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Ormai sono più di quarant'anni che scendo col gregge verso il mare: tutti mi conoscono e mi aspettano! Quest'anno però ha fatto molto freddo e la scarsità d'acqua ci ha fatto patire.. ho dovuto utilizzare le pompe per estrarre l'acqua, il livello dei fiumi era talmente basso che le pecore per bere finivano dentro le une sopra e le altre: molte sono morte schiacciate.

Volevo avvertivi che se volete conoscermi Venerdì prossimo 13 aprile, il mio amico Giancarlo Rado terrà una conferenza sui pastori proiettando e commentando le sue foto, l'appuntamento è al Centro Culturale "L. Da Vinci" in Piazza Indipendenza, San Donà di Piave alle 20,45. Vi aspetto.

Buona Pasqua a tutti

 

Angelo Paterno, pastore

 

It’s more than forty years that I wander with Flock towards the sea: many people wait for me! This year, however, was very cold and water scarcity has made us suffer. I had to use pumps to extract water, the river level was so low that the sheep to drink up inside one above and the other: many have died crushed.

I wanted you feel that if you want to know me next Friday 13 April, my friend Giancarlo Rado will give a lecture on sheperds projecting and commenting on his photos, the appointment is at the cultural center "l. Da Vinci "in Independence Square, San Donà di Piave to 20.45. I expect you.

Happy Easter to all

 

Angelo Paterno, sheperd

   

Angelo di Cosimo dit Bronzino 1503 1572 Florence

Déploration sur le Christ mort

Deploration on the dead Christ 1540-1545

Besançon Musée des Beaux Arts

  

L'ART QUI FAIT RÊVER contre L'ART QUI FAIT CAUCHEMARDER.

 

Joan Miro a proclamé qu'il voulait "massacrer la peinture", l'affirmation sonne comme une provocation qui est tout à fait caractéristique de l'art contemporain. Mais, malgré ses intentions affichées, Miro n'est pas parvenu à massacrer le Beau, sauf dans quelques très rares tableaux de la fin de sa vie. Il a continué de proposer une peinture qui peut faire rêver les peuples. Une peinture globalement, sauf accident, aimable et joyeuse.

C'est quand les peintres occidentaux ont décidé de peindre un monde qui ne fait pas rêver les peuples, que l'art contemporain a débuté. Le massacre de la peinture promis par Joan Miro était réalisé.

L'Occident est alors entré dans l'art systématique du Laid, de l'Absurde, autrement dit dans l'Art Triste.

Cette décision de créer l'Art du Laid, un art qui interdit aux peuples tout rêve, mérite réflexion.

D'abord, c'est une nouveauté à peu près absolue dans l'histoire de la peinture européenne (1).

Secondement c'est une nouveauté dont on peut penser qu'elle est révélatrice d'un état d'esprit inquiétant (2).

 

1) Pendant des siècles, la peinture européenne, l'art européen en général, a été conçu pour faire rêver les gens, ou une partie importante d'une population : aristocratie, bourgeoisie ou peuple.

Rêve de Dieu, rêve d'Amour spirituel ou sensuel, rêve de vie éternelle, rêve de bonté, de pureté et de beauté, rêve de maternité, rêve de paradis, sur terre ou dans les airs, rêve de paysage idyllique, rêve de chasse réussie, rêve d'abondance. Quand la peinture européenne peignait des monstres ou des guerres, c'était exactement ce qu'il fallait pour formuler un rappel du réalisme nécessaire.

Apollon dépouilla Marsyas, Prométhée se faisait manger le foie, Adonis mourait, Orphée ne réussissait pas à ramener Eurydice des Enfers, mais Europe n'était pas malheureuse d'être enlevée, Aphrodite (Vénus) était née, et le printemps revenait comme Perséphone des enfers.

Les Crucifixions, les Entombements et les Pietas étaient toujours accompagnés d'une Annonciation, d'une Nativité et d'une Résurrection. Et après la mort de la Vierge venait son couronnement.

L'art hollandais du XVIIe siècle, profane, laïc, proclame sans se lasser les joies simples de la vie de famille, les paysages maritimes, les cieux changeants, les fêtes de village, les danses de mariage et les abondances matérielles : viande, légumes, fromage et fleurs en abondance. Une profusion que les têtes de mort ne parvenaient pas à cacher. Même sans leurs dents, les agriculteurs chantaient, certainement en buvant un peu trop.

Tout l'art néo-classique, romantique et impressionniste du XIXe siècle a fait rêver avec des paysages d'Italie ou d'ailleurs : prairies parsemées de coquelicots, rivières fraîches et amicales, forêts pleines d'ombres favorables, châteaux mystérieux, troupeaux de moutons et bovins, bergers musiciens..... Et à part quelques naufrages dans une mer agitée, dans l'ensemble, la peinture européenne était joyeuse et faisait rêver.

 

2° C'est à partir des années 1950 et suivantes que l'art européen officiel devient totalement sinistre. Rien n'y échappe, sauf l'architecture. ( l'architecture des architectes, pas de celle des entrepreneurs)

Le Non Sens, l'absence de signification de l'art abstrait terminal, ne suffit plus. L'Absurde poussé jusqu'aux extrêmes de l'horreur banale, ordinaire, et du pessimisme le plus plat, le plus quotidien, et le Laid, font la loi.

Sièges et tables bancales, tas de gravats, carrés blanc, jaune, noir, rouge, poutrelles rouillées, tordues, cassées, cartons assemblés, chiffons entassés, boites ouvertes ou fermées, machineries cassées ou concassées, tubulures, poutres de ciment, moellons, parpaings, tuiles, briques entières ou pulvérisées, tubes de néon, sacs, sacs de cailloux, toutes les sortes de tuyaux: fer, ciment, plastiques, tous les tissus en vrac, le caoutchouc, les seaux, brocs, pots.... et bien sûr des taches, des taches, des taches....surtout des taches. Pour que vous tâchiez d'y comprendre rien.

Les musées d'art contemporain sont, le plus souvent, les exceptions existent mais elles sont rares, une anthologie de la laideur, dépourvue du moindre humour, toujours accompagnée d'un discours totalement inintelligible, mais se voulant supérieurement intelligent.

C'est l'art d'une élite qui refuse de communiquer avec ses semblables et aussi incapable de sentir et faire ressentir des émotions positives. Pas de beau, pas de joie, pas de bon. L'art de faire rêver est devenu l'art de faire cauchemarder les peuples.

C'est un art autiste, dont la prétention n'a d'égale que son mépris des peuples, qui s'est installé en Occident, avec l'absolue certitude d'être "La Lumière". Et c'est en cela que cet art est Sacré, interdit de critique. Un nouvel art, doublement sacré : il est le reflet de la nouvelle religion dualiste de l'Occident, celle des Lumières et celle de l'Argent.

 

ART THAT MAKES A DREAM against ART THAT MAKES CAUCHEMARD

 

Joan Miro proclaimed that he wanted to "massacre painting", the statement sounds like a provocation that is quite characteristic of contemporary art. But, despite his stated intentions, Miro did not succeed in massacring the beautiful, except in a few very rare paintings at the end of his life. He continued to propose a painting that can make people dream. A painting overall, except accident, kind and joyful.

It was when Western painters decided to paint a world that did not make people dream, that contemporary art began. The massacre of the paint promised by Joan Miro was carried out.

The West then entered the systematic art of the ugly, the absurd, in other words, Sad Art.

This decision to create the Art of the ugly, an art that prohibits people from dreaming, is worth considering.

First of all, it is an almost absolute novelty in the history of European painting (1).

Secondly, it is a novelty that can be thought to reveal a worrying state of mind (2).

 

1) For centuries European painting, European art in general, was designed to make people dream, or such a significant part of a population: aristocracy, bourgeoisie or people.

Dream of God, dream of spiritual or sensual Love, dream of eternal life, dream of goodness, purity and beauty, dream of motherhood, dream of paradise, on earth or in the air, dream of idyllic landscape, dream of successful hunting, dream of abundance... When European painting painted monsters or wars it was just what was necessary to formulate a reminder of the necessary realism.

Apollo skinned Marsyas, Prometheus had his liver eaten, Adonis died, Orpheus failed to bring Eurydice back from the Underworld, but Europe was not unhappy to be kidnapped, Aphrodite (Venus) was born, and Spring returned as Persephone of the Underworld.

The Crucifixions, Entombment and Pietas were always accompanied by an Annunciation, a Nativity and a Resurrection. And after the death of the Virgin came her Coronation.

17th century Dutch art, profane, secular, proclaims without tiring the simple joys of family life, maritime landscapes, changing skies, village festivals, wedding dances and material abundance: meat, vegetables, cheese and flowers in abundance. A profusion that the skulls could not hide. Even without their teeth, farmers sing, certainly by drinking a little too much.

All the 19th century neo-classical, romantic and impressionist art made people dream with landscapes of Italy or elsewhere: meadows dotted with poppies, fresh and friendly rivers, forests full of favourable shadows, mysterious castles, herds of sheep and cattle, shepherds musicians.... And except for a few shipwrecks in a rough sea, on the whole, European painting was joyful and made people dream.

 

2 ° From the 1950s onwards, official European art became totally sinister. Nothing escapes, except the architecture. (I speak of the architecture of architects, not the entrepreneurs)

The Non Sense, the lack of meaning of the abstract art, is not enough anymore. The absurd is pushed to the extremes of the ordinary horror, banal, and the most flat, everyday pessimism, and the ugly, make the law.

Seats and woobbly tables, piles of rubble, squares white, yellow, black, red, beams rusty and twisted, broken joists, assembled cartons, piled rags, open or closed boxes, broken or crushed machinery, pipes, cement beams, tiles, whole bricks or pulverised, neon tubes, bags, bags of pebbles, all kinds of pipes: iron, cement, plastics, all loose fabrics, rubber, buckets, pots, jugs, jars .... and of course Stains, stains, stains ... especially stains.

Contemporary art museums are, most often, exceptions exist, but they are rare, an anthology of stupid ugliness, devoid of the slightest humor, always accompanied by a totally unintelligible discourse, superbly stupid, but wishing to be above all intelligent.

It is the art of an elite who refuses to communicate with his fellow men and also unable to smell, and make feel, positive emotions. No beauty, no joy, no good.

The art of making people dream has become the art of making people nightmarish.

It is an autistic art, whose claim is equaled only by its contempt of the peoples, who settled in the West, with the absolute certainty of being "The Light". And it is in this that this art is sacred, prohibited from criticism. A new art, doubly sacred: it reflects the new dualistic religion of the West, the Enlightenment and that of the Money.

   

It was only later readers of Milton, says Appelbaum, who thought of "apple" as "apple" and not any seed-bearing fruit. For them, the forbidden fruit became synonymous with the malus pumila. As a widely read canonical work, Paradise Lost was influential in cementing the role of apple in the Fall story.

 

This month marks 350 years since John Milton sold his publisher the copyright of Paradise Lost for the sum of five pounds.

 

His great work dramatizes the oldest story in the Bible, whose principal characters we know only too well: God, Adam, Eve, Satan in the form of a talking snake — and an apple.

 

Except, of course, that Genesis never names the apple but simply refers to "the fruit." To quote from the King James Bible:

 

And the woman said to the serpent, "We may eat the fruit of the trees of the garden; but of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God has said, 'You shall not eat it, nor shall you touch it, lest you die.'"

"Fruit" is also the word Milton employs in the poem's sonorous opening lines:

 

Of Mans First Disobedience, and the Fruit

Of that Forbidden Tree, whose mortal taste

Brought Death into the World, and all our woe

But in the course of his over-10,000-line poem, Milton names the fruit twice, explicitly calling it an apple. So how did the apple become the guilty fruit that brought death into this world and all our woe?

 

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The short and unexpected answer is: a Latin pun.

 

In order to explain, we have to go all the way back to the fourth century A.D., when Pope Damasus ordered his leading scholar of scripture, Jerome, to translate the Hebrew Bible into Latin. Jerome's path-breaking, 15-year project, which resulted in the canonical Vulgate, used the Latin spoken by the common man. As it turned out, the Latin words for evil and apple are the same: malus.

 

In the Hebrew Bible, a generic term, peri, is used for the fruit hanging from the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil, explains Robert Appelbaum, who discusses the biblical provenance of the apple in his book Aguecheek's Beef, Belch's Hiccup, and Other Gastronomic Interjections.

 

"Peri could be absolutely any fruit," he says. "Rabbinic commentators variously characterized it as a fig, a pomegranate, a grape, an apricot, a citron, or even wheat. Some commentators even thought of the forbidden fruit as a kind of wine, intoxicating to drink."

  

A detail of Michelangelo's fresco in the Vatican's Sistine Chapel depicting the Fall of Man and expulsion from the Garden of Eden

Wikipedia

When Jerome was translating the "Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil," the word malus snaked in. A brilliant but controversial theologian, Jerome was known for his hot temper, but he obviously also had a rather cool sense of humor.

 

"Jerome had several options," says Appelbaum, a professor of English literature at Sweden's Uppsala University. "But he hit upon the idea of translating peri as malus, which in Latin has two very different meanings. As an adjective, malus means bad or evil. As a noun it seems to mean an apple, in our own sense of the word, coming from the very common tree now known officially as the Malus pumila. So Jerome came up with a very good pun."

 

The story doesn't end there. "To complicate things even more," says Appelbaum, "the word malus in Jerome's time, and for a long time after, could refer to any fleshy seed-bearing fruit. A pear was a kind of malus. So was the fig, the peach, and so forth."

 

Which explains why Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel fresco features a serpent coiled around a fig tree. But the apple began to dominate Fall artworks in Europe after the German artist Albrecht Dürer's famous 1504 engraving depicted the First Couple counterpoised beside an apple tree. It became a template for future artists such as Lucas Cranach the Elder, whose luminous Adam and Eve painting is hung with apples that glow like rubies.

  

Enlarge this image

Eve giving Adam the forbidden fruit, by Lucas Cranach the Elder.

Wikipedia

Milton, then, was only following cultural tradition. But he was a renowned Cambridge intellectual fluent in Latin, Greek and Hebrew, who served as secretary for foreign tongues to Oliver Cromwell during the Commonwealth. If anyone was aware of the malus pun, it would be him. And yet he chose to run it with it. Why?

 

Appelbaum says that Milton's use of the term "apple" was ambiguous. "Even in Milton's time the word had two meanings: either what was our common apple, or, again, any fleshy seed-bearing fruit. Milton probably had in mind an ambiguously named object with a variety of connotations as well as denotations, most but not all of them associating the idea of the apple with a kind of innocence, though also with a kind of intoxication, since hard apple cider was a common English drink."

 

It was only later readers of Milton, says Appelbaum, who thought of "apple" as "apple" and not any seed-bearing fruit. For them, the forbidden fruit became synonymous with the malus pumila. As a widely read canonical work, Paradise Lost was influential in cementing the role of apple in the Fall story.

 

But whether the forbidden fruit was an apple, fig, peach, pomegranate or something completely different, it is worth revisiting the temptation scene in Book 9 of Paradise Lost, both as an homage to Milton (who composed his masterpiece when he was blind, impoverished and in the doghouse for his regicidal politics) and simply to savor the sublime beauty of the language. Thomas Jefferson loved this poem. With its superfood dietary advice, celebration of the 'self-help is the best help' ideal, and presence of a snake-oil salesman, Paradise Lost is a quintessentially American story, although composed more than a century before the United States was founded.

 

What makes the temptation scene so absorbing and enjoyable is that, although written in archaic English, it is speckled with mundane details that make the reader stop in surprise.

 

Take, for instance, the serpent's impeccably timed gustatory seduction. It takes place not at any old time of the day but at lunchtime:

 

"Mean while the hour of Noon drew on, and wak'd/ An eager appetite."

What a canny and charmingly human detail. Milton builds on it by lingeringly conjuring the aroma of apples, knowing full well that an "ambrosial smell" can madden an empty stomach to action. The fruit's "savorie odour," rhapsodizes the snake, is more pleasing to the senses than the scent of the teats of an ewe or goat dropping with unsuckled milk at evening. Today's Food Network impresarios, with their overblown praise and frantic similes, couldn't dream up anything close to that peculiarly sensuous comparison.

 

It is easy to imagine the scene. Eve, curious, credulous and peckish, gazes longingly at the contraband "Ruddie and Gold" fruit while the unctuous snake-oil salesman murmurs his encouragement. Initially, she hangs back, suspicious of his "overpraising." But soon she begins to cave: How can a fruit so "Fair to the Eye, inviting to the Taste," be evil? Surely it is the opposite, its "sciental sap" must be the source of divine knowledge. The serpent must speak true.

 

So saying, her rash hand in evil hour

Forth reaching to the Fruit, she pluck'd, she eat:

Earth felt the wound, and Nature from her seat

Sighing through all her Works gave signs of woe,

That all was lost.

But Eve is insensible to the cosmic disappointment her lunch has caused. Sated and intoxicated as if with wine, she bows low before "O Sovran, vertuous, precious of all Trees," and hurries forth with "a bough of fairest fruit" to her beloved Adam, that he too might eat and aspire to godhead. Their shared meal, foreshadowed as it is by expulsion and doom, is a moving and poignant tableau of marital bliss.

 

Meanwhile, the serpent, its mission accomplished, slinks into the gloom. Satan heads eagerly toward a gathering of fellow devils, where he boasts that the Fall of Man has been wrought by something as ridiculous as "an apple."

 

Except that it was a fig or a peach or a pear. An ancient Roman punned – and the apple myth was born.

 

The first tale in the Bible tells of the expulsion of Adam and Eve from the garden of Eden. This was in consequence for having tasted the “forbidden fruit” of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Christian iconography and popular culture represent the fruit as an apple. But a careful reading of the passage leads one to the conclusion that, in fact, the actual fruit is never mentioned in the book. How, then, did the apple become this symbol of temptation and sin?

 

A standard version of Genesis 3:3-5 says:

 

But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die. And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die: For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil.

 

According to Robert Appelbaum’s book Aguecheek’s Beef, Belch’s Hiccup, and Other Gastronomic Interjections, the confusion may be due to a sort of joke of St. Jerome, who first translated the Bible into the vulgar Latin. (This version is still known as “The Vulgate” even today.) It turns out that the Latin words for apple, and for evil, are the same: malus. According to Appelbaum, the Hebrew word, peri, which was used to refer to the fruit in the Bible, can refer to any type of fruit, a fig, a pomegranate, a grape, or even a peach or a lemon. Some Bible commentators even believe that the forbidden fruit may have been a drink that produced an intoxication in those who drank it. Hence they gained “knowledge of good and evil.”

 

St. Jerome translated “peri” with the word “malus.” It’s an adjective meaning “evil,” though as a noun, it means “apple,” from trees known even today as Malus pumila. However, as Appelbaum points out, malus may refer not only to the apple, but to any fruit with seeds: pears are a species of malus, as are figs, peaches, and others.In religious iconography, there was no clear consensus for several centuries on exactly what type of fruit it was from this tree of which humanity’s first parents couldn’t eat. Michelangelo painted a fig tree in the Sistine Chapel. Durer depicted an apple tree, as did Lucas Cranach, the Elder. But another Appelbaum hypothesis in explaining the apple’s preeminence over other seeded fruits comes from the English poet, John Milton. His Paradise Lost was published in 1667. For Milton, the semantic ambiguity of the malus should not have been a mystery, versed as he was in ancient languages like Latin and Hebrew. Appelbaum notes that it’s possible Milton appreciated St. Jerome’s joke as a reference to intoxication or drunkenness from apple cider, popular in his own time. Paradise Lost refers on a couple of occasions to the fruit of this problematic tree and refers to it as an apple.

Another possible explanation may come from the Golden Apple of Discord. In Greek mythology, this was the work of the goddess Eris, (a temptress, as Satan had been for the Hebrews). According to the myth, Eris was angry at having not been invited to the wedding of Peleus and Tetis (parents of the great warrior Achilles). She presented the wedding guests with a golden apple which would reveal who among them was “the most beautiful of all.” Three goddesses fought amongst themselves: Aphrodite, the goddess of love and beauty; Hera, the guardian of the home and childbearing and wife of the great Zeus; and Aphrodite, daughter of Zeus and goddess of wisdom. To settle the dispute, Zeus consulted a Trojan shepherd and mortal, Paris, to choose from among the three goddesses which was the most beautiful. The three goddesses tried to bribe him in turn with new gifts. Finally, Paris decided for Aphrodite, who had promised him the love of the most beautiful woman of all. This was none other than Helena. Helena’s abduction by Paris is the mythical origin of the Trojan War. And thus the apple is also at the center of the most epic dispute in Greek civilization.

  

The Apple and the Heart

 

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Romanesque iconography more frequently used the apple as the forbidden fruit. The lengthy list of images in the three studied countries represents a significant part of our corpus. Among them, one can cite in Spain, Amandi, Añes, Avilés, the Bible of Burgos, the Bible of San Isidoro, Covet, Estany, Estibaliz, Frómista, Loarre, Mahamud, Peralada (figure 6), Porqueras, Rebolledo de la Torre, San Pablo del Campo, Sangüesa, Santillana del Mar, and Uncastillo. In France, Airvault, Andlau, Arles, Aulnay, the Bible of Corbie, the Bible of Marchiennes, the Bible of Souvigny, Cahors, Chalon-sur-Saône, Chauvigny (Figure 3), Cluny, Courpiac, Esclottes, Guarbecque, Hastingues-Arthous, the Hortus Deliciarum, Lescure, Mauriac (in the Auvergne), Melay, Moirax, Montpezat, Neuilly-en-Donjon, Nîmes, Poitiers (Sainte-Radegonde Church), Provins, Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire, Saint-Gaudens, the Sauve-Majeure, Targon, Tavant, Thuret, Toirac, Varax, Verdun, and Vézelay. In Italy, Galliano, Modena (figure 4), Parma, Pisa, Sant’Angelo in Formis, and Sovana.

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Over subsequent centuries, the apple was continually present in the iconography of the original sin. [45] For illustrative purposes, note that in the Gothic...[45] It was frequently used as the forbidden fruit in literature, particularly in the twelfth century by Marie de France, [46] Marie de France, Yonec, v. 152, in Les Lais de Marie...[46] in the thirteenth century by Robert de Boron, [47] Le Roman du Graal: manuscrit de Modène, ed. Bernard...[47] and in the fifteenth century by Sebastian Brandt. [48] Sebastian Brandt, La Nef des fous [Das Narrenschiff],...[48] In paroemiology, this seems to be the meaning of a proverb from the beginning of the thirteenth century: “mieux vaut pomme donnée que mangée” (better an apple given than eaten). [49] Joseph Morawski, ed., Proverbes français antérieurs...[49] In hagiography, the apple is the forbidden fruit in, for example, the Cantigas de Santa María. [50] Alfonso X of Castile, Cantigas de Santa María, 353,...[50] An interesting case also appears in the breviary: the Hail Mary—appearing in the twelfth century from a passage in the New Testament [51] Luke, I, 28, 42. Henri Leclercq, “Marie, mère de Dieu,”...[51]—refers only to a “fruit,” but an anonymous commentator from Northern France specifies at the end of the thirteenth or beginning of the fourteenth century that it concerns the “fruit of the apple tree.” [52] Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Cod. Gall. 34,...[52] Anchored in Western imaginations ever since, the apple has even replaced the fig among modern scholars, in parallel to the cultural process that saw the heart where previously there had been the liver. [53] See Hasenohr, Prier au Moyen Âge: n. 38. Regarding...[53]

Figure 3. - Capital at the entranceway to the choir of the church

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The reasons behind this almost unanimous choice are unclear, however. We may allude to the more or less widespread presence of the apple throughout all of Western Europe. We may observe the old Celtic symbolism of the apple as the fruit of knowledge. We may recall its symbolic capital as a sign of power, wealth, lies, lust, discord, and transgression. [54] Michel Pastoureau, “Bonum, malum, pomum. Une histoire...[54] We may suppose that just as the garden of Hesperides recalls the Garden of Eden (both sheltering a snake that defends the sacred tree), the apple tree “with fruits of gold” in the Greek myth influenced the medieval interpretation of the biblical account. We may thus argue the ancient association between this tree and Eden, which led to naming the carob the “apple of Paradise” in Hebrew. [55] L. Ginzberg, Les Légendes des juifs, 219, n. 70.[55] We may also consider the authority of Saint Augustine, who hesitantly accepted the possibility of the apple being the fruit of sin, perhaps influenced by the existence of thirty different varieties of apples in the Roman world at the time. [56] Augustine, La Genèse au sens littéral en douze livres...[56] We may wonder especially whether in popular medieval etymology there was not certain confusion between the words malum “badly” and malum “apple” as well as between malus “malicious” and malus “apple tree;” these phonetic identities may have had semantic implications indicating the evil character of the fruit. [57] Among the transformations affecting the Roman world...[57]

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The increasing popularity of the apple in this role was perhaps also related to its round shape and red color, which drew it closer to the heart, being the organ that was linked to the blood of Christ and that Christianity and its doctrine perceived as the center of the human being. In this sense, the precedents were strong; the doubt surrounding the identity of the forbidden fruit reflected another, more ancient doubt regarding the central organ of the body in the diverse cultures that, in a more or less direct way, provided the foundations for medieval Christian culture. Whereas the Egyptians perceived the heart as the center of the human being, [58] The Book of the Dead, ed. and trans. E. A. Wallis Budge,...[58] the Hebrews attributed sacred powers to the liver, while regarding the heart as the seat of feelings and wisdom, and the source of life. [59] See, for example, Genesis, 20:5; Job, 9:4; Proverbs,...[59] The two organs fought for the role of the principle of life among the Babylonians [60] Alexandre Piankoff, Le “Cœur” dans les textes égyptiens...[60] and Greeks. [61] In mythology, the liver is the central element in the...[61]

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In the third century BC, the medical school in Alexandria established the physiological model that went on to prevail throughout the following two millennia: the brain was attributed with neurological sensitivity, movement, and functions, the heart with enthusiasm and the vital spirit. [62] Mary J. Carruthers, The Book of Memory: A Study of...[62]

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Isidore of Seville affirmed that in the heart “lies all concern and the source of knowledge, [as] with the heart we understand, and with the liver we love.” [63] Isidore of Seville, Seville’s Etymologies: The complete...[63] Sharing his opinion, more than five centuries later, Hildegard of Bingen considered the attribute of the heart to be knowledge and that of the liver to be sensitivity. [64] Hildegard of Bingen, Causae et curae, II, 1–12, ed....[64] For her, the heart was the point of contact between the body and the soul, the terrestrial and the divine; it was “almost the essence of the body [since it] governs it,” being the residence of the soul. [65] Hildegard of Bingen, Scivias, I, 4, 16, ed. A. Führkötten...[65] It is thus not by chance that she imagined the forbidden fruit to be an apple. [66] Hildegard of Bingen, Scivias, III, 2, 21, ed. Führkötten...[66] For Saint Bernard, the heart was the seat of faith. [67] Bernard of Clairvaux, In Nativitate Beatae Mariae,...[67] For his adversary, Pierre Abélard, when God wants to examine the feelings of men, he probes their hearts. [68] Pierre Abélard, Ethics, ed. and trans. D. E. Luscombe...[68] Chrétien de Troyes considered the heart to be the place where mystical union occurs with our purest self, [69] Chrétien de Troyes, Cligès, vv. 708–716, trans. Micha,...[69] since this organ is the seat of love, [70] Chrétien de Troyes, vv. 4302–4306, trans. Micha, 1...[70] memory, [71] Chrétien de Troyes, Le Conte du Graal ou le Roman de...[71] and life. [72] Chrétien de Troyes, Cligès, vv. 3668–3673, trans. Micha,...[72] Vincent of Beauvais regarded the heart as the principal “spiritual organ.” [73] Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum historiale, I, 32 (Graz:...[73] The evolution in the hierarchy of meanings did not affect the importance attributed to the heart: while troubadours and courtly love previously spoke of “the hearing of the heart,” the eye and the heart were later associated. [74] Guy Paoli, “La relation œil-cœur. Recherches sur la...[74] At the start of the thirteenth century, a poem established the relationship between the heart and the phallus, between feeling and sexuality, by telling the story of a character killed by the husbands of his mistresses, who tore off these two organs and gave them to their adulterous wives to eat. [75] Lai d’Ignauré, trans. Danielle Régnier-Bohler, in Le...[75]

22

The new collective feeling in relation to the heart was present in the idioms that were forming. From the Classical Latin cor, synonymous with “memory” (also with “thought,” “intelligence,” and “heart” [76] This is still the meaning of the word for Saint Augustine...[76]) were derived “recorder” in French, ricordari in Italian, and recordar in Castilian and Portuguese. Although the heart as the center of memory appears in the root of the Castilian and Portuguese words decorar, this link is even more explicit in the phrases par cœur in French (appearing in around 1200), de cor in Portuguese (dating to the thirteenth century), and by heart in English (attested around 1374 and based on the acceptance of herte as “memory,” which existed from the start of the twelfth century [77] Rey, Dictionnaire historique, 1:442; José Pedro Machado,...[77]). However, the heart was not only regarded as the seat of memory. In English, it was associated with courage (towards 825), emotions (1050), love (about 1175), and character (1225). [78] The Oxford English Dictionary, 5:159.[78] In medieval Italian, the heart (core prior to 1250, then cuore) was reputed as being the center of feelings, emotions, and thoughts. [79] Manlio Cortelazzo and Paolo Zolli, Dizionario etimologico...[79]

23

Most often, the association occurred between the organ and a feeling, thought to derive from it directly, as attested in various Western languages: curage in French (appearing in 1080, then written as courage and used as a synonym of cœur “heart” until the seventeenth century), coraggio (prior to 1257) in Italian, coraje in Castilian and coragem in Portuguese (both from the fourteenth century), herzhaftigleit in German (from the fifteenth century derived from herz “heart,” written herza in the eighth century), and courage in English (around 1500, written as corage in around 1300). English presents an interesting case, showing the psychocultural hesitation between the liver and heart as the seat of positive feelings: the compound liver-heartedness, literally “without liver or heart,” designates the idea of “cowardly.” Further evidence of the moral importance attached to this organ is found in the word cordial, which initially carried the neutral meaning of “relative to the heart” and later acquired the positive sense of “nice” and “pleasant,” not only in French, English, Castilian, and Portuguese, but also in Italian (cordial) and in German (herzlich).

24

The symbolic value of the heart in the twelfth century was also seen in Jewish culture. Whereas the Pirkei Rabbi Nathan, a text predating the tenth century, establishes several comparisons between the parts of the universe and parts of the human body without even citing the heart, in the second half of the twelfth century, Maimonides considered it the center of the human body. [80] Samuel S. Kottek, “Microcosm and Macrocosm According...[80] He was probably influenced by Aristotle, for whom the human body developed from the heart, which was a very influential idea after the Christian rediscovery of the Stagirite. Thus, some Romanesque representations of the creation of Adam depict him coming to life not by a “breath on the face” (in faciem eius spiraculum vitae) as the Bible states, [81] Genesis, 2:7.[81] but by the hand of God touching his heart. This is the case, for example, in a manuscript from the abbey of Saint-Martial de Limoges, [82] Breviarium ad usum S. Martialis Lemovicensis (Paris:...[82] which was illuminated in around the year 1100, as well as in a relief carved a few years later on the northern facade of the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela.

25

The importance of the heart in Romanesque culture also transpires in its growing metaphorical use. On the political level, it became the “king” of the human body in the same way as the king is the “heart” of the social body. [83] Jacques Le Goff, “Head or Heart? The Political Use...[83] On the literary level, the rhetorical figure of the heart spread like a book in which an ordinary individual, saint, or even Christ could write their amorous (including erotic) and spiritual emotions. [84] On the evolution of this metaphor, see Ernst Robert...[84] On the architectural level, the cruciform design of churches situated the altar—the place where the mystery of the incarnation was reproduced—in the position occupied by the heart. [85] It is no coincidence that in Medieval French, the same...[85] On the liturgical level, the Christianization of the Holy Grail rendered it the receptacle holding the blood of Christ, symbolically transforming it into a heart. [86] Begoña Aguiriano, “Le cœur dans Chrétien,” Senefiance...[86] On the geographical level, in the same way as the heart was the center of the human body, the sepulcher of the Lord was the heart of the world, according to a sermon by Peter the Venerable. [87] Peter the Venerable, In laudem sepulcri Domini, PL,...[87] On the linguistic level, from the thirteenth century, the word designated the center of something in French and Italian, as it did later in English (beginning of the fourteenth century) and Castilian (sixteenth century). [88] This meaning was applied to the city by Aristotle in...[88] In this cultural context, when the Abbess of Bingen declared that Adam made of clay was merely an empty body before being filled with a heart, liver, lungs, stomach, and internal organs by God, [89] Hildegard of Bingen, Causae et curae, II, 20, ed. Kaiser,...[89] she seemingly established a hierarchy of organs. Thus, the growing importance of the Sacred Heart of Jesus in spirituality from the twelfth century seems to have been the conclusion of a long process in which this organ gained in medical and symbolic value. [90] Jean-Vincent Bainvel, “Cœur sacré de Jésus (dévotion...[90]

Exegetical Doubt

 

26

An interesting example of the rivalry between the fig and the apple in terms of the symbolic function of forbidden fruit is seen in the sculptures on the western facade of the small rural Castilian church of San Quirce, close to Burgos, which was completed in 1147. Here, eleven modillions illustrate several episodes of the myth of Adam, from the creation of protoplasm to the judgment of Cain, while in between them, ten metopes depict scenes that are sometimes difficult to relate to those of the modillions, although each stage of the cycle is identified by inscriptions. [91] These inscriptions are now almost illegible, but they...[91] The ensemble forms an iconographic discourse with two aspects: the subject is evil, as much at its origin (original sin) as in some of its manifestations (sex, death, and bodily impurity).

27

This latter topic is visible on the two metopes at each end, where the artist depicts a man defecating. This was not a simple curiosity or obscenity, as the placement of these scenes is significant: the first being compared with the sin of Adam and the second with that of Cain. In fact, an inscription close to the representation of the original sin illuminates the link between the events depicted on the metope and modillion: MALA CAGO. No doubt, the man who speaks and acts in this way is both the paradisiacal Adam who has just eaten the forbidden fruits as well as the symbol of all human beings, his “posthumous sons,” as defined in a contemporaneous sermon. [92] Julien of Vézelay, Sermons, XV, ed. and trans. Damien...[92] However, the exact interpretation of the inscription poses an important problem.

28

A few decades ago, historiography considered this a pun, as the individual excretes both “apples” and “evils.” [93] Pérez de Urbel and Whitehill, “La iglesia románica...[93] This interpretation is based on three elements: the facade’s inscription, a capital inside the church on the same subject that undoubtedly depicts an apple, and finally, the ancient roots of the tradition perceiving the forbidden food of Paradise in this fruit. However, on the modillion’s scene, the forbidden fruits rather resemble figs, an impression reinforced by a nonformalistic reasoning. Indeed, the fig traditionally had an explicitly sexual character, while the apple, though related to Aphrodite, the goddess of love, had a more sensual, rather than explicitly sexual connotation. This is shown, for example, in an Icelandic saga from the thirteenth century in which the love philter is an apple, or even in some mythologies, where the rejuvenating and beautifying virtues attributed to the fruit remain in the etymology of “pomade,” a scented, cosmetic, and curative substance with apple. [94] See Pastoureau, “Bonum, malum, pomum;” Rey, Dictionnaire...[94]

29

The fig’s association with sexuality is seemingly expressed during the third quarter of the twelfth century in the iconographic design of the doorway of Barret Church in Poitou. Here, the three capitals on each side establish a spatial and symbolic relationship, which was very common in the Romanesque imagination. Looking at them, starting with the capital closest to the entry on the left-hand side, the first represents the original sin with the fig as the fruit, the second depicts a character in a very obscene pose, and the third, which is double, shows an eagle on one side and a monster devouring a sheep on the other. Symmetrically, on the right-hand side, the first capital depicts lions leaning against each other, the second, two doves embracing, and the final one, a centaur and a dove. The message seems rather evident: sin (that is to say, the fig and sex) leads to unnatural and erotic acts, thus to the death of the soul, which is devoured by the demon (eagle and monster); on the other hand, those who join Christ (the lion) will be innocent (doves), embracing peace and purity, thus calming the animal that exists in every human being (centaurs).

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Indeed, the sexual meaning of the fig was accepted within traditional culture and did not disappear with its Christianization. Throughout the centuries, the fig tree was associated with Dionysus, and, at least in its Roman version, Bacchus. The image of the god was always carved in the wood of the fig tree, with a basket of figs being the most sacred object at the festivals that celebrated him, the Bacchanalia. As the protector of orchards, particularly of the fig tree, Dionysus was confused with his son, Priapus, born of Aphrodite. In the processions paying homage to this god of fertility, who was endowed with a disproportionately large penis, there was a large phallus carved in the wood of the fig tree, the leaves of which were also seen as an ithyphallic symbol. [95] Brosse, Mythologie des arbres, 290–291. The fig’s sexual...[95] This notion of sexual exuberance is also found in a version of an episode of the Dionysus myth by the Christian apologist Clement of Alexandria (around 150–250). [96] Clement of Alexandria, Protreptique, II, 34, 3–4, ed....[96] In a similar manner, although he calls the liver iecur and not ficatum, Isidore of Seville implicitly makes this link by affirming that in this organ “lies pleasure and concupiscence. [97] Isidore of Seville, Seville’s Etymologies, XI, I, 125,...[97]

31

The popular gesture of “making the fig” should also be mentioned here, associated with the fruit through its name and shape. This association is observed in Castilian, in which two words (higo/higa) appeared at the same time, in around 1140. [98] Joan Corominas, Diccionario critico etimológico de...[98] This gesture assumed “an obvious sexual connotation” [99] Jean-Claude Schmitt, La Raison des gestes dans l’Occident...[99] in the popular tradition of several societies, and even in the medieval West, where it can either denote the female sex organ (predominant meaning), its state of excitation (in this case, the tip of the thumb between the index and middle fingers imitates a swollen clitoris), copulation (the thumb is the penis between the vaginal lips), or a phallus (rarer meaning). [100] Desmond Morris et al., Os gestos: suas origens e significado...[100] It is probably with this latter meaning that formerly, in Bavaria, a young man confirmed his intention to marry by sending a silver or gold fig to his lover, who could refuse the demand by returning the gift or accept it by returning a silver heart. [101] José Leite de Vasconcelos, A figa (Porto: Araújo e...[101] The far la fica was an aggressive and derogatory gesture frequently used by Italians in the Middle Ages, not only on a daily basis, but also in emotionally charged situations. In 1162, angry with the Milanese who had forced his wife to mount a mule backwards, thus facing the tail of the animal—a very ancient position signifying contempt—Frederick I Barbarossa seized the city and, on penalty of death, forced the prisoners to remove a fig from the anus of a mule with their teeth. [102] Quoted by Leite de Vasconcelos, A figa, 80; by Jerome...[102] The inhabitants of Pistoia had carved into their castle of Carmignano two large arms with hands making the sign of the fig towards the enemy city of Florence—which, humiliated, went on to conquer the place in 1228. [103] Giovanni Villani, Cronica, VI, 5, ed. Ignazio Moutier...[103] In Dante, a robber condemned to Hell makes the sign of the fig against God Himself. [104] Dante Alighieri, Divina Commedia, Inferno, XXV, 1–3,...[104] The gesture and expression ficha facere are found, with the same derisory meaning, in all Romanesque cultures, and even outside of them. [105] Leite de Vasconcelos, A figa, 42–56, 72, 76–81, and...[105] Although this gesture has a talismanic function, that of casting off the evil eye and other dangers, this seems to be precisely due to its sexual connotation, that of warding off sterility in life. [106] Leite de Vasconcelos, A figa, 27–41, 57–59, and 91...[106]

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In this sense, the scene of the paramount sin depicted on the third modillion at San Quirce, in addition to adopting the ancient interpretation of the original sin as a sexual sin, [107] See Martin Elze, Tatian und seine Theologie (Göttingen:...[107] prepared the observer to encounter, three metopes along and just after the expulsion from Paradise, a representation of the carnal relationship of protoplasm. [108] Pérez de Urbel and Whitehill (“La iglesia románica...[108] Thus, according to our hypothesis, the word malum would not have been used here with its specific meaning of “apple,” but rather in the broader sense of “fruit with pulp” (as opposed to nux, “fruit with hard skin”), [109] Although the former meaning was eventually enforced...[109] so that the pun of the inscription would signify “to expel evils and fruits.” Whether conscious or not of the inscription’s ambiguity, the sculptor at San Quirce thus revealed the interesting coexistence of two exegetical traditions, that of the apple, present in the representation of the original sin inside the church, and that of the fig, visible on its facade. An even more meaningful coexistence if it is accepted that a single artist carved both the capital and the modillion. [110] A situation that de Lojendio (Castilla 1) regards as...[110]

33

This exegetical doubt is not an isolated case appearing in a monastic community in the center of Castile. The formation of the French word “pomme” provides an interesting indication in this context. Although, from the beginning of the fifth century, the Latin word pomum (“fruit” in a generic sense) gained the specific meaning of “fruit of the apple tree” in Northern Italy and the majority of the Ibero-Romance area—a meaning preserved in the Provençal and Catalan poma—Italian, Castilian, Portuguese, and Galician eventually favored the traditional form malum, from which they derived mela, manzana, maçã and mazá, respectively. [111] Both the Spanish word manzana (attested in 1112 as...[111] Pomum preserved its broad sense in these four languages in the form pomo (poma in the case of Galician). By the same evolution, the collective forms pomario in Italian and pomar in Castilian, Portuguese, Provençal, and Galician derived from the Classical Latin pomarium.

34

In contrast, the medieval Latin of Gaul had used, from the end of the eighth century, the word pomarius to denote the apple tree, from which derived the vernacular name of this specific fruit (pume) from the generic term (pomum) in 1080. [112] The word appeared in the Chanson de Roland as pume;...[112] At the same date appeared the French word verger (orchard), denoting land planted with various fruit trees, taken from the Latin viridiarum (from viridis, “green”). Faced with these facts, it is not absurd to assume that the French linguistic evolution unconsciously avoided the supposedly negative character of this fruit, as expressed through the word malum. Furthermore, the apple is a positive symbol in Celtic culture, [113] Françoise Le Roux and Christian-Joseph Guyonvarc’h,...[113] which was heavily present in the territory of the future France, particularly in the context of the “folkloric reaction” of the twelfth century. [114] Jacques Le Goff, “Culture cléricale et traditions folkloriques...[114]

35

In accordance with its archetypical character as the fruit par excellence, the word was used in the formation of many syntagms, and even, around 1256, in the curious expression “pomme de paradis” (apple of paradise) denoting the banana. [115] Rey, Dictionnaire historique. It is interesting to...[115] Although in terms of vocabulary, we note a French resistance to the association of the apple with the fruit of sin, in terms of iconography, as seen above, such identification was established without problem. This was also the case in popular literary works, such as the first French theatrical text from the middle of the twelfth century or a sermon from the same time. [116] Respectively Le Mystère Adam: Ordo representationis...[116] Similarly, in this and the subsequent century, there were various love stories generally beginning with a betrayal (hearts metaphorically devoured) and ending with the death of the two protagonists (one of them literally devouring the other’s heart without realizing it [117] Accounts collected in Régnier-Bohler, ed., Le Cœur...[117]). To a certain extent, these stories consciously or unconsciously rewrote the drama of the original demise: betraying the confidence of the Creator (“from the tree . . . you will not eat”) by eating the apple/heart (“the knowledge of good and evil”), the human being was the cause of his own perdition (“the day you eat of it, you will surely die”), as Adam and Eve had hearts full of arrogance (“you will be like gods” [118] Genesis, 2:17; 3:5. On the close relationship between...[118]).

The Tree and Androgyny

 

36

This search for the identity of the Romanesque forbidden fruit must still consider the tree in relation to the primordial couple. The position of these three elements provides some important information. One of the symbolic and physical solutions used was to portray the primi parentes on the same side of the tree, with Eve always being closer to it (figure 4). The most common composition placed the tree between Adam and Eve, as already found on the sarcophagus of San Justo de la Vega in Leon, dated to the end of third century or the beginning of the fourth century and currently held in the archaeological museum of Madrid. It would be simplistic to think that this position on both sides of the tree simply responded to the desire for symmetry in Romanesque art, [119] As considered Guerra, Simbología románica, 107.[119] because the form is almost always a fragment of the contents that emerged. [120] Gerardus Van Der Leeuw, La Religion dans son essence...[120] In the eleventh to thirteenth centuries, this scheme probably referred to two very pressing questions related to the contemporary phenomenon of the sacralization of marriage.

Figure 4. - Relief on the western façade of Modena Cathedral (Emilia-Romagna), circa 1100.

37

On the one hand, by placing Adam and Eve at an equal distance from the tree, the iconography referred to a certain social egalitarianism and moral leveling between man and woman, even if the snake is almost always turned towards the woman. The side occupied by each character varied. We have already considered the position of Eve on the right-hand side of the tree as an “iconographic tradition,” a scheme with only three exceptions, in Saint-Antonin, Bruniquel, and Lescure. [121] Jean-Claude Fau, “Découverte à Saint-Antonin (Tarn-et-Garonne)...[121] In fact, the woman appears on the left in several other cases: for example on the sculptures in Anzy-le-Duc, Airvault, Butrera, Cergy, Cervatos, Covet, Embrun, Gémil, Girona, Lavaudieu, Lescar, Loarre, Luc-de-Béarn, Mahamud, Manresa, Moirax, Montcaret, Peralada (figure 6), Saint-Étienne-de-Grès, Saint-Gaudens, Sangüesa, San Juan de la Peña, Toirac, Verona, and Vézelay. Similarly, on the frescos in Aimé, Fossa, and San Justo in Segovia, on the illuminations of the Bible of Burgos, the Exultet 3 of Troia, and the Hortus Deliciarum, on a metal medallion from the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, and on the mosaics in Monreale and Trani.

38

In addition, the central position of the tree, separating Adam and Eve, insinuated a rupture of the initial unity, at least on the psychological level. The tree, that is to say knowledge, revealed the existence of contradictory traits in human beings, made in the image and resemblance of God, the androgyne par excellence. “God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female created he them:” [122] Genesis, 1:27.[122] this is why the human being was initially double, and thus, inherently complete and microcosmic. [123] There were several types of microcosmic man in the...[123] Removing Eve from the rib of Adam was a surgery of separation, because they were formed from the same bones, they were “one flesh.” [124] Genesis, 2:23–24.[124] In this manner, the sacred text was interpreted from first half of the first century, initially by the Jew, Philo of Alexandria, and subsequently by Ambroise, Augustine, Gregory the Great, Isidore, the pseudo-Remigius of Auxerre, Guibert of Nogent, Pierre Lombard, Bernard, and others, who all regarded Eve as the image of the woman from within man. [125] Michel Planque, “Ève,” in Dictionnaire de spiritualité...[125]

39

Augustine, in particular, implicitly recognized the androgyny of the first man when he said that the devil “cannot tempt us only by the means of this animal part, which appears in a single man as an image or a model of woman.” [126] Augustine, Del Genesis contra los maniqueos [De Genesi...[126] Following a reasoning based on that of Saint Paul, he saw Adam-Eve as the complementarity of spirit and flesh, a comparison that was adopted by many thinkers in the Romanesque period. Since in the Bible, “Adam” was originally the generic name denoting a human being (Genesis, 1:19) and only later became the name of a person (Genesis, 3:17), Augustine interpreted the word “man” (Genesis, 1:26) as “human nature.” [127] Augustine, De Trinitate, I, 7, PL, vol. 42, col. 8...[127] Saint Anselme, who was very influential in the twelfth century, agreed that “Adam” should initially include Adam and Eve. [128] Anselm of Canterbury, La Conception virginale et le...[128] While trying to explain how Adam’s prohibition of the fruit also implied Eve, Petrus Comestor stated that it was transmitted to the woman through man; [129] Petrus Comestor, Historia scholastica, 15, PL, vol....[129] thus implicitly suggesting the unity of the two individuals, and the androgyny of the being to whom it was forbidden to eat the fruit.

40

While the medieval Church did not formally accept the divine and the androgyny of Adam, it was still familiar with it. It is thus found in a text from the New Testament: “There is neither male nor female: for you are all one in Jesus Christ.” [130] Galatians, 3:28.[130] This appeared in an apocryphal text: “When you make the two one, and when you make the inside like the outside and the outside like the inside, and the above like the below, and when you make the male and the female one and the same, so that the male not be male nor female . . . then will you enter the kingdom [of God].” [131] Il Vangelo di Tommaso, 22, trans. Mario Erbetta (Casale...[131] This was a noncontemptible part of the thought of Clement of Alexandria [132] In a piece of literature that is today lost, Hypotyposes,...[132] (around 150–215), Origen [133] According to him, based on Luke, 20:36, there will...[133] (185–254), Gregory of Nyssa [134] Gregory of Nyssa, La Création de l’homme [De opificio...[134] (around 330–390) and, through them, of Johannes Scotus Eriugena [135] Johannes Scotus Eriugena, Periphyseon, IV, PL, vol....[135] (around 810–870). It undoubtedly belonged to the cultural and psychological milieu of the first Christian centuries. [136] Wayne A. Meeks, “The Image of the Androgyne: Some Uses...[136]

41

While the androgyne of Eden had disappeared, it was because of sin. For some thinkers, the human being henceforth became aware of its duplicity, since that time it was broken and characterized by the genitals, which was visible proof of the original sin: sexus comes from sectio (“cut,” “separation”), a term derived from secare “to cross,” which only assumed a specifically sexual meaning in the Middle Ages. [137] Du Cange, Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis,...[137] It is thus not by chance that Adam said “me” for the first time after the sin. [138] “Mulier, quam dedisti mihi sociam, dedit mihi de ligno,...[138] Although, undeniably, the original sin and sex were closely linked, the way in which events had transpired was the subject of debate. [139] Emmanuele Testa, Il peccato di Adamo nella Patristica...[139] One stream of thought interpreted the sin as a sexual offence: for example, the Jew Philon and some Church fathers, including Clement of Alexandria and Saint Ambrose. [140] Philo of Alexandria, De opificio mundi, 151–152, trans....[140] In the Romance period, the majority of theologists from the school of William of Champeaux (1070–1121) also considered that this sin involved concupiscence, although Guillaume himself saw it as an act of disobedience in which sensualitas managed to dominate ratio. [141] Odon Lottin, “Les théories du péché originel au XIIe...[141]

42

Another group reversed the question, seeing sex rather as a consequence of the sin. The Physiologus, an influential allegorical, zoological treatise translated into Latin in the fifth century, stated that the elephant and its partner, which “personified” Adam and Eve, were unaware of intercourse until the female had eaten the fruit of the Mandragora officinarum and given it to the male: “because of that, they had to leave Paradise.” [142] El Fisiólogo: bestiário medieval, 20, ed. Francis J....[142] The main proponent of this train of thought was Saint Augustine, according to whom the human being before the sin practiced sex without concupiscence. [143] Augustine, La Genèse au sens littéral [De Genesi ad...[143] The error of the first couple would then have been one of pride, which led to the error of disobedience and then to carnal error. [144] In the first part of his interpretation, Augustine...[144] Another proponent of this idea was Johannes Scotus Eriugena in the eighth century, who considered that before the sin, the human being was only one, and that the resulting division of the sexes would cease in the eternal life. [145] Johannes Scotus Eriugena, Periphyseon, V, 20, PL, vol....[145] His thought continued to exert a certain influence; in the fourteenth century, it led Meister Eckhart to regard “any division” to be “bad as such,” thus perceiving the number two as the sign of the fall. [146] Meister Eckhart, Commentaire de la Genèse, 88 and 90,...[146] The Romanesque representations of the initial sin hesitated in choosing between these theological positions. Showing a preference for the second, several images accorded sexual attributes to Adam and Eve just after the ingestion of the fruit: for Adam, generally a beard [147] For Hildegard of Bingen, Causae et curae, II, 5–7,...[147] (figures 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5), seldom a penis (figure 5), and for Eve, usually breasts (figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6). A minority of images seem to attribute the initial sin to a sexual act, an iconographic and theological concept that was perhaps expressed for the first time on the bronze door of Hildesheim Cathedral in Germany between 1011 and 1015. [148] William Tronzo, “The Hildesheim Doors: An Iconographic...[148] Here, Adam appears to the left of the tree and behind him is another tree on which a small dragon is standing. Eve is to the right, close to another tree with the snake. The fruit is the apple, one in right hand of Adam and the other in the right hand of Eve, being stretched out towards Adam. There is another apple in the left hand of Eve, whose folded arm merges with her vagina. A similar illustration was used in Rebolledo de la Torre in 1186. In the Alardus Bible, the snake that gives the fruit to Eve is at the height of her vagina, recalling a male sexual organ about to penetrate her. The southernmost façade of the Church of Santa María in Sangüesa in Navarre, which dates from the second half of the twelfth century, seems to portray the same design. Here, the scene of sin is situated immediately below the personification of Lust, showing a woman whose naked breasts are attacked by toads and snakes. [149] Despite the great diversity of iconographical material...[149] This association between lust and the original sin was not uncommon; as Sangüesa was on St. James’s Way, the most travelled road by Occitans and Italians, we may hypothesize that its iconographic message expressed the opinion of many pilgrims on the subject. In this sense, this image from Navarre ratified at least two other images known to these pilgrims.

43

The first image from Provence, dated to the second quarter of the twelfth century, is located a few kilometers from Tarascon in Saint-Etienne-du-Grès, on the tympanum of Saint-Gabriel’s chapel, where Daniel appears next to the original sin (prefiguration of Christ, the new Adam) with lions (a common symbol of lust): an opposition of scenes suggesting the sexual signification of the sin. As already mentioned, it is true that the contrast between the two scenes did not necessarily mean that the artist interpreted the sin “as a vulgar sin of lust, but its consequence was to introduce turmoil and even shame into a domain that had emerged wholly pure from the hands of the Creator.” [150] Gérard de Champeaux and Sébastien Sterckx, Introduction...[150] However, the authors of this comment—a longstanding phenomenon in medieval art studies—seem inclined towards adapting the intentions of the Romanesque artist to the theologically correct reading, rather than considering other interpretative possibilities beyond the domain of ecclesiastical culture. It is significant, for example, that on the same area of the tympanum, the two scenes are chronologically inversed, first portraying Daniel and then the sin.

44

The second image from Italy figures on the mosaic of Otranto (1163–1165). The branches of the forbidden tree pass between the legs of the characters, insinuating the sexual nature of the sin. This seems all the more evident given that Adam and Eve are each situated in a circle, rendering the characters isolated, separated, and autonomous entities in their respective domains, domains most certainly resulting from the primordial androgyne being cut in two. This assumption is reinforced by the fact that the forbidden fruit is represented as the fig (with its strong sexual connotation, as already seen) and illustrated in a suggestive way by the mosaic artist, the priest Pantaleon: the thinner part of the fig held by Eve is facing downwards and placed between her breasts, as though forming a third breast; the fig in Adam’s hand is in the inverse position, reminding us of the male genitals. [151] The same sexual presentation appeared towards the end...[151]

Figure 5. - Illumination from the in Troia (Puglia), Archivio Capitulario, middle of the eleventh century.

 

Figure 6. - Capital in the western gallery of the monastery cloister

45

Taking the geographical distribution of the Romanesque images into account, we see that the function attributed to the fig as the forbidden fruit was mainly expressed in the cultural milieu related to the Greco-Judaic world, while the apple appeared in association with the Romano-Christian world. This is perhaps due the specific links established in these cultural areas between each fruit and a bodily organ. In the images where the fig is used, Eve is often portrayed with the fruit on the right-hand side of the tree, like the liver in the human body. [152] In this regard, I evidently mean a statistical trend,...[152] In the images with the apple, the tendency is for Eve and the fruit to appear on the left-hand side, just like the heart in the body (figures 3 and 6). In both instances, the forbidden fruit was the symbol of the rupture of the unity of Eden and the birth of the disjointed humanity that characterizes history.

Notes

 

[1]

On the methodological issues affecting the construction and analysis of an iconographic corpus, some good comments have been made by Jérôme Baschet in “Inventivité et sérialité des images médiévales. Pour une approche iconographique élargie,” Annales HSS 51 (1996): 93–133.

 

[2]

Genesis, 2:16–17; 3:1–12.

 

[3]

Jeremiah, 1:14. Jerome, Expositio quattuor Evangeliorum, Patrologia Latina (PL), vol. 30, col. 549d–550a.

 

[4]

Midrash Rabbah, Genesis, XV, 7, trans. Bernard Maruani and Albert Cohen-Arazi (Paris: Verdier, 1987), 1:183 [Midrash Rabbah, Genesis trans. Harry Freedman and Maurice Simon, 2 vols. (London: Soncino Press, 1939)]; Genesis Rabbah I (Genesis 1–11), trans. Luis Vegas Montaner (Estella: Verbo Divino, 1994), 188–189 [Genesis Rabbah I, trans. Samuel Rapaport (London: Routledge, 1907)].

 

[5]

Following the interpretation of Marcel Durliat, Pyrénées romanes (La-Pierre-Qui-Vire: Zodiaque, 1978), 42.

 

[6]

Vita Adae, 36–42: “The ‘Vita Adae’,” ed. J. H. Mozley, The Journal of Theological Studies (1929): 121–149 (English manuscripts); “La Vie latine d’Adam et Ève,” ed. Jean-Pierre Pettorelli, Archivum latinitatis Medii Aevi (1998): 5–104 (German manuscripts); 2 Henoc 22:8: Slavonic Apocalypse of Enoch, trans. Francis I. Andersen, in The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, ed. James H. Charlesworth, 2 vols. (London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1983–1985), 1:92–221; L’Évangile de Nicodème, 19, ed. André Vaillant (Geneva, Paris: Droz, 1968), 59–61.

 

[7]

In this instance, the capital over the door of Miègeville, dated to around 1100–1118, does not depict the scene of the sin, but rather that of the expulsion from Paradise, where the fruit behind Adam and Eve (the couple being situated between God on one side and an angel on the other) is the grapevine.

 

[8]

Midrash Rabbah, Genesis, XV, 7 and XIX, 5, trans. Maruani and Cohen-Arazi, [trans. Freedman and Simon], 184 and 217; Genesis Rabbah I, trans. Vegas Montaner, 190–225. Ethiopic Apocalypse of Enoch, XXXII, 3–6, trans. Ephraim Isaac, in The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 1:28. Greek Apocalypse of Baruch, 4–8, trans. Harry E. Gaylord, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 1:667; Apocalypse of Abraham, XXXIII, 7, trans. Ryszard Rubinkiewicz and Horace G. Lunt, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 1:700. In the first century AD, Eliezer ben Hurcanus’s Chapters only specifies that “Noah found a grapevine coming from the Garden of Eden:” Los Capítulos de Rabbí Eliezer, XXIII, 4, trans. Miguel Pérez Fernandez, (Valencia: Institución San Jerónimo, 1984), 174. Louis Ginzberg nevertheless believes that this text probably alludes to a fragment from the tree of knowledge: Les Légendes des juifs [1909], trans. Gabrielle Sed-Rajna (Paris: Éd. du Cerf, 1997), 1:302, n. 59. According to the same author (Les Légendes des juifs, 219, n. 70), “the oldest and widespread opinion identifies the forbidden fruit with the grape, which traces back to an ancient mythological idea considering wine to be the beverage of the gods.”

 

[9]

David Romano, “Jueus a la Catalunya carolingia i dels primers comtes (876–1100),” in Exposiciò dins la formació de l’Europa medieval (Girona: Ajuntament de Girona, 1985), 113–119. Hilário Franco Júnior, “Le pouvoir de la parole: Adam et les animaux dans la tapisserie de Gérone,” Médiévales 25 (1993): 113–128.

 

[10]

Arturo Graf, Il Mito del Paradiso terrestre (1892; reprint, Rome: Edizioni del Graal, 1982), 65; Gioacchino Volpe, Movimenti religiosi e sette ereticali nella società medievale italiana: secoli XI–XIV fourth ed. (Florence: Sansoni, 1972), 17–40; Cinzio Violante, La Società milanese nell’età precomunale (Bari: Laterza, 1974), 220–231. Priests in Spain in the seventh century offered a bunch of grapes to believers during the Eucharist, which could also be a reaction against the idea of the grapevine as the forbidden fruit (third Council of Braga [675], prologue and canon 1: Concílios visigóticos e hispano-romanos, ed. and trans. José Vives (Barcelona and Madrid: CSIC, Instituto Enrique Florez, 1963), 371–373).

 

[11]

Michel Tardieu, Trois Mythes gnostiques: Adam, Éros et les animaux d’Égypte dans un écrit de Nag Hammadi (II, 5) (Paris: Études augustiniennes, 1974), particularly 88–89, 142–144, and 166–169.

 

[12]

Paul Deschamps, “Notes sur la sculpture romane en Bourgogne,” Gazette des Beaux-Arts (1922): 61–80.

 

[13]

Deschamps, “Notes sur la sculpture.”

 

[14]

Joseph de Ghellinck, “L’eucharistie au XIIe siècle en Occident,” in Dictionnaire de théologie catholique (Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 1913), vol. 5, col. 1233–1302. Iconography was also influenced by the phenomenon in which the Crucified was depicted as a bunch of grapes, as seen on the thirteenth-century metal relief on the door of the Church of Sion in Switzerland. This was reproduced by Erich Neumann, The Great Mother: An Analysis of the Archetype, trans. Ralph Mannheim (1955; reprint, Princeton (N. J.): Princeton University Press, 1972), pl. 114.

 

[15]

Roger Dion, Histoire de la vigne et du vin en France des origines au XIXe siècle (Paris: author publication, 1959), 245–247.

 

[16]

Auguste Gaudel, “Péché originel,” in Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, vol. XII-1, col. 441 [quotation back-translated from the French].

 

[17]

Jacques Brosse, Mythologie des arbres (Paris: Plon, 1989), 299–300. The purity attributed to the olive rendered the olive tree the tree of life par excellence, as seen above, n.5.

 

[18]

Robert Saint-Jean and Jean Nougaret, Vivarais-Gévaudan romans (La Pierre-Qui-Vire: Zodiaque, 1991), 157–158. La Nuit des temps, 75.

 

[19]

Genesis, 3:7.

 

[20]

John, 1:48. This relationship between the fig and knowledge can be traced back to classical paganism: Plato, for example, called this fruit “the friend of philosophers,” according to Éloïse Mozzani, Le Livre des superstitions: mythes, croyances et légendes (Paris: Robert Laffont, 1995), 746.

 

[21]

Matthew, 21:19. Paul Sébillot, Le Folklore de France, vol. 6, La Flore (1906; reprint, Paris: Imago, 1985), 21; Mozzani, Le Livre des superstitions, 746.

 

[22]

Stuttgart Psalter, around 810 (Stuttgart: Württembergische Landes-bibliothek, Cod. Bibl. 172o 23, fol. 8).

 

[23]

Midrash Rabbah, Genesis XV, 7, trans. Maruani and Cohen-Arazi, 185; Génesis Rabbah I, trans. Vegas Montaner, 190–191.

 

[24]

Life of Adam and Eve (Apocalypse), xx, 4–5, trans. M. D. Johnson, in The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 2:281; Apocalisse di Mosè, trans. Liliana Rosso Ubigli, in Apocrifi dell’Antico Testa-mento, ed. Paolo Sacchi (Turin: UTET, 1989), 2:429; Vida de Adán y Eva (Apocalipsis de Moises), trans. Natalio Fernández Marcos, in Apocrifos del Antiguo Testamento, ed. Alejandro Diez Macho (Madrid: Cristiandad, 1982), 2:330.

 

[25]

Testament of Adam 3c, trans. Stephen E. Robinson, in The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 1:994; Testamento de Adán III, 4 (R II), trans. F. J. Martínez Fernández, in Apocrifos del Antiguo Testamento, 5:433.

 

[26]

Il Combattimento di Adamo, 40, ed. and trans. A. Battista and B. Bagatti (Jerusalem: Franciscan Printing Press, 1982), 110.

 

[27]

Theodoret of Cyrus, Quaestiones in Genesim, II, 28, Patrologia Graeca (PG), vol. LXXX, col. 125 c.

 

[28]

Tertullian, Adversus Marcionem, I, 2, 2, ed. Ernst Kroymann (Turnhout: Brepols, 1954), 443. Corpus christianorum. Series latina, 1; Hugh of Saint Victor, Adnotationes elucidatoriae in Pentateuchon, Patrologia Latina (PL), vol. CLXXV, col. 42 a-b; Pierre Comestor, Historia scholastica, 23, PL, vol. CXCVIII, col. 1073 b-c. Even at the end of the Middles Ages, several authors still thought in this manner: Meister Eckhart, Commentaire de la Genèse, 97 and 205, ed. and trans. Fernand Brunner et al. (Paris: Éd. du Cerf, 1984), 360 and 518. L’Œuvre latine de Maître Eckhart, 1.

 

[29]

Das Tristan-Epos Gottfrieds von Strassburg, v. 17944, ed. Wolfgang Spiewok (Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1989), 251. Deutsche Texte des Mittelalters, 75.

 

[30]

Beryl Smalley, “Andrew of Saint-Victor, Abbot of Wigmore: A Twelfth-Century Hebraist,” Recherches de théologie ancienne et médiévale 10 (1938): 358–373; Beryl Smalley, The Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1983), 149–172 and 179–180; Esra Shereshevsky, “Hebrew Traditions in Peter Comestor’s Historia Scholastica,” The Jewish Quarterly Review 59 (1968–1969): 268–289.

 

[31]

Brosse, Mythologie des arbres, 285–286.

 

[32]

Jean Beleth, Summa de ecclesiasticis officiis, 125, ed. Herbert Douteil (Turnhout: Brepols, 1976), 239–241; Gervase of Tilbury, Otia Imperialia: Recreation for an Emperor, trans. S. E. Banks and J. W. Binns (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002). In the thirteenth century, the theme appeared in several well-known texts, such as La Queste del Saint Graal, ed. Albert Pauphilet (Paris: Honoré Champion, 1980), 210ff. and Jacobus de Voragine’s Golden Legend: Legenda aurea, vulgo Historia Lombardica dicta, LXVIII, ed. Theodor Graesse (1846; reprint, Osnabrück: Otto Zeller, 1969), 303–304.

 

[33]

Exodus, 29:13, 22; Leviticus, 3:4, 10, 15; 4:9; 7:4; 8:16, 25; 9:10, 19.

 

[34]

Tobit, VI, 7.

 

[35]

Hesiod, Théogonie, v. 524, ed. and trans. Paul Mazon, thirteenth reprint (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1996), 51. Coll. des Universités de France [Theogony, trans Hugh G. Evelyn-White (Cambridge, MA: Loeb Classics, 1914)].

 

[36]

Anacreon, “Fragment 33,” vv. 28, 32, in Carmina Anacreontea, ed. Martin L. West (Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1984), 25.

 

[37]

Horace, Odes, IV, 1, 12, ed. and trans. François Villeneuve (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1927), 152 [The Complete Odes and Satires of Horace, trans. Sidney Alexander (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999)].

 

[38]

Plato, Timée, 71 a, d, ed. and trans. Albert Rivaud (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1985), 198 [Timaeus and Critias, ed. Thomas K. Johansen, trans. Desmond Lee (London: Penguin, 1977)].

 

[39]

In the Romanesque period, there was at least one allusion to the Latin Cupid (called only Amores) sending an arrow to the heart: Chrétien de Troyes, Cligès, v. 455, trans. Alexandre Micha (Paris: Honoré Champion, 1982) [Cliges, trans. W. W. Comfort (London: Everyman’s Library, 1914)]. A medieval collection of classical mythology, written between 875 and 1075, says that the gods sent an eagle to punish Prometheus by attacking his heart (not the liver, as Hesiod declared): Premier Mythographe du Vatican, I, 1, 3, ed. Nevio Zorzetti, trans. Jacques Berlioz (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1995), 2. The transposition of the symbolic role of the liver to the heart became so ingrained that modern scholars have more than once taken one for the other, as, for example, the translator of Horace, Odes, ed. and trans. Villeneuve, n.36 or that of Anacreon, Odes, trans. Frédéric Matthews (Paris: Presses Universitaires, 1927), 91.

 

[40]

Jacobus de Voragine, Legenda aurea, XXV, ed. Graesse, 120. Eve

Title: Breeder and sportsman

Identifier: breedersportsma361900sanf

Year: 1882 (1880s)

Authors:

Subjects: Horses

Publisher: San Francisco, Calif. : [s. n. ]

Contributing Library: San Francisco Public Library

Digitizing Sponsor: California State Library Califa/LSTA Grant

  

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Text Appearing Before Image:

'Jutje 9, 1900] THE FARM. A Simple Way to Make Cheese. Kfc;* Qveeltvc ,*«& $v&vt*maxu The making of cheese is a very simple process and almost anyone can turo out a good article with little practice, I will give a method by which anvone can make cheese successfully. Take evening's milk aod strain it into some clean vessel and let it stand in s cool place until morning. Evening's milk should be warmed to about ninety-six degrees before adding morning's milk. A good way to warm it is to set a pail of boiling water into the milk. Prepare the rennet by soak- ing in one gallon of warm water for twenty' four hours before using. Add as much salt as it will dissolve, strain, let settle and it is ready for use. Use a tableepoonful for each three gallons of milk. If it is much over half an hour in coming increase the quantity, if much less de- crease it. Ae soon as it is well curdled take a knife and cut the curd into blocks so that the whey can escape. As booh as the whey is mostly out of the curd take a basket and place a cloth in it so as to receive the curd. As the curd hardens continue to strain off the whey. Chop the curd fine, add salt—one ounce to each five pounds of curd—and it is ready for the press. Put the curd in a tin hoop made like a peck measure without a bottom. It is a good idea to have two sizes, as the amount of curd will differ at times. Almost anyone with a few tools and a little ingenuity can construct a press that will an- swer the purpose very well. A simple way is to mortise a beam into a post so that it can work up or down and hang a weight to the outer eod of the beam. The hoop with a curd in it should be turned or reversed every eight or ten hours. From eighteen to twenty hours is generally long enough to press a cheese. Now comes the curing period, which requires considerable care and attentioo. The cheese when taken from the press should be rubbed with lard and a bandage of new muslin pinned loosely around it. The cheese must be greaeed every day. Do not remove the bandage, but apply the grease on it. In from four to five weeks the cheese should be ready for home use or market.—J. M. Smith in Denver Field and Farm. A prominent farmer and stock bree er in one of the central counties in California twenty years ago imported from the East sev- eral thoroughbred registered Durhams, and stocked his farm with them. While he was an admirer of fine cattle, he neglected to reg- ister the young stock raised from his imported cows, and at the present time has no registered animals on bis farm. During the past few months he has had a number of buyers look- ing over his herd cf yearlings and has missed a number of saleB because they were not reg- istered. That they are all thoroughbreds ie claimed by the owner and not disputed bv unyone who knows him, but he is compelled to take beef prices when he could get breed- ing stock prices had he kept careful accounts of his stock and duly registered them. To test the fattening properties of alfalfa a meat company bought a band of cattle, weighed and divided them—one-half of which were fed on alfalfa alone. At the end of the fattening season it was found that the cattle fed on alfalfa weighed 150 pounds the moBt, at a cost of $7 a bead lees than those that were Btall fed, and the meat of the former was pronounced superior in quality to that fattened on grain.—Farm and Home. Montana has a $1260 damage suit agaiDst one of the inspectors who dipped a lot of 250 head of the fine Rambouillet rams that were shipped to a breeder in that 8tate from Ore- gon. As Boon as the 6heep arrived the in- spector dipped them and they immediately beean to die, so that 150 were loBt inside of five days and the remainder were unfit for service. An analysis was made of the dip when it was found that the inspector had made it two or three times strooger than waB neces- sary or than the State law called for. The intestices of the dead animals were examined, showing signs of carbolic acid poisoning. The Lincoln breed of sheep has sprung into prominence through the intrinsic merit of the breed, as combined wool and mutton ani- mals, and for their quality of transmitting their good points in crossing on other breeds. The Lincoln is the finest wooled of all the long-wool breeds, carries the largest amount of oil, has the most lustrous wool of any breed, with the greatest textile strength, and will shear a fleece from ten to thirty pounds. As breeders they stand without a peer, twins and triplets being common. The old Hereford breeder, C. H. Elmen- dorf of Lincoln, Ne braska, is engaged in a big sheep deal with T. B. Catron of New Mexico. Mr. Elmendorf has been scouring the San Angelo country for sheep with which to stock a 3,000,000 acre grant in New Mexico. He has aeenred options on 15,000 head and it ia said he will contract 25,000 or 30,000 in Texas. D. R. Cassiday, one of the oldest sheepmen of Rawlins, Wyoming, is arranging to dispose of his flockB and remove to Oregon. He sayB that the ranges are becoming bo crowded that when the first bad winter comes sheepmen will lose heavily. He wishes to get oat before the crash comes. 3^7 Fair and Race Meeting Agricultural District No~36 VALLEJO JULY 16TH TO 21ST, INCLUSIVE. Week Preceding the Northern Circjit STAKES FOR NAMED HORSES To Close July 2d. 1900. Horses to be named with entry. No. 6 No. 7- 2:17 Class Trot 8500 2:13 Class Trot 600 No. 8-Three Year Old Trot (Without records) No. 9-2:14 Class Pace .,„„ No. 10-2:1! Class Pace.. No. ll-Thro Tear Old Pace (Without records) MaA!im1P°™e wmbeei'°n d"rl°« 'he meetinglor Gentlemen .... 300 500 300 CONDITIO NS s££ MSf.BSfc*?&!»the Bo.nl of Directors n-sroad horses owned in Solano county, The Ronrrt nf7ii„„T "eu "> more man one money. n«"»u,l auu in ibe r,ght reserved to declare on or pos:pone any or an races on account of weather or other sufficient the track in all races. r ° Cloot p' M on tbe dV preceding the race and mu't be worn upon tionTofethBeT0dr^DlreCtOre "*e™ tbe r'*ht •»««t any heat after thefonrth score regardless ot the posi w"^J=^ - that .„..'„, h„r8e9 Address ell communications to the Secretary, aocord<sd every possible accommodation' J. B. iW'CAULEY, President W T krpi i cv c W. I. KELLEY, Secretary, Vallejo, Cal.

 

Text Appearing After Image:

TESTIMONIALS almost every day SHERMAN HOUSE J- IRVING PEARCE, Peopbietoe Chicago, April 8, 1899. UEEEXWOOD MANTJFACT[JBI\G Co ^"'^••r1 ha™ been using your detach- able rubber horseshoes for some time now on themarnage 6S 3nd am we" PIeased with The shoes prevent slipping all the time the shoe is on, while calks only do so while they remain sharp. Over the hard payments of the city the shoes are a great relief to the pound- ing of the horses' feet, and my horses seem to notice the difference at once and to step with more freedom The shoes have given as good wear as you promised, and I think can be economically substituted for the ordinary shoe, the lreedom from noise is also an igreeable point. I shall be glad to recommend votrr shoe, \ours truly, J. IRVINd PEARCE FOR Sprains, Bruises, Cuts, Muscu- lar Rheumatism, etc. BEST BY TEST. Druggists and dealers or C. O. D. SI per can, S3 per quart, 810 per gallon. VITA OIL CO., 1533 Buchanan St., San Francisco, Cal., V. S. A. ^aEjBMBEE>agE>giaaaBia8aia»aiaaaiiaEtia^a

  

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Boer Goats, Cal Poly, San Luis Obispo, CA

 

Taken on February 6, 2021 (uploaded 2/14/21)

 

The Boer goat is a breed of goat that was developed in South Africa in the early 1900s and is a popular breed for meat production. Their name is derived from the Afrikaans word boer, meaning farmer.

 

animalscience.calpoly.edu/AboutUs/AreasOfStudy/sheep

 

Goats

Established in the summer of 2012, the Cal Poly Goat Program was developed and launched by an animal science undergraduate to allow students to gain hands-on experience with goats and to provide vegetation management services on the Cal Poly campus. At present, the Goat Program has a herd of thirty-five Boer and Boer crossbred does and wethers.

 

The Goat Program integrates Cal Poly’s hands-on, ‘Learn by Doing’ philosophy with student entrepreneurship and sustainable management practices to serve the needs of students as well as the greater part of campus. Under the guidance of a faculty advisor and student manager, students in the Goat Enterprise move the goats to various locations as requested.

 

Enterprise students gain hands-on experience while working with the animals, including hoof trimming, vaccination, deworming and parasite control, record keeping, nutrition, and grazing management. Vegetation management services are provided to areas belonging to the Animal Science Department, Facilities, Agriculture Operations, and additional departments. The goats are used as an alternative to mowing or spraying to clear brush to reduce fire fuel, reduce noxious and invasive weeds, reduce plant growth in undesired areas, and promote growth of desired plant species.

 

URL: digitalcommons.calpoly.edu/ascisp/10

 

Cal Poly Goat Program

Plan prepared by Lauren Christensen April 2013

 

Abstract/Summary

 

The Cal Poly Goat Program was established in the Summer of 2012 to provide vegetation management services on the Cal Poly campus and to allow students to gain hands on experience with goats. Student interest in adding goats as an additional species in the Animal Science Department spurred the realization and development of the program. The department also experienced demand for goats to use for vegetation management at the animal units and around various facilities on campus.

 

The Goat Program integrates Cal Poly’s hands-on, ‘Learn by Doing’ philosophy with sustainable management practices to serve the needs of students as well as the greater part of campus. The goats are a self-contained continuously mobile unit supported by existing infrastructure within the Animal Science Department and managed by a student manager, with primary faculty supervision by Aaron Lazanoff. The student manager directs the Goat Enterprise students in caring for the goats, and works with different departments on campus to meet the need for vegetation management. Eventually, the Goat Program will be merged with the existing Cal Poly Sheep operation to become the Cal Poly Small Ruminant Program.

 

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Boer_goat

 

The Boer goat was probably bred from the indigenous South African goats kept by the Namaqua, San, and Fooku tribes, with some crossing of Indian and European bloodlines being possible. They were selected for meat rather than milk production; due to selective breeding and improvement, the Boer goat has a fast growth rate and excellent carcass qualities, making it one of the most popular breeds of meat goat in the world. Boer goats have a high resistance to disease and adapt well to hot, dry semideserts. United States production is centered in west-central Texas, particularly in and around San Angelo and Menard. The original US breeding stock came from herds located in New Zealand. Only later were they imported directly from Africa

 

Boer goats commonly have white bodies and distinctive brown heads. Some Boer goats can be completely brown or white or paint, which means large spots of a different color are on their bodies. Like the Nubian goat, they possess long, pendulous ears. They are noted for being docile, fast-growing, and having high fertility rates. Does are reported to have superior mothering skills as compared to other breeds. Boer goats tend to gain weight at about the same rate as their sire, so a buck from a proven fast-growing bloodline will command the highest price, as its offspring tend to also be fast growers. The primary market for slaughter goats is a 22–36 kg (49–79 lb) kid; kids should reach marketable size at weaning age. The kid of a proven fast-growing sire might weigh 36 kg (79 lb) at 90 days, while the kid of a poor-quality sire might weigh only 15 kg (33 lb) at 90 days. An average-quality buck will initially be less expensive to purchase, but it can significantly undermine an operation's long-term profitability.

 

Due to their versatility on different terrains, Boer goat are frequently used for land maintenance, especially to prevent bush encroachment on rangeland. As typical browsers, the goats are able to suppress re-growth after bush thinning and to browse from plants up to 1.8 meters high, standings on their hind legs.

 

Cross Breeding:

While purebred bucks are usually preferred for breeding purposes, crossbred does are commonly used for kid production, with the resulting offspring being 7/8 or more Boer. Common crosses are Boer x Spanish goat, Boer x Angora goat, Boer x Kiko goat, Boer x Nubian goat, Boer x Sirohi, Boer x Osmanabadi, and Boer x Jamnapari goat. An effort to crossbreed with the Malabari goat has been controversial.[1]

 

Percentage Boer goats are very common in commercial meat herds, and with those just starting out in the Boer goat business due to ease of acquisition and affordability. Over time, percentage animals can be bred up to American purebred status. An American purebred is a Boer goat of 15/16ths Boer blood (F4) for does and 31/32nds blood (F5) for Boer bucks. Bucks must be one generation of Boer breeding higher than does to achieve this status because they have the potential to spread their genetic pool much further than any single doe; a higher level of Boer blood lessens the chances of other breed qualities in the offspring. Although American purebreds can never be registered as Fullblood (FB), many breeders still use a good American purebred buck with excellent results.

 

Many producers still prefer purebred or fullblood bucks and does, and intentional crossbreeding is far from universal.

Creator: Ragsdale, McArthur Cullen, 1849-1944

 

Date: ca. 1900s

 

Place: San Angelo, Tom Green County, Texas

 

Description: Image of men shearing sheep.

 

Physical Description: 1 photographic print: albumen; 12.5 x 21 cm on 15 x 25.5 cm mount

 

File: ag1993_0881_sanangelo_001_opt.jpg

 

Rights: Please cite DeGolyer Library, Southern Methodist University as the source of this file. A high-resolution version of this file may be obtained for a fee. For details see the www.smu.edu/libraries/degolyer/research/permissions web page. For other information, contact degolyer@smu.edu.

 

Digital Collection: Texas: Photographs, Manuscripts, and Imprints

 

For more information, see: digitalcollections.smu.edu/cdm/ref/collection/tex/id/3697

Identifier: peterparleyskale00good

Title: Peter Parley's kaleidoscope : or, Parlor pleasure book : consisting of gleanings from many fields of the curious, the beautiful, and the wonderful

Year: 1859 (1850s)

Authors: Goodrich, Samuel G. (Samuel Griswold), 1793-1860

Subjects: Encyclopedias and dictionaries

Publisher: Cincinnati : M.R. Barnitz

Contributing Library: Lincoln Financial Foundation Collection

Digitizing Sponsor: The Institute of Museum and Library Services through an Indiana State Library LSTA Grant

  

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d thevoices of children at play. If such is the scene in December, whatmust it be in June, when the air is full of odors, and the night-ingale sings in every copse ? Thus far, I have spoken only geographically of the scene.Viewed historically, the prospect was equally remarkable. There,to the north, was Fiesole, going back to the Etruscans, and stillpresenting Cyclopean vestiges of its Pelasgic population; theheights of San Miniato, an ancient fortress, commanded byMichael Angelo in the defence of Florence ; the Torro DelGallo, renowned as the site of Galileos Observatory, and theresidence of Milton, alluded to in his description of SatansShield ; Villa Mozzi, the country seat of the Medici family, andcelebrated alike in the dark pages of Machiavelli and the poeticoutbursts of Hallam ; Vallambrosia, not actually in view, but itshills peering suggestively over other hills, on the verge of thehorizon; with a score of other places, all famous in story, and inthe annals of poetry and art.

 

Text Appearing After Image:

THE FAT-TAILED SHEEP.

  

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In Memory of Ewe

San Angelo

Tom Green County, Texas

31 27.763' N100 26.311' W

Artist: Joy Noguess

 

Lucky Ewe

San Angelo

Tom Green County, Texas

31 27.671' N 100 26.180' W

 

Artist: Amber Alexander

Date: 2007

 

Identifier: bookoftexa00bene

Title: Book of Texas

Year: 1916 (1910s)

Authors: Benedict, Harry Yandell, 1869-1937 Lomax, John A. (John Avery), 1867-1948

Subjects: Texas Texas -- Economic conditions

Publisher: Garden City, N.Y. : Doubleday, Page

Contributing Library: Houston Public Library

Digitizing Sponsor: LYRASIS Members and Sloan Foundation

  

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FROM HORSES TO BEES 195 only one ranch or farm in sixty possessing any sheep. ValVerde, with 100,000, is the leading sheep county, whileSan Angelo is the greatest wool market, handling nearlyhalf of the clip. Enormous individual sales to Boston woolmen are made at San Angelo, at Kerrville, and at San An-tonio. But little attention is paid to mutton, for which,however, there is a good demand, emphasis being placedalmost exclusively on wool. In breeding up the rangesheep, rams of the wool-producing breeds have been mostlysought. The Merino is the foundation of the Westerngraded sheep, but Shropshires, Rambouillets, Lincolns, andthe curly fleeced Karakule from Asia, along with manyothers, are being used to grade up. Mr. Alex. Albright ofDundee thinks that his Karalinc, a combination of thetwo last-mentioned breeds, is going to be hardy and produceboth wool and mutton well. The heaviest clip in Texas was over eighteen millionpounds in 1889. The reduction of the tariff on wool causedthe an

  

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When Ewe R Hungry

San Angelo

Tom Green County, Texas

31 27.555' N 100 26.814' W

 

Artist: Suzanne McGee

 

Too few green pastures in this area led settlers to innovative ideas of livelihood. Thus, the sheep and mohair goat ranching industry began. These daring pioneers turned a virtual wasteland into a highly successful enterprise which resulted in a Texas-sized industry that has enabled our region to be prosperous and much sought after ranch land. HMSA is paying tribute to and honoring our pioneer ranchers and their ranching descendants by immortalizing their contributions with a larger-than-life ranching mural.

guidebycell.wordpress.com/

Wool Ewe Remember

San Angelo

Tom Green County, Texas

31 27.763' N100 26.311' W

Artist: Raul Ruiz

Psalm 100:3-5 (NIV)

3.Know that the LORD Himself is God; It is He who has made us, and not we ourselves; We are His people and the sheep of His pasture. 4.Enter His gates with thanksgiving And His courts with praise. Give thanks to Him, bless His name. 5.For the LORD is good; His lovingkindness is everlasting And His faithfulness to all generations.

 

Settlement of this area began in the 1860s and increased in the 1870s and 1880s following the establishment of Fort Concho in nearby San Angelo. The town of Christoval began to develop by 1885. The South Concho Baptist congregation was organized in 1889 with four charter members. The Rev. T. R. Leggett served as first pastor, and the congregation met in the Cumberland Presbyterian Church, built by a group of citizens and used as a Union Church. Located on a hill on the corner of present Church St and Rudd, the Union Church was the site of regular worship services, with various clergy officiating. The name of the South Concho Baptist congregation was changed to Christoval Baptist Church in 1906. Four years later the membership voted to build its own facility, and an octagonal wooden tabernacle was erected. In 1911, the first annual summer Christoval Baptist encampment was held on the banks of the South Concho River. A new church building was dedicated in 1925 during the August camp meeting. Due to the financial strains of the Depression, the campground was sold in 1932. This church remains an important part of the Christoval community.

Paint Rock, Texas

 

Kay Campbell, and her husband Fred, are the owners of the Paint Rock pictograph historic site. Her grandfather,Dunlap Edward (D.E.) Sims, settled the land in the 1870s after searching for land with Native American significance. When he bought the property on the north side of the Concho River, the pictographs had already been defaced by European Americans. He bought the place to protect this historical site.

 

Kay, a retired school teacher, was our tour guide for the day. She provided a wealth of background information at the visitors center prior to the tour of the cliffs. Because of her wealth of knowledge and the format she chooses to present the information, we tourists were well prepared to deeply appreciate the historical significance of the Paint Rock pictographs.

 

If you plan on visiting Paint Rock, call ahead to make reservations.

 

From Go San Angelo Standard Times

 

D. E. and Ella Le Compte Sims had five children: Orland, Dunlap "Dunny", William and Benjamin. The fifth son, Walter, was killed at age 14. Benjamin Victor "Ben" Sims married Ellen Hartgrove, a member of another Concho County pioneer family. They had four children: Dunlap "Dunny" Sims, Ben Sims, Former state Sen. William "Bill" Sims, and Cora Ellen "Kay" Sims Campbell.

 

Benjamin Sims developed bad health and died in January 1953, 13 years after their wedding. Ellen's mother, Cora McKinney Hartgrove, moved in to help with the children. "Aunt Ellen," as she was known by everyone in the community, started running the ranch with the advice of her father-in-law, D.E. Sims, until her children were big enough to help.

 

Fred and Kay Campbell have two sons: Scott Campbell of Austin and Bill Campbell of Eden. They have three grandchildren.

 

Sims/Campbell Ranch

 

Founded: In 1879, by Dunlap Edward "D. E." Sims.

Owners: Fred and Cora Ellen "Kay" Sims Campbell.

Location: One mile north of Paint Rock, 30 miles east of San Angelo.

Livestock: Rambouillet sheep and Angora goats

On the way up the Monte San Angelo in South Italy

Estátua de Giotto, na parte externa do museu Uffizi, em Florença, Itália.

Giotto's Sculpture at the external part of the Uffizi Museum, in Florence, Italy.

 

Um texto, em português, da Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre:

Giotto di Bondone mais conhecido simplesmente por Giotto, (Colle Vespignano, 1266 — 1337) foi um pintor e arquiteto italiano. Nasceu perto de Florença, foi discípulo de Cinni di Pepo, mais conhecido na história da arte por seu apelido, Cimabue, e o introdutor da perspectiva na pintura, durante o renascimento.

Devido ao alto grau de inovação de seu trabalho (ele é considerado o introdutor da perspectiva na pintura da época), Giotto é considerado por Bocaccio o precursor da pintura renascentista. Ele é considerado o elo entre o renascimento e a pintura medieval e a bizantina.

A característica principal do seu trabalho é a identificação da figura dos santos como seres humanos de aparência comum. Esses santos com ar humanizado eram os mais importantes das cenas que pintava, ocupando sempre posição de destaque na pintura. Assim, a pintura de Giotto vem ao encontro de uma visão humanista do mundo, que vai cada vez mais se firmando até ao Renascimento.

Giotto, forma diminutiva de Ambrogio ou Angiolo, não se sabe ao certo, adotou a linguagem visual dos escultores, procurando obter volume e altura realista nas figuras em suas obras. Comparando suas obras com as do seu mestre, elas são muito mais naturalistas, sendo Giotto o pioneiro na introdução do espaço tridimensional na pintura européia. Em seus trabalhos pela Itália, Giotto fez amizades com o Rei de Nápoles e Bocaccio, que o menciona em seu livro, Decameron.

O Papa Benedito XI quis empregar Giotto, que passaria então dez anos em Roma. Posteriormente, trabalharia para o Rei de Nápoles. Em 1320, ele retornou à Florença, onde chefiaria a construção da Catedral de Florença. Giotto morreu quando pintava "O Juízo Final" para a capela de Bargello, em Florença. Durante uma escavação na Igreja de Santa Reparata, em Florença, foram descobertos ossos na mesma área que Vasari tinha relatado como o túmulo de Giotto. Um exame forense parece ter confirmado que a ossada era mesmo de Giotto.

Os ossos eram de um homem baixo, que pode ter sofrido de uma forma de nanismo. Isso apóia uma tradição da Igreja da Santa Cruz de que um anão que aparece em um dos afrescos é um auto-retrato de Giotto.

De acordo com o historiador Giorgio Vasari, ele teria começado a desenhar ainda com 11 anos, quando era um pastor de ovelhas, fazendo desenhos em rochas. O artista Cimabue, um dos maiores pintores da Toscana, junto com Duccio (em Siena), o teria visto desenhando uma ovelha e pediu ao pai de Giotto para levá-lo para ser o seu aprendiz. Posteriormente, Giotto teria pintado uma mosca no nariz de uma figura com tanta habilidade que seu mestre teria tentado afugentar o inseto várias vezes antes de perceber que se tratava de uma pintura.

Em 1280, Giotto foi com Cimabue para Roma onde havia uma escola de pintores de afrescos, onde o mais famoso era Pietro Cavallini. O famoso escultor florentino Arnolfo di Cambio, de quem Giotto se inspirou bastante em seus afrescos, também estava trabalhando em Roma. De Roma, Cimabue foi para Assis para pintar vários grandes afrescos na recém-construída Basílica de São Francisco de Assis. É possível, mas não certo, que Giotto tenha ido com ele. O primeiro trabalho importante de Giotto teria sido a série de afrescos que contam a vida de São Francisco no teto da Basílica. Há, no entanto, dúvidas quanto à autoria da obra. Percebe-se a influência da pintura romana no trabalho de Giotto, assim como a influência do gótico francês, bem como da arte bizantina. A aparência realista das figuras causou controvérsia na época. A cena da Crucificação pintada em Florença mostra a clara distinção entre o trabalho de Giotto e o de seu mestre.

De acordo com Vasari, outra obra da fase inicial de Giotto foram os afrescos da Santa Maria Novella e o enorme crucifixo, também na mesma igreja, de 5 metros de altura. As obras foram datadas de 1290 e, portanto, contemporâneas aos afrescos de Assis.

Em 1287, aos 20 anos, Giotto se casou e foi para Roma. Há poucos traços de sua presença na cidade. A Basílica de São João de Latrão tem uma pequena série de afrescos, pintados a pedido do Papa Bonifácio VIII. A fama de Giotto como pintor se espalhou. Ele foi chamado para trabalhar em Pádua e também em Rimini, onde somente um Crucifixo permanece no Templo Malatestiano. Esse trabalho influenciou a chamada Escola de Rimini, de Giovanni e Pietro da Rimini.

A Capella degli Scrovegni, também chamada Arena Chapel, em Pádua, é considerada o maior trabalho de Giotto. Ele retrata cenas da Virgem Maria e da Paixão de Cristo e foi criada entre 1303 e 1310.

Aqui, ele quebra as tradições da narração de cenas medievais. A cena da morte de Cristo foi admirada por muitos artistas renascentistas pela força dramática da cena em seu trabalho. Michelangelo, que estudou a obra de Giotto, inspirou-se nesse trabalho para a pintura da Capela Sistina.

Como era comum na decoração do período medieval, a porção oeste da parede é dominada pelo Julgamento Final. São muitos os painéis famosos da Capela, incluindo um com a Adoração dos Magos, em que aparece uma Estrela de Belém semelhante a um cometa. Giotto viu o Cometa Halley em sua aparição em 1301 no céu italiano e é bem provável que esse objeto astronômico tenha influenciado a estrela da Adoração.

Vários outros pintores do norte da Itália foram influenciados por Giotto, incluindo Guariento, Giusto de' Menabuoi, Jacopo Avanzi e Altichiero.

Um documento de 1313 mostra a presença de Giotto em Roma, onde ele executou um mosaico para a antiga Basílica de São Pedro, encomendado pelo Cardeal Jacopo Stefaneschi.

Em 1318, ele começou a pintar quatro capelas para quatro diferentes famílias de Florença na Igreja da Santa Cruz. As composições de Giotto influenciaram mais tarde a Cappela Brancacci, de Masaccio.

 

This sculpture was fotographed at the street in front of the Ufizzi Museum in Florence, Italy.

 

A text, in english, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Giotto di Bondone (c. 1267 – January 8, 1337), better known simply as Giotto, was an Italian painter and architect from Florence. He is generally considered the first in a line of great artists who contributed to the Italian Renaissance.

Giotto's contemporary Giovanni Villani wrote that Giotto was "the most sovereign master of painting in his time, who drew all his figures and their postures according to nature. And he was given a salary by the commune [of Florence] in virtue of his talent and excellence."

The later 16th century biographer Giorgio Vasari says of him "...He made a decisive break with the ...Byzantine style, and brought to life the great art of painting as we know it today, introducing the technique of drawing accurately from life, which had been neglected for more than two hundred years."

Giotto's masterwork is the decoration of the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua, commonly called the Arena Chapel, completed around 1305. This fresco cycle depicts the life of the Virgin and the life of Christ. It is regarded as one of the supreme masterpieces of the Early Renaissance. That Giotto painted the Arena Chapel and that he was chosen by the commune of Florence in 1334 to design the new campanile (bell tower) of the Florence Cathedral are among the few certainties of his biography. Almost every other aspect of it is subject to controversy: his birthdate, his birthplace, his appearance, his apprenticeship, the order in which he created his works, whether or not he painted the famous frescoes at Assisi, and where he was eventually buried after his death.

Giotto was probably born in a hilltop farmhouse, perhaps at Colle di Romagnano or Romignano; since 1850 a tower house in nearby Colle Vespignano, a hamlet 35 kilometres north of Florence, has borne a plaque claiming the honour of his birthplace, an assertion commercially publicised. He was the son of a man named Bondone, described in surviving public records as "a person of good standing". Most authors accept that Giotto was his real name, but it may have been an abbreviation of Ambrogio (Ambrogiotto) or Angelo (Angelotto).

The year of his death is calculated from the fact that Antonio Pucci, the town crier of Florence, wrote a poem in Giotto's honour in which it is stated that he was 70 at the time of his death. However, the word "seventy" fits into the rhyme of the poem better than would have a longer and more complex age, so it is possible that Pucci used artistic license.

In his Lives of the Artists, Giorgio Vasari relates that Giotto was a shepherd boy, a merry and intelligent child who was loved by all who knew him. He was discovered by the great Florentine painter Cimabue, drawing pictures of his sheep on a rock. They were so lifelike that Cimabue approached Bondone and asked if he could take the boy as an apprentice. Many scholars today consider the story legendary and think it more probable that Giotto's family was well-off, and had moved to Florence where Giotto was sent to Cimabue's workshop as an apprentice.

Vasari recounts a number of such stories about Giotto's skill. He writes that when Cimabue was absent from the workshop, his young apprentice painted such a lifelike fly on the face of the painting that Cimabue was working on, that he tried several times to brush it off. Vasari also relates that when the Pope sent a messenger to Giotto, asking him to send a drawing to demonstrate his skill, Giotto drew, in red paint, a circle so perfect that it seemed as though it was drawn using a compass and instructed the messenger to give that to the Pope.

Giotto's master, Cimabue, was one of the two most highly renowned painters of Tuscany, the other being Duccio, who worked mainly in Siena. Around 1280, Giotto followed Cimabue to Rome, where there was a school of fresco painters, of whom the most famous was Pietro Cavallini. The famous Florentine sculptor and architect, Arnolfo di Cambio, was then also working in Rome.

From Rome, Cimabue went to Assisi to paint several large frescoes at the newly-built Basilica of St Francis of Assisi, and it is probable, but not certain, that Giotto went with him. The fresco cycle of the Life of St. Francis in the Upper Church is commonly considered to be the work of Giotto, but the documents of the Franciscan Friars that relate to artistic commissions during this period were destroyed by Napoleon's troops, who stabled horses in the Upper Church of the Basilica. In the absence of documentary evidence to the contrary, it has been convenient to ascribe every fresco in the Upper Church that was not obviously by Cimabue, to Giotto, whose prestige has overshadowed that of almost every contemporary. Some of the earliest remaining biographical sources, such as Ghiberti and Riccobaldo Ferrarese, cite the fresco cycle of the life of St Francis in the Upper Church as his earliest autonomous works. However, since the idea was convincingly put forward by the German art historian, Friedrich Rintelen in 1912, an increasing number of scholars have expressed doubt that Giotto was in fact the author of the Upper Church frescos. There are many differences between them and the Arena Chapel frescoes which can not be accounted for by the stylistic development of an individual artist. It seems, rather, that several hands painted the frescoes and that the artists were probably from Rome. If this is the case, then Giotto's frescoes at Padua owe much to the naturalism of these painters.

According to Vasari, Giotto's earliest works were for the Dominicans at Santa Maria Novella. These include a fresco of the Annunciation and the enormous suspended Crucifix which is about 5 metres high. It has been dated around 1290 and is therefore contemporary with the Assisi frescoes.

Other early works are the Madonna and Child panel now in the Diocesan Museum of Santo Stefano al Ponte, Florence, and the signed panel of the Stigmata of St. Francis, from Pisa and now in the Louvre.

In 1287, at the age of about 20, Giotto married Ricevuta di Lapo del Pela, known as "Ciuta". The couple had numerous children, (perhaps as many as eight) one of whom, Francesco, became a painter. Giotto worked in Rome in 1297–1300, but few traces of his presence there remain today. The Basilica of San Giovanni in Laterano houses a small portion of a fresco cycle, painted for the Jubilee of 1300 called by Boniface VIII. In this period he also painted the Badia Polyptych, now in the Uffizi, Florence.

Giotto's fame as a painter spread. He was called to work in Padua, and also in Rimini, where today only a Crucifix remains in the Church of St. Francis, painted before 1309. This work influenced the rise of the Riminese school of Giovanni and Pietro da Rimini. According to documents of 1301 and 1304, Giotto by this time possessed large estates in Florence, and it is probable that he was already leading a large workshop and receiving commissions from throughout Italy.

Sometime between 1303 and 1310 Giotto executed (and signed) his most influential work, the painted decoration of the interior of the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua. This chapel, the building and decoration of which were commissioned by Enrico degli Scrovegni to atone for the sins of his father, is externally a very plain building of pink brick which was constructed next to an older palace that Scrovegni was restoring for himself. The palace, now gone, and the chapel were on the site of a Roman arena, for which reason it is commonly known as the Arena Chapel.

The theme is Salvation, and there is an emphasis on the Virgin Mary, as the chapel is dedicated to the Annunciation. As is common in the decoration of the Medieval period, the west wall is dominated by the Last Judgement. On either side of the chancel are complementary paintings of the Angel Gabriel and the Virgin Mary, depicting the Annunciation. This scene is incorporated into the cycles of The Life of the Blessed Virgin Mary and The Life of Christ. The source for The Life of the Virgin is the "Golden Legend" of Jacopo da Varazze while The Life of Christ draws upon "Meditations on the Life of Jesus" by the Pseudo-Bonaventura.

The cycle is divided into 37 scenes, arranged around the lateral walls in 3 tiers, starting in the upper register with the story of Joachim and Anna, the parents of the Virgin and continuing with the story of Mary. The life of Jesus occupies two registers. The Last Judgment fills the entire pictorial space of the counter-façade.

While Giotto's master Cimabue painted in a manner that is clearly Medieval, having aspects of both the Byzantine and the Gothic, Giotto's style draws on the solid and classicising sculpture of Arnolfo di Cambio. Unlike Cimabue and Duccio, Giotto's figures are not stylised, not elongated and do not follow set Byzantine models. They are solidly three-dimensional, have anatomy, faces and gestures that are based on close observation and are clothed, not in swirling formalised drapery, but in garments that hang naturally and have form and weight. Although aspects of this trend in painting had already appeared in Rome in the work of Pietro Cavallini, Giotto took it so much further that he set a new standard for representational painting.

The heavily sculptural figures occupy compressed settings with naturalistic elements, often using forced perspective devices so that they resemble stage sets. This similarity is increased by Giotto's careful arrangement of the figures in such a way that the viewer appears to have a particular place and even an involvement in many of the scenes. This dramatic immediacy was a new feature, which is also seen to some extent in the Upper Church at Assisi.

Famous panels in the series include the Adoration of the Magi, in which a comet-like Star of Bethlehem streaks across the sky. Giotto is thought to have been inspired by the 1301 appearance of Halley's comet, which led to the name Giotto being given to a 1986 space probe to the comet. Another famous panel is the Flight from Egypt, in which Giotto broke many traditions in the depiction of the scene. The scenes from the Passion were much admired by artists of the Renaissance for their concentrated emotional and dramatic force, especially the Lamentation of Christ, and studies of the sequence by Michelangelo exist.

The feature which more than any other sets Giotto's work apart from that of his contemporaries is his depiction of the human face and of human emotion in both expression and gesture. When the disgraced Joachim returns sadly to the hillside, the two young shepherds look sideways at each other. The soldier who drags a baby from its screaming mother does so with his head hunched into his shoulders and a look of shame on his face. The people on the road to Egypt gossip about Mary and Joseph as they go. Of Giotto's realism, the 19th century English critic John Ruskin said "He painted the Madonna and St. Joseph and the Christ, yes, by all means ... but essentially Mamma, Papa and Baby."

Among those frescoes in Padua which have been lost are those in the Basilica of. St. Anthony and the Palazzo della Ragione, which are however from a later sojourn in Padua.

Numerous painters from northern Italy were influenced by Giotto's work in Padua including Guariento, Giusto de' Menabuoi, Jacopo Avanzi, and Altichiero.

Had a shoot with a model while I was home visiting in San Angelo, TX. It was such a fun and productive shoot!

Samantha is still a newbie, but she was such a PRO! by the looks of her portfolio, you would think that she was :)

 

www.modelmayhem.com/183835

 

-NATURAL LIGHT

San Angelo, Texas

M.L. Leddy's hand made boots

Title: Breeder and sportsman

Identifier: breedersportsma691916sanf

Year: 1882 (1880s)

Authors:

Subjects: Horses

Publisher: San Francisco, Calif. : [s. n. ]

Contributing Library: San Francisco Public Library

Digitizing Sponsor: California State Library Califa/LSTA Grant

  

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Saturday, Sept. 30, 1916] THE BREEDER AND SPORTSMAN

 

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Trotters and pacers racing on the California circuit will be at the Hanford two-lap course next week. The Oregon State Fair closes at Salem today after a very successful week. Full summaries of the races will be given in our next issue. W. P. McNair, of Phoenix, Arizona, has been start- ing Die trotters and pacers at the Oregon State Fair races at Salem this week. «> Elmo Montgomery won the 5700 free-for-all pace at North Yakima with Jim Logan, best time 2:09%, and got second money in the 5500 2:20 pace with Hal Logan, winning the fastest heat of the race in 2:10»i. Hal Logan did not do as well in his start at Salem last Tuesday as he did on the closing day at North Yakima when he won a heat and second money. He finished third and sixth at Salem and was then drawn bv consent of the judges on account of lameness. «> Will Hogoboom won a good race at North Yakima with the pacer Joe Buckley by Geo. A. Kelly's stal- lion Bonnie McK. We notice that a number of the get of this stallion are beginning to show up well in the races held in Washington and Oregon. «. ^ Ted Bunch got another "first money" with the pacer Zombrino on the opening day of the Oregon State Fair, winning in straight heats, the fastest in 2:08%. Fred Woodcock's pacer Hal Paxton, that raced at Santa Rosa and Dixon in August, was second in each heat and with the three others that started all were bv Hal B. Harness races with lady drivers have been a fea- ture of the Fresno fair for years. We suggest that there is a record -which the ladies might try for at Fresno with almost a certainty of lowering. W.e refer to that held by a pacing team driven by a woman. It is at this writing 2:28% and was made al. the Columbus, Ohio, track this year. Some of those Fresno lady drivers should be able to put a pair of pacers together that can lower this mark. «> ⦠T. L. Davidson of Salem, Oregon, has sold to John B Stetson for Ed Gerald of Kearney, Nebraska, the brood mare Adiola Mack by McKinney, dam Viola J. Cameron by Direct, grandam Addie S. by Steinway. Adicla Mack is the dam of Bonniola 2:15%, that won second money at Yakima this year after winning the second heat of the race. Addie S. is the dam of three standard performers. Mr. Davidson still owns a three-year-old sister to Bonniola, and a two-year- old brother. <£ During the present month All McKinney 2:04, the brown gelding owned by Mr. Barstow of San Jose, has started in two races where he has won a heat in fast time and then been distanced. At Hamline, Sept. 14th, where the purse was 53000, he started in a field of six high class pacers, among them Ben Earl 2:00%. Thos. Earl, Colleen 2:06% and others. In the first heat All McKinney got off three lengths back, but paced around the others and had the pole at the three-eighths. He did the last half in 1:02 and won in 2:06%. In the second heat Barstow took him to the half in 1:01%, was at the three-quarter pole in 1:33% and led into the stretch where Marvin Childs brought Ben Earl up and beat All McKinney a half length in 2:04%. Barstow's horse was fourth in the third heat in 2:08%, but made a break in the fourth heat and was flagged. At Columbus, Sept. 25th, All McKinney started in the 2:15 class pace for a purse of $800. He won the first heat in 2:06% but acted badly and was distanced the second heat. Roan Hal 2:01% is the season's champion pacing gelding. «> Nowaday (3) 2:14% is credited with ten standard performers, four of which are in the 2:10 list. «> Zomblack started twice at the Palatine, Illinois, meeting this month, winning one race and getting second money in the other. James W. McKinney, a black horse by Washington McKinney, won a race at Houlton, Maine, August 31st and took a trotting record of 2:19%. 3> â $> Graustark, by Aerolite, won a race at Napoleon, Ohio, half mile track August 30th, in straight heats. Time. 2:13, 2:12%, 2:14. «⢠Bingen 2:06% now has both the fastest three-year- old trotter (Bingen Silk 2:07%) and pacer (Sister Bingen 2:06%) of the season to his credit. «⢠Carletta, a three-year-old filly by Carlokin, won a heat in 2:21% at Topeka, Kansas, September 13th, and took second money in the race. «> Bertha McGuire (2) 2:12, by The Harvester 2:01, is out of Berta Mac 2:08 by McKinney 2:11%, the mare bred by W. Parsons and raced by Henry Hel- man of Salinas. Lady Arabella, winner of the 2:30 trot at Young- wood, Pa., in 2:22%, is by Alta Vela 2:11% and was secured by W. J. O'Neill, Pittsburgh, Paâ from Billy Durfee. <$ The Proof trotted a good race at Milwaukee in the $3000 stake for 2:12 class trotters. He was second three times and won the fourth heat, with the time from 2:11 to 2:12%. Jolly Bird 2:15%, by Jay Bird, now ranks among the dams of two 2:10 trotters. Codero 2:09% was her first one, and this month she got credit for Fayre Rosamond 2:08%. Rozales, a bay mare by R. O. Newman's stallion Best Policy, won a race in straight heats and took a heat and second money in another race at Streator, Illinois, last month. Her best time was 2:21%. Gay Audubon (4) 2:06%, the fast trotter owned by James Gatcomb, which was severely injured when turned loose by a groom, is now jogging sound again. This stallion was heavily staked this season and was in rare form this spring. <$â There is no questioning the fact that at the fairs the horses attract more attention than any other kind of live stock. The horse barns are always full of visitors and from ponies to the big drafters, the horses always have plenty of admirrse. «> Marvin Childs has a good winner in Ben Earl 2:00%. He won the 53000 stake for 2:13 class pacers at both Milwaukee and Hamline, and then won the 53000 stake at Columbus this week where he took his new record. In accordance with the By-Laws, the annual meet- ing of the American Association of Trotting Horse Breeders will be held in the circuit court room, at Lexington, Kentucky, Tuesday, October 3, 1916, at 8:30 p. m. «â * ^ Wilkes Brewer 2:08% by Nutwood Wilkes closed her season's activities at Dawson, Pa., when she trotted the final heat of her stake engagement in 2:09%. She annexed eleven consecutive events in 1916. Julia M., the bay filly by El Angelo owned by Mr. D. W. Wallis, is getting into her true form. She stood best in the summary of the 2:14 pace at Fresno Tuesday, pacing the third heat in 2:11, the fastest heat of the race. Washalla, a pure Arab horse, by imported Zeyol, dam Nonliker by imported Shahwan, has been win- ning three and six furlong races at the New York and New England fairs this summer in contests against thoroughbreds. «> A correspondent says that the two-year-old trot on the opening day of the Oregon State Fair was a joke. There were only two starters who split the purse 50-50 before starting and the heats were in 3:16% and 3:18%. «> * Zom Jud, the Zombro stallion that has been win- ning in Nebraska and adjoining states during the summer, was bred by H. Dahl of San Diego, and is owned by J. W. Sampsell of the same place. His dam is Judith D. by William Harold. Ima Jay 2:09%, Harvey Ernest's fast mare, won second money to St. Frisco 2:03% in the $5000 event for 2:08 trotters at Poughkeepsie, N. Y. Her show- ing, in this her first appearance on a mile track, was very gratifying, particularly so when one stops to consider that the first and third miles were in 2:05% and 2:05, and that the field was a very select one. She is by Jay McGregor out of a mare by Rythmic, second dam by Norwood 522, son of Hambletonlan 10. Bingen 2:0614 >s the first stallion to sire a two- minute trotter and the dam of a two-minute trotter, the great family founder being the sire of Uhlan 1:58. and the sire of the dam of Lee Axworthy 2:00. Babe Cresceus 2:12%, winner of eight races in less than a month, was not trained previous to April of this year, but having so much natural speed on the road it was decided to give her an opportunity. Bonnie Dee, the bay gelding by Del Coronado, that won the three-year-old stake at Syracuse, and took a record of 2:12% in the third heat, is out of the mare Miss Griffith by Bonnie Direct that Mr. A. B. Coxe purchased some years ago from C. L. Griffith of Pleasanton. «⢠Both of Mr. Geers' great stallions, Napoleon Direct 1:59% and St. Frisco 2:03%, race with their ears pinned flat on their necks and impress one as being ready at all times to either race or fight. They are certainly two remarkably fast horses and, so far this season, neither has offered to make a skip. 4> Volga (2) 2:07% worked a couple of miles under 2:07 Sept. 8th and right now many think she can beat the world's recordâ2:05%âfor age, gait and sex. Ben White is training the champion most care- fully and plans not to work her within a couple of seconds of where she can go when under forced draft. Not yet is the "passing" of the horse. It is said that by count there are 60,000 horses in the city of Detroit, and that the last fourteen years, in spite of auto-trucks and the 40,000 automobiles in the same city, the horses have increased from 13,000 to 60,000. It is further estimated that 83% per cent of the road transportation of our country is still done by horses. Diamond Mac 2:15% by Kinney Lou, is still racing. This horse was bred by Douglas Cone of Red Bluff, and was taken east some years ago. He is now thirteen years old. He took a record of 2:15% at Lima, Ohio, in 1912, when he was nine. He was beaten a nose in 2:15% at Laporte, Indiana, half mile track, September 1st this year. The Stanislaus Live Stock Show and Exposition which was held last week at Modesto was a big success, and there is a cash surplus of between 53000 and $4000. There is no track at Modesto, con- sequently there were no races, hut the show of horses, cattle, sheep and swine was large and excel- lent. There were about 22,000 paid admissions dur- ing the week, and prizes totaling $3000 were awarded. An Illinois fair association has inaugurated a novel race for two-year-olds next year. The entrance fee on yearlings is $10 payable October 1st. 1916, and this payment may be made by cash or note, the note to bear no interest. The note w-ill be due August 1st, 1917. The association is to add a sum to the en- trance fees, and the winner of the race is to take the entire amount. The race will be half mile heats, best two in three. Picking up 129 pounds H. C. Hallenbeck's little black horse The Finn by OgdenâLivonia, ran a game and true race in the Havre de Grace handicap last Saturday and won the mile and an eighth in 1: 521-5 from James Butler's Spur, Harry Payne Whitney's Borrow, August Belmont's Stromboli, Andrew Mil- ler's Roamer, J. W. May's Bayberry Candle and Emil Herz's Short Grass and Daddy's Choice in the order named. Charlie Silva's little hay stallion Teddy Bear 2:05 is getting back into his old time form. The son of Del Coronado is now ten years old, and after a season in the stud at Hanford this year went into training about the first of July, his season not ending until June 15th. He won the free-for-all pace at Fresno on Wednesday of this week and paced the second heat in 2:06% and the third in 2:07. There is little doubt but he could reduce his record if pre- pared for a fast mile. «â «> Zomrect 2:06% is the sixteenth of the get of Zom- bro 2:11 to enter the 2:10 list. On his dam's side he is is a direct descendant of the mare Dolly Mc- Mann, that was owned by the Hon. F. L. Coombs of Napa, who bred her to Whippleton and got Lily Stanley 2:17%, who was in turn bred to Direct 2:05% and produced Lilly S., now dam of Zomrect by Zom- bro. Dolly McMann w-as brought to California many years ago as one of a pair of fine road mares and was said to be by Mambrino Patchen, but although Mr. Coombs made every effort to verify this state- ment and trace her breeding he could never do so, so she is in the books as untraced. «> Tannic acid is one of the very best remedies for collar galls, according to L. S. Backus of the Mis- souri College of Agriculture. It can be secured from any drug store and is easily applied by rubbing lightly over the collar every morning and evening if the horse is working. Collar galls usually appear either at the top of the neck or at the point of the shoulder where an improperly fitted collar rubs. It is important that the collar be kept clean at all times in order that it may be kept from cutting into the neck, but special care in keeping it clean is neces- sary after these galls start. "An ounce of preven- tion is worth a pound of cure."

  

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Whether they are capturing special moments in Hawaii, fixing motorcycles in Texas, publishing news stories in Pakistan, creating art in San Francisco, or teaching in China, Bennington alumni continue to pursue their passions and bring creative energy to their work all over the world. Read the bios below for information on the alumni featured in Katari’s illustrations.

 

KEAAU, HI

Britten Traughber ’06 is a photographer who travels all over teaching and taking pictures including portraits, weddings, and fine art; she has taught at Illinois State University, the University of Hawaii at Hilo, and a number of community venues. She is the founder of Rural Independent Photographic Endeavors (RIPE), a grassroots collective dedicated to women’s issues and photographic education. Her website is brittentraughber.com.

 

SAN FRANCISCO, CA

Emily Tareila ’10 is doing a residency at Little Paper Planes; serving as a curator for 18 Reasons; offering the net installment of an ongoing lecture series on how to cultivate a compelling practice and community called Find Your Tribe this April; and in June will be the featured artist at the Independent Publishing Resource Center.

 

PORTLAND, OR

Devin Gaffney ’10 is constantly fascinated by social network analysis, the Internet, and communications technologies and their impacts on politics, culture, and society. He is a ’12 MSc graduate of the University of Oxford’s Internet Institute, and is looking towards a PhD program at Northeastern University in Network Science. Currently he is working as a software developer, and spends his spare time missing Vermont.

 

SAN ANGELO, TX

Stacy Wolfson ’09 moved to San Angelo in March to open a motorcycle shop with her fiancé, James Whipple; they are now the proud owners of Black Sheep Certified Motorcycle Specialists, which will open its doors early this summer. Their aim is not only to provide excellent service but to support the local economy and local motorcycle enthusiasts by facilitating community and providing an epicenter for gatherings and activities.

 

SANTA FE, NM

Jen Bennett ’09 currently works in Boston as a freelance costume technician, craftsperson, and a designer for theater, opera, and television, and travels to Santa Fe in the summer to work with their opera. She has also worked with American Repertory Theatre (making costumes that went onto Broadway with such shows as Pippin and Porgy and Bess), New Repertory Theatre, Disney, Williamstown Theatre Festival, and Huntington Theatre, and toured with Cirque du Soleil’s OVO in the wardrobe department. In 2012, Jen was a draper for Fringe NYC’s production of Our Lady.

 

CHICAGO, IL

Greg Obis ’12 is making and releasing music, and playing in a band with Alex Doyle ’11 and Peter Reale ’12. You can find them online at yeeshband.bandcamp.com.

 

XENIA, OH

Jessalyn Brown Kenworthy ’08 is an animal lover who is working her dream job as a dog trainer for 4 Paws for Ability. She trains and places service dogs with children and veterans with disabilities.

 

NEW ORLEANS, LA

Rachel Whitman Groves ’96 is an esteemed actress and producer, who most recently played opposite Arnold Schwarzenegger in the upcoming 2014 thriller Maggie also starring Abigail Breslin and Jolie Richardson, and just shot her first episode of the new Twentieth Century Fox, WGN-TV show Salem as a costar. Visit Rachel’s website to see her work.

 

MIAMI, FL

Ellen Kanner ’83 is the author of VegNews’ 2013 Book of the Year, Feeding the Hungry Ghost: Life, Faith and What to Eat for Dinner. She is also Huffington Post’s Meatless Monday blogger and the columnist Edgy Veggie, and has been published in Bon Appetit, Eating Well, Vegetarian Times, Every Day with Rachael Ray, and Culinate among other publications. She is an ardent advocate for sustainable, accessible food, and serves on multiple Miami boards. Learn more about Ellen at ellen-ink.com.

 

WASHINGTON, DC

Jess Kutch ’03 is the cofounder of www.coworker.org/, an online petition tool that helps people improve their workplace. She is also a Senior Fellow at the New Organizing Institute.

 

NEW YORK, NY

Katari Sporrong ’11 is the artist of these illustrations and the creator of the comic Speak Up that takes a look at the life of David Wojnarowicz. She is working on a new comic series about her curious cat.

 

Go to the next slide to see the next illustration of Bennington connections in the world, or make your gift today.

A dedicated member of the Methodist Church and a gifted teacher, Mrs. Massie was a humanitarian who worked to further education throughout her life. The former Mary Lee Payne, Mrs. Massie was born in Weimar, one of four children she grew up under the stress of pioneer life and worked, in various towns, as a teacher, post master and sales lady. Although her education was interrupted when her wardrobe was lost in fording a river, she later attended Buffalo Gap College. In 1899 she married Robert Massie.

Massie, born in Scotland, came to this country as a youth. From a sheep herder's job, he advanced to a leading place in the sheep and wool Industry, making a fortune in this and other varied businesses. Mary and Robert Massie reared an adopted daughter, 3 of their young nephews, and a niece. Mrs. Massie resumed public and Sunday school teaching, taking a special interest in the junior department of the Methodist church in this city.

Following their deaths in 1931, Mrs. Massie's will gave a large portion of the estate to the benefit of youth. The Massie Memorial Foundation has, since 1932, provided over 2,000 student scholarships. Until 1960 the Massie home stood at this site. (1968) (Marker No. 2546)

As supermodel Trudy Woods pranced toward her dressing room, fan and groupie Robin D. Cradle pestered her for beauty tips.

Attracted by irrigable land and the available water supply in Dove Creek, farmers, sheepmen, and cattlemen came to this area in the 1870s. First to arrive were the Baze brothers, who dug an irrigation ditch in 1875 to grow melons and hay for nearby Fort Concho. Others soon followed, including cattleman Joseph Schmidt, cotton farmer S. D. Arthur, and the Ryan, Martinez, Jaques, Villareal, Soto, Byler, Atkins, Beck, Duncan, Foster, and Etheridge families. In 1877 New Yorkers Morgan and Lawrence Grinnell, Joseph Tweedy, and J. B. Reynolds drove their sheep into the valley. They named their ranch headquarters after Washington Irving's character Diedrich Knickerbocker.

The Knickerbocker Post Office was established in 1881. In 1889 the town was moved to a location just south of the original site in order to tap a new water supply. By 1890 the settlement had stores, hotels, saloons, blacksmith shops, two churches, and two schools.

As was typical of many West Texas rural areas, Knickerbocker declined with the advent of the automobile and improved road systems. Farmers left to find work in San Angelo (18 mi. NE). The settlers of Knickerbocker, however, left a rich heritage. Many of their descendants still live in the area. (1983) (Marker No. 2963)

The Earnest & Dorothy Barrow Foundation Museum is located on a ranch in Concho County in West Texas, 4 miles east of Eola Texas and 30 miles east of San Angelo, Texas & northwest of Eden approximately 25 mileson FM765. Memorabilia collected by local ranchers and world travelers, the Barrows, and subsequently expanded by other donors. Diverse artifacts span from prehistoric times to the early 20th century. Unusual artifacts include a 1930's tractor-powered sheep-shearing rig, a 1929 drugstore fountain, and a huge antique pipe organ. This "Museum in a Pasture" is a surprising treat. Founded by the Barrows to house their extensive collection of memorabilia from the early days of Concho County, the Museum has grown to include items the Barrows have collected from all over the world. Outside one finds a large collection of windmills, some very rare, antique farm implements, a working cotton farm and a herd of registered Longhorn Cattle. Inside, multiple buildings house wonderful collections which range from delicate crystal, china, to Hummel and Goebel figurines. Visitors can step into the past as they visit an early kitchen, dining room, bedroom, soda fountain, post office, hospital operating room, old time beauty parlor, and authentic red caboose. Antique furniture and musical instruments share space with large arrowhead, mineral and gem collections.

I would like to post this for my wonderful Flickr friend MJW at www.Flickr.com/photos/15692756@N00/, who has been under the weather. Just wanted him to know he is missed on Flickr and praying that he is doing much better!!!!

Yarn spinning bench.

 

Up against a brick wall

Spanish explorers introduced sheep to the Soutwest in the 1500s, and Spanish missions depended on the animals for food and clothing. The first Angora goats, known for the beauty and strength of their mohair, were brought to Texas in 1853 by Col. W. W. Haupt. Pioneer of modern sheep ranching in Texas from 1857 to 1867 was George Wilkins Kendall, who encouraged others with glowing reports of the industry's future while improving his own flocks. Kendall was one of the first to crossbreed the coarse--wooled Mexican churro sheep with the fine-wooled merino variety brought by European settlers.

The land, climate, and vegetation of the Edwards Plateau area especially suited the raising of sheep and goats. After 1870, with new markets and abundant land, the industry boomed. Ranchers fought disease, predators, deadly plants, and drouths to build their flocks. Today Texas is the leading producer of sheep and goats in the nation, and San Angelo is the major market center for these animals and their wool. Research facilities such as the San Angelo Research and Extension Center, built in 1969 through the efforts of Gen. Earl Rudder, then president of the Texas A&M System, work for the industry's continued prosperity. (1974) (Marker No. 4664)

Great nephew and niece with one of the San Angelo Sheep.

When I find them, there's going to be some esplainin' to do.

Spanish explorers traveled Indian trails here in the Pecos River Valley as early as 1590. Later, U.S. Cavalry, a camel train, and stage and mail lines between San Antonio and San Diego, California, used the route.

Nearby Pecos Spring attracted settlers to the area in the 1880s and 90s. Families lived in tents on the north side of the creek and hauled water from the spring. About 1890 a community water well was dug. Early residents were sheep and cattle ranchers. Mail and supplies had to be brought from San Angelo and Ozona. About 1901 Will Sheffield built a grocery and dry goods store approximately one mile from the spring. A post office opened with Will Sheffield as postmaster. Since he was the first to operate a store, the settlement was named for him. A saloon was opened, and in 1901 a school was begun with sixty-four pupils. After living for several years in tents, residents began building permanent homes.

Garrett Bean purchased a section of land from the state where the present townsite is located and drew off town lots in 1905.

Well-known Texas Ranger Frank Hamer got his start in law enforcement here. Sheffield offers churches and a trade center for area ranches. (1980) (Marker No. 4665)

There's these weird painted sheeps all over San Angelo... who knows... I shot this one alone.

Identifier: historyoftexaste04john

Title: A history of Texas and Texans

Year: 1914 (1910s)

Authors: Johnson, Francis White, 1799-1884 Barker, Eugene Campbell, 1874-1956, ed Winkler, Ernest William, 1875-1960

Subjects: Texas -- History Texas -- Biography

Publisher: Chicago, American Historical Society

Contributing Library: Allen County Public Library Genealogy Center

Digitizing Sponsor: MSN

  

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h Mr. Eich-ardson has been a factor in wool production in WestTexas prices have had a great range, from five cents perpound to twenty-five cents per pound. During the Cleve-land administration, when wool was placed on the freelist, and in consequence of the tariff tinkering of thattime, wool prices fell to the lowest known minimum offive cents per pound. Mr. Eichardson, besides his large interest as a woolraiser, is a director in the Concho Valley Loan and TrustCompany of San Angelo, and is vice-president and oneof the large stockholders in the First National Bank ofSan Angelo. Fraternally he is affiliated with the Knightsof Pythias, and has membership in the Presbyterianchurch. On November 25, 1890, he married Miss CarrieB. Scudder, of Tennessee. Mr. and Mrs. Eichardson havethree children, two sons and one daughter. D. B. Eich-ardson, the oldest, is now connected with the South BendWoolen Mills in South Bend, Indiana; Eobert S. Eich-ardson is attending the West Texas Military Academy

 

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^ TEXAS AND TEXANS 1633 in San Antonio; the daughter, Miss Janet H. Eichard-son, is in school in San Angelo. The Eichardson sheep ranch is located thirty-five milesnorthwest of San Angelo, and its fifty thousand acresspread over portions of Tom Green, Sterling and Irioncounties. It is watered by Eocky Creek, and by twenty-two driven wells, each one equipped with windmill andlarge water tank. This large acreage is divided intotwenty-seven inclosures, and the ranch is equipped withthree separate residences, with a shearing shed and allthe improvements and facilities for the sheep industry.As a wool grower Mr. Eichardson, almost as a matter ofcourse, is a Eepublican in politics, and thoroughly be-lieves in the protective tariff. He has served as chair-man of the Eepublican party in his home county foreighteen years, and is a vigorous advocate of Eepublicanprinciples. He is vice-president of the State Sheep, Goatand Wool-Growers Association of Texas. Mr. Eichardson is a Scotchman and of a

  

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Title: Florists' review [microform]

Identifier: 5205536_17_2

Year: (s)

Authors:

Subjects: Floriculture

Publisher: Chicago : Florists' Pub. Co

Contributing Library: University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

Digitizing Sponsor: University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign

  

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U78 The Weekly Florists^ Review* Mabch 15, 1906. SAN ANGELO, TEX. Citizens of San Angelo, particularly the flower-buying citizens, take much pride in the fact that one of the most up-to-date greenhouses in this part of the country is located here. J. J. Nuss- baumer is the proprietor and finds satis- faction in the thought that his place is about as well kept as a greenhouse can be and that it excels most in the Lone Star state. He grows a few of the finest varieties of carnations, such as Mrs. Lawson and Enchantress for light and President for dark; also, marguerites, narcissi, pansies and Oloire de Lorraine begonias. His Easter lilies are doing fine and will bloom at the right time for a good Easter trade. The potting house and the propagat- ing house adjoin the plant and cut flower house. The houses radiate from a com- mon center, the workroom, where every- thing is arranged for the greatest con- venience. Coal bins and the boiler arc beneath tlie workroom. Connected witli the room is a well-equipped office. There are establishments that are larger, but that tlie size of a house is no criterion as to the quality of the plants grown may readily be proven by a visit to ^Ir. Nussbaunier's place. FIRST HAIL. .lolni li. J-;sler. secretary of the Flo- rists' Hail Association, reports the first hail-storm of the season. It took place at Dallas, Tex.. March 1, and hit the Green Floral and Nursery Co. Of course Col. Green was n member of the Hail Association. Sioux Cjtv. Ia.^—The weekly bulletin of the First Congregational Church for March 4 said: "Since last Sunday one of our members has departed. In the death of J. C. Keunison this church has lost a choice spirit, this city a valued citizen, the Grand Army a loyal comrade. Mr. Kennison scattered much sunshine and good will. He has been very gen- erous to the church and his friends with flowers. He has given the communion flowers to this church for many years. We extend our sympathy to the bereaved family.'' DEPENDABLE PAINT DEPENDABLE PUTTY DEPENDABLE GLASS At the lowest prices consistent with quality. GREENHOUSE GLASS A SPECIALTY. JOH N LUCAS & CO. New York Philadelphia Chicago MeutloD The Uevlew wbeu you write. STENZELGLASSCo. 2 Hudson St., New York Sole distributors of "WHITE ROSE" Green- house Glass. Do H"' I'll.V o'llin.ity \viii<lii\v Klass when yon can gei special Kiecnliouse fc'la^^^ at the same price. Mention The Review wbeu you write. BY SLIPPING A PEERLESS GLASS REPAIR CLAMP over a cracked glass you protect your stock, save coal and glass. Do it now before the high winds play havoc with your roofs. $1.00 will repair 150 lights. Ask your supply man, or A. KLOKNER, Wauwatosa, Wis. Endorsed b,y about 400 prominent florists. Mention The Review when you write. ■DO YOU KNOW THAT= THE PinSBURGN PLATE GLASS GO. 442 Wabash Ave., CHICAGO ARE THE LARGEST HANDLERS OF GREENHOUSE GLASS IN THIS COUNTRY ? WE CAN FURNISH YOUR REQUIREMENTS PROMPTLY OF GOOD BRANDS AND AT LOWEST MARKET PRICES We are Sole Distributors of PATTON'S SUN-PROOF PAINTS ?„rGr^l:Kf.. Mention The Review when you write. I t SPRAGUE, SMITH CO. MAWTACTUBEBS OP tVIWUUtT ULAOO* Greenhouse glass a specialty. 205 RANDOLPH STREET, CHICAGO, ILL. Mention The ReTlew when yon write.

 

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THE BEST Bug Killer and Bloom Saver. Drop us a line and >Ve will prove it. The Maxwell Manufacturing Co. Dept. A, LOUISVILLE, KY. Mention The Review when yon write. NOW IS THE TIME TO USE OUR PULVERIZED SHEEP MANURE on your lawns, flower and vegeta- ble gardens. It is rich in humus and organic matter and mixes immediately with the soil. Write us for particulars. NATURAL GUANO COMPANY AURORA, ILL. Mention The Review when you write. Bone Meal Tobacco Stems Sheep Fertilizer W. M. Davldge l< Co., 19 Liberty <t, New York To-Bak-lne Products THEY KILL BUGS" LIQUID FORM^^eS?Lr* rOB SPBAYXVa. FUMIGATING PAPER FOB BUBVIVa. Fumigating Powder FOB SLOW BUBjmro. DUSTING POWDER FOB VBOETABXJB OBOWBB8. Toa will bave do trouble witb insect peita if Tou use tbese products as directed. Send for our booklet. "Words of Wisdom," by leading growers. It is free. E. H. HUNT 76-78 Wabash Ave., Chicago Mention The Review when yon write. SIEBERT'S ZINC N«v«r Rust Glazing Points ARE POSlTIVELiY THE BEST. LAST FOR- EVER. Over 16,000 pounds now In use. A sure preventive of glass slipping. Effective on largre or small glass. Easy to drive. Easy to extract. Two sizes, % and %, 40c per lb.; by mall 16cex- tra; 7 lbs. for $'{.50; 15 lbs. for $5.00 by express. For sale by the trade. CHAS. T. SIEBERT, Sta. B., Pittsburg, Pa. Mfiition The Review when you write. ■T-~*'*^-'-^'"'"—-' Holds Glass . Firmly See the Point < . OlBsInf Polato %n the beat. I No righii or left*. Box of 1.000 poiaU T6 eta. poatpald. HENRT A. DREEK, lU Cfc—tort St., fMto., m.

  

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Anyone with kids knows who these guys are.

I have no idea the meaning behind this wall but love the colors and how it seems alive!

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