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Life through a glass brick window. For 100x weekly theme of Altered Reality.

 

Captured last week with iPhone edited on the iPad in Snapseed.

 

La figura de una persona?.

Una más para mi serie sobre el movimiento del agua.

Sólo realidad captada por la cámara. Recorte, ajuste de niveles, y enfoque.

 

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Google traducción:

 

Does the figure of a person?.

One more for my series on water movement.

Only reality captured by the camera. Cropping, adjusting levels, and focus.

  

IMG_1174_recorte_20090602

THE ATOM CALLED SK-ULTRON, THE SINGLE ATOM OF OUR KNOWN UNIVERSE HAS BEEN LOCATED AND CONTAINED. THIS SINGLE ATOM IS THOUGHT TO BE THE THEORETICAL SINGULARITY THAT STARTED THE COSMIC INFLATION OF THE BIG BANG NUCLEOSYNTHESIS.

(From SAKURAI Beyond the Standard Model of Supersymmetry and Grand Unification Theories).

 

Inflation Cosmology

 

In physical cosmology, cosmic inflation, cosmological inflation, or just inflation is a theory of exponential expansion of space in the early universe. The inflationary epoch lasted from 10−36 seconds after the Big Bang to sometime between 10−33 and 10−32 seconds. Following the inflationary period, the Universe continues to expand, but at a less rapid rate.

 

Inflation theory was developed in the early 1980s. It explains the origin of the large-scale structure of the cosmos. Quantum fluctuations in the microscopic inflationary region, magnified to cosmic size, become the seeds for the growth of structure in the Universe (see galaxy formation and evolution and structure formation). Many physicists also believe that inflation explains why the Universe appears to be the same in all directions (isotropic), why the cosmic microwave background radiation is distributed evenly, why the Universe is flat, and why no magnetic monopoles have been observed.

 

The detailed particle physics mechanism responsible for inflation is not known. The basic inflationary paradigm is accepted by most scientists, who believe a number of predictions have been confirmed by observation; however, a substantial minority of scientists dissent from this position. The hypothetical field thought to be responsible for inflation is called the inflaton.

 

In 2002, three of the original architects of the theory were recognized for their major contributions; physicists Alan Guth of M.I.T., Andrei Linde of Stanford, and Paul Steinhardt of Princeton shared the prestigious Dirac Prize "for development of the concept of inflation in cosmology".

 

Overview

An expanding universe generally has a cosmological horizon, which, by analogy with the more familiar horizon caused by the curvature of the Earth's surface, marks the boundary of the part of the Universe that an observer can see. Light (or other radiation) emitted by objects beyond the cosmological horizon never reaches the observer, because the space in between the observer and the object is expanding too rapidly.

 

The observable universe is one causal patch of a much larger unobservable universe; other parts of the Universe cannot communicate with Earth yet. These parts of the Universe are outside our current cosmological horizon. In the standard hot big bang model, without inflation, the cosmological horizon moves out, bringing new regions into view[citation needed]. Yet as a local observer sees such a region for the first time, it looks no different from any other region of space the local observer has already seen: its background radiation is at nearly the same temperature as the background radiation of other regions, and its space-time curvature is evolving lock-step with the others. This presents a mystery: how did these new regions know what temperature and curvature they were supposed to have? They couldn't have learned it by getting signals, because they were not previously in communication with our past light cone.

 

Inflation answers this question by postulating that all the regions come from an earlier era with a big vacuum energy, or cosmological constant. A space with a cosmological constant is qualitatively different: instead of moving outward, the cosmological horizon stays put. For any one observer, the distance to the cosmological horizon is constant. With exponentially expanding space, two nearby observers are separated very quickly; so much so, that the distance between them quickly exceeds the limits of communications. The spatial slices are expanding very fast to cover huge volumes. Things are constantly moving beyond the cosmological horizon, which is a fixed distance away, and everything becomes homogeneous.

 

As the inflationary field slowly relaxes to the vacuum, the cosmological constant goes to zero and space begins to expand normally. The new regions that come into view during the normal expansion phase are exactly the same regions that were pushed out of the horizon during inflation, and so they are at nearly the same temperature and curvature, because they come from the same originally small patch of space.

 

The theory of inflation thus explains why the temperatures and curvatures of different regions are so nearly equal. It also predicts that the total curvature of a space-slice at constant global time is zero. This prediction implies that the total ordinary matter, dark matter and residual vacuum energy in the Universe have to add up to the critical density, and the evidence supports this. More strikingly, inflation allows physicists to calculate the minute differences in temperature of different regions from quantum fluctuations during the inflationary era, and many of these quantitative predictions have been confirmed.

 

Space expands

To say that space expands exponentially means that two inertial observers are moving farther apart with accelerating velocity.

 

This is just like an inside-out black hole metric—it has a zero in the dt component on a fixed radius sphere called the cosmological horizon. Objects are drawn away from the observer at r = 0 towards the cosmological horizon, which they cross in a finite proper time. This means that any inhomogeneities are smoothed out, just as any bumps or matter on the surface of a black hole horizon are swallowed and disappear.

 

Since the space–time metric has no explicit time dependence, once an observer has crossed the cosmological horizon, observers closer in take its place. This process of falling outward and replacement points closer in are always steadily replacing points further out—an exponential expansion of space–time.

 

This steady-state exponentially expanding spacetime is called a de Sitter space, and to sustain it there must be a cosmological constant, a vacuum energy proportional to Λ everywhere. In this case, the equation of state is p = −ρ. The physical conditions from one moment to the next are stable: the rate of expansion, called the Hubble parameter, is nearly constant, and the scale factor of the Universe is proportional to eHt. Inflation is often called a period of accelerated expansion because the distance between two fixed observers is increasing exponentially (i.e. at an accelerating rate as they move apart), while Λ can stay approximately constant (see deceleration parameter).

 

Few inhomogeneities remain

 

Cosmological inflation has the important effect of smoothing out inhomogeneities, anisotropies and the curvature of space. This pushes the Universe into a very simple state, in which it is completely dominated by the inflaton field, the source of the cosmological constant, and the only significant inhomogeneities are the tiny quantum fluctuations in the inflaton. Inflation also dilutes exotic heavy particles, such as the magnetic monopoles predicted by many extensions to the Standard Model of particle physics. If the Universe was only hot enough to form such particles before a period of inflation, they would not be observed in nature, as they would be so rare that it is quite likely that there are none in the observable universe. Together, these effects are called the inflationary "no-hair theorem" by analogy with the no hair theorem for black holes.

 

The "no-hair" theorem works essentially because the cosmological horizon is no different from a black-hole horizon, except for philosophical disagreements about what is on the other side. The interpretation of the no-hair theorem is that the Universe (observable and unobservable) expands by an enormous factor during inflation. In an expanding universe, energy densities generally fall, or get diluted, as the volume of the Universe increases. For example, the density of ordinary "cold" matter (dust) goes down as the inverse of the volume: when linear dimensions double, the energy density goes down by a factor of eight; the radiation energy density goes down even more rapidly as the Universe expands since the wavelength of each photon is stretched (redshifted), in addition to the photons being dispersed by the expansion. When linear dimensions are doubled, the energy density in radiation falls by a factor of sixteen (see the solution of the energy density continuity equation for an ultra-relativistic fluid). During inflation, the energy density in the inflaton field is roughly constant. However, the energy density in everything else, including inhomogeneities, curvature, anisotropies, exotic particles, and standard-model particles is falling, and through sufficient inflation these all become negligible. This leaves the Universe flat and symmetric, and (apart from the homogeneous inflaton field) mostly empty, at the moment inflation ends and reheating begins.

 

Duration

 

A key requirement is that inflation must continue long enough to produce the present observable universe from a single, small inflationary Hubble volume. This is necessary to ensure that the Universe appears flat, homogeneous and isotropic at the largest observable scales. This requirement is generally thought to be satisfied if the Universe expanded by a factor of at least 1026 during inflation.

Reheating

 

Inflation is a period of supercooled expansion, when the temperature drops by a factor of 100,000 or so. (The exact drop is model dependent, but in the first models it was typically from 1027 K down to 1022 K.[21]) This relatively low temperature is maintained during the inflationary phase. When inflation ends the temperature returns to the pre-inflationary temperature; this is called reheating or thermalization because the large potential energy of the inflaton field decays into particles and fills the Universe with Standard Model particles, including electromagnetic radiation, starting the radiation dominated phase of the Universe. Because the nature of the inflation is not known, this process is still poorly understood, although it is believed to take place through a parametric resonance.

 

Motivations

 

Inflation resolves several problems in Big Bang cosmology that were discovered in the 1970s. Inflation was first proposed by Guth while investigating the problem of why no magnetic monopoles are seen today; he found that a positive-energy false vacuum would, according to general relativity, generate an exponential expansion of space. It was very quickly realised that such an expansion would resolve many other long-standing problems. These problems arise from the observation that to look like it does today, the Universe would have to have started from very finely tuned, or "special" initial conditions at the Big Bang. Inflation attempts to resolve these problems by providing a dynamical mechanism that drives the Universe to this special state, thus making a universe like ours much more likely in the context of the Big Bang theory.

 

Horizon problem

Main article: Horizon problem

 

The horizon problem is the problem of determining why the Universe appears statistically homogeneous and isotropic in accordance with the cosmological principle.[25][26][27] For example, molecules in a canister of gas are distributed homogeneously and isotropically because they are in thermal equilibrium: gas throughout the canister has had enough time to interact to dissipate inhomogeneities and anisotropies. The situation is quite different in the big bang model without inflation, because gravitational expansion does not give the early universe enough time to equilibrate. In a big bang with only the matter and radiation known in the Standard Model, two widely separated regions of the observable universe cannot have equilibrated because they move apart from each other faster than the speed of light and thus have never come into causal contact. In the early Universe, it was not possible to send a light signal between the two regions. Because they have had no interaction, it is difficult to explain why they have the same temperature (are thermally equilibrated). Historically, proposed solutions included the Phoenix universe of Georges Lemaître,[28] the related oscillatory universe of Richard Chase Tolman,[29] and the Mixmaster universe of Charles Misner. Lemaître and Tolman proposed that a universe undergoing a number of cycles of contraction and expansion could come into thermal equilibrium. Their models failed, however, because of the buildup of entropy over several cycles. Misner made the (ultimately incorrect) conjecture that the Mixmaster mechanism, which made the Universe more chaotic, could lead to statistical homogeneity and isotropy.[26][30]

Flatness problem

Main article: Flatness problem

 

The flatness problem is sometimes called one of the Dicke coincidences (along with the cosmological constant problem). It became known in the 1960s that the density of matter in the Universe was comparable to the critical density necessary for a flat universe (that is, a universe whose large scale geometry is the usual Euclidean geometry, rather than a non-Euclidean hyperbolic or spherical geometry).

 

Therefore, regardless of the shape of the universe the contribution of spatial curvature to the expansion of the Universe could not be much greater than the contribution of matter. But as the Universe expands, the curvature redshifts away more slowly than matter and radiation. Extrapolated into the past, this presents a fine-tuning problem because the contribution of curvature to the Universe must be exponentially small (sixteen orders of magnitude less than the density of radiation at big bang nucleosynthesis, for example). This problem is exacerbated by recent observations of the cosmic microwave background that have demonstrated that the Universe is flat to within a few percent.

Magnetic-monopole problem

 

The magnetic monopole problem, sometimes called the exotic-relics problem, says that if the early universe were very hot, a large number of very heavy[why?], stable magnetic monopoles would have been produced. This is a problem with Grand Unified Theories, which propose that at high temperatures (such as in the early universe) the electromagnetic force, strong, and weak nuclear forces are not actually fundamental forces but arise due to spontaneous symmetry breaking from a single gauge theory. These theories predict a number of heavy, stable particles that have not been observed in nature. The most notorious is the magnetic monopole, a kind of stable, heavy "charge" of magnetic field. Monopoles are predicted to be copiously produced following Grand Unified Theories at high temperature, and they should have persisted to the present day, to such an extent that they would become the primary constituent of the Universe. Not only is that not the case, but all searches for them have failed, placing stringent limits on the density of relic magnetic monopoles in the Universe. A period of inflation that occurs below the temperature where magnetic monopoles can be produced would offer a possible resolution of this problem: monopoles would be separated from each other as the Universe around them expands, potentially lowering their observed density by many orders of magnitude. Though, as cosmologist Martin Rees has written, "Skeptics about exotic physics might not be hugely impressed by a theoretical argument to explain the absence of particles that are themselves only hypothetical. Preventive medicine can readily seem 100 percent effective against a disease that doesn't exist!"

 

History Precursors

In the early days of General Relativity, Albert Einstein introduced the cosmological constant to allow a static solution, which was a three-dimensional sphere with a uniform density of matter. Later, Willem de Sitter found a highly symmetric inflating universe, which described a universe with a cosmological constant that is otherwise empty. It was discovered that Einstein's universe is unstable, and that small fluctuations cause it to collapse or turn into a de Sitter universe.

 

In the early 1970s Zeldovich noticed the flatness and horizon problems of Big Bang cosmology; before his work, cosmology was presumed to be symmetrical on purely philosophical grounds. In the Soviet Union, this and other considerations led Belinski and Khalatnikov to analyze the chaotic BKL singularity in General Relativity. Misner's Mixmaster universe attempted to use this chaotic behavior to solve the cosmological problems, with limited success.

 

Introduction of A Nucleate

In the late 1970s, Sidney Coleman applied the instanton techniques developed by Alexander Polyakov and collaborators to study the fate of the false vacuum in quantum field theory. Like a metastable phase in statistical mechanics—water below the freezing temperature or above the boiling point—a quantum field would need to nucleate a large enough bubble of the new vacuum, the new phase, in order to make a transition. Coleman found the most likely decay pathway for vacuum decay and calculated the inverse lifetime per unit volume. He eventually noted that gravitational effects would be significant, but he did not calculate these effects and did not apply the results to cosmology.

 

In the Soviet Union, Alexei Starobinsky noted that quantum corrections to general relativity should be important for the early universe. These generically lead to curvature-squared corrections to the Einstein–Hilbert action and a form of f(R) modified gravity. The solution to Einstein's equations in the presence of curvature squared terms, when the curvatures are large, leads to an effective cosmological constant. Therefore, he proposed that the early universe went through an inflationary de Sitter era.[45] This resolved the cosmology problems and led to specific predictions for the corrections to the microwave background radiation, corrections that were then calculated in detail.

 

In 1978, Zeldovich noted the monopole problem, which was an unambiguous quantitative version of the horizon problem, this time in a subfield of particle physics, which led to several speculative attempts to resolve it. In 1980 Alan Guth realized that false vacuum decay in the early universe would solve the problem, leading him to propose a scalar-driven inflation. Starobinsky's and Guth's scenarios both predicted an initial deSitter phase, differing only in mechanistic details.

Early inflationary models

 

Guth proposed inflation in January 1980 to explain the nonexistence of magnetic monopoles; it was Guth who coined the term "inflation". At the same time, Starobinsky argued that quantum corrections to gravity would replace the initial singularity of the Universe with an exponentially expanding deSitter phase. In October 1980, Demosthenes Kazanas suggested that exponential expansion could eliminate the particle horizon and perhaps solve the horizon problem, while Sato suggested that an exponential expansion could eliminate domain walls (another kind of exotic relic). In 1981 Einhorn and Sato published a model similar to Guth's and showed that it would resolve the puzzle of the magnetic monopole abundance in Grand Unified Theories. Like Guth, they concluded that such a model not only required fine tuning of the cosmological constant, but also would likely lead to a much too granular universe, i.e., to large density variations resulting from bubble wall collisions.

 

Guth proposed that as the early universe cooled, it was trapped in a false vacuum with a high energy density, which is much like a cosmological constant. As the very early universe cooled it was trapped in a metastable state (it was supercooled), which it could only decay out of through the process of bubble nucleation via quantum tunneling. Bubbles of true vacuum spontaneously form in the sea of false vacuum and rapidly begin expanding at the speed of light. Guth recognized that this model was problematic because the model did not reheat properly: when the bubbles nucleated, they did not generate any radiation. Radiation could only be generated in collisions between bubble walls. But if inflation lasted long enough to solve the initial conditions problems, collisions between bubbles became exceedingly rare. In any one causal patch it is likely that only one bubble would nucleate.

 

Slow-roll inflation

 

The bubble collision problem was solved by Linde[53] and independently by Andreas Albrecht and Paul Steinhardt[54] in a model named new inflation or slow-roll inflation (Guth's model then became known as old inflation). In this model, instead of tunneling out of a false vacuum state, inflation occurred by a scalar field rolling down a potential energy hill. When the field rolls very slowly compared to the expansion of the Universe, inflation occurs. However, when the hill becomes steeper, inflation ends and reheating can occur.

 

Effects of asymmetries

 

Eventually, it was shown that new inflation does not produce a perfectly symmetric universe, but that quantum fluctuations in the inflaton are created. These fluctuations form the primordial seeds for all structure created in the later universe. These fluctuations were first calculated by Viatcheslav Mukhanov and G. V. Chibisov in analyzing Starobinsky's similar model. In the context of inflation, they were worked out independently of the work of Mukhanov and Chibisov at the three-week 1982 Nuffield Workshop on the Very Early Universe at Cambridge University.[59] The fluctuations were calculated by four groups working separately over the course of the workshop: Stephen Hawking; Starobinsky; Guth and So-Young Pi; and Bardeen, Steinhardt and Turner.

 

Observational status

 

Inflation is a mechanism for realizing the cosmological principle, which is the basis of the standard model of physical cosmology: it accounts for the homogeneity and isotropy of the observable universe. In addition, it accounts for the observed flatness and absence of magnetic monopoles. Since Guth's early work, each of these observations has received further confirmation, most impressively by the detailed observations of the cosmic microwave background made by the Wilkinson Microwave Anisotropy Probe (WMAP) spacecraft. This analysis shows that the Universe is flat to within at least a few percent, and that it is homogeneous and isotropic to one part in 100,000.

 

In addition, inflation predicts that the structures visible in the Universe today formed through the gravitational collapse of perturbations that were formed as quantum mechanical fluctuations in the inflationary epoch. The detailed form of the spectrum of perturbations called a nearly-scale-invariant Gaussian random field (or Harrison–Zel'dovich spectrum) is very specific and has only two free parameters, the amplitude of the spectrum and the spectral index, which measures the slight deviation from scale invariance predicted by inflation (perfect scale invariance corresponds to the idealized de Sitter universe). Inflation predicts that the observed perturbations should be in thermal equilibrium with each other (these are called adiabatic or isentropic perturbations). This structure for the perturbations has been confirmed by the WMAP spacecraft and other cosmic microwave background (CMB) experiments,[14] and galaxy surveys, especially the ongoing Sloan Digital Sky Survey. These experiments have shown that the one part in 100,000 inhomogeneities observed have exactly the form predicted by theory. Moreover, there is evidence for a slight deviation from scale invariance. The spectral index, ns is equal to one for a scale-invariant spectrum. The simplest inflation models predict that this quantity is between 0.92 and 0.98. From WMAP data it can be inferred that ns = 0.963 ± 0.012, implying that it differs from one at the level of two standard deviations (2σ). This is considered an important confirmation of the theory of inflation.

 

Various inflation theories have been proposed that make radically different predictions, but they generally have much more fine tuning than should be necessary. As a physical model, however, inflation is most valuable in that it robustly predicts the initial conditions of the Universe based on only two adjustable parameters: the spectral index (that can only change in a small range) and the amplitude of the perturbations. Except in contrived models, this is true regardless of how inflation is realized in particle physics.

 

Occasionally, effects are observed that appear to contradict the simplest models of inflation. The first-year WMAP data suggested that the spectrum might not be nearly scale-invariant, but might instead have a slight curvature. However, the third-year data revealed that the effect was a statistical anomaly. Another effect remarked upon since the first cosmic microwave background satellite, the Cosmic Background Explorer is that the amplitude of the quadrupole moment of the CMB is unexpectedly low and the other low multipoles appear to be preferentially aligned with the ecliptic plane. Some have claimed that this is a signature of non-Gaussianity and thus contradicts the simplest models of inflation. Others have suggested that the effect may be due to other new physics, foreground contamination, or even publication bias.

 

An experimental program is underway to further test inflation with more precise CMB measurements. In particular, high precision measurements of the so-called "B-modes" of the polarization of the background radiation could provide evidence of the gravitational radiation produced by inflation, and could also show whether the energy scale of inflation predicted by the simplest models (1015–1016 GeV) is correct. In March 2014, it was announced that B-mode CMB polarization consistent with that predicted from inflation had been demonstrated by a South Pole experiment. However, on 19 June 2014, lowered confidence in confirming the findings was reported; on 19 September 2014, a further reduction in confidence was reported[78][79] and, on 30 January 2015, even less confidence yet was reported.

 

Other potentially corroborating measurements are expected from the Planck spacecraft, although it is unclear if the signal will be visible, or if contamination from foreground sources will interfere.[82] Other forthcoming measurements, such as those of 21 centimeter radiation (radiation emitted and absorbed from neutral hydrogen before the first stars turned on), may measure the power spectrum with even greater resolution than the CMB and galaxy surveys, although it is not known if these measurements will be possible or if interference with radio sources on Earth and in the galaxy will be too great.

 

Dark energy is broadly similar to inflation and is thought to be causing the expansion of the present-day universe to accelerate. However, the energy scale of dark energy is much lower, 10−12 GeV, roughly 27 orders of magnitude less than the scale of inflation.

 

Theoretical status

In Guth's early proposal, it was thought that the inflaton was the Higgs field, the field that explains the mass of the elementary particles. It is now believed by some that the inflaton cannot be the Higgs field although the recent discovery of the Higgs boson has increased the number of works considering the Higgs field as inflaton. One problem of this identification is the current tension with experimental data at the electroweak scale, which is currently under study at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). Other models of inflation relied on the properties of Grand Unified Theories. Since the simplest models of grand unification have failed, it is now thought by many physicists that inflation will be included in a supersymmetric theory such as string theory or a supersymmetric grand unified theory. At present, while inflation is understood principally by its detailed predictions of the initial conditions for the hot early universe, the particle physics is largely ad hoc modelling. As such, although predictions of inflation have been consistent with the results of observational tests, many open questions remain.

 

Fine-tuning problem

 

One of the most severe challenges for inflation arises from the need for fine tuning. In new inflation, the slow-roll conditions must be satisfied for inflation to occur. The slow-roll conditions say that the inflaton potential must be flat (compared to the large vacuum energy) and that the inflaton particles must have a small mass. New inflation requires the Universe to have a scalar field with an especially flat potential and special initial conditions. However, explanations for these fine-tunings have been proposed. For example, classically scale invariant field theories, where scale invariance is broken by quantum effects, provide an explanation of the flatness of inflationary potentials, as long as the theory can be studied through perturbation theory.

Andrei Linde

 

Linde proposed a theory known as chaotic inflation in which he suggested that the conditions for inflation were actually satisfied quite generically. Inflation will occur in virtually any universe that begins in a chaotic, high energy state that has a scalar field with unbounded potential energy. However, in his model the inflaton field necessarily takes values larger than one Planck unit: for this reason, these are often called large field models and the competing new inflation models are called small field models. In this situation, the predictions of effective field theory are thought to be invalid, as renormalization should cause large corrections that could prevent inflation. This problem has not yet been resolved and some cosmologists argue that the small field models, in which inflation can occur at a much lower energy scale, are better models. While inflation depends on quantum field theory (and the semiclassical approximation to quantum gravity) in an important way, it has not been completely reconciled with these theories.

 

Brandenberger commented on fine-tuning in another situation. The amplitude of the primordial inhomogeneities produced in inflation is directly tied to the energy scale of inflation. This scale is suggested to be around 1016 GeV or 10−3 times the Planck energy. The natural scale is naïvely the Planck scale so this small value could be seen as another form of fine-tuning (called a hierarchy problem): the energy density given by the scalar potential is down by 10−12 compared to the Planck density. This is not usually considered to be a critical problem, however, because the scale of inflation corresponds naturally to the scale of gauge unification.

 

Eternal inflation

 

In many models, the inflationary phase of the Universe's expansion lasts forever in at least some regions of the Universe. This occurs because inflating regions expand very rapidly, reproducing themselves. Unless the rate of decay to the non-inflating phase is sufficiently fast, new inflating regions are produced more rapidly than non-inflating regions. In such models most of the volume of the Universe at any given time is inflating. All models of eternal inflation produce an infinite multiverse, typically a fractal.

 

Although new inflation is classically rolling down the potential, quantum fluctuations can sometimes lift it to previous levels. These regions in which the inflaton fluctuates upwards expand much faster than regions in which the inflaton has a lower potential energy, and tend to dominate in terms of physical volume. This steady state, which first developed by Vilenkin, is called "eternal inflation". It has been shown that any inflationary theory with an unbounded potential is eternal.[94][not in citation given] It is a popular conclusion among physicists that this steady state cannot continue forever into the past. Inflationary spacetime, which is similar to de Sitter space, is incomplete without a contracting region. However, unlike de Sitter space, fluctuations in a contracting inflationary space collapse to form a gravitational singularity, a point where densities become infinite. Therefore, it is necessary to have a theory for the Universe's initial conditions. Linde, however, believes inflation may be past eternal.

 

In eternal inflation, regions with inflation have an exponentially growing volume, while regions that are not inflating don't. This suggests that the volume of the inflating part of the Universe in the global picture is always unimaginably larger than the part that has stopped inflating, even though inflation eventually ends as seen by any single pre-inflationary observer. Scientists disagree about how to assign a probability distribution to this hypothetical anthropic landscape. If the probability of different regions is counted by volume, one should expect that inflation will never end or applying boundary conditions that a local observer exists to observe it, that inflation will end as late as possible. Some physicists believe this paradox can be resolved by weighting observers by their pre-inflationary volume.

Initial conditions

 

Some physicists have tried to avoid the initial conditions problem by proposing models for an eternally inflating universe with no origin. These models propose that while the Universe, on the largest scales, expands exponentially it was, is and always will be, spatially infinite and has existed, and will exist, forever.

 

Other proposals attempt to describe the ex nihilo creation of the Universe based on quantum cosmology and the following inflation. Vilenkin put forth one such scenario. Hartle and Hawking offered the no-boundary proposal for the initial creation of the Universe in which inflation comes about naturally.

 

Guth described the inflationary universe as the "ultimate free lunch": new universes, similar to our own, are continually produced in a vast inflating background. Gravitational interactions, in this case, circumvent (but do not violate) the first law of thermodynamics (energy conservation) and the second law of thermodynamics (entropy and the arrow of time problem). However, while there is consensus that this solves the initial conditions problem, some have disputed this, as it is much more likely that the Universe came about by a quantum fluctuation. Don Page was an outspoken critic of inflation because of this anomaly. He stressed that the thermodynamic arrow of time necessitates low entropy initial conditions, which would be highly unlikely. According to them, rather than solving this problem, the inflation theory aggravates it – the reheating at the end of the inflation era increases entropy, making it necessary for the initial state of the Universe to be even more orderly than in other Big Bang theories with no inflation phase.

 

Hawking and Page later found ambiguous results when they attempted to compute the probability of inflation in the Hartle-Hawking initial state.[ Other authors have argued that, since inflation is eternal, the probability doesn't matter as long as it is not precisely zero: once it starts, inflation perpetuates itself and quickly dominates the Universe. However, Albrecht and Lorenzo Sorbo argued that the probability of an inflationary cosmos, consistent with today's observations, emerging by a random fluctuation from some pre-existent state is much higher than that of a non-inflationary cosmos. This is because the "seed" amount of non-gravitational energy required for the inflationary cosmos is so much less than that for a non-inflationary alternative, which outweighs any entropic considerations.

 

Another problem that has occasionally been mentioned is the trans-Planckian problem or trans-Planckian effects.[110] Since the energy scale of inflation and the Planck scale are relatively close, some of the quantum fluctuations that have made up the structure in our universe were smaller than the Planck length before inflation. Therefore, there ought to be corrections from Planck-scale physics, in particular the unknown quantum theory of gravity. Some disagreement remains about the magnitude of this effect: about whether it is just on the threshold of detectability or completely undetectable.

Hybrid inflation

 

Another kind of inflation, called hybrid inflation, is an extension of new inflation. It introduces additional scalar fields, so that while one of the scalar fields is responsible for normal slow roll inflation, another triggers the end of inflation: when inflation has continued for sufficiently long, it becomes favorable to the second field to decay into a much lower energy state.

 

In hybrid inflation, one scalar field is responsible for most of the energy density (thus determining the rate of expansion), while another is responsible for the slow roll (thus determining the period of inflation and its termination). Thus fluctuations in the former inflaton would not affect inflation termination, while fluctuations in the latter would not affect the rate of expansion. Therefore, hybrid inflation is not eternal.[113][114] When the second (slow-rolling) inflaton reaches the bottom of its potential, it changes the location of the minimum of the first inflaton's potential, which leads to a fast roll of the inflaton down its potential, leading to termination of inflation.

Inflation and string cosmology

 

The discovery of flux compactifications opened the way for reconciling inflation and string theory. Brane inflation suggests that inflation arises from the motion of D-branes in the compactified geometry, usually towards a stack of anti-D-branes. This theory, governed by the Dirac-Born-Infeld action, is different from ordinary inflation. The dynamics are not completely understood. It appears that special conditions are necessary since inflation occurs in tunneling between two vacua in the string landscape. The process of tunneling between two vacua is a form of old inflation, but new inflation must then occur by some other mechanism.

Inflation and loop quantum gravity

 

When investigating the effects the theory of loop quantum gravity would have on cosmology, a loop quantum cosmology model has evolved that provides a possible mechanism for cosmological inflation. Loop quantum gravity assumes a quantized spacetime. If the energy density is larger than can be held by the quantized spacetime, it is thought to bounce back.

 

Alternatives

Other models explain some of the observations explained by inflation. However none of these "alternatives" has the same breadth of explanation and still require inflation for a more complete fit with observation. They should therefore be regarded as adjuncts to inflation, rather than as alternatives.

 

Big bounce

 

The big bounce hypothesis attempts to replace the cosmic singularity with a cosmic contraction and bounce, thereby explaining the initial conditions that led to the big bang. The flatness and horizon problems are naturally solved in the Einstein-Cartan-Sciama-Kibble theory of gravity, without needing an exotic form of matter or free parameters. This theory extends general relativity by removing a constraint of the symmetry of the affine connection and regarding its antisymmetric part, the torsion tensor, as a dynamical variable. The minimal coupling between torsion and Dirac spinors generates a spin-spin interaction that is significant in fermionic matter at extremely high densities. Such an interaction averts the unphysical Big Bang singularity, replacing it with a cusp-like bounce at a finite minimum scale factor, before which the Universe was contracting. The rapid expansion immediately after the Big Bounce explains why the present Universe at largest scales appears spatially flat, homogeneous and isotropic. As the density of the Universe decreases, the effects of torsion weaken and the Universe smoothly enters the radiation-dominated era.

 

String theory requires that, in addition to the three observable spatial dimensions, additional dimensions exist that are curled up or compactified (see also Kaluza–Klein theory). Extra dimensions appear as a frequent component of supergravity models and other approaches to quantum gravity. This raised the contingent question of why four space-time dimensions became large and the rest became unobservably small. An attempt to address this question, called string gas cosmology, was proposed by Robert Brandenberger and Cumrun Vafa. This model focuses on the dynamics of the early universe considered as a hot gas of strings. Brandenberger and Vafa show that a dimension of spacetime can only expand if the strings that wind around it can efficiently annihilate each other. Each string is a one-dimensional object, and the largest number of dimensions in which two strings will generically intersect (and, presumably, annihilate) is three. Therefore, the most likely number of non-compact (large) spatial dimensions is three.

  

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Wildlife photographer

 

Leopard in the spot lights at a night drive.

 

Published in Wildlife Magazine.

creative macro

Nikon Digital

 

'A real world virtual reality environment can allow the user to experience an out of this world space walk resulting in a highly immersive metaphysical experience that can highly exceed the movie screen display...' (read more)

 

Copyright © 2010 Tomitheos Photography - All Rights Reserved

 

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Maya Deren, Dance, and Gestural Encounters in Ritual in Transfigured Time

 

by Erin Brannigan

  

Erin Brannigan is a PhD student at the University of New South Wales. Her area of research is dance and film, in particular, the points of contact between dance and film theory. She is also the curator of ReelDance: International Dance on Screen Festival and Body on Screen (Melbourne Festival 2003), and is on the RealTime editorial team.

   

Was there anything like Choreography for the Camera before Deren?

 

SNYDER: No. Well, I take that back, because we don’t really know. There was another woman named Loie Fuller, fifty years before Maya, who in her later years was doing experimental films in Europe… (Clark, Hodson & Neiman, 288)

 

This quote, taken from a 1977 interview with Maya Deren friend and dance scholar, Allegra Fuller Snyder, locates the films of Deren within a specific genealogy: the history of film utilising choreographic content and form. Snyder is referring to the work of turn-of-the-century American dancer, Loie Fuller, who pre-dates Isadora Duncan regarding the elevation of the female dance soloist, working outside the institution of ballet, to the status of ‘artist’. Fuller began her performance career as an actress, received international acclaim for her ‘serpentine dances’ and was filmed by the Lumiére brothers. She went on to direct her own screen work including the feature film, Le Lys de la Vie (1920), of which only an excerpt remains.

 

Fuller is the logical precursor of Deren in relation to this particular history for several reasons. She was the first artist, male or female, to claim credit as both director and choreographer for her films (1) (Sommer, 53). While Deren never credits herself as ‘choreographer’, she shares a general credit with Talley Beatty for A Study in Choreography for Camera (1945) and a ‘choreographic collaboration’ credit is given to Frank Westbrook for Ritual in Transfigured Time (1945-46). Deren certainly compared her process to that of a choreographer, stating for example that Ritual… “is a dance” and talking about “the choreography of the whole” (Clark, Hodson & Neiman, 629). Like Deren, Fuller embraced contemporary technologies making them part of the aesthetic fabric of her work. Fuller’s stage performances utilised electric lighting, coloured gels, magic lanterns, shadow-play and projections to create spectacular onstage effects, making her experiments with film a logical development of her art. Deren also utilised the full technological scope of her medium in exploring what she saw as its distinguishing elements: its condition as a space and time art form. Multiple exposures, jump cuts, slow-motion, negative film sequences, superimposition, freeze-frame and angled cameras are just a few of the cinematic effects utilised by Deren. Finally, both Fuller and Deren pioneered radical aesthetic roles for the human body in motion, placing it at the centre of their aesthetic and technological explorations (2).

 

What is also of note regarding Snyder’s quote is the gap between the two artists: Fuller’s fame emerging out of fin-de-siècle Paris and Deren at the beginning of a new, modern era of avant-garde filmmaking. This latter period would produce generations of directors working with dance and film including Charles Atlas, Shirley Clarke, Yvonne Rainer, Amy Greenfield, Dawn Kramer, Norman McLaren and Hilary Harris, right up to today with artists like David Hinton, Wendy Houstoun, Philippe Decouflé, Isaac Julian and Clara van Gool.

 

The question of dance and the influence it had on Deren’s radical film aesthetic is one that has been generally avoided, perhaps due to the challenges presented by interdisciplinary work (3) (Franko in Nichols, 131). That dance had a special significance and aesthetic function for Deren is clear. Having migrated to America from Russia with her parents at age 5, Deren graduated from Smith College with an MA in literature in 1939 and in the same year became secretary to Katherine Dunham. Dunham was a commercially successful African-American female choreographer and anthropological researcher of Caribbean dance. Her fieldwork and writing on Haitian dance obviously had a strong impact on Deren who went on to pursue her own research in Haiti. In the recent documentary, In the Mirror of Maya Deren (Douglas Wolfsberger, 2001), Dunham describes Deren “performing” at a company party, dancing wildly to drumming music, and there are other references to Deren’s aspirations as a dancer in accounts of her time with the Dunham company (4).

 

This history prior to her first completed film project in 1943, Meshes of the Afternoon, clearly informs Deren’s work, not least of all her collaborations with Dunham dancers, Talley Beatty and Rita Christiani. Five of Deren’s films contain explicit dance content: A Study in Choreography for Camera, Ritual in Transfigured Time, Meditation on Violence (1948), The Very Eye of Night (1952-55, released 1959) and Divine Horsemen (a posthumously assembled montage of Haitian footage shot between 1947 and 1954). But a choreographic sensibility regarding cinematic production, an attention to the articulations of the performing body and the use of movements and gestures outside the familiar, are all elements that can be found across Deren’s oeuvre.

 

Deren and Cinematic Performance

 

In his introduction to the new book of collected essays on Deren, Maya Deren and the American Avant-Garde, Bill Nichols sees the filmmaker’s preoccupation with dance, play, games and ritual as being connected to the concept of ‘depersonalization’ Deren describes in her essay, “An Anagram of Ideas on Art, Form and Film”:

 

The ritualistic form… creates fear, for example, by creating an imaginative, often mythological experience which, by containing its own logic within itself, has no reference to any specific time or place, and is forever valid for all time and place… Above all, the ritualistic form treats the human being not as the source of the dramatic action, but as a somewhat depersonalized element in a dramatic whole (Deren in Nichols, 20).

 

For Nichols, it is through the embodiment of the performers that the films move beyond the personal to the collective (Nichols, 10). Equally significant, and related to the displacement of ‘character’ and the role of the human figure in Deren’s films, is the condition of dance, play and ritual as modes of physical performance that resist the literary filmic models that were so derided by Deren. She opposes the dominance of a ‘literary approach’ to filmmaking, suggesting that the art form would be better off had it pursued the silent film form (Deren in Nichols, 39), a point given weight when one considers the absence of scores and dialogue in her films; At Land, A Study in Choreography for Camera, and Ritual in Transfigured Time are all silent, and none of her films feature spoken word (5). The lack of production hierarchies and set shot-lists in early silent cinema, along with the use of extreme close-up, suggested another cinematic alternative to Deren (Nichols, 50). The framing of fragments of the performing body in close-up, such as Chao-li Chi’s skin sliding over his ribs in Meditation on Violence, reveal mini-choreographies at the body’s periphery and unravel the privileging of the face and spoken word in narrative-based cinema. Such shots are sometimes enhanced by Deren’s use of temporal distortions such as slow-motion, effecting a kind of motion study that also evokes early cinema practices. Her meandering and often dream-like plot structures are the clearest proof of her rejection of cause and effect linearity, and her disregard for traditional film credits and of her own role as a performer (6) are further evidence of Deren’s resistance to the hierarchical structures that dominate film production.

 

This brings us to Deren’s notion of verticality in film. In a 1953 symposium on “Poetry and the Film” (7), Deren describes a model of cinema that reveals her insight into contemporary conventions of filmic structure. She describes “horizontal” film structure as affiliated with drama, “one circumstance – one action – leading to another”, and how this develops and delineates characterisation in film. Alternatively, “vertical” film structure, or “poetic structure”

 

…probes the ramifications of the moment, and is concerned with its qualities and its depth, so that you have poetry concerned, in a sense, not with what is occurring but with what it feels like or with what it means (Deren in Sitney, 173-4).

 

Deren’s articulation here of an alternative to the narrative drive of classic fiction film anticipates Gilles Deleuze’s definitive treatment of the issue in his cinema books (Deleuze 1986 & Deleuze 1989). His model of the “movement-image” describes the basis of the linear progression of an action-reaction filmic structure while his “time-image” was the result of a perceivable “slackening of the sensory-motor connection” of the central protagonists in post-war fiction films (Deleuze 1989, 3). Instead of anticipated responses from the actors and logical repercussions, the time-image is characterised by “purely optical and sound situations” that fill the space where something is, for example, “too powerful, or too unjust, but sometimes also too beautiful, and which henceforth outstrips our sensory-motor capacities” (Deleuze 1989, 18) (8).

 

Given that the horizontal model is connected by Deren to character development in film, one can apply the vertical to physical performance beyond characterisation. An application of verticality that has particular resonances for dancefilm can be drawn out in relation to Talley Beatty’s edited leap in Maya Deren’s A Study in Choreography for Camera. The inevitability of the subject’s relation to the ground and the effects of gravity undergo a transformation here as the figure is unbound or ungrounded. The cinematic play with gravitational reality captures the dancer’s radical and ‘moving’ destabilisations, the manipulation of verticality and balance that constitute dance practice. Such moments in Deren’s films demonstrate a play along another axis that interrupts the drive or logic of a linear thrust and in this particular film, that logic in the temporal continuity of the choreography played out against spatial discontinuity. These sequences create a poetics of human motion that is dancerly and, like dance, operate outside functionality. Here, play and flux around the gravitational centre is combined with temporal discontinuity to create a window inside the film onto the spectacle of motion.

 

In her writing, Deren also suggests that the interiority inherent in the novel form, when applied to the screen, led to the development of ‘symptom-action’ gestural clichés or ‘visual clichés’ that summarise, through a reductive physical action, emotions or responses which would be developed over pages in a novel. According to Deren, such clichés mask the “effort of transcription” for an audience familiar with this mode of screen performance by standing-in for, or symbolising, “the literary terms in which the film is actually conceived” (Nichols, 40-1). Deren also writes of the use of gesture in everyday life and the uneasy transition to the dance stage or screen:

 

In creating a new form, the elements must be selected according to their ability to function in the new, ‘unnatural’ context. A gesture which may have been very effective in the course of some natural, spontaneous conversation, may fail to have impact in a dance or film (Deren in Nichols, 23).

 

That, in Deren’s opinion, dance and film share issues regarding physical performance is telling. Deren rejects both over-coded or cliché gestural performance and the everyday body as, in one way or another, inappropriate for her ideal cinema. What Deren turns to are stylised gestures and dance.

 

Paul Valéry, writing in 1936, provides a useful definition of dance in relation to more familiar bodily movement:

 

…an action that derives from ordinary, useful action, but breaks away from it, and finally opposes it… [so that] …all action which does not tend toward utility and which on the other hand can be trained, perfected, developed, may be subsumed under this simplified notion of the dance… (Valéry in Copeland & Cohen, 62)

 

This definition of dancerly movement which distinguishes it from the cliché and the everyday, can be used to explore gestural operations in Deren’s Ritual in Transfigured Time. Rather than quoting familiar, signifying actions or trying to represent everyday, utilitarian behaviour, the physical performances in this film trace trajectories and loiter along gestural routes that escape into ‘verticality’.

 

Ritual in Transfigured Time as Staging Gestural Play

 

In Maya Deren’s Ritual in Transfigured Time we have gestures that invite us to move into step with them, abandoning the comfort of the known and giving ourselves over to so many strange partners. This silent short begins in a domestic environment, moves to a party scene, and ends with modern dance performed in an outdoor setting. The film’s continuity is established by an emphasis on gesture and/or dance throughout.

 

The ‘party’ scene in this film is a climax of beckoning gestures that are repeated, stylised and transferred among the close crush of the crowd. An extended arm comes into frame again and again, finds its mark, drawing someone in, moving on. The welcoming, ingratiating, engaging movements are so familiar and so much what a gesture is thought to be: sociable, functional, meaningful. They represent what we could call an invitation to a ‘call and response’ encounter. Like Gene Kelly’s typical open armed finishing pose, both sending out and hauling us into his gestural world, an extended arm in any context is a gesture calling for a response.

 

In Ritual in Transfigured Time, we are ‘lead into’ the party scene through a series of gestures in a domestic environment that shift between conforming to and abandoning this definable context, thus initiating our passage into the unexpected. A woman can be seen through a doorway; she is seated and feeding a hank of yarn to someone out of sight. Another woman sees her and raises an arm as if to attract her attention, but then we see she is directing this gesture elsewhere. There is no response and she moves toward the seated woman through a different doorway, arm still raised, the awkward gesture shot from several angles and slipping away, almost between shots, from any determined function. There is a cut to the seated woman who is frozen in position and who consequently proceeds with her gestures of labour, now in slow motion and under the pressure of a strong wind that blows the last wool from her hands. She is then held for a long time in a gesture of release, her arms up and eyes closed as if in surrender. So, we know we are not in Kansas now and are prepared, to a degree, for what is to come. These opening gestures both present themselves in and across the space-time of the film and call attention to themselves in the way they inhabit the same. The duration given them, the different perspectives, the temporal distortions applied to them and the way they are performed emphasize their non-functional nature and establish the gestures’ place at the centre of the action.

 

If we really attend to these movements, our labour discovers in the repetition of these gestures a constant productivity that sets up its own circuit of expression, operating outside any systems that would contain or explicate them. And this is not produced through performance alone. The repetition of the shots that make up this scene and the constant fluidity within and between those shots, play their part in the attention drawn to the gestures. It is through the filmic treatment that these familiar gestures of engagement move away from any obvious meaning; the filmic treatment is an intrinsic part of the gestural work of the film.

 

These are gestures that pursue their mark but never realise an impact – the performers draw each other near as if to speak or embrace, only to meet face to face and move on without resolution. The movement of the gestures through space and time overwhelms the moments of proximity that defuse and transform into new trajectories. As spectators, we enter into the dance through a lack of resistance, foregoing an accumulation of results for an indulgence in proximity or contact with the unknown.

 

Maya Deren is most commonly discussed in relation to the history of avant-garde filmmaking and the significance of her role as a woman working in a male dominated industry (9). Examining Deren’s work in light of her connections with, and interest in, dance, foregrounds aspects thus far overlooked in critical approaches, such as corporeal performance in her films, the privileged role given to the moving body, and the influence of choreographed performance on the techniques, aesthetic and overall structure of her films. Beyond this, the gestural operations at work in a film like Ritual… can be read as a dancerly exchange between the on-screen figures that open up the action to the spectator, drawing us into the dance.

  

WORKS CITED

 

Clark, A. VèVè, Hodson, Millicent and Neiman, Catrina, eds, The Legend of Maya Deren: A Documentary Biography and Collected Works. Volume 1 Part Two: Chambers (1942-47), Anthology Film Archives, New York City, 1988: “Interview with Allegra Fuller Snyder” by Allegra Fuller Snyder

 

Copeland, Roger and Cohen, Marshall, eds, What is Dance? Readings in Theory and Criticism, Oxford Universal Press, 1983: “Philosophy of the Dance” by Paul Valéry

 

Deleuze, Gilles, Cinema 1: The Movement-Image, trans. Hugh Tomlinson & Barbara Habberjam, University of Minnesota Press, 1986

 

Deleuze, Gilles, Cinema 2: The Time-Image, trans. Hugh Tomlinson & Barbara Habberjam, University of Minnesota Press, 1989

 

Nichols, Bill, ed., Maya Deren and the American Avant-Garde, University of California Press, Berkeley, 2001: “Introduction” by Bill Nichols, “An Anagram of Ideas on Art, Form and Film” by Maya Deren and “Aesthetic Agencies in Flux” by Mark Franko.

 

Sitney, P. Adams, ed, The Film Culture Reader, Prager Publishers Inc., New York, 1970

 

Sommer, Sally, “Loie Fuller”, The Drama Review, Vol. 19, No.1, March 1975

  

ENDNOTES

 

Sally Sommer writes that Fuller made her first experimental film in 1904 and made “at least 3 more”, copies of which no longer exist.

 

Another point of connection between the two artists is the Symbolist movement in literature. Fuller was the subject of writers such as the French poet Stephané Mallarmé, and Deren’s MA thesis was titled “The Influence of the French Symbolist School on Anglo-American Poetry”. Like the Symbolists both artists resist narrativisation in their work, aiming at a transcendental aesthetic by turning their attention to the concrete terms of their medium.

 

Mark Franko states emphatically; “There has been no work to my knowledge that links Maya Deren to the American modern dance tradition.” Franko’s article directly addresses Deren’s relationship to modern theatre dance. There is also the larger issue of a lack of scholarship on Deren due to the much anticipated second volume of her collected work following the release of the first volume by Anthology Film Archives in New York in 1984 and 1988. This is pointed out by Nichols in his introduction to Maya Deren and the American Avant-Garde.

 

Some Dunham dancers believed that Deren “aspired to become a dancer with the company”, but was disappointed due to her apparently unsuitable physicality, her racial background (the company members were all African-American at the time) and the fact that “Dunham would prevent her from joining the dance classes, reminding her that she had been hired as a secretary and not as a dancer” (Clark, Millicent Hodson & Catrina Neiman, Note #51, 504)

 

See also Deren’s acknowledgement of her debt to silent comedies. (Clark, Hodson, Neiman, 287-8). Deren’s criticism of the domination of the cinema by writing, literary models and adaptations, pre-empts the literary theories of film that went on to dominate cinema studies for a certain period and which have came under criticism themselves.

 

Deren omits a performance credit for herself from the films in which she stars, Meshes of the Afternoon (1943), At Land (1944), and Ritual… She does not credit performances in general except for the dancers she collaborates with.

 

This symposium was organised for Cinema 16, an early New York film society, by Amos Vogel. The other panelists were Willard Maas (filmmaker), Arthur Miller (playwright), Dylan Thomas (poet) and Parker Tyler (poet and film critic). In her article, “Poetics and Savage Thought”, Annette Michelson contextualises this symposium as a significant event in the history of film theory, and describes the reception of Deren’s ideas by this group of men (Nichols, 22-25). The papers from the symposium were published at the time in Jonas Mekas’ Film Culture, and can be found in The Film Culture Reader, ed. P. Adams Sitney, Prager Publishers Inc., New York, 1970, pp.171-86.

Renata Jackson also makes this connection to Deleuze’s film theory in “The Modernist Poetics of Maya Deren”, Nichols, pp.66-67

 

See for instance: Nichols; Maria Pramaggiore, “Performance and Persona in the US Avant-Garde: The Case of Maya Deren”, Cinema Journal, Vol. 36, No.2 Winter 1997, pp.17-40; Patricia Mellencamp, Indiscretions: Avant-Garde Film, Video and Feminism, Indiana University Press, Bloomington, 1990; Lauren Rabinovitz, Point of Resistance: Women, Power and Politics in the New York Avant-Garde cinema, 1943-71, University of Illinois Press, Urban & Chicago, 1991

 

SOURCE: Senses of Cinema

Near the Village of Chalna

Dacope, Bangladesh

December, 2009

 

In 2009, many of the villages around Dacope, Bangladesh were adversely affected by the impact of Cyclone Aila. Devastated by tremendous flooding, many village families lost their lives....their homes, their loved ones, and their livelihoods (farming rice in the paddies) to this storm. Over six months after the storm, the people of the village continue to live in inadequate temporary shelter on embankments, as well as lack of drinking water, sanitation, and adequate food for their families. Additionally, the flood waters have transformed into permanent rivers in areas that would have once been their rice patties into vast rivers of water that have engulfed entire villages.

 

Please enjoy these photographs, but also contemplate what your life would be like if you lived in these conditions. The realities captured in these images reflects the impact of climate change upon some of the most remote and vulnerable village populations of our planet.

Near the Village of Chalna

Dacope, Bangladesh

December, 2009

 

In 2009, many of the villages around Dacope, Bangladesh were adversely affected by the impact of Cyclone Aila. Devastated by tremendous flooding, many village families lost their lives....their homes, their loved ones, and their livelihoods (farming rice in the paddies) to this storm. Over six months after the storm, the people of the village continue to live in inadequate temporary shelter on embankments, as well as lack of drinking water, sanitation, and adequate food for their families. Additionally, the flood waters have transformed into permanent rivers in areas that would have once been their rice patties into vast rivers of water that have engulfed entire villages.

 

Please enjoy these photographs, but also contemplate what your life would be like if you lived in these conditions. The realities captured in these images reflects the impact of climate change upon some of the most remote and vulnerable village populations of our planet.

omglikesotrue.blogspot.com

 

Photography is a unique art form. With other forms an artist attempts

to create something - a figurative likeness, a visual metaphor, an

outpouring of emotion, whatevs. But with photography, the

author of the work captures a scene, a moment in time, a

perspective of reality as a physical representation of his or her

expression & sentiment.

 

Yes, philosophers' pens have bled tomes of rhetoric romanticizing the

photographer's ability to paint with light, defining the

fetish of the frame, and explaining that a captured scene only

exists through the eyes of the photographer - all are true, but

photography will always remain a unique entity as a

visual art form.

 

Everyone has some voyeuristic tendency, but photographers are a bit

more obsessive - they do not simply appreciate what they see, they must

capture it so they may experience it again. That's where the creation

process - the art - of photography begins. It's also where photography

departs from other art forms, and why I am so intrigued by the medium.

 

Whereas a painting or a sculpture [even in the case of photorealism] is

always understood as a representation or an expression, a photograph is

often considered to be reality captured. Since the mediums inception

artists - from the Lumiere Brothers and WeeGee to Annie Leibovitz and

Andy Warhol - have tested the limits of the reality that exists within

the frame of a camera, and though they did so in very different ways,

each captured not only a visual presence but also a

hyperreality: what that subject represents (kinda the

antithesis of Abstract Expressionism). Auguste Lumiere did not

captivate all of France with moving pictures of a train station, but

with the feeling of standing before a speeding locomotive. Weegee's

photos created false reality - stories of crime and horror that

actually never happened but were far more interesting than the Truth.

Warhol was Warhol - he defined art, photography, icon, et al as we know

them, but he took Weegee's style out / to hte next by actually

creating the Truth with his photos - creating icons and identities in

the real world that were a product of his photographs. Leibovitz took

documentary photography and portraiture and gave it a signature - she

rejected the Death of the Author to create photographs that

are as much a product of her as they are images of celebrity &

iconography... and does so with feminine grace.

(to be continued...)

Questa è una strada infinita in mezzo alla campagna, dove non hanno accesso le auto. L'ho fotografata da ogni angolo e direzione e in ogni stagione.

Io la chiamo la strada Infinita, le ho proprio dato il nome fotografico così.

Mi ispira ! E' nella vasta Pianura Padana, circondata da molti alberi.

Ecco cosa mi succede: una forte ispirazione di trasformare la normale foto in un certo "impressionismo".

Questo è il risultato :

 

La poetica dell’attimo fuggente

 

La scelta dei pittori impressionisti, di rappresentare la realtà cogliendone le impressioni istantanee portò questo stile ad esaltare su tutto la sensazione dell’attimo fuggente.

 

Secondo i pittori impressionisti la realtà muta continuamente di aspetto. La luce varia ad ogni istante, le cose si muovono spostandosi nello spazio: la visione di un momento è già diversa nel momento successivo. Tutto scorre. Nella pittura impressionista y male immagini trasmettono sempre una sensazione di mobilità.

 

L’attimo fuggente della pittura impressionista è totalmente diverso dal momento pregnante della pittura neoclassica e romantica. Il momento pregnante sintetizza la storia nel suo momento più significativo; l’attimo fuggente non ha nulla a che fare con le storie: esso coglie le sensazioni e le emozioni. E quelle raccolte nella pittura impressionista sono sempre sensazioni e impressioni felici, positive, gradevoli. L’impressionismo, per la prima volta dopo la scomparsa della pittura rococò, rifugge dagli atteggiamenti tragici o drammatici. Torna a rappresentare un mondo felice ed allegro. Un mondo dove si può vivere bene.

 

L’attimo fuggente della pittura impressionista ha analogie evidenti con la fotografia. Anche la fotografia, infatti, coglie una immagine della realtà in una frazione di secondo. E dalla fotografia gli impressionisti non solo prendono la velocità della sensazione, ma anche i particolari tagli di inquadratura che danno alle loro immagini particolare sapore di modernità.

 

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This is an endless road in the countryside, where cars have no access. I took photos from every angle and direction, and in every season.

I call it the Infinite road, and I gave title to photos as such.

It's inspiring! It is in the plain countryside surrounded by trees.

That's what happens to me: a strong inspiration to transform ordinary photos into a certain "Impressionism".

This is the result :

 

The poetics of the fleeting moment

 

The choice of the Impressionist painters, to represent reality capturing snapshots impressions brought this style to enhance all of the feeling of the fleeting moment.

 

According to the Impressionist painters molting actually continually look. The light varies at each instant, move things moving in space: the vision of a moment is already different in the next moment. Everything flows. In Impressionist painting images always convey a feeling of mobility.

 

Dead Poets Society of Impressionist painting is totally different from the poignant moment of neoclassical painting and romantic. The poignant moment sums up the story in its most significant moment; the fleeting moment has nothing to do with the stories: it captures the feelings and emotions. And those collected in Impressionist painting are always happy feelings and impressions, positive, pleasant. Impressionism, for the first time after the disappearance of the Rococo painting, shuns the tragic or dramatic attitudes. Back to be a happy and joyful world. A world where you can live well.

 

Dead Poets Society of Impressionist painting has obvious similarities with photography. Even the photograph, in fact, captures an image of reality in a fraction of a second. And the photograph the Impressionists not only take the speed of feeling, but also the details of framing cuts that damage to their particular taste images of modernity.

Staying Home Covid-19 is here and we all have to stay at home to halt the spread of the virus. We photographers are reduced to taking pictures in the house, so here are a few things of interest.

 

Frozen Lockdown We are still under isolation conditions, despite the politico posturing, trying to make things that aren't true policy for the future.

 

No Alpine tunnels here, just the cold blast of reality captured for your edification.

 

Photographic Information

 

Taken on 1st May,2020 at 0928hrs with a Nikon Coolpix S3300 digital compact camera, post-processed in Adobe Photoshop CS5.

 

© Tim Pickford-Jones 2020

a shot of the Fabric of Reality captured by the superior optical system created by Taffsdad and myself.

Sometimes the idea of the photograph trumps the reality captured.

THE ATOM CALLED SK-ULTRON, THE SINGLE ATOM OF OUR KNOWN UNIVERSE HAS BEEN LOCATED AND CONTAINED. NOW IN SEARCH OF THE S-ULTRON ANTIMATTER PAIR. THIS SINGLE ATOM IS THOUGHT TO BE THE THEORETICAL SINGULARITY THAT STARTED THE COSMIC INFLATION OF THE BIG BANG NUCLEOSYNTHESIS.

(From SAKURAI Beyond the Standard Model of Supersymmetry and Grand Unification Theories).

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UNDER CONSTRUCTION...

Still the search for the smallest unit of matter continues into this century with the discovery of elementary particles, electrons, proton, neutrons, that make up the atom. Then, further to the leptons and quarks that make up subatomic particles.

 

Thus, there appears to be no limit to the indivisibility of matter. However, there are objections to this sort of physical infinity. An Aristotelian argument is that quarks are only potentially (as opposed to actually) there. Since noone will be able to infinitely divide a material object, there are not really infinite number of particles in the object right now.

 

Another objection is that as we exam the subatomic world, the nature of matter changes. By splitting particles indefinitely we arrive at the conclusion that there is only form, and no content. The particle nature disappears and is replaced by a field-like nature. This becomes a dynamic description of the world. Imagine a the surface of a brook. There are circular ripples, eddies, whirlpools, bubbles and whatnot. The microscopic world view treats particles as objects such as those, which exist as features of the flow.

SAKURAI MULTIVERSE VISION * A TWENTIETH REALITY CAPTURED OF A SINGLE ATOM

 

THE ATOM CALLED SK-ULTRON, THE SINGLE ATOM OF OUR KNOWN UNIVERSE HAS BEEN LOCATED AND CONTAINED. NOW IN SEARCH OF THE S-ULTRON ANTIMATTER PAIR. THIS SINGLE ATOM IS THOUGHT TO BE THE THEORETICAL SINGULARITY THAT STARTED THE COSMIC INFLATION OF THE BIG BANG NUCLEOSYNTHESIS.

(From SAKURAI Beyond the Standard Model of Supersymmetry and Grand Unification Theories).

SAKURAI MULTIVERSE VISION * A NINTH REALITY CAPTURED OF A SINGLE ATOM

 

THE ATOM CALLED SK-ULTRON, THE SINGLE ATOM OF OUR KNOWN UNIVERSE HAS BEEN LOCATED AND CONTAINED. NOW IN SEARCH OF THE S-ULTRON ANTIMATTER PAIR. THIS SINGLE ATOM IS THOUGHT TO BE THE THEORETICAL SINGULARITY THAT STARTED THE COSMIC INFLATION OF THE BIG BANG NUCLEOSYNTHESIS.

(From SAKURAI Beyond the Standard Model of Supersymmetry and Grand Unification Theories).

  

SAKURAI-THE START AND THE BEGINNING OF THE UNIVERSE

 

In the deep Mozumi mine in the town of Kamioka lies an immense tank of pure, clear water, recycled daily to remove contaminants. Forty meters in diameter and over 40 meters high, the Super-Kamiokande detector, as it is known, containes 50,000 tons of water—enough to quench the thirst of everyone in a city the size of Chicago for a day. Yet this device, located in a working mine, is maintained with the spotless cleanliness of an ultra-purified laboratory clean room. It has to be. The slightest radioactive contaminants could mask the frustratingly small signal being searched for by the scores of scientists who monitor the tank with 11,200 phototubes—eerily resembling television tubes—lining the outside of the tank. If the scientists' attention wavers for even a second, they could miss an event that might not occur again in the lifetime of the detector, or the scientists. A single event could explain why we live in a universe of matter, and how long the universe as we know it may survive. The signal they are searching for has been hidden for at least 10 billion years —older than the Earth, older than the sun, and older than the galaxy. Yet compared to the timescale of the process behind the event being searched for, even this stretch is just the blink of a cosmic eye.

 

We are about to embark on a journey through space and time, traversing scales unimaginable even a generation ago. A tank of water located in the dark may seem an odd place to begin, but it is singularly appropriate on several grounds. The mammoth detector contains more atoms —by a of 1 billion or so—than there are stars in the visible universe. Yet amid the 10 (1 followed by 34 zeroes) or so identical atoms in the tank is a single oxygen atom whose history is about to become of unique interest to us. We do not know which one. Nothing about its external appearance can give us any clue to the processes that may be occurring deep inside. Thus we must be ready to treat each atom in the tank as an individual.

  

The vast expanse of scale separating the huge Super-Kamiokande tank and the minute objects within it is a prelude to a voyage inward where we will leave all that is familiar. The possible sudden death of a single atom within the tank might hearken back to events at the beginning of time.

 

But beginnings and endings are often inextricably tied. Indeed, each Sunday one can hear proclaimed loudly in churches across the land: "As it was in the beginning, is now, and ever shall be, world without end." But do those who recite these words expect that they refer to our world of human experience? Surely not. Our Earth had a beginning. Life had a beginning. And as sure as the sun shines, our world will end.

 

Can we nevertheless accept this prayer as metaphor? Our world will end, but our world is merely one of a seemingly infinite number of worlds, surrounding an unfathomable number of stars located in each of an even larger number of galaxies. This state of affairs was suspected as early as 1584 when the Italian philosopher Giordano Bruno penned his De l'infinito universo e mondi. He wrote:

 

There are countless suns and countless earths all rotating around their suns in exactly the same way as the seven planets of our system. We see only the suns because they are the largest bodies and are luminous, but their planets remain invisible to us because they are smaller and non-luminous. The countless worlds in the universe are no worse, and no less inhabited than our Earth.

 

If, in the context of this grander set of possibilities, we contemplate eternity, what exactly is it that we hope will go on forever? Do we mean life? Matter? Light? Consciousness? Are even our very atoms eternally perdurable?

 

And so that is ultimately why our journey begins in the water in this dark mineshaft. If we explore deeply enough into even a drop of water, perhaps located in the Super- Kamiokande tank, we may eventually make out the shadows of creation, and the foreshadows of our future.

 

The water is calm, clear, and colorless, but this apparent serenity is a sham. Probe deeper —plop a speck of dust into a drop of water under a microscope, say —and the violent agitation of nature on small scales becomes apparent. The dust speck will jump around mysteriously, as if alive. This phenomenon is called Brownian motion, after the Scottish botanist Robert Brown, who observed this motion in tiny pollen grains suspended in water under a microscope in 1827, and who at first thought that this exotic activity might signal the existence of some hidden life force on this scale. He soon realized that the random motions occurred for all small objects, inorganic as well as organic, and he thus discarded the notion that the phenomenon had anything to do with life at all. By the 1860s, physicists were beginning to suggest that these movements were due to internal motions of the fluid itself. In his miracle year of activity, 1905, Albert Einstein proved, within months of his famous paper on relativity, that Brownian motion could be understood in terms of the motion of the individual bound groups of atoms making up molecules of water. Moreover, he showed that simple observations of Brownian motion allowed a direct determination of the number of molecules in a drop of water. For the first time, the reality of the previously hidden atomic world was beginning to make itself manifest.

 

It is difficult today to fully appreciate how recent is the notion that atoms are real physical entities, and not mere mathematical or philosophical constructs. Even in 1906, scientists did not yet generally accept the view that atoms were real. In that year the renowned Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann took his own life, in despair over his self-perceived failure to convince his colleagues that the world of our experience could be determined by the random behavior of these "mathematical inventions."

 

But atoms are real, and even at room temperature they live a more turbulent existence than a farmhouse in a tornado, continually pulled and pushed, moving at speeds of hundreds of kilometers an hour. At this rate a single atom could in principle travel in 1 second a distance 10 trillion times its own size. But real atoms in materials change their direction at least 100 billion times each second due to collisions with their neighbors. Thus in the course of one minute, a single water molecule, containing two hydrogen and one oxygen atoms, might wander only one-thousandth of a meter from where it began, just as a drunk emerging from a bar might wander randomly back and forth all night without reaching the end of the block on which the bar is located.

 

Imagine, then, the chained energy! A natural speed of 100 meters per second is reduced to an effective speed of one-thousandth of a meter per minute! The immensity of the forces that ensure the stability of the world of our experience is something we rarely get to witness directly. In fact, it is usually reserved for occasions of great disaster.

 

You can get some feeling for the impact that tiny atoms can have on one another by inflating a balloon and tying the end, then squeezing the balloon between your hands. Feel the pressure. What is holding your hands back, stopping them from touching? Most of the space inside the balloon is empty, after all. The average distance between atoms in a gas at room temperature and room pressure is more than ten times their individual size. As the nineteenth-century Scottish physicist James Clerk Maxwell, the greatest theoretical physicist of that time, first explained, the pressure you feel is the result of the continual bombardment of billions and billions of individual atoms in the air on the walls of the balloon. As the atoms bounce off the wall, they impart an impulse to the wall, impeding its natural tendency to contract. So when you feel the pressure, you are "feeling" the combined force of the random collisions of countless atoms against the walls of the balloon.

 

Although this collective behavior of atoms is familiar, the world of our direct experience almost never involves the behavior of a single atom. But attempting to visualize the world from an atomic perspective opens up remarkable vistas, and gives us an opportunity to understand more deeply our own circumstances. The eighteenth-century British essayist Jonathan Swift recognized the inherent myopia governing our worldview when he penned Gulliver's Travels, which noted that the rituals and traditions of any society may seem perfectly rational for one who has grown up with them. Swift's Lilliputians fought wars over the requirement that eggs be broken from their smaller ends. From our vantage point, the requirement seems ridiculous. The same may be true for our view of the physical world, which is colored by a lifetime of sensory experience.

 

And so, as we approach the beginning of our oxygen atom's journey forward, we have to stretch our minds in the tradition of Swift. The atoms getting thrashed today in a drop of water may have a hard life, but this can't even begin to compare to the difficulties associated with their birth. To imagine these moments, we must go back to a time before water existed in the universe. We must venture back to when things were vastly more violent, back to a time more than 10 billion years ago, and perhaps less than 1 billionth of a billionth of a second after the beginning of time itself. We must visualize the universe on a scale that is so small, words cannot capture it. Indeed, we must go back to a time when there were no atoms ...or SAKURAI

 

“We don’t understand how a single star forms, nor a single atom, yet we want to understand how 10 billion stars form.” – SAKURAI

   

Nothing is perfect. That is the beauty of glitch. Many photographers seek to capture reality. Capture the moment. Freeze time. This is an illusion. I love shooting glitch art panorama photography because there is no expectation of reality. No false belief in an "accurate representation." What is accurate? What is representation? Im creating something new. Something fresh. Glitch art photography is about abstraction. Its about defining art for ourselves. Its whatever I want it to be and it however you want to look at it. Glitch art is about freedom. Liberty. Thinking outside the box.

 

My name is Ken Morris and I am a glitch artist.

  

Its kind of war…

Its kind of conflict between two different worlds....

Blessed baby is now in a world named paradise…..He is dreaming of boundless happiness and pleasure, but soon enough its all will gone by the torture of another world called reality.

 

Captured from Dhaka University

 

All rights reserved worldwide. DO NOT use this image in any commercial, non-commercial or blogging purpose without my explicit permission. Otherwise, you'll face legal action for violating national or international copyright law.

 

For permission, mail me at:

huzzatul@icddrb.org

apu_mb@yahoo.com

"A work of art must escape all human limits, logic and common sense will only interfere."

- Giorgio de Chirico

 

>>> next pic <<<

 

Copyright © 2010 Tomitheos Photography - All Rights Reserved

 

Toronto Contact Photography Festival

above featured digital art / photography: by Tomitheos

918 Bathurst Art Gallery

May 15, 2010

7:41 PM

 

Toronto, CANADA

 

Projection crated in Reality Capture from ground level photos

Nothing is perfect. That is the beauty of glitch. Many photographers seek to capture reality. Capture the moment. Freeze time. This is an illusion. I love shooting glitch art panorama photography because there is no expectation of reality. No false belief in an "accurate representation." What is accurate? What is representation? Im creating something new. Something fresh. Glitch art photography is about abstraction. Its about defining art for ourselves. Its whatever I want it to be and it however you want to look at it. Glitch art is about freedom. Liberty. Thinking outside the box.

 

My name is Ken Morris and I am a glitch artist.

  

Near the Village of Chalna

Dacope, Bangladesh

December, 2009

 

In 2009, many of the villages around Dacope, Bangladesh were adversely affected by the impact of Cyclone Aila. Devastated by tremendous flooding, many village families lost their lives....their homes, their loved ones, and their livelihoods (farming rice in the paddies) to this storm. Over six months after the storm, the people of the village continue to live in inadequate temporary shelter on embankments, as well as lack of drinking water, sanitation, and adequate food for their families. Additionally, the flood waters have transformed into permanent rivers in areas that would have once been their rice patties into vast rivers of water that have engulfed entire villages.

 

Please enjoy these photographs, but also contemplate what your life would be like if you lived in these conditions. The realities captured in these images reflects the impact of climate change upon some of the most remote and vulnerable village populations of our planet.

Near the Village of Chalna

Dacope, Bangladesh

December, 2009

 

In 2009, many of the villages around Dacope, Bangladesh were adversely affected by the impact of Cyclone Aila. Devastated by tremendous flooding, many village families lost their lives....their homes, their loved ones, and their livelihoods (farming rice in the paddies) to this storm. Over six months after the storm, the people of the village continue to live in inadequate temporary shelter on embankments, as well as lack of drinking water, sanitation, and adequate food for their families. Additionally, the flood waters have transformed into permanent rivers in areas that would have once been their rice patties into vast rivers of water that have engulfed entire villages.

 

Please enjoy these photographs, but also contemplate what your life would be like if you lived in these conditions. The realities captured in these images reflects the impact of climate change upon some of the most remote and vulnerable village populations of our planet.

Near the Village of Chalna

Dacope, Bangladesh

December, 2009

 

In 2009, many of the villages around Dacope, Bangladesh were adversely affected by the impact of Cyclone Aila. Devastated by tremendous flooding, many village families lost their lives....their homes, their loved ones, and their livelihoods (farming rice in the paddies) to this storm. Over six months after the storm, the people of the village continue to live in inadequate temporary shelter on embankments, as well as lack of drinking water, sanitation, and adequate food for their families. Additionally, the flood waters have transformed into permanent rivers in areas that would have once been their rice patties into vast rivers of water that have engulfed entire villages.

 

Please enjoy these photographs, but also contemplate what your life would be like if you lived in these conditions. The realities captured in these images reflects the impact of climate change upon some of the most remote and vulnerable village populations of our planet.

Dance Of Terror

  

Window panes come crashing down

Amidst the tears and pain

Vanishing hopes are gone and flew away

Up above through twilight

Shadows cast across the floor

Reflections of the past

Trembling thoughts of one

Dwelling deep within the soul

A mystical sense of reality

Captured by the craze

All in bewilderment

Of the shock in the wave

Creatures of the dimness

Chattering amongst the green

Everything slows in stillness

What is this we see?

Near the Village of Chalna

Dacope, Bangladesh

December, 2009

 

In 2009, many of the villages around Dacope, Bangladesh were adversely affected by the impact of Cyclone Aila. Devastated by tremendous flooding, many village families lost their lives....their homes, their loved ones, and their livelihoods (farming rice in the paddies) to this storm. Over six months after the storm, the people of the village continue to live in inadequate temporary shelter on embankments, as well as lack of drinking water, sanitation, and adequate food for their families. Additionally, the flood waters have transformed into permanent rivers in areas that would have once been their rice patties into vast rivers of water that have engulfed entire villages.

 

Please enjoy these photographs, but also contemplate what your life would be like if you lived in these conditions. The realities captured in these images reflects the impact of climate change upon some of the most remote and vulnerable village populations of our planet.

Near the Village of Chalna

Dacope, Bangladesh

December, 2009

 

In 2009, many of the villages around Dacope, Bangladesh were adversely affected by the impact of Cyclone Aila. Devastated by tremendous flooding, many village families lost their lives....their homes, their loved ones, and their livelihoods (farming rice in the paddies) to this storm. Over six months after the storm, the people of the village continue to live in inadequate temporary shelter on embankments, as well as lack of drinking water, sanitation, and adequate food for their families. Additionally, the flood waters have transformed into permanent rivers in areas that would have once been their rice patties into vast rivers of water that have engulfed entire villages.

 

Please enjoy these photographs, but also contemplate what your life would be like if you lived in these conditions. The realities captured in these images reflects the impact of climate change upon some of the most remote and vulnerable village populations of our planet.

Near the Village of Chalna

Dacope, Bangladesh

December, 2009

 

In 2009, many of the villages around Dacope, Bangladesh were adversely affected by the impact of Cyclone Aila. Devastated by tremendous flooding, many village families lost their lives....their homes, their loved ones, and their livelihoods (farming rice in the paddies) to this storm. Over six months after the storm, the people of the village continue to live in inadequate temporary shelter on embankments, as well as lack of drinking water, sanitation, and adequate food for their families. Additionally, the flood waters have transformed into permanent rivers in areas that would have once been their rice patties into vast rivers of water that have engulfed entire villages.

 

Please enjoy these photographs, but also contemplate what your life would be like if you lived in these conditions. The realities captured in these images reflects the impact of climate change upon some of the most remote and vulnerable village populations of our planet.

Near the Village of Chalna

Dacope, Bangladesh

December, 2009

 

In 2009, many of the villages around Dacope, Bangladesh were adversely affected by the impact of Cyclone Aila. Devastated by tremendous flooding, many village families lost their lives....their homes, their loved ones, and their livelihoods (farming rice in the paddies) to this storm. Over six months after the storm, the people of the village continue to live in inadequate temporary shelter on embankments, as well as lack of drinking water, sanitation, and adequate food for their families. Additionally, the flood waters have transformed into permanent rivers in areas that would have once been their rice patties into vast rivers of water that have engulfed entire villages.

 

Please enjoy these photographs, but also contemplate what your life would be like if you lived in these conditions. The realities captured in these images reflects the impact of climate change upon some of the most remote and vulnerable village populations of our planet.

Near the Village of Chalna

Dacope, Bangladesh

December, 2009

 

In 2009, many of the villages around Dacope, Bangladesh were adversely affected by the impact of Cyclone Aila. Devastated by tremendous flooding, many village families lost their lives....their homes, their loved ones, and their livelihoods (farming rice in the paddies) to this storm. Over six months after the storm, the people of the village continue to live in inadequate temporary shelter on embankments, as well as lack of drinking water, sanitation, and adequate food for their families. Additionally, the flood waters have transformed into permanent rivers in areas that would have once been their rice patties into vast rivers of water that have engulfed entire villages.

 

Please enjoy these photographs, but also contemplate what your life would be like if you lived in these conditions. The realities captured in these images reflects the impact of climate change upon some of the most remote and vulnerable village populations of our planet.

View of a bedroom.

Near the Village of Chalna

Dacope, Bangladesh

December, 2009

 

In 2009, many of the villages around Dacoope, Bangladesh were adversely affected by the impact of Cyclone Aila. Devestated by tremendous flooding, many village families lost their lives....their homes, their loved ones, and their livelihoods (farming rice in the patties) to this storm. Over six months after the storm, the people of the village continue to live in inadequate temporary shelter, as well as suffer from the lack of drinking water, sanitation, and adequate food for their familes. Additionally, the flood waters have transformed once fertile rice patties into vast rivers of water that have engulfed entire villages.

 

Please enjoy these photographs, but also contemplate what your life would be like if you lived in these conditions. The realities captured in these images reflects the impact of climate change upon some of the most remote and vulnerable village populations of our planet.

Near the Village of Chalna

Dacope, Bangladesh

December, 2009

 

In 2009, many of the villages around Dacope, Bangladesh were adversely affected by the impact of Cyclone Aila. Devastated by tremendous flooding, many village families lost their lives....their homes, their loved ones, and their livelihoods (farming rice in the paddies) to this storm. Over six months after the storm, the people of the village continue to live in inadequate temporary shelter on embankments, as well as lack of drinking water, sanitation, and adequate food for their families. Additionally, the flood waters have transformed into permanent rivers in areas that would have once been their rice patties into vast rivers of water that have engulfed entire villages.

 

Please enjoy these photographs, but also contemplate what your life would be like if you lived in these conditions. The realities captured in these images reflects the impact of climate change upon some of the most remote and vulnerable village populations of our planet.

Near the Village of Chalna

Dacope, Bangladesh

December, 2009

 

In 2009, many of the villages around Dacope, Bangladesh were adversely affected by the impact of Cyclone Aila. Devastated by tremendous flooding, many village families lost their lives....their homes, their loved ones, and their livelihoods (farming rice in the paddies) to this storm. Over six months after the storm, the people of the village continue to live in inadequate temporary shelter on embankments, as well as lack of drinking water, sanitation, and adequate food for their families. Additionally, the flood waters have transformed into permanent rivers in areas that would have once been their rice patties into vast rivers of water that have engulfed entire villages.

 

Please enjoy these photographs, but also contemplate what your life would be like if you lived in these conditions. The realities captured in these images reflects the impact of climate change upon some of the most remote and vulnerable village populations of our planet.

Near the Village of Chalna

Dacope, Bangladesh

December, 2009

 

In 2009, many of the villages around Dacope, Bangladesh were adversely affected by the impact of Cyclone Aila. Devastated by tremendous flooding, many village families lost their lives....their homes, their loved ones, and their livelihoods (farming rice in the paddies) to this storm. Over six months after the storm, the people of the village continue to live in inadequate temporary shelter on embankments, as well as lack of drinking water, sanitation, and adequate food for their families. Additionally, the flood waters have transformed into permanent rivers in areas that would have once been their rice patties into vast rivers of water that have engulfed entire villages.

 

Please enjoy these photographs, but also contemplate what your life would be like if you lived in these conditions. The realities captured in these images reflects the impact of climate change upon some of the most remote and vulnerable village populations of our planet.

Near the Village of Chalna

Dacope, Bangladesh

December, 2009

 

In 2009, many of the villages around Dacope, Bangladesh were adversely affected by the impact of Cyclone Aila. Devastated by tremendous flooding, many village families lost their lives....their homes, their loved ones, and their livelihoods (farming rice in the paddies) to this storm. Over six months after the storm, the people of the village continue to live in inadequate temporary shelter on embankments, as well as lack of drinking water, sanitation, and adequate food for their families. Additionally, the flood waters have transformed into permanent rivers in areas that would have once been their rice patties into vast rivers of water that have engulfed entire villages.

 

Please enjoy these photographs, but also contemplate what your life would be like if you lived in these conditions. The realities captured in these images reflects the impact of climate change upon some of the most remote and vulnerable village populations of our planet.

Near the Village of Chalna

Dacope, Bangladesh

December, 2009

 

In 2009, many of the villages around Dacope, Bangladesh were adversely affected by the impact of Cyclone Aila. Devastated by tremendous flooding, many village families lost their lives....their homes, their loved ones, and their livelihoods (farming rice in the paddies) to this storm. Over six months after the storm, the people of the village continue to live in inadequate temporary shelter on embankments, as well as lack of drinking water, sanitation, and adequate food for their families. Additionally, the flood waters have transformed into permanent rivers in areas that would have once been their rice patties into vast rivers of water that have engulfed entire villages.

 

Please enjoy these photographs, but also contemplate what your life would be like if you lived in these conditions. The realities captured in these images reflects the impact of climate change upon some of the most remote and vulnerable village populations of our planet.

Near the Village of Chalna

Dacope, Bangladesh

December, 2009

 

In 2009, many of the villages around Dacope, Bangladesh were adversely affected by the impact of Cyclone Aila. Devastated by tremendous flooding, many village families lost their lives....their homes, their loved ones, and their livelihoods (farming rice in the paddies) to this storm. Over six months after the storm, the people of the village continue to live in inadequate temporary shelter on embankments, as well as lack of drinking water, sanitation, and adequate food for their families. Additionally, the flood waters have transformed into permanent rivers in areas that would have once been their rice patties into vast rivers of water that have engulfed entire villages.

 

Please enjoy these photographs, but also contemplate what your life would be like if you lived in these conditions. The realities captured in these images reflects the impact of climate change upon some of the most remote and vulnerable village populations of our planet.

Near the Village of Chalna

Dacope, Bangladesh

December, 2009

 

In 2009, many of the villages around Dacope, Bangladesh were adversely affected by the impact of Cyclone Aila. Devastated by tremendous flooding, many village families lost their lives....their homes, their loved ones, and their livelihoods (farming rice in the paddies) to this storm. Over six months after the storm, the people of the village continue to live in inadequate temporary shelter on embankments, as well as lack of drinking water, sanitation, and adequate food for their families. Additionally, the flood waters have transformed into permanent rivers in areas that would have once been their rice patties into vast rivers of water that have engulfed entire villages.

 

Please enjoy these photographs, but also contemplate what your life would be like if you lived in these conditions. The realities captured in these images reflects the impact of climate change upon some of the most remote and vulnerable village populations of our planet.

Near the Village of Chalna

Dacope, Bangladesh

December, 2009

 

In 2009, many of the villages around Dacope, Bangladesh were adversely affected by the impact of Cyclone Aila. Devastated by tremendous flooding, many village families lost their lives....their homes, their loved ones, and their livelihoods (farming rice in the paddies) to this storm. Over six months after the storm, the people of the village continue to live in inadequate temporary shelter on embankments, as well as lack of drinking water, sanitation, and adequate food for their families. Additionally, the flood waters have transformed into permanent rivers in areas that would have once been their rice patties into vast rivers of water that have engulfed entire villages.

 

Please enjoy these photographs, but also contemplate what your life would be like if you lived in these conditions. The realities captured in these images reflects the impact of climate change upon some of the most remote and vulnerable village populations of our planet.

Near the Village of Chalna

Dacope, Bangladesh

December, 2009

 

In 2009, many of the villages around Dacope, Bangladesh were adversely affected by the impact of Cyclone Aila. Devastated by tremendous flooding, many village families lost their lives....their homes, their loved ones, and their livelihoods (farming rice in the paddies) to this storm. Over six months after the storm, the people of the village continue to live in inadequate temporary shelter on embankments, as well as lack of drinking water, sanitation, and adequate food for their families. Additionally, the flood waters have transformed into permanent rivers in areas that would have once been their rice patties into vast rivers of water that have engulfed entire villages.

 

Please enjoy these photographs, but also contemplate what your life would be like if you lived in these conditions. The realities captured in these images reflects the impact of climate change upon some of the most remote and vulnerable village populations of our planet.

can I capture reality? but I'm not able.

Construction is the realization of great architectural ideas. At the moment the shovel first pierces the ground, the abstracted journey of design gets translated into its literal counterpart. Structural steel columns, beams, and cross bracing work in symphony to mimic the swirling dynamic of pencil sketches, parti models, and visualization technologies. This series of photographs describes and highlights a clear translation from idea to reality, capturing a specific moment of time and exposing the bones of precedent thought. This photograph is #2 in the series of 5.

 

Photograph was taken during the construction of BMW Welt in Munich, Germany.

 

If you see something you like and would like to purchase, please feel free to contact me. You can send me an email at scenethirty1@gmail.com or just visit my shop on Etsy. www.etsy.com/shop/scenethirty1

 

7.5x10 inch photograph printed on archival premium photo paper. The standard archival value is 100 years in home display and 200 years in dark storage. This photograph is proportioned and enhanced to capture the specific qualities of the scene. The delivered photograph will not be presented with a watermark.

 

A range of other sizes are available for this print. If you would like to custom order a size not listed here, please contact me for availability and prices.

Near the Village of Chalna

Dacope, Bangladesh

December, 2009

 

In 2009, many of the villages around Dacope, Bangladesh were adversely affected by the impact of Cyclone Aila. Devastated by tremendous flooding, many village families lost their lives....their homes, their loved ones, and their livelihoods (farming rice in the paddies) to this storm. Over six months after the storm, the people of the village continue to live in inadequate temporary shelter on embankments, as well as lack of drinking water, sanitation, and adequate food for their families. Additionally, the flood waters have transformed into permanent rivers in areas that would have once been their rice patties into vast rivers of water that have engulfed entire villages.

 

Please enjoy these photographs, but also contemplate what your life would be like if you lived in these conditions. The realities captured in these images reflects the impact of climate change upon some of the most remote and vulnerable village populations of our planet.

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