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The characteristic landscape of Upper Svaneti is formed by small villages, dominated by their church towers and situated on the mountain slopes, with a natural environment of gorges and alpine valleys and a backdrop of snow-covered mountains. The most notable feature of the settlements is the abundance of towers, especially in Mestia and the frontier villages, such as Ushguli.

 

Used originally for defense, many of these towers date back to the 12th century.

 

Submitted: 13/05/2020

Accepted: 22/05/2020

These towers were originally used for defense and many of them date back to the 12th century.

The Upper Svaneti region was added to the Unesco world heritage list in 1996.

The mountain in the background is Tetnuldi (4858 m)

 

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Submitted: 16/01/2021

Accepted: 17/01/2021

Mount Mkinvartsveri (Kazbek) is a dormant stratovolcano and one of the major mountains of the Caucasus located on the border of Georgia's Stephantsminda District and Russian Republic of North Ossetia-Alania.

 

It is the third-highest peak in Georgia (after Mount Shkhara and Janga) and the seventh-highest summit in the Caucasus Mountains. Mkinvartsveri is also the second-highest volcanic summit in the Caucasus, after Mount Elbrus. The summit lies directly to the west of the town of Stepantsminda and is the most prominent geographic feature of the area. Mount Kazbek is the highest peak of Eastern Georgia. The name in Georgian, Mkinvartsveri (მყინვარწვერი), translates to "Glacier Peak" or "Freezing Cold Peak". The Vainakh name Bashlam translates as "Molten Mount".

Lake Sevan is the largest body of water in Armenia and the Caucasus region. It is one of the largest freshwater high-altitude (alpine) lakes in Eurasia. The lake is situated in Gegharkunik Province, at an altitude of 1,900 m (6,234 ft) above sea level. The total surface area of its basin is about 5,000 km2 (1,900 sq mi), which makes up 1⁄6 of Armenia's territory. The lake itself is 1,242 km2 (480 sq mi), and the volume is 32.8 km3 (7.9 cu mi). It is fed by 28 rivers and streams. Only 10% of the incoming water is drained by the Hrazdan River, while the remaining 90% evaporates.

The lake provides some 90% of the fish and 80% of the crayfish catch of Armenia. Sevan has significant economic, cultural, and recreational value. Its sole major island (now a peninsula) is home to a medieval monastery.

Sevan was heavily exploited for irrigation of the Ararat plain and hydroelectric power generation during the Soviet period. Consequently, its water level decreased by around 20 m (66 ft) and its volume reduced by more than 40%. Later two tunnels were built to divert water from highland rivers, which halted its decline and its level began rising. Before human intervention dramatically changed the lake's ecosystem, the lake was 95 m (312 ft) deep, covered an area of 1,416 km2 (547 sq mi) (5% of Armenia's entire area), and had a volume of 58.5 km3 (14.0 cu mi). The lake's surface was at an altitude of 1,916 m (6,286 ft) above sea level.

Scholars believe that Sevan originated from the Urartian word su(i)n(i)a, usually translated as "lake". The word is found on an 8th century BC cuneiform inscription by the Urartian king Rusa I, found in Odzaberd, on the southern shore of the lake.[12] Per folk etymology, Sevan is either a combination of sev ("black") + Van (i.e., Lake Van) or sev ("black") and vank’ ("monastery"). Russian and European sources of the 19th and early 20th century sometimes referred to the lake as Sevanga or Sevang, which are likely the Russified version of the Armenian phrase sev vank’ ("black monastery") or, possibly, the Armenian phrase սա է վանքը sa ē vank'ə ("this is the monastery").

The historical Armenian name of the lake, attested in early medieval texts, is Sea of Gegham (classical Armenian: ծով Գեղամայ, tsov Geghamay). In classical antiquity, the lake was known as Lychnitis (Ancient Greek: Λυχνῖτις). The historic Georgian name of the lake is Gelakuni (გელაქუნი), which is essentially the Georgian transcription of Armenian Gegkarkuni.

John Chardin, who visited the lake in 1673, called it the "Lake of Erivan" and wrote that it was "by the Persians call'd Deria-Shirin, or the Sweet Lake; by the Armenians Kiagar-couni-sou, which signifies the same thing".

Along with Lake Van and Lake Urmia, Sevan is considered one of the three great "seas" of historic Armenia. It is the only one within the boundaries of present-day Republic of Armenia, while the other two are located in Turkey and Iran, respectively. Lake Sevan is considered the "jewel" of Armenia and is "recognized as a national treasure" in the country. The 2001 Law on Lake Sevan defines the lake as "a strategic ecosystem valuable for its environmental, economical, social, scientific, cultural, aesthetic, medical, climatic, recreational, and spiritual value."

Chardin in 1673 noted the "extraordinary sweetness of the Water", the "small Island in the middle of it; where stands a Monastery built about 600 years ago, of which the Prior is an Archbishop", and "nine sorts of fish which are there taken; the fairest trouts and carps which are eaten at Erivan being caught in this Lake".

It is important for the Armenian economy: being the main source of irrigation water, Sevan provides low-cost electricity, fish, recreation, and tourism.

Sevan originated during the early Quaternary when a Palaeo-Sevan, ten times larger than the present lake, came into existence by tectonic formation. The current lake was formed some 25 to 30 thousand years ago.

Veronica umbrosa ‘Georgia Blue’ (or ’Oxford Blue’). This creeping veronica, also known as V. peduncularis by early misidentification, was found by Roy Lancaster in 1979 in the Republic of Georgia.

Veronica umbrosa ‘Georgia Blue’ (or ’Oxford Blue’). This creeping veronica, also known as V. peduncularis by early misidentification, was found by Roy Lancaster in 1979 in the Republic of Georgia.

"Like a rushing stream did the Toushines make their way into the fortress, while the first rays of the rising sun were falling upon the grim old fortifications. The Tartars, half asleep, ran out into a field, but in vain for now they were met by the Pchaves and Khevsoures, who had ventured out from the gorge of Pankisse. The Tartars, surrounded on all sides, were exterminated to the last."

-- Goulbat, The Tale of Zesva

 

Keselo (Georgian: კესელო) is a small medieval fortress just above the village of Omalo in Tusheti (historic geographic area in eastern Georgia). The site is surrounded by the northern slopes of the Greater Caucasus Mountains. It is bordered in the north by Republic of Chechnya and Dagestan, in the east by the Georgian historic provinces Kakheti and Pshav-Khevsureti to the south. The population of the area is mainly ethnic Georgians called Tush or Tushetians (Georgian: tushebi), However, there are some villages nearby which are populated by Daghestanis. [source: wikipedia.com]

Tbilisi is the capital of Georgia lying on the Kura River, which has about 1.5 million people. It was founded in the fifth century AD by Wachtanga Gorgasali, the capital of various kingdoms and Georgian republics.

Due to the location at the crossroads between Europe and Asia and the proximity of the Silk Road, throughout history Tbilisi was a contentious point among various world powers.

The most important tourist attractions include Sioni cathedral, the new cathedral of Holy Trinity and Narikala Fortress.

The advantageous commercial location of Tbilisi has become a subject of rivalry between various powers of the region.

After the Russian revolution in 1917, the city was the seat of the temporary government of the Transcaucasia, which in the spring of 1918 became the short-lived Zakaucaska Federation with the capital in Tbilisi.

In 1921, the Democratic Republic of Georgia was occupied by the Soviet Bolshevik forces of the USSR, and by 1991 was the capital of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic.

During the war in 2008, Tbilisi was affected by many Russian air attacks, while Abkhazia and South Ossetia are occupied by Russian troops.

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Tbilisi jest stolicą Gruzji leżącą nad rzeką Kura, która liczy około 1,5 miliona ludzi. Była założona w V wieku naszej ery przez Wachtanga Gorgasaliego, była stolicą różnych królestw i republik gruzińskich.

Ze względu na położenie na skrzyżowaniu dróg między Europą i Azją oraz bliskość Jedwabnego Szlaku, przez całą historię Tbilisi było punktem spornym wśród różnych światowych potęg.

Do najważniejszych atrakcji turystycznych należy między innymi katedra Sioni, nowa katedra Świętej Trójcy oraz Twierdza Narikala.

Korzystne położenie handlowe Tbilisi stało się przedmiotem rywalizacji pomiędzy różnymi potęgami regionu.

Po rewolucji rosyjskiej w 1917 roku, miasto było siedzibą tymczasowego rządu Zakaukazia, które wiosną 1918 stało się krótkotrwałą Federacją Zakaukaską ze stolicą w Tbilisi.

W 1921 roku Demokratyczna Republika Gruzji została zajęta przez radzieckie siły bolszewickie ZSRR, i do 1991 roku było stolicą Gruzińskiej Socjalistycznej Republiki Radzieckiej.

W czasie wojny w 2008 roku Tbilisi zostało dotknięte wieloma rosyjskimi atakami lotniczymi a Abchazja i Osetia Południowa zostały zajęte przez wojska rosyjskie.

Veronica umbrosa ‘Georgia Blue’ (or ’Oxford Blue’). This creeping veronica, also known as V. peduncularis by early misidentification, was found by Roy Lancaster in 1979 in the Republic of Georgia.

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The former Ministry of Transportation Building in Tbilisi, Georgia, is a striking example of Communist design.

Architects George Chakhava and Zurab Jalaghania designed the building for the Ministry of Highway Construction of the Georgian Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR). Construction was completed in 1975.

The 18-storey building is notable for its unusual design which gives the impression of giant concrete blocks having been piled on top of one another at random. Built on a steep slope, three of the interlocking blocks are oriented on an east-west axis, while two are oriented on a north-south axis. The vertical circulation elements – stairs and lifts – are contained within three cores from which the rest of the structure hangs.

 

The harsh concrete façade and geometric form was inspired by the theories of the Russian constructivists, as well as the Brutalism movement and the Japanese Metabolists. Following an architectural concept known as the Space City method, parts of the building are raised above the ground, allowing the landscape to grow around and below it.

In 2007, the building was acquired by the Bank of Georgia who converted it into their headquarters, undertaking a major renovation, and installing a new glass cube entrance. In 2007, it was given Immovable Monument status under the National Monuments Act.

 

George Chakhava was Georgia's Deputy Minister of Highway Construction in the 1970s. Therefore, he was both the client and the lead architect of this project. He could choose the site location best suited for the design himself.

 

Submitted: 01/11/2016

Accepted: 28/11/2016

Ali and Nino is a novel about a romance between a Muslim Azerbaijani boy and Christian Georgian girl in Baku in the years 1918–1920. It explores the dilemmas created by "European" rule over an "Oriental" society and presents a tableau portrait of Azerbaijan's capital, Baku, during the Azerbaijan Democratic Republic period that preceded the long era of Soviet rule. It was published under the pseudonym Kurban Said. The novel has been published in more than 30 languages,

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en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Svetitskhoveli

Svetitskhoveli Cathedral (Georgian: სვეტიცხოვლის საკათედრო ტაძარი, svet'icxovlis sak'atedro t'adzari; literally, "the Living Pillar Cathedral") is a Georgian Orthodox cathedral located in the historical town of Mtskheta, Georgia, 20 km northwest of the nation's capital of Tbilisi.

 

Svetitskhoveli, known as the burial site of Christ's mantle, has long been the principal Georgian church and remains one of the most venerated places of worship to this day. It presently functions as the seat of the archbishop of Mtskheta and Tbilisi, who is at the same time Catholicos-Patriarch of All Georgia.

 

The current cathedral was built in the 11th century by the Georgian architect Arsukisdze, though the site itself is even older dating back to the early 4th century and is surrounded by a number of legends associated primarily with the early Christian traditions.

 

It is the second largest church building in the country, after the recently consecrated Tbilisi Holy Trinity Cathedral, and is listed as an UNESCO World Heritage Site along with other historical monuments of Mtskheta.

 

Submitted: 27/09/2015

Accepted: 12/10/2015

The Batumi Botanical Garden is a 108 hectare area of land 9 km north of the city of Batumi, capital of Autonomous Republic of Adjara, Georgia. Located at the place called Mtsvane Kontskhi on the Black Sea shore, it is one of the largest botanical gardens in the former Soviet Union.

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Submitted: 28/09/2015

Accepted: 13/10/2015

The Batumi Botanical Garden is a 108 hectare area of land 9 km north of the city of Batumi, capital of Autonomous Republic of Adjara, Georgia. Located at the place called Mtsvane Kontskhi on the Black Sea shore, it is one of the largest botanical gardens in the former Soviet Union.

The Church of the Mother of God in Batumi is a Georgian Orthodox cathedral, originally built as a Catholic church early in the 1900s. A Gothic Revival design, the church is located in the Black Sea city of Batumi in Georgia's autonomous republic of Adjara.

The 14th century Holy Trinity Church of Gergeti sits on top of the hill (2170 metres) overlooking the township of Kazbegi (Stepantsminda), Republic of Georgia.

 

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The Holy Trinity Cathedral of Tbilisi (Georgian: თბილისის წმინდა სამების საკათედრო ტაძარი Thbilisis cminda samebis sakathedro tadzari) commonly known as Sameba (Georgian: სამება for Trinity) is the main Cathedral of the Georgian Orthodox Church located in Tbilisi, the capital of Georgia. Constructed between 1995 and 2004, it is the third-tallest Eastern Orthodox Cathedral in the World. Sameba is a synthesis of traditional styles dominating the Georgian church architecture at various stages in history and has some Byzantine undertones.

 

The idea to build a new cathedral to commemorate 1500 years of autocephaly of the Georgian Orthodox Church and 2000 years from the birth of Jesus emerged as early as 1989, a crucial year for the national awakening of the then-Soviet republic of Georgia. In May 1989, the Georgian Orthodox Patriarchate and the authorities of Tbilisi announced an international contest for the project of the "Holy Trinity Cathedral." No winner was chosen at the first round of the contest when more than a hundred projects were submitted. Finally the project of architect Archil Mindiashvili won.

 

Submitted: 13/01/2018

Accepted: 15/01/2018

No escaping the opulence of Stalin's Museum in Gori, his home town in Georgia.

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Submitted: 23/10/2015

Accepted: 05/11/2015

 

Published:

- (China) 17-Jan-2018

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The Holy Trinity Cathedral in Tbilisi, Georgia.

 

Submitted: 04/10/2015

Accepted: 17/10/2015

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A view of the Presidential Palace in Tbilisi, built on the initiative of President Micheil Saakashvili and also known as the Avlabari Residence. The construction of the administration building started in 2004 on the basis of a 19th century neoclassical building, which formerly housed the Imperial gendarmerie; the work was finished in 2009. The final version was designed by Italian architect Michele De Lucchi.

 

Submitted: 06/01/2017

Accepted: 23/01/2017

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Ushguli, in Svaneti, Georgia - with its distinctive medieval stone towers - is Europe's highest permanent populated village. In 1996 the Upper Svaneti valley was added to the Unesco list of world heritage sites.

 

Submitted: 22/03/2019

Accepted: 23/03/2019

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Tbilisi, Narikala fortress with St. Nicholas church overlooking the old town with mosque. Tbilisi Historic District was placed on the Unesco tentative world heritage list in 2007.

 

Submitted:23/06/2017

Accepted: 26/06/2017

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Submitted: 24/01/2018

Accepted: 25/01/2018

Batumi is second largest city of Georgia and the capital of Ajaria, located on the Black Sea coast. The history of this city is turbulent. From the 11th to the 15th century it was part of the Georgian kingdom. It was later owned by the Ottoman Empire, Russia and for short periods of Georgia. In 1921-1991Batumi together with the entire territory of Georgia constituted the Georgian Republic of the USSR.

On square of Europe, in the old part of Batumi, there is a Medea sculpture with a golden fleece. It is a figure from Greek mythology, the youngest daughter, king of the legendary kingdom of Colchis (today's western Georgia). The statue is a symbol of the power and wealth of this country. It was unveiled by President of Georgia, Mikheil Sakashvili in July 2007.

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Batumi jest drugim co do wielkości miastem Gruzji oraz stolicą Adżarii, położonym na wybrzeżu Morza Czarnego. Historia tego miasta jest burzliwa. Od XI do XV wieku wchodziło w skład królestwa gruzińskiego. Później było w posiadaniu Imperium Osmańskiego, Rosji oraz przez krótkie okresy Gruzji. W latach 1921-1991Batumi wraz z całym terytorium Gruzji stanowiło Republikę Gruzińską ZSRR.

Na placu Europy, w starej części Batumi znajduje się rzeźba Medei ze złotym runem. Jest to postać z mitologii greckiej, najmłodsza córka , króla legendarnego królestwa Colchis (dzisiejsza zachodnia Gruzja). Statua jest symbolem potęgi i bogactwa kraju. Został odsłonięty przez prezydenta Gruzji, Micheila Sakaszwilego w lipcu 2007 roku.

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Submitted: 13/07/2016

Accepted: 19/07/2016

 

Published:

- Bauer Publishing PRINT (Poland) 26-Aug-2016

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Submitted: 30/11/2017

Needs revision: 06/12/2017

Resubmitted: 13/12/2017

Accepted: 18/12/2017

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Submitted: 07/09/2017

Accepted: 20/09/2017

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Khertvisi fortress (Georgian: ხერთვისის ციხე) is one of the oldest fortresses in Georgia and was functional throughout the Georgian feudal period. It is situated in Southern Georgia, in Meskheti region.

In the 13th century the Mongols destroyed the fortress.. In the 16th century the southern region of Georgia was invaded by Turks. During next 300 years they occupied Khertvisi too.

 

At the end of the 19th century Georgian and Russian army returned the lost territories and Khertvisi became the military base for Russian and Georgian troops. Khertvisi fortress is situated on the high rocky hill in the narrow canyon at the confluence of the Mtkvari and Paravani Rivers.

 

Submitted: 15/07/2016

Accepted: 20/07/2016

Batumi is second largest city of Georgia and the capital of Ajaria, located on the Black Sea coast. The history of this city is turbulent. From the 11th to the 15th century it was part of the Georgian kingdom. It was later owned by the Ottoman Empire, Russia and for short periods of Georgia. In 1921-1991Batumi together with the entire territory of Georgia constituted the Georgian Republic of the USSR.

After regaining independence in 1989, Batumi became a city that attracts international investors. A complex of modern hotels and high-rise buildings was created, that give the city a contemporary look.

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Batumi jest drugim co do wielkości miastem Gruzji oraz stolicą Adżarii, położonym na wybrzeżu Morza Czarnego. Historia tego miasta jest burzliwa. Od XI do XV wieku wchodziło w skład królestwa gruzińskiego. Później było w posiadaniu Imperium Osmańskiego, Rosji oraz przez krótkie okresy Gruzji. W latach 1921-1991Batumi wraz z całym terytorium Gruzji stanowiło Republikę Gruzińską ZSRR.

Po odzyskaniu niepodległości w 1989 roku, Batumi stało się miastem które przyciąga międzynarodowych inwestorów. Powstał kompleks nowoczesnych hoteli i wieżowców dających miastu współczesny wygląd.

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Submitted: 14/10/2015

Accepted: 30/10/2015

 

Published:

- (China) 18-Dec-2018

The 14th century Holy Trinity Church of Gergeti sits on top of the hill (2170 metres) overlooking the township of Kazbegi (Stepantsminda). The background Caucasus range is dominated by the 5050 metre peak of Mount Kazbegi. Republic of Georgia.

 

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The Church of the Mother of God in Batumi is a Georgian Orthodox cathedral, originally built as a Catholic church early in the 1900s. A Gothic Revival design, the church is located in the Black Sea city of Batumi in Georgia's autonomous republic of Adjara.

The Batumi Botanical Garden is a 108 hectare area of land 9 km north of the city of Batumi, capital of Autonomous Republic of Adjara, Georgia. Located at the place called Mtsvane Kontskhi on the Black Sea shore, it is one of the largest botanical gardens in the former Soviet Union.

Tskhinvali (Georgian: ცხინვალი); Ossetian: Цхинвал, Чъреба, romanized: Tskhinval, Chreba; Russian: Цхинва́л(и) is a city in the de facto independent region of South Ossetia, Georgia Transcaucasia and the capital of the de facto independent Republic of South Ossetia (which has been recognised by the Russian Federation and four other UN member states) and the former Soviet Georgian South Ossetian Autonomous Oblast. The city had been administratively divided into the region (mkhare) of Shida Kartli by Georgia after the revocation of the autonomous oblast. It's located on the Great Liakhvi River approximately 100 kilometres (62 mi) northwest of the Georgian capital Tbilisi.

 

After the Russo-Georgian war of 2008, Russian troops captured the city of Tskhinvali. In 2010, Russia recognized the independence of the so-called South Ossetian Republic. Currently, several thousand Russian soldiers are stationed in the occupied territory, and military bases of the Russian armed forces have been built. The territory of Georgia and the entire world community is recognized as a part of Georgia occupied by Russia.

A bit wet as we climb towards the Caucasus mountains near Gudauri.

 

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