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Angelo di Cosimo dit Bronzino 1503 1572 Florence

Déploration sur le Christ mort

Deploration on the dead Christ 1540-1545

Besançon Musée des Beaux Arts

  

L'ART QUI FAIT RÊVER contre L'ART QUI FAIT CAUCHEMARDER.

 

Joan Miro a proclamé qu'il voulait "massacrer la peinture", l'affirmation sonne comme une provocation qui est tout à fait caractéristique de l'art contemporain. Mais, malgré ses intentions affichées, Miro n'est pas parvenu à massacrer le Beau, sauf dans quelques très rares tableaux de la fin de sa vie. Il a continué de proposer une peinture qui peut faire rêver les peuples. Une peinture globalement, sauf accident, aimable et joyeuse.

C'est quand les peintres occidentaux ont décidé de peindre un monde qui ne fait pas rêver les peuples, que l'art contemporain a débuté. Le massacre de la peinture promis par Joan Miro était réalisé.

L'Occident est alors entré dans l'art systématique du Laid, de l'Absurde, autrement dit dans l'Art Triste.

Cette décision de créer l'Art du Laid, un art qui interdit aux peuples tout rêve, mérite réflexion.

D'abord, c'est une nouveauté à peu près absolue dans l'histoire de la peinture européenne (1).

Secondement c'est une nouveauté dont on peut penser qu'elle est révélatrice d'un état d'esprit inquiétant (2).

 

1) Pendant des siècles, la peinture européenne, l'art européen en général, a été conçu pour faire rêver les gens, ou une partie importante d'une population : aristocratie, bourgeoisie ou peuple.

Rêve de Dieu, rêve d'Amour spirituel ou sensuel, rêve de vie éternelle, rêve de bonté, de pureté et de beauté, rêve de maternité, rêve de paradis, sur terre ou dans les airs, rêve de paysage idyllique, rêve de chasse réussie, rêve d'abondance. Quand la peinture européenne peignait des monstres ou des guerres, c'était exactement ce qu'il fallait pour formuler un rappel du réalisme nécessaire.

Apollon dépouilla Marsyas, Prométhée se faisait manger le foie, Adonis mourait, Orphée ne réussissait pas à ramener Eurydice des Enfers, mais Europe n'était pas malheureuse d'être enlevée, Aphrodite (Vénus) était née, et le printemps revenait comme Perséphone des enfers.

Les Crucifixions, les Entombements et les Pietas étaient toujours accompagnés d'une Annonciation, d'une Nativité et d'une Résurrection. Et après la mort de la Vierge venait son couronnement.

L'art hollandais du XVIIe siècle, profane, laïc, proclame sans se lasser les joies simples de la vie de famille, les paysages maritimes, les cieux changeants, les fêtes de village, les danses de mariage et les abondances matérielles : viande, légumes, fromage et fleurs en abondance. Une profusion que les têtes de mort ne parvenaient pas à cacher. Même sans leurs dents, les agriculteurs chantaient, certainement en buvant un peu trop.

Tout l'art néo-classique, romantique et impressionniste du XIXe siècle a fait rêver avec des paysages d'Italie ou d'ailleurs : prairies parsemées de coquelicots, rivières fraîches et amicales, forêts pleines d'ombres favorables, châteaux mystérieux, troupeaux de moutons et bovins, bergers musiciens..... Et à part quelques naufrages dans une mer agitée, dans l'ensemble, la peinture européenne était joyeuse et faisait rêver.

 

2° C'est à partir des années 1950 et suivantes que l'art européen officiel devient totalement sinistre. Rien n'y échappe, sauf l'architecture. ( l'architecture des architectes, pas de celle des entrepreneurs)

Le Non Sens, l'absence de signification de l'art abstrait terminal, ne suffit plus. L'Absurde poussé jusqu'aux extrêmes de l'horreur banale, ordinaire, et du pessimisme le plus plat, le plus quotidien, et le Laid, font la loi.

Sièges et tables bancales, tas de gravats, carrés blanc, jaune, noir, rouge, poutrelles rouillées, tordues, cassées, cartons assemblés, chiffons entassés, boites ouvertes ou fermées, machineries cassées ou concassées, tubulures, poutres de ciment, moellons, parpaings, tuiles, briques entières ou pulvérisées, tubes de néon, sacs, sacs de cailloux, toutes les sortes de tuyaux: fer, ciment, plastiques, tous les tissus en vrac, le caoutchouc, les seaux, brocs, pots.... et bien sûr des taches, des taches, des taches....surtout des taches. Pour que vous tâchiez d'y comprendre rien.

Les musées d'art contemporain sont, le plus souvent, les exceptions existent mais elles sont rares, une anthologie de la laideur, dépourvue du moindre humour, toujours accompagnée d'un discours totalement inintelligible, mais se voulant supérieurement intelligent.

C'est l'art d'une élite qui refuse de communiquer avec ses semblables et aussi incapable de sentir et faire ressentir des émotions positives. Pas de beau, pas de joie, pas de bon. L'art de faire rêver est devenu l'art de faire cauchemarder les peuples.

C'est un art autiste, dont la prétention n'a d'égale que son mépris des peuples, qui s'est installé en Occident, avec l'absolue certitude d'être "La Lumière". Et c'est en cela que cet art est Sacré, interdit de critique. Un nouvel art, doublement sacré : il est le reflet de la nouvelle religion dualiste de l'Occident, celle des Lumières et celle de l'Argent.

 

ART THAT MAKES A DREAM against ART THAT MAKES CAUCHEMARD

 

Joan Miro proclaimed that he wanted to "massacre painting", the statement sounds like a provocation that is quite characteristic of contemporary art. But, despite his stated intentions, Miro did not succeed in massacring the beautiful, except in a few very rare paintings at the end of his life. He continued to propose a painting that can make people dream. A painting overall, except accident, kind and joyful.

It was when Western painters decided to paint a world that did not make people dream, that contemporary art began. The massacre of the paint promised by Joan Miro was carried out.

The West then entered the systematic art of the ugly, the absurd, in other words, Sad Art.

This decision to create the Art of the ugly, an art that prohibits people from dreaming, is worth considering.

First of all, it is an almost absolute novelty in the history of European painting (1).

Secondly, it is a novelty that can be thought to reveal a worrying state of mind (2).

 

1) For centuries European painting, European art in general, was designed to make people dream, or such a significant part of a population: aristocracy, bourgeoisie or people.

Dream of God, dream of spiritual or sensual Love, dream of eternal life, dream of goodness, purity and beauty, dream of motherhood, dream of paradise, on earth or in the air, dream of idyllic landscape, dream of successful hunting, dream of abundance... When European painting painted monsters or wars it was just what was necessary to formulate a reminder of the necessary realism.

Apollo skinned Marsyas, Prometheus had his liver eaten, Adonis died, Orpheus failed to bring Eurydice back from the Underworld, but Europe was not unhappy to be kidnapped, Aphrodite (Venus) was born, and Spring returned as Persephone of the Underworld.

The Crucifixions, Entombment and Pietas were always accompanied by an Annunciation, a Nativity and a Resurrection. And after the death of the Virgin came her Coronation.

17th century Dutch art, profane, secular, proclaims without tiring the simple joys of family life, maritime landscapes, changing skies, village festivals, wedding dances and material abundance: meat, vegetables, cheese and flowers in abundance. A profusion that the skulls could not hide. Even without their teeth, farmers sing, certainly by drinking a little too much.

All the 19th century neo-classical, romantic and impressionist art made people dream with landscapes of Italy or elsewhere: meadows dotted with poppies, fresh and friendly rivers, forests full of favourable shadows, mysterious castles, herds of sheep and cattle, shepherds musicians.... And except for a few shipwrecks in a rough sea, on the whole, European painting was joyful and made people dream.

 

2 ° From the 1950s onwards, official European art became totally sinister. Nothing escapes, except the architecture. (I speak of the architecture of architects, not the entrepreneurs)

The Non Sense, the lack of meaning of the abstract art, is not enough anymore. The absurd is pushed to the extremes of the ordinary horror, banal, and the most flat, everyday pessimism, and the ugly, make the law.

Seats and woobbly tables, piles of rubble, squares white, yellow, black, red, beams rusty and twisted, broken joists, assembled cartons, piled rags, open or closed boxes, broken or crushed machinery, pipes, cement beams, tiles, whole bricks or pulverised, neon tubes, bags, bags of pebbles, all kinds of pipes: iron, cement, plastics, all loose fabrics, rubber, buckets, pots, jugs, jars .... and of course Stains, stains, stains ... especially stains.

Contemporary art museums are, most often, exceptions exist, but they are rare, an anthology of stupid ugliness, devoid of the slightest humor, always accompanied by a totally unintelligible discourse, superbly stupid, but wishing to be above all intelligent.

It is the art of an elite who refuses to communicate with his fellow men and also unable to smell, and make feel, positive emotions. No beauty, no joy, no good.

The art of making people dream has become the art of making people nightmarish.

It is an autistic art, whose claim is equaled only by its contempt of the peoples, who settled in the West, with the absolute certainty of being "The Light". And it is in this that this art is sacred, prohibited from criticism. A new art, doubly sacred: it reflects the new dualistic religion of the West, the Enlightenment and that of the Money.

   

It was only later readers of Milton, says Appelbaum, who thought of "apple" as "apple" and not any seed-bearing fruit. For them, the forbidden fruit became synonymous with the malus pumila. As a widely read canonical work, Paradise Lost was influential in cementing the role of apple in the Fall story.

 

This month marks 350 years since John Milton sold his publisher the copyright of Paradise Lost for the sum of five pounds.

 

His great work dramatizes the oldest story in the Bible, whose principal characters we know only too well: God, Adam, Eve, Satan in the form of a talking snake — and an apple.

 

Except, of course, that Genesis never names the apple but simply refers to "the fruit." To quote from the King James Bible:

 

And the woman said to the serpent, "We may eat the fruit of the trees of the garden; but of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God has said, 'You shall not eat it, nor shall you touch it, lest you die.'"

"Fruit" is also the word Milton employs in the poem's sonorous opening lines:

 

Of Mans First Disobedience, and the Fruit

Of that Forbidden Tree, whose mortal taste

Brought Death into the World, and all our woe

But in the course of his over-10,000-line poem, Milton names the fruit twice, explicitly calling it an apple. So how did the apple become the guilty fruit that brought death into this world and all our woe?

 

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The short and unexpected answer is: a Latin pun.

 

In order to explain, we have to go all the way back to the fourth century A.D., when Pope Damasus ordered his leading scholar of scripture, Jerome, to translate the Hebrew Bible into Latin. Jerome's path-breaking, 15-year project, which resulted in the canonical Vulgate, used the Latin spoken by the common man. As it turned out, the Latin words for evil and apple are the same: malus.

 

In the Hebrew Bible, a generic term, peri, is used for the fruit hanging from the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil, explains Robert Appelbaum, who discusses the biblical provenance of the apple in his book Aguecheek's Beef, Belch's Hiccup, and Other Gastronomic Interjections.

 

"Peri could be absolutely any fruit," he says. "Rabbinic commentators variously characterized it as a fig, a pomegranate, a grape, an apricot, a citron, or even wheat. Some commentators even thought of the forbidden fruit as a kind of wine, intoxicating to drink."

  

A detail of Michelangelo's fresco in the Vatican's Sistine Chapel depicting the Fall of Man and expulsion from the Garden of Eden

Wikipedia

When Jerome was translating the "Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil," the word malus snaked in. A brilliant but controversial theologian, Jerome was known for his hot temper, but he obviously also had a rather cool sense of humor.

 

"Jerome had several options," says Appelbaum, a professor of English literature at Sweden's Uppsala University. "But he hit upon the idea of translating peri as malus, which in Latin has two very different meanings. As an adjective, malus means bad or evil. As a noun it seems to mean an apple, in our own sense of the word, coming from the very common tree now known officially as the Malus pumila. So Jerome came up with a very good pun."

 

The story doesn't end there. "To complicate things even more," says Appelbaum, "the word malus in Jerome's time, and for a long time after, could refer to any fleshy seed-bearing fruit. A pear was a kind of malus. So was the fig, the peach, and so forth."

 

Which explains why Michelangelo's Sistine Chapel fresco features a serpent coiled around a fig tree. But the apple began to dominate Fall artworks in Europe after the German artist Albrecht Dürer's famous 1504 engraving depicted the First Couple counterpoised beside an apple tree. It became a template for future artists such as Lucas Cranach the Elder, whose luminous Adam and Eve painting is hung with apples that glow like rubies.

  

Enlarge this image

Eve giving Adam the forbidden fruit, by Lucas Cranach the Elder.

Wikipedia

Milton, then, was only following cultural tradition. But he was a renowned Cambridge intellectual fluent in Latin, Greek and Hebrew, who served as secretary for foreign tongues to Oliver Cromwell during the Commonwealth. If anyone was aware of the malus pun, it would be him. And yet he chose to run it with it. Why?

 

Appelbaum says that Milton's use of the term "apple" was ambiguous. "Even in Milton's time the word had two meanings: either what was our common apple, or, again, any fleshy seed-bearing fruit. Milton probably had in mind an ambiguously named object with a variety of connotations as well as denotations, most but not all of them associating the idea of the apple with a kind of innocence, though also with a kind of intoxication, since hard apple cider was a common English drink."

 

It was only later readers of Milton, says Appelbaum, who thought of "apple" as "apple" and not any seed-bearing fruit. For them, the forbidden fruit became synonymous with the malus pumila. As a widely read canonical work, Paradise Lost was influential in cementing the role of apple in the Fall story.

 

But whether the forbidden fruit was an apple, fig, peach, pomegranate or something completely different, it is worth revisiting the temptation scene in Book 9 of Paradise Lost, both as an homage to Milton (who composed his masterpiece when he was blind, impoverished and in the doghouse for his regicidal politics) and simply to savor the sublime beauty of the language. Thomas Jefferson loved this poem. With its superfood dietary advice, celebration of the 'self-help is the best help' ideal, and presence of a snake-oil salesman, Paradise Lost is a quintessentially American story, although composed more than a century before the United States was founded.

 

What makes the temptation scene so absorbing and enjoyable is that, although written in archaic English, it is speckled with mundane details that make the reader stop in surprise.

 

Take, for instance, the serpent's impeccably timed gustatory seduction. It takes place not at any old time of the day but at lunchtime:

 

"Mean while the hour of Noon drew on, and wak'd/ An eager appetite."

What a canny and charmingly human detail. Milton builds on it by lingeringly conjuring the aroma of apples, knowing full well that an "ambrosial smell" can madden an empty stomach to action. The fruit's "savorie odour," rhapsodizes the snake, is more pleasing to the senses than the scent of the teats of an ewe or goat dropping with unsuckled milk at evening. Today's Food Network impresarios, with their overblown praise and frantic similes, couldn't dream up anything close to that peculiarly sensuous comparison.

 

It is easy to imagine the scene. Eve, curious, credulous and peckish, gazes longingly at the contraband "Ruddie and Gold" fruit while the unctuous snake-oil salesman murmurs his encouragement. Initially, she hangs back, suspicious of his "overpraising." But soon she begins to cave: How can a fruit so "Fair to the Eye, inviting to the Taste," be evil? Surely it is the opposite, its "sciental sap" must be the source of divine knowledge. The serpent must speak true.

 

So saying, her rash hand in evil hour

Forth reaching to the Fruit, she pluck'd, she eat:

Earth felt the wound, and Nature from her seat

Sighing through all her Works gave signs of woe,

That all was lost.

But Eve is insensible to the cosmic disappointment her lunch has caused. Sated and intoxicated as if with wine, she bows low before "O Sovran, vertuous, precious of all Trees," and hurries forth with "a bough of fairest fruit" to her beloved Adam, that he too might eat and aspire to godhead. Their shared meal, foreshadowed as it is by expulsion and doom, is a moving and poignant tableau of marital bliss.

 

Meanwhile, the serpent, its mission accomplished, slinks into the gloom. Satan heads eagerly toward a gathering of fellow devils, where he boasts that the Fall of Man has been wrought by something as ridiculous as "an apple."

 

Except that it was a fig or a peach or a pear. An ancient Roman punned – and the apple myth was born.

 

The first tale in the Bible tells of the expulsion of Adam and Eve from the garden of Eden. This was in consequence for having tasted the “forbidden fruit” of the tree of the knowledge of good and evil. Christian iconography and popular culture represent the fruit as an apple. But a careful reading of the passage leads one to the conclusion that, in fact, the actual fruit is never mentioned in the book. How, then, did the apple become this symbol of temptation and sin?

 

A standard version of Genesis 3:3-5 says:

 

But of the fruit of the tree which is in the midst of the garden, God hath said, Ye shall not eat of it, neither shall ye touch it, lest ye die. And the serpent said unto the woman, Ye shall not surely die: For God doth know that in the day ye eat thereof, then your eyes shall be opened, and ye shall be as gods, knowing good and evil.

 

According to Robert Appelbaum’s book Aguecheek’s Beef, Belch’s Hiccup, and Other Gastronomic Interjections, the confusion may be due to a sort of joke of St. Jerome, who first translated the Bible into the vulgar Latin. (This version is still known as “The Vulgate” even today.) It turns out that the Latin words for apple, and for evil, are the same: malus. According to Appelbaum, the Hebrew word, peri, which was used to refer to the fruit in the Bible, can refer to any type of fruit, a fig, a pomegranate, a grape, or even a peach or a lemon. Some Bible commentators even believe that the forbidden fruit may have been a drink that produced an intoxication in those who drank it. Hence they gained “knowledge of good and evil.”

 

St. Jerome translated “peri” with the word “malus.” It’s an adjective meaning “evil,” though as a noun, it means “apple,” from trees known even today as Malus pumila. However, as Appelbaum points out, malus may refer not only to the apple, but to any fruit with seeds: pears are a species of malus, as are figs, peaches, and others.In religious iconography, there was no clear consensus for several centuries on exactly what type of fruit it was from this tree of which humanity’s first parents couldn’t eat. Michelangelo painted a fig tree in the Sistine Chapel. Durer depicted an apple tree, as did Lucas Cranach, the Elder. But another Appelbaum hypothesis in explaining the apple’s preeminence over other seeded fruits comes from the English poet, John Milton. His Paradise Lost was published in 1667. For Milton, the semantic ambiguity of the malus should not have been a mystery, versed as he was in ancient languages like Latin and Hebrew. Appelbaum notes that it’s possible Milton appreciated St. Jerome’s joke as a reference to intoxication or drunkenness from apple cider, popular in his own time. Paradise Lost refers on a couple of occasions to the fruit of this problematic tree and refers to it as an apple.

Another possible explanation may come from the Golden Apple of Discord. In Greek mythology, this was the work of the goddess Eris, (a temptress, as Satan had been for the Hebrews). According to the myth, Eris was angry at having not been invited to the wedding of Peleus and Tetis (parents of the great warrior Achilles). She presented the wedding guests with a golden apple which would reveal who among them was “the most beautiful of all.” Three goddesses fought amongst themselves: Aphrodite, the goddess of love and beauty; Hera, the guardian of the home and childbearing and wife of the great Zeus; and Aphrodite, daughter of Zeus and goddess of wisdom. To settle the dispute, Zeus consulted a Trojan shepherd and mortal, Paris, to choose from among the three goddesses which was the most beautiful. The three goddesses tried to bribe him in turn with new gifts. Finally, Paris decided for Aphrodite, who had promised him the love of the most beautiful woman of all. This was none other than Helena. Helena’s abduction by Paris is the mythical origin of the Trojan War. And thus the apple is also at the center of the most epic dispute in Greek civilization.

  

The Apple and the Heart

 

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Romanesque iconography more frequently used the apple as the forbidden fruit. The lengthy list of images in the three studied countries represents a significant part of our corpus. Among them, one can cite in Spain, Amandi, Añes, Avilés, the Bible of Burgos, the Bible of San Isidoro, Covet, Estany, Estibaliz, Frómista, Loarre, Mahamud, Peralada (figure 6), Porqueras, Rebolledo de la Torre, San Pablo del Campo, Sangüesa, Santillana del Mar, and Uncastillo. In France, Airvault, Andlau, Arles, Aulnay, the Bible of Corbie, the Bible of Marchiennes, the Bible of Souvigny, Cahors, Chalon-sur-Saône, Chauvigny (Figure 3), Cluny, Courpiac, Esclottes, Guarbecque, Hastingues-Arthous, the Hortus Deliciarum, Lescure, Mauriac (in the Auvergne), Melay, Moirax, Montpezat, Neuilly-en-Donjon, Nîmes, Poitiers (Sainte-Radegonde Church), Provins, Saint-Benoit-sur-Loire, Saint-Gaudens, the Sauve-Majeure, Targon, Tavant, Thuret, Toirac, Varax, Verdun, and Vézelay. In Italy, Galliano, Modena (figure 4), Parma, Pisa, Sant’Angelo in Formis, and Sovana.

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Over subsequent centuries, the apple was continually present in the iconography of the original sin. [45] For illustrative purposes, note that in the Gothic...[45] It was frequently used as the forbidden fruit in literature, particularly in the twelfth century by Marie de France, [46] Marie de France, Yonec, v. 152, in Les Lais de Marie...[46] in the thirteenth century by Robert de Boron, [47] Le Roman du Graal: manuscrit de Modène, ed. Bernard...[47] and in the fifteenth century by Sebastian Brandt. [48] Sebastian Brandt, La Nef des fous [Das Narrenschiff],...[48] In paroemiology, this seems to be the meaning of a proverb from the beginning of the thirteenth century: “mieux vaut pomme donnée que mangée” (better an apple given than eaten). [49] Joseph Morawski, ed., Proverbes français antérieurs...[49] In hagiography, the apple is the forbidden fruit in, for example, the Cantigas de Santa María. [50] Alfonso X of Castile, Cantigas de Santa María, 353,...[50] An interesting case also appears in the breviary: the Hail Mary—appearing in the twelfth century from a passage in the New Testament [51] Luke, I, 28, 42. Henri Leclercq, “Marie, mère de Dieu,”...[51]—refers only to a “fruit,” but an anonymous commentator from Northern France specifies at the end of the thirteenth or beginning of the fourteenth century that it concerns the “fruit of the apple tree.” [52] Munich, Bayerische Staatsbibliothek, Cod. Gall. 34,...[52] Anchored in Western imaginations ever since, the apple has even replaced the fig among modern scholars, in parallel to the cultural process that saw the heart where previously there had been the liver. [53] See Hasenohr, Prier au Moyen Âge: n. 38. Regarding...[53]

Figure 3. - Capital at the entranceway to the choir of the church

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The reasons behind this almost unanimous choice are unclear, however. We may allude to the more or less widespread presence of the apple throughout all of Western Europe. We may observe the old Celtic symbolism of the apple as the fruit of knowledge. We may recall its symbolic capital as a sign of power, wealth, lies, lust, discord, and transgression. [54] Michel Pastoureau, “Bonum, malum, pomum. Une histoire...[54] We may suppose that just as the garden of Hesperides recalls the Garden of Eden (both sheltering a snake that defends the sacred tree), the apple tree “with fruits of gold” in the Greek myth influenced the medieval interpretation of the biblical account. We may thus argue the ancient association between this tree and Eden, which led to naming the carob the “apple of Paradise” in Hebrew. [55] L. Ginzberg, Les Légendes des juifs, 219, n. 70.[55] We may also consider the authority of Saint Augustine, who hesitantly accepted the possibility of the apple being the fruit of sin, perhaps influenced by the existence of thirty different varieties of apples in the Roman world at the time. [56] Augustine, La Genèse au sens littéral en douze livres...[56] We may wonder especially whether in popular medieval etymology there was not certain confusion between the words malum “badly” and malum “apple” as well as between malus “malicious” and malus “apple tree;” these phonetic identities may have had semantic implications indicating the evil character of the fruit. [57] Among the transformations affecting the Roman world...[57]

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The increasing popularity of the apple in this role was perhaps also related to its round shape and red color, which drew it closer to the heart, being the organ that was linked to the blood of Christ and that Christianity and its doctrine perceived as the center of the human being. In this sense, the precedents were strong; the doubt surrounding the identity of the forbidden fruit reflected another, more ancient doubt regarding the central organ of the body in the diverse cultures that, in a more or less direct way, provided the foundations for medieval Christian culture. Whereas the Egyptians perceived the heart as the center of the human being, [58] The Book of the Dead, ed. and trans. E. A. Wallis Budge,...[58] the Hebrews attributed sacred powers to the liver, while regarding the heart as the seat of feelings and wisdom, and the source of life. [59] See, for example, Genesis, 20:5; Job, 9:4; Proverbs,...[59] The two organs fought for the role of the principle of life among the Babylonians [60] Alexandre Piankoff, Le “Cœur” dans les textes égyptiens...[60] and Greeks. [61] In mythology, the liver is the central element in the...[61]

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In the third century BC, the medical school in Alexandria established the physiological model that went on to prevail throughout the following two millennia: the brain was attributed with neurological sensitivity, movement, and functions, the heart with enthusiasm and the vital spirit. [62] Mary J. Carruthers, The Book of Memory: A Study of...[62]

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Isidore of Seville affirmed that in the heart “lies all concern and the source of knowledge, [as] with the heart we understand, and with the liver we love.” [63] Isidore of Seville, Seville’s Etymologies: The complete...[63] Sharing his opinion, more than five centuries later, Hildegard of Bingen considered the attribute of the heart to be knowledge and that of the liver to be sensitivity. [64] Hildegard of Bingen, Causae et curae, II, 1–12, ed....[64] For her, the heart was the point of contact between the body and the soul, the terrestrial and the divine; it was “almost the essence of the body [since it] governs it,” being the residence of the soul. [65] Hildegard of Bingen, Scivias, I, 4, 16, ed. A. Führkötten...[65] It is thus not by chance that she imagined the forbidden fruit to be an apple. [66] Hildegard of Bingen, Scivias, III, 2, 21, ed. Führkötten...[66] For Saint Bernard, the heart was the seat of faith. [67] Bernard of Clairvaux, In Nativitate Beatae Mariae,...[67] For his adversary, Pierre Abélard, when God wants to examine the feelings of men, he probes their hearts. [68] Pierre Abélard, Ethics, ed. and trans. D. E. Luscombe...[68] Chrétien de Troyes considered the heart to be the place where mystical union occurs with our purest self, [69] Chrétien de Troyes, Cligès, vv. 708–716, trans. Micha,...[69] since this organ is the seat of love, [70] Chrétien de Troyes, vv. 4302–4306, trans. Micha, 1...[70] memory, [71] Chrétien de Troyes, Le Conte du Graal ou le Roman de...[71] and life. [72] Chrétien de Troyes, Cligès, vv. 3668–3673, trans. Micha,...[72] Vincent of Beauvais regarded the heart as the principal “spiritual organ.” [73] Vincent of Beauvais, Speculum historiale, I, 32 (Graz:...[73] The evolution in the hierarchy of meanings did not affect the importance attributed to the heart: while troubadours and courtly love previously spoke of “the hearing of the heart,” the eye and the heart were later associated. [74] Guy Paoli, “La relation œil-cœur. Recherches sur la...[74] At the start of the thirteenth century, a poem established the relationship between the heart and the phallus, between feeling and sexuality, by telling the story of a character killed by the husbands of his mistresses, who tore off these two organs and gave them to their adulterous wives to eat. [75] Lai d’Ignauré, trans. Danielle Régnier-Bohler, in Le...[75]

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The new collective feeling in relation to the heart was present in the idioms that were forming. From the Classical Latin cor, synonymous with “memory” (also with “thought,” “intelligence,” and “heart” [76] This is still the meaning of the word for Saint Augustine...[76]) were derived “recorder” in French, ricordari in Italian, and recordar in Castilian and Portuguese. Although the heart as the center of memory appears in the root of the Castilian and Portuguese words decorar, this link is even more explicit in the phrases par cœur in French (appearing in around 1200), de cor in Portuguese (dating to the thirteenth century), and by heart in English (attested around 1374 and based on the acceptance of herte as “memory,” which existed from the start of the twelfth century [77] Rey, Dictionnaire historique, 1:442; José Pedro Machado,...[77]). However, the heart was not only regarded as the seat of memory. In English, it was associated with courage (towards 825), emotions (1050), love (about 1175), and character (1225). [78] The Oxford English Dictionary, 5:159.[78] In medieval Italian, the heart (core prior to 1250, then cuore) was reputed as being the center of feelings, emotions, and thoughts. [79] Manlio Cortelazzo and Paolo Zolli, Dizionario etimologico...[79]

23

Most often, the association occurred between the organ and a feeling, thought to derive from it directly, as attested in various Western languages: curage in French (appearing in 1080, then written as courage and used as a synonym of cœur “heart” until the seventeenth century), coraggio (prior to 1257) in Italian, coraje in Castilian and coragem in Portuguese (both from the fourteenth century), herzhaftigleit in German (from the fifteenth century derived from herz “heart,” written herza in the eighth century), and courage in English (around 1500, written as corage in around 1300). English presents an interesting case, showing the psychocultural hesitation between the liver and heart as the seat of positive feelings: the compound liver-heartedness, literally “without liver or heart,” designates the idea of “cowardly.” Further evidence of the moral importance attached to this organ is found in the word cordial, which initially carried the neutral meaning of “relative to the heart” and later acquired the positive sense of “nice” and “pleasant,” not only in French, English, Castilian, and Portuguese, but also in Italian (cordial) and in German (herzlich).

24

The symbolic value of the heart in the twelfth century was also seen in Jewish culture. Whereas the Pirkei Rabbi Nathan, a text predating the tenth century, establishes several comparisons between the parts of the universe and parts of the human body without even citing the heart, in the second half of the twelfth century, Maimonides considered it the center of the human body. [80] Samuel S. Kottek, “Microcosm and Macrocosm According...[80] He was probably influenced by Aristotle, for whom the human body developed from the heart, which was a very influential idea after the Christian rediscovery of the Stagirite. Thus, some Romanesque representations of the creation of Adam depict him coming to life not by a “breath on the face” (in faciem eius spiraculum vitae) as the Bible states, [81] Genesis, 2:7.[81] but by the hand of God touching his heart. This is the case, for example, in a manuscript from the abbey of Saint-Martial de Limoges, [82] Breviarium ad usum S. Martialis Lemovicensis (Paris:...[82] which was illuminated in around the year 1100, as well as in a relief carved a few years later on the northern facade of the cathedral of Santiago de Compostela.

25

The importance of the heart in Romanesque culture also transpires in its growing metaphorical use. On the political level, it became the “king” of the human body in the same way as the king is the “heart” of the social body. [83] Jacques Le Goff, “Head or Heart? The Political Use...[83] On the literary level, the rhetorical figure of the heart spread like a book in which an ordinary individual, saint, or even Christ could write their amorous (including erotic) and spiritual emotions. [84] On the evolution of this metaphor, see Ernst Robert...[84] On the architectural level, the cruciform design of churches situated the altar—the place where the mystery of the incarnation was reproduced—in the position occupied by the heart. [85] It is no coincidence that in Medieval French, the same...[85] On the liturgical level, the Christianization of the Holy Grail rendered it the receptacle holding the blood of Christ, symbolically transforming it into a heart. [86] Begoña Aguiriano, “Le cœur dans Chrétien,” Senefiance...[86] On the geographical level, in the same way as the heart was the center of the human body, the sepulcher of the Lord was the heart of the world, according to a sermon by Peter the Venerable. [87] Peter the Venerable, In laudem sepulcri Domini, PL,...[87] On the linguistic level, from the thirteenth century, the word designated the center of something in French and Italian, as it did later in English (beginning of the fourteenth century) and Castilian (sixteenth century). [88] This meaning was applied to the city by Aristotle in...[88] In this cultural context, when the Abbess of Bingen declared that Adam made of clay was merely an empty body before being filled with a heart, liver, lungs, stomach, and internal organs by God, [89] Hildegard of Bingen, Causae et curae, II, 20, ed. Kaiser,...[89] she seemingly established a hierarchy of organs. Thus, the growing importance of the Sacred Heart of Jesus in spirituality from the twelfth century seems to have been the conclusion of a long process in which this organ gained in medical and symbolic value. [90] Jean-Vincent Bainvel, “Cœur sacré de Jésus (dévotion...[90]

Exegetical Doubt

 

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An interesting example of the rivalry between the fig and the apple in terms of the symbolic function of forbidden fruit is seen in the sculptures on the western facade of the small rural Castilian church of San Quirce, close to Burgos, which was completed in 1147. Here, eleven modillions illustrate several episodes of the myth of Adam, from the creation of protoplasm to the judgment of Cain, while in between them, ten metopes depict scenes that are sometimes difficult to relate to those of the modillions, although each stage of the cycle is identified by inscriptions. [91] These inscriptions are now almost illegible, but they...[91] The ensemble forms an iconographic discourse with two aspects: the subject is evil, as much at its origin (original sin) as in some of its manifestations (sex, death, and bodily impurity).

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This latter topic is visible on the two metopes at each end, where the artist depicts a man defecating. This was not a simple curiosity or obscenity, as the placement of these scenes is significant: the first being compared with the sin of Adam and the second with that of Cain. In fact, an inscription close to the representation of the original sin illuminates the link between the events depicted on the metope and modillion: MALA CAGO. No doubt, the man who speaks and acts in this way is both the paradisiacal Adam who has just eaten the forbidden fruits as well as the symbol of all human beings, his “posthumous sons,” as defined in a contemporaneous sermon. [92] Julien of Vézelay, Sermons, XV, ed. and trans. Damien...[92] However, the exact interpretation of the inscription poses an important problem.

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A few decades ago, historiography considered this a pun, as the individual excretes both “apples” and “evils.” [93] Pérez de Urbel and Whitehill, “La iglesia románica...[93] This interpretation is based on three elements: the facade’s inscription, a capital inside the church on the same subject that undoubtedly depicts an apple, and finally, the ancient roots of the tradition perceiving the forbidden food of Paradise in this fruit. However, on the modillion’s scene, the forbidden fruits rather resemble figs, an impression reinforced by a nonformalistic reasoning. Indeed, the fig traditionally had an explicitly sexual character, while the apple, though related to Aphrodite, the goddess of love, had a more sensual, rather than explicitly sexual connotation. This is shown, for example, in an Icelandic saga from the thirteenth century in which the love philter is an apple, or even in some mythologies, where the rejuvenating and beautifying virtues attributed to the fruit remain in the etymology of “pomade,” a scented, cosmetic, and curative substance with apple. [94] See Pastoureau, “Bonum, malum, pomum;” Rey, Dictionnaire...[94]

29

The fig’s association with sexuality is seemingly expressed during the third quarter of the twelfth century in the iconographic design of the doorway of Barret Church in Poitou. Here, the three capitals on each side establish a spatial and symbolic relationship, which was very common in the Romanesque imagination. Looking at them, starting with the capital closest to the entry on the left-hand side, the first represents the original sin with the fig as the fruit, the second depicts a character in a very obscene pose, and the third, which is double, shows an eagle on one side and a monster devouring a sheep on the other. Symmetrically, on the right-hand side, the first capital depicts lions leaning against each other, the second, two doves embracing, and the final one, a centaur and a dove. The message seems rather evident: sin (that is to say, the fig and sex) leads to unnatural and erotic acts, thus to the death of the soul, which is devoured by the demon (eagle and monster); on the other hand, those who join Christ (the lion) will be innocent (doves), embracing peace and purity, thus calming the animal that exists in every human being (centaurs).

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Indeed, the sexual meaning of the fig was accepted within traditional culture and did not disappear with its Christianization. Throughout the centuries, the fig tree was associated with Dionysus, and, at least in its Roman version, Bacchus. The image of the god was always carved in the wood of the fig tree, with a basket of figs being the most sacred object at the festivals that celebrated him, the Bacchanalia. As the protector of orchards, particularly of the fig tree, Dionysus was confused with his son, Priapus, born of Aphrodite. In the processions paying homage to this god of fertility, who was endowed with a disproportionately large penis, there was a large phallus carved in the wood of the fig tree, the leaves of which were also seen as an ithyphallic symbol. [95] Brosse, Mythologie des arbres, 290–291. The fig’s sexual...[95] This notion of sexual exuberance is also found in a version of an episode of the Dionysus myth by the Christian apologist Clement of Alexandria (around 150–250). [96] Clement of Alexandria, Protreptique, II, 34, 3–4, ed....[96] In a similar manner, although he calls the liver iecur and not ficatum, Isidore of Seville implicitly makes this link by affirming that in this organ “lies pleasure and concupiscence. [97] Isidore of Seville, Seville’s Etymologies, XI, I, 125,...[97]

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The popular gesture of “making the fig” should also be mentioned here, associated with the fruit through its name and shape. This association is observed in Castilian, in which two words (higo/higa) appeared at the same time, in around 1140. [98] Joan Corominas, Diccionario critico etimológico de...[98] This gesture assumed “an obvious sexual connotation” [99] Jean-Claude Schmitt, La Raison des gestes dans l’Occident...[99] in the popular tradition of several societies, and even in the medieval West, where it can either denote the female sex organ (predominant meaning), its state of excitation (in this case, the tip of the thumb between the index and middle fingers imitates a swollen clitoris), copulation (the thumb is the penis between the vaginal lips), or a phallus (rarer meaning). [100] Desmond Morris et al., Os gestos: suas origens e significado...[100] It is probably with this latter meaning that formerly, in Bavaria, a young man confirmed his intention to marry by sending a silver or gold fig to his lover, who could refuse the demand by returning the gift or accept it by returning a silver heart. [101] José Leite de Vasconcelos, A figa (Porto: Araújo e...[101] The far la fica was an aggressive and derogatory gesture frequently used by Italians in the Middle Ages, not only on a daily basis, but also in emotionally charged situations. In 1162, angry with the Milanese who had forced his wife to mount a mule backwards, thus facing the tail of the animal—a very ancient position signifying contempt—Frederick I Barbarossa seized the city and, on penalty of death, forced the prisoners to remove a fig from the anus of a mule with their teeth. [102] Quoted by Leite de Vasconcelos, A figa, 80; by Jerome...[102] The inhabitants of Pistoia had carved into their castle of Carmignano two large arms with hands making the sign of the fig towards the enemy city of Florence—which, humiliated, went on to conquer the place in 1228. [103] Giovanni Villani, Cronica, VI, 5, ed. Ignazio Moutier...[103] In Dante, a robber condemned to Hell makes the sign of the fig against God Himself. [104] Dante Alighieri, Divina Commedia, Inferno, XXV, 1–3,...[104] The gesture and expression ficha facere are found, with the same derisory meaning, in all Romanesque cultures, and even outside of them. [105] Leite de Vasconcelos, A figa, 42–56, 72, 76–81, and...[105] Although this gesture has a talismanic function, that of casting off the evil eye and other dangers, this seems to be precisely due to its sexual connotation, that of warding off sterility in life. [106] Leite de Vasconcelos, A figa, 27–41, 57–59, and 91...[106]

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In this sense, the scene of the paramount sin depicted on the third modillion at San Quirce, in addition to adopting the ancient interpretation of the original sin as a sexual sin, [107] See Martin Elze, Tatian und seine Theologie (Göttingen:...[107] prepared the observer to encounter, three metopes along and just after the expulsion from Paradise, a representation of the carnal relationship of protoplasm. [108] Pérez de Urbel and Whitehill (“La iglesia románica...[108] Thus, according to our hypothesis, the word malum would not have been used here with its specific meaning of “apple,” but rather in the broader sense of “fruit with pulp” (as opposed to nux, “fruit with hard skin”), [109] Although the former meaning was eventually enforced...[109] so that the pun of the inscription would signify “to expel evils and fruits.” Whether conscious or not of the inscription’s ambiguity, the sculptor at San Quirce thus revealed the interesting coexistence of two exegetical traditions, that of the apple, present in the representation of the original sin inside the church, and that of the fig, visible on its facade. An even more meaningful coexistence if it is accepted that a single artist carved both the capital and the modillion. [110] A situation that de Lojendio (Castilla 1) regards as...[110]

33

This exegetical doubt is not an isolated case appearing in a monastic community in the center of Castile. The formation of the French word “pomme” provides an interesting indication in this context. Although, from the beginning of the fifth century, the Latin word pomum (“fruit” in a generic sense) gained the specific meaning of “fruit of the apple tree” in Northern Italy and the majority of the Ibero-Romance area—a meaning preserved in the Provençal and Catalan poma—Italian, Castilian, Portuguese, and Galician eventually favored the traditional form malum, from which they derived mela, manzana, maçã and mazá, respectively. [111] Both the Spanish word manzana (attested in 1112 as...[111] Pomum preserved its broad sense in these four languages in the form pomo (poma in the case of Galician). By the same evolution, the collective forms pomario in Italian and pomar in Castilian, Portuguese, Provençal, and Galician derived from the Classical Latin pomarium.

34

In contrast, the medieval Latin of Gaul had used, from the end of the eighth century, the word pomarius to denote the apple tree, from which derived the vernacular name of this specific fruit (pume) from the generic term (pomum) in 1080. [112] The word appeared in the Chanson de Roland as pume;...[112] At the same date appeared the French word verger (orchard), denoting land planted with various fruit trees, taken from the Latin viridiarum (from viridis, “green”). Faced with these facts, it is not absurd to assume that the French linguistic evolution unconsciously avoided the supposedly negative character of this fruit, as expressed through the word malum. Furthermore, the apple is a positive symbol in Celtic culture, [113] Françoise Le Roux and Christian-Joseph Guyonvarc’h,...[113] which was heavily present in the territory of the future France, particularly in the context of the “folkloric reaction” of the twelfth century. [114] Jacques Le Goff, “Culture cléricale et traditions folkloriques...[114]

35

In accordance with its archetypical character as the fruit par excellence, the word was used in the formation of many syntagms, and even, around 1256, in the curious expression “pomme de paradis” (apple of paradise) denoting the banana. [115] Rey, Dictionnaire historique. It is interesting to...[115] Although in terms of vocabulary, we note a French resistance to the association of the apple with the fruit of sin, in terms of iconography, as seen above, such identification was established without problem. This was also the case in popular literary works, such as the first French theatrical text from the middle of the twelfth century or a sermon from the same time. [116] Respectively Le Mystère Adam: Ordo representationis...[116] Similarly, in this and the subsequent century, there were various love stories generally beginning with a betrayal (hearts metaphorically devoured) and ending with the death of the two protagonists (one of them literally devouring the other’s heart without realizing it [117] Accounts collected in Régnier-Bohler, ed., Le Cœur...[117]). To a certain extent, these stories consciously or unconsciously rewrote the drama of the original demise: betraying the confidence of the Creator (“from the tree . . . you will not eat”) by eating the apple/heart (“the knowledge of good and evil”), the human being was the cause of his own perdition (“the day you eat of it, you will surely die”), as Adam and Eve had hearts full of arrogance (“you will be like gods” [118] Genesis, 2:17; 3:5. On the close relationship between...[118]).

The Tree and Androgyny

 

36

This search for the identity of the Romanesque forbidden fruit must still consider the tree in relation to the primordial couple. The position of these three elements provides some important information. One of the symbolic and physical solutions used was to portray the primi parentes on the same side of the tree, with Eve always being closer to it (figure 4). The most common composition placed the tree between Adam and Eve, as already found on the sarcophagus of San Justo de la Vega in Leon, dated to the end of third century or the beginning of the fourth century and currently held in the archaeological museum of Madrid. It would be simplistic to think that this position on both sides of the tree simply responded to the desire for symmetry in Romanesque art, [119] As considered Guerra, Simbología románica, 107.[119] because the form is almost always a fragment of the contents that emerged. [120] Gerardus Van Der Leeuw, La Religion dans son essence...[120] In the eleventh to thirteenth centuries, this scheme probably referred to two very pressing questions related to the contemporary phenomenon of the sacralization of marriage.

Figure 4. - Relief on the western façade of Modena Cathedral (Emilia-Romagna), circa 1100.

37

On the one hand, by placing Adam and Eve at an equal distance from the tree, the iconography referred to a certain social egalitarianism and moral leveling between man and woman, even if the snake is almost always turned towards the woman. The side occupied by each character varied. We have already considered the position of Eve on the right-hand side of the tree as an “iconographic tradition,” a scheme with only three exceptions, in Saint-Antonin, Bruniquel, and Lescure. [121] Jean-Claude Fau, “Découverte à Saint-Antonin (Tarn-et-Garonne)...[121] In fact, the woman appears on the left in several other cases: for example on the sculptures in Anzy-le-Duc, Airvault, Butrera, Cergy, Cervatos, Covet, Embrun, Gémil, Girona, Lavaudieu, Lescar, Loarre, Luc-de-Béarn, Mahamud, Manresa, Moirax, Montcaret, Peralada (figure 6), Saint-Étienne-de-Grès, Saint-Gaudens, Sangüesa, San Juan de la Peña, Toirac, Verona, and Vézelay. Similarly, on the frescos in Aimé, Fossa, and San Justo in Segovia, on the illuminations of the Bible of Burgos, the Exultet 3 of Troia, and the Hortus Deliciarum, on a metal medallion from the Archbasilica of St. John Lateran, and on the mosaics in Monreale and Trani.

38

In addition, the central position of the tree, separating Adam and Eve, insinuated a rupture of the initial unity, at least on the psychological level. The tree, that is to say knowledge, revealed the existence of contradictory traits in human beings, made in the image and resemblance of God, the androgyne par excellence. “God created man in his own image, in the image of God he created him; male and female created he them:” [122] Genesis, 1:27.[122] this is why the human being was initially double, and thus, inherently complete and microcosmic. [123] There were several types of microcosmic man in the...[123] Removing Eve from the rib of Adam was a surgery of separation, because they were formed from the same bones, they were “one flesh.” [124] Genesis, 2:23–24.[124] In this manner, the sacred text was interpreted from first half of the first century, initially by the Jew, Philo of Alexandria, and subsequently by Ambroise, Augustine, Gregory the Great, Isidore, the pseudo-Remigius of Auxerre, Guibert of Nogent, Pierre Lombard, Bernard, and others, who all regarded Eve as the image of the woman from within man. [125] Michel Planque, “Ève,” in Dictionnaire de spiritualité...[125]

39

Augustine, in particular, implicitly recognized the androgyny of the first man when he said that the devil “cannot tempt us only by the means of this animal part, which appears in a single man as an image or a model of woman.” [126] Augustine, Del Genesis contra los maniqueos [De Genesi...[126] Following a reasoning based on that of Saint Paul, he saw Adam-Eve as the complementarity of spirit and flesh, a comparison that was adopted by many thinkers in the Romanesque period. Since in the Bible, “Adam” was originally the generic name denoting a human being (Genesis, 1:19) and only later became the name of a person (Genesis, 3:17), Augustine interpreted the word “man” (Genesis, 1:26) as “human nature.” [127] Augustine, De Trinitate, I, 7, PL, vol. 42, col. 8...[127] Saint Anselme, who was very influential in the twelfth century, agreed that “Adam” should initially include Adam and Eve. [128] Anselm of Canterbury, La Conception virginale et le...[128] While trying to explain how Adam’s prohibition of the fruit also implied Eve, Petrus Comestor stated that it was transmitted to the woman through man; [129] Petrus Comestor, Historia scholastica, 15, PL, vol....[129] thus implicitly suggesting the unity of the two individuals, and the androgyny of the being to whom it was forbidden to eat the fruit.

40

While the medieval Church did not formally accept the divine and the androgyny of Adam, it was still familiar with it. It is thus found in a text from the New Testament: “There is neither male nor female: for you are all one in Jesus Christ.” [130] Galatians, 3:28.[130] This appeared in an apocryphal text: “When you make the two one, and when you make the inside like the outside and the outside like the inside, and the above like the below, and when you make the male and the female one and the same, so that the male not be male nor female . . . then will you enter the kingdom [of God].” [131] Il Vangelo di Tommaso, 22, trans. Mario Erbetta (Casale...[131] This was a noncontemptible part of the thought of Clement of Alexandria [132] In a piece of literature that is today lost, Hypotyposes,...[132] (around 150–215), Origen [133] According to him, based on Luke, 20:36, there will...[133] (185–254), Gregory of Nyssa [134] Gregory of Nyssa, La Création de l’homme [De opificio...[134] (around 330–390) and, through them, of Johannes Scotus Eriugena [135] Johannes Scotus Eriugena, Periphyseon, IV, PL, vol....[135] (around 810–870). It undoubtedly belonged to the cultural and psychological milieu of the first Christian centuries. [136] Wayne A. Meeks, “The Image of the Androgyne: Some Uses...[136]

41

While the androgyne of Eden had disappeared, it was because of sin. For some thinkers, the human being henceforth became aware of its duplicity, since that time it was broken and characterized by the genitals, which was visible proof of the original sin: sexus comes from sectio (“cut,” “separation”), a term derived from secare “to cross,” which only assumed a specifically sexual meaning in the Middle Ages. [137] Du Cange, Glossarium mediae et infimae latinitatis,...[137] It is thus not by chance that Adam said “me” for the first time after the sin. [138] “Mulier, quam dedisti mihi sociam, dedit mihi de ligno,...[138] Although, undeniably, the original sin and sex were closely linked, the way in which events had transpired was the subject of debate. [139] Emmanuele Testa, Il peccato di Adamo nella Patristica...[139] One stream of thought interpreted the sin as a sexual offence: for example, the Jew Philon and some Church fathers, including Clement of Alexandria and Saint Ambrose. [140] Philo of Alexandria, De opificio mundi, 151–152, trans....[140] In the Romance period, the majority of theologists from the school of William of Champeaux (1070–1121) also considered that this sin involved concupiscence, although Guillaume himself saw it as an act of disobedience in which sensualitas managed to dominate ratio. [141] Odon Lottin, “Les théories du péché originel au XIIe...[141]

42

Another group reversed the question, seeing sex rather as a consequence of the sin. The Physiologus, an influential allegorical, zoological treatise translated into Latin in the fifth century, stated that the elephant and its partner, which “personified” Adam and Eve, were unaware of intercourse until the female had eaten the fruit of the Mandragora officinarum and given it to the male: “because of that, they had to leave Paradise.” [142] El Fisiólogo: bestiário medieval, 20, ed. Francis J....[142] The main proponent of this train of thought was Saint Augustine, according to whom the human being before the sin practiced sex without concupiscence. [143] Augustine, La Genèse au sens littéral [De Genesi ad...[143] The error of the first couple would then have been one of pride, which led to the error of disobedience and then to carnal error. [144] In the first part of his interpretation, Augustine...[144] Another proponent of this idea was Johannes Scotus Eriugena in the eighth century, who considered that before the sin, the human being was only one, and that the resulting division of the sexes would cease in the eternal life. [145] Johannes Scotus Eriugena, Periphyseon, V, 20, PL, vol....[145] His thought continued to exert a certain influence; in the fourteenth century, it led Meister Eckhart to regard “any division” to be “bad as such,” thus perceiving the number two as the sign of the fall. [146] Meister Eckhart, Commentaire de la Genèse, 88 and 90,...[146] The Romanesque representations of the initial sin hesitated in choosing between these theological positions. Showing a preference for the second, several images accorded sexual attributes to Adam and Eve just after the ingestion of the fruit: for Adam, generally a beard [147] For Hildegard of Bingen, Causae et curae, II, 5–7,...[147] (figures 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5), seldom a penis (figure 5), and for Eve, usually breasts (figures 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, and 6). A minority of images seem to attribute the initial sin to a sexual act, an iconographic and theological concept that was perhaps expressed for the first time on the bronze door of Hildesheim Cathedral in Germany between 1011 and 1015. [148] William Tronzo, “The Hildesheim Doors: An Iconographic...[148] Here, Adam appears to the left of the tree and behind him is another tree on which a small dragon is standing. Eve is to the right, close to another tree with the snake. The fruit is the apple, one in right hand of Adam and the other in the right hand of Eve, being stretched out towards Adam. There is another apple in the left hand of Eve, whose folded arm merges with her vagina. A similar illustration was used in Rebolledo de la Torre in 1186. In the Alardus Bible, the snake that gives the fruit to Eve is at the height of her vagina, recalling a male sexual organ about to penetrate her. The southernmost façade of the Church of Santa María in Sangüesa in Navarre, which dates from the second half of the twelfth century, seems to portray the same design. Here, the scene of sin is situated immediately below the personification of Lust, showing a woman whose naked breasts are attacked by toads and snakes. [149] Despite the great diversity of iconographical material...[149] This association between lust and the original sin was not uncommon; as Sangüesa was on St. James’s Way, the most travelled road by Occitans and Italians, we may hypothesize that its iconographic message expressed the opinion of many pilgrims on the subject. In this sense, this image from Navarre ratified at least two other images known to these pilgrims.

43

The first image from Provence, dated to the second quarter of the twelfth century, is located a few kilometers from Tarascon in Saint-Etienne-du-Grès, on the tympanum of Saint-Gabriel’s chapel, where Daniel appears next to the original sin (prefiguration of Christ, the new Adam) with lions (a common symbol of lust): an opposition of scenes suggesting the sexual signification of the sin. As already mentioned, it is true that the contrast between the two scenes did not necessarily mean that the artist interpreted the sin “as a vulgar sin of lust, but its consequence was to introduce turmoil and even shame into a domain that had emerged wholly pure from the hands of the Creator.” [150] Gérard de Champeaux and Sébastien Sterckx, Introduction...[150] However, the authors of this comment—a longstanding phenomenon in medieval art studies—seem inclined towards adapting the intentions of the Romanesque artist to the theologically correct reading, rather than considering other interpretative possibilities beyond the domain of ecclesiastical culture. It is significant, for example, that on the same area of the tympanum, the two scenes are chronologically inversed, first portraying Daniel and then the sin.

44

The second image from Italy figures on the mosaic of Otranto (1163–1165). The branches of the forbidden tree pass between the legs of the characters, insinuating the sexual nature of the sin. This seems all the more evident given that Adam and Eve are each situated in a circle, rendering the characters isolated, separated, and autonomous entities in their respective domains, domains most certainly resulting from the primordial androgyne being cut in two. This assumption is reinforced by the fact that the forbidden fruit is represented as the fig (with its strong sexual connotation, as already seen) and illustrated in a suggestive way by the mosaic artist, the priest Pantaleon: the thinner part of the fig held by Eve is facing downwards and placed between her breasts, as though forming a third breast; the fig in Adam’s hand is in the inverse position, reminding us of the male genitals. [151] The same sexual presentation appeared towards the end...[151]

Figure 5. - Illumination from the in Troia (Puglia), Archivio Capitulario, middle of the eleventh century.

 

Figure 6. - Capital in the western gallery of the monastery cloister

45

Taking the geographical distribution of the Romanesque images into account, we see that the function attributed to the fig as the forbidden fruit was mainly expressed in the cultural milieu related to the Greco-Judaic world, while the apple appeared in association with the Romano-Christian world. This is perhaps due the specific links established in these cultural areas between each fruit and a bodily organ. In the images where the fig is used, Eve is often portrayed with the fruit on the right-hand side of the tree, like the liver in the human body. [152] In this regard, I evidently mean a statistical trend,...[152] In the images with the apple, the tendency is for Eve and the fruit to appear on the left-hand side, just like the heart in the body (figures 3 and 6). In both instances, the forbidden fruit was the symbol of the rupture of the unity of Eden and the birth of the disjointed humanity that characterizes history.

Notes

 

[1]

On the methodological issues affecting the construction and analysis of an iconographic corpus, some good comments have been made by Jérôme Baschet in “Inventivité et sérialité des images médiévales. Pour une approche iconographique élargie,” Annales HSS 51 (1996): 93–133.

 

[2]

Genesis, 2:16–17; 3:1–12.

 

[3]

Jeremiah, 1:14. Jerome, Expositio quattuor Evangeliorum, Patrologia Latina (PL), vol. 30, col. 549d–550a.

 

[4]

Midrash Rabbah, Genesis, XV, 7, trans. Bernard Maruani and Albert Cohen-Arazi (Paris: Verdier, 1987), 1:183 [Midrash Rabbah, Genesis trans. Harry Freedman and Maurice Simon, 2 vols. (London: Soncino Press, 1939)]; Genesis Rabbah I (Genesis 1–11), trans. Luis Vegas Montaner (Estella: Verbo Divino, 1994), 188–189 [Genesis Rabbah I, trans. Samuel Rapaport (London: Routledge, 1907)].

 

[5]

Following the interpretation of Marcel Durliat, Pyrénées romanes (La-Pierre-Qui-Vire: Zodiaque, 1978), 42.

 

[6]

Vita Adae, 36–42: “The ‘Vita Adae’,” ed. J. H. Mozley, The Journal of Theological Studies (1929): 121–149 (English manuscripts); “La Vie latine d’Adam et Ève,” ed. Jean-Pierre Pettorelli, Archivum latinitatis Medii Aevi (1998): 5–104 (German manuscripts); 2 Henoc 22:8: Slavonic Apocalypse of Enoch, trans. Francis I. Andersen, in The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, ed. James H. Charlesworth, 2 vols. (London: Darton, Longman & Todd, 1983–1985), 1:92–221; L’Évangile de Nicodème, 19, ed. André Vaillant (Geneva, Paris: Droz, 1968), 59–61.

 

[7]

In this instance, the capital over the door of Miègeville, dated to around 1100–1118, does not depict the scene of the sin, but rather that of the expulsion from Paradise, where the fruit behind Adam and Eve (the couple being situated between God on one side and an angel on the other) is the grapevine.

 

[8]

Midrash Rabbah, Genesis, XV, 7 and XIX, 5, trans. Maruani and Cohen-Arazi, [trans. Freedman and Simon], 184 and 217; Genesis Rabbah I, trans. Vegas Montaner, 190–225. Ethiopic Apocalypse of Enoch, XXXII, 3–6, trans. Ephraim Isaac, in The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 1:28. Greek Apocalypse of Baruch, 4–8, trans. Harry E. Gaylord, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 1:667; Apocalypse of Abraham, XXXIII, 7, trans. Ryszard Rubinkiewicz and Horace G. Lunt, The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 1:700. In the first century AD, Eliezer ben Hurcanus’s Chapters only specifies that “Noah found a grapevine coming from the Garden of Eden:” Los Capítulos de Rabbí Eliezer, XXIII, 4, trans. Miguel Pérez Fernandez, (Valencia: Institución San Jerónimo, 1984), 174. Louis Ginzberg nevertheless believes that this text probably alludes to a fragment from the tree of knowledge: Les Légendes des juifs [1909], trans. Gabrielle Sed-Rajna (Paris: Éd. du Cerf, 1997), 1:302, n. 59. According to the same author (Les Légendes des juifs, 219, n. 70), “the oldest and widespread opinion identifies the forbidden fruit with the grape, which traces back to an ancient mythological idea considering wine to be the beverage of the gods.”

 

[9]

David Romano, “Jueus a la Catalunya carolingia i dels primers comtes (876–1100),” in Exposiciò dins la formació de l’Europa medieval (Girona: Ajuntament de Girona, 1985), 113–119. Hilário Franco Júnior, “Le pouvoir de la parole: Adam et les animaux dans la tapisserie de Gérone,” Médiévales 25 (1993): 113–128.

 

[10]

Arturo Graf, Il Mito del Paradiso terrestre (1892; reprint, Rome: Edizioni del Graal, 1982), 65; Gioacchino Volpe, Movimenti religiosi e sette ereticali nella società medievale italiana: secoli XI–XIV fourth ed. (Florence: Sansoni, 1972), 17–40; Cinzio Violante, La Società milanese nell’età precomunale (Bari: Laterza, 1974), 220–231. Priests in Spain in the seventh century offered a bunch of grapes to believers during the Eucharist, which could also be a reaction against the idea of the grapevine as the forbidden fruit (third Council of Braga [675], prologue and canon 1: Concílios visigóticos e hispano-romanos, ed. and trans. José Vives (Barcelona and Madrid: CSIC, Instituto Enrique Florez, 1963), 371–373).

 

[11]

Michel Tardieu, Trois Mythes gnostiques: Adam, Éros et les animaux d’Égypte dans un écrit de Nag Hammadi (II, 5) (Paris: Études augustiniennes, 1974), particularly 88–89, 142–144, and 166–169.

 

[12]

Paul Deschamps, “Notes sur la sculpture romane en Bourgogne,” Gazette des Beaux-Arts (1922): 61–80.

 

[13]

Deschamps, “Notes sur la sculpture.”

 

[14]

Joseph de Ghellinck, “L’eucharistie au XIIe siècle en Occident,” in Dictionnaire de théologie catholique (Paris: Letouzey et Ané, 1913), vol. 5, col. 1233–1302. Iconography was also influenced by the phenomenon in which the Crucified was depicted as a bunch of grapes, as seen on the thirteenth-century metal relief on the door of the Church of Sion in Switzerland. This was reproduced by Erich Neumann, The Great Mother: An Analysis of the Archetype, trans. Ralph Mannheim (1955; reprint, Princeton (N. J.): Princeton University Press, 1972), pl. 114.

 

[15]

Roger Dion, Histoire de la vigne et du vin en France des origines au XIXe siècle (Paris: author publication, 1959), 245–247.

 

[16]

Auguste Gaudel, “Péché originel,” in Dictionnaire de théologie catholique, vol. XII-1, col. 441 [quotation back-translated from the French].

 

[17]

Jacques Brosse, Mythologie des arbres (Paris: Plon, 1989), 299–300. The purity attributed to the olive rendered the olive tree the tree of life par excellence, as seen above, n.5.

 

[18]

Robert Saint-Jean and Jean Nougaret, Vivarais-Gévaudan romans (La Pierre-Qui-Vire: Zodiaque, 1991), 157–158. La Nuit des temps, 75.

 

[19]

Genesis, 3:7.

 

[20]

John, 1:48. This relationship between the fig and knowledge can be traced back to classical paganism: Plato, for example, called this fruit “the friend of philosophers,” according to Éloïse Mozzani, Le Livre des superstitions: mythes, croyances et légendes (Paris: Robert Laffont, 1995), 746.

 

[21]

Matthew, 21:19. Paul Sébillot, Le Folklore de France, vol. 6, La Flore (1906; reprint, Paris: Imago, 1985), 21; Mozzani, Le Livre des superstitions, 746.

 

[22]

Stuttgart Psalter, around 810 (Stuttgart: Württembergische Landes-bibliothek, Cod. Bibl. 172o 23, fol. 8).

 

[23]

Midrash Rabbah, Genesis XV, 7, trans. Maruani and Cohen-Arazi, 185; Génesis Rabbah I, trans. Vegas Montaner, 190–191.

 

[24]

Life of Adam and Eve (Apocalypse), xx, 4–5, trans. M. D. Johnson, in The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 2:281; Apocalisse di Mosè, trans. Liliana Rosso Ubigli, in Apocrifi dell’Antico Testa-mento, ed. Paolo Sacchi (Turin: UTET, 1989), 2:429; Vida de Adán y Eva (Apocalipsis de Moises), trans. Natalio Fernández Marcos, in Apocrifos del Antiguo Testamento, ed. Alejandro Diez Macho (Madrid: Cristiandad, 1982), 2:330.

 

[25]

Testament of Adam 3c, trans. Stephen E. Robinson, in The Old Testament Pseudepigrapha, 1:994; Testamento de Adán III, 4 (R II), trans. F. J. Martínez Fernández, in Apocrifos del Antiguo Testamento, 5:433.

 

[26]

Il Combattimento di Adamo, 40, ed. and trans. A. Battista and B. Bagatti (Jerusalem: Franciscan Printing Press, 1982), 110.

 

[27]

Theodoret of Cyrus, Quaestiones in Genesim, II, 28, Patrologia Graeca (PG), vol. LXXX, col. 125 c.

 

[28]

Tertullian, Adversus Marcionem, I, 2, 2, ed. Ernst Kroymann (Turnhout: Brepols, 1954), 443. Corpus christianorum. Series latina, 1; Hugh of Saint Victor, Adnotationes elucidatoriae in Pentateuchon, Patrologia Latina (PL), vol. CLXXV, col. 42 a-b; Pierre Comestor, Historia scholastica, 23, PL, vol. CXCVIII, col. 1073 b-c. Even at the end of the Middles Ages, several authors still thought in this manner: Meister Eckhart, Commentaire de la Genèse, 97 and 205, ed. and trans. Fernand Brunner et al. (Paris: Éd. du Cerf, 1984), 360 and 518. L’Œuvre latine de Maître Eckhart, 1.

 

[29]

Das Tristan-Epos Gottfrieds von Strassburg, v. 17944, ed. Wolfgang Spiewok (Berlin: Akademie-Verlag, 1989), 251. Deutsche Texte des Mittelalters, 75.

 

[30]

Beryl Smalley, “Andrew of Saint-Victor, Abbot of Wigmore: A Twelfth-Century Hebraist,” Recherches de théologie ancienne et médiévale 10 (1938): 358–373; Beryl Smalley, The Study of the Bible in the Middle Ages (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1983), 149–172 and 179–180; Esra Shereshevsky, “Hebrew Traditions in Peter Comestor’s Historia Scholastica,” The Jewish Quarterly Review 59 (1968–1969): 268–289.

 

[31]

Brosse, Mythologie des arbres, 285–286.

 

[32]

Jean Beleth, Summa de ecclesiasticis officiis, 125, ed. Herbert Douteil (Turnhout: Brepols, 1976), 239–241; Gervase of Tilbury, Otia Imperialia: Recreation for an Emperor, trans. S. E. Banks and J. W. Binns (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002). In the thirteenth century, the theme appeared in several well-known texts, such as La Queste del Saint Graal, ed. Albert Pauphilet (Paris: Honoré Champion, 1980), 210ff. and Jacobus de Voragine’s Golden Legend: Legenda aurea, vulgo Historia Lombardica dicta, LXVIII, ed. Theodor Graesse (1846; reprint, Osnabrück: Otto Zeller, 1969), 303–304.

 

[33]

Exodus, 29:13, 22; Leviticus, 3:4, 10, 15; 4:9; 7:4; 8:16, 25; 9:10, 19.

 

[34]

Tobit, VI, 7.

 

[35]

Hesiod, Théogonie, v. 524, ed. and trans. Paul Mazon, thirteenth reprint (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1996), 51. Coll. des Universités de France [Theogony, trans Hugh G. Evelyn-White (Cambridge, MA: Loeb Classics, 1914)].

 

[36]

Anacreon, “Fragment 33,” vv. 28, 32, in Carmina Anacreontea, ed. Martin L. West (Leipzig: B. G. Teubner, 1984), 25.

 

[37]

Horace, Odes, IV, 1, 12, ed. and trans. François Villeneuve (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1927), 152 [The Complete Odes and Satires of Horace, trans. Sidney Alexander (Princeton NJ: Princeton University Press, 1999)].

 

[38]

Plato, Timée, 71 a, d, ed. and trans. Albert Rivaud (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1985), 198 [Timaeus and Critias, ed. Thomas K. Johansen, trans. Desmond Lee (London: Penguin, 1977)].

 

[39]

In the Romanesque period, there was at least one allusion to the Latin Cupid (called only Amores) sending an arrow to the heart: Chrétien de Troyes, Cligès, v. 455, trans. Alexandre Micha (Paris: Honoré Champion, 1982) [Cliges, trans. W. W. Comfort (London: Everyman’s Library, 1914)]. A medieval collection of classical mythology, written between 875 and 1075, says that the gods sent an eagle to punish Prometheus by attacking his heart (not the liver, as Hesiod declared): Premier Mythographe du Vatican, I, 1, 3, ed. Nevio Zorzetti, trans. Jacques Berlioz (Paris: Les Belles Lettres, 1995), 2. The transposition of the symbolic role of the liver to the heart became so ingrained that modern scholars have more than once taken one for the other, as, for example, the translator of Horace, Odes, ed. and trans. Villeneuve, n.36 or that of Anacreon, Odes, trans. Frédéric Matthews (Paris: Presses Universitaires, 1927), 91.

 

[40]

Jacobus de Voragine, Legenda aurea, XXV, ed. Graesse, 120. Eve

Estátua de Giotto, na parte externa do museu Uffizi, em Florença, Itália.

Giotto's Sculpture at the external part of the Uffizi Museum, in Florence, Italy.

 

Um texto, em português, da Wikipédia, a enciclopédia livre:

Giotto di Bondone mais conhecido simplesmente por Giotto, (Colle Vespignano, 1266 — 1337) foi um pintor e arquiteto italiano. Nasceu perto de Florença, foi discípulo de Cinni di Pepo, mais conhecido na história da arte por seu apelido, Cimabue, e o introdutor da perspectiva na pintura, durante o renascimento.

Devido ao alto grau de inovação de seu trabalho (ele é considerado o introdutor da perspectiva na pintura da época), Giotto é considerado por Bocaccio o precursor da pintura renascentista. Ele é considerado o elo entre o renascimento e a pintura medieval e a bizantina.

A característica principal do seu trabalho é a identificação da figura dos santos como seres humanos de aparência comum. Esses santos com ar humanizado eram os mais importantes das cenas que pintava, ocupando sempre posição de destaque na pintura. Assim, a pintura de Giotto vem ao encontro de uma visão humanista do mundo, que vai cada vez mais se firmando até ao Renascimento.

Giotto, forma diminutiva de Ambrogio ou Angiolo, não se sabe ao certo, adotou a linguagem visual dos escultores, procurando obter volume e altura realista nas figuras em suas obras. Comparando suas obras com as do seu mestre, elas são muito mais naturalistas, sendo Giotto o pioneiro na introdução do espaço tridimensional na pintura européia. Em seus trabalhos pela Itália, Giotto fez amizades com o Rei de Nápoles e Bocaccio, que o menciona em seu livro, Decameron.

O Papa Benedito XI quis empregar Giotto, que passaria então dez anos em Roma. Posteriormente, trabalharia para o Rei de Nápoles. Em 1320, ele retornou à Florença, onde chefiaria a construção da Catedral de Florença. Giotto morreu quando pintava "O Juízo Final" para a capela de Bargello, em Florença. Durante uma escavação na Igreja de Santa Reparata, em Florença, foram descobertos ossos na mesma área que Vasari tinha relatado como o túmulo de Giotto. Um exame forense parece ter confirmado que a ossada era mesmo de Giotto.

Os ossos eram de um homem baixo, que pode ter sofrido de uma forma de nanismo. Isso apóia uma tradição da Igreja da Santa Cruz de que um anão que aparece em um dos afrescos é um auto-retrato de Giotto.

De acordo com o historiador Giorgio Vasari, ele teria começado a desenhar ainda com 11 anos, quando era um pastor de ovelhas, fazendo desenhos em rochas. O artista Cimabue, um dos maiores pintores da Toscana, junto com Duccio (em Siena), o teria visto desenhando uma ovelha e pediu ao pai de Giotto para levá-lo para ser o seu aprendiz. Posteriormente, Giotto teria pintado uma mosca no nariz de uma figura com tanta habilidade que seu mestre teria tentado afugentar o inseto várias vezes antes de perceber que se tratava de uma pintura.

Em 1280, Giotto foi com Cimabue para Roma onde havia uma escola de pintores de afrescos, onde o mais famoso era Pietro Cavallini. O famoso escultor florentino Arnolfo di Cambio, de quem Giotto se inspirou bastante em seus afrescos, também estava trabalhando em Roma. De Roma, Cimabue foi para Assis para pintar vários grandes afrescos na recém-construída Basílica de São Francisco de Assis. É possível, mas não certo, que Giotto tenha ido com ele. O primeiro trabalho importante de Giotto teria sido a série de afrescos que contam a vida de São Francisco no teto da Basílica. Há, no entanto, dúvidas quanto à autoria da obra. Percebe-se a influência da pintura romana no trabalho de Giotto, assim como a influência do gótico francês, bem como da arte bizantina. A aparência realista das figuras causou controvérsia na época. A cena da Crucificação pintada em Florença mostra a clara distinção entre o trabalho de Giotto e o de seu mestre.

De acordo com Vasari, outra obra da fase inicial de Giotto foram os afrescos da Santa Maria Novella e o enorme crucifixo, também na mesma igreja, de 5 metros de altura. As obras foram datadas de 1290 e, portanto, contemporâneas aos afrescos de Assis.

Em 1287, aos 20 anos, Giotto se casou e foi para Roma. Há poucos traços de sua presença na cidade. A Basílica de São João de Latrão tem uma pequena série de afrescos, pintados a pedido do Papa Bonifácio VIII. A fama de Giotto como pintor se espalhou. Ele foi chamado para trabalhar em Pádua e também em Rimini, onde somente um Crucifixo permanece no Templo Malatestiano. Esse trabalho influenciou a chamada Escola de Rimini, de Giovanni e Pietro da Rimini.

A Capella degli Scrovegni, também chamada Arena Chapel, em Pádua, é considerada o maior trabalho de Giotto. Ele retrata cenas da Virgem Maria e da Paixão de Cristo e foi criada entre 1303 e 1310.

Aqui, ele quebra as tradições da narração de cenas medievais. A cena da morte de Cristo foi admirada por muitos artistas renascentistas pela força dramática da cena em seu trabalho. Michelangelo, que estudou a obra de Giotto, inspirou-se nesse trabalho para a pintura da Capela Sistina.

Como era comum na decoração do período medieval, a porção oeste da parede é dominada pelo Julgamento Final. São muitos os painéis famosos da Capela, incluindo um com a Adoração dos Magos, em que aparece uma Estrela de Belém semelhante a um cometa. Giotto viu o Cometa Halley em sua aparição em 1301 no céu italiano e é bem provável que esse objeto astronômico tenha influenciado a estrela da Adoração.

Vários outros pintores do norte da Itália foram influenciados por Giotto, incluindo Guariento, Giusto de' Menabuoi, Jacopo Avanzi e Altichiero.

Um documento de 1313 mostra a presença de Giotto em Roma, onde ele executou um mosaico para a antiga Basílica de São Pedro, encomendado pelo Cardeal Jacopo Stefaneschi.

Em 1318, ele começou a pintar quatro capelas para quatro diferentes famílias de Florença na Igreja da Santa Cruz. As composições de Giotto influenciaram mais tarde a Cappela Brancacci, de Masaccio.

 

This sculpture was fotographed at the street in front of the Ufizzi Museum in Florence, Italy.

 

A text, in english, from Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia:

Giotto di Bondone (c. 1267 – January 8, 1337), better known simply as Giotto, was an Italian painter and architect from Florence. He is generally considered the first in a line of great artists who contributed to the Italian Renaissance.

Giotto's contemporary Giovanni Villani wrote that Giotto was "the most sovereign master of painting in his time, who drew all his figures and their postures according to nature. And he was given a salary by the commune [of Florence] in virtue of his talent and excellence."

The later 16th century biographer Giorgio Vasari says of him "...He made a decisive break with the ...Byzantine style, and brought to life the great art of painting as we know it today, introducing the technique of drawing accurately from life, which had been neglected for more than two hundred years."

Giotto's masterwork is the decoration of the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua, commonly called the Arena Chapel, completed around 1305. This fresco cycle depicts the life of the Virgin and the life of Christ. It is regarded as one of the supreme masterpieces of the Early Renaissance. That Giotto painted the Arena Chapel and that he was chosen by the commune of Florence in 1334 to design the new campanile (bell tower) of the Florence Cathedral are among the few certainties of his biography. Almost every other aspect of it is subject to controversy: his birthdate, his birthplace, his appearance, his apprenticeship, the order in which he created his works, whether or not he painted the famous frescoes at Assisi, and where he was eventually buried after his death.

Giotto was probably born in a hilltop farmhouse, perhaps at Colle di Romagnano or Romignano; since 1850 a tower house in nearby Colle Vespignano, a hamlet 35 kilometres north of Florence, has borne a plaque claiming the honour of his birthplace, an assertion commercially publicised. He was the son of a man named Bondone, described in surviving public records as "a person of good standing". Most authors accept that Giotto was his real name, but it may have been an abbreviation of Ambrogio (Ambrogiotto) or Angelo (Angelotto).

The year of his death is calculated from the fact that Antonio Pucci, the town crier of Florence, wrote a poem in Giotto's honour in which it is stated that he was 70 at the time of his death. However, the word "seventy" fits into the rhyme of the poem better than would have a longer and more complex age, so it is possible that Pucci used artistic license.

In his Lives of the Artists, Giorgio Vasari relates that Giotto was a shepherd boy, a merry and intelligent child who was loved by all who knew him. He was discovered by the great Florentine painter Cimabue, drawing pictures of his sheep on a rock. They were so lifelike that Cimabue approached Bondone and asked if he could take the boy as an apprentice. Many scholars today consider the story legendary and think it more probable that Giotto's family was well-off, and had moved to Florence where Giotto was sent to Cimabue's workshop as an apprentice.

Vasari recounts a number of such stories about Giotto's skill. He writes that when Cimabue was absent from the workshop, his young apprentice painted such a lifelike fly on the face of the painting that Cimabue was working on, that he tried several times to brush it off. Vasari also relates that when the Pope sent a messenger to Giotto, asking him to send a drawing to demonstrate his skill, Giotto drew, in red paint, a circle so perfect that it seemed as though it was drawn using a compass and instructed the messenger to give that to the Pope.

Giotto's master, Cimabue, was one of the two most highly renowned painters of Tuscany, the other being Duccio, who worked mainly in Siena. Around 1280, Giotto followed Cimabue to Rome, where there was a school of fresco painters, of whom the most famous was Pietro Cavallini. The famous Florentine sculptor and architect, Arnolfo di Cambio, was then also working in Rome.

From Rome, Cimabue went to Assisi to paint several large frescoes at the newly-built Basilica of St Francis of Assisi, and it is probable, but not certain, that Giotto went with him. The fresco cycle of the Life of St. Francis in the Upper Church is commonly considered to be the work of Giotto, but the documents of the Franciscan Friars that relate to artistic commissions during this period were destroyed by Napoleon's troops, who stabled horses in the Upper Church of the Basilica. In the absence of documentary evidence to the contrary, it has been convenient to ascribe every fresco in the Upper Church that was not obviously by Cimabue, to Giotto, whose prestige has overshadowed that of almost every contemporary. Some of the earliest remaining biographical sources, such as Ghiberti and Riccobaldo Ferrarese, cite the fresco cycle of the life of St Francis in the Upper Church as his earliest autonomous works. However, since the idea was convincingly put forward by the German art historian, Friedrich Rintelen in 1912, an increasing number of scholars have expressed doubt that Giotto was in fact the author of the Upper Church frescos. There are many differences between them and the Arena Chapel frescoes which can not be accounted for by the stylistic development of an individual artist. It seems, rather, that several hands painted the frescoes and that the artists were probably from Rome. If this is the case, then Giotto's frescoes at Padua owe much to the naturalism of these painters.

According to Vasari, Giotto's earliest works were for the Dominicans at Santa Maria Novella. These include a fresco of the Annunciation and the enormous suspended Crucifix which is about 5 metres high. It has been dated around 1290 and is therefore contemporary with the Assisi frescoes.

Other early works are the Madonna and Child panel now in the Diocesan Museum of Santo Stefano al Ponte, Florence, and the signed panel of the Stigmata of St. Francis, from Pisa and now in the Louvre.

In 1287, at the age of about 20, Giotto married Ricevuta di Lapo del Pela, known as "Ciuta". The couple had numerous children, (perhaps as many as eight) one of whom, Francesco, became a painter. Giotto worked in Rome in 1297–1300, but few traces of his presence there remain today. The Basilica of San Giovanni in Laterano houses a small portion of a fresco cycle, painted for the Jubilee of 1300 called by Boniface VIII. In this period he also painted the Badia Polyptych, now in the Uffizi, Florence.

Giotto's fame as a painter spread. He was called to work in Padua, and also in Rimini, where today only a Crucifix remains in the Church of St. Francis, painted before 1309. This work influenced the rise of the Riminese school of Giovanni and Pietro da Rimini. According to documents of 1301 and 1304, Giotto by this time possessed large estates in Florence, and it is probable that he was already leading a large workshop and receiving commissions from throughout Italy.

Sometime between 1303 and 1310 Giotto executed (and signed) his most influential work, the painted decoration of the interior of the Scrovegni Chapel in Padua. This chapel, the building and decoration of which were commissioned by Enrico degli Scrovegni to atone for the sins of his father, is externally a very plain building of pink brick which was constructed next to an older palace that Scrovegni was restoring for himself. The palace, now gone, and the chapel were on the site of a Roman arena, for which reason it is commonly known as the Arena Chapel.

The theme is Salvation, and there is an emphasis on the Virgin Mary, as the chapel is dedicated to the Annunciation. As is common in the decoration of the Medieval period, the west wall is dominated by the Last Judgement. On either side of the chancel are complementary paintings of the Angel Gabriel and the Virgin Mary, depicting the Annunciation. This scene is incorporated into the cycles of The Life of the Blessed Virgin Mary and The Life of Christ. The source for The Life of the Virgin is the "Golden Legend" of Jacopo da Varazze while The Life of Christ draws upon "Meditations on the Life of Jesus" by the Pseudo-Bonaventura.

The cycle is divided into 37 scenes, arranged around the lateral walls in 3 tiers, starting in the upper register with the story of Joachim and Anna, the parents of the Virgin and continuing with the story of Mary. The life of Jesus occupies two registers. The Last Judgment fills the entire pictorial space of the counter-façade.

While Giotto's master Cimabue painted in a manner that is clearly Medieval, having aspects of both the Byzantine and the Gothic, Giotto's style draws on the solid and classicising sculpture of Arnolfo di Cambio. Unlike Cimabue and Duccio, Giotto's figures are not stylised, not elongated and do not follow set Byzantine models. They are solidly three-dimensional, have anatomy, faces and gestures that are based on close observation and are clothed, not in swirling formalised drapery, but in garments that hang naturally and have form and weight. Although aspects of this trend in painting had already appeared in Rome in the work of Pietro Cavallini, Giotto took it so much further that he set a new standard for representational painting.

The heavily sculptural figures occupy compressed settings with naturalistic elements, often using forced perspective devices so that they resemble stage sets. This similarity is increased by Giotto's careful arrangement of the figures in such a way that the viewer appears to have a particular place and even an involvement in many of the scenes. This dramatic immediacy was a new feature, which is also seen to some extent in the Upper Church at Assisi.

Famous panels in the series include the Adoration of the Magi, in which a comet-like Star of Bethlehem streaks across the sky. Giotto is thought to have been inspired by the 1301 appearance of Halley's comet, which led to the name Giotto being given to a 1986 space probe to the comet. Another famous panel is the Flight from Egypt, in which Giotto broke many traditions in the depiction of the scene. The scenes from the Passion were much admired by artists of the Renaissance for their concentrated emotional and dramatic force, especially the Lamentation of Christ, and studies of the sequence by Michelangelo exist.

The feature which more than any other sets Giotto's work apart from that of his contemporaries is his depiction of the human face and of human emotion in both expression and gesture. When the disgraced Joachim returns sadly to the hillside, the two young shepherds look sideways at each other. The soldier who drags a baby from its screaming mother does so with his head hunched into his shoulders and a look of shame on his face. The people on the road to Egypt gossip about Mary and Joseph as they go. Of Giotto's realism, the 19th century English critic John Ruskin said "He painted the Madonna and St. Joseph and the Christ, yes, by all means ... but essentially Mamma, Papa and Baby."

Among those frescoes in Padua which have been lost are those in the Basilica of. St. Anthony and the Palazzo della Ragione, which are however from a later sojourn in Padua.

Numerous painters from northern Italy were influenced by Giotto's work in Padua including Guariento, Giusto de' Menabuoi, Jacopo Avanzi, and Altichiero.

Take a look back at the year 1996

 

1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1996th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 996th year of the 2nd millennium, the 96th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1990s decade.

 

1996 was designated as:

 

International Year for the Eradication of Poverty

 

Events

 

January

 

January 3 – Motorola introduces the Motorola StarTAC Wearable Cellular Telephone, the world's smallest and lightest mobile phone to date.

January 5 – Hamas operative Yahya Ayyash is assassinated by an Israeli Shabak-planted, bomb-laden cell phone.

January 7 – One of the worst blizzards in American history hits the eastern states, killing more than 150 people. Philadelphia receives a record 30.7 inches (78 cm) of snow, New York City's public schools close for the first time in eighteen years and the federal government in Washington, D.C. is closed for days.

January 8 – A Zairean cargo plane crashes into a crowded market in the center of the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kinshasa, killing 300 people.

January 9–20 – Serious fighting breaks out between Russian soldiers and rebel fighters in Chechnya.

January 11 – Ryutaro Hashimoto, leader of the Liberal Democratic Party, becomes Prime Minister of Japan.

January 13 – Italy's Prime Minister, Lamberto Dini, resigns after the failure of all-party talks to confirm him. New talks are initiated by President Oscar Luigi Scalfaro to form a new government.

January 14 – Jorge Sampaio is elected President of Portugal.

January 16 – President of Sierra Leone Valentine Strasser is deposed by the chief of defence, Julius Maada Bio. Bio promises to restore power following elections scheduled for February.

January 19

The North Cape oil spill occurs as an engine fire forces the tugboat Scandia ashore on Moonstone Beach in South Kingstown, Rhode Island. The North Cape Barge is pulled along with it and leaks 820,000 gallons of home heating oil.

An Indonesian ferry sinks off the northern tip of Sumatra, drowning more than 100 people.

January 20 – Yasser Arafat is re-elected president of the Palestinian Authority.

 

Yasser Arafat

January 21 – France undertakes its last nuclear weapons test.

January 22 – Andreas Papandreou, Prime Minister of Greece, resigns due to health problems; a new government forms under Costas Simitis.

January 24 – Polish Premier Józef Oleksy resigns amid charges that he spied for Moscow. He is replaced by Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz.

January 27 – Colonel Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara deposes the first democratically elected President of Niger, Mahamane Ousmane, in a military coup.

January 31

Colombo Central Bank bombing: an explosives-filled truck rams into the gates of the Central Bank in Colombo, Sri Lanka, killing at least 86 people and injuring 1,400.

An explosion in Shaoyang, China kills 122 people and injures over 400 when 10 short tons (9.1 t) of dynamite in an illegal explosives warehouse underneath an apartment building detonate.

An amateur astronomer from southern Japan discovers Comet Hyakutake; it will pass very close to the Earth in March.

February[edit]

February 4 – The 6.6 Mw  earthquake near Lijiang in South-west China kills up to 322 people, injures 17,000, and leaves 300,000 homeless.

February 6 – Birgenair Flight 301, on a charter flight from the Caribbean to Germany, crashes into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of the Dominican Republic, killing all 189 passengers and crew.

February 7 – René Préval succeeds Jean-Bertrand Aristide as President of Haiti in the first peaceful handover of power since the nation achieved independence 192 years earlier, in 1804.

February 9

The element copernicium is created by fusing a 208Pb nucleus with a 70Zn nucleus, forming 278Cn. Given the placeholder name "ununbium", the element is not named until 2010.

An IRA ceasefire ends with the Docklands bombing in London's Canary Wharf District, killing two people and causing over £85,000,000 worth of damage.

February 10 – Bosnian Serbs break off contact with the Bosnian government and with representatives of Ifor, the NATO localised force, in reaction to the arrest of several Bosnian Serb war criminals.

February 14 – Violent clashes erupt between Filipino soldiers and Vietnamese boat people, as the Filipino government attempts to forcibly repatriate hundreds of Vietnamese asylum seekers.

February 15

The American Embassy in Athens, Greece, comes under mortar fire.

Begum Khaleda Zia is re-elected as Prime Minister of Bangladesh. The country's second democratic election is marred by low voter turnout, due to several boycotts and pre-election violence, which has resulted in at least thirteen deaths.

The UK government publishes the Scott Report.

 

Feb.15: Long March rocket, with Intelsat 708 satellite, veers upon launch (images from Cox Commission report for U.S. Congress).

February 16 – 1996 Maryland train collision: A Chicago-bound Amtrak train, the Capitol Limited, collides with a MARC commuter train bound for Washington, D.C., killing 11 people.

February 17 – The 8.2 Mw  Biak earthquake strikes the Papua province of eastern Indonesia with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe). A large tsunami followed, leaving 166 people dead or missing and 423 injured.

February 24 – Cuban fighter jets shoot down two American aircraft belonging to the Cuban exile group Brothers to the Rescue. Cuban officials assert that they invaded Cuban airspace.

February 25 – Two suicide bombs in Israel kill 25 and injure 80; Hamas claims responsibility.

February 29

Faucett Flight 251 en route from Lima to Rodriguez Ballon airport crashes into a mountain near Arequipa; all 123 people on board are killed.

At least 81 people drown when a boat capsizes 120 kilometres east of Kampala, Uganda.

The Bosnian government declares the end of the Siege of Sarajevo.

March[edit]

March 1 – Iraq disarmament crisis: Iraqi forces refuse UNSCOM inspection teams access to five sites designated for inspection. The teams enter the sites only after delays of up to seventeen hours.

March 2 – 1996 Australian federal election: The Liberal/National Coalition led by John Howard defeats the Labor Government led by Prime Minister Paul Keating. Howard was sworn in on March 11.[1]

March 3 – José María Aznar, leader of the Popular Party, is elected as Prime Minister of Spain, replacing Felipe González.

March 3–4 – Two suicide bombs explode in Israel, killing 32 people. The Yahya Ayyash Units admit responsibility, and Palestinian president Yasser Arafat condemns the killings in a televised address. Israel warns of retaliation.

March 6

Mesut Yılmaz of ANAP forms the new government of Turkey (53rd government).

A boat carrying market traders capsizes outside Freetown harbour in Sierra Leone, killing at least 86 people.

Chechen rebels attack the Russian government headquarters in Grozny; 70 Russian soldiers and policemen and 130 Chechen fighters are killed.

March 8 – China begins surface-to-surface missile testing and military exercises off Taiwanese coastal areas. The United States government condemns the act as provocation, and the Taiwanese government warns of retaliation.

March 9 – Jorge Sampaio is the new Portuguese president.

March 13 – Dunblane massacre: Unemployed former shopkeeper Thomas Hamilton walks into the Dunblane Primary School in Scotland and opens fire, killing sixteen infant school pupils and one teacher before committing suicide.

March 14 – An international peace summit is held in Egypt in response to escalating terrorist attacks in the Middle East.

March 16 – Robert Mugabe is re-elected as President of Zimbabwe, although only 32% of the electorate actually voted.

March 17 – Sri Lanka wins the Cricket World Cup by beating Australia in the final.

March 18 – The Ozone Disco Club fire in Quezon City, Philippines kills 163 people.

March 22 – Sweden's Finance Minister Göran Persson becomes the new Prime Minister of Sweden.

March 23 – Taiwan (Republic of China) holds its first direct elections for President; Lee Teng-hui is re-elected.

March 24 – The Marcopper mining disaster on the island of Marinduque, Philippines takes place.

March 25 – The 68th Academy Awards, hosted by Whoopi Goldberg, are held at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in Los Angeles with Braveheart winning Best Picture.

March 26 – The International Monetary Fund approves a $10.2 billion loan to Russia for economic reform.

April[edit]

April 1 – The Halifax Regional Municipality in Nova Scotia is created.

April 3

A Boeing 737 military jet crashes into a mountain north of Dubrovnik, Croatia. All 35 people on board are killed, including United States Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown.

Massacres of Hutus by Tutsis in Burundi take place with more than 450 killed within a few days.

April 6

Fighting breaks out in Monrovia, Liberia, between various rebel factions struggling for power in the country's interrupted civil war. Several foreign nationals leave the nation.

Turkish authorities begin Operation Hawk, a military offensive against rebels from the Kurdish Workers' Party in south-east Turkey.

April 9 – In a common statement, the European Union officially recognises the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

April 11 – The Israeli government launches Operation Grapes of Wrath, consisting of massive attacks on Lebanon, in retaliation for prior terrorist attacks, and sparking off a violent series of retaliations.

April 18

Qana Massacre: Over 100 Lebanese civilians are killed after Israel shells the United Nations compound in Qana.

In reaction to the Qana Massacre, an Islamist group in Egypt open fire on a hotel, killing eighteen Greek tourists and injuring seventeen others.

April 21 – A general election in Italy proclaims a new center-left government headed by Romano Prodi, replacing Silvio Berlusconi.

April 24 – At the urging of Yasser Arafat, the Palestine Liberation Organization drops its clause calling for the removal of Israel. The Israeli government responds by dropping a similar clause concerning the existence of Palestine.

April 28

Port Arthur massacre: Martin Bryant kills 35 people at the Port Arthur tourist site in Tasmania, Australia.

A bomb explodes in Bhaiperu, Pakistan, killing more than 60 people.

May[edit]

May – Iraq disarmament crisis: UNSCOM supervises the destruction of Al-Hakam, Iraq's main production facility of biological warfare agents.

May 9

South Africa's National Party pulls out of the coalition government formed two years earlier, and the African National Congress assumes full political control.

Ugandan president Yoweri Museveni wins a landslide victory in the country's first direct presidential elections, securing 75% of the vote.

May 10

1996 Everest disaster: A sudden storm engulfs Mount Everest with several climbing teams high on the mountain, leaving eight people dead. By the end of the month, at least four other climbers die in the worst season of fatalities on the mountain to date.

The Australian government introduces a nationwide ban on the private possession of both automatic and semi-automatic rifles, in response to the Port Arthur massacre.

May 11 – After takeoff from Miami, a fire started by improperly handled oxygen canisters in the cargo hold of Atlanta-bound ValuJet Flight 592 causes the Douglas DC-9 to crash in the Florida Everglades, killing all 110 people on board.

May 13 – Severe thunderstorms and a tornado in Bangladesh kill 600 people.

May 17–28 – Atal Bihari Vajpayee, leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party, is elected as Prime Minister of India, replacing P. V. Narasimha Rao of the Indian National Congress. However, the party does not receive an overall majority and Vajpayee resigns thirteen days later rather than face a no confidence vote and is replaced by the United Front leader, Deve Gowda.

May 18 – The X Prize Foundation launches the $10,000,000 Ansari X Prize.

May 21

The MV Bukoba sinks in Tanzanian waters in Lake Victoria, killing nearly 1,000 people in one of Africa's worst maritime disasters.

The Trappist Martyrs of Atlas are executed.

May 23 – Members of the Armed Islamic Group in Algeria kill seven French Trappist monks, after talks with French government concerning the imprisonment of several GIA sympathisers break down.

May 27 – First Chechnya War: Russian President Boris Yeltsin meets with Chechnyan rebels for the first time and negotiates a ceasefire for the dispute.

May 28 – Albania's general election of May 26 is declared unfair by international monitors, and the ruling Democratic Party under President Sali Berisha is charged by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe with rigging the elections. Several hundred protestors gather in Tirana to demonstrate against the election result.

May 30 – The Likud Party, led by Benjamin Netanyahu, wins a narrow victory in the Israeli general election.

June[edit]

June – Iraq disarmament crisis: As Iraq continues to refuse inspectors access to a number of sites, the United States fails in its attempt to build support for military action against Iraq in the UN Security Council.

June 1–3 – The Czech Republic's first general election ends inconclusively. Prime Minister Václav Klaus and his incumbent Civic Democratic Party emerge as the winners, but are unable to form a majority government. President Václav Havel refuses to invite Klaus to form a coalition.

June 4 – The space rocket Ariane 5 explodes forty seconds after takeoff in French Guiana. The project costs European governments $7,500,000,000 over eleven years.

June 6 – Leighton W. Smith, Jr. resigns as NATO commander in the face of increasing criticism.

June 8–30 – England hosts the UEFA Euro 1996 football tournament, which is won by Germany.

June 11

An explosion in a São Paulo suburban shopping centre kills 44 people and injures more than 100.

A peace convoy carrying Chechen separatist leaders and international diplomats is targeted by a series of remotely controlled land mines; eight people are killed.

June 15 – In Manchester, UK, a massive IRA bomb injures over 200 people and devastates a large part of the city centre.

June 28

A new government is formed in Turkey, with Necmettin Erbakan of Refah Partisi becoming Prime Minister of the coalition government, and Deputy/Foreign Minister Tansu Çiller of the True Path Party succeeding him after two years.

The Constitution of Ukraine is signed into law.

June 29

The Prince's Trust concert is held in Hyde Park, London, and is attended by 150,000 people. The Who headlines the event in their first performance since 1989.

An explosion in a firecrackers factory in Sichuan Province, China kills at least 52 people and injures 83 others.

June 30

Costas Simitis is elected president of the Panhellenic Socialist Movement of Greece.

Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadžić relinquishes power to his deputy, Biljana Plavšić.

July[edit]

July

Iraq disarmament crisis: U.N. Inspector Scott Ritter attempts to conduct surprise inspections on the Republican Guard facility at the airport but is blocked by Iraqi officials.

The Indian government officially renames the city of Madras, restoring the name Chennai.[2]

July 1

The Northern Territory in Australia legalises voluntary euthanasia.

German orthography reform of 1996 agreed internationally.

July 3 – Boris Yeltsin is re-elected as President of Russia after the second round of elections.

July 5 – Dolly the sheep, the first mammal to be successfully cloned from an adult cell, is born at the Roslin Institute in Midlothian, Scotland, UK.

July 11 – Arrest warrants are issued for Bosnian Serb war criminals Radovan Karadžić and Ratko Mladić by the Russell Tribunal in The Hague.

July 12 – Hurricane Bertha: made landfall in North Carolina as a Category 2 storm, causing $270 million in damage ($431 million in present-day terms[3]) to the United States and its possessions and many indirect deaths.

July 16 – An outbreak of E. coli food poisoning in Japan results in 6,000 children being ill, including two deaths, after a group of school children eat contaminated lunches.

July 17

The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa) is constituted.

Paris- and Rome-bound TWA Flight 800 (Boeing 747) explodes off the coast of Long Island, New York, killing all 230 people on board.

July 19

The 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, United States, begin.

Bosnian Serb President Radovan Karadžić resigns from public office in Republika Srpska after being indicted for war crimes.

July 21 – The Saguenay Flood, one of Canada's most costly natural disasters, is caused by flooding on the Saguenay River in Quebec.

July 24 – The Dehiwala train bombing kills 56 commuters outside Colombo.

July 25 – The Tutsi-led Burundian army performs a coup and reinstalls previous president Pierre Buyoya, ousting current president Sylvestre Ntibantunganya.

July 27 – The Centennial Olympic Park bombing at the 1996 Summer Olympics kills one person and injures 111.

August[edit]

 

The electron microscope reveals chain structures in meteorite fragment ALH84001.

August

The first three-parent baby is conceived in New Jersey through mitochondrial donation.[4]

The invasive species Asian long-horned beetle is found in New York City.

August 1

Sarah Balabagan returns to the Philippines.

A pro-democracy demonstration supporting Megawati Sukarnoputri in Indonesia is broken up by riot police.

August 4 – The 1996 Summer Olympics conclude.

August 6 – NASA announces that the Allan Hills 84001 meteorite, thought to originate from Mars, may contain evidence of primitive lifeforms; further tests are inconclusive.

August 7 – Heavy rains kill more than 80 campers near Huesca, Spain.

August 9 – Boris Yeltsin is sworn in at the Kremlin for a second term as President of Russia.

August 13 – Data sent back by the Galileo space probe indicates there may be water on one of Jupiter's moons.

August 14 – A rocket ignited during a fireworks display in Arequipa, Peru knocks down a high-tension power cable into a dense crowd, electrocuting 35 people.

August 15 – Bob Dole is nominated for President of the United States, and Jack Kemp for Vice President, at the Republican National Convention in San Diego, California.

August 16 – Brookfield Zoo, Chicago. After a 3-year-old boy falls into the 20-foot (6.1 m) deep gorilla enclosure, Binti Jua, a female lowland gorilla sits with the injured boy until his rescue.

August 21

Former State President of South Africa, F. W. de Klerk, makes an official apology for crimes committed under Apartheid to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in Cape Town.

In the UK, Queen Elizabeth II issues letters patent on divorced former wives of British princes, taking away from the ex-wives the attribute and style of Royal Highness. With that Sarah, Duchess of York as well as Diana, Princess of Wales legally cease to be Royals, but they remain as non-royal Duchess and Princess.

August 23 – Osama bin Laden writes "The Declaration of Jihad on the Americans Occupying the Country of the Two Sacred Places," a call for the removal of American military forces from Saudi Arabia.

August 28 – Their Royal Highnesses, the Prince and Princess of Wales, are formally divorced at the High Court of Justice in London. Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales is restyled Diana, Princess of Wales, due to the Queen's letters patent issued a week earlier.

August 29

U.S. President Bill Clinton and Vice President Al Gore are re-nominated at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago.

A Russian Tupolev 154 jetliner crashes into a mountain as it approaches the airport at Spitsbergen, Norway, killing all 141 people on board.

August 31 – Iraq disarmament crisis: Iraqi forces launch an offensive into the northern No-Fly Zone and capture Arbil.

September[edit]

September 2 – A permanent peace agreement is signed at the Malacañan Palace between the Government of the Philippines and the Moro National Liberation Front.

September 3 – The United States launches Operation Desert Strike against Iraq in reaction to the attack on Arbil.

September 4 – The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia attack a military base in Guaviare, Colombia, starting three weeks of guerrilla warfare that will claim the lives of at least 130 Colombians.

September 5 – Hurricane Fran makes landfall near Cape Fear, North Carolina as a Category 3 storm with 115 mph (185 km/h) sustained winds. Fran caused over $3 billion in damages ($4.79 billion in present-day terms[3]) and killed 27 people, mainly in North Carolina. The name "Fran" was retired due to the extensive damage.

September 10 – Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) signed (it will be ratified 180 days after ratification by 44 Annex 2 countries).

September 13 – Alija Izetbegović is elected President of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the country's first election since the Bosnian War.

September 18 – A North Korean Sang-O class submarine runs aground in South Korea. The crew are described as spies by the South Korean government and killed by the South Korean military.

September 20 – Leader of Pakistani opposition party Pakistan Peoples Party Murtaza Bhutto is killed during a gunfight with police.

September 22 – The Panhellenic Socialist Movement under the leadership of Costas Simitis succeeds in the 1996 Greek legislative election.

September 24 – U.S. President Bill Clinton signs the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty at the United Nations.

September 27 – In Afghanistan, the Taliban capture the capital city of Kabul, after driving out President Burhanuddin Rabbani and executing former leader Mohammad Najibullah.

October[edit]

October 2

The former Prime Minister of Bulgaria, Andrey Lukanov, is assassinated.

Aeroperú Flight 603 crashes into the Pacific Ocean when the instruments fail just after takeoff from Lima Airport, killing all 70 people on board.

October 6 – The government of New Zealand agrees to pay $130 million worth of compensation for the loss of land suffered by the Māori population between the years of 1844 and 1864.

October 22 – A fire at La Planta prison in southwest Caracas, Venezuela, kills thirty prisoners.

October 30 – Fighting erupts when Banyamulenga Tutsis of Laurent Kabila in Zaire seize Uvira and proceed to kill Hutu refugees.

October 31 – TAM Transportes Aéreos Regionais Flight 402 crashes into a densely populated area of São Paulo, killing all 96 people on board.

November[edit]

November – Iraq disarmament crisis: UNSCOM inspectors uncover buried prohibited missile parts. Iraq refuses to allow UNSCOM teams to remove remnants of missile engines for analysis outside of the country.

November 5

Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's government is dismissed by President Farooq Leghari after widespread allegations of corruption.

1996 United States presidential election: Incumbent Democratic President Bill Clinton defeats his Republican challenger, Bob Dole.

November 7

A category 4 cyclone strikes Andhra Pradesh, India, killing more than 2,000 people.

NASA launches the Mars Global Surveyor.

November 8 – All 141 people on board a Nigerian-owned Boeing 727 die when the aircraft crashes into the Atlantic Ocean while approaching Lagos airport.

November 12 – Saudi Arabian Airlines Boeing 747 collides in mid-air with Kazakhstan Airlines Il-76 in New Delhi, India, resulting in the loss of 349 lives.

November 17

A bomb exploded in Kaspiysk, Russia, killing 32 people.

Emil Constantinescu is elected as President of Romania.

November 18 – Frederick Chiluba is re-elected as President of Zambia.

November 19

Martin Bryant is sentenced to 35 consecutive sentences of life imprisonment plus 1,035 years without parole for murdering 35 people in a shooting spree in Tasmania earlier this year.

Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Organization (CTBTO) established.

STS-80: Space Shuttle Columbia conducts the longest mission of the Space Shuttle program.

November 20 – The 1996 Garley Building fire occurred in Hong Kong, resulting in 41 deaths and 81 injuries.

November 21 – A propane explosion at the Humberto Vidal shoe store and office building in San Juan, Puerto Rico kills 33 people.

November 23

The Republic of Angola officially joins the World Trade Organization as Angola.

Ethiopian Airlines Flight 961 is hijacked, then crashes into the Indian Ocean off the coast of Comoros after running out of fuel, killing 125.

Tamagotchi is released in Japan by Bandai.

November 25 – An ice storm strikes the U.S., killing 26 directly and hundreds more from accidents. A powerful windstorm blasts Florida with winds gusts up to 90 mph.

December[edit]

December 9 – Jerry Rawlings is re-elected as President of Ghana.

December 11 – Tung Chee-hwa is appointed to become the new leader of Hong Kong after it reverts to Chinese rule on July 1, 1997 at the end a 99-year lease to the United Kingdom.

December 13 – Ghanaian diplomat Kofi Annan is elected by the United Nations Security Council the next Secretary-General of the United Nations.

December 17 – The Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement takes 72 hostages in the Japanese Embassy in Lima, Peru.

December 25 – At least 283 migrants drown in the sinking of F174 near Capo Passero (Sicily).

December 26

The largest strike in South Korean history begins.

Six-year-old JonBenét Ramsey is found beaten and strangled in the basement of her family's home in Boulder, Colorado.

December 27 – Taliban forces retake the strategic Bagram Air Base, solidifying their buffer zone around Kabul.

December 29 – Guatemala and the leaders of the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity sign a peace accord that ends the 36-year Guatemalan Civil War.

December 30 – In the Indian state of Assam, a passenger train is bombed by Bodo separatists, killing 26.

Undated[edit]

Economy of Venezuela: Inflation in the country peaks at 99.87%.

Births[edit]

Births

January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December

January[edit]

 

Ella Henderson

 

Dove Cameron

 

Caitlin Sanchez

January 1

Mahmoud Dahoud, German footballer

Andreas Pereira, Brazilian footballer

Mathias Jensen, Danish footballer

January 2 – Xiaoyu Yu, Chinese figure skater

January 3 – Florence Pugh, English actress

January 5

Maxim Baldry, English actor

Tyler Ulis, American basketball player

January 6

Courtney Eaton, Australian actress

Kishan Shrikanth, Indian actor and director

Harmanpreet Singh, Indian hockey player

January 7

Fu Yuanhui, Chinese swimmer

Helly Shah, Indian actress

Isaac Success, Nigerian footballer

January 9 – Oana Gregory, Romanian American actress

January 10 – Anna Sztankovics, Hungarian swimmer

January 11 – Leroy Sané, German footballer

January 12 – Ella Henderson, English singer

January 13 – Aníta Hinriksdóttir, Icelandic middle-distance runner

January 15 – Dove Cameron, American actress and singer

January 16

Anastasia Grishina, Russian artistic gymnast

Jennie, South Korean singer and rapper

January 17

Caitlin Sanchez, American actress

Nile Wilson, British artistic gymnast

January 18 – Sarah Gilman, American actress

January 21 – Marco Asensio, Spanish footballer

January 22

Sami Gayle, American actress

Joshua Ho-Sang, Canadian ice hockey player

January 23

Chachi Gonzales, American dancer

Ruben Loftus-Cheek, English footballer

January 24 – Patrik Schick, Czech footballer

January 26 – Zakaria Bakkali, Belgian footballer

January 27 – Braeden Lemasters, American actor, musician, and voice actor

January 31 – Joel Courtney, American actor

February[edit]

 

Kelli Berglund

 

Sasha Pieterse

 

Sophie Turner

February 1

Ahmad Abughaush, Jordanian taekwondo athlete

Dionne Bromfield, English singer-songwriter and television personality

February 2 – Harry Winks, English footballer

February 5 – Zeng Siqi, Chinese artistic gymnast

February 7

Aaron Ekblad, Canadian ice hockey player

Pierre Gasly, French racing driver

Mai Hagiwara, Japanese singer

February 8 – Kenedy, Brazilian footballer

February 9

Jimmy Bennett, American actor

Kelli Berglund, American actress

Chungha, South Korean singer and dancer

February 11

Jonathan Tah, German footballer

Lucas Torreira, Uruguayan footballer

February 13 – Muhammad Rian Ardianto, Indonesian badminton player

February 14

Lucas Hernandez, French footballer

Viktor Kovalenko, Ukrainian footballer

February 17

Erika Fasana, Italian artistic gymnast

Sasha Pieterse, South African-born American actress

February 18 – Ikumi Hisamatsu, Japanese fashion model and actress

February 20 – Mabel, English singer

February 21 – Sophie Turner, English actress

February 23

Michael Johnston, American actor

D'Angelo Russell, American basketball player

February 24 – Cristian Imparato, Italian singer

February 25 – Emel Dereli, Turkish shot putter

February 28

Danilo Barbosa, Brazilian footballer

Bobb'e J. Thompson, American actor, dancer, rapper and comedian

March[edit]

 

Timo Werner

 

Myles Turner

March 1

Sage Northcutt, American mixed martial artist

Ye Shiwen, Chinese swimmer

March 4

Timo Baumgartl, German footballer

Antonio Sanabria, Paraguayan footballer

March 6

Timo Werner, German footballer

Yan Han, Chinese figure skater

March 8

Matthew Hammelmann, Australian rules footballer

Emil Imre, Hungarian short track speed skater

March 9 – Giorgio Minisini, Italian synchronized swimmer

March 14 – Janai Haupapa, Canadian rugby league player

March 15 – Levin Öztunalı, German footballer

March 16 – Anna Ovcharova, Russian/Swiss figure skater

March 18 – Madeline Carroll, American actress

March 19 – Feodosiy Efremenkov, Russian figure skater

March 22 – Gig Morton, Canadian actor

March 23

Alexander Albon, Thai racing driver

Lauri Kivari, Finnish freestyle skier[importance?]

March 24

Valentino Lazaro, Austrian footballer

Myles Turner, American basketball player

March 25 – Dougal Howard, Australian rules footballer[importance?]

March 26 – Kathryn Bernardo, Filipina actress

March 27 – Rosabell Laurenti Sellers, Italian-American actress

March 28

Benjamin Pavard, French footballer

Xie Siyi, Chinese diver

March 29 – Wade Baldwin IV, American basketball player

March 31 – Liza Koshy, American actress and television host[importance?]

April[edit]

 

Austin Mahone

 

Loïc Nottet

 

Abigail Breslin

April 2

Polina Agafonova, Russian figure skater

Matheus Santana, Brazilian swimmer

April 3 – Sarah Jeffery, American actress

April 4 – Austin Mahone, American singer

April 8 – Lorna Fitzgerald, English actress

April 9 – Giovani Lo Celso, Argentinian footballer

April 10

Andreas Christensen, Danish footballer

Thanasi Kokkinakis, Australian tennis player

Loïc Nottet, Belgian singer

Audrey Whitby, American teen actress

April 11 – Dele Alli, English footballer

April 12 – Polina Korobeynikova, Russian figure skater

April 14 – Abigail Breslin, American actress

April 16 – Anya Taylor-Joy, American actress

April 17 – Dee Dee Davis, American actress

April 18 – Ski Mask the Slump God, American rapper

April 21 – Tavi Gevinson, American fashion blogger

April 22 – Wendy Sulca, Peruvian singer

April 23

Álex Márquez, Spanish motorcycle racer

Charlie Rowe, British actor

April 24 – Ashleigh Barty, Australian tennis player

April 25

Mack Horton, Australian swimmer

Allisyn Ashley Arm, American actress

April 28 – Tony Revolori, American actor

April 29

Gustav Engvall, Swedish footballer

Katherine Langford, Australian actress

May[edit]

 

Noah Munck

 

Birdy

 

Ryan Ochoa

May 2 – Julian Brandt, German footballer

May 3

Mary Cain, American middle-distance runner

Alex Iwobi, Nigerian footballer

Noah Munck, American actor

May 4

Arielle Gold, American snowboarder

Pelayo Roza, Spanish sprint canoeist.

May 5 – Matheus Pereira, Brazilian footballer

May 8 – 6ix9ine, American rapper

May 9 – Noah Centineo, American actor

May 10 – Tyus Jones, American basketball player

May 11 – Andrés Cubas, Argentinian footballer

May 14

Martin Garrix, Dutch DJ and producer

McKaley Miller, American actress

Pokimane, Moroccan YouTuber

May 15 – Birdy, English singer and songwriter

May 17 – Ryan Ochoa, American actor and musician

May 18 – Violett Beane, American actress

May 19 – Lakshmi Menon, Indian film actress

May 18 – Yuki Kadono, Japanese snowboarder

May 23 – Katharina Althaus, German ski jumper

May 26 – Lukáš Haraslín, Slovak footballer

May 30

Aleksandr Golovin, Russian footballer

Erik Jones, American race car driver

May 31 – Normani, American singer

June[edit]

 

Tom Holland

 

Alen Halilović

June 1 – Tom Holland, English actor

June 3 – Han Tianyu, Chinese short track speed skater

June 7 – Christian McCaffrey, American football player

June 10 – Raury, American singer-songwriter

June 11 – Hakeeb Adelakun, English footballer

June 12 – Davinson Sánchez, Colombian footballer

June 13

Kingsley Coman, French footballer

Kodi Smit-McPhee, Australian actor

June 15 – Aurora, Norwegian singer

June 16 – Lily Zhang, American table tennis player

June 17 – Godfred Donsah, Ghanese footballer

June 18 – Alen Halilović, Croatian footballer

June 19 – Larisa Iordache, Romanian artistic gymnast

June 20

Sam Bennett, Canadian ice hockey player

Michael Dal Colle, Canadian ice hockey player

June 22

Yusupha Bobb, Gambian footballer

Hugo Calderano, Brazilian table tennis player

Kong Sang-jeong, South Korean short track speed skater

Mikel Merino, Spanish footballer

June 24 – Harris Dickinson, English actor, writer, and director

June 27 – Lauren Jauregui, American singer

June 28

Milot Rashica, Kosovar footballer

Donna Vekić, Croatian tennis player

June 29 – Bart Ramselaar, Dutch footballer

July[edit]

 

Adelina Sotnikova

 

Blake Michael

July 1 – Adelina Sotnikova, Russian figure skater

July 3

Kendji Girac, French singer

Kumaahran Sathasivam, Malaysian footballer

July 5 – Risa Shōji, Japanese figure skater

July 6 – Robert Naylor, Canadian actor and musician

July 9 – Shanice Williams, American actress and singer

July 10 – Moon Ga-young, South Korean actress

July 11

Alessia Cara, Canadian singer and songwriter

Andrija Živković, Serbian footballer

July 12 – Moussa Dembélé, French footballer

July 16

Kevin Abstract, American rapper, singer-songwriter and director

Nicky Jones, American voice actor

July 18

Dzhamaldin Khodzhaniyazov, Russian footballer

Yung Lean, Swedish rapper and record producer

Siebe Schrijvers, Belgian footballer

July 20 – Ben Simmons, Australian basketball player

July 21 – Joey Bragg, American actor and comedian

July 22

Skyler Gisondo, American actor

Indy Groothuizen, Dutch football player

Jane Oineza, Filipina actress

July 23

Danielle Bradbery, American singer

Rachel G. Fox, American actress

July 30

Dylan Larkin, American hockey player

Austin North, American actor

July 31 – Blake Michael, American actor

August[edit]

 

Jacob Latimore

 

Brianna Hildebrand

 

Jamia Simone Nash

August 1 – Cymphonique Miller, American actress and singer

August 2 – Simone Manuel, American swimmer

August 5

Francesca Deagostini, Italian artistic gymnast

Mai Murakami, Japanese artistic gymnast

August 7

Dani Ceballos, Spanish footballer

Liam James, Canadian actor

August 10 – Jacob Latimore, American singer, actor and dancer

August 12

Arthur Melo, Brazilian footballer

Torri Webster, Canadian actress

August 14

Brianna Hildebrand, American actress

Neal Maupay, French footballer

August 19

Almoez Ali, Sudanese-Qatari footballer

Laura Tesoro, Belgian singer and actress

August 21

Sofyan Amrabat, Dutch-born Moroccan footballer

Jamia Simone Nash, American singer and actress[importance?]

August 22

Jessica-Jane Applegate, British Paralympic swimmer

Michael Graue, American actor

August 24 – Kenzō Shirai, Japanese gymnast

August 27 – Ebru Topçu, Turkish footballer

August 28 – Kim Se-jeong, South Korean singer and actress

August 30

Gabriel Barbosa, Brazilian footballer

Chen Dequan, Chinese short track speed skater

September[edit]

 

Zendaya

 

Sigrid

 

Colin Ford

September 1 – Zendaya, American actress and singer

September 3 – Joy, South Korean singer and actress

September 5

Sigrid (singer), Norwegian singer

Richairo Živković, Dutch footballer

September 6 – Lil Xan, American rapper

September 9 – Jaïro Riedewald, Dutch footballer

September 12 – Colin Ford, American actor

September 13

Playboi Carti, American rapper

Lili Reinhart, American actress

September 16 – Alexis Blin, French footballer

September 17

Duje Ćaleta-Car, Croatian footballer

Esteban Ocon, French racing driver

Ella Purnell, English actress

September 19 – Pia Mia, Guamanian singer-songwriter and model

September 20 – Jerome Sinclair, English footballer

September 22 – Anthoine Hubert, French racing driver (d. 2019)

September 23

Lee Hi, South Korean singer-songwriter

Evgeny Rylov, Russian swimmer

September 25

Max Christiansen, German footballer

Mie Nielsen, Danish swimmer

September 27 – Maxwel Cornet, French-Ivorian footballer

September 28 – Michael Ronda, Mexican actor and singer

October[edit]

 

Bella Hadid

 

Devin Booker

October 3 – Kelechi Iheanacho, Nigerian footballer

October 7 – Lewis Capaldi, Scottish singer-songwriter

October 8 – Sara Takanashi, Japanese ski jumper

October 9

Jacob Batalon, American-Filipino actor

Bella Hadid, American model

October 12 – Riechedly Bazoer, Dutch footballer

October 15

Charly Musonda, Belgian footballer

Zelo, Korean singer

October 22

B.I, Korean singer

Harley Windsor, Australian pair skater

October 23 – Sam Berns, American high school student, and activist (d. 2014)

October 24

Jaylen Brown, American basketball player

Kyla Ross, American gymnast

October 26 – Anthony Sinisuka Ginting, Indonesian badminton player

October 27 – Nadiem Amiri, German footballer

October 28

Jasmine Jessica Anthony, American actress

Jack Eichel, American ice hockey player

Lee June-hyoung, South Korean figure skater

October 30

Devin Booker, American basketball player

Mizuki Fukumura, Japanese singer

November[edit]

 

Lil Peep

 

Michael Christian Martinez

 

Lorde

November 1

Sean Gelael, Indonesian racing driver

Lil Peep, American rapper (d. 2017)

Jeongyeon, South Korean singer

November 4 – Michael Christian Martinez, Filipino figure skater

November 7

André Horta, Portuguese footballer

Lorde, New Zealand singer-songwriter

November 9

Nguyễn Thị Ánh Viên, Vietnamese swimmer

Momo Hirai, Japanese singer and dancer

November 11

Adam Ounas, French-born Algerian footballer

Tye Sheridan, American actor

November 14 – Borna Ćorić, Croatian tennis player

November 15 – Malik Jefferson, American football player

November 16 – Brendan Murray, Irish singer

November 17 – Ruth Jebet, Bahraini long-distance runner

November 18

Akram Afif, Qatari footballer

Noah Ringer, American actor

Sorn, South Korean based singer

November 19 – Liliána Szilágyi, Hungarian swimmer

November 20 – Denis Zakaria, Swiss footballer

November 22

Hailey Baldwin, American model and socialite

Madison Davenport, American actress and singer

November 23

James Maddison, English footballer

Anna Yanovskaya, Russian ice dancer

November 26 – Louane Emera, French singer and actress

November 27 – Andy Truong, Australian fashion designer

November 29 – Gonçalo Guedes, Portuguese footballer

December[edit]

 

Stefanie Scott

 

Hailee Steinfeld

December 4

Diogo Jota, Portuguese footballer

Daria Svatkovskaya, Russian artistic gymnast

December 6 – Stefanie Scott, American actress

December 8 – Scott McTominay, Scottish footballer

December 9 – ViVi, Hong Kong singer[importance?]

December 10

Jérémy Gabriel, French Canadian singer

Kang Daniel, South Korean singer

December 11

Jack Griffo, American actor

Eliza McCartney, New Zealand track and field athlete

Hailee Steinfeld, American actress, model and singer

December 12 – Lucas Hedges, American actor

December 14 – Li Zijun, Chinese figure skater

December 15 – Oleksandr Zinchenko, Ukrainian footballer

December 16

Wilfred Ndidi, Nigerian footballer

Sergio Reguilón, Spanish footballer

December 17 – Elizaveta Tuktamysheva, Russian figure skater

December 19 – Franck Kessié, Ivorian footballer

December 21 – Kaitlyn Dever, American actress

December 28 – Alfred Kipketer, Kenyan middle-distance runner

December 29

Dylan Minnette, American actor, singer and musician

Sana, Japanese singer

Deaths[edit]

Main article: Deaths in 1996

Further information: Category:1996 deaths

Deaths

January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December

January[edit]

 

François Mitterrand

 

King Moshoeshoe II

January 1

Arleigh Burke, American naval officer (b. 1901)

Arthur Rudolph, German rocket engineer (b. 1906)

January 5

Yahya Ayyash, Palestinian shaheed (b. 1966)

Lincoln Kirstein, American writer and impresario (b. 1907)

January 7

Károly Grósz, 51st Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1930)

Tarō Okamoto, Japanese artist (b. 1911)

January 8 – François Mitterrand, French politician, 21st President of France (b. 1916)

January 15

Les Baxter, American musician and composer (b. 1922)

Moshoeshoe II, King of Lesotho (b. 1938)

January 17 – Barbara Jordan, American lawyer, educator, politician and civil rights activist (b. 1936)

January 18

Leonor Fini, Argentine artist (b. 1908)

Endel Puusepp, Estonian pilot (b. 1909)

N. T. Rama Rao, Indian actor, producer, director, editor and politician (b. 1923)

January 19 – Don Simpson, American film producer (b. 1943)

January 20 – Gerry Mulligan, American musician (b. 1927)

January 25 – Jonathan Larson, American composer and playwright (b. 1960)

January 26 – Georg Alexander, Duke of Mecklenburg (b. 1921)

January 28

Joseph Brodsky, Russian-born American Nobel poet (b. 1940)

Jerry Siegel, American cartoonist (b. 1914)

February[edit]

 

Gene Kelly

 

Audrey Meadows

 

McLean Stevenson

February 2 – Gene Kelly, American actor and dancer (b. 1912)

February 3 – Audrey Meadows, American actress (b. 1922)

February 4 – Alfredo Nobre da Costa, 106th Prime Minister of Portugal (b. 1923)

February 6 – Guy Madison, American actor (b. 1922)

February 7 – Boris Tchaikovsky, Russian composer (b. 1925)

February 9 – Adolf Galland, German general (b. 1912)

February 11 – Kebby Musokotwane, Prime Minister of Zambia (b. 1946)

February 12

Bob Shaw, Irish science fiction writer (b. 1931)

Ryōtarō Shiba, Japanese novelist (b. 1923)

February 13 – Martin Balsam, American actor (b. 1919)

February 14

Eva Hart, British Titanic survivor (b. 1905)

Bob Paisley, English football manager (b. 1919)

February 15

Tommy Rettig, American actor (b. 1941)

McLean Stevenson, American actor (b. 1927)

February 16

Roger Bowen, American actor (b. 1932)

Pat Brown, American politician (b. 1905)

February 20

Audrey Munson, American model and actress (b. 1891)

Toru Takemitsu, Japanese composer (b. 1930)

February 21 – Morton Gould, American musician and composer (b. 1913)

February 23

William Bonin, American serial killer (b. 1947)

Helmut Schön, German football player and manager (b. 1915)

February 25 – Haing S. Ngor, Cambodian activist and actor (b. 1940)

February 26 – Mieczysław Weinberg, Polish composer (b. 1919)

February 27 – Sarah Palfrey Cooke, American tennis player (b. 1912)

March[edit]

 

George Burns

 

Edmund Muskie

March 2 – Lyle Talbot, American actor (b. 1902)

March 3 – Marguerite Duras, French author and director (b. 1914)

March 4 – Minnie Pearl, American comedian (b. 1912)

March 5

Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad, 5th President of Bangladesh (b. 1918)

Whit Bissell, American actor (b. 1909)

March 6 – Simon Cadell, English actor (b. 1950)

March 9 – George Burns, American comedian and actor (b. 1896)

March 10 – Ross Hunter, American film producer (b. 1926)

March 11 – Vince Edwards, American actor (b. 1928)

March 12 – Gyula Kállai, 48th Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1910)

March 13 – Krzysztof Kieślowski, Polish film director (b. 1941)

March 17 – René Clément, French film director (b. 1913)

March 18 – Odysseas Elytis, Greek writer (b. 1911)

March 19

Virginia Henderson, American nurse and theorist (b. 1897)

Chen Jingrun, Chinese mathematician (b. 1933)

March 25 – Lola Beltrán, Mexican singer, actress, and television presenter (b. 1932)

March 26

Edmund Muskie, American politician (b. 1914)

David Packard, American engineer (b. 1912)

March 31 – Jeffrey Lee Pierce, American musician (b. 1958)

April[edit]

 

Greer Garson

 

P. L. Travers

April 3 – Ron Brown, American politician (b. 1941)

April 4 – Barney Ewell, American athlete (b. 1918)

April 6

John D. Bulkeley, American naval officer (b. 1911)

Greer Garson, British-American actress (b. 1904)

April 8 – Ben Johnson, American actor and stuntman (b. 1918)

April 13 – James Burke, Irish-American gangster (b. 1931)

April 16 – Lucille Bremer, American actress and dancer (b. 1917)

April 18 – Bernard Edwards, American bass player (b. 1952)

April 20 – Christopher Robin Milne, English author and bookseller (b. 1920)

April 21 – Dzhokhar Dudayev, Chechen politician and President of Ichkeria (b. 1944)

April 22 – Erma Bombeck, American humorist and writer (b. 1927)

April 23 – P. L. Travers, British actress, journalist, novelist and writer (b. 1899)

April 25 – Saul Bass, American graphic designer (b. 1920)

April 26 – Stirling Silliphant, American screenwriter and producer (b. 1918)

April 28 – Siti Hartinah, 2nd First Lady of Indonesia, wife of Suharto (b. 1923)

May[edit]

 

Tamara Toumanova

 

Timothy Leary

May 1 – David M. Kennedy, American politician, businessman (b. 1905)

May 2 – Emile Habibi, Palestinian Israeli writer (b. 1922)

May 3 – Jack Weston, American actor (b. 1924)

May 6 – Leo Joseph Suenens, Belgian cardinal (b. 1904)

May 11

Nnamdi Azikiwe, 1st President of Nigeria (b. 1904)

Scott Fischer, American mountaineer (b. 1955)

Rob Hall, New Zealand mountaineer (b. 1961)

Ademir de Menezes, Brazilian footballer (b. 1922)

May 17 – Johnny "Guitar" Watson, American singer, songwriter and musician (b. 1935)

May 19 – John Beradino, American baseball player and actor (b. 1917)

May 20 – Jon Pertwee, British actor (b. 1919)

May 23 – Sim Iness, American Olympic athlete (b. 1930)

May 24

John Abbott, English actor (b. 1905)

Jacob Druckman, American composer (b. 1928)

Enrique Álvarez Félix, Mexican actor (b. 1934)

Joseph Mitchell, American writer (b. 1908)

May 25 – Bradley Nowell, American musician (b. 1968)

May 29 – Tamara Toumanova, Russian-American dancer and actress (b. 1919)

May 31 – Timothy Leary, American writer and social activist (b. 1920)

June[edit]

 

Ella Fitzgerald

 

Andreas Papandreou

June 1 – Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, 6th President of India (b. 1913)

June 2

John Alton, American cinematographer (b. 1901)

Leon Garfield, English author (b. 1921)

Pilar Lorengar, Spanish soprano (b. 1928)

June 3 – Peter Glenville, English film director (b. 1913)

June 6

Kusuo Kitamura, Japanese Olympic swimmer (b. 1917)

George Davis Snell, American Nobel geneticist (b. 1903)

June 10 – Jo Van Fleet, American actress (b. 1914)

June 11 – Brigitte Helm, German actress (b. 1908)

June 15 – Ella Fitzgerald, American singer (b. 1917)

June 19

Hillevi Rombin, Swedish actress and beauty queen (b. 1933)

Edvin Wide, Swedish middle- and long-distance runner (b. 1896)

June 23

Ray Lindwall, Australian cricketer (b. 1921)

Andreas Papandreou, Prime Minister of Greece (b. 1919)

June 26 – Veronica Guerin, Irish journalist (b. 1958)

June 27 – Albert R. Broccoli, American film producer (b. 1909)

June 28 – Kwan Tak-hing, Hong Kong actor (b. 1905)

July[edit]

 

Jean Muir

 

Claudette Colbert

July 1 – Margaux Hemingway, American fashion model and actress (b. 1954)

July 3 – Raaj Kumar, Indian film actor (b. 1926)

July 9

Eno Raud, Estonian writer (b. 1928)

Sergey Kuryokhin, Russian pianist, composer, improvisor, performance artist and actor (b. 1954)

July 13 – Pandro S. Berman, American film producer (b. 1905)

July 15 – Dana Hill, American actress (b. 1964)

July 17

Paul Touvier, French Nazi collaborator (b. 1915)

Victims of TWA Flight 800

Michel Breistroff, NHL ice hockey player (b. 1971)

Marcel Dadi, French guitarist (b. 1951)

David Hogan, American composer (b. 1949)

Jed Johnson, American interior designer and director (b. 1948)

July 20 – František Plánička, Czech footballer (b. 1904)

July 21

Luana Anders, American actress (b. 1938)

Herb Edelman, American actor (b. 1933)

July 22 – Jessica Mitford, British-American author, journalist and political campaigner (b. 1917)

July 23 – Jean Muir, American actress (b. 1911)

July 27 – Jane Drew, English architect (b. 1911)

July 28 – Roger Tory Peterson, American naturalist and artist (b. 1908)

July 30 – Claudette Colbert, French-born American Academy Award-winning actress (b. 1903)

August[edit]

 

Tadeusz Reichstein

 

Alejandro Agustín Lanusse

August 1

Mohamed Farrah Aidid, Somali military commander and politician (b. 1934)

Frida Boccara, French singer (b. 1940)

Tadeusz Reichstein, Polish-Swiss Nobel chemist (b. 1897)

August 2

Michel Debré, 99th Prime Minister of France (b. 1912)

Obdulio Varela, Uruguayan footballer (b. 1917)

August 6 – Hernán Siles Zuazo, Bolivian politician (b. 1914)

August 8 – Nevill Francis Mott, English Nobel physicist (b. 1905)

August 11

Rafael Kubelík, Czech-born Swiss conductor (b. 1914)

Baba Vanga, Bulgarian mystic, clairvoyant and herbalist (b. 1911)

August 12 – Viktor Hambardzumyan, Armenian scientist (b. 1908)

August 13

António de Spínola, 14th President of Portugal (b. 1910)

David Tudor, American pianist and composer (b. 1926)

August 14 – Camilla Horn, German actress (b. 1903)

August 20 – Rio Reiser, German musician and singer (b. 1950)

August 26 – Alejandro Agustín Lanusse, 37th President of Argentina (b. 1918)

August 27 – Greg Morris, American actor (b. 1933)

August 30 – Christine Pascal, French actress, director and screenwriter (b. 1953)

September[edit]

 

Ernesto Geisel

 

Spiro Agnew

 

Paul Erdős

 

Dorothy Lamour

September 1

Vagn Holmboe, Danish composer (b. 1909)

Karl Kehrle, Benedictine monk and beekeeper (b. 1898)

September 7 – Bibi Besch, American actress (b. 1940)

September 9

Ruggero Mastroianni, Italian film editor (b. 1929)

Bill Monroe, American musician (b. 1911)

September 10 – Joanne Dru, American actress (b. 1922)

September 12

Ernesto Geisel, Brazilian general, 29th President of Brazil (b. 1907)

Ricardo López, Uruguayan-American pest control worker (b. 1975)

September 13 – Tupac Shakur, American rapper (b. 1971)

September 14 – Juliet Prowse, American dancer and actress (b. 1936)

September 16

McGeorge Bundy, American academic (b. 1919)

Gene Nelson, American dancer and actor (b. 1920)

September 17 – Spiro Agnew, American politician (b. 1918)

September 18 – Annabella, French actress (b. 1907)

September 20

Murtaza Bhutto, Pakistani politician (b. 1954)

Paul Erdős, Hungarian mathematician (b. 1913)

Max Manus, Norwegian resistance fighter (b. 1914)

Paul Weston, American pianist and composer (b. 1912)

September 21 – Henri Nouwen, Dutch priest and author (b. 1932)

September 22

Mohamed Ben Ahmed Abdelghani, 1st Prime Minister of Algeria (b. 1927)

Dorothy Lamour, American actress (b. 1914)

September 23 – Fujiko Fujio, Japanese cartoonist (b. 1933)

September 24

Mark Frankel, British actor (b. 1962)

Zeki Müren, Turkish singer, composer, songwriter, actor and poet (b. 1931)

September 26

Nicu Ceaușescu, Romanian politician (b. 1951)

Pavel Sudoplatov, Soviet spy (b. 1907)

Geoffrey Wilkinson, English Nobel chemist (b. 1921)

September 27 – Mohammad Najibullah, President of Afghanistan (b. 1947)

September 29 – Shūsaku Endō, Japanese author (b. 1923)

September 30 – Moneta Sleet Jr., American press photogrpaher (b. 1926)

October[edit]

 

Morey Amsterdam

October 4 – Silvio Piola, Italian footballer (b. 1913)

October 5 – Seymour Cray, American computer scientist (b. 1925)

October 11

Renato Russo, Brazilian singer (b. 1960)

William Vickrey, Canadian-American economist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1914)

October 12

René Lacoste, French tennis player (b. 1904)

Roger Lapébie, French racing cyclist (b. 1911)

October 13 – Beryl Reid, British actress (b. 1919)

October 14 – Laura La Plante, American actress (b. 1904)

October 15 – Robert F. Williams, American civil rights leader, author (b. 1925)

October 16 – Jason Bernard, American actor (b. 1938)

October 24 – Artur Axmann, German Nazi leader (b. 1913)

October 28 – Morey Amsterdam, American comedian (b. 1908)

October 31 – Marcel Carné, French film director (b. 1909)

November[edit]

 

Jean-Bédel Bokassa/Bokassa I

 

Abdus Salam

November 1 – J. R. Jayewardene, 2nd President of Sri Lanka (b. 1906)

November 2 – Eva Cassidy, American vocalist (b. 1963)

November 3

Jean-Bédel Bokassa/Bokassa I, 2nd President of the Central African Republic and Emperor of Central Africa (b. 1921)

Abdullah Çatlı, Turkish nationalist (b. 1956)

November 5 – Eddie Harris, American jazz musician (b. 1934)

November 6 – Tommy Lawton, English footballer and manager (b. 1919)

November 14

Joseph Bernardin, American cardinal (b. 1928)

Virginia Cherrill, American actress (b. 1908)

November 15 – Alger Hiss, American diplomat (b. 1904)

November 18 – Zinovy Gerdt, Russian actor (b. 1916)

November 21 – Abdus Salam, Pakistani Nobel physicist (b. 1926)

November 22

María Casares, French-Spanish actress (b. 1922)

Mark Lenard, American actor (b. 1924)

November 26 – Paul Rand, American graphic designer (b. 1914)

November 27 – Gertrude Blanch, American mathematician (b. 1897)

November 28 – Don McNeill, American tennis player (b. 1918)

November 30 – Tiny Tim, American musician (b. 1932)

December[edit]

 

Marcello Mastroianni

 

Carl Sagan

December 3 – Babrak Karmal, President of Afghanistan (b. 1929)

December 6 – Pete Rozelle, American football official (b. 1926)

December 7 – José Donoso, Chilean writer (b. 1924)

December 8 – Howard Rollins, American actor (b. 1950)

December 9 – Mary Leakey, British archaeologist (b. 1913)

December 10 – Faron Young, American singer (b. 1932)

December 11 – Willie Rushton, English comedian, actor and cartoonist (b. 1937)

December 13 – Cao Yu, Chinese playwright (b. 1910)

December 16

Quentin Bell, English biographer and art historian (b. 1910)

Laurens van der Post, South African author (b. 1906)

December 17 – Stanko Todorov, Bulgarian communist politician (b. 1920)

December 18 – Irving Caesar, American lyricist (b. 1895)

December 19 – Marcello Mastroianni, Italian actor (b. 1924)

December 20

Amata Kabua, 1st President of the Marshall Islands (b. 1928)

Carl Sagan, American astronomer (b. 1934)

December 21 – Margret Rey, American author and illustrator (b. 1906)

December 30

Lew Ayres, American actor (b. 1908)

Jack Nance, American actor (b. 1943)

Nobel Prizes[edit]

Nobel medal.png

Physics – David M. Lee, Douglas D. Osheroff, Robert C. Richardson

Chemistry – Robert Curl, Sir Harold Kroto, Richard Smalley

Medicine – Peter C. Doherty, Rolf M. Zinkernagel

Literature – Wisława Szymborska

Peace – Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo and José Ramos-Horta

Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel – James Mirrlees, William Vickrey

 

Take a look back at the year 1996

 

1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1996th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 996th year of the 2nd millennium, the 96th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1990s decade.

 

1996 was designated as:

 

International Year for the Eradication of Poverty

 

Events

 

January

 

January 3 – Motorola introduces the Motorola StarTAC Wearable Cellular Telephone, the world's smallest and lightest mobile phone to date.

January 5 – Hamas operative Yahya Ayyash is assassinated by an Israeli Shabak-planted, bomb-laden cell phone.

January 7 – One of the worst blizzards in American history hits the eastern states, killing more than 150 people. Philadelphia receives a record 30.7 inches (78 cm) of snow, New York City's public schools close for the first time in eighteen years and the federal government in Washington, D.C. is closed for days.

January 8 – A Zairean cargo plane crashes into a crowded market in the center of the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kinshasa, killing 300 people.

January 9–20 – Serious fighting breaks out between Russian soldiers and rebel fighters in Chechnya.

January 11 – Ryutaro Hashimoto, leader of the Liberal Democratic Party, becomes Prime Minister of Japan.

January 13 – Italy's Prime Minister, Lamberto Dini, resigns after the failure of all-party talks to confirm him. New talks are initiated by President Oscar Luigi Scalfaro to form a new government.

January 14 – Jorge Sampaio is elected President of Portugal.

January 16 – President of Sierra Leone Valentine Strasser is deposed by the chief of defence, Julius Maada Bio. Bio promises to restore power following elections scheduled for February.

January 19

The North Cape oil spill occurs as an engine fire forces the tugboat Scandia ashore on Moonstone Beach in South Kingstown, Rhode Island. The North Cape Barge is pulled along with it and leaks 820,000 gallons of home heating oil.

An Indonesian ferry sinks off the northern tip of Sumatra, drowning more than 100 people.

January 20 – Yasser Arafat is re-elected president of the Palestinian Authority.

 

Yasser Arafat

January 21 – France undertakes its last nuclear weapons test.

January 22 – Andreas Papandreou, Prime Minister of Greece, resigns due to health problems; a new government forms under Costas Simitis.

January 24 – Polish Premier Józef Oleksy resigns amid charges that he spied for Moscow. He is replaced by Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz.

January 27 – Colonel Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara deposes the first democratically elected President of Niger, Mahamane Ousmane, in a military coup.

January 31

Colombo Central Bank bombing: an explosives-filled truck rams into the gates of the Central Bank in Colombo, Sri Lanka, killing at least 86 people and injuring 1,400.

An explosion in Shaoyang, China kills 122 people and injures over 400 when 10 short tons (9.1 t) of dynamite in an illegal explosives warehouse underneath an apartment building detonate.

An amateur astronomer from southern Japan discovers Comet Hyakutake; it will pass very close to the Earth in March.

February[edit]

February 4 – The 6.6 Mw  earthquake near Lijiang in South-west China kills up to 322 people, injures 17,000, and leaves 300,000 homeless.

February 6 – Birgenair Flight 301, on a charter flight from the Caribbean to Germany, crashes into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of the Dominican Republic, killing all 189 passengers and crew.

February 7 – René Préval succeeds Jean-Bertrand Aristide as President of Haiti in the first peaceful handover of power since the nation achieved independence 192 years earlier, in 1804.

February 9

The element copernicium is created by fusing a 208Pb nucleus with a 70Zn nucleus, forming 278Cn. Given the placeholder name "ununbium", the element is not named until 2010.

An IRA ceasefire ends with the Docklands bombing in London's Canary Wharf District, killing two people and causing over £85,000,000 worth of damage.

February 10 – Bosnian Serbs break off contact with the Bosnian government and with representatives of Ifor, the NATO localised force, in reaction to the arrest of several Bosnian Serb war criminals.

February 14 – Violent clashes erupt between Filipino soldiers and Vietnamese boat people, as the Filipino government attempts to forcibly repatriate hundreds of Vietnamese asylum seekers.

February 15

The American Embassy in Athens, Greece, comes under mortar fire.

Begum Khaleda Zia is re-elected as Prime Minister of Bangladesh. The country's second democratic election is marred by low voter turnout, due to several boycotts and pre-election violence, which has resulted in at least thirteen deaths.

The UK government publishes the Scott Report.

 

Feb.15: Long March rocket, with Intelsat 708 satellite, veers upon launch (images from Cox Commission report for U.S. Congress).

February 16 – 1996 Maryland train collision: A Chicago-bound Amtrak train, the Capitol Limited, collides with a MARC commuter train bound for Washington, D.C., killing 11 people.

February 17 – The 8.2 Mw  Biak earthquake strikes the Papua province of eastern Indonesia with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe). A large tsunami followed, leaving 166 people dead or missing and 423 injured.

February 24 – Cuban fighter jets shoot down two American aircraft belonging to the Cuban exile group Brothers to the Rescue. Cuban officials assert that they invaded Cuban airspace.

February 25 – Two suicide bombs in Israel kill 25 and injure 80; Hamas claims responsibility.

February 29

Faucett Flight 251 en route from Lima to Rodriguez Ballon airport crashes into a mountain near Arequipa; all 123 people on board are killed.

At least 81 people drown when a boat capsizes 120 kilometres east of Kampala, Uganda.

The Bosnian government declares the end of the Siege of Sarajevo.

March[edit]

March 1 – Iraq disarmament crisis: Iraqi forces refuse UNSCOM inspection teams access to five sites designated for inspection. The teams enter the sites only after delays of up to seventeen hours.

March 2 – 1996 Australian federal election: The Liberal/National Coalition led by John Howard defeats the Labor Government led by Prime Minister Paul Keating. Howard was sworn in on March 11.[1]

March 3 – José María Aznar, leader of the Popular Party, is elected as Prime Minister of Spain, replacing Felipe González.

March 3–4 – Two suicide bombs explode in Israel, killing 32 people. The Yahya Ayyash Units admit responsibility, and Palestinian president Yasser Arafat condemns the killings in a televised address. Israel warns of retaliation.

March 6

Mesut Yılmaz of ANAP forms the new government of Turkey (53rd government).

A boat carrying market traders capsizes outside Freetown harbour in Sierra Leone, killing at least 86 people.

Chechen rebels attack the Russian government headquarters in Grozny; 70 Russian soldiers and policemen and 130 Chechen fighters are killed.

March 8 – China begins surface-to-surface missile testing and military exercises off Taiwanese coastal areas. The United States government condemns the act as provocation, and the Taiwanese government warns of retaliation.

March 9 – Jorge Sampaio is the new Portuguese president.

March 13 – Dunblane massacre: Unemployed former shopkeeper Thomas Hamilton walks into the Dunblane Primary School in Scotland and opens fire, killing sixteen infant school pupils and one teacher before committing suicide.

March 14 – An international peace summit is held in Egypt in response to escalating terrorist attacks in the Middle East.

March 16 – Robert Mugabe is re-elected as President of Zimbabwe, although only 32% of the electorate actually voted.

March 17 – Sri Lanka wins the Cricket World Cup by beating Australia in the final.

March 18 – The Ozone Disco Club fire in Quezon City, Philippines kills 163 people.

March 22 – Sweden's Finance Minister Göran Persson becomes the new Prime Minister of Sweden.

March 23 – Taiwan (Republic of China) holds its first direct elections for President; Lee Teng-hui is re-elected.

March 24 – The Marcopper mining disaster on the island of Marinduque, Philippines takes place.

March 25 – The 68th Academy Awards, hosted by Whoopi Goldberg, are held at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in Los Angeles with Braveheart winning Best Picture.

March 26 – The International Monetary Fund approves a $10.2 billion loan to Russia for economic reform.

April[edit]

April 1 – The Halifax Regional Municipality in Nova Scotia is created.

April 3

A Boeing 737 military jet crashes into a mountain north of Dubrovnik, Croatia. All 35 people on board are killed, including United States Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown.

Massacres of Hutus by Tutsis in Burundi take place with more than 450 killed within a few days.

April 6

Fighting breaks out in Monrovia, Liberia, between various rebel factions struggling for power in the country's interrupted civil war. Several foreign nationals leave the nation.

Turkish authorities begin Operation Hawk, a military offensive against rebels from the Kurdish Workers' Party in south-east Turkey.

April 9 – In a common statement, the European Union officially recognises the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

April 11 – The Israeli government launches Operation Grapes of Wrath, consisting of massive attacks on Lebanon, in retaliation for prior terrorist attacks, and sparking off a violent series of retaliations.

April 18

Qana Massacre: Over 100 Lebanese civilians are killed after Israel shells the United Nations compound in Qana.

In reaction to the Qana Massacre, an Islamist group in Egypt open fire on a hotel, killing eighteen Greek tourists and injuring seventeen others.

April 21 – A general election in Italy proclaims a new center-left government headed by Romano Prodi, replacing Silvio Berlusconi.

April 24 – At the urging of Yasser Arafat, the Palestine Liberation Organization drops its clause calling for the removal of Israel. The Israeli government responds by dropping a similar clause concerning the existence of Palestine.

April 28

Port Arthur massacre: Martin Bryant kills 35 people at the Port Arthur tourist site in Tasmania, Australia.

A bomb explodes in Bhaiperu, Pakistan, killing more than 60 people.

May[edit]

May – Iraq disarmament crisis: UNSCOM supervises the destruction of Al-Hakam, Iraq's main production facility of biological warfare agents.

May 9

South Africa's National Party pulls out of the coalition government formed two years earlier, and the African National Congress assumes full political control.

Ugandan president Yoweri Museveni wins a landslide victory in the country's first direct presidential elections, securing 75% of the vote.

May 10

1996 Everest disaster: A sudden storm engulfs Mount Everest with several climbing teams high on the mountain, leaving eight people dead. By the end of the month, at least four other climbers die in the worst season of fatalities on the mountain to date.

The Australian government introduces a nationwide ban on the private possession of both automatic and semi-automatic rifles, in response to the Port Arthur massacre.

May 11 – After takeoff from Miami, a fire started by improperly handled oxygen canisters in the cargo hold of Atlanta-bound ValuJet Flight 592 causes the Douglas DC-9 to crash in the Florida Everglades, killing all 110 people on board.

May 13 – Severe thunderstorms and a tornado in Bangladesh kill 600 people.

May 17–28 – Atal Bihari Vajpayee, leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party, is elected as Prime Minister of India, replacing P. V. Narasimha Rao of the Indian National Congress. However, the party does not receive an overall majority and Vajpayee resigns thirteen days later rather than face a no confidence vote and is replaced by the United Front leader, Deve Gowda.

May 18 – The X Prize Foundation launches the $10,000,000 Ansari X Prize.

May 21

The MV Bukoba sinks in Tanzanian waters in Lake Victoria, killing nearly 1,000 people in one of Africa's worst maritime disasters.

The Trappist Martyrs of Atlas are executed.

May 23 – Members of the Armed Islamic Group in Algeria kill seven French Trappist monks, after talks with French government concerning the imprisonment of several GIA sympathisers break down.

May 27 – First Chechnya War: Russian President Boris Yeltsin meets with Chechnyan rebels for the first time and negotiates a ceasefire for the dispute.

May 28 – Albania's general election of May 26 is declared unfair by international monitors, and the ruling Democratic Party under President Sali Berisha is charged by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe with rigging the elections. Several hundred protestors gather in Tirana to demonstrate against the election result.

May 30 – The Likud Party, led by Benjamin Netanyahu, wins a narrow victory in the Israeli general election.

June[edit]

June – Iraq disarmament crisis: As Iraq continues to refuse inspectors access to a number of sites, the United States fails in its attempt to build support for military action against Iraq in the UN Security Council.

June 1–3 – The Czech Republic's first general election ends inconclusively. Prime Minister Václav Klaus and his incumbent Civic Democratic Party emerge as the winners, but are unable to form a majority government. President Václav Havel refuses to invite Klaus to form a coalition.

June 4 – The space rocket Ariane 5 explodes forty seconds after takeoff in French Guiana. The project costs European governments $7,500,000,000 over eleven years.

June 6 – Leighton W. Smith, Jr. resigns as NATO commander in the face of increasing criticism.

June 8–30 – England hosts the UEFA Euro 1996 football tournament, which is won by Germany.

June 11

An explosion in a São Paulo suburban shopping centre kills 44 people and injures more than 100.

A peace convoy carrying Chechen separatist leaders and international diplomats is targeted by a series of remotely controlled land mines; eight people are killed.

June 15 – In Manchester, UK, a massive IRA bomb injures over 200 people and devastates a large part of the city centre.

June 28

A new government is formed in Turkey, with Necmettin Erbakan of Refah Partisi becoming Prime Minister of the coalition government, and Deputy/Foreign Minister Tansu Çiller of the True Path Party succeeding him after two years.

The Constitution of Ukraine is signed into law.

June 29

The Prince's Trust concert is held in Hyde Park, London, and is attended by 150,000 people. The Who headlines the event in their first performance since 1989.

An explosion in a firecrackers factory in Sichuan Province, China kills at least 52 people and injures 83 others.

June 30

Costas Simitis is elected president of the Panhellenic Socialist Movement of Greece.

Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadžić relinquishes power to his deputy, Biljana Plavšić.

July[edit]

July

Iraq disarmament crisis: U.N. Inspector Scott Ritter attempts to conduct surprise inspections on the Republican Guard facility at the airport but is blocked by Iraqi officials.

The Indian government officially renames the city of Madras, restoring the name Chennai.[2]

July 1

The Northern Territory in Australia legalises voluntary euthanasia.

German orthography reform of 1996 agreed internationally.

July 3 – Boris Yeltsin is re-elected as President of Russia after the second round of elections.

July 5 – Dolly the sheep, the first mammal to be successfully cloned from an adult cell, is born at the Roslin Institute in Midlothian, Scotland, UK.

July 11 – Arrest warrants are issued for Bosnian Serb war criminals Radovan Karadžić and Ratko Mladić by the Russell Tribunal in The Hague.

July 12 – Hurricane Bertha: made landfall in North Carolina as a Category 2 storm, causing $270 million in damage ($431 million in present-day terms[3]) to the United States and its possessions and many indirect deaths.

July 16 – An outbreak of E. coli food poisoning in Japan results in 6,000 children being ill, including two deaths, after a group of school children eat contaminated lunches.

July 17

The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa) is constituted.

Paris- and Rome-bound TWA Flight 800 (Boeing 747) explodes off the coast of Long Island, New York, killing all 230 people on board.

July 19

The 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, United States, begin.

Bosnian Serb President Radovan Karadžić resigns from public office in Republika Srpska after being indicted for war crimes.

July 21 – The Saguenay Flood, one of Canada's most costly natural disasters, is caused by flooding on the Saguenay River in Quebec.

July 24 – The Dehiwala train bombing kills 56 commuters outside Colombo.

July 25 – The Tutsi-led Burundian army performs a coup and reinstalls previous president Pierre Buyoya, ousting current president Sylvestre Ntibantunganya.

July 27 – The Centennial Olympic Park bombing at the 1996 Summer Olympics kills one person and injures 111.

August[edit]

 

The electron microscope reveals chain structures in meteorite fragment ALH84001.

August

The first three-parent baby is conceived in New Jersey through mitochondrial donation.[4]

The invasive species Asian long-horned beetle is found in New York City.

August 1

Sarah Balabagan returns to the Philippines.

A pro-democracy demonstration supporting Megawati Sukarnoputri in Indonesia is broken up by riot police.

August 4 – The 1996 Summer Olympics conclude.

August 6 – NASA announces that the Allan Hills 84001 meteorite, thought to originate from Mars, may contain evidence of primitive lifeforms; further tests are inconclusive.

August 7 – Heavy rains kill more than 80 campers near Huesca, Spain.

August 9 – Boris Yeltsin is sworn in at the Kremlin for a second term as President of Russia.

August 13 – Data sent back by the Galileo space probe indicates there may be water on one of Jupiter's moons.

August 14 – A rocket ignited during a fireworks display in Arequipa, Peru knocks down a high-tension power cable into a dense crowd, electrocuting 35 people.

August 15 – Bob Dole is nominated for President of the United States, and Jack Kemp for Vice President, at the Republican National Convention in San Diego, California.

August 16 – Brookfield Zoo, Chicago. After a 3-year-old boy falls into the 20-foot (6.1 m) deep gorilla enclosure, Binti Jua, a female lowland gorilla sits with the injured boy until his rescue.

August 21

Former State President of South Africa, F. W. de Klerk, makes an official apology for crimes committed under Apartheid to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in Cape Town.

In the UK, Queen Elizabeth II issues letters patent on divorced former wives of British princes, taking away from the ex-wives the attribute and style of Royal Highness. With that Sarah, Duchess of York as well as Diana, Princess of Wales legally cease to be Royals, but they remain as non-royal Duchess and Princess.

August 23 – Osama bin Laden writes "The Declaration of Jihad on the Americans Occupying the Country of the Two Sacred Places," a call for the removal of American military forces from Saudi Arabia.

August 28 – Their Royal Highnesses, the Prince and Princess of Wales, are formally divorced at the High Court of Justice in London. Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales is restyled Diana, Princess of Wales, due to the Queen's letters patent issued a week earlier.

August 29

U.S. President Bill Clinton and Vice President Al Gore are re-nominated at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago.

A Russian Tupolev 154 jetliner crashes into a mountain as it approaches the airport at Spitsbergen, Norway, killing all 141 people on board.

August 31 – Iraq disarmament crisis: Iraqi forces launch an offensive into the northern No-Fly Zone and capture Arbil.

September[edit]

September 2 – A permanent peace agreement is signed at the Malacañan Palace between the Government of the Philippines and the Moro National Liberation Front.

September 3 – The United States launches Operation Desert Strike against Iraq in reaction to the attack on Arbil.

September 4 – The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia attack a military base in Guaviare, Colombia, starting three weeks of guerrilla warfare that will claim the lives of at least 130 Colombians.

September 5 – Hurricane Fran makes landfall near Cape Fear, North Carolina as a Category 3 storm with 115 mph (185 km/h) sustained winds. Fran caused over $3 billion in damages ($4.79 billion in present-day terms[3]) and killed 27 people, mainly in North Carolina. The name "Fran" was retired due to the extensive damage.

September 10 – Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) signed (it will be ratified 180 days after ratification by 44 Annex 2 countries).

September 13 – Alija Izetbegović is elected President of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the country's first election since the Bosnian War.

September 18 – A North Korean Sang-O class submarine runs aground in South Korea. The crew are described as spies by the South Korean government and killed by the South Korean military.

September 20 – Leader of Pakistani opposition party Pakistan Peoples Party Murtaza Bhutto is killed during a gunfight with police.

September 22 – The Panhellenic Socialist Movement under the leadership of Costas Simitis succeeds in the 1996 Greek legislative election.

September 24 – U.S. President Bill Clinton signs the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty at the United Nations.

September 27 – In Afghanistan, the Taliban capture the capital city of Kabul, after driving out President Burhanuddin Rabbani and executing former leader Mohammad Najibullah.

October[edit]

October 2

The former Prime Minister of Bulgaria, Andrey Lukanov, is assassinated.

Aeroperú Flight 603 crashes into the Pacific Ocean when the instruments fail just after takeoff from Lima Airport, killing all 70 people on board.

October 6 – The government of New Zealand agrees to pay $130 million worth of compensation for the loss of land suffered by the Māori population between the years of 1844 and 1864.

October 22 – A fire at La Planta prison in southwest Caracas, Venezuela, kills thirty prisoners.

October 30 – Fighting erupts when Banyamulenga Tutsis of Laurent Kabila in Zaire seize Uvira and proceed to kill Hutu refugees.

October 31 – TAM Transportes Aéreos Regionais Flight 402 crashes into a densely populated area of São Paulo, killing all 96 people on board.

November[edit]

November – Iraq disarmament crisis: UNSCOM inspectors uncover buried prohibited missile parts. Iraq refuses to allow UNSCOM teams to remove remnants of missile engines for analysis outside of the country.

November 5

Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's government is dismissed by President Farooq Leghari after widespread allegations of corruption.

1996 United States presidential election: Incumbent Democratic President Bill Clinton defeats his Republican challenger, Bob Dole.

November 7

A category 4 cyclone strikes Andhra Pradesh, India, killing more than 2,000 people.

NASA launches the Mars Global Surveyor.

November 8 – All 141 people on board a Nigerian-owned Boeing 727 die when the aircraft crashes into the Atlantic Ocean while approaching Lagos airport.

November 12 – Saudi Arabian Airlines Boeing 747 collides in mid-air with Kazakhstan Airlines Il-76 in New Delhi, India, resulting in the loss of 349 lives.

November 17

A bomb exploded in Kaspiysk, Russia, killing 32 people.

Emil Constantinescu is elected as President of Romania.

November 18 – Frederick Chiluba is re-elected as President of Zambia.

November 19

Martin Bryant is sentenced to 35 consecutive sentences of life imprisonment plus 1,035 years without parole for murdering 35 people in a shooting spree in Tasmania earlier this year.

Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Organization (CTBTO) established.

STS-80: Space Shuttle Columbia conducts the longest mission of the Space Shuttle program.

November 20 – The 1996 Garley Building fire occurred in Hong Kong, resulting in 41 deaths and 81 injuries.

November 21 – A propane explosion at the Humberto Vidal shoe store and office building in San Juan, Puerto Rico kills 33 people.

November 23

The Republic of Angola officially joins the World Trade Organization as Angola.

Ethiopian Airlines Flight 961 is hijacked, then crashes into the Indian Ocean off the coast of Comoros after running out of fuel, killing 125.

Tamagotchi is released in Japan by Bandai.

November 25 – An ice storm strikes the U.S., killing 26 directly and hundreds more from accidents. A powerful windstorm blasts Florida with winds gusts up to 90 mph.

December[edit]

December 9 – Jerry Rawlings is re-elected as President of Ghana.

December 11 – Tung Chee-hwa is appointed to become the new leader of Hong Kong after it reverts to Chinese rule on July 1, 1997 at the end a 99-year lease to the United Kingdom.

December 13 – Ghanaian diplomat Kofi Annan is elected by the United Nations Security Council the next Secretary-General of the United Nations.

December 17 – The Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement takes 72 hostages in the Japanese Embassy in Lima, Peru.

December 25 – At least 283 migrants drown in the sinking of F174 near Capo Passero (Sicily).

December 26

The largest strike in South Korean history begins.

Six-year-old JonBenét Ramsey is found beaten and strangled in the basement of her family's home in Boulder, Colorado.

December 27 – Taliban forces retake the strategic Bagram Air Base, solidifying their buffer zone around Kabul.

December 29 – Guatemala and the leaders of the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity sign a peace accord that ends the 36-year Guatemalan Civil War.

December 30 – In the Indian state of Assam, a passenger train is bombed by Bodo separatists, killing 26.

Undated[edit]

Economy of Venezuela: Inflation in the country peaks at 99.87%.

Births[edit]

Births

January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December

January[edit]

 

Ella Henderson

 

Dove Cameron

 

Caitlin Sanchez

January 1

Mahmoud Dahoud, German footballer

Andreas Pereira, Brazilian footballer

Mathias Jensen, Danish footballer

January 2 – Xiaoyu Yu, Chinese figure skater

January 3 – Florence Pugh, English actress

January 5

Maxim Baldry, English actor

Tyler Ulis, American basketball player

January 6

Courtney Eaton, Australian actress

Kishan Shrikanth, Indian actor and director

Harmanpreet Singh, Indian hockey player

January 7

Fu Yuanhui, Chinese swimmer

Helly Shah, Indian actress

Isaac Success, Nigerian footballer

January 9 – Oana Gregory, Romanian American actress

January 10 – Anna Sztankovics, Hungarian swimmer

January 11 – Leroy Sané, German footballer

January 12 – Ella Henderson, English singer

January 13 – Aníta Hinriksdóttir, Icelandic middle-distance runner

January 15 – Dove Cameron, American actress and singer

January 16

Anastasia Grishina, Russian artistic gymnast

Jennie, South Korean singer and rapper

January 17

Caitlin Sanchez, American actress

Nile Wilson, British artistic gymnast

January 18 – Sarah Gilman, American actress

January 21 – Marco Asensio, Spanish footballer

January 22

Sami Gayle, American actress

Joshua Ho-Sang, Canadian ice hockey player

January 23

Chachi Gonzales, American dancer

Ruben Loftus-Cheek, English footballer

January 24 – Patrik Schick, Czech footballer

January 26 – Zakaria Bakkali, Belgian footballer

January 27 – Braeden Lemasters, American actor, musician, and voice actor

January 31 – Joel Courtney, American actor

February[edit]

 

Kelli Berglund

 

Sasha Pieterse

 

Sophie Turner

February 1

Ahmad Abughaush, Jordanian taekwondo athlete

Dionne Bromfield, English singer-songwriter and television personality

February 2 – Harry Winks, English footballer

February 5 – Zeng Siqi, Chinese artistic gymnast

February 7

Aaron Ekblad, Canadian ice hockey player

Pierre Gasly, French racing driver

Mai Hagiwara, Japanese singer

February 8 – Kenedy, Brazilian footballer

February 9

Jimmy Bennett, American actor

Kelli Berglund, American actress

Chungha, South Korean singer and dancer

February 11

Jonathan Tah, German footballer

Lucas Torreira, Uruguayan footballer

February 13 – Muhammad Rian Ardianto, Indonesian badminton player

February 14

Lucas Hernandez, French footballer

Viktor Kovalenko, Ukrainian footballer

February 17

Erika Fasana, Italian artistic gymnast

Sasha Pieterse, South African-born American actress

February 18 – Ikumi Hisamatsu, Japanese fashion model and actress

February 20 – Mabel, English singer

February 21 – Sophie Turner, English actress

February 23

Michael Johnston, American actor

D'Angelo Russell, American basketball player

February 24 – Cristian Imparato, Italian singer

February 25 – Emel Dereli, Turkish shot putter

February 28

Danilo Barbosa, Brazilian footballer

Bobb'e J. Thompson, American actor, dancer, rapper and comedian

March[edit]

 

Timo Werner

 

Myles Turner

March 1

Sage Northcutt, American mixed martial artist

Ye Shiwen, Chinese swimmer

March 4

Timo Baumgartl, German footballer

Antonio Sanabria, Paraguayan footballer

March 6

Timo Werner, German footballer

Yan Han, Chinese figure skater

March 8

Matthew Hammelmann, Australian rules footballer

Emil Imre, Hungarian short track speed skater

March 9 – Giorgio Minisini, Italian synchronized swimmer

March 14 – Janai Haupapa, Canadian rugby league player

March 15 – Levin Öztunalı, German footballer

March 16 – Anna Ovcharova, Russian/Swiss figure skater

March 18 – Madeline Carroll, American actress

March 19 – Feodosiy Efremenkov, Russian figure skater

March 22 – Gig Morton, Canadian actor

March 23

Alexander Albon, Thai racing driver

Lauri Kivari, Finnish freestyle skier[importance?]

March 24

Valentino Lazaro, Austrian footballer

Myles Turner, American basketball player

March 25 – Dougal Howard, Australian rules footballer[importance?]

March 26 – Kathryn Bernardo, Filipina actress

March 27 – Rosabell Laurenti Sellers, Italian-American actress

March 28

Benjamin Pavard, French footballer

Xie Siyi, Chinese diver

March 29 – Wade Baldwin IV, American basketball player

March 31 – Liza Koshy, American actress and television host[importance?]

April[edit]

 

Austin Mahone

 

Loïc Nottet

 

Abigail Breslin

April 2

Polina Agafonova, Russian figure skater

Matheus Santana, Brazilian swimmer

April 3 – Sarah Jeffery, American actress

April 4 – Austin Mahone, American singer

April 8 – Lorna Fitzgerald, English actress

April 9 – Giovani Lo Celso, Argentinian footballer

April 10

Andreas Christensen, Danish footballer

Thanasi Kokkinakis, Australian tennis player

Loïc Nottet, Belgian singer

Audrey Whitby, American teen actress

April 11 – Dele Alli, English footballer

April 12 – Polina Korobeynikova, Russian figure skater

April 14 – Abigail Breslin, American actress

April 16 – Anya Taylor-Joy, American actress

April 17 – Dee Dee Davis, American actress

April 18 – Ski Mask the Slump God, American rapper

April 21 – Tavi Gevinson, American fashion blogger

April 22 – Wendy Sulca, Peruvian singer

April 23

Álex Márquez, Spanish motorcycle racer

Charlie Rowe, British actor

April 24 – Ashleigh Barty, Australian tennis player

April 25

Mack Horton, Australian swimmer

Allisyn Ashley Arm, American actress

April 28 – Tony Revolori, American actor

April 29

Gustav Engvall, Swedish footballer

Katherine Langford, Australian actress

May[edit]

 

Noah Munck

 

Birdy

 

Ryan Ochoa

May 2 – Julian Brandt, German footballer

May 3

Mary Cain, American middle-distance runner

Alex Iwobi, Nigerian footballer

Noah Munck, American actor

May 4

Arielle Gold, American snowboarder

Pelayo Roza, Spanish sprint canoeist.

May 5 – Matheus Pereira, Brazilian footballer

May 8 – 6ix9ine, American rapper

May 9 – Noah Centineo, American actor

May 10 – Tyus Jones, American basketball player

May 11 – Andrés Cubas, Argentinian footballer

May 14

Martin Garrix, Dutch DJ and producer

McKaley Miller, American actress

Pokimane, Moroccan YouTuber

May 15 – Birdy, English singer and songwriter

May 17 – Ryan Ochoa, American actor and musician

May 18 – Violett Beane, American actress

May 19 – Lakshmi Menon, Indian film actress

May 18 – Yuki Kadono, Japanese snowboarder

May 23 – Katharina Althaus, German ski jumper

May 26 – Lukáš Haraslín, Slovak footballer

May 30

Aleksandr Golovin, Russian footballer

Erik Jones, American race car driver

May 31 – Normani, American singer

June[edit]

 

Tom Holland

 

Alen Halilović

June 1 – Tom Holland, English actor

June 3 – Han Tianyu, Chinese short track speed skater

June 7 – Christian McCaffrey, American football player

June 10 – Raury, American singer-songwriter

June 11 – Hakeeb Adelakun, English footballer

June 12 – Davinson Sánchez, Colombian footballer

June 13

Kingsley Coman, French footballer

Kodi Smit-McPhee, Australian actor

June 15 – Aurora, Norwegian singer

June 16 – Lily Zhang, American table tennis player

June 17 – Godfred Donsah, Ghanese footballer

June 18 – Alen Halilović, Croatian footballer

June 19 – Larisa Iordache, Romanian artistic gymnast

June 20

Sam Bennett, Canadian ice hockey player

Michael Dal Colle, Canadian ice hockey player

June 22

Yusupha Bobb, Gambian footballer

Hugo Calderano, Brazilian table tennis player

Kong Sang-jeong, South Korean short track speed skater

Mikel Merino, Spanish footballer

June 24 – Harris Dickinson, English actor, writer, and director

June 27 – Lauren Jauregui, American singer

June 28

Milot Rashica, Kosovar footballer

Donna Vekić, Croatian tennis player

June 29 – Bart Ramselaar, Dutch footballer

July[edit]

 

Adelina Sotnikova

 

Blake Michael

July 1 – Adelina Sotnikova, Russian figure skater

July 3

Kendji Girac, French singer

Kumaahran Sathasivam, Malaysian footballer

July 5 – Risa Shōji, Japanese figure skater

July 6 – Robert Naylor, Canadian actor and musician

July 9 – Shanice Williams, American actress and singer

July 10 – Moon Ga-young, South Korean actress

July 11

Alessia Cara, Canadian singer and songwriter

Andrija Živković, Serbian footballer

July 12 – Moussa Dembélé, French footballer

July 16

Kevin Abstract, American rapper, singer-songwriter and director

Nicky Jones, American voice actor

July 18

Dzhamaldin Khodzhaniyazov, Russian footballer

Yung Lean, Swedish rapper and record producer

Siebe Schrijvers, Belgian footballer

July 20 – Ben Simmons, Australian basketball player

July 21 – Joey Bragg, American actor and comedian

July 22

Skyler Gisondo, American actor

Indy Groothuizen, Dutch football player

Jane Oineza, Filipina actress

July 23

Danielle Bradbery, American singer

Rachel G. Fox, American actress

July 30

Dylan Larkin, American hockey player

Austin North, American actor

July 31 – Blake Michael, American actor

August[edit]

 

Jacob Latimore

 

Brianna Hildebrand

 

Jamia Simone Nash

August 1 – Cymphonique Miller, American actress and singer

August 2 – Simone Manuel, American swimmer

August 5

Francesca Deagostini, Italian artistic gymnast

Mai Murakami, Japanese artistic gymnast

August 7

Dani Ceballos, Spanish footballer

Liam James, Canadian actor

August 10 – Jacob Latimore, American singer, actor and dancer

August 12

Arthur Melo, Brazilian footballer

Torri Webster, Canadian actress

August 14

Brianna Hildebrand, American actress

Neal Maupay, French footballer

August 19

Almoez Ali, Sudanese-Qatari footballer

Laura Tesoro, Belgian singer and actress

August 21

Sofyan Amrabat, Dutch-born Moroccan footballer

Jamia Simone Nash, American singer and actress[importance?]

August 22

Jessica-Jane Applegate, British Paralympic swimmer

Michael Graue, American actor

August 24 – Kenzō Shirai, Japanese gymnast

August 27 – Ebru Topçu, Turkish footballer

August 28 – Kim Se-jeong, South Korean singer and actress

August 30

Gabriel Barbosa, Brazilian footballer

Chen Dequan, Chinese short track speed skater

September[edit]

 

Zendaya

 

Sigrid

 

Colin Ford

September 1 – Zendaya, American actress and singer

September 3 – Joy, South Korean singer and actress

September 5

Sigrid (singer), Norwegian singer

Richairo Živković, Dutch footballer

September 6 – Lil Xan, American rapper

September 9 – Jaïro Riedewald, Dutch footballer

September 12 – Colin Ford, American actor

September 13

Playboi Carti, American rapper

Lili Reinhart, American actress

September 16 – Alexis Blin, French footballer

September 17

Duje Ćaleta-Car, Croatian footballer

Esteban Ocon, French racing driver

Ella Purnell, English actress

September 19 – Pia Mia, Guamanian singer-songwriter and model

September 20 – Jerome Sinclair, English footballer

September 22 – Anthoine Hubert, French racing driver (d. 2019)

September 23

Lee Hi, South Korean singer-songwriter

Evgeny Rylov, Russian swimmer

September 25

Max Christiansen, German footballer

Mie Nielsen, Danish swimmer

September 27 – Maxwel Cornet, French-Ivorian footballer

September 28 – Michael Ronda, Mexican actor and singer

October[edit]

 

Bella Hadid

 

Devin Booker

October 3 – Kelechi Iheanacho, Nigerian footballer

October 7 – Lewis Capaldi, Scottish singer-songwriter

October 8 – Sara Takanashi, Japanese ski jumper

October 9

Jacob Batalon, American-Filipino actor

Bella Hadid, American model

October 12 – Riechedly Bazoer, Dutch footballer

October 15

Charly Musonda, Belgian footballer

Zelo, Korean singer

October 22

B.I, Korean singer

Harley Windsor, Australian pair skater

October 23 – Sam Berns, American high school student, and activist (d. 2014)

October 24

Jaylen Brown, American basketball player

Kyla Ross, American gymnast

October 26 – Anthony Sinisuka Ginting, Indonesian badminton player

October 27 – Nadiem Amiri, German footballer

October 28

Jasmine Jessica Anthony, American actress

Jack Eichel, American ice hockey player

Lee June-hyoung, South Korean figure skater

October 30

Devin Booker, American basketball player

Mizuki Fukumura, Japanese singer

November[edit]

 

Lil Peep

 

Michael Christian Martinez

 

Lorde

November 1

Sean Gelael, Indonesian racing driver

Lil Peep, American rapper (d. 2017)

Jeongyeon, South Korean singer

November 4 – Michael Christian Martinez, Filipino figure skater

November 7

André Horta, Portuguese footballer

Lorde, New Zealand singer-songwriter

November 9

Nguyễn Thị Ánh Viên, Vietnamese swimmer

Momo Hirai, Japanese singer and dancer

November 11

Adam Ounas, French-born Algerian footballer

Tye Sheridan, American actor

November 14 – Borna Ćorić, Croatian tennis player

November 15 – Malik Jefferson, American football player

November 16 – Brendan Murray, Irish singer

November 17 – Ruth Jebet, Bahraini long-distance runner

November 18

Akram Afif, Qatari footballer

Noah Ringer, American actor

Sorn, South Korean based singer

November 19 – Liliána Szilágyi, Hungarian swimmer

November 20 – Denis Zakaria, Swiss footballer

November 22

Hailey Baldwin, American model and socialite

Madison Davenport, American actress and singer

November 23

James Maddison, English footballer

Anna Yanovskaya, Russian ice dancer

November 26 – Louane Emera, French singer and actress

November 27 – Andy Truong, Australian fashion designer

November 29 – Gonçalo Guedes, Portuguese footballer

December[edit]

 

Stefanie Scott

 

Hailee Steinfeld

December 4

Diogo Jota, Portuguese footballer

Daria Svatkovskaya, Russian artistic gymnast

December 6 – Stefanie Scott, American actress

December 8 – Scott McTominay, Scottish footballer

December 9 – ViVi, Hong Kong singer[importance?]

December 10

Jérémy Gabriel, French Canadian singer

Kang Daniel, South Korean singer

December 11

Jack Griffo, American actor

Eliza McCartney, New Zealand track and field athlete

Hailee Steinfeld, American actress, model and singer

December 12 – Lucas Hedges, American actor

December 14 – Li Zijun, Chinese figure skater

December 15 – Oleksandr Zinchenko, Ukrainian footballer

December 16

Wilfred Ndidi, Nigerian footballer

Sergio Reguilón, Spanish footballer

December 17 – Elizaveta Tuktamysheva, Russian figure skater

December 19 – Franck Kessié, Ivorian footballer

December 21 – Kaitlyn Dever, American actress

December 28 – Alfred Kipketer, Kenyan middle-distance runner

December 29

Dylan Minnette, American actor, singer and musician

Sana, Japanese singer

Deaths[edit]

Main article: Deaths in 1996

Further information: Category:1996 deaths

Deaths

January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December

January[edit]

 

François Mitterrand

 

King Moshoeshoe II

January 1

Arleigh Burke, American naval officer (b. 1901)

Arthur Rudolph, German rocket engineer (b. 1906)

January 5

Yahya Ayyash, Palestinian shaheed (b. 1966)

Lincoln Kirstein, American writer and impresario (b. 1907)

January 7

Károly Grósz, 51st Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1930)

Tarō Okamoto, Japanese artist (b. 1911)

January 8 – François Mitterrand, French politician, 21st President of France (b. 1916)

January 15

Les Baxter, American musician and composer (b. 1922)

Moshoeshoe II, King of Lesotho (b. 1938)

January 17 – Barbara Jordan, American lawyer, educator, politician and civil rights activist (b. 1936)

January 18

Leonor Fini, Argentine artist (b. 1908)

Endel Puusepp, Estonian pilot (b. 1909)

N. T. Rama Rao, Indian actor, producer, director, editor and politician (b. 1923)

January 19 – Don Simpson, American film producer (b. 1943)

January 20 – Gerry Mulligan, American musician (b. 1927)

January 25 – Jonathan Larson, American composer and playwright (b. 1960)

January 26 – Georg Alexander, Duke of Mecklenburg (b. 1921)

January 28

Joseph Brodsky, Russian-born American Nobel poet (b. 1940)

Jerry Siegel, American cartoonist (b. 1914)

February[edit]

 

Gene Kelly

 

Audrey Meadows

 

McLean Stevenson

February 2 – Gene Kelly, American actor and dancer (b. 1912)

February 3 – Audrey Meadows, American actress (b. 1922)

February 4 – Alfredo Nobre da Costa, 106th Prime Minister of Portugal (b. 1923)

February 6 – Guy Madison, American actor (b. 1922)

February 7 – Boris Tchaikovsky, Russian composer (b. 1925)

February 9 – Adolf Galland, German general (b. 1912)

February 11 – Kebby Musokotwane, Prime Minister of Zambia (b. 1946)

February 12

Bob Shaw, Irish science fiction writer (b. 1931)

Ryōtarō Shiba, Japanese novelist (b. 1923)

February 13 – Martin Balsam, American actor (b. 1919)

February 14

Eva Hart, British Titanic survivor (b. 1905)

Bob Paisley, English football manager (b. 1919)

February 15

Tommy Rettig, American actor (b. 1941)

McLean Stevenson, American actor (b. 1927)

February 16

Roger Bowen, American actor (b. 1932)

Pat Brown, American politician (b. 1905)

February 20

Audrey Munson, American model and actress (b. 1891)

Toru Takemitsu, Japanese composer (b. 1930)

February 21 – Morton Gould, American musician and composer (b. 1913)

February 23

William Bonin, American serial killer (b. 1947)

Helmut Schön, German football player and manager (b. 1915)

February 25 – Haing S. Ngor, Cambodian activist and actor (b. 1940)

February 26 – Mieczysław Weinberg, Polish composer (b. 1919)

February 27 – Sarah Palfrey Cooke, American tennis player (b. 1912)

March[edit]

 

George Burns

 

Edmund Muskie

March 2 – Lyle Talbot, American actor (b. 1902)

March 3 – Marguerite Duras, French author and director (b. 1914)

March 4 – Minnie Pearl, American comedian (b. 1912)

March 5

Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad, 5th President of Bangladesh (b. 1918)

Whit Bissell, American actor (b. 1909)

March 6 – Simon Cadell, English actor (b. 1950)

March 9 – George Burns, American comedian and actor (b. 1896)

March 10 – Ross Hunter, American film producer (b. 1926)

March 11 – Vince Edwards, American actor (b. 1928)

March 12 – Gyula Kállai, 48th Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1910)

March 13 – Krzysztof Kieślowski, Polish film director (b. 1941)

March 17 – René Clément, French film director (b. 1913)

March 18 – Odysseas Elytis, Greek writer (b. 1911)

March 19

Virginia Henderson, American nurse and theorist (b. 1897)

Chen Jingrun, Chinese mathematician (b. 1933)

March 25 – Lola Beltrán, Mexican singer, actress, and television presenter (b. 1932)

March 26

Edmund Muskie, American politician (b. 1914)

David Packard, American engineer (b. 1912)

March 31 – Jeffrey Lee Pierce, American musician (b. 1958)

April[edit]

 

Greer Garson

 

P. L. Travers

April 3 – Ron Brown, American politician (b. 1941)

April 4 – Barney Ewell, American athlete (b. 1918)

April 6

John D. Bulkeley, American naval officer (b. 1911)

Greer Garson, British-American actress (b. 1904)

April 8 – Ben Johnson, American actor and stuntman (b. 1918)

April 13 – James Burke, Irish-American gangster (b. 1931)

April 16 – Lucille Bremer, American actress and dancer (b. 1917)

April 18 – Bernard Edwards, American bass player (b. 1952)

April 20 – Christopher Robin Milne, English author and bookseller (b. 1920)

April 21 – Dzhokhar Dudayev, Chechen politician and President of Ichkeria (b. 1944)

April 22 – Erma Bombeck, American humorist and writer (b. 1927)

April 23 – P. L. Travers, British actress, journalist, novelist and writer (b. 1899)

April 25 – Saul Bass, American graphic designer (b. 1920)

April 26 – Stirling Silliphant, American screenwriter and producer (b. 1918)

April 28 – Siti Hartinah, 2nd First Lady of Indonesia, wife of Suharto (b. 1923)

May[edit]

 

Tamara Toumanova

 

Timothy Leary

May 1 – David M. Kennedy, American politician, businessman (b. 1905)

May 2 – Emile Habibi, Palestinian Israeli writer (b. 1922)

May 3 – Jack Weston, American actor (b. 1924)

May 6 – Leo Joseph Suenens, Belgian cardinal (b. 1904)

May 11

Nnamdi Azikiwe, 1st President of Nigeria (b. 1904)

Scott Fischer, American mountaineer (b. 1955)

Rob Hall, New Zealand mountaineer (b. 1961)

Ademir de Menezes, Brazilian footballer (b. 1922)

May 17 – Johnny "Guitar" Watson, American singer, songwriter and musician (b. 1935)

May 19 – John Beradino, American baseball player and actor (b. 1917)

May 20 – Jon Pertwee, British actor (b. 1919)

May 23 – Sim Iness, American Olympic athlete (b. 1930)

May 24

John Abbott, English actor (b. 1905)

Jacob Druckman, American composer (b. 1928)

Enrique Álvarez Félix, Mexican actor (b. 1934)

Joseph Mitchell, American writer (b. 1908)

May 25 – Bradley Nowell, American musician (b. 1968)

May 29 – Tamara Toumanova, Russian-American dancer and actress (b. 1919)

May 31 – Timothy Leary, American writer and social activist (b. 1920)

June[edit]

 

Ella Fitzgerald

 

Andreas Papandreou

June 1 – Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, 6th President of India (b. 1913)

June 2

John Alton, American cinematographer (b. 1901)

Leon Garfield, English author (b. 1921)

Pilar Lorengar, Spanish soprano (b. 1928)

June 3 – Peter Glenville, English film director (b. 1913)

June 6

Kusuo Kitamura, Japanese Olympic swimmer (b. 1917)

George Davis Snell, American Nobel geneticist (b. 1903)

June 10 – Jo Van Fleet, American actress (b. 1914)

June 11 – Brigitte Helm, German actress (b. 1908)

June 15 – Ella Fitzgerald, American singer (b. 1917)

June 19

Hillevi Rombin, Swedish actress and beauty queen (b. 1933)

Edvin Wide, Swedish middle- and long-distance runner (b. 1896)

June 23

Ray Lindwall, Australian cricketer (b. 1921)

Andreas Papandreou, Prime Minister of Greece (b. 1919)

June 26 – Veronica Guerin, Irish journalist (b. 1958)

June 27 – Albert R. Broccoli, American film producer (b. 1909)

June 28 – Kwan Tak-hing, Hong Kong actor (b. 1905)

July[edit]

 

Jean Muir

 

Claudette Colbert

July 1 – Margaux Hemingway, American fashion model and actress (b. 1954)

July 3 – Raaj Kumar, Indian film actor (b. 1926)

July 9

Eno Raud, Estonian writer (b. 1928)

Sergey Kuryokhin, Russian pianist, composer, improvisor, performance artist and actor (b. 1954)

July 13 – Pandro S. Berman, American film producer (b. 1905)

July 15 – Dana Hill, American actress (b. 1964)

July 17

Paul Touvier, French Nazi collaborator (b. 1915)

Victims of TWA Flight 800

Michel Breistroff, NHL ice hockey player (b. 1971)

Marcel Dadi, French guitarist (b. 1951)

David Hogan, American composer (b. 1949)

Jed Johnson, American interior designer and director (b. 1948)

July 20 – František Plánička, Czech footballer (b. 1904)

July 21

Luana Anders, American actress (b. 1938)

Herb Edelman, American actor (b. 1933)

July 22 – Jessica Mitford, British-American author, journalist and political campaigner (b. 1917)

July 23 – Jean Muir, American actress (b. 1911)

July 27 – Jane Drew, English architect (b. 1911)

July 28 – Roger Tory Peterson, American naturalist and artist (b. 1908)

July 30 – Claudette Colbert, French-born American Academy Award-winning actress (b. 1903)

August[edit]

 

Tadeusz Reichstein

 

Alejandro Agustín Lanusse

August 1

Mohamed Farrah Aidid, Somali military commander and politician (b. 1934)

Frida Boccara, French singer (b. 1940)

Tadeusz Reichstein, Polish-Swiss Nobel chemist (b. 1897)

August 2

Michel Debré, 99th Prime Minister of France (b. 1912)

Obdulio Varela, Uruguayan footballer (b. 1917)

August 6 – Hernán Siles Zuazo, Bolivian politician (b. 1914)

August 8 – Nevill Francis Mott, English Nobel physicist (b. 1905)

August 11

Rafael Kubelík, Czech-born Swiss conductor (b. 1914)

Baba Vanga, Bulgarian mystic, clairvoyant and herbalist (b. 1911)

August 12 – Viktor Hambardzumyan, Armenian scientist (b. 1908)

August 13

António de Spínola, 14th President of Portugal (b. 1910)

David Tudor, American pianist and composer (b. 1926)

August 14 – Camilla Horn, German actress (b. 1903)

August 20 – Rio Reiser, German musician and singer (b. 1950)

August 26 – Alejandro Agustín Lanusse, 37th President of Argentina (b. 1918)

August 27 – Greg Morris, American actor (b. 1933)

August 30 – Christine Pascal, French actress, director and screenwriter (b. 1953)

September[edit]

 

Ernesto Geisel

 

Spiro Agnew

 

Paul Erdős

 

Dorothy Lamour

September 1

Vagn Holmboe, Danish composer (b. 1909)

Karl Kehrle, Benedictine monk and beekeeper (b. 1898)

September 7 – Bibi Besch, American actress (b. 1940)

September 9

Ruggero Mastroianni, Italian film editor (b. 1929)

Bill Monroe, American musician (b. 1911)

September 10 – Joanne Dru, American actress (b. 1922)

September 12

Ernesto Geisel, Brazilian general, 29th President of Brazil (b. 1907)

Ricardo López, Uruguayan-American pest control worker (b. 1975)

September 13 – Tupac Shakur, American rapper (b. 1971)

September 14 – Juliet Prowse, American dancer and actress (b. 1936)

September 16

McGeorge Bundy, American academic (b. 1919)

Gene Nelson, American dancer and actor (b. 1920)

September 17 – Spiro Agnew, American politician (b. 1918)

September 18 – Annabella, French actress (b. 1907)

September 20

Murtaza Bhutto, Pakistani politician (b. 1954)

Paul Erdős, Hungarian mathematician (b. 1913)

Max Manus, Norwegian resistance fighter (b. 1914)

Paul Weston, American pianist and composer (b. 1912)

September 21 – Henri Nouwen, Dutch priest and author (b. 1932)

September 22

Mohamed Ben Ahmed Abdelghani, 1st Prime Minister of Algeria (b. 1927)

Dorothy Lamour, American actress (b. 1914)

September 23 – Fujiko Fujio, Japanese cartoonist (b. 1933)

September 24

Mark Frankel, British actor (b. 1962)

Zeki Müren, Turkish singer, composer, songwriter, actor and poet (b. 1931)

September 26

Nicu Ceaușescu, Romanian politician (b. 1951)

Pavel Sudoplatov, Soviet spy (b. 1907)

Geoffrey Wilkinson, English Nobel chemist (b. 1921)

September 27 – Mohammad Najibullah, President of Afghanistan (b. 1947)

September 29 – Shūsaku Endō, Japanese author (b. 1923)

September 30 – Moneta Sleet Jr., American press photogrpaher (b. 1926)

October[edit]

 

Morey Amsterdam

October 4 – Silvio Piola, Italian footballer (b. 1913)

October 5 – Seymour Cray, American computer scientist (b. 1925)

October 11

Renato Russo, Brazilian singer (b. 1960)

William Vickrey, Canadian-American economist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1914)

October 12

René Lacoste, French tennis player (b. 1904)

Roger Lapébie, French racing cyclist (b. 1911)

October 13 – Beryl Reid, British actress (b. 1919)

October 14 – Laura La Plante, American actress (b. 1904)

October 15 – Robert F. Williams, American civil rights leader, author (b. 1925)

October 16 – Jason Bernard, American actor (b. 1938)

October 24 – Artur Axmann, German Nazi leader (b. 1913)

October 28 – Morey Amsterdam, American comedian (b. 1908)

October 31 – Marcel Carné, French film director (b. 1909)

November[edit]

 

Jean-Bédel Bokassa/Bokassa I

 

Abdus Salam

November 1 – J. R. Jayewardene, 2nd President of Sri Lanka (b. 1906)

November 2 – Eva Cassidy, American vocalist (b. 1963)

November 3

Jean-Bédel Bokassa/Bokassa I, 2nd President of the Central African Republic and Emperor of Central Africa (b. 1921)

Abdullah Çatlı, Turkish nationalist (b. 1956)

November 5 – Eddie Harris, American jazz musician (b. 1934)

November 6 – Tommy Lawton, English footballer and manager (b. 1919)

November 14

Joseph Bernardin, American cardinal (b. 1928)

Virginia Cherrill, American actress (b. 1908)

November 15 – Alger Hiss, American diplomat (b. 1904)

November 18 – Zinovy Gerdt, Russian actor (b. 1916)

November 21 – Abdus Salam, Pakistani Nobel physicist (b. 1926)

November 22

María Casares, French-Spanish actress (b. 1922)

Mark Lenard, American actor (b. 1924)

November 26 – Paul Rand, American graphic designer (b. 1914)

November 27 – Gertrude Blanch, American mathematician (b. 1897)

November 28 – Don McNeill, American tennis player (b. 1918)

November 30 – Tiny Tim, American musician (b. 1932)

December[edit]

 

Marcello Mastroianni

 

Carl Sagan

December 3 – Babrak Karmal, President of Afghanistan (b. 1929)

December 6 – Pete Rozelle, American football official (b. 1926)

December 7 – José Donoso, Chilean writer (b. 1924)

December 8 – Howard Rollins, American actor (b. 1950)

December 9 – Mary Leakey, British archaeologist (b. 1913)

December 10 – Faron Young, American singer (b. 1932)

December 11 – Willie Rushton, English comedian, actor and cartoonist (b. 1937)

December 13 – Cao Yu, Chinese playwright (b. 1910)

December 16

Quentin Bell, English biographer and art historian (b. 1910)

Laurens van der Post, South African author (b. 1906)

December 17 – Stanko Todorov, Bulgarian communist politician (b. 1920)

December 18 – Irving Caesar, American lyricist (b. 1895)

December 19 – Marcello Mastroianni, Italian actor (b. 1924)

December 20

Amata Kabua, 1st President of the Marshall Islands (b. 1928)

Carl Sagan, American astronomer (b. 1934)

December 21 – Margret Rey, American author and illustrator (b. 1906)

December 30

Lew Ayres, American actor (b. 1908)

Jack Nance, American actor (b. 1943)

Nobel Prizes[edit]

Nobel medal.png

Physics – David M. Lee, Douglas D. Osheroff, Robert C. Richardson

Chemistry – Robert Curl, Sir Harold Kroto, Richard Smalley

Medicine – Peter C. Doherty, Rolf M. Zinkernagel

Literature – Wisława Szymborska

Peace – Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo and José Ramos-Horta

Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel – James Mirrlees, William Vickrey

 

Take a look back at the year 1996

 

1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1996th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 996th year of the 2nd millennium, the 96th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1990s decade.

 

1996 was designated as:

 

International Year for the Eradication of Poverty

 

Events

 

January

 

January 3 – Motorola introduces the Motorola StarTAC Wearable Cellular Telephone, the world's smallest and lightest mobile phone to date.

January 5 – Hamas operative Yahya Ayyash is assassinated by an Israeli Shabak-planted, bomb-laden cell phone.

January 7 – One of the worst blizzards in American history hits the eastern states, killing more than 150 people. Philadelphia receives a record 30.7 inches (78 cm) of snow, New York City's public schools close for the first time in eighteen years and the federal government in Washington, D.C. is closed for days.

January 8 – A Zairean cargo plane crashes into a crowded market in the center of the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kinshasa, killing 300 people.

January 9–20 – Serious fighting breaks out between Russian soldiers and rebel fighters in Chechnya.

January 11 – Ryutaro Hashimoto, leader of the Liberal Democratic Party, becomes Prime Minister of Japan.

January 13 – Italy's Prime Minister, Lamberto Dini, resigns after the failure of all-party talks to confirm him. New talks are initiated by President Oscar Luigi Scalfaro to form a new government.

January 14 – Jorge Sampaio is elected President of Portugal.

January 16 – President of Sierra Leone Valentine Strasser is deposed by the chief of defence, Julius Maada Bio. Bio promises to restore power following elections scheduled for February.

January 19

The North Cape oil spill occurs as an engine fire forces the tugboat Scandia ashore on Moonstone Beach in South Kingstown, Rhode Island. The North Cape Barge is pulled along with it and leaks 820,000 gallons of home heating oil.

An Indonesian ferry sinks off the northern tip of Sumatra, drowning more than 100 people.

January 20 – Yasser Arafat is re-elected president of the Palestinian Authority.

 

Yasser Arafat

January 21 – France undertakes its last nuclear weapons test.

January 22 – Andreas Papandreou, Prime Minister of Greece, resigns due to health problems; a new government forms under Costas Simitis.

January 24 – Polish Premier Józef Oleksy resigns amid charges that he spied for Moscow. He is replaced by Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz.

January 27 – Colonel Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara deposes the first democratically elected President of Niger, Mahamane Ousmane, in a military coup.

January 31

Colombo Central Bank bombing: an explosives-filled truck rams into the gates of the Central Bank in Colombo, Sri Lanka, killing at least 86 people and injuring 1,400.

An explosion in Shaoyang, China kills 122 people and injures over 400 when 10 short tons (9.1 t) of dynamite in an illegal explosives warehouse underneath an apartment building detonate.

An amateur astronomer from southern Japan discovers Comet Hyakutake; it will pass very close to the Earth in March.

February[edit]

February 4 – The 6.6 Mw  earthquake near Lijiang in South-west China kills up to 322 people, injures 17,000, and leaves 300,000 homeless.

February 6 – Birgenair Flight 301, on a charter flight from the Caribbean to Germany, crashes into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of the Dominican Republic, killing all 189 passengers and crew.

February 7 – René Préval succeeds Jean-Bertrand Aristide as President of Haiti in the first peaceful handover of power since the nation achieved independence 192 years earlier, in 1804.

February 9

The element copernicium is created by fusing a 208Pb nucleus with a 70Zn nucleus, forming 278Cn. Given the placeholder name "ununbium", the element is not named until 2010.

An IRA ceasefire ends with the Docklands bombing in London's Canary Wharf District, killing two people and causing over £85,000,000 worth of damage.

February 10 – Bosnian Serbs break off contact with the Bosnian government and with representatives of Ifor, the NATO localised force, in reaction to the arrest of several Bosnian Serb war criminals.

February 14 – Violent clashes erupt between Filipino soldiers and Vietnamese boat people, as the Filipino government attempts to forcibly repatriate hundreds of Vietnamese asylum seekers.

February 15

The American Embassy in Athens, Greece, comes under mortar fire.

Begum Khaleda Zia is re-elected as Prime Minister of Bangladesh. The country's second democratic election is marred by low voter turnout, due to several boycotts and pre-election violence, which has resulted in at least thirteen deaths.

The UK government publishes the Scott Report.

 

Feb.15: Long March rocket, with Intelsat 708 satellite, veers upon launch (images from Cox Commission report for U.S. Congress).

February 16 – 1996 Maryland train collision: A Chicago-bound Amtrak train, the Capitol Limited, collides with a MARC commuter train bound for Washington, D.C., killing 11 people.

February 17 – The 8.2 Mw  Biak earthquake strikes the Papua province of eastern Indonesia with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe). A large tsunami followed, leaving 166 people dead or missing and 423 injured.

February 24 – Cuban fighter jets shoot down two American aircraft belonging to the Cuban exile group Brothers to the Rescue. Cuban officials assert that they invaded Cuban airspace.

February 25 – Two suicide bombs in Israel kill 25 and injure 80; Hamas claims responsibility.

February 29

Faucett Flight 251 en route from Lima to Rodriguez Ballon airport crashes into a mountain near Arequipa; all 123 people on board are killed.

At least 81 people drown when a boat capsizes 120 kilometres east of Kampala, Uganda.

The Bosnian government declares the end of the Siege of Sarajevo.

March[edit]

March 1 – Iraq disarmament crisis: Iraqi forces refuse UNSCOM inspection teams access to five sites designated for inspection. The teams enter the sites only after delays of up to seventeen hours.

March 2 – 1996 Australian federal election: The Liberal/National Coalition led by John Howard defeats the Labor Government led by Prime Minister Paul Keating. Howard was sworn in on March 11.[1]

March 3 – José María Aznar, leader of the Popular Party, is elected as Prime Minister of Spain, replacing Felipe González.

March 3–4 – Two suicide bombs explode in Israel, killing 32 people. The Yahya Ayyash Units admit responsibility, and Palestinian president Yasser Arafat condemns the killings in a televised address. Israel warns of retaliation.

March 6

Mesut Yılmaz of ANAP forms the new government of Turkey (53rd government).

A boat carrying market traders capsizes outside Freetown harbour in Sierra Leone, killing at least 86 people.

Chechen rebels attack the Russian government headquarters in Grozny; 70 Russian soldiers and policemen and 130 Chechen fighters are killed.

March 8 – China begins surface-to-surface missile testing and military exercises off Taiwanese coastal areas. The United States government condemns the act as provocation, and the Taiwanese government warns of retaliation.

March 9 – Jorge Sampaio is the new Portuguese president.

March 13 – Dunblane massacre: Unemployed former shopkeeper Thomas Hamilton walks into the Dunblane Primary School in Scotland and opens fire, killing sixteen infant school pupils and one teacher before committing suicide.

March 14 – An international peace summit is held in Egypt in response to escalating terrorist attacks in the Middle East.

March 16 – Robert Mugabe is re-elected as President of Zimbabwe, although only 32% of the electorate actually voted.

March 17 – Sri Lanka wins the Cricket World Cup by beating Australia in the final.

March 18 – The Ozone Disco Club fire in Quezon City, Philippines kills 163 people.

March 22 – Sweden's Finance Minister Göran Persson becomes the new Prime Minister of Sweden.

March 23 – Taiwan (Republic of China) holds its first direct elections for President; Lee Teng-hui is re-elected.

March 24 – The Marcopper mining disaster on the island of Marinduque, Philippines takes place.

March 25 – The 68th Academy Awards, hosted by Whoopi Goldberg, are held at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in Los Angeles with Braveheart winning Best Picture.

March 26 – The International Monetary Fund approves a $10.2 billion loan to Russia for economic reform.

April[edit]

April 1 – The Halifax Regional Municipality in Nova Scotia is created.

April 3

A Boeing 737 military jet crashes into a mountain north of Dubrovnik, Croatia. All 35 people on board are killed, including United States Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown.

Massacres of Hutus by Tutsis in Burundi take place with more than 450 killed within a few days.

April 6

Fighting breaks out in Monrovia, Liberia, between various rebel factions struggling for power in the country's interrupted civil war. Several foreign nationals leave the nation.

Turkish authorities begin Operation Hawk, a military offensive against rebels from the Kurdish Workers' Party in south-east Turkey.

April 9 – In a common statement, the European Union officially recognises the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

April 11 – The Israeli government launches Operation Grapes of Wrath, consisting of massive attacks on Lebanon, in retaliation for prior terrorist attacks, and sparking off a violent series of retaliations.

April 18

Qana Massacre: Over 100 Lebanese civilians are killed after Israel shells the United Nations compound in Qana.

In reaction to the Qana Massacre, an Islamist group in Egypt open fire on a hotel, killing eighteen Greek tourists and injuring seventeen others.

April 21 – A general election in Italy proclaims a new center-left government headed by Romano Prodi, replacing Silvio Berlusconi.

April 24 – At the urging of Yasser Arafat, the Palestine Liberation Organization drops its clause calling for the removal of Israel. The Israeli government responds by dropping a similar clause concerning the existence of Palestine.

April 28

Port Arthur massacre: Martin Bryant kills 35 people at the Port Arthur tourist site in Tasmania, Australia.

A bomb explodes in Bhaiperu, Pakistan, killing more than 60 people.

May[edit]

May – Iraq disarmament crisis: UNSCOM supervises the destruction of Al-Hakam, Iraq's main production facility of biological warfare agents.

May 9

South Africa's National Party pulls out of the coalition government formed two years earlier, and the African National Congress assumes full political control.

Ugandan president Yoweri Museveni wins a landslide victory in the country's first direct presidential elections, securing 75% of the vote.

May 10

1996 Everest disaster: A sudden storm engulfs Mount Everest with several climbing teams high on the mountain, leaving eight people dead. By the end of the month, at least four other climbers die in the worst season of fatalities on the mountain to date.

The Australian government introduces a nationwide ban on the private possession of both automatic and semi-automatic rifles, in response to the Port Arthur massacre.

May 11 – After takeoff from Miami, a fire started by improperly handled oxygen canisters in the cargo hold of Atlanta-bound ValuJet Flight 592 causes the Douglas DC-9 to crash in the Florida Everglades, killing all 110 people on board.

May 13 – Severe thunderstorms and a tornado in Bangladesh kill 600 people.

May 17–28 – Atal Bihari Vajpayee, leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party, is elected as Prime Minister of India, replacing P. V. Narasimha Rao of the Indian National Congress. However, the party does not receive an overall majority and Vajpayee resigns thirteen days later rather than face a no confidence vote and is replaced by the United Front leader, Deve Gowda.

May 18 – The X Prize Foundation launches the $10,000,000 Ansari X Prize.

May 21

The MV Bukoba sinks in Tanzanian waters in Lake Victoria, killing nearly 1,000 people in one of Africa's worst maritime disasters.

The Trappist Martyrs of Atlas are executed.

May 23 – Members of the Armed Islamic Group in Algeria kill seven French Trappist monks, after talks with French government concerning the imprisonment of several GIA sympathisers break down.

May 27 – First Chechnya War: Russian President Boris Yeltsin meets with Chechnyan rebels for the first time and negotiates a ceasefire for the dispute.

May 28 – Albania's general election of May 26 is declared unfair by international monitors, and the ruling Democratic Party under President Sali Berisha is charged by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe with rigging the elections. Several hundred protestors gather in Tirana to demonstrate against the election result.

May 30 – The Likud Party, led by Benjamin Netanyahu, wins a narrow victory in the Israeli general election.

June[edit]

June – Iraq disarmament crisis: As Iraq continues to refuse inspectors access to a number of sites, the United States fails in its attempt to build support for military action against Iraq in the UN Security Council.

June 1–3 – The Czech Republic's first general election ends inconclusively. Prime Minister Václav Klaus and his incumbent Civic Democratic Party emerge as the winners, but are unable to form a majority government. President Václav Havel refuses to invite Klaus to form a coalition.

June 4 – The space rocket Ariane 5 explodes forty seconds after takeoff in French Guiana. The project costs European governments $7,500,000,000 over eleven years.

June 6 – Leighton W. Smith, Jr. resigns as NATO commander in the face of increasing criticism.

June 8–30 – England hosts the UEFA Euro 1996 football tournament, which is won by Germany.

June 11

An explosion in a São Paulo suburban shopping centre kills 44 people and injures more than 100.

A peace convoy carrying Chechen separatist leaders and international diplomats is targeted by a series of remotely controlled land mines; eight people are killed.

June 15 – In Manchester, UK, a massive IRA bomb injures over 200 people and devastates a large part of the city centre.

June 28

A new government is formed in Turkey, with Necmettin Erbakan of Refah Partisi becoming Prime Minister of the coalition government, and Deputy/Foreign Minister Tansu Çiller of the True Path Party succeeding him after two years.

The Constitution of Ukraine is signed into law.

June 29

The Prince's Trust concert is held in Hyde Park, London, and is attended by 150,000 people. The Who headlines the event in their first performance since 1989.

An explosion in a firecrackers factory in Sichuan Province, China kills at least 52 people and injures 83 others.

June 30

Costas Simitis is elected president of the Panhellenic Socialist Movement of Greece.

Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadžić relinquishes power to his deputy, Biljana Plavšić.

July[edit]

July

Iraq disarmament crisis: U.N. Inspector Scott Ritter attempts to conduct surprise inspections on the Republican Guard facility at the airport but is blocked by Iraqi officials.

The Indian government officially renames the city of Madras, restoring the name Chennai.[2]

July 1

The Northern Territory in Australia legalises voluntary euthanasia.

German orthography reform of 1996 agreed internationally.

July 3 – Boris Yeltsin is re-elected as President of Russia after the second round of elections.

July 5 – Dolly the sheep, the first mammal to be successfully cloned from an adult cell, is born at the Roslin Institute in Midlothian, Scotland, UK.

July 11 – Arrest warrants are issued for Bosnian Serb war criminals Radovan Karadžić and Ratko Mladić by the Russell Tribunal in The Hague.

July 12 – Hurricane Bertha: made landfall in North Carolina as a Category 2 storm, causing $270 million in damage ($431 million in present-day terms[3]) to the United States and its possessions and many indirect deaths.

July 16 – An outbreak of E. coli food poisoning in Japan results in 6,000 children being ill, including two deaths, after a group of school children eat contaminated lunches.

July 17

The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa) is constituted.

Paris- and Rome-bound TWA Flight 800 (Boeing 747) explodes off the coast of Long Island, New York, killing all 230 people on board.

July 19

The 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, United States, begin.

Bosnian Serb President Radovan Karadžić resigns from public office in Republika Srpska after being indicted for war crimes.

July 21 – The Saguenay Flood, one of Canada's most costly natural disasters, is caused by flooding on the Saguenay River in Quebec.

July 24 – The Dehiwala train bombing kills 56 commuters outside Colombo.

July 25 – The Tutsi-led Burundian army performs a coup and reinstalls previous president Pierre Buyoya, ousting current president Sylvestre Ntibantunganya.

July 27 – The Centennial Olympic Park bombing at the 1996 Summer Olympics kills one person and injures 111.

August[edit]

 

The electron microscope reveals chain structures in meteorite fragment ALH84001.

August

The first three-parent baby is conceived in New Jersey through mitochondrial donation.[4]

The invasive species Asian long-horned beetle is found in New York City.

August 1

Sarah Balabagan returns to the Philippines.

A pro-democracy demonstration supporting Megawati Sukarnoputri in Indonesia is broken up by riot police.

August 4 – The 1996 Summer Olympics conclude.

August 6 – NASA announces that the Allan Hills 84001 meteorite, thought to originate from Mars, may contain evidence of primitive lifeforms; further tests are inconclusive.

August 7 – Heavy rains kill more than 80 campers near Huesca, Spain.

August 9 – Boris Yeltsin is sworn in at the Kremlin for a second term as President of Russia.

August 13 – Data sent back by the Galileo space probe indicates there may be water on one of Jupiter's moons.

August 14 – A rocket ignited during a fireworks display in Arequipa, Peru knocks down a high-tension power cable into a dense crowd, electrocuting 35 people.

August 15 – Bob Dole is nominated for President of the United States, and Jack Kemp for Vice President, at the Republican National Convention in San Diego, California.

August 16 – Brookfield Zoo, Chicago. After a 3-year-old boy falls into the 20-foot (6.1 m) deep gorilla enclosure, Binti Jua, a female lowland gorilla sits with the injured boy until his rescue.

August 21

Former State President of South Africa, F. W. de Klerk, makes an official apology for crimes committed under Apartheid to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in Cape Town.

In the UK, Queen Elizabeth II issues letters patent on divorced former wives of British princes, taking away from the ex-wives the attribute and style of Royal Highness. With that Sarah, Duchess of York as well as Diana, Princess of Wales legally cease to be Royals, but they remain as non-royal Duchess and Princess.

August 23 – Osama bin Laden writes "The Declaration of Jihad on the Americans Occupying the Country of the Two Sacred Places," a call for the removal of American military forces from Saudi Arabia.

August 28 – Their Royal Highnesses, the Prince and Princess of Wales, are formally divorced at the High Court of Justice in London. Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales is restyled Diana, Princess of Wales, due to the Queen's letters patent issued a week earlier.

August 29

U.S. President Bill Clinton and Vice President Al Gore are re-nominated at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago.

A Russian Tupolev 154 jetliner crashes into a mountain as it approaches the airport at Spitsbergen, Norway, killing all 141 people on board.

August 31 – Iraq disarmament crisis: Iraqi forces launch an offensive into the northern No-Fly Zone and capture Arbil.

September[edit]

September 2 – A permanent peace agreement is signed at the Malacañan Palace between the Government of the Philippines and the Moro National Liberation Front.

September 3 – The United States launches Operation Desert Strike against Iraq in reaction to the attack on Arbil.

September 4 – The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia attack a military base in Guaviare, Colombia, starting three weeks of guerrilla warfare that will claim the lives of at least 130 Colombians.

September 5 – Hurricane Fran makes landfall near Cape Fear, North Carolina as a Category 3 storm with 115 mph (185 km/h) sustained winds. Fran caused over $3 billion in damages ($4.79 billion in present-day terms[3]) and killed 27 people, mainly in North Carolina. The name "Fran" was retired due to the extensive damage.

September 10 – Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) signed (it will be ratified 180 days after ratification by 44 Annex 2 countries).

September 13 – Alija Izetbegović is elected President of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the country's first election since the Bosnian War.

September 18 – A North Korean Sang-O class submarine runs aground in South Korea. The crew are described as spies by the South Korean government and killed by the South Korean military.

September 20 – Leader of Pakistani opposition party Pakistan Peoples Party Murtaza Bhutto is killed during a gunfight with police.

September 22 – The Panhellenic Socialist Movement under the leadership of Costas Simitis succeeds in the 1996 Greek legislative election.

September 24 – U.S. President Bill Clinton signs the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty at the United Nations.

September 27 – In Afghanistan, the Taliban capture the capital city of Kabul, after driving out President Burhanuddin Rabbani and executing former leader Mohammad Najibullah.

October[edit]

October 2

The former Prime Minister of Bulgaria, Andrey Lukanov, is assassinated.

Aeroperú Flight 603 crashes into the Pacific Ocean when the instruments fail just after takeoff from Lima Airport, killing all 70 people on board.

October 6 – The government of New Zealand agrees to pay $130 million worth of compensation for the loss of land suffered by the Māori population between the years of 1844 and 1864.

October 22 – A fire at La Planta prison in southwest Caracas, Venezuela, kills thirty prisoners.

October 30 – Fighting erupts when Banyamulenga Tutsis of Laurent Kabila in Zaire seize Uvira and proceed to kill Hutu refugees.

October 31 – TAM Transportes Aéreos Regionais Flight 402 crashes into a densely populated area of São Paulo, killing all 96 people on board.

November[edit]

November – Iraq disarmament crisis: UNSCOM inspectors uncover buried prohibited missile parts. Iraq refuses to allow UNSCOM teams to remove remnants of missile engines for analysis outside of the country.

November 5

Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's government is dismissed by President Farooq Leghari after widespread allegations of corruption.

1996 United States presidential election: Incumbent Democratic President Bill Clinton defeats his Republican challenger, Bob Dole.

November 7

A category 4 cyclone strikes Andhra Pradesh, India, killing more than 2,000 people.

NASA launches the Mars Global Surveyor.

November 8 – All 141 people on board a Nigerian-owned Boeing 727 die when the aircraft crashes into the Atlantic Ocean while approaching Lagos airport.

November 12 – Saudi Arabian Airlines Boeing 747 collides in mid-air with Kazakhstan Airlines Il-76 in New Delhi, India, resulting in the loss of 349 lives.

November 17

A bomb exploded in Kaspiysk, Russia, killing 32 people.

Emil Constantinescu is elected as President of Romania.

November 18 – Frederick Chiluba is re-elected as President of Zambia.

November 19

Martin Bryant is sentenced to 35 consecutive sentences of life imprisonment plus 1,035 years without parole for murdering 35 people in a shooting spree in Tasmania earlier this year.

Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Organization (CTBTO) established.

STS-80: Space Shuttle Columbia conducts the longest mission of the Space Shuttle program.

November 20 – The 1996 Garley Building fire occurred in Hong Kong, resulting in 41 deaths and 81 injuries.

November 21 – A propane explosion at the Humberto Vidal shoe store and office building in San Juan, Puerto Rico kills 33 people.

November 23

The Republic of Angola officially joins the World Trade Organization as Angola.

Ethiopian Airlines Flight 961 is hijacked, then crashes into the Indian Ocean off the coast of Comoros after running out of fuel, killing 125.

Tamagotchi is released in Japan by Bandai.

November 25 – An ice storm strikes the U.S., killing 26 directly and hundreds more from accidents. A powerful windstorm blasts Florida with winds gusts up to 90 mph.

December[edit]

December 9 – Jerry Rawlings is re-elected as President of Ghana.

December 11 – Tung Chee-hwa is appointed to become the new leader of Hong Kong after it reverts to Chinese rule on July 1, 1997 at the end a 99-year lease to the United Kingdom.

December 13 – Ghanaian diplomat Kofi Annan is elected by the United Nations Security Council the next Secretary-General of the United Nations.

December 17 – The Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement takes 72 hostages in the Japanese Embassy in Lima, Peru.

December 25 – At least 283 migrants drown in the sinking of F174 near Capo Passero (Sicily).

December 26

The largest strike in South Korean history begins.

Six-year-old JonBenét Ramsey is found beaten and strangled in the basement of her family's home in Boulder, Colorado.

December 27 – Taliban forces retake the strategic Bagram Air Base, solidifying their buffer zone around Kabul.

December 29 – Guatemala and the leaders of the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity sign a peace accord that ends the 36-year Guatemalan Civil War.

December 30 – In the Indian state of Assam, a passenger train is bombed by Bodo separatists, killing 26.

Undated[edit]

Economy of Venezuela: Inflation in the country peaks at 99.87%.

Births[edit]

Births

January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December

January[edit]

 

Ella Henderson

 

Dove Cameron

 

Caitlin Sanchez

January 1

Mahmoud Dahoud, German footballer

Andreas Pereira, Brazilian footballer

Mathias Jensen, Danish footballer

January 2 – Xiaoyu Yu, Chinese figure skater

January 3 – Florence Pugh, English actress

January 5

Maxim Baldry, English actor

Tyler Ulis, American basketball player

January 6

Courtney Eaton, Australian actress

Kishan Shrikanth, Indian actor and director

Harmanpreet Singh, Indian hockey player

January 7

Fu Yuanhui, Chinese swimmer

Helly Shah, Indian actress

Isaac Success, Nigerian footballer

January 9 – Oana Gregory, Romanian American actress

January 10 – Anna Sztankovics, Hungarian swimmer

January 11 – Leroy Sané, German footballer

January 12 – Ella Henderson, English singer

January 13 – Aníta Hinriksdóttir, Icelandic middle-distance runner

January 15 – Dove Cameron, American actress and singer

January 16

Anastasia Grishina, Russian artistic gymnast

Jennie, South Korean singer and rapper

January 17

Caitlin Sanchez, American actress

Nile Wilson, British artistic gymnast

January 18 – Sarah Gilman, American actress

January 21 – Marco Asensio, Spanish footballer

January 22

Sami Gayle, American actress

Joshua Ho-Sang, Canadian ice hockey player

January 23

Chachi Gonzales, American dancer

Ruben Loftus-Cheek, English footballer

January 24 – Patrik Schick, Czech footballer

January 26 – Zakaria Bakkali, Belgian footballer

January 27 – Braeden Lemasters, American actor, musician, and voice actor

January 31 – Joel Courtney, American actor

February[edit]

 

Kelli Berglund

 

Sasha Pieterse

 

Sophie Turner

February 1

Ahmad Abughaush, Jordanian taekwondo athlete

Dionne Bromfield, English singer-songwriter and television personality

February 2 – Harry Winks, English footballer

February 5 – Zeng Siqi, Chinese artistic gymnast

February 7

Aaron Ekblad, Canadian ice hockey player

Pierre Gasly, French racing driver

Mai Hagiwara, Japanese singer

February 8 – Kenedy, Brazilian footballer

February 9

Jimmy Bennett, American actor

Kelli Berglund, American actress

Chungha, South Korean singer and dancer

February 11

Jonathan Tah, German footballer

Lucas Torreira, Uruguayan footballer

February 13 – Muhammad Rian Ardianto, Indonesian badminton player

February 14

Lucas Hernandez, French footballer

Viktor Kovalenko, Ukrainian footballer

February 17

Erika Fasana, Italian artistic gymnast

Sasha Pieterse, South African-born American actress

February 18 – Ikumi Hisamatsu, Japanese fashion model and actress

February 20 – Mabel, English singer

February 21 – Sophie Turner, English actress

February 23

Michael Johnston, American actor

D'Angelo Russell, American basketball player

February 24 – Cristian Imparato, Italian singer

February 25 – Emel Dereli, Turkish shot putter

February 28

Danilo Barbosa, Brazilian footballer

Bobb'e J. Thompson, American actor, dancer, rapper and comedian

March[edit]

 

Timo Werner

 

Myles Turner

March 1

Sage Northcutt, American mixed martial artist

Ye Shiwen, Chinese swimmer

March 4

Timo Baumgartl, German footballer

Antonio Sanabria, Paraguayan footballer

March 6

Timo Werner, German footballer

Yan Han, Chinese figure skater

March 8

Matthew Hammelmann, Australian rules footballer

Emil Imre, Hungarian short track speed skater

March 9 – Giorgio Minisini, Italian synchronized swimmer

March 14 – Janai Haupapa, Canadian rugby league player

March 15 – Levin Öztunalı, German footballer

March 16 – Anna Ovcharova, Russian/Swiss figure skater

March 18 – Madeline Carroll, American actress

March 19 – Feodosiy Efremenkov, Russian figure skater

March 22 – Gig Morton, Canadian actor

March 23

Alexander Albon, Thai racing driver

Lauri Kivari, Finnish freestyle skier[importance?]

March 24

Valentino Lazaro, Austrian footballer

Myles Turner, American basketball player

March 25 – Dougal Howard, Australian rules footballer[importance?]

March 26 – Kathryn Bernardo, Filipina actress

March 27 – Rosabell Laurenti Sellers, Italian-American actress

March 28

Benjamin Pavard, French footballer

Xie Siyi, Chinese diver

March 29 – Wade Baldwin IV, American basketball player

March 31 – Liza Koshy, American actress and television host[importance?]

April[edit]

 

Austin Mahone

 

Loïc Nottet

 

Abigail Breslin

April 2

Polina Agafonova, Russian figure skater

Matheus Santana, Brazilian swimmer

April 3 – Sarah Jeffery, American actress

April 4 – Austin Mahone, American singer

April 8 – Lorna Fitzgerald, English actress

April 9 – Giovani Lo Celso, Argentinian footballer

April 10

Andreas Christensen, Danish footballer

Thanasi Kokkinakis, Australian tennis player

Loïc Nottet, Belgian singer

Audrey Whitby, American teen actress

April 11 – Dele Alli, English footballer

April 12 – Polina Korobeynikova, Russian figure skater

April 14 – Abigail Breslin, American actress

April 16 – Anya Taylor-Joy, American actress

April 17 – Dee Dee Davis, American actress

April 18 – Ski Mask the Slump God, American rapper

April 21 – Tavi Gevinson, American fashion blogger

April 22 – Wendy Sulca, Peruvian singer

April 23

Álex Márquez, Spanish motorcycle racer

Charlie Rowe, British actor

April 24 – Ashleigh Barty, Australian tennis player

April 25

Mack Horton, Australian swimmer

Allisyn Ashley Arm, American actress

April 28 – Tony Revolori, American actor

April 29

Gustav Engvall, Swedish footballer

Katherine Langford, Australian actress

May[edit]

 

Noah Munck

 

Birdy

 

Ryan Ochoa

May 2 – Julian Brandt, German footballer

May 3

Mary Cain, American middle-distance runner

Alex Iwobi, Nigerian footballer

Noah Munck, American actor

May 4

Arielle Gold, American snowboarder

Pelayo Roza, Spanish sprint canoeist.

May 5 – Matheus Pereira, Brazilian footballer

May 8 – 6ix9ine, American rapper

May 9 – Noah Centineo, American actor

May 10 – Tyus Jones, American basketball player

May 11 – Andrés Cubas, Argentinian footballer

May 14

Martin Garrix, Dutch DJ and producer

McKaley Miller, American actress

Pokimane, Moroccan YouTuber

May 15 – Birdy, English singer and songwriter

May 17 – Ryan Ochoa, American actor and musician

May 18 – Violett Beane, American actress

May 19 – Lakshmi Menon, Indian film actress

May 18 – Yuki Kadono, Japanese snowboarder

May 23 – Katharina Althaus, German ski jumper

May 26 – Lukáš Haraslín, Slovak footballer

May 30

Aleksandr Golovin, Russian footballer

Erik Jones, American race car driver

May 31 – Normani, American singer

June[edit]

 

Tom Holland

 

Alen Halilović

June 1 – Tom Holland, English actor

June 3 – Han Tianyu, Chinese short track speed skater

June 7 – Christian McCaffrey, American football player

June 10 – Raury, American singer-songwriter

June 11 – Hakeeb Adelakun, English footballer

June 12 – Davinson Sánchez, Colombian footballer

June 13

Kingsley Coman, French footballer

Kodi Smit-McPhee, Australian actor

June 15 – Aurora, Norwegian singer

June 16 – Lily Zhang, American table tennis player

June 17 – Godfred Donsah, Ghanese footballer

June 18 – Alen Halilović, Croatian footballer

June 19 – Larisa Iordache, Romanian artistic gymnast

June 20

Sam Bennett, Canadian ice hockey player

Michael Dal Colle, Canadian ice hockey player

June 22

Yusupha Bobb, Gambian footballer

Hugo Calderano, Brazilian table tennis player

Kong Sang-jeong, South Korean short track speed skater

Mikel Merino, Spanish footballer

June 24 – Harris Dickinson, English actor, writer, and director

June 27 – Lauren Jauregui, American singer

June 28

Milot Rashica, Kosovar footballer

Donna Vekić, Croatian tennis player

June 29 – Bart Ramselaar, Dutch footballer

July[edit]

 

Adelina Sotnikova

 

Blake Michael

July 1 – Adelina Sotnikova, Russian figure skater

July 3

Kendji Girac, French singer

Kumaahran Sathasivam, Malaysian footballer

July 5 – Risa Shōji, Japanese figure skater

July 6 – Robert Naylor, Canadian actor and musician

July 9 – Shanice Williams, American actress and singer

July 10 – Moon Ga-young, South Korean actress

July 11

Alessia Cara, Canadian singer and songwriter

Andrija Živković, Serbian footballer

July 12 – Moussa Dembélé, French footballer

July 16

Kevin Abstract, American rapper, singer-songwriter and director

Nicky Jones, American voice actor

July 18

Dzhamaldin Khodzhaniyazov, Russian footballer

Yung Lean, Swedish rapper and record producer

Siebe Schrijvers, Belgian footballer

July 20 – Ben Simmons, Australian basketball player

July 21 – Joey Bragg, American actor and comedian

July 22

Skyler Gisondo, American actor

Indy Groothuizen, Dutch football player

Jane Oineza, Filipina actress

July 23

Danielle Bradbery, American singer

Rachel G. Fox, American actress

July 30

Dylan Larkin, American hockey player

Austin North, American actor

July 31 – Blake Michael, American actor

August[edit]

 

Jacob Latimore

 

Brianna Hildebrand

 

Jamia Simone Nash

August 1 – Cymphonique Miller, American actress and singer

August 2 – Simone Manuel, American swimmer

August 5

Francesca Deagostini, Italian artistic gymnast

Mai Murakami, Japanese artistic gymnast

August 7

Dani Ceballos, Spanish footballer

Liam James, Canadian actor

August 10 – Jacob Latimore, American singer, actor and dancer

August 12

Arthur Melo, Brazilian footballer

Torri Webster, Canadian actress

August 14

Brianna Hildebrand, American actress

Neal Maupay, French footballer

August 19

Almoez Ali, Sudanese-Qatari footballer

Laura Tesoro, Belgian singer and actress

August 21

Sofyan Amrabat, Dutch-born Moroccan footballer

Jamia Simone Nash, American singer and actress[importance?]

August 22

Jessica-Jane Applegate, British Paralympic swimmer

Michael Graue, American actor

August 24 – Kenzō Shirai, Japanese gymnast

August 27 – Ebru Topçu, Turkish footballer

August 28 – Kim Se-jeong, South Korean singer and actress

August 30

Gabriel Barbosa, Brazilian footballer

Chen Dequan, Chinese short track speed skater

September[edit]

 

Zendaya

 

Sigrid

 

Colin Ford

September 1 – Zendaya, American actress and singer

September 3 – Joy, South Korean singer and actress

September 5

Sigrid (singer), Norwegian singer

Richairo Živković, Dutch footballer

September 6 – Lil Xan, American rapper

September 9 – Jaïro Riedewald, Dutch footballer

September 12 – Colin Ford, American actor

September 13

Playboi Carti, American rapper

Lili Reinhart, American actress

September 16 – Alexis Blin, French footballer

September 17

Duje Ćaleta-Car, Croatian footballer

Esteban Ocon, French racing driver

Ella Purnell, English actress

September 19 – Pia Mia, Guamanian singer-songwriter and model

September 20 – Jerome Sinclair, English footballer

September 22 – Anthoine Hubert, French racing driver (d. 2019)

September 23

Lee Hi, South Korean singer-songwriter

Evgeny Rylov, Russian swimmer

September 25

Max Christiansen, German footballer

Mie Nielsen, Danish swimmer

September 27 – Maxwel Cornet, French-Ivorian footballer

September 28 – Michael Ronda, Mexican actor and singer

October[edit]

 

Bella Hadid

 

Devin Booker

October 3 – Kelechi Iheanacho, Nigerian footballer

October 7 – Lewis Capaldi, Scottish singer-songwriter

October 8 – Sara Takanashi, Japanese ski jumper

October 9

Jacob Batalon, American-Filipino actor

Bella Hadid, American model

October 12 – Riechedly Bazoer, Dutch footballer

October 15

Charly Musonda, Belgian footballer

Zelo, Korean singer

October 22

B.I, Korean singer

Harley Windsor, Australian pair skater

October 23 – Sam Berns, American high school student, and activist (d. 2014)

October 24

Jaylen Brown, American basketball player

Kyla Ross, American gymnast

October 26 – Anthony Sinisuka Ginting, Indonesian badminton player

October 27 – Nadiem Amiri, German footballer

October 28

Jasmine Jessica Anthony, American actress

Jack Eichel, American ice hockey player

Lee June-hyoung, South Korean figure skater

October 30

Devin Booker, American basketball player

Mizuki Fukumura, Japanese singer

November[edit]

 

Lil Peep

 

Michael Christian Martinez

 

Lorde

November 1

Sean Gelael, Indonesian racing driver

Lil Peep, American rapper (d. 2017)

Jeongyeon, South Korean singer

November 4 – Michael Christian Martinez, Filipino figure skater

November 7

André Horta, Portuguese footballer

Lorde, New Zealand singer-songwriter

November 9

Nguyễn Thị Ánh Viên, Vietnamese swimmer

Momo Hirai, Japanese singer and dancer

November 11

Adam Ounas, French-born Algerian footballer

Tye Sheridan, American actor

November 14 – Borna Ćorić, Croatian tennis player

November 15 – Malik Jefferson, American football player

November 16 – Brendan Murray, Irish singer

November 17 – Ruth Jebet, Bahraini long-distance runner

November 18

Akram Afif, Qatari footballer

Noah Ringer, American actor

Sorn, South Korean based singer

November 19 – Liliána Szilágyi, Hungarian swimmer

November 20 – Denis Zakaria, Swiss footballer

November 22

Hailey Baldwin, American model and socialite

Madison Davenport, American actress and singer

November 23

James Maddison, English footballer

Anna Yanovskaya, Russian ice dancer

November 26 – Louane Emera, French singer and actress

November 27 – Andy Truong, Australian fashion designer

November 29 – Gonçalo Guedes, Portuguese footballer

December[edit]

 

Stefanie Scott

 

Hailee Steinfeld

December 4

Diogo Jota, Portuguese footballer

Daria Svatkovskaya, Russian artistic gymnast

December 6 – Stefanie Scott, American actress

December 8 – Scott McTominay, Scottish footballer

December 9 – ViVi, Hong Kong singer[importance?]

December 10

Jérémy Gabriel, French Canadian singer

Kang Daniel, South Korean singer

December 11

Jack Griffo, American actor

Eliza McCartney, New Zealand track and field athlete

Hailee Steinfeld, American actress, model and singer

December 12 – Lucas Hedges, American actor

December 14 – Li Zijun, Chinese figure skater

December 15 – Oleksandr Zinchenko, Ukrainian footballer

December 16

Wilfred Ndidi, Nigerian footballer

Sergio Reguilón, Spanish footballer

December 17 – Elizaveta Tuktamysheva, Russian figure skater

December 19 – Franck Kessié, Ivorian footballer

December 21 – Kaitlyn Dever, American actress

December 28 – Alfred Kipketer, Kenyan middle-distance runner

December 29

Dylan Minnette, American actor, singer and musician

Sana, Japanese singer

Deaths[edit]

Main article: Deaths in 1996

Further information: Category:1996 deaths

Deaths

January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December

January[edit]

 

François Mitterrand

 

King Moshoeshoe II

January 1

Arleigh Burke, American naval officer (b. 1901)

Arthur Rudolph, German rocket engineer (b. 1906)

January 5

Yahya Ayyash, Palestinian shaheed (b. 1966)

Lincoln Kirstein, American writer and impresario (b. 1907)

January 7

Károly Grósz, 51st Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1930)

Tarō Okamoto, Japanese artist (b. 1911)

January 8 – François Mitterrand, French politician, 21st President of France (b. 1916)

January 15

Les Baxter, American musician and composer (b. 1922)

Moshoeshoe II, King of Lesotho (b. 1938)

January 17 – Barbara Jordan, American lawyer, educator, politician and civil rights activist (b. 1936)

January 18

Leonor Fini, Argentine artist (b. 1908)

Endel Puusepp, Estonian pilot (b. 1909)

N. T. Rama Rao, Indian actor, producer, director, editor and politician (b. 1923)

January 19 – Don Simpson, American film producer (b. 1943)

January 20 – Gerry Mulligan, American musician (b. 1927)

January 25 – Jonathan Larson, American composer and playwright (b. 1960)

January 26 – Georg Alexander, Duke of Mecklenburg (b. 1921)

January 28

Joseph Brodsky, Russian-born American Nobel poet (b. 1940)

Jerry Siegel, American cartoonist (b. 1914)

February[edit]

 

Gene Kelly

 

Audrey Meadows

 

McLean Stevenson

February 2 – Gene Kelly, American actor and dancer (b. 1912)

February 3 – Audrey Meadows, American actress (b. 1922)

February 4 – Alfredo Nobre da Costa, 106th Prime Minister of Portugal (b. 1923)

February 6 – Guy Madison, American actor (b. 1922)

February 7 – Boris Tchaikovsky, Russian composer (b. 1925)

February 9 – Adolf Galland, German general (b. 1912)

February 11 – Kebby Musokotwane, Prime Minister of Zambia (b. 1946)

February 12

Bob Shaw, Irish science fiction writer (b. 1931)

Ryōtarō Shiba, Japanese novelist (b. 1923)

February 13 – Martin Balsam, American actor (b. 1919)

February 14

Eva Hart, British Titanic survivor (b. 1905)

Bob Paisley, English football manager (b. 1919)

February 15

Tommy Rettig, American actor (b. 1941)

McLean Stevenson, American actor (b. 1927)

February 16

Roger Bowen, American actor (b. 1932)

Pat Brown, American politician (b. 1905)

February 20

Audrey Munson, American model and actress (b. 1891)

Toru Takemitsu, Japanese composer (b. 1930)

February 21 – Morton Gould, American musician and composer (b. 1913)

February 23

William Bonin, American serial killer (b. 1947)

Helmut Schön, German football player and manager (b. 1915)

February 25 – Haing S. Ngor, Cambodian activist and actor (b. 1940)

February 26 – Mieczysław Weinberg, Polish composer (b. 1919)

February 27 – Sarah Palfrey Cooke, American tennis player (b. 1912)

March[edit]

 

George Burns

 

Edmund Muskie

March 2 – Lyle Talbot, American actor (b. 1902)

March 3 – Marguerite Duras, French author and director (b. 1914)

March 4 – Minnie Pearl, American comedian (b. 1912)

March 5

Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad, 5th President of Bangladesh (b. 1918)

Whit Bissell, American actor (b. 1909)

March 6 – Simon Cadell, English actor (b. 1950)

March 9 – George Burns, American comedian and actor (b. 1896)

March 10 – Ross Hunter, American film producer (b. 1926)

March 11 – Vince Edwards, American actor (b. 1928)

March 12 – Gyula Kállai, 48th Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1910)

March 13 – Krzysztof Kieślowski, Polish film director (b. 1941)

March 17 – René Clément, French film director (b. 1913)

March 18 – Odysseas Elytis, Greek writer (b. 1911)

March 19

Virginia Henderson, American nurse and theorist (b. 1897)

Chen Jingrun, Chinese mathematician (b. 1933)

March 25 – Lola Beltrán, Mexican singer, actress, and television presenter (b. 1932)

March 26

Edmund Muskie, American politician (b. 1914)

David Packard, American engineer (b. 1912)

March 31 – Jeffrey Lee Pierce, American musician (b. 1958)

April[edit]

 

Greer Garson

 

P. L. Travers

April 3 – Ron Brown, American politician (b. 1941)

April 4 – Barney Ewell, American athlete (b. 1918)

April 6

John D. Bulkeley, American naval officer (b. 1911)

Greer Garson, British-American actress (b. 1904)

April 8 – Ben Johnson, American actor and stuntman (b. 1918)

April 13 – James Burke, Irish-American gangster (b. 1931)

April 16 – Lucille Bremer, American actress and dancer (b. 1917)

April 18 – Bernard Edwards, American bass player (b. 1952)

April 20 – Christopher Robin Milne, English author and bookseller (b. 1920)

April 21 – Dzhokhar Dudayev, Chechen politician and President of Ichkeria (b. 1944)

April 22 – Erma Bombeck, American humorist and writer (b. 1927)

April 23 – P. L. Travers, British actress, journalist, novelist and writer (b. 1899)

April 25 – Saul Bass, American graphic designer (b. 1920)

April 26 – Stirling Silliphant, American screenwriter and producer (b. 1918)

April 28 – Siti Hartinah, 2nd First Lady of Indonesia, wife of Suharto (b. 1923)

May[edit]

 

Tamara Toumanova

 

Timothy Leary

May 1 – David M. Kennedy, American politician, businessman (b. 1905)

May 2 – Emile Habibi, Palestinian Israeli writer (b. 1922)

May 3 – Jack Weston, American actor (b. 1924)

May 6 – Leo Joseph Suenens, Belgian cardinal (b. 1904)

May 11

Nnamdi Azikiwe, 1st President of Nigeria (b. 1904)

Scott Fischer, American mountaineer (b. 1955)

Rob Hall, New Zealand mountaineer (b. 1961)

Ademir de Menezes, Brazilian footballer (b. 1922)

May 17 – Johnny "Guitar" Watson, American singer, songwriter and musician (b. 1935)

May 19 – John Beradino, American baseball player and actor (b. 1917)

May 20 – Jon Pertwee, British actor (b. 1919)

May 23 – Sim Iness, American Olympic athlete (b. 1930)

May 24

John Abbott, English actor (b. 1905)

Jacob Druckman, American composer (b. 1928)

Enrique Álvarez Félix, Mexican actor (b. 1934)

Joseph Mitchell, American writer (b. 1908)

May 25 – Bradley Nowell, American musician (b. 1968)

May 29 – Tamara Toumanova, Russian-American dancer and actress (b. 1919)

May 31 – Timothy Leary, American writer and social activist (b. 1920)

June[edit]

 

Ella Fitzgerald

 

Andreas Papandreou

June 1 – Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, 6th President of India (b. 1913)

June 2

John Alton, American cinematographer (b. 1901)

Leon Garfield, English author (b. 1921)

Pilar Lorengar, Spanish soprano (b. 1928)

June 3 – Peter Glenville, English film director (b. 1913)

June 6

Kusuo Kitamura, Japanese Olympic swimmer (b. 1917)

George Davis Snell, American Nobel geneticist (b. 1903)

June 10 – Jo Van Fleet, American actress (b. 1914)

June 11 – Brigitte Helm, German actress (b. 1908)

June 15 – Ella Fitzgerald, American singer (b. 1917)

June 19

Hillevi Rombin, Swedish actress and beauty queen (b. 1933)

Edvin Wide, Swedish middle- and long-distance runner (b. 1896)

June 23

Ray Lindwall, Australian cricketer (b. 1921)

Andreas Papandreou, Prime Minister of Greece (b. 1919)

June 26 – Veronica Guerin, Irish journalist (b. 1958)

June 27 – Albert R. Broccoli, American film producer (b. 1909)

June 28 – Kwan Tak-hing, Hong Kong actor (b. 1905)

July[edit]

 

Jean Muir

 

Claudette Colbert

July 1 – Margaux Hemingway, American fashion model and actress (b. 1954)

July 3 – Raaj Kumar, Indian film actor (b. 1926)

July 9

Eno Raud, Estonian writer (b. 1928)

Sergey Kuryokhin, Russian pianist, composer, improvisor, performance artist and actor (b. 1954)

July 13 – Pandro S. Berman, American film producer (b. 1905)

July 15 – Dana Hill, American actress (b. 1964)

July 17

Paul Touvier, French Nazi collaborator (b. 1915)

Victims of TWA Flight 800

Michel Breistroff, NHL ice hockey player (b. 1971)

Marcel Dadi, French guitarist (b. 1951)

David Hogan, American composer (b. 1949)

Jed Johnson, American interior designer and director (b. 1948)

July 20 – František Plánička, Czech footballer (b. 1904)

July 21

Luana Anders, American actress (b. 1938)

Herb Edelman, American actor (b. 1933)

July 22 – Jessica Mitford, British-American author, journalist and political campaigner (b. 1917)

July 23 – Jean Muir, American actress (b. 1911)

July 27 – Jane Drew, English architect (b. 1911)

July 28 – Roger Tory Peterson, American naturalist and artist (b. 1908)

July 30 – Claudette Colbert, French-born American Academy Award-winning actress (b. 1903)

August[edit]

 

Tadeusz Reichstein

 

Alejandro Agustín Lanusse

August 1

Mohamed Farrah Aidid, Somali military commander and politician (b. 1934)

Frida Boccara, French singer (b. 1940)

Tadeusz Reichstein, Polish-Swiss Nobel chemist (b. 1897)

August 2

Michel Debré, 99th Prime Minister of France (b. 1912)

Obdulio Varela, Uruguayan footballer (b. 1917)

August 6 – Hernán Siles Zuazo, Bolivian politician (b. 1914)

August 8 – Nevill Francis Mott, English Nobel physicist (b. 1905)

August 11

Rafael Kubelík, Czech-born Swiss conductor (b. 1914)

Baba Vanga, Bulgarian mystic, clairvoyant and herbalist (b. 1911)

August 12 – Viktor Hambardzumyan, Armenian scientist (b. 1908)

August 13

António de Spínola, 14th President of Portugal (b. 1910)

David Tudor, American pianist and composer (b. 1926)

August 14 – Camilla Horn, German actress (b. 1903)

August 20 – Rio Reiser, German musician and singer (b. 1950)

August 26 – Alejandro Agustín Lanusse, 37th President of Argentina (b. 1918)

August 27 – Greg Morris, American actor (b. 1933)

August 30 – Christine Pascal, French actress, director and screenwriter (b. 1953)

September[edit]

 

Ernesto Geisel

 

Spiro Agnew

 

Paul Erdős

 

Dorothy Lamour

September 1

Vagn Holmboe, Danish composer (b. 1909)

Karl Kehrle, Benedictine monk and beekeeper (b. 1898)

September 7 – Bibi Besch, American actress (b. 1940)

September 9

Ruggero Mastroianni, Italian film editor (b. 1929)

Bill Monroe, American musician (b. 1911)

September 10 – Joanne Dru, American actress (b. 1922)

September 12

Ernesto Geisel, Brazilian general, 29th President of Brazil (b. 1907)

Ricardo López, Uruguayan-American pest control worker (b. 1975)

September 13 – Tupac Shakur, American rapper (b. 1971)

September 14 – Juliet Prowse, American dancer and actress (b. 1936)

September 16

McGeorge Bundy, American academic (b. 1919)

Gene Nelson, American dancer and actor (b. 1920)

September 17 – Spiro Agnew, American politician (b. 1918)

September 18 – Annabella, French actress (b. 1907)

September 20

Murtaza Bhutto, Pakistani politician (b. 1954)

Paul Erdős, Hungarian mathematician (b. 1913)

Max Manus, Norwegian resistance fighter (b. 1914)

Paul Weston, American pianist and composer (b. 1912)

September 21 – Henri Nouwen, Dutch priest and author (b. 1932)

September 22

Mohamed Ben Ahmed Abdelghani, 1st Prime Minister of Algeria (b. 1927)

Dorothy Lamour, American actress (b. 1914)

September 23 – Fujiko Fujio, Japanese cartoonist (b. 1933)

September 24

Mark Frankel, British actor (b. 1962)

Zeki Müren, Turkish singer, composer, songwriter, actor and poet (b. 1931)

September 26

Nicu Ceaușescu, Romanian politician (b. 1951)

Pavel Sudoplatov, Soviet spy (b. 1907)

Geoffrey Wilkinson, English Nobel chemist (b. 1921)

September 27 – Mohammad Najibullah, President of Afghanistan (b. 1947)

September 29 – Shūsaku Endō, Japanese author (b. 1923)

September 30 – Moneta Sleet Jr., American press photogrpaher (b. 1926)

October[edit]

 

Morey Amsterdam

October 4 – Silvio Piola, Italian footballer (b. 1913)

October 5 – Seymour Cray, American computer scientist (b. 1925)

October 11

Renato Russo, Brazilian singer (b. 1960)

William Vickrey, Canadian-American economist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1914)

October 12

René Lacoste, French tennis player (b. 1904)

Roger Lapébie, French racing cyclist (b. 1911)

October 13 – Beryl Reid, British actress (b. 1919)

October 14 – Laura La Plante, American actress (b. 1904)

October 15 – Robert F. Williams, American civil rights leader, author (b. 1925)

October 16 – Jason Bernard, American actor (b. 1938)

October 24 – Artur Axmann, German Nazi leader (b. 1913)

October 28 – Morey Amsterdam, American comedian (b. 1908)

October 31 – Marcel Carné, French film director (b. 1909)

November[edit]

 

Jean-Bédel Bokassa/Bokassa I

 

Abdus Salam

November 1 – J. R. Jayewardene, 2nd President of Sri Lanka (b. 1906)

November 2 – Eva Cassidy, American vocalist (b. 1963)

November 3

Jean-Bédel Bokassa/Bokassa I, 2nd President of the Central African Republic and Emperor of Central Africa (b. 1921)

Abdullah Çatlı, Turkish nationalist (b. 1956)

November 5 – Eddie Harris, American jazz musician (b. 1934)

November 6 – Tommy Lawton, English footballer and manager (b. 1919)

November 14

Joseph Bernardin, American cardinal (b. 1928)

Virginia Cherrill, American actress (b. 1908)

November 15 – Alger Hiss, American diplomat (b. 1904)

November 18 – Zinovy Gerdt, Russian actor (b. 1916)

November 21 – Abdus Salam, Pakistani Nobel physicist (b. 1926)

November 22

María Casares, French-Spanish actress (b. 1922)

Mark Lenard, American actor (b. 1924)

November 26 – Paul Rand, American graphic designer (b. 1914)

November 27 – Gertrude Blanch, American mathematician (b. 1897)

November 28 – Don McNeill, American tennis player (b. 1918)

November 30 – Tiny Tim, American musician (b. 1932)

December[edit]

 

Marcello Mastroianni

 

Carl Sagan

December 3 – Babrak Karmal, President of Afghanistan (b. 1929)

December 6 – Pete Rozelle, American football official (b. 1926)

December 7 – José Donoso, Chilean writer (b. 1924)

December 8 – Howard Rollins, American actor (b. 1950)

December 9 – Mary Leakey, British archaeologist (b. 1913)

December 10 – Faron Young, American singer (b. 1932)

December 11 – Willie Rushton, English comedian, actor and cartoonist (b. 1937)

December 13 – Cao Yu, Chinese playwright (b. 1910)

December 16

Quentin Bell, English biographer and art historian (b. 1910)

Laurens van der Post, South African author (b. 1906)

December 17 – Stanko Todorov, Bulgarian communist politician (b. 1920)

December 18 – Irving Caesar, American lyricist (b. 1895)

December 19 – Marcello Mastroianni, Italian actor (b. 1924)

December 20

Amata Kabua, 1st President of the Marshall Islands (b. 1928)

Carl Sagan, American astronomer (b. 1934)

December 21 – Margret Rey, American author and illustrator (b. 1906)

December 30

Lew Ayres, American actor (b. 1908)

Jack Nance, American actor (b. 1943)

Nobel Prizes[edit]

Nobel medal.png

Physics – David M. Lee, Douglas D. Osheroff, Robert C. Richardson

Chemistry – Robert Curl, Sir Harold Kroto, Richard Smalley

Medicine – Peter C. Doherty, Rolf M. Zinkernagel

Literature – Wisława Szymborska

Peace – Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo and José Ramos-Horta

Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel – James Mirrlees, William Vickrey

 

Take a look back at the year 1996

 

1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1996th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 996th year of the 2nd millennium, the 96th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1990s decade.

 

1996 was designated as:

 

International Year for the Eradication of Poverty

 

Events

 

January

 

January 3 – Motorola introduces the Motorola StarTAC Wearable Cellular Telephone, the world's smallest and lightest mobile phone to date.

January 5 – Hamas operative Yahya Ayyash is assassinated by an Israeli Shabak-planted, bomb-laden cell phone.

January 7 – One of the worst blizzards in American history hits the eastern states, killing more than 150 people. Philadelphia receives a record 30.7 inches (78 cm) of snow, New York City's public schools close for the first time in eighteen years and the federal government in Washington, D.C. is closed for days.

January 8 – A Zairean cargo plane crashes into a crowded market in the center of the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kinshasa, killing 300 people.

January 9–20 – Serious fighting breaks out between Russian soldiers and rebel fighters in Chechnya.

January 11 – Ryutaro Hashimoto, leader of the Liberal Democratic Party, becomes Prime Minister of Japan.

January 13 – Italy's Prime Minister, Lamberto Dini, resigns after the failure of all-party talks to confirm him. New talks are initiated by President Oscar Luigi Scalfaro to form a new government.

January 14 – Jorge Sampaio is elected President of Portugal.

January 16 – President of Sierra Leone Valentine Strasser is deposed by the chief of defence, Julius Maada Bio. Bio promises to restore power following elections scheduled for February.

January 19

The North Cape oil spill occurs as an engine fire forces the tugboat Scandia ashore on Moonstone Beach in South Kingstown, Rhode Island. The North Cape Barge is pulled along with it and leaks 820,000 gallons of home heating oil.

An Indonesian ferry sinks off the northern tip of Sumatra, drowning more than 100 people.

January 20 – Yasser Arafat is re-elected president of the Palestinian Authority.

 

Yasser Arafat

January 21 – France undertakes its last nuclear weapons test.

January 22 – Andreas Papandreou, Prime Minister of Greece, resigns due to health problems; a new government forms under Costas Simitis.

January 24 – Polish Premier Józef Oleksy resigns amid charges that he spied for Moscow. He is replaced by Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz.

January 27 – Colonel Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara deposes the first democratically elected President of Niger, Mahamane Ousmane, in a military coup.

January 31

Colombo Central Bank bombing: an explosives-filled truck rams into the gates of the Central Bank in Colombo, Sri Lanka, killing at least 86 people and injuring 1,400.

An explosion in Shaoyang, China kills 122 people and injures over 400 when 10 short tons (9.1 t) of dynamite in an illegal explosives warehouse underneath an apartment building detonate.

An amateur astronomer from southern Japan discovers Comet Hyakutake; it will pass very close to the Earth in March.

February[edit]

February 4 – The 6.6 Mw  earthquake near Lijiang in South-west China kills up to 322 people, injures 17,000, and leaves 300,000 homeless.

February 6 – Birgenair Flight 301, on a charter flight from the Caribbean to Germany, crashes into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of the Dominican Republic, killing all 189 passengers and crew.

February 7 – René Préval succeeds Jean-Bertrand Aristide as President of Haiti in the first peaceful handover of power since the nation achieved independence 192 years earlier, in 1804.

February 9

The element copernicium is created by fusing a 208Pb nucleus with a 70Zn nucleus, forming 278Cn. Given the placeholder name "ununbium", the element is not named until 2010.

An IRA ceasefire ends with the Docklands bombing in London's Canary Wharf District, killing two people and causing over £85,000,000 worth of damage.

February 10 – Bosnian Serbs break off contact with the Bosnian government and with representatives of Ifor, the NATO localised force, in reaction to the arrest of several Bosnian Serb war criminals.

February 14 – Violent clashes erupt between Filipino soldiers and Vietnamese boat people, as the Filipino government attempts to forcibly repatriate hundreds of Vietnamese asylum seekers.

February 15

The American Embassy in Athens, Greece, comes under mortar fire.

Begum Khaleda Zia is re-elected as Prime Minister of Bangladesh. The country's second democratic election is marred by low voter turnout, due to several boycotts and pre-election violence, which has resulted in at least thirteen deaths.

The UK government publishes the Scott Report.

 

Feb.15: Long March rocket, with Intelsat 708 satellite, veers upon launch (images from Cox Commission report for U.S. Congress).

February 16 – 1996 Maryland train collision: A Chicago-bound Amtrak train, the Capitol Limited, collides with a MARC commuter train bound for Washington, D.C., killing 11 people.

February 17 – The 8.2 Mw  Biak earthquake strikes the Papua province of eastern Indonesia with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe). A large tsunami followed, leaving 166 people dead or missing and 423 injured.

February 24 – Cuban fighter jets shoot down two American aircraft belonging to the Cuban exile group Brothers to the Rescue. Cuban officials assert that they invaded Cuban airspace.

February 25 – Two suicide bombs in Israel kill 25 and injure 80; Hamas claims responsibility.

February 29

Faucett Flight 251 en route from Lima to Rodriguez Ballon airport crashes into a mountain near Arequipa; all 123 people on board are killed.

At least 81 people drown when a boat capsizes 120 kilometres east of Kampala, Uganda.

The Bosnian government declares the end of the Siege of Sarajevo.

March[edit]

March 1 – Iraq disarmament crisis: Iraqi forces refuse UNSCOM inspection teams access to five sites designated for inspection. The teams enter the sites only after delays of up to seventeen hours.

March 2 – 1996 Australian federal election: The Liberal/National Coalition led by John Howard defeats the Labor Government led by Prime Minister Paul Keating. Howard was sworn in on March 11.[1]

March 3 – José María Aznar, leader of the Popular Party, is elected as Prime Minister of Spain, replacing Felipe González.

March 3–4 – Two suicide bombs explode in Israel, killing 32 people. The Yahya Ayyash Units admit responsibility, and Palestinian president Yasser Arafat condemns the killings in a televised address. Israel warns of retaliation.

March 6

Mesut Yılmaz of ANAP forms the new government of Turkey (53rd government).

A boat carrying market traders capsizes outside Freetown harbour in Sierra Leone, killing at least 86 people.

Chechen rebels attack the Russian government headquarters in Grozny; 70 Russian soldiers and policemen and 130 Chechen fighters are killed.

March 8 – China begins surface-to-surface missile testing and military exercises off Taiwanese coastal areas. The United States government condemns the act as provocation, and the Taiwanese government warns of retaliation.

March 9 – Jorge Sampaio is the new Portuguese president.

March 13 – Dunblane massacre: Unemployed former shopkeeper Thomas Hamilton walks into the Dunblane Primary School in Scotland and opens fire, killing sixteen infant school pupils and one teacher before committing suicide.

March 14 – An international peace summit is held in Egypt in response to escalating terrorist attacks in the Middle East.

March 16 – Robert Mugabe is re-elected as President of Zimbabwe, although only 32% of the electorate actually voted.

March 17 – Sri Lanka wins the Cricket World Cup by beating Australia in the final.

March 18 – The Ozone Disco Club fire in Quezon City, Philippines kills 163 people.

March 22 – Sweden's Finance Minister Göran Persson becomes the new Prime Minister of Sweden.

March 23 – Taiwan (Republic of China) holds its first direct elections for President; Lee Teng-hui is re-elected.

March 24 – The Marcopper mining disaster on the island of Marinduque, Philippines takes place.

March 25 – The 68th Academy Awards, hosted by Whoopi Goldberg, are held at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in Los Angeles with Braveheart winning Best Picture.

March 26 – The International Monetary Fund approves a $10.2 billion loan to Russia for economic reform.

April[edit]

April 1 – The Halifax Regional Municipality in Nova Scotia is created.

April 3

A Boeing 737 military jet crashes into a mountain north of Dubrovnik, Croatia. All 35 people on board are killed, including United States Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown.

Massacres of Hutus by Tutsis in Burundi take place with more than 450 killed within a few days.

April 6

Fighting breaks out in Monrovia, Liberia, between various rebel factions struggling for power in the country's interrupted civil war. Several foreign nationals leave the nation.

Turkish authorities begin Operation Hawk, a military offensive against rebels from the Kurdish Workers' Party in south-east Turkey.

April 9 – In a common statement, the European Union officially recognises the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

April 11 – The Israeli government launches Operation Grapes of Wrath, consisting of massive attacks on Lebanon, in retaliation for prior terrorist attacks, and sparking off a violent series of retaliations.

April 18

Qana Massacre: Over 100 Lebanese civilians are killed after Israel shells the United Nations compound in Qana.

In reaction to the Qana Massacre, an Islamist group in Egypt open fire on a hotel, killing eighteen Greek tourists and injuring seventeen others.

April 21 – A general election in Italy proclaims a new center-left government headed by Romano Prodi, replacing Silvio Berlusconi.

April 24 – At the urging of Yasser Arafat, the Palestine Liberation Organization drops its clause calling for the removal of Israel. The Israeli government responds by dropping a similar clause concerning the existence of Palestine.

April 28

Port Arthur massacre: Martin Bryant kills 35 people at the Port Arthur tourist site in Tasmania, Australia.

A bomb explodes in Bhaiperu, Pakistan, killing more than 60 people.

May[edit]

May – Iraq disarmament crisis: UNSCOM supervises the destruction of Al-Hakam, Iraq's main production facility of biological warfare agents.

May 9

South Africa's National Party pulls out of the coalition government formed two years earlier, and the African National Congress assumes full political control.

Ugandan president Yoweri Museveni wins a landslide victory in the country's first direct presidential elections, securing 75% of the vote.

May 10

1996 Everest disaster: A sudden storm engulfs Mount Everest with several climbing teams high on the mountain, leaving eight people dead. By the end of the month, at least four other climbers die in the worst season of fatalities on the mountain to date.

The Australian government introduces a nationwide ban on the private possession of both automatic and semi-automatic rifles, in response to the Port Arthur massacre.

May 11 – After takeoff from Miami, a fire started by improperly handled oxygen canisters in the cargo hold of Atlanta-bound ValuJet Flight 592 causes the Douglas DC-9 to crash in the Florida Everglades, killing all 110 people on board.

May 13 – Severe thunderstorms and a tornado in Bangladesh kill 600 people.

May 17–28 – Atal Bihari Vajpayee, leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party, is elected as Prime Minister of India, replacing P. V. Narasimha Rao of the Indian National Congress. However, the party does not receive an overall majority and Vajpayee resigns thirteen days later rather than face a no confidence vote and is replaced by the United Front leader, Deve Gowda.

May 18 – The X Prize Foundation launches the $10,000,000 Ansari X Prize.

May 21

The MV Bukoba sinks in Tanzanian waters in Lake Victoria, killing nearly 1,000 people in one of Africa's worst maritime disasters.

The Trappist Martyrs of Atlas are executed.

May 23 – Members of the Armed Islamic Group in Algeria kill seven French Trappist monks, after talks with French government concerning the imprisonment of several GIA sympathisers break down.

May 27 – First Chechnya War: Russian President Boris Yeltsin meets with Chechnyan rebels for the first time and negotiates a ceasefire for the dispute.

May 28 – Albania's general election of May 26 is declared unfair by international monitors, and the ruling Democratic Party under President Sali Berisha is charged by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe with rigging the elections. Several hundred protestors gather in Tirana to demonstrate against the election result.

May 30 – The Likud Party, led by Benjamin Netanyahu, wins a narrow victory in the Israeli general election.

June[edit]

June – Iraq disarmament crisis: As Iraq continues to refuse inspectors access to a number of sites, the United States fails in its attempt to build support for military action against Iraq in the UN Security Council.

June 1–3 – The Czech Republic's first general election ends inconclusively. Prime Minister Václav Klaus and his incumbent Civic Democratic Party emerge as the winners, but are unable to form a majority government. President Václav Havel refuses to invite Klaus to form a coalition.

June 4 – The space rocket Ariane 5 explodes forty seconds after takeoff in French Guiana. The project costs European governments $7,500,000,000 over eleven years.

June 6 – Leighton W. Smith, Jr. resigns as NATO commander in the face of increasing criticism.

June 8–30 – England hosts the UEFA Euro 1996 football tournament, which is won by Germany.

June 11

An explosion in a São Paulo suburban shopping centre kills 44 people and injures more than 100.

A peace convoy carrying Chechen separatist leaders and international diplomats is targeted by a series of remotely controlled land mines; eight people are killed.

June 15 – In Manchester, UK, a massive IRA bomb injures over 200 people and devastates a large part of the city centre.

June 28

A new government is formed in Turkey, with Necmettin Erbakan of Refah Partisi becoming Prime Minister of the coalition government, and Deputy/Foreign Minister Tansu Çiller of the True Path Party succeeding him after two years.

The Constitution of Ukraine is signed into law.

June 29

The Prince's Trust concert is held in Hyde Park, London, and is attended by 150,000 people. The Who headlines the event in their first performance since 1989.

An explosion in a firecrackers factory in Sichuan Province, China kills at least 52 people and injures 83 others.

June 30

Costas Simitis is elected president of the Panhellenic Socialist Movement of Greece.

Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadžić relinquishes power to his deputy, Biljana Plavšić.

July[edit]

July

Iraq disarmament crisis: U.N. Inspector Scott Ritter attempts to conduct surprise inspections on the Republican Guard facility at the airport but is blocked by Iraqi officials.

The Indian government officially renames the city of Madras, restoring the name Chennai.[2]

July 1

The Northern Territory in Australia legalises voluntary euthanasia.

German orthography reform of 1996 agreed internationally.

July 3 – Boris Yeltsin is re-elected as President of Russia after the second round of elections.

July 5 – Dolly the sheep, the first mammal to be successfully cloned from an adult cell, is born at the Roslin Institute in Midlothian, Scotland, UK.

July 11 – Arrest warrants are issued for Bosnian Serb war criminals Radovan Karadžić and Ratko Mladić by the Russell Tribunal in The Hague.

July 12 – Hurricane Bertha: made landfall in North Carolina as a Category 2 storm, causing $270 million in damage ($431 million in present-day terms[3]) to the United States and its possessions and many indirect deaths.

July 16 – An outbreak of E. coli food poisoning in Japan results in 6,000 children being ill, including two deaths, after a group of school children eat contaminated lunches.

July 17

The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa) is constituted.

Paris- and Rome-bound TWA Flight 800 (Boeing 747) explodes off the coast of Long Island, New York, killing all 230 people on board.

July 19

The 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, United States, begin.

Bosnian Serb President Radovan Karadžić resigns from public office in Republika Srpska after being indicted for war crimes.

July 21 – The Saguenay Flood, one of Canada's most costly natural disasters, is caused by flooding on the Saguenay River in Quebec.

July 24 – The Dehiwala train bombing kills 56 commuters outside Colombo.

July 25 – The Tutsi-led Burundian army performs a coup and reinstalls previous president Pierre Buyoya, ousting current president Sylvestre Ntibantunganya.

July 27 – The Centennial Olympic Park bombing at the 1996 Summer Olympics kills one person and injures 111.

August[edit]

 

The electron microscope reveals chain structures in meteorite fragment ALH84001.

August

The first three-parent baby is conceived in New Jersey through mitochondrial donation.[4]

The invasive species Asian long-horned beetle is found in New York City.

August 1

Sarah Balabagan returns to the Philippines.

A pro-democracy demonstration supporting Megawati Sukarnoputri in Indonesia is broken up by riot police.

August 4 – The 1996 Summer Olympics conclude.

August 6 – NASA announces that the Allan Hills 84001 meteorite, thought to originate from Mars, may contain evidence of primitive lifeforms; further tests are inconclusive.

August 7 – Heavy rains kill more than 80 campers near Huesca, Spain.

August 9 – Boris Yeltsin is sworn in at the Kremlin for a second term as President of Russia.

August 13 – Data sent back by the Galileo space probe indicates there may be water on one of Jupiter's moons.

August 14 – A rocket ignited during a fireworks display in Arequipa, Peru knocks down a high-tension power cable into a dense crowd, electrocuting 35 people.

August 15 – Bob Dole is nominated for President of the United States, and Jack Kemp for Vice President, at the Republican National Convention in San Diego, California.

August 16 – Brookfield Zoo, Chicago. After a 3-year-old boy falls into the 20-foot (6.1 m) deep gorilla enclosure, Binti Jua, a female lowland gorilla sits with the injured boy until his rescue.

August 21

Former State President of South Africa, F. W. de Klerk, makes an official apology for crimes committed under Apartheid to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in Cape Town.

In the UK, Queen Elizabeth II issues letters patent on divorced former wives of British princes, taking away from the ex-wives the attribute and style of Royal Highness. With that Sarah, Duchess of York as well as Diana, Princess of Wales legally cease to be Royals, but they remain as non-royal Duchess and Princess.

August 23 – Osama bin Laden writes "The Declaration of Jihad on the Americans Occupying the Country of the Two Sacred Places," a call for the removal of American military forces from Saudi Arabia.

August 28 – Their Royal Highnesses, the Prince and Princess of Wales, are formally divorced at the High Court of Justice in London. Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales is restyled Diana, Princess of Wales, due to the Queen's letters patent issued a week earlier.

August 29

U.S. President Bill Clinton and Vice President Al Gore are re-nominated at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago.

A Russian Tupolev 154 jetliner crashes into a mountain as it approaches the airport at Spitsbergen, Norway, killing all 141 people on board.

August 31 – Iraq disarmament crisis: Iraqi forces launch an offensive into the northern No-Fly Zone and capture Arbil.

September[edit]

September 2 – A permanent peace agreement is signed at the Malacañan Palace between the Government of the Philippines and the Moro National Liberation Front.

September 3 – The United States launches Operation Desert Strike against Iraq in reaction to the attack on Arbil.

September 4 – The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia attack a military base in Guaviare, Colombia, starting three weeks of guerrilla warfare that will claim the lives of at least 130 Colombians.

September 5 – Hurricane Fran makes landfall near Cape Fear, North Carolina as a Category 3 storm with 115 mph (185 km/h) sustained winds. Fran caused over $3 billion in damages ($4.79 billion in present-day terms[3]) and killed 27 people, mainly in North Carolina. The name "Fran" was retired due to the extensive damage.

September 10 – Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) signed (it will be ratified 180 days after ratification by 44 Annex 2 countries).

September 13 – Alija Izetbegović is elected President of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the country's first election since the Bosnian War.

September 18 – A North Korean Sang-O class submarine runs aground in South Korea. The crew are described as spies by the South Korean government and killed by the South Korean military.

September 20 – Leader of Pakistani opposition party Pakistan Peoples Party Murtaza Bhutto is killed during a gunfight with police.

September 22 – The Panhellenic Socialist Movement under the leadership of Costas Simitis succeeds in the 1996 Greek legislative election.

September 24 – U.S. President Bill Clinton signs the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty at the United Nations.

September 27 – In Afghanistan, the Taliban capture the capital city of Kabul, after driving out President Burhanuddin Rabbani and executing former leader Mohammad Najibullah.

October[edit]

October 2

The former Prime Minister of Bulgaria, Andrey Lukanov, is assassinated.

Aeroperú Flight 603 crashes into the Pacific Ocean when the instruments fail just after takeoff from Lima Airport, killing all 70 people on board.

October 6 – The government of New Zealand agrees to pay $130 million worth of compensation for the loss of land suffered by the Māori population between the years of 1844 and 1864.

October 22 – A fire at La Planta prison in southwest Caracas, Venezuela, kills thirty prisoners.

October 30 – Fighting erupts when Banyamulenga Tutsis of Laurent Kabila in Zaire seize Uvira and proceed to kill Hutu refugees.

October 31 – TAM Transportes Aéreos Regionais Flight 402 crashes into a densely populated area of São Paulo, killing all 96 people on board.

November[edit]

November – Iraq disarmament crisis: UNSCOM inspectors uncover buried prohibited missile parts. Iraq refuses to allow UNSCOM teams to remove remnants of missile engines for analysis outside of the country.

November 5

Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's government is dismissed by President Farooq Leghari after widespread allegations of corruption.

1996 United States presidential election: Incumbent Democratic President Bill Clinton defeats his Republican challenger, Bob Dole.

November 7

A category 4 cyclone strikes Andhra Pradesh, India, killing more than 2,000 people.

NASA launches the Mars Global Surveyor.

November 8 – All 141 people on board a Nigerian-owned Boeing 727 die when the aircraft crashes into the Atlantic Ocean while approaching Lagos airport.

November 12 – Saudi Arabian Airlines Boeing 747 collides in mid-air with Kazakhstan Airlines Il-76 in New Delhi, India, resulting in the loss of 349 lives.

November 17

A bomb exploded in Kaspiysk, Russia, killing 32 people.

Emil Constantinescu is elected as President of Romania.

November 18 – Frederick Chiluba is re-elected as President of Zambia.

November 19

Martin Bryant is sentenced to 35 consecutive sentences of life imprisonment plus 1,035 years without parole for murdering 35 people in a shooting spree in Tasmania earlier this year.

Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Organization (CTBTO) established.

STS-80: Space Shuttle Columbia conducts the longest mission of the Space Shuttle program.

November 20 – The 1996 Garley Building fire occurred in Hong Kong, resulting in 41 deaths and 81 injuries.

November 21 – A propane explosion at the Humberto Vidal shoe store and office building in San Juan, Puerto Rico kills 33 people.

November 23

The Republic of Angola officially joins the World Trade Organization as Angola.

Ethiopian Airlines Flight 961 is hijacked, then crashes into the Indian Ocean off the coast of Comoros after running out of fuel, killing 125.

Tamagotchi is released in Japan by Bandai.

November 25 – An ice storm strikes the U.S., killing 26 directly and hundreds more from accidents. A powerful windstorm blasts Florida with winds gusts up to 90 mph.

December[edit]

December 9 – Jerry Rawlings is re-elected as President of Ghana.

December 11 – Tung Chee-hwa is appointed to become the new leader of Hong Kong after it reverts to Chinese rule on July 1, 1997 at the end a 99-year lease to the United Kingdom.

December 13 – Ghanaian diplomat Kofi Annan is elected by the United Nations Security Council the next Secretary-General of the United Nations.

December 17 – The Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement takes 72 hostages in the Japanese Embassy in Lima, Peru.

December 25 – At least 283 migrants drown in the sinking of F174 near Capo Passero (Sicily).

December 26

The largest strike in South Korean history begins.

Six-year-old JonBenét Ramsey is found beaten and strangled in the basement of her family's home in Boulder, Colorado.

December 27 – Taliban forces retake the strategic Bagram Air Base, solidifying their buffer zone around Kabul.

December 29 – Guatemala and the leaders of the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity sign a peace accord that ends the 36-year Guatemalan Civil War.

December 30 – In the Indian state of Assam, a passenger train is bombed by Bodo separatists, killing 26.

Undated[edit]

Economy of Venezuela: Inflation in the country peaks at 99.87%.

Births[edit]

Births

January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December

January[edit]

 

Ella Henderson

 

Dove Cameron

 

Caitlin Sanchez

January 1

Mahmoud Dahoud, German footballer

Andreas Pereira, Brazilian footballer

Mathias Jensen, Danish footballer

January 2 – Xiaoyu Yu, Chinese figure skater

January 3 – Florence Pugh, English actress

January 5

Maxim Baldry, English actor

Tyler Ulis, American basketball player

January 6

Courtney Eaton, Australian actress

Kishan Shrikanth, Indian actor and director

Harmanpreet Singh, Indian hockey player

January 7

Fu Yuanhui, Chinese swimmer

Helly Shah, Indian actress

Isaac Success, Nigerian footballer

January 9 – Oana Gregory, Romanian American actress

January 10 – Anna Sztankovics, Hungarian swimmer

January 11 – Leroy Sané, German footballer

January 12 – Ella Henderson, English singer

January 13 – Aníta Hinriksdóttir, Icelandic middle-distance runner

January 15 – Dove Cameron, American actress and singer

January 16

Anastasia Grishina, Russian artistic gymnast

Jennie, South Korean singer and rapper

January 17

Caitlin Sanchez, American actress

Nile Wilson, British artistic gymnast

January 18 – Sarah Gilman, American actress

January 21 – Marco Asensio, Spanish footballer

January 22

Sami Gayle, American actress

Joshua Ho-Sang, Canadian ice hockey player

January 23

Chachi Gonzales, American dancer

Ruben Loftus-Cheek, English footballer

January 24 – Patrik Schick, Czech footballer

January 26 – Zakaria Bakkali, Belgian footballer

January 27 – Braeden Lemasters, American actor, musician, and voice actor

January 31 – Joel Courtney, American actor

February[edit]

 

Kelli Berglund

 

Sasha Pieterse

 

Sophie Turner

February 1

Ahmad Abughaush, Jordanian taekwondo athlete

Dionne Bromfield, English singer-songwriter and television personality

February 2 – Harry Winks, English footballer

February 5 – Zeng Siqi, Chinese artistic gymnast

February 7

Aaron Ekblad, Canadian ice hockey player

Pierre Gasly, French racing driver

Mai Hagiwara, Japanese singer

February 8 – Kenedy, Brazilian footballer

February 9

Jimmy Bennett, American actor

Kelli Berglund, American actress

Chungha, South Korean singer and dancer

February 11

Jonathan Tah, German footballer

Lucas Torreira, Uruguayan footballer

February 13 – Muhammad Rian Ardianto, Indonesian badminton player

February 14

Lucas Hernandez, French footballer

Viktor Kovalenko, Ukrainian footballer

February 17

Erika Fasana, Italian artistic gymnast

Sasha Pieterse, South African-born American actress

February 18 – Ikumi Hisamatsu, Japanese fashion model and actress

February 20 – Mabel, English singer

February 21 – Sophie Turner, English actress

February 23

Michael Johnston, American actor

D'Angelo Russell, American basketball player

February 24 – Cristian Imparato, Italian singer

February 25 – Emel Dereli, Turkish shot putter

February 28

Danilo Barbosa, Brazilian footballer

Bobb'e J. Thompson, American actor, dancer, rapper and comedian

March[edit]

 

Timo Werner

 

Myles Turner

March 1

Sage Northcutt, American mixed martial artist

Ye Shiwen, Chinese swimmer

March 4

Timo Baumgartl, German footballer

Antonio Sanabria, Paraguayan footballer

March 6

Timo Werner, German footballer

Yan Han, Chinese figure skater

March 8

Matthew Hammelmann, Australian rules footballer

Emil Imre, Hungarian short track speed skater

March 9 – Giorgio Minisini, Italian synchronized swimmer

March 14 – Janai Haupapa, Canadian rugby league player

March 15 – Levin Öztunalı, German footballer

March 16 – Anna Ovcharova, Russian/Swiss figure skater

March 18 – Madeline Carroll, American actress

March 19 – Feodosiy Efremenkov, Russian figure skater

March 22 – Gig Morton, Canadian actor

March 23

Alexander Albon, Thai racing driver

Lauri Kivari, Finnish freestyle skier[importance?]

March 24

Valentino Lazaro, Austrian footballer

Myles Turner, American basketball player

March 25 – Dougal Howard, Australian rules footballer[importance?]

March 26 – Kathryn Bernardo, Filipina actress

March 27 – Rosabell Laurenti Sellers, Italian-American actress

March 28

Benjamin Pavard, French footballer

Xie Siyi, Chinese diver

March 29 – Wade Baldwin IV, American basketball player

March 31 – Liza Koshy, American actress and television host[importance?]

April[edit]

 

Austin Mahone

 

Loïc Nottet

 

Abigail Breslin

April 2

Polina Agafonova, Russian figure skater

Matheus Santana, Brazilian swimmer

April 3 – Sarah Jeffery, American actress

April 4 – Austin Mahone, American singer

April 8 – Lorna Fitzgerald, English actress

April 9 – Giovani Lo Celso, Argentinian footballer

April 10

Andreas Christensen, Danish footballer

Thanasi Kokkinakis, Australian tennis player

Loïc Nottet, Belgian singer

Audrey Whitby, American teen actress

April 11 – Dele Alli, English footballer

April 12 – Polina Korobeynikova, Russian figure skater

April 14 – Abigail Breslin, American actress

April 16 – Anya Taylor-Joy, American actress

April 17 – Dee Dee Davis, American actress

April 18 – Ski Mask the Slump God, American rapper

April 21 – Tavi Gevinson, American fashion blogger

April 22 – Wendy Sulca, Peruvian singer

April 23

Álex Márquez, Spanish motorcycle racer

Charlie Rowe, British actor

April 24 – Ashleigh Barty, Australian tennis player

April 25

Mack Horton, Australian swimmer

Allisyn Ashley Arm, American actress

April 28 – Tony Revolori, American actor

April 29

Gustav Engvall, Swedish footballer

Katherine Langford, Australian actress

May[edit]

 

Noah Munck

 

Birdy

 

Ryan Ochoa

May 2 – Julian Brandt, German footballer

May 3

Mary Cain, American middle-distance runner

Alex Iwobi, Nigerian footballer

Noah Munck, American actor

May 4

Arielle Gold, American snowboarder

Pelayo Roza, Spanish sprint canoeist.

May 5 – Matheus Pereira, Brazilian footballer

May 8 – 6ix9ine, American rapper

May 9 – Noah Centineo, American actor

May 10 – Tyus Jones, American basketball player

May 11 – Andrés Cubas, Argentinian footballer

May 14

Martin Garrix, Dutch DJ and producer

McKaley Miller, American actress

Pokimane, Moroccan YouTuber

May 15 – Birdy, English singer and songwriter

May 17 – Ryan Ochoa, American actor and musician

May 18 – Violett Beane, American actress

May 19 – Lakshmi Menon, Indian film actress

May 18 – Yuki Kadono, Japanese snowboarder

May 23 – Katharina Althaus, German ski jumper

May 26 – Lukáš Haraslín, Slovak footballer

May 30

Aleksandr Golovin, Russian footballer

Erik Jones, American race car driver

May 31 – Normani, American singer

June[edit]

 

Tom Holland

 

Alen Halilović

June 1 – Tom Holland, English actor

June 3 – Han Tianyu, Chinese short track speed skater

June 7 – Christian McCaffrey, American football player

June 10 – Raury, American singer-songwriter

June 11 – Hakeeb Adelakun, English footballer

June 12 – Davinson Sánchez, Colombian footballer

June 13

Kingsley Coman, French footballer

Kodi Smit-McPhee, Australian actor

June 15 – Aurora, Norwegian singer

June 16 – Lily Zhang, American table tennis player

June 17 – Godfred Donsah, Ghanese footballer

June 18 – Alen Halilović, Croatian footballer

June 19 – Larisa Iordache, Romanian artistic gymnast

June 20

Sam Bennett, Canadian ice hockey player

Michael Dal Colle, Canadian ice hockey player

June 22

Yusupha Bobb, Gambian footballer

Hugo Calderano, Brazilian table tennis player

Kong Sang-jeong, South Korean short track speed skater

Mikel Merino, Spanish footballer

June 24 – Harris Dickinson, English actor, writer, and director

June 27 – Lauren Jauregui, American singer

June 28

Milot Rashica, Kosovar footballer

Donna Vekić, Croatian tennis player

June 29 – Bart Ramselaar, Dutch footballer

July[edit]

 

Adelina Sotnikova

 

Blake Michael

July 1 – Adelina Sotnikova, Russian figure skater

July 3

Kendji Girac, French singer

Kumaahran Sathasivam, Malaysian footballer

July 5 – Risa Shōji, Japanese figure skater

July 6 – Robert Naylor, Canadian actor and musician

July 9 – Shanice Williams, American actress and singer

July 10 – Moon Ga-young, South Korean actress

July 11

Alessia Cara, Canadian singer and songwriter

Andrija Živković, Serbian footballer

July 12 – Moussa Dembélé, French footballer

July 16

Kevin Abstract, American rapper, singer-songwriter and director

Nicky Jones, American voice actor

July 18

Dzhamaldin Khodzhaniyazov, Russian footballer

Yung Lean, Swedish rapper and record producer

Siebe Schrijvers, Belgian footballer

July 20 – Ben Simmons, Australian basketball player

July 21 – Joey Bragg, American actor and comedian

July 22

Skyler Gisondo, American actor

Indy Groothuizen, Dutch football player

Jane Oineza, Filipina actress

July 23

Danielle Bradbery, American singer

Rachel G. Fox, American actress

July 30

Dylan Larkin, American hockey player

Austin North, American actor

July 31 – Blake Michael, American actor

August[edit]

 

Jacob Latimore

 

Brianna Hildebrand

 

Jamia Simone Nash

August 1 – Cymphonique Miller, American actress and singer

August 2 – Simone Manuel, American swimmer

August 5

Francesca Deagostini, Italian artistic gymnast

Mai Murakami, Japanese artistic gymnast

August 7

Dani Ceballos, Spanish footballer

Liam James, Canadian actor

August 10 – Jacob Latimore, American singer, actor and dancer

August 12

Arthur Melo, Brazilian footballer

Torri Webster, Canadian actress

August 14

Brianna Hildebrand, American actress

Neal Maupay, French footballer

August 19

Almoez Ali, Sudanese-Qatari footballer

Laura Tesoro, Belgian singer and actress

August 21

Sofyan Amrabat, Dutch-born Moroccan footballer

Jamia Simone Nash, American singer and actress[importance?]

August 22

Jessica-Jane Applegate, British Paralympic swimmer

Michael Graue, American actor

August 24 – Kenzō Shirai, Japanese gymnast

August 27 – Ebru Topçu, Turkish footballer

August 28 – Kim Se-jeong, South Korean singer and actress

August 30

Gabriel Barbosa, Brazilian footballer

Chen Dequan, Chinese short track speed skater

September[edit]

 

Zendaya

 

Sigrid

 

Colin Ford

September 1 – Zendaya, American actress and singer

September 3 – Joy, South Korean singer and actress

September 5

Sigrid (singer), Norwegian singer

Richairo Živković, Dutch footballer

September 6 – Lil Xan, American rapper

September 9 – Jaïro Riedewald, Dutch footballer

September 12 – Colin Ford, American actor

September 13

Playboi Carti, American rapper

Lili Reinhart, American actress

September 16 – Alexis Blin, French footballer

September 17

Duje Ćaleta-Car, Croatian footballer

Esteban Ocon, French racing driver

Ella Purnell, English actress

September 19 – Pia Mia, Guamanian singer-songwriter and model

September 20 – Jerome Sinclair, English footballer

September 22 – Anthoine Hubert, French racing driver (d. 2019)

September 23

Lee Hi, South Korean singer-songwriter

Evgeny Rylov, Russian swimmer

September 25

Max Christiansen, German footballer

Mie Nielsen, Danish swimmer

September 27 – Maxwel Cornet, French-Ivorian footballer

September 28 – Michael Ronda, Mexican actor and singer

October[edit]

 

Bella Hadid

 

Devin Booker

October 3 – Kelechi Iheanacho, Nigerian footballer

October 7 – Lewis Capaldi, Scottish singer-songwriter

October 8 – Sara Takanashi, Japanese ski jumper

October 9

Jacob Batalon, American-Filipino actor

Bella Hadid, American model

October 12 – Riechedly Bazoer, Dutch footballer

October 15

Charly Musonda, Belgian footballer

Zelo, Korean singer

October 22

B.I, Korean singer

Harley Windsor, Australian pair skater

October 23 – Sam Berns, American high school student, and activist (d. 2014)

October 24

Jaylen Brown, American basketball player

Kyla Ross, American gymnast

October 26 – Anthony Sinisuka Ginting, Indonesian badminton player

October 27 – Nadiem Amiri, German footballer

October 28

Jasmine Jessica Anthony, American actress

Jack Eichel, American ice hockey player

Lee June-hyoung, South Korean figure skater

October 30

Devin Booker, American basketball player

Mizuki Fukumura, Japanese singer

November[edit]

 

Lil Peep

 

Michael Christian Martinez

 

Lorde

November 1

Sean Gelael, Indonesian racing driver

Lil Peep, American rapper (d. 2017)

Jeongyeon, South Korean singer

November 4 – Michael Christian Martinez, Filipino figure skater

November 7

André Horta, Portuguese footballer

Lorde, New Zealand singer-songwriter

November 9

Nguyễn Thị Ánh Viên, Vietnamese swimmer

Momo Hirai, Japanese singer and dancer

November 11

Adam Ounas, French-born Algerian footballer

Tye Sheridan, American actor

November 14 – Borna Ćorić, Croatian tennis player

November 15 – Malik Jefferson, American football player

November 16 – Brendan Murray, Irish singer

November 17 – Ruth Jebet, Bahraini long-distance runner

November 18

Akram Afif, Qatari footballer

Noah Ringer, American actor

Sorn, South Korean based singer

November 19 – Liliána Szilágyi, Hungarian swimmer

November 20 – Denis Zakaria, Swiss footballer

November 22

Hailey Baldwin, American model and socialite

Madison Davenport, American actress and singer

November 23

James Maddison, English footballer

Anna Yanovskaya, Russian ice dancer

November 26 – Louane Emera, French singer and actress

November 27 – Andy Truong, Australian fashion designer

November 29 – Gonçalo Guedes, Portuguese footballer

December[edit]

 

Stefanie Scott

 

Hailee Steinfeld

December 4

Diogo Jota, Portuguese footballer

Daria Svatkovskaya, Russian artistic gymnast

December 6 – Stefanie Scott, American actress

December 8 – Scott McTominay, Scottish footballer

December 9 – ViVi, Hong Kong singer[importance?]

December 10

Jérémy Gabriel, French Canadian singer

Kang Daniel, South Korean singer

December 11

Jack Griffo, American actor

Eliza McCartney, New Zealand track and field athlete

Hailee Steinfeld, American actress, model and singer

December 12 – Lucas Hedges, American actor

December 14 – Li Zijun, Chinese figure skater

December 15 – Oleksandr Zinchenko, Ukrainian footballer

December 16

Wilfred Ndidi, Nigerian footballer

Sergio Reguilón, Spanish footballer

December 17 – Elizaveta Tuktamysheva, Russian figure skater

December 19 – Franck Kessié, Ivorian footballer

December 21 – Kaitlyn Dever, American actress

December 28 – Alfred Kipketer, Kenyan middle-distance runner

December 29

Dylan Minnette, American actor, singer and musician

Sana, Japanese singer

Deaths[edit]

Main article: Deaths in 1996

Further information: Category:1996 deaths

Deaths

January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December

January[edit]

 

François Mitterrand

 

King Moshoeshoe II

January 1

Arleigh Burke, American naval officer (b. 1901)

Arthur Rudolph, German rocket engineer (b. 1906)

January 5

Yahya Ayyash, Palestinian shaheed (b. 1966)

Lincoln Kirstein, American writer and impresario (b. 1907)

January 7

Károly Grósz, 51st Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1930)

Tarō Okamoto, Japanese artist (b. 1911)

January 8 – François Mitterrand, French politician, 21st President of France (b. 1916)

January 15

Les Baxter, American musician and composer (b. 1922)

Moshoeshoe II, King of Lesotho (b. 1938)

January 17 – Barbara Jordan, American lawyer, educator, politician and civil rights activist (b. 1936)

January 18

Leonor Fini, Argentine artist (b. 1908)

Endel Puusepp, Estonian pilot (b. 1909)

N. T. Rama Rao, Indian actor, producer, director, editor and politician (b. 1923)

January 19 – Don Simpson, American film producer (b. 1943)

January 20 – Gerry Mulligan, American musician (b. 1927)

January 25 – Jonathan Larson, American composer and playwright (b. 1960)

January 26 – Georg Alexander, Duke of Mecklenburg (b. 1921)

January 28

Joseph Brodsky, Russian-born American Nobel poet (b. 1940)

Jerry Siegel, American cartoonist (b. 1914)

February[edit]

 

Gene Kelly

 

Audrey Meadows

 

McLean Stevenson

February 2 – Gene Kelly, American actor and dancer (b. 1912)

February 3 – Audrey Meadows, American actress (b. 1922)

February 4 – Alfredo Nobre da Costa, 106th Prime Minister of Portugal (b. 1923)

February 6 – Guy Madison, American actor (b. 1922)

February 7 – Boris Tchaikovsky, Russian composer (b. 1925)

February 9 – Adolf Galland, German general (b. 1912)

February 11 – Kebby Musokotwane, Prime Minister of Zambia (b. 1946)

February 12

Bob Shaw, Irish science fiction writer (b. 1931)

Ryōtarō Shiba, Japanese novelist (b. 1923)

February 13 – Martin Balsam, American actor (b. 1919)

February 14

Eva Hart, British Titanic survivor (b. 1905)

Bob Paisley, English football manager (b. 1919)

February 15

Tommy Rettig, American actor (b. 1941)

McLean Stevenson, American actor (b. 1927)

February 16

Roger Bowen, American actor (b. 1932)

Pat Brown, American politician (b. 1905)

February 20

Audrey Munson, American model and actress (b. 1891)

Toru Takemitsu, Japanese composer (b. 1930)

February 21 – Morton Gould, American musician and composer (b. 1913)

February 23

William Bonin, American serial killer (b. 1947)

Helmut Schön, German football player and manager (b. 1915)

February 25 – Haing S. Ngor, Cambodian activist and actor (b. 1940)

February 26 – Mieczysław Weinberg, Polish composer (b. 1919)

February 27 – Sarah Palfrey Cooke, American tennis player (b. 1912)

March[edit]

 

George Burns

 

Edmund Muskie

March 2 – Lyle Talbot, American actor (b. 1902)

March 3 – Marguerite Duras, French author and director (b. 1914)

March 4 – Minnie Pearl, American comedian (b. 1912)

March 5

Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad, 5th President of Bangladesh (b. 1918)

Whit Bissell, American actor (b. 1909)

March 6 – Simon Cadell, English actor (b. 1950)

March 9 – George Burns, American comedian and actor (b. 1896)

March 10 – Ross Hunter, American film producer (b. 1926)

March 11 – Vince Edwards, American actor (b. 1928)

March 12 – Gyula Kállai, 48th Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1910)

March 13 – Krzysztof Kieślowski, Polish film director (b. 1941)

March 17 – René Clément, French film director (b. 1913)

March 18 – Odysseas Elytis, Greek writer (b. 1911)

March 19

Virginia Henderson, American nurse and theorist (b. 1897)

Chen Jingrun, Chinese mathematician (b. 1933)

March 25 – Lola Beltrán, Mexican singer, actress, and television presenter (b. 1932)

March 26

Edmund Muskie, American politician (b. 1914)

David Packard, American engineer (b. 1912)

March 31 – Jeffrey Lee Pierce, American musician (b. 1958)

April[edit]

 

Greer Garson

 

P. L. Travers

April 3 – Ron Brown, American politician (b. 1941)

April 4 – Barney Ewell, American athlete (b. 1918)

April 6

John D. Bulkeley, American naval officer (b. 1911)

Greer Garson, British-American actress (b. 1904)

April 8 – Ben Johnson, American actor and stuntman (b. 1918)

April 13 – James Burke, Irish-American gangster (b. 1931)

April 16 – Lucille Bremer, American actress and dancer (b. 1917)

April 18 – Bernard Edwards, American bass player (b. 1952)

April 20 – Christopher Robin Milne, English author and bookseller (b. 1920)

April 21 – Dzhokhar Dudayev, Chechen politician and President of Ichkeria (b. 1944)

April 22 – Erma Bombeck, American humorist and writer (b. 1927)

April 23 – P. L. Travers, British actress, journalist, novelist and writer (b. 1899)

April 25 – Saul Bass, American graphic designer (b. 1920)

April 26 – Stirling Silliphant, American screenwriter and producer (b. 1918)

April 28 – Siti Hartinah, 2nd First Lady of Indonesia, wife of Suharto (b. 1923)

May[edit]

 

Tamara Toumanova

 

Timothy Leary

May 1 – David M. Kennedy, American politician, businessman (b. 1905)

May 2 – Emile Habibi, Palestinian Israeli writer (b. 1922)

May 3 – Jack Weston, American actor (b. 1924)

May 6 – Leo Joseph Suenens, Belgian cardinal (b. 1904)

May 11

Nnamdi Azikiwe, 1st President of Nigeria (b. 1904)

Scott Fischer, American mountaineer (b. 1955)

Rob Hall, New Zealand mountaineer (b. 1961)

Ademir de Menezes, Brazilian footballer (b. 1922)

May 17 – Johnny "Guitar" Watson, American singer, songwriter and musician (b. 1935)

May 19 – John Beradino, American baseball player and actor (b. 1917)

May 20 – Jon Pertwee, British actor (b. 1919)

May 23 – Sim Iness, American Olympic athlete (b. 1930)

May 24

John Abbott, English actor (b. 1905)

Jacob Druckman, American composer (b. 1928)

Enrique Álvarez Félix, Mexican actor (b. 1934)

Joseph Mitchell, American writer (b. 1908)

May 25 – Bradley Nowell, American musician (b. 1968)

May 29 – Tamara Toumanova, Russian-American dancer and actress (b. 1919)

May 31 – Timothy Leary, American writer and social activist (b. 1920)

June[edit]

 

Ella Fitzgerald

 

Andreas Papandreou

June 1 – Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, 6th President of India (b. 1913)

June 2

John Alton, American cinematographer (b. 1901)

Leon Garfield, English author (b. 1921)

Pilar Lorengar, Spanish soprano (b. 1928)

June 3 – Peter Glenville, English film director (b. 1913)

June 6

Kusuo Kitamura, Japanese Olympic swimmer (b. 1917)

George Davis Snell, American Nobel geneticist (b. 1903)

June 10 – Jo Van Fleet, American actress (b. 1914)

June 11 – Brigitte Helm, German actress (b. 1908)

June 15 – Ella Fitzgerald, American singer (b. 1917)

June 19

Hillevi Rombin, Swedish actress and beauty queen (b. 1933)

Edvin Wide, Swedish middle- and long-distance runner (b. 1896)

June 23

Ray Lindwall, Australian cricketer (b. 1921)

Andreas Papandreou, Prime Minister of Greece (b. 1919)

June 26 – Veronica Guerin, Irish journalist (b. 1958)

June 27 – Albert R. Broccoli, American film producer (b. 1909)

June 28 – Kwan Tak-hing, Hong Kong actor (b. 1905)

July[edit]

 

Jean Muir

 

Claudette Colbert

July 1 – Margaux Hemingway, American fashion model and actress (b. 1954)

July 3 – Raaj Kumar, Indian film actor (b. 1926)

July 9

Eno Raud, Estonian writer (b. 1928)

Sergey Kuryokhin, Russian pianist, composer, improvisor, performance artist and actor (b. 1954)

July 13 – Pandro S. Berman, American film producer (b. 1905)

July 15 – Dana Hill, American actress (b. 1964)

July 17

Paul Touvier, French Nazi collaborator (b. 1915)

Victims of TWA Flight 800

Michel Breistroff, NHL ice hockey player (b. 1971)

Marcel Dadi, French guitarist (b. 1951)

David Hogan, American composer (b. 1949)

Jed Johnson, American interior designer and director (b. 1948)

July 20 – František Plánička, Czech footballer (b. 1904)

July 21

Luana Anders, American actress (b. 1938)

Herb Edelman, American actor (b. 1933)

July 22 – Jessica Mitford, British-American author, journalist and political campaigner (b. 1917)

July 23 – Jean Muir, American actress (b. 1911)

July 27 – Jane Drew, English architect (b. 1911)

July 28 – Roger Tory Peterson, American naturalist and artist (b. 1908)

July 30 – Claudette Colbert, French-born American Academy Award-winning actress (b. 1903)

August[edit]

 

Tadeusz Reichstein

 

Alejandro Agustín Lanusse

August 1

Mohamed Farrah Aidid, Somali military commander and politician (b. 1934)

Frida Boccara, French singer (b. 1940)

Tadeusz Reichstein, Polish-Swiss Nobel chemist (b. 1897)

August 2

Michel Debré, 99th Prime Minister of France (b. 1912)

Obdulio Varela, Uruguayan footballer (b. 1917)

August 6 – Hernán Siles Zuazo, Bolivian politician (b. 1914)

August 8 – Nevill Francis Mott, English Nobel physicist (b. 1905)

August 11

Rafael Kubelík, Czech-born Swiss conductor (b. 1914)

Baba Vanga, Bulgarian mystic, clairvoyant and herbalist (b. 1911)

August 12 – Viktor Hambardzumyan, Armenian scientist (b. 1908)

August 13

António de Spínola, 14th President of Portugal (b. 1910)

David Tudor, American pianist and composer (b. 1926)

August 14 – Camilla Horn, German actress (b. 1903)

August 20 – Rio Reiser, German musician and singer (b. 1950)

August 26 – Alejandro Agustín Lanusse, 37th President of Argentina (b. 1918)

August 27 – Greg Morris, American actor (b. 1933)

August 30 – Christine Pascal, French actress, director and screenwriter (b. 1953)

September[edit]

 

Ernesto Geisel

 

Spiro Agnew

 

Paul Erdős

 

Dorothy Lamour

September 1

Vagn Holmboe, Danish composer (b. 1909)

Karl Kehrle, Benedictine monk and beekeeper (b. 1898)

September 7 – Bibi Besch, American actress (b. 1940)

September 9

Ruggero Mastroianni, Italian film editor (b. 1929)

Bill Monroe, American musician (b. 1911)

September 10 – Joanne Dru, American actress (b. 1922)

September 12

Ernesto Geisel, Brazilian general, 29th President of Brazil (b. 1907)

Ricardo López, Uruguayan-American pest control worker (b. 1975)

September 13 – Tupac Shakur, American rapper (b. 1971)

September 14 – Juliet Prowse, American dancer and actress (b. 1936)

September 16

McGeorge Bundy, American academic (b. 1919)

Gene Nelson, American dancer and actor (b. 1920)

September 17 – Spiro Agnew, American politician (b. 1918)

September 18 – Annabella, French actress (b. 1907)

September 20

Murtaza Bhutto, Pakistani politician (b. 1954)

Paul Erdős, Hungarian mathematician (b. 1913)

Max Manus, Norwegian resistance fighter (b. 1914)

Paul Weston, American pianist and composer (b. 1912)

September 21 – Henri Nouwen, Dutch priest and author (b. 1932)

September 22

Mohamed Ben Ahmed Abdelghani, 1st Prime Minister of Algeria (b. 1927)

Dorothy Lamour, American actress (b. 1914)

September 23 – Fujiko Fujio, Japanese cartoonist (b. 1933)

September 24

Mark Frankel, British actor (b. 1962)

Zeki Müren, Turkish singer, composer, songwriter, actor and poet (b. 1931)

September 26

Nicu Ceaușescu, Romanian politician (b. 1951)

Pavel Sudoplatov, Soviet spy (b. 1907)

Geoffrey Wilkinson, English Nobel chemist (b. 1921)

September 27 – Mohammad Najibullah, President of Afghanistan (b. 1947)

September 29 – Shūsaku Endō, Japanese author (b. 1923)

September 30 – Moneta Sleet Jr., American press photogrpaher (b. 1926)

October[edit]

 

Morey Amsterdam

October 4 – Silvio Piola, Italian footballer (b. 1913)

October 5 – Seymour Cray, American computer scientist (b. 1925)

October 11

Renato Russo, Brazilian singer (b. 1960)

William Vickrey, Canadian-American economist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1914)

October 12

René Lacoste, French tennis player (b. 1904)

Roger Lapébie, French racing cyclist (b. 1911)

October 13 – Beryl Reid, British actress (b. 1919)

October 14 – Laura La Plante, American actress (b. 1904)

October 15 – Robert F. Williams, American civil rights leader, author (b. 1925)

October 16 – Jason Bernard, American actor (b. 1938)

October 24 – Artur Axmann, German Nazi leader (b. 1913)

October 28 – Morey Amsterdam, American comedian (b. 1908)

October 31 – Marcel Carné, French film director (b. 1909)

November[edit]

 

Jean-Bédel Bokassa/Bokassa I

 

Abdus Salam

November 1 – J. R. Jayewardene, 2nd President of Sri Lanka (b. 1906)

November 2 – Eva Cassidy, American vocalist (b. 1963)

November 3

Jean-Bédel Bokassa/Bokassa I, 2nd President of the Central African Republic and Emperor of Central Africa (b. 1921)

Abdullah Çatlı, Turkish nationalist (b. 1956)

November 5 – Eddie Harris, American jazz musician (b. 1934)

November 6 – Tommy Lawton, English footballer and manager (b. 1919)

November 14

Joseph Bernardin, American cardinal (b. 1928)

Virginia Cherrill, American actress (b. 1908)

November 15 – Alger Hiss, American diplomat (b. 1904)

November 18 – Zinovy Gerdt, Russian actor (b. 1916)

November 21 – Abdus Salam, Pakistani Nobel physicist (b. 1926)

November 22

María Casares, French-Spanish actress (b. 1922)

Mark Lenard, American actor (b. 1924)

November 26 – Paul Rand, American graphic designer (b. 1914)

November 27 – Gertrude Blanch, American mathematician (b. 1897)

November 28 – Don McNeill, American tennis player (b. 1918)

November 30 – Tiny Tim, American musician (b. 1932)

December[edit]

 

Marcello Mastroianni

 

Carl Sagan

December 3 – Babrak Karmal, President of Afghanistan (b. 1929)

December 6 – Pete Rozelle, American football official (b. 1926)

December 7 – José Donoso, Chilean writer (b. 1924)

December 8 – Howard Rollins, American actor (b. 1950)

December 9 – Mary Leakey, British archaeologist (b. 1913)

December 10 – Faron Young, American singer (b. 1932)

December 11 – Willie Rushton, English comedian, actor and cartoonist (b. 1937)

December 13 – Cao Yu, Chinese playwright (b. 1910)

December 16

Quentin Bell, English biographer and art historian (b. 1910)

Laurens van der Post, South African author (b. 1906)

December 17 – Stanko Todorov, Bulgarian communist politician (b. 1920)

December 18 – Irving Caesar, American lyricist (b. 1895)

December 19 – Marcello Mastroianni, Italian actor (b. 1924)

December 20

Amata Kabua, 1st President of the Marshall Islands (b. 1928)

Carl Sagan, American astronomer (b. 1934)

December 21 – Margret Rey, American author and illustrator (b. 1906)

December 30

Lew Ayres, American actor (b. 1908)

Jack Nance, American actor (b. 1943)

Nobel Prizes[edit]

Nobel medal.png

Physics – David M. Lee, Douglas D. Osheroff, Robert C. Richardson

Chemistry – Robert Curl, Sir Harold Kroto, Richard Smalley

Medicine – Peter C. Doherty, Rolf M. Zinkernagel

Literature – Wisława Szymborska

Peace – Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo and José Ramos-Horta

Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel – James Mirrlees, William Vickrey

 

Take a look back at the year 1996

 

1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, the 1996th year of the Common Era (CE) and Anno Domini (AD) designations, the 996th year of the 2nd millennium, the 96th year of the 20th century, and the 7th year of the 1990s decade.

 

1996 was designated as:

 

International Year for the Eradication of Poverty

 

Events

 

January

 

January 3 – Motorola introduces the Motorola StarTAC Wearable Cellular Telephone, the world's smallest and lightest mobile phone to date.

January 5 – Hamas operative Yahya Ayyash is assassinated by an Israeli Shabak-planted, bomb-laden cell phone.

January 7 – One of the worst blizzards in American history hits the eastern states, killing more than 150 people. Philadelphia receives a record 30.7 inches (78 cm) of snow, New York City's public schools close for the first time in eighteen years and the federal government in Washington, D.C. is closed for days.

January 8 – A Zairean cargo plane crashes into a crowded market in the center of the capital city of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Kinshasa, killing 300 people.

January 9–20 – Serious fighting breaks out between Russian soldiers and rebel fighters in Chechnya.

January 11 – Ryutaro Hashimoto, leader of the Liberal Democratic Party, becomes Prime Minister of Japan.

January 13 – Italy's Prime Minister, Lamberto Dini, resigns after the failure of all-party talks to confirm him. New talks are initiated by President Oscar Luigi Scalfaro to form a new government.

January 14 – Jorge Sampaio is elected President of Portugal.

January 16 – President of Sierra Leone Valentine Strasser is deposed by the chief of defence, Julius Maada Bio. Bio promises to restore power following elections scheduled for February.

January 19

The North Cape oil spill occurs as an engine fire forces the tugboat Scandia ashore on Moonstone Beach in South Kingstown, Rhode Island. The North Cape Barge is pulled along with it and leaks 820,000 gallons of home heating oil.

An Indonesian ferry sinks off the northern tip of Sumatra, drowning more than 100 people.

January 20 – Yasser Arafat is re-elected president of the Palestinian Authority.

 

Yasser Arafat

January 21 – France undertakes its last nuclear weapons test.

January 22 – Andreas Papandreou, Prime Minister of Greece, resigns due to health problems; a new government forms under Costas Simitis.

January 24 – Polish Premier Józef Oleksy resigns amid charges that he spied for Moscow. He is replaced by Włodzimierz Cimoszewicz.

January 27 – Colonel Ibrahim Baré Maïnassara deposes the first democratically elected President of Niger, Mahamane Ousmane, in a military coup.

January 31

Colombo Central Bank bombing: an explosives-filled truck rams into the gates of the Central Bank in Colombo, Sri Lanka, killing at least 86 people and injuring 1,400.

An explosion in Shaoyang, China kills 122 people and injures over 400 when 10 short tons (9.1 t) of dynamite in an illegal explosives warehouse underneath an apartment building detonate.

An amateur astronomer from southern Japan discovers Comet Hyakutake; it will pass very close to the Earth in March.

February[edit]

February 4 – The 6.6 Mw  earthquake near Lijiang in South-west China kills up to 322 people, injures 17,000, and leaves 300,000 homeless.

February 6 – Birgenair Flight 301, on a charter flight from the Caribbean to Germany, crashes into the Atlantic Ocean off the coast of the Dominican Republic, killing all 189 passengers and crew.

February 7 – René Préval succeeds Jean-Bertrand Aristide as President of Haiti in the first peaceful handover of power since the nation achieved independence 192 years earlier, in 1804.

February 9

The element copernicium is created by fusing a 208Pb nucleus with a 70Zn nucleus, forming 278Cn. Given the placeholder name "ununbium", the element is not named until 2010.

An IRA ceasefire ends with the Docklands bombing in London's Canary Wharf District, killing two people and causing over £85,000,000 worth of damage.

February 10 – Bosnian Serbs break off contact with the Bosnian government and with representatives of Ifor, the NATO localised force, in reaction to the arrest of several Bosnian Serb war criminals.

February 14 – Violent clashes erupt between Filipino soldiers and Vietnamese boat people, as the Filipino government attempts to forcibly repatriate hundreds of Vietnamese asylum seekers.

February 15

The American Embassy in Athens, Greece, comes under mortar fire.

Begum Khaleda Zia is re-elected as Prime Minister of Bangladesh. The country's second democratic election is marred by low voter turnout, due to several boycotts and pre-election violence, which has resulted in at least thirteen deaths.

The UK government publishes the Scott Report.

 

Feb.15: Long March rocket, with Intelsat 708 satellite, veers upon launch (images from Cox Commission report for U.S. Congress).

February 16 – 1996 Maryland train collision: A Chicago-bound Amtrak train, the Capitol Limited, collides with a MARC commuter train bound for Washington, D.C., killing 11 people.

February 17 – The 8.2 Mw  Biak earthquake strikes the Papua province of eastern Indonesia with a maximum Mercalli intensity of VIII (Severe). A large tsunami followed, leaving 166 people dead or missing and 423 injured.

February 24 – Cuban fighter jets shoot down two American aircraft belonging to the Cuban exile group Brothers to the Rescue. Cuban officials assert that they invaded Cuban airspace.

February 25 – Two suicide bombs in Israel kill 25 and injure 80; Hamas claims responsibility.

February 29

Faucett Flight 251 en route from Lima to Rodriguez Ballon airport crashes into a mountain near Arequipa; all 123 people on board are killed.

At least 81 people drown when a boat capsizes 120 kilometres east of Kampala, Uganda.

The Bosnian government declares the end of the Siege of Sarajevo.

March[edit]

March 1 – Iraq disarmament crisis: Iraqi forces refuse UNSCOM inspection teams access to five sites designated for inspection. The teams enter the sites only after delays of up to seventeen hours.

March 2 – 1996 Australian federal election: The Liberal/National Coalition led by John Howard defeats the Labor Government led by Prime Minister Paul Keating. Howard was sworn in on March 11.[1]

March 3 – José María Aznar, leader of the Popular Party, is elected as Prime Minister of Spain, replacing Felipe González.

March 3–4 – Two suicide bombs explode in Israel, killing 32 people. The Yahya Ayyash Units admit responsibility, and Palestinian president Yasser Arafat condemns the killings in a televised address. Israel warns of retaliation.

March 6

Mesut Yılmaz of ANAP forms the new government of Turkey (53rd government).

A boat carrying market traders capsizes outside Freetown harbour in Sierra Leone, killing at least 86 people.

Chechen rebels attack the Russian government headquarters in Grozny; 70 Russian soldiers and policemen and 130 Chechen fighters are killed.

March 8 – China begins surface-to-surface missile testing and military exercises off Taiwanese coastal areas. The United States government condemns the act as provocation, and the Taiwanese government warns of retaliation.

March 9 – Jorge Sampaio is the new Portuguese president.

March 13 – Dunblane massacre: Unemployed former shopkeeper Thomas Hamilton walks into the Dunblane Primary School in Scotland and opens fire, killing sixteen infant school pupils and one teacher before committing suicide.

March 14 – An international peace summit is held in Egypt in response to escalating terrorist attacks in the Middle East.

March 16 – Robert Mugabe is re-elected as President of Zimbabwe, although only 32% of the electorate actually voted.

March 17 – Sri Lanka wins the Cricket World Cup by beating Australia in the final.

March 18 – The Ozone Disco Club fire in Quezon City, Philippines kills 163 people.

March 22 – Sweden's Finance Minister Göran Persson becomes the new Prime Minister of Sweden.

March 23 – Taiwan (Republic of China) holds its first direct elections for President; Lee Teng-hui is re-elected.

March 24 – The Marcopper mining disaster on the island of Marinduque, Philippines takes place.

March 25 – The 68th Academy Awards, hosted by Whoopi Goldberg, are held at the Dorothy Chandler Pavilion in Los Angeles with Braveheart winning Best Picture.

March 26 – The International Monetary Fund approves a $10.2 billion loan to Russia for economic reform.

April[edit]

April 1 – The Halifax Regional Municipality in Nova Scotia is created.

April 3

A Boeing 737 military jet crashes into a mountain north of Dubrovnik, Croatia. All 35 people on board are killed, including United States Secretary of Commerce Ron Brown.

Massacres of Hutus by Tutsis in Burundi take place with more than 450 killed within a few days.

April 6

Fighting breaks out in Monrovia, Liberia, between various rebel factions struggling for power in the country's interrupted civil war. Several foreign nationals leave the nation.

Turkish authorities begin Operation Hawk, a military offensive against rebels from the Kurdish Workers' Party in south-east Turkey.

April 9 – In a common statement, the European Union officially recognises the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia.

April 11 – The Israeli government launches Operation Grapes of Wrath, consisting of massive attacks on Lebanon, in retaliation for prior terrorist attacks, and sparking off a violent series of retaliations.

April 18

Qana Massacre: Over 100 Lebanese civilians are killed after Israel shells the United Nations compound in Qana.

In reaction to the Qana Massacre, an Islamist group in Egypt open fire on a hotel, killing eighteen Greek tourists and injuring seventeen others.

April 21 – A general election in Italy proclaims a new center-left government headed by Romano Prodi, replacing Silvio Berlusconi.

April 24 – At the urging of Yasser Arafat, the Palestine Liberation Organization drops its clause calling for the removal of Israel. The Israeli government responds by dropping a similar clause concerning the existence of Palestine.

April 28

Port Arthur massacre: Martin Bryant kills 35 people at the Port Arthur tourist site in Tasmania, Australia.

A bomb explodes in Bhaiperu, Pakistan, killing more than 60 people.

May[edit]

May – Iraq disarmament crisis: UNSCOM supervises the destruction of Al-Hakam, Iraq's main production facility of biological warfare agents.

May 9

South Africa's National Party pulls out of the coalition government formed two years earlier, and the African National Congress assumes full political control.

Ugandan president Yoweri Museveni wins a landslide victory in the country's first direct presidential elections, securing 75% of the vote.

May 10

1996 Everest disaster: A sudden storm engulfs Mount Everest with several climbing teams high on the mountain, leaving eight people dead. By the end of the month, at least four other climbers die in the worst season of fatalities on the mountain to date.

The Australian government introduces a nationwide ban on the private possession of both automatic and semi-automatic rifles, in response to the Port Arthur massacre.

May 11 – After takeoff from Miami, a fire started by improperly handled oxygen canisters in the cargo hold of Atlanta-bound ValuJet Flight 592 causes the Douglas DC-9 to crash in the Florida Everglades, killing all 110 people on board.

May 13 – Severe thunderstorms and a tornado in Bangladesh kill 600 people.

May 17–28 – Atal Bihari Vajpayee, leader of the Bharatiya Janata Party, is elected as Prime Minister of India, replacing P. V. Narasimha Rao of the Indian National Congress. However, the party does not receive an overall majority and Vajpayee resigns thirteen days later rather than face a no confidence vote and is replaced by the United Front leader, Deve Gowda.

May 18 – The X Prize Foundation launches the $10,000,000 Ansari X Prize.

May 21

The MV Bukoba sinks in Tanzanian waters in Lake Victoria, killing nearly 1,000 people in one of Africa's worst maritime disasters.

The Trappist Martyrs of Atlas are executed.

May 23 – Members of the Armed Islamic Group in Algeria kill seven French Trappist monks, after talks with French government concerning the imprisonment of several GIA sympathisers break down.

May 27 – First Chechnya War: Russian President Boris Yeltsin meets with Chechnyan rebels for the first time and negotiates a ceasefire for the dispute.

May 28 – Albania's general election of May 26 is declared unfair by international monitors, and the ruling Democratic Party under President Sali Berisha is charged by the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe with rigging the elections. Several hundred protestors gather in Tirana to demonstrate against the election result.

May 30 – The Likud Party, led by Benjamin Netanyahu, wins a narrow victory in the Israeli general election.

June[edit]

June – Iraq disarmament crisis: As Iraq continues to refuse inspectors access to a number of sites, the United States fails in its attempt to build support for military action against Iraq in the UN Security Council.

June 1–3 – The Czech Republic's first general election ends inconclusively. Prime Minister Václav Klaus and his incumbent Civic Democratic Party emerge as the winners, but are unable to form a majority government. President Václav Havel refuses to invite Klaus to form a coalition.

June 4 – The space rocket Ariane 5 explodes forty seconds after takeoff in French Guiana. The project costs European governments $7,500,000,000 over eleven years.

June 6 – Leighton W. Smith, Jr. resigns as NATO commander in the face of increasing criticism.

June 8–30 – England hosts the UEFA Euro 1996 football tournament, which is won by Germany.

June 11

An explosion in a São Paulo suburban shopping centre kills 44 people and injures more than 100.

A peace convoy carrying Chechen separatist leaders and international diplomats is targeted by a series of remotely controlled land mines; eight people are killed.

June 15 – In Manchester, UK, a massive IRA bomb injures over 200 people and devastates a large part of the city centre.

June 28

A new government is formed in Turkey, with Necmettin Erbakan of Refah Partisi becoming Prime Minister of the coalition government, and Deputy/Foreign Minister Tansu Çiller of the True Path Party succeeding him after two years.

The Constitution of Ukraine is signed into law.

June 29

The Prince's Trust concert is held in Hyde Park, London, and is attended by 150,000 people. The Who headlines the event in their first performance since 1989.

An explosion in a firecrackers factory in Sichuan Province, China kills at least 52 people and injures 83 others.

June 30

Costas Simitis is elected president of the Panhellenic Socialist Movement of Greece.

Bosnian Serb leader Radovan Karadžić relinquishes power to his deputy, Biljana Plavšić.

July[edit]

July

Iraq disarmament crisis: U.N. Inspector Scott Ritter attempts to conduct surprise inspections on the Republican Guard facility at the airport but is blocked by Iraqi officials.

The Indian government officially renames the city of Madras, restoring the name Chennai.[2]

July 1

The Northern Territory in Australia legalises voluntary euthanasia.

German orthography reform of 1996 agreed internationally.

July 3 – Boris Yeltsin is re-elected as President of Russia after the second round of elections.

July 5 – Dolly the sheep, the first mammal to be successfully cloned from an adult cell, is born at the Roslin Institute in Midlothian, Scotland, UK.

July 11 – Arrest warrants are issued for Bosnian Serb war criminals Radovan Karadžić and Ratko Mladić by the Russell Tribunal in The Hague.

July 12 – Hurricane Bertha: made landfall in North Carolina as a Category 2 storm, causing $270 million in damage ($431 million in present-day terms[3]) to the United States and its possessions and many indirect deaths.

July 16 – An outbreak of E. coli food poisoning in Japan results in 6,000 children being ill, including two deaths, after a group of school children eat contaminated lunches.

July 17

The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa) is constituted.

Paris- and Rome-bound TWA Flight 800 (Boeing 747) explodes off the coast of Long Island, New York, killing all 230 people on board.

July 19

The 1996 Summer Olympics in Atlanta, United States, begin.

Bosnian Serb President Radovan Karadžić resigns from public office in Republika Srpska after being indicted for war crimes.

July 21 – The Saguenay Flood, one of Canada's most costly natural disasters, is caused by flooding on the Saguenay River in Quebec.

July 24 – The Dehiwala train bombing kills 56 commuters outside Colombo.

July 25 – The Tutsi-led Burundian army performs a coup and reinstalls previous president Pierre Buyoya, ousting current president Sylvestre Ntibantunganya.

July 27 – The Centennial Olympic Park bombing at the 1996 Summer Olympics kills one person and injures 111.

August[edit]

 

The electron microscope reveals chain structures in meteorite fragment ALH84001.

August

The first three-parent baby is conceived in New Jersey through mitochondrial donation.[4]

The invasive species Asian long-horned beetle is found in New York City.

August 1

Sarah Balabagan returns to the Philippines.

A pro-democracy demonstration supporting Megawati Sukarnoputri in Indonesia is broken up by riot police.

August 4 – The 1996 Summer Olympics conclude.

August 6 – NASA announces that the Allan Hills 84001 meteorite, thought to originate from Mars, may contain evidence of primitive lifeforms; further tests are inconclusive.

August 7 – Heavy rains kill more than 80 campers near Huesca, Spain.

August 9 – Boris Yeltsin is sworn in at the Kremlin for a second term as President of Russia.

August 13 – Data sent back by the Galileo space probe indicates there may be water on one of Jupiter's moons.

August 14 – A rocket ignited during a fireworks display in Arequipa, Peru knocks down a high-tension power cable into a dense crowd, electrocuting 35 people.

August 15 – Bob Dole is nominated for President of the United States, and Jack Kemp for Vice President, at the Republican National Convention in San Diego, California.

August 16 – Brookfield Zoo, Chicago. After a 3-year-old boy falls into the 20-foot (6.1 m) deep gorilla enclosure, Binti Jua, a female lowland gorilla sits with the injured boy until his rescue.

August 21

Former State President of South Africa, F. W. de Klerk, makes an official apology for crimes committed under Apartheid to the Truth and Reconciliation Commission in Cape Town.

In the UK, Queen Elizabeth II issues letters patent on divorced former wives of British princes, taking away from the ex-wives the attribute and style of Royal Highness. With that Sarah, Duchess of York as well as Diana, Princess of Wales legally cease to be Royals, but they remain as non-royal Duchess and Princess.

August 23 – Osama bin Laden writes "The Declaration of Jihad on the Americans Occupying the Country of the Two Sacred Places," a call for the removal of American military forces from Saudi Arabia.

August 28 – Their Royal Highnesses, the Prince and Princess of Wales, are formally divorced at the High Court of Justice in London. Her Royal Highness The Princess of Wales is restyled Diana, Princess of Wales, due to the Queen's letters patent issued a week earlier.

August 29

U.S. President Bill Clinton and Vice President Al Gore are re-nominated at the Democratic National Convention in Chicago.

A Russian Tupolev 154 jetliner crashes into a mountain as it approaches the airport at Spitsbergen, Norway, killing all 141 people on board.

August 31 – Iraq disarmament crisis: Iraqi forces launch an offensive into the northern No-Fly Zone and capture Arbil.

September[edit]

September 2 – A permanent peace agreement is signed at the Malacañan Palace between the Government of the Philippines and the Moro National Liberation Front.

September 3 – The United States launches Operation Desert Strike against Iraq in reaction to the attack on Arbil.

September 4 – The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia attack a military base in Guaviare, Colombia, starting three weeks of guerrilla warfare that will claim the lives of at least 130 Colombians.

September 5 – Hurricane Fran makes landfall near Cape Fear, North Carolina as a Category 3 storm with 115 mph (185 km/h) sustained winds. Fran caused over $3 billion in damages ($4.79 billion in present-day terms[3]) and killed 27 people, mainly in North Carolina. The name "Fran" was retired due to the extensive damage.

September 10 – Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) signed (it will be ratified 180 days after ratification by 44 Annex 2 countries).

September 13 – Alija Izetbegović is elected President of Bosnia and Herzegovina in the country's first election since the Bosnian War.

September 18 – A North Korean Sang-O class submarine runs aground in South Korea. The crew are described as spies by the South Korean government and killed by the South Korean military.

September 20 – Leader of Pakistani opposition party Pakistan Peoples Party Murtaza Bhutto is killed during a gunfight with police.

September 22 – The Panhellenic Socialist Movement under the leadership of Costas Simitis succeeds in the 1996 Greek legislative election.

September 24 – U.S. President Bill Clinton signs the Comprehensive Nuclear-Test-Ban Treaty at the United Nations.

September 27 – In Afghanistan, the Taliban capture the capital city of Kabul, after driving out President Burhanuddin Rabbani and executing former leader Mohammad Najibullah.

October[edit]

October 2

The former Prime Minister of Bulgaria, Andrey Lukanov, is assassinated.

Aeroperú Flight 603 crashes into the Pacific Ocean when the instruments fail just after takeoff from Lima Airport, killing all 70 people on board.

October 6 – The government of New Zealand agrees to pay $130 million worth of compensation for the loss of land suffered by the Māori population between the years of 1844 and 1864.

October 22 – A fire at La Planta prison in southwest Caracas, Venezuela, kills thirty prisoners.

October 30 – Fighting erupts when Banyamulenga Tutsis of Laurent Kabila in Zaire seize Uvira and proceed to kill Hutu refugees.

October 31 – TAM Transportes Aéreos Regionais Flight 402 crashes into a densely populated area of São Paulo, killing all 96 people on board.

November[edit]

November – Iraq disarmament crisis: UNSCOM inspectors uncover buried prohibited missile parts. Iraq refuses to allow UNSCOM teams to remove remnants of missile engines for analysis outside of the country.

November 5

Pakistani Prime Minister Benazir Bhutto's government is dismissed by President Farooq Leghari after widespread allegations of corruption.

1996 United States presidential election: Incumbent Democratic President Bill Clinton defeats his Republican challenger, Bob Dole.

November 7

A category 4 cyclone strikes Andhra Pradesh, India, killing more than 2,000 people.

NASA launches the Mars Global Surveyor.

November 8 – All 141 people on board a Nigerian-owned Boeing 727 die when the aircraft crashes into the Atlantic Ocean while approaching Lagos airport.

November 12 – Saudi Arabian Airlines Boeing 747 collides in mid-air with Kazakhstan Airlines Il-76 in New Delhi, India, resulting in the loss of 349 lives.

November 17

A bomb exploded in Kaspiysk, Russia, killing 32 people.

Emil Constantinescu is elected as President of Romania.

November 18 – Frederick Chiluba is re-elected as President of Zambia.

November 19

Martin Bryant is sentenced to 35 consecutive sentences of life imprisonment plus 1,035 years without parole for murdering 35 people in a shooting spree in Tasmania earlier this year.

Preparatory Commission for the Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Organization (CTBTO) established.

STS-80: Space Shuttle Columbia conducts the longest mission of the Space Shuttle program.

November 20 – The 1996 Garley Building fire occurred in Hong Kong, resulting in 41 deaths and 81 injuries.

November 21 – A propane explosion at the Humberto Vidal shoe store and office building in San Juan, Puerto Rico kills 33 people.

November 23

The Republic of Angola officially joins the World Trade Organization as Angola.

Ethiopian Airlines Flight 961 is hijacked, then crashes into the Indian Ocean off the coast of Comoros after running out of fuel, killing 125.

Tamagotchi is released in Japan by Bandai.

November 25 – An ice storm strikes the U.S., killing 26 directly and hundreds more from accidents. A powerful windstorm blasts Florida with winds gusts up to 90 mph.

December[edit]

December 9 – Jerry Rawlings is re-elected as President of Ghana.

December 11 – Tung Chee-hwa is appointed to become the new leader of Hong Kong after it reverts to Chinese rule on July 1, 1997 at the end a 99-year lease to the United Kingdom.

December 13 – Ghanaian diplomat Kofi Annan is elected by the United Nations Security Council the next Secretary-General of the United Nations.

December 17 – The Túpac Amaru Revolutionary Movement takes 72 hostages in the Japanese Embassy in Lima, Peru.

December 25 – At least 283 migrants drown in the sinking of F174 near Capo Passero (Sicily).

December 26

The largest strike in South Korean history begins.

Six-year-old JonBenét Ramsey is found beaten and strangled in the basement of her family's home in Boulder, Colorado.

December 27 – Taliban forces retake the strategic Bagram Air Base, solidifying their buffer zone around Kabul.

December 29 – Guatemala and the leaders of the Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity sign a peace accord that ends the 36-year Guatemalan Civil War.

December 30 – In the Indian state of Assam, a passenger train is bombed by Bodo separatists, killing 26.

Undated[edit]

Economy of Venezuela: Inflation in the country peaks at 99.87%.

Births[edit]

Births

January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December

January[edit]

 

Ella Henderson

 

Dove Cameron

 

Caitlin Sanchez

January 1

Mahmoud Dahoud, German footballer

Andreas Pereira, Brazilian footballer

Mathias Jensen, Danish footballer

January 2 – Xiaoyu Yu, Chinese figure skater

January 3 – Florence Pugh, English actress

January 5

Maxim Baldry, English actor

Tyler Ulis, American basketball player

January 6

Courtney Eaton, Australian actress

Kishan Shrikanth, Indian actor and director

Harmanpreet Singh, Indian hockey player

January 7

Fu Yuanhui, Chinese swimmer

Helly Shah, Indian actress

Isaac Success, Nigerian footballer

January 9 – Oana Gregory, Romanian American actress

January 10 – Anna Sztankovics, Hungarian swimmer

January 11 – Leroy Sané, German footballer

January 12 – Ella Henderson, English singer

January 13 – Aníta Hinriksdóttir, Icelandic middle-distance runner

January 15 – Dove Cameron, American actress and singer

January 16

Anastasia Grishina, Russian artistic gymnast

Jennie, South Korean singer and rapper

January 17

Caitlin Sanchez, American actress

Nile Wilson, British artistic gymnast

January 18 – Sarah Gilman, American actress

January 21 – Marco Asensio, Spanish footballer

January 22

Sami Gayle, American actress

Joshua Ho-Sang, Canadian ice hockey player

January 23

Chachi Gonzales, American dancer

Ruben Loftus-Cheek, English footballer

January 24 – Patrik Schick, Czech footballer

January 26 – Zakaria Bakkali, Belgian footballer

January 27 – Braeden Lemasters, American actor, musician, and voice actor

January 31 – Joel Courtney, American actor

February[edit]

 

Kelli Berglund

 

Sasha Pieterse

 

Sophie Turner

February 1

Ahmad Abughaush, Jordanian taekwondo athlete

Dionne Bromfield, English singer-songwriter and television personality

February 2 – Harry Winks, English footballer

February 5 – Zeng Siqi, Chinese artistic gymnast

February 7

Aaron Ekblad, Canadian ice hockey player

Pierre Gasly, French racing driver

Mai Hagiwara, Japanese singer

February 8 – Kenedy, Brazilian footballer

February 9

Jimmy Bennett, American actor

Kelli Berglund, American actress

Chungha, South Korean singer and dancer

February 11

Jonathan Tah, German footballer

Lucas Torreira, Uruguayan footballer

February 13 – Muhammad Rian Ardianto, Indonesian badminton player

February 14

Lucas Hernandez, French footballer

Viktor Kovalenko, Ukrainian footballer

February 17

Erika Fasana, Italian artistic gymnast

Sasha Pieterse, South African-born American actress

February 18 – Ikumi Hisamatsu, Japanese fashion model and actress

February 20 – Mabel, English singer

February 21 – Sophie Turner, English actress

February 23

Michael Johnston, American actor

D'Angelo Russell, American basketball player

February 24 – Cristian Imparato, Italian singer

February 25 – Emel Dereli, Turkish shot putter

February 28

Danilo Barbosa, Brazilian footballer

Bobb'e J. Thompson, American actor, dancer, rapper and comedian

March[edit]

 

Timo Werner

 

Myles Turner

March 1

Sage Northcutt, American mixed martial artist

Ye Shiwen, Chinese swimmer

March 4

Timo Baumgartl, German footballer

Antonio Sanabria, Paraguayan footballer

March 6

Timo Werner, German footballer

Yan Han, Chinese figure skater

March 8

Matthew Hammelmann, Australian rules footballer

Emil Imre, Hungarian short track speed skater

March 9 – Giorgio Minisini, Italian synchronized swimmer

March 14 – Janai Haupapa, Canadian rugby league player

March 15 – Levin Öztunalı, German footballer

March 16 – Anna Ovcharova, Russian/Swiss figure skater

March 18 – Madeline Carroll, American actress

March 19 – Feodosiy Efremenkov, Russian figure skater

March 22 – Gig Morton, Canadian actor

March 23

Alexander Albon, Thai racing driver

Lauri Kivari, Finnish freestyle skier[importance?]

March 24

Valentino Lazaro, Austrian footballer

Myles Turner, American basketball player

March 25 – Dougal Howard, Australian rules footballer[importance?]

March 26 – Kathryn Bernardo, Filipina actress

March 27 – Rosabell Laurenti Sellers, Italian-American actress

March 28

Benjamin Pavard, French footballer

Xie Siyi, Chinese diver

March 29 – Wade Baldwin IV, American basketball player

March 31 – Liza Koshy, American actress and television host[importance?]

April[edit]

 

Austin Mahone

 

Loïc Nottet

 

Abigail Breslin

April 2

Polina Agafonova, Russian figure skater

Matheus Santana, Brazilian swimmer

April 3 – Sarah Jeffery, American actress

April 4 – Austin Mahone, American singer

April 8 – Lorna Fitzgerald, English actress

April 9 – Giovani Lo Celso, Argentinian footballer

April 10

Andreas Christensen, Danish footballer

Thanasi Kokkinakis, Australian tennis player

Loïc Nottet, Belgian singer

Audrey Whitby, American teen actress

April 11 – Dele Alli, English footballer

April 12 – Polina Korobeynikova, Russian figure skater

April 14 – Abigail Breslin, American actress

April 16 – Anya Taylor-Joy, American actress

April 17 – Dee Dee Davis, American actress

April 18 – Ski Mask the Slump God, American rapper

April 21 – Tavi Gevinson, American fashion blogger

April 22 – Wendy Sulca, Peruvian singer

April 23

Álex Márquez, Spanish motorcycle racer

Charlie Rowe, British actor

April 24 – Ashleigh Barty, Australian tennis player

April 25

Mack Horton, Australian swimmer

Allisyn Ashley Arm, American actress

April 28 – Tony Revolori, American actor

April 29

Gustav Engvall, Swedish footballer

Katherine Langford, Australian actress

May[edit]

 

Noah Munck

 

Birdy

 

Ryan Ochoa

May 2 – Julian Brandt, German footballer

May 3

Mary Cain, American middle-distance runner

Alex Iwobi, Nigerian footballer

Noah Munck, American actor

May 4

Arielle Gold, American snowboarder

Pelayo Roza, Spanish sprint canoeist.

May 5 – Matheus Pereira, Brazilian footballer

May 8 – 6ix9ine, American rapper

May 9 – Noah Centineo, American actor

May 10 – Tyus Jones, American basketball player

May 11 – Andrés Cubas, Argentinian footballer

May 14

Martin Garrix, Dutch DJ and producer

McKaley Miller, American actress

Pokimane, Moroccan YouTuber

May 15 – Birdy, English singer and songwriter

May 17 – Ryan Ochoa, American actor and musician

May 18 – Violett Beane, American actress

May 19 – Lakshmi Menon, Indian film actress

May 18 – Yuki Kadono, Japanese snowboarder

May 23 – Katharina Althaus, German ski jumper

May 26 – Lukáš Haraslín, Slovak footballer

May 30

Aleksandr Golovin, Russian footballer

Erik Jones, American race car driver

May 31 – Normani, American singer

June[edit]

 

Tom Holland

 

Alen Halilović

June 1 – Tom Holland, English actor

June 3 – Han Tianyu, Chinese short track speed skater

June 7 – Christian McCaffrey, American football player

June 10 – Raury, American singer-songwriter

June 11 – Hakeeb Adelakun, English footballer

June 12 – Davinson Sánchez, Colombian footballer

June 13

Kingsley Coman, French footballer

Kodi Smit-McPhee, Australian actor

June 15 – Aurora, Norwegian singer

June 16 – Lily Zhang, American table tennis player

June 17 – Godfred Donsah, Ghanese footballer

June 18 – Alen Halilović, Croatian footballer

June 19 – Larisa Iordache, Romanian artistic gymnast

June 20

Sam Bennett, Canadian ice hockey player

Michael Dal Colle, Canadian ice hockey player

June 22

Yusupha Bobb, Gambian footballer

Hugo Calderano, Brazilian table tennis player

Kong Sang-jeong, South Korean short track speed skater

Mikel Merino, Spanish footballer

June 24 – Harris Dickinson, English actor, writer, and director

June 27 – Lauren Jauregui, American singer

June 28

Milot Rashica, Kosovar footballer

Donna Vekić, Croatian tennis player

June 29 – Bart Ramselaar, Dutch footballer

July[edit]

 

Adelina Sotnikova

 

Blake Michael

July 1 – Adelina Sotnikova, Russian figure skater

July 3

Kendji Girac, French singer

Kumaahran Sathasivam, Malaysian footballer

July 5 – Risa Shōji, Japanese figure skater

July 6 – Robert Naylor, Canadian actor and musician

July 9 – Shanice Williams, American actress and singer

July 10 – Moon Ga-young, South Korean actress

July 11

Alessia Cara, Canadian singer and songwriter

Andrija Živković, Serbian footballer

July 12 – Moussa Dembélé, French footballer

July 16

Kevin Abstract, American rapper, singer-songwriter and director

Nicky Jones, American voice actor

July 18

Dzhamaldin Khodzhaniyazov, Russian footballer

Yung Lean, Swedish rapper and record producer

Siebe Schrijvers, Belgian footballer

July 20 – Ben Simmons, Australian basketball player

July 21 – Joey Bragg, American actor and comedian

July 22

Skyler Gisondo, American actor

Indy Groothuizen, Dutch football player

Jane Oineza, Filipina actress

July 23

Danielle Bradbery, American singer

Rachel G. Fox, American actress

July 30

Dylan Larkin, American hockey player

Austin North, American actor

July 31 – Blake Michael, American actor

August[edit]

 

Jacob Latimore

 

Brianna Hildebrand

 

Jamia Simone Nash

August 1 – Cymphonique Miller, American actress and singer

August 2 – Simone Manuel, American swimmer

August 5

Francesca Deagostini, Italian artistic gymnast

Mai Murakami, Japanese artistic gymnast

August 7

Dani Ceballos, Spanish footballer

Liam James, Canadian actor

August 10 – Jacob Latimore, American singer, actor and dancer

August 12

Arthur Melo, Brazilian footballer

Torri Webster, Canadian actress

August 14

Brianna Hildebrand, American actress

Neal Maupay, French footballer

August 19

Almoez Ali, Sudanese-Qatari footballer

Laura Tesoro, Belgian singer and actress

August 21

Sofyan Amrabat, Dutch-born Moroccan footballer

Jamia Simone Nash, American singer and actress[importance?]

August 22

Jessica-Jane Applegate, British Paralympic swimmer

Michael Graue, American actor

August 24 – Kenzō Shirai, Japanese gymnast

August 27 – Ebru Topçu, Turkish footballer

August 28 – Kim Se-jeong, South Korean singer and actress

August 30

Gabriel Barbosa, Brazilian footballer

Chen Dequan, Chinese short track speed skater

September[edit]

 

Zendaya

 

Sigrid

 

Colin Ford

September 1 – Zendaya, American actress and singer

September 3 – Joy, South Korean singer and actress

September 5

Sigrid (singer), Norwegian singer

Richairo Živković, Dutch footballer

September 6 – Lil Xan, American rapper

September 9 – Jaïro Riedewald, Dutch footballer

September 12 – Colin Ford, American actor

September 13

Playboi Carti, American rapper

Lili Reinhart, American actress

September 16 – Alexis Blin, French footballer

September 17

Duje Ćaleta-Car, Croatian footballer

Esteban Ocon, French racing driver

Ella Purnell, English actress

September 19 – Pia Mia, Guamanian singer-songwriter and model

September 20 – Jerome Sinclair, English footballer

September 22 – Anthoine Hubert, French racing driver (d. 2019)

September 23

Lee Hi, South Korean singer-songwriter

Evgeny Rylov, Russian swimmer

September 25

Max Christiansen, German footballer

Mie Nielsen, Danish swimmer

September 27 – Maxwel Cornet, French-Ivorian footballer

September 28 – Michael Ronda, Mexican actor and singer

October[edit]

 

Bella Hadid

 

Devin Booker

October 3 – Kelechi Iheanacho, Nigerian footballer

October 7 – Lewis Capaldi, Scottish singer-songwriter

October 8 – Sara Takanashi, Japanese ski jumper

October 9

Jacob Batalon, American-Filipino actor

Bella Hadid, American model

October 12 – Riechedly Bazoer, Dutch footballer

October 15

Charly Musonda, Belgian footballer

Zelo, Korean singer

October 22

B.I, Korean singer

Harley Windsor, Australian pair skater

October 23 – Sam Berns, American high school student, and activist (d. 2014)

October 24

Jaylen Brown, American basketball player

Kyla Ross, American gymnast

October 26 – Anthony Sinisuka Ginting, Indonesian badminton player

October 27 – Nadiem Amiri, German footballer

October 28

Jasmine Jessica Anthony, American actress

Jack Eichel, American ice hockey player

Lee June-hyoung, South Korean figure skater

October 30

Devin Booker, American basketball player

Mizuki Fukumura, Japanese singer

November[edit]

 

Lil Peep

 

Michael Christian Martinez

 

Lorde

November 1

Sean Gelael, Indonesian racing driver

Lil Peep, American rapper (d. 2017)

Jeongyeon, South Korean singer

November 4 – Michael Christian Martinez, Filipino figure skater

November 7

André Horta, Portuguese footballer

Lorde, New Zealand singer-songwriter

November 9

Nguyễn Thị Ánh Viên, Vietnamese swimmer

Momo Hirai, Japanese singer and dancer

November 11

Adam Ounas, French-born Algerian footballer

Tye Sheridan, American actor

November 14 – Borna Ćorić, Croatian tennis player

November 15 – Malik Jefferson, American football player

November 16 – Brendan Murray, Irish singer

November 17 – Ruth Jebet, Bahraini long-distance runner

November 18

Akram Afif, Qatari footballer

Noah Ringer, American actor

Sorn, South Korean based singer

November 19 – Liliána Szilágyi, Hungarian swimmer

November 20 – Denis Zakaria, Swiss footballer

November 22

Hailey Baldwin, American model and socialite

Madison Davenport, American actress and singer

November 23

James Maddison, English footballer

Anna Yanovskaya, Russian ice dancer

November 26 – Louane Emera, French singer and actress

November 27 – Andy Truong, Australian fashion designer

November 29 – Gonçalo Guedes, Portuguese footballer

December[edit]

 

Stefanie Scott

 

Hailee Steinfeld

December 4

Diogo Jota, Portuguese footballer

Daria Svatkovskaya, Russian artistic gymnast

December 6 – Stefanie Scott, American actress

December 8 – Scott McTominay, Scottish footballer

December 9 – ViVi, Hong Kong singer[importance?]

December 10

Jérémy Gabriel, French Canadian singer

Kang Daniel, South Korean singer

December 11

Jack Griffo, American actor

Eliza McCartney, New Zealand track and field athlete

Hailee Steinfeld, American actress, model and singer

December 12 – Lucas Hedges, American actor

December 14 – Li Zijun, Chinese figure skater

December 15 – Oleksandr Zinchenko, Ukrainian footballer

December 16

Wilfred Ndidi, Nigerian footballer

Sergio Reguilón, Spanish footballer

December 17 – Elizaveta Tuktamysheva, Russian figure skater

December 19 – Franck Kessié, Ivorian footballer

December 21 – Kaitlyn Dever, American actress

December 28 – Alfred Kipketer, Kenyan middle-distance runner

December 29

Dylan Minnette, American actor, singer and musician

Sana, Japanese singer

Deaths[edit]

Main article: Deaths in 1996

Further information: Category:1996 deaths

Deaths

January · February · March · April · May · June · July · August · September · October · November · December

January[edit]

 

François Mitterrand

 

King Moshoeshoe II

January 1

Arleigh Burke, American naval officer (b. 1901)

Arthur Rudolph, German rocket engineer (b. 1906)

January 5

Yahya Ayyash, Palestinian shaheed (b. 1966)

Lincoln Kirstein, American writer and impresario (b. 1907)

January 7

Károly Grósz, 51st Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1930)

Tarō Okamoto, Japanese artist (b. 1911)

January 8 – François Mitterrand, French politician, 21st President of France (b. 1916)

January 15

Les Baxter, American musician and composer (b. 1922)

Moshoeshoe II, King of Lesotho (b. 1938)

January 17 – Barbara Jordan, American lawyer, educator, politician and civil rights activist (b. 1936)

January 18

Leonor Fini, Argentine artist (b. 1908)

Endel Puusepp, Estonian pilot (b. 1909)

N. T. Rama Rao, Indian actor, producer, director, editor and politician (b. 1923)

January 19 – Don Simpson, American film producer (b. 1943)

January 20 – Gerry Mulligan, American musician (b. 1927)

January 25 – Jonathan Larson, American composer and playwright (b. 1960)

January 26 – Georg Alexander, Duke of Mecklenburg (b. 1921)

January 28

Joseph Brodsky, Russian-born American Nobel poet (b. 1940)

Jerry Siegel, American cartoonist (b. 1914)

February[edit]

 

Gene Kelly

 

Audrey Meadows

 

McLean Stevenson

February 2 – Gene Kelly, American actor and dancer (b. 1912)

February 3 – Audrey Meadows, American actress (b. 1922)

February 4 – Alfredo Nobre da Costa, 106th Prime Minister of Portugal (b. 1923)

February 6 – Guy Madison, American actor (b. 1922)

February 7 – Boris Tchaikovsky, Russian composer (b. 1925)

February 9 – Adolf Galland, German general (b. 1912)

February 11 – Kebby Musokotwane, Prime Minister of Zambia (b. 1946)

February 12

Bob Shaw, Irish science fiction writer (b. 1931)

Ryōtarō Shiba, Japanese novelist (b. 1923)

February 13 – Martin Balsam, American actor (b. 1919)

February 14

Eva Hart, British Titanic survivor (b. 1905)

Bob Paisley, English football manager (b. 1919)

February 15

Tommy Rettig, American actor (b. 1941)

McLean Stevenson, American actor (b. 1927)

February 16

Roger Bowen, American actor (b. 1932)

Pat Brown, American politician (b. 1905)

February 20

Audrey Munson, American model and actress (b. 1891)

Toru Takemitsu, Japanese composer (b. 1930)

February 21 – Morton Gould, American musician and composer (b. 1913)

February 23

William Bonin, American serial killer (b. 1947)

Helmut Schön, German football player and manager (b. 1915)

February 25 – Haing S. Ngor, Cambodian activist and actor (b. 1940)

February 26 – Mieczysław Weinberg, Polish composer (b. 1919)

February 27 – Sarah Palfrey Cooke, American tennis player (b. 1912)

March[edit]

 

George Burns

 

Edmund Muskie

March 2 – Lyle Talbot, American actor (b. 1902)

March 3 – Marguerite Duras, French author and director (b. 1914)

March 4 – Minnie Pearl, American comedian (b. 1912)

March 5

Khondaker Mostaq Ahmad, 5th President of Bangladesh (b. 1918)

Whit Bissell, American actor (b. 1909)

March 6 – Simon Cadell, English actor (b. 1950)

March 9 – George Burns, American comedian and actor (b. 1896)

March 10 – Ross Hunter, American film producer (b. 1926)

March 11 – Vince Edwards, American actor (b. 1928)

March 12 – Gyula Kállai, 48th Prime Minister of Hungary (b. 1910)

March 13 – Krzysztof Kieślowski, Polish film director (b. 1941)

March 17 – René Clément, French film director (b. 1913)

March 18 – Odysseas Elytis, Greek writer (b. 1911)

March 19

Virginia Henderson, American nurse and theorist (b. 1897)

Chen Jingrun, Chinese mathematician (b. 1933)

March 25 – Lola Beltrán, Mexican singer, actress, and television presenter (b. 1932)

March 26

Edmund Muskie, American politician (b. 1914)

David Packard, American engineer (b. 1912)

March 31 – Jeffrey Lee Pierce, American musician (b. 1958)

April[edit]

 

Greer Garson

 

P. L. Travers

April 3 – Ron Brown, American politician (b. 1941)

April 4 – Barney Ewell, American athlete (b. 1918)

April 6

John D. Bulkeley, American naval officer (b. 1911)

Greer Garson, British-American actress (b. 1904)

April 8 – Ben Johnson, American actor and stuntman (b. 1918)

April 13 – James Burke, Irish-American gangster (b. 1931)

April 16 – Lucille Bremer, American actress and dancer (b. 1917)

April 18 – Bernard Edwards, American bass player (b. 1952)

April 20 – Christopher Robin Milne, English author and bookseller (b. 1920)

April 21 – Dzhokhar Dudayev, Chechen politician and President of Ichkeria (b. 1944)

April 22 – Erma Bombeck, American humorist and writer (b. 1927)

April 23 – P. L. Travers, British actress, journalist, novelist and writer (b. 1899)

April 25 – Saul Bass, American graphic designer (b. 1920)

April 26 – Stirling Silliphant, American screenwriter and producer (b. 1918)

April 28 – Siti Hartinah, 2nd First Lady of Indonesia, wife of Suharto (b. 1923)

May[edit]

 

Tamara Toumanova

 

Timothy Leary

May 1 – David M. Kennedy, American politician, businessman (b. 1905)

May 2 – Emile Habibi, Palestinian Israeli writer (b. 1922)

May 3 – Jack Weston, American actor (b. 1924)

May 6 – Leo Joseph Suenens, Belgian cardinal (b. 1904)

May 11

Nnamdi Azikiwe, 1st President of Nigeria (b. 1904)

Scott Fischer, American mountaineer (b. 1955)

Rob Hall, New Zealand mountaineer (b. 1961)

Ademir de Menezes, Brazilian footballer (b. 1922)

May 17 – Johnny "Guitar" Watson, American singer, songwriter and musician (b. 1935)

May 19 – John Beradino, American baseball player and actor (b. 1917)

May 20 – Jon Pertwee, British actor (b. 1919)

May 23 – Sim Iness, American Olympic athlete (b. 1930)

May 24

John Abbott, English actor (b. 1905)

Jacob Druckman, American composer (b. 1928)

Enrique Álvarez Félix, Mexican actor (b. 1934)

Joseph Mitchell, American writer (b. 1908)

May 25 – Bradley Nowell, American musician (b. 1968)

May 29 – Tamara Toumanova, Russian-American dancer and actress (b. 1919)

May 31 – Timothy Leary, American writer and social activist (b. 1920)

June[edit]

 

Ella Fitzgerald

 

Andreas Papandreou

June 1 – Neelam Sanjiva Reddy, 6th President of India (b. 1913)

June 2

John Alton, American cinematographer (b. 1901)

Leon Garfield, English author (b. 1921)

Pilar Lorengar, Spanish soprano (b. 1928)

June 3 – Peter Glenville, English film director (b. 1913)

June 6

Kusuo Kitamura, Japanese Olympic swimmer (b. 1917)

George Davis Snell, American Nobel geneticist (b. 1903)

June 10 – Jo Van Fleet, American actress (b. 1914)

June 11 – Brigitte Helm, German actress (b. 1908)

June 15 – Ella Fitzgerald, American singer (b. 1917)

June 19

Hillevi Rombin, Swedish actress and beauty queen (b. 1933)

Edvin Wide, Swedish middle- and long-distance runner (b. 1896)

June 23

Ray Lindwall, Australian cricketer (b. 1921)

Andreas Papandreou, Prime Minister of Greece (b. 1919)

June 26 – Veronica Guerin, Irish journalist (b. 1958)

June 27 – Albert R. Broccoli, American film producer (b. 1909)

June 28 – Kwan Tak-hing, Hong Kong actor (b. 1905)

July[edit]

 

Jean Muir

 

Claudette Colbert

July 1 – Margaux Hemingway, American fashion model and actress (b. 1954)

July 3 – Raaj Kumar, Indian film actor (b. 1926)

July 9

Eno Raud, Estonian writer (b. 1928)

Sergey Kuryokhin, Russian pianist, composer, improvisor, performance artist and actor (b. 1954)

July 13 – Pandro S. Berman, American film producer (b. 1905)

July 15 – Dana Hill, American actress (b. 1964)

July 17

Paul Touvier, French Nazi collaborator (b. 1915)

Victims of TWA Flight 800

Michel Breistroff, NHL ice hockey player (b. 1971)

Marcel Dadi, French guitarist (b. 1951)

David Hogan, American composer (b. 1949)

Jed Johnson, American interior designer and director (b. 1948)

July 20 – František Plánička, Czech footballer (b. 1904)

July 21

Luana Anders, American actress (b. 1938)

Herb Edelman, American actor (b. 1933)

July 22 – Jessica Mitford, British-American author, journalist and political campaigner (b. 1917)

July 23 – Jean Muir, American actress (b. 1911)

July 27 – Jane Drew, English architect (b. 1911)

July 28 – Roger Tory Peterson, American naturalist and artist (b. 1908)

July 30 – Claudette Colbert, French-born American Academy Award-winning actress (b. 1903)

August[edit]

 

Tadeusz Reichstein

 

Alejandro Agustín Lanusse

August 1

Mohamed Farrah Aidid, Somali military commander and politician (b. 1934)

Frida Boccara, French singer (b. 1940)

Tadeusz Reichstein, Polish-Swiss Nobel chemist (b. 1897)

August 2

Michel Debré, 99th Prime Minister of France (b. 1912)

Obdulio Varela, Uruguayan footballer (b. 1917)

August 6 – Hernán Siles Zuazo, Bolivian politician (b. 1914)

August 8 – Nevill Francis Mott, English Nobel physicist (b. 1905)

August 11

Rafael Kubelík, Czech-born Swiss conductor (b. 1914)

Baba Vanga, Bulgarian mystic, clairvoyant and herbalist (b. 1911)

August 12 – Viktor Hambardzumyan, Armenian scientist (b. 1908)

August 13

António de Spínola, 14th President of Portugal (b. 1910)

David Tudor, American pianist and composer (b. 1926)

August 14 – Camilla Horn, German actress (b. 1903)

August 20 – Rio Reiser, German musician and singer (b. 1950)

August 26 – Alejandro Agustín Lanusse, 37th President of Argentina (b. 1918)

August 27 – Greg Morris, American actor (b. 1933)

August 30 – Christine Pascal, French actress, director and screenwriter (b. 1953)

September[edit]

 

Ernesto Geisel

 

Spiro Agnew

 

Paul Erdős

 

Dorothy Lamour

September 1

Vagn Holmboe, Danish composer (b. 1909)

Karl Kehrle, Benedictine monk and beekeeper (b. 1898)

September 7 – Bibi Besch, American actress (b. 1940)

September 9

Ruggero Mastroianni, Italian film editor (b. 1929)

Bill Monroe, American musician (b. 1911)

September 10 – Joanne Dru, American actress (b. 1922)

September 12

Ernesto Geisel, Brazilian general, 29th President of Brazil (b. 1907)

Ricardo López, Uruguayan-American pest control worker (b. 1975)

September 13 – Tupac Shakur, American rapper (b. 1971)

September 14 – Juliet Prowse, American dancer and actress (b. 1936)

September 16

McGeorge Bundy, American academic (b. 1919)

Gene Nelson, American dancer and actor (b. 1920)

September 17 – Spiro Agnew, American politician (b. 1918)

September 18 – Annabella, French actress (b. 1907)

September 20

Murtaza Bhutto, Pakistani politician (b. 1954)

Paul Erdős, Hungarian mathematician (b. 1913)

Max Manus, Norwegian resistance fighter (b. 1914)

Paul Weston, American pianist and composer (b. 1912)

September 21 – Henri Nouwen, Dutch priest and author (b. 1932)

September 22

Mohamed Ben Ahmed Abdelghani, 1st Prime Minister of Algeria (b. 1927)

Dorothy Lamour, American actress (b. 1914)

September 23 – Fujiko Fujio, Japanese cartoonist (b. 1933)

September 24

Mark Frankel, British actor (b. 1962)

Zeki Müren, Turkish singer, composer, songwriter, actor and poet (b. 1931)

September 26

Nicu Ceaușescu, Romanian politician (b. 1951)

Pavel Sudoplatov, Soviet spy (b. 1907)

Geoffrey Wilkinson, English Nobel chemist (b. 1921)

September 27 – Mohammad Najibullah, President of Afghanistan (b. 1947)

September 29 – Shūsaku Endō, Japanese author (b. 1923)

September 30 – Moneta Sleet Jr., American press photogrpaher (b. 1926)

October[edit]

 

Morey Amsterdam

October 4 – Silvio Piola, Italian footballer (b. 1913)

October 5 – Seymour Cray, American computer scientist (b. 1925)

October 11

Renato Russo, Brazilian singer (b. 1960)

William Vickrey, Canadian-American economist and academic, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1914)

October 12

René Lacoste, French tennis player (b. 1904)

Roger Lapébie, French racing cyclist (b. 1911)

October 13 – Beryl Reid, British actress (b. 1919)

October 14 – Laura La Plante, American actress (b. 1904)

October 15 – Robert F. Williams, American civil rights leader, author (b. 1925)

October 16 – Jason Bernard, American actor (b. 1938)

October 24 – Artur Axmann, German Nazi leader (b. 1913)

October 28 – Morey Amsterdam, American comedian (b. 1908)

October 31 – Marcel Carné, French film director (b. 1909)

November[edit]

 

Jean-Bédel Bokassa/Bokassa I

 

Abdus Salam

November 1 – J. R. Jayewardene, 2nd President of Sri Lanka (b. 1906)

November 2 – Eva Cassidy, American vocalist (b. 1963)

November 3

Jean-Bédel Bokassa/Bokassa I, 2nd President of the Central African Republic and Emperor of Central Africa (b. 1921)

Abdullah Çatlı, Turkish nationalist (b. 1956)

November 5 – Eddie Harris, American jazz musician (b. 1934)

November 6 – Tommy Lawton, English footballer and manager (b. 1919)

November 14

Joseph Bernardin, American cardinal (b. 1928)

Virginia Cherrill, American actress (b. 1908)

November 15 – Alger Hiss, American diplomat (b. 1904)

November 18 – Zinovy Gerdt, Russian actor (b. 1916)

November 21 – Abdus Salam, Pakistani Nobel physicist (b. 1926)

November 22

María Casares, French-Spanish actress (b. 1922)

Mark Lenard, American actor (b. 1924)

November 26 – Paul Rand, American graphic designer (b. 1914)

November 27 – Gertrude Blanch, American mathematician (b. 1897)

November 28 – Don McNeill, American tennis player (b. 1918)

November 30 – Tiny Tim, American musician (b. 1932)

December[edit]

 

Marcello Mastroianni

 

Carl Sagan

December 3 – Babrak Karmal, President of Afghanistan (b. 1929)

December 6 – Pete Rozelle, American football official (b. 1926)

December 7 – José Donoso, Chilean writer (b. 1924)

December 8 – Howard Rollins, American actor (b. 1950)

December 9 – Mary Leakey, British archaeologist (b. 1913)

December 10 – Faron Young, American singer (b. 1932)

December 11 – Willie Rushton, English comedian, actor and cartoonist (b. 1937)

December 13 – Cao Yu, Chinese playwright (b. 1910)

December 16

Quentin Bell, English biographer and art historian (b. 1910)

Laurens van der Post, South African author (b. 1906)

December 17 – Stanko Todorov, Bulgarian communist politician (b. 1920)

December 18 – Irving Caesar, American lyricist (b. 1895)

December 19 – Marcello Mastroianni, Italian actor (b. 1924)

December 20

Amata Kabua, 1st President of the Marshall Islands (b. 1928)

Carl Sagan, American astronomer (b. 1934)

December 21 – Margret Rey, American author and illustrator (b. 1906)

December 30

Lew Ayres, American actor (b. 1908)

Jack Nance, American actor (b. 1943)

Nobel Prizes[edit]

Nobel medal.png

Physics – David M. Lee, Douglas D. Osheroff, Robert C. Richardson

Chemistry – Robert Curl, Sir Harold Kroto, Richard Smalley

Medicine – Peter C. Doherty, Rolf M. Zinkernagel

Literature – Wisława Szymborska

Peace – Carlos Filipe Ximenes Belo and José Ramos-Horta

Bank of Sweden Prize in Economic Sciences in Memory of Alfred Nobel – James Mirrlees, William Vickrey