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Lust is the initial passionate sexual desire that promotes mating, and involves the increased release of chemicals such as testosterone and estrogen. These effects rarely last more than a few weeks or months. Attraction is the more individualized and romantic desire for a specific candidate for mating, which develops out of lust as commitment to an individual mate forms

Listen As I Lay Me Down - Sophie B. Hawkins

 

Sophie Ballantine Hawkins (born November 1, 1967, in Manhattan, New York City, U.S.) is an American singer, songwriter, musician and painter. Her biggest hits are "Damn I Wish I Was Your Lover," "Right Beside You," and "As I Lay Me Down." Her debut album, Tongues and Tails, was released in 1992. It achieved both worldwide commercial success and critical acclaim, earning her a Grammy nomination for Best New Artist in 1993. The single "Damn I Wish I Was Your Lover" went to #5 on the Billboard Hot 100 singles' chart in the USA. Whaler, her second album, was released in 1994. It also contained a Top 10 hit, the song "As I Lay Me Down." A 1998 documentary by Gigi Gaston, entitled The Cream Will Rise, follows her during one of her tours and captures her struggle to deal with past trouble with her family, including her mother and brother. Music and riffs by Hawkins are included throughout the film. Timbre was re-released in 2001 on her own label, Trumpet Swan Productions. It was bundled with a bonus disc containing new songs, demos, remixes, and videos. Her first independently recorded and released album, Wilderness, was released in 2004. In August 2007, Hawkins headlined the first Los Angeles Women's Music Festival in support of the festival's dual agenda of supporting animal rescue groups and promoting and supporting female musicians. Hawkins is a vegan and a long-time supporter of animal rights. In February 2008, Hawkins re-recorded her hit "Damn I Wish I Was Your Lover" as Damn We Wish You Were President in support of presidential candidate Hillary Clinton. Hawkins wrote, "Hillary Clinton's achievements come from her heart. She has initiated so much positive change for families, children, victims of crime and the environment in her struggle for the forward movement of America and the working people of this nation"

 

La Costa Brava, el agreste litoral de la provincia de Girona, cuenta con una villa medieval a pocos kilómetros de su perfil marítimo. Su centro histórico se levanta sobre una colina rodeada de llanuras, que en su origen fue zona pantanosa. Hay que remontarse al siglo IX para encontrar los primeros documentos escritos que hablan de esta población, época a la que pertenece su castillo. Continuos enfrentamientos bélicos hicieron que durante siglos sólo se conservase la Torre del Homenaje de esta construcción defensiva. Se trata de una torre románica de planta circular levantada entre los siglos XI y XIII. Sus 15 metros de altura se asientan sobre una plataforma de roca natural, en la que también se encuentran numerosas tumbas visigóticas. Durante el siglo XV fue empleada como campanario, por lo que se la conoce como la Torre de las Horas. En la actualidad, el solar del castillo lo ocupa la casa de la familia Pi i Figueras, promotor de la restauración del Recinto Gótico de Pals. De factura moderna, esta casa mantiene los mismos rasgos arquitectónicos que el resto de la urbe. Calles empedradas interrumpidas por arcos de medio punto, fachadas con ventanas ojivales y balcones de piedra son los signos distintivos de Pals. La muralla es otro de los lugares que transportan al viajero a la Edad Media. Cuatro torres de planta cuadrada se mantienen aún en pie, a pesar de que datan del siglo XII. Torres con nombre propio como Ramonet, Rom, Xinel·lo y Hospital. Otros puntos de interés son el mirador Josep Pla, la Plaza Mayor, las sepulturas de la calle Mayor y la iglesia de Sant Pere. El escritor palafrugellense da nombre a una de las atalayas naturales, desde donde se divisan los campos del Ampurdán y las islas Medes. Arcos góticos y sepulturas medievales son los otros hitos que encontramos en el camino. Parte de los sillares de piedra del castillo fueron empleados en el siglo X para edificar la iglesia de Sant Pere. En su estructura final se distinguen la base románica, el ábside y nave gótica, y el pórtico y campanario barrocos. La mejor manera de recorrer Pals es perderse por su calles medievales, pero antes de esto merece la pena acercarse a una casa fortificada del siglo XV, sede del Museo de Arqueología Submarina. Entre otras curiosidades, podemos conocer la historia de los vinos y cavas de Cataluña, gracias la exposición permanente que exhibe. A las afueras de la villa se extiende otra parte del municipio de Pals, los Masos de Pals, antiguo conjunto de masías (casas de campo catalanas) que actualmente acogen a un nutrido núcleo urbano. Y en la costa, la playa de Pals. Más de cuatro kilómetros de aguas transparentes donde el viajero podrá disfrutar del benigno clima mediterráneo y de todas las oportunidades de ocio que la Costa Brava ofrece. Campos de golf, deportes náuticos y visitas al Parque Natural Illes Medes son sólo algunas de ellas. Pals también se convierte en una excelente oportunidad para acercarnos a la gastronomía del Baix Ampordà, que aúna productos del mar y la tierra. Las habas y los guisantes de la huerta aparecen junto a esqueixadas (ensalada de bacalao), escalivadas (asado de berenjena, cebolla y pimientos) o guisos de pollo o conejo con marisco. Por su parte, gambas, lubinas y doradas se preparan de multitud de maneras. Entre los postres, las frutas tienen una gran importancia (fresas, melocotones, melones, sandías, naranjas...), y se convierten en verano en helados y sorbetes.

   

In Wordpress In Blogger photo.net/photos/Reinante/ In Onexposure

This is (yet another) shot from one of the most visually stunning shows that I have ever seen. It features two members of 'Kataklo', an athletic dance group from Italy, composed entirely of former Olympic gymnasts.

 

I became friendly with the show's producer (Angella Kwon) this year, having met (and become friendly with) her sister Boram (who currently studies at my old university in Stirling) last year. Both are South Korean and Angella was producing two South Korean shows at this year's Edinburgh Fringe...and also Kataklo.

 

We were having lunch, the day before the last Kataklo show (I had only seen them perform on the Royal Mile) when Angella kindly invited me along and asked me to take photographs. I could not have taken this shot with my old camera. This (and several others like this) were taken at 3200 ISO, hand held with a shutter speed of 1/20th of a second (I just love image stabilisation) and relying on autofocus. I love my Canon EOS-5D!

 

Just to prove I know a number of talented people, my friend Ken Campbell has a progressive rock group called 'Crooked Mouth'. At the moment, he is preparing their second album ('Hold in the Sun') for release. I will be providing photographs for the CD, the idea being to produce a photo that represents each different song. However, one of these shots is a candidate for the CD cover. You can find out more about Crooked Mouth and hear some samples (and even order their first CD!) here: Crooked Mouth

 

You can find my other pics of this amazing group (Kataklo...not Crooked Mouth...not that Crooked Mouth aren't amazing in their own way!) in these locations:

 

Arc of a Skier

 

We All Fall Down

 

Following The Leader

 

Grace Under Pressure

 

Trust

 

The Goalkeeper

 

When You're Falling

 

En Garde!

 

Freefall

 

Downside Up

 

Making it Happen

    

"TANT VA LA CRUCHE A L'EAU , QU'A LA FIN , ELLE SE CASSE "

 

Pour le Groupe " Illustration d'EXPRESSIONS FRANCAISES "

 

•VERSION Béta

•1. C’est une version de développement, instable, dans laquelle on effectue toutes les améliorations à apporter à la prochaine version stable.

2. Une version "alpha" : elle contient toutes les nouvelles fonctionnalités ont été ajoutées dans le logiciel, mais qui est encore assez instable et demande à être testée pour trouver un maximum de bugs.

3. Une ou plusieurs versions "beta", plus stables, corrigeant certains bugs de la version alpha, mais qui en contient potentiellement encore, bien que généralement moins graves.

4. Une ou plusieurs versions RC (Release Candidate), qui est en fait une version qui doit se rapprocher le maximum de la version finale. Si le boulot a été bien fait, la version finale est exactement identique à la dernière Release Candidate.

5. La version finale.

 

Et ce n'est pas de l'ignorance, tout le monde n'est pas censé tout connaître

AUTRE SOURCE :

cette Beta Page n'a été disponible que pour un certain nombre d' utilisateurs de la version anglaise de Flickr

Je précise donc pour tous ceux qui ne l'ont pas vue que la Beta page ne comporte plus de zone blanche sous les photos pour les descriptions / commentaires / invitations / flickr Award Counter..

Seulement une étroite barre latérale à droite de la photo ne montrant que les 4 derniers commentaires

Typographie blanche sur un fond noir et funèbre qui blesse les yeux

Aucun sens .Difficile d'écrire un commentaire de plus de 2 ou 3 mots

Nous ne pouvons pas voir qui a mis en favoris

Nous ne pouvons pas voir dans quels groupes les images apparaissent ( à l'exception de 8 )

Les images des Awards ne sont pas affichées

Les invitations ne sont pas visibles (sauf les plus récentes et seulement dans " Dernière Activité ') Les plus anciennes sont perdues

Pour les admins la gestion des groupes va devenir une tâche de plus en plus difficile sinon impossible

Des groupes risquent de fermer et ils donnent de la visibilité à nos images

Ils nous permettent d'admirer de belles œuvres et de rencontrer des grands photographes

Nos descriptions incluant des citations ou des liens vers YouTube et autres sites sont masquées

PLUS AUCUNE convivialité / visibilité / AUCUN SENS

En fait cette disposition est conçue avant tout pour les tablettes ou smartphones

_Retour des utilisateurs

Malheureusement tout ce que nous pouvons faire semble inutile ....

Yahoo et Flickr s'en fichent

Malheureusement il est évident que Yahoo veut faire de Flickr un autre réseau social pour les personnes (essentiellement ados et "djeunes" ) utilisant seulement des tablettes et autres smartphones et dont la seule interaction est Hi ou LoL

Les photographes motivés utilisant encore des ordinateurs (avec des logiciels d'édition) et de grands écrans ne sont plus des clients souhaitables

( Ni les groupes puisque nos invitations ne sont plus visibles que dans "dernière Activité" ....Les plus anciennes sont perdues et tout est fait pour entraver leur bon fonctionnement )

La publicité est infiniment plus lucrative que nos comptes-Pro

Combien de personnes savent ce que représente cette Beta Page ??? Je me le demande ?

Seulement certains utilisateurs de la version anglaise ....mais pas tous

Les utilisateurs de toute autre langue n'ont pas été informés ; étonnant non???

Tout ceci est très décourageant

Un grand merci tout spécial à Marissa Mayer

  

In Iceland, you can walk right up to the very edge of intensely powerful waterfalls like this one, with no barriers, ropes, or official overlooks. It is an intense and welcome experience. Watching the water is mesmerizing, almost to the point of being dizzying. This location is also featured in our recently released second edition of our popular photography guide to Iceland, Forever Light. If you are going to Iceland, this guide can be a huge time-saver in planning your trip and finding some of best places to photograph. You can learn more through the link above. Beyond 500px: Instagram | Facebook | Photography Portfolio | Blog | Photography Ebooks Thanks, as always, for your time in viewing my photography! via 500px ift.tt/1cut1xP

In Iceland, you can walk right up to the very edge of intensely powerful waterfalls like this one, with no barriers, ropes, or official overlooks. It is an intense and welcome experience. Watching the water is mesmerizing, almost to the point of being dizzying. This location is also featured in our recently released second edition of our popular photography guide to Iceland, Forever Light. If you are going to Iceland, this guide can be a huge time-saver in planning your trip and finding some of best places to photograph. You can learn more through the link above. Beyond 500px: Instagram | Facebook | Photography Portfolio | Blog | Photography Ebooks Thanks, as always, for your time in viewing my photography! via 500px ift.tt/1cut1xP

Beautiful sunset above the cliffs at Cap de Formentor in the Spanish island of Mallorca.

 

Nikon D90 + Sigma 10-20mm f/4-5.6

Lee 0.9 ND Hard Grad + B+W 3.0 ND1000

10mm | f/5 | ISO200 | 186 seconds

 

After the release of Lightroom 4 Beta I have been playing with some of my older shots to try the new processing tools. I really like the new shadows/highlights sliders as well as the new algorithm behind the clarity adjustment. It seems that rescuing the detail in over/underexposed areas of the photos will be much easier now.

This was one of my favourite shots from the whole week-long trip in Mallorca and Barcelona, however, the upper left part of the cliffs was almost completely black due to the misaligned ND grad filter (I was also using a B+W 10 stop filter and the placement of the grad was very approximate).

I had a lot of trouble trying to rescue this shot with LR3, and therefore this was one of the first candidates to try the new magic tricks of LR4. The shadow adjustment really brought the detail back, although it made the top left part of the shot rather noisy.

 

Explored | January 12th, 2012: #8

 

Buy this print at RedBubble

I had a shot from this spot with a canoe and 2 guys but I didn't get a model release from them so Getty images asked for a replacement, this is one candidate. I was using the laptop for this so the processing may be a little off,

edit: I have now replaced my laptop version with the image you see here, it bugged me too much on the main computer!

In Iceland, you can walk right up to the very edge of intensely powerful waterfalls like this one, with no barriers, ropes, or official overlooks. It is an intense and welcome experience. Watching the water is mesmerizing, almost to the point of being dizzying. This location is also featured in our recently released second edition of our popular photography guide to Iceland, Forever Light. If you are going to Iceland, this guide can be a huge time-saver in planning your trip and finding some of best places to photograph. You can learn more through the link above. Beyond 500px: Instagram | Facebook | Photography Portfolio | Blog | Photography Ebooks Thanks, as always, for your time in viewing my photography! via 500px ift.tt/1cut1xP

This is an Edinburgh Fringe photo from 2006 and is from one of the most spectacular shows I have ever seen. It features two of the incredibly talented performers from an Italian group called Kataklo (composed of former Olympic gymnasts).

 

I was fortunate enough to be invited along to photograph the show by Angella Kwon, the show's producer. I have a number of shots of this sequence already posted. It was a pleasant surprise that any of them worked out, since they were taken at 3200 ISO and at a shutter speed of 1/20 second (hand held...but with image stabilisation). The Canon EOS-5D is a very impressive camera.

 

One of my friends, Ken Campbell, has a progressive rock group called 'Crooked Mouth' (on a non-professional basis). At the moment, he is preparing their second album ('Hold in the Sun') for release. I will be providing photographs for the CD, the idea being to produce a photo that represents each different song. However, one of these shots is a candidate for the CD cover. You can find out more about Crooked Mouth and hear some samples (and even order their first CD!) here: Crooked Mouth

 

If you like this shot, do feel free to check out the rest of my Kataklo set. I think it contains some of the most spectacular images I've ever shot.

This eagle is injured and not a candidate for release back into the wild.

Week 8

Theme: Circles

 

For the circle week theme I decided to try and master the high speed waterdrop photo. I had tried it once before and failed miserably. This time, I did my due diligence and read up one how to do it properly. I did own makeshift set up at home with the method that made the most sense to me.

 

I used a red cover to a storage container with a couple cm of water and an eye dropper to create the water drops. I had the camera on a tripod set to the Bulb setting with the aperture at f/14 in a dark room. I used an off camera flash positioned just lateral but closed to the water which I would manually set up immediately after releasing a water drop from the eye dropper. A fairly crude set-up, but it I am happy enough with the results. Not to level of some of the spectacular shots I've seen on Flickr but for an amateur like me, I pretty happy with these.

 

I couldn't decide between these two shots. One was the classic crown splash effect which made a lovely circle for this week's theme. However, the drops captured in the upper photo mixed with the circle ripples also made it a get candidate for the circle theme. Hence I combined theme into a diptych to satisfy my indecisiveness! lol

 

I'm happy to get any feedback from of all you high speed water photography experts on how to perfect my techniques..... especially given I only have a pretty crude set-up as described.

Question: Which GROUP has enough POWER to swing USA's vote for President?

At www.cnsnews.com/public/content/article.aspx?RsrcID=33754

I found below ANSWER.

 

CNSNews.com

Pollsters Say Women’s Vote Up for Grabs in Election

Thursday, August 07, 2008

By Allison Aldrich, Correspondent

  

Sens. Hillary Clinton (D-N.Y.) and Barack Obama (D-Ill.) at a July 10 fundraiser

(CNSNews.com) - A new poll shows that neither major party's presidential candidate has won the hearts – or votes – of the majority of women voters. But one in five women who voted for Hillary Clinton in the Democratic primaries plans to vote for the expected Republican nominee, Sen. John McCain (R-Ariz), in November.

 

The Lifetime Networks poll, released Tuesday, shows that 49 percent of women support Sen. Barack Obama (D-Ill.) and 38 percent support McCain – but another 10 percent are still undecided, suggesting the race for women could become close.

 

The Lifetime poll, which was conducted by Republican pollster Kellyanne Conway and Democratic pollster Celinda Lake, included responses from 700 women nationwide and has a 4.4 percent margin of error.

 

Obama’s lackluster lead among women voters came as a surprise to Conway who said that based on the number of things going in Obama’s favor, his lead should be larger at this point.

 

“I’m surprised that Barack Obama isn’t doing better among women,” Conway told CNSNews.com. “He needs about 54 percent of women to become the next president. The 11 point difference between Obama and McCain right now is the 11 point difference that was between Bush and Gore in 2000, and Bush won.”

 

According to the results, the majority of women voters polled said gender does not matter in the candidates’ selection of running mates.

 

Ironically, while Obama would benefit slightly by choosing a female running mate, McCain would likely receive less of the women’s vote if he were to choose a female to run with him on the ticket, the pollsters said.

 

“The bulk of women said that it didn’t make much difference,” Lake told CNSNews.com. “The ones for whom it made the most difference were the Hillary Clinton voters. Forty-seven percent of them said they would like a woman vice president.”

 

Conway applauded these results, saying, “Women are more gender-neutral than gender-sensitive when it comes to a vice presidential candidate, and it means that women are much more substantive when it comes to the election.”

 

On a personal level, women seem to favor Obama when it comes to which presidential candidate they would like to join on vacation or during a commute to work, the pollsters found.

 

Of those who participated in the survey, nearly 50 percent of the women said they would like to have Obama join them, while the amount of women who would like to vacation or drive with McCain was around one-quarter of the respondents.

 

Lake is hopeful that women’s favorable impression of Obama’s personality will have a positive influence for him on Election Day, but it may not be as much as he needs.

 

“Character and personality usually drive the vote. I would say that it won’t be enough,” Lake said. “To get over 50 percent of the vote, I think that Obama is going to have to build on that personal favorability and also reassure women about the change that he represents.”

 

Conway said that when it comes to choosing a president, she is hopeful women will not base their vote on which presidential candidate is the most entertaining.

 

“Is likeability and personality and these sophomoric questions like ‘Who would you rather have a beer with?’ going to dominate, or are women going to want an experienced person who they view as qualified and seasoned to lead the nation’s economy and our troops in wartime?”

 

The pollsters say their survey showed that Obama’s support is based on personal attributes such as his intelligence and youth, while support for McCain is based largely on perceptions of his qualifications and experience.

 

Lake acknowledges that basis of support may be a liability for the Democrat but said it is not clear how much.

 

“I think for these undecided voters, that’s the real tradeoff,” said Lake. “They know McCain better than they know Obama, but they don’t like him as well. I think that’s the central division. That’s what it’s coming down to.”

 

Conway is not so quick to dismiss the importance of experience when it comes to the women’s vote.

 

“Women are credentialists, and they’re pro-incumbent for a reason. McCain is the more seasoned, more qualified, more experienced candidate,” said Conway. “There are certain things that Barack Obama is not going to be able to have as part of his presidential resume between now and November, and at the top of that is experience.”

 

Meanwhile, the Gallup Poll’s daily tracking survey, a national poll that includes male responses, shows Obama is leading by only three to four percentage points.

MotorClássico, Lisbon, Portugal

 

in Wikipedia

 

Traction Avant monocoque

 

Front torsion bar suspension

 

The Traction Avant, French for "front wheel drive", was designed by André Lefèbvre and Flaminio Bertoni in late 1933 / early 1934. While not the first production front wheel drive car – Alvis built the 1928 FWD in the UK, Cord produced the L29 from 1929 to 1932 in the United States and DKW the F1 in 1931 in Germany – it was the world's first front-wheel drive steel monocoque production car. Along with DKW's 1930s models, the Traction successfully pioneered front-wheel drive on the European mass car market.

 

The Traction Avant's structure was a welded monocoque (unitized body). Most other cars of the era were based on a separate frame (chassis) onto which the non-structural body ("coachwork") was built. Monocoque construction (also called Unit Body or "Unibody" in the US today) results in a lighter vehicle, and is now used for virtually all car construction, although body-on-frame construction remains suitable for larger vehicles such as trucks.

This method of construction was viewed with great suspicion in many quarters, with doubts about its strength. A type of crash test was conceived, taking the form of driving the car off a cliff, to illustrate its great inherent resilience.

 

The novel design made the car very low-slung relative to its contemporaries – the Traction Avant always possessed a unique look, which went from appearing rakish in 1934 to familiar and somewhat old fashioned by 1955.

 

The suspension was very advanced for the car's era. The front wheels were independently sprung, using a torsion bar and wishbone suspension arrangement,[3] where most contemporaries used live axle and cart-type leaf spring designs. The rear suspension was a simple steel beam axle and a Panhard rod, trailing arms and torsion bars attached to a 3-inch (76 mm) steel tube, which in turn was bolted to the monocoque.

 

Since it was considerably lighter than conventional designs of the era, it was capable of 100 km/h (62 mph), and consumed fuel only at the rate of 10 litres per 100 kilometres (28 mpg-imp; 24 mpg-US).

 

Variants

 

Cabriolet

 

Traction Avant rear

 

1937 7C Coupe Traction Avant

 

A French "familiale" 11 F 1954, 6 windows, 9 seats

 

Citroën 11 Commerciale 5-door

  

Traction Avant rears. The boot was lengthened and its volume doubled in Autumn 1952.[4]

The original model, which was presented on 18 April 1934, was a small saloon with a 1,303 cc (79.5 cu in) engine. This model was called the 7A, which was succeeded in June 1934 by the 7B with a higher-power engine of 1,529 cc (93.3 cu in). The 7B in turn, was succeeded in October 1934 by the 7C with an even higher-output 1,628 cc (99.3 cu in) engine. Later models were the 11 (launched in November 1934), which had a 1,911 cc (116.6 cu in) four-cylinder engine, and the 15 (launched in 1938), with a 2,867 cc (175.0 cu in) six. The numbers refer to the French fiscal horsepower rating, or CV. The 11 was an 11 CV, but curiously the 15 was actually 16 CV. The 11 was built in two versions, the 11L ("légère", or "light"), which was the same size as the 7 CV, and the normal model 11, which had a longer wheelbase and wider track.

 

Citroën planned two variants that never entered production, since there was not enough funding available to develop them, except as running prototype vehicles. One was an automatic transmission-equipped model, based on the Sensaud de Lavaud automatic transmission, the other a 22 CV model with a 3.8 liter V8. The transmission (which was actually originally designed for the Citroen) was a "gearless" automatic, using the torque-converter alone to match engine revolutions to the drivetrain revolutions, much like the Dynaflow Transmission introduced later in the USA. The car was supposed to have a less spartan interior than the other Traction Avants and it was to feature Citroën's own new V8 engine. About twenty prototypes were made, but when the project was canceled in 1935 due to Michelin's takeover; they were probably all destroyed.[citation needed]

 

In addition to the 4-door body, the car was also produced as a 2-door coupé with a rumble seat, as a convertible and as an extended length Familial model with three rows of seats. There was even a hatchback-type Commerciale variant, in 1939, well ahead of its time, in which the tailgate was in two halves, the lower of which carried the spare wheel with the upper opening up to roof level. A one-piece top-hinged tailgate was introduced when the Commerciale resumed production in 1954 after being suspended during World War II.

Wartime disruption[edit]

 

In September 1939 France declared war on Germany and in June 1940 the German army rapidly invaded and occupied Northern France.[1] The war years were characterised by a desperate shortage of raw materials for civilian industry and of petrol,[1] but these factors were not apparent instantly. The Paris Motor Show scheduled for October 1939 was cancelled at short notice, but Citroën’s own planned announcements had involved the forthcoming 2CV model rather than any significant changes to the Traction.[1] For the Traction, the last “normal” year in terms of production levels was 1939, and 8,120 of the 2910mm wheelbase 1628cc engined 7C models were produced.[1] This tumbled to 1,133 in 1940, which was the first year when the plant suffered serious air-raid damage - on this occasion caused by a German attack - on 3 June 1940. Production of the cars was suspended in June 1941, by when a further 154 had been produced in the six-month period just ended. The 7C would continue to appear in Citroën price-lists until March 1944, but production of this smaller engined “7CV” version of the Traction was not resumed after the war.[1] For the more powerful 1911cc engined 11 B-light models, the equivalent figures were 27,473 units produced in 1939, 4,415 in 1940 and 2,032 for 1941, though for this model production in 1941 ended only in November 1941 so the figure for that year represents 11 months of production.[1]

 

In 1945 production restarted only slowly: the 11 B-light reappeared very little changed from the 1941 cars except that headlight surrounds were now painted rather than finished in chrome. By the end of December 1945 the year’s production had reached 1,525.[1] Currency depreciation is evident from the car’s listed price which had been 26,800 francs in January 1940, and had risen to 110,670 francs in October 1945.[1] In 1945 the car was the only model available from Citroën, and as another sign of the times, customers not able to supply their own tires were charged an additional 9,455 francs for a set of five.[1] In May 1946, presumably reflecting an easing of the war-time tire shortage, the car could at last be purchased with tires at no extra cost, but by now the overall price of an 11 B-light had risen to 121,180 francs.[1]

 

The 11 B-normal model, differentiated from the 11 B-light by its 3090mm wheelbase, experienced a similar drop off in volumes between 1939 and 1941, with just 341 cars produced during the first seven months of 1941.[1] After the war, a single 11 B-normal was produced in 1946, in time to be presented at the October 1946 Paris Motor Show: production built up during 1947, but during the car’s ten-year post-war period the shorter 11 B-light would, in France, continue to outsell the 11 B-normal.

 

Initially the French army lacked enthusiasm for the Citroën Traction, believing that it offered insufficient ground-clearance for their needs.[1] Nevertheless, by September 1939 roughly 250 had found their way into military service. With losses of cars at the frontier mounting, Citroën supplied a further 570 to the army between February and May 1940, and subsequent deliveries probably took place before military defeat intervened.[1] During the war many of the cars were reregistered with "WH..." (Wehrmacht Heer/Army command) license plates, having been requisitioned by the German Army.[1] These gave reliable service both in France and further afield, notably in Libya and Stalingrad. Tractions were also favoured by the Resistance, and as occupation gave way to Liberation they turned up all over France with FFI inscribed proudly on their doors. Less gloriously, the cars were known as favourites among gangsters such as the then infamous Pierrot le Fou, and his Traction gang.

 

UK built cars[edit]

 

Left-hand drive versions were built in Paris, in Forest, Belgium, in Copenhagen, Denmark for the Scandinavian market, and right-hand drive cars in Slough, England. The Slough version of the 11L was called the Light Fifteen and the long wheelbase 11 was called the Big Fifteen. This confusing terminology referred to the British fiscal tax rating of the time, which was higher than the French, so the 11CV engine was 15HP in England. The 15CV model was called "Big Six" in reference to its 6-cylinder engine. They were equipped with the leather seats and wooden dashboards popular in the UK, had a 12-volt electrical system and were distinguished by a different radiator grille and different bumpers. Some models also had a sliding sunroof.

A 1,911 cc (116.6 cu in) Light Fifteen tested by the British magazine The Motor in 1951 had a top speed of 72.6 mph (116.8 km/h) and could accelerate from 0–60 mph (97 km/h) in 29.7 seconds. A fuel consumption of 25.2 miles per imperial gallon (11.2 L/100 km; 21.0 mpg-US) was recorded. The test car cost GB£812 including taxes.[5]

 

A 2,866 cc (174.9 cu in) six-cylinder model was tested by the same magazine in 1954 and for this car the top speed found was 81.1 mph (130.5 km/h), acceleration from 0–60 mph (97 km/h) 21.2 seconds and fuel consumption 18.6 miles per imperial gallon (15.2 L/100 km; 15.5 mpg-US). The test car cost GB£1,349 including taxes.[6]

Engineering[edit]

 

Citroën 11 CV Légère

 

The Traction Avant used a longitudinal, front-wheel drive layout, with the engine set well within the wheelbase, resulting in a very favourable weight distribution, aiding the car's advanced handling characteristics. The gearbox was placed at the front of the vehicle with the engine behind it and the differential between them, a layout shared with the later Renault 4 and 16 and first generation Renault 5 but the opposite way round to many longitudinal front-wheel drive cars, such as the Saab 96 and Renault 12 and 18 and most Audi models. The gear change was set in the dashboard, with the lever protruding through a vertical, H-shaped gate.[7] Because this vertical orientation could have resulted in the car dropping out of gear when the lever was in the upper positions (i.e., second or reverse gears), the gear shift mechanism was locked when the mechanical clutch was engaged and released when the clutch pedal was depressed. The result of this layout, along with pendant pedals, umbrella-type handbrake control and front bench seats, was a very spacious interior, with a flat and unobstructed floor. The low-slung arrangement also eliminated the need for running boards to step into or out of the vehicle. These features made them ideal for use as limousines and taxi cabs, and they were quite popular among drivers and passengers alike. Until 1953, black was the only color available.

 

Impact on Motorsport[edit]

 

Another technical significance of Tranction Avant was the cast aluminium alloy transaxle, which was pioneered by Hans Ledwinka in the early 1930s for Tatra V570 used in front of the engine located in the rear, but was quite radical at the time.

 

As well as being a considerable part of the weight savings, the manufacturing facility for this transaxle contributed to the below mentioned financial crisis. But when John Cooper looked for a light transaxle case for Formula One rear engine revolution, Traction Avant unit was about the only candidate, as Volkswagen magnesium alloy transaxle was much smaller and lacking the space needed to house heftier gears needed for Formula One. The Traction Avant transaxle was used on Cooper T43 which won a F1 championship race as the first mid-mounted engine car to do so in 1958, and on its successors Cooper T45, T51 and T53. Cooper T51 won the GP World Championship in 1959.

 

Unlike the Volkswagen alloy case used by Hewland, the Traction Avant case could not be used up side down, as the input shaft height was much higher in relation to the output shaft axis so that the oil level needed to lubricate the gears would exceed the then-unreliable input shaft oil seal height if used upside down. So the engine needed to sit high above the ground with the oil sump space below, which was not needed by dry-sump racing engines. But the French transaxle was used by several racing car constructors in the late 1950s to 60's with various levels of success.

 

In the case of Jack Brabham, who personally visited the ERSA foundry in Paris to discuss a possibility to strengthen the case ,[8] the transaxle became known as "ERSA Knight" with an additional spur-gear set mounted in the bellhousing spacer (engine to transaxle adapter) suggested by Ron Tauranac, named for Jack Knight who designed the modification and made the straight-cut gears. The height offset created by the spur gear set enabled the engine to sit lower, and became the reason why Cooper T53 was called the 'Lowline', which not only made Brabham the World Champion in 1960 but also became the precursor to the establishment of Brabham as a Formula One constructor.

 

Impact on Citroën[edit]

 

1954 six-cylinder 15CV with hydropneumatic suspension fitted to the rear wheels – in 'high' position

 

Traction Avant as modern wedding car

 

The development costs of the Traction Avant, combined with the redevelopment of its factory, were very high and Citroën declared bankruptcy in late 1934. The largest creditor was Michelin, who then owned Citroën from 1934 until 1976. Under Michelin, Citroën was run as a research laboratory, a test bed for their radial tires and new automotive technologies.

In 1954 Citroën's experiments with hydropneumatic technology produced its first result, the "15H" – a variant of the 6-cylinder model 15 with a self-leveling, height-adjustable rear suspension, a field trial for the revolutionary DS released the following year.

 

Directly after the introduction of the Citroën ID, a simplified and more competitively priced version of the still revolutionary DS, production of the Traction Avant ended in July 1957. Over 23 years, 759,111 had been built, including 26,400 assembled in Slough in England, 31,750 assembled in Forest near Brussels and 1,823 assembled at Cologne in Germany. The total reflects the production stoppage during World War II.

 

The Traction Avant today[edit]

 

Big Fifteen sedan

 

In 2006, the oldest surviving 7A has production number ("coque nr") AZ 00-18, and is displayed in partly dismantled shape (engine and front wheels detached) in the Citroën Museum in Paris. The oldest running 7A is probably number AZ-00-23, which was, until 1 September 2006, in possession of a Dutch owner and is now with a Slovenian owner.

Traction Avants are fairly robust vehicles even by modern standards; however, they are prone to leaking water inside the cabin and care needs to be taken when buying one. Every few years, Traction Avant enthusiasts ship their vehicles to an exotic location for a rally. In 2002, for example, a group of over 30 Traction Avants drove from Los Angeles to New York without incident. [1]

Today is International Polar Bear Day.

 

Wish I could have posted an actual shot of a Polar Bear that I took. Haven't been that fortunate. Instead here's a photo of another pretty special bear: A Spirit Bear. Also known as a Kermode Bear. My faux tribute to the White Kings of the North.

 

"The Kermode bear (Ursus americanus kermodei), also known as the "spirit bear" (particularly in British Columbia), is a subspecies of the American black bear living in the Central and North Coast regions of British Columbia, Canada. It is the official provincial mammal of British Columbia. It is noted for about 1⁄10 of their population having white or cream-colored coats. This color is due to a double recessive gene unique in the subspecies. They are not albinos and not any more related to polar bears or the "blonde" brown bears of Alaska's "ABC Islands" than other members of their species. Sometimes, a black mother can have a white cub." Wiki

 

Unfortunately there are fewer than 400 of these special bears left. In order to better protect them BC recently established the Great Bear Rainforest. Wonderful decision. May they thrive.

 

Wish I had taken this shot in that lush rainforest. Heard there was one in the BC Wildlife Park in Kamloops. Had to check it out.

The yearling cub was found in 2012 abandoned in northwestern British Columbia on the side of Terrace Mountain near Terrace. After two unsuccessful attempts to rehabilitate and release him back into the wild, the cub, now nicknamed 'Clover' by handlers, was sent to the park when conservation officers decided that he was not a candidate for relocation. He seemed content and well treated. Was a wonder to see, but wish he could have roamed more naturally.

 

Thanks for taking a look!

Enjoy a wonderful weekend!

 

Ubuntu 10.04 Lucid Lynx LTS

Hardly more than a decade after Charles Lindbergh's historic 1927 solo flight from New York to Paris, the world's first transatlantic passenger flights wars regularly departing from La Guardia. Airport's Marine Air Terminal. Designed in the Art Deco style, the Terminal is "modern", serving as an appropriate introduction to air travel, which struck the general public in the 1930s as both glamorous and adventurous. The Marine Air Terminal is the only surviving American airport terminal dating from "The Golden Age of the Flying Boat", when trans-oceanic passenger flights were made aboard giant Pan American Clipper ships, which Vied with ocean liners in providing luxury service.

 

Although these great seaplanes have long since been retired, the Marine Terminal has remained in continuous and efficient use. The main interior space, a two-story circular room is among the most noteworthy Art Deco interiors in New York City. Its pure geometry, marble paneling and fine proportions serve as a magnificent setting for the huge mural "Flight", only recently restored and once again, the focal point of an exceptionally fins design.

 

The history of the Marine Air Terminal coincides with that of commercial aviation in the United States. In the year 1927, two important events gave impetus to commercial airline and airport development. First, the federal government decided to use private contractors for postal transport, and second Lindbergh's transatlantic flight not only captured the imagination of Americans, but inspired faith among potential passengers.

 

At that time, New York City did not possess a municipal airport, although in the same year, plans for the construction of Floyd Bennett Field in Brooklyn were made. Construction of this airport which proceeded slowly, in part because of the Depression, was not completed until 1934. During the same years, the City of Newark, New Jersey, constructed a large airport, in operation by 1928 which rapidly became the major airport on the eastern seaboard.

 

Designated the official airmail terminus for the metropolitan area in 1929, Newark also became the main passenger airport, serving nearly 100,000 customers per year by 1931. Until the late 1930s, Newark Airport's supremacy remained unchallenged.

 

In 1934, Fiorello H. La Guardia became Mayor of New York City. A reform liberal candidate taking office just after the very worst years of the Depression La Guardia embarked upon a vast municipal transportation improvement campaign, which while bettering the city, also provided thousands of jobs. The scheme involved bridge, highway and tunnel construction, as well as the reorganization and consolidation of the Mass Transit system.

 

Most significantly, La Guardia was staunchly in favor of a New York City airport which could effectively compete with Newark. The location of Floyd Bennett Field was inconvenient to Manhattan, and consequently, la Guardia was convinced of the necessity of a new airport at a new location. Studies of the problem resulted in the selection of a site at North Beach, Queens, where a private airport, Glenn Curtiss, had been constructed in 1929.

 

The Depression had forced the closing of Glenn Curtiss Airport, and the site had been acquired by trie city. It consisted of some 100 acres, sufficiently close to Manhattan, and also, adjacent to Long Island Sound, so that a sea plane base could be included. Like La Guardia's other transportation projects, the airport was to be federally sponsored and funded through the Works Progress Administration. Consequently, plans for the "New York City Municipal Airport" were submitted to the New York City WPA Administrator, Brehon Somervell, and on September 3, 1937, were approved by President Roosevelt.

 

Only six days later, Mayor La Guardia presided over ground breaking ceremonies at North Beach.

 

Fiorello La Guardia (1882-1947) had been an enthusiastic advocate of aviation from its very early years onward. While in private law practice, he had as a client Giuseppe Bellanco, a pioneering aviator and flying instructor from whom La Guardia took lessons in 1913 at Mineola, Long Island.

 

Soon after the United States entered World War I, although La Guardia had recently been elected to the U.S. House of Representatives, he enlisted as a lieutenant in the Aviation Section of the Signal Corps. He served as a supervisor of the 8th Aviation Instruction Center at Foggia in Italy, and also flew as a pilot bombardier with the Fifth Squadron on the Italian-Austrian front, attaining the rank of major.

 

La Guardia was an early proponent of the military significance of aviation, and also recognized the potential of commercial passenger airlines. The airport which became his namesake is a fitting tribute to this aspect of the career of one of New York's most colorful and Inspirational political leaders.

 

Construction at North Beach proceeded rapidly. Plans prepared by the Department of Docks, the Works Progress Administration, and the firm of Delano & Aldrich, called first for the filling in of a portion of Bowery Bay, Hikers Island Channel, and Flushing Bay, thereby, more than doubling the acreage of the original site. Initially, some 5000 men were employed, but when building construction began the work force was gradually increased, peaking at 23,000 workers in early 1939.

 

A 558 acre airport with three and two-thirds miles of runways and taxi strips emerged. At a cost of $40,000 000, La Guardia was not only the largest airport in the world, it was also the most costly— "the greatest single undertaking of the W.P.A.". The buildings of this original complex included the landplane hangar, and the Marine Air Terminal. The airport was officially opened on October 15, 1939, with crowds estimated to exceed 325,000 in attendance.

 

Among the 150 airplanes which took part in the festivities were three which circled overhead as the Mayor made his address, skywriting "Name It. La Guardia". This inaugurated a campaign to re-christen the airport, and on November 2 the Board of Estimate and City Council officially agreed upon "New York City Municipal Airport—La Guardia Field."

 

Service was instituted in December of 1939, and by 1940,. LaGuardia had completely eclipsed Newark Airport, It was not until March, 1940, that the Marine Air Terminal was dedicated. At this ceremony, two of the new Pan American Clipper ships were on display. These were the great sea planes which the Marine Air Terminal and its accompanying hangar had been designed to accommodate. The Clipper ships represented both the culmination of the development of seaplanes, and the inauguration of a new era in commercial flying.

 

The first practical seaplane was invented in 1911 by Glenn Hammond Curtiss (1878-1930) (in whose honor the original North Beach Airport was named). This was a float plane, with the fuselage supported on struts. A year later he created the first flying boat, with a boat-hull fuselage, the prototype for the clipper ships used at the Marine Air Terminal. Another seaplane designed by Curtiss, the Navy-Curtiss, made the first Atlantic crossing in 1919. Although the majority of early trans-oceanic flights were made aboard land planes, the relative danger of travelling long distances over water, led aeronautic designers to think of seaplanes as safer, and thus better suited to passenger service.

 

Water was also considered convenient and economical as an air base. By the 1930s, Americans led the field in seaplane design. Boeing Aircraft in conjunction with Pan American Airways, developed the Martin 130, the first monoplane flying boat intended for commercial purposes.

 

Soon thereafter, the Boeing 31 with a wing span of 152 feet, a cruising speed of 200 m.p.h., capable of carrying 74 passengers was produced, and with it, Pan American inaugurated the world's first scheduled transatlantic service. The first flight from the Marine Air Terminal by a Boeing 314—the Yankee Clipper—departed on March 31, 1940, carrying a crew of ten, nine passengers, and over 5000 pounds of mail. It landed in Lisbon 18 hours and 35 minutes later.

 

The scheduled Clipper ship routes were New York-Lisbon-Marseilles, and New York-Newfound land-Southampton. The clippers caused a genuine sensation. They were described in the New York Herald Tribune as "breathtaking" in size, and in a Life magazine article by Claire Booth Luce, with the following prediction "Fifty years from now, people will look back on a Clipper flight of today as the most romantic voyage of history." The accommodations aboard these planes were indeed luxurious by today's standards. The two-deck interior featured dining rooms, private compartments and sleeping sections. But this glamorous era was brought to an abrupt halt by World War II.

 

The Clippers were pressed into war service, and functioned as passenger planes on government missions and as freight carriers. By the end of the war, technological advances in land plane; design had made the clippers obsolete, although the age of international passenger flight which they had helped to establish continued to flourish. The Marine Air Terminal was successfully converted to a land plane terminal and at the present time is occupied by Butler Aviation and Air New England.

 

The site of the Terminal today serves as a reminder of Its original use. Located close to the water's edge, the building was planned for the convenience of both passengers and crew. The Clippers taxied in from Long Island Sound, pulled by small motorboats, and docked just outside the Terminal. For maintenance purposes they were hauled out of the water and moved along special railroad tracks into the nearby hangar.

 

The siting of the Terminal was determined by engineering and aeronautical considerations. Its exceptionally fine design is to be credited to the architectural firm of Delano & Aldrich.

 

William A. Delano (1874-1960) and Chester H. Aldrich (1871-1940) formed their architectural partnership in 1903, after meeting when both were employed in the offices of Carrere & Hastings. The two men had previously studied at the Paris Ecole des Beaux Arts and upon their return to this country espoused Ecole teaching methods. Delano taught at Columbia University's School of Architecture from 1903 to 1911, and Aldrich assisted Thomas Hastings in running an atelier based on the Parisian system.

 

Not surprisingly, Delano & Aldrich's work reveals, for the most part, a traditional, conservative approach to design. The architects favored the neo-Renaissance and neo-Federal styles, and were best known for residential work for wealthy clients. What most distinguishes their work is its fineness of execution, care to detail, and over-all refinement. Among their many important commissions are the estate of John D. Rockefeller, Pocantico Hills, the Otto Kahn house at Cold Spring Harbor, Long Island, the Vincent Astor house at Port Washington, Long Island, and the Charles A. Lindbergh house at Hopewell, New Jersey.

 

In New York City, they designed numerous fashionable town houses on the Upper East Side, among them the Willard Straight house, the Marshall J. Dodge house and the Harold Pratt house, as well as clubhouses, including the Knickerbocker, and Colony Club buildings. In 1935, Charles Aldrich took a leave of absence from the firm to serve as head of the American Academy Rome, a post he held until his death in 1940. Apparently, he was not Involved with the designs of the airport buildings, which ought to be credited to Delano alone. The use of the Art Deco style represents a dramatic departure from the architect's usual approach, no doubt the result of Delano's recognition that a modern building type required a modern style. At the same time the Terminal building was under construction, Delano also served as a member of the Board of Design for the New York World's Fair. He retired from practice in 1950.

 

Soon before his death in 1960, Delano was quoted as saying "You know, in this town, very few of the things you build are left in your lifetime."

 

Delano employed the Art Deco style for all the buildings or the original airport complex. Although these structures possessed the essential components of the style, they should not be categorized among the more flamboyant architectural manifestations of Art Deco in New York City. The Marine Air Terminal relies for its impact primarily upon the crisp geometry of its massing and the symmetry and precision of its design—hallmarks of Delano & Aldrich's work generally—rather than upon vivid polychromy or emphatic "streamlining".

 

Delano, even when he employed a 20th century, non-revivalistic style, did not stray from the principles of Beaux-Arts design as formulated in the 19th century. Thus, the Terminal symmetrically and axially disposed both in plan and elevation, places strong emphasis on the entrance and on ease of circulation, and displays a very clear relationship between the exterior and interior.

 

Yet, within these self-imposed boundaries Delano interpreted the Art Deco style masterfully. Ornament, although used sparingly, is highly expressive of the Terminal's function; the grille work above the doorways in the form of winged globes is a notable example. The interior of the Terminal has marble paneling and paving, but stainless steel, one of the new materials favored in Art Deco circles, also makes a restrained but gleamingly sleek appearance. The apparent simplicity of the Terminal interior design is deceptive. Its spaces contain subtle geometric relationships and are well-scaled, well-planned, and well balanced.

 

The functions of the Terminal are clearly demarcated. The three wings of the building are Intended for easy access and exit while the circular core houses airport related facilities—waiting rooms, mail room health and customs inspection and detention offices originally—in a series of rooms which ring the perimeter of the building. At the center is the great circular room, the equivalent to a railroad station concourse, labeled on the original plans quite simply "Public Space". It is this room and the vestibule leading to it which the Landmarks Preservation Commission designates a New York City Interior Landmark.

 

The main entrance doors give access to a small foyer with a group of four stainless steel doors surmounted by transoms containing winged globes, identical to those on the exterior of the building. Through these one passes into the vestibule which contains a stairway with a handsome simply detailed stainless steel banister. Five stainless steel doors lead into the great circular room at the center of the building. The room rises a full two stories, and is crowned by a skylight situated within the third tier of the building.

 

The power of the room derives from the geometric purity of its form, the richness of its materials, and the grand scale of its vibrantly colored mural. The walls of the room are paneled with dark green marble and contain counters for ticketing and related purposes within each of the 14 bays, which are divided Into groups of four, five and four, by the doorways leading to the wings. These doorways are of stainless steel and repeat the design seen on the exterior and In the foyer, with winged globes set in the transoms. The floor is paved in light gray marble, with a geometrically patterned circle at the center.

 

The original, very handsome wooden benches, with stainless steel propeller blades motifs inlaid in the end panels, have recently been returned to the room, the ceiling of the room is interestingly treated, and is tiered in graduated steps—a motif which echoes the tiered configuration of the exterior of the Terminal—and contains a large circular skylight. The mural is located just beneath the lowest and broadest ceiling tier and is separated from the green marble wall paneling beneath by a narrow stainless steel band.

 

This mural, the creation of James Brooks, today an internationally recognized artist, was, like the entire airport, sponsored by the federal Works Progress Administration. Entitled "Flight", it chronologically depicts man's conquest of the skies, from his earliest primitive yearnings for flight, to his modern aviation achievements. During the early 1950s, a highly misguided refurbishing of the Terminal, resulted in the covering over of the mural. Through the efforts of Geoffrey Arend, author, publisher and aviation-airport buff, a campaign to restore the mural to view was successfully undertaken. on September 18, 1980, "Flight" was officially rededicated.

 

The huge mural, approximately 12 feet high and 237 feet long, encircles the room, functioning as the dramatic culmination of the entire design* Painted on Belgian linen, with shades of intense red and green predominating, it includes figures of varying scale placed against a flat abstract ground. Three abstract panels, located above the three entrances to the room, divided the mural into segments which might be entitled "man's release from earth", "the flight of Daedalus" and "the modern age of flight". Mythical and historical figures—Icarus, Daedalus, Leonardo da Vinci, the Wright brothers, are depicted, as well as typological ones—early man and woman, modern man and woman, pilots, navigators, engineers etc. The figures are boldly foreshortened, and objects rendered in emphatic perspective. A powerful composition, in style it shares much with the Socialist Realism popular in the 1930s, but also includes abstract elements which prefigure the artist's later shift to Abstract Expressionism,

 

Of special interest in the context of the Marine Air Terminal is the final scene of the mural, in which a clipper ship is seen landing and docking.

 

James Brooks was bom in St. Louis in 1906, and presently resides in Springs, New York. After his work with the W.P.A., Brooks turned to Abstract Expressionism and was a member of the circle of artists often termed the New York School. Brooks studied at Southern Methodist University, the Dallas Institute of Art, arid New York's Art Students League. Aside from the Terminal murals, he also executed murals for the Little Falls, New Jersey, Post Office, and the Woodside, Queens, Library. He has taught at a number of schools and universities, among them Pratt Institute, Columbia and Yale. In the early 1960s, Brooks was artist in residence at the American Academy in Rome,, and in 1967, was awarded a Guggenheim Fellowship, In 1963, the Whitney Museum held a retrospective exhibition of his work, which has also been exhibited at the Museum of Modem Art, the Metropolitan Museum of New York, the Guggenheim Museum, and the Art Institute of Chicago, among others.

 

The Marine Air Terminal is today the only active airport terminal in the United States dating from the first generation of passenger air travel. That it has continued in effective operation, despite the great changes in commercial' aviation during the past forty years testifies to the quality of its design. With changing uses, the interiors of the Terminal have survived, even if at times they have suffered certain esthetic indignities. The restoration of the mural has returned to the Marine Air Terminal interior all the essential components that make it a truly distinguished, exceptional example of the Art Deco style.

 

This project was funded in part with the assistance of a preservation survey and planning grant authorized by the National Historic Preservation Act of 1966, administered by the U.S. Department of the Interior, Heritage Conservation and Recreation Service; through the New York State Office of Parks and Recreation.

 

- From the 1980 NYCLPC Landmark Designation Report

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Eibsee

 

Eibsee is a lake in Bavaria, Germany, 9km southwest of Garmisch-Partenkirchen and roughly 100km southwest of Munich. At an elevation of 973.28 m, its surface area is 177.4 ha. Eibsee lies at the base of the Zugspitze (2950 meters above sea level), Germany's highest mountain.

As of May 2010, trains from Munich to Garmisch-Partenkirchen leave roughly once an hour and the trip takes about an hour and a half[1]. Buses travel regularly from the train station in Garmisch-Partenkirchen to Eibsee[2]. A valid train ticket can often be used to ride the bus

 

Source en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eibsee

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Garmisch-Partenkirchen

 

Garmisch-Partenkirchen is a mountain resort town in Bavaria, southern Germany. It is the administrative centre of the district of Garmisch-Partenkirchen, in the Oberbayern region, and the district is on the border with Austria. Nearby is Germany's highest mountain, Zugspitze, at 2961 m (9714 ft.).

 

Origin

 

Garmisch-Partinkirken was at first two separate cities (Garmisch and Partinkirken).Until the Olympics were held right in between the two cities and often faught over simple things. So, as a compromise, they merged together to create Garmisch-Partinkirken and make the process much easier.

[edit]History

 

Garmisch (in the west) and Partenkirchen (in the east) were separate towns for many centuries, and still maintain quite separate identities.

Partenkirchen originated as the Roman town of Partanum on the trade route from Venice to Augsburg and is first mentioned in the year A.D. 15. Its main street, Ludwigsstrasse, follows the original Roman road.

Garmisch is first mentioned some 800 years later as Germaneskau ("German District"), suggesting that at some point a Teutonic tribe took up settlement in the western end of the valley.

The valley came under the rule of the Bishop of Freising and was governed by a bishop's representative known as a Pfleger (caretaker or warden) from Werdenfels Castle on a cliff north of Garmisch.

The discovery of America at the turn of the 16th century led to a boom in shipping and a sharp decline in overland trade, which plunged the region into a centuries-long economic depression. The valley floor was swampy and difficult to farm. Bears, wolves and lynxes were a constant threat to livestock. The population suffered from periodic epidemics, including several serious outbreaks of bubonic plague. Adverse fortunes from disease and crop failure occasionally led to witch hysteria. Most notable of these were the notorious trials and executions of 1589-1596, in which 63 victims — more than 10 percent of the population at the time — were burned at the stake or garroted.

Werdenfels Castle, where the accused were held, tried and executed, became an object of superstitious horror and was abandoned in the 17th century. It was largely torn down in the 1750s and its stones used to build the baroque Neue Kirche (New Church) on Marienplatz, which was completed in 1752. It replaced the nearby Gothic Alte Kirche (Old Church), parts of which predated Christianity and may originally have been a pagan temple. Used as a storehouse, armory and haybarn for many years, it has since been re-consecrated. Some of its medieval frescoes are still visible.

Garmisch and Partenkirchen remained separate until their respective mayors were forced by Adolf Hitler to combine the two market towns in 1935 in anticipation of the 1936 Winter Olympic games. Today, the united town is casually (but incorrectly) referred to as Garmisch, much to the dismay of Partenkirchen's residents. Most visitors will notice the slightly more modern feel of Garmisch while the fresco-filled, cobblestoned streets of Partenkirchen offer a glimpse into times past. Early mornings and late afternoons in pleasant weather often find local traffic stopped while the dairy cows are herded to and from the nearby mountain meadows.

[edit]Transportation

   

Garmisch-Partenkirchen,

painting by Anton Doll

The town is served by Federal Highway 2 as a continuation of the A95 Autobahn (motorway), which ends at Eschenlohe 16 km north of the city.

Garmisch-Partenkirchen is on the Munich–Garmisch-Partenkirchen line and the Mittenwald Railway (Garmisch–Mittenwald–Innsbruck). It is the terminus of the Außerfern Railway to Reutte in Tirol / Kempten im Allgäu and the Bavarian Zugspitze Railway (with sections of rack railway) to the Zugspitze, the highest mountain in Germany. Regional services run every hour to München Hauptbahnhof and Mittenwald and every two hours to Innsbruck Hauptbahnhof and Reutte. In addition there are special seasonal long-distance services, including ICEs, to Berlin, Hamburg, Dortmund, Bremen and Innsbruck.

Several accessible hiking trails from the town are especially spectacular and cover both the lower and higher elevations.

[edit]Sports

   

Aerial view of

Garmisch-Partenkirchen

In 1936 it was the site of the Winter Olympic Games, the first to feature alpine skiing. A variety of Nordic and alpine World Cup ski races are held here, usually on the Kandahar Track outside town. Traditionally, a ski jumping contest is held in Garmisch-Partenkirchen on New Year's Day, as a part of the Four Hills Tournament (Vierschanzen-Tournee). The World Alpine Ski Championships were held in Garmisch in 1978 and 2011.

Garmisch-Partenkirchen is also a favored holiday spot for skiing, snowboarding, and hiking, having some of the best skiing areas (Garmisch Classic and Zugspitze) in Germany.

It was announced on December 7, 2007, that Garmisch-Partenkirchen is part of a Bavarian bid to host the 2018 Winter Olympics, with partner candidates Munich and Schönau am Königsee (near Berchtesgaden). The Winter Olympics were last held in the German-speaking Alps in 1976 in nearby Innsbruck, Austria.

[edit]Public institutions

 

The George C. Marshall European Center for Security Studies[2] is also located in Garmisch-Partenkirchen. The Marshall Center is an internationally funded and mostly U.S.-staffed learning and conference center for governments from around the world, but primarily from the former Soviet Union and Eastern European countries. It was established in June 1993, replacing the U.S. Army Russian Institute. Near the Marshall Center is the American Armed Forces Recreation Centers (Edelweiss Lodge and Resort) in Garmisch that serves U.S. and NATO military and their families. A number of U.S. troops and civilians are stationed in the town to provide logistical support to the Marshall Center and Edelweiss Recreation Center.

 

Zugspitze

 

Zugspitze

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Zugspitze

 

The Zugspitze massif from the west (left: the summit)

Elevation2,962 m (9,718 ft) [1]

Prominence1,746 m (5,728 ft) [2]

↓ Fern Pass → Parseierspitze

Parent peakFinsteraarhorna / Mont Blancb

Isolation = 24.6 km → Acherkogel

ListingCountry high point (Germany)

Ultra

Location

  

Zugspitze

Germany

Location on Austria/Germany border

LocationTyrol, Austria

Bavaria, Germany

RangeWettersteingebirge, Eastern Alps

Coordinates47°25′16″N 10°59′07″ECoordinates: 47°25′16″N 10°59′07″E[2]

Geology

TypeWetterstein limestone[3]

Age of rockTriassic

Climbing

First ascent27 August 1820 by Josef Naus, Johann Georg Tauschl and survey assistant, Maier

Easiest routeReintal Route

  

Geography

   

Map showing the Zugspitze's location

The Zugspitze belongs to the Wetterstein range of the Northern Limestone Alps.

The border between Germany and Austria goes right over the mountain. There used to be a border checkpoint at the summit. But since Germany and Austria are now both part of the Schengen zone, the border crossing is no longer manned.

The exact height of the Zugspitze was a matter of debate for quite a while. Given figures ranged from 2,690–2,970 metres (8,830–9,740 ft), but it is now generally accepted that the peak is 2,962 m (9,718 ft) above sea level as a result of a survey carried out by the Bavarian State Survey Office. The lounge at the new café is named "2962" for this reason.

[edit]Location and surrounding area

  

Aerial photograph

  

View from the Alpspitze of the Zugspitze summit and the Höllentalferner glacier in 2007

  

Annotated aerial photograph of the Zugspitze massif

At 2,962 metres (9,718 ft) (eastern peak) the Zugspitze is the highest mountain of the Zugspitze massif. This height is referenced to the Amsterdam Gauge and is given by the Bavarian State Office for Survey and Geoinformation.[4] The same height is recorded against the Trieste Gauge used in Austria, which is 27 cm lower. Originally the Zugspitze had three peaks: the east, middle and west summits (Ost-, Mittel- and Westgipfel). The only one that has remained in its original form is the east summit, which is also the only one that lies entirely on German territory. The middle summit fell victim to one of the cable car summit stations in 1930. In 1938 the west summit was blown up to create a building site for a planned flight control room for the Wehrmacht. This was never built however. Originally the height of the west summit was given as 2,964 m (9,724 ft).[5]

The Zugspitze rises eleven kilometres southwest of Garmisch-Partenkirchen and just under six kilometres east of Ehrwald. The border between Germany and Austria runs over the west summit; thus the Zugspitze massif belongs to the German state of Bavaria and the Austrian state of Tyrol. The municipalities responsible for it are Grainau and Ehrwald. To the west the Zugspitze massif drops into the valley of the River Loisach, which flows around the massif towards the northeast in a curve whilst, in the east, the streams of Hammersbach and Partnach have their source. To the south the Gaistal valley and its river, the Leutascher Ache, separate the Wetterstein Mountains from the Mieming Chain. To the north at the foot of the Zugspitze is the lake of Eibsee. The next highest mountain in the area is the Acherkogel (3,008 m or 9,869 ft) in the Stubai Alps, which gives the Zugspitze an topographic isolation value of 24.6 kilometres. The reference point for the prominence is the Parseierspitze (3,036 m or 9,961 ft). In order to climb it from the Zugspitze, a descent to the Fern Pass (1,216 m or 3,990 ft) is required, so that the prominence is 1,746 m (5,728 ft).[6]

[edit]Zugspitze Massif

The massif of the Zugspitze has several other peaks. To the south the Zugspitzplatt is surrounded in an arc by the Zugspitzeck (2,820 m or 9,250 ft) and Schneefernerkopf (2,874 m or 9,429 ft), the Wetterspitzen (2,747 m or 9,012 ft), the Wetterwandeck (2,698 m or 8,852 ft), the Plattspitzen (2,679 m or 8,789 ft) and the Gatterlköpfen (2,490 m or 8,170 ft). The massif ends int the Gatterl (2,024 m or 6,640 ft), a wind gap between it and the Hochwanner. Running eastwards away from the Zugspitze is the famous Jubilee Ridge or Jubiläumsgrat over the Höllentalspitzen towards the Alpspitze and Hochblassen. The short crest of the Riffelwandkamm runs northeast over the summits of the Riffelwandspitzen (2,626 m or 8,615 ft) and the Riffelköpfe (2,459 m or 8,068 ft), to the Riffel wind gap (Riffelscharte, 2,161 m or 7,090 ft). From here the ridge of the Waxensteinkamm stretches away over the Riffelspitzen to the Waxenstein.[7]

[edit]Zugspitzplatt

  

The Zugspitzplatt above the Reintal valley in 2006

The Platt or Zugspitzplatt is a plateau below the summit of the Zugspitze to the south and southeast which lies at a height of between 2,000 and 2,650 m (6,600 and 8,690 ft). It forms the head of the Reintal valley and has been shaped by a combination of weathering, karstification and glaciation. The area contains roches moutonnées, dolines and limestone pavements as a consequence of the ice ages. In addition moraines have been left behind by various glacial periods. The Platt was completely covered by a glacier for the last time at the beginning of the 19th century. Today 52% of it consists of scree, 32% of bedrock and 16% of vegetation-covered soils, especially in the middle and lower areas.[8]

[edit]Climate

  

Climatic diagram for the Zugspitze: normal periods 1961-1990

From a climatic perspective the Zugspitze lies in the temperate zone and its prevailing winds are Westerlies. As the first high orographic obstacle to these Westerlies in the Alps, the Zugspitze is particular exposed to the weather. It is effectively the north barrier of the Alps (Nordstau der Alpen), against which moist air masses pile up and release heavy precipitation. At the same time the Zugspitze acts as protective barrier for parts of the Alps to the south. By contrast, Föhn weather conditions push in the other direction against the massif, affecting the region for about 60 days per year. These warm, dry air masses stream from south to north and can result in unusually high temperatures in winter. Nevertheless frost dominates the picture on the Zugspitze with an average of 310 days per year. The nearest place with comparable values is the island of Spitsbergen in the Arctic Ocean.

For the decades from 1961 to 1990 - designated by the World Meteorological Organization as the "normal period" - the average annual precipitation on the Zugspitze was 2,003.1 mm; the wettest month being April with 199 mm, and the driest, October with 108.8 mm.[9] By comparison the values for 2009 were 2,070.8 mm, the wettest month being March with 326.2 mm and the driest, January, with 56.4 mm.[10] The average temperature in the normal period was -4.8 Celsius, with July and August being the warmest at 2.2 °C and February, the coldest, with -11.4 °C.[9] By comparison the average temperature in 2009 was -4.2 °C, the warmest month was August at 5.3 °C and the coldest was February at -13.5 °C.[10] The average sunshine during the normal period was 1,846.3 hours per year, the sunniest month being October with 188.8 hours and the darkest being December with 116.1 hours.[9] In 2009 there were 1,836.3 hours of sunshine, the least occurring in February with just 95.4 hours and the most in April with 219 hours.[10] In 2009, according to the weather survey by the German Met Office, the Zugspitze was the coldest place in Germany with a mean annual temperature of -4.2 °C.[11]

The lowest measured temperature on the Zugspitze was -35.6 °C in 14 February 1940. The highest temperature occurred on 5 July 1957 when the thermometer reached 17.9 °C. A squall on 12 June 1985 registered 335 km/h, the highest measured wind speed on the Zugspitze. In April 1944 meteorologists recorded a snow depth of 8.3 metres.[12][13]

[edit]Geology

  

The north face of the Zugspitze seen from the Eibsee lake

All mountain-building strata consists of sedimentary rocks of the Mesozoic era, that were originally laid down on the seabed. The base of the mountain comprises muschelkalk beds; its upper layers are made of Wetterstein limestone. With steep rock walls up to 800 metres high, it is this Wetterstein limestone from the Upper Triassic that is mainly responsible for the rock faces, arêtes, pinnacles and the summit rocks of the mountain. Due to the frequent occurrence of marine coralline algea in the Wetterstein limestone it can be deduced that this rock was at one time formed in a lagoon. The colour of the rock varies between grey-while and light grey to speckled. In several places it contains lead and zinc ore. These minerals were mined between 1827 and 1918 in the Höllental valley. The dark grey, almost horizontal and partly grass-covered layers of muschelkalk run from the foot of the Great Riffelwandspitze to the Ehrwalder Köpfe. From the appearance of the north face of the Zugspitze it can be seen that this massif originally consisted of two mountain ranges that were piled on top of one another.[14]

[edit]Flora

  

The Eibsee in front of the Zugspitze: woods on the northern shore

The flora on the Zugspitze is not particularly diverse due to the soil conditions, nevertheless the vegetation, especially in the meadows of Schachen, the Tieferen Wies near Ehrwald, and in the valleys of Höllental, Gaistal and Leutaschtal is especially colourful.

The shaded and moist northern slopes of the massif like, for example, the Wettersteinwald, are some of the most species-rich environments on the Zugspitze. The Mountain Pine grows at elevations of up to 1,800 metres. The woods lower down consist mainly of Spruce and Fir, but Honeysuckle, Woodruff, poisonous Herb Paris, Meadow-rue and Speedwell[disambiguation needed ] also occur here. Dark Columbine, Alpine Clematis, Blue and Yellow Monkshood, Stemless carline thistle, False aster, Golden cinquefoil, Round-leaved saxifrage, Wall hawkweed, Alpine calamint and Alpine Forget-me-not flower in the less densely wooded places, whilst Cinquefoil, Sticky Sage, Butterbur, Alpenrose, Turk's cap lily and Fly Orchid thrive on the rocky soils of the mountain forests. Lily of the Valley and Daphne also occur, especially in the Höllental, in Grainau and by the Eibsee.[15]

To the south the scene changes to Larch (mainly in the meadow of Ehrwalder Alm and the valleys of Gaistal and Leutaschtal) and pine forests and into mixed woods of Beech and Sycamore. Here too, Mountain Pine grows at the higher elevations of over 2,000 metres.

Relatively rare in the entire Zugspitze area are trees like the Lime, Birch, Rowan, Juniper and Yew. The most varied species of moss, that often completely cover limestone rocks in the open, occur in great numbers.

Bilberry, Cranberry and Cowberry are restricted to dry places and Lady's Slipper Orchid occurs in sheltered spots. Below the Waxenstein are fields with raspberries and occasionally wild strawberries too. The Alpine poppy and Purple mountain saxifrage both thrive up to a very great height. On the scree slops there are Penny-cress and Mouse-ear chickweed as well as Mountain avens, Alpine toadflax, Mint and Musky Saxifrage or Cloth of Gold. Following snowmelt Dark stonecrop and Snow gentian are the first to appear, their seeds beginning to germinate as early as August. And well-known Alpine flowers like the Edelweiss, Gentians and, more rarely, Cyclamen flower on the Zugspitze.

[edit]Fauna

  

Alpine choughs on the Zugspitzeck

The rocks around the Zugspitze are a habitat for Chamois and Marmots are widespread on the southern side of the massif. At the summit there are frequently Alpine Choughs, drawn there by people feeding them. Somewhat lower down the mountain there are Mountain Hare and the Hazel Dormouse. Alpine birds occurring on the Zugspitze include the Golden Eagle, Rock Ptarmigan, Snow Finch, Alpine Accentor and Brambling. The Crag Martin which has given its name to the Schwalbenwand ("Swallows' Wall") at Kreuzeck is frequently encountered. The basins of Mittenwald and Seefeld, as well as the Fern Pass are on bird migration routes.

The Viviparous lizard inhabits rocky terrain, as does the black Alpine Salamander known locally as the Bergmandl, which can be seen after rain showers as one is climbing. Butterflies like Apollo, Alpine Perlmutter, Gossamer-winged butterfly, Geometer moth, Ringlet and Skipper may be seen on the west and south sides of the Zugspitze massif, especially in July and August.[16] The woods around the Zugspitze are home to Red Deer, Red Squirrel, Weasel, Capercaillie, Hazel Grouse and Black Grouse. On the glaciers live glacier fleas (Desoria saltans) and water bears.[17]

[edit]Glaciers

Three of the five German glaciers are found on the Zugspitze massif: the Höllentalferner the Southern and Northern Schneeferner.

[edit]Höllentalferner

  

The Höllentalferner in 2009

The Höllentalferner lies northeast of the Zugspitze in a cirque below the Jubilee Ridge (Jubiläumsgrat) to the south and the Riffelwandspitzen peaks to the west and north. It has a northeast aspect. Its accumulation zone is formed by a depression, in which large quantities of avalanche snow collect. To the south the Jubiläumsgrat shields the glacier from direct sunshine. These conditions meant that the glacier only lost a relatively small area between 1981 and 2006.[18] In recent times the Höllentalferner reached its greatest around 1820 with an area of 47 hectares. Thereafter its area reduced continually until the period between 1950 and 1981 when it grew again, by 3.1 hectares to 30.2 hectares. Since then the glacier has lost (as at 2006) an area of 5.5 hectares and now has an area of 24.7 hectares. In 2006 the glacier head was at 2,569 m and its lowest point at 2,203 metres.[19]

[edit]Schneeferner

  

The Northern Schneeferner and winter sport infrastructure in 2009

[edit]Northern Schneeferner

Southwest of the Zugspitze, between the Zugspitzeck and Schneefernerkopf, is the Northern Schneeferner which has an eastern aspect. With an area of 30.7 hectares (2006) it is the largest German glacier. Around 1820 the entire Zugspitzplatt was glaciated, but of this Platt Glacier (Plattgletscher) only the Northern and Southern Schneeferner remain. The reason for the relatively constant area of the Northern Schneeferner in recent years, despite the lack of shade, is the favourable terrain that results in the glacier tending to grow or shrink in depth rather than area. In the recent past the glacier has also been artificially fed by the ski region operators, using piste tractors to heap large quantities of snow onto the glacier in order to extend the skiing season. At the beginning of the 1990s, ski slope operators began to cover the Northern Schneeferner in summer with artificial sheets in order to protect it from sunshine.[20][21] The Northern Schneeferner reached its last high point in 1979, when its area grew to 40.9 hectares. By 2006 it had shrunk to 30.7 hectares. The glacier head then lay at 2,789 m and the foot at 2,558 metres.[22]

[edit]Southern Schneeferner

The Southern Schneeferner is surrounded by the peaks of the Wetterspitzen and the Wetterwandeck. It is also a remnant of the once great Platt Glacier. Today, the Southern Schneeferner extends up as far as the arête and therefore has no protection from direct sunshine. It has also been divided into two basins by a ridge of rock that has appeared as the snow has receded. It is a matter of debate whether the Southern Schneeferner should still be classified as a glacier.[23] The Southern Schneeferner also reached its last high point in 1979, when it covered an area of 31.7 hectares. This had shrunk by 2006 to just 8.4 hectares however. The highest point of the glacier lies at an elevation of 2,665 metres and the lowest at 2,520 metres.[24]

[edit]Caves

Below the Zugspitzplatt chemical weathering processes have created a large number of caves and abîmes in the Wetterstein limestone. In the 1930s the number of caves was estimated at 300. By 1955 62 caves were known to exist and by 1960 another 47 had been discovered. The first cave explorations here took place in 1931. Other, largest exploratory expeditions took place in 1935 and 1936 as well as between 1955 and 1968. During one expedition, in 1958, the Finch Shaft (Finkenschacht) was discovered. It is 131 metres deep, 260 metres long and has a watercourse. There is a theory that this watercourse could be a link to the source of the River Partnach.[Note 1][25][26]

[edit]Name

 

From the early 14th century, geographic names from the Wetterstein Mountains began to be recorded in treaties and on maps, and this trend intensified in the 15th century. In 1536 a border treaty dating to 1500 was refined in that its course was specified as running over a Schartten ("wind gap" or "col").[27] In the 17th century the reference to this landmark in the treaty was further clarified as "now known as the Zugspüz" (jetzt Zugspüz genant).[27] The landmark referred to was a wind gap on the summit of the Zugspitze and is used time and again in other sources. During the Middle Ages Scharte was a common name for the Zugspitze.[27]

The Zugspitze was first mentioned by name in 1590. In a description of the border between the County of Werdenfels and Austria, it states that the same border runs "from the Zugspitz and over the Derle" (von dem Zugspitz und über den Derle")[28] and continues to a bridge over the River Loisach. Another border treaty in 1656 states: "The highest Wetterstein or Zugspitz" ("Der höchste Wetterstain oder Zugspitz").[28] There is also a map dating to the second half of the 18th century that shows "the Reintal in the County of Werdenfels". It covers the Reintal valley from the Reintaler Hof to the Zugspitzplatt and shows prominent points in the surrounding area, details of tracks and roads and the use pasture use. This includes a track over the then much larger Schneeferner glacier to the summit region of the Zugspitze. However the map does not show any obvious route to the summit itself.[29]

The name of the Zugspitze is probably derived from its Zugbahnen or avalanche paths. In winter avalanches sweep down from the upper slopes of the massif into the valley and leave behind characteristic avalanche remnants in the shape of rocks and scree. Near the Eibsee lake there are several plots of land with the same root: Zug, Zuggasse, Zugstick, Zugmösel or Zugwankel.[28] Until the 19th century the name der Zugspitz was commonplace. It was described as die Zugspitze for the first time on a map printed in 1836.[30]

[edit]Summit cross

   

Summit cross on the Zugspitze

Since 1851 there has been a summit cross on the top of Zugspitze. The driving force behind the erection of a cross on the summit was the priest, Christoph Ott. He was a keen meteorologist and whilst observing conditions from the Hoher Peißenberg mountain he saw the Zugspitze in the distance and was exercised by the fact that "the greatest prince of the Bavarian mountains raised its head into the blue air towards heaven, bare and unadorned, waiting for the moment when patriotic fervour and courageous determination would see that his head too was crowned with dignity."[31] As a result he organised an expedition from 11 to 13 August 1851 with the goal of erecting a summit cross on the Zugspitze. Twenty eight bearers were led through the gorge of the Partnachklamm and the Reintal valley under the direction of forester, Karl Kiendl, up to the Zugspitze. The undertaking, which cost 610 Gulden and 37 Kreuzer, was a success. As a result, a 28-piece, 14 foot high, gilded iron cross now stood on the West Summit. Ott himself did not climb the Zugspitze until 1854. After 37 years the cross had to be taken down after suffering numerous lightning strikes; its support brackets were also badly damaged. In the winter of 1881–1882 it was therefore brought down into the valley and repaired. On 25 August 1882 seven mountain guides and 15 bearers took the cross back to the top. Because an accommodation shed had been built on the West Summit, the team placed the cross on the East Summit. There is remained for about 111 years, until it was removed again on 18 August 1993. This time the damage was not only caused by the weather, but also by an ill-disciplined American soldier who had shot at the cross in 1945, at the end of the Second World War. Because the summit cross could no longer be repaired, a replica was made that was true to the original cross. After two months the rack railway carried the new cross on 12 October to the Zugspitzplatt, from where it was flown to the summit by helicopter. The new cross has a height of 4.88 metres.[32] It was renovated and regilded in 2009 for 15,000 euros and, since 22 April 2009, has stood once again on the East Summit.[33]

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Astoria, Queens

 

The Astoria Play Center is one of a group of eleven immense new outdoor swimming pools which were opened in the summer of 1936 in a series of grand ceremonies presided over by Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia and Park Commissioner Robert Moses. All were constructed largely with funding provided by the Works Progress Administration, one of the many New Deal agencies created during the 1930s to address the effects of America's Great Depression. Designed to accommodate a total of 49,000 users simultaneously at locations scattered across the entire city, and completed just two and a half years after the LaGuardia administration took office, the new pool complexes gained quick recognition as being among the most remarkable public recreational facilities ever constructed in this country.

 

Many architects, landscape architects, and engineers were hired to execute the pool program and the hundreds of other new construction and rehabilitation projects undertaken between 1934 and 1936 by a newly consolidated Park Department. They were guided by a senior team composed of staff members and consultants who had earlier worked for Moses at various governmental agencies, including the New York State Council of Parks and the Long Island State Park Commission. They included architect Aymar Embury II, landscape architects Gilmore D. Clarke and Allyn R. Jennings, and civil engineers W. Earle Andrews and William H. Latham. Surviving documents also indicate that Robert Moses, himself a long-time swimming enthusiast, gave detailed attention to the designs for the new pool complexes.

 

Opened on July 2, 1936, with a capacity of 6,200 swimmers, and designed mainly by consulting Park Department architect John Matthews Hatton, the Astoria Play Center commands a striking waterfront location in Astoria Park. The vast scale of the pool complex is complemented by that of its setting - the distant vistas westward framed by the monumental forms of the Hell Gate and Triborough Bridges. Embedded into what has now become a densely wooded slope which descends to the water's edge from 19th Street, the play center complex was designed to take full advantage of its surroundings. The entire roof of the bath house structure is used for multi-level viewing terraces. Extensive concrete bleacher sections are located on the western side of the bath house and around the diving pool. They offer far more outdoor seating than is available at the other play centers; perhaps the abundant seating is related to the fact that the final trials for the 1936 Summer Olympics were held here.

 

Like Hatton's later design for the 1939 bath house at Betsy Head, the Astoria Play Center structure makes extensive use of glass block; it forms the lower recessed sections of the locker room walls which are topped by the original metal louver windows. Massive piers laid up in decorative bonds demarcate the bays. Glass block also forms extensive sections of the lateral walls of the entryway: the original Art Moderne style ticket booth and signage are its other significant features. Among the Center's more unusual design elements are the whimsical saucerlike roofs atop the upper portions of the filter house structure on the western side of the swimming pool. The areas adjacent to the pool complex include extensive pathway systems, playing areas, and a striking comfort station designed in a style similar to that of the bath house.

 

DESCRIPTION AND ANALYSIS

 

History of the Astoria Park Pool Site

 

The setting for the Astoria Park Pool and Play Center is the sloping, sixty-six acre Astoria Park, located on the east shore of the Hell Gate channel across from Ward's Island in western Queens. The complex has a panoramic view of the skyscrapers of midtown Manhattan framed between the towering Triborough Bridge to the south and the majestic Hell Gate Bridge to the north. Long Island City and Astoria became part of greater New York City in the consolidation of 1898. By 1907, the land now occupied by Astoria Park and its surroundings remained occupied by fading, former estates of prominent families and ship captains, who had moved away as industrial and residential developments loomed ever closer. The pace of urbanization picked up after the opening of the Queensborough Bridge in 1909, adding many more factories and houses.

 

Around the turn of the century, sentiment emerged to increase public access to the East River and Hell Gate waterfront. In 1913, the City of New York acquired fifty-six acres of land along the shorefront for what was to become Astoria Park. Originally, named for Mayor William J. Gaynor, who served from 1910 to 1913, the name of the park was soon changed to Astoria Park. According to Parks Department Records, Astoria Park - which was originally equipped with two playgrounds, six tennis courts, three baseball diamonds, a wading pool, bandstand, and comfort station - was the first large park in New York City to provide for organized, rather than passive, recreation.

 

The Hell Gate Bridge, designed by engineer Gustav Lindenthal and architect Henry Hornbostel, was constructed over the northern park of Astoria Park in 1917; its majestic towers forming the park's northern vista. Major improvements to Astoria Park were undertaken in the 1930s under the auspices of the popular mayor, Fiorello LaGuardia and his legendary Park Commissioner, Robert Moses. These changes included the addition of 4.5 acres of parkland under the Triborough Bridge, which was finished in 1936, the same year of the opening of the Astoria Park Pool and Play Center. Engineered by O.H. Ammann and designed by the architect Aymar Embury II, the Triborough Bridge, along with the pool complex, added a sleek modernity to the park. The improvements of the 1930s were made largely by using funds obtained from the Works Progress Administration, one of the many public works programs created by Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the United States Congress during the Great Depression.

 

Fiorello LaGuardia, Robert Moses and the New Deal

 

Franklin D. Roosevelt was elected President of the United States in 1932 in the middle of the Great Depression that followed the stock market crash in 1929. Roosevelt promised to rebuild confidence in American capitalism and to improve the nation's standard of living by creating the New Deal economic program of unprecedented public spending on social programs and construction projects.

 

New York City had been especially hard hit by the economic downturn, and its citizens, hoping for change, elected Fiorello LaGuardia to the mayoralty of New York City in 1933 under a reform-minded "fusion" ticket. He chose New York State Park Commissioner, Robert Moses, a champion of reform politics, as New York City's new Park Commissioner. The new mayor's success in securing a lion's share of monies made available by the federal Works Progress Administration (WPA), and Moses' superb management skills and his ability to attract talented designers and engineers to his staff, resulted in profound physical changes in the environment of New York City. The construction and renovation of neighborhood recreation areas, such as pools and play grounds, were some of the most ambitious and successful programs undertaken by Moses with funds largely provided by the WPA.

 

Fiorello H. La Guardia was sworn in as the ninety-ninth mayor of the City of New York in January 1934, as an anti-Tammany Hall reform candidate. A maverick Republican and a five-term congressman from East Harlem, LaGuardia won the 1933 mayoral election on the "Fusion" ticket after losing the 1929 mayoral race on the Republican line. The Fusion Conference Committee at first considered running Robert Moses, another Republican, who was appointed Chairman of the New York State Council of Parks in 1924 by his political mentor, Governor Alfred E. Smith, a Tammany Hall Democrat from New York City. However, the committee decided against Moses because of his association with Smith, and chose LaGuardia instead. At the time, Moses was a popular public figure with a reputation as a progressive, and as the builder of great parks and parkways like Jones Beach and the Northern State Parkway on Long Island.

 

His endorsement of LaGuardia during the campaign was considered instrumental in securing a victory for LaGuardia. Within a week of the election, LaGuardia invited Moses to join his incoming administration as a reward.

 

In the 1920s, Moses was at the forefront of the national recreation movement began in the first decade of the twentieth century, led by such men as President Theodore Roosevelt and the lesser-known George D. Butler of the National Recreation Association. The movement gained momentum after President Calvin Coolidge convened the first National Conference on Outdoor Recreation in 1924.

 

During the1930s Depression, the need to provide for or to improve outdoor recreation, especially in urban areas, became most urgent, and fit into the FDR's New Deal economic programs. Moses accepted the position of Commissioner of Parks in the LaGuardia administration on the condition that the five existing independent Park Departments (one for each borough) would be consolidated into a single department with himself as the sole Commissioner, and that the Park Commissioner's authority also include control of the City's parkways. He also demanded to be appointed the Chief Executive Officer of the Triborough Bridge Authority, which was then building the bridge of that name, and that a new agency, the Marine Parkway Authority, which would build a bridge to the Rockaways, be created with himself at the helm.

 

Already in charge of the Long Island State Park Commission, the New York State Council of Parks, the Jones Beach State Park Authority, and the Bethpage State Park Authority, Moses would then be in control of all existing and proposed parks and parkways in the New York metropolitan region, except for areas outside of New York State.

 

Moses began to assess the state of the City's parks and to plan for their future as soon as LaGuardia announced his intention to appoint Moses as Park Commissioner. According to one source: "Immediately after the election he wrote out, on a single piece of paper, a plan for putting 80,000 men to work on 1,700 relief projects." Moses hired a consulting engineer and three assistant engineers to survey every park and parkway in the City. The survey was completed by the time he took office in mid-January 1934.

 

When Moses took over the Park Department, it was already employing 69,000 relief workers funded mainly by the federal Civil Works Administration (CWA) and the Temporary Emergency Relief Administration (TERA). However, Moses found the men to be ill-equipped and inadequately supervised, and considered many of the construction projects to have been poorly designed. He immediately began to revamp the entire operation of the Park Department and established a Division of Design, located at the Arsenal in Central Park. The staff was to be headed up by experienced professionals drawn mainly from his State agencies. Some of his talented staff of young architects, landscape architects and engineers had worked on the designs for Long Island's highly acclaimed parks, including Jones Beach, which is considered one of Moses' greatest accomplishments.

 

His staff also included a number of well-known and accomplished designers, among them architects Aymar Embury II and John M. Hatton, and the landscape architect and civil engineer Gilmore D. Clarke. Other top members of Moses' staff were the landscape architect Allyn R. Jennings, and civil engineers W. Earle Andrews and William H. Latham.

 

The Department needed to produce plans and blueprints immediately so the growing force of relief workers could be assigned to worthwhile projects as quickly as possible. Within a week, Moses managed to persuade CWA officials to drop some of the regulations governing the hiring of staff and to relax its spending limits on project planning, allowing him to hire 600 architects, engineers and draftsmen at salaries above CWA wage guidelines. By the first of February, they were busily producing designs and blueprints.

 

The Park Department's Division of Design was organized in the following manner: a topographical unit of about 400 surveyors and draftsmen, a landscape architecture unit of about sixty people, an architecture unit made up of sixty architects and draftsmen, and an engineering unit of about fifty. Smaller units included an Arboricultural Department and an Inspection Department. All the work in the Division of Design was under the direct supervision of the Park Engineer, who was aided and advised by a Consulting Architect, a Consulting Landscape Architect, and a Consulting Engineer. All new projects began in the topographical unit, where a complete survey of the land was prepared. It then moved on to the landscaping unit, where the basic concept for the design was developed. Next, the three units: landscape, architecture, and engineering, collaborated to produce the final design and all the necessary construction documents.

 

The Park Engineer and his aides had to approve all of the plans. Moses himself sometimes stepped in to revise or overrule a design, especially on the larger, more visible projects.

 

Moses' superior management ability and political savvy allowed him to move projects along very quickly and to produce concrete results, gaining for him much public admiration. However, his personal demeanor was notoriously stubborn and arrogant, and he sometimes fired people on the spot for no apparent reason.

 

At times, he disregarded the legitimate authority of other governmental agencies. Once, when the Department of Plant and Structures refused to suspend a ferry service that used a terminal in the path of constructing the Triborough Bridge approach road, Moses had his men demolish the terminal while the boat was on the other side of the river. He feuded with President Franklin D. Roosevelt for years, even while Washington was pouring millions of dollars into Moses' own Park Department. His later battles with and subsequent triumphs over community groups opposed to the routing of the Gowanus and the Cross-Bronx Expressways through their neighborhoods are now legendary. Moses was also known to have been insensitive to people of color, and tried to restrict access to many of his recreational facilities, including the pools. He determined that the Colonial Park pool in Harlem would be the only one for minority use. Most of the other pools, including Astoria, were placed in white neighborhoods.

 

The Thomas Jefferson Park pool, located in East Harlem was (LaGuardia's old congressional district) was close to Spanish Harlem where the city's growing Puert Rican population was settling, and also not very far from African-American Harlem. To discourage minority use at the Jefferson Park facility, Moses kept the water heating system turned off, believing that the cold water would not bother Caucasian swimmers, "but would deter any 'colored' people who happened to enter it once from returning." To many he was a master builder; to others he was a spoiled bully; and he seemingly always had his way.

 

In the summer of 1934, however, Robert Moses was a hero. Hundreds of projects, covering virtually every neighborhood in the city, had been completed. Structures were repainted, tennis courts resurfaced, and lawns reseeded. Hundreds of new construction projects were either underway or being designed. Among the projects being drawn up at the time was the Astoria Park Pool.

 

The Designers Behind the Planning of the Astoria Park Pool

 

Aymar Embury II and Gilmore D. Clarke, respectively the Park Department's Consulting Architect and Consulting Landscape Architect, were employed by the City on a part-time basis to oversee designs for park projects under Robert Moses. The head of the Division of Design at the time was the Park Engineer, William H. Latham, who was responsible for the preparation of all plans and specifications within the department. Major design problems were discussed by Embury and Clarke before the preliminary sketches were made under Latham's direction. Completed sketches were subject to approval by the Park Engineer, the General Superintendent, and Commissioner Moses. The consultants would give regular criticism during the preparations of the plans.

 

Aymar Embury II (1880-1966) was born in New York City and studied engineering at Princeton University, where he received a Master of Science degree in 1901. He acquired his architectural training through apprenticeships with three New York firms: George B. Post, Howells and Stokes, and Palmer and Hornbostel. He also worked for Cass Gilbert. In 1905, Embury won both first and second prize in a contest held by the Garden City Company for a modest country house to be built in Garden City, Long Island. This gained for him a reputation as a talented designer, and led to many commissions for country houses in the New York metropolitan area. He subsequently published seven books and several pamphlets, mainly on early American architecture, establishing him as an authority on that subject. By the start of the Great Depression, he was well-known and had received a wide range of commissions all over the east coast of the United States, including college buildings and social clubs, in addition to residences.

 

He designed the Players and Nassau Clubs in Princeton, New Jersey, the Princeton Club in New York City, and the University Club in Washington, D.C.

 

Embury was said to have supervised the design of over six hundred public projects, including Orchard Beach, Bryant Park, the New York City Building at the 1939 World's Fair, the Donnell Branch of the New York Public Library, the Hofstra University Campus, the Central Park and Prospect Park Zoos, Jacob Riis Park, five of the eleven neighborhood pool and play centers, the Lincoln Tunnel, the Triborough Bridge, and many more. His relationship to the planning of the Astoria Pool and Play Center appears to have been limited to his role as the department's consulting architect.

 

Gilmore D. Clarke (1892-1982) was born in New York City and studied landscape architecture and civil engineering at Cornell University, from which he received a Bachelor of Science degree in 1913. He served as an engineer in the army during World War I, receiving many citations and decorations, and remained in the Army Reserve Corps until 1939. During the 1920s, he served on several local, state and federal commissions as landscape architect, including the Architectural Advisory Board for the United States Capital, the New York State Council of Parks (which was headed by Robert Moses), and the Westchester County Park Commission, among many others. For his work in Westchester County, which included the Rye Beach Playland, the Saw Mill River Parkway, and the Bronx River Parkway, Clarke was awarded the Gold Medal of Honor in Landscape Architecture from the Architectural League of New York in 1931.

 

By the time of the Great Depression, Clarke was already established as the most popular landscape architect in public works in America.

 

His career advanced during the 1930s. Besides being hired by Robert Moses as the Consulting Landscape Architect to the New York City Park Department, he also became a member of the National Commission on Fine Arts, the New York State Planning Council, and the Board of Design for the 1939 New York World's Fair. In addition to Astoria Park, his work for the Park Department included Bryant Park, Central Park Zoo, City Hall Park, Orchard Beach in the Bronx, and the Henry Hudson Parkway. He taught landscape architecture at Cornell University from 1935 to 1950, serving as dean from 1939 until his retirement in 1950 and wrote several articles for trade periodicals. In 1935, Clarke joined Michael Rapuano, an engineer and landscape architect, establishing the New York civil engineering and landscape architectural firm Clarke & Rapuano, Inc. Clarke was president of the firm from 1962 until his retirement in 1972.

 

Later in his career, Clarke worked as a consultant on the construction of the United Nations Headquarters in New York and became a Trustee for the American Museum of Natural History.

 

Architect John M. Hatton was born c.1886 in Iowa, and first appears in New York City directories in 1915. His professional training remains undetermined, but he practiced architecture in New York City into the late 1940s. In the early 1920s, he formed a partnership with architect Diego DeSuarez (DeSuarez & Hatton), which lasted only a few years. In addition to the Astoria Pool, his other works for the Department of Parks in the 1930s include the Betsy Head Pool in Brooklyn and Pelham Bay Park golf clubhouse. In the 1940s, he was considered an expert in store modernization (lighting, space layout, customer comfort, display, fixtures, and storefronts) and his designs for commercial spaces and storefronts were published in several architectural periodicals. Among his clients was the Stetson Hat Company. He also did work for the New York City Housing Authority in the 1940s.

 

The Design and Construction of the Astoria Park Pool

 

The Astoria Play Center is one of the group of eleven immense new outdoor swimming pools that opened in the summer of 1936 in a series of grand ceremonies presided over by Mayor Fiorello LaGuardia and Park Commissioner Robert Moses. All were constructed mainly with funds provided by the WPA. Designed to accommodate a total of 49,000 users simultaneously at locations scattered across the entire city and completed just two-and-a-half years after LaGuardia took office, the new pool complexes completely dwarfed the city's two pre-existing outdoor public pools and gained quick recognition as being among the most remarkable public recreational facilities ever constructed in this country. The city's pool construction program was reported to have been the most expensive in terms of total cost.

 

Robert Moses, an avid swimmer who had a home near the ocean in Babylon, Long Island, was known to have taken a special interest in the design and construction of bathing and swimming facilities, such as Jones Beach, Orchard Beach and Riis Park, as well as the neighborhood swimming pools, including Astoria Pool. As a result of his special attention, along with that of Embury and Clarke, the design and execution of New York City's aquatic facilities in the 1930s were a cut above most other park projects at the time.

 

At the start, the Park Department adopted a list of shared guidelines for the entire pool project in order to enhance the efficiency of the design effort, to unify the operations of each complex, and to meet the various local and federal requirements of the relief programs. For example, each pool complex was to have separate swimming, diving and wading pools, and a large bath house, the locker room sections of which doubled as gymnasiums during non-swimming months. The bath houses, which would serve as the centerpieces of each complex, would be distinctive pavilions that would establish the design motif of each facility. Concrete bleachers at the perimeter of the pools would furnish spectator viewing areas to be augmented at some sites with rooftop promenades and galleries. There would be a minimum width for the decks to provide enough room for sunbathing and circulation. There had to be underwater lighting for night swimming.

 

At least one dimension of each swimming pool would have to be a multiple of fifty five yards to allow swimming competitions to be held at standard distances in either English or metric systems. Plus, the complexes had to share low-cost building materials, principally brick and cast concrete, as required by the federal government.

 

To satisfy federal stipulation on low-cost materials, it appears that the design team for the pools determined that the streamlined and curvilinear forms of the Art Moderne and Modern Classical styles would best meet the low-cost needs and still permit pleasing aesthetics. As a group, the pools were also distinguished by the innovative mechanical systems required to heat, filter, and circulate the vast amounts of water they used. Many of these innovations set new standards for swimming pool construction, such as scum gutters that allowed in enough sunlight to naturally kill off bacteria and a series of footbaths filled with foot cleaning solution through which bathers were forced to pass upon entering the pool areas from the locker rooms.

 

Sited in existing older parks or built on other city-owned land subsequently developed with as parks and playgrounds, the huge pool complexes were provided with landscape settings which included additional recreational areas, connecting pathway systems, and comfort stations. Despite the fact that the basic components were essentially the same and that the WPA required that only the cheapest materials be used, each of these swimming pool complexes is especially notable its distinctive and unique setting, appearance, and character.

 

Although each pool complex has been credited to a particular architect, the designs appear to actually have been collaborative efforts among the army of architects, draftsmen, engineers, and landscape architects employed by the Park Department in the 1930s. In the instance of the Astoria Play Center, the architect John M. Hatton is credited with the design. Plans on file at the Parks Department archives show that Hatton only drew the main façades and certain details of the bath house and bleachers, while Gregory Kiely drew the bath house's minor façades and some additional details. The filter house was done by C.E. Nelson, J.D. McGarr, and Joseph L. Hautman and details such as the clock, signage, lettering, light fixtures, railings, and phone booths by Harry Ahrens and F.J. Svarti.

 

Since the eleven pool facilities shared many common features and specifications that could be repeated at each site, and contained other elements that were similar from complex to complex, these junior designers, having different areas of expertise, apparently moved quickly from project to project. The department produced designs and construction documents simultaneously with great speed so that eleven pools and hundreds of other park projects, including some massive undertakings like Orchard Beach, were completed within a few years. The lead architect for each pool project, who in the case of the Astoria center was John M. Hatton, designed the bath house, which was unique to each site, establishing the motif that guided the design and detailing of the rest of the complex.

 

In October 1934, the Park Department announced the start of excavations and site work for several of the new pools, including Astoria, although the excavation plan for Astoria was not issued until December. The new Astoria Pool was to be located at the site of an existing, smaller wading pool, just to the north of the Triborough Bridge, which was then under construction. The earliest reference to the design of the bath house is in an internal Park Department document from July 1935, which describes a sketch that appears not to have survived. The memorandum also discusses footings for the main pool as having already been poured, as well as the concrete floor for the pipe tunnel and the northeast corner wall of the pool. The cast iron drain and sub-piping had also been laid. The diving pool, however, was still being excavated and no work had yet begun on the wading pool. Plans were still being prepared for the filter house and comfort station.

 

By August 1935, however, the fully developed plans for the façades of the bath house were released as were the landscape and bleacher plans. The filter house plans were completed that November. Revisions continued through 1936. During the period from December 1935 through October 1936, scores of construction and engineering blueprints were completed by the staff, and building continued at a steady pace until late in the year. Enough of the complex was completed for the Astoria Pool to open with much fanfare on July 2, 1936, on the first day of trials for the U.S. Olympic swim team.

 

The year 1936 was known as "the swimming pool year," since ten of the eleven giant neighborhood pools were opened that summer, one per week for ten weeks. Each opening day was a memorable event for its neighborhood. The day-long events featured parades, blessings of the waters, swimming races, diving competitions, appearances by Olympic stars, and performances by swimming clowns. Mayor LaGuardia attended every opening to perform the ribbon cutting. Festivities continued well after dusk with LaGuardia pulling the switch to turn on each pool's spectacular underwater lighting to the "oooohs" of the crowds. The opening ceremony at Astoria Pool was attended by 20,000 people.

 

The completed Astoria Pool complex was widely acclaimed and was featured in American Architect and Architecture (November 1936) and Architectural Forum (August 1937). The use of glass block construction and louvers received special praise. Astoria was the city's largest pool at 54,450 square feet, and the second largest WPA project in Queens after Jacob Riis Park. Harry Hopkins, the WPA administrator, called the Astoria Pool "the finest in the world." It remains the city's largest public pool, and one of the major achievements of the New Deal in New York City.

 

Subsequent History

 

Upon opening, the Astoria Park Pool hosted the swimming, water polo, and diving trials for the United States Olympic Team, preparing for the 1936 Berlin Summer Olympics.

 

The events were widely covered in local newspapers, and the Astoria Pool was often referred to instead as the Olympic Tryout Pool in the articles.

 

There were very few alterations in the years immediately after the completion of the pool; mainly systems upgrades and minor repairs were made. However, the original stainless steel sculptures of female athletes that had been produced by the noted sculptor Emil Siebern (1889-1942), who was a pioneer in the medium of stainless steel, had been removed from the pedestals over the west side of the main entryway before 1943 due to deterioration. Also, the surrounding playgrounds were reconstructed in 1946 and new gutters were installed in the pool in 1948. Sometime between 1948 and 1963, a one-story, brick rooftop addition containing concession stands was constructed on the filter house.

 

In the early 1940s, a group of boys from the Astoria neighborhood got together to perform swimming stunts on Wednesday nights at the pool. Known as the Aquazines, they donned costumes and treated audiences to choreographed swimming acts with music, backdrops, props and, sometimes, trained dogs. The routines showcased their talents as swimmers and divers. One of the Aquazines, Whitney Hart, became a professional diver and was later inducted into the Swimming Hall of Fame.

 

The Astoria Park Pool was again host to the swimming and diving trials for the United States Olympic Teams in 1964. In preparation for the events, the facility was rehabilitated in 1963, its first comprehensive overhaul since it was opened twenty-seven years earlier. The work included the installation of new light weight concrete decks on the upper and lower promenades, as well as replacement of some window sash, and new paint throughout. The original glass pylons over the main entryway were resurfaced with brick.

 

In 1979-82, the playground to the southwest of the pool was removed and replaced with ball courts and the south comfort station in that area was demolished. Much of Astoria Park itself was reconstructed between 1983 and 1987; the project included the rehabilitation of the comfort station in the north playground and reconstruction of the seawall. In 1991, the main swimming pool was reconstructed, including the replacement of the pool floor, drains, supply islands and gutters; this replacement project was repeated in 1998-99 at which time the pool received a major systems upgrade, including new lights, pumps, piping, electric lines, filter system, showers, and improved chlorination and security systems. Also, an accessibility ramp was installed in the main pool and the supply islands in that pool were removed for safety reasons and replaced with bottom supply inlets.

 

Between 1996 and 2001, the north playground was rebuilt, the comfort station restored, and the park itself was the subject of a large erosion control and re-landscaping project. At this time, some replacement of the curbing and paving on the east entry ramps to the bath house took place, but there were no changes to the configuration of the ramps and walks. Additional minor site work and erosion control projects took place around the pool complex in 2000 to 2004.

 

The Architecture and Site of the Astoria Park Pool and Play Center

 

The New Deal construction projects within New York City, such as the Astoria Park Pool, were a part of a national trend that included similar projects undertaken by various governmental agencies, ranging from the vast Tennessee Valley Authority to small cities and towns. Urban projects built with WPA funding often possessed similar qualities from region to region, partly because the difficult economic climate dictated the use of inexpensive building materials, but also because the programs provided employment opportunities for a generation of young architects and engineers, many of whom were committed to modernism. For example, the bathhouse and waterfront facilities at Aquatic Park in San Francisco are similar in plan and appearance to the public pool and beachfront projects being built at about the same time in New York City.

 

The California facility, with its streamlined, concrete façade and steel-framed windows, bears a striking resemblance to the façade added in 1936 with WPA funds to the bathhouse at Jacob Riis Park in Queens.

 

The original and creative use made of these modest materials by Moses' talented design teams and the careful siting of each project makes every one of them a distinguished, individual design, as much related to their specific environment and needs as to one another.

 

The Astoria Play Center commands a striking waterfront location in Astoria Park. The vast scale of the pool complex is complemented by that of its setting - the distant vistas westward framed by the monumental forms of the Hell Gate and Triborough Bridges. Embedded into a wooded slope which descends to the water's edge from 19th Street, the play-center complex was designed to take full advantage of its surroundings. The entire roof of the bath house structure is used for multi-level viewing terraces. Extensive concrete bleacher sections are located on the western side of the bath house and around the diving pool. They offer far more outdoor seating than is available at the other play centers; perhaps the abundant seating is related to the fact that the United States team trials for the 1936 summer Olympic Games were held there.

 

Like Hatton's later design for the 1939 bath house at Betsy Head Park in Brooklyn, the Astoria Play Center structure makes extensive use of glass block wall construction; it forms the lower recessed sections of the locker room walls which are topped by the original metal louver windows. Massive piers laid up in decorative bonds demarcate the bays. Glass blocks also form the extensive sections of the lateral walls of the entry lobby: the original Art Moderne-style ticket booth and signage are its other significant features. Among the center's more unusual design elements are the whimsical saucer-like roofs atop the filter house on the western side of the complex. In a playground to the northwest of the center is a striking comfort station designed in a style similar to that of the bath house.

 

Description

 

Plan and Circulation. The pool is complex is approached via either one of two stepped ramps leading westward down from 19th Street to a wide plaza located in front of the east façade of the bath house. There are also two ancillary stairways that lead down to the plaza from the pathways which connect the sidewalk along 19th Street to the viewing platforms on the roof of the bath house. The viewing platforms are on two levels connected by steps and provide views of the pools and the west vista, which includes the Hell Gate Channel, the Triborough Bridge, the Hell Gate Bridge, and Wards Island. There are also steps from the lower viewing platforms to the park pathways that surround the pool complex and lead down to the ball courts, playground, lawn and Shore Boulevard. Upon entering the centrally located, open-air lobby from the entry plaza, patrons buy admissions from the freestanding ticket booth and are led to either the men's or women's locker rooms thorough doorways on the sides of the lobby.

 

From the locker rooms, access to the deck areas surrounding the pool is provided by doors on the west façade of the bath house. The three pools are surrounded by wide decks and sun bathing areas. There are additional viewing platforms and a non-original concession stand located atop the filter house on the west side of the complex. Extensive bleacher areas extend across nearly the entire eastern deck and curve around the southern side of the complex near the diving pool, ending at the filter house. There is a smaller bleacher area on the north side near the wading pool. There are also several service entrances leading in from the surrounding park and pathways on all sides of the complex.

 

The Bath House and Rooftop Viewing Platforms. The one-story bath house, which is partially built into the slope of the park, employs a U-shaped plan and is constructed of concrete, Flemish-bond brick (now mostly painted), and glass blocks. Its height varies to accommodate two levels of rooftop viewing platforms. It has a centrally-located open-air lobby, and a series of stairway which connect the viewing platforms to one another, and to the surrounding park pathways. The concrete foundation is stepped on the east side and incorporates steel gratings on the top step.

 

The east façade is fifteen bays with a centrally located main entryway, which opens into an outdoor lobby. At the center of the lobby is a multi-sided ticket booth designed in a nautical motif. The base of the ticket booth consists of terrazzo slabs angled outward toward the countertop, which is protected by a mesh cage. The roof of the booth, which aligns with the multi-side counter below, is supported by steel columns that are set back behind the counter. The roof features two step-backs, the lower one featuring a series of moldings, while the upper one has slotted openings serving to ventilate the booth. The booth is topped by short stack-like motif decorated with large cogs.

 

The floor of the lobby is paved with brick with a bluestone and granite border, while the ceiling consists of the exposed concrete underside of the rooftop viewing terrace and its supportive beams. The original clock is suspended from the westernmost beam. The three bays of each sidewall in the lobby are separated by compound piers clad in decorative brickwork. Each bay contains a set of wood doors, painted black, topped by a decorative steel lintel supporting a large expanse of glass blocks that have decorative aluminum grills at the bottom. The grills at the center bays have applied, deco-style aluminum lettering that denote the men's and women's locker rooms to either side of the lobby. There are also angled deco-style aluminum signs also identifying the men's and women's locker rooms on either side of the lobby. Wrought-iron fences and gates are located on the east and west sides.

 

The entryway is flanked on the west side by massive brick piers which step in toward the lobby and feature full-height expanses of glass blocks. Massive, molded concrete beams span the east and west openings. Parks Department signage has been added to the piers. The remaining bays consist of a series of recessed expanses of glass block walls topped by the original metal and glass louver windows (covered with non- historic mesh grills) and convex, fluted aluminum lintels. One bay is presently boarded up. Massive, projecting piers laid up in decorative brick bonds demarcate the bays. The entire façade is topped by bluestone coping.

 

The north side wing is partially built in the slope of the park, and has only one exposed façade, which faces south, but this façade is only partially exposed due to the slope of the hill. Abutting this façade is a concrete stairway with deco-style steel railings, which leads from the north pathway to the viewing terraces down to the main entrance plaza to the lobby. The side wing's façade has two bays and consists of brick walls and a wide horizontal band of glass blocks (now painted over). The bays are separated by a wide pier that is similar to the piers of the east façade of the bath house. Steel railings are attached to the brick. An original doorway in the pier has been sealed with wood covered with painted aluminum sheets. The south side wing is a mirror-image of the north wing, but its glass blocks have not been painted over. A narrow part of the south wing's brick south façade is exposed due to the slope of the site.

 

Its fenestration, now boarded up, is partially exposed above steel grates. There is also a service entry with a bulkhead at this location.

 

The bath house's seventeen-bay west façade is similar to the east façade, but is lower due to the slope of the site and because its roof accommodates the lower viewing terrace. In addition, the façade has two sets of paired wooden exit doors, painted black, from the men's and women's locker rooms. These doors are set in semicircular coves near the north and south ends of the façade. There are also non-historic security lamps, cameras, and annunciators attached to the bricks near the lobby.

 

The entire roof of the bath house, including the side wings, is paved for use as either viewing platforms or pathways leading to the platforms from the park's paths. The decks are paved with concrete with bluestone borders. All of these publicly-accessible areas are enclosed by deco-style steel railings, which incorporate flagpoles on the east side of the roof. The platforms are connected by concrete steps with historic steel railings. There are two oval, header-brick pylons (now painted) located on either side of the main entryway to the pool; they were originally made of glass blocks and were altered to their present appearance in 1963. On the west side are two lower, multi-sided concrete ventilators, aligned with the glass block expanses in the piers flanking the lobby. They originally also served as the bases for the original metal sculptures of nymphs holding balls that had been removed by 1943. The walls on the lower part of the upper viewing platform are made of brick.

 

The Pools and Deck Areas. The enclosed pool area to the west of the bath house forms an ellipse with its long axis set from north to south. Within this area are located the rectangular swimming pool flanked on either side by semicircular pools for diving on the south and wading on the north. Altogether, the three pools, which are separated by concrete decks, echo the elliptical shape of the enclosure. Concrete bleachers of varying heights line most of the inner sides of the brick perimeter walls of the pool area. These walls are topped by wrought-iron fences. The shallow wading pool has two non-original spray spouts near its center and eleven non-original spray spouts spaced at regular distances along its curved sides. The swimming pool is large expanse of water lined with a concrete gutter. It has a non-historic handicap ramp on the east side.

 

The diving pool, which is no longer in use and presently fenced off, includes at its south end, the pool's original, dramatically curved concrete, multi-level main diving platform. Each of the three platforms is cantilevered above the pool and protected by deco-style copper that match the copper railings that surround the perimeter of the diving pool. The main diving platform is flanked by two similar, but lower, cantilevered diving platforms. Two other low, concrete diving platforms that appear to be later in date are suspended over the pool from the deck on its north side. The deck surrounding the pool has non-historic lampposts, non-original drinking fountains near the bath house, and a flagpole, which is located between the swimming and wading pools. There are two other flagpoles south of the diving pool; they have floodlights attached to them.

 

The Flemish-bond brick perimeter wall (now painted), which is topped by concrete coping and wrought-iron fences, rises in height toward the south end of the site due to the topography. At the north end it is a freestanding wall lined on the inside with low bleachers. There are also service entries consisting of wrought-iron gates flanked by tall, decorative brick posts with cast- concrete coping. At its south and southwest portions, the perimeter wall is tall enough to incorporate service areas beneath the bleacher areas. There are service entrances covered with roll-down steel gates, and windows covered with steel grates and plates in the south part of the wall. Some windows are now sealed with brick. The bleachers also extend below the west façade of the bath house. They are interrupted at the locker room entryway by shallow concrete steps. Steel tube railings protect the bleachers at these locations.

 

There is another flight of concrete steps upon the bleachers in front of the bath house lobby; it has a steel tube hand rail. There are non-historic steel support columns on the southwest portion of bleachers. These are used in the summer to support shade covers.

 

The Filter House. The filter house is the rectangular-in-plan, Flemish bond-brick building (now painted) on the west side of the pool; it includes raised areas at either end containing viewing platforms covered with cast-concrete, saucer-shaped roofs with scalloped edges. Reached via cantilevered, concrete steps, the viewing platforms have concrete floors and are protected with deco-style steel railings. There is also a non- historic brick and concrete concession stand on the lower part of its roof, which is just a few steps above deck level due to changes in the elevation of the site. Thus, the filter house's west façade rises to a full story in height at the center and two full stories at the raised ends beneath the saucers. The east façade of the filter house has brick walls covered with non-original, painted murals. The west façade is seven bays and is articulated in a similar manner as the east and west façades of the bath house.

 

Originally, it had steel casements, but these have been filled in with brick and narrow strips of glass blocks. There are also empty niches lined with painted concrete on the areas of the façade that align with the saucer roofs (The original blueprints specified glass blocks at these locations, which have been removed). These taller sections have coursed brick façades. The north façade is fronted by service ramps and entryways and steel sash at the second story. The south façade of the filter house consists of coursed brick, a service entrance, and security lights and equipment.

 

The Surrounding Park including the Playground, Comfort Station, and Ball Court. The portions of Astoria Park that are part of the landmark site include a series of pathways paved with either blacktop or hexagonal blocks with either concrete or bluestone curbs. Some of these paths predate the pool complex, while others were installed at that time. Some of the paths are stepped, most notably both of the diagonal stepped paths leading from 19th Street down to the main entry plaza on the east side of the bath house. There are circular, concrete-paved areas at the top of both of these ramps that demarcate the locations of original fountains that have long since been removed. The one on the south side has brass letters and segments embedded in the concrete to form a compass. The plaza also has iron tube railings parallel to the main façade.

 

There are also park benches, bollards (both iron and concrete), wrought-iron fences and park lamps at various locations; these appear not to be original features of the park and to post date the construction of the play center. There is a lawn on the east side of the complex which features a granite memorial commemorating the First World War. The memorial was placed in Astoria Park in 1926, and was moved to its present location during construction of the play center. The memorial is flanked by flagpoles. An asphalt-paved ball court to the southwest of the pool complex has non-historic chain link fences surrounding it and non-historic concrete steps. A playground to the northwest to the site, enclosed by non- historic wrought-iron fences, has non-historic play equipment. A Flemish-bond brick comfort station (now painted), built at the same time and in the same style as the pool complex, is located on the south side of the playground.

 

The one-story building is square in plan and features projecting end piers with decorative brickwork, curved wall surfaces near the entrances, incised lettering indicated and girls/boys rooms, glass block wall surfaces, non-historic roof-top weathervane and decorative cast concrete embellishments. There is also non-historic Parks Department signage and security lighting applied to the walls. A brick, curving retaining wall extends westward from the filter house. It is topped by concrete coping and wrought-iron fencing that matches the rest of the complex.

 

- From the 2006 NYCLPC Landmark Designation Report

www.photosfromonhigh.com aerial photos Albany NY aerial photos photographer Upstate albanyphotos@yahoo.com 518-495-7983

 

Globalfoundries Saratoga County NY Globalfoundries Albany NY New York Convention Center aerial photos Mercer Development aerial photographer M W ... at the Luther Forest Technology Campus in Saratoga County, NY, in ... Did GlobalFoundries just become an 800-pound Fab gorilla?

9/8/2009 by: Theo Valich - Get more from this author

   

ATIC [Advanced Technology Investment Company], technology investment group from the Government of Abu Dhabi, the majority owner of GlobalFoundries announced that the group is making a bid to acquire Chartered Semiconductor.

 

The move is not entirely unexpected, but rather a consequence of events that had nothing to do with semiconductor industry: Chartered Semiconductor is one of golden eggs in Singaporean's government investment arm [Temasek Holdings Pte], who is feeling the pain of global economy slowdown and the changes in companies owned by Temasek were obvious. As Singapore Airlines went through ownership change [now mostly owned by Temasek] the investment arm needed the cash to complete the transaction and Abu Dhabi's ATIC rode into town.

 

ATIC was interested in buying its competition, but when an opportunity like this arises, there isn't much you can do but to take it. The acquisition of Chartered Semi puts GlobalFoundries in a role of an 800-pound gorilla in the contract manufacturing space. First GlobalFoundries signed the deal to manufacture chips for a chip maker [STMicroelectronics], and now the GF owner is buying one of own largest competitors. In fact, until TSMC gets its SOI production up and running, GlobalFoundries is acquiring its second largest competitor in the SOI space [we take that ATIC does not want to buy IBM... for now].

 

In case you're unfamiliar with Chartered semiconductor manufacturing capabilities, the foundry owns six cleanrooms in a giant fab complex in Singapore, with production based on 200mm and 300mm wafers. Total output of the company is also very interesting:

 

Fab 2: 50,000 200mm WSM 600-350nm

Fab 3: 25,000 200mm WSM 350-180nm

Fab 3E: 34,000 200mm WSM in 250-180nm

Fab 5: 24,000 200mm WSM 350-180nm

Fab 6: 39,000 200mm WSM 180-110nm

Fab7: 45,000 300mm WSM 130-40nm [equal to 101,250 200mm wafers]

So, we have 172,000 WSM [wafer starts per month], or around 2,06 million 200mm wafers per year, plus an additional 540,000 300mm wafers. This manufacturing capacity is nothing short of impressive, even though the majority is in less competitive 200mm wafer space. If you would compare Chartered's Fab7 [300mm2 one] to GlobalFoundries' Fab1 complex in Dresden, you might be surprised at the differences in size, since Fab7 is massive: clean room space is as big as whole Module 2 [ex-Fab30/38] and half of Module 1 [ex-Fab36].

 

Yes, it is true that currently "only" 27,000 wafer starts can be in 40nm, but SOI capacity is quite impressive. Inside this advanced 300mm facility Chartered makes Microsoft's Xbox 360 CPUs, some AMD CPUs and some of IBM's Power chips.

 

Clean room space is also quite impressive - six facilities with a grand total of 773,640 square feet [71,871.15 m2]. If you compare that to current manufacturing facilities in Dresden, Module 1 [14,500 m2 - 156,000 sqft] and currently upgrading Module 2 [16,700 m2 - 180,000 sqft], you can see that GlobalFoundries wants to go from 336,000 sqft [31,214 m2] in 2009 to 1.38 million square feet [128,202 m2] of clean room space in 2012.

Divided by wafer size, GlobalFoundries in 2012 could look like this:

 

300mm2 - 120,000 wafer starts per month, 838,000 sqft [77,850 m2] Class 100 clean room

200mm2 - 172,000 wafer starts per month, 541,640 sqft [50,318 m2] Class 100 clean room

All in all, this is quite a significant jump in manufacturing space, as there aren't exactly many contract manufacturers who can or plan to annually output almost 1.5 million 300mm wafers in 2012-2013 frame. In fact, one could put a question that GlobalFoundries is doing this to attract the heavy weights, Microsoft, Sony, Nintendo - but Qualcomm and nVidia as well.

 

Over the past several months, we featured various articles on upcoming chips, but they all have one thing in common: they have to be built on 300mm wafers in order to be profitable. Qualcomm's quad-core ARM System-on-Chip is quite nice, but the company has to have 300mm wafers available to score a profit. Same thing with the 2010-2011 generation of nVidia's Tegra and Texas Instruments OMAP chips.

 

Thus, a foundry has to position itself aggressively and there is no doubt that this move puts GlobalFoundries on the map of TSMC and Intel challenger. While TSMC still has the overall lead in number of wafers it can produce, the numbers here show that GlobalFoundries is catching up and overtaking in 300mm wafer arena - a worrisome trend.

 

The clock isn't exactly stopping there - if we divide the wafers in SOI and non-SOI flavor, GlobalFoundries will be the largest SOI wafer maker, and with a move to optical interconnects starting in 2012-2013 there isn't exactly any doubt what's on the table. ATIC and AMD both want that GlobalFoundries change the semi playing field for good, and this acquisition only confirms that direction.

 

GlobalFoundries can freely disclose all of its plans and there isn't exactly a lot that other competitors can do but to launch massive FUD campaigns which again, would not stand due to engineering excellence shown by former AMD engineering teams, who saved Microsoft's bacon on Xbox 360 yields, for instance.

 

This move also solves one of major pains for GlobalFoundries exec team - no longer journalists and analysts need to ask "who are your customers?", because with the acquisition of Chartered Semi, that list grew by couple of dozen names, including Microsoft and IBM. You can expect that next GlobalFoundries event to feature numerous existing customers, even if they did not sign directly with GlobalFoundries, rather Chartered Semi.

 

ATIC's next move: Buying a wafer supplier?

We wonder what the next step for GlobalFoundries will be, but personally I would not bet against GF acquiring Soitec, as the largest SOI wafer vendor. Intel invested in the firm in 2007, when it became clear that the future chip interconnects [remember Intel Hybrid Silicon Laser demonstration on SOI wafers during IDF Fall 2006?] will require the use SOI wafers. AMD did not react at the time, but with over a trillion USD for investments alone, Abu Dhabi investment groups can easily flex their muscle and put everything they need under one roof.

   

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Related articles:

Intel Lynnfield; Core i5 750 and Core i7 870 Evaluation by: Sean Kalinich

The Future of GlobalFoundries revealed by: Theo Valich

nVidia's 3D Glasses can be found for free by: Theo Valich

Qimonda's starts to dissolve, sell family jewlery [300mm and 200mm Fab] by: Thorsten Wolf

GLOBALFOUNDRIES - Is America Back in Tech? by: Toby Hudon

BSN* presents The Ultimate Workstation: Part I by: Nebojsa Novakovic

Is TSMC getting nervous about GlobalFoundries? by: Thomas Gordon

 

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Advanced Technology Investment Co., the Abu Dhabi company that owns the majority of GlobalFoundries, plans to acquire chip maker Chartered Semiconductor Manufacturing Ltd.

 

The Singapore-based Chartered Semiconductor would become part of GlobalFoundries, a joint venture with ATIC and Advanced MicroDevices Inc. (NYSE: AMD).

 

GlobalFoundries is building a $4.2 billion manufacturing plant in Malta in Saratoga County. N.Y., about 25 miles north of Albany. It also has operations in Dresden, Germany.

 

It was unclear early Tuesday how the acquisition would affect the Malta operation.

 

ATIC would pay $3.9 billion in cash and debt for the acquisition, the companies said in a joint statement. The transaction is expected to close in late 2009, pending required government and shareholder approvals.

 

GlobalFoundries CEO Doug Grose would head up the combined operations. Chartered (Nasdaq: CHRT) CEO Chia Song Hwee would become chief operating officer and head the integration of both companies, according to the companies.

 

ATIC is a technology investment company wholly owned by the Abu Dhabi government. It owns 66 percent of GlobalFoundries; AMD owns the remaining 34 percent.

 

Singapore’s state-owned investment fund Temasek Holdings owns about 62 percent of Chartered’s shares. The chip maker produces chips for Xbox 360 games and other consoles.

 

“Chartered and GlobalFoundries will be able to draw on each other’s strengths to enable the next generation of semiconductor innovation, utilizing the value of both companies and the intellectual capital of thousands of skilled employees,” said Ibrahim Ajami, CEO of ATIC. GlobalFoundries’ plant in Malta is under construction. It’s expected to employ 1,5000 during the construction phase and 1,6000 permanent and ancillary jobs when it’s running at full capacity in 2010.

 

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The move follows an earlier investment in GlobalFoundries, a joint venture with AMD

John Ribeiro (IDG News Service) 08 September, 2009 06:01:00

Tags: processors, globalfoundries, ATIC, amd

 

Advanced Technology Investment Company (ATIC) of Abu Dhabi has signed a definitive agreement to acquire chip maker Chartered Semiconductor Manufacturing of Singapore in a deal valued at S$5.6 billion (US$3.9 billion) in cash and debt, the companies said on Monday.

 

Chartered, a contract chip maker, will become part of GlobalFoundries, the chip manufacturing venture formed by ATIC and Advanced Micro Devices (AMD).

 

The CEO of GlobalFoundries, Doug Grose, will head up the combined operations, while Chartered CEO Chia Song Hwee will become chief operating officer and head the integration of the businesses, ATIC said in a statement.

 

The transaction is expected to close during the fourth quarter of this year. It will require approval by Chartered shareholders and government regulators.

 

ATIC is a technology investment company wholly owned by the government of Abu Dhabi.

 

The acquisition of Chartered will be its second major investment in the semiconductor industry after the deal with AMD.

 

GlobalFoundries has a manufacturing facility in Dresden, Germany, and another under construction in the state of New York.

 

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ATIC hopes to combine Chartered's customer relationships and capabilities in both 8-inch and 12-inch fabrication with GlobalFoundries' technology expertise, capacity, and global footprint.

 

Singapore state-owned investment fund Temasek Holdings, which owns about 62 percent of Chartered’s shares, fully supports the acquisition and has signed an irrevocable undertaking to vote in support of the transaction, the statement said.

 

Chartered also on Monday revised up its guidance for the third quarter of 2009.

 

The company increased its revenue forecast slightly and narrowed its loss forecast compared to guidance given in July, because of an incremental improvement in business.

  

Albany Nanotech Albany NY New York Aerial photos photographer SUNY University TAC Tour Andover Controls Dallas Boston Andover Massachusetts Texas Carrollton West crosby Road 75006 Scheider Electric BIOTECH EMPAC RPI TROY AMD advanced Micro Devices Malta

                   

www.photosfromonhigh.com Albany Nanotech Fuller Road Albany NY CEG Center for economic growth Tech Valley TAC Tour Andover Controls 1650 west Crosby Road Carrolton Texas Schneider electric 43-45 boulevard Franklin Roosevelt 92500 Rueil-Malmaison-France Key Bank AMD Advanced Micro devices Sunnyvale Ca. California aerial photos photographer Andover Massachusetts Ma. aerial photos Tepperman Ray associates Andover massachusetts Nanotech Clean Rooms

Albany Nanotech Albany Nanotech Albany Nanotech Albany nanotech Albany Nanotech Albany Nanotech AMD AMD AMD AMD AMD AMD Advanced Micro devices Advanced micro devices Advanced micro devices New York new york New york new York New York aerial photos architectural photos www.photosfromonhigh.com/sematech.htm The College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering of the University at Albany is the first college in the world dedicated to research, development, education, and deployment in the emerging disciplines of nanoscience, nanoengineering, nanobioscience, and nanoeconomics. CNSE's Albany NanoTech Complex – a $4.5 billion megaplex that has attracted over 250 global corporate partners – is the most advanced research complex at any university in the world.

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Posted: May 28, 2009

Job fair to Help M+W Zander fill 40 project management positions in new chip facility

(Nanowerk News) The College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering ("CNSE") of the University at Albany today announced plans to host a Job Fair to assist M+W Zander in building its project management team to support the construction of GlobalFoundries' computer chip manufacturing facility in Malta.

The Job Fair, to be held on Wednesday, June 10 from 5 to 8 p.m. at CNSE's Albany NanoTech Complex, will help recruit candidates for 40 high-tech design and construction management positions, including electrical and mechanical designers, engineers and estimators; construction and design project managers and coordinators; architectural project managers, planners and interns; and, accounting, purchasing, document control and administrative personnel. The positions carry salaries that range from $40,000 to more than $100,000 annually.

Officials from M+W Zander will be on hand to accept resumes and conduct initial interviews on site, with representatives of CNSE also providing assistance at the event. This marks the fifth high-tech job fair to be held at CNSE in just the past three years, with previous events in May 2006, January 2007, September 2007 and October 2008.

Candidates interested in attending and interviewing at the Job Fair are encouraged to pre-register online by visiting cnse.albany.edu/events/jobfair2009.html.

Assembly Majority Leader Ron Canestrari said, "That still another Job Fair is necessary to fill these high-tech positions is a great testament to the investments made in the rapidly growing nanotechnology sector in the Capital Region and New York State. I hope local residents will take full advantage of this opportunity to learn more about exciting careers in the nanotechnology industry."

Assemblyman John J. McEneny said, "The investments in nanotechnology are once again paying dividends in the form of exciting new high-tech career opportunities for residents of Albany and the Capital Region. It is an enormous source of pride to know that New York State is leading the worldwide nanotechnology revolution, which is creating new jobs and attracting new investments."

Rick Whitney, President and CEO of M+W Zander U.S. Operations said, "It is a pleasure to work in partnership with the UAlbany NanoCollege, the world leader in nanotechnology education, research and development, as M+W Zander builds its construction management team to support GlobalFoundries' world-class computer chip manufacturing facility at the Luther Forest Technology Campus. As a company that works on high-tech projects and facilities around the world, there is no question that the Capital Region and New York are recognized globally as the place to be for nanotechnology."

Dr. Alain E. Kaloyeros, Senior Vice President and Chief Executive Officer of CNSE, said, "With the vision, leadership and support of Speaker Silver, Assembly Majority Leader Canestrari, Assemblyman McEneny and the New York State Assembly, M+W Zander has become a valuable partner in building high-tech facilities that are critical to New York's global leadership in nanotechnology education, research and development, and economic outreach. The UAlbany NanoCollege is pleased to host this Job Fair, which will provide exciting career opportunities for local residents, and ensure that M+W Zander has a highly skilled management team in place to build GlobalFoundries' state-of-the-art computer chip manufacturing plant."

 

With headquarters in Stuttgart, Germany, M+W Zander is one of the world's foremost companies for the design and construction of high-tech buildings and cleanroom facilities for research and development, pilot manufacturing, manufacturing, and assembly and testing operations. M+W Zander's Northeastern U.S. headquarters is located at the Watervliet Arsenal, where it employs more than 250 people.

About M+W Zander

The M+W Zander Group offers its customers worldwide integrated life-cycle solutions for high-tech production plants and infrastructure complexes including all necessary service and modernization support. The customer base focuses primarily on leading electronics, photovoltaic, pharmaceutical, chemical, automobile and communication companies, as well as research institutes and universities. The company ranks among the market leaders in various market sectors which include semiconductors, photo-voltaics and pharmaceuticals. MWZ Group GmbH, Stuttgart, manages the global activities of the group as a holding company. The group has three main divisions based on Facility Solutions, Process Solutions and Product Solutions which together generated 2008 revenues of $2.32 billion with a workforce of approximately 4,500.

 

Source: CNSE

Comments

no3rdw says:

Did you take this photo? I did a photosimulation of the nanotech facility expansion based off this very same photo.

Posted 29 months ago. ( permalink )

aerialphotos21 says:

Yes I did. Who supplied the photo to you? I don't remember anyone calling me about this. Only an architect firm in Albany. Let me know. Chris

Posted 29 months ago. ( permalink )

no3rdw says:

Oops, sorry it took a while to get back to you - I just PM'd you about this :)

Posted 29 months ago. ( permalink )

aerialphotos21 says:

Thanks Chris

Posted 29 months ago. ( permalink )

aerialphotos21 says:

Too Much work to do to enter. Chris

Posted 28 months ago. ( permalink )

aerialphotos21 says:

Thanks

Posted 27 months ago. ( permalink )

Donna62 says:

  

A great image, much admired by Donna62 --,

a "FIRST - THE EARTH!" member - www.flickr.com/groups/first-the-earth/

Posted 24 months ago. ( permalink )

 

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President Barack Obama Visits Luther Forest Technology Campus Malta Saratoga County New york GlobalFoundries Breaks Ground in Malta

GlobalFoundries held a groundbreaking ceremony for Fab 2 in Malta, N.Y. The foundry's goal is to have the first tool move in by October 2011, with qualification coming in early 2012 and commercial production by the second half of 2012. The event marks "a significant shift in momentum" for chip manufacturing in the United States, said Norm Armour, Fab 2 general manager.

David Lammers, News Editor -- Semiconductor International, 7/24/2009

As an Albany, N.Y., taxi driver ferried a visitor to the GlobalFoundries Fab 2 groundbreaking ceremony near the village of Malta, he said, "For three years they've been talking about this, but I never thought they would actually build it."

 

Planning began in June 2006, and it was this year on June 19 that GlobalFoundries began clearing portions of its 230-acre site, located ~24 miles from Albany and seven miles from Saratoga Springs. Fab 2 is expected to be making volume silicon by the second half of 2012, employing 1400 directly and an estimated 5000 indirect workers. The spinoff of Advanced Micro Devices (AMD, Sunnyvale, Calif.) has room for two additional modules at the site.

 

Fab 2 General Manager Norm Armour said he watched manufacturing shift from the United States to Asian foundries during his career at LSI Logic Corp., where he spent a decade managing LSI's fab in Gresham, Ore. "We are on the other side, trying to bring manufacturing back to a U.S. fab," Armour said. "It is a significant momentum shift."

 

That shift was supported by a $6B investment in GlobalFoundries by the Abu Dhabi Investment Co. (ATIC). The money will be spent to build Fab 2 at Malta, expected to cost $4.2B, as well as to expand and upgrade the GlobalFoundries Module 2 in Dresden, Germany. The state of New York is providing an estimated $1.2B in subsidies for Fab 2, and is investing additional funding to expand the University at Albany's nearby College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering (CNSE). AMD contributed its existing manufacturing complex in Dresden as well as other assets, but no cash, providing AMD with access to a new fab without capital outlays.

   

GlobalFoundries Fab 2 will begin production in the second half of 2012.

  

Because the site is not space-constrained, Fab 2 will be a two-level building rather than three-level, said Tom Sonderman, vice president of manufacturing systems technology at GlobalFoundries. All of the wafer production will be on one floor, eliminating the need to move wafers-in-progress (WIP) up and down floors. A "zero footprint storage" approach will put some wafer stockers above the tools, he added. Implant will be located off of the main waffle slab, reducing construction costs, and maintenance shops will be on the upper production floor to further improve efficiencies.

 

Though its labor costs in both Dresden and Malta will be higher than at many Asian fabs, manufacturing innovations will make GlobalFoundries cost-competitive with Taiwan Semiconductor Manufacturing Co. Ltd. (TSMC, Hsinchu, Taiwan), according to Sonderman. GlobalFoundries is investing in the midst of a severe downturn, which also will reduce costs compared with the more expensive 24/7 construction schedules used when fabs are built in a hurry. Armour said it may take 18 months to build Fab 2, which is expected to have a 220,000 sq. ft. cleanroom with an option to expand cleanroom space to 300,000 sq. ft. The goal is to have the first tool move in by October 2011, with qualification coming in early 2012 and commercial production by the second half of 2012, a schedule that could be accelerated somewhat "depending on market conditions," Armour said.

 

Sonderman said construction begins at a time "of a lot of pent-up demand for advanced foundry capacity." Fab 2 will start at 28 nm technology, and then bring up a 22 nm SOI process for CPU production. GlobalFoundries will support AMD's manufacturing needs with the current 45 nm production, moving to 32 and 22 nm production. For foundry customers, however, most of the interest is at the half nodes, including 40 nm bulk technology immediately at Dresden and 28 nm high-k/metal gate technology late next year when 28 nm customer designs start to be accepted.

 

Sonderman said GlobalFoundries is accelerating its effort to support 40 nm bulk production, which he said comes as customers express concerns about yields at TSMC. "We definitely want to be a counterbalance to TSMC," Sonderman said, outlining plans to offer, by 2013, 600,000 wspy at Dresden and 400,000 wspy at Fab 2.

Posted in General, GlobalFoundries, Real estate, Tech Valley, Technology | 2 Comments

RPI spokesman joining GlobalFoundriesApril 2, 2009 at 10:25 am by Larry Rulison

Jason Gorss, the manager of media relations at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, will be joining GlobalFoundries later this month in a communications role.

 

Gorss (right) has been at RPI for several years now. He has a technical and scientific background that helps with his new role with the company, which is building a $4.2 billion computer chip factory in Malta called Fab 2 and owns two others in Dresden, Germany.

 

GlobalFoundries spokesman Jon Carvill said that Gorss’ role will be “more global in nature and focused on our technology.

 

“We will still look to add additional resources specific to Fab 2 in 2009,” Carvill said.

 

The company already has an office in Malta at the Saratoga Technology + Energy Park, which sits within the Luther Forest Technoogy Campus where GlobalFoundries is planning its factory on 222 acres. At least one former General Electric employee is now working there in a human resources position, and additional positions are expected to be filled in the coming months.

 

The new CEO of GlobalFoundries, Doug Grose, is himself an RPI graduate.

 

The Times Union contacted Gorss this morning by e-mail and he confirmed he is taking the job.

 

“My experience at Rensselaer has given me the rare chance to work with incredibly brilliant people on a wide array of fascinating projects. I am going to miss my colleagues here, but I am excited about the new opportunity with GlobalFoundries,” Gorss said. “It is a perfect fit for someone with my background and interests. I am a technophile at heart, and this job will allow me to immerse myself in some of the most advanced technology on the planet.”05/15/2009 10:10 AM EDT)

  

MALTA, N.Y. — It's rare these days in the semiconductor industry to witness the unfolding of a project on a grand scale. Based on what has been proposed so far, the Global Foundries project backed by Advanced Micro Devices and its partner is precisely that.

 

"We want to be the first truly global semiconductor foundry," said Global Foundries CEO Global Doug Grose at a recent event here, where a ground-breaking ceremony will be held in July.

 

Global Foundries has committed up to $6 billion to develop a new fab to produce chips for AMD and new customers. AMD and partner, Abu Dhabi-backed Advanced Technology Investment Co. (ATIC). "This money is for a five- to seven-year stretch. Our investors [are] in this for the long haul," said Grose.

 

According to Jim McGregor, chief technology strategist at market researcher In-Stat, "Everything for the future depends on GlobalFoundries' ability to land new customers. Unfortunately, I can't predict that."

 

Jim Doran, senior vice president and general manager of AMD's Dresden, Germany, operation, said Global Foundries will use a Sunnyvale, Calif., facility for technology development and producing process design kits. The U.S. site also will be used for designing intellectual property and chip testing and validation.

 

Global Foundries also is engaged with neighbors here like the IBM Alliance on submicron research and development.

 

Global Foundries' 300-mm Fab 1 in Dresden includes a Module 1 used for 45-nm silicon-on-insulator (SOI) chips; Module 2 is used for 32-nm and beyond bulk CMOS process technology. Both modules are expected to operate at 25,000 monthly wafer starts at full capacity. Module 2 production will ramp up in late 2009.

  

The $4.5 billion Fab 2, a 300-mm manufacturing facility in Saratoga County, N.Y., is expected to come online in 2012 with 35,000 wafer starts per month at full capacity. Fab 2 is expected to create more than 1,400 jobs along with about 5,000 spin-off jobs.

    

Page 2: Global Foundries' big bet takes shape in upstate New York

  

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Global Foundries breaks ground on long-awaited NY fab.

 

The new 300-mm manufacturing facility is expected to bring 1,400 direct semiconductor manufacturing jobs and billions of dollars in economic development to upstate New York.

 

By Suzanne Deffree, Managing Editor, News -- Electronic News, 7/24/2009

Global Foundries today announced it officially broke ground on the construction of Fab 2, a new semiconductor manufacturing facility located at the Luther Forest Technology Campus in Saratoga County, NY.

 

The construction and ramp-up phases for the new $4.2 billion facility are expected to take approximately three years to complete, with volume production expected in 2012. According to the company, once Fab 2 is completed it will stand as the "most technologically advanced semiconductor manufacturing facility in the world" and the "largest leading-edge semiconductor foundry in the United States."

 

“As today’s chip designers push the boundaries on the next generation of products, there is a growing need for a new approach to design and manufacturing rooted in collaboration and innovation," Hector Ruiz, chairman of Global Foundries, said in a statement. "With Fab 2, Global Foundries moves the semiconductor industry away from the traditional model of isolated regional development and into an era of global hubs of manufacturing and technology expertise.”

 

The new facility is designed to manufacture microprocessors and logic products on 300-mm wafers, Global Foundries said, noting that initial production is expected to ramp at the 28-nm technology node and move to volume manufacturing on the 22-nm node. Fab 2 will work in conjunction with Global Foundries’ Fab 1 facility in Dresden, Germany.

   

Today's ground breaking was long awaited. Indeed, talk of the NY fab began in 2006, years before AMD spun out its manufacturing operations to form Global Foundries in October 2008. AMD saw significant support from the state during its decision and commitment process, including $1.2 billion in incentives. That largest private-public investment in the history of the state included grants, tax credits, and other New York City Empire Zone benefits. In accord with the investment, New York gave AMD a two-year window, from July 2007 to July 2009, to initiate the building of a new 300-mm wafer fabrication facility in Saratoga County, NY.

 

New York's significant support was not unwarranted. New York estimated that the plant will create approximately 1,400 new, direct semiconductor manufacturing jobs at full-scale production, providing an estimated annual payroll of more than $88 million to the upstate region. In addition, the project will create approximately 5,000 new, indirect jobs in the region, offering a sustained estimated total annual payroll of $290 million for all jobs, according to New York's estimates.

 

The state's universities also have several high-tech efforts in play that include AMD and its partners. Most recently, Intel, IBM, and Sematech backed an R&D joint venture with the University at Albany’s College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering center that is expected to add 475 jobs to New York.

 

“New York has worked with Global Foundries for three years to bring this [fab] project to fruition and I am pleased to say that with the groundbreaking of Fab 2, New York and Global Foundries take a lead role in delivering the type of economic growth needed to carry our nation toward sustainable growth,” said Governor David Paterson of New York in the Global Foundries statement. “This initiative not only provides our residents with a source for new jobs, but is integral in positioning New York as a future hub of innovation and an attractive destination for additional investment.”

 

AMD also showed its support at the ground breaking today. "This is an important opportunity to create thousands of jobs and strengthen US competiveness in the high-tech industry," said Dirk Meyer, president and CEO of AMD, in a company statement. “The multi-billion dollar investments in research and development and capacity expansion that Global Foundries is planning strengthen its position as a premier leading-edge semiconductor manufacturing foundry and make it the ideal AMD technology partner to help in bringing our innovative products to market.”

 

Link: www.edn.com/article/CA6672910.html

      

Location and plans:

m + w zander U.S. Operations, Inc. is designing and building the most advanced semiconductor manufacturing complex in the world for GLOBALFOUNDRIES. The Fab 2, Module 1 facility is to be located at the Luther Forest Technology Campus in the Towns of Malta and Stillwater, Saratoga County, New York. The realization of this project will be the crowning achievement in the continued development of New York's Tech Valley as a pre-eminent location for technological breakthroughs not only in the field of semiconductors but in nanotechnology, bio-technology, pharmaceuticals and alternative energy as well.

 

m + w zander is proud to be a leader in this effort and shares this website in order to provide information and the excitement of constructing this most important project with the local and world-wide communities.

 

link: fab2construction.com/

           

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Last edited by Buyckske Ruben; December 6th, 2009 at 03:22 PM.

  

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December 6th, 2009, 03:27 PM #2

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Posts: 1,539 slideshow of construction site:

 

www.flickr.com/photos/aerial-...th/3460543532/

  

Global Foundries' Fab 2: (part 1)

  

all the 3 parts:

    

Link: www.anandtech.com/printarticle.aspx?i=3614

  

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December 13th, 2009, 01:52 PM #3

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Hector Ruiz, the chairman of GlobalFoundries said that the new chip plant is “by far the most significant high-tech investment made in this country in decades.” This plant will produce the most advanced computer chips in the world when it is completed.

      

Having been the construction project manager for AMD’s original Dresden-based fabrication facilities, Globalfoundries has awarded M+W Zander the full turnkey construction contract for Fab 2, currently being built at the Luther Forest Technology Campus in Saratoga County, New York. A departure from pervious fab projects, M+W Zander is also responsible for the architectural aspects of the 4 building project. Previously, AMA Group, based in Italy had been the architectural firm responsible for this aspect of the work. The turnkey project is worth approximately €550 million to M+W Zander over the two-year construction schedule.

 

The Fab 2 complex is more than 130,000 square meters (1.45 million square feet), including a 28,000 square meters (300,000 square feet) Class 100 clean room. A ‘spine’ support building is also being built, along with administrative office building and a central utility building (CUB) along with service yards and small support buildings.

 

M+W Zander will also handle general contracting for all of the technical areas to include the manufacturing spaces, building utilities, central utility building and process systems.

LINK: www.fabtech.org/news/_a/mw_za...undries_fab_2/

   

OKT 2009:

          

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December 13th, 2009, 02:04 PM #4

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Impressions inside the fab:

    

Link: blogs.thenational.ae/beep_bee...abu-dhabi.html

        

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December 13th, 2009, 02:10 PM #5

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Posts: 1,539 YOUTUBE FILM about the concurrent Intel.

 

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Fab 32 - Intel's first high-volume 45nm chip factory:

 

www.youtube.com/watch?v=4FLBtQC0F0c

 

Very impressive!

  

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Category: GlobalFoundries

Customer-centricMay 3, 2009 at 6:00 am by Larry Rulison

 

Talking about customers, GlobalFoundries is making sure that it treats the customers that it does get the right way.

 

The 1.3 million-square-foot factory it will build in Saratoga County features a special entrance for customers, separate from the visitor entrance. Inside, customers will find a nearly half-acre of space devoted to designing chips for them. GlobalFoundries expects its customer base to grow beyond AMD to include graphics chips companies and those that produce chips used in handheld electronics.

  

Posted in GlobalFoundries | 1 Comment

GlobalFoundries site clearing should be soonApril 30, 2009 at 4:05 pm by Larry Rulison

Although the closing on the sale of 222 acres in Malta at the Luther Forest Technology Campus has been in the final stages now for the last couple of weeks, officials with GlobalFoundries Inc. said again today the deal could be done any day now.

 

The deal will also set in motion a number of events, including the awarding of the first contract to clear the site for a $4.2 billion computer chip factory.

 

In fact, right around the time the sale occurs, GlobalFoundries will send its official commitment letter to the state of New York, making it eligible for $650 million in cash incentives for chip fab construction and research and development activities.

 

Around the same time, GlobalFoundries will make the announcement that it has hired a general contractor. Although not official yet, it’s largely expected that M+W Zander, which built Albany NanoTech, will be given the nod. (more…)

 

Posted in Economic development, GlobalFoundries, Tech Valley, Technology | Add a comment

No Malta meeting for GlobalFoundriesApril 28, 2009 at 10:37 am by Larry Rulison

There will be no Malta Planning Board meeting tonight for GlobalFoundries, the company building a $4.2 billion computer chip factory in the town.

 

The town planning board had posted an agenda for the meeting on the town’s Web site, but Town Planning Director Anthony Tozzi said today that the planning board has decided it doesn’t need to meet. It was scheduled to review temporary construction plans for the project.

 

GlobalFoundries is still wrapping up the purchase of 222 acres of land at Luther Forest, and closing is expected later this week or early next week. The planning board doesn’t need to make any approvals until after the closing of that deal, which is why the board decided not to meet.

 

The Malta Planning Board usually meets the third Tuesday of every month, but it has set aside the second and fourth Tuesday of every month for the GlobalFoundries project if needed.

 

Posted in General, GlobalFoundries, Government | Add a comment

AMD posts loss of $416 millionApril 21, 2009 at 4:55 pm by Larry Rulison

Advanced Micro Devices Inc., the only customer of GlobalFoundries Inc., the company building a $4.2 billion computer chip factory in Malta, posted a $416 million loss in the first quarter.

 

Sales totaled $1.177 billion.

 

AMD spun off GlobalFoundries earlier this year and included the results of GlobalFoundries in its consolidated results released today.

 

Those results say GlobalFoundries had sales of $283 million and an operating loss of $141 million.

 

The results also show AMD spent $44 million on the formation of GlobalFoundries during the past two quarters.

 

GlobalFoundries is expected to acquire 222 acres at the Luther Forest Technology Campus any day now and start construction of the chip fab this summer. The plant is expected to start full-scale manufacturing by 2012.

 

Posted in Advanced Micro Devices Inc., General, GlobalFoundries | Add a comment

Malta holding meeting on Luther ForestApril 20, 2009 at 11:48 am by Larry Rulison

The Malta Town Board will hold a workshop and special meeting tonight to make some minor changes to an agreement it has with the Luther Forest Technology Campus.

  

Aerial shows road construction at the Luther Forest site. (Times Union archive)

The meeting comes as it appears that the sale of 222 acres at Luther Forest to GlobalFoundries Inc. for a $4.2 billion computer chip factory could come any day now.

 

It’s unclear if the changes to the agreement with the town, technically a declaration of covenants, conditions and restrictions, are needed so the sale can take place.

 

Malta Supervisor Paul Sausville said this morning that he thought the sale might take place today and he didn’t think the changes – considered minor — had to occur for the sale to go through.

 

Sausville said the document deals with things such as who is responsible for interior roads, sidewalks and lights at the tech park.

 

He said Luther Forest and the town reached an agreement last week, but the town of Stillwater made some minor changes to its version on Thursday, and the two documents have to be identical. The park straddles both towns, although most of the land is located in Malta.

 

GlobalFoundries spokesman Travis Bullard said the Malta meeting is being held just to make minor revisions. He has said the land deal is imminent.

 

Posted in GlobalFoundries, Government | Add a comment

Luther Forest looking for consultantsApril 16, 2009 at 2:47 pm by Larry Rulison

The nonprofit group developing the Luther Forest Technology Campus in Malta is looking for real estate and construction consultants to provide their expertise as it develops the 1,414-acre business park.

 

Computer chip manufacturer GlobalFoudries Inc. is expected to be the first tenant, taking 222 acres. A deal by the Sunnyvale, Calif.-based firm to acquire the land is due any day now.

 

The Luther Forest Technology Campus Economic Development Corp. issued a request for proposals today for consultants it can use on an as-needed basis.

 

The RFPs are due back April 30. The review process will begin in early May, with selection to take place within a few weeks after that.

 

To see the RFP, click here.

 

Posted in General, GlobalFoundries, Real estate, Tech Valley, Technology | 2 Comments

RPI spokesman joining GlobalFoundriesApril 2, 2009 at 10:25 am by Larry Rulison

Jason Gorss, the manager of media relations at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute in Troy, will be joining GlobalFoundries later this month in a communications role.

 

Gorss (right) has been at RPI for several years now. He has a technical and scientific background that helps with his new role with the company, which is building a $4.2 billion computer chip factory in Malta called Fab 2 and owns two others in Dresden, Germany.

 

GlobalFoundries spokesman Jon Carvill said that Gorss’ role will be “more global in nature and focused on our technology.

 

“We will still look to add additional resources specific to Fab 2 in 2009,” Carvill said.

 

The company already has an office in Malta at the Saratoga Technology + Energy Park, which sits within the Luther Forest Technoogy Campus where GlobalFoundries is planning its factory on 222 acres. At least one former General Electric employee is now working there in a human resources position, and additional positions are expected to be filled in the coming months.

 

The new CEO of GlobalFoundries, Doug Grose, is himself an RPI graduate.

 

The Times Union contacted Gorss this morning by e-mail and he confirmed he is taking the job.

 

“My experience at Rensselaer has given me the rare chance to work with incredibly brilliant people on a wide array of fascinating projects. I am going to miss my colleagues here, but I am excited about the new opportunity with GlobalFoundries,” Gorss said. “It is a perfect fit for someone with my background and interests. I am a technophile at heart, and this job will allow me to immerse myself in some of the most advanced technology on the planet.”

 

Click here to access job opportunities with GlobalFoundries.

 

Posted in Education, GlobalFoundries | 1 Comment

New Fab2 renderings releasedMarch 24, 2009 at 7:41 pm by Larry Rulison

GlobalFoundries Inc. is going to show these new renderings (below) of Fab2 to the Malta Planning Board tonight.

 

GlobalFoundries is planning a $4.2 billion computer-chip factory in the Luther Forest Technology Campus, which sits on land in both Malta and the town of Stillwater.

 

The company is seeking a temporary construction permit tonight after getting approval to start moving soil and trees. That work could begin early next month.

         

Posted in Advanced Micro Devices Inc., GlobalFoundries | Add a comment

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The resources that are available to companies located at the Luther Forest Technology Campus are unparalleled. The Campus is located in the midst of New York’s Tech Valley, a 19-county region in eastern New York that spans from Montreal to New York City. Tech Valley contains more than 1,000 technology companies providing more than 50,000 jobs. Tech Valley companies have a combined economic impact of more than $5 billion and an annual payroll of $2 billion.

 

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GLOBALFOUNDRIES

 

Photo credit: Banner image courtesy of University at Albany's College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering. Lower photo: Aerial view of University at Albany's College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering

            

28 Clinton Street Saratoga Springs, NY 12866 USA

  

went to the community open house at the Globalfoundries Fab2 construction site in Malta, New York this morning. Globalfoundries had a nice tent set up with hot coffee, cookies, donuts, etc. It was a good thing because it was raining pretty hard and the gravel parking lot had a lot of water on it. Globalfoundries and M + W Zander had people on-site to answer questions about the project. They had a few large pictures of the construction site inside the tent as well as artist conceptions of the completed building.

 

The actual construction site could be seen from outside the tent. I took a few of my own pictures that you can see below. Double click on any of the pictures to enlarge them. It is a pretty impressive site. You can’t see the construction site from any of the main roads in the area because it is a few miles deep into The Luther Forest. It is on Stone Break Road off of Route 9 in Malta. I doubt that you can get into the actual construction site except for events like this. (Google Maps can’t locate “Stone Break Road, Malta NY”, unless you include the zip code 12020, but Bing.com can find it without the zip code.)

 

By the time I arrived they had run out of “fact sheets” but I was told to check their website and the information would be updated by Tuesday, October 27th. You can find their website at Globalfoundries.com.

 

Hector Ruiz, the chairman of GlobalFoundries said that the new chip plant is “by far the most significant high-tech investment made in this country in decades.” This plant will produce the most advanced computer chips in the world when it is completed.

 

I wrote a previous article about the chip plant in March. You can read it here: Globalfoundries Chip Plant in Saratoga County New York.

  

The refreshment tent at the Globalfoundries Community Open House

 

The Globalfoundries construction site

 

The Globalfoundries construction site

 

The Globalfoundries construction site

 

The Globalfoundries construction site

The construction and eventual operation of this plant will be an economic boost to Saratoga Springs and the surrounding area for years to come. What do you think about the plant? Leave a comment or send me an email. Thanks.

  

Tags: bing.com, chip plant, fab2, GlobalFoundries, google maps, Hector Ruiz, luther forest, m + w zander, malta ny, saratoga springs

 

General, New York State | John Tedder | October 24, 2009 4:03 pm

 

One Response to “The Globalfoundries Chip Plant in Malta, New York”

Daniel Tagliento says:

October 31, 2009 at 1:50 pmThe local “newspapers” lack of in depth investigative reporting was not at all included in their articles!

What was the reason the entire working platform had to be ‘bulldozed’ flat and devoid of mature stands of trees and other fauna?

Waht is the landscaping of the buildings and parking areas supposed to ‘blend’ into the surrounding topography?

Does this ‘platforming’ necessiate storm water retention ponds?

 

At the completion and occupation of the complex will it be eye friendly?

Note: Parssiphany, New Jersy

Buiding Codes insist that Mega-National type complexes remain ‘hidden’ in park like setting closely resembling the natural forest thy found before construction. Ten Billion of many Corporate Headquarters in ten years were build and remain sucessful but accessible by two lane tree stands lined country lane like entrances with multi-storied parking structures and modest designed multi-storied offices etc, all this surrounded by lawns and fields!

For Your Information the Mayor, who had his hand opefor the entire process was found guilty of 23 or the 24 charges, his hand was returning to his pocket with money he should not have had procession of!

Back to the Chase:Tokyo Electron opening in Malta; part of first wave drawn by chip fab

 

Ok, stupid pic, I know, its a leftover look from Pants-off Dance-off Friday with my fav Bish. ANYWAY... I just wanted to share with all you new iMac users who have a Mighty Mouse and the Candidate patches still screwed you because you were toggling in perma-fly mode/joystick, whatever it was. I uninstalled and re-installed just to see what happened and IT WORKS for me now!!! I can walk! No more right-click jumping for no reason! No more of the camera bumping into me like I had the ChouChou hud permanently on. YAAAAAAYY!!!!!!!!!!!!!!

 word jellyfish (which has been in common usage for more than a century)[6] is used to denote several different kinds of cnidarians, all of which have a basic body structure that resembles an umbrella, including scyphozoans, staurozoans (stalked jellyfish), hydrozoans, and cubozoans (box jellyfish). Some textbooks and websites refer to scyphozoans as "true jellyfish".[7][8]As jellyfish are not even vertebrates, let alone true fish, the usual word jellyfish is considered by some to be a misnomer, and American public aquariums have popularized use of the terms jellies or sea jellies instead.[9]In its broadest usage, some scientists occasionally include members of the phylum Ctenophora (comb jellies) when they are referring to jellyfish.[10] Other scientists prefer to use the more all-encompassing term "gelatinous zooplankton", when referring to these, together with other soft-bodied animals in the water column.[11]A group of jellyfish is sometimes called a bloom or a swarm.[12] "Bloom" is usually used for a large group of jellyfish that gather in a small area, but may also have a time component, referring to seasonal increases, or numbers beyond what was expected.[13] Another collective name for a group of jellyfish is a smack.[14]Jellyfish are "bloomy" by nature of their life cycles, being produced by their benthic polyps usually in the spring when sunshine and plankton increase, so they appear rather suddenly and often in large numbers, even when an ecosystem is in balance.[15] Using "swarm" usually implies some kind of active ability to stay together, which a few species such as Aurelia, the moon jelly, demonstrate.[16]Most jellyfish have a second stage to their life cycle, the planula larvae phase, following the initial egg and sperm phase. Although this is a short lived stage for jellyfish, it is an important phase when the fertilized eggs that had previously undergone embryonic development, hatch, and planulae emerge from the females mouth or brood pouch and are off on their own.[17][edit] Anatomy The major surfaces and axes of a jellyfish Most jellyfish do not have specialized digestive, osmoregulatory, central nervous, respiratory, or circulatory systems. The manubrium is a stalk-like structure hanging down from the centre of the underside, with the mouth at its tip. This opens into the gastrovascular cavity, where digestion takes place and nutrients are absorbed. It is joined to the radial canals which extend to the margin of the bell.[18] Jellyfish do not need a respiratory system since their skin is thin enough that the body is oxygenated by diffusion. They have limited control over movement, but can use their hydrostatic skeleton to navigate through contraction-pulsations of the bell-like body; some species actively swim most of the time, while others are mostly passive.[citation needed] The Jellyfish body consist of over 95% water; most of their umbrella mass is a gelatinous material—the jelly—called mesoglea which is surrounded by two layers of protective skin. The top layer is called the epidermis, and the inner layer is referred to as gastrodermis, which lines the gut.[edit] Nervous systemMost jellyfish do not have a brain or central nervous system, but employ a loose network of nerves, located in the epidermis, which is called a "nerve net". A jellyfish detects various stimuli including the touch of other animals via this nerve net, which then transmits impulses both throughout the nerve net and around a circular nerve ring, through the rhopalial lappet, located at the rim of the jellyfish body, to other nerve cells.Another counter to the "brainless jellyfish" hypothesis is that some species explicitly adapt to tidal flux to control their location. In Roscoe Bay, jellyfish ride the current at ebb tide until they hit a gravel bar, and then descend below the current. They remain in still waters waiting for the tide to rise, ascending and allowing it to sweep them back into the bay. They monitor salinity to avoid fresh water from mountain snowmelt, again by diving until they find enough salt.[4][edit] VisionSome jellyfish also have ocelli: light-sensitive organs that do not form images but which can detect light, and are used to determine up from down, responding to sunlight shining on the water's surface. These are generally pigment spot ocelli, which have some cells (not all) pigmented.Certain species of jellyfish, such as the Box jellyfish, have been revealed to be more advanced than their counterparts. The Box jellyfish has 24 eyes, two of which are capable of seeing color, and four parallel brains that act in competition, supposedly making it one of the only creatures to have a 360 degree view of its environment.[19] It is suggested that the two eyes that contain cornea and retina are attached to a central nervous system which enables the four brains to process images. It is unknown how this works, as the creature has a unique central nervous system.[4][20]The eyes are suspended on stalks with heavy crystals on one end, acting like a gyroscope to orient the eyes skyward. They look upward to navigate from roots in mangrove swamps to the open lagoon and back, watching for the mangrove canopy, where they feed.[4][edit] Size The lion's mane jellyfish is arguably the longest animal in the world One of the smallest adult jellies is the Australian Irukandji, which is about the size of a fingernail.[4]The lion's mane jellyfish, Cyanea capillata, were long-cited as the largest jellyfish, and arguably the longest animal in the world, with fine, thread-like tentacles up to 36.5 metres (120 ft) long (though most are nowhere near that large).[21][22][23] They have a painful, but rarely fatal, sting.The increasingly common giant Nomura's jellyfish, Nemopilema nomurai, found in some, but not all years in the waters of Japan, Korea and China in summer and autumn is probably a much better candidate for "largest jellyfish", since the largest Nomura's jellyfish in late autumn can reach 200 centimetres (79 in) in bell (body) diameter and about 200 kilograms (440 lb) in weight, with average specimens frequently reaching 90 centimetres (35 in) in bell diameter and about 150 kilograms (330 lb) in weight.[24][25] The large bell mass of the giant Nomura's jellyfish[26] can dwarf a diver and is nearly always much greater than the up-to-100 centimetres (39 in) bell diameter Lion's Mane.[27]The rarely-encountered deep-sea jellyfish Stygiomedusa gigantea is another solid candidate for "largest jellyfish", with its 100 centimetres (39 in) wide, and thick, massive bell and four thick, "paddle-like" oral arms extending up to 6 metres (20 ft) in length,[28] very different than the typical fine, threadlike tentacles that rim the umbrella of more-typical-looking jellyfish, including the Lion's Mane.[edit] Life history See also: Biological life cycle and Developmental biology The developmental stages of scyphozoan jellyfish's life cycle. Most jellyfish undergo two distinct life history stages (body forms) during their life cycle. The first is the polypoid stage. After fertilization and initial growth, a larval form, called the planula, develops. The planula is a small larva covered with cilia. It settles onto a firm surface and develops into a polyp. The polyp is generally a small stalk with a mouth surrounded by upward-facing tentacles like miniatures of the closely related anthozoan polyps (sea anemones and corals), also of the phylum Cnidaria. This polyp may be sessile, living on the bottom or on similar substrata such as floats or boat-bottoms, or it may be free-floating or attached to tiny bits of free-living plankton[29] or rarely, fish[30] or other invertebrates. Polyps may be solitary or colonial. Most are very small, measured in millimeters. They feed continuously.Certain Box Jellyfish species sleep on the sea bed in shallow water.[31][edit] ReproductionJellyfish reproduce both sexually and asexually. Upon reaching adult size, jellyfish spawn daily if there is enough food. In most species, spawning is controlled by light, so the entire population spawns at about the same time of day, often at either dusk or dawn.[32] Jellyfish are usually either male or female (hermaphroditic specimens are occasionally found).In most cases, adults release sperm and eggs into the surrounding water, where the (unprotected) eggs are fertilized and mature into new organisms. In a few species, the sperm swim into the female's mouth fertilizing the eggs within the female's body where they remain during early development stages. In moon jellies, the eggs lodge in pits on the oral arms, which form a temporary brood chamber for the developing planula larvae.After a growth interval, the polyp begins reproducing asexually by budding and, in the Scyphozoa, is called a segmenting polyp, or a scyphistoma. New scyphistomae may be produced by budding or form new, immature jellies called ephyrae. A few jellyfish species can produce new medusae by budding directly from the medusan stage. Budding sites vary by species; from the tentacle bulbs, the manubrium (above the mouth), or the gonads of hydromedusae. A few species of hydromedusae reproduce by fission (splitting in half).[29]In the second stage, the tiny polyps asexually produce jellyfish, each of which is also known as a medusa. Tiny jellyfish (usually only a millimeter or two across) swim away from the polyp and then grow and feed in the plankton.[citation needed] Medusae have a radially symmetric, umbrella-shaped body called a bell, which is usually supplied with marginal tentacles - fringe-like protrusions from the bell's border that capture prey. A few species of jellyfish do not have the polyp portion of the life cycle, but go from jellyfish to the next generation of jellyfish through direct development of fertilized eggs.[edit] LifespanJellyfish lifespans typically range from a few hours (in the case of some very small hydromedusae) to several months. Life span and maximum size varies by species. One unusual species is reported to live as long as 30 years. Another species, Turritopsis dohrnii as T. nutricula, may be effectively immortal because of its ability to transform between medusa and polyp, thereby escaping death.[33] Most large coastal jellyfish live 2 to 6 months, during which they grow from a millimeter or two to many centimeters in diameter.[edit] Ecology [edit] FeedingJellies are carnivorous, feeding on plankton, crustaceans, fish eggs, small fish and other jellyfish, ingesting and voiding through the same convenient hole in the middle of the bell. Jellies hunt passively using their tentacles as drift nets. Should a fish brush against the often invisible extensions, the pressure activates the nematocysts, protecting the predator’s delicate tissue. Prey must be dead before ingestion, or it could puncture the jellyfish' stomach.[4][edit] PredationOther species of jellyfish are among the most common and important jellyfish predators, some of which specialize in jellies. Other predators include tuna, shark, swordfish, sea turtles and at least one species of Pacific salmon. Sea birds sometimes pick symbiotic crustaceans from the jellyfish bells near the sea's surface, inevitably feeding also on the jellyfish hosts of these amphipods or young crabs and shrimp.[edit] Blooms Aurelia sp., occurs in large quantities in most of the world's coastal waters. Members of this genus are nearly identical to each other. Jellyfish blooms can grow to 100,000 individuals. Bloom formation is a complex process that depends on ocean currents, nutrients, sunshine, temperature, season, prey availability, reduced predation and oxygen concentrations. Ocean currents tend to congregate jellyfish into large swarms or "blooms", consisting of hundreds or thousands of individuals. Blooms can also result from unusually high populations in some years. Jellyfish are better able to survive in nutrient-rich, oxygen-poor water than competitors, and thus can feast on plankton without competition. Jellyfish may also benefit from saltier waters, as saltier waters contain more iodine, which is necessary for polyps to turn into jellyfish. Rising sea temperatures caused by climate change may also contribute to jellyfish blooms, because many species of jellyfish are relatively better able to survive in warmer waters.[34]Scientists have little quantitative data of historic or current jellyfish populations beyond "impressions" in the public memory.[15] Recent speculation about increases in jellyfish populations are based on no "before" data.One hypothesis is that the global increase in jellyfish bloom frequency may stem from human impact. In some locations jellyfish may be filling ecological niches formerly occupied by now overfished creatures, but this hypothesis lacks supporting data.[15] Youngbluth states that "jellyfish feed on the same kinds of prey as adult and young fish, so if fish are removed from the equation, jellyfish are likely to move in."[35]Some jellyfish populations that have shown clear increases in the past few decades are "invasive" species, newly arrived from other habitats: examples include the Black Sea and the Caspian Sea, the Baltic Sea, the eastern Mediterranean coasts of Egypt and Israel,[36] and the American Gulf coast.[citation needed] Invasive populations can expand rapidly because they often face no predators in the new habitat.Increased nutrients, ascribed to agricultural runoff, have been cited as to jellyfish proliferation. Graham states, "ecosystems in which there are high levels of nutrients ... provide nourishment for the small organisms on which jellyfish feed. In waters where there is eutrophication, low oxygen levels often result, favoring jellyfish as they thrive in less oxygen-rich water than fish can tolerate. The fact that jellyfish are increasing is a symptom of something happening in the ecosystem."[35][edit] Population Posted from

NOTE LICENSE CHANGE: 26 Nov 2009 now ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

© All Rights Reserved 2007 "Mike" Michael L. Baird

, for Getty stock use.

26 Nov 2009, The Flickreenos representing Getty Images said: Hi mikebaird, Flickr has partnered with the fabulous Getty Images to offer an invitation-only service for Flickr members to license their photos for commercial use. The Getty Images team has noticed your work on Flickr, and is pleased to offer you an invitation to enroll with them. They have selected 5 of your photos for possible inclusion in the program. Here are a few of them [Red Fox Pups] [Western Snowy Plover] [Adult Sea Otter] [Northern Elephant Seals in Battle] [Peregrine Falcon Fledgling]. About Getty Images gettyimages.com . About Flickr’s partnership with Getty Images flickr.com/help/gettyimages/ .

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Adult Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris) in Morro Bay, CA drifts out of the harbor on the ebb tide 14dec2007 Friday 14 Dec. 2007 - Photo by Mike Baird, Canon 1D Mark III with 600mm IS lens w/ 2X II TE and polarizer, on tripod bairdphotos.com flickr.bairdphotos.com photomorrobay.com morro-bay.com

 

I was reasonably pleased at the sharpness of this image (as seen in the original size) because using a "doubler" Canon EF 2X II Extender Telephoto Accessory usually results in a compromise.

 

This photo was used at dgrice.blogspot.com/2008/01/webcam-surprise.html under the Creative Commons license.

 

04 Sept. 2008, viewer Lily Namaste says" Dear Mike, Thank you for sharing your fabulous photos of Sea Otters. I am a frequent user of flickr photos. I live in Canada and correspond with a 9 year old autistic boy, recently relocated to California. He loves sea otters and visits them at the beach. I have been using your photos to correspond with him as a sea otter pup. Through the diligent persistence of his devoted mother, this child who made no connection to the world for the first five years of his life, now speaks and is able to read at the third grade level. Last week he spoke to me on the telephone and read back to me, all the sea otter messages I have sent to him. I just melted. Thank you for your participation in a love connection. He calls me "Auntie Lily". My online nickname of Lily of the Valley. lilyinthewoods.blogspot.com/

 

More Creative Commons use www.flickr.com/photos/shallowend24401/3012892664/ depicting this otter in a storm of rain.

17 Dec. 2008 more Creative Commons use , "Bring Back the Dodo!" for the December 17, 2008 posting (bringbackthedodo.blogspot.com/2008/12/for-wednesday-decem...)

 

18 May 2009 Creative Commons use in 1-87SEAOTTER Report Dead or Beached Sea Otters card for US Fish & Wildlife Service. "I wanted to make you aware of the use of one of your photos that I found posted on Flickr under a Creative Commons license. The title of the photo is listed in the subject line. It is being used by the U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service in conjunction with a sea otter recovery program. The specific product in which the photo is placed is a sea otter hotline card that displays the hotline number and gives the cardholder information about what to observe and report in the event they come upon a dead or beached sea otter. I've attached a pdf of the front and back sides of the card, which is about the size of a business card. I would just like to express my great appreciation for your wonderful photography and the fact that you make it so easily available for responsible use. You offer a tremendous and generous service to conservation organizations such as ours. Best Wishes, Patrick Stark Patrick_Stark [at} fws d o t gov, U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service, Visitor Services and Communications, 911 NE 11th Ave. - 3rd Floor East, Portland, OR 97232. 503-231-6176, intranet.fws.gov/region1/vsc (<= requires pswd)

My note: In California, the phone numbers to use are: For areas in Monterey county and to the north contact the Monterey Bay Aquarium at (831) 648-4840. For the Big Sur to Cambria area contact Brian Hatfield of the USGS-Biological Resources Division at (805) 927-3893. For the Cambria to Pt. Conception area contact Mike Harris in Morro Bay of the California Dept. of Fish and Game at (805) 772-1135.

This sea otter image can be seen on the visitor services card at:

front

back

front-over-back

 

28 Aug 2009... more Creative Commons requests, by National Wildlife Federation (approved):"Dear Mr. Pawluk [should read Mike Baird] - The National Wildlife Federation (NWF) would like permission to use one of your amazing photos in support of our mission. The photos we wish to use are: Adult Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris) in Morro Bay, CA www.flickr.com/photos/mikebaird/2112205672/ .

This image is honored as Wikipdia Picture of the Day 28 July 2009 (Best of 3) Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris) mother with nursing pup in the Morro Bay harbor www.flickr.com/photos/mikebaird/2979351573/ . We ask that you give NWF and its affiliated organizations a non-exclusive right to use, publish, reproduce, modify, adapt and distribute your Image(s) at any time in any manner or medium whether existing now or yet to be developed, including without limitation use in print, presentations, Internet, electronic, wireless, television, mailed promotions, exhibits and press releases. Wherever feasible, NWF shall credit the photograph. No payment will be made to you for the use of the Images. If you agree, what name would you like us to attribute the image to? We are in the process of re-doing our website, and it is high quality shots like yours that will help us help secure North America's natural heritage for generations. Best regards- Katie M.

NWF Web team"

 

Another Creative Commons use pre-approved and downloaded before 11/2009 Getty representation appears 17 Oct. 2012 in a YouTube Video for FWS (by "Pat" www.flickr.com/x/t/0146002/photos/patrickofportland/ ) .... U.S. Fish & Wildlife Service in Portland, Oregon ... a video highlighting cool things about Refuges in the Pacific Northwest and Pacific Islands ... www.youtube.com/watch?v=loN1f9wHBQA

 

22 Sept. 2009 Used under CC in a Lightstalking tutorial on "15 Striking Samples of Telephoto Photography."

 

Utterly Otterly Day 30 Oct 2009: Hello. I am writing you because I would like permission to use your amazing photos. The two I am thinking about using are: Adult Sea Otter (Enhydra lutris) in Morro Bay, CA ; Two Brown Pelicans (Pelecanus occidentalis) with watercolor effect (not added); I request your permission to publish, reproduce, modify, adapt and distribute your Image(s) within a children’s curriculum I am creating. The image would specifically be used in printables within the unit for the book Utterly Otterly Day by Mary Caanova. I will credit you as the photograph however you wish. If you agree, what name would you like me to attribute the image to? This will not be on the actual printable (unless you insist on this condition) but in the curriculum credits. I can either credit you right in the section for this book Utterly Otterly Day or I can put it on a credits page at the end of the curriculum.

I am currently working on the curriculum and will be using it with some students before trying to get it out for other homeschoolers or daycare centers to use. This curriculum isfor children that are 2-6 yrs. old. These images would be on some kind of printable or project that the students will use to reinforce the story .

Please e-mail me back at this e-mailaddress letting me know if you give me the permission to use your image(s). Thank you, Carol Vega Carol Vega carol [at} teamvega d o t org

Reply: Carol Vega, That all cool with me... thanks for asking. I love to have my photos used in educational contexts. A copy of the printables/book(s) is always appreciated for my portfolio but I don’t insist on it.

www.flickr.com/people/mikebaird/#credit answers all questions people ask about using my photos (e.g., please comment at the photo, etc...), and says all... (pasted below too). Use as practicable or desired. I generally prefer attribution to be attached to or close to the images but I yield to editorial preferences and your convenience.

 

Please, no invites with images, multiple invites, award levels, flashing icons, or award/post rules.

 

Lesson: Cute works, always. And, always get closer.

 

Creative Commons use approved: 04 Oct. 2011 www.sfestuary.org

Appeared in the October 2011 Newsletter "Estuary News - Bay-Delta News and Views from the San Francisco Estuary Partnership." Vol. 20, No. 5.

Per Lisa Owens Viani, Public Outreach Coordinator, Editor, ESTUARY NEWS, San Francisco Estuary Partnership, Association of Bay Area Governments (ABAG), 1515 Clay Street, 14th Floor, Oakland, CA 94612; (510) 622-2337; www.sfestuary.org

Learn about solutions to Bay issues: www.sfestuary.org/podcast/

View large: click B l a c k M a g i c

 

Taken for 52.5 of 2010, CHALLENGE is Nature (came in 1st of 24) , and for Assignment 52, challenge is "Zen" (Came in #1 of 26 entries)

 

Found these gorgeous plumbagos in my neighbor's garden, just before sunset. Glorious light. Other candidates in the first comment below and just prior in my photostream. But I chose this one, because I like it the best, maybe. All critical feedback welcome.

 

This was definitely a Zen , in the moment photo-- walking my dogs, saw the flowers, mesmerized by the light and the color and the moment. Hard to capture these, with hand held camera, on time release to minimize the "shake" factor", given the low but glorious light just before sunset, with my dogs occasionally bumping into the flowers, and making them move, and breezes, blowing by, more sway, waiting for just the right moment, when parts of the flowers were still enough to work with shallow dof, and macro focus, with low light. I liked the dreamy, dancing feel here.

 

Taken 6/24/10, Uploaded 6/25/10, #6554, r72, 550 pixels, Enhanced exposure slightly in photoshop with Levels. Otherwise SOOC.

 

To view large in Windows Vista Internet Explorer, click Control + a few times, and then Control 0 to return to normal view. Other operating systems and browsers usually have a magnification control, often on the lower right.

 

If you wish, view "my own favorites" of my photostream

 

Or view all of my Photostream, sorted by Interestingness: fiveprime.org/flickr_hvmnd.cgi?search_domain=User&tex...

 

Turn of a Friendly Card

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Based on a true adventures of a rogue active in the waning years of the 1930’s as discovered in the criminal archives of Chatwick University.

 

Act 1

I begin my tale in the present…

 

That afternoon a soiree was given as part of the purchase price of the tickets for the annual Autumn Charity Ball to be presented later that evening at the manor’s great house. Since I was alone, I just went mainly for the free food and to rub my elbows with the wealthy guests who would be in happy attendance there, and at the Ball. I was alone, but certainly not bored. There was a game I enjoyed playing to pass the time at these affairs that entailed scoping out by their dress and day jewels worn, those ladies whom would be most likely to be wearing the better costumes and sparklers that evening. It often proved to be a most beneficial insight into the actions and mannerisms of the very rich. I walked amongst the cheerful guests, eying one here ( a lady in satin and pearls) and another there( a high spirited girl with a diamond pin at the throat of her frilly silken blouse). It was as I was passing the latter that the friend she had been talking too (dressed like a vamp), bumped up against me. I caught her, steadying her as they both giggled. I didn’t mind, for the lassie’s too tight satin sheath tea dress had been an enticement to hold, and the gold bracelet that had been dangling from her gloved wrist had been a pleasure to observe. I kissed her gloved hand, rings glittering, as I apologized gallantly for my clumsiness. Her eyes were bright, almost as bright as the twin necklaces of gold that hung swaying down pleasantly from between her ample bosom. I left them, moving on to greener pastures, and it was very green, all of it….

 

It was then that I detected another pretty lassie. It was her long fiery red hair with falling wispy curls that first captured my attention. She was wearing a fetchingly smart white chiffon party dress that commanded me to acquire a closer examination. She appeared to be a blithe spirit, seemingly content with just being by herself and roaming about with casual elegance, the extensive grounds of the manor proper. I began to discreetly follow her at a distance. Although she did not wear any jewelry, her manner and the eloquent way she moved is what attracted me the most. It would be very interesting to seek her out later that evening and she what she would have chosen to decorate herself with. I followed her as she sojourned into the depths of a traditional English garden with a maze of lushly green trimmed 8 foot high hedges

 

As I strolled through the hedgerows in her wake I allowed my mind to wander its own course. Suddenly I straightened up, my reverie broken by an epiphany of sorts. I allowed myself to grin and the lady whose enchantment I was swollen up in, at that moment turned, and seeing my beaming smile assumed it was for her and gave me a rather cute nod of her head. I answered in same, as I headed en route to a nearby stone garden bench to allow my thoughts to think through themselves.

 

But before I go on, allow me the pleasure to sojourn and reminisce about an incident that occurred several years prior:

*******************

I was still working unaided in those days, travelling on to a new next quest that would take me just outside of Surrey.

I had just purchased my train ticket and had seen my luggage safe on board when I decided to rest in the lounge, it being some 45 minutes before allowed to enter personally aboard. Being so early the lounge was almost deserted, only one other occupant. I assumed she was waiting for someone on an incoming train due to the fact she carried no luggage. She was obviously well off, well dressed in satins and lace, and her jewels shone magnificently in the dim lights. Especially one of her rings, noticeably lying loosely around a finger, it sparkled with an expensive brilliance. I had seen one like it in a tiffanies store, worth almost 250 pounds. But she did not appreciate the show her jewelry was putting on under the lounge lights, for she was fast asleep.

 

I circled around her, aiming for a seat next to her, eyeing her and her possessions carefully. I noticed her purse had fallen off her lap and lay on the floor. An idea popped into my head, and I picked the purse up, and looked around carefully, before placing my plan into action. But I was thwarted as an older, matronly lady was spotted heading our way. I slipped the purse into my jacket and moved off before I was noticed. Of course she came in and took the empty seat across form the sleeping princess, and soon busied herself with knitting. As the older lady had sat down, not quietly, the wealthy lady stirred waking up at the noise. I went into a corner and sat, waiting. The two ladies soon fell into conversation; the minute’s ticked by excruciatingly slow. Soon I noticed we even had more company.

He was a lad of only fourteen, but with a devilish look about him that marked him a kindred spirit to meself, and his quick eyes were darting about taking it all in as he stood outside the paned glass window.

 

It was as the first announcement of boarding the train that I saw a chance for opportunity to strike.

The older lady folded up her knitting and clinching her bag, bid adieu to her new friend,( befuddled a little by the old ladies constant stream of gossip), and headed to the train. I was twenty steps ahead of her and was standing behind the youth as she left the lounge. I tapped him on the shoulder; he looked around at me suspiciously, and then caught sight of the shilling I was holding in front of his nose. I quickly whispered a few words into his ear on how he could earn it, and his grin spread as he bought into my story. I still held onto the shilling as he darted around and inside the lounge. I watched as he ran up behind the lady, circling her, then running in front of her he tripped over her leg, as she helped him up, her hand with the ring reaching down, he turned and spat onto the wrist and sleeve of that hand, than standing he ran away. Running alongside me, I handed him the shilling in passing as he ran off, disappearing in to the street.

 

I went inside and approached the astonished lady, as she was looking for her purse to get a handkerchief, confused as to its absence, while she held up her soiled hand( ring glittering furiously) in utter disbelief. I approached, catching her attention by the soothing words I uttered to her. I took her hand, unbelieving with her at just had happened, and I as I apologized for the youth of today I produced my own silk handkerchief and starting with her silky sleeve, began to wipe it off, continuing my tirade of displeasure and contempt at what had just occurred to the dear lady as I did so. As I finishing wiping her down, ending with her warm slender fingers, I kissed them, just as the last boarding announcement came over (perfect timing!) I let her go, explaining that I must catch my train. I turned and without looking back made the train just as it was letting off steam before chugging off.

 

I gained my private carriage just as the train began to lurch away. It wasn’t until after the train began its journey that I casually removed my silk handkerchief from my pocket and unwrapped it carefully, admiring up close the shimmering, valuable tiffany ring that was lying inside. I pocketed it, and then remembered the purse. I took it out and examined its contents: coin and notes equaling a handsome amount, a gold (gilded) case, embroidered lacy handkerchief, small silver flask of perfume, and ( of all things)a large shimmering prism , like one that would have dangled from a fancy crystal chandelier. A prism?, I questioned with interest as I examined it. It was pretty thing, about the circumference of a cricket ball, but shaped like a pendulum, it shimmered and glittered like the most precious of jewels. Why she had it in her purse? I couldn’t guess, and I saw no value in it, so I pocketed it and allowed it to leave my mind.

 

As I settled into my seat I began to think of the lad I had just met, I had been right on the money as far as his eagerness for mischief. Actually he reminded me of myself at that age, and I wondered if that lad with the shifty eyes would also turn out to follow the same course I had explored.

 

Which Begs the question, what had I turned out to become. And since I’m still reminiscing

I’ll give little background material about me, hopefully I don’t come across as being too conceited about my self-taught skills..

 

I had never been one to take the hard road, and even at a young age I was always looking for angles, or short cuts to make some money.

Once, while watching for some time a street magician and his acts. I observed a pick pocket working the crowd. He approached a pair of well-dressed ladies in shiny clothes, and standing behind them bided his time and then lifted a small pouch from one velvet purse, and a fat wallet from a silken one, then he moved on. Now both ladies were wearing shiny bracelets, one with jewels. I thought that he could have realized a greater profit if he had nicked one or both of the bracelets first, than try for the contents of their purses. The bracelets’ alone would have realized a far greater profit than what he lifted from their purses. It further occurred to me that by mimicking some of the sleight of hand tricks and misdirection that the magician was using on his audience, it could be accomplished. A hand placed on the right shoulder and as the lady turned right, whisk off the bracelet from her left wrist, and excuse oneself, that sort of thing.

 

So, I practiced (on my sisters, who proved to be willing accomplices to “my game”) and learned to pick their purses and pockets. I than moved onto their jewelry, starting by lifting bracelets and slipping away rings, before advancing to the brooches, necklaces and earrings they were wearing. After I was satisfied at my skill level, I went out and worked the streets. Sometimes using my one sister who was also hooked on what I was doing as a willing partner.

But I found myself still not being satisfied, in the back of my mind I thought there had to be a more lucrative way to turn a profit.

 

I’d found my answer when an attractive lady in a rustling satin gown zeroed in on me while I was “visiting” a ballroom. She was jeweled like a princess right up to the diamond band she wore holding up her piles of soft locks like a glimmering crown. The more she drank, the closer she got and I decided that her necklace would definitely help pay my expenses more than the contents of her purse (although I had already lifted the fat wallet from her small purse), and I did have very expensive tastes to pay for. So I took her onto the dance floor.

 

I was amazed at how easily I had been able to open the necklace’s clasp , slipping it over her satiny shoulder, lifting it off and placing it safely in my pocket with almost no effort. Then she decided to be playful once the song ended and brushed up against me. She felt the necklace in my pocket and before I could act she had her hand in and pulled it out.

 

The silly naive twit thought I was teasing her and told me that for my penance I had to go up to her suite in order to put it back on for her. I kept up the charade as best as I could.

 

And that’s where we ended up. A little bit of light fondling began as I placed the necklace back around her throat. I began to tease her, plied her with more and more alcohol as I tried to keep my distance, and virginity. Finally she passed out in a drunken stupor, but not before I had learned where she hid her valuables by suggesting she should lock her jewels up for the night..

 

With her safely unconscious, I began to strip her clean off all her jewels, reclaiming the necklace first. Then I visited all her jewelry casket and began looting it. I even took her small rhinestone clutch with the diamond clasp; of course I already had liberated its small wallet.

 

When I’d left her lying happily asleep in bed, still in her satin gown( the only item left to her that shined), I knew I had found a much more profitable line of “work”

 

So I began making circuits around to the haunts of the very rich, I still kept may hand in pickpocketing, so to speak, but centered only on those “pockets” containing mainly jewelry. I also began to carefully explore new ways of acquiring jewels” in masse”, so to speak.

 

Soon I had accumulated many tricks and tools, having them at my disposal to put into action once required, and for the remaining years up till the present had managed to live quite comfortably off of the ill-gotten gains using them allowed me to acquire.

 

Which brings me back to the train ride, my prism, and the rest of my background story before I retun to the present tale. Please be patient.

*****

So, anyway, I reached Surry without any further incident and disembarking, made my way out to the large country house where I would be staying to take a short rest, vacation if you will. But, pardon the play on words, for there is never any rest for the wicked, is there?

 

I had become acquainted with a servant of the old mansion ( almost a small castle, really) , that was about a mile off. I managed to learn a great deal, and soon found myself, on the pretense of visiting her, exploring the grounds. There was to be a grand ball taking place a couple of weekends away , and the maid had filled my ears with the riches that would be displayed by the multitude of regal ladies making an appearance. I began to think about trying to make a little bit of profit from my vacation. I am not sure how the idea developed, but the prism that I still had in my possession, came up centrally into my plans.

 

Late on the evening of the regal affair, I snuck over, covered head to toe in black, with my small satchel off tools by my side. I set up a candle behind an old stone ivy covered wall in a far corner of the rather large and intricate English garden that surrounded the inner circle around the mansion. I than strung the jewel-like prism in front of it. Standing behind the wall, I would strike the prism with a long stick I was holding whenever I observed sparkles emanating from silkily gowned ladies walking in the distance, solitary or in pairs. The prism would flash fire, sort of like a showy lure being used when fishing in a crooked trout stream. Only I was fishing for far sweeter game than trout. My objective was to trick certain types of jeweled ladies (scatterbrains some may call them) by luring them down onto the path beyond the wall, using their natural curiosity to my advantage.

 

I had at least two strikes rise up to my lure in the second hour.

On was a pretty lady in flowing green satin number, decorated with plenty of emeralds, which, hidden in the shadows, I observed were probably paste. I let her wonder about; as she looked and played with the shiny toy, remaining hidden until she grew bored and wandered off.

The second was a slender maiden wearing a long sleek black gown with long ivory silk gloves. I had never before seen a lady so decked out in jewels, literally head to toe. With the exception of the rhinestones adorning her heels, the rest of the lot was real, so valuably real that I could feel my mouth salivating at the thoughts of acquiring her riches. Now in Edwardian times only older, married ladies would be allowed the privilege of wearing a diamond Tiara. But in these modern times, it had become culturally acceptable for any well-to do lady, single or otherwise, to wear one out in society. Even so, they were still rarely worn, and seldom seen outside the safety of large gatherings. But there it was, a small, delicately slender piece of intricate art that glistened from the top of her head like some elegant beacon. That piece alone was probably worth more than I had made all the last four months combined!

I began to skirt around in the shadows, placing myself in position to cut off her retreat. Her diamonds blazed as she approached, eyeing the swinging prism with total concentration. Which was unfortunate, because as I was about to leave the shadows, she walked into the thorns of a rose bush, screeching out, and attracting the notice of a pair of gentlemen who had just crossed the path quite a ways off, called out when they heard the commotion. She started to become chatty with them, obviously coming on to her rescuers, my prism all but forgotten. Than before I knew it, in a swishing of her long gown, she was gone, “swimming” off before I was able to set me ”hook”.

 

Which I was able to do on the third strike, almost an hour later, just as I was beginning to ponder wither I should call it off and head back home..

 

They were a pair of young damsels in their young twenties. They may have been sisters, or cousins at the least. I still remember how my heart leapt into my throat as they observed my colourful prism and turned down the old flagstone path. I had not seen anyone out and about for some time, so I knew they would be no would be rescuers around to come to their aid

And, best of all, they were both dressed for the kill!

One, the blonde, was clad in a black velvet number that one could cannily describe as quite form fitting. As were the small ropes of pearls that hung from all points of interest, pretty with a matching pricelessness.

But her cousin, as I will refer to her, out shone black velvet quite literally.

This one, a stunning raven haired beauty, wore a long streaming gown of liquid ivory satin. A diamond brooch sparkled as it held up a fold of the gown to her waist. The fold allowed her to show a rather daring amount of a slender bare calf. The brooch was not paste, but a real jewel that had been added for the nights festivities ( To be successful, one learns to read these signs accurately) Her ears and neckline were home to a matching set of pure white diamonds. A wide diamond bracelet graced a bare right wrist ,so she must be left handed I instinctively thought, an observation that would have aided me if I were planning on having a go for slipping the bracelet from her wrist, but tonight I was planning a much more daring attempt to empty the entire jewel casket, so to speak.

 

They went to the prism, playing with it a bit, I had begun to circle around, when I noticed black velvet pointing out with multiple ringed fingers, to something further down the path past the wall.

 

With a clicking of heels I let the pair pass, they apparently wanted to see what was on the other side of the wall. I followed; it was not hard, because the necklace the raven haired one wore, diamonds fully encircling her throat, rippled and sparkled from their perch, caught in the full harvest moon’s cast, giving me more than enough light to shadow them quietly .

 

After a while they caught on that something/someone was following them, but as they turned they could see nothing. I was in black, and hooded, invisible to them in the shadows of the trees. They whispered amongst themselves, now worried, realizing that there were dangers lurking beyond the pale, in their case, the safety of the gardens , especially for ones decked out as they were. They then turned and headed right back from where they had come, right into my waiting arms.

 

It is interesting what good breeding does for young, poised ladies. For, as I stepped out of the shadows, a finger of my right hand to my lips, my Fairborn in my left hand, its black blade glinting wickedly in the moonlight , they did not scream out or shout for help. Instead the pair merely let out small gasps, and then they both, in a quite charming synchronized display of disbelief, place each one hand over their open mouths, and the other upon their perspective necklaces.

 

And as I flourished my wicked looking Fairbairn–Sykes blade in their direction, they unquestioningly reached around and undid those pretty necklaces, tremblingly handing them out to me, like actresses following a well-read script. I took the little pretties and after stuffing them into my satchel, held out again my free hand, my fingers beckoning. Not a word was spoken between us, as the frightened pair of young ladies began removing their shimmering jewels and added them in a neat little growing pile along my open palm. The raven haired girl even undid her brooch without me having to command her to do so. Once I had stashed it all away, I motioned for them to turn back around, than with a little helpful prodding on my part, they began moving forward back down the hill, away from the garden. The one in white hobbling a little now as she kept tripping over the hem of her dress, now no longer held up by the stolen brooch.

 

After we had traveled about 200 meters I had them stop, and take off their high heels. Then picking the pretty things up, I motioned them to turn back around and made them walk back the way we had come in their bare feet, watching the pair awkwardly hobble barefooted down the wooded path. They would be quite a while on their journey back, allowing me more than ample time to make me escape. I threw their shoes off to the side and went briskly the other way, reaching the place was staying at , gaining my room without notice. But not before I had hidden the jewels inside an old stump to retrieve them at a later date. I never really heard so much as a whisper of the incident, other than from the pretty lips of my friendly maiden. The wee hours of the morning before my early departure for the train station found me revisiting the stump and retrieving my satchel and its precious cargo. After hiding it all in a false bottom of my case I laid my head on the pillow and drifted off to sleep as I wondered what had happened to the little prism, marveling at how useful it had ended up proving to be.

 

So, how does this story (journey rather) relate to the one I had already started? Please read on, and enrich your curiosity… my dear readers.

****************************************************************************

Act 2

 

So, with apologies for my lengthy elucidation, but I now return you back to the garden party I was now attending on that warm fall day. But, as you will see, my prism story needed to be told in order to add a bit of flavor to what was about to unfold.

 

As I sat on the garden bench I formulated my plans. I should be able to acquire the main piece tonight at the Ball, I would have time this afternoon to retrieve my ever handy satchel and its array of tools and have it hidden at the spot I had already selected. It was perfect, located at the end of the path I had found, or rather the charming lady in the smart chiffon dress had found for me. A gas lamp would provide adequate light for my “lure”, and it led to a back wood where I could lead any victims away and liberate them of their valuables before making my escape. I rose, just enough time to walk my escape route, before setting up and then be dressed for the evening’s festivities. I looked around, I was alone now, my lady in white had disappeared, following her own course, whatever it may have been.

 

The Autumn Ball that evening was in full swing by the time I arrived. Being a cool fall day, most of the women were wearing long gowns and dresses, and that, for whatever the reason, usually meant they were decked out with more layers of jewelry than say , if it had been the middle of summer. In order to put my plan in action I need and intrinsic piece of the trap, a prism. The one I had once had was long ago lost, a minor pawn in a game to take a pair of princesses.

 

I knew exactly the type of prism required for my plan, and so began mingling amongst the guests with that in mind.

 

I started out by walking through to the chamber like ballroom where a full orchestra was starting to play. The first person I saw from the garden party was the little tramp who had been wearing the too tight satin tea dress. That dress had been replaced with a long silky gown, her gold jewelry replaced with emeralds; including a thin bracelet that had taken the place of the gold one that she had so obligingly dangled in my larcenous path. I decided to avoid her In principle, and in doing so spied someone quite interesting.

 

That someone was a pretty lady in a long velvet gown standing off to one side, idly watching the many dancers out on the floor. The dancing couples were forming an imagery of a rainbow coloured sea of slinky swirling gowns and with erupting fireworks of sparkling jewels, ignited by pair of immensely large chandeliers that hung over the dance floor, setting them off. I made my way, skirting the dance floor to reach her, my eyes on her jewels, which were making pretty fireworks of their own. I happened to walk up just as a waiter with a tray of drinks was passing by. Plucking off a drink I offered it to the lady with one hand, my other hand placed on her back as If to steady myself. She laughed prettily, and taking the drink I met her eyes, as she was focused on reaching and holding the glass in her slippery gloved hand, mine was on the ruby and diamond necklace. My hand behind her had flicked open the simple hook and eye clasp of the antique piece and was in the process of lifting it up and whisking it away from her throat. As I said a few words to her, I pocketed it, while also taking in the rest of her lovely figure and its shiny decorations, before biding adieu. She smiled, her pale bare neckline now quite glaringly extinguished of its fire.

 

It was about an hour later, after spotting, but unable to make inroads with several likely candidates, that I finally struck gold (figuratively). It came in the form of a young couple arguing between themselves in a far corner of the chamber. She was lecturing a rather handsome man in a tux, her jeweled fingers flying in his face. If she hadn’t been moving about in such an animated fashion as she lectured, I may not have even noticed her. But as it happened I did, especially noticeable was the sanctimonious lady’s wide jeweled bracelet that was bursting out in a rainbow of colorful flickers as her hand was emphatically waving, as her long gown of silk swished around with every movement she made. Perfect. I watched for a bit, and sure enough they moved off, the man heading for the patio leading outside, the wealthy girl following him, still giving him lashes with her tongue. I moved and managed to have her bump into me simply by stepping on the hemline of her long gown. For a few seconds I was the one on the receiving end of her wrath, but I took it like a man, I could see in the eyes of her tongue lashed husband, that he was grateful for the respite. I was also grateful; grateful for the quite wide, very shimmering, bracelet that I had removed from her wrist and now was residing in my pocket.

 

I began to leave the patio, but was stopped by a matronly lady in ruffles, laces and pearls, her breath heavy with alcohol. She started to question me on what the couple had been on about. Then without waiting for an answer she launched herself into a tirade of her own, her gem encrusted, silken gloved fingers, waving in my face for emphasis. It was almost ten minutes before I was able to make my escape. Which I did, but not before slipping off one of the lecturing ladies vulgarly large cocktail rings.

 

I headed onto the patio; the time was getting ripe for my plan, which I was now ready to put into motion, now having acquired its most essential piece. I went to the end of the large patio, weaving in and out of the by now well liquored guests whom had assembled there. Across the way I saw a lady tripping over her own gown. By the time I reached her she had fallen down, giggling merrily. Two of us rushed to her aid, she was busy gushed her thanks to the rescuer she knew, while ignoring the one she didn’t! Which was unfortunate on her part, for by ignoring me, she also was ignorant of the fact that I was busy lifting the small stands of black pearls from her wrist. I left unnoticed, much like a shadow fading out of the light, or at least that’s how it seemed. Finally I reached the patios outer edge without further incident, or gain. I went on the grass and turned a corner with the intention of going, post haste around the house to reach the gardens by the long way, hoping not to be seen by anyone. But I no sooner turned the corner, when I realized that it was not to be the case.

 

It was my blithe spirit in white chiffon from the garden party, pardon me, soiree. She was unescorted, looking up at the moon above a stone turret with one lit window, so intently that my presence had not been noticed. I had been absolutely correct in my observation of her as far as what she would be wearing for the evening. For what she had lacked in ornaments at the soiree, she had more than made up for in the evening festivities. She was absolutely gorgeous, resplendent in as beautiful a silvery satin gown that I had ever witness. It was just pouring down, shimmering along her delightful figure. Her long blazing red hair was still curling down and free, but now a pair of long chandelier earrings cascading down from her earlobes, were peeking out every now and then as they swayed with her every movement. Her blazingly rippling necklace was all diamonds, dripping down the front of her tightly satin covered bosom, twinkling iridescently like an intensively glimmering waterfall. Her slender gloved wrists were home to a pair of dangling diamond bracelets that were almost outshone by her many glistening rings. All in all she was quite a lure all too herself

 

I came up to her, starling her from her reverie. Taking up her hand, I looked into her startled, suddenly blushing face. I complimented her on the fine gown she wore. She thanked me, and I could see I that she suddenly remembered she me as the chap who she thought smiled to her in the garden. She seemed to accept my compliment quite readily. I chanced it( although Lord knows I was short on time) and asked her to a dance. I did not think she would agree, so it was with a little bit of surprise, hoping she would politely decline and walk off, leaving me free to go about my business unobserved. But she accepted, and I will admit that my heart leapt as she agreed (although in the back of my mind I knew I should be off if my plan was to work). The music had stopped so we made small talk as we slowly walked back to the ballroom. Her name was Katrina. It seems she was waiting for someone, which suited my plans, but he was late and so she had time. Which may have sounded dismissive, but from the apologetic way she said it, it was anything but the sort.

 

The orchestra started to tune back up as we entered, and taking her offered hand up, was soon lost in the elegance of my appealing partner. It was a long dance, and a formal one, but I could tell she was subtly anxious to be off on her meeting, as I was to be off to my own adventure. But Katrina did not really allow it to show, which was very uncharacteristic of her someone with her obvious breeding. So I was ready when the by the end of the music she begged her condolences and took flight. I watched her as she fluidly moved away, her jewels sparkling, all of them. On her mission to meet Mr. X I thought, for whom I was already harboring a quite jealous dislike. I should be off I thought to meself.

 

But I stood, still as stone; totally mesmerized by the way Katrina’s swirling silvery satin gown was playing out along her petite, jewel sparkling figure. It wasn’t till the last of her gown swished around a corner out of sight that I moved, but not without having to shake my head to clear the thoughts of her out of it. Well old son, focus. For by now the guests were starting to wander a bit afield in the waning hours of the Autumn Ball, and my small window of opportunity was closing fast. If my little plan was going to have any chance of success it would have to be now.

 

I walked out and made my way to one of the outside exist of the garden wall. Reaching into my pocket as I did so, fingering the bracelet, now cold, that had belonged to the quarrelsome lady,and soon would be playing another role, far from one its former mistress would ever have dreamed off. I also felt my new acquisition, still warm from my dance partner’s body. I will admit that I had felt a twinge of regret for taking it from a lady I had found to be most charmingly captivating. But slipping off the diamonds up and away from her throat had been as temptingly easy as it had been automatic. I had advantageously made use of the sleekness of her scintillatingly silky gown, and with the distractions created by the movements of the dance, successfully managed to keep Katrina’s attention safely diverted from the reality of why my fingers were ever so gently, caressingly sliding along her slippery gowns neckline. The truth was I had originally placed my hand there because it had felt so right, and I was a little startled when my fingers had subconsciously started playing with her necklaces clasp. Before I knew it, they had flicked open the gemstone clasp of her obviously expensive diamond necklace, and had lifted up. As I watched out of the corner of my eye, almost like I was a spectator, as opposed to being the perpetrator, I saw the chain move up and over her shoulder; its diamonds sparkling with is as the necklace disappeared from view behind her back.

It was a favored technique that I had perfected to the point that by this stage of my career I nearly always acquired my objective. But, as odd as it sounds, I was not happy with myself on this occasion.

 

But I did not long dwell on my mixed feelings on taking the charming lass’s diamonds, for by now I had reached my place of ambush. It was in one of the farthest reaches of the garden, at a bend on the end of a long path that, with a gas lamp at its beginning just off the patio, would allow me to see from some distance off. Behind me was a break in the hedge wide enough for a person to walk through comfortably. It was here, off a tree limb, underneath a second ornate cast iron gas lamp, which was now lit, that I hung the shimmering bracelet that I had sought out and acquired for just that reason

 

I walked around and saw that it could be seen flickered off in the distance from the woods, Perfect! Earlier I had hidden my satchel with a hood and knife and bit of rope in the hollow of an old tree. I now retrieved them, and after getting ready, found my position and waited. At 10 minutes past the first hour of my wait, with nary a single glimpse of anyone, I started to fidget. My corner may be just a bit too desolated I was beginning to admit to myself. It seemed that most of the guests were staying by the patio. I was starting to think that I should pack it in, possibly rejoining the guests for one last parting( of someone from her Jewelry). I was just reaching down to pick up my satchel when I suddenly saw something flash under the gas lamp at the beginning of the path, and my senses immediately perked up. I watched as the wisps of rich shimmery satin moved closer, I stiffened, drooling with anticipation, the game was afoot.

  

I could see clearly the flickering jewels she wore, and by their blazing sparkles of rippling fire, I knew that my long vigil would not have been in vain. As the lady drew I recognized her gown of silvery satin! I knew who was making those tantalizing flashes of appealing treasures. Katrina!

 

I watched as she approached, in all her glittering elegance. My heart and conscious was in turmoil, but I knew I probably would not get a second chance. I could not let her get away unscathed. Beside, from the shock of being confronted with a masked scoundrel wielding a wicked blade, she would be in no shape to recognize her assailant. She stopped, apprehensively looking back towards the bright lights of the Manor, Then turning back I saw she had a self-satisfied smile creeping upon her face. She reached up, and undoing her hair, shook it down, curls of softness cascading down, hanging loosely down. It was as she performed this provocative act, that I saw her eyes open wide in curiosity; she had spied my pretty little “prism”. The charming fish was hooked.

 

I waited, watching her approaching ever closer to fate, and from my concealment, I basked in her glow. My heart beating fast, my adrenaline pumping, for the remaining jewels (I thought of her necklace in my custody) that she possessed I already had witnessed were quite valuable. She passed my hiding spot and went to the hanging, shimmering object. As she reached up, looking around, she failed to see me approaching in the shadows. I came up from behind, jabbing a finger in her back as I reached her, I gruffly in no uncertain terms, snarled for her to freeze and make no sound. She stiffened under my touch, but made no move or outcry. I went around; pointing my knife in her direction, looking into her sad doe wide eyes as she realized what was going to happen next. She was trembling; from fear I guessed, and knew I had her right where I wanted. As I made my demands upon her, gimme them jewels sister, she, not surprisingly, was very compliant in giving them up to me. She reached for her necklace last, and looked entirely shocked to find her throat bare, as she searched the neckline of her gown I saw her look into my hand, now dripping with her precious jewelry, almost as if to see if she had not already removed it. She looked apologetically into my eyes, startled; almost pleading that she didn’t know what had happened to it. I just played dump. She than spoke for the first time, sir, may I ask to keep my purse? Her words would have instantly melted even the coldest chunk of ice, I looked down at the little silvery clutch hanging from her arm on its rhinestone chain, I nodded, indicating that she could, and saw relief wash over her face. I told her she now needed to turn around and walk off into the woods ahead of me. She hesitated, and I told her no harm would befall her, I had no intentions along those lines.

 

About 5 meters in I stopped her, and had her remove her shoes, as she bent over to undo the high heels rhinestone clasps I watched her gown tightly outlining her figure. She tripped on the hem of her gown, and as she attempted to keep her balance, accidently let her purse slip off her shoulder. Without thinking I reached down to pick it up for her as she tried reached for it simultaneously

 

The small purse was far heavier than it should have been. Curious I opened it, finding that it contained a rather extensive array of mismatched jewelry, glittering in unbelievably expensive fire . I looked into Katrina’s horror struck eyes dumb founded, as she looked guiltily into mine. The gig was up. The jewels belonged to the lady of the manor, my muse in silver was a thief, a female version of me very self.

 

Aye, what’s this than luv? I questioned her as she looked into my eyes, hers large with a mixture of fright and disbelief. She melted before me, fainting, I caught her in my arms, and it was no ruse. I held her as she came to, holding her warm, silky figure lovingly to mine. I did not know what to think. Nor could I ever explain what possessed me to do what I did next. As she came to, her eyes opened, and I removed my mask, looking back into them deeply.

 

Oh, she gasped, I’m glad it was you, startled that she had said the words out loud. She than started to coyly blushes, quite demurely. Something sparked in me, and unless she was an incredibly good actress, it did also for Katrina. Our eyes both looked into the others, melting away in the lust of the moment. We embraced, deeply, and I held her squirming warm slick figure tight in my enveloping arms. I looked over her shoulder, eyeing the glistening bracelet hanging from its branch. To catch a thief, the thought suddenly opened in my mind, what a great title for a novel I thought to myself, as I buried my nose into Katrina’s luxuriously soft hair.

 

We talked for a bit, walking off into the woods, then she looked into my eyes again, a coy, look that melted me on the spot, and that was the end of it, we embraced again, and wholly gave ourselves to one another. What about your man I asked suddenly remembering, my man she questioned , than oh, you mean the Lord, I was waiting for him to come down from smoking in his tower study, that’s where the lady’s jewels are kept. She broke into an Irish brogue as she said the last bit, and that I guessed was her natural tongue. she laid a hand on the side of my face, thanks for being jealous though, me lad.

I should collect my lure I said, which made her smile; it was such an enticing smile at that. We started to head back and watched as it dangled in front of us flickering. With a far off look in her green eyes, Katrina spoke as if in deep though.

 

The daughter of the house, she has a bracelet on like the one you have dangling, a bracelet of diamonds that I had taken a fancy to, wishing it had been in the safe along with the rest of the ladies of manors jewelry. I knew who she was talking about. The one in green taffeta I asked? Aye lad, that’s the one. Actually her necklace would be just as easy, and worth more I said. Just then her bright green eyes gleamed, Give me about a half an hour, she told me, we will put your little lure to use again. She noticed my hesitation, don’t worry luv she said soothingly placing a gloved hand to my cheek, no longer was it sparkly with its stolen bracelet and rings. I’ll leave my purse with you, can’t very well be carrying it around now can I? I nodded my consent, my mind burning with the thoughts she had alluringly placed there.

  

She turned, and then hesitated; turning back she said I probably should not go back in naked luv. I smiled, reaching in I pulled out her necklace and placed it around her throat. With a little gasp she blurted, so it was you, I was wondering who and when it had happened. It’s not the first time I’ve had me jewels lifted, but it’s a bloody annoyance to have to let them get away with it, crawls under my skin to have pretend not to notice so that I don’t draw any attention to me self before making my move to steal the posh ones jewels.

 

But you, mister, I never felt as much as a prickling. I was ready to assume my pretties had been a victim of a broken clasp this time. I gave a little nod in acceptance. That wasn’t exactly a compliment lad, she said in what I hopped was a subtle jest. Just last summer some clumsy bugger slipped of me earrings, my favorite pearls, as we were danc… she stopped, seeing the guilt in my eyes. Men! As thieves you are all of the same skin she spat out angrily, or attempted to sound angry, for the look in her eyes to me she wasn’t. I best be off, before I change me mind about out little endeavor.

 

With that she swirled around on her heels, and started off, but not before turning and giving me an extremely coy look of interest. As she swirled back around I heard her say loud enough for my ears, I’ll learn me self to be a picker of pockets, see how males like to be taken advantage of in their vulnerabilities! She nodded to herself as she said it. Then suddenly she stopped, than twirled on her heels, her gown swirling enticingly along her figure. Looking me dead in the eye she said, “Vie ne est pas d'attendre que la tempête , mais d'apprendre à danser sous la pluie” !

 

What does that mean? I questioned in a low voice, perplexed.

 

Maybe, Mon Cheri, someday I will tell you… And with that she turned on her heel, her gown once again swirling about, and went, determinedly, swishing her way back up the path. I just watched. I had never heard anyone speak French with an Irish Brogue and I had found it to be rather provocative!

 

I watched as she swished and swayed her way back through the hedge and regained the path leading back to the manor. Her plan was simple; she would lead the daughter of the house to my corner and as she had done, go out with her to look at the swinging charm. I would then make my appearance, rob both ladies of their finery, and telling the daughter to wait until I released her friend, walk off with Katrina as a hostage, and we would both take off and make good our escape. A simple plan, so simple it should actually work.

 

So, there I was. Holding a purse with a small fortune in jewels, my pocket full of more jewels worth an additional pretty farthing, and her charms were wearing off by her leaving. And my thieving nature coming back, reawakened from the spell they had been under!

 

The devil of my conscious crept out on my shoulder, the angel markedly absent from the other.

 

Look mate, she may not be all she seems, and possibly has some other game in mind. Maybe she does have a male confidante helping her out… and was actually on her way to fetch him. He said in my inner ear. And, after all, you took her diamonds twice, didn’t ye now? Do you really think shell forgive you of that me lad?

 

And there is no honor amongst thieves, as the saying goes, he added as a closing argument...

 

I rolled it over in my mind…I could leave, absconding with it all, book a cruise to the states or down under where there lay untried fertile grounds to ply my trade. Not to mention working over my fellow passengers aboard the cruise ship while they attended the fancy affairs that were always going on, or so the brochures always seemed to show……

 

Then In the distance I caught a wisp of Katrina’s long silvery gown. She was coming, and not only with the daughter of the manor, but also with a spare. For I could see a purple coloured gown swishing alongside with the prey in rustling green taffeta.. I watched as all three ladies, resplendent with the rippling fiery gems they all possessed, came up the path, gowns sweeping out , shimmery from the now misty distance.

 

The thought of making my escape with all the loot continued to haunt me, there was still time now to take off without notice, or I could rob all three, and leave with purple silk as my hostage, Katrina would not be able to say anything on chance of giving up her part of the game, or I could just be a good lad and sty with the script that Katrina had written. Take a chance, roll the dice and believe that she was all she had me believing she could ever be.

 

As they came closer I knew my time was running out. The thoughts of just looking out for myself kept coming up playing the devil with my conscience as the precious seconds ticked away…

 

No honor amongst thieves…

What will it be, old boy I challenged myself,

What will you have it be?........

To see what his decision ultimately was, and the eventual path it led to, see the album question answered)

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Life is not about waiting out the storm, but about learning to dance in the rain.

Vie ne est pas d'attendre que la tempête , mais d'apprendre à danser sous la pluie .

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Courtesy of Chatwick University Archives

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All rights and copyrights observed by Chatwick University, Its contributors, associates and Agents

 

The purpose of these chronological photos and accompanying stories, articles is to educate, teach, instruct, and generally increase the awareness level of the general public as to the nature and intent of the underlying criminal elements that have historically plagued humankind.

 

No Part of this can reprinted, duplicated, or copied be without the express written permission and approval of Chatwick University.

 

These photos and stories are works of fiction. Any resemblance to people, living or deceased, is purely coincidental.

As with any work of fiction or fantasy the purpose is for entertainment and/or educational purposes only, and should never be attempted in real life.

We accept no responsibility for any events occurring outside this website.

 

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Another shot from one of the most visually stunning shows that I have ever seen. It features two members of 'Kataklo', an athletic dance group from Italy, composed entirely of former Olympic gymnasts.

 

I became friendly with the show's producer (Angella Kwon) during last year's Edinburgh Fringe, having previously met (and become friendly with) her sister Boram (who currently studies at my old university in Stirling) during the 2005 Fringe. Both are South Korean and Angella was producing two South Korean shows at this year's Edinburgh Fringe...and also Kataklo.

 

We were having lunch, the day before the last Kataklo show (I had only seen them perform on the Royal Mile) when Angella kindly invited me along and asked me to take photographs. I could not have taken this shot with my old camera. This (and several others like this) were taken at 3200 ISO, hand held with a shutter speed of 1/20th of a second (I just love image stabilisation) and relying on autofocus. I love my Canon EOS-5D!

 

As I have previously mentioned, one of my friends, Ken Campbell, has a progressive rock group called 'Crooked Mouth'. At the moment, he is preparing their second album (called 'Hold in the Sun') for release. I will be providing photographs for the CD, the idea being to produce a photo that represents each different song. However, one of these shots is a candidate for the CD cover. You can find out more about Crooked Mouth and hear some samples (and even order their first CD!) here: Crooked Mouth

 

If you like this shot, please have a look at my Kataklo set.

  

Preview of the finalized VCW Monolithic upper for public release cleaned up the code quite a bit from the SPW joint project.

 

Includes CQB and Midlength Barrels + Barrel Nut

 

Stock will be finalized expect a few changes

 

Valkyrie Rifleworks.

Vermont's Bernie Sanders: Eyewash, flatus, shell game, GOPDEM apologist...or merely all of the above?

 

Let's take a gander at good ol' Bernie's' record of service to Wall Street's GOPDEM Crime Corporation:

 

****************************************************************************

Weekend Edition June 27-29, 2014

 

Voter Beware

Bernie Sanders Cannot Save US

by RON JACOBS

 

In the spring of 1997, a drive to form a union amongst the housekeeping, bookstore, landscaping and trades workers at the University of Vermont (UVM) was well underway. The United Electrical, Radio and Machine Workers union (UE) had been enlisted to help those of us in the UVM work force working on the union drive get organized. Their abilities had helped us move quickly and gain numerous signatures on cards. On March 8, 1997 International Women’s Day, we held a union rally. It was very well attended. The speakers built a crescendo of assent. I was on the list and gave a brief talk about the importance of the date for the US union movement and its relevance to our campaign. Then the lead organizer Kimberley Lawson took the stage. An excellent organizer and an inspiring individual, she introduced the last speaker. It was Bernie Sanders, then Vermont’s Congressman. The applause was stupendous. Chants of Bernie! Bernie! filled the room. After about five minutes of applause, Bernie began to speak. It was a good, if standard, stump speech about the rights of workers and the need for the university administration and Board of trustees to do the right thing and recognize the union.

 

Two years later, spring of 1999. Bill Clinton was under fire in Congress for his misguided and manipulative dalliances with Monica Lewinsky. The Dayton Accords concerning the growing civil war in Yugoslavia had created the intended scenario, leading Belgrade to insist on its historical right to keep Kosovo under its governance. In response, Washington and other NATO governments began an intensive bombing campaign. Bill Clinton and his war cabinet began an around-the-clock assault on the Serbian people. Liberals and progressives drank the kool-aid and offered their whole hearted support. Bernie Sanders made it clear he was completely on board with the action. Indeed, after antiwar activists in Burlington, Vermont marched through downtown Burlington stopping at the offices of each Senator and ending at Sanders’ office where they staged a sit-in, Bernie instructed his office staff via telephone to call the police and clear the office. A week later at an emergency town meeting on the bombing in Montpelier, Vermont Sanders showed up with a couple staff members and a panel of pro and antiwar speakers. Bernie vehemently defended the bombing and actually told at least two members of the audience to leave if they didn’t like what he was saying.

 

September 2001. After thousands of people are killed in the World Trade Center and Pentagon, President George Bush and Congress declared war on Afghanistan. Sanders joined the bandwagon and voted to adopt the joint resolution that authorized the President to use the United States Armed Forces against anyone involved with the attacks of September 11th, 2001 and any nation that harbors these individuals. In October 2002, after two years of war on the people of Afghanistan and a series of lies and misinformation, Congress and the White House (with help from Great Britain and a couple other governments) ignored the United Nations and world opinion and invaded Iraq. While Sanders voted against the original authorization to use military force against Iraq, he followed that vote with several subsequent votes authorizing funding of that war and the debacle in Afghanistan. The other piece of legislation passed that long ago September was the PATRIOT Act. Like the vote that sent troops to Afghanistan, that legislation changed the US forever. To his credit, Sanders voted against the original PATRIOT Act legislation and attempted to curtail its effect in subsequent votes. However, in 2006, he voted Yea on legislation that made the remaining fourteen provisions of the Patriot Act permanent and extended the authority of the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) to conduct “roving wiretaps” and access certain business records through December 31, 2009. In a similar vein, Sanders voted against the original legislation that created the Department of Homeland Security, but by 2006 he had joined the majority of Congress in passing continued funding of that agency.

 

In 2008, Sanders was elected to the Senate. This transition gave Bernie a salary increase with potentially even less power than that he had in the House. His voting record changed little: voting for some war authorization funds while opposing others; funding intelligence operations while voting to remove immunity for communications companies involved in government surveillance; supporting contraception funding and funding for children’s health insurance programs; and opposing John Brennan’s appointment to head the CIA while supporting Chuck Hagel’s appointment as Secretary of Defense. He continued authorizing grants and laons to Israel, even after Israel bombed Gaza, attacked the Mavi Marmara and supported illegal settlements in the West Bank. Most recently, Sanders joined ninety-seven other Senators and approved a $1 billion aid package to the coup government in Ukraine, a package that (when combined with International Monetary Fund loans) will most certainly further impoverish Ukrainian working people.

 

Beginning in 2010, Vermonters became aware that the Air National Guard base in Burlington was one of the top choices of the Pentagon to base the multimillion dollar F-35 fighter plane. Immediately, citizens began organizing against that possibility. Some members of the organizing group thought Sanders might be in support of their position. They were quickly disappointed. Indeed, as the campaign against the F-35s being based in Vermont grew, Senator Sanders support for the idea grew stronger and more adamant. By October 2012, after a series of victories by opponents of the plane, Sanders stated in part, “I’m very proud of the role that the Vermont National Guard has played in our state and I do not want to see that role diminished or eliminated…. The F-35, whether one may like it or not, is the plane of choice not only for the U.S. Air Force, but for the Navy, Marines and much of NATO. If the F-35 ends up not being located here, it will end up at a National Guard base in Florida or South Carolina. I would rather it be here.” As I wrote in an article after the Pentagon announced it had chosen Burlington to base the planes (VTDigger: The Pentagon gets what it wants (again)1/15/2014), “There is an alternative to the cynical attitude that rationalizes taking blood money since, after all, somebody will and it might as well be Vermont.”

 

If one believes Sanders’ fans, they expected him to be the politician who would create that alternative. Indeed, there are still those who excuse his failure to do so, even in Vermont where they should know better. After all, as the summary above of his voting record suggests, Bernie Sanders is if nothing else a shrewd politician. Like his colleague currently in the White House, Sanders campaigns on progressive and populist themes. Unlike Mr. Obama, however, Sanders usually sticks to his positions on issues relating to labor, veterans, children, corporate cheats, and certain social issues (marriage equality, for example.) However, when it comes to matters of war and peace, his record is at best a mixed bag and, more likely, representative of his ideas on how the United States can maintain its imperial role forever (or at least for a long, long time.)

 

Senator Sanders is often called a socialist in the mainstream and progressive media. While this may have been true once, it would be hard for even the most generous reader of Karl Marx to honestly say this was still the case. It is not my plan here to argue for or against Sanders’ socialism, though. However, the history of socialism in the US includes adamant anti-imperialists like Eugene Debs, who went to prison for opposing the World War I and his counterpart Meyer London, who supported US entry into that imperialist maelstrom. The situation during World War II was of course different, given the fascist enemy. However, there were those who remained stoutly antiwar during that conflict, too. All US wars involve a defense of the capitalist economy and, consequently, a belief in that economy’s superiority. Bernie Sanders actions make it clear he shares that belief.

 

After the bombing of Yugoslavia had ended and the US plan to Balkanize the Balkans neared its completion, I received many emails and calls regarding the abovementioned sit-in at Bernie’s office and the protesters’ opposition to his politics of war. Most of these messages came from outside of Vermont and considered what the protesters did to be counterproductive. After all, the messages stated, Sanders went to Chiapas to support the Zapatistas and he’s against the various free trade agreements and the WTO. He’s more of an ally than a foe, isn’t he? My answer to these challenges is that I’m not sure. So called progressive politicians who do not draw the link between corporate America’s wars and its attack on social security, health care, the minimum wage, forty- hour work week, and other issues working people consider important are doing us a disservice. The wars fought by the US military are ultimately fought for one reason only–to maintain and expand the power of corporate America at the expense of workers and the poor around the world. Didn’t neoliberal writer Thomas Friedman write during the bombing of Serbia and Kosovo, “McDonald’s cannot flourish without McDonnell Douglas, the builder of the F-15. And the hidden fist that keeps the world safe for Silicon Valley’s technologies is called the United States Army, Air Force Navy and Marine Corps.” (New York Times 3/29/1999) Sanders must understand the connection. Hence, his support for those elements of the war machine that allow him to support labor in the manner he does.

 

The deeper question here is not whether Bernie Sanders is the progressive savior so many people want him to be. Instead, it is whether or not such a politician can even exist in the United States. I am one of the first to admit that Sanders’ record on labor, veterans, and most civil liberties issues is mostly decent, especially for someone who is part of the ruling elite (even if he doesn’t see himself that way.) However, this fact is probably irrelevant. The system in place in the Executive Branch is implacable and essentially without redemption. Barack Obama’s two terms should make it clear to any but his most fervent supporters the truth of this statement. With the exception of a very few social issues, Obama has done very little that is any different from his right wing predecessor or the neoliberal champion Bill Clinton who preceded George Bush. In part, this is certainly because Obama is not a leftist or even a progressive. The primary reason, though, is because politicians who do not agree with the US insistence on military superiority and economic hegemony rarely get to Washington, much less to the White House.

 

On a related note, electoral politics in today’s United States tend to be the least effective way to create social and economic justice. The political power of the corporate-financial-military nexus is so pervasive, especially in the world of elections, few leftist candidates stand a chance even in municipal politics. Liberals like Sanders are few and far between on the national stage. That being said, if Sanders does run for president, he should do so as an independent. Regarding this question, a column by progressive Tom Hayden (of SDS and Chicago 7 notoriety), appeared recently on The Nation magazine’s website. In the article titled “Bernie Sanders Could Be the 2016 Democratic Candidate We’ve All Been Waiting For”(Nation.com 5/14/2014), Hayden supports the idea that Sanders run as a Democrat in the hope that his campaign will push the Democrats supporting Hilary Clinton to the left. Hayden mentions the Jackson campaigns of the 1980s, writing “that the Democrats are stronger if their progressive wing is strengthened against the Wall Street wing of the party.” However, the fate of Jesse Jackson in the 1980s and Dennis Kucinich the past couple decades more accurately describes the true fate of progressives who take a bite from the Democrats’ poisoned apple.

 

In a John Nichols interview with Sanders that appeared in The Nation April 7, 2014 print issue, the Jesse Jackson campaign of 1984 is also mentioned as a template for Bernie’s potential presidential run. As anyone involved in that campaign might remember, Jackson’s progressive and populist politics were succeeding beyond his (and his supporters) dreams. Then the establishment moved in. Anti-Palestinian and big business donors and media commentators took a private comment made by Jackson out of context and splashed it across the pages and television screens of America. Racial code words began being heard in relation to Jackson’s name. Soon, his chances of winning the Democratic Party nomination were gone. Instead, the party limped out of San Francisco that summer with the Cold War liberal Walter Mondale as its loser candidate.

 

The mention of Jesse Jackson by these two writers reminded me of Bertram Gross’s classic 1980 text on US politics and the power elites titled Friendly Fascism. In between discussing the nature of fascism, the likelihood it will come to the United States, and the growth of the corporate state, Gross discusses what happens to “anti-establishment” candidates that might reach the White House. The candidates he had in mind as examples were George McGovern and, Jimmy Carter (yes, Jimmy Carter was considered extremely liberal and anti-establishment in 1976.) In the rare instance that such a candidate did get elected President and did not change his tune to harmonize with Wall Street and the Pentagon, Gross suggests that, ultimately, the person would be killed by those whose interests were threatened. Even without the conspiratorial angle, the reality of US politics in the current age is that any progressive in a position of power must temper their left-leaning politics if they want to keep their power. The more powerful their position, the more compromise is required. The anecdotes related above suggest Bernie Sanders understands this all too well and acts accordingly. So, even if the reader might believe President Bernie Sanders could bring us back from the precipice we find ourselves on the edge of, the very nature of the US economic and political system ensures that he can not.

 

Addendum: On June 20, 2014, the Burlington, VT CBS affiliate WCZX-TV reported that in response to a question about Obama’s decision to send at least 300 military advisors to Iraq in summer 2014. Sanders “says he can support the president’s decision to send advisors.”

 

Ron Jacobs is the author of the just released novel All the Sinners, Saints. He is also the author of The Way the Wind Blew: a History of the Weather Underground and Short Order Frame Up and The Co-Conspirator’s Tale. Jacobs’ essay on Big Bill Broonzy is featured in CounterPunch’s collection on music, art and sex, Serpents in the Garden. His third novel All the Sinners Saints is a companion to the previous two and is due out in April 2013. He is a contributor to Hopeless: Barack Obama and the Politics of Illusion, published by AK Press.

 

Fort Monroe (also known as the Fort Monroe National Monument) was a military installation in Hampton, Virginia—at Old Point Comfort, the southern tip of the Virginia Peninsula. Within the 565 acres of Fort Monroe are 170 historic buildings and nearly 200 acres of natural resources, including 8 miles of waterfront, 3.2 miles of beaches on the Chesapeake Bay, 110 acres of submerged lands and 85 acres of wetlands. It has a 332 slip marina and shallow water inlet access to Mill Creek, suitable for small watercraft.[5]

When it was operational as a United States Army post, Fort Monroe supported a work population of some 3000, including 1000 people in uniform. The major tenant unit was the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC). Along with Fort Wool, Fort Monroe guarded the navigational channel between the Chesapeake Bay and Hampton Roads—the natural roadstead at the confluence of the Elizabeth, the Nansemond and the James rivers. Surrounded by a moat, the seven-sided stone fort is the largest stone fort ever built in the United States.

 

During the initial exploration by the mission headed by Captain Christopher Newport in the earliest days of the Colony of Virginia, the site was identified as a strategic defensive location. In May 1607, they established the first permanent English settlement in the present-day United States about 25 miles further inland from the Bay along the James River at Jamestown. The land area where Fort Monroe is located became part of Elizabeth Cittie [sic] in 1619, Elizabeth River Shire in 1634, and was included in Elizabeth City County when it was formed in 1643. Over 300 years later, in 1952, Elizabeth City County and the nearby Town of Phoebus agreed to consolidate with the smaller independent city of Hampton, which became one of the larger cities of Hampton Roads.

 

Beginning by 1609, defensive fortifications were built at Old Point Comfort during Virginia's first two centuries. The first was a wooden stockade named Fort Algernourne. However, the much more substantial facility of stone to become known as Fort Monroe (and adjacent Fort Wool on a man-made island across the channel) were completed in 1834. The principal facility was named in honor of U.S. President James Monroe. Throughout the American Civil War (1861–1865), although most of Virginia became part of the Confederate States of America, Fort Monroe remained in Union hands. It became notable as a historic and symbolic site of early freedom for former slaves under the provisions of contraband policies. For two years thereafter, the former Confederate President, Jefferson Davis, was imprisoned at the fort. His first months of confinement were spent in a cell of the casemate fort walls that is now part of its Casemate Museum.

 

Fort Monroe decommissioned on September 15, 2011.[2] Many of its functions were transferred to nearby Fort Eustis (which was named for Fort Monroe's first commander, General Abraham Eustis, a noted artillery expert). Several re-use plans for Fort Monroe after it was decommissioned are currently under development in the Hampton community.

On November 1, 2011, President Barack Obama signed a proclamation to designate portions of Fort Monroe as a National Monument. This was the first time that President Obama exercised his authority under the Antiquities Act, a 1906 law to protect sites deemed to have natural, historical or scientific significance.[4]

 

History

 

Colonial period

 

Arriving with three ships under Captain Christopher Newport, Captain John Smith and the colonists of the Virginia Company established the settlement of Jamestown of the British Colony of Virginia on the James River in 1607. On their initial exploration, they recognized the strategic importance of the site at Old Point Comfort for purposes of coastal defense. They initially built Fort Algernourne (1609–1612) at the location of the present Fort Monroe. It is assumed to have been a triangular stockade, based on the fort at Jamestown. Other small forts known as Fort Henry and Fort Charles were built nearby in 1610.

 

In the latter part of August 1619, a Dutch ship, the White Lion, appeared off the coast of Old Point Comfort. Its cargo included more than 30 Africans captured from the slave ship Sao Joao Bautista. Traded for work and supplies from the English, they were the first Africans to come ashore on British-occupied land in what would become America. Although the Bantu Africans from Angola were considered indentured servants, their arrival is considered to mark the beginning of slavery in America.

 

Another fort, known only as "the fort at Old Point Comfort" was constructed in 1632. In 1728, Fort George was built on the site. Its masonry walls were destroyed by a hurricane in 1749, but the wood buildings within the fort continued to be used by a reduced force until at least 1775. In 1781, during the Siege of Yorktown, the French West Indian fleet established a battery on the ruins of Fort George. Throughout the Colonial period, fortifications were manned at the location from time to time.[citation needed]

 

Early 19th century

 

Following the War of 1812, the United States realized the need to protect Hampton Roads and the inland waters from attack by sea. In March 1819, President James Madison came up with a plan of building a network of coastal defenses. Construction of the fort began in earnest on the stone-and-brick fort which would serve as the safeguard for the Chesapeake Bay. It began construction in 1819 on what would become the largest stone fort ever built in the United States. Work continued for nearly twenty-five years.[6] The fort, designed by Simon Bernard, features a moat completely surrounding the inner structures. As a young first lieutenant and engineer in the U.S. Army, Robert E. Lee was stationed there from 1831 to 1834, and played a major role in the final construction of both Fort Monroe and its opposite, Fort Calhoun. The latter, later renamed Fort Wool, was built on a man-made island called the Rip Raps across the navigational channel from Old Point Comfort in the middle of the mouth of Hampton Roads. The Army briefly detained the chieftain Black Hawk at Fort Monroe, following the 1832 Black Hawk War.

 

When construction was completed in 1834, Fort Monroe was referred to as the "Gibraltar of Chesapeake Bay". The fort mounted an impressive complement of the most powerful artillery of the time, 32-pounder guns with a range of over one mile. In conjunction with Fort Calhoun (later Fort Wool), this was just enough range to cover the main shipping channel into the area. (Decommissioned after World War II, the former Fort Wool on Rip Raps is now adjacent to the southern man-made island of the Hampton Roads Bridge-Tunnel, first completed in 1957.)

 

American Civil War

 

1860–61

 

Fort Monroe played an important role in the American Civil War. On December 20, 1860, South Carolina became the first state to secede from the Union. Four months later, on April 12, 1861, troops of that state opened fire on Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor. Five days later, Virginia's legislature passed (subject to voters' ratification) the Ordinance of Secession of Virginia to withdraw from the Union, and join the newly formed Confederate States of America. On 23 May 1861, voters of Virginia ratified the state's secession from the union.

 

President Abraham Lincoln had Fort Monroe quickly reinforced so that it would not fall to Confederate forces. It was held by Union forces throughout the Civil War, which launched several sea and land expeditions from there.

 

A few weeks after the Battle of Fort Sumter in 1861, U.S. Army General-in-Chief Winfield Scott proposed to President Abraham Lincoln a plan to bring the states back into the Union: cut the Confederacy off from the rest of the world instead of attacking its army in Virginia. His plan was to blockade the Confederacy's coastline and control the Mississippi River valley with gunboats. In cooperation with the Navy, troops from Fort Monroe extended Union control along the coasts of the Carolinas as Lincoln ordered a blockade of the Southern seaboard from the South Carolina line to the Rio Grande on April 19, and on April 27 extended it to include the North Carolina and Virginia coasts.

 

On April 20 the Union Navy burned and evacuated the Norfolk Navy Yard, destroying nine ships in the process, keeping Fort Monroe at Old Point Comfort as the last bastion of the United States in Tidewater Virginia. The Confederacy's occupation of Norfolk gave it a major shipyard and thousands of heavy guns, but they held it for only one year.

 

Confederate Brigadier General Walter Gwynn, who commanded the Confederate defenses around Norfolk, erected batteries at Sewell's Point, both to protect Norfolk and to control Hampton Roads.

 

The Union dispatched a fleet to Hampton Roads to enforce the blockade, and on May 18–19, 1861, Federal gunboats based at Fort Monroe exchanged fire with the Confederate batteries at Sewell's Point. The little-known Battle of Sewell's Point resulted in little damage to either side. Several land operations against Confederate forces were mounted from the fort, notably the Battle of Big Bethel in June 1861.

 

On May 27, 1861, Major General Benjamin Butler made his famous "contraband" decision, or "Fort Monroe Doctrine", determining that escaping male slaves who reached Union lines would be considered contraband and not be returned to bondage. The order resulted in thousands of slaves fleeing to Union lines around Fort Monroe, which was Butler's headquarters in Virginia. Fort Monroe became called "Freedom's Fortress", as any slave reaching it would be free. By the fall, the Army had built the Great Contraband Camp to try to house the families. It was the first of more than 100 that would be established by war's end, and the Roanoke Island Freedmen's Colony (1863–1867), which started as a contraband camp. Mary S. Peake was teaching the children of freedmen to read and write near Fort Monroe. She was the first black teacher hired by the American Missionary Association (AMA), a Northern missionary group led by black and white ministers from the Congregational, Presbyterian and Methodist denominations, who strongly supported education of freedmen. Soon she was teaching children during the day and adults at night. The AMA sponsored hundreds of Northern teachers and hired other local teachers in the South; it founded more than 500 local schools and 11 colleges for freedmen and their children.

 

Under Gen. Butler's command, Fort Monroe was the site of a military balloon camp under the flight direction of aeronaut John LaMountain. The Union Army Balloon Corps was being developed at Fort Corcoran near Arlington under the presidentially appointed Prof. Thaddeus S. C. Lowe. At the same time, LaMountain, who was vying for position as Chief Aeronaut, had gained the confidence of Butler in using his balloon Atlantic for aerial observations. LaMountain is credited with having made the first successful report from an aerial station that was of practical military intelligence. LaMountain was later reassigned to Lowe's balloon corps, but after a period of in-fighting with Lowe, he was released from military service. Lowe eventually assigned regular military balloons to Fort Monroe.

1862

 

In March 1862, the naval Battle of Hampton Roads took place off Sewell's Point between the first ironclad warships, CSS Virginia and USS Monitor. While the outcome was inconclusive, the battle marked a change in naval warfare and the end to wooden fighting ships.

 

Later that spring, the continuing presence of the Union Navy based at Fort Monroe enabled Federal water transports from Washington, D.C., to land unmolested to support Major General George B. McClellan's Peninsula Campaign. Formed at Fort Monroe, McClellan's troops moved up the Virginia Peninsula during the spring of 1862, reaching within a few miles of the gates of Richmond about 80 miles to the west by June 1. For the next 30 days, they laid siege to Richmond. Then, during the Seven Days Battles, McClellan fell back to the James River well below Richmond, ending the campaign. Fortunately for McClellan, during this time, Union troops regained control of Norfolk, Hampton Roads, and the James River below Drewry's Bluff (a strategic point about 8 miles south of Richmond).

Beginning in 1862 Fort Monroe was also used as a transfer point for mail exchange. Mail sent from states in the Confederacy addressed to locations in the Union had to be sent by flag-of-truce, and could only pass through at Fort Monroe where the mail was opened, inspected, resealed, marked and sent on. Prisoner of war mail from Union soldiers in Confederate prisons was also required to be passed through this point for inspection.[7][8]

1864–96

 

In 1864, the Union Army of the James under Major General Benjamin Butler was formed at Fort Monroe. The 2nd Regiment, United States Colored Cavalry, mustered at Fort Monroe on December 22, 1864, and the 1st Regiment, United States Colored Cavalry mustered the same day at nearby Camp Hamilton. The Siege of Petersburg during 1864 and 1865 was supported on the James River from a base at City Point (now Hopewell, Virginia). Maintaining the control of Hampton Roads at Fort Monroe and Fort Wool was crucial to the naval support Grant required for the successful Union campaign to take Petersburg, which was the key to the fall of the Confederate capitol at Richmond. As Petersburg fell, Richmond was evacuated in 1865 on the night of April 2–3. That night, Confederate President Jefferson Davis and his cabinet escaped Richmond, taking the Richmond and Danville Railroad to move first to Danville and then North Carolina. However, the cause was lost, and Confederate General Robert E. Lee surrendered what was left of the Army of Northern Virginia to Grant at Appomattox Court House the following week.

After the last Confederate cabinet meeting was held on April 26, 1865, at Charlotte, North Carolina, Jefferson Davis was captured at Irwinville, Georgia, and placed under arrest. He was briefly confined in an unheated, open casemate until the Union Surgeon John J. Craven recommended more humane care for Mr. Davis. General Nelson A. Miles approved changes and even moved Mr. Davis to more hospitable quarters. He was held at Fort Monroe for two years. Some historians have speculated that his treatment in captivity was intended to be lethal.[citation needed] In poor health, Davis was released in May, 1867, on bail, which was posted by prominent citizens of both Northern and Southern states, including Horace Greeley and Cornelius Vanderbilt, who had become convinced he was being treated unfairly. The federal government proceeded no further in its prosecution due to the constitutional concerns of U.S. Supreme Court Chief Justice Salmon P. Chase.

The Journal of the United States Artillery was founded at Fort Monroe in 1892 by First Lieutenant (later General) John Wilson Ruckman and four other officers of the Artillery School. Ruckman served as the editor of the Journal for four years (July 1892 to January 1896) and published several articles therein afterward. One publication by West Point notes Ruckman's “guidance” and “first-rate quality” work were obvious as the Journal “rose to high rank among the service papers of the world”. The Journal was renamed the Coast Artillery Journal in 1922 and the Antiaircraft Journal in 1948.

 

Twentieth century

 

Over time the armament at Fort Monroe was improved, taking advantage of new technologies. In addition, the fort controlled several sub-installations around Hampton Roads, making the area one of the most heavily defended in the United States.

The Jamestown Exposition held in 1907 at Hampton Roads, featured an extensive naval review, including the Great White Fleet. Beginning in 1917, the former exposition site at Sewell's Point became a major base of the United States Navy. Currently, Norfolk Navy Base is the base supporting naval forces operating in the Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean Sea, and Indian Ocean. It is the world's largest naval station by number of military members supported.

 

Coast Artillery School

 

Also in 1907 the Coast Artillery School was established along with the U.S. Army Coast Artillery Corps. New buildings were constructed for classrooms and barracks (the library and school buildings compleated in 1909)[3]. As part of the schools responsibility the "Coast Artillery Journal" was published under the supervision of the commandant. [4] The school operated until 1946 when most of the coast artillery was disbanded, and the school was moved to Fort Winfield Scott.

 

Fort Monroe and Fort Wool stood guard during World War I and World War II, and successfully protected Hampton Roads and the important military and civilian resources located inland. The Fort installed the first Anti-submarine net in america in February 1917 stretching to Fort Wool.

 

By World War II, Fort Monroe served as headquarters for an impressive array of coast artillery guns ranging from 3-inch rapid fire guns to 16-inch guns capable of firing a 2,000 pound projectile 25 miles. In addition, the Army controlled submarine barriers and underwater mine fields. But this vast array of armaments was made largely obsolete by the end of the Second World War due to the development of the long-range bomber and the refinement of naval aviation.

 

After the operational armament was removed, Fort Monroe received a mission that it still maintains to this day. Since World War II, it has served as the major headquarters for training soldiers for war. In 1973, Fort Monroe became home to the United States Army Training and Doctrine Command (TRADOC), which combines the recruitment, training and education of soldiers with the development of operational doctrine.

 

Base Realignment and Closure

 

Main article: Base Realignment and Closure, 2005

 

The Department of Defense released a list on 13 May 2005 of military installations recommended for closure and/or realignment, among which was Fort Monroe. The list was approved by President George W. Bush on 15 September 2005, and submitted to Congress. Congress failed to act within forty-five legislative days to disapprove the list in its entirety, and the BRAC recommendations subsequently became law. Installations on the BRAC list by law must close within six years.

 

Fort Monroe today

 

As several re-use plans for Fort Monroe are, as of December 2011, under development in the Hampton community, plans for its long-term use cannot be yet documented.[citation needed]

 

Fort Monroe has become a popular historical site. The Casemate Museum, opened in 1951, depicts the history of Fort Monroe and Old Point Comfort, with special emphasis on the Civil War period. It offers a view of Confederate President Jefferson Davis' prison cell. Also shown are the quarters occupied by 1st Lt. Robert E. Lee in 1831–34, and the quarters where President Abraham Lincoln was a guest in May, 1862.

 

Redevelopment possibilities

 

The Fort Monroe Federal Area Development Authority (FMFADA) was established as a public body corporate and as a political subdivision of the Commonwealth of Virginia to serve as the official “Local Redevelopment Authority” (LRA) recognized by the Department of Defense. The task of the FMFADA commission was to study, plan and recommend the best use of the resources that will remain when the Army closed the fort in September 2011. The Fort Monroe Reuse Plan was officially adopted August, 2008 and planning updates are available on the FMFADA website.

 

The FMFADA relies on the expertise of national consultants in the areas of BRAC law, environmental engineering, historic architecture and preservation planning, structural engineering, housing market analysis, commercial/retail analysis, public relations/marketing, and tourism planning.

 

The FMFADA was created by legislative action of the Virginia General Assembly in 2007. Virginia’s Department of Historic Resources and the Department of Environmental Quality have major regulatory authority that influences the work.

 

The state took a lead role in planning because most of the land that Fort Monroe occupies will revert to the Commonwealth when the Army closes the fort. The effort was guided by three priorities; keep Fort Monroe open to the public, respect the rich history and advance economic sustainability.

 

The Authority is an 18 member body consisting of appointees from the city of Hampton, the Virginia House of Delegates and Senate and the Virginia governor’s cabinet, with two specialists in historic preservation and heritage tourism.

Generally, surplus military installations are turned over to the respective states. Redevelopment will be facilitated by the fact that most of the land on which the fort stands was loaned by the state of Virginia to the federal government, and will revert to the state once Fort Monroe closes.

 

Virginia historically has given local government strong consideration in determining disposition at that point, such as occurred at Fort Pickett in Nottoway County (near Blackstone) in the Southside region. Given the historic significance of the post, the decommissioned fort will be a good candidate for heritage tourism along with many other historical sites located throughout the greater Hampton Roads area. Redevelopment to help offset the economic loss of a base closure is usually a priority as well.

Fort Monroe is a National Historic Landmark and the moated fort and the 190 historic buildings on Old Point Comfort will be protected with historic preservation design guidelines for reuse. Old Point Comfort is prime development property and some mixed used new construction will be allowed within strict guidelines. For example, the historic Chamberlin Hotel has already been leased to a developer by the Army and beautifully renovated as retirement apartments.

 

The National Park Service and the Fort Monroe FADA are communicating to identify the best way to achieve a partnership and several options have been presented to the FMFADA board by the park service.

 

Source - Wikipedia

en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fort_Monroe

 

071010-N-5319A-005

PENSACOLA, Fla. (Oct. 10, 2007) Rescue Swimmer School instructor Aviation Warfare Systems Operator 1st Class Waylon Wolf encourages a candidate to pick up his time during swim sprints in the pool at Naval Air Station Pensacola. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Brien Aho (Released)

 

>>>------------------------------->

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Been toying with this idea for some time now so with the weekly theme being "fast" I thought it about time to bring it to life.

 

The potholes here in the UK didn't make this an easy task, tripod secured in the back of the car, focus locked on the dashboard, long enough shutter speed to create the motion and my trusty remote shutter release I was all set to go.

 

Many, many shots later with nearly all hitting the cutting room floor I was left with 2 possible candidates. Both requiring some extreme processing to make them anywhere near acceptable for posting.

 

Week 10, Fast, done.

MELODY , formal from MVW15 Netherlands , is now available in the mainstore !

 

"The heart of a melody can never be put down on paper" and that is why the latest mesh release from CHAMPAGNE!sparkling couture "MELODY" could only have been made for MVW 2015 candidate, Zivaah Darling!

 

The first thing that captures you is that fiery, sensual, that just envelopes the figure so well and takes the breath away. Your eye is caught to skim the figue-hugging column and explodes into a thousand waves in that bottom flounce skirt!

 

But the journey doesnt stop there! Going back up, you see where the wave continues as it dances across the chest and up over one shoulder in a fun and teasing way! Take in the front detail as it is copied across the included headdress and "MELODY" is really the complete package!

 

Sexy and captivating, "MELODY" is a gown that will stick in your head until you just have to come get it! The lovely Zivaah models her own gown for you but you can pick this one up in a select group of colors ranging from Red, Pink, Blue, Jade, Lavender, Black, Beige and White? So you have no excuse not to come in and get one for yourself or a friend!

 

sparkling couture main store location.

 

maps.secondlife.com/secondlife/Couture%20Boulevard/87/59/22

 

Flickr Explore #267 on Aug 29, 2008

Nikon D3 + Nikkor 28mm f/1.4D @ f/2 20s ISO 1600

 

This is in reply to a Flickrmail about the astrophoto shots I've uploaded (see www.flickr.com/photos/mureena/tags/astrophotography/ )

 

This was taken on a night when the Milky Way was visible to the bare eye, something that I find happens only 5-6 days every year. (More Milky Way photo uploads once I return home)

 

Favorable weather conditions is a must. In Scandinavia, the best astrophoto weather is early Autumn weather, with cold fronts and skies as clear as you can imagine. Sometimes February with it's extreme cold brings nights that are clear as crystal, but those temperatures subject your camera (and battery!) to extreme conditions.

 

The light in the foreground is from a building on the seashore. The halo on the lower third is from a city of 10 000 located 32km from the camera. Unless the city glow is desirable, get as far away from cities as possible, and find an environment free of smog and pollution.

 

This isn't an appealing example photo, because I was out too late. Photos taken within 1 hour of sunset give you the magic blue hour, and thus a much more interesting color of the sky. See here for examples: www.flickr.com/photos/mureena/tags/astrophotography/

 

For 35mm format, to calculate the longest shutter speed possible without turning stars into trails: 600 / (Focal Length) = Maximum Exposure Time

 

With a 28mm lens the math would be: 600/28mm = 21.43 seconds

 

Thus, I chose a 20s shutter for this.

 

The wider your effective focal length (remember to include crop factor) the longer the exposure time possible without trails. The wider and faster a lens the better it is for astrophoto, as there really isn't any light available when you shoot them. This means expensive primes, since wide and f/1.x isn't a direction of product development that camera manufacturers today pursue :-(

 

Choice of aperture. No matter what Noct Nikkor 58/1.2 sellers claim, all Nikkor lenses improve when you stop them down at least 1 f-stop from max aperture. This is especially true for f/1.x lenses, which exhibit coma at their wide open settings. The 28/1.4D is great wide open, but f/2 gives better contrast and removes vignetting, thus I chose f/2 as aperture.

 

After that you nail the ISO setting. Histogram exposure validation is better than LCD preview, because in pitch black environment your bright LCD fools you to think the photo's better than it really is. I histogram validated this setting to ISO 1000-1600 for a good exposure. ISO 1600 happens to be the max aperture on a D3 where I find high ISO starts eating detail (it still looks marvellous though), thus I did not want to go beyond that ISO setting.

 

Use a cable release like the Nikon MC-36 or if you're reluctant to buy this overpriced accessory (In Japan it costs 25% of what it costs in Europe!), just use self-timer mode. Exposure delay mode is the choice, if your camera supports it. This means that the sensor adds a delay after opening the shutter, and starts exposing once the mirror slap effect has gone.

 

Tripod and sand bag is essential, and I recommend a quality ball head especially for vertical exposures.

 

Framing and composing is a matter of personal choice. I like these more when they contain context, so I chose to include the 120 year old fisherman's cabin in the photo. For more "scientific" compositions, you probably want to exclude everything but the star sky.

 

I turned noise reduction off in this photo as the D3 has a pixel size that is in it's own class and color noise is really not a factor to worry about at ISO below 1600, but left the long exposure noise reduction on. This doubles the time needed for exposures, as your camera takes another "black" photo to remove the random pixels a high ISO photo is bound to produce on any DSLR.

 

For extreme long exposures (30+ seconds) you'll turn the stars into trails. This might be desirable, but you need to consider the sensor capabilities once you start going beyond 30s exposures. There are lots of different kinds of noise, color noise and random pixels being the type that we normally want to avoid. Subjecting a sensor to extreme bulb exposures will inevitably lead to sensor heating, and that brings in amp noise. If your sensor edges or corners start turning purple that is surely an effect of the sensor warming up. Well, at least we don't need to do reciprocity failure calculations for every film type we chose to use, that was the reality in the days before digital...

 

Did I forget something? Yes I did.

 

A tin pewter with some fine single malt is of great use. I prefer whiskey, Ireland and Bushmills. Oh, and remember to wear warm clothes.

 

If you still are reading, then you really must be interested in the subject of astrophotography. Since that is the case, I warmly recommend you read the following article, as it's much better, more scientific as well as more thorough than this blog entry I just finished :-)

 

www.luminous-landscape.com/tutorials/meteor.shtml

Hoh Xil or Kekexili is an isolated region in the northwestern part of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau China tour deals in China. The region covers 83,000 square kilometres at an average elevation of 4,800 meters, stretches in a meridional (east-west) direction between the Tanggula and Kunlun mountain chains in the border areas of Southwest China's Tibet Autonomous Region, Northwest China's Qinghai Province and the Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region. The best place to see the Nyainqentanglha Range is from the Tanglha Mountain Pass with its perennial snows. Winters are long and extremly cold in Kekexili. So if you choose to visit there in winter, it’s important to keep yourself warm before going.

 

Despite the harsh climate, Hoh Xil top China tours, the largest animal reserve in China, is home to more than 230 rare species of wild animals, 20 of which are under state protection, including the wild yak, wild donkey, white-lip deer, brown bear and the endangered Tibetan antelope or chiru.

 

The abundant plateau pika, a small burrowing rodent, is the main food of the region's brown bears; the bears also feed on the yak and antelope. When you travel through the unpopulated area in Hoh Xil, you may seegroups of Tibet antelope run freely. At the foot of Mountain Kunlun, Hoh Xil, which means 'beautiful young girl' is the biggest unpopulated area in China. Hoh Xil is located in the center of the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, The average elevation for the whole protection zone is above 4600 meters, which is called 'the third extreme in the world'. The hitherto little-known region, as well the struggling Tibetan antelope, has become household names in China upon the release of the film Kekexili: Mountain Patrol in 2004. The film Kekexili popular China tours had a profound impact in China in bringing attention the region and the plight of its inhabitants and endangered species. This led the Chinese government to offer much-delayed support to the protection of local species, and played a large part in the proposal of the Tibetan antelope as a candidate for official mascot of the 2008 Summer Olympics. from: travel to China

Official Press Release:

 

Do you have what it takes?

 

Miss AZUL 2015 represents a career defining opportunity to become one of the most highly respected, recognised & sought after avatars in SL Fashion.

 

You, the selected candidate will become the face and representative of a RL Japanese business based within the Virtual World of Second Life.

 

You will represent a Trans-Pacific Japanese Fashion House based in the SL fashion industry which is unparalleled in its Popularity and Longevity with exposure to an established INWORLD GROUP of approximately 24,000 members and business ESTABLISHED 8 years ago in 2007.

 

-AZUL- has been associated with & launched the career of the vast majority of the most highly regarded & established avatars in SL.

 

It is one the few brands to make the crossover from a Japanese to Western audience and which to this day maintains its position as fashion forward brand leading the way in creativity at the forefront of SL Fashion..

 

Video by NicoleX Moonwall: vimeo.com/117581614

 

Show Poster by Magissa Denver

 

Prizes:

 

Miss AZUL 2015 will:

 

1. Receive first prize totalling value L$250K Lindens consisting of L$50K and -AZUL- clothing (Monetary Value according to SL Marketplace of L$200K)

2. Reign as Miss AZUL for 2015

3. Receive a custom Tiara made by Virtual Impressions.

4. Have a beautiful dress named after her.

5. Be promoted through -AZUL- inworld groups which contains approximately 24,000 members.

6. Receive all -AZUL- new releases during her reign.

7. Be Featured in an 8 page editorial spread in Ferosh feroshsl.com/ October A/W’15 Edition

 

First Runner Up:

1. If any un forseen circumstances arise due to Miss AZUL 2015 being unable to fulfil her role, then the first runner up will fill this position and will reign as Miss AZUL 2015 for the remainder of the contract.

2. Cash prize of L$20K plus 10 -AZUL- items

 

Second Runner up:

 

1. Cash prize of L$10K plus 10 -AZUL- items

 

Eligibility:

 

All applicants must meet the following criteria:

 

- Must have an active Flickr account

- Active Blog - three (3) posts per month at a minimum

- Like the -AZUL- by Mami Jewell Facebook page www.facebook.com/AZULbyMami.Jewell

- For the duration of the Miss AZUL contest, please include a pick to the -AZUL- mainstore in your profile.

 

We also encourage and invite you to join our -azul- inworld group as we will be sending out information on Miss AZUL 2015 through this group and you also get notification of incredible group gifts.

 

Phase 1.

 

March 1 - 10

 

1. Please submit two photos wearing -AZUL- Minimum 512 x 512 (one headshot and one full length) to the Miss AZUL 2015 Flickr Group www.flickr.com/groups/missazul2015/. Please name the picture "Miss AZUL March 2015 submission - Your full SL name"

2. 15 applicants will be selected from the entries and they will be will be required to walk at a live show Sunday 29 March 2015 1pmslt.

3. There will be one rehersal for this show Saturday 28 March 2015 2pmslt.

 

6 contestants will be selected by a panel of judges and be invited to the Miss AZUL Official Group with a group tag "Finalists"

 

Phase 2.

 

May 1 - 10

 

1. Another round open for photo entries. Please submit two photos wearing -AZUL- Minimum 512 x 512 (one headshot and one full length) to the Miss AZUL 2015 Flickr Group www.flickr.com/groups/missazul2015/. Please name the picture "Miss AZUL May 2015 submission - Your full SL name"

2. 15 applicants will be selected from the entries and they will be will be required to walk at a live show Sunday 21 June 1pmslt.

3. There will be one rehersal for this show Saturday 20 June 2015 2pmslt.

 

6 contestants will be selected by a panel of judges and be invited to the Miss AZUL Official Group with a group tag "Finalists"

 

Phase 3

 

July 2015

 

*1st Challenge

12 Finalists have 1 month to create a portfolio of work dedicated to -AZUL- Blog/Flickr/Facebook which must last 1 month

 

August (Early)

*Interview with panel of Judges

 

Phase 4

 

August (Mid)

  

*2nd Challenge

12 Finalists have 1 MONTH to prepare - quest will be given at that time.

 

Phase 5 - FINAL

 

Finale Walk - September 27 Sun 1pmslt.

 

After the finale walk, the points gained throughout the contest will be added up and Miss AZUL 2015 will be announced.

 

If you have any questions regarding Miss AZUL 2015 please contact Ananya Mai.

  

Social Media:

 

-AZUL- Website: mamijewell.wordpress.com/

 

Marketplace : marketplace.secondlife.com/stores/11590

 

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Facebook Group : www.facebook.com/mami.jewell www.facebook.com/groups/221760591333497/

 

Terms and Conditions:

 

You agree by submitting an application, that AZUL by Mami Jewell inclusive of all social & visual media groups on the internet & groups within Second Life of which AZUL by Mami Jewell owns or is a member of is permitted to use all submitted pictures throughout the competition in any way the company considers appropriate.

071010-N-5319A-005

PENSACOLA, Fla. (Oct. 10, 2007) Rescue Swimmer School instructor Aviation Warfare Systems Operator 1st Class Waylon Wolf encourages a candidate to pick up his time during swim sprints in the pool at Naval Air Station Pensacola. U.S. Navy photo by Mass Communication Specialist 1st Class Brien Aho (Released)

 

>>>------------------------------->

This Photo was uploaded from www.Trackpads.com

There are more than 1 million photos and videos available on our site. High Res and unstamped versions of these files are available in our Gallery.

 

Unless otherwise noted, these photos may be used without our permission.

Miss AZUL 2015 official

Official Press Release:

 

Do you have what it takes?

Miss AZUL 2015 represents a career defining opportunity to become one of the most highly respected, recognised & sought after avatars in SL Fashion.

 

You, the selected candidate will become the face and representative of a RL Japanese business based within the Virtual World of Second Life.

 

You will represent a Trans-Pacific Japanese Fashion House based in the SL fashion industry which is unparalleled in its Popularity and Longevity with exposure to an established INWORLD GROUP of approximately 24,000 members and business ESTABLISHED 8 years ago in 2007.

 

-AZUL- has been associated with & launched the career of the vast majority of the most highly regarded & established avatars in SL.

 

It is one the few brands to make the crossover from a Japanese to Western audience and which to this day maintains its position as fashion forward brand leading the way in creativity at the forefront of SL Fashion..

 

Video by NicoleX Moonwall: vimeo.com/117581614

Show Poster by Magissa Denver

URL to Mainstore: maps.secondlife.com/secondlife/joia%20azul/128/128/28

 

Prizes:

Miss AZUL 2015 will:

1. Receive first prize totalling value L$250K Lindens consisting of L$50K and -AZUL- clothing (Monetary Value according to SL Marketplace of L$200K)

2. Reign as Miss AZUL for 2015

3. Receive a custom Tiara made by Virtual Impressions.

4. Have a beautiful dress named after her.

5. Be promoted through -AZUL- inworld groups which contains approximately 24,000 members.

6. Receive all -AZUL- new releases during her reign.

7. Be Featured in an 8 page editorial spread in Ferosh feroshsl.com/ October A/W’15 Edition

 

First Runner Up:

1. If any un forseen circumstances arise due to Miss AZUL 2015 being unable to fulfil her role, then the first runner up will fill this position and will reign as Miss AZUL 2015 for the remainder of the contract.

2. Cash prize of L$20K plus 10 -AZUL- items

 

Second Runner up:

1. Cash prize of L$10K plus 10 -AZUL- items

 

Eligibility:

 

All applicants must meet the following criteria:

- Must have an active Flickr account

- Active Blog - three (3) posts per month at a minimum

- Like the -AZUL- by Mami Jewell Facebook page www.facebook.com/AZULbyMami.Jewell

- For the duration of the Miss AZUL contest, please include a pick to the -AZUL- mainstore in your profile.

 

We also encourage and invite you to join our -azul- inworld group as we will be sending out information on Miss AZUL 2015 through this group and you also get notification of incredible group gifts.

 

Phase 1.

March 1 - 10

 

1. Please submit two photos of yourself wearing -AZUL- at a minimum size 512x512 (one headshot and one full length) to the Miss AZUL 2015 Flickr Group www.flickr.com/groups/missazul2015/. Please name the picture "Miss AZUL March 2015 submission - Your full SL name"

2. 15 applicants will be selected from the entries and they will be will be required to walk at a live show Sunday 29 March 2015 1pmslt.

3. There will be one rehersal for this show Saturday 28 March 2015 2pmslt.

 

6 contestants will be selected by a panel of judges and be invited to the Miss AZUL Official Group with a group tag "Finalists"

 

Phase 2.

May 1 - 10

 

1. Another round open for photo entries. Please submit two photos of yourself wearing -AZUL- at a minimum size 512x512 (one headshot and one full length) to the Miss AZUL 2015 Flickr Group www.flickr.com/groups/missazul2015/. Please name the picture "Miss AZUL May 2015 submission - Your full SL name"

2. 15 applicants will be selected from the entries and they will be will be required to walk at a live show Sunday 21 June 1pmslt.

3. There will be one rehersal for this show Saturday 20 June 2015 2pmslt.

 

6 contestants will be selected by a panel of judges and be invited to the Miss AZUL Official Group with a group tag "Finalists"

 

Phase 3

July 2015

 

*1st Challenge

12 Finalists have 1 month to create a portfolio of work dedicated to -AZUL- Blog/Flickr/Facebook which must last 1 month

 

August (Early)

*Interview with panel of Judges

 

Phase 4

August (Mid)

 

*2nd Challenge

12 Finalists have 1 MONTH to prepare - quest will be given at that time.

 

Phase 5 - FINAL

Finale Walk - September 27 Sun 1pmslt.

 

After the finale walk, the points gained throughout the contest will be added up and Miss AZUL 2015 will be announced.

 

If you have any questions regarding Miss AZUL 2015 please contact Ananya Mai.

 

Social Media:

-AZUL- Website: mamijewell.wordpress.com/

Marketplace : marketplace.secondlife.com/stores/11590

Flickr : www.flickr.com/photos/-azul-/

Flickr Group : www.flickr.com/groups/-azul-/

Facebook Page: www.facebook.com/AZULbyMami.Jewell

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Well, the .143 binary works very well after my initial woes, and I'm about ready to declare this thing release-worthy.

 

The first Gold Master candidate available for download here.

 

Oh, I'm sure Boris will be updating the .143 binary a few more times given some of the issues posted on enbdev.com and he might well abandon it entirely, but unless some of you find real problems with it this thing is ready to be unleashed on 502BadGateway.com, or whatever they're calling the Nexus when it's actually working.

 

EDIT: There is in fact a new version of the .143 binary on enbdev.com - feel free to give it a shot, and I'll check it out after work.