claims as "essentials" but included a marble table and an espresso coffee machine

 

Don Touhig spent thousands of pounds redecorating his constituency home before “flipping” his allowance to a flat in London

 

Kitty Ussher asked the Commons authorities to fund extensive refurbishment of her Victorian family home

 

Ed Vaizey had £2,000 worth of furniture delivered to his London home when he was claiming his Commons allowance on a second home in Oxfordshire.

 

Keith Vaz claimed £75,500 for a second flat near Parliament even though he already lived just 12 miles from Westminster

 

Sir Peter Viggers included with his expense claims the £1,645 cost of a floating duck house in the garden pond at his Hampshire home. He has announced he will step down at the next election

 

Theresa Villiers claimed almost £16,000 in stamp duty and professional fees on expenses when she bought a London flat, even though she already had a house in the capital. She has agreed to stop claiming the second home allowance

 

Claire Ward, the MP responsible for keeping the Queen informed about Parliament, submitted monthly expense claims for hundreds of pounds of "petty cash" while claiming maximum allowances

 

Tom Watson and Iain Wright spent £100,000 of taxpayers' money on the London flat they once shared

 

Steve Webb sold his London flat and bought another nearby, while the taxpayer picked up an £8,400 bill for stamp duty

 

Shaun Woodward received £100,000 to help pay mortgage

 

Malcolm Wicks was entitled to claim for a second home allowance but instead claimed for the more moderate London subsidy of £2,812.

 

Bill Wiggin claimed interest payments for a property which had no mortgage

 

David Willetts, the Conservatives' choice for skills minister, needed help changing light bulbs. He has agreed to repay the bill

 

Alan Williams claimed just £5,221 on his second homes allowance in 2007/08

 

Phil Willis spent thousands of pounds of public funds on mortgage interest payments, redecoration and furnishings for a flat where his daughter now lives.

 

David Winnick claimed just £36,354 on his second homes allowance between 2004-8

 

Sir Nicholas Winterton and his wife Ann claimed more than £80,000 for a London flat owned by a trust controlled by their children

 

Ann Widdecombe claimed just £858 on her second home allowance in 2007/08

 

Rob Wilson did not claim on his second homes allowance between 2004 and 2008

 

Phil Woolas submitted receipts including comics, nappies and women's clothing as part of his claims for food

 

Iain Wright and Tom Watson spent £100,000 of taxpayers' money on the London flat they once shared

 

Derek Wyatt billed 75p for scotch eggs

 

George Young claimed the maximum second home allowance on his London flat for the past two years

 

Richard Younger-Ross spent £1,235 on four mirrors and bought 'Don Juan’ bookcase

 

# www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/mps-expenses/5297606/...

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PL-354-wSXMV62O-27

 

13198-213000173-2 Naples, FL. is the crown jewel of the Florida coastline. For years this area has been sought after by those looking for the best that Florida has to offer. Many will purchase their piece of this tropical city this year. And as the trends have shown, many will be foreign investors looking to enjoy the sun, beaches, golf, shopping, dining and entertainment and arts that Naples is known for.

 

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Property Features

 

General Pet restrictions

Community Pool table(s), Community clubhouse(s), Community exercise area(s), Community childrens play area', Community swimming pool(s), Putting green, Community sauna(s), Community spa(s), Community tennis court(s), Gated community

Construction Concrete block stucco

Roof Tile roof

Exterior Enclosed patio

Flooring Carpet, Tile flooring

Heat/Cool Central air conditioning, Central heat

Inclusions Self-cleaning oven, Microwave oven, Dishwasher, Ice maker line, Refrigerator, Freezer, Clothes washer, Clothes dryer, Range and oven

Interior Pantry, Walk-in closet(s), Window treatments

Utilities Public sewer service, Public water supply, TV cable available

Location Northern exposure

Parking 2 car garage, Attached parking, Automatic garage door

Recreation Cabana

Rooms Master bedroom on main floor, Den, Eat in kitchen

Scenery Scenic view

Style Traditional

Win/Doors Sliding glass door(s)

Lot Dim 50x120x50x120

Rooms

Master Bedroom 23.4x15.0

Bedroom 2 11.0x11.0

Bedroom 3 12.0x11.0

Dining 10x11

Family Room 18x21

Laundry Room 8x6

 

Bishop Olmsted ordains diocese’s newest priest

 

By Ambria Hammel | June 2, 2012 | The Catholic Sun

 

Bishop Thomas J. Olmsted ordained Dan Vanyo to the priesthood June 2 at Ss. Simon and Jude Cathedral.

 

He joins 254 diocesan and religious priests who serve the Phoenix Diocese by offering the Holy Sacrifice of the Mass, conferring the sacraments and overseeing aspects of parish life. Many of them were on hand to offer congratulations to their newest brother.

 

That included a handful of local priests and some from St. John Vianney Theological Seminary in Denver who played key roles in Fr. Vanyo’s discernment. Fr. Vanyo, 43, began discerning his call to the priesthood at age 32 when a friend through a local Catholic singles group was discerning religious life.

 

“I never discerned anything,” Fr. Vanyo said. He researched some religious orders, but it wasn’t until a day for prospective diocesan seminarians that he reached a peaceful conclusion.

 

“They need help here,” Fr. Vanyo, then a hospice nurse, recalled thinking. “That’s when I gave the Lord my fiat. If you open the door, I’ll walk through it.”

 

He ran into Fr. Chauncey Winkler, who he knew from the local Catholic Retreat for Young Singles group and told him, “I think this is where I could be of some help.”

 

He entered the seminary in 2005 and was among a reported 487 ordinands nationally who will join the ranks of priesthood this year. Bishop Olmsted read from the Ordination Rite during Mass.

 

He reminded the crowd, including family and friends who filled the first row on both sides, that Jesus chose certain disciples to carry out publicly in His name, a priestly office. He reminded the diocese’s newest priest of his roles of Christ the teacher, priest and shepherd.

 

“Carry out the ministry of Christ the priest with constant joy and love,” the bishop said. He also challenged Fr. Vanyo to bring the people together in one family. That’s a challenge the priest plans to meet in his new home, Queen of Peace Parish in Mesa. He will serve as parochial vicar starting July 1.

 

“I am most excited that I will be able to hear people’s confessions. When the Holy Spirit touches the hearts of the penitents with His grace in the confessional, I will be blessed to be a witness to it,” Fr. Vanyo said.

 

In addition to a parish presence, Fr. Vanyo will serve as chaplain at Seton Catholic Preparatory High School in Chandler. Fr. Vanyo will offer his first liturgy, a Mass of Thanksgiving, at his home parish Holy Cross in Mesa, at 10 a.m. June 3.

 

More: www.catholicsun.org

 

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Financial District, Manhattan, New York City, New York, United States

 

The 8-story Keuffel & Esser Co. Building was constructed in 1892-93 to the design of De Lemos & Cordes as the general offices and salesrooms for the firm that imported and manufactured drawing materials, drafting tools, and mathematical and surveying equipment. The richly-detailed Renaissance Revival style primary façade on Fulton Street has a tripartite division: a 2-story, arched cast-iron storefront that bears the firm’s name and representations of its products; and buff brick- and terra¬ cotta-clad upper stories, with the midsection having a recessed monumental round-arched window capped by a foliated sculptural relief of a knight’s helmet, shield, and winged orb, and the upper section featuring a 2-story angled metal window bay and culminating in a decorative cornice and balustrade. There is a secondary articulated façade on Ann Street.

 

Theodore W. E. De Lemos & August W. Cordes, born and educated in Germany, established their firm in 1884 and were active within New York’s German-American community, becoming noted for commercial structures and large department stores. The Keuffel & Esser Co., the first American company solely devoted to drawing and drafting materials, was founded in 1867 on Nassau Street by two other German émigrés, Wilhelm J. D. Keuffel and Herman Esser. Early on, the firm was successful and continually expanded, tentatively starting manufacture in 1870, opening a retail store in 1872, moving to 127 Fulton Street in 1878, and constructing a factory in Hoboken, N.J., in 1880-81. K&E introduced imported slide rules in 1880, began their first American manufacture in 1891, and became the nation’s foremost producer. Herman Esser was bought out in 1902, and the firm remained privately owned and managed by the Keuffel family until 1965.

 

K&E played a nationally significant role in the technological development of the United States, both as a leading manufacturer of drafting equipment, surveying instruments, and related products, and as the developer of continually advanced systems, until the 1980s. This building, which remained in use by K&E for nearly seven decades, is one of the best- preserved and distinguished of the smaller late-19th-century office buildings in the area of lower Manhattan between the financial district and City Hall.

  

DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS

 

Keuffel & Esser Co.

 

The Keuffel & Esser Co. was founded in 1867 at 79 Nassau Street by two German émigrés, Wilhelm Johann Diedrich Keuffel and Herman Esser, as importers and jobbers of European drawing and drafting materials. Keuffel (1838-1908), born in Walbeck, Germany, was employed in the hardware business in Germany and in Birmingham, England, prior to his immigration to Hoboken, N.J., in 1866. The next year, he joined with Herman Esser (18451908), who was originally from Wuppertal-Elberfeld. By 1869, Keuffel & Esser [hereafter K&E] advertised “DRAWING MATERIALS. Drawing Paper, Tracing Cloth, Swiss Instruments, Colors, Rubber Triangles, etc., etc., especially for Architects and Engineers, at wholesale and retail.” The singular role of this firm was indicated by the National Cyclopaedia of American Biography:

 

Drafting was at that time in its infancy in the United States, and Mr. Keuffel soon appreciated itsimportance in relation to the phenomenal development of American manufacturing and engineeringenterprise. To supply all the requirements, in office and field, of the surveyor, engineer, architect anddraftsman and make a specialty of this business was the purpose of the new firm, and Mr. Keuffel canwell be called the pioneer in this line, because up to 1867 drafting supplies had not been carriedexclusively by any house in this country.

 

Early on, the firm was successful and continually expanded, moving locations several times. K&E tentatively started manufacture and published its first instruments catalogue in 1870; opened its first retail store with a showroom in Manhattan in 1872; transferred its manufacturing to Hoboken, N.J., in 1875; moved its headquarters to 127 Fulton Street in 1878; and constructed a new factory building in Hoboken in 1880-81 (which was expanded in 1884, 1892, and 1900). The firm was incorporated in 1889, with Keuffel serving as president until his death. K&E, which had introduced imported slide rules in 1880, began their first American manufacture in 1891. The company became strongly associated with the product as the nation’s foremost manufacturer, credited with popularizing slide rules in the United States. In 1892-93, K&E constructed a new building at 127 Fulton Street to serve as its retail salesrooms and general offices.

 

K&E played a nationally significant role in the technological development of the United States. K&E products, which included measuring tapes and compasses, were used in countless construction and engineering projects, such as the Brooklyn Bridge, of the post-Civil War boom years, and K&E surveying equipment is considered to have been critical to the westward expansion and development of the country. Herman Esser retired and was bought out in 1902 (he moved back to Germany), and K&E remained privately owned and managed by the Keuffel family. After a 1905 fire destroyed part of the company’s Hoboken factory complex, a large new annex was constructed of reinforced concrete (an early such structure in the U. S.) in 1906-07. The general offices were moved to Hoboken in time for the firm’s 40th anniversary. K&E was so successful as the world’s leading manufacturer of drafting equipment and surveying instruments that it expanded with branches in Chicago (1891), St. Louis (1894), San Francisco (1901), and Montreal (1908). The company performed a vital role during World War I by greatly increasing production of drafting equipment and developing and manufacturing optical and precision instruments for scientific and military purposes, which was particularly critical since the war ended the import of such material from Europe.

 

By 1930, the K&E catalogue carried over 5,000 items, which necessitated increased attention to product distribution. The firm survived the Depression years through the vast numbers of orders associated with the federal government’s public works projects after 1934. K&E developed new techniques for blueprinting and photographic reproduction. The company’s level of business required further factory expansions in Hoboken, and new branches opened in Detroit (1936) and Los Angeles (1939). During World War II, K&E successfully met the huge demand for large quantities of equipment that had to be produced quickly and efficiently. In the 1950s, K&E began to sell its factory buildings in Hoboken. Moving into further advanced technologies, in 1959 a division was formed “specializing in the development and manufacture of optical, mechanical, and electronic systems for the precise measurement of lengths and angles.” K&E left its salesrooms building at 127 Fulton Street in 1961, after 83 years at this location, and became a public corporation in 1965. At the time of the company’s centennial in 1967, there were some 10,000 K&E products featured in its catalogue that were considered staples of architecture, engineering, surveying, and scientific offices. The firm moved its headquarters and research laboratory in 1968 to Morristown and its manufacturing plant to Rockaway, N.J. Despite K&E’s successful advances in such fields as mapping and microfilm systems and photogrammetry, the technology market shifted radically in the 1970s with the introduction of electronic pocket calculators, computer-assisted drafting (CAD) systems, and laser surveying.

 

K&E was forced to abandon the manufacture of the slide rule, and then its assets were acquired by other firms starting in 1981.

 

Keuffel & Esser Co. Building

 

K&E’s offices and salesrooms had been located at 127 Fulton Street since 1878. This address was close in proximity to the financial district and the offices of many architects and engineering firms. Over the next 13 years, “business increased, doubling and redoubling in volume, year after year,” leading the firm to require larger quarters. As stated in a later company history,

 

The four-story headquarters office at 127 Fulton Street in a few years proved too small. K&E wasgrowing in every way: in sales, manufacturing, breadth of product line, and number of employees. Itsname was known all over the United States and Europe. ... To administer what was now a national andeven international business required space for a sizeable office force. At the insistence of WilliamKeuffel, the company in 1892 took a bold step.

 

In May 1891, the architectural firm of De Lemos & Cordes filed for a new 8-story (plus basement) Keuffel & Esser Co. Building, to house the company’s primary retail salesrooms and general offices, that was projected to cost $60,000. The plans were amended several times, however, and construction was not begun until May 1892. The nearly 25-foot-wide, fireproof steel-and-cast-iron-framed structure was completed in February 1893. The Keuffel & Esser Co. was actually a leaseholder, as the land on which the building was constructed had been continually owned since 1791 by the Minister, Elders and Deacons of the Reformed Protestant Dutch Church.

 

It was later said in company literature that “the size of the new headquarters dismayed the more conservative executives. There was ample space for several times the number of employees the company had that year,” but that “it was not very long afterwards when Mr. Keuffel’s predictions were fulfilled and the growth of the business demanded every available inch of space.” De Lemos & Cordes added an “iron shed” penthouse to the building in 1897. In 1907, K&E’s general offices were removed from 127 Fulton Street to its expanded factory complex in Hoboken. K&E then called this building its “parent house,” which remained the primary New York City salesrooms, as well as the patent and blueprinting departments. The National Cyclopaedia later described the business here:

 

The main store in New York city is a model establishment, where every requisite of the engineer and draftsman can be found, and where unusual facilities are afforded for examining and testing the many delicate instruments of precision included in this line.

 

After K&E opened a midtown store in 1925, the Fulton Street building housed its “Retail, City Order and Blueprint Departments.”

 

The Keuffel & Esser Co. Building was designed during the period when architects in New York City were searching for the appropriate expression for increasingly tall office structures in lower Manhattan. New York architects overall favored the tripartite classical-column formula for articulation, with the Renaissance Revival style especially popular. The period also saw a lightening of the color palette for materials used to clad these buildings, the use of a mixture of materials, such as stone, several varieties of brick, and terra cotta, and eclectic ornamentation. De Lemos & Cordes’ richly-detailed Renaissance Revival style design for the Keuffel & Esser Co. Building’s primary façade on Fulton Street features a strong and eclectic tripartite division.

 

The base has a 2-story, arched cast-iron storefront (a rarity today in New York), framed by slender colonettes, bearing the firm’s name, small shields with the firm’s initials, and representations of its products; originally, there was a deeply inset entrance surmounted by a curved, projecting iron balcony and large show windows. The upper stories are clad in buff brick and terra cotta, the entire upper facade ornamented by diamond-pattern terra-cotta banding. The midsection has a transitional third story with rectangular fenestration, surmounted by a recessed monumental round-arched window capped by a foliated sculptural relief of a knight’s helmet, shield, and winged orb (the latter apparently a variation on K&E’s trademark logo), flanked by narrow windows (the 5th-story lintels of which bear the dates 1867 and 1892) with iron grilles, the section capped by a bracketed cornice.

 

The upper section, framed by Ionic pilasters and featuring a 2-story angled metal window bay with ornamental pilasters and spandrel, culminates in a decorative cornice and tall balustrade with end finials. The secondary articulated façade on Ann Street is tripartite and flanked by brick piers with rockfaced stone banding and features a base with a central cast-iron pier and denticulated cast-iron cornice; a midsection with terra-cotta blocks on the outer piers and rectangular fenestration (except the top story, which has a wide segmental arch) divided by cast-iron piers; and an upper section with rectangular fenestration (except the top story, which has round arches) divided by brick piers and a corbeled brick cornice. The building was included in the Architectural Record in 1893.

 

The Keuffel & Esser Co. Building remains one of the best-preserved and distinguished of the smaller late-19thcentury office buildings in the area of lower Manhattan between the financial district and City Hall. Still visible on the western facade of the Ann Street portion of the building is an historic painted advertisement reading “KEUFFEL & ESSER CO./ DRAWING MATERIALS/ SURVEYING INSTRUMENTS/ MEASURING TAPES.”

 

The Architects

 

Theodore William Emile De Lemos and August William Cordes were both born and educated in Germany and immigrated to the United States in the early 1880s. The firm of De Lemos & Cordes, established in 1884, was active within New York’s German-American community and became noted for its commercial structures and, later, for large department stores. De Lemos (1850-1909), born in Holstein, Germany, was educated at the Bauakademie, Berlin. He gained a reputation as a young architect through his designs for buildings for the German army, but left for New York City in 1881. His first commission, with Henry Fernbach (who died in 1883), was the French Renaissance Revival style Eden Musee (1881-84; demolished), 55 West 23rd Street. De Lemos was also responsible for the design of a number of buildings in Mexico City, including the Mutual Life Insurance Co. Building.

 

Cordes (1850-?), born in Hamburg, studied with Martin Gropius and Heino Schmieden in Berlin and Theophil von Hansen in Vienna. After arriving in New York City, he worked as a draftsman from 1882 to 1884, when he joined with De Lemos in partnership.

 

In 1888, Illustrated New York: the Metropolis of Today already noted of the firm:

 

There is perhaps not one among the many noteworthy firms of architects that have come to the front inNew York city within a recent period who have achieved more distinction in their profession than thatof Messrs. De Lemos & Cordes.... This flourishing and popular firm... at its very inception may be saidto have virtually bounded into prominence and public favor, owing to the uniform satisfaction renderedin every instance to which their professional services have been called into requisition.... The firm executeplans, etc., for all classes of buildings... but devote special attention to fire-proof business structures andpublic buildings....

 

The firm tended to favor a Renaissance Revival stylistic vocabulary, and its commissions were often executed in a picturesque manner with notable ornamentation and a mixture of materials, including brick, stone, and terra cotta. Among the notable oeuvre of De Lemos & Cordes, which encompassed store-and-loft, office, club, bank, and warehouse buildings and residences, were the Queen Anne style Music Hall (1885), Tarrytown, N.Y.; Arion Society Club (1885-87; demolished), Fourth (Park) Avenue and East 59th Street; Thomson Building (1886-87; demolished), 38 Wall Street; Hoyt Building addition (1888), 873-879 Broadway, in the Ladies’ Mile Historic District; German Hospital and Dispensary addition (1888-89; demolished), Fourth (Park) Avenue and East 77th Street; No. 241-249 Centre Street (1888-91); John Eichler Residence (1889-90), Fulton Avenue and East 169th Street, the Bronx; Armeny Building (1890), 124 Fulton Street; No. 102-106 Wooster Street (1890-91), in the SoHo-Cast-Iron Historic District; Chattanooga Times Building (1891-92), for Adolph S. Ochs, Chattanooga, Tenn.; Fulton Building (1891-93), 130 Fulton Street, where the firm had its offices; Mietz Building (1892, 1897), 128-138 Mott Street; Kuhn, Loeb & Co. Building (1894; demolished), 27-29 Pine Street; Boskowitz Building (1894-95), 704-706 Broadway, and Empire State Building (1896-97), 640 Broadway, both in the NoHo Historic District; United Hebrew Charities Building (1898-99; demolished), 356-360 Second Avenue; and Speyer & Co. Building (1901-03; demolished), 24 Pine Street.

 

The success of De Lemos & Cordes led to several commissions for large department stores, which are among the most notable such extant structures in New York City: Siegel, Cooper & Co. Department Store (1895-97) and annex (1899-1900), 616-632 Sixth Avenue, and Adams & Co. Dry Goods Store (1900-02), 675-691 Sixth Avenue, both in the Ladies’ Mile Historic District; and R.H. Macy & Co. Department Store (1901-02), Broadway and West 34th Street. The firm also designed the Siegel, Cooper & Co. warehouse (1902), 236-242 West 18th Street. One of De Lemos & Cordes’ last buildings was the New York County National Bank (1906-07, with Rudolph L. Daus), 77-79 Eighth Avenue, a designated New York City Landmark. Daus became the successor to the firm. After De Lemos’ death in 1909, Cordes continued to practice. He designed a number of structures with Elisha H. Janes, including the New York Women’s League for Animals Building (1913), 348-354 Lafayette Street, in the NoHo Historic District, and the Refrigeration Plant and Wholesale Market and Storage Buildings (1925-29) at the Bronx Terminal Market.

 

Later History

 

The Keuffel & Esser Co., after nearly seven decades in this building, vacated in 1961. Later tenants included wholesaler, personnel, trading and shipping, realty consulting, microfilm, carpentry, hardware, messenger, stationery, and florist firms. The Minister, Elders and Deacons of the Reformed Protestant Dutch Church sold the property in 2004 to the Fulton K&E LLC.

 

Description

 

Fulton Street Façade The 8-story Keuffel & Esser Co. Building’s primary façade features a tripartite division. The upper stories are clad in buff brick and terra cotta, the entire upper facade ornamented by diamond-pattern terra-cotta banding. Original sash and frames were bronze kalomein (removed on the midsection in 1947). Base The base has an historic 2-story, arched cast-iron storefront, framed by slender colonettes, with spandrels bearing small shields with the firm’s initials and representations of its products. The storefront’s entablature bears the firm’s name and two plaques with the address number “127.” The 2nd story has single-pane arched windows. Originally, there was a deeply inset entrance surmounted by a curved, projecting iron balcony (removed in 1947) and large show windows. Within the historic storefront are a non-historic upstairs entrance with metal-and-glass doors and a transom; and a non-historic metal-and-glass storefront with double doors with a transom and a rolldown gate.

 

An awning has been placed over the ground story. Midsection The midsection has a transitional third story with a rectangular central tripartite window with transoms, framed by decorative moldings and lintel, which is flanked by narrow windows with transoms, voussoirs, and keystones. The third story is capped by a cornice with a projecting corbeled ledge, and is surmounted by a recessed monumental (two-story) round-arched window with multiple outer panes (originally with a circle pattern), decorative spandrel, molded enframement, and reveals with rosettes. This window is capped by a foliated sculptural relief of a knight’s helmet, shield, and winged orb, and is flanked by narrow windows with iron grilles (which are rounded on the 5th story); the 5th-story windows have pedimented lintels bearing the dates 1867 and 1892. The section is capped by a bracketed cornice with rosettes. Upper Section The upper section, flanked by Ionic pilasters, features a 2-story angled metal window bay with ornamental pilasters and spandrel and one-over-one windows (one upper sash on the 7th story has original leaded glass). The 7th story culminates in a decorative cornice with rosettes and a tall balustrade flanked by shields and surmounted by end finials. The building sets back with a terrace on the 8th story. The recessed portion of the building has rectangular windows.

 

East Facade The east facade, clad in red brick, has been painted and parged on the Fulton Street portion and the lower portion along Ann Street. It is pierced by windows in the center.

 

West Facade The west facade, clad in red brick, has been parged and painted with a non-historic advertisement on the Fulton Street portion. and parged on the lower portion along Ann Street. It is pierced by windows in the center. On the Ann Street portion is an historic painted advertisement reading “KEUFFEL & ESSER CO./ DRAWING MATERIALS/ SURVEYING INSTRUMENTS/ MEASURING TAPES.”

 

Ann Street Facade The tripartite secondary façade, clad in buff brick, is flanked by piers with rockfaced stone banding and has paneled brick spandrels. The 1-1/2-story base has a central cast-iron pier, paneled spandrels, multi-pane windows, and a coved and denticulated cast-iron cornice. Two non-historic doors, brick and concrete infill, and a louver have been inserted on the ground story. The 4-story midsection has terra-cotta blocks on the outer piers and rectangular fenestration (except for the 6th story, which has a wide segmental arch) divided by cast-iron piers. The 3-story upper section has rectangular fenestration (except the top story, which has round arches) divided by brick piers, and a corbeled brick cornice. A fire escape extends the height of the facade.

 

Roof Visible on the roof are the “iron shed” penthouse (1897, De Lemos & Cordes) (partially re-clad), a chainlink fence along the edges, brick parapet walls on the east and west sides, and a water tower.

 

- From the 2005 NYCLPC Landmark Designation Report

Lower East Side. Manhattan, New York City, New York, United StatesThe grand three-story Greek Revival style rowhouse at No. 110 Second Avenue, in today’s East Village neighborhood of Manhattan, is the only survivor of a row of four houses that functioned as an enclave for the extended family of the very wealthy wholesale grocery and commission merchant Ralph Mead . Constructed c. 1837-38 by the Mead family, No. 110 was the home in 1839-44 of merchant/ship broker David H. Robertson. After Robertson declared bankruptcy, this property was foreclosed and auctioned in 1844, and transferred to Ralph Mead. The proprietor of Ralph Mead & Co. , Mead and his second wife, née Ann Eliza Van Wyck, resided here from 1845 until 1857. The house was leased after 1858 and remained in Mead family ownership until 1870. It was sold to railroad agent George H. Ellery and his wife, Cornelia, who resided here c. 1872-74. It was purchased in 1874 by the Women’s Prison Association, which had been established in 1845 as the Female Department of the Prison Association of New York by Isaac Tatem Hopper and his daughter, Abigail Hopper Gibbons, noted Quaker abolitionists and leading advocates of prison reform, and chartered in 1854 under the new name. The Isaac T. Hopper Home, opened here in 1874, is considered the world’s oldest halfway house for girls and women released from prison. The Home’s original mission was to rehabilitate these women by providing short-term shelter, religious counseling, domestic training in sewing and laundry work, and job placement. A rare extant house of the period when this section of Second Avenue was one of the most elite addresses in Manhattan in the early 19th century, it is also a fine example of a grand Greek Revival style rowhouse. The house is characterized by its machine-pressed red brickwork laid in stretcher bond; high stoop and areaway with wrought-iron fence; entrance with Italianate style paneled double doors and transom; long parlor-level windows and cast-iron balcony; and denticulated cornice; and is made particularly distinctive by its brownstone portico with Ionic fluted columns supporting an entablature. The Isaac T. Hopper Home, which has continuously served the mission of the Women’s Prison Association here since 1874, is a rare surviving 19th-century institutional presence in this ever-changing neighborhood. DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS The 19th-Century Development of East Village Neighborhood The area of today’s Greenwich Village was, during the 18th century, the location of the small rural hamlet of Greenwich, as well as the country seats and summer homes of wealthy downtown aristocrats, merchants, and capitalists. A number of cholera and yellow fever epidemics in lower Manhattan between 1799 and 1822 led to an influx of settlers in the Greenwich area, with the population quadrupling between 1825 and 1840. Previously undeveloped tracts of land were speculatively subdivided for the construction of town houses and rowhouses. Whereas in the early 19th century many of the wealthiest New Yorkers lived in the vicinity of Broadway and the side streets adjacent to City Hall Park between Barclay and Chambers Streets, by the 1820s and 30s, as commercial development and congestion increasingly disrupted and displaced them, the elite moved northward into Greenwich Village east of Sixth Avenue. A potter’s field, located north of 4th Street below Fifth Avenue since 1797, was converted into Washington Military Parade Ground and expanded in 1826 and landscaped as Washington Square in 1828. This public square spurred the construction of fine Federal and Greek Revival style town houses surrounding it. To the east, during the 17th and 18th centuries, was Dutch Governor Peter Stuyvesant’s Bowery farm. In the vicinity were Native American trails, today’s Broadway and Bowery, that the Lenape Indians traversed from the southern tip of Manhattan to Inwood and Harlem. St. Mark’s-inthe-Bowery Church was built on a higher, dry piece of land, while the area to the east of today’s Second Avenue, known as Stuyvesant Meadows, remained an undeveloped marshy area. In the late 18th century, the area east of Second Avenue was the estate of Mangle Minthorn, father-inlaw of Daniel Tompkins , governor of New York and U.S. vice president under James Monroe . Both Stuyvesant and Minthorn were slave owners. In 1832, the Common Council created the 15th Ward out of the eastern section of the large 9th Ward, its boundaries being Sixth Avenue, Houston and 14th Streets, and the Bowery. According to Luther Harris’ history Around Washington Square, during the 1830s-40s “this ward drew the wealthiest, most influential, and most talented people from New York City and elsewhere. By 1845, 85 percent of the richest citizens living in the city’s northern wards resided in the Fifteenth.” Fifth Avenue, extended north of Washington Square to 23rd Street in 1829, emerged as the city’s most prestigious address. For a brief period beginning in the 1820s-30s, Lafayette Place, including the grand marble Greek Revival style LaGrange Terrace , St. Mark’s Place, and Bond, Great Jones, East 4th and Bleecker Streets were also among the city’s most fashionable addresses. The latter street was developed with three block-long rows of houses in 1827-31, including Carroll Place, both sides of the street between Thompson Street and LaGuardia Place, built with Federal style houses by the English-born speculative real estate developer Thomas E. Davis. Davis also developed both sides of the block of St. Mark’s Place between Third and Second Avenues in 1831 with fine 3-1/2-story Federal style marble-and-brick-clad town houses with balconies, and became involved with the Stuyvesant family in the development of the former Bowery farm to the north of St. Mark’s Place as an elite residential neighborhood. Lower Second Avenue and adjacent side streets remained prestigious through the 1850s. The Ralph and Ann E. Van Wyck Mead House The grand three-story Greek Revival style rowhouse at No. 110 Second Avenue, between East 6th and 7th Streets, is the only survivor of a row of four houses on this block associated by the late 1830s and early 1840s with the extended family of wholesale grocery and commission merchant Ralph Mead. The lots on this blockfront, part of the Nicholas W. Stuyvesant estate, were conveyed in 1830-35 to developer Thomas E. Davis, who apparently intended to build on them. Instead of developing this Second Avenue property, however, Davis in 1834-36 conveyed his lots, including Nos. 106, 108 and 110, to three brothers, Benjamin, Ralph, and Staats M. Mead. Born in Greenwich, Conn., Benjamin Mead and Ralph Mead had begun in 1803 as clerks in the grocery business of Samuel Tooker in New York City; Benjamin became a partner in S. Tooker & Co. in 1806 and continued the firm after the founder’s death, until around 1847. Staats M. Mead , also born in Greenwich, began work as a cabinetmaker in 1805, starting out with Jacob B. Taylor. A closely entwined family, all three Meads married Holmes sisters. Ralph Mead’s own wholesale grocery and commission merchant business after 1810 was located on Coenties Slip; he took as partners two of his brothersin-law, in Mead & [Hugh] Holmes in 1813, and Ralph Mead & Co., with Israel C. Holmes, from 1815 to 1820, then Elisha B. Sackett until 1832. Ralph Mead was listed in the U.S. Census in 1820, and owned no slaves. Quite wealthy – tax assessments in 1839-40 listed his personal worth at $20,000 – Mead moved with his family to Washington Square in 1834. He was also a director of the New York & Erie Railroad Co., City Fire Insurance Co., and Adriatic Fire Insurance Co., as well as being active in the Methodist Church and the American Bible Society. Ralph Mead retired from the grocery business in 1859, turning over his firm to a son and nephew. Nos. 108 , 110, and 112 Second Avenue were constructed c. 1837-38. John Peters owned and lived in No. 112 in 1839-42. Ralph Mead, and his wife, Sarah Holmes Mead, who he had married in 1813 and with whom he had eight children, resided in No. 110 in 1838-44. No. 108 was officially conveyed by the Meads in 1839 for $18,500 to the widow Margaret Robertson, although it was actually purchased by her son, the merchant and ship broker David H. Robertson, who resided here in 1839-44. Robertson declared bankruptcy in 1842, which was contested as fraudulent by his creditors, as he had conveyed his house, furnishings, horses, etc., to his mother. The family was involved in other litigation, as well, when Robertson’s 15-year-old daughter was secretly married without her parents’ consent, then changed her mind. This property was foreclosed and auctioned in 1844, and was purchased for $6,800 and transferred to Ralph Mead in April 1844. The tax assessments for 1844 listed the notation “unfinished” for Nos. 108 , 110, and 112 Second Avenue, apparently indicating that they were being remodeled, and No. 106 was constructed at this same time, on a lot owned by Ralph Mead. His wife, Sarah, had died in 1842; in February 1846, he was re-married, to Ann Eliza Van Wyck . Mead sold his former residence, No. 110, in 1845 to grocer William R. Hitchcock, and Mead and his family resided in No. 108 from 1845 until 1857. This and the two other rowhouses on the block functioned as an extended Mead family enclave. His daughter, Lydia A. Mead, and her husband, Nathan J. Bailey , also resided in No. 108 until 1847. No. 112 was owned by and the home of the eminent saddlery hardware merchant Francis T. Luqueer, father-in-law of one of Ralph Mead’s sons, Samuel Holmes Mead , and Luqueer’s son, John A. Luqueer. And No. 106 was owned by and the home of Ralph’s daughter, Harriet Mead , who in 1846 married Philip Jacob Arcularius Harper, the eldest son of James Harper, one of the founders and senior member of the publishing firm of Harper & Bros., and a mayor of New York. After Ralph and Ann Mead moved out, No. 108 Second Avenue was leased in 1858-62 to the large extended families of Martinique-born bookkeeper/clerk Montgerald de Girardin; his son, merchant Leon de Girardin; his son-in-law, jeweler Francis L. Tifft ; and, apparently another relative, druggist Philander D. Orvis. The Times mentioned Dr. Herman Milgan living here in 1866. Following Ralph Mead’s death in 1866, No. 108 was transferred to his son, Melville Emory Mead , who continued operation of the Mead grocery business, as E. & R. Mead & Co., along with his brother-in-law, Edwin Hyde . Hyde was married since 1835 to Melville’s sister, Elizabeth Alvina Mead, and was also the brother of Melville’s wife, Elizabeth B. Hyde Mead. City directories listed Edwin and Elizabeth A. Mead Hyde living in No. 108 in 1867. In 1870, the house, now officially re-numbered 110 Second Avenue, was sold for $20,000 to George H. and Cornelia W. Poole Ellery. George H. Ellery , son of a U.S. Senator from Rhode Island, worked as a young man in the cotton business in Savannah, was later engaged in drygoods in New York City in the firms of Lauterman, Large & Ellery and Ellery, Wendt & Hoffbauer prior to the Civil War, and was a Purchasing Agent in 1864-65 at the Dept. of the Treasury’s U.S. Cotton Agency in Memphis, one of the locations in occupied areas of the Confederacy where the agency supervised commerce. After the war, Ellery was a railroad agent, serving also as vice president of the Jeffersonville & Indianapolis Railroad. The Census of 1870 and New York City directories in 1870-71 indicated the Ellerys’ primary residence as Rhode Island, but they resided c. 1872-74 in No. 110. Greek Revival Style Rowhouses in Manhattan As the city of New York grew in the period after the Revolution, large plots of land in Manhattan were sold and subdivided for the construction of groups of brick-clad houses. Their architectural style has been called “Federal” after the new republic, but in form and detail they continued the Georgian style of Great Britain. Federal style houses were constructed from the Battery as far north as 23rd Street between the 1790s and 1830s. The size of the lot dictated the size of the house: typically each house lot was 20 or 25 feet wide by 90 to 100 feet deep, which accorded with the rectilinear Commissioners’ Plan of New York City adopted in 1811. The rowhouse itself would be as wide as the lot, and 35 to 40 feet deep. This allowed for a stoop and areaway, and a fairly spacious rear yard. During the early 19th century, several houses were often constructed together as a continuous group, sharing common party walls, chimneys, and roof timbering. The houses, of load-bearing masonry or modified timber-frame construction, had brick-clad front facades. With the increasing availability of pattern books, such as Asher Benjamin’s American Builders Companion , local builders had access to drawings and instructions for exterior and interior plans and details. Federal style rowhouses usually had a three-bay facade with two full stories over a high basement and an additional half story under a peaked roof with the ridge line running parallel to the front facade. The front facade was usually clad in red brick laid in the Flemish bond pattern, with stone trim. The planar quality of the facades was relieved by ornament in the form of lintels, entrances, stoops and areaways with iron railings, cornices, and pedimented or segmental dormers. The most ornamental feature was the doorway, often framed with columns and sidelights and topped with a rectangular transom or fanlight, and having a wooden paneled door. The wood-framed sash were double hung and multi-light . A wooden cornice with a molded fascia extended across the front along the eave. Around 1830, builders in New York City began to incorporate some Greek Revival style features on grander Federal style houses, such as the Seabury Tredwell House , 29 East 4th Street. During the early 1830s, fashionable rowhouses were constructed in a Greek Revival style that was distinct from the earlier Federal style houses. Local builders were influenced by the designs and builder’s guides of architects such as Asher Benjamin, Minard Lafever, and Alexander Jackson Davis. Some examples were “high style,” such as the nine marble-fronted houses with a continuous Corinthian colonnade of LaGrange Terrace . Many rows of speculatively-built Greek Revival style houses were constructed, particularly in the Greenwich Village and Chelsea neighborhoods, during the period of enormous growth and development in New York during the 1830s-40s. Greek Revival style rowhouses, which became widely popular, basically continued many of the traditions of Federal style houses, including three-bay front facades, brick cladding with brownstone trim, and raised stoops and areaways with iron railings. They differed, however, in stylistic details and in scale, being taller and somewhat grander at a full three stories above a basement . By this period, technological advances in brickmaking allowed for higher quality, machine-pressed brick. The brick was laid in a bond other than Flemish, such as stretcher bond. Ornamentation was spare, including simple, molded rectangular lintels and a flat roofline capped by a denticulated and molded wooden cornice . Similar to Federal style houses, the most ornamental feature was the doorway. The Greek Revival style doorway was recessed, with a rectangular transom, sidelights, and paneled door. The entrance commonly featured a brownstone surround with wide pilasters supporting an entablature, such as those seen at No. 159 Charles Street and No. 354 West 11th Street . On grander houses, the entrance featured a portico with Doric or Ionic columns flanking the doorway and supporting a prominent entablature. Examples of this type include “The Row” , 1-13 Washington Square North; the Samuel Tredwell Skidmore House , 37 East 4th Street; and the Mead House. The wood-framed sash were double hung and typically six-over-six . No. 110 Second Avenue, a rare surviving house of the period when this section of Second Avenue was one of the most elite addresses in Manhattan in the early 19th century, is also a fine example of a grand Greek Revival style rowhouse, characterized by its machine-pressed red brickwork laid in stretcher bond; high stoop and areaway with wrought-iron fence; entrance with Italianate style paneled double doors and transom; long parlor-level windows and cast-iron balcony; and denticulated cornice; and is made particularly distinctive by its brownstone portico with Ionic fluted columns supporting an entablature. Minimal later alterations include the molded metal lintels and corbeled sills and enlargement of the attic windows . Today’s East Village Neighborhood in the Late 19th Century Commercial and institutional intrusions and the continual arrival of immigrants ended the fashionable heyday of the wealthier enclaves, such as Second Avenue and St. Mark’s Place, before the Civil War. In the 1850s, Broadway north of Houston Street was transformed from a residential into a significant commercial district. Also beginning in the 1850s, after the political upheavals in Europe of 1848 and the resulting influx of German-speaking immigrants to New York City, the Lower East Side became known as Kleindeutschland . Aside from their presence as residents, these immigrants contributed in significant ways to the vibrant commercial and cultural life of the neighborhood and the city at large. By 1880, this neighborhood constituted one-fourth of the city’s population and was the first major urban foreign-speaking neighborhood in the U.S., as well as the leading German-American center throughout the century. A massive exodus of Jews from Eastern Europe from the 1880s to World War I led to approximately two million Jewish immigrants settling in New York; most lived for a time on the Lower East Side, establishing their own cultural and religious institutions there. As wealthier residents moved northward in the 1850s, their single-family residences were converted into multiple dwellings or boardinghouses, as well as other uses, such as clubs or community cultural institutions. For instance, of the Federal style houses on the westernmost block of St. Mark’s Place: No. 29 became the Harmonie Club, a German-Jewish singing club ; Nos. 19-21 housed another German musical club, the Arion Singing Society , and these buildings, along with No. 23, became Arlington Hall, a ballroom-community center in 1887; the Children’s Aid Society’s Girls’ Lodging House and its offices were at Nos. 27 and 24; and No. 12 was replaced by the German-American Shooting Society Clubhouse . Most of the remaining houses were demolished for denser development with French flats and tenements between 1874 and 1902. Hastening the change in the residential character of this section of the Lower East Side after mid-century were a wide variety of major cultural, religious, commercial, and educational institutions, including the Astor Place Opera House , Astor and Lafayette Places; Astor Library , 425 Lafayette Street; Bible House , home of the American Bible Society and other religious organizations, Astor Place and Third Avenue; Cooper Union , Astor Place and Third Avenue; Tompkins Market/ 7th Regiment Armory , Third Avenue and East 7th Street; and Metropolitan Savings Bank , 9 East 7th Street. The New York Free Circulating Library, Ottendorfer Branch, and German Dispensary , 135 and 137 Second Avenue, among others, catered to the German community. Assembly halls such as Webster Hall and Annex , 119-125 East 11th Street, became important neighborhood social centers. Scattered throughout the area were purpose-built churches and synagogues for wealthier congregations, as well as many religious structures created out of altered rowhouses. The Third Avenue elevated railroad opened in 1878. On either side of the former Ralph and Ann E. Van Wyck Mead House on Second Avenue, the other former Mead family houses were altered or replaced. Nos. 112 and 114 were demolished for the construction of the Middle Collegiate Church . No. 108, by 1893 the home of the Swiss Benevolent Society, received a new facade in 1906-07 for the Hebrew Free Loan Association. The Isaac T. Hopper Home of the Women’s Prison Association of New York The former Mead House at No. 110 Second Avenue was purchased for $32,500 in July 1874 from George H. and Cornelia Ellery by the Women’s Prison Association and Home. This organization had been established in January 1845 as the Female Department of the Prison Association of New York, which had been formed the previous month by a group of New York politicians, philanthropists, and businessmen in response to the crowded prison conditions that were one result of the city’s vast increase in population. Integral in the creation of both associations was Isaac Tatem Hopper , a devout Quaker abolitionist and leading advocate of prison reform, who had been a prison inspector in Philadelphia, prior to his move to New York City in 1829. Hopper became known as one of the nation’s foremost authorities in penology, and devoted the rest of his life to the Prison Association. His daughter, Abigail Hopper Gibbons was also instrumental in the establishment of the Female Department. She was a vigorous participant with her father and husband, James S. Gibbons, in the abolitionist cause, and had previously operated a Friends School in Philadelphia and taught in New York, as well as establishing an industrial school. Philadelphia Quakers had been the first in the United States, in the 1820s, to consider the question of imprisoned women, and by the 1840s, Protestant missionaries in New York City also took up the interrelated causes of poor women and women in prison. The House and School of Industry, founded in 1850, provided employment in needlework in order to assist women out of extreme poverty and away from vice. The women who founded and led the Female Department were pioneers in questioning the prevailing attitudes toward women in prison and the prison conditions in which they were forced to live; at the time, women who committed crimes and “fallen women” were considered outcasts and beyond redemption, though many were simply immigrants and the working poor. In June 1845, the Female Department opened the Home for Discharged Female Convicts in a rented house on West 4th Street near Eighth Avenue. The facility moved in 1848 to No. 191 Tenth Avenue . Providing temporary shelter for up to 30 women at a time, the founders hoped to “prevent recidivism among drunken, vagrant, and immoral women.” Historians consider this the first such halfway house in the world. In 1853, after a conflict over the issue of men’s authority over the organization, the Female Department separated from the Prison Association, and was chartered in 1854 under the new name, Women’s Prison Association of New York and Home. The WPA Constitution stated that the mission of the Home was “the improvement of the condition of [female] prisoners, whether detained on trial or finally convicted, or as witnesses... [and] the support and encouragement of reformed convicts after their discharge, by affording them an opportunity of obtaining an honest livelihood, and sustaining them in their efforts to reform.” The organization attempted to encourage religion among the women, provided domestic skills through sewing and laundry work, assisted in job placement, and aimed to reform female prisoners through separation from and supervision by men. Resident women served on probation for a month, paid 50 cents per week for lodging and washing, and were then sent out to work. In 1858, the home was officially named the Isaac T. Hopper Home. In WPA’s Annual Report that year it was noted that, due to the confusion of many other New York institutions using the name “Home,” “this Association has therefore adopted as a distinctive name for its House department, that of ‘The Isaac T. Hopper Home’” since Hopper “was the founder of the Female Department of the Prison Association, and it is therefore appropriate to give it his name.” Novelist Catherine Maria Sedgwick, the First Directress of the Hopper Home, was followed by Sarah Platt Haines Doremus . By 1861, WPA began to receive some funding from the City. In 1865, a legacy of $50,000 was left to WPA through the will of the wealthy Charles Burrall of Hoboken; this legacy , along with $12,000 received from the sale of Gibbons’ railroad stock, allowed the Home to pay off its mortgage, conduct repairs, and make investments. WPA reported debt in 1867, however, due to unexpectedly extensive and costly repairs that were found necessary to the Home. By 1872, WPA considered its building unfit, due to these costly repairs and the fact that it was too small for the organization’s mission. By this time, WPA had housed some 5,800 women. A male advisory committee suggested construction of a new facility, rather than purchasing an older house. Instead, Abby Hopper Gibbons, for whom WPA continued as a primary interest, serving on its executive committee and as corresponding secretary for many years, headed a committee to search for a new home and to raise additional funds. WPA’s Annual Report stated that “In the spring of 1874 an opportunity offered to purchase a larger and more suitable building on Second avenue, whither the Home moved on July first. Here a larger house with numerous conveniences enables us to conduct our industrial department on a larger scale than ever before.” Laundry and household work in the new Home were conducted in the basement, while two spacious sewing rooms were located on the second story. In 1875 and 1882, the laundry was enlarged through one-story additions in the rear yard. Abby Hopper Gibbons, who served as First Directress of the Hopper Home after 1877, was also president of the New York Committee for the Suppression of the State Regulation of Vice , which met here; opposed to the licensing of prostitution, the committee advocated instead the rehabilitation of the women and the prosecution of their male customers. Among WPA’s many notable reform accomplishments were its assistance in the revision of the state’s classification system , so that first offenders were separated from the general prison population; the introduction of matrons in police stations, established by state law ; placement of the first female superintendent in New York’s House of Detention ; the creation of separate prison facilities for women, who had previously been placed in the same cells with men ; legislation for a probation system for women ; formation of prison schools ; construction of a separate state prison for women at Bedford Hills ; industrial training and alcoholism programs for women ; and starting street patrols conducted by policewomen . 20th-Century History of the East Village After a period of decline, Greenwich Village was becoming known, prior to World War I, for its historic and picturesque qualities, its affordable housing, and the diversity of its population and social and political ideas. Many artists and writers, as well as tourists, were attracted to the Village. By the 1910s, property owners and merchants attempted to improve the Village’s economy and rehabilitate its physical condition, with “shrewd realtors beg[inning] to amass their holdings of dilapidated housing.” These various factors and the increased desirability of the Village to uppermiddle-class professionals lead to a real estate boom – “rents increased during the 1920s by 140 percent and in some cases by as much as 300 percent.” New York University, particularly after World War II, became a major institutional presence around and to the south and east of Washington Square. During the 1950s, the area south of Washington Square, to Houston Street, was targeted for urban renewal. The surviving historic streets to the west became particularly popular for coffee houses, restaurants, and clubs. After World War II, the ethnic make-up of the Lower East Side changed again, becoming dominated by Latin American immigrants, especially those from Puerto Rico. Their immigration was encouraged by the government as a source of cheap labor, particularly for the garment trades, hotels, and small manufacturing. The community named itself Loisaida to symbolize the second generation Hispanic roots that had developed in the context of the African-American and Latino movements for social and economic justice, equality, and identity. The residential and cultural desirability of the neighborhood that came to be known as the “East Village” increased with the removal of the Third Avenue El in 1955. As indicated by Terry Miller, the psychological barrier that had marked the eastern boundary of Greenwich Village was gone. Blocks that once had no prestige were suddenly seen as intriguing, and apartments here were less costly than those in Greenwich Village. ... As artists and writers moved east, the blocks from St. Mark’s Place to Tenth Street were the first to hint that the Lower East Side was being transformed. Realtors began marketing the area as “Village East,” and by 1961 as the “East Village,” a name that stuck. From World War I to the 1940s, Second Avenue between East 14th and Houston Streets had been considered the heart of New York’s Jewish community, known as the “Yiddish Rialto” for its role as the world’s center of Yiddish theater. As Yiddish theater declined, the East Village gave rise in the 1950s to “Off-Broadway” and “off-Off-Broadway” theater, including the Phoenix Theater in the former Louis N. Jaffe Art Theater building , 181-189 Second Avenue; the Orpheum Theater , 126 Second Avenue; and Ellen Stewart’s La Mama Experimental Theatre Club , 321 East 9th Street . In the 1950s, the East Village also became home to a number of key Beat Generation writers, including Allen Ginsberg, William Burroughs, Norman Mailer, and W.H. Auden, and was renowned for its protest art and politics, galleries, poetry and coffee houses, bookstores, clubs, with a “counterculture” scene centered on St. Mark’s Place. The Isaac T. Hopper Home, which has continuously served the mission of the Women’s Prison Association here since 1874, is a rare surviving 19th-century institutional presence in this ever-changing neighborhood. The building was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 1986. Description The Mead House at No. 110 Second Avenue is a three-story Greek Revival style rowhouse with a three-bay, 26-foot-wide facade. It is clad in machine-pressed red brick laid in stretcher bond above a brownstone base. The base has two windows with six-over-six double-hung wood sash and non-historic iron grilles. The areaway, paved in concrete with a metal plate and grate, as well as planting areas, has a wrought-iron fence and gates , set partially on stone edging. The high brownstone stoop has non-historic metal railings and a recessed basement entrance. The main entrance has a brownstone portico with pilasters and Ionic fluted columns supporting an entablature; and Italianate style paneled double wooden doors and a transom set within a rope molded enframement, with paneled reveals. A non-historic light fixture has been placed over the doorway. The parlor level has long windows wood sash) and an original bracketed cast-iron balcony. A security camera and a light fixture have been placed on the parlor-level wall. Windows on the second and third stories have six-over-six double-hung wood sash. The windows historically had shutters. The original stone lintels and simple stone sills were replaced by projecting molded metal lintels and corbeled metal sills . The denticulated cornice was altered by the enlargement of the attic windows , partial re-cladding in wood, and removal of a denticulated molding. A metal railing was placed at the front of the roof, and a metal leader pipe is located on the northern edge of the facade. - From the 2009 NYCLPC Landmark Designation Report

az album 43. képe - igencsak kipedrett bajszú férfiú fakított portréja Párizsból

 

ismeretlen úr - unknown gent

 

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CH. REUTLINGER,

PHOTOGRAPHE

21, BOULEVART MONTMARTRE, 21

ET

112, RUE RICHELIEU, 112

PARIS

 

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The Reutlinger Studio

1850 - 1930

Paris, France

The most notable studio of its day was the Reutlinger Studio. Known for their portrayal of the rich and famous, in the most lavish settings which included palm trees, tapestries, and a great variety of other valuable decorations, the fashionable Paris based studio was founded in 1850 by Charles Reutlinger, of German descent.

Charles Reutlinger, a member of the "Society of French Photographers, 1862, photographed many of the best-known artists, scientists, musicians and writers of his time. He belonged to an elite group of photographers who had studios on the boulevards à.la.mode and whose photographs were featured in the most prestigious newspapers and magazines, including the first society of "La Illustration", a weekly journal that catered to the concerns of the upper echelon of society. Among these photographers were Gustave Gray, Eugene Disdéri, and the studio of Bertsch and Arnaud.

 

In 1880, Charles became ill and decided to turn his studio over to his brother Emile. Prior to his death in 1881, Charles Reutlinger was awarded many credits during his life. His brother, Emile, ran the studio until 1890, with little credits to his name.

In 1883, after only 3 years of running the Reutlinger Studios, Emile summoned his first-born son, Leopold born, March 17, 1863, and raised in Callao, Peru, to come to Paris to begin working with his father in the family photography business.

 

Leopold Reutlinger had a well-established socialite clientele and a very elaborate studio given to him upon his arrival in Paris, although officially, the Reutlinger Studio was given to him in 1890. The young Reutlinger adapted quickly to the upper echelon of society photography Charles had established many years before his arrival.

 

Léopold Reutlinger produced a vast number of images, ranging from portraits, performers, showgirls, and theatre stars. He photographed for advertising purposes, as well as, for magazines and newspapers. By the early 1900's, Leopold had far surpassed his Uncle Charles accomplishments. The rich and famous held Leopold Reutlinger in the highest esteem, requesting him whenever a professional photograph was needed.

 

He frequently held exhibitions of his work in the offices of the newspapers and magazines where he was employed. Announcements of his works were published in the newspapers and magazines. Of course, all the socialites attended these showings.

 

To his credit, Reutlinger introduced a very distinctive style of merging photographic images with art nouveau fantasy overlays. He added to that process exceptionally well-done hand tinting. The Reutlinger Studio became known for their unusual art nouveau styles of postcard designs, especially for portraits of actresses. These postcards were not cheaply produced, nor were they cheaply sold. This part of his business was very successful and sought-after, as thousands of his art nouveau postcards were produced.

 

By the age of 30, Leopold Reutlinger was a man of great reputation. Now, wealthy, successful, and having the best of everything money could buy, Leopold could pick and choose photographic projects.

 

Léopold continued in a very successful business until 1930, when he lost an eye in an accident with a champagne cork, forcing him into retirement, ending the reign of the Reutlinger Studios. He died in Paris at the age of 74 on 16 March, 1937.

 

Although, Leopold Reutlinger had an inherited life, never having to struggle in establishing his business, he worked very hard to maintain the high standards of his forefathers and is highly accredited for the advancement of new styles in postcard design, all the while, photographing the most beautiful and famous people in the world.

e-vint.com/e-reutlinger.html

 

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Charles Reutlinger was born in 1816 and came from a French family. He founded his studio in 1850 and photographed many of the best-known artists, musicians and writers of his time, including Liszt, Verdi and Berlioz. In 1880, Charles Reutingler handed over his studio to his brother Emile Reutlinger. Emile's son Leopold-Emile Reutlingerbegan to work for his father when he went to Paris from Peru in 1883. He took over the Reutlinger studio in 1890 and produced photographs for advertising purposes, as well as for magazines and newspapers. He frequently held exhibitions of his work in the offices of the newspapers that he worked for. Leopold-Emile also added erotic images to the Reutlinger portfolio.

The studio flourished, making photographs for commercial and advertising usage, but also mass-producing portraits of performers for the adoring and collecting public. Leopold-Emile stopped working in 1930 when he lost an eye in an accident with a champagne cork.

 

The Reutlinger studio was located in the heart of the capital of fashion, Paris. It consisted of palm trees, columns, tapestries, rugs, and an assortment of steps and stairways on which the flowing trains from the ladies' gowns could be resplendently fanned out. The most attractive models were sought, and often the prettiest ladies with the best figures were found at the Folies Bèrgeres, the Comedie Français, or the Opera Bouffe. Therefore, it is not unusual to see early photographs of Paris-based opera singers, such as Lina Cavalieri who performed for the Folies Bèrgeres, prior to their operatic debuts.

 

The Reutlinger Studio, closed its doors in 1937.

jewelryaccessories.com/fashion-photographers/354-reutling...

 

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The british journal of photography visited to the studio in 1867

books.google.hu/books?id=05wOAAAAQAAJ&pg=PA426&lp...

 

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National Portrait Gallery Reutlinger collection /54 portrait!/:

www.npg.org.uk/collections/search/person/mp82485/charles-...

 

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Online exhibitions > Reutlinger Studio

www.luminous-lint.com/app/vexhibit/_PHOTOGRAPHER_Reutling...

 

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The Metropolitan Museum of Art Charles Reutlinger collection:

www.metmuseum.org/collections/search-the-collections?&amp...

  

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Atelier Reutlinger in wonderings.net

wonderings.net/vintage-postcards/atelier-reutlinger/

 

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Reutliger photos in painting in light's Photostream:

www.flickr.com/search/?w=34574252@N02&q=reutlinger

 

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Gabinál is van

www.flickr.com/photos/23912178@N08/7591630912/

唐越窯秘色青瓷劃花五爪龍紋三凸六陰弦紋底三長條橢圓形支燒釘開細片蟬翼紋長頸撇口瓶

A Tang Yue Kiln carved Celadon-glazed Bottle Porcelain Vase with long neck, trumpet mouth, three raised and six carved 'bow-string' lines, five-clawed dragon, three long elliptical spur marks (burning-supporting nail-head marks) on the base and very fine wings-of-cicada crackles Tang Dynasty (618-907).

  

尺寸: 高 17.5 x 口徑 6.1 x 最大腹徑 9.5 x 圓底徑 5.1 cm

 

Size: Height 17.5 x Mouth Diameter 6.1 x Maximum Abdomen Diameter 9.5 x round Base-stand foot Diameter 5.1 cm

  

A Facebook public group "Fine Art to Sell" 臉書公共社群網站 "藝術精品展售"

  

Hello! Your beautiful works of art are invited to join a public Facebook group "Fine Art to Sell" to exhibit freely fine art for sale to buyers worldwide.

 

From Western Oil Paintings to Chinese Watercolor Paintings; from Europe to America via China and Africa by-passing India; from bronze, jade and Jadeite, ceramics, paintings, dinosaur fossils, sculptures, to space meteorites; from century B.C. to A.D.; from US several dollars to millions, and even priceless; from unearthed, unearthed-seabed, to the outer space, you can find many extra-ordinary works of art here in this group!

 

Over five thousand increasing group members, most of them are creative and professional Artists, have offered over one thousand increasing valuable lots for your appreciation and examinations! It’s completely free to be in and free to be out as your wish and to get your knowledge of worldwide art freely!

  

哈囉! 邀請您美麗的藝術作品歡迎加入臉書公共社群網站 "藝術精品展售" 以便向全世界的買家免費展示.

 

從西方油畫到中國水墨彩畫; 從歐洲至美洲經由中國與非洲路過印度; 從青銅器, 玉器翡翠, 瓷器, 書畫, 恐龍化石, 雕塑, 至太空隕石; 從西元前至西元後; 從數美元至數百千萬美元, 甚至無價之寶; 從地下出土, 海底床出水, 甚至於外太空, 您可在此臉書公共社群網站中找到許多特別好的藝術作品!

 

超過五千位增加中的會員, 其中絕大部分是富有創造力強而專業的藝術作家, 已經提供了超過一千件增加中的名貴藝術作品供您鑑賞! 它是完全免費進入也是免費離開, 且正如您所願, 可以自由進出以取得您的全球藝術知識!

  

The difference between the Art collectors in Taipei Taiwan and those elsewhere:

 

(1) Some Art collectors in Taipei Taiwan are collecting works of art from the world containers by containers like the bites of sharks as the attached photos. Most of Art collectors elsewhere are collecting works of art piece by piece like turtle walking and most of you will never be on the waiting list!

 

(2) Some Art collectors in Taipei Taiwan are collecting works of art at a very low profile and never become a famous one listed in the world top 500 collectors. Most of Art collectors elsewhere are collecting works of art to become a famous one listed in the world top 500 collectors.

 

(3) Some Art collectors in Taipei Taiwan are collecting works of art directly from the source owing to authenticity! Most of Art collectors elsewhere are collecting works of art from international auctioneers owing to the authenticity by the auctioneers.

  

The required Preparation to sell your beautiful paintings and works of art into Taipei Taiwan

 

Once you have joined Facebook international public group “Fine Art to sell” and posted on the wall dashboard your sale post(s) to be listed in the “See all sale posts” column of this group, then it’s recommended that you begin to prepare the following procedures in order to sell your paintings and works of art for sale smoothly into Taipei Taiwan:

 

(1) Find a reliable delivery/mailing service that has door to door delivery/mailing service from your city to Taipei city of Taiwan, such as city post office…etc. Make sure the rate difference between “Framed” and “A roll of canvas without Frame” with the delivery/mailing service and prepare to advise the buyer to be in Taipei Taiwan.

 

Consignee in Taipei Taiwan: (Attorney of buyer)

 

Mr. Orion Hsu

 

c/o Mr. Michael Hsu

Attorney at Law licensed and registered in Taiwan

Head of Future Law Firm

 

Floor 12, No. 169, Section 4, Zhong-xiao East Road, Da-an District, Zip-code 10690, Taipei, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Tel: +886 - (0)2 - 23047919

  

(2) The import custom duty rates for “Painting, drawing and pastels, executed entirely by hand” (international HS Code 9701 TLS 2014) into Taiwan are 0%, i.e. import duty free.

 

(3) Open a bank account at your bank in your city to receive foreign currency remittance from the buyer’s bank in Taipei Taiwan. The currency in Taiwan is New Taiwan Dollars (NTD). Make sure your bank account at what currency can receive foreign remittance from the bank in Taipei Taiwan. Prepare your bank account number, your bank account name, together with bank name, bank address, bank telephone number, Bank Swift Code/ABA Number/Sort Code/IBAN Number for foreign currency remittance in order to advise the buyer to be in Taipei Taiwan. This is the only way for you to collect your selling price at your currency from the buyer in Taipei Taiwan with different currency exchange via international banking system.

 

Summary of IBAN Implementations (Source: German COMMERZBANK office in Taipei Taiwan):

Format: Nation Name digits/length of IBAN numbers

 

Albania 28 Andorra 24 Austria 20 Republic of Azerbaijan 24 Bahrain 22 Belgium 16 Bosnia & Herzegovina 20 Bulgaria 22 Costa Rica 21 Croatia 21 Cyprus 28 Czech Republic 24 Denmark 18 Dominican Republic 28 Estonia 20 Faroe Islands 18 Finland 18 France 27 Georgia 22 Germany 22 Gibraltar 23 Greece 27 Greenland 18 Hungary 28 Iceland 26 Ireland 22 Israel 23 Italy 27 Kazakhstan 20 Kuwait 30 Latvia 21 Lebanon 28 Liechtenstein 21 Lithuania 20 Luxembourg 20 Macedonia 19 Malta 31 Mauritania 27 Mauritius 30 Republic of Moldova 24 Monaco 27 Montenegro 22 Netherlands 18 Norway 15 Poland 28 Portugal 25 Romania 24 San Marino 27 Saudi Arabia 24 Serbia 22 Slovak Republic 24 Slovenia 19 Spain 24 Sweden 24 Switzerland 21 Tunisia 24 Turkey 26 United Arab Emirates 23 United Kingdom 22 Virgin Islands, British 24

 

You have to check the digits/length of your IBAN numbers with the above nation list carefully lest your price cash collected from the buyer should be rejected by the international banking system outside the door of your bank and returned back to this cash-remitter buyer in Taipei Taiwan.

 

Once you have a bank account at your bank in your city, buyer can further indentify your account name with the name of the artist in order to assure that the subject cash-remittee to be the same person as the artist and the seller.

 

(4) Prepare an Authentication Certificate of the Artist (if you are the artist) for the buyer to be in Taipei Taiwan.

 

Without the above, you are not fully prepared to sell your beautiful paintings and works of art for sale into Taipei Taiwan yet!

  

"Fine Art to sell" Group Description:

 

This is a public group to exhibit freely fine art for sale to buyers worldwide.

 

Fine art will be sold by itself once they are exhibited to right buyers at right place. They are not to be sold if they are always stored in a closed warehouse without any exhibition or just exhibited to wrong eyes at wrong venue.

 

This group is aimed to publish an international “E-catalog of fine art for sale” via the combined traffics from the art favorite sites such as Facebook, Flickr, Google plus, Linkedin, Tumblr, Pinterest, Twitter, Blogger, Stage 32, Art-3000, Weibo,…etc. It will become the most convenient “Yellow Page” of fine art for sale in the world.

 

Every buyer can just to glance at the price list on the wall of the group and make decision after careful comparison and study upon the data.

 

It is strongly recommended that you post a sale post with picture of the art object for sale, price, location, size, artist name and the birth year, artist’s death year (if any); even if you have already a private website or a link. Being a professional buyer for decades together with other potential buyers in Taipei, Taiwan, we know a buying rule that just examine what it has on an E-catalog for the sake of efficiency.

 

To show the price in sales post is to demonstrate the positive WILLING for sale of the artist. This is quite different from EXHIBITION ONLY. People go to the selling market with BUYING INTENTION and MONEY for shopping; but people go to a museum exhibition with ticket money and no buying intention. They are only a large audience at an exhibition venue. They will not buy the paintings those are not for sale!

 

If you just post a non-sale post that will be very soon pushed down by other newly coming large database in a few days and lose eye-views from buyers on the wall. It will not be recorded in the easy index-queues of "See all sale posts" in this group.

 

For your own benefit, please click green button to "Sell Something", not to click "Start Discussion" and post a sale post of your best “FIGHTING and COMBATING works of art in the world art market”.

 

If you click "Start Discussion", then after clicking "POST" at the end, please remember to choose "not for selling" to be a non-sale post!

 

A sale post will be shown in “See all sale posts” of the group and easily be noticed by buyers! This is an international “Art Market” where buyers will have to come for shopping. Buyers always go to where a crowded selling market is located with lots of traffics.

 

We have discovered several NEW STARS OF PAINTINGS in this group. This doesn’t mean other painters in this group beside these NEW STARS are not good enough. They are all very good with the best quality of the paintings posted in the internet.

 

Multiple sale posts by an artist can enhance buying interests from a buyer in the paintings by this particular artist!

 

In just less than four months, we have had at least four thousand new members and over 930 valuable lots of beautiful paintings and works of art for sale all over the world! We have been newly created since end-July 2015, but we are confident of what we are going to sell and buy!

  

Mr. Orion Hsu & Brothers

Private Museum preparatory office

Taipei Taiwan

  

The Art Market in Taipei city of Taiwan

 

The metropolitan area of Taipei City has a population of 7,028,583 people ranking the 40th most-populous urban area in the world.

 

As of 2007, the metro region of Taipei has a nominal GDP of around US$260 billion, a record that would rank it 13th among world cities by GDP. Taiwan is now a creditor economy, holding one of the world's largest foreign exchange reserves of over US$403 billion as of December 2012.

 

The National Palace Museum in Taipei is a great art museum built around a permanent collection centered on ancient Chinese artifacts. It should not be confused with the Palace Museum in Beijing; both institutions trace their origins to the same Forbidden City in Beijing where the Palace of Emperor is located and stored with million pieces of valuable collections by the consecutive Emperors of Qing dynasty. The collections were divided in the 1940s as a result of the Chinese Civil War. The National Palace Museum in Taipei now boasts of a truly international collection while housing one of the world's largest collections of artifacts from ancient China.

 

Along with the cultural education and influence from the nearby National Palace Museum in Taipei, hiking prices and excellent investment returns of art have aroused huge interests of the citizens in Taipei who have been used to be living in a house costs commonly from US$ 1 million to 3 million or so for decades. The art is expensive; but the house is much more expensive than the art.

 

There are over 1,000 shops dealing art business in Taipei and some of them are opened only on Saturdays and Sundays for just two working days per week. Few buyers in Taipei are buying their art collections from international auctioneers and ranking among the top 500 collectors in the world. Most of local citizen-buyers in Taipei are just like million-of-ants and purchase their art goods from local shops and private sellers at millions of dollars by thousands of transactions per day. So the art goods are generally shipped to Taipei from China and worldwide area by containers to meet the art market demand in Taipei.

 

Good paintings and works of art will be sold by themselves once they are exhibited to right buyers at right place. They are not to be sold if they are always stored in a closed warehouse without any exhibition or just exhibited to wrong eyes at wrong venue.

  

2014 年世界拍賣總收入前 100 名畫家中之前 31 名中國畫家

Top 31 Chinese artists among the Top 100 artists by world auction revenue in 2014

 

共 31 名中國畫家占前 100 名畫家之 31 %

Total 31 Chinese artists / 100 artists = 31 %

 

假如你是西方油畫的收藏家,扣除 31 % 的中國畫家,再扣除 20 % 左右的中國瓷器、青銅器、珠寶玉器、漆器雜項類中國作家,2014年你只是在世界作者市場 49 % 以內經營藝術品而已;可能再過10年,你將成為只是在世界作者市場 30 % 以內經營。

 

If you are a collector of western oil paintings, deducting 31 % for Chinese artists of paintings and further deducting 20% for Chinese artists of ceramics、bronze、jades and jewelry、lacquer and miscellaneous works of art, in 2014 you are only operating works of art within 49% of the world artists market. Maybe after 10 years, you might become operating works of art within 30% of the world artists market.

 

列名 作者姓名 拍賣總收入(美金) 拍賣件數 最高落槌價(美金)

Rank Artist Auction Turnover ($) Sold Lots Top Hammer Price ($)

 

Page 84 (14 Chinese artists) 第84頁14位中國畫家

 

列名 作者姓名 拍賣總收入(美金) 拍賣件數 最高落槌價(美金)

Rank Artist Auction Turnover($) Sold Lots Top Hammer Price($)

 

7 QI Baishi (1864-1957) 齊白石 206,245,348 719 7,861,850

9 ZHANG Daqian (1899-1983) 張大千 193,242,992 817 7,476,199

13 ZAO Wou-ki (1921-2013) 趙無極 115,686,349 575 7,161,650

16 FU Baoshi (1904-1965) 傅抱石 103,465,331 142 4,944,050

17 XU Beihong (1895-1953) 徐悲鴻 102,449,141 219 6,532,000

19 HUANG Zhou (1925-1997) 黃冑 96,461,998 625 5,506,020

20 HUANG Binhong (1865-1955) 黃賓虹 88,082,380 303 8,839,900

26 WU Changshuo (1844-1927) 吳昌碩 80,942,833 560 5,463,850

31 LU Yanshao (1909-1993) 陸儼少 66,350,196 443 1,925,760

32 LI Keran (1907-1989) 李可染 65,946,710 207 7,294,500

37 CHU Teh-Chun (1920-2014) 朱德群 60,897,598 241 3,800,000

38 WU Guanzhong (1919-2010) 吳冠中 60,623,435 153 2,967,000

42 LIN Fengmian (1900-1991) 林風眠 54,514,729 253 2,449,500

50 ZENG Fanzhi (1964)曾梵志 43,080,328 50 3,606,400

 

Page 85 (17 Chinese artists) 第85頁17位中國畫家

 

53 PU Ru (1896-1963) 溥儒(溥心畬) 41,246,692 1,042 838,500

55 XIE Zhiliu (1910-1997) 謝稚柳 39,960,699 355 2,367,850

58 WU Hufan (1894-1968) 吳湖帆 37,900,898 320 3,412,500

59 WANG Duo (1592-1652) 王鐸 37,871,423 70 3,013,650

62 PAN Tianshou (1897-1971) 潘天壽 34,790,957 88 3,600,840

67 ZHU Da (1626-1705) 朱耷(八大山人) 32,277,125 38 6,190,200

71 SAN Yu (1901-1966) 常玉 30,027,262 41 9,151,899

75 ZHU Xinjian (1953-2014) 朱新建 28,619,279 1,202 898,150

78 QIANLONG Emperor (1711-1799) 乾隆皇帝 27,079,477 48 16,483,200

81 CHENG Shifa (1921-2007) 程十髮 25,987,069 486 1,959,600

83 QI Gong (1912-2005) 啟功 25,693,155 437 815,500

85 QIAN Songyan (1899-1985) 錢松喦 25,582,974 254 1,053,650

89 FAN Zeng (1938) 范曾 23,416,615 237 2,941,200

93 YU Youren (1879-1964) 于右任 23,032,037 718 521,279

95 ZHOU Chunya (1955) 周春芽 21,226,785 65 1,134,700

96 WANG Hui (1632-1717) 王翬 21,050,636 58 4,569,600

98 ZHANG Xiaogang (1958) 張曉剛 20,783,341 44 10,698,699

  

資料來源: 法國 Art price 2014 年全世界藝術市場報告書第 84-93 頁 2014 年全世界拍賣總收入結果前 500 名畫家.

 

Source: The Art Market in 2014 Page 84-93 Top 500 artists by auction revenue in 2014 by Art price

  

2014年世界拍賣總收入前100名畫家

Top 100 artists by world auction revenue in 2014

 

列名 作者姓名 拍賣總收入(美金) 拍賣件數 最高落槌價(美金)

Rank Artist Auction Turnover($) Sold Lots Top Hammer Price($)

 

Page 84

 

1 WARHOL Andy (1928-1987) 569,507,083 1,394 73,000,000

2 PICASSO Pablo (1881-1973) 375,054,326 2,898 28,000,000

3 BACON Francis (1909-1992) 270,748,102 122 72,000,000

4 RICHTER Gerhard (1932) 254,353,142 258 28,711,740

5 ROTHKO Mark (1903-1970) 249,188,072 16 59,000,000

6 MONET Claude (1840-1926) 222,694,607 40 48,073,025

7 QI Baishi (1864-1957) 206,245,348 719 7,861,850

8 GIACOMETTI Alberto (1901-1966) 205,473,704 147 90,000,000

9 ZHANG Daqian (1899-1983) 193,242,992 817 7,476,199

10 KOONS Jeff (1955) 149,686,183 104 30,000,000

11 BASQUIAT Jean-Michel (1960-1988) 148,998,739 71 31,000,000

12 TWOMBLY Cy (1928-2011) 126,221,339 61 62,000,000

13 ZAO Wou-ki (1921-2013) 115,686,349 575 7,161,650

14 LICHTENSTEIN Roy (1923-1997) 109,143,660 540 19,000,000

15 KOONING de Willem (1904-1997) 105,999,158 77 26,000,000

16 FU Baoshi (1904-1965) 103,465,331 142 4,944,050

17 XU Beihong (1895-1953) 102,449,141 219 6,532,000

18 MODIGLIANI Amedeo (1884-1920) 98,954,376 26 63,000,000

19 HUANG Zhou (1925-1997) 96,461,998 625 5,506,020

20 HUANG Binhong (1865-1955) 88,082,380 303 8,839,900

21 GOGH van Vincent (1853-1890) 87,864,632 12 55,000,000

22 WOOL Christopher (1955) 87,630,825 52 21,000,000

23 CHAGALL Marc (1887-1985) 87,296,130 1,125 10,110,960

24 MIRO Joan (1893-1983) 83,177,312 1,306 11,000,000

25 FONTANA Lucio (1899-1968) 82,185,863 247 9,038,090

26 WU Changshuo (1844-1927) 80,942,833 560 5,463,850

27 CALDER Alexander (1898-1976) 78,764,837 354 23,000,000

28 MATISSE Henri (1869-1954) 75,439,034 404 17,000,000

29 NEWMAN Barnett (1905-1970) 75,039,000 3 75,000,000

30 MANET Edouard (1832-1883) 68,522,429 39 58,000,000

31 LU Yanshao (1909-1993) 66,350,196 443 1,925,760

32 LI Keran (1907-1989) 65,946,710 207 7,294,500

33 DOIG Peter (1959) 65,945,331 62 16,000,000

34 CUI Ruzhuo (1944) 65,150,015 49 20,623,999

35 LEGER Fernand (1881-1955) 65,038,926 216 17,526,600

36 RENOIR Pierre-Auguste (1841-1919) 64,799,084 270 10,000,000

37 CHU Teh-Chun (1920-2014) 60,897,598 241 3,800,000

38 WU Guanzhong (1919-2010) 60,623,435 153 2,967,000

39 KIPPENBERGER Martin (1953-1997) 59,801,054 64 20,000,000

40 O'KEEFFE Georgia (1887-1986) 57,372,500 11 39,500,000

41 GRIS Juan (1887-1927) 55,609,017 16 50,778,000

42 LIN Fengmian (1900-1991) 54,514,729 253 2,449,500

43 PRINCE Richard (1949) 53,904,826 76 7,500,000

44 MAGRITTE Rene (1898-1967) 53,449,860 110 11,415,600

45 POLKE Sigmar (1941-2010) 52,118,395 142 7,500,000

46 ROCKWELL Norman Perceval (1894-1978) 49,866,548 78 20,000,000

47 TURNER Joseph Mallord William (1775-1851) 47,501,117 25 42,379,200

48 PISSARRO Camille (1830-1903) 47,181,620 126 28,539,000

49 RYMAN Robert (1930) 45,055,015 22 13,250,000

50 ZENG Fanzhi (1964) 43,080,328 50 3,606,400

 

Page 85

 

51 MONDRIAAN Piet (1872-1944) 42,161,208 12 22,972,950

52 KANDINSKY Wassily (1866-1944) 41,815,792 88 15,200,000

53 PU Ru (1896-1963) 41,246,692 1,042 838,500

54 RUSCHA Ed (1937) 40,297,696 161 27,000,000

55 XIE Zhiliu (1910-1997) 39,960,699 355 2,367,850

56 DIEBENKORN Richard (1922-1993) 39,797,050 54 9,000,000

57 KLEIN Yves (1928-1962) 39,322,018 58 15,000,000

58 WU Hufan (1894-1968) 37,900,898 320 3,412,500

59 WANG Duo (1592-1652) 37,871,423 70 3,013,650

60 DUBUFFET Jean (1901-1985) 36,738,561 136 6,500,000

61 JOHNS Jasper (1930) 36,206,875 127 32,000,000

62 PAN Tianshou (1897-1971) 34,790,957 88 3,600,840

63 KUSAMA Yayoi (1929) 34,578,242 501 6,200,000

64 BRUEGHEL Pieter II (c.1564-1637/38) 33,927,798 17 8,312,415

65 LOWRY Laurence Stephen (1887-1976) 33,818,511 211 7,420,500

66 HARING Keith (1958-1990) 32,957,932 334 4,200,000

67 ZHU Da (1626-1705) 32,277,125 38 6,190,200

68 SHIRAGA Kazuo (1924-2008) 31,741,241 59 4,629,100

69 CORNELL Joseph (1903-1972) 30,709,300 61 6,800,000

70 CEZANNE Paul (1839-1906) 30,651,134 51 5,277,130

71 SAN Yu (1901-1966) 30,027,262 41 9,151,899

72 GUYTON Wade (1972) 29,872,250 25 5,200,000

73 MANZONI Piero (1933-1963) 29,409,569 20 17,934,560

74 FREUD Lucian (1922-2011) 28,880,298 44 15,000,000

75 ZHU Xinjian (1953-2014) 28,619,279 1,202 898,150

76 BRAQUE Georges (1882-1963) 28,026,347 288 8,000,000

77 MOORE Henry (1898-1986) 27,966,291 359 7,207,200

78 QIANLONG Emperor (1711-1799) 27,079,477 48 16,483,200

79 RODIN Auguste (1840-1917) 26,464,285 109 5,870,880

80 BOETTI Alighiero (1940-1994) 26,293,943 102 3,344,040

81 CHENG Shifa (1921-2007) 25,987,069 486 1,959,600

82 STAEL de Nicolas (1914-1955) 25,840,977 27 5,037,550

83 QI Gong (1912-2005) 25,693,155 437 815,500

84 KLINE Franz (1910-1962) 25,601,059 13 23,500,000

85 QIAN Songyan (1899-1985) 25,582,974 254 1,053,650

86 SCHWITTERS Kurt (1887-1948) 25,317,879 25 21,108,520

87 VRIES de Adrien (c.1550-1626) 24,750,000 1 24,750,000

88 CASTELLANI Enrico (1930) 24,636,292 70 5,284,290

89 FAN Zeng (1938) 23,416,615 237 2,941,200

90 DALI Salvador (1904-1989) 23,267,013 1,393 8,000,000

91 JUDD Donald (1928-1994) 23,167,881 57 6,500,000

92 MITCHELL Joan (1926-1992) 23,076,316 31 10,500,000

93 YU Youren (1879-1964) 23,032,037 718 521,279

94 BURRI Alberto (1915-1995) 22,881,307 60 6,726,870

95 ZHOU Chunya (1955) 21,226,785 65 1,134,700

96 WANG Hui (1632-1717) 21,050,636 58 4,569,600

97 DEGAS Edgar (1834-1917) 20,879,178 91 4,500,000

98 ZHANG Xiaogang (1958) 20,783,341 44 10,698,699

99 POLLOCK Jackson (1912-1956) 20,757,940 7 10,000,000

100 STELLA Frank (1936) 20,553,820 195 5,800,000

  

資料來源: 法國 Art price 2014 年全世界藝術市場報告書第 84-93 頁 2014 年全世界拍賣總收入結果前 500 名畫家.

 

Source: The Art Market in 2014 Page 84-93 Top 500 artists by auction revenue in 2014 by Art price

  

Chinese Painters 中國畫家:

 

(1) 張大千 Zhang Daqian 张大千 (32 幅/pcs)

(2) 齊白石 Qi Baishi 齐白石 (10 幅/pcs)

(3) 徐悲鴻 Xu Beihong 徐悲鸿 (8 幅/pcs)

(4) 吳冠中 Wu Guanzhong 吴冠中 (7 幅/pcs)

(5) 傅抱石 Fu Baoshi 傅抱石 (3 幅/pcs)

(6) 李可染 Li Keran 李可染 (1 幅/pc)

(7) 陸儼少 Lu Yanshao 陆俨少 (1 幅/pc)

(8) 黃冑 Huang Zhou 黃冑 (1 幅/pc)

(9) 黃賓虹 Huang Binhong 黄宾虹 (3 幅/pcs)

(10) 吳昌碩 Wu Changshuo 吴昌硕 (1 幅/pc)

(11) 林風眠 Lin Fengmian 林风眠 (4 幅/pcs)

(12) 吳湖帆 Wu Hufan 吴湖帆 (4 幅/pcs)

(13) 謝稚柳 Xie Zhiliu 谢稚柳 (1 幅/pc)

(14) 黃君璧 Huang Junbi 黄君璧 (2 幅/pc)

(15) 愛新覺羅 溥儒 Pu Ru 溥心畬 Pu Xinyu (1 幅/pc)

(16) 唐雲 Tang Yun 唐云 (1 幅/pc)

(17) 趙少昂 Zhao Shao’Ang 赵少昂 (3 幅/pcs)

(18) 何海霞 He Haixia 何海霞 (1 幅/pc)

(19) 關山月 Guan Shanyue 关山月 (1 幅/pc)

(20) 豐子愷 Feng Zikai 丰子恺 (1 幅/pc)

(21) 顏伯龍 Yan Bolong 颜伯龙 (4 幅/pcs)

(22) 愛新覺羅溥佐 Aisin Gioro Pu Zuo (1 幅/pc)

(23) 高逸鴻 Gao Yihong 高逸鸿 (1 幅/pc)

(24) 田世光 Tian Shiguang 田世光 (1 幅/pc)

(25) 袁松年 Yuan Songnian 袁松年 (1 幅/pc)

(26) 高奇峰 Gao Qifeng 高奇峰 (1 幅/pc)

(27) 陳之佛 Chen Zhifo 陈之佛 (1 幅/pc)

(28) 陳半丁 Chen Banding 陈半丁 (1 幅/pc)

(29) 馮超然 Feng Chaoran 冯超然 (1 幅/pc)

(30) 鄭板橋 Zheng Banqiao 郑板桥 (1 幅/pc)

  

Taiwan Web Museum

A Free Exhibition Museum in the Internet World

 

台灣網路藝術美術博物館

網路世界裡的免費博物館

 

台湾网络艺术美术博物馆

网络世界里的免费博物馆

 

Free Website to See Paintings by Chinese Artists Listed in 2011 World Auction Revenue Top 30 and Rare Archaic Chinese Ancient Antiques

 

觀賞2011年列名世界拍賣總收入前30名中國畫家名畫作品及中國古代罕見的古董之免費網址

 

Welcome to identify your Chinese Paintings and Works of Art! Our help is free of charge!

歡迎辨識您的中國書畫及藝術品! 我們的協助是免費的!

 

Mr. Orion Hsu & Brothers (徐氏兄弟珍藏文物)

Private Museum preparatory office

中國書畫文物博物館籌備企劃辦公室

 

#1 orionandhsu@yahoo.com.tw

#2 orionandhsu@gmail.com

 

Aston Martin Lagonda Limited is a British manufacturer of luxury sports cars, based in Gaydon, Warwickshire. The company name is derived from the name of one of the company's founders, Lionel Martin, and from the Aston Hill speed hillclimb near Aston Clinton in Buckinghamshire.[2] It also designs and engineers cars which are manufactured by Magna Steyr in Austria.[3]

 

From 1994 until 2007 Aston Martin was part of the Ford Motor Company, becoming part of the company's Premier Automotive Group in 2000. On 12 March 2007, it was purchased for £479 million by a joint venture company, headed by David Richards and co-owned by Investment Dar and Adeem Investment of Kuwait and English businessman John Sinders.[4] Ford retained a US$77 million stake in Aston Martin, valuing the company at US$925 million.[5]Aston Martin was founded in 1913 by Lionel Martin[6] and Robert Bamford. The two had joined forces as Bamford & Martin the previous year to sell cars made by Singer from premises in Callow Street, London where they also serviced GWK and Calthorpe vehicles. Martin raced specials at Aston Hill near Aston Clinton, and the pair decided to make their own vehicles. The first car to be named Aston Martin was created by Martin by fitting a four-cylinder Coventry-Simplex engine to the chassis of a 1908 Isotta-Fraschini.[7][8]

 

They acquired premises at Henniker Place in Kensington and produced their first car in March 1915. Production could not start because of the outbreak of World War I, and Martin joined the Admiralty and Bamford the Royal Army Service Corps. All machinery was sold to the Sopwith Aviation Company.

[edit] Inter war years

 

After the war the company was refounded at Abingdon Road, Kensington and a new car designed to carry the Aston-Martin name. Bamford left in 1920 and the company was revitalised with funding from Count Louis Zborowski. In 1922, Bamford & Martin produced cars to compete in the French Grand Prix, and the cars set world speed and endurance records at Brooklands. Three works Team Cars with 16 valve twin cam engines were built for racing and record breaking: chassis number 1914, later developed as the Green Pea; chassis number 1915, the Razor Blade record car; and chassis number 1916, later developed as the Halford Special. Approximately 55 cars were built for sale in two configurations, long chassis and short chassis. The company went bankrupt in 1924 and was bought by Lady Charnwood, who put her son John Benson on the board. The company failed again in 1925 and the factory closed in 1926, with Lionel Martin leaving.

 

Later that year, Bill Renwick, Augustus (Bert) Bertelli and a number of rich investors, including Lady Charnwood, took control of the company and renamed it Aston Martin Motors, and moved it to the former Whitehead Aircraft Limited works in Feltham. Renwick and Bertelli had been in partnership some years and had developed an overhead cam 4 cylinder engine, using Renwick's patented combustion chamber design, and had tested it in an Enfield Allday chassis. It was the only 'Renwick and Bertelli' motor car made. It was known as 'Buzzbox' and survives to this day.

 

They had planned to sell this engine to motor manufacturers, but having heard that the Aston Martin car was no longer in production they realised that they could capitalise on the reputation of the Aston Martin name (what we would now call the brand) to give themselves a head start in the production of a completely new car.

 

Between the years 1926 and 1937 Bertelli was the technical director of Aston Martin, and the designer of all subsequent Aston Martin cars during this period, these being known as the 'Bertelli cars'. They included the 1½ litre 'T-type', the 'International, the 'Le Mans, the 'MKII' its racing derivative the 'Ulster, and the 2 litre 15/98 and its racing derivative the 'Speed Model'.

 

Mostly open two seater sports cars and mostly bodied by Bert Bertelli's brother Enrico (Harry)a small number of long chassis four seater tourers, dropheads and saloons were also produced.

 

Bertelli was very keen to race his cars and he was a very competent driver. One of the very few motor manufacturers to actually sit in and race the cars he designed and built, the competition no doubt 'improved the breed' and the 'LM' team cars were very successful in national and international motor racing including at Le Mans and the Mille Miglia.

 

Financial problems reappeared in 1932 and the company was rescued by L. Prideaux Brune who funded the company for the following year before passing the company on to Sir Arthur Sutherland. In 1936, the company decided to concentrate on road cars. Car production had always been on a small scale and until the advent of World War II halted work only about 700 had been made. During the war years aircraft components were produced.

[edit] The David Brown era

1958 Aston Martin DB Mark III

 

In 1947, David Brown Limited bought the company under the leadership of managing director Sir David Brown—its "post-war saviour". David Brown also acquired Lagonda that year, and both companies shared resources and workshops. In 1955, David Brown bought the Tickford coachbuilding company and its site at Tickford Street in Newport Pagnell, and that was the beginning of the classic series of cars bearing the initials "DB". In 1950, the company announced the DB2, followed by the DB2/4 in 1953, the DB2/4 Mk11 in 1955, the DB Mark III in 1957 and the Italian-styled 3.7 L DB4 in 1958. All the cars established a good racing pedigree for the firm, but the DB4 was the key to establishing the company's reputation, which was cemented by the famous DB5 in 1963. The company continued developing the "grand touring" style with the DB6 (1965–70), the DBS.

[edit] 1970s—Changing ownership

 

Despite the cars' appreciation in value, the company was often financially troubled. In 1972, the company was sold to another company called Company Developments Ltd., backed by a Birmingham-based consortium, and chaired by chartered accountant and company director William Willson, MBE.[9] The company was resold, following a further bankruptcy event, by the Receiver in 1975 to North American businessmen Peter Sprague and George Minden for £1.05 million.[10] A successful turn-around strategy led to the recruitment of 360 new employees and, by 1977, a trading profit of £750,000.[10] The new owners pushed the company into modernising its line, producing the V8 Vantage in 1977, the convertible Volante in 1978, and the one-off William Towns-styled Bulldog in 1980. Towns also styled the futuristic new Lagonda saloon, based on the V8 model.

 

In 1980 Aston-Martin had plans, which did not materialize, to buy MG, which they would have utilized as a sister marque, probably building smaller sports cars. Ideas were plotted to design a new model and they revealed to the press their approach to an "updated" "1981" model MGB.

 

The company was badly hit by the economic contraction of the early 1980s as worldwide sales of Aston Martin shrank to three per week and chairman Alan Curtis together with fellow shareholders American Peter Sprague and Canadian George Minden came close to shutting down the production side of the business, to concentrate on service and restoration. At this point Curtis attended the 1980 Pace sponsored Stirling Moss benefit day at Brands Hatch, and met fellow Farnham resident Victor Gauntlett.

[edit] 1980s—Victor Gauntlett

 

Gauntlett bought a 12.5% stake in Aston Martin for £500,000 via Pace Petroleum in 1980, with Tim Hearley of CH Industrials taking a similar share. Pace and CHI took over as joint 50/50 owners at the beginning of 1981, with Gauntlett as executive chairman. Gauntlett also led the sales team, and after some development and a lot of publicity when it became the world’s fastest 4-seater production car, was able to sell with success the Aston Martin Lagonda into Persian Gulf states, particularly Oman, Kuwait and Qatar.[11]

 

Understanding that it would take some time to develop new Aston Martin products, they created an engineering service subsidiary Tickford to develop automotive products for other companies. Products included a Tickford Austin Metro, a Tickford Ford Capri and even Tickford train interiors, particularly on the Jaguar XJS.[11] Pace continued sponsoring racing events, and now sponsored all Aston Martin Owners Club events, taking a Tickford engined Nimrod Group C car owned by AMOC President Viscount Downe, which came third in the Manufacturers Championship in both 1982 and 1983. It also finished seventh in the 1982 24 Hours of Le Mans race. However, sales of production cars were now at an all time low of 30 cars produced in 1982.[11]

 

As trading became tighter in the petroleum market, and Aston Martin was requiring more time and money, Gauntlett agreed to sell Hays/Pace to the Kuwait Investment Office in September 1983. As Aston Martin required greater investment, he also agreed to sell his share holding to American importer and Greek shipping tycoon Peter Livanos, who invested via his joint venture company with Nick and John Papanicalou, ALL Inc. Gauntlett remained chairman of the AML company 55% owned by ALL, with Tickford a 50/50 venture between ALL and CHI. The uneasy relationship was ended when ALL exercised options to buy a larger share in AML; CHI's residual shares were exchanged for CHI's complete ownership of Tickford, which retained development of existing Aston Martin projects. In 1984, Titan the main shipping company of the Papanicolaou’s was in trouble, so Livanos's father George bought out the Papanicolaou's shares in ALL, while Gauntlett again became a shareholder with a 25% holding in AML. The deal valued Aston Martin/AML at £2 million, the year it built its 10,000th car.[11]

 

Although as a result Aston Martin had to make 60 members of the workforce redundant, Gauntlett bought a stake in Italian styling house Zagato, and resurrected its collaboration with Aston Martin. David Martin gained part ownership in 1997.

Aston Martin V8 Vantage from The Living Daylights

 

In 1986, Gauntlett negotiated the return of fictional British secret agent James Bond to Aston Martin. Cubby Broccoli had chosen to recast the character using actor Timothy Dalton, in an attempt to re-root the Bond-brand back to a more Sean Connery-like feel. Gauntlett supplied his personal pre-production Vantage for use in the filming of The Living Daylights, and sold a Volante to Broccoli for use at his home in America. Gauntlett turned down the role of a KGB colonel in the film, however: "I would have loved to have done it but really could not afford the time."[12]

 

Although the company was doing well, Gauntlett knew it needed extra funds to survive in the long term. In May 1987, Gauntlett and Prince Michael of Kent were staying at the home of Contessa Maggi, the wife of the founder of the original Mille Miglia, while watching the revival event. Another house guest was Walter Hayes, vice-President of Ford of Europe. Despite problems over the previous acquisition of AC Cars, Hayes saw the potential of the brand and the discussion resulted in Ford taking a share holding in September 1987.[13] In 1988, having produced some 5,000 cars in 20 years, a revived economy and successful sales of limited edition Vantage, and 52 Volante Zagato coupes at £86,000 each; the company finally retired the ancient V8 and introduced the Virage range—the first new Aston launched in 20 years.

 

Although Gauntlett was contractually to stay as chairman for two years, his racing interests took Aston back into sports car racing in 1989 with limited European success. However, with engine rule changes for the 1990 season and the launch of the new Aston Martin Volante model, Ford provided the limited supply of Cosworth engines to the Jaguar cars racing team. As the "small Aston" DB7 would require a large engineering input, Ford agreed to take full control of Aston Martin, and Gauntlett handed over the company chairmanship to Hayes in 1991.[14] In 1992, the Vantage version was announced, and the following year the company renewed the DB range by announcing the DB7.

[edit] The Ford era

 

Ford placed Aston in the Premier Automotive Group, substantially invested in new manufacturing and quickly ramped up production. In 1994, Ford opened a new factory at Banbury Road in Bloxham. In 1995, the company produced a record 700 vehicles. Until the Ford era cars had been produced by hand coachbuilding craft methods, such as the English wheel. In 1998 the 2,000th DB7 was built, and in 2002 the 6,000th, exceeding production of all previous DB models. The DB7 range was boosted by the addition of V12 Vantage models in 1999, and in 2001 the company introduced the V12-engine Vanquish.

 

At the North American International Auto Show in Detroit, Michigan in 2003, Aston Martin introduced the AMV8 Vantage concept car. Expected to have few changes before its introduction in 2005, the Vantage brought back the classic V8 engine to allow the company to compete in a larger market. 2003 also saw the opening of the Gaydon factory, the first purpose-built factory in Aston Martin's history. Also introduced in 2003 was the DB9 coupé, which replaced the ten-year-old DB7. A convertible version of the DB9, the DB9 Volante, was introduced at the 2004 Detroit Auto Show. In 2006, the V8 Vantage sports car entered production at the Gaydon factory, joining the DB9 and DB9 Volante.

 

In December 2003 Aston Martin announced it would return to motor racing in 2005. A new division was created, called Aston Martin Racing, which became responsible, together with Prodrive, for the design, development, and management of the DBR9 program. The DBR9 competes in the GT class in sports car races, including the world-famous 24 Hours of Le Mans.

[edit] Sale by Ford

 

In 2006, an internal review of costs and realisable value on investment led Ford to consider divesting itself of parts of its Premier Automotive Group. After suggestions of selling Jaguar Cars, Land Rover or Volvo Cars, Ford appointed UBS AG to sell all or part of Aston Martin by auction and announced the fact in August 2006.[15]

[edit] 2007—A new era begins

 

On 12 March 2007 a consortium led by Prodrive chairman David Richards purchased Aston Martin for £475m/$848m.[16] Prodrive had no financial involvement in the deal.[17] Ford will keep a stake in the company (valued at £ 40 million / $ 70 million). The consortium also consisted of John Sinders, an Aston Martin collector; and two Kuwaiti investment companies, Investment Dar and Adeem Investment Co.

 

Main article: Asian Highway Network#First Car Crossing

Between June and August 2007, the first east-west crossing of the full new Asian Highway was achieved by Britons Richard Meredith and Phil Colley driving a V8 Vantage. Following the AH1 and the AH5 from Tokyo (the highway’s eastern terminus) to Istanbul at the western end, they drove a total of 12089 km (7512 miles) (at about 250 kilometres per day) before joining the European motorway network for another 3259 km (2025 miles) to London. The objective of the event was to demonstrate the durability of the V8 Vantage across hazardous terrain—and also to publicize the car in China. The exercise was so successful that the company had opened dealerships in Shanghai and Beijing within three months.[18]

 

On 19 July 2007, the Newport Pagnell plant rolled out its last car, a Vanquish S. Nearly 13,000 cars had been made there since 1955. The Tickford Street factory remains in Aston Martin ownership as the restoration and service department.[19] U.K. production is subsequently concentrated at Gaydon[20] on the former RAF V-bomber airfield. On 4 March 2008, in announcing a partnership with Magna Steyr to outsource manufacture of 2000+ cars annually at Graz, Austria, the company stated

 

The continuing growth and success of the company is based upon Gaydon as the focal point and heart of the business, with the design and engineering of all Aston Martin products continuing to be carried out there.[21]

 

Aston Martin has also boosted its worldwide appeal by opening more dealers in Europe, as well as branches in China for the first time in its 93 year history in Beijing and Shanghai. This has brought their dealership programme to 120 dealers in 28 countries.[22]

 

On 1 September 2008, Aston Martin announced the revival of the Lagonda marque. A concept will be shown in 2009, coinciding with the brand's 100th anniversary. The first production cars should come in 2012.[23]

 

In December 2008, Aston Martin announced that it would cut its 1850 workforce by 600.[24]

[edit] 2009—Return to Le Mans

 

In January 2009, it was announced that the company was entering the 2009 Le Mans 24 Hours race as a factory team in the prestigious LMP1 division. After competing throughout the 2008 season with a Lola B08/60 LMP1 Coupe under the Charouz Racing banner, Aston Martin will use a slightly modified Lola LMP1 design for their programme. Three Lola-Aston Martins have been entered in the 2009 Le Mans 24 Hours by Aston Martin but only two have been confirmed with sponsorship. Aston Martin will also compete in the complete Le Mans series with the Lola-Aston Martin LMP cars, starting at Barcelona in early April. The programme got off to an unfortunate start at the pre season Paul Ricard test on March 8 when Tomas Enge destroyed the 007 car in an accident. Aston Martin Racing have subsequently taken delivery of a new Lola to replace the written off chassis.[25]

[edit] 2010 Outsourced Rapide production to Austria

 

The first four-door Aston Martin Rapide sports cars rolled out of the Magna Steyr factory in Graz, Austria.[26] The contract manufacturer provides dedicated facilities to ensure compliance with the exacting standards of Aston Martin and other marques, including Mercedes-Benz and Peugeot.[27] Ulrich Bez has publicly speculated about outsourcing all of Aston Martin’s operations with the exception of marketing.[28]

 

I primi anni della casa furono molto tribolati sotto il punto di vista economico, innanzitutto per la presenza della prima guerra mondiale che impedì una regolare produzione del loro primo modello risalente al 1915. Al termine del conflitto la fabbrica venne rifondata, sempre a Kensington e nel 1922 presentò i primi modelli destinati alle competizioni automobilistiche. Nel 1924 iniziarono i primi dissesti economici che portarono alla dichiarazione di bancarotta, situazione ripetutasi una seconda volta anche nel 1925.

 

Alcuni investitori decisero di innestare nuovi capitali nella società spostandone la sede nei dintorni di Londra e, grazie all'arrivo di nuovi progettisti (tra cui Cesare Augusto Bertelli, genovese che aveva fatto fortuna in Inghilterra), riprese la produzione di modelli destinati alle competizioni e, dal 1936, la costruzione di autoveicoli destinati alla normale circolazione in piccola serie. All'inizio della seconda guerra mondiale quando la produzione venne sospesa in favore della costruzione di parti per aeroplani, i pezzi immessi sul mercato erano all'incirca 700.

 

La ripresa produttiva del dopoguerra iniziò con l'acquisto dell'azienda da parte dell'imprenditore David Brown che per 20.000 £ ne prese il controllo, unendola l'anno successivo alla Lagonda, altra marca inglese di pregio ma in difficoltà economiche.

 

Dal 1950 cominciarono ad essere presentati i modelli che fecero la storia del marchio, riconoscibili dall'iniziale DB in onore del proprietario. I modelli che fecero conoscere la Aston Martin in tutto il mondo furono certamente le DB4 e DB5, quest'ultima immortalata nei film di James Bond. La sigla iniziale DB distinse tutti i modelli della casa fino al 1972 quando iniziò anche la serie Vantage.

Una Aston Martin DB7

 

Dopo aver contribuito al risanamento finanziario dell'azienda Brown decise di cederla nel 1972, al momento del suo massimo splendore, ad altri investitori. Per alcuni anni la proprietà passò di mano in mano per approdare nel 1986 alla Ford.

 

Il successo della casa si misurava in ogni caso sempre su piccoli numeri di vetture prodotte avendo prodotto nel ventennio 1968-1988 approssimativamente 5.000 pezzi.

 

L'ingresso del colosso di Detroit significò un ampliamento della produzione che raggiunse le 700 unità prodotte nel 1995 e addirittura le 2.000 nel 1998, grazie anche all'ampliamento del catalogo vetture ma spinta soprattutto dalle vendite della DB7, proposta in molte versioni differenti. La casa, in decadenza negli anni Novanta, ha risollevato le proprie sorti facendosi pubblicità nel film di James Bond Agente 007 - La morte può attendere nella quale il famoso agente segreto utilizza al posto della famosa e celebre DB5 la Vanquish. Con la presentazione prima della Vanquish e poi della DB9 (che ha sostituto la DB7) nel corso del 2004, i volumi hanno continuato a crescere fino a raggiungere nel 2006 la quota record di 7.000 auto vendute.

 

Anche l'attività sportiva della casa che aveva per anni subito una interruzione è ripartita nel 2004 con un programma destinato alle più importanti competizioni di durata come la 24 Ore di Le Mans che la casa si era già aggiudicata nel 1959.

 

Il 12 marzo 2007 in seguito al riassetto finanziario del gruppo Ford, gravato da una forte crisi finanziaria, il marchio è stato acquistato da una cordata di investitori guidata da Frederic Dor e David Richards, grazie ai finanziamenti ottenuti dalla banca di investimento Jeffris. Il gruppo americano ha comunque mantenuto il 10% delle quote Aston Martin, per garantire continuità nella fornitura dei motori per le vetture Aston Martin. Specificatamente si tratta di un V8 4.3 (385 cv, 410 N·m) di derivazione Jaguar per la Vantage e la Vantage Roadster e un V12 6.0 realizzato in uno stabilimento sito in Germania di proprietà Ford destinato alla DB9 (450 cv, 570 N·m), alla Vanquish (520 cv, 577 N·m) e alla futura Rapide (480 cv previsti).

 

I nuovi proprietari hanno affermato di voler rilanciare l'attività sportiva della casa. Il prossimo obbiettivo di Dor e Richards è quello di entrare nel circus della Formula 1 nel 2010, probabilmente nell'ambito di un riassorbimento della Prodrive. Il marchio ha militato nella massima serie automobilistica dal 1959 al 1960.

 

La casa nell'ottobre 2007 ha introdotto una supercar su base della DB9, denominata DBS, che ha già fatto comparsa nell'ultimo film di James Bond. Tale modello sostituisce quello della Vanquish S, versione potenziata della V12 Vanquish, anche se però non è risultato essere migliore.

 

Inoltre, al Salone di Francoforte 2009 è stata presentata la "Rapide", una berlina sportiva a quattro porte, messa in vendita dal marzo 2010.

 

Successivamente, verrà presentato una nuova auto, un Suv di lusso, riattivando il marchio Lagonda, che sarà lasciato indipendente dalla Aston Martin, e che si concentrerà su settori di mercato differenti.[1]

 

Nel 2009 l'Aston Martin ha pure presentato la One-77, una esclusiva Gran Turismo che verrà prodotta in solo 77 esemplari e la cui consegna ai clienti è previsto avvenga nel corso del 2010. L'auto dovrebbe costare un milione di euro, il suo motore è una evoluzione del classico V12 ma con cilindrata portata a 7,3 litri e in grado di produrre una potenza massima di 700 CV. Nel dicembre 2009, l'Aston Martin ha dichiarato di aver stabilito un record di velocità per le autovetture della casa, raggiungendo i 354,86 km/h durante i test di sviluppo della One-77. [2].

The Victoria Cross (VC) is the highest military decoration awarded for valour "in the face of the enemy" to members of the armed forces of various Commonwealth countries, and previous British Empire territories. It takes precedence over all other orders, decorations and medals. It may be awarded to a person of any rank in any service and to civilians under military command. The VC is usually presented to the recipient or to their next of kin by the British monarch at an investiture held at Buckingham Palace.

 

The VC was introduced on 29 January 1856 by Queen Victoria to honour acts of valour during the Crimean War. Since then, the medal has been awarded 1,357 times to 1,354 individual recipients. Only 14 medals, ten to members of the British Army, and four to the Australian Army, have been awarded since the Second World War. The traditional explanation of the source of the gunmetal from which the medals are struck is that it derives from Russian cannon captured at the Siege of Sevastopol. Recent research has thrown doubt on this story, suggesting a variety of origins for the material actually making up the medals themselves. Research has established that the gunmetal for many of the medals came from Chinese cannons that may have been captured from the Russians in 1855.

 

Due to its rarity, the VC is highly prized and the medal has fetched over £400,000 at auction.[6] A number of public and private collections are devoted to the Victoria Cross. The private collection of Lord Ashcroft, amassed since 1986, contains over one-tenth of all VCs awarded. Following a 2008 donation to the Imperial War Museum, the Ashcroft collection went on public display alongside the museum's Victoria and George Cross collection in November 2010.

 

Beginning with the Centennial of Confederation in 1967, Canada followed in 1975 by Australia[9] and New Zealand developed their own national honours systems, separate and independent of the British or Imperial honours system. As each country’s system evolved, operational gallantry awards were developed with the premier award of each system, the VC for Australia, the Canadian VC and the VC for New Zealand being created and named in honour of the Victoria Cross. These are unique awards of each honours system, recommended, assessed, gazetted and presented by each country.

 

Contents

1 Origin

2 Appearance

3 Award process

3.1 Colonial awards

3.2 Separate Commonwealth awards

4 Authority and privileges

4.1 Annuity

4.2 Forfeited awards

5 Recipients

6 Public sales

7 Thefts

8 Collections

9 Other

9.1 Memorial

 

Origin.

In 1854, after 40 years of peace, Britain found itself fighting a major war against Russia. The Crimean War was one of the first wars with modern reporting, and the dispatches of William Howard Russell described many acts of bravery and valour by British servicemen that went unrewarded.

 

Before the Crimean War, there was no official standardised system for recognition of gallantry within the British armed forces. Officers were eligible for an award of one of the junior grades of the Order of the Bath and brevet promotions whilst a Mention in Despatches existed as an alternative award for acts of lesser gallantry. This structure was very limited; in practice awards of the Order of the Bath were confined to officers of field rank. Brevet promotions or Mentions in Despatches were largely confined to those who were under the immediate notice of the commanders in the field, generally members of the commander's own staff.

 

Other European countries had awards that did not discriminate against class or rank; France awarded the Légion d'honneur (Legion of Honour) and The Netherlands gave the Order of William. There was a growing feeling amongst the public and in the Royal Court that a new award was needed to recognise incidents of gallantry that were unconnected with a man's lengthy or meritorious service. Queen Victoria issued a Warrant under the Royal sign-manual on 29 January 1856 (gazetted 5 February 1856)[14] that officially constituted the VC. The order was backdated to 1854 to recognise acts of valour during the Crimean War.

 

Queen Victoria had instructed the War Office to strike a new medal that would not recognise birth or class. The medal was meant to be a simple decoration that would be highly prized and eagerly sought after by those in the military services. To maintain its simplicity, Queen Victoria, under the guidance of Prince Albert, vetoed the suggestion that the award be called The Military Order of Victoria and instead suggested the name Victoria Cross. The original warrant stated that the Victoria Cross would only be awarded to soldiers who have served in the presence of the enemy and had performed some signal act of valour or devotion. The first ceremony was held on 26 June 1857 where Queen Victoria invested 62 of the 111 Crimean recipients in a ceremony in Hyde Park.

 

It was originally intended that the VCs would be cast from the bronze cascabels of two cannon that were captured from the Russians at the siege of Sevastopol. The historian John Glanfield has since proven through the use of x-